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10/23/18
LESSON 2785 Wed 24 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 6:44 pm

LESSON 2785 Wed 24 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

BUDDHISM- Our Message of Peace, Non-violence and Goodwill

Centuries after it disappeared from India, Buddhism has staged a comeback here as a tool for social reformation. It remains to be seen whether its essence, that which makes it a way of living peacefully and gently, will be adopted as readily
On October 16, 2002, when most Indians were celebrating Dussehra, symbolic of the victory of justice over injustice, five Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath families in Jhajjar, Haryana were mourning relatives who had been lynched by upper caste people. The incident was a millionth repeat of the injustice that has plagued Indian society for millennia, where it has branded a section of itself as less than human and perpetrated the grossest injustices against them. Even today, 60 years after the Indian Constitution outlawed it, 22 per cent of the country’s population continues to bear the cross of ‘untochability’.

Although caste-based political movements have attempted to liberate Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath politically and socially, another, more controversial choice made available to them is that of religious conversion. This is the choice that families of the Jhajjar victims made, when 11 days after the gruesome massacre, they converted to Buddhism. In doing so, they followed the example of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar, an architect of the Indian Constitution, and a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath , who embraced Buddhism with 3,80,000 followers just six weeks before his death in 1956. Babasaheb, who had combated narrow casteist mindsets all his life, ultimately decided that the best course of action would be to forge a new religious identity for Dalits: one that would free them from oppression and empower them with inner strength.

Why Buddhism?

Babasaheb examined Islam, Christianity and Sikhism before turning to Buddhism. One reason was that right at its origin 2,500 years ago, it had become a tool for a caste revolution. Many of those oppressed as lower castes at the time took refuge in the Buddha’s dhamma because it offered the possibility of a dignified life beyond caste or gender.

Said Ambedkar: “Buddhism teaches social, intellectual, economic and political freedom—equality not only between man and man but also between man and woman. If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason.”

In the Buddha’s time, Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath had already borne the yoke of caste for a couple of thousand years. The aboriginal inhabitants of India, they were enslaved by Aryan tribes during 1800-1500 BC. Gradually, the Aryan system of division of labour hardened into a rigid system determined by birth. In this, the aboriginal Indians were the lowest of the low, made to do the most menial of jobs. Before long, they had been categorized as ‘untouchables’.

According to the law book Manusmriti, untouchables could not own property or go to heaven unless they worshipped Brahmins. It was explained that they were being punished for sins of previous lives, a hypothesis that gave Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath an inferiority complex.

The Buddha’s Attitude

Around the fifth century BC, an anti-caste revolution began in India. Gautama Buddha, born a Kshatriya (warrior caste) prince, began talking of a dhamma whose social expression, the sangha (community), was devoid of caste and gender distinctions.

In a story from the Pali suttas, we are told that a Brahmin enquired the Buddha about his lineage, who answered: “No Brahmin I, no prince, / No farmer, or aught else. / All worldly ranks I know, / but knowing go my way / as simply nobody: / Homeless, in pilgrim garb, / with shaven crown, I go my way alone, serene. / To ask my birth is vain.”

Indeed we hear of the Buddha equally welcoming Upali, the barber; Suniita, the scavenger; Ambapaali, the courtesan; Saati, a fisherman; Subhaa, a smith’s daughter; and Punnaa, daughter of a deerstalker, into his fold and teaching them the dharma. For, he believed: “By birth is not one an outcast, / By birth is not one a Brahmin. / By deeds is one an outcaste, / By deeds is one a Brahmin.”

Sangha Life

Bhikkus ordained by the Buddha were from various communities. A bhikku wasn’t a priest but a monk, who lived on alms and was a guide on religious and social matters to the larger lay sangha. The Buddha told them: “O bhikkus, just as the rivers when they have fallen into the great ocean lose their identity, just so brethren, do these four castes—Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras—when they begin to follow the doctrine and discipline as propounded by the Tathagata, renounce different names of castes and rank and become members of one society.”

The bhikkus would accept food from all castes, including ‘untouchables’. This was significant since caste rules dictated that one rather starve than accept food from a person of caste lower than one’s own. The deliberate breaking of caste rules signified the contempt of the aware mind for superficial distinctions, evident in this poem by an early bhikku: “I made a hut / From three palm leaves by the Ganges / Took a crematory pot / For an eating bowl,/ Lifted my robe off a trash bin / Two rainy seasons passed and I / Spoke only one word / Clouds came again / But this time the darkness / Tore open.”

Using a crematory pot as food bowl and taking a robe from garbage were marks of renunciation that indicated a blurring and eventual dissolution of caste boundaries. Needless to say, Buddhism came to be known as the religion of the common man. However by the 12th century AD, the Brahmanical religion had reinforced itself and Buddhism was practically extinct in India.

New Cycle

When Ambedkar took refuge in the Buddha, dhamma and sangha on October 14, 1956, he marked the return of what had by then become a world religion. That this was done to transcend caste oppression seemed an appropriate echo of the historical Buddha’s times. The movement that began that day is referred to as neo-Buddhism.

Most neo-Buddhists follow the Theravada school of Buddhism. Ambedkar himself didn’t wish to get embroiled in the Hinayana-Mahayana controversy, preferring to follow ‘Buddhayana’, vehicle of the Buddha. Since Ambedkar’s death, an estimated one crore Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath , mostly from Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, have followed him into Buddhism. According to Bhante Dipankara Sumedho, chairperson of the Buddhist Cultural Foundation: “Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath embrace Buddhism for dignity rather than for economic reasons.”

Mass Conversions

In recent years, mass conversions of Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath to Buddhism have been organised.

They realized that the condition of my people could only be improved if they could embrace Buddhism, which does not believe in caste. They have found Buddhism to be rational and logical.They also sees caste as a psychological barrier. Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath have been psyched into believing that they can’t change their fate, that they are being punished for past sins. Embracing Buddhism has helped them come out of these fatalistic misconceptions. They not comfortable with the word ‘conversion’, though. “Buddhism is not alien; India is its motherland. Buddhist philosophy is practical; it talks of human rights and how to eradicate suffering,” They believe. It is just Dikhsa.

They have regained self-esteem. Even if the upper castes look down upon them, they know they belong to a religion that believes in universal brotherhood.

Dhamma Education

Eminent Buddhist missionary Ven. L. Ariyawnsa Nayaka Mahathera said during his 1968 speech at the Buddhist National Conference in Mumbai: “Most new Buddhists are Buddhists only in name as they have no education and training in the Buddhist way of life. Unfortunately, Babasaheb passed away within two months after initiating the movement. So, they need assistance and guidance for practicing the dhamma properly.” He advised bhikkus to roam from village to village to propagate the teachings.

Bhante Sumedho of the Ashoka Mission Vihara, New Delhi, points out: “There are many traditional Buddhists who are not religious and Awakened Buddhists (neo-Buddhists) who try their best to follow the Buddhist way of life.” A visit to the Vihara confirms this. Founded by Cambodian monk Ven. Dharmavara Mahathera in 1948, it is a place where neo- and traditional Buddhists meet regularly for spiritual practice.

Lama Lobzang, president of the Vihara, says: “Traditional Buddhist monks are unable to reach out to the neo-Buddhists mainly because of the language barrier. We need more monks who would teach neo-Buddhists in their own dialect.” Organizations like the Bharatiya Boudh Maha Seva, Punjab-based Buddha Parchar Samiti, Taiwanese Corporate Body of Buddha Education Foundation, and the Vipassana Visodhan Vinyas in Igatpuri, Maharashtra have translated Buddhist works into Indian languages for neo-Buddhists.

Many neo-Buddhists continue to be deeply connected to Hindu deities and sometimes celebrate Hindu festivals. Bhante Sumedho sees nothing wrong with this. “One finds festivals common to Hinduism and Buddhism, especially those that occur on full moon days. Also, King Ashoka accepted Buddhism on Dussehra and made it the national religion on Deepavali. So these are special days for us too.”

The Essence

One may embrace Buddhism by taking diksha from an eminent monk. The conversion ceremony is simple. One takes refuge in the Three Jewels—Buddha, dhamma and sangha, and chants the five precepts that one will abstai
Bn from killing, stealing, adultery, lying and intoxicants. Yet the essence of the dharma lies in its practice, in transcending afflictive emotions and cultivating mindfulness, compassion and loving-kindness.

Even though Buddhism has managed to stage a comeback in India as a tool for social reformation, it remains to be seen whether its essence, that which makes it a way of living peacefully and gently, will be adopted as readily. For that, conversion is not a pre-requisite at all. As His Holiness the Dalai Lama says: “If you have a particular faith or religion, that is good. But you can survive without it,” and that, “my religion is very simple. My religion is kindness.”

TRIPLE GEM STUDY CIRCLE preffered to call as “Prabuddha Bharath Rathna or Arahath” as the Indian Constitution was based on Vinaya(Baba Saheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar and Dada Saheb Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji deserved such awards) and for the follow harrowing reason for which Bharath Rathna was conferred to any one this year

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#அவசியம் முழுவதும் படிக்கவும்

சமூக சீர்திருத்தமே நமது மரபு!
-”கேரளப் பெரியார்” பிணராயி விஜயன்

(16.10.2018 அன்று திருவனந்தபுரத்தில் நடந்த இடது ஜனநாயக முன்னணி கொள்கை விளக்கப் பொதுக்கூட்டத்தில் ஆற்றிய உரையிலிருந்து….)

சமூக சீர்திருத்த மரபு தான் நமது மகத்தான மரபு…

நாம் அத்தகைய சமூக சீர்திருத்த மரபைத் தான் அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்டிருக்கிறோம். இங்கு மேலோங்கி நிற்கும் சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்கள் அனைத்தும் ஸ்ரீ நாராயண குரு, சட்டம்பி சுவாமிகள் போன்றவர்களால் தலைமை தாங்கி வழிநடத்தப்பட்டவை. அதனால்த்தான் “இது ஒரு பைத்தியக்காரர்களின் கூடாரம்”, என்று விவேகானந்தரால் விமர்சிக்கப்பட்ட இந்த மாநிலம், இன்று மத பேதமற்ற, ஜாதி பேதமற்ற சமூகமாக முன்னேறி நாட்டிற்கே முன்னுதாரணமாக திகழ்கிறது என்பதை நாம் நினைவில் கொள்ள வேண்டும்.

இங்கே நமது நாட்டின் வரலாற்றை எடுத்துக்கொண்டாலும், நமது மாநிலத்தின் வரலாற்றை எடுத்துக்கொண்டாலும், எந்த காலகட்டங்களில் எல்லாம் சமூக சீர்திருத்தக் கருத்துக்கள் உருவெடுத்தனவோ அந்த காலகட்டங்களில் எல்லாம் அதற்கெதிரான ஒரு பகுதியினரும் களத்திலிறங்கி இருக்கிறார்கள். அந்த பிரிவினரில் பிற்போக்கு சக்திகள் மட்டும் பங்கெடுக்கவில்லை. சமூக சீர்திருத்தங்கள் மூலம், உரிமைகள் அடைய வேண்டிய, நன்மைகளைப் பெற வேண்டிய, பலனடைய வேண்டிய பிரிவினர் யாரோ அவர்களை, அன்றைய நம்பிக்கைகளின், சம்பிரதாயங்களின் சக்திகளைப் பயன்படுத்தி சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்களுக்கு எதிராக அணி வகுக்கும்படி செய்ய பிற்போக்கு சக்திகளால் முடிந்தது.

நமது நாடு பார்த்த மிகக் கொடூரமான சடங்கு, சதி என்ற ஒன்றாகும். கணவர் இறந்துவிட்டால், மனைவியை கணவரின் அந்த சிதையில் தள்ளிவிடும் வழக்கம்….ஒரு மூட நம்பிக்கை. அந்த சதி என்ற வழக்கத்திற்கு எதிராக சட்டம் இயற்றப்பட்டது. அது சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்களின் பலானால் மட்டுமே நடந்தது. நாம் இதில் கவனிக்க வேண்டியது எனவேனில், அன்றைய கணக்குப்படி 1813 முதல் 1829 வரையிலான காலகட்டத்தில் 8135 பெண்கள் சிதையில் குதித்து உயிரிழந்தார்கள். அந்த வழக்கம் இன்றும் தொடர்ந்திருந்தால், எத்தனை ஆயிரம், எத்தனை லட்சமாகியிருக்கும் என்று கணக்கிட்டு பார்த்துக் கொள்ளலாம்…என்ன ஆகியிருக்கும் நமது நாட்டின் நிலைமை? ஆனால் இந்த சடங்கின், மூடநம்பிக்கையின் பெயரில், இந்த வழக்கத்திற்கெதிராக சட்டம் இயற்றப்பட்ட பிறகும், பெண்கள் இதுபோன்று சிதையில் குதிக்க முயன்றார்கள்….சிலர் குதிக்கவும் செய்தார்கள். அதற்கெதிராக பெரிய எதிர்ப்புகளும் கிளம்பின.

இங்கே இ.எம்.எஸ், வி.டி, எம்.ஆர்.ஜி, பிரேம்ஜி போன்றவர்கள் எல்லாம் அன்றைய பிராமண சமுதாயத்திலிருந்த தவறான வழக்கங்களுக்கு எதிராக எதிர்ப்புப் போராட்டகளைத் தொடங்கினார்கள். அதன் பகுதியாக விதவை மறுமணம் சாத்தியமாகும் நிலை வந்தது. அதுபோல, அன்றைய சமூகத்தில் இருந்த வித்தியாசமான சூழலின் அடிப்படையில் இளம்பெண்களை, அதாவது பருவமடைவதற்கு முன்பாகவே, சிறுமிகளை படுகிழவர்களுக்கு மணம் முடித்து வந்தார்கள். அந்த சிறுமிகள் பருவமடைவதற்கு முன்பே அந்த கிழவனின் கதை முடிந்துவிடும். பின்பு அந்தச் சிறுமி தலை மொட்டையடிக்கப்பட்டு இருட்டறையில் அடைந்து கிடக்கவேண்டும். அதற்கெதிராக முன்பு குறிப்பிடப்பட்டவர்கள் எல்லாம் போராட்டம் நடத்தத் துணிந்த போது அவர்களை ஜாதி விலக்கம் செய்ய முடிவெடுத்தார்கள்….பயமுறுத்தப்பட்டார்கள்…பிற்போக்காளர்களின் கடுமையான எதிர்ப்பும் இருந்தது.

நமது நாட்டில் சில இடங்களில் மனிதப்பலி கொடுக்கும் முறை இருந்தது. பின்னர், அது மிருகப்பலியாக மாற்றப்பட்டது. மிருக பலியும் செய்யக்கூடாது என்ற நிலை வந்தபோது தான் மஞ்சளும் சுண்ணாம்பும் சேர்த்து கலக்கி இரத்தம் போன்ற திரவத்தை உருவாக்கி அடையாளரீதியாக பலியிடும் முறை வந்தது.

இதெல்லாம் சடங்குகளில் ஏற்பட்ட மாற்றங்களாகும். நமது நாட்டில், நமது மாநிலத்தில் என்னவெல்லாம் வகையிலான மாற்றங்கள்? வழக்கங்கள் என்பது மரபுவழியாக கடைபிடிக்கப்படுபவை ஆகும். அது காலகட்டங்கள் தோறும் மாற்றமடையும். ஒரு காலத்தில் இருப்பது பின்வரும் காலங்களில் இருக்கவேண்டும் என்பதில்லை.

முன்பெல்லாம் கோவிலில் நுழைவது என்றால், கோவில் குளத்தில் நன்றாகக் குளித்து, அந்த ஈரத்துணியுடன் தான் செல்லவேண்டும். இப்போது, எல்லோரும் அப்படியா கோவிலுக்குள் நுழைகிறார்கள். உடலை தங்கள் வசதிக்கேற்ப சுத்தம் செய்துகொள்ளுகிறார்கள். ஆனால், கோவிலில் அப்படியே தானே நுழைகிறார்கள்?

முன்பு பெண்களின் விஷயத்தில் என்னவெல்லாம் கட்டுப்பாடுகள் இருந்தது? மாதவிடாய் வந்துவிட்டால்…அந்தப் பெண்களுக்கு வீட்டில் கூட இருக்கமுடியாது. வசிக்குமிடத்திலிருந்து வெளியே செல்ல முடியாது. வீட்டிலிருந்து தனியே வேறொரு இடத்தில் அதற்கென கட்டப்பட்ட கட்டிடத்தில் தான் தங்கிக்கொள்ள வேண்டும்….ஆனால் இப்போது?
எல்லாம் மாற்றங்கள் அல்லவா..?நமது கண் முன்னே ஏற்பட்ட மாற்றங்கள் அல்லவா?
முன்காலத்தில் பிரசவம் நடந்தால் ‘வாலாய்மை” (பிரசவ நேரத்தில் அசுத்தம் என்ற பெயரில் கடைப்பிடிக்கப் பட்ட தீட்டு). மரணம் நடந்தால்…குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்கள் இறந்தால் “புலை” (இறப்பினால் ஏற்படும் தீட்டு)..எத்தனை நாட்கள் அதற்கு…?ஆனால் இப்போதோ மரணம் நடந்து சவ அடக்கம் முடிந்தவுடன், ஒருவர் கூறுவார்,”எல்லா காரியங்களும் இத்துடன் முடிந்துவிட்டது. கலைந்து செல்பவர்கள் கலைந்து செல்லலாம்.”என்று…. எல்லோரும் கலைந்து செல்கிறார்கள். இதுதானே சடங்குகளின் நிலைமை?

மாற்றங்கள் நிகழும் போக்கை நாம் பார்க்கவேண்டும் அல்லவா? இத்தகைய மாற்றங்கள், முன்பு சொன்ன சமூக சீர்திருத்த நாயகர்களின் தலையீட்டினால் ஏற்பட்டது தானே?

இங்கே முன்பு மார்பு மறைக்க உரிமை இல்லை அல்லவா? அவ்வாறு மார்பு மறைக்க உரிமையில்லாத காலகட்டத்தில் அதற்கு எதிராக போராட்டம் நடத்தப்படவில்லையா? அவ்வாறு மார்பு மறைத்து, கோவிலில் நுழையும் உரிமை கிடைத்த பிறகும் கூட அந்த உரிமையை சீர்குலைப்பதற்கான போராட்டங்கள் நடக்கவில்லையா இங்கே..? பெண்களே கூட அதற்கெதிராக களமிறங்கினார்கள்…அதோடு மார்பு மறைத்தவர்களின் மாராப்பை, மார்பு மறைக்காத பெண்களே கிழித்தெறியத் துணிந்தார்கள்.

இதெல்லாம் நமது மாநிலத்தின் வரலாறல்லவா? ஆனால், நாம் அங்கேயே நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிறோமா? ‘எங்களுக்கு மார்பை மறைக்க வேண்டாம்’ என்று கூறிய பெண்களுடனா இந்த நாடு நின்றது…? காலம் அவர்களுடனா நின்றது…?காலத்தின் மாற்றங்களுக்கு ஏற்ப சடங்குகளும் வழக்கங்களும் மாறுவதில்லையா?

முன்பு, இங்கே பெண்களுக்கு சொத்துரிமை இருந்ததில்லை. பெண்களுக்கு சொத்துரிமை கொடுக்கப்பட்டது பெரிய மாற்றமாக இருக்கவில்லையா? நமது சமூகத்தின் முன்னேறிய பகுதியினர் அதனை ஏற்றுக்கொண்டார்களா? பிற்போக்கு சக்திகள் அதற்கெதிராக நிற்கவில்லையா? சுருக்கமாகச் சொன்னால், என்னென்ன சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்கள் நடந்துள்ளனவோ அந்த கட்டங்களில் எல்லாம் அதற்கெதிராக கடுமையான எதிர்ப்புகளும் ஏற்பட்டுள்ளன.

முன்பிருந்த நிலை என்னவாக இருந்தது? பிராமணர்களிடமிருந்து 64 அடி தூரத்தில் பறையர் நிற்க வேண்டும். 54 அடி தூரத்தில் புலையர் நிற்க வேண்டும். 36 அடி தூரத்தில் ஈழவர் நிற்க வேண்டும். ஈழவர்களிடத்திலும் தீண்டாமை வழக்கமிருந்தது. ஈழவர்களிடமிருந்து 30 அடி தூரத்தில் புலையர் சமுதாயத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள் நிற்க வேண்டும். என்னவெல்லாம் தவறான பழக்கவழக்கங்கள் நமது மாநிலத்தில் நடைமுறையில் இருந்தன? இதுபோன்ற சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்களின் பலனாகத்தானே, இவையெல்லாம் மாறின? அதற்கு உறுதியான தொடர்ச்சிகளும் ஏற்பட்டன. நமது மாநிலத்தில் மேலோங்கி வந்த பலவேறு இயக்கங்கள் விவசாயிகளின் இயக்கம், தொழிலாளர்களின் இயக்கம், இடதுசாரி இயக்கம் போன்றவற்றின் தலையீடுகள், இந்த சமூக சீர்திருத்தக் கருத்துக்களை எல்லாம் உள்வாங்கிக்கொண்டு முன்னேறிச் சென்றன. அதுதானே இந்த மாநிலத்தை மாற்றின? இந்த மாநிலத்தின் இதுபோன்ற மாற்றங்களை உள்வாங்க முடியாத ஒரு நிலை இப்பொழுதும் உள்ளன என்பதையும் நாம் பார்க்க வேண்டும்.

ஸ்ரீ நாராயண குரு, அய்யன் காளி, சட்டம்பி சாமிகள் போன்றவர்களின் வரிசையில் உட்படுபவர்கள் தான் அய்யா வைகுண்டரும் பொய்கையில் குமார குருதேவனும் எல்லாம். இவர்களால், இந்த மாநிலத்தில் நடைமுறையில் இருந்த மூடநம்பிக்கைகள் நீங்கியதால் வந்த ஒளி தான் இப்போது கேரளத்தில் வீசுகின்றது.

நாம் அதில் பார்க்க வேண்டியது என்னவென்றால், அவர்கள் எல்லோரும் ‘சடங்குகளை மீறுவதற்காகத்தான் நிலைபாடு கொண்டிருந்தார்கள்’ என்பதைத் தான். ஸ்ரீ நாராயண குரு அருவிப்புறத்தில் சிவபிரதிஷ்டை நடத்திய சம்பவம்…உண்மையில் அது ஒரு சடங்கு மீறல் அல்லவா? அப்போது “உங்களுக்கு இதைச் செய்ய என்ன உரிமை?” என்று அவரிடம் கேட்டார்கள் அல்லவா? அதற்கு குரு என்ன பதில் கூறினார்…? “நாம் பிரதிஷ்டித்தது பிராமணர்களின் சிவனை அல்ல…நமது சிவனைத் தான் நாம் பிரதிஷ்டித்துள்ளோம்” அங்கு சடங்கு மீறல் தான் நடத்தப்பட்டது. அதன்பிறகு, அதே குரு. “இனி கோவில்களையல்ல…பள்ளிக்கூடங்களைக் கட்டுவது தான் மக்களுக்கான தேவை” என்று தானே சொன்னார்…..அங்கேயும் சடங்கு மீறல்கள் தானே தென்படுகிறது? அப்படியென்றால், சடங்குகள் மீறப்பட வேண்டியது என்று தான் அவர்கள் நமக்குக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்திருக்கிறார்கள். இதை நாம் நினைவில் இருத்த வேண்டும்.

அய்யன்காளியின் வில்வண்டிப் போராட்டத்தைப் பாருங்கள்…பொட்டு வைத்து, பட்டுத் தலைபாகை வைத்து, கோட்டு அணிந்து….அன்று அதற்கெல்லாம் உரிமை இருந்ததா? பொட்டு வைக்க உரிமை இருந்ததா? பட்டுத் தலைப்பாகை வைக்க உரிமை இருந்ததா? கோட்டு அணிய உரிமை இருந்ததா? அப்படியென்றால், உரிமையில்லை என்று சொன்னவர்களின் சட்டத்தோடு சேர்ந்து நிற்காமல், ‘எங்களுக்கு உரிமை உண்டு’ என்று கூறி, அந்த உரிமையை நிலைநாட்டுவதற்காகத் தான் நின்றார்கள்.

கடந்த வருடம் என்று தான் நினைக்கிறேன்…

இங்குள்ள ஊரூட்டம்பலம் ஆரம்பப்பள்ளிக்குச் சென்ற போது, அங்கே பாதி எரிந்துபோன பெஞ்சை நான் பார்க்க நேர்ந்தது. அது…எந்த பெஞ்சு தெரியுமா? பஞ்சமி என்ற தாழ்த்தப்பட்ட சமூகச் சிறுமியைப் பள்ளியில் அமரவிடவில்லை என்று கேள்விப்பட்ட போது, அந்த சிறுமியையும் அழைத்துக்கொண்டு, அய்யன்காளி தட்டிக்கேட்க வருகிறார் என்று கேள்விப்பட்ட மேல்ஜாதியினர் அந்த பள்ளிக்கே தீ வைத்தார்கள். அதில் முற்றும் எரிந்து போன பள்ளியிலிருந்து, எஞ்சிய இந்த எரிந்த, துண்டு பெஞ்சு மட்டும் கிடைத்தது. அதைத்தான் நான் அங்கு காண நேர்ந்தது. அவ்வாறு நமது மாநிலத்தில் வெவ்வேறு போராட்டங்கள் நடந்துள்ளன. அப்படித்தான், நாம் இன்று காணும் கேரளம் உருவானது.

அத்தகைய போராட்டங்களில்…
அடையாளத்திற்காக மேல்ஜாதியினரால் அணிய வைக்கப்பட்ட கல் மாலையை அறுத்தெறிய நடத்தப்பட்ட போராட்டம்…
உடன் அமர்ந்து படிக்க நடத்தப்பட்ட போராட்டம்…
படித்த பிறகு…
வேலைகிடைப்பதற்கான போராட்டம்…
பாதையில் நடப்பதற்கான உரிமை கேட்டு நடத்தப்பட்ட போராட்டம்…
கோவிலுக்குள் நுழைந்து வழிபடுவதற்கான போராட்டம்…
இத்தகைய வெவ்வேறு போராட்டங்கள் மூலம் தான், நாம் இன்று காணும் கேரளம் உருவானது என்பதை நினைவில் கொள்ள வேண்டும்.

இங்கே பாரதிய ஜனதா கட்சி நாட்டையாளும் கட்சியல்லவா? அக்கட்சியின் நிலைபாட்டை தனியாக நாம் பரிசீலிக்கவேண்டும். மகாராஷ்டிராவில் சனி தேவனின் ஒரு திருத்தலம் உள்ளது….ஒரு கோவில். அங்கு சனிதேவன் இருக்கிறார் என்று சொல்கிறார்கள். சனி சிக்னாபூர் என்பது தான் அந்தக் கோவிலின் பெயர். அந்தக் கோவிலில் எக்காலத்திலும் பெண்கள் நுழைந்ததில்லை. பெண்கள் அக்கோவிலுக்குள் செல்லவே கூடாதாம். சனிதேவன் பெண்களைப் பார்க்கவே கூடாது என்பதுதான் அங்குள்ள நிலைமை. இந்நிலையில் மும்பை உயர்நீதிமன்றம் ‘பெண்களுக்கு கோவிலுக்குள் செல்ல உரிமை உண்டு’ என்று தீர்ப்பளித்தது. அங்கே பாஜக அரசு தான் உள்ளது. அவர்கள் அந்தத் தீர்ப்பை அமுல்ப் படுத்தினார்கள். இப்போது பெண்கள் அந்தக் கோவிலுக்குச் செல்கிறார்கள். அப்படியென்றால், பாஜக ஆளும் மாநிலத்தில் நீதிமன்றத் தீர்ப்பை அமுல்படுத்தலாம். பாஜக ஆட்சியில் இல்லாத மாநிலத்தில், இடது ஜனநாயக முன்னணி ஆளும் மாநிலத்தில், உச்சநீதிமன்றத்தின் தீர்ப்பே வந்தாலும் அமுல்படுத்தக் கூடாது என்று எதிர்ப்புப் போராட்டம் நடத்துகிறார்கள். இது என்ன மாதிரியான இரட்டை நிலைப்பாடு?

அங்கே அதுபோலவே உச்சநீதிமன்றத்தின் இன்னொரு தீர்ப்பு…மும்பைக்கு அருகே ஹாஜி அலி தர்கா…அங்கே பெண்களை செல்ல அனுமதிக்கவேண்டுமென்று மனு கொடுக்கப்பட்டதன் அடிப்படையில், நீதிமன்றம் பெண்கள் அந்த மசூதியில் செல்ல அனுமதித்தது. அந்த மசூதியில் பெண்கள் செல்கிறார்கள். இதெல்லாம் மகாராஷ்டிராவில் நடந்த விஷயங்களாகும்.

அதோடு இடதுமுன்னணி அரசு சமூக சீர்திருத்த பாரம்பரியத்தின் அடிப்படையிலான நடவடிக்கைகளைத் தான் மேற்கொண்டு வருகிறது. நமது கோவில்களில் பிராமணர்கள் அல்லாதவர்களும் பூசாரிகள் ஆகாலாம். அது, நமது தேசமே பெரும் ஆதரவளித்து வரவேற்ற ஒன்றாகும். சாதாரணமாக எல்லோரும் பூசாரிகள் ஆகிவிட முடியாது என்பது போன்ற, மேல்ஜாதி ஆதிக்கம் நிறைந்த விதிமுறைகளை எழுதியவர்கள் உட்பட எல்லோரும், “எல்லா ஆகமங்களையும் கற்றுத் தேர்ந்தால் பூசாரி ஆவதற்கு தடையேதுமில்லை” என்ற நிலைபாட்டை முன்வைத்தபோது ஏற்றுக்கொண்டார்கள். அதுபோலவே தான், அறநிலையத்துறை ஊழியர்களின் நியமனத்தில் பட்டியலினத்தவர்கள், மலைவாழ் இனத்தவர்கள், பிற்படுத்தப்பட்டவர்களுக்கான இடஒதுக்கீடு சதவீதத்தை உயர்த்தினோம். உயர்வகுப்பினரில் பொருளாதார ரீதியாக பின்னடைந்துள்ளவர்களுக்கு, அறநிலையத்துறை ஊழியர் நியமனத்தில் தனியாக இடஒதுக்கீடு செய்யும் ஒரு முறையும் மாநில அரசு அமுல்ப்படுத்தியுள்ளது. இதெல்லாம், சமூக சீர்திருத்த மரபின் அடிப்படையில் மேற்கொள்ளப்பட்ட நடவடிக்கைகள் ஆகும்.

இங்கே காங்கிரசார் எண்ணிப்பார்க்க வேண்டிய விஷயம் என்னவென்றால், கட்சிக் கொடியின்றி பாஜக தலைமை தாங்கும் போராட்டத்தில் பங்கேற்றால், நீங்கள் காங்கிரஸ் அல்ல என்று ஆகிவிடுவீர்களா..? ஆமாம்…காங்கிரஸ் இல்லையென்று ஆகிவிடும் நிலை உங்களுக்கு நிச்சயம் ஏற்படும்….நாளை அவர்கள் பாஜக ஆகிவிடுவார்கள் என்று தெரிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்.

காங்கிரசுடன் இணைந்து நிற்பவர்கள் கவனிக்க வேண்டிய ஒரு விஷயம் இருக்கிறது…அது அரசியலமைப்புச்சட்டம் பற்றிய ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ்-ன் பார்வை ஆகும். அரசியலமைப்புச் சட்டத்தைத் தகர்க்க வேண்டுமென்று தான் ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ் நினைக்கிறது. அதை அவர்கள் வெளிப்படையாகவே கூறுகிறார்கள். இந்திய பாராளுமன்றத்திலேயே கூறிவிட்டார்கள். ஆனால் இப்போது ஒரு வாதம் முன்வைக்கப்படுகிறது. அந்த வாதத்தை காங்கிரசாரும் உயர்த்திப்பிடிக்கிறார்கள். அது, “எல்லாவற்றையும் விட உயர்ந்தது நம்பிக்கையே ஆகும். நம்பிக்கையே முக்கியம்….அரசியலமைப்புச்சட்டத்தின் மதிப்புமிக்க அம்சங்களை விட சட்டங்களைவிட நம்பிக்கையே முக்கியம்” என்பதாகும். இந்த வாதத்துடன் இணைந்து நிற்பவர்கள் அதன் பின்னால் மறைந்திருக்கும் ஆபத்தை சரியான விதத்தில் புரிந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறார்களா?

இந்திய யூனியன் முஸ்லிம் லீக் இந்த வாதத்துடன் அணிதிரள்வதாக செய்திகள் வருகின்றன. முஸ்லீம் லீக் தலைவர்களும் உணர்ச்சிவசப்பட்டு இந்த வாதத்துடன் அணிவகுக்கிறார்கள். நீங்கள் இந்த வாதத்தை கொஞ்சம் விரிவுபடுத்திப் பாருங்கள். பாபர் மசூதி விவகாரத்தில்…எங்கே போய் முடியும்? நம்பிக்கைதான் முக்கியம் எனில், இராமர் கோவில்தான் அது என்று கூறும் நம்பிக்கையோடு அல்லவா இணைந்து நின்றிருக்க வேண்டும். ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ்-ம் அந்த வாதத்தோடு தான்…பாஜக-வும் அந்த வாதத்தோடு தான்… காங்கிரசும் மிகச்சரியாக அந்த வாதத்தோடு தான், அக்காலத்தில் நின்றார்கள் என்று எல்லோருக்கும் தெரியும்…இந்த வாதத்தின் பின்னால் உள்ள ஆபத்து என்னவென்று சரியான முறையில் யார் புரிந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறார்கள்? நமது நாட்டில், சங் பரிவாரங்கள் உரிமை கொண்டாடுவது ஒரு பாபர் மசூதியின் மீது மட்டுமல்ல. இந்தியாவில் உள்ள ஏராளமான வழிபாட்டுத்தலங்கள் மீது அவர்களின் உரிமைவாதம் இருக்கிறது. இது எங்களது ஆராதனாலயம் என்று கூறுகின்ற உரிமைவாதத்தை முன்வைக்கிறார்கள்.

எல்லாமே நம்பிக்கையின் அடிப்படையிலானது என்றால் நாளைய எதிர்காலம் என்னவாகும் என்று…நிதானமாக சிந்தித்தால் போதும்…சிந்திக்க முடிந்தால்…இவ்வாறு நம்பிக்கையின்பால் அடித்துச் செல்லப்பட்டவர்கள் சிந்தித்துப் பார்க்கவேண்டும் என்பதை மட்டும் நாங்கள் உங்களுக்குச் சொல்லிக்கொள்ள விரும்புகிறோம்…

நாம் கவனமாகப் பார்க்க வேண்டிய விஷயம் என்னவெனில், எது அவர்களின் குறிக்கோள் என்பதே….அரசைத் திட்டுவதோ…இடதுஜனநாயக முன்னணியைத் திட்டுவதோ அல்ல…மாறாக அவர்களின் உண்மையான நோக்கம் கேரளத்தின் மதசார்பற்ற சிந்தனையைத் தகர்ப்பதே ஆகும். அதை அனுமதிக்க வேண்டுமா? என்பதே நமக்கு முன் உள்ள கேள்வி. அதை அனுமதிக்கவே முடியாது. நாம் உறுதியாக இத்தகைய முன்னெடுப்புகளை எதிர்த்து நின்று போராடியிருக்கிறோம். மதசார்பற்ற சிந்தனைகளை எதிர்க்கவும், மதசார்பற்ற எண்ணங்களை தகர்க்கவும் நடத்தப்படும் முயற்சிகளை, நாம் எல்லோரும் இணைந்து முறியடிக்க வேண்டும். மதநம்பிக்கையாளர்கள் உட்பட உள்ள அனைவரும், அதற்காக அணிதிரண்டு களத்திலிறங்கிப் போராட வேண்டுமென்று இந்நேரத்தில் கேட்டுக்கொள்ள விரும்புகிறேன்.

KUSHINAGAR | the Maitreya Buddha Project | 152m — India’s and the World’s Tallest Statue and Buddhist temple!

26 July, 2007 by feloniousvindaloo

The Maitreya Project, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
…The World’s tallest statue and a brilliant religious masterpiece dedicated to the Maitreya Buddha!

Now, another great religious project has officially been given the go-ahead in one of the poorest parts of India. The Maitreya Project is a tribute to Buddhism for and from the land of the Buddha and is as a multi-faith cooperative designed by Tibetans who call India their home as as a lasting gift to India and Buddhism.

In this era of veritable skyscraper-hedonism (*cough*Dubai*coughh* j/k), this project is unique in that it is designed to fulfill a completely selfless goal, namely “to benefit as many people as possible.” A monumental sustainable work of art that will serve as a constant source of inspiration and a symbol of loving-kindness, work will soon begin on the 152 meter-tall Maitreya Buddha Statue that is the centerpiece of a large temple complex.

An engineering marvel that at will not only be — at three times the size of the Statue of Liberty — the world’s tallest statue and world’s tallest temple but will also be the world’s largest (first?) statue-skyscraper, designed to have a lifespan surpassing a 1,000 years.

For more information and a large collection of pictures of this beautiful project originally posted by me on Skyscrapercity.com, read on!…

The focal point of Indian architecture, like its culture, has always been religious in nature. Just as the Indian economic boom is bringing incredible economic and architectural growth in the secular area, so has Indian religious architecture once again become manifest in the construction of some of the largest, massive, and most intricate religious architecture the world has seen, from the recently completed Akshardham Temple, New Delhi — the largest volume Hindu Temple in India, to the under construction Global Vipassana Pagoda, Mumbai — the largest stupa, largest dome, and largest rock cave in the world, to the planned Sri Mayapur Vedic Temple and Planetarium, Mayapur, the world’s tallest Hindu temple.

And now the Maitreya Buddha Statue is to be another gem added to this crow. The statue is a veritable temple-skyscraper that will contain 17 individual shrine rooms. The highest room at 140 meters high — the equviliant height of the 40th storey of a standard building. This statue and complex will be a fusion of Indian and Tibetan architectural styles that will adhere to ancient Vaastu Shastra design code and will also hold the world’s largest collection of Lord Buddha’s relics.

^ A cutaway view of the 152 meter Maitreya statue and throne building showing the spaces and levels within. Note that the throne itself will be a 17 storey fully functional temple, with 15 additional shrine rooms in the the body of the Maitreya statue.

Apart from the statue/skyscraper, the Maitreya Project organizers will also build free hospitals and schools servicing tens of thousands of poor, and also be a huge catalyst for infrastructure and tourism development efforts in one of the most economically backwards parts of India.

The project is a joint religious collaboration by organizations representing the various sects and faiths that revere the Buddha: from Hinduism to Mahayana to Vajrayana to Hinayana to Jaina to Christian and Muslim. Under guidance of the overall project conceptualizer, Nepalese-Tibetan spiritual leader Lama Zopa Rinpoche, the Project was funded by Buddhist and Hindu temples, social organizations, religious groups and by individuals in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, the UK and America.

Through this project, India once again shows that the ancient arts of massive devotional architecture continues to undergo a veritable renaissance.

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The Maitreya Complex: Project Detail

^ A prerendering of the Maitreya Buddha statue and temple, showing its massive size.

The Maitreya Project “is based on the belief that inner peace and outer peace share a cause and effect relationship and that loving-kindness leads to peace at every level of society — peace for individuals, families, communities and the world.”

The entire temple complex is designed to be completely sustainable, meaning that it will quite literally have the same environmental impact (i.e. emit the same amount of carbon dioxide and methane) as the paddy field it will be constructed.

The Project will include schools and universities that focus on ethical and spiritual development as well as academic achievement, and a healthcare network based around a teaching hospital of international standard with the intention of supplementing the medical services currently provided by the government to provide healthcare services, particularly for the poor and underprivileged.

As such, the Maitreya Project organizers are working in tandem with the local, regional and state governments in Uttar Pradesh, India, who have fully supported the project. To this effect, the Kushinagar Special Development Area Authority will support the planned development of the area surrounding the Project.

The total project cost is estimated at $250 million, but the project will develop this impoverished region and will earn a hundredfold more that will be funneled into the Maitreya Project’s historical preservation plans and charities.

^ Maitreya Project engineers on-site

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The Location of the Maitreya Complex

The Maitreya Buddha project was originally concieved to be built in Bodh Gaya, Bihar state, the site of the Buddha’s enlightenment, but due to threat of delays due to red tape, was moved to what was seen to be a more appropriate location, the village of Kushinagar, in Uttar Pradesh state.

Kushinagar is a place of great historical and spiritual significance. It is the place where Shakyamuni (Historical) Buddha passed away and it is predicted to be the birthplace of the next Buddha, Maitreya – the Buddha of Loving-kindness - of whom this temple is dedicated to.

^ The original conception of the Maitreya Buddha statue, then to be located at Bodh Gaya

Recognising the long-term benefits Maitreya Project is bringing to the region, the State Government of Uttar Pradesh is providing, free of charge, 750 acres of mainly agricultural land in Kushinagar.

^ A view of the Maitreya Project land site, currently rice paddy

Indeed, the Project itslef will be located adjacent to the ancient Mahaparinirvana Temple, commemorating the Buddha’s passing, the ancient Ramabhar Stupa, commemorating the Buddha’s cremation site, as well as several equally old and older Hindu temples. It is predicted that the pilgrimage, tourism and development capital that will flow into this region because of this project will created sustainable income for the restoration, refurbishment and maintinance of these ancient sacred sites.

Surrounding the complex is the Kushinagar Special Development Area, designed as a sustainable development entity that will coordinate the various organizations involved in the project and surrounding tourist and general development that will come with the project.

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The Kushinagar Special Development Area

The Maitreya Project and the Uttar Pradesh have worked together to create the Kushinagar Special Development Area (KSDA), an additional area of 7.5 kilometres surrounding the Maitreya Project site.

Municipal bylaws and planning regulations have now been adopted to protect the KSDA from the kind of opportunism that is often seen in communities of emerging economic development. Maitreya Project has representation on the legal bodies governing the KSDA as well as the work of monitoring the development of the region will be ongoing.

It is within the KSDA that Maitreya Project will implement its extensive healthcare and education programmes.

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Maitreya Project Preliminary Site Plan

Maitreya Project’s lead architects, Aros Ltd., have drawn up a preliminary proposed plan for the beautiful 750 acre Kushinagar site.

Main features being:

The Ceremonial Gateway & Maitreya Statue Sanctuary will lead visitors to the 500ft/152m Maitreya Buddha statue.
The Maitreya Buddha Statue will sit on the Throne Building containing temples, prayer halls, exhibition halls, a museum, library and audio-visual theatre.
The Hospital and Healthcare Centre will be the hub of Maitreya Project’s public healthcare programmes. The development of these programmes will begin with primary care clinics in the communities of the Kushinagar Special Development Area. Over the years, the medical services will be developed and expanded to meet the needs of many communities. A complete healthcare network will be developed to provide medical services that are centred around a teaching hospital of international standard. The healthcare system will primarily serve the poor and under-privileged, even in remote parts of the area.
The Centre of Learning, will eventually serve students from primary to university levels of education.
The Meditation Park will be a secluded area next to the ancient Mahaparinirvana Temple, which commemorates Buddha Shakyamuni’s passing away from our world, the ancient Ramabhar Stupa, commemorating the Buddha’s holy cremation site, and monasteries and temples belonging to many different traditions of Buddhism that include both modern facilities and ancient ruins.

^ A View from the Maitreya Project Park

All of these features will be set in beautifully landscaped parks with meditation pavilions, beautiful water fountains and tranquil pools. All of the buildings and outdoor features will contain an extensive collection of inspiring sacred art.

^ A view of the temple from the gardens surrounding the site

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The Statue of the Maitreya Buddha

The center of the Maitreya Project, of course, is the bronze plate statue of the Maitreya Buddha itself. Rising 500ft/152m in height, the statue will sit on a stone throne temple building located in an enclosed sanctuary park.

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The Living Wall:

Surrounding the Maitreya Buddha statue is a four-storey halo of buildings called the “Living Wall.” This ring of buildings contains accomadation for the complex’s monks and workers as well as rooms for functions ancillary to the statue and throne building.

The wall also serves two additional important functions. In light of cross-border Islamist terrorist attacks against Indian holy sites in Ayodhya, Akshardham and Jama Masjid, the Living Wall also is designed to be a security cordon eqivalent to a modern castle wall, staffed with security personnel and designed to withstand an attack from 200 heavily armed raiders.

^ Prerendering of the Statue showing the location of the living wall, main gate, paths and garden areas.

The final major function it performs is that of the boundary for the enclosed sanctuary area of landscaped gardens, pools and fountains for meditation directly surrounding the Maitreya statue. The entry to the enclosed sanctuary and the Maitreya statue will be serviced by a main gate.

^ The tree and stupa lined paths to the ceremonial gate, which is the entrance to the sanctuary.

Passing the ceremonial gate, landscaped paths allow devotes to do Pradakshina (circumambulation) of the Maitreya Statue.

^ The terraced circumambulation paths, with the gate in the background.

Within the sanctuary, the gardens provide a place for relaxing, resting, and meditating, with educational artwork depicting the Buddha’s life.

^ A view towards the statue from one of these stupa lined terraces.

Walking further inward, the is Maitreya Statue and Throne Temple, surrounded by tranquil ponds and fountains that will cool the area in the intense Indian summer.

^ The Maitreya statue and throne surrounded by the tranquil ponds containing Buddha statues of the meditation sanctuary.

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The Throne Temple:

The “seat” of the statue is itelf a fully functioning 17-storey temple roughly 80m x 50m in size. The building will contain two very large prayer halls, as well as meditation and meeting rooms, a library and facilities to deal with the anticipated annual influx of 2 million visitors.

^ The entrance to the throne building with the Maitreya Buddha statue resting upon the lotus on top

Pilgrims will enter the throne temple through the giant lotus that supports the Maitreya Buddha statue’s feet. The throne temple contains several entrance rooms that contain works of art on the Buddha’s life and teachings.

^ The first major prayer hall of throne building, containing works of art on the Buddha.

Continuing inward is the cavernous main auditorium of the Maitreya Temple containing the Sanctum Sanctorum which in Indian architectural tradition is the innermost most sacred room where the actual shrine is held. This Sanctum Sanctorum is unique in that within it contains two large auditorium temples.

The first temple in the Sanctum Sanctorum is the Temple of the Maitreya Buddha, containing a huge, 12 meter tall statue of the Buddha.

^ Upon entering the Sanctum Sanctorum, the 12 meter tall statue of the Buddha can be glimpsed.

A wall containing 200,000 images of the Buddhas rises up to the throne ceiling over 50 metres above, behind both auditorium temples.

^ A glimpse from the ambulatory of the side walls within the Maitreya Temple and the 1,000 paintings of the Buddhas.

The centerpiece shrine of the Maitreya Temple is the 12 meter tall Maitreya Buddha. Stairs and elevators lead to viewing platforms around the Maitreya Temple, allowing views of the entire room

^ A view of the Maitreya Buddha statue and the wall of the 200,000 images of the Buddha, seen from viewing platforms.

The next biggest shrine in the Sanctum Sanctorum is the Temple of the Shakyamuni Buddha which contains a 10 meter statue of the Shakyamuni (Historical) Buddha. Behind the shrine is the continuation of the wall of 200,000 Buddhas.

^ On a higher level yet again, the Shakyamuni Temple will house a 10 metre (33 ft.) statue of the historical Buddha. The glass rear wall will reveal the wall of 200,000 Buddhas within the Maitreya Temple.

^ Another view of the Shakyamuni Temple.

In Indian architecture, the Sanctum Sanctorum is encircled by a pathway that allows devotees to do Pradakshina (circumambulation) of the shrine. The Maitreya Temple, following this tradition, also has this feature.

^ The main throne building and Pradakshina path where visitors may circumambulate Sanctum Sanctorum of the Maitreya Temple, which can be seen through the doorways on the right

From this area, elevators and staircases will carry visitors to the various other rooms in the 17 storey base, including prayer halls, meditation halls and libraries. Eventually conveying devotees to a large rooftop garden terrace upon which the Maitreya Buddha statue actually rests.

Here, rising into the upper legs of the main statue, is the Merit Field Hall with a 10 meter, 3-dimensional depiction of over 390 Buddhas and Buddhist masters at it’s center. Surrounding this will be 12 individual shrine rooms devoted to particular deities in the Hindu-Buddhist pantheon.

^ The Merit Field Hall with its 10m, 3-D depiction.

From the garden terrace, another bank of elevators will whisk pilgrims to the higher shrine rooms contained in the statue’s torso and head.

-=—-=—=–

The Statue:

The statue will contain 15 individual shrine rooms and have a total height of 152 meters, with the highest shrine room in the statue’s head, at over 140 meters up. This is roughly equivalent in height to a 40-storey skyscraper.

^ A cutaway diagram of the statue-tower.

The statue is itself an engineering marvel. Rather than simply be designed in its massive size, the statue of the Maitreya Buddha was actually reversed-designed from a carved statue only a meter and half in height and the structure’s engineering extrapolated into its current form.

^ The original statue from which the Maitreya Buddha statue tower is extrapolated from was hand carved, and is in the Indian Gupta style.

Moreover, the statue is designed to stand for at least 1,000 years, supporting the Project’s spiritual and social work for at least a millennium. Due to the statue’s millenia-passing lifespan, the huge structure is designed to withstand high winds, extreme temperature changes, seasonal rains, possible earthquakes and floods and environmental pollution.

Extensive research has gone into developing “Nikalium”, the special nickel-aluminum bronze alloy to be used for the outer ’skin’ of the statue designed to withstand the most challenging conditions that could conceivably arise.

As the bronze ’skin’ will expand and contract dramatically due to daily temperature changes, the statue will require special expansion joints that were designed to be not only invisible to the observer, but also in such a way as to protect the internal supports of the statue from water leakage, erosion and corrosion. The material and structural components of the statue are meant to be able to withstand potential unforseen disasters like earthquakes and monsoon flooding.

^ The engineering process of the Buddha statue.

—–==–=–==—–

Construction Status — June, 2007

The Maitreya Project recently passed its first major milestone this month, when, in compliance with the Indian Land Acquistion Act, the State Government of Uttar Pradesh has completed the necessary legal requirements for the acquisition of the 750 acre land site to be made available to the Project.

While there are still permissions and clearances to be obtained, it has now officially given the green light and the full support of the government.

It is expected that the Project will formally break ground either later this year or early 2008, with an expected construction time of five years. The project will employ more than a thousand skilled and semi-skilled workers in the construction phase.

—–==–=–==—–

For more information on this fantastic project, check out

Maitreyaproject.org

Sorry for the length of the post, but I wanted this veritable essay to be a comprehensive introduction to what Maitreya Project organizers aim to literally be the 8th Wonder of the World, and an everlasting symbol of Religious Syncretism, Tolerance, Compassion and most of all, Love.

A cause truely fitting of the Buddha, Shakya Muni Sri Siddharth Gautamaji.

American Buddhist Net

Uttar Pradesh to boast of world’s tallest Buddha statue

Fri, 2008-03-28 10:32 — ABN
Does this sound good to you? Here’s a story about something similar in Australia: Nowra to get its own Kung Fu temple: Australia ABN
____________

Tuesday, 25 March , 2008, 18:25

Lucknow: Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs 10 billion project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi Group. Provision of land is UP government’s share in the project.

For more news, analysis click here>> | For more Science and Medicine news click here >>

The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.

Nowra to get its own Kung Fu temple: Australia

Sat, 2006-06-10 08:25 — ABN
The more I read about this temple, the less I like it. See also this. ABN
_______________

There will be a three-tier temple complex, with two pagodas, 500-room hotel, a 500-place kung fu academy. There’ll be some residential subdivision, a 27-hole golf course, herbal medicine, herbal gardens, acupuncture, special massage, and that’s about it.

AM - Saturday, 10 June , 2006 08:24:30
Reporter: John Taylor
ELIZABETH JACKSON: It’s probably the most famous temple in the world.

China’s Shaolin Temple has been made famous through books, films, and TV, because of its legendary kung fu fighting monks.

Now, the Zen Buddhist temple is looking to build another home for its monks, outside Nowra in New South Wales.

A deal to purchase 1,200 hectares will be signed in China today, as our Correspondent, John Taylor, reports.

LINK TO ORIGINAL

JOHN TAYLOR: In the history of kung fu, there is no other place like the Shaolin Temple.

The 1,500-year-old Zen Buddhist monastery in central China is home to fighting monks, made famous in modern times on the big and small screen.

If things go to plan, the monks may be about to set up a lavish home away from home, just south of Nowra.

Greg Watson is Mayor of the Shoalhaven City Council.

GREG WATSON: There will be a three-tier temple complex, with two pagodas, 500-room hotel, a 500-place kung fu academy.

There’ll be some residential subdivision, a 27-hole golf course, herbal medicine, herbal gardens, acupuncture, special massage, and that’s about it.

JOHN TAYLOR: Today in central China’s Henan province Mayor Watson and the Temple’s Abbott are to sign off on the monks’ purchase of a 1,200 hectare property south of Nowra.

Patrick Peng is the Abbott’s representative in Australia.

PATRICK PENG: The Shaolin of course is very well known in China itself, so he like to take this opportunity to try to introduce the Shaolin legacy, the heritage to the rest of the world, through another outlet.

JOHN TAYLOR: The NSW Government is still to give final approval to the project. But speaking in Beijing yesterday, Mayor Greg Watson wasn’t expecting a fight.

GREG WATSON: What happened was, I heard via a Member of Parliament, that the Abbott was looking for a potential location to establish the second Shaolin temple in the world, somewhere in Australia, and I said have I got a deal for the Abbott?

JOHN TAYLOR: Who says religion and big business can’t mix?

The Shaolin Temple already has a performance touring the world, featuring the impressive skills of its fighting monks.

The Abbott’s man in Australia, Patrick Peng, says Shaolin is not just about kung fu.

PATRICK PENG: You know, it’s culture.

JOHN TAYLOR: Well can you have the two together, a tourist attraction and a functioning temple?

PATRICK PENG: Oh yes, in fact, on the contrary. Nowadays many religions, not only just Buddhism, Daoism, they’re all trying to make themselves more relevant to the modern world, and really they’re not exclusive, they’re not just men in the caves, you know.

So what they’re trying to do is to share the philosophies and the lifestyle, the healthy lifestyle, to the world.

ELIZABETH JACKSON: Patrick Peng, who represents the Abbott of the Shaolin Temple in Australia, ending that report from John Taylor.

Thaindian News

Uttar Pradesh to have world’s tallest Buddha statue

March 25th, 2008 - 3:37 pm ICT by admin

Lucknow, March 25 (IANS) Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs.10 billion project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi group.

Proviuion of land is UP government’s share in the project.

The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.

UP Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were present here Monday. A presentation on the project was made.

Significantly, the project was initiated during the previous tenure of Chief Minister Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the backburner during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime.

“Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,” Misra told IANS.

He said: “Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land.

“The government had already started the acquisition process. The whole project would not involve any major displacement of people and not more than 70-80 farmers would be involved,” he said.

“We have worked out a handsome rehabilitation package for the farmers who would get displaced on account of the project.”

UP to have world’s tallest Buddha statue
Published: Wednesday, 26 March, 2008, 08:05 AM Doha Time
LUCKNOW: World’s tallest Buddha statue will be installed in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Chief Minister Mayawati has asked officials to speed up acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs10bn project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi group.
The state government will give the land for the project which involves installation of a 152m tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art hospital and a museum.
The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.
Uttar Pradesh Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were present here on Monday. A presentation on the project was made.
The project was initiated during the previous tenure of Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the backburner.
“Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,” Misra said.
“Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land,” he said.- IANS

India eNews Logo

From correspondents in Uttar Pradesh, India, 03:33 PM IST

Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs.10 billion project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi group.

Proviuion of land is UP government’s share in the project.

The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.

UP Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were present here Monday. A presentation on the project was made.

Significantly, the project was initiated during the previous tenure of Chief Minister Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the backburner during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime.

‘Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,’ Misra told IANS.

He said: ‘Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land.

‘The government had already started the acquisition process. The whole project would not involve any major displacement of people and not more than 70-80 farmers would be involved,’ he said.

‘We have worked out a handsome rehabilitation package for the farmers who would get displaced on account of the project.’

India - Uttar Pradesh - Kushinagar Buddhist Site
Kushinagar Buddhist Site

Population : 14,000
Distance : 55km from Gorakhpur

¤ Kushinagar - A Site of Buddhist Parinirvana

KushinagarSituated in Deoria district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Kushinagara was a small town in the days of the Buddha. But it became famous when the Buddha died here, on his way from Rajgir to Sravasti. His last memorable words were, “All composite things decay. Strive diligently!” This event is known as the ‘Final Blowing-Out’ (Parinirvana) in Buddhist parlance. Since then the place has become a celebrated pilgrim centre. It was the capital of the kingdom of the Mallas, one of the 16 Janapadas (see Sravasti).

¤ Places of Interest

Muktabandhana Stupa
The Muktabandhana Stupa was built by the Mallas just after the Buddha’s death. It is built over the sacred relics of the Buddha himself. The Stupa is also known as Ramabhar Stupa and is 50 ft tall. It is believed that the Stupa was built on the spot where the Buddha was cremated.

Nirvana Stupa
1km west of the Muktabandhana Stupa is the Nirvana Stupa that was built in the days of Ashoka. It was renovated in 1927 by the Burmese Buddhists. In front of the Stupa is the Mahaparinirvana Temple in which is installed a colossal sandstone statue of the Buddha in the reclining position. It was built by the Mathura school of art and was brought to Kushinagar by a Buddhist monk named Haribala during the reign of Kumaragupta (c. a.d.415-454).

Kushinagar

Kushinagar

Once in Kushinagar, it appears that time has come to a complete halt. This sleepy town, with its serenity and unassuming beauty, absorbs visitors into a contemplative mood. It is this place that the Buddha had chosen to free himself from the cycles of death and life and, therefore, it occupies a very special space in the heart of every Buddhist.
Location
Kushinagar is situated in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, 51 km off Gorakhpur. The place, which is famous for the Mahaparinirvana (death) of Lord Buddha, has been included in the famous Buddhist trail encompassing Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Nepal.
Kushinagar is also known as Kasia or Kusinara. The founder of Buddhism, Lord Buddha passed away at this place near the Hiranyavati River and was cremated at the Ramabhar stupa. It was once a celebrated center of the Malla kingdom. Many of its stupas and viharas date back to 230 BC-AD 413. when its prosperity was at the peak. The Mauryan emperor Ashoka added grandeur to this place by getting the magnificent statue of Buddha carved on a single piece of red sandstone. Fa Hien, Huen Tsang, and I-tsing, the three famous Chinese scholar travelers to India, all visited Kushinagar.

With the decline of Buddhism, however, Kushinagar lost its importance and suffered much neglect. It was only in the last century that Lord Alexander Cunningham excavated many important remnants of the main site such as the Matha Kua and Ramabhar stupa. Today, people from all over the world visit Kushinagar. Many national and international societies and groups have established their centers here.

Climate
Like other places in the Gangetic plain, the climate of Kushinagar is hot and humid in the summers (mid-April-mid-September) with Maximum Temperature touching 40-45°C. Winters are mild
and Minimum Temperature in December can go down to around 5°C. Monsoon reaches this region in June and remains here till September

Population
Around 22,35,505 people live here

Language
Hindi and Bhojpuri

Places of Interest

Mahaparinirvana Temple
The Mahaparinirvana temple (also known as the Nirvana temple) is the main attraction of Kushinagar. It is a single room structure, which is raised on a platform and is topped by a superstructure, which conforms to the traditional Buddhist style of architecture. The Mahaparinirvana temple houses the world famous 6m (19.68 ft) long statue of the reclining Buddha.

This statue was discovered during the excavation of 1876 by British archaeologists. The statue has been carved out from sandstone and represents the dying Buddha. The figures carved on the four sides of the small stone railing surrounding the statue, show them mourning the death of Lord Buddha. According to an inscription found in Kushinagar, the statue dates back to the 5th century AD.
It is generally believed that Haribala, a Buddhist monk brought the statue of the reclining Buddha to Kushinagar, from Mathura during 5th century, during the period of the Gupta Empire.

Nirvana Stupa
The Nirvana stupa is located behind the Mahaparinirvana temple. British archaeologists discovered this brick structure during the excavation carried out in 1876. Subsequent excavations carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed a copper vessel, which contained the remains of Lord Buddha apart from precious stones, cowries and a gold coin belonging to the Gupta Empire. The copper vessel bore the inscription that the ashes of Lord Buddha had been interred here.

Mathakuar Shrine
The Mathakuar Shrine is an interesting place to visit in Kushinagar. It is located near the Nirvana stupa. A statue of Buddha made out of black stone was found here. The statue shows Buddha in the Bhumi Sparsha mudra (pose in which Buddha is touching the earth with his fingers). It is believed that Lord Buddha preached his last sermon here before his death.

Ramabhar Stupa
The Ramabhar Stupa (also known as the Mukutabandhana stupa) is a 14.9 m (49 ft) tall brick stupa, which is located at a distance of 1 km from the Mahaparinirvana temple. This stupa is built on the spot where Lord Buddha was cremated in 483 BC. Ancient Buddhist scriptures refer this stupa as the Mukutabandhana stupa. It is said that the Malla rulers, who ruled Kushinagar during the death of Buddha built the Ramabhar stupa.

Modern Stupas
Kushinagar has a number of modern stupas and monasteries, which have been built, by different Buddhist countries. The important shrines worth visiting are the Chinese stupa and the IndoJapan-Sri Lankan Buddhist Centre.

Kushinagar Museum
The Kushinagar Museum (Archaeological Museum) is located near the IndoJapan-Sri Lankan Buddhist Centre. The museum has a collection of artefacts like statues, carved panels etc excavated from various stupas and monasteries in Kushinagar and places around it.

Excursion
Gorakhpur
Fifty-one kilometers off Kushinagar is Gorakhpur, an important city of eastern Uttar Pradesh. At Gorakhpur is the Rahul Sanskrityayan Museum, which has an excellent collection of Thanka paintings and relics of the Buddha. The water sports complex at Ramgarh Tal Planetarium and the Gorakhnath Temple in the city are also worth a visit.
Kapilavastu (Piprahwa)
Situated 148 km from Kushinagar and is an important Buddhist pilgrimage. Kapilavastu was the ancient capital of the Sakya clan ruled by Gautama Buddha’s father.

Lumbini
Situated in Nepal at a distance of 122 km from Gorakhpur, Lumbini is the birthplace of Lord Buddha. There are regular buses to the Nepalese border, from where the remaining 26 km has to be covered by private vehicles

How to get there
Airport
The nearest airhead is located at Varanasi from where one can take flights to Delhi, Calcutta, Lucknow, and Patna.
Rail
Kushinagar does not have a railway station. The nearest railway station is at Gorakhpur (51 km), which is the headquarters of Northeastern Railways and linked to important destinations. Some important trains to Gorakhpur are Bombay-Gorakhpur-Bandra Express, New Delhi-Barauni-Vaishali Express, Cochin-Gorakhpur Express, Shaheed Express, Amarnath Express, and Kathgodam Express.

Road
Kushinagar is well connected to other parts of the state of Uttar Pradesh by bus. The distances from places around are : Gorakhpur (51 km), Lumbini (173 km), Kapilavastu (148 km), Sravasti (254 km), and Sarnath (266 km), and Agra (680 km).

BUDDHIST HEARTLAND

comments (0)
10/22/18
LESSON 2784 Tue 23 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 6:46 pm

LESSON 2784 Tue 23 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

http://www.kushinagar.com/
” Now, O Brothers ! I do remind you, all component things are subject to decay. Work for your salvation in the earnest”
Above is the last sermon Buddha preached in 543 BC when he arrived at Kushinagar. Three months earlier at Vaishali (Bihar) on the day of ‘Magh Purnima’, he declared his death & destined to exhale the last breath at Kushinagar. The cremation was done at ‘Mukut Bandhan’ (Rambhar) where ‘Mallas` constructed a big stupa over the ashes. Later, Ashoka, the Great, renovated it. The Chineese travelers Fa Hien & Hieun Tsang have mentioned “Kushinara” in their Travel Memo. Kushinara continued to be living-city till the 12th century A.D. & was thereafter lost into oblivion. After extensive excavations main stupa was exposed in 1876 AD. In addition a 6.10 m long statue of reclining Buddha was discovered. Ven. Chandra Swami a Burmeese Monk, came to India in 1903 and made Mahaparinivana Temple into a living shrine.

http://www.kushinagar.com/default1.htm

Above is the last sermon Buddha preached in 543 BC when he arrived at Kushinagar. Three months earlier at Vaishali (Bihar) on the day of ‘Magh Purnima’, he declared his death & destined to exhale the last breath at Kushinagar. The cremation was done at ‘Mukut Bandhan’ (Rambhar) where ‘Mallas` constructed a big stupa over the ashes. Later, Ashoka, the Great, renovated it. The Chineese travelers Fa Hien & Hieun Tsang have mentioned “Kushinara” in their Travel Memo. Kushinara continued to be living-city till the 12th century A.D. & was thereafter lost into oblivion. After extensive excavations main stupa was exposed in 1876 AD. In addition a 6.10 m long statue of reclining Buddha was discovered. Ven. Chandra Swami a Burmeese Monk, came to India in 1903 and made Mahaparinivana Temple into a living shrine.

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OBJETO DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN: En este trabajo se adoptó Protección Motivación Teoría (PMT) para examinar el conocimiento y la percepción de riesgo de cáncer de cuello de útero y los parajumpers españa factores que influyen en su motivación para recibir screening.METHODS Y MUESTRA futuras de las mujeres chinas: Un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo con 167 mujeres chinas (142 mujeres estaban dispuestas a recibir una proyección en el futuro y 25 mujeres no eran) en 2007 para recoger información air max baratas sociodemográfica de las mujeres y la historia sexual, las percepciones relacionadas con la salud y el conocimiento del cuerpo sobre el cáncer y la detección cervical, y Protección medidas teoría de la motivación. RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES: La mayoría de las mujeres declaró su intención de recibir el cribado futuro y eficacia la respuesta se asoció significativamente con su intención. Sin embargo, parajumpers españa no se observó una nike air max 90 baratas asociación significativa entre la historia sexual y la protección de la motivación. Utilizando el análisis multivariado, el cáncer en familiares (odds ratio, OR = 9,97, 95% CI [1,44 a 436,3], p = 0,010), la percepción de que visitar a un médico con regularidad es importante para la salud (OR = 9,85, 95% CI [1,61 -999.9], p = 0.009)), y siempre asistir para el cribado cervical durante los tres años anteriores (OR = 3,49; IC del 95% [01/23 a 11/02], p = 0,016) se asociaron significativamente con la motivación mujeres a recibir screening nike air max 90 baratas futuro .Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio ponen de manifiesto el importante papel de las creencias de las mujeres en el valor del cribado cervical y la experiencia de selección previa en motivarlos para recibir una proyección. Aunque muchas medidas han sido adoptadas por la Comisión Conjunta para timberland españa mejorar la atención al paciente y definir el comportamiento disruptivo, hay más margen de mejora por los médicos. Barreras para la eliminación de conductas disruptivas por cirujanos ortopédicos incluyen miedo a las represalias, la falta de conciencia entre los compañeros del cirujano, y los factores financieros. Los cirujanos tienen la obligación de abordar los patrones de comportamiento negativo nike air force baratas entre pares para el beneficio de la atención al paciente. No hubo diferencias étnicas en la medida en que los adolescentes se preocupaban por microaggressions. Por otra parte, incluso las formas supuestamente inocuos de discriminación están asociados nike shox baratas con niveles elevados de ansiedad, la ira y el estrés, que pueden aumentar los sentimientos de depresión y la enfermedad. Microaggressions deben ser reconocidos como la discriminación sutil que enviar mensajes sobre el estado del grupo y la devaluación, y similar a la discriminación abierta, puede evocar abercrombie españa poderosas reacciones emocionales y pueden afectar la salud mental .. En este estudio, hemos utilizado extinción de fluorescencia de un triptófano en la interfaz de unión a la membrana con lípidos bromados junto con la mutagénesis de VP40 a entender new balance baratas la profundidad de penetración de la membrana en las bicapas lipídicas. Los resultados experimentales indican que VP40 penetra 8,1 Å en el núcleo de hidrocarburo de la bicapa de membrana plasmática. VP40 también induce cambios sustanciales a la membrana curvatura ya que tubulates liposomas e induce vesiculación en vesículas unilamelares gigantes, efectos que son derogados por mutaciones hidrofóbicas. nike flyknit chukka cheap NBA Jerseys Clearance Sale Nike Flyknit Air Max Fresh leBron James 11 elite Nike Air Max Thea Baskets Nike Air Max Janoski Sale LeBron James 12 Shoes LeBron James 12 Shoes NIKE KD 8 INDEPENDENCE DAY NIKE KD 8 INDEPENDENCE DA

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10/21/18
LESSON 2783 Mon 22 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 10:31 pm

LESSON 2783 Mon 22 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (

III. Anattaa
The above discussion of the two signata of impermanence and unsatisfactoriness naturally leads to the basic Buddhist concept of anattaa, non-self or insubstantiality.
Every student of Buddhism knows that this concept is the most controversial of all the basic ideas of the system, and that a hundred and one interpretations have been suggested by commentators, scholars and critics. To the Western student of Buddhism the so-called “anattaa-doctrine” has been the hunting-ground, not always a happy one, for the display of personal ingenuity and dialectical jumbling, and it is signi­ficant that this idea has been the cause of the most glaring contradictions among themselves, and even within the writings of the same authority. Even our own historical schools of Buddhist interpretation have found this concept the most difficult. The main difficulty confronting the interpreters has, in my opinion, been the lack of a clear definition of the term attaa. It is curious how writers, particularly those of the West, have plunged into discussions of this doctrine equipped with no other definition of it than the ideas of Soul or Ego borrowed from theistic and pantheistic systems of philosophy or religion, as they were accustomed to before taking up the study of Buddhism. It is not intended to pursue the criticism of such interpretation in this article, but to emphasize the important fact that by the word attaa or atta books of the Pali Canon refer to a number of historical concepts that prevailed in India about the sixth century before Christ, and, therefore, the term must be defined accordingly in relation to the particular context under review. Here then we shall confine ourselves to those contexts where the adjective anattaa is used as the universal characteristic of all dhammas (sabbe dhamma anattaa) which is the third of the three signata or tilakkha.na.
The two previous articles dealt with the facts of the impermanence of all compounded things and processes, and of the general unsatisfactoriness of all states derived from these, namely, the five groups of physical and mental properties dependent on grasping (pa.tcupadaanakkhandhaa); in particular those feelings and sensations that go to make up individual experience (vedanaa) which could be classified as pleasant, unpleasant, and neither-pleasant-nor-unpleasant. The relevant texts were cited to show that the latter characteristic of general unsatisfactoriness is derived directly from the first characteristic of impermanence. It is now opportune to show how as a necessary corollary of this general unsatisfactoriness of all experience arises the reali­zation of the third and last verity included in the three signata, viz. the universal characteristic of all physical and mental states and phenomena as anattaa.
In the words of the Master himself: “Physical form, monks, is transient [anicca], and whatever is transient is unsatisfactory [dukkha] whatever is unsatisfactory, that is anattaa [non-self]; and whatever is non-self, that is not of me, that I am not, that is not my self.” This same rigorous logic is in turn applied to the four other groups constituting individuality viz. the feelings and sensations (vedanaa), perception and cognitions (sa.t.taa), mental processes and reflexes (sa.nkhaara) and finally, the individual’s consciousness itself (vi.t.taa.na). This last application of the universal characteristic of non-self to consciousness is in several ways the most significant act in this statement, and when we remind ourselves that the Pali word vi.t.taa.na includes even the innermost mental experiences of the. sentient being, we can see clearly the exact force of the anattaa characteristic as conceived by the Buddha. The most rarified concept of Self or Ego that any philosopher, before or after the Buddha, ever conceived was somehow or somewhere concerned with a state of self-consciousness, the consciousness that “I am I.”
To the Buddha, even this self-consciousness or “I-ness” is subject to the inexorable characteristics of impermanence and un­satisfactoriness, and since whatever is subject to these characteristics is non-self, this I-consciousness must be regarded as an illusion or an error. This is, in short, the significance of the adjective anattaa as used in the above mentioned doctrine. In the Cha-chakka Sutta (MN 148) a detailed analysis of this concept occurs:
“If any one regards the eye [i.e. seeing] as the self, that does not hold, for the arising and the passing away of the eye is [clear from experience]. With regard to that which arises and passes away, if anyone were to think, ‘myself is arising and passing away’ [such a thought] would be controverted by the person himself. Therefore, it does not hold to regard the eye as the self. Thus the eye [or seeing] is [proved to be] non-self. Similar­ly if anyone says that the forms [ruupaa or visual objects] are the self, that too does not hold.”
So both the eye and the visual objects [cognized by it] are non-self. The same argument applies to visual perception or the eye-conscious­ness [cakkhuvi.t.taa.na] if one were to consider this as self. Similarly, it applies to visual sense-contact [cakkhu-samphassa], so that the eye, its sense objects, visual consciousness and visual sense-contact are all four non-self [anattaa]. It applies also to feelings [that arise due to the above four], so that the eye, its sense-objects, visual consciousness, visual sense-contact, and the resultant feelings, are all five non-self. It applies lastly to the [instinctual] craving [ta.nhaa] that is associated with above five, so that the eye, its sense objects, visual consciousness, visual contact, the resultant feelings, and the craving behind them all, these six are non-self. And, what thus applies to the eye or the sense of sight, applies equally to the other five senses [the last being the mind (mano) as an organ of sense]. Thus, if it be said that the mind is self [mano attaa ’ ti ], that too does not hold. Similarly, it is inadmissible to assert that the mind, or its sense-objects [dhamma] or mental-consciousness [manovi.t.taa.na], or mental contact [manosamphassa], or the feelings [vedanaa] that result from all the craving [ta.nhaa], that is associated with all these, are the self. They are non-self, all of them. The way that leads to the origination of the [concept of] permanent individuality or personality [sakkaaya-samudaya] is to regard as mine, or as “I am this,” or as “This is my self” either the sense of seeing, or the visual data, or visual consciousness, or visual contact, its feelings or its craving or similarly, to regard hearing and the four other senses [including mind] with their adjuncts. The way that leads to the cessation of the [view of] permanent personality [sakkaaya-nirodha-gaama.ni-pa.tipadaa] is to cease regarding as mine and so forth, either [the functions of] seeing, or hearing, or smelling, or tasting, or touching, or thinking, or their adjuncts.”
Now, the Buddha goes on to discuss the ethical impli­cations of this view of self (attaa) or permanent personality (sakkaaya):
“From sight and visual objects arises visual consciousness and the meeting of all three is contact, from which contact come feelings which may be pleasant, or un­pleasant, or neither. When experiencing a pleasant feeling, a man rejoices in it, hails it and clings tight to it, and a trend to passion [attachment] ensues. When experiencing an unpleasant feeling a man sorrows, feels miserable, wails, beats his breast and goes distraught, and a trend of repugnance ensues. When experiencing a feeling that is neither pleasant nor unpleasant he has no true and causal comprehension of that feeling’s origin, disappearance, agree­ableness, perils and outcome, and a trend of ignorance ensues. It can never possibly result that, without first discarding the pleasant feeling’s trend to passion, without first discarding the unpleasant feeling’s trend to repugnance, and without getting rid of the neutral feeling’s trend to ignorance, with­out discarding ignorance, and stopping it from arising, he will put an end, here and now, to dukkha. And what is true of sight, is equally true of the other five senses.”
Thus the Buddha admonishes his disciples to analyse the whole conception of self or abiding personality and thereby the whole of experience (loka) along with every single component of the process, whereby the fallacy of Self or abiding persona­lity arises, viewing this whole process of the arising of individuality (naamaruupa) in a perfectly objective manner.
From all this it becomes clear that the three concepts of anicca, dukkha and anattaa, the three signata or tilakkha.na, are the three corner-stones of the whole edifice of Buddhism. To be convinced of their validity is to accept the Dhamma in its entirety and therefore there can be no half-way house in this process of conviction. It behoves each one of us, who call ourselves Buddhists, to contemplate these three permanent characteristics of the world as we experience it, both objectively and subjectively, and apply in our individual and social lives the ethical principles that, as the Master pointed out, derive from such conviction and lead us to that state free from these three signata, viz. the eternal bliss of Nibbaana.
The Three Signata
Gleanings from the Pali Scriptures
These texts have been selected by the editors of this series and partly adapted from various translations.
Abbreviations
AN—A.nguttara Nikaaya
MN—Majjhima Nikaaya
DN—Diigha Nikaaya
SN—Sa.myutta Nikaaya
Dhp—Dhammapada
Sn—Suttanipaata
Ud­—Udaana
Vism—Visuddhi Magga
Anicca—Impermanence
Whatever has origination, all that is subject to cessation. (MN 56)
“There is no materiality whatever, O monks, no feelings no perception, no formations, no consciousness whatever that is permanent, everlasting, eternal, changeless, identically abiding for ever.” Then the Blessed One took a bit of cow-dung in his hand and he spoke to the monks. ”Monks if even that much of permanent, everlasting, eternal, change­less individual Selfhood [attabhaava], identically abiding for ever, could be found, then this living of a life of purity [brahmacariya] for the complete eradication of ill [dukkha­kkhaya] would not be feasible.” (SN 22:96)
Here a monk abides contemplating rise and fall in the five categories affected by clinging thus: “Such is materiality, such its origin, such its disappearance, [and so with the other four].” Cultivating this kind of concentration conduces to the eradication of taints [aasavakkhaya]. (DN 33)
Monks, formations are impermanent; they are not lasting; they provide no real comfort; so that that is enough for a man to become dispassionate, for his lust to fade out, and for him to be liberated. (AN 7:62)
Here, monks, feelings, perceptions and thoughts are known to him as they arise, known as they appear present, known as they disappear. Cultivating this kind of concen­tration conduces to mindfulness and full awareness. (DN 33)
When a man abides thus mindful and fully aware, diligent, ardent and self-controlled, then, if pleasant feeling arises in him, he understands, “This pleasant feeling has arisen in me; but that is dependent, not independent. Dependent on what? Dependent on this body. But this body is impermanent, formed and dependently originated. Now how could pleasant feeling, arisen dependent on an impermanent, formed, dependently arisen body, be perma­nent?” In the body and in feeling he abides contemplating impermanence and fall and fading and cessation and relin­quishment. As he does so, his underlying tendency to lust for the body and for pleasant feeling is abandoned. Similarly when he contemplates unpleasant feeling his underlying tendency to resistance [pa.tigha] to the body and unpleasant feelings is abandoned; and when he contemplates neither­-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling his underlying tendency to ignorance of the body and of that feeling is abandoned. (SN 36:7)
Monks, when a man sees as impermanent the eye [and the rest], which is impermanent, then he has right view. (SN 35:155)
Consciousness comes into being [sambhoti] by dependence on a duality. What is that duality? It is the eye, which is impermanent, changing, becoming-other, and visible objects, which are impermanent, changing and becoming-other; such is the transient, fugitive duality [of eye-cum-visible objects], which is impermanent, changing and becoming-other. Eye-consciousness is impermanent, changing and be­coming-other; for this cause and condition [namely eye cum-visible objects] for the arising of eye-consciousness being impermanent, changing and becoming-other, how could eye-consciousness, arisen by depending on an impermanent condition, be permanent? Then the coincidence, concurrence and confluence of these three impermanent dhammas is called contact [phassa]; but eye-contact too is impermanent, chang­ing becoming- other; for how could eye-contact arisen by depending on an impermanent condition, be permanent? It is one touched by contact who feels [vedeti], likewise who perceives [sa.tjaanaati]; so these transient, fugitive dhammas too [namely, feeling, choice and perception] are impermanent, changing and becoming, other. (And so with ear-cum­-sounds, nose-cum-odours, tongue-cum-flavours, body-cum­-tangibles, mind-cum-ideas.) (SN 35:93)
When a monk abides much with his mind fortified by perception of impermanence, his mind retreats, retracts and recoils from gain, honour and renown, and does not reach out to it just as a cock’s feather or a strip of sinew thrown on a fire retreats, retracts and recoils and does not reach out to it. (AN 7:46)
Perception of impermanence should be cultivated for the elimination of the conceit “I am,” since perception of not-self becomes established in one who perceives imperma­nence; and it is perception of not-self that arrives at the elimination of the conceit “I am,” which is extinction [nibbaana] here and now. (Ud 4.1)
Fruitful as an act of [lavish] giving is, yet it is still more fruitful to go with confident heart for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha and undertake the five precepts of virtue … Fruitful as this is, yet it is still more fruitful to cultivate even as little as a whiff of fragrance of loving-kindness. Fruitful as that is, still more fruitful it is to cultivate the perception of impermanence even for only as long as the snapping of a finger. (AN 9:20)
Better a single day of life perceiving how things rise and fall than to live out a century yet not perceive their rise and fall. (Dhp 14)
When a monk sees six rewards it should be enough for him to establish unlimitedly perception of impermanence in all formations. What six? “All formations will seem to me insubstantial. My mind will find no relish in all the world. My mind will emerge from all the world. My mind will incline towards Nibbaana. My fetters will come to be abandoned. And I shall be endowed with the highest in monkhood.” (AN 6:102)
All life and all existence here
With all its joys and all its woe,
Rests on a single state of mind,
And quick passes that moment by.
Nay, even gods whose life does last
For four and eighty thousand kalpas,
Do not remain one and the same,
Not even for two single thoughts.
Those groups that passed away just now,
Those groups that will pass later on,
Those groups just passing in between,
They’re not in nature different.
Not in the future moment does one live,
One now lives in the present moment.
”When consciousness dissolves, the world is dead“;
This utterance is true in the highest sense.
No hoarding up of things passed by,
No heaping up in future time!
And things arisen are all like
The mustard seed on pointed awl.
The groups of life that disappeared
At death, as well as during life,
Have all alike become extinct,
And never will they rise again.
Out of the unseen did they rise,
Into the unseen do they pass.
Just as the lightning flashes forth,
So do they flash and pass away.
(Vism Ch. 20)
The monk in deepest solitude,
Grown still and tranquil in his heart,
Feels superhuman happiness
Whilst clearly he perceives the truth.
Whenever he reflects upon
The rise and passing of the groups,
He’s filled with rapture and with bliss
Whilst he beholds the Deathless Realm.
(Dhp 373f.)
Transient are formations all.
Their law it is to rise and fall.
Arisen - soon they disappear.
To make them cease is happiness.
(SN 6:15, DN 16)

Dukkha—Suffering or Unsatisfactoriness
This only do I teach: suffering, and its end. (MN 22)
Suffering only arises when anything arises; suffering only ceases when anything ceases. (SN 12:15)
Suffering is threefold: intrinsic suffering [dukkha­-dukkha], suffering in change [viparinaama-dukkha] and suffering due to formations [sa.nkhaara-dukkha]. Bodily and mental painful feeling are called intrinsic suffering because suffering is their very nature, their common designation and because they are in them­selves suffering… . Bodily and mental pleasant feeling are called suffering in change because they are a cause for the arising of pain when they change. Neutral feeling and the remaining formations of the three planes of existence are called suffering due to formations because they are oppressed by rise and fall. ( Vism Ch. 16)
Pleasant feeling is agreeable while it lasts and is dis­agreeable when it changes; painful feeling is disagreeable while it lasts and is agreeable when it changes; the neither­ pleasant-nor unpleasant feeling is agreeable when there is knowledge and disagreeable when there is no knowledge. (MN 44)
A heedless man is vanquished by the disagreeable in the guise of the agreeable, by the unloved in the guise of the loved, by suffering in the guise of happiness. (Ud 2.8)
In the past, sense-pleasures were a painful experience, intensely burning and searing; in the future too, sense­-pleasures will be a painful experience, intensely burning and searing; and also now in the present, sense-pleasures are a painful experience, intensely burning and searing. But these beings have not yet lost their greed for sense-pleasures, are consumed by craving for sense-pleasures, burning in feverish passion for sense-pleasures; and with their faculties clouded, they have, in spite of that painful experience, the illusion of happiness. (MN 75)
Whoso delights in materiality, in feeling, in perception, in formations, and in consciousness, he delights in suffering; and whoso delights in suffering, will not be freed from suffering. Thus I say. (SN 22:29)
The arising, presence and manifestation of materiality, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness is but the arising of suffering, the presence of maladies, the manifes­tation of decay and death. The cessation, the stilling, the ending of materiality, feeling, perception, formations and consciousness is but the cessation of suffering, the stilling of maladies, the ending of decay and death. (SN 22:30)
Inconceivable is the beginning of this sa.msaara; not to be discovered is a first beginning of beings who, obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths. Which do you think, O monks, is more: the flood of tears which, weeping and wailing, you have shed upon this long way, hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths, united with the undesired, separated from the desired; this or the waters of the four great oceans? Long have you suffered the death of father and mother, of sons, daughters, brothers and sisters. And whilst you were thus suffering you have, indeed, shed more tears upon this long way than there is water in the four great oceans. And thus, O monks, have you long undergone torment, undergone misfortune, filled the graveyards full; verily, long enough to be dissatisfied with all forms of existence, long enough to turn away and free yourselves from them all. (SN 15:3 )
How can you find delight and mirth
Where there is burning without end?
In deepest darkness you are wrapped!
Why do you not aspire for light?
Look at this puppet here, well rigged,
A heap of many sores, piled up,
Diseased and full of greediness,
Unstable and impermanent!
Devoured by old age is this frame,
A prey to sickness, weak and frail;
To pieces breaks this putrid body,
All life must truly end in death!
(Dhp 146–48)
For those who know not Ill and how Ill grows,
who neither know how Ill is stilled and quenched
nor know the Way to lay Ill to rest,
—those miss Release, alike of heart and mind;
they cannot end it all and reach the goal;
they tramp the round of birth, decay and death.
But they who know both Ill and how Ill grows,
and also know how Ill is stilled and quenched
and know the Way that lays all Ill to rest;
—these win Release of heart, Release of mind;
these surely end it all and reach the goal;
these nevermore shall know decay and birth.
(Sn 724–727)
When a monk sees six rewards it should be enough for him to establish unlimited perception of suffering in all formations. What six? “The thought of turning away from all formations will be established in me, like unto a murderer with drawn sword. My mind will emerge from all the world. I shall see peace in Nibbaana. The underlying [evil] tenden­cies will be eliminated in me. Dutiful shall I be. And l shall have well attended upon the Master, with a loving heart.” (AN 6:103)
Anattaa: Not-self or Egolessness
Give up what does not belong to you! Such giving-up will long conduce to your weal and happiness. And what is it that does not belong to you? Materiality, feelings, perception, formations and con­sciousness; these do not belong to you and these you should give up. Such giving-up will long conduce to your weal and happiness. (SN 22:33)
All ascetics and brahmins who conceive a self in various ways, all those conceive the five groups [as the self] or one or another of them. Which are the five? Herein an ignorant worldling conceives materiality, feeling, perception, formations or con­sciousness as the self; or the self as the owner of any of these groups; or that group as included in the self; or the self as included in that group. (SN 22:47)
It is impossible that anyone with right view should see anything [or idea, dhamma] as self. (MN 115)
The learned and noble disciple does not consider materi­ality, feeling, perception, formations, or consciousness as self; nor the self as the owner of these groups; nor these groups as included within the self; nor the self as included within the groups. Of such a learned and noble disciple it is said that he is no longer fettered by any group of existence, [his] own or external. Thus I say. (SN 22:117)
It is possible that a virtuous man while contemplating the five groups as impermanent, woeful . . , empty, not-self may realize the Fruit of Stream-entrance. (SN 22:122)
One should not imagine oneself as being identical with the eye, should not imagine oneself as being included within the eye, should not imagine oneself as being outside the eye, should not imagine: “The eye belongs to me.” And so with ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. One should not imagine oneself as being identical with visual objects, sounds, odours, tactile and mental objects. One should not imagine oneself as being included in them or outside of them; one should not imagine: “They belong to me.” One should not imagine oneself as being identical with eye-consciousness… ear-consciousness… nose-conscious­ness… body-consciousness… mind-consciousness; should not imagine oneself as being included within mind-conscious­ness; should not imagine oneself as being outside of mind-consciousness, should not imagine: “Mind-consciousness belongs to me.” One should not imagine oneself as being identical with the totality of things [the All, sabba.m] should not imagine oneself as being included in the totality of things; should not imagine oneself as being outside the totality of things; should not imagine: “The totality of things belongs to me.” Thus not imagining any more, the wise disciple clings no longer to anything in the world. Clinging no longer to any­thing, he trembles not. Trembling no longer, he reaches in his own person the extinction of all vanity: “Exhausted is rebirth, lived the holy life, the task is done, and nothing fur­ther remains after this.” Thus he knows. (SN 35:90)
It would be better for an untaught ordinary man to treat as self [attaa] this body, which is constructed upon the four great primaries of matter [maha-bhuuta], than mind. Why? Because the body can last one year, two years … even a hundred years: but what is called “mind” and “thinking” and “consciousness” arises and ceases differently through night and day. (SN 12:61)
Consciousness is not-self. Also the causes and condi­tions of the arising of consciousness, they likewise are not-­self. Hence, how could it be possible that consciousness, having arisen through something which is not-self, could ever be a self? (SN 35:141)
When a monk sees six rewards it should be enough for him to establish unlimited perception of not-self concerning all things [dhamma]. What six? “I shall be aloof from all the world. No impulses of ‘I’ [egotism] will assail me. No impulses of ‘mine’ will assail me. With extraordinary insight shall I be endowed. I shall clearly see causes and the causally-arisen phenomena.” (AN 6:104)
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LESSON 2782 Sun 21 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (
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LESSON 2782 Sun 21 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (
Question and Answers

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Questionnaire No 3 and Answers of Second Year Diploma Course

1.
When was the first sermon of the Buddha delivered? Write a short essay giving details, such as, the day, month, place etc. Write also the contents of the discourse and what happened at its conclusion.

The historic sermon ‘Dhammachakkappavattana Sutta’ was delivered by the All-knowing Buddha on the full moon day of Aasalha (July), exactly two months after his Awakenment on the Vesaakha (May), in the cool evening, at the juxtaposition of the sun steeing in the west and the moon rising in the east.
The discourse “Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth” comprises the following themes:
1) Two extremes prevalent in the world.
2) The Middle Way which avoids all extremes.
3) The Noble Eight Path being the Middle Way.
4) The Four Noble Truths in twelve modes.
5) The spiritual transformation following the discourse and the attainment of the Supermundane Path of fruition Insight-states (Lokuttara Mahaphala nana)

At the conclusion of the discourse the Venerable Kondanna, senior most of the five ascetics, became a Stream-Enterer (Sotaapanna), one who has entered the Stream that irreversibly flows into Nibbaana. He became the first awakened disciple of the Buddha. Thereafter each day another ascetic, duly instructed by the Buddha, became a Sotaapanna. Thus on the fifth day, all the five ascetics disciples became ariyas, Buddha’s awakened disciples.

2. Who is an Ariya, a Noble One? How many stages of awakenment are there? What happens when a person gains the first stage?

At the conclusion of the discourse the Venerable Kondanna, senior most of the five ascetics, became a Stream-Enterer (Sotaapanna), one who has entered the Stream that irreversibly flows into Nibbaana. He became the first awakened disciple of the Buddha. Thereafter each day another ascetic, duly instructed by the Buddha, became a Sotaapanna. Thus on the fifth day, all the five ascetics disciples became ariyas a Noble One Buddha’s awakened disciples.

To these five disciples who had received the rare “Ehi Bhikkhu” ordination, the Buddha delivered his second discourse entitled ‘Characteristics of non-self’ (Anattalakkhana Sutta), following which all the five Sotaapanna bhikkus became Arahats, Perfect Ones.

3. Which is the second discourse of the Buddha? Where was it delivered? Give a Brief account of the manner in which the five disciples attained all the stages of awakenment culminating in the state of the Perfect One.

Anattalakkhana Sutta is the second discourse of the Buddha., hearing which the first five disciple became Arahats, Perfect Ones. These five disciples had gained the first stage of supermundane path and fruition insights. This Sutta describes the nature or characteristics of non-self. Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha., therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality. Unfortunately, in a world of blind beliefs and wrong views, reality is the casualty. Thus the idea of a self is taken for granted.

4. What is the subject matter of the second sutta and in what way is it the unique teaching of the Buddha?

Anattalakkhana Sutta is the second discourse of the Buddha., hearing which the first five disciple became Arahats, Perfect Ones. These five disciples had gained the first stage of supermundane path and fruition insights. This Sutta describes the nature or characteristics of non-self. Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha, therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality. Unfortunately, in a world of blind beliefs and wrong views, reality is the casualty. Thus the idea of a self is taken for granted.

5. Explain the meaning of the term Anatta. Is is a concept or a reality? Give reason.

Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha, therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality.

6. What does the term Atta, self, signify? Is it a concept, religious theory or reality? Explain.

All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea.

7. Why did the Buddha reject the idea of self, which all other religions of the world accept?

All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea.

8. Write an essay on Anatta, quoting the paragraph of the text of Anattalakkhana sutta, which provides the logic underlying the truth of Anatta.

Anattalakkhana Sutta is the second discourse of the Buddha., hearing which the first five disciple became Arahats, Perfect Ones. These five disciples had gained the first stage of supermundane path and fruition insights. This Sutta describes the nature or characteristics of non-self. Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha, therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality. Unfortunately, in a world of blind beliefs and wrong views, reality is the casualty. Thus the idea of a self is taken for granted.

9. Write an essay on the discourse entitled Charecteristics of non-self. Give the meaning underlying each of the aggregates.

10. Write an essay on the Three Charecteristics of every thing that exists, namely, impermanence, suffering, an no-self.

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LESSON 2782 Sun 21 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
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The Three Signata: Anicca, Dukkha, Anattaa

1. Anicca
The concept of the three signata (tilakkha.na) forms the essential basis for understanding the Buddha’s scheme of emancipation (vimokkha). The three signata, the three universal properties of all existing things of the phenomenal world, are anicca (impermanence, transience or transitoriness), dukkha (unsatisfactoriness, ill, suffering or painfulness), and anattaa (non-self, absence of a permanent ego, or insubstantiality). It is the contemplation of these three universal characteristics of all compounded things and processes (sa.nkhaara), or of all phenomena (dhamma), that leads to true insight (vipassanaa) and enlightenment (bodhi­.taa.na). The realisation of these three fundamental truths can thus be regarded as the key to the highest spiritual perfection afforded by the Buddha Dhamma.
The first of the three signata, anicca (impermanence, transitoriness of all things in the universe), is a doctrine constantly and emphatically insisted upon in the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddha’s Teaching, the Buddha Dhamma, there is nothing divine or human, animate or inanimate, organic or inorganic, which is permanent or stable, unchang­ing or everlasting.
This Buddhist concept of the transitoriness of all things, the Buddhist law of impermanence, finds classic expression in the famous formula “sabbe sa.nkhaaraa aniccaa” occurring in the Cuulasaccaka Sutta (MN 35), and in the more popular statement “aniccaa vata sa.nkhaaraa.” Both these formulas amount to saying that all conditioned things or processes are transient or impermanent. This is not given as the result of metaphysical inquiry, or of any mystical intuition, but as a straightforward judgement to be arrived at by investigation and analysis. It is founded on unbiased thought and has a purely empirical basis. In the Mahaavagga of the A.nguttara Nikaaya (AN 7:62/IV 100ff.) the Master admonishes his disciples thus: “Impermanent, monks, are [all] sa.nkhaaras, unstable [not constant], monks, are [all] sa.nkhaaras, [hence] not a cause for comfort and satisfaction are [all] sa.nkhaaras, so much so that one must get tired of all these sa.nkhaaras, be disgusted with them, and be completely free of them.”
There is no doubt here as to what is meant by the term sa.nkhaara, for the Master himself continues by way of illustration:
There will come a time, monks, maybe hundreds of thousands of years hence, when no more rains will fall and consequently all plants and trees, all vegetation, will dry up and be destroyed with the scorching due to the appearance of a second sun; streams and rivulets will go dry; and with the appearance of a third sun, such large rivers as the Ganges and Yamunaa will dry up; similarly, the lakes and even the great ocean itself will dry up in course of time, and even such great mountains as Sineru, nay even this wide earth, will begin to smoke and be burnt up in a great and universal holocaust … Thus impermanent, monks, are all sa.nkhaaraa, unstable, and hardly a cause for comfort, so much so that one [contemplating their impermanent nature] must necessarily get tired of them.
It is easy to understand from this discourse in what an all-embracing sense the term sa.nkhaara is used: it includes all things, all phenomena that come into existence by natural development or evolution, being conditioned by prior causes and therefore containing within themselves the liability to come to an end, to be dissolved from the state in which they are found.
According to the Buddha, there is no “being,” but only a ceaseless “becoming” (bhava). Every thing is the product of antecedent causes, and, therefore, of dependent origination (pa.ticcasamuppanna). These causes themselves are not ever­lasting and static, but simply antecedent aspects of the same ceaseless becoming. Thus we may conceive everything as the result of a concatenation of dynamic processes (sa.nkhaara) and, therefore, everything created or formed is only created or formed through these processes and not by any agency outside its own nature. In Buddhism everything is regarded as compounded (sa.nkhata). Thus sa.nkhata in these contexts implies everything arisen or become (bhuuta), which depends on antecedent conditions (sahetu-sappaccaya). It is for this very reason (namely, that everything conceivable in this world has come to be or become depending on antecedent conditions or processes) that everything is to be regarded as liable to pass away. As it is declared in the Sa.myutta Nikaaya (SN < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags” />12:31/S II 49): “Whatever has become is of the nature of passing away (ya.m bhuuta.m ta.m nirodhadhamma.m).” This law, if one may call it so, holds in the case of the mightiest of gods, such as Mahaa-Brahmaa, as much as of the tiniest creature. In the 11th discourse of the Diigha Nikaaya it is regarded as ludicrous that even God or Brahma should imagine himself to be eternal. As Professor Rhys Davids remarked,
The state of an individual, of a thing or person, distinct from its surroundings, bounded off from them, is un­stable, temporary, sure to pass away. It may last as, for instance, in the case of the gods for hundreds of thousands of years; or, as in the case of some insects, for some hours only; or as in the cause of some material things (as we should say some chemical compounds), for a few seconds only. But in every case as soon as there is a beginning, there begins also at that moment to be an ending.
The ethical significance of this law of impermanence is well brought out in the Mahaa-Sudassana Suttanta (DN 17). There the Buddha tells Aananda, his favourite disciple, about the glories of the famous king of the past, Mahaa Sudassana; about his cities, treasures, palaces, elephants, horses, carriages, women, and so on, in the possession of which he led a wonderful life; about his great regal achievements; and finally his death; only to draw the moral conclusion: “Behold, Aananda, how all these things [sa.nkhaara] are now dead and gone, have passed and vanished away. Thus, impermanent, Aananda, are the sa.nkhaaras; thus untrustworthy, Aananda, are the sa.nkhaaras. And this, Aananda, is enough to be weary of, to be disgusted with and be completely free of such sa.nkhaaras.”
When the Buddha characterized all compounded things and conditioned processes as impermanent and unstable, it must be understood that, before all else, stood out that particular heap of processes (sa.nkhaarapu.tja) that is called man; for at bottom it was with man chiefly that Buddha had to do, in so far as it was to man primarily that he showed the way to emancipation. Thus the chief problem was to find out the real nature of man, and it is precisely in this great discovery that the uniqueness of the Dhamma is visible. The Buddha’s conclusion regarding man’s nature is in perfect agreement with his general concept of impermanence: Man himself is a compound of several factors and his supposedly persistent personality is in truth nothing more than a collection of ceaselessly changing processes; in fact, a con­tinuous becoming or bhava. The Buddha analysed man into five aggregates: ruupa, vedanaa, sa.t.taa, sa.nkhaara, and vi.t.taa.na , that is to say, material form, sensations, perceptions, dynamic processes and consciousness. In discourse after discourse, the Master has emphatically asserted that each of these aggre­gates is impermanent and unstable. In the famous discourse of the Diigha Nikaaya (DN 22/D II 301) entitled “The Discourse on the Establishment of Mindfulness” (Mahaa Satipa.t.thaana Sutta) the Master teaches the disciple to view all these categories as being of the nature of arising (samudayadhamma) and of passing away (vaya­dhamma): “Such is material form, such is its genesis, such its passing away; and so on with the other three groups: perceptions, dynamic processes and conscious­ness.” In fact, the highest consummation of spiritual life is said to result from the true perception of the evanescent nature of the six spheres of sense contact. The 102nd discourse of the Majjhima Nikaaya ends with the words: “This, indeed, monks, is the perfect way of utter peace into which the Tathaagata has won full Enlightenment, that is to say, the understanding, as they really are, of the six spheres of sense-contact, of their arising and passing away, their comfort and misery, and the way of escape from them free of grasping” (M II 237). It is these six spheres of sense-contact that cause the continuity of sa.msaara, in other words, bhava or becoming, and thus they are to be under­stood as involving the most important sa.nkhaaras. Hence the oft repeated stanza in the Pali Canon: “All compounded things indeed are subject to arising and passing away; what is born comes to an end; blessed is the end of becoming; it is peace.”
II. Dukkha
The fact of impermanence as the leading characteristic of all compounded things and processes of the phenomenal world has been dealt with above. The next, according to the concept of the three signata (tilakkha.na), is the fact of dukkha which signifies the universal characteristic of all sa.msaaric existence, viz. its general unsatisfactoriness. It must be admitted that this Pali word “dukkha” is one of the most difficult terms to translate. Writers in English very often use as its equivalent the English word “sorrow” or “ill” and some even translate it as “pain,” “suffering” and so on. But none of these English words covers the same ground as the Pali dukkha, they are too specialized, too limited and usually too strong. The difficulty is increased by the fact that the Pali word itself is used in the Canon in several senses.
There is what one may call the general philosophical sense, then a narrower psychological sense, and a still narrower physical sense. It is as indicating the general philosophical sense of dukkha that the word un-satisfactoriness has been selected. This is perhaps the best English term, at least in this particular context of the “three signata.”
Whatever some writers of Buddhism may have said, the recognition of the fact of dukkha stands out as the most essential concept of Buddhism. In the very first discourse after attaining Enlightenment the Master formulated this concept in the following terms:
This, indeed, monks, is the Noble Truth of dukkha, namely the fact that birth itself is dukkha, disease is dukkha, death is dukkha; to be joined with what is unpleasant is dukkha, to be separated from what is pleasant is dukkha, failure in getting what one wants is dukkha, in short the five groups of physical and mental qualities making up the individual due to grasping are themselves dukkha. (Vin I 10; cp. S V 421)
This observation of the universal fact of unsatisfactoriness is, as any unbiased student of Buddhism will soon realize, the central pivot of the whole system of spiritual and moral progress discovered and proclaimed by the Buddha.
According to the Buddha, the beginning, continuity and ending of all experience (i.e. the whole world [loka]) for a sentient being, are centred in its own individuality (naama-ruupa), that is to say, the five groups of grasping that constitute the individual (the pa.tcupadaanakkhandhaa viz. material form, sensations and feelings, perceptions [physical and mental], dynamic processes, and consciousness [ruupa, vedanaa sa.t.taa, sa.nkhaara and vi.t.taa.na]). Now, the physical form or the body of the individual is the visible basis of this individuality, and this body, as every one knows, is a product of material components derived from the four great elements, viz. the watery, the fiery, the airy and the earthy (aapo tejo, vayo, pa.thavii ). It is said to be built up of these four chief elements (caatummahaabhuutika) and therefore, it is conditioned by these. As was explained in the previous article, the universal characteristic of the four great elements is their impermanence (anicca), and not much science is needed to understand this fact which is self-evident to the thoughtful person. The Buddha says:
“A time will come when the watery element will rise in fury, and when that happens, the earthy element will disappear, unmistakably revealing itself as transient and subject to ruin, destruction and vicissitude… There may also come a time when the watery element will dry up and no more water is left in the great ocean than will cover one joint of a finger. On that day this great watery element will unmistakably reveal itself as transient and subject to ruin, destruction and vicissitude. A time will come when the fiery element will rage furiously and devour the whole surface of the earth, ceasing only when there is nothing more to devour. On that day this great fiery element will unmistakably reveal itself as transient and subject to destruction. A time will come when the airy element will rage in fury and carry away village and town and everything upon the earth … till it exhausts itself completely. On that day this great airy element will unmistakably reveal itself as transient and itself subject to ruin, destruction and all vicissitude.” (MN 28/M I 187)
Thus everything that is comprised within the four great elements shows itself subject to the universal law of transitoriness, and it is not a difficult inference to conclude that this fathom-long body which is a derivative of these four elements will itself go the way of its elemental source.
Now the Buddha goes on to show the impermanence or transitoriness of the remaining components of our individu­ality which are based upon the body and its organs:
The corporeal form, monks, is transient, and what underlies the arising of corporeal form, that too is transient. As it is arisen from what is transient, how could corporeal form be permanent? Sensations and feelings are transient; what underlies the arising of these [viz. the sense organs, depending on the body] is also transient. Arisen from what is transient, how could sensations and feelings be permanent? Similarly, perceptions, dynamic processes of the mind, and consciousness: all these, arising from the transient, cannot but be transient. (SN 22:15/S III 23)
In all these are observed arising, vicissitude and passing away. This real, imperma­nent nature of everything constituting the individual can only lead to one conclusion: that as they are transitory and by nature unabiding, they cannot be the basis for a satisfactory experience dependent on them. In short, what­ever is transient, is (by that very fact) unsatisfactory (yad-anicca.m ta.m dukkha.m, SN 22:15). Hence is established the great Truth of Buddhism that the whole personality or individuality (wherever that may take shape, whether in this world or in another, as is possible in sa.msaara) and there­fore the whole world of experience which simply depends on this individuality, all this is unsatisfactory or dukkha.
What do you think, monks; is the body permanent or is it transient?
It is transient, Sir.
Now, that which is transient: is it satisfactory or unsatisfactory?
It is unsatisfactory, Sir.
What do you think, monks, sensa­tion, perception, mental processes and consciousness: are all these permanent or transient?
They are transient, Sir.
Now, what is transient: is it satisfactory or un­satisfactory?
It is unsatisfactory, Sir. (SN 22:57).
Thus this general unsatisfactoriness is to be regarded as the universal characteristic of all sa.msaaric experience, and this fact constitutes the Noble Truth of dukkha. To the intelligent person all this must sound axiomatic. But, then, why are the large majority of people unconvinced of, or unconcerned with, this great Truth which forms the bed-rock of the Buddha Dhamma? To answer this we have to probe into the working of man’s own mind which alone can realize this conception of the universality of dukkha.
The Master has said that the sentient being is psycho­logically so constituted that he seeks what is pleasurable and shuns what is non-pleasurable (sukhakaamo dukkhapa.tikkuula); to use the above employed terminology, he hankers after what is satisfactory for himself and recoils from what is unsatisfactory. Critics of Buddhism may wonder whether it is justifiable to regard the whole psychology of the sentient being as being so strongly ruled by this principle of hankering for the pleasurable and shunning what is unpleasant. That a similar conclusion was arrived at by Freud, the founder of the modem school of psychoanalysis, should cause such critics or sceptics to pause and reflect upon the scientific validity of such an observation. Freud begins his famous dissertation on “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” with the following significant words: “In the theory of psychoanalysis we have no hesitation in assuming that the course taken by mental events is automatically regulated by the pleasure principle. We believe, that is to say, that the course of those events is invariably set in motion by an unpleasurable tension, and that it takes a direction such that its final outcome coincides with a lowering of that tension, that is, with an avoidance of unpleasure or a production of pleasure.” Freud thus introduces what he calls an “economic” principle into his study of mental processes, and is it not a noteworthy fact in the history of human ideas that the Buddha had nearly twenty five centuries earlier formulated the same principle in practically the same terms? Now, if man by nature is driven by his own unconscious processes to seek for the pleasant and avoid what is unpleasant, it stands to reason that he would be unwilling to accept a philosophy whose basic idea is the characterization of all his experiences as impermanent and therefore liable to bring unhappiness or dukkha. That is why the Buddha soon after his Enlightenment considered that only a very few in the world had their vision sufficiently clear to grasp this great Truth of the universality of dukkha.
Before concluding this brief exposition of dukkha a doubt should be cleared which is often seen to cloud this conception and erroneously leads certain people to conclude that if the fact of dukkha is such a universal characteristic of experience, Buddhism must be regarded as a profession of pessimism. That such a view is totally wrong is seen clearly from certain passages of the Canon itself. According to Buddhism there is a point of view from which experiences, that is to say, sensations and feelings (vedanaa) can be considered to be threefold: they can be pleasant or happy (sukha), or they can be unpleasant or unhappy (dukkha), or they can be neutral, i.e. neither pleasant nor unpleasant (adukkhamasukha). From this lower or relative point of view which holds good for all individual experience, there is what may be called happiness in the world just as much as unhappiness, the degree of predominance of the one over the other varying according to personal and environ­mental conditions prevailing at a given moment. But further contemplation of such happiness and unhappiness and neutral feelings shows unmistakably that there is a common denominator between all these three types of experiences, namely, the fact that all three are subject to the universal property of impermanence or transience. Thus the Venerable Saariputta assures the Master that if questioned on the real nature of sensations and feelings, he would reply: “Threefold, indeed, friend, are those feelings and sensations: pleasant, unpleasant and neither-pleasant-nor-unpleasant; but, friend, [all] these three [experiences] are transient, and when one realizes that whatever is transient [and fleeting] must give rise to dukkha [in other words, is unsatisfactory], no hankering after them arises.”
It can easily be seen that in the last sentence, dukkha is used in the wider philosophical sense, as referred to at the beginning of this article. Hence is the Master’s joyful approval of Saariputta’s words: “Well said, well said, Saariputta, this exactly is the manner in which one should summarily dispose of such a question: Whatever experience there is, such [being transitory] must fall within the category of dukkha” (ya.m ki.tci vedayita.m tam dukkhasmi.m ; SN 12:32/S II 53). All sa.msaaric experience is in this sense vedayita and thus arises the incontrovertible proposition that all becoming in sa.msaara (bhava) is dukkha or unsatisfactory from the highest point of view (paramattha). Herein is also based that absolutely certain optimism of Buddhism, viz. that there is a way out of this sa.msaaric dukkha, a haven of utter peace and tranquillity, which is the absolute happiness of Nibbaana. Nibbaana.m parama.m sukha.m.

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தமிழில் திரபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள்TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-C-
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இந்த நூட்கள் வெளியீடு காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.

This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the
Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka
(மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட
விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

திபிடக முக்கூடைகள்

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

ஸுத்த பியுயக

( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)

Sutta Piμaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)

The
Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
dwelling).

நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர்
கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு நிரம்பியது. அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி
முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை,
ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை, வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு,
பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு,
கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

புத்தரால்
கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

குவியல்
நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய
பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம்
விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு
நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.

கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

இறங்குதல்
காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு
உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short,
small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been
composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

சுருக்கமான,
சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள் ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால்,
மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்
புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு
பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(
தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் ,
ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது
புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)

Sutta Piμaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)

1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)

2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]

(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)

4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)

5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)

6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)

10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)

11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)

3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]

(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)

4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each vagga; 6 books]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)

(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)

5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]

(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i

1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26 vaggas)

3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with

some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)

(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular suttas of the Buddha

(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279 g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)

(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II

10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.

(6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i

11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga
C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and

the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i

12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])

(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i

14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)

(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i

16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)

(12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i

18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)

Abhidhamma Piμaka

[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i

2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42

3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.

(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42

5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)

(4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42

6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)

(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III

7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)

(8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V

(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30

(2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7

(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______
227

Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the

Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha

3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism

(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)

2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li

3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]

(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.

Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.

Note: plain texts

ஸஞ்யா
நு கொ பந்தெ பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி, பச்சா ஞானங்? உதாஹு ஞானங் பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி,
பச்சா ஸஞ்யா? உதாஹு ஸஞ்யா ச ஞானங்ச அபுபங் ஆசரிமங் உப்பஜ்ஜந்தி?’ தி.

Saññā nu kho bhante paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ? Udāhu ñāṇaṃ
paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā saññā? Udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ
acarimaṃ uppajjantī?’ ti.

இப்பொழுது, பந்த்தே, எது முதலாவது எழும்புவது புலனுணர்வா,ஞானங் அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஞானங் முதலாவது மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஒரே நேரத்தில் புலனுணர்வும் ஞானமும் எழும்புகிறதா?

Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously? 


ஸஞ்யா கொ பொத்தபாதப தமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங். ஸன்யுப்பாதா ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி. ஸொ ஏவங் பஜானாதி: இதப்பச்சாயா கிர மெ ஞானங் உதபாதிதி. இமினா கொ ஏதங் பொத்தபாத பரியாயென வேதிதப்பங், யதா ஸஞ்யா பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங், ஸன்யுப்பாதொ ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி’தி.

Saññā kho poṭṭhapāda paṭhamaṃ uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ. Saññuppādā ca pana
ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti: idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādīti.
Iminā kho etaṃ poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ
uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādo ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī’ ti. 


பொத்தபாத, முதலாவது
புலனுணர்வும் பின்னால் ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது.மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
எழும்புகிறபோது ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது. ஒரு பிரித்தறியும் நிலை சார்ந்துள்ள
என்னுடைய இந்த ஞானம் எழும்பியது. இவ்வழியான வரம்பின் காரண ஆய்வால் ஒருவர்
எப்படி முதலாவது புலனுணர்வு எழும்புகிறது மற்றும் ஞானம் அடுத்து என்று உணர
முடியும் மற்றும் எவ்வாறு புலனுணர்வு எழும்பியதால், ஞானம் எழும்பிமயது
என்றும்.

Potthapada, perception arises first, and
knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of
perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my knowledge
has arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize how
perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception.
Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. 

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.
தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Itipi
so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.

Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.

Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.

Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 

This,
Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi. 

இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 

Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… 



Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 

– Ananda, the twin sala
trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
-ஆனந்தா,பூவா
பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 

It is not
by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma’.
இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
… 

… 


‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā. 

– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
Teacher after my passing away. 

உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர்
வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது, இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.
… 


DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
A. Ānāpāna Pabba
B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
C. Sampajāna Pabba
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
A. Section on ānāpāna
B. Section on postures
C. Section on sampajañña
D. Section on repulsiveness
E. Section on the Elements
F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction

Thus have I heard: 

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

– This,
bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:

ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
(கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā (பகவான்) தங்கி
இருந்தார்.

அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா

- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில் அளித்தார்.Bhagavā (பகவா) சொற்றார்:

-
இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து,
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.

எந்த
நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல்
கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு
வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம்
நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க
கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.
மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார். sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 


C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும் மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல்
படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā,
taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if,
bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
“In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
அறீவார்.

ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள்
உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல்
பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன்
நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல், பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.”


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம் பிரதிபலிக்க
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு
குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ; அதே போன்றே,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம் பிரதிபலிக்க
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும்
இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால் ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(4)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ
nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,
நரம்புகளால்
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(5)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் இல்லாமல்,
நரம்புகளால்
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(6)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான,
இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால்
எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே
ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே
ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு,
அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

22 X 2012

10 07 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 663 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS
Brief historical background
Sutta Pitaka
Vinaya Pitaka
Abhidhamma Pitaka
Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் கடல்நுரை போல் வெண்மையாக இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த
மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(8)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a
year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் ஒரு ஆண்டுக்கு மேலே பழையதாகி குவியல் போல்
இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(9)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇaka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced
to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால்,சீரழிந்த எலும்புகள் பொடியாகி இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த
மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட
அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

________________________________________________________________________________________
II. Vedanānupassanā

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati? 


II. Observation of Vedanā

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā? 

Idha,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno
‘a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti;
nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ
dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā
a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. 

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am
experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands:
“I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā
vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”;
experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands:
“I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha
vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa,
undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”;
experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am
experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
vedanāsu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati;
‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally,
or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells
observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing
the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the
samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:]
“this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere
ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to
anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā
in vedanā.

II. வேதனையை கூர்ந்த கவனித்தல்

மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, vedanā in vedanā வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்?

இங்கு,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒரு sukha vedanā சுக வேதனையை
அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு சுக வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு dukkha vedanā துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்கும்போது,
நான் ஒரு துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு
adukkham-asukhā vedanā அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை
அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā அதுக்க-அசுக
(துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā
vedanā sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு
sukhā vedanā sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā vedanā nirāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை
மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு sukhā vedanā nirāmisa சுக
வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha
vedanā sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான்
ஒரு dukkha vedanā sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன்
என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha vedanā nirāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை
மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு dukkha vedanā nirāmisa துக்க
வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு
adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை
மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa
அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக
(துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு
adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை
உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:

இவ்வாறு
அவர் vedanā in vedanā வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.
31 07 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 684 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
up a levelTipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words

sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS
Brief historical background
Sutta Pitaka
Vinaya Pitaka
Abhidhamma Pitaka
Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka

— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba F. Section on the nine charnel grounds F. II. Vedanānupassanā
II. Observation of Vedanā - III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

>> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]
This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa
I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba
B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
C. Sampajāna Pabba
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā

A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
B. Khandha Pabba
C. Āyatana Pabba
D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction
I. Observation of Kāya

A. Section on ānāpāna
B. Section on postures
C. Section on sampajañña
D. Section on repulsiveness
E. Section on the Elements
F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas

A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
B. Section on the Khandhas
C. Section on the Sense Spheres
D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

III. Cittānupassanā

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?

III. Observation of Citta

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sa·rāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·rāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vīta·rāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vīta·rāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sa·dosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·dosaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vīta·dosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vīta·dosaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sa·mohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·mohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vīta·mohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vīta·mohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘saṅkhittaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vikkhittaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘mahaggataṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, a·mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘a·mahaggataṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sa·uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·uttaraṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, an·uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘an·uttaraṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samāhitaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, a·samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘a·samāhitaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, a·vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘a·vimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with rāga“, or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga“, or he understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa“, or he understands citta without dosa as “citta without dosa“, or he understands citta with moha as “citta with moha“, or he understands citta without moha as “citta without moha“, or he understands a collected citta as “a collected citta“, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered citta“, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta“, or he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta“, or he understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta“, or he understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta“, or he understands a concentrated citta as “a concentrated citta“, or he understands an unconcentrated citta as “an unconcentrated citta“, or he understands a liberated citta as “a liberated citta“, or he understands an unliberated citta as “an unliberated citta“.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi cittaṃ’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.

தமிழ்

III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

மற்றும்
இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்?

மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு,
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையை ” Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga
ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது

Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை “dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையை Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை
dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை dosa
வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையை “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை
moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha
மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது ஒரு சேர்த்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு சேர்த்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு சிதறலான
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு
சிதறலான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
விரிவாக்கம் செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு விரிவாக்கம்
செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்யாத Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு
மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு திண்மையற்ற Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை “ஒரு திண்மையற்ற Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை
“ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,
ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில்
கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta
மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், samudaya
and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் மற்றும்
கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
இல்லாவிடில் “இது citta அகநிலை” என உணர்ந்து, sati விழிப்பு நிலை
அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும்
ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார். மற்றும் உலகத்தில்
சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta
மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து
கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

சிறந்த வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல் சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம் - எல்லாம் உணர்வுநிலையின் அடி எல்லை

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

இந்த
சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம், புத்தரால், அவருடைய முடிவுறுதல் அப்புறம், அவருடைய
பின்பற்றுபவர்களின் நிமித்தம் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட பற்பல விதிமுறைகள்
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அவை, நமக்கு தற்காலத்தில் மிக முக்கிய இணைகோப்பு
விதிமுறைகளை உண்டாக்குகிறது.

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

தம்மாதாஸங் நாம தம்மா பரியாயங் தெசஸ்ஸஸ்ஸாமி, யென ஸம்மங்காதொ ஆரியஸாவகொ ஆகன்கமாகொ அத்தனாவ அத்தானங் ப்யா-கரெய்ய: ‘கின்ன-நிரயொ-மி-கின்ன-திர்ச்சான-யொனி கின்ன-பெத்திவிஸயொ கின்’அபாய துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ, ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸ்மி அவினிபாதொ-தம்மொ நியதொ ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’தி?

தமிழ்

(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)

நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti?

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.

Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Itipi
so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.

Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.

Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.

Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 

This,
Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi. 

இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 

Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… 



Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 

– Ananda, the twin sala
trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
-ஆனந்தா,பூவா
பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 

It is not
by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma’.
இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
… 

… 


‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā. 

– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
Teacher after my passing away. 

உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர்
வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது, இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.
… 


DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
A. Ānāpāna Pabba
B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
C. Sampajāna Pabba
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
A. Section on ānāpāna
B. Section on postures
C. Section on sampajañña
D. Section on repulsiveness
E. Section on the Elements
F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction

Thus have I heard: 

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

– This,
bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:

ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
(கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā (பகவான்) தங்கி
இருந்தார்.

அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா

- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில் அளித்தார்.Bhagavā (பகவா) சொற்றார்:

-
இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து,
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.

எந்த
நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல்
கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு
வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம்
நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க
கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.
மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார். sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 


C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும் மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல்
படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā,
taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if,
bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
“In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
அறீவார்.

ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள்
உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல்
பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன்
நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல், பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.”


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம் பிரதிபலிக்க
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு
குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ; அதே போன்றே,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம் பிரதிபலிக்க
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும்
இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால் ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(4)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ
nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,
நரம்புகளால்
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(5)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் இல்லாமல்,
நரம்புகளால்
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(6)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான,
இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால்
எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே
ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே
ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு,
அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

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LESSONS 2777, 2778,2779 Tue, Wed, Thu 18, 17, 18 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) NOT SAME (DGBM)
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LESSONS 2777, 2778,2779 Tue, Wed, Thu 18, 17, 18 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) NOT SAME (DGBM)
http://roundtableindia.co.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1150:why-dhamma-chakra-parivartan-deen-on-14-oct-reasons-a-celebration&catid=94&Itemid=65

http://roundtableindia.co.in/

http://roundtableindia.co.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1150:why-dhamma-chakra-parivartan-deen-on-14-oct-reasons-a-celebration&catid=94:history&Itemid=65

Wishing you all on the occasion of Dhamma Chakra Parivartan Deen - 14 Oct in the remembrance of Sunday 14 Oct 1956. Keep Rising, Keep Growing and Keep moving Babasaheb’s mission ahead and ahead till all our downtrodden brothers and sisters secure their human rights.
Some of the facts which many people wanted to know. [ I had concluded the same points during the discussion of this issue on oct 2004 at BC and other yahoo forums ]

1. Dr. Babasaheb has started celebrating Buddha Jayanti since 1950 but never ever said anything about “Ashoka & VijayaDashmi” .

2. Dr. Babasaheb has written volumes of literature ( published/un- published ) but never ever mentioned anything about “Ashoka VijayaDashmi” .

3. Dr. Babasaheb has declared officially on Sept 23rd, 1956 to all Janata that he is going to take Buddhism on Sunday 14th Oct 1956. He has given interview to PTI ( Press Trust of India ) on 23rd Sept saying…On “Dasara” day he is going to embrace Buddhism. It is to be noted that Babasaheb has said “Dasara” word but not “Ashok VijayaDashmi” .

4. Babasaheb initially decided to take Buddhism on Buddha Jayanti which comes in month of May every year and that year(1956) 2500 was getting completed. Due to unavoidable circumstances and insistence of Nagpur group, the place has been shifted to Nagpur and the committee decided to hold program in such a way that MAXIMUM people should come for the same.
So being chosen as a Sunday it was not guaranteeing that everyone will get holiday on this. Because , during that time frame many of our people used to work in MILLS and in farms. When the organizing team learned that, on Dasara all the mills and other private firms are going to be closed, they decided to choose that day as Schools, Colleges, Government, Private firms will be closed. This will ensure that MAXIMUM people can attend this function.

5. Babasaheb has given speech on Oct 15, 1956 around 2 hours. I believe any one can say 2 hours is big enough to think and talk about anything he wanted to say to his people. He has explained the importance of choosing Nagpur but has not said any single word about “ASHOKA” nor “VIJAYDASHMI” . Any logical person could think rationally that, Babasaheb is known to be master of HISTORY and how can he forget to give any little importance of “ASHOKA” and “VIJAYADASHMI” if at all it is TRUE ???
But, WE don’t see any references of this two words in his entire speech where as he has spent more than 5 minutes for giving importance of choosing “Nagpur” as a place for this historical conversion.

6. On 16th Oct 1956, he went ahead and executed similar program at Chandrapur. But again what we found - “No where he has mentioned about “ASHOKA” and “VIJAYADASMI” .

7. On 26/27 Oct 1956, “Prabuddha Bharat” newspaper published “Deeksha Visheshank” a special supplement on Oct 14, 1956 function and Babasaheb was alive that time. This special supplement is full of all the pictures, points, minute-to-minute information what happened-how it happened-what has talked etc…everything. …in number of pages. BUT, still this special supplement also doesn’t talk about these “ASHOKA” and “VIJAYADASMI” two words….

8. Babasaheb was alive for 52 days after this historical conversion and no where we found any point about these two words “ASHOKA” and “VIJAYADASMI” .

I hope, above points are substantial enough to deny any correlation of “ASHOKA”, “VIJAYDASMI” with Babasaheb’s historical conversion day.

What happened after Babasaheb ?

9. Babasaheb has created structure of RPI and second level of our then leaders including Dadasaheb Gaikwad, B. C. Kamble, Rajabhawoo Khobragade, Babu Haridas Awale etc..arranged 4 days conference on 1-2-3-4 oct 1957 at DeekshaBhoomi.

10. Somehow these then leaders formed RPI on 3rd Oct 1957 [ That time Dasara Came on that day ] and celebrated it. Many people where gathered during that event. As all of us knows that everyone lean towards political party to gain many things…huge of people were present during that conference and it turns to be DCPD celebration. But all though, Adv. Babu Haridas Awale, B. C. Kamble and Mr. Wamanrao Godbole ( Chief of the Organizing committee of that historical conversion function ) gathered on 14th Oct 1957. This should be noted correctly.

11. Other leaders who went ahead and joined congress followed Bramhnical calender and obey their thoughts and sometimes even get confused when they see two dates for “Dasara” in different calenders.

12. Babasaheb has written preface to “The Essence of Buddhism” by P. Narasu [ Tamilnadu ]. This book contents says 2500 years completed to Buddha’s Mahaparinirvana on Mid night of 13 [ Talking about B.C. ] . According to 1956 [ A.C.] Mid night of 13 means morning of 14 Oct 1956. [ This explanation - denies the fact that Buddha’s birth, Enlightenment and Mahaparinirvana has happened on SAME day. But as per the international standard the way International people follow 25th December every year for Yeshu, on full moon basis International Buddhist people follow month of May to do the same. ]

13. As Babasaheb Mahaparinirvana happened exactly after 52 days - 6th Dec 1956, we have to stick with the calender dates. Otherwise we might need to calculate his Mahaparinirvana every year from the day Dasara comes.

14. Going into the history “unnecessary” and wasting time is all what our people have done so far, otherwise Baba’s MOVEMENT could have been better shape and we all could have lived happily.

15. Last but not the least, if someone wants to disagree with my above analogy then I would ask them to prepare your own “Buddhist” Calender and declare dates rather than following “Hindu panchang - Kalnirnay etc…”. Lets follow 22 vows given by Babasaheb and pay tribute to this GREAT LEADER by becoming his true follower.

Source:http://aimjapan.org/en/life/131-why-dhamma-chakra-parivartan-deen-on-14-oct-reasons-aamp-celebration

http://drbaba.org/ashok-vijaya-dashami-on-14-october-1956-deekshabhoomi/

1956 – Deekshabhoomi
HOME > ARTICLES > Ashok Vijaya Dashami on 14 October 1956 – Deekshabhoomi
Deekshabhoomi is a sacred monument of Buddhism located where the architect of the Indian Constitution, B. R. Ambedkar, converted to Buddhism with approximately 600,000 followers on Ashok Vijaya Dashami on 14 October 1956. Ambedkar’s conversion to Buddhism is deeply significant for millions of people in India.

Deekshabhoomi is in Nagpur, Maharashtra, a location regarded as a pilgrimage center of Buddhism in India. Millions of pilgrims visit Deekshabhoomi every year,especially on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din (“Mass Conversion Ceremony Day”) and 14 October, the memorial day when Ambedkar converted to Buddhism here. His final religious act was to embrace Buddhism. Today, the largest stupa in Asia is erected in his memory at the site.

Deeksha literally means ‘act of ordaining’ and bhoomi means the ‘ground’. Deekshabhoomi means the ground where people got ordained as Buddhist. This religious mass conversion at one place was the first ever of its kind in history. Deekshabhoomi is one of two places of considered to be of great importance in the life of Ambedkar, the other being Chaitya Bhoomi in Mumbai.

Dikshbhoomi

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Buddha Vacana
— The words of the Buddha —
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This website is dedicated to those who wish to understand better the words of the Buddha by learning the basics of Pali language, but who don’t have much time available for it. The idea is that if their purpose is merely to get enabled to read the Pali texts and have a fair feeling of understanding them, even if that understanding does not cover all the minute details of grammatical rules, they don’t really need to spend much time struggling with a discouraging learning of tedious grammatical theory involving such things as numerous declensions and conjugations.
In that case, it is enough to limit themselves to simply learn the meaning of the most important Pali words, because the repeated experience of reading provides an empirical and intuitive understanding of the most common sentence structures. They are thus enabled to become autodidacts, choosing the time, duration, frequency, contents and depth of their own study.
Their understanding of the Buddha Vacana will become much more precise as they effortlessly learn and memorize the words and the important formulae that are fundamental in the Buddha’s teaching, by ways of regular reading. Their learning and the inspiration they get from it will grow deeper as their receptivity to the messages of the Teacher will improve.
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Bhavissanti bhikkhū anāgatam·addhānaṃ, ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā gambhīrā gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu bhaññamānesu na sussūsissanti na sotaṃ odahissanti na aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessanti na ca te dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissanti.

In future time, there will be bhikkhus who will not listen to the utterance of such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with emptiness, they will not lend ear, they will not apply their mind on knowledge, they will not consider those teachings as to be taken up and mastered.

Ye pana te suttantā kavi·katā kāveyyā citta·kkharā citta·byañjanā bāhirakā sāvaka·bhāsitā, tesu bhaññamānesu sussūsissanti, sotaṃ odahissanti, aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessanti, te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissanti.

On the contrary, they will listen to the utterance of such discourses which are literary compositions made by poets, witty words, witty letters, by people from outside, or the words of disciples, they will lend ear, they will apply their mind on knowledge, they will consider those teachings as to be taken up and mastered.

Evam·etesaṃ, bhikkhave, suttantānaṃ tathāgata·bhāsitānaṃ gambhīrānaṃ gambhīr·atthānaṃ lok·uttarānaṃ suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttānaṃ antaradhānaṃ bhavissati.

Thus, bhikkhus, the discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with emptiness, will disappear.

Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ: ‘ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā gambhīrā gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu bhaññamānesu sussūsissāma, sotaṃ odahissāma, aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessāma, te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissāmā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbanti.

Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will listen to the utterance of such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with emptiness, we will lend ear, we will apply our mind on knowledge, we will consider those teachings as to be taken up and mastered.’ This is how, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves.

— Āṇi Sutta —

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RESURGENCE OF ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF PRABUDDHA BHARATH:

DELHI IS NOT FAR

Dear All,
Jai Bheem!

Congratulations

The victory of the BSP in UP has shown the way to power to those who were being denied for centuries. Power game has its own grammer. It seems the followers of Babu Kanshi Ram are now not too late to master it. BSP supremo, Mayawati has proved it. She has meticulously worked out the dynamics of number game. She has not only convinced her own people that united they win and divided they loose, but has also established her credentials among the dwijas who uptill very recently were opposed tooth and nail to the coming of Dalits in to the public sphere. What is even more important is that the people of UP are convinced that if any political party can provide them relief from the mounting atrocities of the erswhile establishment it is the BSP under the strong leadership of the Madam Mayawati. They reposed confidence in her leadership and brought her into power to bring rule of law as well as justice in the beleaguered state of UP. Many are keeping the fingers crossed as to how Madam Mayawati would be able to make a balance between the Dalit emancipatory agenda of the BSP and the political expedency of her power politics. It seems, given her acumen and dexterity in politics, she would be able to tell the world that Dalits are now come of age and that Delhi is not too far from them.Once again Congrats to all of you.

Ronki Ram (Dr.),
Dept. of Political Science,Panjab University, Chandigarh, India Cell: +91 987 286 1290.

Posted on May 11th, 2007
BAHUJAN SAMAJ PARTY IN UP

INSTEAD OF BEING RULED LET US BE RULERS

Kanshi Ram Tells Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath

SPECIAL SPEACH DELIVERD BY MR. KANSHI RAM Ji
AT 1ST WORLD ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE GREAT PRABUDDHA BHARATH CONFERENCE IN MALAYSIA ON 10TH & 11TH OCTOBER,1998

ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE GREAT PRABUDDHA BHARATH should become rulers instead of being ruled. We must not be always at the receiving end, instead become the givers, ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE GREAT PRABUDDHA BHARATH Leader Mr. Kanshi Ram told the world ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE GREAT PRABUDDHA BHARATH It’s long we have been ruled. It is long we have been taking. Now it is time we change the destiny to rule and give, he said. Mr. Kanshi Ram who is the Founder Prisident of Bahujan Samaj Party delivered a key-note address at the opening of the 1st World ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE GREAT PRABUDDHA BHARATH Convention ‘A new vision towards a casteless society’ at the Kuala Lampur Mines Resort City.

The two day convention held on 10th and 11th October 1998 was well attended by more than 700 delegates throughout the world including famous politicians noted leaders from dalit movement, champions of down-trodden, social reformers, renowned economists, famous educationists and great scholars.

The Malaysian Manister of Tourism, Arts and Culture Datuk Sabbaruddin Chik officialy opened the conference which saw the opening very colourful with Malaysian cultural and traditional dances performed by Indians, Malays and Chinese.Mr. Kanshi Ram garlanded the Portrait of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar while ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE GREAT PRABUDDHA BHARATH Sena President Ram Vilas Paswan garlanded the portrait of the great Periar.

Mr. Kanshi Ram in his speech continued to trace the history of caste and Braminical social order. He asserted by virtue of his vast experience that elimination of caste was impossible at this stage. He also elaborated the very purpose of creating caste.In context of caste oppression and justice Mr. Kanshi Ram refered the role of Dr. Ambedkar. He commended the merit of ‘Communial Award’ which he achieved after a long struggle.

Dr. Ambedkar could not sustain the going due to the constant pressure of the mighty upper caste Hindus, Mr. Kanshi Ram told the delegates who packed the hall.’Babasaheb Ambedkar was able to get reservation for the oppressed in legislative houses, job opportunities in government departments and also places in higher educational insitutions.

I wish to stress upon that reservation is not the soultion to oour problem. We must become rulers instead of being ruled, givers instead of being takers, Mr. Kanshi Ram told the crowd to a thunderous applause.It is my duty to prepare my people not to get reservation but to grant reservation. Who can granreservation? Only rulers can grant reservation. Hence, I will prepare my people to become rulers.If we do not become rulers, our problems will remain forever, Kanshi Ram said.

In order to become rulers we must learn how to handle caste. Dr. Ambedkar, Nehru, Gandhi and Indra Gandhi were experts in handling caste. Nehru handled caste so well that he made Dr. Ambedkar helpless and retain the Brahminical Social Order. Indra Gandhi also handled caste well to benefit the Brahminical Social Order.Dr. Ambedkar prepared the SC/ST to handle Caste. That is how we could get many benefits from the British, he added.

Mr. Kanshi Ram expressed concern for 10 crores slum dwellers who are deprived of proper drinking water and electric supply.People migrating from villages to cities are also being denied of many facilities and end up in polluting the enviornment.But those refugees who came from Pakistan after independence were duly taken care of by the then government and a special budget was allocated to meet their basic necessities, he pointed out to the delegates.
According to Mr.Kanshi Ram ,slum dewellers presently living in urban areas are the Dalit refugees who have migrated from the villages because of acrimonys & atrocities committed by upper case Hindus.They have not been able to influence the Planning Commission and the Government of India to allocate separate budget to provide them bread, clothes and shelter.

A decent life is a matter of fundamental right of every citizen in accordance with the constitutional mandate, Mr. Kanshi Ram asserted.He advocated separate settlement for dalit people as once formulated by Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar.He was very critical of the evil impact of caste-system in India.
Wherever the Indians went they never failed to carry with them this spreading disease he told the lauging and cheering crowd.The Indians are prepared to leave anythign behind. They leave behind their little property, small land and their huts.But they will never leave behind their caste. They carry with them wherever they go, he said.While urgimg the dalits to unite he also called upon the Dalit intellectuals to shed away the approach of existing analysis only.

They should instead come with forward-looking approach in education, economic and social problems.They must also come up with some sort of effective solution programme, Mr. Kanshi Ram added.Mr. Kanshi Ram impressed upon the delegates that Dalit problem can only be solved through political power to rule the country.‘We must become the rulers instead of being ruled,’he told the cheering and applauding delegates.
Courtesy: Mr.M.G.Pandithan, New Vision. (First World Dalit Conference )

Kindly visit:

http://www.soyouwanna.com/site/syws/buddhism/buddhismFULL.html

What is the sound of one hand clapping? If a tree falls in the forest, but no one is around, does it make a sound? And why are Lovers of Noble Truth so obsessed with the sound of stuff?…

Deep questions like these could be a part of your life, too as you join an estimated 500 million other Buddhists around the world in the quest for spiritual awakenment. Neophytes on the road to wisdom and weary old travelers alike will benefit from a review of the basics, so assume the lotus position, and read on, grasshopper.

One of the nice things about The Lovers of Noble Truth is that it generally doesn’t take itself too seriously. The Lovers of Noble Truth are a light-hearted, peace-loving group who haven’t gone around burning astronomers, drowning weird old women, or drinking Kool-Aid (at least, not in the last 2000 years). Our point: understand that our use of humor in this SYW is not intended to insult anyone. If you are insulted, chug yourself a glass of Kool-Aid and get over it.

2. LEARN THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

The story of the Awakened One

The Awakened One was a man, and not a god. He was born as Siddharta Gautama, the prince of small kingdom in northern India. Until he was 29 years old, he lived the life of King’s son - that is to say, he partied a lot, ate a lot, probably had sex a lot, and he remained protected from the seedier side of life outside the palace walls.

The story goes that one day the pampered prince accidentally saw a old sick man in the street, and Siddharta was overcome with horror at this unaccustomed sight of ugliness, disease, and decay. How could people ever be happy knowing that all life must end in death and decay? Siddharta remained in this deep funk until he one day encountered an ascetic holy man. In the midst of all the working-class depression, this man somehow managed to maintain a serene attitude. The prince became a follower of this holy man, and thus embarked on his spiritual career.

In Siddharta’s day, being a alms seeker was an acceptable lifestyle; people respected these mendicants for giving up earthly ambitions and devoting themselves to a virtuous poverty. They received shelter and handouts of food from pious folk everywhere. There was a lot of disagreement, however, as to what exactly it means to be holy and virtuous. Ask a dozen different gurus and you’d get a dozen different answers. Which was the right way? Siddharta, having become a poor monk, joined the school of ascetics, who believed that mortification of the body leads to the purification of the mind and spirit. Starving yourself, sitting upright for days without sleep, poking needles through your body - this was all pudding and lollipops to the ascetics. Siddharta pursued this path to paradise with varying degrees of success until the age of 35. But finally, having reduced himself to a mere skeleton, he realized that this self-denial wasn’t anymore satisfying than his original lifestyle of ignorant hedonism had been.

Siddharta abandoned his vows of asceticism, much to the disgust of his fellow practitioners, and he strengthened his body and sat down under a fig tree to meditate. And that’s when it happened: Siddharta Gautama realized the Middle Way between hedonism and asceticism, and became enlightened. He was now the Buddha.

The Buddha made no fuss about this experience, but his former holy man pals, who were still annoyed with him for abandoning his ascetic vows, noticed that he seemed to be peculiarly serene and that his eyes seemed to shine with the light of understanding. So they gathered one day and asked the Buddha what was going on. That was when the Buddha gave his first talk as the Awakened One, the lecture which explained the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. These noble truths are the core of the Practioners of The Noble Truth belief system; the only way to reach enlightenment (which is good) is to accept these Noble Truths.

The First Noble Truth
The Second Noble Truth
The Third Noble Truth
The Fourth Noble Truth

The First Noble Truth

Life can suck. There’s disease, injury, high rent, final exams, warm beer, natural disasters, and death. There’s lots of good stuff about life too, so much time is spent attempting to protect ourselves from the bad, that we completely ignore the good. Even when you’re happy, it’s difficult to free yourself from the memory and anticipation of stressful things. People end up living always for tomorrow, whether that means the anticipation of a promotion, retirement, a better job, or the Second Coming. Life is characterized by suffering, pain, and dissatisfaction.

The Second Noble Truth

The origin of suffering is the craving for pleasure, existence, and non-existence. You get it in your head that you want things, and your mind then becomes an instrument for chasing those things. The actual objects you desire are irrelevant; wanting things - anything - severely circumscribes a person’s capacity to be joyful and serene. The body needs sustenance, but it’s the self that craves pleasure, existence and non-existence, and it’s the self that must be seen as insubstantial.

The Third Noble Truth

Some people say that all this talk of suffering makes Buddhism a pessimistic religion. And perhaps so it would be, if it weren’t for the Third Noble Truth, the truth of the cessation of suffering; that there is a way to rid yourself of this suffering. Good news, eh?

The Fourth Noble Truth

You wanted a way out of the madness and stress? To rid yourself of suffering, you must follow the Eightfold Path. As you’ve probably guessed, it consists of eight parts. Get to know them, but don’t expect to fully understand them right away. A fair amount gets lost in the translation when you’re dealing with concepts. Read on to familiarize yourself with the path.

3. FOLLOW THE EIGHTFOLD PATH AND THE FIVE PRECEPTS

The Eightfold Path

The whole reason for becoming Buddhist is to achieve happiness and become “awakened.” In order to do this, you must follow the Eightfold Path. Once you have accomplished all eight steps, you are officially enlightened:

Right Knowledge: Strive to comprehend the first three Noble Truths. This might seem a bit circular, but language is a tricky thing, and the Great Seer wanted to make sure you had all your bases covered. The Noble Truths perhaps aren’t as straightforward as they may seem at first. So you must strive to fully comprehend them.

Right Thinking: Consciously dedicate yourself to a life in harmony with the Noble Truths elucidated by the Awakened One.

Right Speech: No gossiping, lying, backbiting, and harsh language. If you don’t have anything valuable to say, keep your big yapper shut. Always good advice.

Right Conduct: For lay Buddhists (meaning Buddhists who aren’t monks), Right Conduct means following the Five Precepts (see below). If you’re a monk, there are some more rules for conduct, but don’t worry about them until you’re ready to become a True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One.

Right Livelihood: Go peacefully into the world and do no harm. So choose a profession that’s harmless to living things, and refrain from killing people.

Right Effort: Conquer the flow of negative thoughts, replacing them with good thoughts.

Right Mindfulness: Achieve an intense awareness of your body, emotions, and mental states. Quiet the noises in your head and dwell in the present.

Right Concentration: Learn about (and practice) various kinds of meditation, an important booster rocket on the launch pad to awakenment.
The Five Precepts

The Five Precepts are the basic rules of conduct for lay Buddhists-as opposed to monks and nuns, who have 227 and 311 rules to follow respectively. The Five Precepts aren’t commandments given to you by an angry God who threatens you if you disobey; rather, they are guidelines meant to improve your karma and help you along the Eightfold Path to enlightenment. These few rules keep you out of the worst kinds of trouble, ultimately making you happier:

Don’t kill - man or beast
Don’t steal
Don’t lie
Don’t cheat on your loved one
Don’t take drugs or drink booze
Sounds pretty straightforward, doesn’t it?

4. TAKE REFUGE IN THE AWAKENED ONE, THE TRUE TEACHINGS OF THE AWAKENED ONE, AND THE COMMUNITY OF TRUE FOLLOWERS OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE AWAKENED ONE

Now we get to the nitty-gritty. Practice of Noble Truth is basically made of three things:

The awakened One.
The Teaching including the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, and a large canon of sacred texts.
The Community:of Practicing True Followers of the Pathshown by The Awakened One and awakened beings.
You become a Practisioner of The Noble Truth partly by taking “refuge” in the Awakened One, the Teachings of The Awakened One, and the The Community:of Practicing True Followers of the Pathshown by The Awakened One and awakened beings.

. This is a fancy way of saying that you agree to learn from the Awakened One’s example, from the sacred texts, and participate in some way in the organization of The Community:of Practicing True Followers of the Pathshown by The Awakened One and awakened beings and lay persons.

How do you become officially a Practioner of Noble Truths? Well, unlike some religions, membership can be a little vague. If you say, “I’m a Practioner of Noble Truths”, you’re not likely to be questioned by anyone, because there aren’t any universal badges of membership. A Catholic gets baptized, a Jewish man get circumcised, but a lay Practioner of Noble Truths(non-True Follower of the Path shown by The Awakened One) isn’t necessarily required to go through any special ritual.

It is a good idea to contact a Practioner of Noble Truths priest. Look for temples and associations in the Yellow Pages, or go to the Global Resources Guide at the Journal of Practioner of Noble Truths Ethics. The priest (which can be a man or a woman) will guide you through initiation into his/her branch of Buddhism, and perhaps set up some kind of commitment ritual, but it isn’t absolutely necessary.

If you don’t want to get in touch with a priest (or you can’t) but would still like to do something to mark the occasion of your setting out on a new path, you can perform a do-it-yourself initiation online. Otherwise, just try to follow the Five Precepts, learn about the Four Noble Truths, and congratulations: you’re a lay Buddhist.

5. DECIDE HOW YOU WANT TO MAKE PRACTICE OF NOBLE TRUTH PART OF YOUR LIFE

Sometimes Practice of Noble Truth, especially as it’s been adopted in the West, can appear so liberal and watered down that it’s difficult to distinguish between an actual Practice of Noble Truths and a plain old “open-minded seeker of wisdom.” There’s no sacred law telling you, for example, that you ought to attend service at the temple every Wednesday and donate 10% of your income to the Dalai Lama. Lay Practioner of Noble Truths is about as flexible as religion can get.

Nonetheless, one of your refuges as a Practioner of Noble Truths is the community of True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, so why not make use of it? These intrepid souls have given up all worldly possessions, shaved their heads, and left their families. They spend each and every day trying to become wiser, better people (with varying degrees of success), and some of them are available to you at certain times for guidance and counseling. Your spiritual journey might benefit from their wisdom, as well as from the companionship of fellow Practioner of Noble Truths .

What role will Practice of Noble Truths play in your everyday life?

The tricky thing about the Middle Way is the Emptiness of it. Here’s what the Awakened One said about Nibbana (that is, the paradisical state of awakenment towards which all Practioners of Noble Truths are journeying):

‘True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, there is that sphere in which there is neither earth nor water, fire nor air: it is not the infinity of space, nor the infinity of perception; it is not nothingness, nor is it neither idea nor non-idea; it is neither this world nor the next, nor is it both; it is neither the sun nor the moon.’

‘True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, I declare that it neither comes nor goes, it neither abides nor passes away; it is not caused, established, begun, supported: it is the end of suffering.’

‘What I call the selfless is hard to see, for it is not easy to see the truth. But he who knows it penetrates his craving; and for him who sees it, there is nothing there.’

Practice of Noble Truths can be frustrating for someone seeking spiritual guidance precisely because the Awakened One perceived the highest wisdom as a kind of absence. Every time you find a star in the Practice of Noble Truths firmament to guide yourself by, it fades into darkness. That’s sort of the point. The truth of the Middle Way is supposed to be beyond the reach of those who are chasing it. Mellow out. Enjoy life. Rejoice in the absence of a great burden of rules and doctrines.

As a Practioners of Noble Truths , you don’t have to make a big deal of being a Practioner of Noble Truths . Feel free to keep a low profile in the broader community if it’s easier for you. Keeping a little bronze Awakened One’s statue on your desk at work isn’t going to win you any special points. Were he alive today, the Awakened One wouldn’t care whether you denied his Practice of Noble Truths to the world, or had an image of him tattooed on your forehead. As a Practioner of Noble Truths , you can even participate in other religions. Allow us to illustrate with a story (Practice of Noble Truths is big on stories):

A Practioner of Noble Truths master was once asked by a student, “Have you ever read the Bible?

“No,” said the master. “Why don’t you read it to me?”

“‘Do not worry about tomorrow,’” read the student, “‘for tomorrow shall worry about itself.’”

“That man was awakened who said that,” commented the master.

The student read further: “‘Ask and it shall be given you, seek and you shall find, knock and it shall be opened unto you. For everyone that asks receives, and he that seeks finds, and to him that knocks, it shall be opened.’”

“That’s great stuff!” exclaimed the master. “The writer of those words is very close to Buddhahood.”

Discovering Practice of Noble Truths isn’t the beginning of your search for wisdom, and taking refuge in the Awakened One won’t be the end. Follow the guidance of your priest (if you have one), keep on reading, and build a spiritual routine that feels right for you. This might include going to the local temple, performing acts of charity, going on retreat, meditation, contemplating the sacred texts, and perhaps even becoming a novice monk. Go in peace, and above all, keep your sense of humor, cause you’re gonna need it. Some Buddhism humor to leave with:

What did the Practioners of Noble Truths True Follower of the path shown by The Awakened One say to the hotdog vendor? “Make me one with everything.”
When the True Follower of the path shown by The Awakened One asked for his change, the vendor replied, “Change comes from within.”

Spiritual Community of the True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One

Spiritual Community
In the suttas Spiritual Community is usually used in one of two ways: it refers either to the community of ordained True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One or to the community of “noble ones”— persons who have attained at least stream-entry, the first stage of Awakening.
The definition Noble Ones
“The Spiritual Community of the Blessed One’s disciples who have practiced well… who have practiced straight-forwardly… who have practiced methodically… who have practiced masterfully — in other words, the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types — they are the Spiritual Communityof the Blessed One’s disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world.”
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True Teachings of The Awakened One

Courses of Action
How can you recognize a good and wise person? The Awakened One
explains what qualities to look for and how to spot them.

“True Followers of The Awakened One, there are these four courses of action. Which four? There is the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable.
“Now as for the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is unpleasant to do, one considers it as not worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing. Thus one considers it as not worth doing for both reasons.
“As for the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known — in terms of manly stamina, manly persistence, manly effort — as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn’t reflect, ‘Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable.’ So he doesn’t do it, and thus the non-doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person reflects, ‘Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable.’ So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what is profitable for him.
“As for the course of action that is pleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known — in terms of manly stamina, manly persistence, manly effort — as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn’t reflect, ‘Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is unprofitable.’ So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person reflects, ‘Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is unprofitable.’ So he doesn’t do it, and thus the non-doing of that course of action leads to what is profitable for him.
“As for the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is pleasant to do, one considers it as worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing. Thus one considers it as worth doing for both reasons.
“These are the four courses of action.”

True Teachings of The Awakened One

The Noble Path
Skillful actions eventually bring good results, while unskillful ones bring bad. But best of all are the actions that lead to the ending of actions altogether.
” True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, these four types of kamma have been directly realized, verified, & made known by me. Which four? There is action that is dark with dark result. There is action that is bright with bright result. There is action that is dark & bright with dark & bright result. There is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of actions.
“And what is action that is dark with dark result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates an injurious bodily fabrication, fabricates an injurious verbal fabrication, fabricates an injurious mental fabrication. Having fabricated an injurious bodily fabrication, having fabricated an injurious verbal fabrication, having fabricated an injurious mental fabrication, he rearises in an injurious world. On rearising in an injurious world, he is there touched by injurious contacts. Touched by injurious contacts, he experiences feelings that are exclusively painful, like those of the beings in hell. This is called action that is dark with dark result.
“And what is action that is bright with bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a non-injurious bodily fabrication … a non-injurious verbal fabrication … a non-injurious mental fabrication … He rearises in a non-injurious world … There he is touched by non-injurious contacts … He experiences feelings that are exclusively pleasant, like those of the Ever-radiant Devas. This is called action that is bright with bright result.
“And what is action that is dark & bright with dark & bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a bodily fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious … a verbal fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious … a mental fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious … He rearises in an injurious & non-injurious world … There he is touched by injurious & non-injurious contacts … He experiences injurious & non-injurious feelings, pleasure mingled with pain, like those of human beings, some devas, and some beings in the lower realms. This is called action that is dark & bright with dark & bright result.
“And what is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of kamma? Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called kamma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of action.
“These, True Followers of the Path shown by The Awakened One, are the four types of action directly realized, verified, & made known by me.”

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10/14/18
LESSON 2776 Mon 15 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) NOT SAME (DGBM) Structured flow of the tree of TIPITAKA in Classical English,Classical Esperanto
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 11:06 pm

LESSON 2776 Mon 15 Oct. 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
NOT SAME (DGBM)

Structured flow of the tree of TIPITAKA

in Classical English,Classical  Esperanto

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka song

Structured flow of the tree of TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1st to 2nd century) [Extract: The evolution of
Sorting] Sutta Vibhaaga [two books that contain rules for bhikkhus
i
bhikkhunis, outlining eight kinds of crimes]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Important role of women in Buddhism and the rules of monks - from the MN-44

(Five nics or collections)
The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the teaching of the Buddha
about the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. Is
divided into five collections called Nikāyas (A crowd, assembly; a
collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity,
congregation; a house, housing).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Ask a monk: the Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Under Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
DN 01 The All Net of Views of I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: long] Dīgha Nikāya collects 34 of the longest speeches
given by the Buddha. There are several tips that many of them arrive late
additions to the original corpus and questionable authenticity.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“Majjhima Nikaya, the speeches of the average length”

The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for the restriction and
the abandonment of the dyes, the fundamental deficiencies that maintain slavery
to the round of birth and death.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] Saṃyutta Nikāya collects the suttas according to
Its subject in 56 subgroups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than
Three thousand speeches of varying length, but generally relatively
short

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionalnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivided
In eleven subgroups called nipātas, each one of them collecting speeches
which consists of enumerations of an additional factor versus that of the
previous nipta It contains thousands of suttas that are generally
short

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka
The short texts of Nikāya are considered compounds of two strata:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
and Jātaka form the old strata, while other books are late additions
and its authenticity is more questionable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka song




Vipassana Fellowship from September to December 2018 Meditation Course







Daily Practice Focus


I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna

in Classical Pali, English,




http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha/dn22.html#1


I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba


Katha·ñ·ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arañña-gato rukkha-mūla-gato suññ·āgāra-gato nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato·va assasati, sato·va passasati. Dīghaṃ assasantodīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ passasantodīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ assasantorassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ passasantorassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti;

sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.


I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna



And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree
or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise,
setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ.
Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’;
he
trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro bhamakār·antevāsī dīghaṃ añchantodīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ añchantorassaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ assasantodīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ passasantodīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ assasantorassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ passasantorassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti;

sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a
long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn,
he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’;
he
trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.


 
Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

Iti ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati;atthi kāyoti pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.


sarvajan.ambedkar.org/blog_admin/wp-admin/post.php


Daily Practice Focus

Practice Focus

You
should aim to incorporate at least one meditation sitting each day for
the 10 weeks of the course. If you are able to manage two separate
sessions daily, so much the better.


The broad focus for each of the days is as follows. In any second sitting
please review one of the techniques we met earlier in the course.


  • Week 1 and 2 - Mindfulness of Breathing (anapanasati)
  • Week 3 and 4 - Lovingkindness Meditation (metta)
  • Week 5 - Compassion Meditation (karuna)
  • Week 6 - Appreciative Joy Meditation (mudita) plus a brief overview of Equanimity (upekkha)
  • Week 7 and 8 - Vipassana Meditation (U Ba Khin style)
  • Week 9 and 10 - Vipassana Meditation (Choiceless Awareness)


There
is an optional chant tutorial each Friday for the first 9 weeks of
the course. This builds to a puja sequence that some may find helpful in
rededicating their practice from time to time.


Last modified: Friday, 13 January 2017, 12:58 pm







Buddha Vacana Quotes



Buddha Vacana Quotes


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10/13/18
LESSON 2775 Sun 14 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM) All are cordially invited to participate tomorrow 14th October 2018 at 10 A. M at Nagasena Buddha Vihar, Sadashiva Nagar, Bengaluru to celebrate Dr. Ambedkars 62nd Dhamma Deeksha & Share the Merit. Buddha Jayanti & its political significance -by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 5:06 pm


LESSON 2775  Sun 14 Oct 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM)

On 14-10-2018 Buddha Dhamma Parishath on the occasion of 62nd Dhamma Diksha Event of Dr B.R.Ambedkar observed.

All are cordially invited to participate tomorrow 14th October 2018 at   10 A. M at Nagasena Buddha Vihar, Sadashiva Nagar, Bengaluru to celebrate Dr. Ambedkars 62nd Dhamma  Deeksha & Share the Merit.
Buddha Jayanti & its political significance -by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Buddha Jayanti & its political significance -by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar



http://www.brambedkar.in/%e0%a4%b2%e0%a5%8b%e0%a4%95%e0%a4%b6%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%b9%e0%a5%80%e0%a4%9a%e0%a5%8d%e0%a4%af%e0%a4%be-%e0%a4%ac%e0%a4%9a%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%b5%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%b8%e0%a4%be%e0%a4%a0%e0%a5%80-%e0%a4%aa/




Buddha Jayanti & its political significance -by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Buddha Jayanti and its political significance -by Dr. Babasaheb
Ambedkar (Published in Janata in Marathi on 17th May 1941: BAWS, Vol.
20, pp. 327-335)

There is no need to tell that Indians love festivals. They spend half
of the year in festivity and religious rites. They also give great
importance to celebration of birth and death anniversaries of great
people. The celebration of Krishnajanmastami, Ramanavami and Hanuman
Jayanti are testimony to these mental attitudes of the Hindus.

It will surprise the foreigners that Indians do not celebrate the
Buddha Jayanti in the same spirit though the Indians are fond of such
celebrations. Of all the great people born in India, the status of the
Buddha is the highest. The followers of the Buddha regard Him as the
great Sun who illuminated this world. Christians, though envious they
are of the Buddha, compare Buddha with the Light of Asia. Hindus also
regard the Buddha as the tenth incarnation of Vishnu. This famous person
was buried in the memories and Indians do not remember him at all.

There are many people who will know the name of Bajirao’s harlot,
Mastani. But I guess that the numbers of people who are familiar with
the name of the Buddha are far less than this. This famous person has
been forgotten to this extent is a matter of great shame and surprise.
In this situation, it is a matter of joy that in Bengal and other
provinces the celebration of the Buddha Jayanti has been started. This
is very praiseworthy. But we think that this event has a great political
significance. Therefore in order to make people aware of this
significance we have planned to introduce people the importance of the
life and mission of the Buddha.

Before 2500 years, King Suddhodhan of Sakya clan was ruling
Kapilvastu. The name of the family was Gautama. Kapilvastu was located
in what is now called United Province. It was located between Shravasti
and Ayodhya and 50 miles east of Faizabad. Suddhodhan had two wives. One
of them was Mayadevi and another was Prajapati. After marriage of
Suddhodhan and Mayadevi, Mayadevi conceived after some days. According
to social tradition, the first delivery was to be carried out in her
maternal home and therefore her father Subuddha sent a message to his
son in law for sending Mayadevi.

Therefore Mayadevi and her sister Prajapati left for her maternal
house with retinue. On the way they halted in Lumbini forest. On that
place Mayadevi underwent labour of birth of a child and she gave birth
to a boy in that forest. After giving birth to the boy, Mayadevi died in
a very short time. The boy was nurtured by Mayadevi’s sister Prajapati.
The boy was named as Siddhartha. Later on he became famous as the
Gautama Buddha.

As he was born in warrior class and ruling family, he was provided
education according to the situation of the time. He was not only
trained in warfare but also was he well versed in the Vedas. But
Siddhartha was more inclined to the life of solitude. He was not
specially interested in enjoying the royal life. Due to fear that
Siddhartha might become a Sanyasin, Suddhodhan decided to marry
Siddhartha to confine him to family life.

And therefore he married Siddhartha to daughter of Dandapani whose
name in the father’s house was Gopi and in law’s home was Yashodhara.
Yashodhara gave a birth to a boy whose name was Rahula. In order to
provide luxuries to his son, Suddhodhan built three palaces. He made all
the arrangements so that Siddhartha could live in comfort.

One day Gautama decided to wander in the village and to see the
social situation and therefore he left palace in his chariot. Entering
the city, he saw four events. First of all he saw an old man, suffering,
hopeless, toothless, wrinkled faced, white haired, back bent like an
arrow, with a stick in hand moving with ant’s speed whispering something
inaudible and with all the body shaking uncontrollably. When he moved
forward, he was another scene. A man suffering from heavy fever,
enervated and fainted, homeless he was lying on the road. On the further
journey, he saw a dead body carried in procession by his friends and
relatives. The fourth scene he saw was that of a Sanyasin with a
pleasant and peaceful mind carrying a begging bowl. These four scenes
had a terrific impact on the Gautama’s mind. By seeing this, Gautama
understood that there is a suffering in the world. Human life is
uncertain and mortal. If it were otherwise, man would have not suffered
diseases, never became old and would have never died!!!. And the fourth
sight of a Sanyasin is the aim of the life-Gautama thought. And as this
world is full of suffering, full of diseases, full of deaths therefore
there is no meaning to this worldly life, Gautama further thought.

Caught in this thought web he returned home. Returning home he came
to know that Yashodhara delivered a boy. This is another binding
chain-Gautama thought. But his resolve of renunciation was firm in his
mind. And therefore he conveyed this resolve to his father. Not to say
that Suddhodhan tried to refrain Siddhartha from not taking this course
of action by a lot of persuasion and providing various entertaining
things. But Gautama was firm on his resolution. But he thought that he
should not go without informing his father. In order to express his
mind, he went to the palace to and told his father, “Please do not stop
me. Let your kingdom and your property be with you, O, Father! I do not
want anything.” Next day Suddhodhan called upon his ministers and
conveyed the situation. Hearing this, the ministers replied, “We will
keep an eye on him and we will not let him go.” It was not easy to
renounce home in this situation. Therefore he deferred his renunciation
that day. The next mid night he got up and told his charioteer Chhanna
and said, “I have to go, please go and bring my horse.” Chhanna refused
to take this order and requested Gautama not to go. But seeing Gautama’s
strong will, he brought Kanthaka, the horse. After a last glance at his
wife and son, Siddhartha left Kapilvastu on Kanthaka’s back.

After renunciation, Gautama became disciple of two teachers to
understand why there is suffering in the world. First of all he became
disciple of Alara Kalam and after that that of Uddaka Ramaputta. In this
way, he spent seven years in their company. But their teaching could
not satisfy Gautama. Therefore he left them and went to Uruvela in the
Magadha Kingdom ( Uruvela is now known as Bodhgaya). Like him there were
five persons who renounced family and now were taking refuge in the
forest. With them the Buddha started austerity to the severe extent.

After leading hard ascetic life for six years, his body became thin
and he had no energy to walk. One day when he was returning from the
Falgu river after bath, he fainted on the way. There was a cowman
residing nearby. His elder daughter Sujata saw Siddhartha fainted and
offered him rice milk from her house. After coming to conscious, Gautama
realized that ascetic life will not lead to the solution to the problem
of suffering in the world. As Gautama took food, his five companions
thought that the he is a fallen man now from the path and therefore they
deserted him and in that Buddhagaya, Buddha remained solitary.

One night beneath one tree while seated Gautama realized the cause of
suffering in the world and also way to end the suffering in the world.
He saw that human beings are treading two paths. One is that of sensual
pleasures and other is that of self mortification. Buddha saw that these
two paths are wrongs and they will not end suffering in this world. Due
to this vision, Gautama became enlightened and was therefore called the
“enlightened one”. After that he became famous as the Buddha and that
tree became famous as a Bodhi tree all over the world.

Due to result of this new vision, Buddha left the path of self
mortification. He did not enter in the family life again. But he
returned back to the society and for the welfare of the society started
preaching the Dhamma. He himself went across the length and breadth of
India and taught his Dhamma to all without distinction. He taught the
Dhamma for 40 years. At the end, when he was propagating his Dhamma he
arrived at Pava. In that village lived an ironsmith known as Chuda.
Chuda invited Buddha for a lunch and Buddha could not digest the food
and fell sick. In that sickness, the Buddha went to Kusinara village and
died.

The Buddha was born in 563 BC as a prince and died in 483 BC as a founder of religion.

Mission of the Buddha

What are the fundamental teachings of the Buddha Dhamma? What did he
accomplish? Without understanding these questions, importance of the
Buddha can not be understood. However the detailed explanation is not
possible due to constraint of space; but it is not true that the
Buddha’s mission can not be explained in the brief. During the time of
the Buddha, the Brahmanism has three pillars. The first pillar was
infallibility of the Vedas, sacrifice was the second and the third
pillar was Chaturvarna dharma. Whatever is written in the Vedas is
infallible whether it is intellectually valid or not. Buddha was against
accepting that the Vedas are infallible and he considered it as the
first fetter. Instead of believing in the infallibility of the Vedas,
Buddha’s position was that the truth has to be accepted on intellectual
basis. In the Brahmanism, the stress was on attaining the God. Without
making sacrifices the God can not be attained and therefore sacrifice
was the considered as the religion. Even before the Brahmans used to
sacrifice human beings and the flesh of the human being was to be
consumed by the organizers. This norm did not exist at the time of the
Buddha however the system of animal sacrifice existed. Whoever has read
the literature of that period will know that the ancestors of the
Brahmans killed innumerable cows in sacrifices. One is forced to think
after reading this literature that the number of cows killed by the
Brahmans far outnumber the cows killed by the Muslims. The Buddha
attacked the belief of infallibility of the Vedas and in the same force
attacked the custom of sacrifices. One can say that Buddha’s position in
this regard was revolutionary. Buddha advocated that there is no
connection between the religion and attainment of God. The purpose of
the religion was related to human’s behaviour with another human. This
was the Buddha’s position. Buddha thought that attainment of the god is
not concern of the religion. On one hand, strive for attainment of god
and on another treat the neighbors with the contempt is the antithesis
of the religion. Buddha attacked the third pillar of Brahmanism that is
Chaturvarna Dharma vehemently. The essence of Brahmanism lies in the
Dharma of Chaturvarna. The concept of caste based on superiority or
inferiority of the birth is responsible for this belief in Chaturvarna
Dharma. In Brahmanism the lowered caste and the women do not have a
respectable position, they do not have means of livelihood and they do
not own anything and therefore these two classes are not free. This is
their condition when they are alive. This same condition will follow
them after their death. In Brahmanism there is no freedom even after
death for these two classes. According to tenets of Brahmanism only
those who can become Sanyasin can be free and these two classes (lowered
castes and women) were denied right to become a Sanyasin. Buddha did
not accept this unjust position. Buddha was opposed to the concept that
even if the Brahman is fallen he is worthy of worship by the three
worlds. Buddha wanted to remove this wrong propaganda. Buddha was the
greatest proponent of the social equality and like of him can not be
found elsewhere. There was no freedom for the women in Brahmanism,
Buddha opened the gates of freedom for them. Even for the lowered caste,
the Buddha accepted them as monks in his Sangha. Buddha not only
advocated the principle of social equality, but also made efforts to
make it possible. He not only made the women and lowered caste the
members of his order, but also made other lowered castes the members of
his order.

The above explanation is not sufficient; however it is useful for
readers to understand what the Buddha did for this country. The
principles of Buddhism were beneficial and very bright and it led to
huge spread of Buddha Dhamma all over the world. In south, it spread to
Sri Lanka and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. In the east, it went to
Burma, Assam, Thailand, China and Japan. In the north, it went to
Tibet, Nepal and Turkstan. Buddha Dhamma also went to Afghanistan. No
religion spread to this extent. There is another specialty of the Buddha
Dhamma. Not every religion spread due to its values and ideas. Islam
grew on the basis of wars. Christianity grew on the basis of law. Only
Buddhism spread with its values and ideas. It did not need the support
of sword or force of law. Buddha never forced people to follow his
teaching. People forced themselves to follow his teachings.

Despite of this, the question arises as to why Indians forgot the
Buddha Dhamma. Buddhism is still living outside India. There are many
Buddhists in the world. However in India Buddhism was killed. Due to
space constraint, the detailed reasons can not be enumerated. However it
is important to discuss in brief. The time can not forget the Buddha.
Buddha is eternal, deathless and timeless. How will his name vanish from
this world? China did not forget the Buddha. Japan did not. Burma did
not. Only India forgot the Buddha. It is clear that time is not
responsible for this, but the enemies of the Buddha are responsible for
this situation. Brahmans were the enemies of the Buddha. It is not true
that Brahmans were only opposed to the Buddha. They also opposed
Mahavir, the founder of Jainism. But the way the Buddha attacked
Brahmanism, Mahavir did not. The reason is that the Buddha was the
greatest opponent of Chaturvarna Dharma, Mahavir was not. Brahmans were
not very concerned about the Buddha’s attack on the Vedas or sacrifices.
But they had a different view on Chaturvarna Dharma. If Chaturvarna is
eradicated, Brahmanism will be eradicated. Brahmans knew this. In fact,
they considered Chaturvarna dharma as their breath. The attack on the
Chaturvarna dharma was therefore attack on the Brahmans. One can say
that the Buddha’s movement was the anti-Brahman movement of that time
and the Buddha was the leader of that movement. The Brahmans conspired
to destroy the Buddha and His Dhamma by all means. They left their vedic
gods and made warrior gods as their own gods. Brahmans started worship
Rama, the way the Brahmans worship Jedhe (Jedhe was a leader of non
Brahman movement) these days. With one god they could not satisfy, they
started supporting another warrior class god, Krishna. Now that Brahmans
started worshipping our gods, thinking thus, the non Brahmans thought
that there is no point in continuing fight against them. Thus the
Buddha’s movement against Brahmans was weakened. The Brahmans started
advocating that though the Buddha is yours, we accept him as the
reincarnation of Vishnu. People became happy. Now that the Brahmans
accept the Buddha as the tenth reincarnation of Vishnu the matter is
over. Now what is the point of fighting? On one hand the Brahmans tried
to pacify the non Bramhans and on the other hand they started imitating
the Buddha Dhamma and started misguiding people that Brahmanism and
Buddhism are the same. The Buddhists built the Vihars. Vihars are the
signs of burning fire of Buddhism for the Buddhists. The Brahmans
started constructing their temples next to the Buddhist Vihars. With
this outer change people forgot making differentiation between Buddhism
and Brahmanism. And at the end when the Muslims invaded India and
destroyed the Vihars, the monks fled to other countries in their absence
the Brahmans started destroying Buddhism and started addressing the
Buddhist caves as Pandav leni and broke the images of the Buddha and
converted them into phallus of Shiva.

It is understandable that the Brahmans opposed Buddhism as it was
their main opponent. How would they entertain a thought of celebrating
Buddha Jayanti? However the non Brahmans should not have forgotten the
great man who tried to liberate them from the clutches of blind faith,
who tried to liberate them from the slavery of magical spells, who tried
to bring them on humanistic way, who tried to make them humans, who
gave up his royal life for their welfare, who fought for their self
respect, who made this country glorious by his deeds. It is great pity
that the non Brahmans forgot such a great man. They should have kept the
Buddha’s memory alive.

We do not want to tell that this is the only reason the Indians
should celebrate the Buddha Jayanti. Our reason is different than the
above stated reasons and it is a very solid reason. The educated class
amongst the Hindus desire to establish democracy in politics based on
Hindu culture and for the Hindus. They are striving for this. We pity on
the intellect of such people. The people who want to establish
democracy in this country might be stupid or cunning. But this stupidity
and cunningness can not last long. Faced with experiences, it will be
clear that Brahmanism and democracy are two opposite things. For the
establishment of democracy there is a need to eradicate Chaturvarna
Dharma. In order to kill the germs of Chaturvarna there is no medicine
powerful than the Buddha Dhamma. Therefore we think that in order to
purify lifeblood of politics all Hindus should celebrate Buddha Jayanti.
It is important and in their benefit.

Politically India is like a sick man. When we remember India, we
imagine a picture of a man whose belly is big, his hands and feet
reduced to mere bones, face paled, eyes deeply buried in the socket and a
skeleton. He has no power to run the democracy but he has a great
desire to run it. In order to satisfy this desire, power is important.
This power can not be achieved without medicine. But what use is the
medicine! Every one knows that in order to take medicine, it is
necessary to clear the stomach. All the impure elements should be
removed. Without this the medicine will have no effect. The stomach of
Hindus is not clean. The filth of Brahmanism is stored in their stomach
for a long time. The doctor who can wash this filth will help in
establishing democracy in India. That doctor undoubtedly is the Buddha.
The lifeblood of Hindus can not be purified by celebrating Rama Jayanti,
or Krishna Jayanti or Gandhi Jayanti. Rama, Krishna and Gandhi are the
worshippers of the Brahmanism. They are useless in the establishment of
democracy. The Buddha can only help in establishing democracy. Therefore
it is important to remember the Buddha and take his medicine for
cleansing the political and social lifeblood of the Hindus. Therefore we
think that people should chant this greatest mantra for establishment
of democracy:

Buddham Saranam Gacchaami!
Dhammam Saranam Gacchaami!!
Sangham Saranam Gacchami!!!


http://roundtableindia.co.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1150:why-dhamma-chakra-parivartan-deen-on-14-oct-reasons-a-celebration&catid=94&Itemid=65


http://roundtableindia.co.in/

http://roundtableindia.co.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1150:why-dhamma-chakra-parivartan-deen-on-14-oct-reasons-a-celebration&catid=94:history&Itemid=65

Wishing
you all on the occasion of Dhamma Chakra Parivartan Deen - 14 Oct in
the remembrance of Sunday 14 Oct 1956. Keep Rising, Keep Growing and
Keep moving Babasaheb’s mission ahead and ahead till all our downtrodden
brothers and sisters secure their human rights.
Some of the facts
which many people wanted to know. [ I had concluded the same points
during the discussion of this issue on oct 2004 at BC and other yahoo
forums ]

1. Dr. Babasaheb has started celebrating Buddha Jayanti
since 1950 but never ever said anything about “Ashoka &
VijayaDashmi” .

2. Dr. Babasaheb has written volumes of
literature ( published/un- published ) but never ever mentioned anything
about “Ashoka VijayaDashmi” .

3. Dr. Babasaheb has declared
officially on Sept 23rd, 1956 to all Janata that he is going to take
Buddhism on Sunday 14th Oct 1956. He has given interview to PTI ( Press
Trust of India ) on 23rd Sept saying…On “Dasara” day he is going to
embrace Buddhism. It is to be noted that Babasaheb has said “Dasara”
word but not “Ashok VijayaDashmi” .

4. Babasaheb initially
decided to take Buddhism on Buddha Jayanti which comes in month of May
every year and that year(1956) 2500 was getting completed.  Due to
unavoidable circumstances and insistence of Nagpur group, the place has
been shifted to Nagpur and the committee decided to hold program in such
a way that MAXIMUM people should come for the same.
So being chosen
as a Sunday it was not guaranteeing that everyone will get holiday on
this. Because , during that time frame many of our people used to work
in MILLS and in farms. When the organizing team learned that, on Dasara
all the mills and other private firms are going to be closed, they
decided to choose that day as Schools, Colleges, Government, Private
firms will be closed. This will ensure that MAXIMUM people can attend
this function.

5. Babasaheb has given speech on Oct 15, 1956
around 2 hours. I believe any one can say 2 hours is big enough to think
and talk about anything he wanted to say to his people. He has
explained the importance of choosing Nagpur but has not said any single
word about “ASHOKA” nor “VIJAYDASHMI” . Any logical person could think
rationally that, Babasaheb is known to be master of HISTORY and how can
he forget to give any little importance of “ASHOKA” and “VIJAYADASHMI”
if at all it is TRUE ???
But, WE don’t see any references of this
two words in his entire speech where as he has spent more than 5 minutes
for giving importance of choosing “Nagpur” as a place for this
historical conversion.

6. On 16th Oct 1956, he went ahead and
executed similar program at Chandrapur. But again what we found - “No
where he has mentioned about “ASHOKA” and “VIJAYADASMI” .

7. On
26/27 Oct 1956, “Prabuddha Bharat” newspaper published “Deeksha
Visheshank” a special supplement on Oct 14, 1956 function and Babasaheb
was alive that time. This special supplement is full of all the
pictures, points, minute-to-minute information what happened-how it
happened-what has talked etc…everything. …in number of pages. BUT,
still this special supplement also doesn’t talk about these  “ASHOKA”
and “VIJAYADASMI” two words….

8. Babasaheb was alive for 52
days after this historical conversion and no where we found any point
about these two words “ASHOKA” and “VIJAYADASMI” .

I hope, above
points are substantial enough to deny any correlation of “ASHOKA”,
“VIJAYDASMI” with Babasaheb’s historical conversion day.

What happened after Babasaheb ?

9.
Babasaheb has created structure of RPI and second level of our then
leaders including Dadasaheb Gaikwad, B. C. Kamble, Rajabhawoo
Khobragade, Babu Haridas Awale etc..arranged 4 days conference on
1-2-3-4 oct 1957 at DeekshaBhoomi.

10. Somehow these then
leaders formed RPI on 3rd Oct 1957 [ That time Dasara Came on that day ]
and celebrated it. Many people where gathered during that event. As all
of us knows that everyone lean towards political party to gain many
things…huge of people were present during that conference and it turns
to be DCPD celebration. But all though, Adv. Babu Haridas Awale, B. C.
Kamble and Mr. Wamanrao Godbole ( Chief of the Organizing committee of
that historical conversion function ) gathered on 14th Oct 1957. This
should be noted correctly.

11. Other leaders who went ahead and
joined congress followed Bramhnical  calender and obey their thoughts
and sometimes even get confused when they see two dates for “Dasara” in
different calenders.

12. Babasaheb has written preface to “The
Essence of Buddhism” by P. Narasu [ Tamilnadu ]. This book contents says
2500 years completed to Buddha’s Mahaparinirvana on Mid night of 13 [
Talking about B.C. ] . According to 1956 [ A.C.] Mid night of 13 means
morning of 14 Oct 1956. [ This explanation - denies the fact that
Buddha’s birth, Enlightenment and Mahaparinirvana has happened on SAME
day. But as per the international standard the way International people
follow 25th December every year for Yeshu, on full moon basis
International Buddhist people follow month of May to do the same. ]

13.
As Babasaheb Mahaparinirvana happened exactly after 52 days - 6th Dec
1956, we have to stick with the calender dates. Otherwise we might need
to calculate his Mahaparinirvana every year from the day Dasara comes.

14.
Going into the history “unnecessary” and wasting time is all what our
people have done so far, otherwise Baba’s MOVEMENT could have been
better shape and we all could have lived happily.

15. Last but
not the least, if someone wants to disagree with my above analogy then I
would ask them to prepare your own “Buddhist” Calender and declare
dates rather than following “Hindu panchang - Kalnirnay etc…”. Lets
follow 22 vows given by Babasaheb and pay tribute to this GREAT LEADER
by becoming his true follower.

http://www.brambedkar.in/22-vows/

22 vows of Ambedkar

On 14th October 1956 Dr B. R. Ambedkar accepted Buddhism along
with his 5 Lacs follower in the holy land of Nagpur. He has given basic
22 vows, rules to his followers to observe strictly.

The 22 vows are:

  1. I shall have no faith in Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh nor shall I worship them.

  2. I shall have no faith in Rama and Krishna who are believed to be incarnation of God nor shall I worship them.

  3. I shall have no faith in ‘Gauri’, Ganapati and other gods and goddesses of Hindus nor shall I worship them.

  4. I do not believe in the incarnation of God.

  5. I do not and shall not believe that Lord Buddha was the incarnation
    of Vishnu. I believe this to be sheer madness and false propaganda.

  6. I shall not perform ‘Shraddha’ nor shall I give ‘pind-dan’.

  7. I shall not act in a manner violating the principles and teachings of the Buddha.

  8. I shall not allow any ceremonies to be performed by Brahmins.

  9. I shall believe in the equality of man.

  10. I shall endeavour to establish equality.

  11. I shall follow the ‘noble eightfold path’ of the Buddha.

  12. I shall follow the ‘paramitas’ prescribed by the Buddha.

  13. I shall have compassion and loving kindness for all living beings and protect them.

  14. I shall not steal.

  15. I shall not tell lies.

  16. I shall not commit carnal sins.

  17. I shall not take intoxicants like liquor, drugs etc.

  18. I shall endeavour to follow the noble eightfold path and practise compassion and loving kindness in every day life.

  19. I renounce Hinduism which is harmful for humanity and impedes the
    advancement and development of humanity because it is based on
    inequality, and adopt Buddhism as my religion.

  20. I firmly believe the Dhamma of the Buddha is the only true religion.

  21. I believe that I am having a re-birth.

  22. I solemnly declare and affirm that I shall hereafter lead my life
    according to the principles and teachings of the Buddha and his Dhamma.


Buddha Vacana Quotes

Buddha Vacana Quotes
Buddha Vacana Quotes

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LESSON 2774 Sat 13 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM) Vipassana Fellowship from September to December 2018 Meditation Course Daily Practice Focus I. Observation of Kāya A. Section on ānāpāna In Clssical Pali, English, 93) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ், 94) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు
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LESSON 2774  Sat 13 Oct 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM)



Vipassana Fellowship from September to December 2018 Meditation Course








Daily Practice Focus

ssical Pali, English, 93) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,
94) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

sarvajan.ambedkar.org/blog_admin/wp-admin/post.php


Daily Practice Focus

Practice Focus

You
should aim to incorporate at least one meditation sitting each day for
the 10 weeks of the course. If you are able to manage two separate
sessions daily, so much the better.


The broad focus for each of the days is as follows. In any second sitting
please review one of the techniques we met earlier in the course.


  • Week 1 and 2 - Mindfulness of Breathing (anapanasati)
  • Week 3 and 4 - Lovingkindness Meditation (metta)
  • Week 5 - Compassion Meditation (karuna)
  • Week 6 - Appreciative Joy Meditation (mudita) plus a brief overview of Equanimity (upekkha)
  • Week 7 and 8 - Vipassana Meditation (U Ba Khin style)
  • Week 9 and 10 - Vipassana Meditation (Choiceless Awareness)


There
is an optional chant tutorial each Friday for the first 9 weeks of
the course. This builds to a puja sequence that some may find helpful in
rededicating their practice from time to time.


Last modified: Friday, 13 January 2017, 12:58 pm

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha/dn22.html




Uddesa
Evaṃ me sutaṃ:

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

Introduction


I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna

Thus have I heard:

On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:


– Bhikkhus.

– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said:


This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.


Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.



youtube.com


93) Classical Tamil
93) செம்மொழி தமிழ்

2267 Sat 24 ஜூன் 2017 பாடம்

 I. காயணுப்பாசன  A ஆனாபான

மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

https://giphy.com/gifs/workout-tamil-hiit-xUPGcoiddiQuudwcGk                                               
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Deep Breathing (Tamil)
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Meditation in tamil
Meditation in tamil
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGHnKpGikuk
Guided Meditation for Beginners in Telugu

For better experience,please use head phones
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94) Classical Telugu
94) క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

2267 Sat 24 జూన్ 2017 లెసన్

I. క్యాయనపస్సనా A. సెక్షన్ ఆన్ యానానా

మరియు
బిఘు గయాలో గియాను చూడటం ఎలా? ఇక్కడ,
బైకులు, ఒక bighook, అడవి వెళ్లిన లేదా వెళ్ళింది
ఒక చెట్టు యొక్క మూలాల భాగాన కూర్చుని లేదా ఖాళీ గదిలోకి వెళ్లండి
వ్యతిరేక దిశలో కాళ్ళు సెట్, లింబ్ వరకు నిలబడి డౌన్ కూర్చుని. బీయింగ్
అతను శ్వాస పీల్చుకుంటాడు, అందువలన అతను బిగ్గరగా శ్వాస. శ్వాస
చాలాకాలం అతను అర్థం చేసుకున్నాడు: ‘నేను ఎక్కువ కాలం శ్వాస చేస్తున్నాను. అతను సుదీర్ఘకాలం శ్వాస తీసుకున్నాడు
‘నేను చాలాకాలం ఊపిరి’; అతను శ్వాస
నేను అర్థం: ‘నేను ఊపిరి’; అతను శ్వాస
అతను అర్థం: ‘నేను క్లుప్తంగా ఊపిరి’; అతను తనని తాను నిర్మిస్తాడు: ‘నేను భావిస్తున్నాను
పూర్తి గయా, నేను శ్వాస చేస్తున్నాను ‘; అతను స్వయంగా శిక్షణ ఇస్తుంది: ‘పూర్తి భావం
గయా, నేను బ్రీత్ చేస్తాను ‘; అతను తనకు శిక్షణ ఇస్తాడు: ‘నిశ్శబ్దంగా ఉండండి
గయా-సాగరస్, నేను శ్వాస చేస్తున్నాను ‘; అతను తనకు శిక్షణ ఇస్తాడు: ‘నిశ్శబ్దంగా ఉండండి
ఎపిక్ చక్రాలు, నేను ఊపిరి.

జస్ట్
Piccas, ఒక ప్రతిభావంతులైన టర్నర్ లేదా ఒక టర్నర్ కోచ్, ఒక కాలం
తిరగండి, నేను అర్థం చేసుకున్నాను: ‘నేను సుదీర్ఘ మలుపు చేస్తాను’; ఒక చిన్న మలుపు, అతను చెప్పాడు
అతను అర్థం: ‘నేను చిన్న మలుపు చేస్తాను’; అదే విధంగా, బిఘాస్, a
సుదీర్ఘకాలం శ్వాసను ఎదుర్కొంటున్న బిక్హూక్, ‘నేను చాలాకాలం ఊపిరి;
అతను సుదీర్ఘకాలం శ్వాస తీసుకున్నాడు: ‘నేను చాలాకాలం ఊపిరి పీల్చుకుంటాను. శ్వాసకోశ
కొంతకాలం అతను అర్థం: ‘నేను కొంతకాలం ఊపిరి’; చిన్నది బ్రీత్
అతను అర్థం: ‘నేను క్లుప్తంగా ఊపిరి’; అతను తనకు శిక్షణ ఇస్తాడు: ‘నేను భావిస్తున్నాను
పూర్తి గయా, నేను శ్వాస చేస్తున్నాను ‘; అతను తనని తాను నిర్మిస్తాడు: ‘నేను భావిస్తున్నాను
పూర్తి గయా, నేను బ్రీత్ చేస్తాను ‘; అతను తనకు శిక్షణ ఇస్తాడు: ‘నిశ్శబ్దంగా ఉండండి
గయా-సాగరస్, నేను శ్వాస చేస్తున్నాను ‘; అతను తనకు శిక్షణ ఇస్తాడు: ‘నిశ్శబ్దంగా ఉండండి
ఎపిక్ చక్రాలు, నేను ఊపిరి.

అందువలన అతను గయాలో గడిని చూస్తున్నాడు,
లేదా అతను గయాలో గయా వద్ద చూడటం లేదా చూడటం ఉంది
కాయ లో కయా మరియు బాహ్య; అతను సమాధియను చూస్తున్నాడు
ఇతిహాసం లో ఈవెంట్స్, లేదా అతను అనుమతి ప్రయాణిస్తున్న లేకుండా నివసిస్తున్నారు
ఇతిహాసం లో ఈవెంట్స్, లేదా అతను మభ్యపెట్టడం మరియు పాస్లు గుండా వెళుతుంది
పురాణ లో ఈవెంట్స్; లేకపోతే, [గ్రహించండి:] “ఇది సరైందే!” క్రీప్స్
అతనికి మాత్రమే, అతను మాత్రమే ñāṇa మరియు mere paṭissati
స్ప్లిట్ మరియు ప్రపంచంలో ఏదైనా ఇష్టం లేదు. అందువలన,
బిఘు గయా వద్ద గియాని చూడటం బిఘుస్.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yUKejqQyY14
MEDITATION | SHORT FILM | ANAPANASATI

A
simple short film to give knowledge about ANAPANASATI. with NO
DIALOGUES only ACTION. This story and the message given in this film
tells us how anapanasat…
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10/12/18
LESSON 2774 Sat 13 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM) Structured Tree Flow of TIPITAKA in Classical English,Classical Danish-Klassisk dansk, Classical Dutch-Klassiek Nederlands Vipassana Fellowship September to December 2018 Meditation Course
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 8:50 pm

LESSON 2774  Sat 13 Oct 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM)

Structured Tree Flow of  TIPITAKA

in Classical English,Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,
Classical  Dutch-Klassiek Nederlands

 

Vipassana Fellowship from September to December 2018 Meditation Course

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/…
Tripitaka Song

Structured Tree Flow of TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~1st-2nd century) [Excerpt: The Evolution of
Ordination]Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus
and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Important Role of Women in Buddhism and Monks Rules -From MN-44

(Five nik±yas, or collections)
The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a
collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity,
congregation; a house, dwelling).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Ask A Monk: The Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch

Sutta Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 The All embracing Net of Views I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses
given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late
additions to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“The Majjhima Nikaya, the Middle Length Discourses”


The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for restraining and
abandoning the taints, the fundamental defilements that maintain bondage
to the round of birth and death.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to
their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than
three thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively
short.

https://www.youtube.com/watch
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized
in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka
Nikāya short texts and is considered as been composed of two stratas:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other books are late additions
and their authenticity is more questionable.

Classical  Danish

Klassisk dansk

https://www.youtube.com/results…
Fini Henriques - Children’s Trio in G Major for Violin, Cello & Piano, Op.31
Classical Music goturhjem2
Published on Dec 28, 2011
Børne Trio in G Major for Violin, Cello & Piano, Op.31

Tre Musici

Ulrikke Høst-Madsen, cello.

John Damgaard, piano.

Elisabeth Zeuthen, violin.


Henriques composed the Børne Trio (Danish for Children’s Trio) was
composed in 1900. Although, the composer titled it children’s trio, if
children are to play, they would have to be rather accomplished players.
Although the trio presents no great technical difficulties and is
written in a mid rather than late romantic style, its beautiful thematic
material raises it to the level, deserving of concert hall performance,
especially for amateurs seeking a very effective work. The trio opens
with a charming Moderato. The middle movement, Andantino-allegro vivo,
combines a slow movement and a scherzo. An exciting finale, Allegro con
fuoco, brings this appealing work to a close.

Fini Henriques
(1867-1940) was born in Copenhagen. He studied the violin and piano in
his youth was considered a child prodigy on both instruments. He
initially concentrated on violin, first studying at the Royal Danish
Conservatory with Valdemar Tofft, a student of Louis Spohr. However, he
also took composition lessons from Johan Svendsen. He concluded his
studies at the Berlin Hochschule, with Joseph Joachim for violin and
Woldemar Bargiel for composition.

Klassisk dansk

LESSON 2774 lør 13 okt. 2018
PRAKSIS BUDDHA VACANA FOR FRED (PBVP)
IKKE SAMME (DGBM)

Struktureret strøm af træet af TIPITAKA

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
Tripitaka sang

Struktureret strøm af træet af TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1. til 2. århundrede) [Uddrag: Evolutionen af
Sortering] Sutta Vibhaaga [to bøger, der indeholder regler for bhikkhus
jeg
bhikkhunis, der beskriver otte former for forbrydelser]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Kvinders vigtige rolle i buddhismen og reglerne for munke - fra MN-44

(Fem nics eller samlinger)
Sutta Piṭaka indeholder essensen af ​​Buddhas undervisning
om Dhamma. Den indeholder mere end ti tusinde suttas. Er
opdelt i fem samlinger kaldet Nikāyas (En skare, forsamling;
kollektion; en klasse, rækkefølge, gruppe; en forening, broderskab,
menighed; et hus, bolig).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Spørg en munk: Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch

Under Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 Det samlede antal visninger af jeg II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: long] Dīgha Nikāya indsamler 34 af de længste taler
givet af Buddha. Der er flere tip, at mange af dem ankommer sent
tilføjelser til den oprindelige korpus og tvivlsom ægthed.

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“Majjhima Nikaya, talerne om den gennemsnitlige længde”

Buddha lærer bhikkhus syv metoder til begrænsning og
bortfaldet af farvestofferne, de grundlæggende mangler, der opretholder slaveri
til fødsels- og dødsrunden.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] Saṃyutta Nikāya samler suttas i henhold til
Dets emne i 56 undergrupper kaldes saṃyuttas. Den indeholder mere end
Tre tusinde taler af forskellig længde, men generelt relativt
kort

https://www.youtube.com/watch
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionalnal] Aṅguttara Nikāya er opdelt
I elleve undergrupper kaldes nipātas, hver og en af ​​dem indsamler taler
som består af opgørelser af en yderligere faktor i forhold til den af
forrige nipta Det indeholder tusindvis af suttas som er generelt
kort

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: kort, lille] The Khuddhaka
Kortfattede tekster af Nikāya betragtes som forbindelser af to lag:
Dhammapada, Udana, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragatha-Therigatha
og Jātaka danner de gamle lag, mens andre bøger er sene tilføjelser
og dens ægthed er mere tvivlsom.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
Tripitaka sang


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2 Hours Bach Violin Concertos | Classical Baroque Music | Focus Reading Studying

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Published on Nov 30, 2017

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Violin Concerto in A minor, BWV 1041
00:00:00 Allegro moderato
00:03:46 Andante
00:09:26 Allegro assai

Violin Concerto in E major, BWV 1042
00:12:56 Allegro
00:20:47 Adagio
00:26:38 Allegro assai

Double Violin Concerto in D minor, BWV 1043
00:29:16 Vivace
00:32:59 Largo, ma non tanto
00:39:19 Allegro

Concerto for 3 Violins and Strings in D major, BWV 1064r
00:43:55 Adagio
00:50:30 Allegro
00:56:07 Allegro

Violin Concerto G minor, BWV 1056r
01:00:42 Allegro
01:04:23 Largo
01:06:58 Presto

Concerto for Violin and Oboe in C minor, BWV 1060r
01:10:06 Allegro
01:14:52 Adagio/ Largo
01:19:31 Allegro

Violin Concerto in D minor BWV 1052a
01:23:03 Allegro
01:31:03 Adagio
01:37:31 Allegro

Concerto for Flute, Violin, Harpsichord and Strings in A minor, BWV 1044
01:45:32 Allegro
01:53:51 Adagio ma non tanto e dolce
01:59:44 Tempo di Allabreve

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September 2018 Meditation Course


Weekly outline

  • This week

    13 October - 19 October

    This week we begin to explore the first of the Sublime Abode practices -
    Mettā or Lovingkindness Meditation. If you are able to meditate for
    more than one sitting each day, please work with Mettā in one session
    and Mindfulness of Breathing in the other.

    • Sunday - Mettā: Lovingkindness Meditation Book
      Restricted Available from 14 October 2018
    • Audio Player - Lovingkindness Meditation Page
      Restricted Available from 14 October 2018
    • Audio Download - Lovingkindness Meditation File
      Restricted Available from 14 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 16 Page
      Restricted Available from 14 October 2018
    • Monday - The Discourse on Mettā Book
      Restricted Available from 15 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 17 Page
      Restricted Available from 15 October 2018
    • Tuesday - Expectations, Strengths, Cultivation Book
      Restricted Available from 16 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 18 Page
      Restricted Available from 16 October 2018
    • Wednesday - Connection and Extension Book
      Restricted Available from 17 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 19 Page
      Restricted Available from 17 October 2018
    • Thursday - Unconditional and Whole-hearted Book
      Restricted Available from 18 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 20 Page
      Restricted Available from 18 October 2018
    • Friday - The Third Precept Book
      Restricted Available from 19 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 21 Page
      Restricted Available from 19 October 2018
    • Chant Workshop 3 (optional) Page
      Restricted Available from 19 October 2018
  • 20 October - 26 October

    In
    this fourth week we continue to focus mainly on Mettā (lovingkindness)
    Meditation. This is the foundation for the other 3 “sublime abode”
    practices. If you are able to meditate for more than one sitting each
    day, please work with Mettā in one session and Mindfulness of Breathing
    in the other.

    • Saturday - Phrases and Images Book
      Restricted Available from 20 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 22 Page
      Restricted Available from 20 October 2018
    • Sunday - Sections and Subjects Book
      Restricted Available from 21 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 23 Page
      Restricted Available from 21 October 2018
    • Monday - Benefactor and Friend Book
      Restricted Available from 22 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 24 Page
      Restricted Available from 22 October 2018
    • Tuesday - Neutral and Difficult Book
      Restricted Available from 23 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 25 Page
      Restricted Available from 23 October 2018
    • Wednesday - All Sentient Beings Book
      Restricted Available from 24 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 26 Page
      Restricted Available from 24 October 2018
    • Thursday - When There’s No Mettā Book
      Restricted Available from 25 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 27 Page
      Restricted Available from 25 October 2018
    • Friday - The Fourth Precept Book
      Restricted Available from 26 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 28 Page
      Restricted Available from 26 October 2018
    • Chant Workshop 4 (optional) Page
      Restricted Available from 26 October 2018
  • 27 October - 2 November

    For
    our fifth week we introduce Karuna Meditation, the cultivation of
    compassion, and begin to explore one of the central teachings of the
    tradition: the Four Noble Truths.

    • Saturday - Karuna: Compassion Meditation Book
      Restricted Available from 27 October 2018
    • Audio Player - Compassion Meditation Page
      Restricted Available from 27 October 2018
    • Audio Download - Compassion Meditation File
      Restricted Available from 27 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 29 Page
      Restricted Available from 27 October 2018
    • Sunday - Empathy not Pity Book
      Restricted Available from 28 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 30 Page
      Restricted Available from 28 October 2018
    • Monday - Recognition, Response, Capacity Book
      Restricted Available from 29 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 31 Page
      Restricted Available from 29 October 2018
    • Tuesday - Four Noble Truths Book
      Restricted Available from 30 October 2018
    • On Lovingkindness and Compassion (Video) Page
      Restricted Available from 30 October 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 32 Page
      Restricted Available from 29 October 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Wednesday - The Truth of Dukkha Book
      Restricted Available from 30 October 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 33 Page
      Restricted Available from 30 October 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Thursday - Dukkha’s Origin Book
      Restricted Available from 31 October 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 34 Page
      Restricted Available from 31 October 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Friday - Extinction of Dukkha Book
      Restricted Available from 1 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 35 Page
      Restricted Available from 1 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Chant Workshop 5 (optional) Page
      Restricted Available from 1 November 2018, 11:00 pm
  • 3 November - 9 November

    In
    this sixth week we explore Appreciative Joy meditation. If you are
    sitting twice each day, then please pick a complementary technique from
    those we have already met for your other session. Work steadily and
    gently to establish your regular sittings. We’ll also briefly outline
    the final brahmavihara practice (for use beyond the course) and conclude
    our look at the precepts.

    • Saturday - Mudita: Appreciative Joy Meditation Book
      Restricted Available from 2 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Audio Player - Appreciative Joy Meditation Page
      Restricted Available from 3 November 2018
    • Download Audio - Appreciative Joy Meditation File
      Restricted Available from 3 November 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 36 Page
      Restricted Available from 2 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Sunday - Recognising Joy and Sorrow Book
      Restricted Available from 3 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • On Appreciative Joy (Video) Page
      Restricted Available from 3 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 37 Page
      Restricted Available from 3 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Monday - Envy and Fairness Book
      Restricted Available from 4 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 38 Page
      Restricted Available from 4 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Tuesday - Fifth Precept Book
      Restricted Available from 5 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 39 Page
      Restricted Available from 5 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Wednesday - Eight Precepts Book
      Restricted Available from 6 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 40 Page
      Restricted Available from 6 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Thursday - Introducing Equanimity Book
      Restricted Available from 7 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 41 Page
      Restricted Available from 7 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Friday - The Practice of Equanimity Meditation Book
      Restricted Available from 8 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Audio Player - Equanimity Meditation Page
      Restricted Available from 9 November 2018
    • Audio Download - Equanimity Meditation File
      Restricted Available from 9 November 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 42 Page
      Restricted Available from 8 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Chant Workshop 6 (optional) Page
      Restricted Available from 8 November 2018, 11:00 pm
  • 10 November - 16 November

    We
    begin our first
    vipassanā meditation practice and will be working with vipassanā for the
    rest of the course. If you are sitting twice each day please
    use one session for vipassanā and the other for one of the samatha
    methods we have been using thus far. If meditating once each day please
    always focus on the current technique.

    • Saturday - Vipassanā: the U Ba Khin Method Book
      Restricted Available from 9 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Audio Player - Vipassanā U Ba Khin Style Page
      Restricted Available from 10 November 2018
    • Audio Download - Vipassanā U Ba Khin Style File
      Restricted Available from 10 November 2018
    • Contemplation - Day 43 Page
      Restricted Available from 9 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Sunday - A Different Approach Book
      Restricted Available from 10 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Introducing Insight (Video) Page
      Restricted Available from 10 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 44 Page
      Restricted Available from 10 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Monday - Pace and Observation Book
      Restricted Available from 11 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 45 Page
      Restricted Available from 11 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Tuesday - Honest Experience Book
      Restricted Available from 12 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 46 Page
      Restricted Available from 12 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Wednesday - Just What Is Present Book
      Restricted Available from 13 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 47 Page
      Restricted Available from 13 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Thursday - Theoretical Background Book
      Restricted Available from 14 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 48 Page
      Restricted Available from 14 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Friday - Impermanence As The Key Book
      Restricted Available from 15 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 49 Page
      Restricted Available from 15 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Chant Workshop 7 (optional) Page
      Restricted Available from 15 November 2018, 11:00 pm
  • 17 November - 23 November

    We
    continue, in this eighth week, with the U Ba Khin vipassanā practice
    and consider our identity, its transience and the spiritual faculties
    that we each can utilize.

    • Saturday - Effort and the Fixed View Book
      Restricted Available from 16 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 50 Page
      Restricted Available from 16 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Sunday - Fleeting Life and Death Book
      Restricted Available from 17 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 51 Page
      Restricted Available from 17 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Monday - Transience Book
      Restricted Available from 18 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 52 Page
      Restricted Available from 18 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Tuesday - Darts and Mustard Seeds Book
      Restricted Available from 19 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 53 Page
      Restricted Available from 19 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Wednesday - Grief, Attended to Book
      Restricted Available from 20 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 54 Page
      Restricted Available from 20 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Thursday - Five Spiritual Faculties (1) Book
      Restricted Available from 21 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 55 Page
      Restricted Available from 21 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Friday - Five Spiritual Faculties (2) Book
      Restricted Available from 22 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 56 Page
      Restricted Available from 22 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Chant Workshop 8 (optional) Page
      Restricted Available from 22 November 2018, 11:00 pm
  • 24 November - 30 November

    In
    this ninth week we begin Choiceless Awareness - a form of vipassanā
    meditation that is fluid and unstructured, freeing us to explore all
    kinds of sensory phenomena. We also explore the Noble Eightfold Path
    which is an approach to life that brings freedom from suffering and
    ultimately aids liberation.

    • Saturday - Vipassanā: Choiceless Awareness Book
      Restricted Available from 23 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 57 Page
      Restricted Available from 23 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Sunday - Structure and Freedom Book
      Restricted Available from 24 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Beginning Choiceless Awareness (Video) Page
      Restricted Available from 24 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 58 Page
      Restricted Available from 24 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Monday - Physical and Mental Connection Book
      Restricted Available from 25 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 59 Page
      Restricted Available from 25 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Tuesday - Open, Attentive, Receptive Book
      Restricted Available from 26 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 60 Page
      Restricted Available from 26 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Wednesday - Noble Path: Understanding, Thought Book
      Restricted Available from 27 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 61 Page
      Restricted Available from 27 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Thursday - Noble Path: Speech, Action, Livelihood Book
      Restricted Available from 28 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 62 Page
      Restricted Available from 28 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Friday - Noble Path: Effort, Mindfulness, Concentration Book
      Restricted Available from 29 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 63 Page
      Restricted Available from 29 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Chant Workshop 9 (optional) Page
      Restricted Available from 29 November 2018, 11:00 pm
  • 1 December - 7 December

    In
    our final week we continue with Choiceless Awareness as our vipassanā
    practice, explore The Perfections, and begin to think about building a
    sustainable practice beyond the course.

    • Saturday - The Perfections (1) Book
      Restricted Available from 30 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 64 Page
      Restricted Available from 30 November 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Sunday - The Perfections (2) Book
      Restricted Available from 1 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 65 Page
      Restricted Available from 1 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Monday - Preparation and Walking Book
      Restricted Available from 2 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 66 Page
      Restricted Available from 2 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Tuesday - Mindful Activity Book
      Restricted Available from 3 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 67 Page
      Restricted Available from 3 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Wednesday - Building Sustainable Practice Book
      Restricted Available from 4 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 68 Page
      Restricted Available from 4 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Thursday - Markers and Retreats Book
      Restricted Available from 5 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 69 Page
      Restricted Available from 5 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Friday - Friends and The Raft Book
      Restricted Available from 6 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Contemplation - Day 70 Page
      Restricted Available from 6 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • Daily Contemplations Page
      Restricted Available from 6 December 2018, 11:00 pm
    • A Farewell Request Page
      Restricted Available from 6 December 2018, 11:00 pm








https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=58


Welcome from Andrew

AndrewWelcome

I’m very glad that you’ve decided to join me for this 10 week course.

This
Vipassanā Fellowship course is a practical guide to Buddhist meditation
that I hope will be useful to those who are new to meditation and to
established meditators wishing to further explore a rich and vital
tradition. The course is intended for those of all religious traditions
(and none) but aims for clarity by keeping the descriptive and
explanatory material in the context from which it grew. Our beliefs,
cultures and circumstances may be very different but it is often
fruitful to have a window into another framework so that our habitual
patterns can be re-examined in the light of the challenge. The emphasis
is on dedicated practice: it is hoped that you will absorb a little of
the material and then apply it in daily meditation sessions over an
extended period. These closely related meditation techniques are rooted
in the earliest Buddhist texts and have the capacity to transform both
heart and mind, and serve any meditator well for a lifetime of fruitful,
and often joyous, practice.

Meditation
is by no means the whole of the Buddhist Path; but for those who would
seek enlightenment it is certainly central to it. My aim is to clearly
explain the method of practice, the practical difficulties that may be
encountered and to explore strategies for overcoming them. Each practice
is placed in context so that you will come to appreciate why a
particular route has been suggested and its relationship to the Buddha’s
teaching. Rather than choosing to separate meditation from a tradition
that can sustain it, or presenting a single technique as a panacea, I
have tried to advocate a balanced and consistent approach to Buddhist
practice cognizant of the conditions that the Buddha deemed necessary
for an awakening to be possible.

Each
of the techniques is a meditation practice that can stand alone, but
there is a logical progression in the way that they are introduced.
Although it may be tempting to select the technique that one is most
drawn to at the outset, I’d recommend that you work with each technique
in the order in which it is given. Mastery of any practice will take
many years, but a few weeks of introductory work with each of the
techniques offered in this course will enable you to become aware of the
correspondence and differences between the techniques and will, in a
sense, bring them into your repertoire for further use throughout your
meditating life. It will also give an indication of the range of skills
that need to be developed and the areas where particular work may be
needed.

New
material is presented to you each day in this Course Campus. The
text ranges from detailed instructions on each new technique, to short
practical notes and brief theoretical sketches. Over the 10 weeks you
should gain an appreciation of the broader picture and will have an
understanding of the breadth of Buddhist forms of meditation and ethical
practice. There is also a selection of verses from our version of the
Dhammapada: one of the best-loved collections in the Canon offered for
reflection. These thematically-arranged stanzas offer an accessible
introduction to major aspects of the Buddhist path and an experience of Affective Reading.

You
should try to visit the Course Campus on a regular basis. The
web site will be updated regularly throughout the course in response to
the practice questions raised by your fellow participants. There is a
database of past questions (just follow the “In Practice” link) and the
opportunity to engage in Dhamma discussion for those who find this type
of activity fruitful. You can also contact me directly with your
meditation queries and related questions by using one of the Contact
links.

There
are downloadable audio guided meditations when new techniques are
introduced in the text, a series of chant workshops with accompanying
audio files and a glossary of Pali terms. The recordings become
available on the site for instant streaming or individual download as
the course progresses.

How long should I meditate?

If
you are a beginner you should try to incorporate at least one session
into each day, lasting for about 20-30 minutes. This time may be
increased gradually and another daily session can be added when you feel
ready.

For
those with previous meditation experience, I recommend two sessions per
day lasting from 30 minutes to one hour each (or longer). If you have
additional time, perhaps at weekends, then additional sessions can be
incorporated.

The
audio guided meditation files become available to you as new techniques
are introduced. They are intended to as illustrative material, so that
you can become familiar with how to construct your own meditation
sitting. It is not a good idea to use any guided meditation recordings
on a long-term basis.

Try
not to mix different meditation techniques into the same sitting,
unless this is suggested in the text. If you are able only to
incorporate one session into your day give priority to familiarizing
yourself with the fundamentals of the newest technique.

What is the chanting about?

The
audio chants included in the course are supplementary, and their use is
entirely optional. These are presented as a Chant Workshop, each
Friday, for the first part of our course session. The whole sequence can
be downloaded in the final Workshop. Some people find traditional
Buddhist ritual helps them to settle into their meditation practice; for
others it is a hindrance. Please use these, or other, Buddhist chants
to frame your meditation sittings if you wish. Translations are given
for each of the Pāli chants.


Approaching this path

These
are not dry academic exercises, mental gymnastics or philosophical
debates: meditation can bring real wisdom and unparalleled states of
calmness and bliss. The danger is to expect these results immediately.
It will take some time and in the early stages all of us will experience
doubt about the validity of working in this way. The lokiya - or
mundane - benefits will start to become apparent quite soon if we
practise with commitment and determined effort. It is important that we
don’t settle for these, of course, but such glimpses of the positive
outcome of our work may inspire a certain degree of confidence or saddhā
in the value of meditation and the Path.

There
are hundreds of methods of meditation, several varieties of Buddhism
and many varied spiritual paths. Many offer something of value; but to
be of use any valid path or method will require commitment. No technique
will prove effective unless followed with discipline and effort. It is
recommended that whilst working with this course you follow the outline
as it is given rather than trying to accommodate different approaches
from other traditions within the same sittings. There is always the
desire to experiment and see if anyone else has got a different handle
on the challenges we face, but why not make best use of this current
experience? Try to work with any difficulties that are encountered
rather than substituting unrelated alternatives. Many of the challenges
we face during meditation are effective pointers to those areas
requiring most attention, and if we simply shift ground every time
something seems difficult we will learn very little from the experience
and our progress, if any, will be slow. We must become aware of our
hunger for novelty: the constant seeking of newer, better, faster, is
still craving whether we are talking about a new car or a new meditation
technique. Craving, as we shall see, is at the root of the suffering we
experience.

So,
take it gently but seriously. Apply the practices with commitment and,
in time, you will become convinced of their efficacy. Please remember
that I am available to help where I can and that you can contact me
whenever you have questions about the practices we are using. I look
forward to getting to know you better over the coming days.

I
would like to offer any merits of this course to the teachers who have
blessed me with advice and encouragement over the past decades - and
especially to those from Sri Lanka. May they and all beings attain
peace.

With mettā,

Andrew

Last modified: Wednesday, 11 January 2017, 7:43 pm

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=59

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=59


September 2018 Meditation Course


Introduction to Meditation and the Course

Introduction to Meditation and the Course

The
Buddha taught a path of liberation that is open to all. His main
concern was not for our temporary happiness, nor that our relationships
and communities be harmonious, nor even that we live long and healthy
lives. These, and many other beneficial things, may indeed happen as we
apply the Buddha’s teaching; but they are not its purpose. Territorial
disputes, environmental crises and social inequality are all burning
issues of our time; but whilst our response may be aided by acting on
Buddhist principles, they are not what his teaching is about.

The
Buddha’s only concern was that we should open our eyes and see the
reality of existence for ourselves so that we may, like him, take the
steps that are necessary to be released from all forms of suffering,
forever. Meditation is a way to begin this process of awakening.

 

“I teach not only the fact of Suffering,

but also the deliverance from it.

    ……

Mind is the originator of (unhappy) states.

Mind is chief; they are mind made.

If one speaks or acts with a wicked mind,

then suffering follows one,

like the wheel follows the hoof of the draught-ox.

Mind is the originator of (happy) states.

Mind is chief; they are mind made.

If one speaks or acts with a pure mind,

then happiness follows one,

like one’s own shadow that never leaves.”

- The Buddha

Meditation
is a method of training the mind. Much of our life is conducted
unconsciously, thoughtlessly. We operate on automatic pilot most of the
time, behaving in ways to which we have become accustomed; without much
regard for the current situation, our motivation, or the outcome of our
actions. This unconscious way of living brings suffering,
unsatisfactoriness and stress into our own lives and to the
relationships we have with others. Through our ignorance and selfishness
we engineer our suffering and deny ourselves the possibility of greater
happiness.

This
careless way of living brings us much grief: not only are our
relationships often tainted by anger, hurt and jealousy, but even our
self-view is distorted through clouded perceptions and muddled thinking.
Living consciously is a way of changing our relationship to the world
around us, and beginning a journey into discovering its (and our) true
nature.

Meditation
is a tool to help us develop greater awareness, and this awareness
allows us to develop insight into the nature of reality. Why do we
behave the way we do? Who are we anyway? Why do so many things
ultimately seem so disappointing and unsatisfactory? Why do beings
suffer so much? Is there an end to suffering? The experience of
meditation allows us for the first time to develop the clarity that can
facilitate a dramatic change in our perceptions. We can begin to live in
a way that is mindful. Life can be transformed by this new awareness
and the insights it brings; it can become kinder, more compassionate,
joyful, and balanced.

Meditation
has been a feature of the major religious traditions for millennia but
somewhere along the way most of us have become separated from it and no
longer use it in our daily lives. Maybe we had a problem with the
particular belief system with which the contemplative experience was
associated, or perhaps the practice of meditation had been deemed the
special preserve of the professionally religious within that tradition.
Whatever the reason, many of us reach a stage at which we realize that
we need to reintroduce a measure of contemplation into our lives - we
need to slow down, take time to consider, to live consciously. Often we
are drawn to those traditions that have kept the meditative experience
as a core teaching and this may lead us to explore what Buddhism has to
offer. We may not be looking to take up a different religion but
recognise that some spiritual traditions have useful and practical
methods of supporting our spiritual development and awakening regardless
of the religious framework we maintain.

In
this course, and on our cushions, we shall be exploring techniques
derived from the Buddha’s teaching as contained in the suttas of the
Pāli Canon. These teachings from 2500 years ago were given by the Buddha
and his close disciples in India, and were preserved by oral recitation
until they found written expression in the Pāli language in Sri Lanka.
Buddhism may seem very foreign to some of us but, fear not, this course -
and indeed Buddhism itself - does not ask anyone to adopt any beliefs
that are not confirmed by their own experience.

Until
faith arises, through direct evidence of the efficacy of a particular
teaching, it can be difficult to determine the path we should follow.
The Buddha gave some solid advice to non-Buddhists as to how they should
most profitably judge the validity of the myriad competing theories and
belief systems:

“Do
not be led by reports, tradition or hearsay. Do not be led by the
authority of religious texts, nor by mere logic or speculation, nor by
considering appearances, nor by delighting in speculative views, nor by
seeming possibilities, nor by the idea: ‘this is our teacher’. But …
when you know for yourselves that certain things are unwholesome, wrong
and bad, then give them up … And when you know for yourselves that
certain things are wholesome and good, then accept them and follow
them.”

Try
to keep this in mind as you work through the units of this course.
Accept nothing simply because it is written down here or even because it
is contained in a particular discourse. We will be using techniques
that have stood the test of time and that others have found helpful. All
that is required at this preliminary stage is that we have a degree of
confidence that because these techniques have proven beneficial to
others there is a reasonable likelihood that they may also be of value
in our lives.

We
should remain aware that the practices introduced in the course are
derived from a living tradition. The explanations given will be
consistent with this tradition, but are couched in modern language. In
the interest of clarity we will try to avoid references to other
spiritual traditions and western psychology. Buddhism based on the texts
of the Pāli Canon has valuable teachings beyond the scope of what can
be covered here, and you are warmly encouraged to explore it further.

The Path Of Meditation And Action

Buddhist
meditation styles can be divided into two groups: there are forms of
meditation that are undertaken with the objective of acquiring a greater
degree of calmness, tranquillity or serenity through concentration on a
single object (usually called samatha meditation), and other forms that
aim at gaining insight into the nature of existence (usually called
vipassanā meditation). It is probably more helpful to see samatha and
vipassanā as the beneficial results of a developed meditation practice
rather than a strict division referring to types of techniques as they
can co-exist in harmony. The Buddhist path has a single goal, and
engagement with any of these practices may help us to work towards it.

Venerable
Nyanatiloka, a Western monk of the last century, summed up the
complementary nature of the two categories very well: he wrote that
samatha or tranquillity is “an unperturbed, peaceful and lucid state of
mind attained by strong mental concentration. Though as a distinct way
of practice, it aims at the attainment of the meditative Absorptions
(jhāna), a high degree of tranquil concentration … is indispensable
for Insight too. Tranquillity frees the mind from impurities and inner
obstacles, and gives it greater penetrative strength.” In contrast,
vipassanā or insight “is the penetrative understanding by direct
meditative experience, of the impermanency, unsatisfactoriness and
impersonality of all material and mental phenomena of existence. It is
Insight that leads to entrance into the supermundane states of Holiness
and to final liberation”.

You
will notice how prominent are the words ‘act’ and ‘action’ in these
pages; and you may find this surprising for a text on Buddhist
meditation. Meditation is not just about sitting on cushions. There is
certainly merit in taking timeout for concentration and mindfulness but
it is also part of a broader path to the complete cessation of all
suffering, and this can only be viable if our every action is informed
by our practice and by wholesome ethical considerations. One of the best
measures we have of the effectiveness of our meditation sittings is in
the actions that result from the time we spend on the cushion. If they
are more skilful then they would otherwise be, then this is an
indication that our time has not been wasted. Volitional actions - those
actions of body, speech and mind that we intentionally commit - are
what shape our lives. This kamma is the major determinant of the degree
of happiness and sorrow we will experience. Through working with gentle
determination on this path of bhāvanā, or development, we will be better
able to ensure that the fruits of those actions are wholesome and that
we create the conditions where liberation may be possible.

Although
it should never be seen as its primary purpose, Buddhist meditation can
be very effective in improving our everyday lives and the happiness of
others. By the changes wrought in our own minds, through the meditative
process, our understanding of behaviour improves immeasurably. This
allows us to bring kindness, respect and compassion to all our
interactions in a way that was perhaps absent or compromised before. Our
actions are informed by the mindfulness we bring to our daily
activities, and become more balanced and appropriate to the reality of
the situations we meet.

The Route Of Serenity And Bliss

Samatha
meditation, and the sorts of mental states achieved through it, are
common to many religious traditions but take distinctive forms in the
Buddhist tradition and are central to it. To see samatha as only a
preparation for vipassanā would be erroneous as the samatha approach
forms an authentic and deep training and one for which many people are
most suited. The jhānas, the highly developed mental states that arise
from samatha practice, can offer the potential of a more joyful path
than could be expected through vipassanā practice alone. The
descriptions of the jhānas that we find in the Pāli Canon are replete
with beautiful terms like joy, happiness, bliss, rapture, the
abandonment of pain and grief. Whilst complete liberation within a
single lifetime is a goal for some, and that would require insight,
others take the longer view and choose to work methodically to create
the optimum conditions for achieving that final liberation in a later
birth. For these people samatha meditation may continue to provide the
sustenance and development that they seek.

The
first technique that we will use as a samatha practice is Mindfulness
of Breathing or ānāpānasati and this will form the foundation for the
rest of our work. Through training the mind by fixing our attention on a
simple object such as the breathing we develop a skill that is needed
in all other forms of meditation: the ability to hone in precisely on an
object and to be completely with it for a sustained period. Besides
acquiring this necessary skill, the practice of itself brings greater
calm and serenity.

From
ānāpānasati we begin to work with a series of interrelated techniques
that are perhaps a little less abstract. Still part of the samatha
grouping, the cultivation of the brahmavihāras or sublime abiding works
primarily on an emotional level to bring about positive mental states.
The method used could be summarised as empathy, and we approach each of
four qualities in a methodical way; gradually building our skills by
focusing on them in turn and working in distinct sections for the
purpose of training.

The
practical result of working with these four techniques is that we open
our hearts to what is wholesome and nurturing and cease to be capable of
acting in ways that are hostile and destructive. We open to
lovingkindness - working to include every sentient being. If we fully
develop lovingkindness we become considerate and caring in relationships
with others. Through the application of lovingkindness, our actions are
incapable of being influenced by ill will.

From
lovingkindness we move on to work with compassion; feeling with people
who suffer. When we understand the universality of suffering then at the
deepest level we can begin to act in ways that minimise our
contribution to the pain that the world endures. Again, this works on a
personal level - we act to reduce our own suffering - and also in
relation to every being with which we are connected. Through the
application of compassion, our actions are incapable of being influenced
by cruelty.

When
we come to the third brahmavihāra, appreciative joy, we consider what
is glorious in the lives around us. This is celebratory and distinctly
unselfish. We develop an awareness of the beauty that exists even in the
lives of people who usually present us with difficulties; fully aware
that in some cases it may be us who fit this category. By developing the
ability to “enjoy the joy”, wherever it is found, we reinforce our
understanding of commonality and our resolution to work to extend
happiness through our actions. Through the application of appreciative
joy, our actions are incapable of being influenced by apathy or
discontent.

The
fourth practice is on equanimity and is the culmination of all that has
gone before. We will only touch on it briefly during the course as it
requires a firm foundation in the other sublime abodes; but the method
is outlined so that it can be used beyond the course. With Equanimity we
work very deeply to see the patterns that usually allow
us to be partial. We normally selectively give and selectively withhold
throughout our interactions with others. We like, we dislike; we
favour, we act with prejudice. The other three brahmavihāra practices
have shown us, and developed in us, an understanding of how non-separate
we really are from others: we seek happiness and freedom from suffering
just like everyone else; we engage in destructive activities just like
others. Once that commonality is acknowledged at the deepest level,
through our meditation practice, we come to a realisation that the
respect we show for any other being can be no different from that which
we ourselves would wish to enjoy. Through this practice we work at
balancing and overcoming partiality. Through the application of
equanimity, our actions are incapable of being influenced by resentment
or aversion.

As
a process of training, we will work methodically through various
sections and take a person-centred approach with each of the
brahmavihāras; but the canonical goal is of an all-encompassing,
universal application of these qualities. Once we have acquired the
ability to freely share each of the brahmavihāra in a strong and
equanimous way, then we can move forward to impartial, fully inclusive
and boundless application of all four qualities. By being exposed to the
different brahmavihāra techniques the subtle differences between the
different qualities will become more readily apparent. Without this
approach it is common for meditators to lack precision during their
sittings: all positive emotions are classed as lovingkindness, for
example, rather than carefully ascertaining how lovingkindness differs
from compassion. Until we have this clarity it is difficult to optimally
develop these positive states; we descend instead into generalised
pleasant thoughts rather than creating an environment in which serious
work can happen and transformation of the heart may occur.

That
is the theory. It may all at this stage seem a little far-fetched (and
some of it may seem undesirable or even unwise) but very soon the value
of working in this way will become apparent. We begin to notice it first
in small ways through our improved everyday communications with others.
By opening to, and developing, what is already there - lovingkindness,
compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity - we can ensure that we are
well equipped to cause least harm and greatest help to ourselves and
others. Whatever destructive patterns we may currently employ, or have
engaged in previously, the effort expended on working with the
brahmavihāras will be entirely beneficial. It is a gradual path but the
opening of the heart and the effect that this has on our behaviour is
tangible, even after a relatively short period of sustained application.

The Route Of Insight

Vipassanā
is often regarded as a specifically Buddhist form of meditation;
different from anything presented elsewhere. What is distinctive about
vipassanā - literally ’special seeing’ or ‘clear vision’ - is that
through one’s own effort it brings an understanding of things as they
are: impermanent (anicca), inherently unsatisfactory (dukkha), and
not-Self (anattā). With the arising of insight, we no longer need rely
on scriptural accounts, or on what others have told us, because we know
for ourselves.

The
modern favouring of vipassanā meditation, particularly in the West,
stems from a belief that one cannot attain complete liberation through
the jhānas (the attainments of samatha practice). Whilst this is
technically correct, most of us have quite a way to go before such lofty
concerns present us with any such obstacle. One should not forget that
the results of samatha meditation are of value in themselves as well as
in the essential preparation they represent as we begin vipassanā
practice. In these days of instant gratification vipassanā is sometimes
presented as the form of meditation with “go faster stripes” and, for
some, samatha practice is seen as second best; but this is an immature
assessment as there are no short cuts to liberation. It is also a
misreading of the texts and a denial of the practical requirement for
engagement with at least some form of samatha meditation to develop the
degree of concentration and precision required if we are to succeed with
vipassanā.

The
later part of the course introduces two techniques drawn from those
usually classified as vipassanā bhāvanā (the cultivation of insight),
and shows how these relate to the samatha practices that we have already
met. One of the techniques focuses on clearly seeing the arising and
ceasing of physical and mental feelings by observation of the body. The
other technique moves beyond structure to bring the same precision and
mindfulness to all the phenomena of which we are aware.

The Conjoined Route

Traditionally,
most Buddhist meditation teachers would advocate the practice of
samatha meditation before embarking on vipassanā meditation and this is
the approach that we will pursue. In the Pāli Canon we read, “when one
practices samatha followed by vipassanā the path arises”. It is not
necessary to specialise only in the samatha form of meditation or only
vipassanā meditation, as the Buddha’s own example shows us the value of
working with both. This approach is known as yuganaddha; the yoking
together of distinct elements in a congruent and harmonious way so that
no area of our development is neglected. Our work on samatha will not be
eclipsed when we come to consider vipassanā but will instead continue
to accompany and enrich it until we reach the final goal. The first part
of this course is devoted to techniques normally considered samatha
meditation and beyond that we work mainly with two forms of vipassanā
meditation.

We
will also look at bringing a meditative approach to daily life, through
the practice of mindfulness, and the importance of bringing awareness
to the teachings that life can show us in some of the major mileposts we
encounter.

Meditation
enables us to see things from different perspectives. The Buddha
emphasised the critical importance of right understanding as essential
for our development. We shall look at three cardinal concepts of the
Buddhist path: dukkha (suffering or unsatisfactoriness), anicca
(impermanence) and anattā (not-self, egolessness). From an intellectual
grasp of these ideas we can, through meditation, gain a real
understanding of the nature of the conditioned world, and realise our
place within it. Armed with this understanding we can act in skilful
ways to benefit the lives of those with whom we come into contact. This
ethical behaviour produces harmonious conditions for further meditation.
The results are cumulative and significant, and both the meditator and
those with whom he or she interacts will feel the impact.

“When
tranquillity is developed, the mind is developed and lust is abandoned;
when insight is developed, right understanding is developed and
ignorance is abandoned. The mind defiled with lust is not liberated;
when there is defilement through ignorance, right understanding is not
developed… ” - Anguttara Nikāya

Last modified: Wednesday, 11 January 2017, 8:01 pm

https://course.org/campus/mod/page/view.php?id=60

September 2018 Meditation Course


Daily Practice Focus

Practice Focus

You
should aim to incorporate at least one meditation sitting each day for
the 10 weeks of the course. If you are able to manage two separate
sessions daily, so much the better.

The broad focus for each of the days is as follows. In any second sitting
please review one of the techniques we met earlier in the course.

  • Week 1 and 2 - Mindfulness of Breathing (anapanasati)
  • Week 3 and 4 - Lovingkindness Meditation (metta)
  • Week 5 - Compassion Meditation (karuna)
  • Week 6 - Appreciative Joy Meditation (mudita) plus a brief overview of Equanimity (upekkha)
  • Week 7 and 8 - Vipassana Meditation (U Ba Khin style)
  • Week 9 and 10 - Vipassana Meditation (Choiceless Awareness)

There
is an optional chant tutorial each Friday for the first 9 weeks of
the course. This builds to a puja sequence that some may find helpful in
rededicating their practice from time to time.

Last modified: Friday, 13 January 2017, 12:58 pm

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LESSON 2773 Fri 12 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM) Structured Tree Flow of TIPITAKA in Classical English,Classical Catalan,Clàssic català,Classical Cebuano-Cebuano clàssic,Classical Chichewa Chichewa chachikale,Classical (ChineseSimplified)古典奇切瓦,Classical Chinese (Traditional) - 古典中文(繁體),Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,Classical Czech,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 3:20 am

LESSON 2773  Fri 12 Oct 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
DO GOOD BE MINDFUL (DGBM)

Structured Tree Flow of  TIPITAKA

in Classical English,Classical Catalan,Clàssic català,Classical Cebuano-Cebuano clàssic,Classical Chichewa Chichewa chachikale,Classical  (ChineseSimplified)古典奇切瓦,Classical Chinese (Traditional)  - 古典中文(繁體),Classical  Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,
Classical Czech,


 

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/…
Tripitaka Song

Structured Tree Flow of TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~1st-2nd century) [Excerpt: The Evolution of
Ordination]Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus
and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Important Role of Women in Buddhism and Monks Rules -From MN-44

(Five nik±yas, or collections)
The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a
collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity,
congregation; a house, dwelling).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Ask A Monk: The Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch

Sutta Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 The All embracing Net of Views I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses
given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late
additions to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“The Majjhima Nikaya, the Middle Length Discourses”


The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for restraining and
abandoning the taints, the fundamental defilements that maintain bondage
to the round of birth and death.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to
their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than
three thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively
short.

https://www.youtube.com/watch
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized
in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka
Nikāya short texts and is considered as been composed of two stratas:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other books are late additions
and their authenticity is more questionable.

Classical Catalan 
Clàssic català

TEMA 2773 Div 12 Oct. 2018
PRACTICA BUDDHA VACANA per PEACE (PBVP)
NO ES MATEIX (DGBM)

Flux estructurat de l’arbre de TIPITAKA

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/...
Cançó Tripitaka

Flux estructurat de l’arbre de TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1er-II e segle) [Extracte: L’evolució de
Ordenació] Sutta Vibhaaga [dos llibres que contenen regles per als bhikkhus
i
bhikkhunis, esbossant vuit classes de delictes]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Paper important de la dona en el budisme i les regles dels monjos -des del MN-44

(Cinc nics, o col·leccions)
El Sutta Piṭaka conté l’essència de l’ensenyament del Buda
sobre el Dhamma. Conté més de deu mil suttas. És
dividit en cinc col·leccions anomenades Nikāyas (Una multitud, assemblea; a
col · lecció; una classe, ordre, grup; una associació, fraternitat,
congregació; una casa, habitatge).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Pregunti a un monjo: el Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch

Sutta Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 The All Net of Views of I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] El Dīgha Nikāya recull 34 dels discursos més llargs
donat pel Buda. Hi ha diversos consells que molts d’ells arriben tard
addicions al corpus original i d’autenticitat qüestionable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“El Majjhima Nikaya, els discursos de la longitud mitjana”

El Buda ensenya als bhikkhus set mètodes per a la restricció i
l’abandonament de les tints, les deficiències fonamentals que mantenen l’esclavitud
a la ronda de naixement i mort.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: grup] El Saṃyutta Nikāya recull les suttas segons
el seu tema en 56 subgrups anomenats saṃyuttas. Conté més que
tres mil discursos de longitud variable, però generalment relativament
curt.

https://www.youtube.com/watch
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionalnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya està subdividida
en onze subgrups anomenats nipātas, cadascun d’ells recollint discursos
que consisteix en enumeracions d’un factor addicional versus el de la
precedent nipāta. Conté milers de suttas que són generalment
curt.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: curta, petita] The Khuddhaka
Els textos curts de Nikāya es consideren compostos de dues estrates:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
i Jātaka formen els antics estrats, mentre que altres llibres són addicions tardanes
i la seva autenticitat és més qüestionable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/...

Cançó Tripitaka

Classical Cebuano-Cebuano clàssic
Sugilanon sa klasiko

ITEM 2773 Div 12 Okt. 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA FOR PEACE (PBVP)
DILI KAAYO (DGBM)

Gitukod nga dagan sa kahoy sa MATANG

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka song

Gitukod nga dagan sa kahoy sa MATANG

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1st to 2nd century) [Extract: Ang ebolusyon sa
Paghan-ay] Sutta Vibhaaga [duha ka libro nga adunay mga lagda alang sa bhikkus
i
bhikkhunis, nga naglatid sa walo ka matang sa mga krimen]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Importante papel de las mujeres sa el Budismo ug las reglas de los monjes - desde el MN-44

(Lima nics o koleksyon)
Ang Sutta Piṭaka naglangkob sa diwa sa pagtulon-an sa Buddha
mahitungod sa Dhamma. Naglangkob kini sa kapin sa napulo ka libo nga sutta. Mao ba
gibahin sa lima ka koleksyon nga gitawag ug Nikāyas (usa ka panon sa katawhan, katilingban;
pagkolekta; sa klase, han-ay, grupo; usa ka asosasyon, panag-igsoonay,
kongregasyon; usa ka balay, pabalay).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Pangutan-a ang usa ka monghe: ang Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Ubos sa Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
DN 01 Ang Tanang Pula sa Pagtan-aw sa II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: taas] Si Dīgha Nikāya mikolekta sa 34 sa pinakataas nga mga pakigpulong
nga gihatag sa Buddha. Adunay ubay-ubay nga mga tip nga daghan kanila ang naulahi
pagdugang ngadto sa orihinal nga corpus ug kaduhaduhaan nga pagkatinuod.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“Majjhima Nikaya, ang mga pakigpulong sa average length”

Ang Buddha nagtudlo sa mga bhikkhuus nga pito ka mga pamaagi alang sa pagdili ug
ang pagsalikway sa mga tina, ang mga sukaranan nga mga kakulangan nga nagpadayon sa pagpangulipon
ngadto sa hugna sa pagkatawo ug kamatayon.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: grupo] Saṃyutta Nikāya nangolekta sa mga sutta sumala sa
Ang hilisgutan niini sa 56 nga mga subgroup nga gitawag sa saṃyuttas. Naglangkob kini labaw pa kay sa
Tulo ka libo nga mga pakigpulong nga nagkalainlain ang gitas-on, apan sa kasagaran medyo
mubo

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionalnal] Ang Aṅguttara Nikāya gibahin
Sa napulo’g usa ka mga subgroup nga gitawag ug nipātas, ang matag usa kanila nagkolekta sa mga pakigpulong
nga naglangkob sa mga pagsaysay sa usa ka dugang nga butang batok sa sa
Nauna nga nipta Naglangkob kini sa libu-libong suttas nga kasagaran
mubo

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: mubo, gamay] Ang Khuddhaka
Ang mubo nga mga teksto sa Nikāya gikonsiderar nga mga compound sa duha ka strata:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
ug Jātaka mao ang porma sa daan nga sapin, samtang ang uban nga mga basahon mga ulahing pagdugang
ug ang pagkatinuod niini mas pangutana.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka song

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
Cançó Tripitaka


youtube.com
http://SupremeMasterTV.com
• BMD1098; Aired on 16 Sep 2009 This episode features the sage
teachings of the Buddha in the holy Tipitaka,…
Classical Chichewa Chichewa chachikale

ITEM 2773 Div 12 Oct. 2018
KUCHITA BUDDHA VACANA YA CHIKONDI (PBVP)
SINAYAMBA (DGBM)

Mtengo wa TYPES umayenda bwino

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Nyimbo ya Tripitaka

Mtengo wa TYPES umayenda bwino

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1st mpaka 2nd century) [Kuchokera: Kusinthika kwa
Kusankha] Sutta Vibhaaga [mabuku awiri omwe ali ndi malamulo a bhikkhus
i
bhikkhunis, kufotokoza mitundu eyiti ya milandu]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Papels de las mujeres yofunika kwambiri pa mapulogalamu ena - kuyambira MN-44

(Zina zisanu kapena zokopa)
Sutta Piṭaka ili ndi chiyambi cha chiphunzitso cha Buddha
za Dhamma. Lili ndi suttas zikwi khumi. Ndi
Anagawidwa m’magulu asanu omwe amatchedwa Nikāyas (khamu, msonkhano; a
kusonkhanitsa; kusukulu, dongosolo, gulu; chiyanjano, ubale,
mpingo; nyumba, nyumba).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Funsani mulungu: Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Pansi pa Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
DN 01 Zonse za Net Views za II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: yaitali] Dīgha Nikāya amasonkhanitsa zolankhula zoposa 34
woperekedwa ndi Buddha. Pali ziphuphu zambiri zomwe ambiri a iwo amabwera mochedwa
zowonjezera ku chiyambi choyambirira ndi chodziwika chokayikitsa.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“Majjhima Nikaya, kulankhula kwa nthawi yaitali”

Buddha amaphunzitsa bhikkhus njira zisanu ndi ziwiri zoletsedwa
kuchoka kwa dyes, zofooka zazikulu zomwe zimakhala ukapolo
mpaka kuzungulira kubadwa ndi imfa.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: gulu] Saṃyutta Nikāya amasonkhanitsa suttas molingana ndi
Nkhani yake mu 56 magulu ang’onoang’ono otchedwa saṃyuttas. Lili ndi zambiri kuposa
Maulendo zikwi zitatu za kutalika, koma ambiri
zochepa

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[alembag: factor | uttara: zoonjezera] Aṅguttara Nikāya yagawidwa
Mu magulu khumi ndi limodzi omwe amatchedwa nipātas, aliyense wa iwo akukamba nkhani
zomwe zili ndi ndondomeko za chinthu china chogwirizana ndi cha
Nipta yapitayi Ili ndi zikwi za suttas zomwe kawirikawiri zimakhala
zochepa

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: ochepa, ochepa] The Khuddhaka
Malembo ochepa a Nikāya amaonedwa ngati mankhwala ophatikiza awiri:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipata,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
ndipo Jātaka amapanga chingwe chakale, pamene mabuku ena ali owonjezera mwamsanga
ndipo zoona zake ndizokayikitsa.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Nyimbo ya Tripitaka 


Classical Chinese (Simplified)古典奇切瓦

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UdAT9C87cuI&t=904s
Chinese Buddhism Music: 7 songs
Dharmachakra Wheel of the Dharma
Published on Feb 9, 2017
Buddhism Meditation Music: Welcome to Chinese Buddhism, please scroll down
The Buddhist Tripitaka original music series
顯密經藏 原創音樂
1. Mind Bridge 心橋: 00:00
2. Neutral Mind 平常心: 10:39
3. Tears of Avalokiteśvara 觀音淚: 20:52
4. Follow Your Heart 隨緣: 30:47
5. Nirvana 涅槃: 40:34
6. Ultimate Bliss 極樂: 49:46
7. Praise of Badeng Rinpoche 巴登上師祈請文: 1:00:14

No copyright infringement is intended
Please visit the music source 請參觀音樂來源處
http://www.xianmijingzang.com/index/i

Useful links to access Buddhist Tipitaka/Tripitaka
大藏經網址

Theravada Tipitaka (English)
巴利大藏經 (英語)
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/

Theravada Tipitaka (Multilingual)
巴利大藏經 (多國語言)
https://suttacentral.net/

Theravada Suttas Reading (English)
巴利大藏經 經藏錄音 (英語)
http://www.suttareadings.net/audio/in

Theravada Tipitaka Reading (English)
巴利大藏經 三藏錄音 (英語)
http://www.audtip.org/

Audio recordings of selected texts from the Theravada tradition (English, Pāli, Sanskrit)
上座部佛法書籍錄音 (英語 巴利語 梵語)
http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net...

Theravada/Mahayana Selected Suttas/Sutras (English)
巴利大藏/北傳大藏經典選讀 (英語)
http://buddhasutra.com/

Mahayana Tripitaka (Multilingual)
大正新脩大藏經 (多國語言)
http://www.fodian.net/world/

Mahayana Tripitaka (English)
大正新脩大藏經 (英語)
http://www.bdk.or.jp/english/english_

Mahayana Tripitaka (English)
大正新脩大藏經 (英語)
http://www.sutrasmantras.info/

Other Mahayana Sutras and Buddhist books
其他大乘佛經與佛法書籍
Buddhist Text Translation Society (Multilingual)
http://www.buddhisttexts.org/ebooks-l
http://www.bttsonline.org/english-books/
Richard Hunn Association for Ch’an Study (English)
http://wenshuchan-online.weebly.com/c

Mahayana (QianLong or Dragon Buddhist Canon)/Vajrayana (Kangyur) Tripitaka Reading (Chinese, Tibetan)
顯密經藏 龍藏經(乾隆大藏經)/甘珠爾 三藏錄音 (中文,藏文)
*火力推薦 華人之福*
http://www.xianmijingzang.com/

Vajrayana Tripitaka: Kangyur/Tengyur (English)
甘珠爾/丹珠爾 (英語)
http://84000.co/

Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon (Sanskrit)
電子版梵文佛教文典 (梵文)
http://www.dsbcproject.org/

CBETA 漢文大藏經 (中文)
http://www.cbeta.org/

顯密文庫 佛教文集 附白話佛經 (中文)
(網址有時失效 請前往其他白話佛經網址)
http://read.goodweb.cn/

其他白話佛經網址 (中文)
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1W

Diamond Sutra: New translation by Alex Johnson (English)
金剛經匯集本: Alex Johnson匯集 (英語)
http://diamond-sutra.com/

Bibliography of translations from the Taishō Buddhist Canon (Mahayana Tripitaka) into Western Languages (Multilingual)
西語佛經 大正新脩大藏經 翻譯情況一覽 (多國語言)
http://mbingenheimer.net/tools/bibls/

Mahayana Buddhism Sutras (English Audiobook or Videobook) 英語佛經 (漢傳佛經)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list

Theravada Buddhism Suttas (English Audiobook) 英語佛經 (南傳佛經)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list

Other Chinese sutras 其他華語佛經
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list

Click this link to watch other Buddhism animations 按此連結有其它的佛教動畫
https://youtu.be/16XtO7T2d6g?list=PLF

“Dharmachakra Wheel of the Dharma” channel and other websites
本頻道的其他網站
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCzVf
http://i.youku.com/i/UMzc2ODU0MzY2NA==

Email us about the video
電子郵箱
wheelofthedharma@gmail.com
Category
Education
古典奇切瓦

项目2773 Div 10月12日2018
实践BUDDHA VACANA FOR PEACE(PBVP)
不一样(DGBM)

TYPES树的结构化流程

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
大藏经歌

TYPES树的结构化流程

VinayaPiμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch
VinayaPiṭaka:Mahāvagga(~1至2世纪)[摘录:
排序] Sutta Vibhaaga [两本书包含比丘的规则

bhikkhunis,概述八种罪行]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Importante papel de las mujeres en el budismo y las reglas de los monjes - desde el MN-44

(五个nics或收藏)
SuttaPiṭaka包含了佛陀教学的精髓
关于佛法。它包含超过一万个suttas。是
分为五个系列,称为Nikāyas(人群,集会; a
收集;上课,订购,分组;协会,兄弟会,
众;房子,房屋)。

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
问一个和尚:Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch

在Piμaka下

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 I II的全部视图

DīghaNikāya
[dgha:long]DīghaNikāya收集了34篇最长的演讲
由佛陀给出。有几个提示,其中许多人迟到了
添加到原始语料库和可疑的真实性。

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“Majjhima Nikaya,平均长度的演讲”

佛陀教授比丘的七种限制方法
放弃染料,维持奴隶制的根本缺陷
到了出生和死亡的轮次。

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
SaṃyuttaNikāya
[samyutta:group]SaṃyuttaNikāya根据收集suttas
它的主题在56个小组中称为saṃyuttas。它包含多个
三千种不同长度的演讲,但一般相对而言

https://www.youtube.com/watch
AṅguttaraNikāya
[aṅg:factor | uttara:additionalnal]AṅguttaraNikāya被细分
在称为nipātas的11个小组中,每个小组都收集了演讲
其中包括一个附加因子的枚举与
以前的nipta它通常包含成千上万的suttas

KhuddakaNikāya
[khuddha:短,小] Khuddhaka
Nikāya的短文被认为是两个阶层的复合体:
Dhammapada,Udāna,Itivuttaka,SuttaNipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
和Jātaka形成了旧的阶层,而其他书籍则是后期的补充
它的真实性更值得怀疑。

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
大藏经歌


youtube.com
Buddhism
Meditation Music: Welcome to Chinese Buddhism, please scroll down The
Buddhist Tripitaka original music series 顯密經藏 原創音樂 1. Mind…

LikeShow More Reactions
Comment

Classical Chinese (Traditional)  - 古典中文(繁體)
1 min ·

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UH3X1H6pYjY
Chinese Buddhist Cave Shrines
Asian Art Museum
Published on May 20, 2009
Explore ancient Buddhist cave shrines in China and discover why the sites were created.

Category
Education
古典中文(繁體)

項目2773 Div 10月12日2018
實踐BUDDHA VACANA FOR PEACE(PBVP)
不一樣(DG​​BM)

TYPES樹的結構化流程

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
大藏經歌

TYPES樹的結構化流程

VinayaPiμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch
VinayaPiṭaka:Mahāvagga(~1至2世紀)[摘錄:
排序] Sutta Vibhaaga [兩本書包含比丘的規則

bhikkhunis,概述八種罪行]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Importante papel de las mujeres en el budismo y las reglas de los monjes - desde el MN-44

(五個nics或收藏)
SuttaPiṭaka包含了佛陀教學的精髓
關於佛法。它包含超過一萬個suttas。是
分為五個系列,稱為Nikāyas(人群,集會; a
收集;上課,訂購,分組;協會,兄弟會,
眾;房子,房屋)。

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
問一個和尚:Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch

在Piμaka下

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 I II的全部視圖

DīghaNikāya
[dgha:long]DīghaNikāya收集了34篇最長的演講
由佛陀給出。有幾個提示,其中許多人遲到了
添加到原始語料庫和可疑的真實性。

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“Majjhima Nikaya,平均長度的演講”

佛陀教授比丘的七種限制方法
放棄染料,維持奴隸制的根本缺陷
到了出生和死亡的輪次。

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
SaṃyuttaNikāya
[samyutta:group]SaṃyuttaNikāya根據收集suttas
它的主題在56個小組中稱為saṃyuttas。它包含多個
三千種不同長度的演講,但一般相對​​而言

https://www.youtube.com/watch
AṅguttaraNikāya
[aṅg:factor | uttara:additionalnal]AṅguttaraNikāya被細分
在稱為nipātas的11個小組中,每個小組都收集了演講
其中包括一個附加因子的枚舉與
以前的nipta它包含通常的數千個suttas

KhuddakaNikāya
[khuddha:短,小] Khuddhaka
Nikāya的短文被認為是兩個階層的複合體:
Dhammapada,Udāna,Itivuttaka,SuttaNipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
和Jātaka形成了舊的階層,而其他書籍則是後期的補充
它的真實性更值得懷疑。

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
大藏經歌


youtube.com
Explore ancient Buddhist cave shrines in China and discover why the sites were created.
Classical  Corsican-Corsa Corsicana

ITEM 2773 Div 12 Oct. 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA FOR PEACE (PBVP)
NO SAME (DGBM)

U flussu strutturatu di l’arbre di TYPES

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka song

U flussu strutturatu di l’arbre di TYPES

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1 ° à 2 ° seculu) [Estrattate: L’evoluzione di
Sorting] Sutta Vibhaaga [dui libri chì cuntenenu e reguli per bhikkhus
i
bhikkhunis, scrivenu ottu tipi di crimini]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Impurtante rollu di e femini in u buddimu è e reguli di i monchi - da u MN-44

(Cinqui nichi o cullezzione)
U Sutta Piṭaka cuntene l’essenza di l’insignamentu di u Buddu
versu u Dhamma. Contene più di deci milla suttas. Is
divisu in cinque culleculi chjamati Nikāyas (Un ghjente, assemblea; a
cullezzione; à a classa, ordine, gruppu; una associazione, fraternità,
congregation; una casa, abitudine).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Ask a monk: u Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Sottu Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
DN 01 U Net Net of Views di l’I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: long] Dīgha Nikāya recuuta 34 di i discorsi più longu
datu da u Buddhist. Ci sò parechji cunsiglii chì parechji di elli arribanu tardi
aghjunte per u corpus uriginale è l’autenticità dubbiare.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“Majjhima Nikaya, i discorsi di a longa media”

U Buddhà enseò i bhikkhus set mètudi per a restrizzioni è
l’abbandunamentu di i tinte, e mancanza fundamentale chì sustene l’esclavità
à a ronda di nascita è morte.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: gruppu] Saṃyutta Nikāya recuata i suttas secondu
Su subjecte in 56 subgruppi chjamati saṃyuttas. Ùn cuntene più di più
Trè mila discorsi di variendu tulu, ma in generale in relazione
curtu

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionalale] Aṅguttara Nikāya hè divisu
In ònde i sottugruppi chjamati nipātas, ogni unu di elli cugghiate speeches
chì compone di l’enumerazione di un factor addizzjonali versus u di u
nipta chì hè stata cumposta di miglii di suttas chì sò abituati
curtu

Khuddaka Nikāya
[Kudya: curta, chjuca] U Kuddhaka
I testi brevi di Nikāya sò cunsiderate cumminati di dui strati:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
è Jātaka formanu a strata antica, mentre chì altri libri sò aghjunte tardi