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 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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LESSON 2836 Dec 12 2837 Wed, 2838 13 Thu, 2839 14 Fri, 2840 15 Sat, 2841 16 Sun 2018 TIPITAKA from Analytic Insight Net - Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā is an Online GOOD NEWS CHANNEL FOR WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE FOR ALL SOCIETIES Catering to more than 3000 Emails: 200 WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter. is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal. http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters. http://www.buddha-vacana.org/ BuddhaSasana-The Home of Pali Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — Classical Buddhism (Teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness) belong to the world, and everyone have exclusive rights: Button Plant Green Butterfly E Mail Animation Clip buddhasaid2us@gmail.com jcs4ever@outlook.com, sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 11:19 pm

LESSON 2836 Dec 12 2837 Wed, 2838 13 Thu, 2839 14 Fri, 2840 15 Sat, 2841 16 Sun  2018

TIPITAKA

 from


Analytic Insight Net -

Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart


Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES 

Paṭisambhidā
Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya


http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā


is
an Online GOOD NEWS CHANNEL FOR WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE FOR ALL
SOCIETIES Catering to more than 3000 Emails: 200 WhatsApp, Facebook and
Twitter.


is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world.

Rendering
exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue
to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream

Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal.

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/

BuddhaSasana-The Home of Pali

 Buddha Vacana
— The words of the Buddha —
Classical Buddhism (Teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness) belong to the world, and everyone have exclusive rights:


Button Plant Green Butterfly E Mail Animation Clip

buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
jcs4ever@outlook.com,
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in


http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html
Tree


Sutta Piṭaka

— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]

The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas.


Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest
discourses given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of
them are late additions to the original corpus and of questionable
authenticity.
Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas
according to their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It
contains more than three thousand discourses of variable length, but
generally relatively short.
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara
Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them
gathering discourses consisting of enumerations of one additional factor
versus those of the precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas
which are generally short.
Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts
and is considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna,
Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the
ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their
authenticity is more questionable.

Bodhi leaf


http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html


Dīgha Nikāya

— The long discourses —
[ dīgha: long ]

The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses supposedly given by the Buddha.



Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (DN 9) {excerpt} - enhanced translation
Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) {excerpts} - word by word
This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the
sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very
important set of instructions for us nowadays.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) - word by word
This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.

——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha/dn09.html


DN 9 -

Poṭṭhapāda Sutta

{excerpt}

— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.



Note: info·bubbles on “underdotted” English words


Pāḷi



English



Saññā nu kho bhante paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ? Udāhu ñāṇaṃ
paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā saññā? Udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ
acarimaṃ uppajjantī?’ ti.

Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception & knowledge arise simultaneously?


Saññā kho poṭṭhapāda paṭhamaṃ uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ. Saññuppādā ca pana
ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti: idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādīti.
Iminā kho etaṃ poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ
uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādo ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī’ ti.

Potthapada, perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception.


Bodhi leaf



Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Access to Insight, 1 July 2010.

———oOo———
http://www.tipitaka.org/webapp




meditation centre sri buddhist sambodhi

Benefits of Meditation

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https://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/vegan.gif?w=540


Benefits of Meditation

en)


Vipassana Meditation


https://67.media.tumblr.com/ba13c508cf5b31cc4e81e1336d3a5698/tumblr_inline_o3y6y7pdwS1r1aqjj_540.gif


Mindfulness Meditation





Origin & Meaning


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Animated stereoview of old Japan  --Animated stereoview of old Japan  --





Animated Gifs





Dancing Spider-Man
Dancing Spider-Man
Dancing Spider-Man
Dancing Spider-Man
Dancing Spider-Man








Ambedkar Periyar Study  Circle

FishJagatheesan Chandrasekharan
Peace and joy for all

Buddha Quotes



2. “Buddha was asked,”what have you gaines from mediation?”

He replied “NOTHING”! However let me tell you what i have lost:
anger, anxiety, depression, insecurity, fear of old age and death.”

buddha quotes on love



3. “When the student is ready, the teacher will appear.”

buddha quotes on happiness



4. “The less you respond to negative people, the more peaceful your life will become.”

buddha quotes on karma



5. “Health is the greatest gift, contentment is the greatest
wealth, A trusted friend is the best relative, liberated mind is the
greatest bliss.”

buddha quotes on death



6. “The thought manifests as the word: the word manifests as the
deed: the deed develops into character. So watch the thought and its
ways with care, and let it spring from love born out of concern for all
beings.”

buddha quotes on change



7. “Do not learn how to react learn how to respond.”

buddha quotes images



8. “If your compassion does not include yourself, It is incomplete.”

lord buddha quotes about love



9. “Everything that has a begining has an ending.

Make your peace with that and all will be well.”

buddha quotes on love and marriage



10. “If anything is worth doing, do it with all your heart.”

Buddha quotes about life



11. “Your worst enemy cannot harm you as much as your own unguarded thoughts.”

Buddha quotes about change



12. “The root of suffering is attachment.”

Buddha quotes about death



13. “Holding onto anger is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.”

Buddha quotes about change



14. “All that we are is the result of what we have thought.”

Buddha quotes about calm



15. “Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”

Buddha quotes death loved one



16. “What you think you become, what you feel, you attract. what you imagine, you create.”

Buddha quotes about ego



17. “Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.”

Buddha quotes about family



18. “Relax nothing is in control.”- Buddhist Meditation quotes by Lord Buddha.

Buddha quotes about flower




20. “The trouble is you think you have time.”

Buddha quotes about giving



21. “Your work is to discover your world and then with all your heart give yourself to it.”

Buddha quotes about happiness



22. “Believe nothing, no matter where you read it or who has
said it, not even if i have said it. Unless it agrees with your own
reason and your own common sense.”

Buddha quotes about healing



23. “Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”

Buddha quotes about judgement



24. “On the long journey of human life… Faith is the best of companions.”

Buddha Quotes



25. “To understand everything is to forgive everything.”

buddha quotes on love



26. “Holding onto anger is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.”

Buddha quotes about judgement



27. “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the past.”

Buddha quotes about healing



28. “There is no path to happiness: Happiness is the path.”

Buddha quotes about happiness



29. “No matter how hard the past, you can always begin again.”

Buddha quotes about giving



30. “If you want to fly, give upeverything yhat weighs you down.”

Buddha quotes about flower



31. Short life quotes of Buddha- “you only lose what you cling to.”

Buddha quotes about family



32. “when we meet real tragedy in life, we can react in two
ways- Either by losing hope and falling into self-destructive habits or
by using the challenge to find our inner strength.”

Buddha quotes about ego



33. Buddha meditation quotes – “Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.”

Buddha quotes death loved one



34. “Don’t rush anything. When the time is right, it’ll happen..”

Buddha quotes about calm



35. “The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”

Buddha quotes about change



36. Real life quotes from Gautama Buddha – “Be kind to all creatures; this is the true religion.”

Buddha quotes about death



37. “Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.”

Buddha quotes about change

38. “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.”

Buddha quotes about life



39. “Believe nothing, no matter where you read it or who has said it, not even if i have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense.”

buddha quotes on love and marriage



40. “It is during our darkest moments that we must focus to see the light”

lord buddha quotes about love



41. “Quiet the mind, and the soul will speak.”

buddha quotes images



42. Inspirational quotes on karma by Buddha – “Be patient everything comes to you in the right moment.”

buddha quotes on change



43. “if your compassion does not include yourself, it is incomplete.”

buddha quotes on death



44. “Each morning we are born again. What we do today is what matters most.”

buddha quotes on karma



45. “A man who conquers himself is greater than one who conquers a thousand men in a battle.”

buddha quotes on happiness



46. “All human unhappiness comes from not facing reality squarely, exactly as it is.”

buddha quotes on love



47. “It is better to be hated for what you are than to be loved for what you are not.”

Buddha Quotes



48. “He who does not understand your silence will probably not understand your words.”

Buddha quotes about spirituality



49. “You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.”

Buddha Quotes about peace



50. “Happiness does not depend on what you haveor who you are it solely relies on what you think.”

Buddha Quotes for enemy



51. “Happiness or sorrow – “whatever befalls you, walk on untouched, unattached.”

Buddha Quotes

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மிழில் திபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-C-
from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


இந்த  நூட்கள் வெளியீடு
காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக 
முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.






This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the
Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed
in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org













விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka
(மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர  மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட
விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]


திபிடக  முக்கூடைகள்




Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)


ஸுத்த பியுயக


( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)


Sutta Piμaka


(Five nik±yas, or collections)


The
Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
dwelling).

நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர்
கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு நிரம்பியது.  அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி
முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை,
ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை, வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு,
பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு,
கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

 மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

புத்தரால்
கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

குவியல்
நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய
பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம்
விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு
நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.

கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

இறங்குதல்
காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு
உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short,
small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been
composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

சுருக்கமான,
சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள்  ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால்,
மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்
புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு
பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(
தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் ,
ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது
புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)

Sutta Piμaka


(Five nik±yas, or collections)


1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i
(10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i
(11 suttas)


2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5
vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]


(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10
suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)


4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)


5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i
(the ‘middle’ fifty)


6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)


10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i
(means ‘more than fifty’)


11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)


3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]


(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)


4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each
nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each
vagga; 6 books]


(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)


(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)


5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes
suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]


(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i


1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26
vaggas)


3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with


some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)


(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular
suttas of the Buddha


(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279
g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)


(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II


10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into
nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.


(6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i


11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th
vagga
C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and


the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i


12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three
vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])


(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)


(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i


14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)


(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i


16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)


(12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i


18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)




Abhidhamma Piμaka

[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the
dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i

2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of
dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42

3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.

(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42

5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)

(4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42

6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)

(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III

7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)

(8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V




















(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik±
(expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30

(2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy±
(ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7

(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______
227

Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311






















2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the


Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the
uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha


3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the
vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick
bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism


(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as
saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)


2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a
bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of
bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the
p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li


3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]


(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.



Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.

Note: plain texts

ஸஞ்யா
நு கொ பந்தெ பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி, பச்சா ஞானங்? உதாஹு ஞானங் பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி,
பச்சா ஸஞ்யா? உதாஹு ஸஞ்யா ச ஞானங்ச அபுபங் ஆசரிமங் உப்பஜ்ஜந்தி?’ தி.


Saññā nu kho bhante paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ? Udāhu ñāṇaṃ
paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā saññā? Udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ
acarimaṃ uppajjantī?’ ti.


இப்பொழுது, பந்த்தே, எது முதலாவது எழும்புவது
புலனுணர்வா,ஞானங் அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஞானங் முதலாவது மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஒரே நேரத்தில் புலனுணர்வும் ஞானமும் எழும்புகிறதா?



Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously? 



ஸஞ்யா கொ பொத்தபாதப தமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா
ஞானங். ஸன்யுப்பாதா ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி. ஸொ ஏவங் பஜானாதி: இதப்பச்சாயா
கிர மெ ஞானங் உதபாதிதி. இமினா கொ ஏதங் பொத்தபாத பரியாயென வேதிதப்பங், யதா
ஸஞ்யா பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங், ஸன்யுப்பாதொ  ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ
ஹோதி’தி.



Saññā kho poṭṭhapāda paṭhamaṃ uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ. Saññuppādā ca pana
ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti: idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādīti.
Iminā kho etaṃ poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ
uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādo ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī’ ti. 


பொத்தபாத, முதலாவது
புலனுணர்வும் பின்னால் ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது.மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
எழும்புகிறபோது ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது. ஒரு பிரித்தறியும் நிலை சார்ந்துள்ள
என்னுடைய இந்த ஞானம் எழும்பியது. இவ்வழியான வரம்பின் காரண ஆய்வால் ஒருவர்
எப்படி முதலாவது புலனுணர்வு எழும்புகிறது மற்றும் ஞானம் அடுத்து என்று உணர
முடியும் மற்றும் எவ்வாறு புலனுணர்வு எழும்பியதால், ஞானம் எழும்பிமயது
என்றும்.
































Potthapada, perception arises first, and
knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of
perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my knowledge
has arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize how
perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception.

Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya


DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]


This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.


Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. 

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.

தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.


Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 


And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?

மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?


Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:

இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

Itipi
so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.


Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:


He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:

 Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.


Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:

 Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.


Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti

He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,

புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 


This,
Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi. 


இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 


Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.


Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu

And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu

மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.


Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,


இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,


bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī


hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.


Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 


Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… 



Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 



– Ananda, the twin sala
trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.

-ஆனந்தா,பூவா
பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 


It is not
by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma’.

இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.

… 

… 


‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā. 


– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
Teacher after my passing away. 


உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு  நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர்
வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது,  இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த  Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.

… 


DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]


This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.


Note: infobubbles on all Pali words


Pāḷi


Uddesa


I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English


Introduction


I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds


II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa


Evaṃ me sutaṃ:

Introduction


Thus have I heard: 



Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:


– Bhikkhavo ti.

– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 


– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 



Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 


– This,
bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.


Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba


Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:


 ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
(கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā  (பகவான்) தங்கி
இருந்தார்.


 அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா


- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில்  அளித்தார்.Bhagavā  (பகவா) சொற்றார்:


-
இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து, 
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.


எந்த
நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல்
கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம்
நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க

கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.


I. Kāyānupassanā


A. Section on ānāpāna


And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’. 

மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: 
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

C. Sampajāna Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 


C. Section on sampajañña


Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 



மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார்.


இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.

D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba


Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā,
taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness


Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.” 


Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


Just as if,
bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
“In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 



மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
அறீவார்.


ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள்
உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல்
பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன்
நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


E. Section on the Elements


Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.”

 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.


சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு
குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



F. Navasivathika Pabba


(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 



Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti.

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும்
இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(4)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ
nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,
நரம்புகளால் 
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(5)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்  இல்லாமல்,
நரம்புகளால் 
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(6)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான,
இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால்
எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே
ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே
ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு,
அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.




(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 


(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons


  
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS  is the collection of the teachings
of the Buddha over 45 years. It consists of Sutta (the conventional
teaching), Vinaya (Disciplinary code) and Abhidhamma (commentaries).

The Tipitaka was compiled and arranged in its present form by the
disciples who had immediate contact with Shakyamuni Buddha. 
The Buddha
had passed away, but the sublime Dhamma which he unreservedly bequeathed
to humanity still exists in its pristine purity. 
Although the Buddha
had left no written records of his teachings, his distinguished
disciples preserved them by committing to memory and transmitting them
orally from generation to generation. 

     Brief historical background 



 
Immediately after the final passing away of the Buddha, 500
distinguished Arahats held a convention known as the First Buddhist
Council to rehearse the Doctrine taught by the Buddha. Venerable Ananda,
who was a faithful attendant of the Buddha and had the special
privilege of hearing all the discourses the Buddha ever uttered, recited
the Sutta, whilst the Venerable Upali recited the Vinaya, the rules of
conduct for the Sangha. 
One hundred years after the First Buddhist
Council, some disciples saw the need to change certain minor rules. The
orthodox Bhikkus said that nothing should be changed while the others
insisted on modifying some disciplinary rules (Vinaya). Finally, the
formation of different schools of Buddhism germinated after his council.
And in the Second Council, only matters pertaining to the Vinaya were
discussed and no controversy about the Dhamma was reported. 
In the 3rd
Century B.C. during the time of Emperor Asoka, the Third Council was
held to discuss the differences of opinion held by the Sangha community.
At this Council the differences were not confined to the Vinaya but
were also connected with the Dhamma. The Abhidhamma Pitaka was discussed
and included at this Council. The Council which was held in Sri Lanka
in 80 B.C. is known as the 4th Council under the patronage of the pious
King Vattagamini Abbaya. It was at this time in Sri Lanka that the
Tipitaka was first committed to writing in Pali language. 




The
Sutta Pitaka consists mainly of discourses delivered by the Buddha
himself on various occasions. There were also a few discourses delivered
by some of his distinguished disciples (e.g. Sariputta, Ananda,
Moggallana) included in it. It is like a book of prescriptions, as the
sermons embodied therein were expounded to suit the different occasions
and the temperaments of various persons. There may be seemingly
contradictory statements, but they should not be misconstrued as they
were opportunely uttered by the Buddha to suit a particular purpose.

This Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas or collections, viz.:- 

     Dlgha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses)
      Majjhima Nikaya (Collection of Middle-length Discourses)
    Samyuita Nikaya (Collection of Kindred Sayings)
    Anguttara Nikaya (Collection of Discourses arranged in accordance with number)
    Khuddaka Nikaya (Smaller Collection)
       The fifth is subdivided into fifteen books:- 

    
   Khuddaka Patha (Shorter Texts)
   Dhammapada (The Way of Truth)
     Udana (Heartfelt sayings or Paeons of Joy)
   Iti Vuttaka (’Thus said’ Discourses)
   Sutta Nipata (Collected Discourses)
   Vimana Vatthu (Stories of Celestial Mansions)
   Peta Vatthu (Stories of Petas)
      Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren)
     Therigatha (Psalms of the Sisters)
    Jataka (Birth Stories)
    Niddesa (Expositions)
      Patisambhida (Analytical Knowledge)
        Apadana (Lives of Saints)
    Buddhavamsa (The History of Buddha)
     Cariya Pitaka (Modes of Conduct)


  
  Vinaya Pitaka 
The Vinaya Pitaka mainly deals with the rules and
regulations of the Order of monks (Bhikhus) and nuns (Bhikhunis). It
also gives an account of the life and ministry of the Buddha. Indirectly
it reveals some useful information about ancient history, Indian
customs, arts, sciences, etc. 
For nearly twenty years since his
enlightenment, the Buddha did not lay down rules for the control of the
Sangha. Later, as the occasion arose, the Buddha promulgated rules for
the future discipline of the Sangha. 
This Pitaka consists of the
following five books:- 



     Parajika Pali (Major Offences)
     Pacittiya Pali (Minor Offences)
    Mahavagga Pali (Greater Section)
  Cullavagga Pali (Smaller Section)
  Parivara Pali (Epitome of the Vinaya)


 
Abhidhamma Pitaka 
The Abhidhamma, is the most important and
interesting, as it contains the profound philosophy of the Buddha’s
teaching in contrast to the illuminating but simpler discourses in the
Sutta Pitaka. 
In the Sutta Pitaka one often finds references to
individual, being, etc., but in the Abhidhamma, instead of such
conventional terms, we meet with ultimate terms, such as aggregates,
mind, matter etc. 
In the Abhidhamma everything is analyzed and
explained in detail, and as such it is called analytical doctrine
(Vibhajja Vada). 
Four ultimate things (Paramattha) are enumerated in
the Abhidhamma. They are Citta (Consciousness), Cetasika (Mental
concomitants). Rupa (Matter) and Nibbana. 
The so-called being is
microscopically analyzed and its component parts are minutely described.
Finally the ultimate goal and the method to achieve it is explained
with all necessary details. 
The Abhidhamma Pitaka is composed of the
following works: 



   Dhamma-Sangani (Enumeration of Phenomena)
    Vibhanaga (The Book of the Treatises)
  Ikatha Vatthu (Point of Controversy)
  Puggala Pannatti (Description of Individuals)
   Dhatu Katha (Discussion with reference to Elements)
   Yamaka (The Book of Pairs)
    Patthana (The Book of Relations)


   
  Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons 
The content of Buddhist canons
is divided into twelve divisions, categorized by the types of forms of
literature (i.e., Sutta, Geyya and Gatha) and the context (i.e., all
other nine divisions). It is known as the Twelve Divisions. 



  
Sutta  - These are the short, medium, and long discourses expounded by
the Buddha on various occasions. The whole Vinaya Pitaka is also
included in this respect.


   Geyya  - i.e., the metrical pieces. These are discourses/proses mixed with Gathas or verses.


      
Gatha - i.e., verses, chants or poems. These include verses formed in
the Dharmapada, etc., and those isolated verses which are not classified
amongst the Sutta.


   Nidana - i.e., the causes and conditions of the Buddha’s teachings.


    Itivrttaka - i.e., the suttas in which the Buddhas tell of the deeds of their disciples and others in previous lives.


    Jataka - i.e., stories of the former lives of Buddhas. These are the 547 birth-stories.


  
Abbhuta-dhamma - i.e., miracles, etc. These are the few discourses that
deal with wonderful and inconceivable powers of the Buddhas.


  
Avadana - i.e., parables, metaphors. Illustrations are used to
facilitate the human beings to understand the profound meanings of the
Buddhist Dhamma.


   Upadesa - i.e., dogmatic treatises. The
discourse and discussions by questions and answers regarding the
Buddhist doctrines. It is a synonym for Abhidhamma Pitaka.


     
Udana - i.e., impromptu or unsolicited addresses. The Buddha speaks
voluntarily and not in reply to questions or appeals, e.g., the Amitabha
Sutta.


     Vaipulya - i.e., interpretation by elaboration or
deeper explanation of the doctrines. It is the broad school or wider
teachings, in contrast with the “narrow” school. The term covers the
whole of the specifically Mahayana suttas. The Suttas are also known as
the scriptures of measureless meaning, i.e., infinite and
universalistic.


    Veyyakarama  - i.e. prophecies, prediction by the Buddha of the future attainment of Buddhahood by his disciples.


  
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons 
The term is generally referred to
Hinayana. There are only nine divisions excluding Udana, Vaipulya and
Veyyakarana. 
However, there is also a Mahayana division of nine of the
Twelve Divisions, i.e., all except Nidana, Avadana and Upadesa.

TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]
Dīgha Nikāya


DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —


Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]


The
Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas.


Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the
Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions to
the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.


Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.


Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.


Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.


Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka
Nikāya short texts and is considered as been composed of two stratas:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and
Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other books are late additions and
their authenticity is more questionable.

TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]
Dīgha Nikāya
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
Dhammapada
Verses 246,247 and 248 Panca Upasaka Vatthu-Verse 246. Wrong Deeds To
Avoid-Verse 247. Precepts The Lay Person Should Follow-Verse 248. These
Precepts Prevent Suffering

 >> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Pāḷi

English


… 

(Dhammādāsa)

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. 

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.
தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன், ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்) ஆக  ஆட்கொண்டு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை, இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம், துரதிருஷ்டம்,
துக்க நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க
நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன், sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து
விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Katamo ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso
dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva
attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni
khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto, sotāpanno-hamasmi
avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

And what, Ānanda, is
that discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of
which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For
me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more
pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I
am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being
destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?


Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)உடைய வராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.
Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)உடைய வராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

14
07 2012 SATURDAY LESSON 667 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice
UNIVERSITY
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief
historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma
Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of
Buddhist Canons 
Sutta Piṭaka 
— The basket of discourses
—Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance
on awareness —

DN 22 - (D ii 290) 
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction

Thus have I heard: 

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

– This,
bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas. 

Katame cattāro?
Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte
cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno,
satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in
citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’. 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho
bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’
ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; evameva
kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ
passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ
kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a
skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn,
understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā
pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya
paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 



B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito vā
‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno vā
‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 

C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with sampajañña,
while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajañña,
while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña, while
wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he
acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while
tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business of
defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking, while
standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho
kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ
nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if,
bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
“In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā
pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya
paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 

Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(4)
Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ
aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(5)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(6)
Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ
aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(8)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a
year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(9)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇaka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced
to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


II. Vedanānupassanā

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati? 


II. Observation of Vedanā

And how now, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā? 

Idha,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno
‘a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti;
nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ
dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā
a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. 

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am
experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands:
“I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā
vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”;
experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands:
“I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha
vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa,
undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am
experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
vedanāsu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati;
‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati. 


15 07 2012 SUNDAY LESSON 668 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research
and Practice UNIVERSITY
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —
Dhammapada Verse 252-Mendakasetthi Vatthu-Easy To See Are The Faults Of Others
ALL ABOUT USA
Kentucky

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction
Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

எந்த நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī
(உடலை உடல் கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno
satimā,வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம்
நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க
கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

Thus he dwells observing vedanā
in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā
externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or
he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā;
or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to
the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does
not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā.
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   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
Dhammapada Verse 253-Ujjhanasannitthera Vatthu-Seeing Others’ Faults
ALL ABOUT USA
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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ.
Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā
I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Pāḷi
Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


English

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna
Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

தமிழ்

மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களா,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

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T ipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
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TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
Dhammapada
Verse 254-and 255 Subhaddaparibbajaka Vatthu-Verse 254. Nothing Is
Eternal Other Than Nibbana-Verse 255. The Buddha Has No Anxiety
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Maryland
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 >> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Pāḷi
Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

I. Kāyānupassanā 

A. Section on ānāpāna
English

Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

தமிழ்

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: 
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

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18 07 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 671 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
19 07 2012 THURSSDAY LESSON 672 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
>> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
தமிழ்
மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,
என
அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான்
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya
உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு செய்கிறாரோ
அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்

21 07 2012 SATURDAY LESSON 674 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the nīvaraṇas

C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 

C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with sampajañña,
while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajañña,
while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña, while
wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he
acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while
tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business of
defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking, while
standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.
தமிழ்

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.
24 07 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 677 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba     D. Section on Repulsiveness
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho
kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ
nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if,
bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
“In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā
pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya
paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு
பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

ஒருவேளை
பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள் உடையதாயிருப்பின்,
பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல் பயிர்,
பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன் நல்ல
பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய
விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

25 07 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 678 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
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TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
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Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba-E. Section on the Elements-E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
>> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 

Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு
குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு
27 07 2012 FRIDAY LESSON 680 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
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   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்
F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள் இறந்த, அல்லது
மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும் புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட
நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த
மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி 
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு,
ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில்
எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக்
கூடு தசை மற்றும் இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர்
இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி 
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

28 07 2012 SATURDAY LESSON 681 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya. 

(4)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ
ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without
flesh and smeared with blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.


தமிழ்


F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்
பூசப்பட்டு,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற  நிலைமை
இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை
காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(5)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ
aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva
kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.





Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in
kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு
பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில்
எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக்
கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்  இல்லாமல்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய்
பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. II. Vedanānupassanā
II. Observation of Vedanā ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு - II. வேதனையை கூர்ந்த கவனித்தல்
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya


DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]


This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.


Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi


Uddesa


I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba


II. Vedanānupassanā


III. Cittānupassanā


IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English


Introduction


I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds


II. Observation of Vedanā


III. Observation of Citta


IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

(6)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான, இங்கே ஒரு கை
எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால் எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு இடுப்பு எலும்பு,
இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு,
அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கழுத்து
எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு, அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு
மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 




(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் கடல்நுரை போல் வெண்மையாக இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த
மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி 
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(8)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 


(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a
year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 





Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் ஒரு ஆண்டுக்கு மேலே பழையதாகி குவியல் போல் 
இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(9)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇaka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 


(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced
to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,சீரழிந்த எலும்புகள் பொடியாகி  இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த
மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி 
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


________________________________________________________________________________________
II. Vedanānupassanā


Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati? 


II. Observation of Vedanā


And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā? 

Idha,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno
‘a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti;
nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ
dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā
a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. 


Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am
experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands:
“I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā
vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”;
experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands:
“I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha
vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa,
undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am
experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”. 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
vedanāsu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati;
‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally,
or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing
the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the
samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:]
“this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere
ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to
anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā
in vedanā.


II. வேதனையை கூர்ந்த கவனித்தல்


மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, vedanā in vedanā  வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்?


இங்கு,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒரு sukha vedanā சுக வேதனையை
அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு சுக வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு dukkha vedanā துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்கும்போது,
நான் ஒரு துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு 
adukkham-asukhā vedanā  அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை
அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā  அதுக்க-அசுக
(துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā
vedanā  sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு
sukhā vedanā  sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā vedanā  nirāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை
மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு sukhā vedanā nirāmisa சுக
வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha
vedanā  sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான்
ஒரு dukkha vedanā  sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன்
என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha vedanā  nirāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை
மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு dukkha vedanā nirāmisa துக்க
வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு
adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  sāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை
மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  sāmisa
அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற)  வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக
(துக்க-சுகமற்ற)  வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு
adukkham-asukhā  vedanā nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற)  வேதனையை
உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:


இவ்வாறு
அவர்  vedanā in vedanā  வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.

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— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. II. Vedanānupassanā
II. Observation of Vedanā  - III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

>> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya


DN 22 - (D ii 290)

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.




Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi



Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā

   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā

   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba



English



Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya

   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas


   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

III. Cittānupassanā


Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?



III. Observation of Citta


And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?


Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sa·rāgaṃ cittaṃsa·rāgaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vīta·rāgaṃ cittaṃvīta·rāgaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, sa·dosaṃ cittaṃsa·dosaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vīta·dosaṃ cittaṃvīta·dosaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, sa·mohaṃ cittaṃsa·mohaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vīta·mohaṃ cittaṃvīta·mohaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṃ cittaṃsaṅkhittaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vikkhittaṃ cittaṃvikkhittaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, mahaggataṃ cittaṃmahaggataṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, a·mahaggataṃ cittaṃa·mahaggataṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, sa·uttaraṃ cittaṃsa·uttaraṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, an·uttaraṃ cittaṃan·uttaraṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, samāhitaṃ cittaṃsamāhitaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, a·samāhitaṃ cittaṃa·samāhitaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vimuttaṃ cittaṃvimuttaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, a·vimuttaṃ cittaṃa·vimuttaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti.



Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with rāga“, or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga“, or he understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa“, or he understands citta without dosa as “citta without dosa“, or he understands citta with moha as “citta with moha“, or he understands citta without moha as “citta without moha“, or he understands a collected citta as “a collected citta“, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered citta“, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta“, or he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta“, or he understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta“, or he understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta“, or he understands a concentrated citta as “a concentrated citta“, or he understands an unconcentrated citta as “an unconcentrated citta“, or he understands a liberated citta as “a liberated citta“, or he understands an unliberated citta as “an unliberated citta“.


Iti ajjhattaṃ citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā citte cittānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā citte cittānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī cittasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī cittasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī cittasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi cittaṃti pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.



Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.



தமிழ்


III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

மற்றும்
இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்?

மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு,
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga  ஆர்வ வேட்கையை ” Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga
ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது

Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை “dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையை Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை 
dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை dosa
வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha  மருட்சி  ஆர்வ வேட்கையை “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை 
moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha
மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது ஒரு சேர்த்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு சேர்த்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு சிதறலான
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு
சிதறலான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
விரிவாக்கம் செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு விரிவாக்கம்
செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்யாத Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு  மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு
மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு திண்மையற்ற Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை  “ஒரு திண்மையற்ற  Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை 
“ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், 
ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத 
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்.

இவ்வாறு
அவர்  Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில்
கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta
மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், samudaya
and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் மற்றும்
கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
இல்லாவிடில் “இது  citta  அகநிலை” என உணர்ந்து,  sati விழிப்பு நிலை
அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa  ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும்
ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார். மற்றும் உலகத்தில்
சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta
மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து 
கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya


சிறந்த  வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல் சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம் - எல்லாம் உணர்வுநிலையின் அடி எல்லை


DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

இந்த
சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம், புத்தரால், அவருடைய முடிவுறுதல் அப்புறம், அவருடைய
பின்பற்றுபவர்களின் நிமித்தம் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட பற்பல விதிமுறைகள்
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அவை, நமக்கு  தற்காலத்தில் மிக முக்கிய இணைகோப்பு
விதிமுறைகளை உண்டாக்குகிறது.

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.


Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

தம்மாதாஸங் நாம தம்மா பரியாயங் தெசஸ்ஸஸ்ஸாமி, யென ஸம்மங்காதொ
ஆரியஸாவகொ ஆகன்கமாகொ அத்தனாவ அத்தானங் ப்யா-கரெய்ய:
‘கின்ன-நிரயொ-மி-கின்ன-திர்ச்சான-யொனி கின்ன-பெத்திவிஸயொ கின்’அபாய
துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ, ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸ்மி அவினிபாதொ-தம்மொ நியதொ
ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’தி?


தமிழ்


(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)


நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti?

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)


I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.


Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 


And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?

மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?


Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:


Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:

இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Itipi
so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.


Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:

 Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.


Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:

 Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.


Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti

He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,

புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.


akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 


This,
Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi. 


இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.


… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 


Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos.

This is our intruction to you.

Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu

And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu

மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.


Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,


bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.


Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 


Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.


… 



Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 


– Ananda, the twin sala
trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.

-ஆனந்தா,பூவா
பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
வெளிப்படுத்தியது.


Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 


It is not
by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma’.

இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.

… 

… 


‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā. 


– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
Teacher after my passing away. 


உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு  நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர்
வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது,  இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த  Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.
… 


DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]


This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.


Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi


Uddesa


I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba


II. Vedanānupassanā

English


Introduction


I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa


Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction

Thus have I heard: 

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:

– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 


– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 



Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 


– This,
bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā


A. Ānāpāna Pabba


Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:


 ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
(கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā  (பகவான்) தங்கி
இருந்தார்.


 அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா


- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில்  அளித்தார்.Bhagavā  (பகவா) சொற்றார்:


-
இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து, 
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.


எந்த
நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல்
கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம்
நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க
கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

I. Kāyānupassanā


A. Section on ānāpāna


And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.


சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: 
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 





Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti.


B. Section on postures


Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.


இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

C. Sampajāna Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 


C. Section on sampajañña


Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 



மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார்.


இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.

D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba


Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā,
taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 



D. Section on Repulsiveness


Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.” 


Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


Just as if,
bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
“In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 



மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
அறீவார்.


ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள்
உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல்
பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன்
நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba


Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


E. Section on the Elements


Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.”

 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.


சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு
குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


F. Navasivathika Pabba


(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 



Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும்
இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(4)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ
nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,
நரம்புகளால் 
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(5)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்  இல்லாமல்,
நரம்புகளால் 
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.


இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(6)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 


(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான,
இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால்
எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே
ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே
ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு,
அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.




(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 


(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

 


01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,

03) Classical Magadhi Prakrit

04) Classical Pali

05) Classical Hela Basa


06) Classical Deva Nagari,
07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,

14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,

16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,

18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,

19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,
25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,

27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,
28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,
32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,
36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,

37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,
42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,
44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hindi- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
46) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
47) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

48) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,

49) Classical Igbo,
50) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

51) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
52) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
53) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,

54) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,

56) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

57) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
61) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
62) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

63) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

64) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
65) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

66) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
67) Classical Malagasy,
68) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

70) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
71) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

73) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

74) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

75) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
76) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

77) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
78) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
79) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
80) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
81) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
82) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
83) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
84) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
85) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,

86) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
87) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,

88) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
89) Classical Sindhi,
90) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

91) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,

92) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

93) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,

94) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
95) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,

96) Classical Swahili,
97) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,

98) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
99) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,

100) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
101) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
102) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,

103) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,

104) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
105) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
106) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

107) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
108) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

109) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
110) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
111) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu









SARVA SAMAJ MEDIA

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WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE
of
ALL SOCIETIES





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for
WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE
of
ALL SOCIETIES


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12/14/18
Vipassana Fellowship Meditation - 3 November - 9 November-Contemplation - Day 36-Day 37-Day 38-Day 39-Day 40-Day 41-Day 42
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Vipassana Fellowship Meditation - 3 November - 9 November-Contemplation - Day 36-Day 37-Day 38-Day 39-Day 40-Day 41-Day 42

A Random Image

In
this sixth week we explore Appreciative Joy meditation. If you are
sitting twice each day, then please pick a complementary technique from
those we have already met for your other session. Work steadily and
gently to establish your regular sittings. We’ll also briefly outline
the final brahmavihara practice (for use beyond the course) and conclude
our look at the precepts.

https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=141


Saturday - Mudita: Appreciative Joy Meditation

1. Mudita: Appreciative Joy Meditation

APPRECIATIVE JOY

“I will abide pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with appreciative joy,

Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

So above and below, around and everywhere, and to all as if to myself.

I will abide pervading the entire world with appreciative joy,

Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

Venerable Nyanaponika Thera wrote:

“Your
life will gain in joy by sharing the happiness of others as if it were
yours. Did you never observe how in moments of happiness men’s features
change and become bright with joy? Did you never notice how joy rouses
men to noble aspirations and deeds, exceeding their normal capacity? Did
not such experience fill your own heart with joyful bliss? It is in
your power to increase such experience of sympathetic joy, by producing
happiness in others, by bringing them joy and solace.

Let
us teach real joy to others! Many have unlearned it. Life, though full
of woe, holds also sources of happiness and joy, unknown to most. Let us
teach people to seek and to find real joy within themselves and to
rejoice with the joy of others! Let us teach them to unfold their joy to
ever sublimer heights!”

Muditā
is the third of the brahmavihāra (or Divine Abidings). Its sense is
probably best conveyed by the term ‘joy with others’, but it is often
translated as Appreciative Joy, Sympathetic Joy, Empathetic Joy, or
simply Gladness.

We
shall begin practising muditā bhāvanā - the development of joy with
others. This is another of the practices designed to open our hearts and
is a beautiful complement to the karunā bhāvanā with which we have been
working. Muditā to some extent can be seen as a balancing factor to
karunā. It stops us becoming overwhelmed by the suffering in the world
and melancholia and instead allows us to feel an active bond with the
joy that exists in other people and the beings with which we share this
world.

The
structure we will be using is similar to those we have used previously.
The sections this time begin with a good friend and work outwards to
encompass all beings before returning to focus on gratitude at the joy
in us. We begin with a good friend because it is usually easiest to tap
into a resource of joy and happiness in someone whom we know well and
like. Although we may be aware that the complexity of their lives also
includes moments that are not joy-filled, we can usually remember
incidents that were characterised by happiness and joy. These are what
we focus on in this meditation.

As
in the previous brahmavihāra practices our job is to empathise fully
with the quality we are developing. We need to really feel the joy of
the person. We must work to take it on as if it were our own joy. When
we were working with Compassion Meditation we needed to feel the
suffering of the other being as our own. We showed compassion to the
reality of the experience and took on that suffering. Here we need to
really feel the joy of the other person and empathise wholly with that
joy. This may seem strange initially but we must not be afraid to share
in the happiness of others.

When
we begin to work with a person who is hostile we must be careful to
desist from being judgemental. In this meditation we are not concerned
by the hurt they may have caused or about any imbalance (or immorality)
in the way they choose to run their lives. We need to overcome our
disapproval of aspects of their lives and concentrate solely on that
which is joyful. There are glimmers of joy and happiness in the lives of
everyone and it is these we must cherish. Maybe the hostile person runs
an exploitative unethical business that has cheated us - but can’t we
still rejoice in the joy that he feels when he returns home in the
evening to his loved ones? Here he has no need for duplicity, no need
for stress. He can concentrate on the happiness that the stability of
his wealth and family life bring. Can we share that joy and happiness?
Can we not begrudge him it? Feel his joy. Celebrate it.

As
we widen our view we will see that there is joy in even the simplest of
activities. In some areas of the world even finding enough food to feed
one’s child is a joyful event. Others find joy and happiness in the
recognition of their activities by peers and superiors. Joy can be seen
throughout life if only we look for it and recognise it wherever it
occurs. Too often because we choose to be judgemental about the
individual or the circumstances we close down our hearts and are unable
to witness and share the joy that exists. Here we let go of the context
and focus on feeling joy wherever it resides - unconditionally.

The
final section of this meditation concentrates on the joy in us. The
muditā bhāvanā practice is mainly outward looking - we share the joy of
others - but it is helpful to reflect that joy does indeed reside in
many parts of our own lives and to celebrate and feel gratitude for
that. We should not feel guilt for the happiness we know. It is a part
of life which we need like all other sentient beings. Be grateful and
cherish the joy in your own life. Feel able to share it with others.

INSTRUCTIONS

Allow
at least thirty minutes for this meditation and try to give a
reasonably equal amount of time and effort to each of the sections. Set
up your posture in the usual way with your spine straight and a firm
base. Gently close your eyes and allow a gentle smile to play across
your face as any tension subsides. Focus for a few moments on the
breathing before beginning the first section. Any time that your mind
wanders remember to gently bring it back to focusing on the joy of the
being with which you are concerned.

Section 1



A Dear Friend



(We
are often most aware of happiness and joy in those whom we choose as
friends. Even if not every aspect of their lives is joy-filled, we can
recognise and empathise with those areas that are happy.)

Rejoicing in the success and happiness of a close friend.

Share his/her joy and gladness in any aspect of life.

May it continue.

…enjoying the happiness of our friend.

Section 2



A Benefactor



(Often
when we look with gratitude at someone who has benefited us - maybe a
teacher or parent - we see the great joy contained within his or her
life. Even if their lives are complex we can recognise and celebrate the
moments of joy and happiness.)

Rejoicing in the happiness and joy of a benefactor or parent (if living).

Be glad for his/her success and achievement.

May it continue and spread to other aspects of his or her life.

…enjoying the happiness of our benefactor.

Section 3



A Neutral Person



(Those
about whom we know little often allow us glimpses of the happiness and
success they feel in areas of their lives. Let us feel that joy with
them.)

Rejoicing in the success and achievement of this person.

May the joy continue and expand throughout his or her life.

Recognising the gladness within, let us share their happiness.

…enjoying the happiness of this person.

Section 4



A Hostile Person



(Even
individuals with whom we may have some disagreement are capable of joy.
Let us not be blind to their successes and the happiness they exhibit
in particular areas of their lives. Although we may be unable to condone
their behaviour in some areas and indeed may feel aggrieved by it, can
we not open our hearts to celebrate with them their joy and happiness?)

Recognising the joy and happiness felt by this person.

May that joy continue and extend throughout their lives.

May we unconditionally share in their happiness and joy.

… enjoying his or her happiness.

Section 5



The Wider Community



(Individuals
and groups of people in our locality, our country, other countries, the
world. They too experience joy and happiness. Let us recognise it
within them and share their happiness.)

Recognising and sharing the joy of those around us…

The happiness of parents playing with children…

The joy of an employee recognised and rewarded by an employer…

The joy of a family whose loved one pulls through illness…

The contentment of knowing they are loved…

The happiness of financial and emotional security…

The joy of having enough food to feed their young…

The joy of knowing they have succeeded…

The satisfaction of a task well done…

…enjoying their happiness.

Section 6



All Beings



(Sharing the joy of all sentient beings in any aspect of their lives.)

Feeling the joy of…

Animals - safe, after the chase

Birds - on finding enough to eat in winter

Other beings - on finding their endeavours fruitful

… enjoying their happiness.

Section 7



Reflect on one’s own Joy



(Like
all beings our lives have moments of joy and happiness. Take some time
to recognise and celebrate this. Show some gratitude for the joy we
receive.)

Recognising the moments of joy and happiness in my life…

I rejoice in them and enjoy them.

I feel gratitude for whatever joy I have experienced.

I choose to share whatever joy I have or will have with others…

At
the end of the session, sit for a few moments before opening the eyes.
Resolve to take some of the spirit of joyfulness into your day and to
share it with others.

Summary Of This Practice

Try
to practise meditation twice each day for a minimum of thirty minutes
if possible. Alternate one session of ānāpānasati (Mindfulness of
Breathing) with one of mudita bhāvanā (Cultivation of Appreciative Joy).
If you are unable to practice twice each day then on alternate days use
one of the two meditations.

Mudita bhāvanā - Developing Joy with Others:

1 A Dear Friend

2 A Benefactor

3 A Neutral Person

4 A Hostile Person

5 The Wider Community

6 All Beings

7 Reflection on, and gratitude for, our own Joy

Practise
noticing joy in your daily life. Recognise it in the activities and
experiences of others. Simply mentally note it each time you become
aware of it.

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=408


Audio Player - Appreciative Joy Meditation

Guided meditation files are intended to illustrate how to structure your
own sittings. Once you are familiar with the format you should try to
meditate without listening to these audio files.

Mudita - Appreciative Joy Meditation

 


-25:19
 
Last modified: Saturday, 29 September 2018, 4:06 PM
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Contemplation - Day 36

215. From
lust arises grief,

from
lust arises fear.

Freed
from lust one is

free
from grief and fear.

216. From
craving arises grief,

from
craving arises fear.

Freed
from craving one is

free
from grief and fear.

217. Virtuous
and insightful,

principled
and truthful,

diligent
in one’s duties -

such,
people hold dear.

218. Intent
on the Ineffable,

with
mind inspired,

and
free of sense pleasures:

such
a one is bound Upstream.

219. Returning
safe from afar

after
a long absence,

one
is welcomed home

by
family, friends and well-wishers.

220. As
family welcome a dear one’s return,

so
will one’s good deeds

welcome
the good-doer

when
gone from this world to the next.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:23 PM
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Sunday - Recognising Joy and Sorrow

1. Recognising Joy and Sorrow

Some
folk do get a little obsessive about dukkha and Buddhists sometimes get
an undeserved reputation for being a glum and pessimistic lot! The path
we are following is concerned with recognising reality however it
manifests. It is certainly of critical importance that we do not shut
ourselves off from things that are unappealing or painful - that would
be a denial of reality - but it is equally important that we fully
recognise and engage with what is beautiful and joyous. If we orientate
our outlook only towards suffering then this is unbalanced, crude and
destructive: it denies the complexity of life.

There
is nothing to be gained from denying happiness and joy; they are
features of most people’s lives. What is cautioned against is the idea
that we can be permanently happy and joyful here when the evidence
abounds to contradict this. Unfortunately, some people delude themselves
that everything is solvable if only they think positive thoughts.
Though well intentioned, this soon becomes a longing or craving for an
unrealistic and unattainable ideal. This is contrary to the Buddha’s
teaching that deals always with reality rather than fantasy. We are
told, and may come to know through experience, that all conditioned
things are impermanent, not-Self and ultimately unsatisfactory. This
does not mean that our lives are doomed to be a miserable and monotonous
lurch from one grey experience to another. If we look around us we can
see clearly that there is great happiness, there exists pleasure, some
people are truly joyful. We should accept this with gratitude and share
in this joy. The last thing we need to do is go into denial about the
joyful aspects of life: we need to be able to experience them fully, see
them clearly, regard them as part of the picture - to be mindful of the
joy in our lives is as important as any other form of mindfulness
practice.

When
we were practising mettā bhāvanā it was stressed that whilst we can
work towards having the capacity to radiate mettā unequivocally to all
beings, this does not mean that we need necessarily approve of their
actions or even like their personalities. Mettā is a pure quality that,
with practice, can be shown to all regardless of whether they
reciprocate or whether we would choose them as friends. Similarly, when
we are working on muditā bhāvanā the empathy that we feel with the
joyous person is unconditional. The cause of the person’s happiness is
not our concern - we do not need to vet it to see if it would meet our
own standards. That they are happy in that moment is enough; and the
object of the exercise is to develop and extend our ability to share in
the joy of others. Appreciative Joy is untainted by qualification and
assessment - it is a pure point of contact between us and the happiness
that another sentient being experiences.

Muditā,
or appreciative joy, for some is more difficult to arrive at than mettā
or karunā. Like the other states, it is dependent on the conditions
that pertain for us at this moment and should not be associated with a
static view our personality or outlook. Sometimes meditators get the
idea that they are constitutionally unsuited to one or other of these
brahmavihāra practices but in reality we may just have to work a little
harder to tune in to those that present us with apparent difficulties
now. One beautiful aspect of impermanence (anicca) is that it releases
us from the oppression that a fixed self-view imposes. Impermanence
means that what we characterize as difficult now cannot remain so.
Through steady application of the technique, however awkward or
mechanical it might seem at first, a spark will arise that awakens us to
the potential of the practice. The four brahmavihāra techniques are
complementary and, to some extent, the development of any one of them
will give us the confidence to persist with the others. It is
traditional to begin with mettā but different people find different
techniques more immediately approachable.

When
we first come to recognize joy in someone else, it need not necessary
be unalloyed. There are degrees of joyfulness just like any other
quality. Don’t expect initially to feel overwhelmed by it. Most people
begin by recognizing a glimmer of joy and happiness that a person
experiences in a particular situation and then try to extend this
through the practice. Again, one can rearrange the order of the sections
if you find this helpful. Begin with the section that, for you, seems
easiest. Once you are more comfortable with the technique then revert to
the sections as given. It is important that we don’t prejudge the
experience: often there is an expectation that we will feel blissed-out
during muditā bhāvanā, but this is not usually the case and, in any
event, would be indicative of an imbalance in our approach. Take things
steadily.

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=144


On Appreciative Joy (Video)

Andrew speak about the practice of mudita.

Last modified: Monday, 13 February 2017, 4:48 PM
https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=142


Contemplation - Day 36

215. From
lust arises grief,

from
lust arises fear.

Freed
from lust one is

free
from grief and fear.

216. From
craving arises grief,

from
craving arises fear.

Freed
from craving one is

free
from grief and fear.

217. Virtuous
and insightful,

principled
and truthful,

diligent
in one’s duties -

such,
people hold dear.

218. Intent
on the Ineffable,

with
mind inspired,

and
free of sense pleasures:

such
a one is bound Upstream.

219. Returning
safe from afar

after
a long absence,

one
is welcomed home

by
family, friends and well-wishers.

220. As
family welcome a dear one’s return,

so
will one’s good deeds

welcome
the good-doer

when
gone from this world to the next.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:23 PM
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Monday - Envy and Fairness

1. Envy and Fairness

Sometimes
when we focus on the joy in other people’s lives we may find feelings
of hurt or jealousy arise which stem from our own circumstances. It is
very easy to get caught up in comparison of the relative merits and
worthiness of people and on occasions even envy or other negative states
might arise during a session. When this occurs we can quickly, if we
are not careful, get into a spiral where guilt at the arising of the
unwholesome feeling brings about despondency or sadness. As with all the
samatha techniques the course of action should be to nip any
distractions in the bud - and this envy or grading of the worth of
others against ourselves is just such a distraction. Acknowledge any
feeling or thought that arises and return to empathising with the joy
that the person feels in his or her situation. The ability to do this
evenly - unconditionally - is the training we are working to master. If
we could accomplish this now we could skip the sittings altogether! …
but most of us have a bit of work to do first. It will be a gradual
flowering brought about by the warmth and nutriment that we bring to the
task; our commitment and dedication combined with the realisation of
just how important the brahmavihāra qualities are. As we cultivate these
qualities we will experience them in their pristine purity from time to
time and this will become more noticeable as our practice deepens.

On
a mundane level it is a benefit of these practices that we begin to
understand others and ourselves more. We become aware of motivation and
the factors that bring situations about. Within the meditation sitting,
however, we should try not to stray into the realm of exploration and
explanation. It is very tempting, but this is best saved for our time
off the cushion. There is nothing to stop us having some contemplation
time outside of our formal practice periods for thinking things through.
Try to maintain, as far as possible, a clear idea of the importance of
staying with the object of meditation. Although investigation into a
subject’s motives may seem related to the activity we are carrying out,
it is also a distraction from our object. We all have a tendency to go
down this route, initially, but it needs to be kept in check for the
efficacy of the process. The technique works without investigation or
analysis of a subject’s motivation; and the benefits of working in this
way will become apparent.

This
is a no blame path. We arrive at any technique exactly as we are. Some
things initially will seem easier than others, but this does not
necessarily mean that our continuing experience with a particular
technique will remain unchanged. It would be highly unusual were that to
be the case. Sometimes it may not be flattering to the ego to find a
practice focussing on joy to be so difficult. These are important
lessons and rather than using them as a cause for despondency, see them
for what they are: an opportunity for practice. Bhāvanā means
development or cultivation. We are taking the first tentative steps
along a path that can lead to our ability to share unconditional joy,
lovingkindness, and compassion equanimously with all. This is bound to
be hard work, but is eminently possible and we will be sustained in this
work by the small realisations that occur quite naturally from our
daily practice. This is a present moment philosophy - don’t shackle
yourself with guilt over perceived failings when you have the
opportunity to begin again in this very moment with the lessons that
have been learned.

Sometimes
we block the experience of sharing another person’s joy by analysing
the situation that has produced it. Just as we are aware of our own
imperfections we will also become aware of those in others if we allow
ourselves to wander off into discursive thought. For the sake of the
efficacy of the practice, it is important that we pull back from getting
into whether someone “deserves” the happiness they have. The monster
that is envy is the enemy of muditā. Try to keep the scenario as simple
as possible, using only as much scene setting as is strictly necessary
for you to connect with muditā for the particular person. In time, this
preliminary work will be unnecessary. If we over-elaborate then it is
difficult for us to see the joy in the person’s life at all; it becomes
tainted by qualification. We simply connect with the feeling of
happiness that the person experiences. It is not necessarily the case
that the same incident or set of circumstances would evoke a similar
feeling in us - we respond in different ways to diverse events. The
practice is about empathy for what the person who is the subject of the
section feels. If they feel a moment of joy, however it is caused, then
we can try to connect with that feeling.

Making
judgements about people is standard behaviour and most of us do it much
of the time. Within the meditation session, though, it is important
that we try to suspend this tendency. It is not necessarily wrong, but
it is unhelpful. Discrimination (in its original sense, rather than when
used to mean prejudice) is a good quality, and one which is very useful
on the spiritual path, but it relies on too much thinking to be of
direct use within the actual meditation sitting; it takes us away from
the object. Its utility at this stage is limited to making the initial
assessment of which section of the technique a particular person can be
most usefully placed.

Our
reaction to each of the meditations and to individual sittings will not
be predictable. The brahmavihāra practices work at a very deep level
and this will sometimes inevitably mean that emotions and feelings arise
which are complex and occasionally difficult to reconcile with the task
we have set ourselves. Never forget that bhāvanā means cultivation or
development and this is exactly what we are doing here: we are working
to maximise our ability to act and react with joy in the success of
others. The perfecting of any these qualities will take time but there
will be a steady development.

Although
all of the brahmavihāra qualities are interrelated, and there is a
natural tendency to want to merge them, I believe it is most effective
to develop each one separately in order that clarity can be maintained
about the distinctive nature of each. Once they have been fully
developed, of course, then such structures have passed their usefulness
and can be discarded.

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=147


Contemplation - Day 38

227. This
is an ancient practice, O Atula,

not
only of today:

they
criticize those who are silent,

they
criticize those who speak much,

they
criticize those who speak little.

There
is no one on earth left uncriticized.

228. There
never was, there never will be,

nor
exists there now,

a
person who is wholly criticized,

or
wholly praised.

229. Day
after day,

the
wise examine and praise

those
flawless in character,

wisdom,
knowledge and virtue.

230. Who
would blame one

pure,
as refined gold?

The
gods, and even

Brahma,
praise him.

231. Guard
against bodily misdeeds.

Restrained
in bodily actions,

abandoning
harmful bodily actions,

one
should cultivate good conduct.

232. Guard
against spoken misdeeds.

Restrained
in speech,

abandoning
wrong speech,

one
should cultivate right speech.

233. Guard
against mental misdeeds.

Mentally
restrained,

abandoning
wrong thought,

one
should cultivate right thought.

234. Restrained
in physical, verbal

and
mental conduct,

the
wise are indeed secure.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:28 PM
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Tuesday - Fifth Precept

1. Fifth Precept

THE FIFTH PRECEPT

surā meraya majjapamādatthānā veramani sikkhā padam samādiyāmi

I take the precept to abstain from taking intoxicating liquor

In the Sutta Nipāta we read that a Buddhist:

“…should
not take intoxicating drinks. The householder who likes this teaching
does not urge others to drink and does not condone drinking, knowing
that it ends in madness. Through drunkenness foolish people commit evils
and cause them to be committed by other foolish people. Avoid that
which is a realm of evils, maddening, deluding, and the delight of the
foolish.”

In
many ways this is the easiest precept for most of us to keep. Unless we
are addicted to alcohol it is physiologically fairly easy to give it
up. But oh what psychological resistance many of us will feel:

“Can’t I have just one glass of wine with my meal?”

“Surely in moderation alcohol can’t do me any harm!”

“I need to socialise with my colleagues and clients.”

Like
all of the precepts the fifth precept is entered into voluntarily. No
one is commanding or instructing us to change anything about our
lifestyles. The principle objection to alcohol is that it clouds our
vision. It makes us less likely to carry out actions that are skilful
and which benefit others and ourselves. It also numbs our senses so that
we are unaware of the subtleties of sensations and feelings and tends
to make our behaviour coarser and more selfish. If we have chosen to
follow a path that relies on clear seeing then that path will be much
less viable if we are operating at anything less than with all our
faculties in order. At best alcohol temporarily clouds the mind; at
worst it can lead us into destructive behaviour and permanently damage
our ability to function. Even if we feel we can handle our own alcohol
intake our public endorsement of drinking helps to portray the activity
as normal and sociable; this makes it far more difficult for those who
are alcoholics and non-drinkers to refuse to partake in social
situations without pressure.

Many
Buddhist practitioners continue to drink and feel guilty about doing
so. Others use arguments about balance and moderation. It took me a few
years to decide to observe this particular precept and when I did it was
based on my understanding of what was best for my development and my
interactions with those around me. There is nothing holy or angelic
about this: rather it is a practical consideration. If I am intent on
developing clarity and insight why would I choose to cloud my mind? It
seems like one step forward, two steps back! Similarly if I want clarity
and insight for myself why would I choose to deny that to others? If I
participate in promoting the drinking of alcohol (as a normative part of
my daily activities) aren’t I behaving less than compassionately?

Perhaps
our tendency to compartmentalise our lives into `the spiritual’ and
`real life’ is part of the problem. We kid ourselves that as long as
we’re completely sober during the spiritual bit we can carry on living
it up in everyday situations. Well, we might be able to do this for a
while - and I would guess that most Buddhist converts in their early
years probably do manage this to a degree - but it cannot be a long-term
strategy if we are serious about this Path.

Gradually,
for most people, there comes a realisation that this separating out of
‘fun’ versus the spiritual doesn’t really work. It comes from the
misconception that there is a separate spiritual side to us - serious,
deep, meaningful, developing - and, presumably, so profoundly dull,
unsatisfying and unimportant that we need to escape it at regular
intervals. In reality we are not these separate individuals. We can
choose to live consistently; with every aspect of our lives becoming a
feature of our spiritual practice. This is not easy - you may have
guessed by now that I’m not a big fan of folks who claim that the
spiritual life is easy for any of us - but it can be worked at until it
becomes more natural for us.

Whatever
you decide please do not think that unless you give up totally there is
no point in following other aspects of the Buddha’s teachings:
Meditation will work for you to a degree whether you give up or not; the
other ethical teachings will reduce the amount of suffering you
occasion and receive. BUT, but, but… The best advice given by all the
teachers from two and a half thousand years of this tradition is that
ultimately it would be worth your while to make a determined effort to
reduce your craving for alcohol. If you can try to do that sooner rather
than later then you will most likely see the benefits sooner rather
than later too. We are not working against the clock but we are told
that this human birth provides the optimal chance to make the leap from
the rounds of suffering - surely that’s worth making an effort for.

There are many good reasons that we may like to consider for observing the Fifth Precept. Some of them include:

In
our meditation periods we are aiming for maximum clarity. If there is a
residue of alcohol in our system we can’t achieve this.

Outside
our meditation periods we are trying to make sure that our actions are
mindful and skilful. If we wish to make the correct assessment of
situations in order that we can act ethically and compassionately then a
clear mind is likely to help.

The
consumption of alcohol is often about masking our true feelings. The
chemical stimulation makes us feel happy - it is a quick fix to change
our mood. We should be aware by now that quick fixes don’t work. We need
to be honest about our moods and emotions. If we constantly seek to
escape them we will never discover their true nature or be able to deal
with them appropriately.

Even
if we drink alcohol in moderation we broadcast a message to those
around us that this is a normal thing to do. Aware that others may be
prone to addiction this could be regarded as an uncompassionate act. Are
we sure that the colleagues we are offering a drink to can handle it?
Do we ever consider that we are offering them something that is
intrinsically harmful? Aware of the violence and social breakdown in
part caused by consumption of alcohol why do we conspire to make it a
normative experience?

Is it really so important to us? Why do we crave it? We know it doesn’t do us any good so why continue with it?

The
Fifth Precept specifically refers to alcohol (distilled or fermented
intoxicating liquor) in ordinary life and does not refer to medical
drugs. It is permissible from a Buddhist point of view to use any
substance for purely medicinal use and medicine is seen as one of the
essential requisites of the Sangha. In most cases, though, I don’t think
lay folks can, hand-on-heart, claim that their drinking of alcohol is
for this purpose.

The
Fifth Precept is a common stumbling block for many Westerners. There
are many other sense pleasures and diversions - things we crave, things
we avoid - which will similarly require our attention as we edge our way
along the path. It is a measure of the destructiveness of this
particular activity that it was felt necessary to single it out as one
of only five precepts given for daily observance by lay people. It was
deemed that important. Have another go at abstaining for a while if you
can. Don’t try to see it as a make-or-break situation but do it because
you have acknowledged that it would be helpful. If you find you come
back to drinking later then accept that this has happened and try again.
Don’t beat yourself up with guilt: that is a pointless destructive
activity too. All this abstinence sometimes gets Buddhism labelled as a
killjoy religion - but we are merely abstaining from a chemically
induced haze in order that we can have the clarity that may lead to the
end of all suffering. Why settle for the temporary fake stuff when there
is real bliss to be experienced? Nor need this be thought of as aeons
away - we can earn, at the very least, glimpses of such bliss in this
life.

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=149


Contemplation - Day 39

235. You
are like a withered leaf;

the
messengers of death await.

You
stand on the eve of your departure,

and
no provision made for the journey.

236. Make
an island of yourself.

With
swift effort become wise.

Purged
of stain and passions,

you
will enter the Noble Realm.

237. Now,
your life is ending,

you
approach the King of Death.

There’s
no resting place along the way,

and
no provision made for the journey.

238. Make
an island of yourself.

With
swift effort become wise.

Purged
of stain and passions,

never
again to face birth and decay.

239. Step
by step, little by little,

moment
by moment,

the
wise remove their impurities -

as
a smith purifies silver.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:58 PM
https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=150


Wednesday - Eight Precepts

1. Eight Precepts

THE EIGHT PRECEPTS

We
have concluded our look at the Five Precepts - the rules of training
which we may choose to observe and which are traditionally deemed
necessary for our development. The Five Precepts can be augmented by
other precepts on Observance Days. I will give a brief outline here in
case you wish to explore them further. Most often the formula given is
as follows:

(1) I take the precept to abstain from destroying sentient beings.

(2) I take the precept to abstain from taking things not given.

(3) I take the precept to abstain from sexual activity.

(4) I take the precept to abstain from false speech.

(5) I take the precept to abstain from intoxicants.

(6) I take the precept to abstain from taking food at inappropriate times.

(7)
I take the precept to abstain from dancing, singing, music and unseemly
shows; from the use of garlands, perfumes and unguents; from things
that tend to beautify and adorn (the person).

(8) I take the precept to abstain from (using) high and luxurious seats (or beds).

Keeping
these precepts for a 24-hour period each week (or even once each month)
is an additional discipline. In Buddhist countries many lay people
would adhere to the Eight Precepts on the Uposatha Day, and would spend
time at their local temple listening to Dhamma discourses or meditating.
Although most of the precepts are the same as the Five Precepts, we can
see that the additional ones aim at a reduction in our attachment to
the sensual world.

In
this formula the Third Precept becomes an undertaking of celibacy for
the period to which we have committed. The new Sixth Precept stops us
over-indulging in food by taking just what we need and deciding not to
eat at all after mid-day (Note: we still drink liquid). The Seventh
Precept is about modesty and reducing vanity: it is a challenge to stay
in the here and now without resorting to fantasy and escape, and an
opportunity to practise not clinging to sense objects. The Eighth
Precept is a decision not to overindulge in sleep and other creature
comforts. When visiting temples and retreat centres it is also about
respecting those who may be our spiritual superiors and learning to put
aside our egos for a while.

The
Sixth Precept is usually also observed on periods of retreat and
mirrors a rule that is followed everyday by monks and nuns. Lay people
choose to observe this precept as a way of not over-indulging the
senses. In the same way that other religions observe fasts, Buddhism
sees value in restraining our habitual tendency to greed. For one day
each week, or on the monthly observance day, we commit to taking what
food is necessary and abstaining from that which is not. In practice
people observing this precept eat shortly before noon, without greed,
but ensuring that they have sufficient nutrition for the rest of the
day. They then abstain from eating until the following day (after dawn
or whenever they rise). It is important to take liquid during this
period, but most people would not drink milk as that is deemed to be a
food. Clearly if someone has health problems (e.g. they are diabetic) it
is unwise to go without food for this period. For most people, however,
it is perfectly healthy to do this.

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=151


Contemplation - Day 40

240. As
rust, once arisen,

consumes
the iron on which it forms;

So,
his own deeds lead the

transgressor
to a woeful state.

241. Infrequent
repetition is the rust of scriptures.

Neglect
is the rust of homes.

Indolence
is the rust of beauty.

Heedlessness
is the rust of a guard.

242. Misconduct
is the taint of a woman.

Miserliness
is the taint of a benefactor.

Taints,
are indeed, are all that

is
evil in this world and the next.

243. Worse
than these is the taint of ignorance:

the
worst of all taints.

By
destroying this one taint,

one
becomes taintless, O Bhikkhus.

244. Life
is easy for the shameless

-
impudent as crows -

backbiting
and presumptuous,

arrogant
and corrupt.

245. Life
is hard for the modest

-
always seeking purity -

detached
and unassuming,

clean-living
and reflective.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 5:00 PM
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Thursday - Introducing Equanimity

1. Introducing Equanimity

Please
note: Today and tomorrow we will introduce the final brahmavihara
practice: upekkhā, or Equanimity. As mentioned earlier, this practice
relies on a firm foundation in the other brahmaviharas. You may wish to
print these details and download the audio file for use beyond this
course when you have deepened your experience of mettā, karuna and
mudita. We thought it was important to complete the sequence so that the
framework is clear. If you are relatively new to the brahmaviharas
please continue to work on Appreciative Joy Meditation in your main
sitting.

THE PRACTICE OF EQUANIMITY

“I will abide pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with equanimity,

Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

So above and below, around and everywhere, and to all as if to myself.

I will abide pervading the entire world with equanimity,

Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

Upekkhā
or Equanimity is the fourth of the brahmavihāras or Divine Abodes. In
many ways it is the culmination of the other three practices as it adds
even-mindedness to the object of meditation. When we practice the other
three brahmavihāra meditations we are still aware of the separate
qualities of the different subjects on whom we choose to focus. In the
upekkhā bhāvanā (Cultivation of Equanimity) we actively work at
impartiality. This is not a dull indifference, but rather an acceptance
of the true nature of all beings. We are working in a spirit of goodwill
rather than lack of concern. Bhante Gunaratana has written that
“Equanimity as a divine abiding is the socially directed, meditative
state marked by the transcending of approval and resentment towards
living beings, the sublime attitude of impartiality which looks upon all
beings equally without preferences or discrimination.”

When
we work with the different people and other beings in our meditation we
still see them in relation to ourselves. We form opinions about how
they measure up against what we are. Even when we are directing
lovingkindness or compassion to another being it is difficult to escape
the idea that they and we are fixed individuals. We have a tendency to
enshrine our own self-image and to attach semi-permanent labels on
others. “I am a good meditator sending out lovingkindness even to this
person who is difficult.” “I am unsuccessful at radiating compassion
even to people who are downtrodden.”

What
we begin to realize is that we are making various assumptions that do
not really bear much scrutiny. This fixed I is not really that stable,
is it? We change our views (including that of our self-worth) constantly
and our needs, moods and motivations are in constant flux. Similarly we
start to understand that others too are not really made up solely of
those qualities with which we might at first label them. Can anyone
really be labelled hateful? In every aspect of their lives?
Consistently? By all others as well as ourselves?

The
Cultivation of Equanimity begins by breaking down some of these views
of self and others. It is an acknowledgement that we habitually put
ourselves at the centre of the universe and interpret the value of
everyone and everything solely in relation to this world-view. We fix
the personalities and characters of others on the basis very often of
little more than our own projections. Once we have categorised the
individual we can group him or her in terms of people whose company we
crave or avoid. Each time the value judgement is made in relation to
ourselves as final arbiter. We see ourselves as solid, stable judges.

In
truth of course we are not so capable of certainty. Even a cursory
glance back over a few years will tell us that our views change, our
physical body constantly changes, our relationships alter over time, our
aspirations and political outlook modifies. In short we are pretty
uncertain of what this ’self’ is actually made. If we look around us we
can see that others are in a similar position. Who are they today? Are
they the same as five years ago, or five minutes ago? If this constant
flux is so readily apparent to us can we really feel confident that our
judgement about others and ourselves is so very sound?

When
we begin to practise the Cultivation of Equanimity we see that our
strategies of ego protection are flawed. In a system where everything
changes there is little point in hurriedly assigning labels even to
ourselves - and certainly not in relation to others about whom we know
even less. We begin to see the interconnectedness of life and its
non-separate nature. If we can cultivate an attitude of even-mindedness
we can begin to see into the true nature of things because we are no
longer blinded by our prejudices and desires.



Thursday - Introducing Equanimity

1. Introducing Equanimity

Please
note: Today and tomorrow we will introduce the final brahmavihara
practice: upekkhā, or Equanimity. As mentioned earlier, this practice
relies on a firm foundation in the other brahmaviharas. You may wish to
print these details and download the audio file for use beyond this
course when you have deepened your experience of mettā, karuna and
mudita. We thought it was important to complete the sequence so that the
framework is clear. If you are relatively new to the brahmaviharas
please continue to work on Appreciative Joy Meditation in your main
sitting.

THE PRACTICE OF EQUANIMITY

“I will abide pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with equanimity,

Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

So above and below, around and everywhere, and to all as if to myself.

I will abide pervading the entire world with equanimity,

Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

Upekkhā
or Equanimity is the fourth of the brahmavihāras or Divine Abodes. In
many ways it is the culmination of the other three practices as it adds
even-mindedness to the object of meditation. When we practice the other
three brahmavihāra meditations we are still aware of the separate
qualities of the different subjects on whom we choose to focus. In the
upekkhā bhāvanā (Cultivation of Equanimity) we actively work at
impartiality. This is not a dull indifference, but rather an acceptance
of the true nature of all beings. We are working in a spirit of goodwill
rather than lack of concern. Bhante Gunaratana has written that
“Equanimity as a divine abiding is the socially directed, meditative
state marked by the transcending of approval and resentment towards
living beings, the sublime attitude of impartiality which looks upon all
beings equally without preferences or discrimination.”

When
we work with the different people and other beings in our meditation we
still see them in relation to ourselves. We form opinions about how
they measure up against what we are. Even when we are directing
lovingkindness or compassion to another being it is difficult to escape
the idea that they and we are fixed individuals. We have a tendency to
enshrine our own self-image and to attach semi-permanent labels on
others. “I am a good meditator sending out lovingkindness even to this
person who is difficult.” “I am unsuccessful at radiating compassion
even to people who are downtrodden.”

What
we begin to realize is that we are making various assumptions that do
not really bear much scrutiny. This fixed I is not really that stable,
is it? We change our views (including that of our self-worth) constantly
and our needs, moods and motivations are in constant flux. Similarly we
start to understand that others too are not really made up solely of
those qualities with which we might at first label them. Can anyone
really be labelled hateful? In every aspect of their lives?
Consistently? By all others as well as ourselves?

The
Cultivation of Equanimity begins by breaking down some of these views
of self and others. It is an acknowledgement that we habitually put
ourselves at the centre of the universe and interpret the value of
everyone and everything solely in relation to this world-view. We fix
the personalities and characters of others on the basis very often of
little more than our own projections. Once we have categorised the
individual we can group him or her in terms of people whose company we
crave or avoid. Each time the value judgement is made in relation to
ourselves as final arbiter. We see ourselves as solid, stable judges.

In
truth of course we are not so capable of certainty. Even a cursory
glance back over a few years will tell us that our views change, our
physical body constantly changes, our relationships alter over time, our
aspirations and political outlook modifies. In short we are pretty
uncertain of what this ’self’ is actually made. If we look around us we
can see that others are in a similar position. Who are they today? Are
they the same as five years ago, or five minutes ago? If this constant
flux is so readily apparent to us can we really feel confident that our
judgement about others and ourselves is so very sound?

When
we begin to practise the Cultivation of Equanimity we see that our
strategies of ego protection are flawed. In a system where everything
changes there is little point in hurriedly assigning labels even to
ourselves - and certainly not in relation to others about whom we know
even less. We begin to see the interconnectedness of life and its
non-separate nature. If we can cultivate an attitude of even-mindedness
we can begin to see into the true nature of things because we are no
longer blinded by our prejudices and desires.



Friday - The Practice of Equanimity Meditation

1. The Practice of Equanimity Meditation

INSTRUCTIONS

Allow
at least 20-30 minutes for the session if possible. Try to spend an
equal amount of time in each of the five sections of the meditation. We
will begin by suggesting comparative phrases to be used during the
particular sections. As in previous brahmavihāra practices we are
looking for a real understanding of the ideas behind the phrases rather
than a mechanical repetition of them. Once we have fixed the procedure
in our heads we will no longer require these phrases. We are working at
balancing our responses to the individuals on whom we focus during the
meditation. An explanation of each of the subjects of our meditation is
given under the individual sections.

Set up your meditation posture and gently close your eyes. Concentrate for a few moments on the breathing.

Section One



THE NEUTRAL PERSON

(Someone
about whom you currently have no strong feelings either for or against.
In effect someone about whom you already have equanimity.)

Picture the Neutral Person in front of you. Note how you are neither drawn toward him or her nor does he or she repulse you.

Reflect:

“This Neutral Person, like all beings, suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

This Neutral Person, like all beings, is ever changing - physically, emotionally…

This Neutral Person, like all beings, is not a permanent fixed entity…”

Move
on now to compare the Neutral Person individually with each of the
other subjects of this meditation. Begin by picturing the Neutral Person
and the Friend in front of you.

Reflect:

The Friend

“Just as this Neutral Person suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

So too does this Friend….

Just as this Neutral Person is ever changing…

So too is this Friend…

Just as this Neutral Person is not a fixed permanent entity…

Neither is this Friend…”

The Boon Companion (A Joyful Person)

“Just as this Neutral Person suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

So too does this Boon Companion….

Just as this Neutral Person is ever changing…

So too is this Boon Companion…

Just as this Neutral Person is not a fixed permanent entity…

Neither is this Boon Companion…”

The Hostile Person

“Just as this Neutral Person suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

So too does this Hostile Person….

Just as this Neutral Person is ever changing…

So too is this Hostile Person…

Just as this Neutral Person is not a fixed permanent entity…

Neither is this Hostile Person…”

Oneself

“Just as this Neutral Person suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

So too do I….

Just as this Neutral Person is ever changing…

So too am I…

Just as this Neutral Person is not a fixed permanent entity…

Neither am I…”

Section Two



The Friend

(Someone whom you know well and are aware of the complexity of his/her character.)

Picture the Friend in front of you and reflect:

“This Friend, like all beings, suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

This Friend, like all beings, is ever changing - physically, emotionally…

This Friend, like all beings, is not a permanent fixed entity…”

Allow the image of the Friend to be joined one at a time by:

The Neutral Person

The Boon Companion

The Hostile Person

Oneself

In each case reflect:

“Just as this Friend suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

So too does….

Just as this Friend is ever changing…

So too is…

Just as this Friend is not a fixed permanent entity…

Neither is…”

Section Three



The Boon Companion

(Someone
who is regularly joyful, happy, welcoming. The first impression we have
of the person is joy. Boon Companion is a term used in the
Visuddhimagga to describe someone who embodies joy, who is a joy to be
around, who exudes joyfulness.)

Picture the Boon Companion in front of you and reflect:

“This Boon Companion, like all beings, suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

This Boon Companion, like all beings, is ever changing - physically, emotionally…

This Boon Companion, like all beings, is not a permanent fixed entity…”

Allow the Boon Companion to be joined one at a time by:

The Neutral Person

The Friend

The Hostile Person

Oneself

In each case reflect:

“Just as this Boon Companion suffers and seeks the end of suffering…

So too does….

Just as this Boon Companion is ever changing…

So too is…

Just as this Boon Companion is not a fixed permanent entity…

Neither is…”

Section Four



The Hostile Person

(Someone who is regularly difficult, unfriendly, obstructive. The first impression we have of this person is dislike.)

Continue as before. Begin by focusing on the Hostile Person and gradually allow this person to be joined by:

The Neutral Person

The Friend

The Boon Companion

Oneself

In each case reflect: “Just as… So too…”

Section Five



Oneself

Continue as before. Begin by focusing on yourself and gradually allow yourself to be joined by:

The Neutral Person

The Friend

The Boon Companion

The Hostile Person

In each case reflect: “Just as… So too…”

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=410


Audio Player - Equanimity Meditation

Guided meditation files are intended to illustrate how to structure your
own sittings. Once you are familiar with the format you should try to
meditate without listening to these audio files.

Upekkhā - Equanimity Meditation

 


-20:48
 

Last modified: Saturday, 29 September 2018, 4:19 PM
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Contemplation - Day 41

246. He
who destroys life,

who
speaks falsely,

who
takes what is not given,

who
goes to other men’s wives,

247. who
is addicted to alcohol -

such
a man digs up his

own
root in this world.

248. So
know, my good man,

evil
deeds are difficult to control:

don’t
let greed and wickedness

drive
you to protracted misery.

249. People
give according

to
their faith or their regard.

Envious
of the food and drink given to others,

day
and night one attains no peace.

250. But
one in whom this is fully cut off,

uprooted
and destroyed,

day
and night attains peace.

251. There
is no fire like lust,

no
grip like hatred,

no
net like delusion,

no
river like craving.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 5:02 PM
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Contemplation - Day 42

252. The
faults of others are easily seen,

our
own faults are difficult to see.

Like
chaff one winnows another’s faults,

while
concealing our own like a fowler in a hide.

253. Focusing
on another’s faults,

ever
censorious,

his
own defilements grow:

he
is far from their destruction.

254. There
is no track in the sky.

There
is no outside samana.

Mankind
delights in impediments.

The
Tathagatas are free of impediments.

255. There
is no track in the sky.

There
is no outside samana.

No
conditioned thing is stable.

There
is no instability in Buddhas.


256. Not
by passing hasty judgements

does
one become just:

the
wise investigate

both
right and wrong.

257. Judging
- impartially -

according
to the Dhamma,

one
is a guardian of Dhamma

and
a just person.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 5:03 PM
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Chant Workshop 6 (optional)

1. Chant Workshop 6

The
meditation practices we are using are drawn from the Theravāda
tradition which bases its teachings on the words of the Buddha and his
early followers as recorded in the Pāli Canon. Pāli is a written
liturgical language and is often also used for traditional chants that
many meditators find helpful as part of their spiritual practice. During
the course we will introduce a small number of these chants in Pāli or
in translated English form.

Over
the weeks the individual chants build to form the text for a puja, or
dedication ceremony, that some practitioners may wish to use as a way of
periodically rededicating their meditation practice. Please use the
chants if you find them helpful; please ignore them if you prefer.

CHANT 6: Frequent Recollections

Note: This English chant is related to the practice of vipassanā
and the realistic attitude to life that is demanded of the serious
practitioner. It reminds us of the transient nature of life and of our
opportunity to use the present moment skilfully.

Five Subjects for Frequent Recollection

I am of the nature to age,

I have not gone beyond ageing.

I am of the nature to sicken,

I have not gone beyond sickness.

I am of the nature to die,

I have not gone beyond dying.

All that is mine, beloved and pleasing,

will become otherwise;

will become separated from me.

I am the owner of my kamma,

heir to my kamma,

born of my kamma,

related to my kamma,

abide supported by my kamma.

Whatever kamma I shall do,

for good or for ill,

of that I will be the heir.

Listen to the chant:

 
-0:00

Download link:  https://course.org/mcaudio/c/6-Frequent_Recollections.mp3

Last modified: Thursday, 13 September 2018, 5:05 PM
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Vipassana Fellowship Meditation -27 October - 2 November-Contemplation - Day 29-Day 30-Day 31-Day 32-Day 33-Day 34-Day 35
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Vipassana Fellowship Meditation -27 October - 2 November-Contemplation - Day 29-Day 30-Day 31-Day 32-Day 33-Day 34-Day 35

A Random Image

For
our fifth week we introduce Karuna Meditation, the cultivation of
compassion, and begin to explore one of the central teachings of the
tradition: the Four Noble Truths.

https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=126


Saturday - Karuna: Compassion Meditation

1. Karuna: Compassion

COMPASSION

“I will abide pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion,

Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

So above and below, around and everywhere, and to all as if to myself.

I will abide pervading the entire world with compassion,

Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

We
have been working with the first of the brahmavihāra meditations, the
mettā bhāvanā (Development of Lovingkindness). We now begin to look at
the second of these Divine Abodes - karunā, or compassion.

KARUNĀ

“The
world suffers. But most people have their eyes and ears closed. They do
not see the unbroken stream of tears flowing through life; they do not
hear the cry of distress continually pervading the world. Their own
little grief or joy bars their sight, deafens their ears. Bound by
selfishness, their hearts turn stiff and narrow. Being stiff and narrow,
how should they be able to strive for any higher goal, to realize that
only release from selfish craving will effect their own freedom from
suffering?”

- Nyanaponika Thera

DEVELOPING COMPASSION

As
we work to develop the brahmavihāras it is important that we note the
distinctive nature of each. It is comparatively rare these days for
meditators to be introduced to all four brahmavihāra meditations, and
this leads to an unfortunate tendency to merge compassion and
lovingkindness into a single entity. It is, however, important that we
learn the distinctive nature of these different mental states so that we
can work with them effectively.

Compassion
means quite literally to feel with someone. In this particular
meditation we will be looking at the suffering that both others and we
experience, and develop the ability to open our hearts and empathise
totally with that experience.

We
will not be looking to pity those that suffer. Pity is often described
as the near enemy of compassion and can easily be mistaken for it. Pity
arises when we feel sorry for someone.

Compassion
arises when we feel sorry with someone. It is the actual nature of
their suffering that we take onboard and feel with all our heart;
combined with a heartfelt wish that the person will be free from
suffering.

As
our experience of karuna bhāvanā becomes more extensive we will begin
to see the common bond between us all. All our lives are subject to
unsatisfactoriness; we all experience dis-ease and suffering. This
meditation is another strong practice that aims at opening our hearts to
this commonality of experience. It is a form of real open-heart surgery
which can begin to transform our relationships and our motivation.

Some
people find this form of meditation particularly challenging at the
beginning, some may even find it depressing. All of us will find that
the energy is quite different to that we have experienced in mettā
bhāvanā. On occasion we may feel quite down after a session but this
will vary over time as we come to see the true nature of the experience.
Initially if we feel low after a session it can be quite useful to add a
short period of lovingkindness meditation at the end (and particularly
to concentrate on radiating mettā to oneself). Don’t however mix
lovingkindness meditation into the sections of the compassion
meditation. Appreciate their distinctiveness and keep them separate.

INSTRUCTIONS

Set
up your meditation session as before. Your posture should be firm and
your spine erect. Gently close your eyes and sit for a few moments
watching the breath. We will again be working through different sections
of the technique. Ensure that your attention is wholly focused on each
section and that you devote equal time to each. As distractions occur
gently acknowledge them and then return to the object of the meditation.
Remember that in each section we are empathising with the beings who
suffer, not pitying them. During the meditation we are feeling the
reality of their circumstances and the commonality of suffering. Aware
of the suffering, we wish to lift the burden of it.

Section 1



Compassion For Those In Need

Bring
your attention to focus on those who suffer in this world. Feel with
them. Don’t have pity for them. Empathise with their suffering.

Aware of the suffering of …

Those who suffer from the effects of poverty, famine and disease.

People in war-torn countries or without liberty.

The homeless and the addicted.

People racked with grief and loss, filled with despair.

Those with mental or physical illness.

Animals that are malnourished and ill-treated.

Take on that suffering. See it as it is. Feel it.

Section 2



Compassion For Those Who Do Wrong Or Are Hostile To Others

Aware of the suffering of…

Those who behave unskilfully and with malice.

Those driven by anger and resentment.

People who crave power by any means.

Those who choose to inflict pain on others.

Those who are motivated by greed and selfishness.

Their
actions are not the product of a peaceful mind. They are suffering and
will suffer. Take on that suffering. Understand it. Feel it with them.
Remain with their present situation. Experience the suffering they feel
now. Can you feel it unconditionally? Without reservation? Can you hope
for their release from suffering?

Aware of the suffering of…

People who choose to act with hostility to others.

People who direct their anger and resentment at us.

Those who are cynical and dismissive of our actions.

These
are not happy people. Feel their unhappiness. Experience the burden
that their lack of peace, their lack of warmth, causes them. Empathise
with what lies at the root of their hostility. They suffer too.

Section 3



Compassion For Those Who Are Neutral

Aware of the suffering of…

Those about whom we know little.

People who we have treated as functionaries, without consideration.

People who have neither brought us joy nor pain.

Those whose opinions and views we do not consider.

As
sentient beings they too are subject to suffering. Because we have not
considered or are unaware of the complexity of their lives, we may have
ignored their suffering. We may, to some extent, have dismissed their
very humanity. Can we empathise with their suffering now? Their lives
too are subject to sadness, worry, and frustration. They too will face
the loss of their loved ones and experience all the other vicissitudes
of life. Can we feel with them?

Section 4



Compassion For Those Who Are Dear To Us

Aware of the suffering of…

Our families and friends.

The people about whom we care deeply.

As
people our friends and family suffer too. Can we feel their suffering?
Can we take it on? Sometimes we may have been unaware of the detail of
the suffering of those dear to us, but we must all be aware of the
suffering that illness, death and uncertainty can bring to those about
whom we care deeply. Can we feel the grief, the loneliness, the worry,
the fear? Can we do this without reservation?

Section 5



Reflecting on Compassion For Ourselves

We
suffer too. Sometimes we may choose to mask that suffering to the
outside world and ourselves. See the suffering, the unsatisfactoriness
that lies deep within. Feel the hurt and anger that resides there.
Accept it as part of our make-up. We have felt the common suffering of
other beings. We are not exempt from this suffering. Witness its
reality; bring heartfelt awareness to the possibility of overcoming it.

At
the end of the session sit for a few moments and come back to the
breath. This form of meditation can be very taxing and you may feel that
you would like to add a short mettā bhāvanā section before ending. Show
yourself some kindness and gentleness.

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Audio Player - Compassion Meditation

Guided meditation files are intended to illustrate how to structure your
own sittings. Once you are familiar with the format you should try to
meditate without listening to these audio files.

Karuna - Compassion Meditation

 


-18:52
 


Last modified: Saturday, 29 September 2018, 3:56 PM
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Contemplation - Day 29

173. Replacing
by good

the
evil one has done,

one
illumines the world

as
the moon free of cloud.

174. Blind
is the world;

few
see clearly.

Like
birds escaping a net,

those
who see are blissful.

175. Swans
fly the path of the sun.

Psychics
fly through space.

Defeating
Mara and his host,

the
wise flee the world.

176. There
is no evil that cannot be done

by
the liar who has violated one precept

and
is indifferent to the world beyond.

177. The
miserly do not go to heavenly realms;

fools,
certainly, do not value generosity.

A
wise one rejoices in giving,

and
by that act is happy hereafter.

178. Better
than reigning over the earth,

better
than going to heaven,

or
sovereignty over the universe;

the
fruits of Stream-entry excel all of these.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 3:46 PM
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Sunday - Empathy not Pity

1. Empathy not Pity

Compassion
is not the same as pity, which can have a rather paternalistic flavour -
a sort of looking down on “those poor unfortunate people”. That
attitude tends to have a distancing effect. Whilst we genuinely feel
sorry for them, the fact of seeing them as separate and different
prevents our wholehearted engagement with them. Pity has a sort of
hopeless and despairing quality about it - or at best resignation. It is
a wringing of the hands; a more fortunate outsider looking in on
another’s situation. Often this may occur if there is a subconscious
denial of how we too suffer. Compassion is full engagement with the
reality of the situation and can perhaps be thought of as a
communication rather than a one-sided transaction. It relies on there
being a total honesty; an empathy that arises from the recognition that
none of us are so very different. The form of suffering,
unsatisfactoriness, dis-ease varies for each of us but dukkha is
universal and this common experience, once recognised, permits empathy
to arise.

Compassion
is empathy with the person who is suffering and a wish that they be
free from it - a deep understanding of their experience and an ability
to share in it with them. When we talk about taking on the suffering it
is not in the sense of unburdening the other person - it is a direct
connection that we feel to that person’s plight. It is very important
that we can get closer to the experience of others: in daily life we are
constantly faced with images of suffering people, whether it be in news
programmes or elsewhere, and we build up barriers to it. The practice
of karuna bhāvanā opens our heart to the connections that we have with
all other beings; it is part of a training that permits wholehearted
engagement and a realisation that we are not separate and cannot close
ourselves off - because that disengagement is also a volitional act that
has unwholesome consequences.

No
one is expected to be able to fully empathize with every other being
from day one. The full realisation of karunā will take sustained work
over a number of years. We have perfected karunā only when it is
inconceivable to us that we would treat any other being in ways that are
not wholly compassionate, in any circumstance.

Quite
often, before coming to a meditation practice, people have faced
tremendously difficult experiences in their lives. They deal with them
in the best way that they can. Perhaps they have found that the only way
to cope was to distance themselves from the source of suffering (or
sometimes from people afflicted by it). Some people feel very guilty
about this; but guilt is not usually a useful response as it is backward
looking and has a tendency to debilitate. Others rationalise that
theirs was the best way of handling an extreme situation at the time…
and they may well be right given that most of us are equipped with
partial understanding and inadequate resources. That was then, and this
is now: when we begin to do spiritual work it is essential that we do
not try to lock our frames of reference in the vice of past experience.
If we have confidence that it is possible to develop positive qualities,
to learn skills and acquire insight - and surely that is why most of us
are treading this path - then we must accept that our response to any
new situation needs to be determined by the best our current levels of
understanding can offer rather than slavishly applying an old and
outmoded stratagem.

We
are not fixed in time; we change, we develop, we grow. Too often people
see anicca (impermanence) as some sort of threat, but it is also a
glorious opportunity. It permits change; it ensures that no two
experiences are exactly alike. The cultivation of the qualities of calm
and insight, through meditation, can ensure we become equipped with
optimal skills and the understanding necessary to handle all of the
situations we will face. In life we are constantly presented with
changing circumstances based, amongst other things, on the outcome of
our intentional acts. Meditation is one way of developing preparedness
for our future commission of only skilful acts of body, speech and mind -
and for pertinent and positive responses to all situations as they
arise.

The
ability to feel compassion is wholly positive. It does not arise from,
and should not engender, a sense of hopelessness. In the context in
which we are working it is simply recognition of the fact of suffering
and an empathy with the experience of the being that suffers. It is an
acknowledgement and connection with the reality of the situation (rather
than a belief that our action on the cushion can improve it). Until we
can empathize with the plight of our fellow beings our ability to act in
the interest of all, including ourselves is impaired. As we develop
compassion, by witnessing and associating ourselves with the reality of
suffering, an awareness of the most effective response to it will arise.
The way of meditation does not preclude us from engaging in concrete
acts to help others; indeed many will find that their inclination to do
so will become stronger. What it does do, however, is heighten our
sensitivity to the experience of suffering that all beings face and
helps to ensure that our responses are determined on the basis of
reality rather than partiality.

Perhaps
one way is to see this way of working is as a normative or corrective
process. Some people will find this manifests in the gradual lowering of
barriers that have been erected over many years and which have resulted
in a hardened attitude to the plight of others. For another group of
meditators it will be more a question of a change of perspective to
ensure that responses are fully felt but proportionate to the situations
encountered. If we are prey to swings of overwhelming, passionate,
emotion then our view is occluded and our ability to function with
concerned skill in the best interest of others and ourselves will be
impaired. We need to care, to feel and to consider; but this should not
result in us becoming debilitated by the magnitude of the pain and
suffering that others experience. As we begin karunā practice, the
outpouring of emotion may sometimes be disproportionate to that which
the situation warrants - and if we are not wary this can sometimes tip
over into self-centred indulgence rather than be indicative of our
empathy with the sufferer. It seems odd that at times we might choose to
gravitate towards the experience of misery or pain but it is actually
fairly common: one only has to consider how so many people are overly
self-critical and live life despairing of ever getting anything right.

No
specific action is required to balance the areas of strength and
weakness; the practice itself will, over time, regulate our responses so
that they are wholly caring and correspond precisely to the needs and
experience of those who suffer. This practice is complemented by work on
the other brahmavihāra: they work in harmony to ensure that we do not
become burdened by the imbalances of disposition most of us exhibit in
one-way or another. If one of the techniques is proving draining it can
be useful to spend some time with another complementary practice. Make
sure that you do not elide practices - it is important that the
different qualities remain distinctive - but feel free to add, for
example, a session of muditā bhāvanā (appreciative joy) to the end of a
karunā session if you find this moderates the drained quality with which
you currently emerge from a session. It may also be useful at times to
vary the order in which the sections are approached.

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Contemplation - Day 30

179. How
can one tempt

the
omniscient Buddha

whose
victory cannot be overthrown;

whom
no adversaries can follow?

180. How
can one tempt

the
omniscient Buddha

who
is unentangled,

and
without craving?

181. The
wise, intent on meditation,

delighting
in the peace of renunciation -

such
mindful perfect Buddhas

even
the gods hold dear.

182. A
human birth is rare,

difficult
is mortal life.

Difficult
it is to hear the Dhamma.

Rare
is the appearance of Buddhas.

183. To
cease from evil, to cultivate good,

to
cleanse one’s own mind:

this
is the teaching

of
the Buddhas.

184. Enduring
patience is the supreme austerity.

Nibbana
is supreme, say the Buddhas.

One
who harms another is no contemplative;

oppressing
others, no renunciate is he .

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 3:49 PM
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Monday - Recognition, Response, Capacity

1. Recognition,Response, Capacity

Recognition and Response

When
we begin to access karunā there may initially be a reliance on images
and scenes we have not directly experienced. This does not matter too
much because it is the feeling that is evoked which is important.
Cultivating compassion will involve feeling with those at a distance as
well as with those with whom we are more intimate. It can evoke fairly
dramatic feelings. Perhaps sometimes we may need to step back a little
from them and return to mettā practice for a while. In time though we
will be able to accept them fully for what they are. As our compassion
develops we will avoid the pitfalls of self-pity and helplessness and
gain a true understanding of our ability to act. Our motivation will be
informed by our greater sensitivity, empathy and also a finely tuned
sense of proportion.

The
effectiveness of these practices is not dependent on any reciprocal act
or intent from those on whom we focus. Remember that the work we are
doing is to cultivate our own positive mental states - we are not trying
to effect change in anyone else. On a practical level, as our attitudes
change for the better, we will find that many of our daily interactions
are more harmonious than they would otherwise be. This is not because
the other person has changed; but that our approach to the world has
become informed by our experience and often this is perceptible to the
other person.

Take
the practice slowly and gently for now, remembering that there is value
in having the maturity to feel able to utilise mettā instead of karunā
at particular times if the emotions evoked require that. All meditation
is a gradual training and there is never a need to rush at new
techniques. Move forward with new techniques gently and allow yourself
to exercise choice in when to utilise one method over another. It is my
hope that participants will acquire the strength to make such decisions
about their own practice. Recognising the balancing effect of the
different techniques is a skill that will sustain a lifetime’s effective
practice.

If
we live deliberately we can’t help but notice the enormity of the
problems afflicting the world and its inhabitants. Sometimes it seems
that everywhere we look there is suffering and woe and we begin to
despair that the scale of the task of even reducing the amount of
suffering a little bit is simply beyond us.

This
acknowledgement of the pervasive nature of suffering in all its guises
is at the core of the Buddhist path. It is only when we begin to accept
that suffering underpins the lives of all conditioned beings that we are
in any sort of position to begin the second part of the process:
working for relief from all suffering. Often people misunderstand what
the Buddha taught. They see Buddhism as essentially pessimistic and as
unhealthily obsessed with suffering, pain, affliction,
unsatisfactoriness, etc. It is true that those concepts are mentioned
frequently in Buddhist texts, but so too is the methodology to achieve
the complete cessation of all forms of suffering. It can be done. This
is the only reason for following the Buddhist path - for real
liberation.

Like
any physician we have to identify the nature of the disease before
effective surgery can begin. It is not all doom and gloom along the way:
we would not be seeing things accurately if we did not also spend time
noticing the joy and happiness and love that exists in the world. We
must cherish and enjoy these to the full where they arise without losing
sight of their nature. Happiness, joy and love do not need curing, so
this is why our energies are turned to focus on the real reasons that
beings suffer. Once we have identified that for ourselves we can begin
to effect change.

Worry
for the plight of others is not necessarily futile. The fact that we
are concerned about the suffering of people and animals liberates the
potential for acting to overcome it. Unless one decides to take the
ostrich position - which is a choice inevitably resulting in
unsatisfactoriness and more suffering - the task is to act in the world
in ways that can lead to this cessation. We take small steps at a pace
which is manageable and which provides evidence of efficacy along the
way. The difficult and rewarding work that we do in meditation may seem
to be only a small step but its impact can be huge. Through the
realisations and the qualities developed in the time we spend on the
cushion we will have the ability to act only skilfully. With a firm
commitment to sila our actions can bear only kammicly positive (or at
worst neutral) outcomes. In the short term we will reduce the pain we
cause others and bring about greater harmony in our interactions. In the
long term we have the potential to be fully liberated and, importantly,
to help others on towards nibbāna too.

None
of this requires blind faith. After beginning a serious meditation
practice (and especially if we pay attention to sila by integrating the
precepts into our lives) we shall begin to uncover bits of evidence
confirming the validity of the operation we are carrying out. These
glimpses will be of no use to anyone else but they will be conclusive
enough to spur us on because they arise from our own experience. They
provide the validation that is needed when we meet difficulties. This
confidence in the truth and effectiveness of the Buddha’s path grows
stronger as we continue to practice. It cannot be grafted on, picked up
from books, or willed into existence but will arise through determined
effort and dedication to our meditation practice.

Although
some people are well aware of the suffering that exists in the world
they feel it will overwhelm them and their immediate response is to back
away. Will the worry really cease by choosing to disengage? Would it
not be preferable to work with the advantages they already have (i.e. an
understanding of the nature of the problem) to make things better for
those who suffer? If we have demonstrated the ability to recognise the
needs of others and a willingness and aptitude for empathy and goodwill
then we can use these very powerful qualities.

How
is it done? Slowly, gradually, and without running before we can walk.
In the Mettā meditation instructions I said that it was important, at
least at this early stage, not to pick people you hate in the difficult
person category. It is the same with the sections here. Ultimately we
will be able to show compassion for all beings, but most of us have a
long way to go before this will be possible. Those we may think of, in
western terms, as psychopaths are probably not a good subject with which
to begin. Start with the little guys and work up to those who present
you with more difficulty.

How
can we know that people who cause harm are themselves suffering or will
suffer? Granted, some of the suffering may not be readily apparent to
us - but perhaps some of this is because we treat them as
one-dimensional archetypes rather than as rounded individuals. If we see
someone as the epitome of aggression or malice we are unlikely to take
much notice of what else they are and do - perhaps they are somebody’s
father, somebody’s wife, someone stressed out in the workplace, someone
consumed by guilt and fear. We must also acknowledge that at times we
can successfully project a confident bright image to others when
internally we may be falling apart. What makes you think that these
people are any different? Who can accurately assess the stress, strain,
disappointment, worry, anger, fear, which any other being suffers
inside? Remember always that we are not looking to like the person or
condone their actions in any way. What we are recognising is that
although on many levels they are different to us and the other beings
with whom they share the world they also have things in common. They are
subject to craving, subject to anger, subject to delusion. However much
they may try to force their will on the world they cannot ultimately
maintain happiness - it is against the natural laws within which we all
must work. Just like us they are subject to sickness, subject to ageing,
subject to death. Regardless of how much they may try to distance
themselves from this they will have to face it.

Sometimes
people feel that wrongdoers do not suffer from their actions; but it is
often salutary to look to our own experience. Have you ever truly got
away with anything? Even if the outside world may think you have? I am
not merely speaking of being pricked by conscience now and again. What
about the health implications, the relationship implications, the
self-respect implications, of each unskilful action we have carried out?
In our harming of others we harm ourselves - the payback may take a
while to develop, but it always comes.

Do
not expect to be able to feel compassion or lovingkindness at this
stage for each and every being. There would be no point in working with
these practices at all if you could do this now. Perfection takes some
time. If you have the faintest glimmer of one of these qualities towards
any individual being then you have the capacity to develop that
quality. It is not easy but it is worth it on both a mundane and a
spiritual level.

Honouring our current capacity


Many
people find that working on Compassion Meditation takes a lot out of
them initially. Balancing this with Meditation on Joy, a technique we
shall look at shortly, or Lovingkindness Meditation can be very
beneficial. Allow yourself the freedom to work with the different
techniques as you see fit. Don’t slog on resenting a particular teaching
or technique. It is better that you simply treat it as inappropriate
for your needs at this time and return to it later. If we force
ourselves through grizzly sessions we are likely to abandon the exercise
completely. Instead, commit yourself to a regular time for your
sittings and then adapt them to fit your needs. It is better, though, to
retain your space each day for this work - it’s too easy otherwise to
regularly skip sessions completely. If you feel unable to do a formal
sitting then spend the time reading Dhamma books or in reflection.

We
all have different needs at different times. Reading Dhamma texts can
be pretty useful in order to awaken a degree of faith in what we are
doing. If we have access to the experience and enthusiasm of other
meditators that too can be of help. Others rely heavily on extending
their periods of mindfulness into the rest of the day, and find that
this allows them to tune-in better when they actually arrive at their
formal sitting. Some of us who have developed a more devotional bent
spend time awakening faith through reflecting on the qualities of the
Buddha - but this would seem alien to many.

Whilst
we should guard against rigidity in our practice there is a basic
requirement to commit to regular periods of meditation. However if
circumstances mean we miss sessions we simply have to accept that this
has happened and resolve to try and stick to them from now on. There
isn’t really any place for guilt in this scenario. We’re living in the
present rather than regretting missed opportunities. Hopefully as we
progress the value of the different styles will become apparent, and we
will be able to use them skilfully to balance our sessions. There will,
however, always be ups and downs.

Experiment
with the techniques we are using. If you hit a rocky patch have a look
again at how you construct your meditation sessions. Maybe alternating a
couple of techniques would help provide a balance. On some days you
could work in a freer way with the individual sections within a
technique - or abandon the sections altogether and see how the mind
reacts to that. Nothing is fixed in the approach we are taking. I hope
to outline traditional techniques clearly, but there are many ways in
which they can be modified and yet still have useful results. Give them a
fair trial as they are outlined, but then use your own judgement about
your particular needs.

The
beautiful passage that follows was written by the late Ven. Nyanaponika
Thera a German Buddhist monk who spent most of his life in Sri Lanka:

“It
is compassion that removes the heavy bar, opens the door to freedom,
makes the narrow heart as wide as the world. Compassion takes away from
the heart the inert weight, the paralysing heaviness; it gives wings to
those who cling to the lowlands of self.

Through
compassion the fact of suffering remains vividly present to our mind,
even at times when we personally are free from it. It gives us the rich
experience of suffering, thus strengthening us to meet it prepared, when
it does befall us. …

Beings,
sunk in ignorance, lost in delusion, hasten from one state of suffering
to another, not knowing the real cause, not knowing the escape from it.
This insight into the general law of suffering is the real foundation
of our compassion, not any isolated fact of suffering.

Hence
our compassion will also include those who at the moment may be happy,
but act with an evil and deluded mind. In their present deeds we shall
foresee their future state of distress, and compassion will arise.

The
compassion of the wise man does not render him a victim of suffering.
His thoughts, words and deeds are full of pity. But his heart does not
waver; unchanged it remains, serene and calm. How else should he be able
to help?

May
such compassion arise in our hearts! Compassion, that is a sublime
nobility of heart and intellect which knows, understands and is ready to
help.

Compassion that is strength and gives strength: this is the highest compassion. “

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Contemplation - Day 31

185. Not
insulting, nor harming;

disciplined
within the rules,

moderate
in eating, secluded in abode,

intent
on high attainments:

this
is the teaching

of
the Buddhas.

186. Not
by a shower of gold coins

does
contentment arise:

of
little sweetness and great pain

are
sense pleasures.

187. Understanding
this, the wise

take
no delight even in heavenly pleasures:

the
disciple of the Supreme Buddha

delights
in the destruction of craving.

188. Driven
by fear,

humans
seek refuge

in
mountains and forests,

in
groves and tree shrines.

189. No
secure refuge is found there;

by
resorting to such a refuge

comes
no release from suffering:

they
are not the refuge supreme.

Last modified: Thursday, 13 September 2018, 4:58 PM
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Tuesday - Four Noble Truths

1. Four Noble Truths

THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

The Buddha said:

“It
is through not understanding, not realizing four things that I,
Disciples, as well as you, had to wander so long through this round of
rebirths. And what are these four things? They are:

The Noble Truth of Suffering

The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering

The Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering

The Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Suffering

As
long as the absolutely true knowledge and insight regarding these Four
Noble Truths was not quite clear in me, so long was I not sure that I
had won that supreme Enlightenment which is unsurpassed in all the world
with its heavenly beings, evil spirits and gods, amongst all the hosts
of ascetics and priests, heavenly beings and men. But as soon as the
absolute true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths
had become perfectly clear in me, there arose in me the assurance that I
had won that supreme Enlightenment unsurpassed.

And
I discovered that profound truth, so difficult to perceive, difficult
to understand, tranquillising and sublime, which is not to be gained by
mere reasoning, and is visible only to the wise.

The
world, however, is given to pleasure, delighted with pleasure,
enchanted with pleasure. Truly, such beings will hardly understand the
law of conditionality, the Dependent Origination of everything;
incomprehensible to them will also be the end of all formations, the
forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving,
detachment, extinction, Nibbāna.

Yet there are beings whose eyes are only a little covered with dust: they will understand the truth.”

(-
from Digha Nikāya 16, Samyutta Nikāya LVI.11, Majjhima Nikāya 26,
translated and compiled by Ven. Nyanatiloka in The Word of the Buddha,
BPS, Kandy.)

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On Lovingkindness and Compassion (Video)

Andrew speaks about the difference between Lovingkindness and Compassion.

Last modified: Thursday, 13 September 2018, 4:59 PM
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Contemplation - Day 32

190. Going
for refuge to the Buddha,

the
Dhamma and the Sangha,

seeing
with wisdom

the
Four Noble Truths:

191. Suffering,
its cause,

its
cessation,

and
the Noble Eightfold Path

leading
to its cessation.

192. This
is indeed a secure refuge;

this
is the refuge supreme.

In
seeking such refuge

comes
release from all suffering.

193. It
is hard to find a thoroughbred man,

such
a one is not found everywhere:

but
where such an enlightened one exists

the
people thrive happily.

194. Sweet
is the arising of Buddhas,

sweet
is the teaching of the Dhamma,

sweet
is the unity of the Sangha,

and
sweet is the discipline of the united.

195. Reverence
those worthy of reverence,

-
the Buddhas and their disciples -

who
have transcended all impediments,

and
passed beyond sorrow and grief:

196. One
who reveres such peaceful

and
fearless Ones

has
merit beyond measure.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:14 PM
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Wednesday - The Truth of Dukkha

1. The Truth of Dukkha

THE FIRST NOBLE TRUTH

The Truth of Dukkha

Dukkha
is usually translated as suffering. It is one of the three
characteristics of life in conditioned realms such as ours. It can also
be rendered as unsatisfactoriness, anguish, dis-ease, pain, misery,
conflict, and ill depending on the context in which we are using it.

The
Buddha’s first sermon after he became Enlightened concerned itself
solely with the formulation of the Four Noble Truths and they are the
essence of the teaching. They are often misunderstood and this is where
some see Buddhism as a pessimistic or nihilistic belief system. Nothing
could be further from the truth. True, the Buddha identified the
unsatisfactoriness that underlies all conditioned phenomena; but he also
showed us a Path that leads to its cessation.

Many
people baulk at the idea that life is suffering or that our lives are
inherently unsatisfactory. Can’t we simply say that it would be better
to look on the bright side and concentrate instead on what is
pleasurable in our lives? We could do that but we would be falling into a
trap. It is not simply a question of choosing to look on the positive
rather than the negative side. If we look deeply we will see that
underpinning almost every happiness is a tinge of sadness or
unsatisfactoriness. The reverse does not really stand scrutiny - It is
simply not the case that all unhappiness is tinged with joy and
contentment.

The
Buddha is traditionally known as the supreme surgeon, an unrivalled
healer. His method involves diagnosing the illness, seeking its cause,
considering the removal of the problem and finally applying the remedy.

If
we spend time denying the underlying reality of our existence - running
away from the facts - we will not reach liberation. Of course it would
be foolish to see life as only consisting of suffering and hardship. We
can all see that there are genuine times of happiness, pleasure,
contentment, and satisfaction in our lives. What the Buddha asks us to
do is to look very closely at the true nature of our experience.

Even
most moments of happiness are tinged with the sadness that they are
finite. Our loving relationships are informed by the understanding that
they will end. If we look closely we will see that underpinning
everything that we hold dear is an impermanent reality - our denial of
which brings suffering. We choose to go against the laws of nature and
try to cling on to things which we know by their nature must change. We
grasp greedily for those things we perceive as bringing us happiness
only to find that the salve they provide is at best temporary.

The
Buddha has shown us a Way that is better than any of this. It leads to
the complete end of suffering. It is not a recipe for despondency and
hopelessness but rather a Way to complete liberation.

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=136


Contemplation - Day 33

197. Happily
we live -

friendly,
amidst the hostile.

Among
the hostile

we
dwell without hostility.

198. Happily
we live -

cured,
amidst the afflicted.

Among
the afflicted

we
dwell without affliction.

199. Happily
we live -

content,
amidst the avaricious.

Among
the avaricious

we
dwell without avarice.

200. Happily
we live -

free
from impediments.

We
shall feed on rapture

like
Radiant Gods.

201. Victory
breeds enmity,

for
the conquered suffer.

The
peaceful live happily,

discarding
victory and defeat.

202. There
is no fire like craving,

no
loss like hatred,

no
affliction like the aggregates,

and
no bliss higher than Peace.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:16 PM
https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=137


Thursday - Dukkha’s Origin

1. Dukkha’s Origin

THE SECOND NOBLE TRUTH

The Noble Truth of the Origin of Dukkha

“What, now, is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering?

It is craving, which gives rise to fresh rebirth, and, bound

up with pleasure and lust, now here, now there, finds

ever-fresh delight.”

-Digha Nikāya 22

This craving takes three forms:

Sensual craving is the desire for enjoyment through
any of the sense doors. When we perceive a visual object, sound, odour,
taste, or touch something, if it is deemed to be pleasant we approve of
it, cherish it, and cling to it. When it passes we lust after it or
regret its passing. When we perceive through the same senses something
that is unpleasant we are repelled and seek to get rid of the object and
avoid it in the future. We also do this with mind objects:
consciousness, perceptions and feelings. Instead of accepting the true
nature of these things we either try to hold on to them and ‘own’ them -
when their very nature ensures they are temporary, fleeting, - or we
try to avoid them and wish them away - when instead we should see them
as a part of our lives. Only when we cease to attach the labels of
pleasant, unpleasant or indifferent to the feelings that arise in
relation to these objects will we cease the process of clinging.

Craving for existence is the desire for continued or
eternal life. The delusive non-materialistic notion of an eternal Ego
(or Self, or Soul) which persists independently of our body. Because we
cling both to other objects and to some notion that we are a permanent
unchanging Soul, we act in ways that will cause suffering. By clinging
to this notion of Self we distort our relationship to others and to the
process of becoming. It is through this craving that we fix ourselves in
a process which results in future births with their attendant sorrows,
pain, grief, and despair.

Craving for self-annihilation is the delusive
materialistic notion of a real Ego that is annihilated at death (and
which therefore has no causal relationship with the time before or after
death). If we choose to believe that everything ends with our death
again, by our actions, we distort our relationship to others and the
world. We are essentially shoring-up our own Ego by claiming that life
has only the value that we determine it should have: our world-view is
what is deemed to matter. We will be tempted to behave in ways that are
selfish, arrogant and hedonistic. Our actions will be determined by how
much we like or dislike things, and we will therefore miss the
opportunity to see these things for what they really are. In a real
sense we become the centre of the universe - a universe about which we
care little about, it being a mere extension of our own finite Ego.

“Whatever kind of ‘feeling’ one experiences -
pleasant, unpleasant or neutral - if one approves of, and cherishes the
feeling, and clings to it, then while doing so, lust springs up; but
lust for feelings means ‘clinging’, and on clinging depends the ‘process
of becoming’; on the process of becoming depends ‘birth’ and dependent
on birth are ‘decay and death’, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and
despair. Thus arises the whole mass of suffering.”

- Majjhima Nikāya 38

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=138


Contemplation - Day 34

203. Hunger
is the worst disease.

The
aggregates are the worst affliction.

Understanding
this as it is,

the
wise realize Nibbana, the bliss supreme.

204. Health
is the highest reward.

Contentment
is the greatest of riches.

The
trustworthy are the best kin.

Nibbana
is the highest bliss.

205. Tasting
the sweetness

of
solitude and tranquillity,

free
of fear and stain one becomes,

drinking
deep the joy of the Dhamma.

206. It
is good to see the Noble,

to
live among them is bliss.

Not
seeing fools,

one
is ever happy.

207. The
company of fools

brings
longterm suffering.

The
company of fools,

as
of an enemy, is always painful.

Association
with the wise is happy:

like
a meeting with kin.

208. Associate
with one who is intelligent,

wise,
learned, determined,

committed,
and noble.

Follow
the virtuous and discerning:

as
the moon, the starry path.

Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:17 PM
https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=139


Friday - Extinction of Dukkha

1. Extinction of Dukkha

THE THIRD NOBLE TRUTH

The Noble Truth of the Extinction of Dukkha.

“What,
now, is the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering? It is the
complete fading away and extinction of this craving, its forsaking and
abandonment, liberation and detachment from it.”

- Digha Nikāya 22

THE FOURTH NOBLE TRUTH

The Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Dukkha.

The Path is one between two extremes:

“To
give oneself up to indulgence in Sensual Pleasure, the base, common,
vulgar, unholy, unprofitable; or to give oneself up to
Self-mortification, the painful, unholy, unprofitable: both these two
extremes, the Perfect One has avoided, and has found out the Middle
Path, which makes one both to see and to know, which leads to peace, to
discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.”

                      - Samyutta Nikāya LVI, 11

                    This Path is known as the Noble Eightfold Path.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=140


                    Contemplation - Day 35

                    209. Choosing
                    what should be avoided,

                    not
                    choosing what should be pursued,

                    giving
                    up the goal, one who seeks pleasure

                    later
                    envies those who exert themselves.

                    210. Don’t
                    subscribe to likes and dislikes.

                    Both
                    separation from the liked,

                    and
                    the presence of the disliked,

                    are
                    painful.

                    211. Hold
                    nothing dear:

                    for
                    separation from it pains one.

                    No
                    bonds are there for one

                    free
                    from likes and dislikes.

                    212. From
                    preference arises grief,

                    from
                    preference arises fear.

                    Freed
                    from preference one is

                    free
                    from grief and fear.

                    213. From
                    affection arises grief,

                    from
                    affection arises fear.

                    Freed
                    from affection one is

                    free
                    from grief and fear.

                    214. From
                    attachment arises grief,

                    from
                    attachment arises fear.

                    Freed
                    from attachment one is

                    free
                    from grief and fear.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 4:19 PM
                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=220


                    Chant Workshop 5 (optional)

                    1. Chant Workshop 5

                    The
                    meditation practices we are using are drawn from the Theravāda
                    tradition which bases its teachings on the words of the Buddha and his
                    early followers as recorded in the Pāli Canon. Pāli is a written
                    liturgical language and is often also used for traditional chants that
                    many meditators find helpful as part of their spiritual practice. During
                    the course we will introduce a small number of these chants in Pāli or
                    in translated English form.

                    Over the weeks the individual chants build to form the text for a
                    puja, or dedication ceremony, that some practitioners may wish to use as
                    a way of periodically rededicating their meditation practice. Please
                    use the chants if you find them helpful; please ignore them if you
                    prefer.

                    CHANT 5: The Sublime Abodes

                    Note: This English chant is formed of a text that is found several
                    times in the Pāli Canon. It refers to the Buddha choosing to radiate
                    lovingkindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity to all
                    sentient beings - wherever they are. It is, perhaps, an aspiration for
                    all of us to develop that capacity.

                    Brahmavihāra

                    I will abide pervading one quarter

                    with a mind imbued with Lovingkindess.

                    Likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth;

                    so above and below, around and everywhere,

                    and to all as to myself.

                    I will abide pervading the all-encompassing world

                    with a mind imbued with Lovingkindness:

                    abundant, exalted, immeasurable,

                    without hostility and without ill-will.

                    (repeat for Compassion, Gladness/Appreciative Joy, Equanimity)

                    Click to Play:

                     

                    -3:13

                    Download link: https://course.org/mcaudio/c/5-Brahmaviharas.mp3

                    Last modified: Thursday, 13 September 2018, 5:01 PM
                    comments (0)
                    Vipassana Fellowship Meditation 20 October - 26 October-Contemplation - Day 22-Day 23-Day 24-Day 25-Day 26-Day 27-Day 28
                    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
                    Posted by: site admin @ 5:17 pm
                    Vipassana Fellowship Meditation 20 October - 26 October-Contemplation - Day 22-Day 23-Day 24-Day 25-Day 26-Day 27-Day 28
                    A Random Image

                    20 October - 26 October

                    In
                    this fourth week we continue to focus mainly on Mettā (lovingkindness)
                    Meditation. This is the foundation for the other 3 “sublime abode”
                    practices. If you are able to meditate for more than one sitting each
                    day, please work with Mettā in one session and Mindfulness of Breathing
                    in the other.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=112


                    Saturday - Phrases and Images

                    1. Phrases and Images

                    There
                    are many valid ways to practise mettā bhāvanā including, for example,
                    radiating mettā to members of our families. Another way that is commonly
                    taught involves radiating mettā to the four directions of the compass.
                    Some people also work in a completely unstructured way, being able to
                    radiate mettā to whosoever arises in the mind. This is truly boundless
                    practice.

                    The
                    way that we are working has the advantage for some people of not being
                    tied to particular individuals but allows the flexibility to include
                    almost anyone. It is based on the method outlined by Buddhaghosa in the
                    Visuddhimagga (written in Sri Lanka in the 5th Century) and allows
                    people the freedom to place individuals into each category so that they
                    can work at a level that is suitable for them. This means that if, for
                    example, someone has a very difficult relationship with a parent or
                    relative they are not forced to work on radiating mettā to them until
                    they are ready to do so - or until their practice has developed
                    sufficiently to enable them to do so. Not everyone, unfortunately,
                    enjoys a wholesome relationship with his or her family. The categories
                    we are using already allow those who wish to include family members to
                    work in that way - I know that I used to radiate mettā to my father
                    regularly in the benefactor section and also work with other family
                    members from time to time in each of the other sections.

                    A
                    colour-based method is also sometimes used: representing lovingkindness
                    with a warm colour is the most usual way. It may be useful for those
                    who have a keen visual sense. I would caution against allowing the
                    imagery to become over-elaborate: in real terms a colour (gold, for
                    example) is not the same as kindness. We are straying off into the realm
                    of metaphor, association and approximation rather than seeing what is
                    present. If you do work in this way try not to become dependent on the
                    imagery - you are only trying to connect with the feeling of mettā and
                    then allowing that to be shown towards others. Once any tool has done
                    its job it is no longer useful. This is not creative visualisation - in
                    the sense of trying to make things happen by thought power - it is more
                    the expression of your love and kindness directly towards another being.
                    We are not actively trying to change anyone but to allow ourselves to
                    offer kindness freely and generously to the beings on which we focus.

                    Phrases A Hindrance?

                    With
                    the phrase-based approach that we are utilising it is important not to
                    worry too much about the formality of the structure. Use the phrases
                    only if they have meaning for you and improve your ability to tap into
                    the resource of lovingkindness. If you have an alternative way of doing
                    this that is wonderful. I would caution about abandoning the sectional
                    structure, though, as it is so easy to end up luxuriating in the more
                    blissful aspects of the practice without facing up to those areas which
                    are more challenging. The structure I have provided is traditional, but
                    there are other alternatives - like working in the four directions, or
                    through particular groups of individuals.

                    The
                    important thing is that we maintain a practice that has enough
                    consistency to ensure that we do not neglect any area. We need to ensure
                    that we continue to radiate mettā to those of whom we approve and those
                    who are more difficult; to the people close to us and those from whom
                    we feel distant.

                    Sometimes
                    the phrases are difficult to work with because of their superficial
                    similarity to affirmations in modern western culture Affirmations are
                    normally seen as effecting change in the outside world - the old
                    Cosmopolitan Magazine view that “You can have it all!” if only you are
                    incredibly upbeat and positive about it. This does not square with the
                    philosophy with which we are working. We are grounded by the fact of
                    dukkha - that the nature of conditioned things is inherently
                    unsatisfactory or broken. It would be futile to ‘look on the bright
                    side’ because that would be deluding ourselves and would prevent us
                    working towards the release from suffering.

                    What
                    we can do is work on those areas of our psyche which are deficient in
                    some respect, further developing qualities which change our attitude to
                    the beings with whom we interact so that by our actions we create less
                    suffering. It is entirely practical and realistic. There are
                    indisputable good qualities that we can all develop with the right
                    amount of determination and solid effort. We are not trying to change
                    anybody else but rather our own attitude to others; thus allowing us to
                    operate less egotistically, more altruistically. The cultivation of
                    these qualities - kindness, compassion, joy in the happiness of others,
                    equanimity - helps us overcome the usual self-view where we are at the
                    centre of the universe and everything else must alter itself to be in
                    concord with us. When we have this healthier - more realistic -
                    relationship to others we will be more inclined to act skilfully and
                    less selfishly. We will act informed by our interconnectedness, our
                    non-separate nature.

                    Dukkha
                    needs to be recognised fully and this can be very difficult for many
                    people. It is the antithesis of the feel good philosophies and what many
                    of the newer religious movements offer. By accepting its reality we can
                    begin to operate in ways that mean our actions bring maximum happiness
                    and minimum suffering. It is only when we re-orientate ourselves to this
                    view and begin to base our actions on it that we will work with any
                    degree of urgency.

                    If
                    the nature of the phrases used in constructing your mettā meditation
                    section are a barrier to your practice then there are two options: One
                    is to change the phrases to something which has more meaning for you,
                    something which has a truth and resonance in your particular case. The
                    second option is to work without phrases altogether. If, in any of the
                    sections, you find it easy to ‘tap in’ to that quality of Lovingkindness
                    without any of these formal phrases, or by using images, you can begin
                    to spread that real experience of Lovingkindness outward through the
                    other sections. For many people it is possible to move away entirely
                    from the phrases fairly early on.

                    I
                    had enormous resistance to mettā meditation for a while (especially
                    when it seemed to be a group ‘love bombing’ session). I used to think
                    that antipathy to mettā practice was a male thing; that it just took us a
                    lot longer to work in any area where the emotions were uppermost. I
                    recognise now that this is not necessarily the case: many women also
                    have difficulty with this way of working too.

                    It
                    is better, if you are able, to simply memorise the order of the
                    sections and then to construct your own phrases or images. The script
                    itself needs to be personalised because its only purpose is to allow us
                    to connect with the feeling of lovingkindness that exists already within
                    each of us. We then work with gentle determination to share that
                    kindness with others and ourselves.

                    In
                    the initial sittings most people will need the help of the phrases,
                    images or memories to ‘tap in’ to the quality of mettā that we are
                    trying to radiate. For some people images work better than aphorisms but
                    whatever we use can be discarded once we have identified the pure
                    feeling and are able to offer it unconditionally to at least some of the
                    beings on whom we focus.

                    There
                    will be gradual changes in attitudes and actions because of the
                    practice which will allow greater harmony, less fear, more tranquillity.
                    Within the practice itself you may find that particular individuals no
                    longer fit the sections you originally planned for them (Mr Nasty may
                    not be so difficult after all and Ms Neutral may seem a real person
                    rather than a cipher). We will not, through our practice, have
                    occasioned any change in them, of course, but only in our own outlook
                    and attitudes. The mettā bhāvanā practice, like all meditation
                    techniques, is about developments within the practitioner rather than
                    the transformation of others. The attitudinal spin off from this in
                    daily life means that we treat people better, understand them more, and
                    so fosters harmonious relationships that cause less suffering to those
                    with whom we interact.

                    Don’t
                    worry about the exact form that the meditation takes as laid down in
                    the outline. It is the general principles that matter. Some people find
                    the phrases very useful but to others they are a hindrance. If they are a
                    barrier, then use something else as an alternative. Simple phrases
                    like, “Be well, be happy” are fine if you want something less complex.
                    Any phrases will become redundant as you become more used to the mettā
                    bhāvanā. The sections too can be altered (some people also find
                    reversing them useful) but the idea should always be to work towards
                    inclusion - Long term it would not be a good idea to omit ‘difficult’
                    people or sections, though initially this may be necessary.

                    The
                    general idea is that we connect to a resource that is already within us
                    - real love and kindness - and work at developing our ability to share
                    that with others. If you currently experience difficulties with several
                    of the sections then begin with the section that feels most comfortable
                    to you. If you cannot identify any feeling of mettā at present then try
                    working with this exercise that can act as a useful preliminary
                    practice:

                    Sit
                    for a few moments remembering a time when the particular person you are
                    focusing on (maybe yourself, a friend or a relative) was happy or
                    contented or peaceful. Picture the scene that produced it in some detail
                    and then narrow the attention to the feeling that the person is
                    experiencing in that setting. Perhaps warmth, wellness, happiness.
                    Notice too what is absent: conflict, worry, pain. Look at the quality of
                    the experience and recognise that it is these moments that we would all
                    wish to enjoy. Retain that memory of actual harmony and happiness. Try
                    to stay with the essence of the experience - that moment of pure
                    happiness or contentedness.

                    Let
                    the actual scene fade but try to retain contact with the feeling that
                    it evoked. Begin now to work with the other sections of the mettā
                    bhāvanā practice - the sections that seem least difficult at first.
                    Don’t now try and remember scenes but rather focus on the wish that the
                    quality that you have just experienced through memory can be shared with
                    the individuals. If you need to, between the different sections,
                    reconnect with the memory and the associated feeling before continuing.

                    Soon
                    you will be able to work without setting up your meditation in this
                    way. You will get a familiarity with the feeling of lovingkindness and
                    have a wish to share that with others. Some sections may come easier
                    than others but in time you will be able to radiate mettā to everyone.

                    The
                    mettā practice is structured in the way that it is to allow us to
                    develop the ability to share lovingkindness with people and other
                    sentient beings - whoever or wherever they may be. It is a practice on
                    non-partiality: we can truly be loving and caring to all. Never forget
                    these practices are all bhāvanā - they are about development and
                    cultivation and are part of a gradual path; we are NOT expected to be
                    able to leap from never having worked in this way to expertise in the
                    space of a few weeks, months or even years. We must take it at the pace
                    that is right for us - we all work with different sets of conditions.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=113


                    Contemplation - Day 22

                    129. All
                    tremble at the rod, all fear death.

                    In
                    empathy with others,

                    one
                    should not strike,

                    nor
                    cause others to strike.

                    130. All
                    tremble at the rod, all hold their lives dear.

                    In
                    empathy with others,

                    one
                    should not strike,

                    nor
                    cause others to strike.

                    131. One
                    seeking happiness,

                    taking
                    a rod to another

                    who
                    seeks happiness,

                    finds
                    no happiness hereafter.

                    132. One
                    seeking happiness,

                    without
                    taking a rod to another

                    who
                    seeks happiness,

                    finds
                    happiness hereafter.

                    133. Speak
                    harshly to no one

                    for
                    harsh speech will rebound.

                    Angry
                    speech is painful,

                    and
                    overwhelming when returned.

                    134. In
                    silencing oneself,

                    like
                    a broken gong,

                    one
                    approaches Nibbana:

                    for
                    no animosity is found.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 1:44 PM
                    https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=114


                    Sunday - Sections and Subjects

                    1. Sections and Subjects

                    SECTIONS AND SUBJECTS

                    Mettā,
                    and the other brahmavihāra qualities with which we will work in the
                    coming weeks, should only be directed to living people and other
                    sentient beings. The reason for this lies in the very different way that
                    the Buddhist tradition views death and impermanence. We will look at
                    the Buddhist concept of anattā later when we begin to explore vipassanā
                    forms of meditation. Anattā is the Pāli word for not-Self or
                    Soullessness and is a central tenet of Buddhism. As with all theories in
                    Buddhism, it is not necessary to accept anattā through blind faith, as
                    evidence of its veracity (or otherwise) will emerge directly through our
                    meditation practice. Unlike most other belief systems and religions,
                    Buddhism suggests that we do not have a Soul or Self that is unchanging
                    and permanent. In view of this, it would not be appropriate to direct
                    feelings of kindness or compassion towards a being that can no longer be
                    said to exist in any recognisable or personalised form. If we were to
                    try to do that, we would need to fix our view of who the person had been
                    in a particular moment of time, thus negating another demonstrable fact
                    - that of impermanence. It would almost be like creating a partial or
                    fictionalised account of who that person had been, and artificially
                    stopping time, in order that we could relate to him or her. At that
                    point our practice would have lost its foundation in reality. Buddhist
                    practice always remains firmly with ‘what is’ rather than being
                    speculative: we therefore direct mettā to sentient beings as they exist
                    now, rather than desperately trying to cling to images of them as they
                    have been in the past or may be in the future.

                    In
                    popular Buddhism in Theravada countries (and, to some extent, in the
                    Pāli Canon through later additions to the Khuddaka Nikāya) rituals and
                    practices have emerged which seek to transfer merit to the departed.
                    From a doctrinal point of view this is problematic; although it
                    undoubtedly fulfils a sociological need for those who have recently lost
                    a loved one. This later idea of Transference of Merit is quite
                    different from the mettā bhāvanā practice that we are now undertaking:
                    mettā bhāvanā is described regularly in the very earliest suttas of the
                    Pāli Canon and its authenticity is acknowledged by all major schools of
                    Buddhism.

                    In
                    practice, most of us will tend to choose from a small repertoire of
                    people for those sections that require closer knowledge of the
                    individuals (good friends, benefactors, etc.). It is useful to decide on
                    whom you are going to focus before beginning the sitting. Try to rotate
                    the groups of people to whom you direct mettā, so that a single person
                    does not become an archetype (i.e. the embodiment or symbol) for a
                    particular quality. It is certainly not a good practice to always focus
                    exclusively on the same person as difficult; we have to permit the
                    possibility of changes in our attitude to each individual and fixing the
                    same person as a problem disallows this flexibility. Direct mettā
                    towards a different person in the difficult category in your next
                    sitting. Rotate the groups of people - we don’t need to choose someone
                    new every time, but try not to always associate the same person with one
                    section.

                    OURSELVES

                    The
                    preliminary reflection of the mettā bhāvanā practice is often found to
                    be difficult at first. Reordering the sections is one approach to this
                    difficulty for some people. Another method would be to spend some time
                    focusing on what is good in you. What are the qualities you like in
                    yourself? How have you helped? What contributions have you made? When
                    were you happiest? This ‘positive remembrance’ can enable us to feel
                    that we are, indeed, worthy of Lovingkindness. There are aspects of
                    everyone’s personality and actions which are worthy of praise, worthy of
                    celebration (just as there are the other aspects which may be blocking
                    our ability to radiate mettā to ourselves). A period of using this tool
                    prior to the mettā bhāvanā may be helpful. When you recollect the
                    incidents of happiness, of worth, of success, it is not the detail that
                    we are interested in retaining and connecting with, but the emotion of
                    that moment. That split second of pure warmth in the integrity of that
                    particular incident. This is the quality we need to recognise in order
                    that we can thereafter radiate it during the meditation practice itself.

                    It
                    is interesting that people so often find the section devoted to
                    themselves the most difficult. Sometimes our self-image has been damaged
                    and we feel unworthy of receiving kindness or we may even feel
                    embarrassed at the supposed vanity of spending time working on ourselves
                    when we could be helping others. The Buddhist way does not permit the
                    neglect of our own well-being. It does not believe in sacrificing
                    anyone, including ourselves, for the good of another - because that
                    would be tantamount to wishing damage and suffering upon us and is
                    unskilful action based on wrong view. All sentient beings are worthy of
                    lovingkindness and all wish to be free from suffering and, of course, we
                    are sentient beings too. This is why it is important to try to ensure
                    that equal attention is given to each of the sections used in this
                    practice. Try to spend as much time on those people to whom mettā flows
                    easily as on those who currently present some sort of block. With steady
                    but balanced effort there will be a falling away of any barriers.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=115


                    Contemplation - Day 23

                    135. As
                    the cowherd’s rod

                    drives
                    cattle to pasture,

                    so
                    age and death

                    drive
                    out the life of beings.

                    136. A
                    fool commits evil

                    without
                    realising.

                    Witless,
                    his deeds torment him,

                    like
                    one burned by fire.

                    137. One
                    who takes the rod

                    to
                    those unarmed,

                    offending
                    the inoffensive,

                    soon
                    meets one of ten states:

                    138-140. Acute
                    pain, disaster,

                    physical
                    injury, serious illness,

                    madness,
                    trouble from authorities,

                    grave
                    charges, loss of family, or of wealth,

                    the
                    burning of his home by ravaging fire.

                    Upon
                    dissolution of the body,

                    such
                    a fool is reborn in hell.

                    141. Not
                    nakedness or matted hair,

                    nor
                    dirt or fasting;

                    Not
                    lying on the ground,

                    nor
                    dust and ash

                    or
                    sitting on one’s heels;

                    None
                    of these can purify one

                    who
                    still has doubts.

                    142. Though
                    finely dressed

                    if
                    one is living the holy life

                    -
                    poised, calm, restrained,

                    having
                    laid aside the rod -

                    he
                    indeed is a true brahman,

                    a
                    mendicant, a bhikkhu.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 1:45 PM
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                    Monday - Benefactor and Friend

                    1. Benefactor and Friend

                    THE BENEFACTOR

                    The
                    benefactor section need not necessarily be someone older than us - but
                    it often is the case that the people from whom we have learnt most or
                    who have helped us in significant ways tend to be older. Whoever you
                    choose should be someone to whom you are grateful and perhaps would wish
                    to emulate in at least one aspect of their lives. This could be a
                    teacher (spiritual or otherwise), a parent or someone else within your
                    community for whom you have great respect. If there is no-one at close
                    range then perhaps you can radiate mettā towards someone whose renown
                    and reputation is brought to you through a cathode ray tube. The world
                    is full of people who enrich our lives in some way - perhaps you could
                    radiate mettā to people who have brought about social or cultural
                    changes from which you and others have benefited.

                    Just
                    one point to note: mettā is always directed to sentient beings, so if
                    one thinks of using the government or a charity as a benefactor one
                    should actually direct the mettā to individual politicians/members of
                    these groups rather than at an abstract institution which is not
                    sentient.

                    A GOOD FRIEND

                    In
                    terms of people in our immediate circle there is no need for any
                    withholding of love where it already exists. Sometimes people, new to
                    this form of meditation, think there is some virtue in pulling back from
                    sharing lovingkindness and other positive qualities with loved ones and
                    dearest family members. Rather than operating such a lowest common
                    denominator approach it would be far better to try to raise the other
                    subjects of your meditation session to the same level. Think of it as a
                    topping-up of lovingkindness rather than a bottoming-down. Work for
                    equanimity throughout each of the practices but on the basis of
                    increasing the flow of these positive qualities to all beings rather
                    than robbing Peter to pay Paul. We all have the capacity for the
                    unconditional giving and receiving of these pure qualities. It takes
                    some work to be able to share them equally but it will come in time.

                    The
                    advice not to direct mettā initially to someone to whom you are
                    sexually attracted concerns the way in which it is likely to complicate
                    matters. When we are sexually attracted to another person love, of the
                    pure sort, can easily be confused with all those other feelings such as
                    lust, the need for possession and control, ownership, jealousy, etc. As
                    we are beginning a new practice we try to keep it as simple and
                    straightforward as possible. In time we will be able to include all
                    sentient beings with our meditation - including our sexual partners -
                    but that takes a little more experience if we are to avoid the pitfalls.
                    It may seem a little artificial in these initial stages to exclude
                    someone about whom we feel a great deal but it is generally seen as
                    inadvisable to work with them until we are able to radiate mettā in an
                    even fashion towards the diverse beings with whom we are currently
                    working. This is a temporary stage in our training - those people are
                    worthy of mettā too - but the feelings that arise may be too complex and
                    difficult to handle until we have developed greater clarity and are
                    able to discern what is mettā and what is not. As we begin this practice
                    it is wisest to work without extremes, neither focusing on people who
                    arouse sexual feelings in us nor people who cause us to feel intense
                    negative feelings, such as hate or loathing. We must ensure that we can
                    radiate unconditional lovingkindness to all of the beings, in each of
                    the sections, before moving on to more difficult work - this is a
                    gradual training.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=117


                    Contemplation - Day 24

                    143. Where
                    in this world is one

                    so
                    restrained by humility

                    that
                    he averts reproach

                    as
                    a thoroughbred averts the rod?

                    144. As
                    a thoroughbred touched by the rod,

                    be
                    energetic and determined.

                    By
                    conviction and purity,

                    by
                    effort and concentration,

                    investigating
                    the truth,

                    rich
                    in knowledge and virtue,

                    -
                    mindful -

                    one
                    overcomes suffering.

                    145. Irrigators
                    channel water,

                    fletchers
                    straighten arrows,

                    carpenters
                    shape wood.

                    The
                    virtuous control themselves.


                    146. Why
                    laughter? Why joy?

                    for
                    this world is burning.

                    Enveloped
                    in darkness

                    will
                    you not seek light?

                    147. Behold
                    this body:

                    a
                    beautiful image -

                    a
                    mass of wounds constructed,

                    infirm,
                    demanding,

                    all
                    impermanent, all unstable.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 1:47 PM
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                    Tuesday - Neutral and Difficult

                    1. Neutral and Difficult

                    NEUTRAL PEOPLE

                    The
                    neutral person represents a challenge for many meditators but there are
                    people whom we tend to ignore in daily life. Often they are people who
                    we see as functionaries rather than as rounded individuals with similar
                    needs to our own. These may even be people we have worked with for years
                    but with whom we never meaningfully interact. The ‘grey’ people will
                    inevitably become a little less so when we pay attention to them. It is
                    unusual for particular individuals to inhabit this section for long.

                    Sometimes
                    the neutral section seems hardest because it is difficult to feel
                    entirely neutral about someone with whom we truly engage. If you do find
                    that this is the case then it is often an indication that the process
                    is working - as you devote the same degree of effort and good intent
                    towards the person a transformation in your relationship with him or her
                    occurs - so let’s not fret too much about that! It’s beautiful. Others
                    find that neutral people, by definition, are harder to flesh out i.e.
                    they seem less than three dimensional, but with steady work we will all
                    begin to see them as people rather than ciphers. Remember that the
                    neutral section can incorporate people from any area of daily life: they
                    don’t have to be well known to us. People we have barely met or rarely
                    consider are all worthy recipients of our attention in this section. If a
                    natural progression has occurred so that a person no longer seems
                    neutral to you then choose someone else for your next sitting. Unlike
                    with the sections involving friends and difficult people there is a huge
                    supply of neutral people we can choose to direct mettā towards - it’s
                    an opportunity to give more than a second-thought to the many people we
                    habitually overlook.

                    DIFFICULT PEOPLE

                    We
                    sometimes come across people who, no matter what we do, still act with
                    unkindness or animosity towards us. Meditation does not prevent us from
                    trying the more common strategies to tackle these interpersonal
                    problems. If, for example, there is conflict at work then that should be
                    tackled in the conventional manner as well as continuing your
                    meditation. By all means, use any employment procedures that are
                    available to you to ensure that you are treated fairly. Meditation does
                    not stop us engaging in working for peace of mind using other methods.
                    It is amazing how often people are unaware of the hurt they are causing
                    others because they are unable to express their concerns in a
                    constructive (rather than destructive) manner. If you feel secure in
                    your work place, and are strong enough, then broaching the subject with a
                    supervisor may be an option that will help both you and any difficult
                    co-worker to move forward to a better understanding of each other.

                    We
                    have to accept, however, that there is a minority of people who acts in
                    ways that are unskilful and whose behaviour is selfish and
                    inappropriate. These are not happy people - they may be angry for
                    specific reasons or have a multitude of causes for their need to put
                    people down. We cannot directly change them by what we do in meditation,
                    but we can adjust our approach through the qualities that we cultivate
                    in our practice. This will make for more harmonious relations even where
                    the other person is not trying to make any change. Our skilful actions
                    will ensure that the opportunities for conflict and animosity are
                    minimised. It will also ensure that we begin to learn that it is
                    sometimes not worthwhile to take the actions of other people personally:
                    often people act unwisely because they have a generalised anger at the
                    world or the situation they find themselves in. They flail around in all
                    directions or perhaps pick on specific people over whom they have
                    power. This sort of targeting actually has very little to do with us;
                    almost anyone could fill the role of punch bag.

                    In
                    terms of what can be done through meditation: remember that the
                    brahmavihāra practices have a role in these types of situation. If we
                    find it difficult to show unconditional love to this person during mettā
                    practice then it may be a good idea to work specifically on karunā
                    (compassion) practice instead. We will explore this approach shortly.
                    Try to see the person’s life in the round. Be aware of how this person,
                    who is perpetrating this hurt upon you, is also subject to dukkha. She
                    suffers too, and recognising this may enable you to see why she acts in
                    this manner. A person’s suffering does not excuse bad behaviour; but
                    acknowledging it is there can enable us to understand why they have
                    chosen to act the way they have.

                    Do
                    not allow any one individual to block your engagement with the
                    meditation practices. If your relationship with a co-worker is too
                    painful to include in mettā practice, then do not feature her just yet.
                    Continue to build your skills with others and return to consideration of
                    this more problematic person when you feel ready. In daily interaction
                    the best approach is to maintain right speech: always ensure that you
                    are truthful and that your words are designed to help the situation
                    rather than be a weapon of retaliation. We do not have power over the
                    actions that others choose to commit, but we can ensure that ours are
                    always wholesome. Wholesome actions can only produce results that are
                    positive or neutral; this is the way that kamma works.

                    Remember
                    too that it is possible to work with compassion rather than kindness as
                    a preliminary step when we encounter those people for whom we find the
                    idea of giving lovingkindness is too difficult. Approach the individual
                    as a fellow sufferer - whatever they may have done or neglected to do
                    for us. These are lifetime practices and will not be mastered in an
                    instant so we must not allow ourselves to be defeated by labelling
                    particular sections as failed. Build up the work gradually - it is
                    perfectly permissible to spend entire sittings in one section if
                    necessary. Edge forward little by little to accommodate the other
                    individuals and groups but never leap to tackle the impossible.

                    That
                    can wait for now! Deal first with those for whom there is already some
                    empathy and then tackle those who are moderately difficult. The big guys
                    can wait until you feel more ready to give them the balm of
                    lovingkindness. This may take some time but it will be come easier with
                    regular practice.

                    However
                    wronged we may feel by our fellow human beings in their sins of
                    commission and omission the rich practice of not taking things
                    personally can work wonders. Spend time looking at the individuals as
                    rounded people. We have a tendency to pigeon-hole people in terms of the
                    specific acts they have committed against us. Most people are not
                    wholly vindictive or maliciously and often we allow carelessness, errors
                    of judgement and lack of consideration to assume the proportions of
                    heinous crimes. It may not be a particularly poetic phrase, but people
                    screw up. We have all done it ourselves from time to time and there is
                    value in considering where our own actions of body, speech and mind have
                    been less than skilful and the conclusions that others may have drawn
                    from this. I am not preaching equivalence here - our actions are not
                    necessarily of the same magnitude as another’s - but if we can hold on
                    to a realisation and acknowledgement that we too have withheld and
                    deprived; that on occasion we have taken and chosen not to give; or that
                    we have sometimes ignored and disrespected people, we can see how easy
                    it is for us too to become those archetypes which we usually see in
                    others. In a myriad of different ways there is commonality - both with
                    those for whom we currently feel empathy and with those from whom we
                    seek to distance ourselves. It is in the recognition of this that there
                    is an opportunity to develop. The brahmavihāra practices work at a very
                    deep level to achieve this. If we pursue them as a necessary part of our
                    practice we will see that we are not essentially separate. The
                    practices will gradually bear fruit and will enable us to be free from
                    the suffering which clinging to separateness can bring.

                    We
                    only suffer if we choose to take the hostility and indifference
                    personally. Through our developing practice we are more likely to be
                    able to accept that anger and rejection are themselves produced by
                    people who are suffering; these mental states very often have little to
                    do with the people against whom they choose to direct them. We can all
                    accept that at times we have behaved in similar ways (though the
                    magnitude and target may have varied). When we perpetrated these
                    unskilful acts against another no doubt they too suffered from the
                    fallout. As we begin to behave more ethically and mindfully the damage
                    we will cause for others and ourselves will lessen.

                    There
                    is an interesting distinction to be made between the perpetrator of
                    unskilful acts and the recipient of the action. It can sometimes be
                    useful to see them as quite separate: In committing an unskilful act I
                    am generating akusala kamma from which I will see the inevitable result
                    in my own life as vipāka characterised by suffering. The recipient of
                    suffering is reaping the vipāka of his or her own akusala kamma. When we
                    choose to suffer from the barbs that others inflict it may be because
                    we commit the unskilful act of clinging too strongly to our self-image
                    and care too much about our public position.

                    This
                    is, of course, a simplification of the complex theory of kamma but in
                    some circumstances it can be useful to contemplate. Remember that we do
                    not have access to the inner workings of any other person’s mind. We
                    make assumptions about their intentions and their motivation but we
                    cannot know. Similarly outward appearances can be deceptive when it
                    comes to judging whether a perpetrator actually suffers too - kamma
                    always ripens, sometimes immediately and visibly; at other times it may
                    take an age of gnawing stress, ill health and guilt. No one gets away
                    with anything.

                    Once
                    you have become established in the brahmavihāra practices you can
                    adjust the sections as you like, but try to remember to make the
                    technique inclusive of those people to whom you react warmly, are
                    repelled or feel neutral. The method will not be effective if one
                    concentrates purely on those groups and individuals towards whom one is
                    drawn.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=119


                    Contemplation - Day 25

                    148. Worn
                    out is this body,

                    a
                    nest of diseases, decaying.

                    This
                    foul mass breaks up

                    for
                    life ends in death.

                    149. These
                    dove-grey bones

                    scattered
                    like gourds in autumn.

                    Having
                    seen them,

                    how
                    can one delight?

                    150. A
                    city built of bones,

                    plastered
                    with flesh and blood:

                    home
                    to pride and deceit,

                    aging
                    and death.

                    151. Even
                    lavish majestic chariots wear out,

                    so,
                    this body will grow old,

                    but
                    the Dhamma of the Good endures:

                    thus
                    the Good themselves proclaim.

                    152. An
                    ignorant one

                    grows
                    like an ox:

                    his
                    muscles develop,

                    but
                    not his wisdom.

                    153. Through
                    many births in samsara

                    have
                    I searched in vain

                    for
                    the builder of this house.

                    Repeated
                    birth is indeed suffering.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 1:50 PM
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                    Wednesday - All Sentient Beings

                    1. All Sentient Beings

                    GROUPS

                    When
                    working with the group sections it is very useful to try and see each
                    group as composed of individuals. If you can see known faces amongst the
                    group that will help you better relate to the entire group. There can,
                    in our initial practice, be the need for an imaginative leap - so
                    knowledge from the media and books can be useful in populating these
                    sections. After a while this approach will be unnecessary as we will be
                    more easily able to feel the mettā and be less partial with our ability
                    to radiate it.

                    Begin by focusing on particular faces or known characteristics and work from there.

                    Sometimes
                    an imaginative leap is required to bring forth the feeling of mettā for
                    those with whom we have had little contact. This may, at the beginning,
                    be evoked by approaching the practice on the basis of remembered events
                    or even of experiences lived vicariously (e.g. through the media of
                    fiction or television).

                    NON-HUMAN BEINGS

                    If,
                    at present, non-cuddly beings such as cockroaches and mosquitoes are
                    too problematic then work with other beings for now. Save them for later
                    when your practice has developed a little further. We all have
                    boundaries beyond which it is difficult to go - but these practices are
                    about development and those boundaries are not permanently fixed.

                    Rats
                    and roaches are difficult for most of us to feel warmly towards -
                    especially if you have to live in close proximity to them! I had a
                    similar response to leeches and snakes (even toy ones had always
                    terrified me as a child) until I realised that it was possible to treat
                    them with kindness even though I might not necessarily like to encourage
                    their sharing of my habitat. It is said that the Lord Buddha gave us
                    mettā bhāvanā as a way of overcoming fear; and our engagement with the
                    practice can even help phobias we may have in regard to creepy crawlies
                    or animals we consider vermin. One way of beginning to appreciate them
                    is to find out more about them - the fascination with how they survive
                    and an understanding of their instincts helps us to see the similarities
                    with our own aspirations and survival instincts. Even a leech wants to
                    be well, wants to be happy… It’s just that a little of my blood may be
                    what helps it achieve that!

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=121


                    Contemplation - Day 26

                    154. Housebuilder,
                    you are seen!

                    No
                    house shall you build again.

                    All
                    your rafters are broken and

                    the
                    ridge-pole is shattered.

                    Attaining
                    the Unconditioned,

                    I
                    achieve the end of craving.

                    155. Neither
                    leading the holy life

                    nor,
                    in youth, acquiring wealth,

                    they
                    grow old like withered cranes

                    beside
                    a fishless pond.

                    156. Neither
                    leading the holy life

                    nor,
                    in youth, acquiring wealth,

                    they
                    lie around regretting,

                    like
                    spent arrows from a bow misfired.

                    157. If
                    you hold yourself dear;

                    then
                    protect yourself well.

                    The
                    wise keep vigil during any

                    of
                    the three watches of the night.

                    158. Establish
                    yourself first in propriety,

                    only
                    then teach others:

                    thus,
                    blameless, the wise shall be.

                    159. As
                    one teaches others,

                    so
                    should one act.

                    Controlled
                    oneself,

                    so
                    should one teach:

                    Training
                    oneself is hardest.

                    Last modified: Wednesday, 7 February 2018, 5:17 PM
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                    Thursday - When There’s No Mettā

                    1. When There’s No Mettā

                    WHEN THERE IS NO FEELING OF METTĀ

                    Focus
                    for a while on someone (or some being) to whom you feel warmly
                    disposed. It need not be a strong feeling; but there is usually someone
                    (or perhaps an animal such as a pet) that you enjoy the company of or
                    admire in some way. It may help to picture particular scenes featuring
                    this person which evoke that feeling of warmth - maybe an incident in
                    which you shared or one which you witnessed and recognised as a time of
                    happiness for that person. Try to relive the scene as clearly as
                    possible through memory. Note the feelings that are evoked in you by the
                    scene and the reaction of the person to the events that are taking
                    place.

                    Bring
                    your attention back to the present moment and call the same person to
                    mind - but as she or he is now. This is probably a more complex picture.
                    If you are aware of any difficulties they are facing then note that. If
                    their image contrasts with the happy incident you have just recalled
                    then note that too. Recognising that this person, like all of us, would
                    prefer to be free of any suffering, worry and fear, take the opportunity
                    to wish them well. You have seen how they react when they are happy;
                    wish that they are able to enjoy that frame of mind again - maybe see
                    their face transformed by the glow of happiness. Offer them whatever you
                    can that will make them happy and contented; allow them the comfort
                    that your kindness can bring. You may wish to use mental phrases such as
                    “be well, be happy” or you may like to see an image such as the gradual
                    transformation of their expression by a smile.

                    When
                    you feel more comfortable about working with that one individual
                    gradually add others to the practice - building up to the several
                    sections we are using. Mettā can sometimes take a while to flow more
                    freely but if we work gradually and start slowly with those to whom we
                    already feel warmly disposed there will be a strengthening of our
                    ability to extend the same hand of kindness to others. This practice is
                    about unconditionally caring about the welfare of all beings. It is a
                    big job and will take practice for this to be feasible… but we can
                    edge forward step-by-step.

                    If
                    lovingkindness cannot be felt and radiated to a particular person can
                    you approach this through another quality? You could try gratitude, or
                    compassion, or respect. Understanding the reasons why we may be blocking
                    the flow of mettā can help us to overcome this inability. Where people
                    may seem grasping and unloving we can sometimes feel able to include
                    them in our mettā practice if we consider them as worthy of our
                    attention, subject to suffering just like us, as three dimensional
                    beings who aspire and make mistakes. If their interactions with us have
                    been cold and formal we can choose to consider the warmth they may share
                    with their immediate family.

                    Another
                    way in which to approach the practice is to initially work with seeing
                    the good in individuals rather than radiating mettā to them. Concentrate
                    on the aspects of the individuals that are good and wholesome. Forgive
                    them their faults where these are apparent. We each have strengths; we
                    each fail. Work through the practice as you would in the mettā bhāvanā,
                    but acknowledging these strengths and allowing the errors and bad
                    judgements to be forgiven.

                    FORGIVENESS

                    Instead
                    of working with mettā can you try working with forgiveness? After
                    working in the following way for a few days gradually reintroduce the
                    mettā practice, gently, beginning with the sections where mettā flows
                    easiest first and building to the full sequence.

                    Forgiveness Practice:

                    Anchor yourself in ānāpānasati first and then begin this new practice.

                    Yourself:

                    Aware of my wish to foster happiness and reduce suffering for myself and for others.

                    Aware too of the imperfections that may hinder this wish.

                    Where my actions have caused suffering. May I be forgiven.

                    Where my actions conflict with those others would choose. May they understand.

                    Grateful that the next in-breath marks a new beginning.

                    Your parent:

                    Aware of my parent’s wish to foster happiness and reduce suffering for him/herself and for others.

                    Aware too of the imperfections which may hinder this wish.

                    Where his/her actions have caused suffering. May I forgive.

                    Where his/her actions are not those I would choose. May I understand.

                    Grateful that the next in-breath marks a new beginning.

                    Your child:

                    Aware of my child’s wish to foster happiness and reduce suffering for him/herself and for others.

                    Aware too of the imperfections which may hinder this wish.

                    Where his/her actions have caused suffering. May I forgive.

                    Where his/her actions are not those I would choose. May I understand.

                    Grateful that the next in-breath marks a new beginning.

                    Your friends…

                    Your parent’s friends…

                    Your child’s friends…


                    and then broaden the sequence to take in others in your circle and
                    community before ending by practising forgiveness towards yourself for a
                    few minutes.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=123


                    Contemplation - Day 27

                    160. One
                    protects oneself.

                    Who
                    else could be protector?

                    Fully
                    in control, one gains

                    a
                    protector rare indeed.

                    161. The
                    evil he himself has done -

                    self-born,
                    self-caused -

                    grinds
                    down the fool:

                    as
                    a diamond, a hard stone.

                    162. Just
                    as the creeper strangles

                    the
                    sal tree on which it grows,

                    so
                    the fool does to himself

                    what
                    only an enemy would wish.

                    163. Easily
                    done are actions

                    bad
                    and harmful to oneself;

                    difficult,
                    indeed, are actions

                    good
                    and beneficial.

                    164. The
                    fool, who with Wrong View,

                    scorns
                    the Dhamma of the arahats,

                    -
                    the noble and enlightened -

                    like
                    bamboo, he produces offspring

                    for
                    his own destruction.

                    165. By
                    oneself is evil done

                    and
                    is one defiled.

                    By
                    oneself one abstains from evil

                    and
                    attains purity.

                    Purity
                    and defilement are self-owned;

                    none
                    can purify another.

                    166. Never
                    neglect your own welfare

                    for
                    the sake of another, however great.

                    Comprehending
                    your welfare,

                    be
                    intent upon the good.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 3:38 PM
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                    Friday - The Fourth Precept

                    1. The Fourth Precept

                    THE FOURTH PRECEPT

                    musāvādā veramani sikkhā padam samādiyāmi

                    I take the precept to abstain from wrong speech

                    The
                    fourth precept at its most basic is an undertaking not to lie, but it
                    also includes anything which is abusive or designed to hurt others and
                    to exaggeration, gossip and idle chatter. This precept is an agreement
                    to engage only in speech conducive to the good of others and ourselves.

                    The
                    fourth precept, when one enters into it voluntarily and wholeheartedly,
                    is a deep and challenging practice. In many ways it is more difficult
                    to observe than other precepts. So much in our lives revolves around
                    half-truths and small deceptions. We build layer upon layer of deception
                    - based on speech which distorts, which is not founded on fact, which
                    is calculated to cause hurt, which is inconsiderate - and yet we still
                    expect to be able to discern the truth. We can instead determine to
                    check our activities in regard to our self-aggrandisement. We can ensure
                    that others believe us by acting truthfully with consistency. We
                    inflict wrong on others when we deceive them. It is an unkind and
                    uncompassionate act, completely at odds with our desire to cultivate the
                    brahmavihāras. By consistent wrong speech we also blind ourselves - we lose the ability to know what is true and what is not.

                    Correct
                    speech also implies correct listening. If we honour other people and
                    what they tell us we will be able to respond to them appropriately -
                    with honesty and compassion.

                    All
                    of our volitional actions have appropriate results in accord with the
                    law of Kamma according to the Buddhist tradition. If we choose to act
                    skilfully then the results will be good; if we act unskilfully then we
                    can expect an unsatisfactory outcome. The precepts are guidelines as to
                    what constitutes skilful behaviour. They are not commandments that once
                    transgressed label us as sinners or which must be ameliorated by a
                    corresponding good deed. We begin again, in the very next moment, to try
                    to adhere to the precepts because it is skilful to do so. We will all
                    fail to uphold the precepts on occasions. This does not make it right;
                    it’s just how it is. If we intentionally break a precept then we cannot
                    avoid the result of that action. The result may be apparent immediately
                    or arise after a long period, but it will surely occur. Perhaps we may
                    take a decision that, out of compassion for another person, means that
                    we will tell a lie (or soften a harsh truth). This action is composed of
                    two elements: one positive (the compassionate intent), another negative
                    (wrong speech). The outcome of the action will reflect this complexity
                    and be appropriate to it.

                    “Speech
                    endowed with four characteristics is well-spoken, not poorly spoken -
                    faultless and not to be faulted by the wise. Which four? There is the
                    case where a monk says only what is well-spoken, not what is poorly
                    spoken; only what is just, not what is unjust; only what is endearing,
                    not what is unendearing; only what is true, not what is false. Speech
                    endowed with these four characteristics is well-spoken, not poorly
                    spoken - faultless and not to be faulted by the wise.” - Subhasita Sutta

                    If
                    we choose to employ wrong speech for pragmatic reasons then that
                    intention will reflect in the result we experience. We must remember
                    that the Buddha’s teaching is not primarily concerned with making the
                    world an easier place for us - indeed he saw this conditioned world as
                    inherently unsatisfactory - but in the release from all suffering, which
                    comes about through realisation of the Four Noble Truths. On mundane
                    matters, particularly if we do not have the goal of total liberation in
                    mind, there are not always clearly defined verses to quote in support of
                    the actions we have chosen. This is not a religion of the book, and
                    whilst we may extrapolate from the teachings we must continue to test
                    them against our own experience.

                    We can choose to behave ethically:

                    We can refrain from lying

                    - even the small lies and the white lies

                    We can stop exaggerating

                    - exaggeration distorts perception

                    We can act with consideration

                    - considerate speech is beneficial to all

                    We can choose not to gossip or spread rumour

                    - gossip is often untrue and can hurt others

                    We can choose to use our time productively

                    - avoiding idle chatter which brings no lasting happiness

                    We can listen to the needs of others

                    - our response can be open and compassionate

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=125


                    Contemplation - Day 28

                    167. Do
                    not serve low ends,

                    nor
                    live in heedlessness.

                    Do
                    not embrace Wrong View,

                    nor
                    cherish worldly existence.

                    168. Arise!
                    Do not be heedless!

                    Live
                    the Dhamma:

                    the
                    virtuous live happily

                    in
                    this world and the next.

                    169. Live
                    the Dhamma,

                    do
                    not live basely:

                    the
                    virtuous live happily

                    in
                    this world and the next.

                    170. One
                    who sees the world

                    as
                    a bubble, a mirage,

                    is
                    not seen

                    by
                    the King of Death.

                    171. Come,
                    see this world

                    as
                    a bedecked majestic chariot,

                    wherein
                    fools flounder,

                    but
                    the wise remain detached.

                    172. Heedless
                    before,

                    but
                    no longer,

                    one
                    illumines the world

                    as
                    the moon free of cloud.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 3:41 PM
                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=219


                    Chant Workshop 4 (optional)

                    1. Chant Workshop 4

                    The
                    meditation practices we are using are drawn from the Theravāda
                    tradition which bases its teachings on the words of the Buddha and his
                    early followers as recorded in the Pāli Canon. Pāli is a written
                    liturgical language and is often also used for traditional chants that
                    many meditators find helpful as part of their spiritual practice. During
                    the course we will introduce a small number of these chants in Pāli or
                    in translated English form.

                    Over
                    the weeks the individual chants build to form the text for a puja, or
                    dedication ceremony, that some practitioners may wish to use as a way of
                    periodically rededicating their meditation practice. Please use the
                    chants if you find them helpful; please ignore them if you prefer.

                    CHANT 4: The Metta Sutta

                    Note: This sutta is one of the main texts that has informed the practice of Lovingkindness Meditation.

                    Karaniya Metta Sutta

                    karaniyam atthakusalena

                    yam tam santam padam abhisamecca

                    sakko ujuca suju ca

                    suvacco c’assa mudu anatimāni

                    santussako ca subharo ca

                    appakicco ca sallahukavutti

                    santindriyo ca nipako ca

                    appagabbho kulesu ananugiddho

                    na ca khuddam samācare kiñci

                    yena viññu pare upavadeyyum

                    sukhino vā khemino hontu

                    sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā

                    ye keci pānabhutatthi

                    tasā va thāvarā vā anavasesā

                    dighā vā ye mahantā vā

                    majjhimā rassakānukathula

                    ditthā vā yeva additthā

                    ye ca dure vasanti avidure

                    bhuta vā sambavesi vā

                    sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā

                    na paro param nikubbetha

                    nātimaññetha katthacinam kañci

                    byārosanā patighasaññā

                    nāññamaññassa dukkham iccheyya

                    mātā yathā niyam puttam

                    āyusā ekaputtam anurakkhe

                    evam pi sabbabhutesu

                    mānasam bhāvaye aparimānam

                    mettañ ca sabba lokasmim

                    mānasam bhāvaye aparimānam

                    uddham adho ca tiriyañca

                    asambādham averam asapattam

                    tittham caram nisinno vā

                    sayāno vā yāvat’assa vigatamiddho

                    etam satim adhittheyya

                    brahmam etam vihāram idha māhu

                    ditthiñ ca anupagamma silavā

                    dassanena sampanno

                    kāmesu vinneya gedham

                    na hi jātu gabbhaseyyam punareti’ti

                    The Sutta on Lovingkindness

                    One who is skilled in wholesomeness

                    and seeks the calm that is Nibbāna,

                    should act thus:

                    Be sincere to oneself, upright and conscientious,

                    soft of speech, gentle and without conceit.

                    Contented, living simply, peaceful and unburdened,

                    with senses calmed, prudent, modest,

                    and without showing anxiety for support.

                    One should not commit any slight wrong

                    for which the wise might censure one.

                    May all beings be happy and secure,

                    may their hearts be wholesome.

                    Whatever living beings there are -

                    whether mentally feeble or strong,

                    physically long, stout or medium,

                    short, small or large,

                    the seen or unseen; dwelling far or near;

                    those who are born and those yet to be born -

                    may they all, without exception, be happy.

                    Let no one deceive another

                    nor despise anyone whatsoever in any place;

                    nor in anger or ill-will wish harm upon another.

                    Even as a mother would risk her life

                    to protect her only child,

                    so should one cultivate a boundless

                    heart towards all beings.

                    Let thoughts of infinite lovingkindness

                    pervade the whole world -

                    above, below and around -

                    unobstructed, free of hatred or enmity.

                    Whether standing, walking, sitting or lying down,

                    as long as one is awake, such mindfulness

                    should be developed:

                    this, the wise say, is the highest conduct here.

                    Not embracing false views,

                    endowed with virtue and insight,

                    and having given up

                    attachment to sense desires -

                    such a person will not come again

                    to lie in a womb.

                    Play this chant:

                     
                    -2:59

                    Download link: https://course.org/mcaudio/c/4-Metta_Sutta.mp3

                    Last modified: Thursday, 13 September 2018, 4:54 PM
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                    Vipassana Fellowship Meditation -13 October - 19 October-Moving to the Second Practice (Video)-Saturday - The Boundless States Book-Contemplation - Day 15-Day 16-Day 17-Day 18-Day 19-Day 20-Day 21
                    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
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                    Vipassana Fellowship Meditation -13 October - 19 October-Moving to the Second Practice (Video)-Saturday - The Boundless States Book-Contemplation - Day 15-Day 16-Day 17-Day 18-Day 19-Day 20-Day 21

                    This week we begin to explore the first of the Sublime Abode practices -
                    Mettā or Lovingkindness Meditation. If you are able to meditate for
                    more than one sitting each day, please work with Mettā in one session
                    and Mindfulness of Breathing in the other.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=97


                    Moving to the Second Practice (Video)

                    Andrew introduces the third week and our new method.

                    Last modified: Friday, 27 January 2017, 11:10 PM
                    https://course.org/campus/mod/book/view.php?id=98


                    Saturday - The Boundless States

                    1. The Boundless States

                    The Boundless States

                    We
                    have been practising Mindfulness of Breathing and it should have become
                    clear that regular sessions of meditation can be accommodated within
                    our daily lives. The experience of the practice will be different for
                    each of us as it is subject to the conditions we bring to any activity.
                    Our lives are unique, our experience is particular to us and our
                    motivations differ.

                    As
                    we have seen previously, the Buddha suggested many objects for
                    meditation. It can be of considerable help to gain confidence in several
                    techniques in order that we can work skilfully with different
                    circumstances as they arise in our lives. Some of the techniques used by
                    Buddhists develop particular qualities and skills more strongly than
                    others and if we are not careful our meditation practice can become
                    pretty unbalanced; perhaps neglecting those areas that may need most
                    work.

                    Some
                    techniques could be characterised as good for developing the ‘head’
                    aspects - the analytical, improving our concentration, etc. - whilst
                    others are better at opening up our ‘hearts’. In truth, of course, we
                    must develop both head and heart practices if we are to have a firm
                    grasp of the fundamentals. Many meditators who concentrate on a single
                    technique, believing it to contain everything they need, can end up
                    neglecting important areas of deficiency or weakness and this can
                    effectively block their development later. Someone who neglects to work
                    on the quality of compassion - or the faculty to have joy in the success
                    of other people - can develop a very hard, concentrated, analytical
                    practice, but can become self-centred and isolated. They never gain the
                    ability to consider their relationship to others in a positive way and
                    instead withdraw from interaction and can end up with a meditation
                    practise that, whilst supremely concentrated, lacks humanity and is

                    counterproductive in that it gives them an inflated sense of their own importance and achievements.

                    We
                    have spent a short time looking at a pure concentration exercise. It
                    has many benefits and is a core technique of Buddhist meditation. We
                    will continue to use it in the coming months. From tomorrow we will
                    begin to introduce another form of samatha meditation. This is
                    complementary to the work we have been doing and we will use it
                    alongside the Mindfulness of Breathing technique.

                    The
                    inspiration for this new form of meditation, known as brahmavihāra
                    bhāvanā, is a beautiful formula that frequently recurs in the Pāli
                    Canon:

                    “I will abide pervading one quarter

                    with a mind imbued with lovingkindness,

                    Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

                    So above and below, around and everywhere,

                    and to all as if to myself.

                    I will abide pervading the entire world with lovingkindness,

                    Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

                    “I will abide pervading one quarter

                    with a mind imbued with compassion,

                    Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

                    So above and below, around and everywhere,

                    and to all as if to myself.

                    I will abide pervading the entire world with compassion,

                    Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

                    “I will abide pervading one quarter

                    with a mind imbued with appreciative joy,

                    Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

                    So above and below, around and everywhere,

                    and to all as if to myself.

                    I will abide pervading the entire world with appreciative joy,

                    Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

                    “I will abide pervading one quarter

                    with a mind imbued with equanimity,

                    Likewise, the second, third and fourth quarters.

                    So above and below, around and everywhere,

                    and to all as if to myself.

                    I will abide pervading the entire world with equanimity,

                    Abundant, exalted, immeasurable; without hostility or ill-will.”

                    There are four brahmavihāras (divine abodes) or apamaññā (boundless states):

                    Mettā ~ Lovingkindness

                    Karunā ~ Compassion

                    Muditā ~ Appreciative Joy

                    Upekkhā ~ Equanimity

                    We
                    shall be working with each of these practices in turn and the first one
                    we shall look at is mettā bhāvanā, the development of lovingkindness.

                    A
                    whole range of considerations determines the relationships that we have
                    with other people. At their most straightforward the brahmavihāra
                    practices aim at allowing us to see these other beings in a different
                    light from how we usually perceive them. Often our reactions to other
                    people are composed of our own projections about them, or are based on
                    information that is incomplete or misinterpreted. It is not at all
                    unusual for many of us to write-off individuals simply because we are
                    having a bad day or they are not deemed useful to us at the time we
                    encounter them.

                    When
                    we begin to cultivate the brahmavihāra qualities of lovingkindness,
                    compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity we are working to extend
                    them to all beings; but it is sensible to focus first on individuals for
                    whom, or with whom, we can most easily connect. This determines the
                    arrangement of the sections of each of these practices: suggestions have
                    been given but individual meditators might need to adjust them to
                    service their own set of circumstances. Once the connection has been
                    established with one individual then we move on to the next for whom
                    there is some empathy; and so on. There is a gradual progression and the
                    sections become more difficult and require greater application as we
                    begin to work with people, and other beings, for whom there seems no
                    spontaneous empathy.

                    Why
                    bother? Surely some people are simply beyond the pale and are best
                    forgotten about? Can there really be any point in trying to feel
                    compassion, for example, towards a person who seems to relish sadistic
                    behaviour?

                    The
                    misconception inherent in this type of question - which is common to us
                    all - is that our meditation practice is designed to effect change in
                    other people. Often if our upbringing was in one of the theistic
                    religions we have deeply ingrained conditioning that has a tendency to
                    turn any spiritual practice into a type of prayer. This deep-rooted
                    attitude means that our ideas are framed on the basis of belief that it
                    is possible to change externals by the power of thought or through the
                    active intercession of another being. Even if we no longer believe in
                    God or supernatural forces the mechanism for invoking this sort of plea
                    remains with us.

                    The
                    meditative process in Buddhism is quite different. We are not working
                    in our meditation sittings to effect change in other people or in the
                    conditions which affect their lives. These types of goal are not best
                    accomplished whilst seated on a cushion; there is a need for us to act
                    skilfully in the world. We are working, in meditation, towards a greater
                    understanding of those lives and conditions and of our relationship to
                    them. Meditation techniques tackle this in a number of different ways.
                    In the brahmavihāra practices, on one level, we are developing an
                    understanding of how our habitual partiality and sense of separateness
                    impacts on the relationships we have with others. We begin to see,
                    through engaging in these practices, that our own perceptions of the
                    relative merits of individuals, and the qualities we ascribe to them,
                    normally rest on sets of pretty flaky assumptions. Through
                    conscientiously working with the brahmavihāra practices we reach an
                    understanding of the interconnections between us and all other beings
                    and the necessity for active consideration of their needs and
                    aspirations. We begin to see people as more than ciphers representing
                    pleasant or unpleasant attributes. Life is more complex than that.
                    People cannot be reduced to goodies and baddies - but that is how we
                    operate most of the time; thus denying others the possibility of
                    meaningful interaction with us. Denying them and us the understanding
                    that can bring the cessation of suffering.

                    But
                    surely some people really have transgressed so far that they have ruled
                    themselves unworthy of our consideration? What about the really
                    terrible people who seem to offer the world nothing but hate?

                    There
                    are some people whom it would be unwise to include in our meditation
                    sessions until we are well established in these practices. At some
                    point, though, we will feel ready to acknowledge even the most difficult
                    individuals. Remember that the effects these meditation practices have
                    are on us: if we harbour hate, distrust, resentment, prejudice, anger,
                    and other such qualities in our minds then we do ourselves violence. We
                    suffer: our mental states will reflect this bitterness and lack of
                    tranquillity. We are not excusing the appalling behaviour that people,
                    sometimes including ourselves, inflict on the world: that would be a
                    denial of reality - we must always retain an awareness of actions and
                    their consequences - but we do recognise that these actions are not the
                    whole story.

                    In
                    using the brahmavihāra techniques we don’t deny the complexity of the
                    human predicament but we do acknowledge that there is a commonality of
                    aspiration - to suffer less, to be happier - and that we, like all other
                    beings, are a part of this. When we reach a deep understanding of this
                    interconnectedness our attitudes to others and the actions we carry out
                    will reflect this.

                    Everyone
                    begins this work on the basis of partiality. There are people we like
                    and others we don’t. Some people are deemed deserving of our compassion
                    and others, by their actions, are not. In time we will loosen our
                    predilection for labels as we see their debilitating effects and the
                    damage they can inflict. Selectively targeting and withholding love and
                    compassion - these pure and positive qualities of which we can each have
                    an endless supply - leads only to more suffering for all concerned.

                    Like
                    many of these ideas this notion of connectedness can be absorbed on
                    different levels. On the simplest level we can see that we live in
                    community with others and are dependent on them. We could not live as we
                    do without the people who perform the functions that make life liveable
                    - our parents, doctors, the people who grow and transport our food, the
                    friends who are there for us when we need help. This is not all taking
                    and receiving, though, as we are connected to these people and other
                    beings by the services we render and the interactions we have. We are
                    also connected in terms of some of our most basic aspirations. There are
                    few of us who are capable of living alone. Even a hermit monk usually
                    relies on others for some of his requisites of food and medicine, and
                    even if we minimise our reliance on other people we are still dependent
                    on our relationships to other beings, some of which provide food,
                    companionship, and beauty. And like us, all beings seek to increase
                    their happiness and reduce their suffering.

                    According
                    to Buddhist doctrine we also share connection because we are all
                    composed of five common aggregates rather than a personalised Self or
                    enduring soul. These Five Aggregates are physical form, feelings,
                    perceptions, mental functionings, and consciousness. If we contemplate
                    our own nature deeply we will see that in any real sense we are not a
                    fixed entity. We, and all other beings, are subject to flux. We are
                    constantly changing because, at any moment, we are composed of a
                    cocktail of these aggregates. As we get a real understanding of the
                    aggregates that make up this “me” we realise how insubstantial our
                    self-view actually is and how we are composed of exactly the same
                    constantly changing building blocks as every other sentient being. In
                    this sense we are indivisible from them.

                    Sometimes
                    people ask why I have chosen to work with so many different sections
                    when introducing these techniques; after all, the canonical texts say
                    little more than that we should unconditionally radiate lovingkindness,
                    compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity to all. Well, have you ever
                    tried that? It’s a bit of a tall order - at least, for most of us - and
                    so we usually need to ease ourselves into it with some solid
                    preparation.

                    The
                    sections we are using work to ensure that we don’t shirk from dealing
                    with difficult situations and also that we don’t underestimate the
                    amount of compassion and kindness that we, ourselves, need. This is
                    particularly common; many of us have little difficulty directing
                    kindness towards others but feel awkward if asked to show it to
                    ourselves. Working through these fairly rigid structures (if only as an
                    initial approach) will bring about noticeable changes in our attitudes
                    and outlook. It’s certainly not that we’ll become all soft and
                    vulnerable (a common fear) but it will allow us to see our relationships
                    in a more balanced light. For part of each sitting we will be working
                    with people that we find difficult or who are hostile towards us. All of
                    these techniques work on the principle of not taking things personally.
                    If we can see even these individuals as worthy of love, worthy of
                    compassion, then through this empathy we can begin to see his or her
                    actions as the result of a set of conditions - rather than something
                    directly targeted at us. This doesn’t let them off the hook, of course;
                    we are not approving of wrongdoing, but we are capable of seeing it in
                    context. We can often also empathize with what may have conditioned
                    these unskilful acts. We take a look at the reasons rather than the
                    excuses. Later, as we come to look at the reality of anicca
                    (impermanence) we will begin to see the beautiful release that this
                    offers. We hurt ourselves when we cling to anger and animosity: it
                    perpetuates our suffering. Akusala kamma is the Pāli term used for
                    unskilful volitional acts of mind, body or speech. This perpetuation of
                    our suffering is often akusala kamma of the mind; it creates the
                    conditions for further suffering. We redouble the hurt. Through the
                    training we are undertaking we can begin to create the conditions where
                    all of our actions can be wholesome. In this way, we benefit - but so
                    too do all of those with whom we interact.

                    There
                    will be sections of the techniques that come less easily than others.
                    Our view of a family member will not be the same as of a stranger: it
                    cannot be because the conditions that produce the view are different. It
                    is perfectly understandable that we will dislike particular people if
                    there are good reasons to do so. This is different, of course, from
                    irrational prejudice that is always unskilful; being founded on
                    ignorance. If a person’s behaviour is wrong and hurtful then there is
                    every reason for us to not wish to associate with them; indeed the texts
                    warn us against associating with “fools”. What we must take care of is
                    that this dislike of wrongdoing does not spill over into unskilful
                    mental states such as anger and hatred. If we remain mindful then our
                    actions and responses will always tend towards skilfulness. When we work
                    within the framework of the brahmavihāra practices we try to radiate
                    the positive qualities in a balanced way - trying to treat each being as
                    unique and worthy of love, compassion, the presence of joy - we are not
                    implying that all beings are the same; but that they do have similar
                    fundamental needs and aspirations: to overcome all suffering, an
                    aspiration to happiness. Understanding this will bring changes in the
                    way that we act in the world. As we see the commonality that exists,
                    even in a world of difference, we may choose to act in ways that are
                    less partial. We will be more aware of motivation and intention and will
                    see the destructiveness that ignorance and hatred bring.

                    It
                    is common for people in modern times to only be aware of, and taught,
                    mettā bhāvanā from the brahmavihāras. The four practices of mettā,
                    karunā, muditā, and upekkhā are meant to be complementary and there is
                    great value in working skilfully with each of them. Mettā should always
                    be applied first and upekkhā requires an understanding of the other
                    three brahmavihāras so should always be given last. It is a great pity
                    that these teachings are not accessed more frequently nowadays - they
                    are very powerful techniques that can be so very effective in our
                    spiritual development (and at the same time in promoting healthier
                    relationships and harmony on a mundane level). Over the next few weeks
                    we will see how very different these brahmavihāras are from one another
                    but get a glimpse of the great synergy that can come about through
                    continued use of all four. We are working on the cultivation of specific
                    qualities when practising each of the brahmavihāra techniques.
                    Lovingkindness is distinct from compassion. In daily situations we will
                    act from a range of motives but in meditation it is important that
                    clarity of purpose is maintained. If we merge the different brahmavihāra
                    qualities then there is an imprecision that can impede our progress and
                    it becomes easier to neglect those aspects that come less easily to us.

                    The
                    fruits of our meditation practice inform how we will act in the world.
                    This is only one aspect of practice but it is important - meditation is
                    never a selfish activity. Recognising that the cultivation of these
                    positive mental states is an important factor in our ability to act
                    effectively is part of a maturing practice. In our meditation sittings
                    we are not trying to effect change in external situations or in other
                    people. The practices are about fully developing our competences; but
                    from this development flows the intention and ability to act more
                    skilfully than we might otherwise have done in daily life. If we have
                    complete empathy with another being then how can we choose to commit
                    unskilful acts towards him or her?

                    Most
                    people will find that some of these techniques are more difficult than
                    others and that within a particular technique individual sections will
                    be challenging for them. This is a reflection of the areas of strength
                    and neediness that we all have in different measure because of our
                    conditioning. All of these techniques are about cultivating positive
                    states of mind anchored in reality and each of us will benefit from
                    working with them. None of us, at this stage, is likely to be perfected
                    in lovingkindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity but we
                    can strive towards that end through dedicated practice. We need it for
                    our spiritual development; and the resultant positive changes will also
                    benefit our loved ones, families and communities.

                    https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=99


                    Contemplation - Day 15

                    90. In
                    one whose journey has ended,

                    -
                    sorrowless and fully liberated,

                    released
                    from all bonds -

                    no
                    fever exists.

                    91. The
                    mindful, ever active,

                    are
                    unattached to homes:

                    they
                    move on repeatedly,

                    as
                    swans fly from the

                    lake
                    to new abodes.

                    92. Not
                    accumulating,

                    aware
                    of the nature of food,

                    their
                    abode is Deliverance:

                    empty
                    and signless.

                    Like
                    the tracks of birds in air,

                    so
                    difficult to trace.

                    93. Defilements
                    destroyed,

                    unattached
                    to food,

                    their
                    abode is Deliverance:

                    empty
                    and signless.

                    Like
                    the tracks of birds in air,

                    so
                    difficult to trace.

                    94. With
                    senses subdued,

                    -
                    like horses well-trained by a charioteer.

                    Free
                    from conceit and corruption,

                    -
                    even the gods hold such a one dear.

                    95. Like
                    the earth, resenting nothing.

                    Firm
                    as a strong high pillar,

                    pure
                    as a lake unsullied by mud,

                    for
                    such a balanced one,

                    no
                    more births arise.

                    Last modified: Thursday, 12 January 2017, 1:28 PM
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                    Sunday - Mettā: Lovingkindness Meditation

                    1. Lovingkindness Meditation

                    Lovingkindness Meditation

                    “…whatever kinds of worldly merit there are,

                    all are not worth one sixteenth part of the

                    heart-deliverance of loving-kindness;

                    in shining and beaming and radiance the

                    heart-deliverance of loving-kindness far excels them.”

                    - The Buddha (Itivuttaka, 27)

                    We
                    use the compound word ‘lovingkindness’ when translating the term mettā
                    into English to dist