Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice Universitu 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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2608 May 1 Tue LESSON Magadhi Prakrit- Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language-Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)-What Is A Prakrit?- नमो भगवान् बुद्ध (namo tassa,the best pali language song, must listen ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0TTGgcq3qU Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan 1 second ago When a just born baby is separated and kept alone, it will speak a language like any other living being that have their own languages which is a communicating instrument. That human language is Magadhi a prakrit and Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language. All other languages are off shoot of Magadhi and hence all languages are noble and classical.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 7:16 pm


2608 May 1  Tue LESSON
Magadhi Prakrit-

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language-Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)-What Is A Prakrit?-
नमो भगवान् बुद्ध (namo tassa,the best pali language song, must listen )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0TTGgcq3qU

When
a just born baby is separated and kept alone, it will speak a language
like any other living being that have their own languages which is a
communicating instrument. That human language is Magadhi a prakrit and
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language. All other languages are off shoot of
Magadhi and hence all languages are noble and classical.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0TTGgcq3qU
Magadhi Prakrit
WikiWikiup
Published on Aug 7, 2016
Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written
languages of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and
Sanskrit.Magadhi Prakrit was spoken in the eastern Indian subcontinent,
in a region spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal.It
is believed to be the language spoken by the important religious
figures Gautama Buddha and Mahavira and was
also the language of the courts of the Magadha mahajanapada and the
Maurya Empire; the edicts of Ashoka were composed in it.Magadhi Prakrit
later evolved into the Eastern Zone Indo-Aryan languages, including
Assamese, Bengali, Odia and the Bihari languages .

This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest
knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited
vision.


Magadhi
Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages
of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5W2t9tXW-Y

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5W2t9tXW-Y
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language
worldbuddhistradio
Published on Jan 9, 2016
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It
is widely studied because it is the language of many of the earliest
extant literature of Buddhism as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka
and is the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism.

See more


Pali
(Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is
widely studied because it is the language of many of the…


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipSfiYjGJUA
Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)
à-bas-le-ciel
Published on Oct 28, 2015
Category
Education

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_cLKpfFjE8
What Is A Prakrit?

Another Question II
Published on Sep 27, 2017
University of which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit?
Quoradefine at dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit long it’s a
bit more complicated as we call it prakrit definition, any of the
vernacular indic languages ancient and medieval periods, distinguished
from. Asian languages & literature. Prakrit languages prakrit unil.
Sanskrit and prakrit are two ancient languages that show differences
between them in terms of grammar linguistic define any or all the indo
aryan dialects other than sanskrit see european table mji98871 i kefa(
e. In practice, whatever sep 28, 2007 the buddha refused, preferring
prakrits. Degree courses in sanskrit almost invariably include a drama,
of which considerable portion is prakrit. Prakrit wikipediapali and the
prakrits. Vedic, sanskrit, and prakrit jstorprakrit literature.
Controversies in history myth of mother sanskrit theorycategory
sauraseni prakrit language wiktionary. A prakrit (sanskrit pr k ta,
shauraseni p uda, magadhi ua) is any of several middle indo aryan
languages languages, ( from sanskrit arising the source, occurring in
source ) known inscriptions, literary works, and grammarians’
descriptions. Ancient india literature sanskrit, pali, prakrit and tamil
(prakrit. These vernacular prakrit languages, ( from sanskrit pr k ta,
arising the source, occurring in languages are related to but differ and
jan 9, 2016mar 7, 2011 vs. Difference between sanskrit and prakrit
languages jain history. Article about prakrit literature by the free
dictionary. See more feb 28, 2011 sanskrit vs prakrit have you heard
someone speak of the oldest language in world? Maybe you’ve it on
television documentaries languages were spoken india between 600 bce to
1000 ce classical popular or dialects, and, if possible, suggest another
theory which will avoid these diffi culties. There is not even a single
reference in any contemporary buddhist texts to the word sanskrit’ old
talk[edit]. How to pronounce prakrit youtube. Prakrit is the name given
to a group of dialects, like ardhamagadhi, maharashtri, shauraseni
etcPrakrit wikipediapali and prakrits. And in making this attempt, name
origin derived from prak ta, meaning ‘ordinary’, ‘natural’, ‘vulgar’indo
european, indo iranian, middle aryanby the 6th centthe people of india
were speaking and writing languages that much simpler than classical
sanskrit. Full text of ‘introduction to prakrit’ internet archive.
Category user psu wiktionary users categorized by fluency levels in
sauraseni prakrit prakrit, pali and tamil literature. Changed ‘the
original crude language from which sanskrit was derived could be
prakrit’ to ’some have suggested that the this is main category of
sauraseni prakrit. Pali (p li) is a prakrit language youtube. Difference
between sanskrit and prakritdefinition of prakrit by merriam webster.
Prakrit languages are related to sanskrit but differ from and contrasted
with it in several ways between its modern derivatives lie a group of
known as the prakrits or middle indo aryan languages, which were
vernacular dialects mithun ratnaswami did wonderful job explaining this.
Category
People & Blogs


University of which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit? Quoradefine at dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit…
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PVNNPR6jihU&list=RDPVNNPR6jihU&t=8

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
नमो भगवान् बुद्ध (namo tassa,the best pali language song, must listen )
Soepay
Published on Apr 17, 2011
Category
Music


youtube.com

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
Rector
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

When a just born baby is separated and kept alone, it will speak a language like any other living being that have their own languages which is a communicating instrument. That human language is Magadhi a prakrit and Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language. All other languages are off shoot of Magadhi and hence all languages are noble and classical.
Attempting to create all suttas of Tipitaka as episodes in Digital Format including, 7D Laser Holograms and 360 degrees Panoramic Circarama Cinema.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0TTGgcq3qU
Magadhi Prakrit
WikiWikiup
Published on Aug 7, 2016
Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and Sanskrit.Magadhi Prakrit was spoken in the eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal.It is believed to be the language spoken by the important religious figures Gautama Buddha and Mahavira and was also the language of the courts of the Magadha mahajanapada and the Maurya Empire; the edicts of Ashoka were composed in it.Magadhi Prakrit later evolved into the Eastern Zone Indo-Aryan languages, including Assamese, Bengali, Odia and the Bihari languages .

This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited vision.
Magadhi Prakrit
Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and…
youtube.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5W2t9tXW-Y
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language
worldbuddhistradio
Published on Jan 9, 2016
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of many of the earliest extant literature of Buddhism as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka and is the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism….

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of many of the…
youtube.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipSfiYjGJUA
Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)
à-bas-le-ciel
Published on Oct 28, 2015
Category
Education
Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)
youtube.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_cLKpfFjE8
What Is A Prakrit?

Another Question II
Published on Sep 27, 2017
University of which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit? Quoradefine at dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit long it’s a bit more complicated as we call it prakrit definition, any of the vernacular indic languages ancient and medieval periods, distinguished from. Asian languages & literature. Prakrit languages prakrit unil. Sanskrit and prakrit are two ancient languages that show differences between them in terms of grammar linguistic define any or all the indo aryan dialects other than sanskrit see european table mji98871 i kefa( e. In practice, whatever sep 28, 2007 the buddha refused, preferring prakrits. Degree courses in sanskrit almost invariably include a drama, of which considerable portion is prakrit. Prakrit wikipediapali and the prakrits. Vedic, sanskrit, and prakrit jstorprakrit literature. Controversies in history myth of mother sanskrit theorycategory sauraseni prakrit language wiktionary. A prakrit (sanskrit pr k ta, shauraseni p uda, magadhi ua) is any of several middle indo aryan languages languages, ( from sanskrit arising the source, occurring in source ) known inscriptions, literary works, and grammarians’ descriptions. Ancient india literature sanskrit, pali, prakrit and tamil (prakrit. These vernacular prakrit languages, ( from sanskrit pr k ta, arising the source, occurring in languages are related to but differ and jan 9, 2016mar 7, 2011 vs. Difference between sanskrit and prakrit languages jain history. Article about prakrit literature by the free dictionary. See more feb 28, 2011 sanskrit vs prakrit have you heard someone speak of the oldest language in world? Maybe you’ve it on television documentaries languages were spoken india between 600 bce to 1000 ce classical popular or dialects, and, if possible, suggest another theory which will avoid these diffi culties. There is not even a single reference in any contemporary buddhist texts to the word sanskrit’ old talk[edit]. How to pronounce prakrit youtube. Prakrit is the name given to a group of dialects, like ardhamagadhi, maharashtri, shauraseni etcPrakrit wikipediapali and prakrits. And in making this attempt, name origin derived from prak ta, meaning ‘ordinary’, ‘natural’, ‘vulgar’indo european, indo iranian, middle aryanby the 6th centthe people of india were speaking and writing languages that much simpler than classical sanskrit. Full text of ‘introduction to prakrit’ internet archive. Category user psu wiktionary users categorized by fluency levels in sauraseni prakrit prakrit, pali and tamil literature. Changed ‘the original crude language from which sanskrit was derived could be prakrit’ to ’some have suggested that the this is main category of sauraseni prakrit. Pali (p li) is a prakrit language youtube. Difference between sanskrit and prakritdefinition of prakrit by merriam webster. Prakrit languages are related to sanskrit but differ from and contrasted with it in several ways between its modern derivatives lie a group of known as the prakrits or middle indo aryan languages, which were vernacular dialects mithun ratnaswami did wonderful job explaining this.
Category
People & Blogs
What Is A Prakrit?
University of which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit? Quoradefine at dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit…
youtube.com

Hoping  for an Award

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_awards


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_awards


·

List of awards
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of prizes, medals and awards)

A list of orders, medals, prizes, and other awards, of military, civil and ecclesiastical conferees.
For science and technology awards, see List of science and technology awards.

Language

Linguapax Prize
Word(s) of the Year (WOTY)

Computers and the Internet

Prix Ars Electronica (Ars Electronica, Austria)
Shorty Awards – to the top short-form content creators on the micro-blogging website Twitter
Webby Awards (International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences)
YouTube Awards
YouTube Creator Rewards
India
[show]

v t e

Indian honours and decorations India

Bharat Ratna The Highest Honour in India

Padma awards

Padma Vibhushan
Padma Bhushan
Padma Shri

Military awards

Main article: Indian military decorations

Wartime awards
Param Vir Chakra
Maha Vir Chakra
Vir Chakra
Peacetime awards
Ashoka Chakra
Kirti Chakra
Shaurya Chakra
Distinguished Service and Gallantry
Sena Medal (Army) Nau Sena Medal (Navy) Vayu Sena Medal (Air Force)
Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal
Uttam Yudh Seva Medal
Yudh Seva Medal
Param Vishisht Seva Medal
Ati Vishisht Seva Medal
Vishisht Seva Medal

National sports awards

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna
Arjuna Award
Dronacharya Award
Dhyan Chand Award
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Award
Ekalavya Award by Government of Karnataka
I-League Golden Boot, an Indian association football award given to the top goalscorer at the end of the I-League season

Literary awards

Sahitya Akademi Award
Jnanpith Award
Bharatendu Harishchandra Awards
Saraswati Samman by K. K. Birla Foundation

Indian Awards in the field of Art (Music, Dance, Drama/Theatre and other sorts of Art)

Year Name Field
Kaivinai Pokkisham Award Given to Artisans above 65 years who make
Panchaloha idols, bronze lamps and articles, Tanjore paintings and
plates, stone carvings, Kalamkari and Battik paintings, paper mache
dolls, mat weaving, bamboo and palm articles
1991 Kalaimamani Conferred by the Tamil Nadu Iyal Isai Nataka Manram for excellence in the field of art and literature
1980 Kalidas Samman Classical Music, Classical Dance, Theatre and Plastic Arts
1991 Kamal Kumari National Award Individuals and groups in India for
outstanding contribution to Art, Culture & Literature and Science
& Technology
1900 Nataka Kalasarathy Conferred to dramatists by Parthasarathy Swami Sabha
Sangeetha Kalasarthy Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Parthasarthy Swami Sabha
2002 Poompuhar State Award Conferred to outstanding artisans every
year by Tamil Nadu Handicrafts Development Corporation Limited
1993 Sanatan Sangeet Sanskriti Music and Dance
Sanatan Sangeet Samman Music and Dance
Sanatan Sangeet Puraskar Music and Dance
2006 Sanatan Kalakriti Puraskar Painting and sculpture
2010 Sanatan Nritya Puraskar Distinguished young artist in Music or Dance
1952 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award Music, Dance, Theatre, Traditional Arts and Puppetry, Performing Arts
1954 Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship Highest Honour in Performing Arts by GOI
1929 Sangeetha Kalanidhi Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Madras Music Academy
1971 Sangeetha Choodamani Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Sri Krishna Gana Sabha, Chennai
1933 Sangeetha Kalasikhamani Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Indian Fine Arts Society, Chennai.
1965 Sant Kabir Award Conferred to Outstanding Weavers by Ministry of Textiles
2002 Shilp Guru Conferred to Master Craftpersons by GOI
2010-2012 The Skoda Prize
2010 Swaralaya Yesudas Award Conferred to Music Artists jointly by Swaralaya, Trivandrum and Kairali channel
1983 Tulsi Samman Conferred for Outstanding achievement in one of the
four categories of the tribal, traditional and folk arts by Government
of Madhya Pradesh
Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award For excellence in Painting by Government of Karnataka

Indian Agriculture Awards

Borlaug Award
Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Udyan Pandit Award for excellence in fruit cultivation

Science and Technology awards

Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award given by the Bureau of Indian Standards to Indian organizations
Maharishi Badrayan Vyas Samman- A Presidential Honour for young
scholars who have worked to bridge the ancient and the modern especially
using IT
Dr. B. C. Roy Award for Statesmanship in Medicine/Philosophy/Art
National Bioscience Award for Career Development conferred by the
Federal Government of India upon select young Indian bio-scientists
Om Prakash Bhasin Award
Krishnan Medal by the Indian Geophysical Union
Udyog Rattan Award conferred for outstanding contribution to the
economic development of the country by the Institute of Economic Studies
(IES)
G.D. Birla Award for Scientific Research
H K Firodia awards
India Science Award
Infosys Prize
Kotcherlakota Rangadhama Rao Memorial Lecture Award
Rao Bahaddur Ramanath Iyer Award
Recognition of Excellence in Design
SASTRA Ramanujan Prize
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology
Swamy Sahajanand Saraswati Extension Scientist/ Worker Award
VASVIK Industrial Research Award
Vigyan Gaurav Award

Shram Awards

Shram Awards conferred on workers for outstanding contributions that
improve productivity, innovation, and indigenization, resulting in
saving foreign exchange

Shram Ratna
Shram Bhushan
Shram Vir / Shram Virangana
Shram Devi / Shram Shri

Bravery Awards

National Bravery Award given to Indian children for “meritorious
acts of bravery against all odds” by the Government of India and the
Indian Council for Child Welfare (ICCW).
Karmaveer Puraskaar for excellence and best practices in promoting social justice & action in their sector
Kabir Puraskar for acts of courage during communal riots and ethnic clashes by Ministry of Home Affairs
Neerja Bhanot Award by The Neerja Bhanot Pan Am Trust
Jeevan Raksha Padak Series of Awards
Sarvottam Jeevan Raksha Padak
Uttam Jeevan Raksha Padak
Jeevan Raksha Padak

Indian Film awards and Indian television awards

National Film Awards (India)
International Indian Film Academy Awards
Filmfare Awards

Other National and International awards by India

National Child Award for Exceptional Achievement to children aged
4–15 for exceptional abilities by awarded by the Department of Women
& Child Development
Indian Police Medal
National Award for Teachers (India)
Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding
Gandhi Global Family medals and awards
International Gandhi Peace Prize by GOI
Godfrey Phillips National Bravery Awards (formerly: Red and White Bravery Awards)
Hind Rattan to NRIs on Pravasi Bharatiya Divas by NRI Welfare Society of India under GOI
Pravasi Bharatiya Samman by Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs
Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development
Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar (IGPP)
Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration awarded by INC
Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award given for outstanding
contribution towards promotion of communal harmony, national integration
and peace on Sadbhavna Divas by INC
Glory of India Award (also called the “Bharat Jyoti Award”) by The India International Friendship Society (IIFS)
Outstanding Parliamentarian Award by the Indian Parliamentary Group
to an outstanding sitting Member of the Indian Parliament
Tagore Award given for outstanding achievement in fostering harmony and universalism and values of cultural harmony
Stree Shakti Puraskar given by Ministry of Women and Child Development
Siva Prasad Barooah National Award for outstanding contribution to Journalism, to promote news media excellence
Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award by Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute
of Management, Delhi to a business leader, management practitioner,
public administrator, educator or institution builder for his/her
sustained individual contributions for achievements of high professional
order and excellence

State level awards

Banga Vibhushan and Banga Bhushan by West Bengal Government
Kural Peedam Award given to eminent scholars of classical Tamil by
Central Institute of Classical Tamil under Ministry of Human Resource
Development
Tolkappiar award - Presidential Award for scholars in classical Tamil
Awadh Samman
Gomant Vibhushan
Rajasthan Ratna

Spoof Satirical awards

Mir Jafar Awards

Contents

1 Business and management
2 Entertainment
2.1 General
2.2 Advertising
2.3 National pageants
2.4 Comic books and cartooning
2.5 Computers and the Internet
2.6 Dance
2.7 Film
2.8 Food and drink
2.9 Humor
2.10 Music
2.11 Radio
2.12 Stage and theater
2.13 Television
2.14 Tourism
3 Food
3.1 Culinary
3.2 Spirits
3.2.1 Brewed
3.2.2 Distillations
3.2.3 Vintner and sommelier
4 Games and sports
4.1 General and miscellaneous
4.2 American football and Canadian football
4.3 Association football
4.4 Australian rules football
4.5 Auto racing
4.6 Baseball
4.7 Basketball
4.8 Beach soccer
4.9 Board games
4.10 Boxing
4.11 Chess
4.12 Cricket
4.13 Cycling
4.14 Figure skating
4.15 Ice hockey
4.15.1 North America
4.15.2 Sweden
4.16 Lacrosse
4.17 Olympic medalists
4.18 Paralympic medalists
4.19 Rugby league
4.20 Rugby union
4.21 Domestic trophies
4.22 International two-team challenge trophies
4.23 IRB Awards
4.24 Sailing
4.25 Tennis
4.26 Thoroughbred horse racing
4.27 Video games
4.28 Other games and sports
5 Humanitarianism, international relations, and service
5.1 Scouting
6 Hobby and special interest
6.1 Auto
6.2 Scale modeling
7 Humanities
7.1 Area studies
7.2 Architecture
7.3 Arts
7.4 Design
7.5 Education
7.6 History
7.7 Journalism
7.8 Language
7.9 Law
7.10 Literature
7.11 Logic and philosophy
7.12 Politics
7.13 Theology and Biblical studies
8 Military and patriotic honors and medals
8.1 Afghanistan
8.2 Albania
8.3 Algeria
8.4 Andorra
8.5 Antigua and Barbuda
8.6 Argentina
8.7 Armenia
8.8 Australia
8.9 Austria
8.10 Azerbaijan
8.11 Bangladesh
8.12 Barbados
8.13 Belarus
8.14 Belgium
8.15 Belize
8.16 Benin
8.17 Bhutan
8.18 Bolivia
8.19 Bosnia
8.20 Botswana
8.21 Brazil
8.22 Bulgaria
8.23 Burma
8.24 Cambodia
8.25 Cameroon
8.26 Canada
8.27 Chile
8.28 China, People’s Republic of
8.29 China, Republic of
8.30 Colombia
8.31 Comoros
8.32 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
8.33 Croatia
8.34 Cuba
8.35 Cyprus
8.36 Czech Republic
8.37 Denmark
8.38 Dominica
8.39 Dominican Republic
8.40 Ecuador
8.41 Egypt
8.42 El Salvador
8.43 Estonia
8.44 Ethiopia
8.45 Fiji
8.46 Finland
8.47 France
8.48 Gabon
8.49 Georgia
8.50 Germany
8.51 Ghana
8.52 Greece
8.53 Greenland
8.54 Guatemala
8.55 Guinea
8.56 Guyana
8.57 Haiti
8.58 Holy See
8.59 Hong Kong
8.60 Hungary
8.61 Iceland
8.62 India
8.63 Indonesia
8.64 Iran, Islamic Republic of
8.65 Iraq
8.66 Ireland
8.67 Israel
8.68 Italy
8.69 Ivory Coast
8.70 Jamaica
8.71 Japan
8.72 Jordan
8.73 Kazakhstan
8.74 Kenya
8.75 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of
8.76 Korea, Republic of
8.77 Kosovo
8.78 Kuwait
8.79 Kyrgyzstan
8.80 Laos
8.81 Latvia
8.82 Lebanon
8.83 Lesotho
8.84 Liberia
8.85 Libya
8.86 Liechtenstein
8.87 Lithuania
8.88 Luxembourg
8.89 Macau
8.90 Macedonia
8.91 Madagascar
8.92 Malawi
8.93 Malaysia
8.94 Maldives
8.95 Mali
8.96 Malta
8.97 Mauritania
8.98 Mauritius
8.99 Mexico
8.100 Moldova
8.101 Monaco
8.102 Mongolia
8.103 Montenegro
8.104 Morocco
8.105 Mozambique
8.106 Namibia
8.107 Nepal
8.108 Netherlands
8.109 New Zealand
8.110 Nicaragua
8.111 Niger
8.112 Nigeria
8.113 Norway
8.114 Oman
8.115 Pakistan
8.116 Panama
8.117 Papua New Guinea
8.118 Paraguay
8.119 Persia
8.120 Peru
8.121 Philippines
8.122 Poland
8.123 Portugal
8.124 Qatar
8.125 Romania
8.126 Russia
8.127 Rwanda
8.128 Saint Lucia
8.129 Samoa
8.130 San Marino
8.131 Saudi Arabia
8.132 Senegal
8.133 Serbia
8.134 Seychelles
8.135 Sierra Leone
8.136 Singapore
8.137 Slovakia
8.138 Slovenia
8.139 Solomon Islands
8.140 Somalia
8.141 South Africa
8.142 Soviet Union
8.143 Spain
8.144 Sri Lanka
8.145 Sudan
8.146 Sulu
8.147 Suriname
8.148 Swaziland
8.149 Sweden
8.150 Syria
8.151 Tajikistan
8.152 Tanzania
8.153 Thailand
8.154 East Timor
8.155 Togo
8.156 Tonga
8.157 Trinidad and Tobago
8.158 Tunisia
8.159 Turkey
8.160 Turkmenistan
8.161 Uganda
8.162 Ukraine
8.163 United Arab Emirates
8.164 United Kingdom
8.165 United States
8.166 Uruguay
8.167 Uzbekistan
8.168 Vanuatu
8.169 Venezuela
8.170 Vietnam
8.171 Yemen
8.172 Yugoslavia
8.173 Zambia
8.174 Zimbabwe
8.175 United Nations
9 Miscellaneous
9.1 Mock prizes
9.2 Posthumous
10 Science and technology
11 See also
12 References


Kidz
Rock! Awards; for excellence in The Arts, STEM, Sports, TV, Theatre,
Film, Kidzpreneur (entrepreneurship), Kidz Chef. (International)
en.wikipedia.org

https://www.infoplease.com/languages-spoken-each-country-world
Home

Languages Spoken in Each Country of the World

The
table below lists the official language of each country as well as
other languages spoken. In selected countries, the percent of the
population that speaks each language is also given.

Afghanistan Dari Persian, Pashtu (both official), other Turkic and minor languages
Albania Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Algeria Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Andorra Catalán (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Angola Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Antigua and Barbuda English (official), local dialects
Argentina Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Armenia Armenian 98%, Yezidi, Russian
Australia English 79%, native and other languages
Austria German (official nationwide); Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian (each official in one region)
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Turkic 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Bahamas English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahrain Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bangladesh Bangla (official), English
Barbados English
Belarus Belorussian (White Russian), Russian, other
Belgium Dutch (Flemish) 60%, French 40%, German less than 1% (all official)
Belize English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Benin French (official), Fon, Yoruba, tribal languages
Bhutan Dzongkha (official), Tibetan dialects (among Bhotes), Nepalese dialects (among Nepalese)
Bolivia Spanish, Quechua, Aymara (all official)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Botswana English 2% (official), Setswana 78%, Kalanga 8%, Sekgalagadi 3%, other (2001)
Brazil Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Brunei Malay (official), English, Chinese
Bulgaria Bulgarian 85%, Turkish 10%, Roma 4%
Burkina Faso French (official); native African (Sudanic) languages 90%
Burundi Kirundi and French (official), Swahili
Cambodia Khmer 95% (official), French, English
Cameroon French, English (both official); 24 major African language groups
Canada English 59.3%, French 23.2% (both official); other 17.5%
Cape Verde Portuguese, Criuolo
Central African Republic French (official), Sangho (lingua franca, national), tribal languages
Chad French, Arabic (both official); Sara; more than 120 languages and dialects
Chile Spanish
China Standard
Chinese (Mandarin/Putonghua), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei
(Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects,
minority languages
Colombia Spanish
Comoros Arabic and French (both official), Shikomoro (Swahili/Arabic blend)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the French (official), Lingala, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Congo, Republic of French (official), Lingala, Monokutuba, Kikongo, many local languages and dialects
Costa Rica Spanish (official), English
Côte d’Ivoire French (official) and African languages (Dioula esp.)
Croatia Croatian 96% (official), other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, German)
Cuba Spanish
Cyprus Greek, Turkish (both official); English
Czech Republic Czech
Denmark Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (Inuit dialect), German; English is the predominant second language
Djibouti French and Arabic (both official), Somali, Afar
Dominica English (official) and French patois
Dominican Republic Spanish
East Timor Tetum, Portuguese (official); Bahasa Indonesia, English; other indigenous languages, including Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak
Ecuador Spanish (official), Quechua, other Amerindian languages
Egypt Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
El Salvador Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Equatorial Guinea Spanish, French (both official); pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Eritrea Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
Estonia Estonian 67% (official), Russian 30%, other (2000)
Ethiopia Amharic, Tigrigna, Orominga, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, English, over 70 others
Fiji English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Finland Finnish 92%, Swedish 6% (both official); small Sami- (Lapp) and Russian-speaking minorities
France French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects (Provençal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Gabon French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Gambia English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
Georgia Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azerbaijani 6%, other 7% (Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia)
Germany German
Ghana English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Greece Greek 99% (official), English, French
Grenada English (official), French patois
Guatemala Spanish
60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian
languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and
Xinca)
Guinea French (official), native tongues (Malinké, Susu, Fulani)
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages
Guyana English (official), Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi, Urdu
Haiti Creole and French (both official)
Honduras Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects; English widely spoken in business
Hungary Magyar (Hungarian) 94%, other 6%
Iceland Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
India Hindi
30%, English, Bengali, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya,
Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Kannada, Assamese, Sanskrit, Sindhi (all
official); Hindi/Urdu; 1,600+ dialects
Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (official), English, Dutch, Javanese, and more than 580 other languages and dialects
Iran Persian
and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%,
Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Iraq Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Ireland English, Irish (Gaelic) (both official)
Israel Hebrew (official), Arabic, English
Italy Italian (official); German-, French-, and Slovene-speaking minorities
Jamaica English, Jamaican Creole
Japan Japanese
Jordan Arabic (official), English
Kazakhstan Kazak (Qazaq, state language) 64%; Russian (official, used in everyday business) 95% (2001 est.)
Kenya English (official), Swahili (national), and numerous indigenous languages
Kiribati English (official), I-Kiribati (Gilbertese)
Korea, North Korean
Korea, South Korean, English widely taught
Kosovo Albanian (official), Serbian (official), Bosnian, Turkish, Roma
Kuwait Arabic (official), English
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz, Russian (both official)
Laos Lao (official), French, English, various ethnic languages
Latvia Latvian 58% (official), Russian 38%, Lithuanian, other (2000)
Lebanon Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Lesotho English, Sesotho (both official); Zulu, Xhosa
Liberia English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic-group languages
Libya Arabic, Italian, and English widely understood in major cities
Liechtenstein German (official), Alemannic dialect
Lithuania Lithuanian 82% (official), Russian 8%, Polish 6% (2001)
Luxembourg Luxermbourgish (national) French, German (both administrative)
Macedonia Macedonian 67%, Albanian 25% (both official); Turkish 4%, Roma 2%, Serbian 1% (2002)
Madagascar Malagasy and French (both official)
Malawi Chichewa
57.2% (official), Chinyanja 12.8%, Chiyao 10.1%, Chitumbuka 9.5%,
Chisena 2.7%, Chilomwe 2.4%, Chitonga 1.7%, other 3.6% (1998)
Malaysia Bahasa
Melayu (Malay, official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese,
Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam,
Panjabi, Thai; several indigenous languages (including Iban, Kadazan) in
East Malaysia
Maldives Maldivian Dhivehi (official); English spoken by most government officials
Mali French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Malta Maltese and English (both official)
Marshall Islands Marshallese
98% (two major dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family), English
widely spoken as a second language (both official); Japanese
Mauritania Hassaniya Arabic (official), Pulaar, Soninke, French, Wolof
Mauritius English less than 1% (official), Creole 81%, Bojpoori 12%, French 3% (2000)
Mexico Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Micronesia English (official, common), Chukese, Pohnpeian, Yapase, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Moldova Moldovan (official; virtually the same as Romanian), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Monaco French (official), English, Italian, Monégasque
Mongolia Mongolian, 90%; also Turkic and Russian (1999)
Montenegro Serbian/Montenegrin (Ijekavian dialect—official)
Morocco Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often used for business, government, and diplomacy
Mozambique Portuguese
9% (official; second language of 27%), Emakhuwa 26%, Xichangana 11%,
Elomwe 8%, Cisena 7%, Echuwabo 6%, other Mozambican languages 32% (1997)
Myanmar Burmese, minority languages
Namibia English
7% (official), Afrikaans is common language of most of the population
and of about 60% of the white population, German 32%; indigenous
languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama
Nauru Nauruan (official), English
Nepal Nepali
48% (official), Maithali 12%, Bhojpuri 7%, Tharu 6%, Tamang 5%, others.
English spoken by many in government and business (2001)
Netherlands Dutch, Frisian (both official)
New Zealand English, Maori (both official)
Nicaragua Spanish 98% (official); English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast (1995)
Niger French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Nigeria English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and more than 200 others
Norway Bokmål
Norwegian, Nynorsk Norwegian (both official); small Sami- and
Finnish-speaking minorities (Sami is official in six municipalities)
Oman Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Pakistan Urdu
8%, English (both official); Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a
Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%,
Burushaski, and others 8%
Palau Palauan
64.7%, English 9.4%, Sonsoralese, Tobi, Angaur (each official on some
islands), Filipino 13.5%, Chinese 5.7%, Carolinian 1.5%, Japanese 1.5%,
other Asian 2.3%, other languages 1.5% (2000)
Palestinian State (proposed) Arabic, Hebrew, English
Panama Spanish (official), English 14%, many bilingual
Papua New Guinea Tok Pisin (Melanesian Pidgin, the lingua franca), Hiri Motu (in Papua region), English 1%–2%; 715 indigenous languages
Paraguay Spanish, Guaraní (both official)
Peru Spanish, Quéchua (both official); Aymara; many minor Amazonian languages
Philippines Filipino
(based on Tagalog), English (both official); eight major dialects:
Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray,
Pampango, and Pangasinense
Poland Polish 98% (2002)
Portugal Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Qatar Arabic (official); English a common second language
Romania Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
Russia Russian, others
Rwanda Kinyarwanda, French, and English (all official); Kiswahili in commercial centers
St. Kitts and Nevis English
St. Lucia English (official), French patois
St. Vincent and the Grenadines English, French patois
Samoa Samoan, English
San Marino Italian
São Tomé and Príncipe Portuguese (official)
Saudi Arabia Arabic
Senegal French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Serbia Serbian (official); Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, and Croatian (all official in Vojvodina); Albanian (official in Kosovo)
Seychelles Seselwa Creole 92%, English 5%, French (all official) (2002)
Sierra Leone English (official), Mende (southern vernacular), Temne (northern vernacular), Krio (lingua franca)
Singapore Mandarin
35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew
4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000)
Slovakia Slovak 84% (official), Hungarian 11%, Roma 2%, Ukrainian 1% (2001)
Slovenia Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 5% (2002)
Solomon Islands English 1%–2% (official), Melanesian pidgin (lingua franca), 120 indigenous languages
Somalia Somali (official), Arabic, English, Italian
South Africa IsiZulu
23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%,
Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2%
South Sudan English
(official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants) (official),
regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
Spain Castilian Spanish 74% (official nationwide); Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% (each official regionally)
Sri Lanka Sinhala
74% (official and national), Tamil 18% (national), other 8%; English is
commonly used in government and spoken competently by about 10%
Sudan Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
Suriname Dutch (official), Surinamese (lingua franca), English widely spoken, Hindustani, Javanese
Swaziland English, siSwati (both official)
Sweden Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Switzerland German 64%, French 20%, Italian 7% (all official); Romansch 0.5% (national)
Syria Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
Taiwan Chinese (Mandarin, official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
Tajikistan Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Tanzania Swahili, English (both official); Arabic; many local languages
Thailand Thai (Siamese), English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Togo French (official, commerce); Ewé, Mina (south); Kabyé, Dagomba (north); and many dialects
Tonga Tongan (an Austronesian language), English
Trinidad and Tobago English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Tunisia Arabic (official, commerce), French (commerce)
Turkey Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli, Azeri, Kabardian
Turkmenistan Turkmen 72%; Russian 12%; Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Tuvalu Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
Uganda English (official), Ganda or Luganda, other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Ukraine Ukrainian 67%, Russian 24%, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
United Arab Emirates Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
United Kingdom English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic
United States English 82%, Spanish 11% (2000)
Uruguay Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero
Uzbekistan Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Vanuatu Bislama 23% (a Melanesian pidgin English), English 2%, French 1% (all 3 official); more than 100 local languages 73%
Vatican City (Holy See) Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
Vietnam Vietnamese
(official); English (increasingly favored as a second language); some
French, Chinese, Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and
Malayo-Polynesian)
Western Sahara (proposed state) Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Yemen Arabic
Zambia English (official); major vernaculars: Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga; about 70 other indigenous languages
Zimbabwe English (official), Shona, Ndebele (Sindebele), numerous minor tribal dialects




Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha

comments (0)
04/29/18
2607 Apr 30 Mon LESSON Wishing everyone a happy Chitra Pournami and a happy Buddha Purnima/Vesak 30-4-2018 Monday 09:00 AM Venue : Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru * 10:30 AM * SACRED VESAKHA BUDDHA PURNIMA DAY * 10:30 AM * Sri Mahabodhi, Vishwa Maitri Puja, Sripada Cetiya Puja, Buddha Puja, at Mahabodhi Loka Shanti Buddha Vihara, Undertaking of Tisarana, Atthasilan and Pancasila, Dhamma Desana and Blessings by Venerable Kassapa Mahathera President, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 7:41 pm

2607 Apr 30  Mon LESSON



Wishing everyone a happy Chitra Pournami and a happy Buddha Purnima/Vesak
30-4-2018    Monday    09:00 AM
Venue : Maha Bodhi Society
14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru

*  10:30 AM  *
SACRED VESAKHA BUDDHA PURNIMA DAY

* 10:30 AM  *
Sri Mahabodhi, Vishwa Maitri Puja, Sripada Cetiya Puja,
Buddha Puja, at Mahabodhi Loka Shanti Buddha Vihara,
 Undertaking of Tisarana, Atthasilan and  Pancasila,

Dhamma Desana and Blessings by
Venerable Kassapa Mahathera
President, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

* 12:00 Noon *

Lunch for Devotees
Lunch Service by Shri Anand Mulsavalgi, Vijayapura

* 1:30 PM  to 4 PM*

Buddha Purnima Day Discourse in Kannada by
Venerable Ananda Bhikkhu
Gen. Secretary, Maha Bodhi DSociety, Bengaluru

Dhammadeeksha Dhammashiksha Program

* 6:00 PM *

Deepa Puja

Offering Lights to the Supremely Awakened Buddha

Celebrations dupported by,
Dr.Ramachandra,HoD, Management, Maharani College, Bengaluru
Shri Veerabharraiah, Educationist and Social Worker
Upasaka Murthy, Shri Nagasena Dhoke

https://www.motionelements.com/blog/articles/celebrating-enlightenment-around-the-world-on-vesak-day



Vesak day: Celebrating Awakenment with Awareness Around the World
Vesak day: Celebrating Enlightenment Around the World


https://www.motionelements.com/…/celebrating-enlightenment-…

Vesak day: Celebrating Awakenment with Awareness Around the World


Vesak Day may be known by different names around the world, but
Buddhists around the world come together as they celebrate sacred events
in Buddha’s life—birth, awakenment with awareness and passing away.
Vesak is the fourth month of the lunar calendar. Vesak Day is celebrated
on different dates in spring around the world. Usually, it is
celebrated following the first full moon in May.

Origin of Vesak day


Buddha was born as Siddhartha, the crown prince of the Sakya tribe in
the garden of Lumbini, Nepal. He left his home to join his people when
he was 29 and chose the life of an ascetic when he was faced with old
age, sickness and death. After practising for six years, he realised
that awakening would come only by meditation. Using grass as a mat, he
sat under the Peepal tree in Bodh Gaya, located in India’s present-day
state of Bihar, facing east direction. He vowed not to rise until he
attained enlightenment. He sat for forty-nine days, and became the
Buddha or the enlightened one at the age of thirty-five. A Peepal tree
still stands at the same spot behind the main temple. It was planted in
the nineteenth century and is believed to be a direct descendant of the
original tree. Believers tie prayer flags to its branches and meditate
under it. A sense of peace and serenity fills the air, as Buddhist monks
sit around the tree to meditate and chant. Vesak is observed by
devotees to pay homage to Buddha. They take time to realize Buddha’s
wise and compassionate guidance and honour him with respect and joy.

Celebrate freedom from greed, hatred and ignorance on Vesak

Each Buddhist culture follows its own traditions for the day.

Sri Lanka


On Vesak Day, houses and streets are adorned with thousands of candles
and colourful buntings. Huge temporary temples, made of bamboo and cloth
are set up with elaborate electric light displays that depict different
stories from the Buddha’s life. Celebrations are subdued, focused on
prayers and chanting of scriptures. People wear white clothes. Sweets
are distributed and people refrain from eating meat or fish. Prayer
songs called bhakti geetha are sung. Colourful Vesak lanterns in various
shapes called Vesak koodu light up homes.

Singapore and Malaysia


Vesak is a day filled with goodwill and good deeds. Devotees perform
ceremonial bathing by pouring fragrant water over the statue of the baby
Prince Siddhartha which is usually placed in a vessel of perfumed water
and strewn with flowers. This symbolizes a fresh start in life by
cleansing one’s bad deeds and replacing them with good ones. In
Singapore, devotees buy caged birds and set them free on the Buddha’s
birthday.

Nepal

“Buddha Jayanti” has special meaning in
the birthplace of Buddha. Thousands of people come to Lumbini, where
prayer flags are replaced, stupas freshly painted and every temple
thoroughly cleaned. Buddhists gather for morning prayers at
Swayanbhunath temple, also known as “Monkey temple.” They then move to
Boudhanath in the afternoon to watch a Buddha image paraded on an
elephant. Crowds of devotees chant joyfully. Boudhanath stupa is lit
with fairy lights and thousands of wax candles surrounding it—creating a
peaceful sight in the golden glowing light.

India and Bangladesh


Vaisakha Puja or Buddha Purnima as it is called in these countries is a
time for Buddhist devotees to pay special attention to Buddha’s
teachings. Most devotees wear white and visit temples and listen to
monks give talks. Money, food and other useful items are donated to
organisations that care for the poor, sick and elderly. Pilgrims flock
to Bodh Gaya and light thousands of oil lamps at Mahabodhi temple.

Thailand


The Thai people call the festival Visakha Bucha. The main ceremonies
take place at Sanaam Luang, the public square in front of the King’s
Grand Place in Bangkok. A grand statue of the Buddha is displayed here
on the day. Buddhist monks from far off places visit the capital to pay
their respects and the capital is bathed in the bright colours of their
orange robes. Tents and stalls are set up around the capital at
different points surrounding statues of the Buddha with food being
distributed freely.

Indonesia

Hari Waisak celebrations
congregate at the Borobodur temple in Java. The main attraction is the
releasing of a multitude of colourful lighted lanterns into the air. The
sight of these lanterns rising into the night sky against the full moon
is nothing short of ethereal.

Vietnam and Cambodia

It is
known as Vesak or Phat Dan in Vietnam and the pagodas in Hanoi are
decorated with colourful flags and streamers on this occasion. In
Cambodia, where it is called Vesak Bochea, the streets are transformed
by processions of Buddhist monks carrying colourful flags and lotus
flowers. In the evening, it is a stunning sight to behold as the monks
pass through the streets holding candles and incense sticks.
Around the world


The festival is celebrated in Tibet as Saga Dawa, in Laos as Visakha
Bouxa, in Myanmar as Ka-sone and in Japan it is known by many names
including Hanamatsuri, Kanbutsu-e, Goutan-e, Busshou-e, Yokubutsu-e,
Ryugu-e and Hana-eshiki. Other places where it is celebrated include
Korea and China.
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Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Sanskrit: Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as “Buddha’s Birthday” as well as in other parts of the world.[6][7] The festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment (Buddhahood), and death (Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha in the Theravada or southern tradition.Buddha Purnima falls on different days in different countries. In India, Buddha Purnima 2018,
which is a gazetted holiday, can be observed on 30th April, Monday. It
is also known by different names in different countries. For example, in
Hong Kong it is called as Buddha’s birthday, in Indonesia it is called
as Waisak day, in Singapore it is known as Vesak day while in Thailand
it is called as Vaisakha Bucha day.[8]


History

The decision to agree to celebrate Wesākha as the Buddha’s birthday was formalized at the first conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists
held in Sri Lanka in 1950, although festivals at this time in the
Buddhist world are a centuries-old tradition. The resolution that was
adopted at the World Conference reads as follows:

That
this Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists, while recording
its appreciation of the gracious act of His Majesty, the Maharaja of Nepal in making the full-moon day of Vesak a Public Holiday in Nepal,
earnestly requests the Heads of Governments of all countries in which
large or small number of Buddhists are to be found, to take steps to
make the full-moon day in the month of May a Public Holiday in honour of
the Buddha, who is universally acclaimed as one of the greatest
benefactors of Humanity.[9]

On
Vesākha Day, Buddhists all over the world commemorate events of
significance to Buddhists of all traditions: The birth, enlightenment
and the passing away of Gautama Buddha.
As Buddhism spread from India it was assimilated into many foreign
cultures, and consequently Vesākha is celebrated in many different ways
all over the world. In India, Vaishakh Purnima day is also known as
Buddha Jayanti day and has been traditionally accepted as Buddha’s birth
day.

In 1999, the United Nations resolved to internationally observe the day of Vesak at its headquarters and offices.[10]

The name of the observance is derived from the Pali term vesākha or Sanskrit vaiśākha, which is the name of the lunar month in the Hindu calendar falling in April–May (see Vaisakha).[11] In Mahayana
Buddhist traditions, the holiday is known by its Sanskrit name
(Vaiśākha) and derived variants of it. Local renditions of the name vary
by language, including:

  • Assamese: বুদ্ধ পূর্ণিমা Buddho Purnima
  • Bengali: বুদ্ধ পূর্ণিমা Buddho Purnima, বুদ্ধ জয়ন্তী Buddho Joyonti
  • Dzongkha: སྟོན་པའི་དུས་ཆེན་༥ འཛོམས་ Dhüchen Nga Zom
  • Burmese: ကဆုန်လပြည့် ဗုဒ္ဓနေ့ “Full Moon Day of Kason”
  • Chinese: 佛陀誕辰紀念日; pinyin: Fótuó dànchén jìniàn rì, 佛誕 (Fódàn, Birthday of the Buddha), 浴佛節 (Yùfójié, Occasion of Bathing the Buddha), 衛塞節 (Wèisāi jié)
  • Hindi: बुद्ध पूर्णिमा Buddha Pūrṇimā, बुद्ध जयन्ती Buddha Jayantī, वैशाख पूर्णिमा Vaisākh Pūrṇimā
  • Indonesian: Hari Raya Waisak
  • Japanese: 花祭り Hanamatsuri (Flower Festival)
  • Khmer: វិសាខបូជា Visak Bochea
  • Kannada: ಬುದ್ಧ ಪೌರ್ಣಮಿ Buddha Pournami
  • Korean Hangul석가 탄신일; Hanja釋迦誕辰日; RR: Seokka Tanshin-il (Birthday of the Shakyamuni Buddha), Korean: 부처님오신날 (Buddha’s Day)
  • Lao: ວິສາຂະບູຊາ Vixakha Bouxa
  • Malay: Hari Wesak (هاري ويسق)
  • Mongolian: Бурхан Багшийн Их Дүйцэн Өдөр (Lord Buddha’s Great Festival Day)
  • Marathi: बुद्ध पोर्णिमा Buddha Pornima
  • Nepal Bhasa: स्वांया पुन्हि Swānyā Punhi
  • Nepali: बुद्ध पुर्णिमा Buddha Purnima, बुद्ध जयन्ति Buddha Jayanti
  • Sinhalese: වෙසක් Vesak
  • Tamil: விசாக தினம் Vicāka Tiṉam
  • Tagalog: Araw ng Bisyak
  • Telugu: బుద్ధ పౌర్ణమి Buddha Pournami or alternatively వైశాఖ పౌర్ణమి Vaisakha Pournami
  • Thai: วิสาขบูชา Wisakha Bucha
  • Tibetan: ས་ག་ཟླ་བ།, THL: Sa Ga Dawa
  • Vietnamese: Phật Đản (Birthday of the Buddha)

Celebration

May 2007 had two full moon days: the 1st and the
31st. Some countries (including Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Malaysia)
celebrated Vesākha on the 1st, and others (Thailand, Singapore)
celebrated the holiday on the 31st because of a different local lunar
observance. The difference also manifests in the observance of other
Buddhist holidays, which are traditionally observed at the local full
moon.

Likewise, in 2012, Vesak was observed on 28 April in Hong
Kong and Taiwan, on 5 May in Sri Lanka, on 6 May in India, on 28 May in
South Korea and on 4 June in Thailand. (In 1999, the Taiwanese
government set Buddha’s birthday as the second Sunday of May, the same
date as Mother’s Day.[12][13]). In 2014, Vesak is celebrated on 13 May in Myanmar, Singapore and Thailand while it is observed on 15 May in Indonesia.

On
Vesākha, devout Buddhists and followers alike assemble in their various
temples before dawn for the ceremonial and honorable hoisting of the Buddhist flag and the singing of hymns in praise of the holy triple gem: The Buddha, The Dharma (his teachings), and The Sangha
(his disciples). Devotees may bring simple offerings of flowers,
candles and joss-sticks to lay at the feet of their teacher. These
symbolic offerings are to remind followers that just as the beautiful
flowers would wither away after a short while and the candles and
joss-sticks would soon burn out, so too is life subject to decay and
destruction. Devotees are enjoined to make a special effort to refrain
from killing of any kind. They are encouraged to partake of vegetarian
food for the day. In some countries, notably Sri Lanka, two days are set
aside for the celebration of Vesākha and all liquor shops and slaughter
houses are closed by government decree during the two days.

Also
birds, insects and animals are released by the thousands in what is
known as a ’symbolic act of liberation’ of giving freedom to those who
are in captivity, imprisoned, or tortured against their will. (The
practice, however, is banned in some countries such as Singapore, as it
is believed that the released animals are unable to survive long-term
and may adversely impact the local ecosystem if they do.)[14]

Some
devout Buddhists will wear a simple white dress and spend the whole day
in temples with renewed determination to observe the Eight Precepts.


Young novice monk on Vesākha Day Parade

Devout Buddhists undertake to lead a noble life according to the teaching by making daily affirmations to observe the Five Precepts.
However, on special days, notably new moon and full moon days, they
observe the eight Precepts to train themselves to practice morality,
simplicity, and humility.

Some temples also display a small
statue of the Buddha in front of the altar in a small basin filled with
water and decorated with flowers, allowing devotees to pour water over
the statue; it is symbolic of the cleansing of a practitioner’s bad
karma, and to reenact the events following the Buddha’s birth, when
devas and spirits made heavenly offerings to him.

Devotees are
expected to listen to talks given by monks. On this day, monks will
recite verses uttered by the Buddha twenty-five centuries ago to invoke
peace and happiness for the government and the people. Buddhists are
reminded to live in harmony with people of other faiths and to respect
the beliefs of other people as the Buddha taught.

Bringing happiness to others


‘>
File:Korean Minute- Buddha's Birthday Festival.webm
Video Korean Buddhist monks perform ritual dances and music on Buddha’s Birthday.

Celebrating
Vesākha (Vesak) also means making special efforts to bring happiness to
the unfortunate like the aged, the handicapped and the sick. To this
day, Buddhists will distribute gifts in cash and kind to various
charitable homes throughout the country. Vesākha is also a time for
great joy and happiness, expressed not by pandering to one’s appetites
but by concentrating on useful activities such as decorating and
illuminating temples, painting and creating exquisite scenes from the
life of the Buddha for public dissemination. Devout Buddhists also vie
with one another to provide refreshments and vegetarian food to
followers who visit the temple to pay homage to the Enlightened One.

Paying homage to the Buddha

Tradition ascribes to the Buddha
himself instruction on how to pay him homage. Just before he died, he
saw his faithful attendant Ananda, weeping. The Buddha advised him not to weep, but to understand the universal law that all compounded things
(including even his own body) must disintegrate. He advised everyone
not to cry over the disintegration of the physical body but to regard
his teachings (The Dhamma) as their teacher from then on, because only
the Dhamma truth is eternal and not subject to the law of change. He
also stressed that the way to pay homage to him was not merely by
offering flowers, incense, and lights, but by truly and sincerely
striving to follow his teachings. This is how Buddhists are expected to
celebrate Vesak: to use the opportunity to reiterate their determination
to lead noble lives, to develop their minds, to practise
loving-kindness and to bring peace and harmony to humanity.

Dates of observance

The exact date of Vesak is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars and is primarily celebrated in Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar and the Hindu calendar,
and hence the name Vesak. In Nepal, which is considered the
birth-country of Buddha, it is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Hindu calendar,
and is traditionally called Buddha Purnima, Purnima meaning the full
moon day in Sanskrit. In Theravada countries following the Buddhist calendar,
it falls on a full moon Uposatha day, typically in the 5th or 6th lunar
month. Nowadays, in Sri Lanka, Nepal, India, Vesak/Buddha Purnima is
celebrated on the day of the full moon in May in the Gregorian calendar.
In Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, Vesak is celebrated on the fourteenth or
fifteenth day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar. In
China, and Korea, Vietnam, Buddha’s Birthday
is celebrated on the eighth day of the fourth month in the Chinese
lunar calendar, in Japan the same day but in the Gregorian calendar. The
date varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but
usually falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in
June.

In the following table, year numbers in the range 2500-2599 are BE (Buddhist Era).

Year (CE) Thailand[15] Singapore Laos Myanmar Sri Lanka Cambodia Indonesia Nepal & India China Malaysia Vietnam[16]
2001 7 May 2544 7 May 6 May 2545 7 May 2545 7 May 2545 7 May 2545 30 May 7 May 6 Jun
2002 26 May 2545 27 May 26 May 2546 26 May 2546 26 April 2546 26 May 2546 19 May 26 May 26 May
2003 15 May 2546 15 May 15 May 2547 15 May 2547 15 May 2547 16 May 2547 8 May 15 May 15 May
2004 2 Jun 2547 2 Jun 3 May 2548 4 May 2548 3 May 2548 3 Jun 2548 3 May 26 May 3 May 2 Jun
2005 22 May 2548 23 May 22 May 2549 23 May 2549 22 May 2549 24 May 2549 23 May 15 May 22 May 22 May
2006 12 May 2549 12 May 11 May 2550 12 May 2550 12 May 2550 13 May 2550 13 May 5 May 12 May 12 May
2007 31 May 2550 31 May 31 May 2550 30 April 2551 1 May 2551 1 May 2551 1 Jun 2551 2 May 24 May 31 May 31 May
2008 19 May 2551 19 May 18 May 2551 19 May 2552 19 May 2552 19 May 2552 20 May 2552 20 May 12 May 19 May 19 May
2009 8 May 2552 9 May 8 May 2552 8 May 2553 8 May 2553 8 May 2553 9 May 2553 8 May 2 May 9 May 9 May
2010 28 May 2553 28 May 28 May 2553 27 April 2554 27 May 2554 28 April 2554 28 May 2554 27 May 21 May 28 May 28 May
2011 17 May 2554 17 May 17 May 2554 17 May 2555 17 May 2555 17 May 2555 17 May 2555 17 May 10 May 17 May 17 May
2012 4 Jun 2555 5 May 5 May 2555 5 May 2556 5 May 2556 5 May 2556 6 May 2556 6 May 28 April 5 May 5 May
2013 24 May 2556 24 May 24 May 2556 24 May 24 May 2557 24 May 25 May 2557 25 May 24 May 24 May 24 May
2014 13 May 2557 13 May 13 May 2557 13 May 14 May 2558 13 May 15 May 2558 14 May 13 May 13 May
2015 1 Jun 2558 1 Jun 2 May 2558 2 May 2559 3 May 2559 3 May 2559 2 Jun 2559 4 May 25 May 3 May 1 Jun
2016 20 May 2559 21 May 21 May 2560 21 May 2560 21 May 2560 22 May 2560 21 May 14 May 21 May 14 May
2017 10 May 2560 10 May 10 May 2561 10 May 2561 11 May 2561 10 May 3 May 10 May 10 May
2018 29 April 2562 29 April 2562 29 May 2562 29 May 29 May
2019 18 May 2563 19 May
2020 6 May 2564 6 Jun

Vesak is celebrated in Jetavana, India, 2011

In Japan

In Japan, Vesākha or hanamatsuri (花祭)

is also known as Kanbutsue (灌仏会), Goutan’e (降誕会)), Busshoue (仏生会), Yokubutsue (浴仏会), Ryuge’e (龍華会) and Hanaeshiki (花会式). It is not a public holiday. It is based on a legend that a dragon appeared in the sky on the Buddha’s birthday and poured soma over him.

It used to be celebrated on the 8th day of the fourth month in the Chinese calendar
based on one of the legends that proclaims the day as Buddha’s
birthday. At present, the celebration is observed on 8 April of the
Solar Calendar since the government of Meiji Japan
adopted the western solar calendar as the official calendar. Since the
8th day of the fourth month in the lunar calendar commonly falls in May
of the current solar calendar, it is now celebrated about a month
earlier.

In Japan, Vesak celebrations include pouring 甘茶 (amacha), a sweet tea made from Hydrangea macrophylla, on statues. In Buddhist religious sites such as temples and viharas, more involved ceremonies are conducted for lay Buddhists, priests, and monks and nuns.

In Nepal

Vesak, commonly known in Nepal as “Buddha Jayanti” is widely celebrated all across the country, predominantly, Lumbini – the birthplace of Buddha, and Swayambhu – the holy temple for Buddhists, also known as “the Monkey Temple”. The main door of Swayambhu
is opened only on this very day, therefore, people from all over
Kathmandu valley are stimulated by the event. Thousands of pilgrims from
various parts of the world come together to celebrate Buddha’s birthday
at his birthplace, Lumbini. In Nepal,
Buddha is worshipped by all religious groups, therefore “Buddha
Jayanti” is marked by a public holiday. People donate foods and clothes
to the needy and also provide financial aid to monasteries and schools
where Buddhism is taught and practised.

In Sri Lanka


A Vesak pandal or thorana in Colombo, Sri Lanka

Vesak Thorana in Piliyandala, Sri Lanka

Vesak
is celebrated as a religious and a cultural festival in Sri Lanka on
the full moon of the lunar month of Vesak (usually in the Gregorian
month of May), for about one week and this festival is often celebrated
by different religious people in Sri Lanka.[17] During this week, the selling of alcohol and fresh meat is usually prohibited, with abattoirs also being closed.[18] Celebrations include religious and alms-giving activities. Electrically-lit pandals
called thoranas are erected in locations mainly in Colombo, Kandy,
Galle and elsewhere, most sponsored by donors, religious societies and
welfare groups. Each pandal illustrates a story from the Jataka tales.

In
addition, colourful lanterns called Vesak kuudu are hung along streets
and in front of homes. They signify the light of the Buddha, Dharma and
the Sangha. Food stalls set up by Buddhist devotees called dansälas
provide free food, ice-crea and drinks to passersby.[19]
Groups of people from community organisations, businesses and
government departments sing bhakti gee (Buddhist devotional songs).
Colombo experiences a massive influx of people from all parts of the
country during this week.

In Korea


Lotus Lantern Festival (연등회, Yeon Deung Hoe) in Seoul

In South Korea the birthday of Buddha is celebrated on the 8th day of the 4th month in the Korean lunar calendar (as well as in Hong Kong, Macau, Vietnam) and is an official holiday. This day is called 석가탄신일 (Seokga tansinil), meaning “Buddha’s birthday” or 부처님 오신 날
(Bucheonim osin nal) meaning “the day when the Buddha came”. It has now
grown into one of the nation’s biggest cultural festivals. Lotus
lanterns cover the entire temple throughout the month which are often
flooded down the street.[20]
On the day of Buddha’s birth, many temples provide free meals and tea
to all visitors. The breakfast and lunch provided are often sanchae bibimbap.

In Laos

The Vixakha Bouxa festival is the Lao version of the Thai Visakha Puja, which it closely resembles. It commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Buddha,
which are all said to have happened on the same date. It is held around
the month of May or Vesak, based on the lunar calendar. Celebrations
include dances, poems, parades, processions, deep meditation, theatrical performances, and puppet shows.

Boun Bang Fay

One part of the Vixakha Bouxa festival is called Boun Bang Fay, or Rocket Festival. As this occurs during the hottest and driest season of the year, large homemade rockets are launched into the sky in an attempt to convince the celestial beings to send down rain. Traditionally, Buddhist monks made the rockets out of hollow bamboo tubes filled with gunpowder (among other things). Nowadays, lay people make the bang fai more like fireworks
and hold competitions for the highest, fastest and most colorful
rockets. The event takes place on both sides of the Mekhong River border
between Thailand and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and
sometimes teams from the neighbouring countries will compete against
each other. Tourists travel long distances to witness this now popular
event.

In Vietnam

Before 1975, the birthday of Buddha was a national public holiday in South Vietnam.[21] It was a public festival with float and lantern parades on the streets. However, after the Fall of Saigon, the day was no longer a public holiday.

In Malaysia

Celebrated by Buddhists to mark three momentous
events in Buddha’s life – his birth, enlightenment, and his departure
from the human world, the Wesak celebration in Malaysia begins at dawn
when devotees gather at Buddhist temples nationwide to meditate on the Eight Precepts.
Donations - giving food to the needy and offerings of incense and joss
sticks - and prayers are carried out. The sutras are chanted in unison
by monks in saffron robes. The celebration is highlighted by a candle
procession. Wesak Day in Malaysia is a national public holiday.

In Indonesia


Vesak Day celebration in Borobudur temple, Indonesia

This significant and traditional holy day is observed throughout Indonesia, where it is known as Waisak Day.[22][23] At Borobudur,
thousands of Buddhist monks will join together to repeat mantras and
meditate as they circuit the temple in a ritual called “Pradaksina”.
This is a form of tribute to the temple. Monks celebrate the special day
by bottling holy water (which symbolises humility) and transporting
flames (which symbolize light and enlightenment) from location to
location. The monks also took part in the “Pindapata” ritual, where they
received charity from the people of Indonesia. Waisak Day in Indonesia
has been celebrated as a national public holiday every year since 1983.

In Singapore

In Singapore, Vesak Day was made a public holiday in 1955 after many public petitions, replacing Whit Monday.[24][25][26]
In the early decades of the 20th century, Vesak Day was associated with
the Ceylonese community which then celebrated it along with their
National Day in a two-day event. After World War II, there was a
movement to make Vesak Day a public holiday, with the Singapore Buddhist
Association leading the petitions.[27]

At the United Nations

In 1999, the United Nations General Assembly
adopted resolution 54/115, entitled ‘International recognition of the
Day of Vesak at United Nations Headquarters and other United Nations
offices’. The resolution internationally recognized the Day of Vesak to
acknowledge the contributions that Lord Buddha and Buddhism have made
for over two and a half millennia. It also called for annual
commemoration of the Day at the UN Headquarters, in New York, and other
UN offices around the world.[28][29]

The Day of Vesak is an official holiday for the UN offices in many of the countries in the South-East Asia.

References

  1. https://www.officeholidays.com/religious/buddhist/buddhas_birthday.php
  2. May 2016 calendar of Sri Lanka
  3. May 2016 calendar of Cambodia
  4. Buddha Purnima/Vesak in India
  5. http://www.officeholidays.com/religious/buddhist/buddhas_birthday.php
  6. Fowler,
    Jeaneane D. (1997). World Religions: it is celebrated to mark the
    birth, enlightenment and the passing away of the Lord Buddha. An
    Introduction for Students. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1-898723-48-6.
  7. The World Buddhist Directory
  8. “Visakha Puja”. Accesstoinsight.org. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  9. “World Fellowship of Buddhists Second Two-Year Plan (B.E. 2544-2545/2001-2002)”. Buddha Dhyana Dana Review Online. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
  10. “RESOLUTION
    ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY: 54/115. International recognition of
    the Day of Vesak at United Nations Headquarters and other United Nations
    offices”
    (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 6 February 2012
    .
  11. “Vesākha”. The Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  12. Camaron Kao (14 May 2012), “Thousands of believers mark Buddha’s birthday”, China Post, archived from the original on 16 June 2013
  13. Ko Shu-Ling (9 May 2011), “Sakyamuni Buddha birthday celebrated”, Taipei Times, The
    legislature approved a proposal in 1999 to designate the birthday of
    Sakyamuni Buddha — which falls on the eighth day of the fourth month of
    the lunar calendar — a national holiday and to celebrate the special
    occasion concurrently with International Mother’s Day, which is
    celebrated on the second Sunday of May.
  14. http://www.tnp.sg/news/singapore-news/vesak-day-practice-releasing-animals-harms-ecosystems
  15. “International VisakhaBuja Date Collection”. เมื่อนานาประเทศ ต่างหันหลังให้ (วันวิสาขบูชา) ไทย. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  16. http://www.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/~duc/amlich/
  17. “Unifying the Spiritual and The secular”. Sunday Observer. 2018-04-27. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  18. Vesak Festival in Sri Lanka
  19. “Vesak Festival in Sri Lanka”. lanka.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  20. Lotus lanterns light up Seoul night
  21. Niên biểu lịch sử Phật giáo Việt Nam Archived 15 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. Akhtar Malik (1 January 2007). Survey of Buddhist Temples and Monasteries. Anmol Publications. p. 145. ISBN 978-81-261-3259-1.
  23. Sameer Das Gupta (1 January 2008). Advanced history of Buddhism: monasteries and temples. Cyber Tech Publications. p. 145.
  24. Y. D. Ong (1 January 2005). Buddhism in Singapore: A Short Narrative History. Skylark Publications. p. 206. ISBN 978-981-05-2740-2.
  25. Piyasīlo (1992). New Directions in Buddhism Today: Celebrating 30 Years of the Buddha Day Holidays, 1962-1992. Community of Dharmafarers. p. 6. ISBN 978-983-9030-03-7.
  26. Jason Lim; Terence Lee (26 May 2016). Singapore: Negotiating State and Society, 1965-2015. Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-317-33152-0.
  27. 5 Things About Vesak Day
  28. “Buddha’s message of compassion ‘timeless’ says UN chief on international day”. UN News Service Section. United Nations. UN News Centre. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  29. “International recognition of the Day of Vesak at United Nations Headquarters and other United Nations offices”. www.un.org. United Nations. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
https://www.welcomenepal.com/whats-on/buddha-jayanti.html


Buddha Jayanti

30ᵗʰ April


Buddha Jayanti is a special day for both Hindus and
Buddhists in Nepal. On this day people celebrate the life of Lord
Buddha; his Birth, Enlightenment and Mahaparinirvana (Death).

Lumbini, in the western Terai plains of Nepal, is the place where
Prince Siddhartha (known as the Buddha) was born. The newly-born
Prince is believed to have taken seven steps and uttered a
timeless message to all humanity. It is believed that this happned in
the beautiful Sal grove, which is now the focal point of the Lumbini Garden area. 

The Nativity Sculpture at Lumbini that depits the birth of the Buddha.

As per widely held beliefs, Maya Devi, the Queen of Shakya King
Suddhodhana of Kapilvastu, gave birth to the Prince Siddhartha while
passing through the Lumbini Garden, on the day of “Vaishakha Poornima”
(full-moon day of May) in 623 BC.

The Queen is believed to have taken a bath in Pushkarini (the Sacred
Pond) and taken support of a tree branch in anticipation of the
delivery, before giving birth to the little infant, who went on to
become the Buddha. 

Tourists celebrating Buddha Jayanti at one of the Buddhist shrines by lighting butter lamps.

Lumbini - the birthplace, Tilaurakot or Kapilvastu - where Buddha
spent his first 29 years, Devdaha - his maternal home, and other sacred
places and monasteries all over Kathmandu and Nepal, are crowded with
devotees on the day of Buddha Jayanti.

In Kathmandu valley, Buddhists of all persuasions as well as pilgrims
from abroad, honor the Buddha at the two great stupas Swyambhunath,
Boudhanath and the largely Buddhist city of Patan. Activities at the
main Buddhist stupas and shrines begin at dawn and continue till late in
the evening. 

 http://www.indiaonlinepages.com/festivals/buddha-purnima/index.html


Buddha Purnima 2018 - Lord Buddha’s birthday is
celebrated as Buddha Purnima (Buddha Jayanti) all over world. In 2018,
Buddha Purnima falls on 29th of April, Sunday.



India Guide
Festivals in India
Buddha Purnima 2018 date


Buddha Purnima 2018


When is Buddha Purnima in 2018

This year, Buddha Purnima will be celebrated on April 29, 2018.

Buddha Purnima is also popular as Buddha’s Birthday, Buddha Jayanti, Vaishakh Purnima and Vesak Day.



Buddha Purnima

Buddha Purnima - Buddha Purnima, reverentially, the most important
day for the followers of Buddhism, commemorates Lord Buddha’s
enlightenment in 588 B.C and also his attainment of the highest of
spiritual goals, ‘Nirvana’ in Bodh Gaya and ‘Parinirvana’ (or “final
cessation”) in Kushinagara. Alternatively called Buddha Jayanti,
this day consecrates the birth anniversary of Lord Buddha who was born
in Lumbini, Nepal. As the name itself suggests, Buddha Purnima
is observed on a bright full moon in the Vaisakha month (April/May), a
time especially suited for introspection, charity and puja.

Buddha Purnima History
Historically, the importance of Buddha Purnima goes back to the
era of Chinese scholarship where the day is mentioned in the works of
the Chinese scholar, Fa-Hien. Buddha Purnima is known by different names
in different countries. As per the native tongue of different countries,
Nepal observes ‘Swanyapunhi’, Singapore upholds Lord Buddha’s teachings
on ‘Vesak Day’, Indonesia celebrates ‘Hari Waisak’, while Thailand
commemorates this day as ‘Visakha Bucha Day’. Buddha Jayanti is
celebrated across south-east Asian countries that have a recognizable
Buddhist population. Countries that observe Buddha Purnima include Sri
Lanka, Vietnam, Tibet, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Korea, China,
Cambodia, and Japan.

Rituals during Buddha Purnima
Buddhists observe Buddha Purnima with great calmness and
contemplation, reflecting on the moral precepts laid down by Lord
Buddha, ruminating on the events of his exemplary life, visiting
monasteries and listening to sermons and narratives/verses from Buddhist
scriptures, offering food and donation to the monks and paying homage to
the statue of Buddha by offering incense, flowers, candles, and fruits.

Despite the festivity, the mood during Buddha Jayanti is
peaceful and sublime. For Buddhists, this is a day to reaffirm their
faith in the five principles called Panchsheel, i.e. refraining from
taking life, stealing, lying, consuming intoxicants and committing
adultery, as well as the Eight-Fold path as symbolized by the Dharma
wheel. The day advances with a host of religious activities that include
large-scale prayer meets, recitation of Buddhist Holy Scriptures,
religious discourses, group meditation, processions, and elaborate
offerings and worship of the statue of Lord Buddha. Special religious
programmes including ‘bhajan’ and ‘aarti’ are held. As a part of
rituals, devotees pour milk and scented waters on the Bodhi tree and
place diyas around it.

Celebration
The holy Mahabodhi temple in Bodh Gaya, which is the main shrine
dedicated to Lord Buddha sees hordes of followers descending on the site
on this day. Sarnath, near Varanasi, where the Buddha preached his first
sermon is another important site for Buddha Purnima celebrations.
Followers from Thailand, Tibet, Bhutan and various other places visit
Sarnath on this day for blessings.

The most important and visual aspect of Buddha Purnima celebrations is
the procession in Bodh Gaya that starts from the 80-ft tall Buddha
statue up to the Mahabodhi tree, the fig tree, representative of Lord
Buddha’s Enlightenment. The Mahabodhi tree is worshipped in a
ritualistic way with water, incense, flowers, diyas and candles. The
Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, a strong symbolic and
architectural gem, housing the majestic statue of Buddha is decorated
with colorful flags and flowers for Buddha Purnima celebrations. The
temple premises and adjoining locality are lit up in equal measure and
decorated with colorful flags in yellow, white, red and blue at various
places. A Buddha statue is also worshipped which stands near the
consecrated ‘Vajrasana’ or the ‘Diamond Throne’, which exists from King
Asoka’s age.

Since purity is one of the hallmarks of this day, ‘Kheer’, a sweet-dish
made with rice and milk is prepared. Meat-eating is totally abstained
from. Devotees generally prefer to dress in white. To mark the occasion,
fairs are also held. As a symbolic gesture, on Buddha Purnima, Buddhists
in India and other Buddhist countries make special efforts to light up
their houses while streets are gloriously illumined with lights. In
Orissa, Dhauligiri is a Buddhist site known for Buddha Purnima
celebrations.

In Sikkim, scriptures are read before the Buddha statue throughout the
day. Devotees gather in huge numbers to listen to discourses on the life
and teachings of the Buddha. Followers wear white robes on the day of
Buddha Purnima. In Nepal, traditionally, this day witnesses a large
congregation around Buddhists stupas. Likewise, Lumbini, the sacred
birthplace of Lord Buddha, also sees mass participation of Buddhists
from everywhere. In Sri Lanka, homes are brightly illuminated. In Japan,
April 8th marks the Buddha’s birthday, and a traditional way of
worshipping is using spring flower for shrines and placing small Buddha
idols on them. In Myanmar, Buddhists water and worship the Bodhi trees.

Buddha Purnima Date Calendar

2017: May 10 (Wednesday)

2018: April 30 (Monday)

2019: May 18 (Saturday)

2020: May 7 (Thursday)

2021: May 26 (Wednesday)

https://www.tripsavvy.com/guide-to-celebrating-buddha-jayanti-in-india-1539245


Guide to Celebrating Buddha Jayanti in India

The Most Sacred Buddhist Festival

Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya on the occasion of Buddha Purnima.
•••

Buddha Jayanti, also known as Buddha Purnima, celebrates the birthday
of Lord Buddha. It also commemorates his enlightenment and death. It’s
the most sacred Buddhist festival.

Buddhists regard Lumbini (which
is now part of Nepal) to be the birthplace of Buddha. Named Siddhartha
Gautama, he was born as a prince into a royal family sometime in the 5th
or 6th century BC. However, at the age of 29 he left his family and
began his quest for enlightenment after seeing the extent of human
suffering outside the walls of his opulent palace.

He became enlightened at Bodhgaya in the Indian
state of Bihar, and is believed to have lived and taught mostly in
eastern India. Buddha is believed to have passed away at Kushinagar in
Uttar Pradesh, at the age of 80.

Many Hindus believe Buddha to be the ninth incarnation of Lord Vishnu, as indicated in scriptures.

When is Buddha Jayanti?

Buddha Jayanti is held on a full moon in late April or May each year. In 2018, Buddha Jayanti falls on April 30. It will be the 2,580th birth anniversary of Lord Buddha.

Where is the Festival Celebrated?

At the various Buddhist sites across India, particularly at Bodhgaya and Sarnath (near Varanasi, where Buddha gave his first sermon), and Kushinagar. Celebrations are widespread in predominantly Buddhist regions such as Sikkim, Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, and north Bengal (Kalimpong, Darjeeling, and Kurseong) as well.

The festival is also celebrated in Buddha Jayanti Park, Delhi.

The park is located on Ridge Road, towards the southern end of Delhi Ridge. The closest metro train station is Rajiv Chowk.

How is the Festival Celebrated?

Activities
include prayer meets, sermons and religious discourses, recitation of
Buddhist scriptures, group meditation, processions, and worship of the
statue of Buddha.

At Bodhgaya, the Mahabodhi Temple wears a festive look and is
decorated with colorful flags and flowers. Special prayers are organized
under the Bodhi Tree (the tree under which Lord Buddha attained
enlightenment). Plan your trip there with this Bodhgaya travel guide and read about my experience of visiting the Mahabodhi Temple.

A large fair is held in Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh. The relics of the Buddha are taken out in public procession.

An International Buddha Poornima Diwas Celebration,
organized by the International Buddhist Confederation (IBC) in
conjunction with the Indian Ministry of Culture, was held at Talkatora
Stadium in Delhi for the first time in 2015. The event was attended by
various international guests, monks, and members of parliament. It is
now an annual event.

The National Museum in Delhi
also brings the mortal remains of Buddha (what are believed to be some
of his bones and ashes) out for public viewing on Buddha Jayanti.

In
Sikkim, the festival is celebrated as Saga Dawa. In Gangtok, a
procession of monks carries the holy book from Tsuklakhang Palace
Monastery around town. It’s accompanied by the blowing of horns, beating
of drums, and burning of incense. Other monasteries in the state also
have special processions and masked dance performances.

What Rituals are Performed During the Festival?

Many
Buddhists visit temples on Buddha Jayanti to listen to monks give talks
and recite ancient verses. Devout Buddhists may spend all day in one or
more temples. Some temples display a small statue of Buddha as a baby.
The statue is placed in a basin filled with water and decorated with
flowers. Visitors to the temple pour water over the statue. This
symbolizes a pure and new beginning. Other statues of Buddha are
worshiped by offerings of incense, flowers, candles and fruit.

Buddhists
pay special attention to Buddha’s teachings Buddha Jayanti. They give
money, food or goods to organizations that help the poor, elderly, and
those who are sick. Caged animals are bought and set free to show care
for all living creatures, as preached by Buddha. The usual dress is pure
white.

Non-vegetarian food is normally avoided. Kheer, a
sweet rice porridge is also commonly served to recall the story of
Sujata, a maiden who offered the Buddha a bowl of milk porridge.

What to Expect During the Festival

Buddha Jayanti is an extremely peaceful and uplifting occasion.

https://teenatheart.com/buddha-purnima-vesak-festival-history-slogans-messages-essay-paragraph-significance-images-activities/

Buddha Purnima, Vesak Day 2018 Date, Information, History, Importance, Essay, Speech, Quotes, Wishes & Celebrations, Article

Buddha Purnima, Vesak Day 2018 Date, Information, History, Importance, Essay, Speech, Quotes, Wishes

wikimedia.org

Today, Buddhism has gained worldwide acceptance around
the world. More and more people throughout the world are inclined
towards the peaceful and nonviolent teachings of Buddhism. The law of
karma has offered a new way of thinking and has given a new direction of
life to numerous people around the world.
Buddhism, as we
know it today, can be traced back to a person named Siddhartha Gautama,
commonly referred to as Gautama Buddha or Buddha Shakyamuni.

Buddha Purnima or Vesak is widely celebrated across the many states
in India. Students in schools and colleges are asked to write an essay,
speech or paragraph in their exams. Hence in this article, we have given
you all the information about the Gautam Buddha Purnima, Vesak, such as
the history of Buddha Purnima, Vesak, importance and significance of
celebrating the Buddha Purnima, Vesak, quotes slogan, and celebration
ideas and activities for students and citizens to celebrate the Buddha
Purnima, Vesak. So, let’s start.

Buddha Purnima, Vesak 2018 Information, Essay, Speech, Article, & Celebration Ideas, Activities

Introduction to Vesak or Buddha Purnima

Buddha Purnima festival is dedicated to celebrating the birth
of Lord Buddha. Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanti is celebrated by the
followers of Buddhism with traditional religious sentiments. Buddha
Purnima falls on the full moon day in the Hindu month of Vaisakh
(April/May). Lord Buddha was born on the Full Moon day in the month of
Vaisakh in 563 BC. Also, it is important to note that Buddha achieved
enlightenment and nirvana (salvation) on the same day (the Full Moon
day). Thus, Buddha Purnima also marks the death anniversary of Gautam
Buddha. A large fair is held at Sarnath on the occasion of Buddha
Jayanti as Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon at this place.Therefore,
this place holds an important place in Buddhism.

Buddha Purnima is also celebrated at Gaya and Kushinagar and
other parts of India and all over the world. Buddha Purnima celebrations
at Sarnath are popular all around the world and Buddhist from other
countries come to India to be a part of this celebration. The devotees
offer their prayers at the temples in Sarnath. Sermons, recitation of
Buddhist scriptures and other religious processions are performed by the
Buddhists devotees to their god.

What is Vesak?

Vesak is a religious and cultural festival celebrated by
Buddhists all over the world. It is celebrated on the day of the full
moon in the month of April/May. 
Vesak Day is one of the
biggest festivals celebrated by Buddhists all over the world with utmost
devotion.  This day holds great importance for Buddhists as this day is
marked with important events that took place in the life of Lord Buddha
on this day.
First comes the birth of Siddhartha Gautama
in Lumbini in Nepal where queen Mahamaya gave him birth to which took
under the arbor of Sat tree. The second event was the attainment of
enlightenment by Buddha under the Mahabodhi tree in Gaya.
The third event was Lord Buddha’s Parinibbana over 2500 years ago at Kushinagar.

Origin and History of Vesak, Buddha Purnima Festival

Buddha Purnima is celebrated by devotees of Gautam Buddha
worldwide, commemorating his birthday. As per Theravada Tripitaka,
Buddha was born on this day in Lumbini, now known as Nepal approximately
around the year 563 BC.
If folklores are to be believed,
an astrologer visited Suddhodana, the king and father of Buddha (then
known as Siddhartha) at the time of his birth and predicted that the
young Siddharth will grow up and leave behind all wealth and luxuries to
become a holy man. On knowing this, the king always protected his son
from difficulties of the real world.

Buddha Purnima Vesak WhatsApp Status videos for 2018

But when Prince Siddhartha was twenty-nine years old when his
life changed. In carriage rides outside his palaces he first saw a sick
person, then an old man, then a corpse. This shook him to the core of
his being and he realized that his privileged status would not protect
him from sickness, old age, and death. When he saw a happy spiritual
seeker the urge to seek the peace of mind arose in him and he decided to
follow the path of peace and spirituality.

Also, this day is marked as the day when he attained salvation
or Nirvana under the Mahabodhi tree at Bodh Gaya. Devotees celebrate the
day by preaching and offering prayers to Lord Buddha. Buddha Purnima is
celebrated in countries like India, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Singapore,
South Korea, Japan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam etc. Being the
birthplace of Lord Buddha, every year millions of devotees come to
Gaya, Kushinagar and Sarnath to celebrate the most important occasion of
Buddhism. A large fair is held in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, a major
Buddhist pilgrimage site where Buddha delivered his first sermon after
attaining enlightenment. Devotees, on this day, wear white clothes,
pray, meditate and chant from the scriptures, following which, they make
fruits and sweets’ offerings to the Buddha idols. 
Coincidentally, this day is also marked as the death anniversary of Gautam Buddha.

Essay on Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Biography, Speech, Article in English

Though the followers of Buddhism have been celebrating Buddhist
festivals for centuries, but it was at first conference of the World
Fellowship of Buddhists held in Sri Lanka in 1950, the decision to
celebrate Vesak as Buddha’s birthday was taken. Although it took 49
years for the United Nations to recognize the importance of Buddha
Purnima. The UN announced only in the year 1999 that it would be
celebrating Buddha Purnima at their offices and at their headquarters in
New York City.

Importance and Significance of Vesak, Buddha Purnima Festival

The significance of Vesak lies with Buddha and his universal
peace message to the mankind. It teaches its followers to take the right
path and to turn away from evil. It is a message of peace and perfect
harmony between human beings and nature. 
The United Nations
General Assembly accepted the importance of “Vesak” and in 1999 by its
resolution 54/115 acknowledged that Buddhism as one of the oldest
religions in the world contributing to peace and harmony in the world
for over 2500 years and is commemorated annually at the United Nations
Headquarters and UN Offices.

Vesak Day 2018 celebrations, Ideas, Activities, and events

On Vesak, all Buddhist homes, public places, temples, etc., are
illuminated with lanterns and lamps. Various religious groups,
neighborhood groups and associations provide free food to people
including lunch, dinner, snacks, drinks. The night of the full moon day
in the month of Vesak and the following day people enjoy decorations
done with lanterns and pandals. Buddhists on this day visit temples and
listen to monks who preach the teachings of the Lord Buddha. Some
temples display a small statue of Buddha as a baby. The statue is placed
in a basin filled with water and decorated with flowers. Visitors to
the temple pour water over the statue. This symbolizes a pure and new
beginning.

Many Buddhists focus on spreading Buddha’s teachings during
Vesak. They may wear white robes and only follow vegetarian diet on and
around Vesak. Caged animals are bought and set free to display care for
all living creatures, as preached by Buddha.

Quotes by Gautam Buddha for Buddha Purnima, Vesak 2018 Messages, Wishes & WhatsApp Status

This year on his 2580th birth anniversary let us recall some important teachings by Lord Buddha

  • Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship
  • Do not dwell on the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.
  • Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life.
  • No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path
  • To enjoy good health, to bring true happiness to one’s family,
    to bring peace to all, one must first discipline and control one’s own
    mind. If a man can control his mind he can find the way to
    Enlightenment, and all wisdom and virtue will naturally
  • Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.
  • You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.
  • We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.
  • Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and
    the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases
    by being shared.
  • You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.
  • To keep the body in good health is a duty… otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.

Teachings of Lord Buddha for Buddha Purnima, Vesak 2018

Buddha always believed that instead of teaching people what to
believe in life and what path to follow, it is important to realize
enlightenment for one’s own self.
The foundational teaching
of Buddhism is based on the Four Noble Truths. The First Truth tells us
that life is dukkha which is referred by him as “stressful” and “unable
to satisfy.”

The Second Truth tells us dukkha has a reason behind it. The
immediate reason is craving for something in life. People often do not
understand reality and misunderstand others. We perceive life in a
narrow and selfish way and going through life and we think that craving
will make us happy. But we find satisfaction only briefly, and then the
anxiety and craving start again.

The Third Truth tells us we can know the cause of dukkha and be
liberated by setting us free from stress and cravings.Merely adopting
Buddhist beliefs will not accomplish this, however. Liberation depends
on one’s own insight into the source of dukkha. The craving will not
cease until you realize for yourself what’s causing it.

The Fourth Truth tells us that insight comes through the
practice of the Noble Eightfold Path. The Eight fold Paths might be
explained as an outline of eight areas of practice ― including
meditation, mindfulness, and living an ethical life that benefits others
― that will help us live happier lives and find the wisdom of
enlightenment.

Conclusion

This year April 30 will be celebrated as Buddha Purnima all
around the world. This year also, millions of devotees will come
together to celebrate the day dedicated to Lord Buddha who spent his
life preaching about peace and spirituality. He has always taught to
follow the right path in life no matter how difficult it is. This will
ultimately help us to become a better human being in life.

https://in.pinterest.com/memorableind/india-land-of-buddha/?lp=true

https://in.pinterest.com/memorableind/india-land-of-buddha/?lp=true

Dhamek Stupa at Sarnath (Varanasi) is a massive…

Prabuddha Bharath Land of Buddha

Lord Buddha

Lord Buddha

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/460493130619690477/

Tawang Monastery  http://thelandofbuddha.com/sikkim-tour-6

Tawang Monastery

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/460493130619690406/

Sikkim Monks http://thelandofbuddha.com/

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/460493130619627821/

http://thelandofbuddha.com/buddhist-tour-package-1
https://in.pinterest.com/pin/460493130619490721/

Bodhi Temple,Sarnath
http://indianexpress.com/photos/lifestyle-gallery/buddha-purnima-2017-heres-how-devotees-are-celebrating-gautam-buddhas-birthday-worldwide-4649523/

Wishing everyone a happy Chitra Pournami and a happy Buddha Purnima/Vesak


Buddha Purnima : Here’s how people are celebrating Gautam Buddha’s birthday worldwide


Wishing everyone a happy Chitra Pournami and a happy Buddha Purnima/Vesak

Chitra Pournami is a very significant day.

Coincidently,
Buddha Purnima, known as Vesak, also falls on 30th May 2017. The day is
extremely significant, not only because this was the day when the
little prince Siddhartha was born, but because he attained awakenment
under the Bodhi tree in Gaya and became Gautama Buddha, the founder of
Buddhism, on the same full moon day. Interestingly he also got Nibbana
or salvation in Kushinagar on the same (Purnima) day in the month of
Vaisakh (April-May). That moment of awakenment with awareness, under the
Bodhi tree in Gaya, changed the course of spiritual seeking forever.
The four most important places of worship in Buddhism are Lumbini in
Nepal, where Buddha was born to the King Shuddhodana (King of
Kapilvattu) and Queen Maya Devi, Bodh Gaya in Bihar, where he got
awakenment with awareness, Sarnath in Varanasi, where he gave his first
sermon to five devotees, and Kushinagar, where at the age of 80, he
attained salvation Nibbana.

On
this day, we find monks giving discourses and sermons highlighting the
teachings of Gautama Buddha at all these places. Devotees congregate to
offer prayers and water to the statue of Buddha placed in water and
decorated with flowers, symbolic of a new beginning. A large fair is
held at Sarnath and the ancient relics of the Buddha are taken out for
public display in a procession. Giving food and clothes to the poor is
another important activity undertaken by the devotees. Most of them
prefer to wear white clothes, eat vegetarian food and distribute kheer
in memory of a woman devotee named Sujata, who had offered Gautama
Buddha a bowl of sweet milk porridge on this day.

Apart
from India, Buddha Purnima is celebrated with great religious fervour
in many other South Asian countries, including Nepal, Sri Lanka,
Cambodia, China, Malaysia, Indonesia and Japan.

Wishing everyone a happy Chitra Pournami and a happy Buddha Purnima/Vesak

comments (0)
04/28/18
29-4-2018 Sunday 09:00 AM Venue : Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru * 10: AM * ALMS ROUND AND SANGHADANA Food Offering to the Venerable Monks
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 9:55 pm

2606 Apr 29  Sun LESSON

29-4-2018    Sunday    09:00 AM
Venue : Maha Bodhi Society
14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru

*  10: AM  *
ALMS ROUND AND SANGHADANA
Food Offering to the Venerable Monks

* 11:00 AM  *
Puja Undertaking of Tisarana Pancasila,
Dhamma Discourse and Blessings by
Venerable Kassapa Mahathera
President, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

SUKHI HOTU - SIGNIFICANCE OF LOTUS GREETING
Talk by
Ambassador Dato Dr Ananda Kumaraseri
President, Human Developent and Peace Foundation, Malaysia

BUDDHISM _THE PATH OF SUCCESS, WELLBEING AND PEACE

Talk by
Venerable Bhikkuhini Thong Niem
Psychology Teacher, Canada

* 12:00 APM  to 4:00 PM *

Free Medical Camp
by Tathagat Heart Care Centre & Hospital
For Heart related sickness

* 1 PM *
 Lunch Service by
Ms Sheshamma
In Memory of her brother Late Shri N.A.Raju

Supported by
Devakonda V.R.S.Murthy
Namo Buddha
ASOKA DHAMM DUTA
BUDDHIST SOCIETY TRUST
Budddha Vihar & Sri.H.M.Gangadaraiah
Memorial Meditation Trust, Gautam Nagar,
Opp: KSRTC Bus Depot, Kolar Gold Fields 563113.

2562nd SACRED BUDDHA JAYANTHI CELEBRATION
On Sunday the 29th April 2018, at 5-30 p.m.

Dear Sir/Madam,

Thank you for writing to us.

If you are writing to learn more about the meditation courses and centre activities, you may wish to consider attending the Introduction to Bodhi Meditation Seminar. Our volunteers would be able to better advise you on what would be most suitable for you.

This would be held at our meditation centre located at 482 Serangoon Road #02-01 Singapore 218419.

Admission is free and simply contact us at 6299 1262 to enquire on the next available session
Alternatively, you may also drop by at our centre in person and speak to any of our duty volunteers.

For all other enquiries, we would reply to you as soon as we could.
If you do not hear from us in 5 days, you may wish to contact our centre at 6299 1262 to follow-up on your enquiries.

Wishing you and your loved ones great health and happiness.

Best Regards,
Bodhi Meditation (Singapore)
Enquiry Hotline: (65) 6299 1262
International website: http://www.puti.ca/
Singapore website: http://putisingapore.com/
Bodhi Meditation: For Health  For Life

comments (0)
04/27/18
2605 Apr 28 Sat LESSON We extend our deepest sympathies to you and your family. May the soul of your mother Most Respected Dr Mary be at peace with your Heavenly Father. - J Chandrasekharan, Navaneetham, Banu Rekha, Sashi Kanth, Kartik Raja, Sathaya Narayana, & Barathan 28-4-2018 Saturday 10:30 AM Venue: Bhagawan Buddha Homeopathic Medical College & Hospital “Srinidhi Comlex”, Mallathalli Outer Ring Road, Between Dr.A.I.T. College & Bangalore University Campus, Bangalore-560056, Karnataka, India. YOUTH DHAMMA SERVICE DAY Inauguration by Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda General Secretary, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 6:19 pm


2605 Apr 28  Sat LESSON


We extend
our deepest sympathies to you and your family. May the soul of your
mother Most Respected Dr Mary be at peace with your Heavenly Father. - J
Chandrasekharan, Navaneetham, Banu Rekha, Sashi Kanth, Kartik Raja,
Sathaya Narayana, & Barathan


28-4-2018    Saturday      10:30 AM

Venue: Bhagawan Buddha Homeopathic Medical College & Hospital

“Srinidhi Comlex”, Mallathalli Outer Ring Road, Between Dr.A.I.T. College
& Bangalore University Campus, Bangalore-560056, Karnataka, India.


YOUTH DHAMMA SERVICE DAY

Inauguration by
Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda
General Secretary, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

Chief Guest
Ambassodor Dato Dr Ananda Kumaraseri
President, Human Development and Peace Foundation, Malaysia

Presided By
Shri. Chandrasekar
Chairman, BBHMCH



28-4-2018    Saturday   09:30 AM
Venue: Dhammaloka Buddha Vihara,
Gulaharive Cross, Geddanahalli, Shettihalli Ring Road, Tumkuru

Buddha Jayanti Celebrations
Buddha Pujas, Tisaran and Pancasila, Sanghadana


DHAMMA DISCOURSE AND MEDITATION

Led by
Venerable Buddhadatta Bhikkhu
Director, Maha Bodhu Library and Research Centre
And Venerable Monks of Maha Bodhi Society

Organised by
Upasaka Hanumanthrayappa and Upasakas and Upasikas
Dhammaloka Buddha Vihara, Tumkuru


Buddha

Buddha
Buddha



Buddha
Buddha

https://scroll.in/…/at-the-very-end-of-scs-aadhaar-hearings…

[One only wonders what the Supreme Court bench hearing the case was doing till now!?]

https://scroll.in/…/at-the-very-end-of-scs-aadhaar-hearings…

At the very end of SC’s Aadhaar hearings, government admits it has been dishonest all along
When questioned by the court, the government admitted that the Supreme Court did not mandate linking phone SIM cards to Aadhaar


[Screenshot of Ravis Shankar Prasad’s tweet: <

11:04 PM -10 Sep 2017>>]

At the very end of SC’s Aadhaar hearings, government admits it has been dishonest all along

Yesterday · 10:30 am

Rohan Venkataramakrishnan


As the Supreme Court hears petitions contending that Aadhaar violates
the fundamental rights of Indians, it’s clear that much of the broad
edifice created by the government in defence of the national identity
project rests on shaky ground. The 12-digit biometric ID was supposed to
be voluntary, although in a huge swathe of circumstances it clearly was
not. The legislation for it was passed much after millions had already
been enrolled. It was supposed to be secure but has instead aided the
leaking of massive amounts of government data. It was meant to make
welfare delivery more efficient, but in many cases has made people’s
lives harder. And, on Wednesday, the government admitted that it had
been lying about another aspect too: the Supreme Court had never it
mandatory for all phone SIM cards to be linked to individual Aadhaar
numbers.

Justice DY Chandrachud, one of the five judges on the
Constitution Bench hearing the case, spelled it out for Rakesh Dwivedi,
counsel for the Unique Identification Authority of India, which runs the
Aadhaar project. “In fact there was no such direction from the Supreme
Court, but you took it and used it as tool to make Aadhaar mandatory for
mobile users,” Chandrachud said, according to PTI.

To this,
Dwivedi admitted that SIM-Aadhaar linking had commenced on the basis of
the recommendation of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India even
before the Lokniti Foundation order – in which the Supreme Court ordered
SIM cards to be verified – had been passed. Dwivedi went on to argue
that the government had a legal right to mandate that all SIM cards be
linked to Aadhaar.

What actually happened
If that is confusing, here is the sequence of events:


In 2015, the Supreme Court issued an order saying Aadhaar could not be
made mandatory until the court settles the fundamental rights challenge
one way or the other.
In 2016, the Aadhaar Act was passed, but it
focused on the delivery of subsidies and welfare and so did not cover
phone connections.
In February 2017, the Supreme Court ordered the
government to verify and register every SIM card in the country, but it
did not require this to be done by linking with Aadhaar.
Despite
this, the government spread the message that the Supreme Court had made
linking Aadhaar to your SIM card mandatory, a false claim that was also
relayed by major news organisations. Others criticised these false
messages, to no avail.
When asked why the government was forcing
people to link their SIM cards to Aadhaar, despite orders from the
Supreme Court saying it could not be mandatory, the government repeated
this false claim that the Supreme Court had itself ordered the linking.


[Screenshot of Ravis Shankar Prasad’s tweet: <

11:04 PM -10 Sep 2017>>]


On Wednesday, when Justice Chandrachud questioned him about these false
claims, saying government has used their order as a “tool”, counsel for
UIDAI seems to have admitted two things:

That it had already
made Aadhaar-SIM linking mandatory, based on what it saw were powers
granted in the Telegraph Act and despite the Supreme Court saying
Aadhaar cannot be mandatory for any services.
That the government
has been misguiding the people all this while, claiming that it was the
Supreme Court that made Aadhaar mandatory, when in fact that was not
true.
This, basically, is the last three years of the Aadhaar litigation before the Supreme Court, summed up in one moment.

— Gautam Bhatia (@gautambhatia88) April 25, 2018
As Gautam Bhatia, one of the lawyers challenging Aadhaar tweeted, this
revelation – coming so late in the process – is about as perfect an
encapsulation of the government’s approach to Aadhaar as possible: Get
its way first, tell everyone that it is required and mandatory, figure
out the legalities afterward.


Aadhaar’s DNA
This
approach is, in fact, built into the DNA of the Aadhaar project and
dates back to before the Bharatiya Janata Party took a u-turn and
decided to support it. Aadhaar was first introduced into the Indian
Parliament through a Bill in 2010, but that was rejected by a
parliamentary committee because of legislative, security, and privacy
concerns. Another committee in 2012 recommended that the law explicitly
say that it was voluntary, and allow people to opt out. Yet even as
these debates were underway, with no law being passed to legitimise the
programme, the UIDAI continued pushing enrollment of a scheme. This
legitimacy would eventually only be provided in 2016 – seven years after
enrolments began.

Indeed, one of the central fears of the
government’s enrol-first, legalise-latter approach was the fait-accompli
concern: that the government would simply argue in court that so much
money has been spent enrolling more than 1 billion people onto this
platform, and then getting them to link to other things, that it would
be a waste to strike it down now – even if it violated some rights. That
is exactly the tack the government took, as has now been laid bare in
the mobile linking. This strategy has been enabled to a large part by
the Supreme Court’s delay in taking up the Aadhaar case urgently..


Even those who do not believe that Aadhaar violates fundamental rights
ought to be able to see the bad faith with which the government has
rolled out and defended the scheme, going so far as to argue in court
that Indians have no fundamental right to privacy and then, brazenly,
denying having made that argument in the first place. Justice
Chandrachud’s question to the UIDAI counsel was useful in telling us
more about how this government has approached the entire case. Hopefully
it provokes the Constitution Bench to take a close look at many of the
other claims that the government has been making about Aadhaar. If it
was brazen enough to lie to the public about a Supreme Court order, what
else has it been misleading us about?


Peace Is Doable


When questioned by the court, the government admitted that the Supreme Court did not mandate linking phone SIM cards to Aadhaar.
scroll.in

http://indianexpress.com/…/govt-arguments-against-justice-…/

[<
>

(Excerpted from sl. no. I. below.)

<

The government’s actions come at a time
when there is a sense of crisis surrounding the relationship between the
executive and the judiciary. For over three months, the government sat
on a composite recommendation to appoint Indu Malhotra and K M Joseph,
and chose to act only after very public expressions of discomfort by
senior SC judges. After Justice Joseph struck down the imposition of the
president’s rule in Uttarakhand in April 2016, the government also
exercised “pocket veto” for nearly two years by ignoring the collegium’s
recommendation to transfer Justice Joseph to the Andhra Pradesh high
court as its chief justice. This is also the government that returned
the collegium’s recommendation to appoint Gopal Subramanium as a judge.
Subramanium notably was amicus curie in the Sohrabuddin fake encounter
case. These events should inform any scrutiny of the government’s
response to the collegium’s recommendation elevating Justice
Joseph.>>

(Excerpted from sl. no. II. below.)

<

Nariman admitted that the collegium may or may not be split
in its decision to send its recommendation back to the government
insisting on appointing chief justice K M Joseph of the Uttarakhand high
court to the Supreme Court, which may lead to a “confrontation with the
government…we will cross that bridge when we come to it,” he said.





Noting that the anniversary of Justice A N Ray superseding Justice
Khanna and appointing Justice Beg, on the eve of the Emergency on April
25, 1975, had just passed, Nariman said, “I am totally against
supercession. The Chief Justice would be well advised to recommend his
successor in accordance with the Constitutional convention. Which is
that the seniormost judge becomes Chief Justice.

“And that is Mr
Ranjan Gogoi. He has to be named. (CJ Mishra) has to recommend him. And
not supercede him as AN Ray did. Ray recommended Justice Beg in Court no
3 and that’s why Khanna retired in a blaze of glory,” Nariman said,
adding, that a majoritarian government is “always a potential danger to
the judiciary. Always. They want to control..”>>]

(Excerpted from sl. no. III. below.)]

I/III.



http://indianexpress.com/…/govt-arguments-against-justice-…/

Govt arguments against Justice KM Joseph do not hold water, say critics



Regarding the government’s argument that there is no representation
from SC/ST communities in the Supreme Court, there would be four
remaining vacancies in the apex court even after Justice Joseph’s
elevation.

Written by Sushant Singh | New Delhi |

Published: April 27, 2018 4:24:26 am

Govt arguments against Justice KM Joseph do not hold water, say critics

Senior advocate Indu Malhotra and Uttarakhand High Court Chief Justice K M Joseph.

The arguments given by the government for returning the recommendation
for appointment of Uttarakhand Chief Justice K M Joseph to the Supreme
Court do not match precedent, experts critical of the move told The
Indian Express.

Seniority

While the government has stated
in its letter that Justice Joseph was at serial number 42 on the All
India High Court Judges’ Seniority List, he was the seniormost as the
chief justice of a high court. Sources said that there was no precedent
of going by the judges’ seniority list. Justices Mohan M Shantanagoudar
and S Abdul Nazeer from Karnataka High Court were elevated to the
Supreme Court by the same government in February 2017, when two judges, H
Ramesh and H G Ramesh from the same parent high court, were senior to
Justice Nazeer. Justices Navin Sinha and Deepak Gupta were appointed by
this government last year when there were many others higher on the
judges’ seniority list.

Read | SC rejects plea to stall Indu Malhotra’s appointment, on KM Joseph says wait

State representation

Regarding the government’s argument that certain high courts were
currently not represented in the Supreme Court, it is understood that at
any given point of time, some high courts are bound to be not
represented in the apex court. Moreover, if representation of all courts
was the determining factor, sources said this government would not have
appointed two judges from Bombay High Court in May 2016 and two from
Karnataka High Court in February 2017. Many high courts were
unrepresented in the Supreme Court at both the junctures, when multiple
names were elevated from the same parent high court.

The
government has argued that if Justice Joseph is elevated, he would be
the second judge from the parent Kerala High Court in the Supreme Court.
While the current judge in the Supreme Court from the same parent High
Court, Justice Kurian Joseph, is due to retire in November 2018, there
are at least five judges currently serving in the apex court whose
parent high court is Bombay High Court.

Read | It’s business as usual for Justice KM Joseph

SC/ST presence

Regarding the government’s argument that there is no representation
from Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe communities in the Supreme
Court, there would be four remaining vacancies in the apex court even
after Justice Joseph’s elevation. Sources said that these vacancies
could be filled to give adequate representation to SC/ ST communities in
the Supreme Court.

Read | Collegium decision final, anything else malafide, says Fali Nariman

2 CJs from Kerala

To the government’s argument that there are two other chief justices of
high courts whose parent high court is Kerala High Court, currently
there are two chief justices whose parent high court is Bombay High
Court.

These facts are likely to be raised and considered if CJI
Dipak Misra convenes a full court to discuss the matter, as demanded by
some of his colleagues, or when a meeting of the five-member collegium
is convened to discuss the government’s action of returning Justice
Joseph’s name.


Regarding
the government’s argument that there is no representation from SC/ST
communities in the Supreme Court, there would be four remaining
vacancies in…
indianexpress.com


http://indianexpress.com/…/indu-malhotra-woman-supreme-cou…/

Ball’s in Supreme Court
The manner and context in which the Supreme Court collegium’s
recommendation on the appointment of judges has been treated by the
executive poses a threat to the independence of the judiciary.

Written by Anup Surendranath |

Updated: April 27, 2018 12:32:40 am


indu malhotra, woman supreme court judge, k m joseph, chief justice of
india dipak misra, collegium recommendation, supreme court, dipak
misra, collegium system, Indian express The history of the judiciary is
replete with examples of instances where the independence of the
judiciary has been protected by the court and a succession of Chief
Justices of India against such interference by the government.
(Illustration: CR Sasikumar)
Written by Anup Surendranath, Aparna Chandra and Suchindran Baskar Narayan


The appointment of Indu Malhotra as a judge of the Supreme Court should
have been a reason for unmitigated celebration. She will become only
the seventh woman in the history of independent India to be appointed as
a judge of the country’s highest court. The momentous nature of this
appointment cannot be overstated given the under-representation of women
in all aspects of public life in India. Instead, this moment has now
become about whether the SC has the will and conviction to forestall
this government’s creeping and forceful assault on its powers.


The government’s actions come at a time when there is a sense of crisis
surrounding the relationship between the executive and the judiciary.
For over three months, the government sat on a composite recommendation
to appoint Indu Malhotra and K M Joseph, and chose to act only after
very public expressions of discomfort by senior SC judges. After Justice
Joseph struck down the imposition of the president’s rule in
Uttarakhand in April 2016, the government also exercised “pocket veto”
for nearly two years by ignoring the collegium’s recommendation to
transfer Justice Joseph to the Andhra Pradesh high court as its chief
justice. This is also the government that returned the collegium’s
recommendation to appoint Gopal Subramanium as a judge. Subramanium
notably was amicus curie in the Sohrabuddin fake encounter case. These
events should inform any scrutiny of the government’s response to the
collegium’s recommendation elevating Justice Joseph.

The law
minister’s reasons for sending back Justice Joseph’s recommendations do
not carry any real weight. His official reply states that Justice Joseph
was 42nd in the all-India high court judges seniority list and 12th in
the high court chief justices seniority list. While that is true, he has
failed to mention that Justice Joseph is the senior-most chief justice
of a high court in terms of experience as chief justice, having served
two years more as CJ than the other current CJs.

It is also
surprising to see seniority being invoked suddenly in this case. There
are numerous examples where judges of high courts were elevated to the
SC despite not being the senior-most as per all-India seniority,
according to the date of initial appointment. In the last round of
appointments to the SC, this very government approved the appointments
of Justices Mohan Shantanagoudar, Navin Sinha, Deepak Gupta, S K Kaul
and Abdul Nazeer, against the seniority norm. Further, the SC in the
Second and Third Judges’ case has explicitly held that seniority cannot
be the sole determinative factor in deciding suitability for elevation,
and that other considerations such as merit may outweigh the seniority
norm. It is pertinent that in recommending Justice Joseph, the collegium
expressly noted his all-India seniority but categorically stated that
he was more deserving of the appointment than other judges.

The
law minister seems to lay great emphasis on the fact that Justice K M
Joseph’s elevation might lead to Kerala’s over-representation in the SC
because Justice Kurian Joseph is already in the SC. (Justice Kurian
Joseph is due to retire in November 2018). However, the use of state
representation to send back the nomination of a judge is curious given
that this very government approved the appointment of Justice S K Kaul
despite the presence to two other judges (Justice Madan Lokur and
Justice A K Sikri) from Delhi.

Similarly, the minister’s reason
citing lack of representation from among the SC/STs is a curious one.
Lack of diversity cannot be cited as an ex post facto reason to send
back the nomination of a judge. If diversity is to be a institutional
priority, it should be stated upfront and there should be a clear
statement of the diversity being sought. It cannot be selectively and
retrospectively invoked in the manner that the law minister has done.


The government’s response points to the urgent need to set up
transparent norms for judicial appointments, for express conditions when
seniority or diversity norms can be circumvented, and for publically
available reasons for the “merit” that justifies the appointment of
particular judges to the higher judiciary. Till these procedures remain
opaque, judicial appointments will always be vulnerable to attack, and
the independence of the judiciary will be under threat from within and
without.

The rather weak reasons from the government also raise
ominous concerns regarding governmental attack on the independence of
the judiciary. It appears that government is trying to make Justice
Joseph pay the price for the judgment striking down president’s rule in
Uttarakhand while sending a message to all judges across the country,
that judges who rule against the government in important matters will
face consequences.

The history of the judiciary is replete with
examples of instances where the independence of the judiciary has been
protected by the court and a succession of Chief Justices of India
against such interference by the government. Very often wiser counsel
prevailed, and the executive interference with the independence of the
judiciary was repelled. Exceptions include the supercessions of 1973 and
1977, which were attempts to browbeat an independent judiciary, and
create a cadre of “committed judges”. The capitulation of the Court to
Indira Gandhi’s government during the Emergency was a legacy of these
interventions, and should caution us about the dangers of executive
interference in judicial appointments. This continuing threat was nipped
finally by the Second Judges case by the creation of collegium system.
While there has been some valid criticism of the collegium system, it
currently stands as the binding law of the land.

In June 2014,
when Gopal Subramanium, a former Solicitor General of India, was
unilaterally hived off from a composite list of four names forwarded by
the then collegium, Chief Justice R M Lodha said: “Segregating his name
was done unilaterally by the Executive without my knowledge and
concurrence which was not proper. This is one subject, which is
non-negotiable. At no cost the independence of the judiciary will be
allowed to be compromised. I will not hold my office if I feel that the
independence of the institution of the judiciary has been compromised.”
All the other appointees including currently serving Justices A K Goel,
Arun Mishra and R F Nariman were sworn in only after Gopal Subramanium
categorically withdrew his consent.

The manner and context in
which the collegium’s recommendation has been treated by the executive
raises a real and immediate threat for the independence of the
judiciary. Constitutionalism is developed and maintained by all
constitutional authorities acting in accordance with the letter and
spirit of the Constitution. Every act in contravention of the
Constitution detracts and chips away at the foundations of our
constitutional republic. At important junctures on our constitutional
journey, when the executive or the legislature has attempted to thwart
the independence of the judiciary or the basic structure of the
Constitution, the Court has risen to the occasion. While the Court is
not infallible, its authority and that of the Constitution will survive
only if it remains independent. For that, nothing less than an immediate
and categorical reiteration of the recommendation is necessary and
holding off on the swearing-in of Supreme Court Justice-designate Indu
Malhotra is required. It has been a few decades since the Supreme Court
faced such a powerful government. It is time for the court to confront
the ghosts of decisions past and lay to rest the burden of having
buckled the last time around.

Surendranath and Chandra teach at National Law University, Delhi and Narayan is an advocate in the Supreme Court


The
manner and context in which the Supreme Court collegium’s
recommendation on the appointment of judges has been treated by the
executive poses a threat to the independence of the judiciary.
indianexpress.com


http://indianexpress.com/…/collegium-decision-final-anythi…/

Supreme Court collegium decision final, anything else malafide, says Fali Nariman
Fali Nariman indicated that the current impasse over the appointment of
a judge may be linked to the government “still smarting” under the
Supreme Court’s decision to strike down the parliament’s decision to
vote in favour of the NJAC which sought to control the appointment of
judges.

Written by Jyoti Malhotra | New Delhi |

Updated: April 27, 2018 8:21:21 am

Collegium decision final, anything else malafide, says Fali Nariman
Senior jurist Fali Nariman (Express Photo by Tashi Tobgyal/file)

If the five-member Collegium of the Supreme Court, which includes the
Chief Justice of India, decides that a certain judge has to be
appointed, then its word is final and a contrary decision by the
government will be considered malafide, senior jurist Fali Nariman has
said.

Nariman admitted that the collegium may or may not be split
in its decision to send its recommendation back to the government
insisting on appointing chief justice K M Joseph of the Uttarakhand high
court to the Supreme Court, which may lead to a “confrontation with the
government…we will cross that bridge when we come to it,” he said.

He indicated that the current impasse over the appointment of a judge
may be linked to the government “still smarting” under the Supreme
Court’s decision to strike down the parliament’s decision to vote in
favour of the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC), which
sought to control the appointment of judges. “The (government) is still
very upset about that,” he said.

Read | Govt arguments against Justice KM Joseph do not hold water, say critics

He indicated that the joint Opposition’s move challenging
Vice-President Venkaiah Naidu’s decision to impeach the chief justice in
the Supreme Court could become a long drawn-out affair.

First of
all, he said, the Supreme Court would have to decide whether Naidu’s
dismissal is “justiciable or not,” meaning, since the matter concerns
Parliament, the Court would have to decide whether it has the power to
take up such a motion or not. “If the Court does take that decision, it
will then have to decide whether the Vice-President’s decision is
untenable or not,” Nariman said.

Moreover, he pointed out, when
the Opposition goes to court in appeal against the Vice-President, it
would be “up to the Chief Justice to decide which court it should be
listed in front of.

“That’s because he is still Master of the
Roster, irrespective of the fact that he is involved or not (in this
case, in the move to impeach him), and because the question of fixing
benches inheres in him. (That prerogative) can’t be taken away or shared
with someone else. It inheres in him, and he should say who should
decide the matter,” Nariman said.

Read | Fali Nariman on Opposition move to impeach CJI Dipak Misra: A horribly black day in SC history

The jurist added that he didn’t think Chief Justice Mishra would take
the Opposition’s case in his court. “Of course he won’t take it. But
even if he doesn’t, he has the power to decide who should take it,”
Nariman said.

Reacting to the detailed letter today written by
Law minister Ravi Shankar Prasad to Chief Justice Dipak Mishra, on why
the potential elevation of K M Joseph to the Supreme Court is
“inappropriate,” Nariman said that the “government was entitled to the
view it had taken. They have given reasons which are quite cogent. They
may be right or wrong. Whether this meets with the approval of the
collegium is quite another matter.”

According to the Law
minister’s letter, Justice Joseph is Number 42 in the seniority list of
judges, he hails from Kerala which already has adequate representation
in the Supreme Court (and several other states haven’t) and that a judge
from the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes would be preferable at
this time..

Read | Govt has struck at the very heart of judicial freedom: former CJI RM Lodha

“The collegium has to say whether they insist that despite this letter
Justice Joseph should be appointed or not. The Collegium is the last
word,” Nariman said, pointing out that according to the 1993 judgement
delivered by Justice J S Verma, the collegium’s word was final, “that
this is the law.”

Asked why the government had split the decision
to elevate Justice Indu Malhotra to the Supreme Court and not Justice
Joseph, he said “They are entitled to do that…Judges don’t go in pairs.
They are not husband and wife.”

As for the government’s move to
send Justice Malhotra’s elevation to the President for approval, Nariman
said that was the right thing to do because elevation to the Supreme
Court could only take place when the President issued a warrant in that
regard.

Noting that the anniversary of Justice A N Ray
superseding Justice Khanna and appointing Justice Beg, on the eve of the
Emergency on April 25, 1975, had just passed, Nariman said, “I am
totally against supercession. The Chief Justice would be well advised to
recommend his successor in accordance with the Constitutional
convention. Which is that the seniormost judge becomes Chief Justice.

“And that is Mr Ranjan Gogoi. He has to be named. (CJ Mishra) has to
recommend him. And not supercede him as AN Ray did. Ray recommended
Justice Beg in Court no 3 and that’s why Khanna retired in a blaze of
glory,” Nariman said, adding, that a majoritarian government is “always a
potential danger to the judiciary. Always. They want to control.”


Peace Is Doable


Fali
Nariman indicated that the current impasse over the appointment of a
judge may be linked to the government “still smarting” under the Supreme
Court’s…
indianexpress.com
comments (0)
04/26/18
2604 Apr 27 Fri LESSON 27-4-2018 Friday 09:30 AM to 04:00 PM Venue: Mahabodhi Auditorium,, Maha Bodhi Society, 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru -560009 ONE DAY CHILDREN’S DHAMMA CAMP (LEARNING BUDDHA VANDANA, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaTtc-5ded4 27-4-2018 Friday 09:30 AM to 04:00 PM Venue: Mahabodhi Auditorium,, Maha Bodhi Society, 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru -560009 ONE DAY CHILDREN’S DHAMMA CAMP (LEARNING BUDDHA VANDANA, MEDITATION, BUDDHIST STORYTELLING AND WRITING, PAINTING COMPETETION DEPICTING LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. FAMILIARISING HOLY OBJECTS OF THE MONASTERY ETC)
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 8:53 pm


2604 Apr 27  Fri LESSON


27-4-2018     Friday      09:30 AM to  04:00 PM

Venue: Mahabodhi Auditorium,, Maha Bodhi Society,
14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru -560009

ONE DAY CHILDREN’S DHAMMA CAMP

(LEARNING BUDDHA VANDANA,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaTtc-5ded4

27-4-2018 Friday 09:30 AM to 04:00 PM

Venue: Mahabodhi Auditorium,, Maha Bodhi Society,
14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru -560009

ONE DAY CHILDREN’S DHAMMA CAMP

(LEARNING BUDDHA VANDANA, MEDITATION,
BUDDHIST STORYTELLING AND WRITING,
PAINTING COMPETETION DEPICTING LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.
FAMILIARISING HOLY OBJECTS OF THE MONASTERY ETC)


Buddha Vandana
youtube.com
Pāḷi Devotional Chanting
1.
Buddhābhivādanā
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammā
Sambuddhassa
(repeat three times)
2.
Ti-Saraṇa
Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Dhammam saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Dutiyampi Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Dutiyampi Dhammam saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Dutiyampi Saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Tatiyampi Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Tatiyampi Dhammam saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
Tatiyampi Saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
3.
Pañca Sīla
Pānātipātā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
Adinnādānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
Kāmesu micchācārā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ
samādiyāmi
Musāvādā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
Surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī
sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi

MEDITATION,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98ficcEu-ns

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98ficcEu-ns
How To Meditate For Children: A Kid’s Guide to Peace
Yuttadhammo Bhikkhu
Published on Nov 21, 2011
A video on meditation for children. It’s a mixture of meditating on
ideas (like cats, dogs, parents, etc.) and meditating on reality
(sitting, breath, etc.).

For more information on how to meditate on reality, you can read my booklet that gives more specific instructions:

http://yuttadhammo.sirimangalo.org/ar

NEW: Subtitle file available here:

http://static.sirimangalo.org/kids.sb

Download the subtitle file and translate it into your own language, then send me a message and I can upload it.


A video on meditation for children. It’s a mixture of meditating on…
youtube.com
http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/meditate/guide.htm

http://www.buddhanet.net/e-lear…/buddhism/meditate/guide.htm
Teaching Meditation in the Classroom
Using these meditations with children is not the same as reading
stories to them. Reading is passive. Children do understand and become
involved in what you are reading, but in guided meditation they become
actively involved.

Reading a story and reading a meditation are
different functions. Reading stories to children is a must because it
helps the child to learn and spell, but meditation enables the mind to become free, to explore.

Each meditation has its own distinctive theme and gives children the
opportunity to experience it. They feel the love of the Buddha; radiate
loving-kindness; climb mountains; collect seashells; become a bird; feel
the touch of the wind on their face; and go to the moon.

There
are so many things they can do, and all these things must bring their
imagination to the fore. Most importantly, they learn to appreciate the
Dharma more. In other words, they participate in the meditation and
learn to be in touch with the source of love, strength and wisdom inside
themselve

BUDDHIST STORYTELLING

https://jackkornfield.com/the-storytelling-mind
/

The Storytelling Mind

When I first took robes and entered the monastic community of
Ajahn Chah, I had already been practicing meditation for two years. Now,
sitting and walking mindfully for hours in a little hut in the forest
clearing, my mind gradually became quite open and sensitive. One day as I
was scanning my attention through my body, I noticed with curiosity
that there were some areas where I could hardly feel anything and my
skin felt numb. With further awareness, this perception grew even
clearer.  Then I had the thought “patches of numbness on the limbs are
one of the first signs of leprosy.”  I was not usually prone to
hypochondria, but during part of my time in the Peace Corps, I had
 worked with lepers in a rural health program.  Now my mind got
worried.  I was afraid that the numbness meant I’d contracted leprosy. 
What would I do? Do they throw leprous monks out of the temple?  My fear
grew rapidly.  Thoughts proliferated.  I pictured my whole life
unfolding as a leper, an outcast and then a beggar.  Already isolated in
my forest hut, I now felt really alone.  Then I imagined having to tell
my mother, “Your son is a leper and he can never come home.”  Self-pity
was added to the alarm.  My thoughts went crazy. What was I to do?  I
was too ashamed to say anything about it.  What if it wasn’t true?  What
if it was? I waited and practiced while this whole movie played for
several days.

Then I noticed how the areas of numbness shifted and changed.  I got
the courage to ask a senior monk about sensations, though not about
leprosy.  He explained how body perceptions change in meditation –
sometimes you feel many new sensations, sometimes parts of the body seem
to dissolve or disappear.  It could happen on the skin or inside the
body.  “You just notice it all with mindfulness,” he laughed, as if to
ease my nervousness. For three days I lived as a leper.  Now all these
thoughts vanished like a dream.  Who was I now? What would my mind make
up next?

How do we work with the storytelling mind?  The poet Muriel
Ruckheyser writes, “The universe is made of stories, not atoms.” 
Buddhist psychology emphasizes that we must understand the power of the
stories we tell, and differentiate them from the direct experience of
life.  In this way we can use thoughts without being trapped by them. 
As one of my teachers put it, “Thoughts make a good servant, but a poor
master.”

The first step for us in working with the storytelling mind is to
notice the endless stream of thoughts and commentary that plays along
with our experience.  Almost everyone who sits down to meditate is
startled by this process. Even though we try to focus our attention on
our breath or body or a prayer, we are interrupted by a torrent of
ideas, memories, plans.  This is a key insight called “Seeing the
Waterfall.” One Buddhist meditation teacher explains that the average
person has 17,000 thoughts in one day.

Just as the salivary glands secrete saliva, the mind secretes
thoughts.  The thoughts think themselves.  This thought production is
not bad, it’s simply what minds do. A cartoon I once saw depicts a car
on a long western desert highway.  A roadside sign warns, “Your own
tedious thoughts next 200 miles.”   The thought stream can take the form
of pictures, of words and stories and even more subtly of body-based
and intuitive knowings.  One of the unique features of Buddhist
psychology is that it directs us to examine both to the content of our
thoughts, and the process of thinking itself.

 

This excerpt is taken from the book, “The Wise Heart”

 

(Read Part Two of The Storytelling Mind)

·

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3VM9d-pJtDY
Buddha Stories for Kids | Short Stories | Animated English Stories
MagicBox English Stories
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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/chi.1978.8.1.39?journalCode=ychi20

PAINTING COMPETETION DEPICTING LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

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Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni
Buddha. Buddha sitting in the meditation pose under the Bodhi tree.
Vang Vieng

Simuong) buddhist temple

Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Wat Naxai. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Wat Naxai. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Wat Naxai. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Wat Naxai. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Wat Naxai. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Wat Naxai. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock PhotoSiddhartha Gautama, his wife Yashodhara and his son Rahula. Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. - Stock PhotoCompassion to animals. Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Wat Naxai. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock PhotoQuan The Am Bo Tat  temple (Pagoda of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva). Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Kasi. Laos. - Stock PhotoAscetic Buddha was offered a bowl of milk-rice meal  on the morning of his Enlightenment by Nandabala. Painting - Stock Photo
Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Kasi. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Kasi. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. The Buddha devoted himself to teaching, attracting hundreds - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. The first discourse. The Buddha preaching the sermon - the - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Reclining Buddha.  Vang Vieng. Laos. - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. The Buddha devoted himself to teaching, attracting hundreds - Stock PhotoPainting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. The first discourse. The Buddha preaching the sermon - the - Stock PhotoWat Haysok.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha.  Buddha leaves his palace at night on his horse - Stock PhotoWat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. The Teaching Buddha depicts - Stock PhotoWat Naxai buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Compassion to animals. Vientiane. - Stock PhotoWat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Bathing in the river.  Vientiane. - Stock PhotoWat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo

Wat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddha sitting in the meditation - Stock Photo
Wat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddha sitting in the meditation - Stock Photo
Wat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddha sitting in the meditation - Stock Photo
Wat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddha sitting - Stock Photo
Wat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo
Wat Inpeng buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Towards human - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. The future Buddha - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. A wild elephant - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddha sitting - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddha sitting - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Repelling the - Stock Photo
Wat Si Muang ( Simuong) buddhist temple.  Painting depicting the life story of Shakyamuni Buddha. Vientiane. Laos. - Stock Photo

FAMILIARISING HOLY OBJECTS OF THE MONASTERY

http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/objects

Buddhist Ritual Objects

The articles in this section explore the form, function and symbolism
of the rich variety of objects used in Buddhist ritual and symbolic art.

Buddha Images
Although not used in earliest Buddhism, the Buddha image has become
one of the most popular Mahayana Buddhist ritual objects. full article →
Buddhist Art
Buddhist art includes sculptures, paintings and other art forms
that represent the stories and concepts of Buddhism. The earliest
Buddhist art, which originated in India, was mostly symbolic and avoided
figurative depictions of the Buddha… full article →
Buddhist Begging Bowls

The simple begging bowl is one of the very few possessions of a
Buddhist monk. It is used to collect alms and symbolizes the Buddha’s
teachings. full article →
Buddhist Incense Burners
One
of the most universal of Buddhist ritual vessels, incense burners are
used in all Buddhist cultures and range from large pots to small
censers. full article →
Buddhist Monastic Robes

The garb
of Buddhist monks varies from the simple saffron robes of Thailand to
the elaborate robes and headdresses of Tibetan lamas. full article →
Buddhist Skull Cups
The skull cup, normally made from a human skull, is an object used
in Tibetan rituals and associated with wrathful deities in art. full
article →
Thangka
A thangka (”flat painting”) is a
painted or embroidered banner hung in a monastery or a family altar and
carried by lamas in ceremonial processions. full article →
mala beads
Prayer beads, or mala beads, usually have 108 beads and are used
both in Hinduism and Buddhism for counting mantras, chants or prayers.
full article →
mandala
A mandala is a sacred geometric
figure that represents the universe and functions as a sacred area open
to deities and forces. full article →
prayer wheel
The
Tibetan prayer wheel contains a roll of printed mantras; to spin the
wheel is to release the prayers into the universe. full article →
singing bowl
When rubbed with a wooden puja stick, a Tibetan singing bowl makes a
resonant sound that assists in meditation and produces a calming
effect. full article →

Related Content
Article Info
Title Buddhist Ritual Objects
Published December 12, 2004
Last Updated November 18, 2016
URL www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/objects
Short URL rlft.co/3349
MLA Citation “Buddhist Ritual Objects.” ReligionFacts.com. 18 Nov. 2016. Web. Accessed 27 Apr. 2018. <www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/objects>


The
articles in this section explore the form, function and symbolism of
the rich variety of objects used in Buddhist ritual and symbolic art.
religionfacts.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
10 Priceless Artifacts DESTROYED by Accident!

MatthewSantoro
Published on Apr 26, 2018
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04/25/18
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 10:47 pm


2604 Apr 27  Fri LESSON



Buddha Jayanti Celebrations 2018

30ᵗʰ April

Buddha Jayanti 2017 GIF free downloadBuddha Purnima 2017 Images for Facebook

http://ww3.onvacations.co/animated-buddha-wallpaper/

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Lord Buddha Animated Images GIFs

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2603 Apr 26 Thu LESSON- Buddha Jayanti 30ᵗʰ April Buddha Jayanti is a special day for Buddhists all over the world. On this day people celebrate the life of Lord Buddha; his Birth, Awakenment and Mahaparinibbana.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 7:18 pm


2603 Apr 26 Thu LESSON


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDBCnYSzGBE
Buddha purnima date 2018 || Buddha jayanti || try new everyday ∆∆∆
Try new everyday
Published on Apr 20, 2018
Buddha purnima date 2018 || Buddha jayanti || try new everyday ∆∆∆
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Buddha Jayanti Celebrations 2018

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_yzfYzDyiEg
Buddha Jayanti Celebrations 2018
Sarad Pradhan
Published on Apr 18, 2018
2562nd Buddha Jayanti and International Buddhist Conference 2018 is
being organized in Lumbini to commemorate the three great events: the
Birth, the Enlightenment and the Mahaparinirvana of Lord Sakyamuni
Buddha as per the decision of Cabinet Meeting on 2074/11/28.

See more

2562nd Buddha Jayanti and International Buddhist Conference 2018 is being organized in Lumbini to commemorate the three…
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https://www.welcomenepal.com/index.php/whats-on/buddha-jayanti.html



Buddha Jayanti


30ᵗʰ April


Buddha Jayanti is a special day for 
Buddhists all over the world. On this day people celebrate the life of Lord
Buddha; his Birth, Awakenment and Mahaparinibbana.

Lumbini, in the western Terai plains of Nepal, is the place where
Prince Siddhartha (known as the Buddha) was born. The newly-born
Prince is believed to have taken seven steps and uttered a
timeless message to all humanity. It is believed that this happend in
the beautiful Sal grove, which is now the focal point of the Lumbini Garden area.

The Nativity Sculpture at Lumbini that depits the birth of the Buddha.

As per widely held beliefs, Maya Devi, the Queen of Shakya King
Suddhodhana of Kapilvastu, gave birth to the Prince Siddhartha while
passing through the Lumbini Garden, on the day of “Vaishakha Poornima”
(full-moon day of May) in 623 BC.

The Queen is believed to have taken a bath in Pushkarini (the Sacred
Pond) and taken support of a tree branch in anticipation of the
delivery, before giving birth to the little infant, who went on to
become the Buddha. 

Tourists celebrating Buddha Jayanti at one of the Buddhist shrines by lighting butter lamps.

Lumbini - the birthplace, Tilaurakot or Kapilvastu - where Buddha
spent his first 29 years, Devdaha - his maternal home, and other sacred
places and monasteries all over Kathmandu and Nepal, are crowded with
devotees on the day of Buddha Jayanti.

In Kathmandu valley, Buddhists of all persuasions as well as pilgrims
from abroad, honor the Buddha at the two great stupas Swyambhunath,
Boudhanath and the largely Buddhist city of Patan. Activities at the
main Buddhist stupas and shrines begin at dawn and continue till late in
the evening. 

https://thehimalayantimes.com/nepal/various-programmes-to-observe-2562nd-buddha-jayanti-in-portugal/

The Himalayan Times Logo

LISBON, PORTUGAL: The 2562nd birth anniversary of Lord Gautam Buddha would be celebrated by organising various programmes in Portugal on Monday.


Tourism Ambassador Ramesh Kumar Gurung said that Buddha Jayanti is
going to be celebrated by organising a variety of programmes after
forming a main ceremony committee comprising Nepali organisations.

The event is being organised with an objective of publicising Lord Gautam Buddha and Nepal.


Gurung said, “The main objective of the programme is to inform
foreigners about Buddha and disseminate a message that Buddha was born
in Nepal.”


A rally carrying idol of Buddha, placards, banners, the national flag
of Nepal as well as cultural procession would be organised at Lisbon on
April 30.


Meanwhile, religious leaders would worship Lord Buddha at Syndicate Hall after the rally.



http://photobucket.com/gallery/user/tayi_2007/media/cGF0aDpCdWRkaGFvdGhlcnMvQlVEREhBLmdpZg==/?searchTerm=animated%20buddha&page=1


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Graphics Buddha

comments (0)
2602 Apr 25 Wed LESSON
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 9:22 am

2602 Apr 25 Wed LESSON



Buddha


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https://www.ndtv.com/…/under-narendra-modi-government-vip-h…

[《90% of hateful comments made during the NDA’s current terms are by BJP politicians..

During the NDA period, a total of 44 political leaders made hateful
comments. Of them, 34 politicians, or 77%, are from the BJP. 10 leaders,
or 23% of the offenders, are from other political parties, including
the Congress, the Samajwadi Party and Lalu Yadav’s Rashtriya Janata Dal.

During UPA-2, 21 political leaders made hateful comments, of which 3 or
14 % were from the Congress, which anchored the coalition. From the
opposition, politicians from the BJP took the lead, recording seven
instances of hate speech.

Of the 44 leaders responsible for
hate speech since the Modi government came to power, we could only find
five cases ( only 4% of all instances) of evidence of a politician being
reprimanded or cautioned, or issuing a public apology. In 96% of the
time, the ‘VIP hater’ faced no consequence.

Cases were registered
only against 11 of the 44 politicians. In a separate investigation,
NDTV had reported on how cases of hate speech against political leaders
show little or no progress.》

Pls. vist the site by clicking on the link below.]

https://invalid.invalid/…/under-narendra-modi-government-vi…

Under Modi Government, VIP Hate Speech Skyrockets - By 500%
NDTV scanned nearly 1,300 articles and cross-referenced this with
databases. We went through 1,000 recent tweets of politicians and public
figures.

All India | Written by Nimisha Jaiswal with Sreenivasan Jain and Manas Pratap Singh |

Updated: April 17, 2018 22:33 IST

Under Modi Government, VIP Hate Speech Skyrockets - By 500%
Click to Play

The hate speech data was collated from public record, the internet, and our reporters’ network.

NEW DELHI: The use of hateful and divisive language by high-ranking
politicians has increased almost 500% in the past four years, an NDTV
data collection exercise has found.

The premise of the exercise
was simple: it seems not a day, or a week goes by without some senior
politician - a member of Parliament, minister, MLA or even Chief
Minister making a hateful comment, be it in the language of bigotry or
calling for violence. The rise in use of social media by politicians has
only amplified this disturbing trend.

Our aim was to establish,
as accurately as possible, whether this is ‘business as usual,’ or if
the practice of ‘VIP hate speech,’ which has a long and troubled history
in this country, witnessed an unusual rise in the recent past.

The methodology is as follows: we defined hate speech as statements that
are clearly communal, casteist, or calls to violence. These instances
could invoke action under laws that cover hate speech - laws like
Section 295A (outraging religious feeling), Section 153 (promoting
enmity between groups) or Section 505 (making statements conducing to
public mischief) of the Indian Penal Code.

We also included
comments that may not directly be communal, but are clearly “dog
whistling” - loaded against a community or religion in an indirect or
coded way.

We did not include crude or sexist remarks that are derogatory to women.

We selected two time periods for our analysis - the four years from
2014 until now of the Modi government, and the five years from 2009 to
2014, under the second Congress-led United Progressive Alliance.

We concentrated on elected representatives - members of parliament,
members of legislative assemblies, chief ministers - well as those
holding high offices, like party leaders and governors.

The data was collated from public record and the internet, as well as using our network of reporters.

We scanned nearly 1,300 articles, and cross-referenced this information
with databases such as the Documentation of the Oppressed and Amnesty
International’s Halt the Hate Tracker.

We also went through the 1,000 most-recent tweets (ending with April 2018) of top politicians and public figures.

We also looked up what action, if any, was taken against the leaders making hate speech.

To be clear: this is far from a perfect record, and in no way are we
claiming this to be comprehensive. Readers (and viewers) are welcome to
submit any omissions that meet our criteria.

Based on what we
found, from May 2014 to the present, there have been 124 instances of
VIP hate speech by 44 politicians, compared to 21 instances under UPA 2,
an increase of 490%.

hate speech data 1 ndtv

upa nda hate speech gfx ndtv

90% of hateful comments made during the NDA’s current terms are by BJP politicians.

During the NDA period, a total of 44 political leaders made hateful
comments. Of them, 34 politicians, or 77%, are from the BJP. 10 leaders,
or 23% of the offenders, are from other political parties, including
the Congress, the Samajwadi Party and Lalu Yadav’s Rashtriya Janata Dal.

During UPA-2, 21 political leaders made hateful comments, of which 3 or
14 % were from the Congress, which anchored the coalition. From the
opposition, politicians from the BJP took the lead, recording seven
instances of hate speech.

The remaining 11 instances of hate
speech from 11 political leaders under UPA-2 include politicians from
the Samajwadi Party, the Bahujan Samaj Party, the Majlis-e-Ittehadul
Muslimeen, and the Shiv Sena.

VIP HATE SPEECH: NO PENALTIES

Of the 44 leaders responsible for hate speech since the Modi government
came to power, we could only find five cases ( only 4% of all
instances) of evidence of a politician being reprimanded or cautioned,
or issuing a public apology. In 96% of the time, the ‘VIP hater’ faced
no consequence..

Cases were registered only against 11 of the 44
politicians. In a separate investigation, NDTV had reported on how cases
of hate speech against political leaders show little or no progress.

In November, just four days before Suraj Pal Amu, the BJP’s chief media
coordinator at that time, offered a bounty for beheading actor Deepika
Padukone, the Haryana police had driven 360 km to arrest a 19-year-old,
Shaqib, for posting an offensive image of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

VIP HATERS PROMOTED?

In at least two cases, hate speech appears to have paid off.

Yogi Adityanath, the current Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, was a
member of parliament from Uttar Pradesh when, in November 2015, he said
“There is no difference between the language of Shah Rukh Khan and that
of Hafiz Saeed.”

In September 2014, he ascribed the rise in riots
in Western UP to the population growth of a minority community. “In
places where there are 10 to 20% minorities, stray communal incidents
take place,” he said. “Where there are 20 to 35% of them, serious
communal riots take place and where they are more than 35%, there is no
place for non-Muslims.”

In all, there are six such instances of
hate speech by the Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister. All were made before he
was promoted to his current office.

yogi adityanath pti
Yogi Adityanath, in ascribed the rise in riots in Western UP to the population growth of a minority community

Anant Kumar Hegde was a BJP member of parliament from Karnataka when,
in March 2016, he said, “As long as we have Islam in the world, there
will be no end to terrorism. If we are unable to end Islam, we won’t be
able to end terrorism.”

In September 2017, he was promoted as Union Minister of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.

Since 2014, Mr Hegde has made eight such hate speeches. Three months
after being made union minister, in December 2017, Mr Hegde declared
that the party would remove the term “secular” from the Constitution,
saying “These people who call themselves secularists are like people
without parentage or who don’t know their bloodline.”

POLL-ING HATE IN KARNATAKA

Mr Hegde is one of three serial ‘VIP haters’ in poll-bound Karnataka.

Shobha Karandlaje, a member of parliament from Karnataka and the
general secretary of the Karnataka BJP, has posted at least nine hateful
tweets since June last year. These include tweets like the one below.

Shobha Karandlaje


@ShobhaBJP
Siddaramaiah govt withdrawing the cases of jihadis.He wants to create
communal tension in the state at the cost ofHindu life’s # Save Hindus

4:52 PM - Jan 26, 2018
207
105 people are talking about this
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Shobha Karandlaje

@ShobhaBJP
CM Siddaramaiah why ur not withdrawing the cases of innocent Hindu youths ? Why only Minorities ?

4:54 PM - Jan 26, 2018
168
64 people are talking about this
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Shobha Karandlaje

@ShobhaBJP
Will continue my fight against Jihadi elements.There is no way I’ll succumb to the pressure of @siddaramaiah Govt.#HinduLivesMatter

6:30 PM - Dec 22, 2017
541
239 people are talking about this
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Pratap Simha, another member of parliament from Karnataka, has also
posted four hateful tweets since September last year. These include
Tweets like:

Pratap Simha

@mepratap
Dear @SPmysuru Ravi Channannavar prior to Eid Milad, over night you
allowed Muslims to erect illegal green arch on govt road, but stopped us
from putting Hanuman Posters! From last two years u are distrusting
Hanuman Jayanti! What a policing!!

9:12 AM - Dec 3, 2017
1,005
766 people are talking about this
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Pratap Simha

@mepratap
Your bros can kill others just few hours before Eid, but Muslims cannot be arrested on Eid!! Wow, what a logic?! http://www.ndtv.com/…/5-policemen-injured-after-terrorists-…https://twitter.com/shehla_rashid/status/903837580336160768

8:08 PM - Sep 2, 2017
182
104 people are talking about this
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Mr Simha has since been appointed by the government as a member of the Press Council of India.

‘VIP HATERS’: REPEAT OFFENDERS

In further proof that hate has no consequence on the careers of
political leaders, we found that at least 21 political leaders (or 48%)
had recorded more than one instance of hate speech. They were not
reprimanded for their hateful comments, nor did they issue apologies.

Prominent amongst them, T Raja Singh, a BJP MLA from Telangana, who has
repeatedly made public speeches inciting violence. In November last
year, he threatened to burn down theatres screening “Padmavat.”

Reacting to the communal violence in Kasganj, Uttar Pradesh, in January
2018, he said, “Every Hindu should carry weapons like lathis and attack
other communities’ members if they said anything wrong.”

Since December 2015, Mr Singh has made at least ten hateful comments.

Other prominent repeat offenders include former BJP member of parliament Vinay Katiyar, and Governor of Tripura Tathagata Roy.

Mr Katiyar, who finished his Rajya Sabha term just this month, has made
at least four communal speeches since December 2017. In February this
year, he said Muslims have no business being in India, and should go to
Pakistan or Bangladesh.

“The cremation ground inside the Taj will
be destroyed,” he said in another speech in February, claiming that the
Taj Mahal was in fact, a temple. “Only our temple will exist and only
the pillars that exist around it will stand.”

Mr Roy has
repeatedly taken to Twitter to make communal comments. Since March 2015,
he has made at least 12 such comments, like the ones below:

Tathagata Roy
@tathagata2
Intelligence shd keep a tab on all (expt relatives & close
friends) who assembled bfr Yakub Memon’s corpse. Many are potential
terrorists

9:06 AM - Jul 31, 2015
575
1,300 people are talking about this
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Tathagata Roy
@tathagata2
Replying to @tani_sana
@tani_sana One exception was Gujarat,2002. I’m glad you appreciate what the Hindus did then @AdityaRajKaul

4:40 PM - Mar 23, 2015
33
86 people are talking about this
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BIGOTRY, THREATS IN THE NAME OF THE COW

A significant number of instances of hate speech invoke the rhetoric of
cow protection, a subject that has gained currency under this
government. Elected leaders, including MPs, MLAs and even Chief
Ministers have used the language of vigilantes while calling for
violence against those who kill cows.

“There is no such thing
(cow slaughter) happening in the state. It hasn’t happened in the state
in the last 15 years. Has it? We will hang those who kill cows,” said
Raman Singh, the Chief Minister of Chattisgarh, in April 2017.

“I
had promised that I will break the hands and legs of those who do not
consider cows their mother and kill them,” Vikram Saini, a BJP MLA from
Uttar Pradesh, said last year.

“I will say it straight out, if
you smuggle and slaughter cows, then you will be killed. The cow is our
mother,” Gyan Dev Ahuja, a BJP MLA from Rajasthan, said in December last
year.

The rise in political vitriol over cow protection in the
past four years appears to correlate with a rise in cow-related
vigilantism. The fact-checking site India Spend reported that 97% of gau
raksha attacks since 2010 occurred under the current government. They
counted 76 attacks from May 2014 to December 2017, compared to only two
instances in the earlier period (from 2010 to May 2014).

VIP HATE SPEECH: MINORITY BAITING

Another popular theme in hate speech by political leaders was repeated
attempts to delegitimise the Muslim faith, urging Muslims to accept
their Hindu ancestry, or inciting fears of a Muslim takeover by playing
on fears of an increasing Muslim population.

Like Surendra Singh,
a BJP MLA from Uttar Pradesh, who said in January this year, “Muslims
who assimilate into our culture will stay in India. Those who will not
are free to take asylum in any other country.”

BJP member of
Parliament Sakshi Maharaj has also made hateful speeches along this
theme. In June last year, he exhorted every Hindu woman to have four
children to “protect the religion.” “If problems are arising in the
country due to population, Hindus are not responsible for that,” said
Maharaj. “Responsible are those who talk of four wives and forty
children.” An FIR with charges of inciteful and divisive speech was
filed against Maharaj for this speech.

BJP member of parliament
Subramanian Swamy has repeatedly written hateful tweets against Muslims,
posting at least 17 of these since September 2017:

Subramanian Swamy

@Swamy39
Replying to @kumarvikash011
: He knows that I am not anti Hindustani Muslim i.e., those Muslims who acknowledge their ancestors as Hindus.

9:33 AM - Feb 3, 2018
60
35 people are talking about this
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Subramanian Swamy

@Swamy39
Hindus wake up! Muslims leaders are refusing to give up on a
masjid,that is shiftable,to restore the holiest temple on the birthplace
of Ram

10:09 AM - Nov 16, 2017
18.8K
11K people are talking about this
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Choudhary Babulal, a BJP member of parliament from Rajasthan, issued an
open threat to anyone “insulting the [Hindu] community” after the death
of a Vishwa Hindu Parishad leader in February 2016. “We do not want
unrest at any cost, but if you want to test Hindus, then let’s decide a
date and take on Muslims,” said Mr Babulal.

WHEN LAWMAKERS THREATEN THE LAW

The past four years have also seen political leaders threatening the
administration with violence for taking action against members of their
own party, religion or their ideological fraternity.

For
instance, in February 2016, Arun Kumar Mauhar, a leader of the Vishwa
Hindu Parishad, was shot dead on his way back from a temple in Mandola,
Uttar Pradesh. Five people from the minority community were arrested for
the murder.

While his family cited personal enmity, political
leaders from the BJP and the VHP called a condolence meeting three days
later, where several hate speeches were made.

At the meeting, Ram
Shankar Katheria, a BJP MP and the then Minister of State for Human
Resources Development (now the chairman of the National Commission for
Scheduled Castes) threatened to kill those who attacked Mr Mauhar.

“Today we have lost one Arun, tomorrow it could be another Arun…the killers should be killed,” said Mr Katheria.

Three BJP leaders were booked for making hate speeches at the meeting.
Though Mr Katheria was not named, three weeks after the meeting, he
said, “”If cases against the BJP and VHP leaders are not withdrawn
within 15 days, if the administration continues to ignore our demand,
then a different kind of Holi would be played after 15 days.”

Sangeet Som, an MLA from UP who was re-elected in the 2017 elections,
reacted to the media coverage and the arrests of nine men accused of the
lynching of Mohammed Akhlaq in Dadri in 2015 by saying, “If action is
taken against innocent, we have given a befitting reply earlier and can
do so again.”

sangeet som
On the Dadri lynching, MLA Sangeet
Som said, “If action is taken against innocent, we have given a
befitting reply earlier and can do so again.” (File)

TOP LEADERS, CODED BIGOTRY

The reluctance of the current ruling party to crack down on its hate
speech ‘offenders’ may partly be explained by the fact that the top
leadership of the party does not seem averse to playing the communal
card, albeit using veiled language.

Prominent amongst such instances are speeches by BJP party president Amit Shah, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself.

“If there is a cemetery in the village, there should be a crematorium
as well; if there is electricity on Ramzan, it should be there on Diwali
as well; there shouldn’t be any discrimination,” Mr Modi had said in
February 2017, during an election rally in Fatehpur, UP, in the run-up
to the assembly elections that his party swept.

Ahead of the
Bihar election in 2015, at a speech in Buxar in October that year, Mr
Modi said, “Nitish and Lalu have conspired to take away the 5%
reservation for OBCs, EBCs and Dalits and give it to the minorities. I
swear I will die protecting the rights of the OBCs, EBCs and Dalits.”

During the same campaign, Amit Shah sparked controversy with this
comment: “If by any mistake, BJP loses, the victory and defeat may be
in Bihar but fire crackers will go off in Pakistan.”

THREATS AGAINST YOGI, MODI

In the instances of hate speech in the past four years by prominent
leaders of the opposition, threats of violence against Prime Minister
Modi feature more than once.

In October 2017, Bihar MLA an
Rashtriya Janata Dal leader Tej Pratap Yadav said “A conspiracy is being
hatched to kill Lalu-ji. We will not stay silent. We will skin Narendra
Modi.”

Just a week before this threat, Rabri Devi, Tej Pratap’s
mother and a former Chief Minister of the state, reacted to a comment
by BJP MP Nityanand Rai saying he would cut off the fingers or any hand
raised against PM Modi.

“I dare them to cut (hands), there are many people who can cut the hands and neck of PM Modi,” she said.

Earlier this month, Dinesh Gundu Rao, a Congress MLA from Karnataka,
declared UP Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath unfit to step into the state.
“If Yogi Adityanath comes again to Karnataka, we should show chappals
to him and make sure that he is sent back,” said Mr Rao. “If a person
like him comes to Karnataka, then our mother land will become impure.”
Mr Rao later apologised for the comment.

VIP HATE UNDER UPA 2

Under the previous government, there were at least 21 instances of hate
speech recorded across party lines. Amongst the prominent instances: in
the lead up to the 2014 general elections, Rahul Gandhi, then a member
of parliament, said, “If the BJP comes to power, 22,000 people will be
killed.”

Also in the run-up to the general elections, Congress
candidate Imran Masood said, “If Modi tries to turn Uttar Pradesh into
Gujarat, then we will chop him into tiny pieces.”

Akbaruddin
Owaisi, the leader of the All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen and
then an MLA in Andhra Pradesh, had issued a violent threat against
Hindus in December 2012. “Remove the police for 15 mins, we will finish
off 100 crore Hindus,” he had said during a speech. He spent 40 days in
jail on charges of hate speech before getting bail.

The Samajwadi
Party’s Azam Khan, at the time an MLA in Uttar Pradesh, was campaigning
for the 2014 general elections when he said the country cannot be
“given in the hands of a murderer,” referring to Mr Modi, who was then
the Gujarat Chief minister.

“When Narendra Modi had been asked
about 2002 Gujarat riots, he said that if a dog comes under the wheel of
a car, he is very upset,” said Mr Khan. “The murderers of Muzaffarnagar
should be avenged by pressing the button.”

hate speech by politicians ndtv

HATE SPEECH DATABASE


Peace Is Doable


The
use of hateful and divisive language by high-ranking politicians has
increased almost 500% in the past four years, an NDTV data collection
exercise has found.
ndtv.com

https://www.ibtimes.co.in/evm-tampering-bhind-dm-sp-removed…

Bahujan Samaj Party supremo Mayawati had called for investigation on
EVM tampering after her party was drubbed in the Uttar Pradesh elections
.

How is it that all faulty machines only register votes in favour of BJP?

“Who is changing the software and how is not being checked,”

Why the Source Code of the software not made public to the contestants and the voters ?

EVM tampering: Bhind DM & SP removed after video showing machine dispensing BJP slips goes viral

The incident in Bhind ahead of the April 9 bypoll in Ater will
certainly give a shot in the arm of the anti-BJP forces who have
recently raised allegations of tampering with the EVM machines.

the district collector and superintendent of police of Bhind, Madhya
Pradesh, were removed while action was initiated against 19 others after
a video of a dummy test of an electronic voting machine (EVM) that only
ejected BJP slips went viral.

The video showed the
voter-verifiable paper audit trail (VVPAT) only released the saffron
party’s lotus symbol even if different buttons were pressed. The
Election Commission sought a report from 21 officials before the Ater
bypoll on April 9.

The video went viral amidst the clamour of
many politicians that the EVM machines were tampered with during the
Assembly elections held recently.

“If some EVMs can be faulty,
many others may also be tampered with. These reports are shocking and
raise doubts about the essence of democracy in this country. This means
that if this continues, no matter who people vote for, the lotus will
bloom out of the muck of EVMs,”

RTI reveals contradictory numbers of EVMs from Election Commission, suppliers; raise question mark on polls

[This development, obviously, makes the scene way murkier.

《Indiscriminate acquisition of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) by the
Election Commission, inexplicable mismatch in numbers of machines from
producers and buyers, and insecure transportation have emerged as major
concerns from official replies to Right to Information (RTI) queries.

Mumbai RTI activist Manoranjan S Roy — who painstakingly pursued the
matter for nearly a year — said the RTI responses may have severe
repercussions on the conduct of free, fair and credible elections in the
country.》]

RTI reveals contradictory numbers of EVMs from Election Commission, suppliers; raise question mark on polls
India IANS Apr 08, 2018 17:09:49 IST

Mumbai: Indiscriminate acquisition of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs)
by the Election Commission, inexplicable mismatch in numbers of
machines from producers and buyers, and insecure transportation have
emerged as major concerns from official replies to Right to Information
(RTI) queries.

Mumbai RTI activist Manoranjan S Roy — who
painstakingly pursued the matter for nearly a year — said the RTI
responses may have severe repercussions on the conduct of free, fair and
credible elections in the country.

evmRepresentational image. Reuters
Terming the revelations “extremely grave”, Roy said the poll panel and
the EVM manufacturing companies need to be asked to explain these
discrepancies as it “affects the very foundation of the Indian democracy
and its election system”.

Used in India since 1989, the EVMs —
comprising a Balloting Unit (BU) and a Control Unit (CU), and recently,
Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) — are currently manufactured
by only two PSUs Electronics Corp of India Ltd (ECIL) in Hyderabad and
Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) in Bengaluru.

Roy’s RTI queries
revealed that from 1989-90 till May 15, 2017, the Election Commission
procured a total of 1,005,662 BUs and 928,049 CUs from BEL, plus another
1,014,644 BUs and 934,031 CUs from ECIL.

An RTI query to the
Union Ministry of Law and Justice showed that the government received
intimation of purchase of 1,395,306 BUs and 930,716 CUs in 2016-17.

BEL said on 9 June, 2017, that it supplied 125,000 CUs and 190,000 BUs to EC, from 2010 to 2017.

ECIL said it provided 222,925 BUs and 211,875 CUs to EC from 2010 to
2017, and another 497,348 BUs and 307,030 CUs for the same period.

According to Roy, against the figures provided by the EC on the number
of EVMs received, BEL and ECIL have submitted data with huge differences
in the numbers they have supplied, at times ranging from several
thousands to lakhs of EVMs, raising questions on “where the excess
number of EVMs are going, what is being done with them”.

Roy says all this “indicates something very suspicious is going on between these organisations”.

On the questions of payments too, major discrepancies came out in the figures from 2006-07 to 2016-17.

Against the EC’s “actual expenditure” of Rs 5,360,175,485 (spent) on
EVMs, the BEL RTI reply said it received from EC a payment of Rs
6,525,644,000 — a difference (excess) of Rs 116.55 crore.

On the
mode of transportation, the capacity of trucks vis-à-vis the dimensions
of the EVMs, BUs and CUs — figures provided by both BEL and ECIL also
were way off.

“In many instances, the transportation details are
at complete variance with the purported capacity of the trucks vis-à-vis
the EVM dimensions and the carrying load of the containers that are
disclosed,” Roy said.

“According to the standard calculations, a
32×8x8 feet container can accommodate 199 BUs or 261 CUs, and a 20×8x8
feet container can take 124 BUs or 163 CUs, but the BEL says it has
dispatched between 320 to 400 units per container. Were extra machines
dispatched to EC? If so, what happened to them?” asked Roy.

Even
on the question of voter and candidates capacity of the EVMs, the
figures thrown up points to non-standardisation from both the
manufacturers.

“Between 1989 and 2000, the ECIL EVMs capacity was
64 candidates and voter capacity 3,902. It was modified in 2014-15 to
accept 384 candidates but only for 2,000 voters. In 2014-15, its EVM’s
capacity was for 60 candidates and 8,000 voters. But the capacity of
VVPAT EVMs was a mere 1,500 voters,” said Roy.

BEL said in its
reply that, till 2005, its EVMs had a capacity of 3,824 voters which was
later reduced to 2,000 from 2006. At present, their EVMs have capacity
for only 16 candidates. “There is absolutely no logic or standardisation
applied. Who authorised these design changes,” Roy asked.

Roy
has filed a writ petition in the Bombay High Court, through Pawar and
Company, seeking directions to all parties to provide all
records/documents pertaining to EVMs, setting up of a suitable probe
panel to ban use of EVMs till the logical outcome of the probe.

Published Date: Apr 08, 2018 17:09 PM | Updated Date: Apr 08, 2018 17:09 PM

Peace Is Doable


The
incident in Bhind ahead of the April 9 bypoll in Ater will certainly
give a shot in the arm of the anti-BJP forces who have recently raised
allegations of tampering…
ibtimes.co.in

http://indianexpress.com/…/karnataka-assembly-elections-20…/

[This is an implicit admission on the part of the Sanghis that the
“Development”/”Gujarat Model’ and “anti-corruption” pitches are just not
working.
So, it has got to be a hate campaign, with very few ifs and buts.

《”This election is not about roads, water or other issues. This
election is about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid,” ANI
quoted BJP lawmaker Sanjay Patil as saying in Belagavi. Patil represents
the Belagavi Rural constituency in north Karnataka. The video of Patil
making this comments has been doing rounds on social media and has
evoked criticism from many quarters.》]

http://indianexpress.com/…/karnataka-assembly-elections-20…/

Karnataka polls 2018 about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid, not about other issues: BJP MLA
Karnataka will go to polls on May 12 and the results will be declared
on May 15. The tenure of the current Karnataka Legislative Assembly will
expire on May 28.

By: Express Web Desk | New Delhi |

Updated: April 19, 2018 9:51:45 pm

Karnataka assembly elections 2018: “This election is not about roads,
water or other issues.This election is about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram
Mandir vs Babri Masjid,” says BJP MLA Sanjay Patil.

A Bharatiya
Janata Party (BJP) MLA in Karnataka has raked up a controversy with his
comment that the upcoming state assembly election is “not about roads
and drinking water but about Hindu-Muslim incidents”.

“This
election is not about roads, water or other issues. This election is
about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid,” ANI quoted BJP
lawmaker Sanjay Patil as saying in Belagavi. Patil represents the
Belagavi Rural constituency in north Karnataka. The video of Patil
making this comments has been doing rounds on social media and has
evoked criticism from many quarters.

View image on Twitter
View image on Twitter

ANI


@ANI
This election is not about roads, water or other issues.This election
is about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid: BJP MLA Sanjay
Patil in Belagavi. #KarnatakaElections2018 (17.4.18)

3:23 PM - Apr 19, 2018
1,033
1,175 people are talking about this
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Karnataka will go to polls on May 12 and the results will be declared
on May 15. The tenure of the current Karnataka Legislative Assembly will
expire on May 28.

ALSO READ | Karnataka Assembly Elections 2018: BJP’s 22 or Congress’ resurgence?

BJP MLA from Bairia, Surendra Singh, had recently said that the 2019
Lok Sabha elections will be a contest between two “mentalities” — Hindu
and Islamic. “Ye 2019 ka chunav Islam banam bhagwan hone ja raha hai
(The 2019 elections are going to be Islam versus bhagwan),” Singh told
the public during a rally in Ballia on Thursday.

READ | Bairia BJP MLA at UP rally: ‘Lok Sabha elections will be Islam versus bhagwan’


Peace Is Doable


Karnataka
will go to polls on May 12 and the results will be declared on May 15.
The tenure of the current Karnataka Legislative Assembly will expire on
May 28.
indianexpress.com

comments (0)
04/23/18
2601 Apr 24 Tue LESSON
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 6:18 pm

2601 Apr 24 Tue LESSON


Respected Marasandra Muniappa Ji,

Karnataka BSP in-charge,

Wish you success on the day you file your nomination on behalf
of BSP movement for social transformation for the happiness, welfare,
and peace of all societies.
You may with the permission of high command register with the EC that
Ballot Papers in the polls now and during Scrutiny of your papers along
with all our contestants which you did successfully in the Hindu News
Paper.
Wishing success to all our contestants,

With lots of Metta

J Chandrasekharan

Please Note:
If the EC insists on using EVMs, kindly demand for EVM’s software with its source code
Image may contain: 1 personImage may contain: one or more people and people standing
ಆನೇಕಲ್ ವಿಧಾನ ಸಭಾ ಕ್ಷೇತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ BSP ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸಂಯೋಜಕರಾದ ಡಾ. ಶ್ರೀನಿವಾಸ್ ರವರು ನಾಮ ಪತ್ರ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸಿದ ಕ್ಷಣ


L

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Congress
leader and senior advocate Kapil Sibal, who has vowed not to appear
before Chief Justice Dipak Misra, said his party will soon move a
petition in the Supreme Court to challenge the rejection of notice for
impeachment of CJI by Rajya Sabha Chairman M Venkaiah Naidu.

https://india.liveuamap.com/…/15-march-supreme-court-has-sa…
Supreme Court has said that EVM is vulnerable to tampering. Former CJI
Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the
EVMs have to be replaced in a phased manner where replacement is a
clear proof that EVMs are vulnerable to tampering while te EVM’s
software and its source code is kept secret and not made public to the
voters and contestants. The former CEC Sampath suggested that the EVMs could
be replaced in a phased manner as it cost Rs 1600 crore at that time.
They never bothered to order for Ballot papers to be used. This enabled
the Murderers of democratic institutions (Modi) to gobble the Master
Key. Just 0.1% intolerant, cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of
the world, violent, militant, ever shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded, rapist chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam
Sevaks ) who are Paradesi outsiders from Bene Israeli have become
emboldened and negated the Universal Adult franchise and controlling the
Judiciary, Executive, parliament and the Media.

First time in the history of our country that most of the opposition parties are against the CJI.


Prakurti


5766


-


-Follow

Well there is the
very bad example of the former Chief Justice Sathasivam being anointed
as Kerala Governor under this Modi Govt., setting a very bad precedent
undermining the institutional integrity of Supreme Court. Who knows,
Deepak Mishra too would be favoured in such a fashion if this Modi
Govt., unfortunately returns back to power by peoples indiscretion.
Incidentally, Sathasivam was the one who gave a clean chit to Amit Shah
in the fake encounter case and also controversially acquitting
Jayalaitha in the TANSI case even after passing a stinging remark that
she should touch her own moral conscience to ponder as to what she did
was right or wrong !!

Indian


736


-


-Follow

first time in the history of our country that most of the opposition parties are against the CJI.

Achutha Karkera


170


-


-Follow

Article 124(4) is the constitution
clearly says that removal of Judge of Supreme Court or High Court on two
counts I.e.Proved Misbehaviour & Incapacity. Based on this point
and also the legal opinion taken from the senior most legal advisors
Venkaiah Naidu rejected the motion to remove CJI.

Amit
Shah, Venkaiah, BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) are stooges,
chamchas, chelas, slaves, bootlickers and own mother’s flesh eaters
shamelessly supporting the racist citpavan brahmins deserve hang till death
sentence so the rest of Indians can live in peace
.



Constitution Protector


9379


-


-


-Follow

Amit Shah, Venkaiah, BJP same thing
same action shame shame. The reality is that CJI, Abhinav, Amit Shah,
BJP and RSS are racist personality thus they deserve hang till death
sentence so the rest of Indians can live in peace.

Partha Trivedi


807


-


-Follow

To be expected from the RSS BJP! Not a surprise!


Praveen K Vaidyan


733


-


-


-Follow

As expected, Venkaiah rejected the
motion, which proves the political connection of ruling government and
the the CJI.. Sad day for indian democracy.. BJP has systematically
hijacked democratic institutions to carry out RSSâ s fasict agenda..
May god save the country…

Prakurti


5766


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-Follow

The impeachment motion is not
against the Supreme Court. but against the CJI who is sullying its
reputation and diminishing its credibility with his abhorrent conduct.
So for the ruling party to claim that it is an attack on the Institution
of Supreme Court is patently absurd and irrational. If at all, this is a
genuine attempt to restore the institutional independence of Supreme
Court heavily compromised by the CJI with his misbehaviour.

Prakurti


5765


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-Follow

What is the real
hurry for the Vice President to dismiss the petition ? The petition was
submitted just two days ago when the VP was not in the Capital and yet
he comes back and dismisses the petition within a matter of few hours
strangely evaluating its demerits, lack of evidence and citing frivolous
reasons for its dismissal. How is this really possible even without a
study is what betrays logic and rationale. Such arbitrary decisions only
strengthen the suspicions about the conduct of Chief Justice and his
proximity to the power Centres insidiously influencing judicial
verdicts.

Proud Indian


5313


-


-


-Follow

As expected tainted CJI is fielded
by ruling party and VP is also member of ruling party its but natural
motion will be rejected

farooque sendulay


245


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-Follow

A case was put up before a maharaja
who was known as akkal bakkal raaja the case was about misdeeds of his
children all the proofs were also put up. The raaja even did not look at
the proofs no argument were allowed and he declared there is nothing in
the case so case is dismissed. Same way todays akkal bakkal raja has
dismissed this case agianst CJ.

Mahesh Rao


839


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-Follow

A bad dark day for democracy and
judiciary independence created by BJP. They should allow for a fair
enquiry. Remember the basic reason is that 4 senior most judges of
supreme Court have raised objections in an unprecedented move, cji has
done nothing since then. Now it proves that he enjoys immense political
patronage by ruling party.

Abdur Rahman


1425


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Shah will make this idiot the president

Jimmy Lobo


1441


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If aim of VP was to clear CJI, THE
INQUIRY PROCESS should have gone through.This takes time and his
decision appears to be hasty. As VP, was there need to consult others.
He should have made his self judgement,soley his own That is why he
holds this august position.. So it cannot be a decision of his alone.
This also is bad. He has dragged his name to a court, unnecessarily

Lionel Fernandes


429


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Given the numbers, the impeachment
motion against the CJI was bound to fail even if admitted. Nevertheless,
is it proper for the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha to substitute his
judgement for the collective wisdom of the House in coming to the
conclusion that there was no merit in the motion? This would mean that
he has a veto over the prerogative of elected MPs. How democratic is
that? Misbehaviour has to be proved after inquiry and not before it,
anyways!

Khaqane Azam


8531


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-Follow

The Congressi Con-artists are definitely better at politics than the Modi Mafia 👏👏😂
It’’s GREAT TO SEE THE MODI MAFIA IN HOT WATERS!!! HAHAHA 👏👏😂
It’’s great to see the hunters being hunted!! The Bhakts are crying like little bit©hes!! HAHAHA 👏👏😂

protesters


5559


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-Follow

CJI and VP are both BJP men, what
else can be expected? Why doesnt this govt restore some confidence by
doing something transparently and fairly? The way this govt is doing
things doesnt seen democratic. If you want to come back to power in 2019
please restore peoples faith in the system because the ground realities
are not looking good for the bjp.

mathaj


4344


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it is not Congress alone other opposition parties are also unhappy so it is not right to reject the motion to please the masters

Devi


170


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Indian judiciary and legislature is sold out to the Hindustan elements!

My India


1477


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One Chaddi is helping another Chaddi.
Chaddi - Chaddi Bhai Bhai.


Pravesh


6177


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The rejection of
motion for impeachment of CJI borders on absurdity and the decision is
highly prejudiced when it gives a clean chit even without an enquiry
and prematurely cast aspersions and malifide motivations of the
petitioners of this motion. Infact what the Vice President is doing is
unconstitutional because he is not vested with powers to reject it in
the first place and the battle speed with which he took this decision
only lends further credence that the fate of this motion was decided
arbitrarily even before its submission rather than on its merits. The
charges against the CJI are pretty serious and are being levelled by
four senior judges of the Supreme Court. The whole edfice of the Indian
judicial system and its credibility lies in tatters and its
controversial judgements have come under a cloud and this taint should
be necessarily removed. This motion is also moved individually and not
on party basis. The anxiety and keen interest of the ruling dispensation
to shield the CJI only further strengthens the perception that they are
hand in glove and this proximity and personal equations are heavily
influencing judgements, many of which are flummoxing.



Tweets

Money needed to run a missionary movement.

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comments (0)
04/22/18
2600 Mon 23 Apr 2018 LESSON Respected Marasandra Muniappa Ji, Karnataka BSP in-charge, Wish you success on the day you file your nomination on behalf of BSP movement for social transformation for the happiness, welfare, and peace of all societies. You may with the permission of high command register with the EC that Ballot Papers in the polls now and during Scrutiny of your papers along with all our contestants which you did successfully in the Hindu News Paper. Wishing success to all our contestants, With lots of Metta J Chandrasekharan Please Note: If the EC insists on using EVMs, kindly demand for EVM’s software with its source code Dear brother/sisters, We co ordially innvite you On 23th April 2018, nomination by JDS-BSP alliance candidate Smt:Shobha Ballari for Hubli-Dharawad ( East) Constituency at Hubli Tashiladhar Office. Hope you will success make this candidate to great wining… Jai Bhim
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 7:05 pm

2600 Mon 23 Apr 2018 LESSON

Respected Marasandra Muniappa Ji,

Karnataka BSP in-charge,

Wish you success on the day you file your nomination on behalf
of BSP movement for social transformation for the happiness, welfare,
and peace of all societies.
You may with the permission of high command register with the EC that
Ballot Papers in the polls now and during Scrutiny of your papers along
with all our contestants which you did successfully in the Hindu News
Paper.
Wishing success to all our contestants,

With lots of Metta

J Chandrasekharan

Please Note:
If the EC insists on using EVMs, kindly demand for EVM’s software with its source code

Dear brother/sisters,

We
co ordially innvite you On 23th April 2018, nomination by JDS-BSP
alliance candidate Smt:Shobha Ballari for Hubli-Dharawad ( East)
Constituency at Hubli Tashiladhar Office. Hope you will success make
this candidate to great wining… Jai Bhim

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XzDgN2efzrs



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SCOhIWWZQdA


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SCOhIWWZQdA
🇨🇳360° VR Tour: Leshan Giant Buddha | Leshan, China
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Published on Dec 21, 2016
A 360° VR Tour of the entire Leshan Scenic Area, including of the the famous and shabongous stone Buddha statue! =]

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Category
Travel & Events


360° VR Tour: Leshan Giant Buddha | Leshan, China
A 360° VR Tour of the entire Leshan Scenic Area, including of the…
youtube.com

http://www.airpano.com/360Degree-VirtualTour.php?3D=Shwedagon-Pagoda-Myanmar

Shwedagon Pagoda, Myanmar360° Aerial Panoramas



Shwedagon Pagoda, Myanmar - AirPano.com • 360° Aerial Panoramas • 360° Virtual Tours Around the World

Myanmar is one of the most mysterious
countries in the world. It borders India, Bangladesh, China, Laos and
Thailand. Each of these destinations (except, perhaps, for Bangladesh)
is full of tourists. But Myanmar remains outside of usual tourist
routes. There are no direct flights from Russia, visa to Myanmar is not
the easiest one to get, not to mention that it’s not really advertised
by travel agencies. This is why this amazing destination remains unknown
to the world.

To say that one misses a lot by not
going there is an understatement (you’ll understand why when you see our
panoramas). This country with a century-old history has preserved
countless of monuments and it is rightfully called the “Golden Country”
or “The Land of Golden Pagodas”. There are around 2500 pagodas there. In
fact, the entire country is one huge archaeological reserve, which
preserves heritage of ancient civilizations.

Shwedagon Pagoda at dusk

Of course, it’s impossible to describe thousands of pagodas and other
Myanmar landmarks in just one article and to show all of them in one
panorama cycle. So we’re planning to tell you only about the most
outstanding monument, the Shwedagon Pagoda (stupa).

Stupa is a dome symbolizing Buddha’s
teachings. Usually stupas serve as Buddhist shrines and repositories of
sacred Buddhist texts. Some stupas conceal different vessels with
Buddha’s pieces of clothing or his hairs. Stupas are topped with spires
that look like umbrellas, a symbol of protection from the rays of
ignorance. Bells are hanging on the stupas to express the symbol of
doing some good things.

The capital of Myanmar, Yangon (Rangoon)
is known for the most famous stupa in the country, the Shwedagon
Pagoda, along with a temple complex around it. These constructions are a
couple thousand years older than the city itself. The name comes from
«Shwe» (Burmese for “gold”) and «Dagon» (previously this settlement was
situated where the modern Yangon now exists).

Shwedagon Pagoda, closeup

According to the mystical yet forgotten
legend, in ancient times this was the place where relics of three
predecessors of Buddha were kept: the staff of Kakusandhi, the water
filter of Konagamana, and a piece of tunic of Kassapa.

One day unknown brothers took a few
hairs of Buddha from India, but during the trip they were attacked and
robbed several times. However, they were able to deliver part of the
sacred treasure — they brought eight hairs of Buddhism founder to
Myanmar.

A grand festivity was held to celebrate
this event. Lord Sakka and four spirits descended from heavens to choose
a worthy place to store Buddha’s hairs. They helped to discover three
forgotten sacred places, and, as a result, it was decided to keep all
sacred objects together with proper honors.

Thus, Shwedagon is the only temple in
the world which holds four Buddhist relics of such high value.
Furthermore, it’s one of the few structures created during the life of
Buddha.

It was built with great care and
thoroughness by ancient Burmese. They dug a hole on a hill near Dagon,
built a tomb, and covered it with a golden plate. Several stupas made
from different materials were erected on top of it one by one: golden,
silver, tin, copper, lead, marble, iron, and brick.

Shwedagon Pagoda

The Shwedagon Pagoda reached its current
height only in 1774. After being rebuilt several times by King
Hsinbyushin, it reached the height of 99 meters above the plate. At the
same time the Shwedagon Pagoda started looking the way it looks now.

All sixty-eight surrounding stupas are
gilded, while the Shwedagon itself is sheathed with golden plates from
top to bottom. 8000 gold plates, 5000 diamonds, 2000 gem stones and
semiprecious stones were used to decorate the main pagoda.

So it’s not surprising that the stupa
was repeatedly plundered over the years, and some parts, like three
hundred years old bell encrusted with jewels, are now lost. However, the
Shwedagon Pagoda in Myanmar has survived to see our days in its full
glory.

There are bells hanging along the
perimeter of the temple complex with wooden mallets lying nearby. It is
believed that if you make a wish and hit the bell three times it will
come true. So here and there you can always hear a bell’s ringing in the
distance.

This Myanmar landmark represents this
country like the Moscow Kremlin represents Russia, or Mount Fuji
represets Japan. The Shwedagon temple complex is one of the largest
architectural ensembles not only in Myanmar, but in all of Southeast
Asia. You can always see the golden cone of the central stupa dozens of
kilometers away from Yangon, both from sea and land.

Planet of Shwedagon

In order to get to the pagoda you have
to climb the highest hill. But modern technologies made this task a lot
easier: an escalator can take you to the Scwedagon. And for those of you
who are thousands miles away from this amazing monument, there is a
perfect opportunity to see it from the height of our panoramas.

Photography by Stanislav Sedov and Dmitry Moiseenko

12 October 2012

https://www.buddhistdoor.net/news/google-cultural-institute-to-host-indian-museums-collection-of-buddhist-art

Google Cultural Institute to Host Indian Museum’s Collection of Buddhist Art

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
We
must join hands to promote Cultural Institute to Host world Museum’s
Collection of Buddhist Art in Circarama 360 degrees domes for happiness,
welfare and peace of all societies.
Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

The Great Departure, 100–200. Schist stone.
The Great Departure (c. 3rd century), in schist stone, depicts Siddhartha Gautama’s departure from his
family home to take up the life of a mendicant in pursuit of enlightenment. From google.com

For
the first time ever, the Indian Museum, Kolkata is making its extensive
holdings of Buddhist art available online. The project, which includes
the museum’s famed Gandharan sculptures, the largest collection in
India, is being developed in collaboration with the Google Cultural
Institute. So far, three exhibitions are on virtual display: The Life of the Buddha in Indian Art, Indian Buddhist Art, and a 360-degree panoramic Museum View.

The
Indian Museum, founded in 1814, is the oldest and largest multipurpose
museum in the Asia-Pacific region. Spread over some 10,000 square feet,
it houses a collection of more than 100,000 objects divided into three
main wings—archaeology, anthropology, and art—as well as collections by
the Zoological, Botanical, and Geological Surveys of India.

“This
is the first virtual exhibition we are organizing after which all our
galleries will gradually be available on the Google Cultural Institute
website,” said museum director Jayanta Sengupta. “This allows anyone to
have a walk through the gallery and see it as you do it with your eyes.
You can scroll around to see even the ceiling and the floor.” (NDTV)

The 360-degree panoramic Museum View
currently enables online visitors to take a virtual tour through eight
of the Indian Museum’s galleries, including the Gandhara, Bharhut, and
sculpture galleries, where they can “walk” among and view the exhibits
as they are displayed in the actual museum.

Take a virtual Take a virtual “walk” though the Indian Museum’s impressive collection of ancient Buddhist art. From google.com

A
team of Google’s experts from the UK and the US have been working since
last year using specialized and patented camera technology to create
high-resolution images of the museum’s historical treasures. Although
Google’s team is only able to work on Mondays, when the museum is closed
to visitors, they expect all the Indian Museum’s galleries to be online
within a year.

The plans
include making some of the Indian Museum’s more notable cultural and
historical treasures available as ultra-high-definition gigapixel images
that will enable the virtual visitor to get up close to these rare
works. “If it’s a painting then you can see all intricate details like
even the brush strokes, said Sengupta. “Seeing a gigapixel image is like
putting the object under microscope.” (NDTV)

Sengupta
dismissed suggestions that making the museum’s valuable collection of
art and antiquities freely available online could negatively impact the
number of visitors to the museum. “Internationally this has been the
case: after people see it online they are more motivated to see the real
thing and so they walk into the museum,” he said. (NDTV)

Buddha Head, Gandhara, C. 2nd century. Stucco. From goolge.com
Gandharan Buddha head (c. 2nd century) in stucco. From
google.com

The
Google Cultural Institute, launched in 2011, describes itself as “a
not-for-profit initiative that partners with cultural organizations to
bring the world’s cultural heritage online. We build free tools and
technologies for the cultural sector to showcase and share their gems,
making them more widely accessible to a global audience.” (Google
Cultural Institute)

In
addition to the Indian Museum, the Google Cultural Institute has
partnered with a number of institutions to make exhibition and archival
content available online, among them the Auschwitz-Birkenau State
Museum, the British Museum, the Museo Galileo in Florence, the Museum of
Polish History in Warsaw, and Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. The institute
also includes the Google Art Project, which provides high-resolution
images of artworks from museums in more than 40 countries,
three-dimensional recreations of world heritage sites, and archival
exhibitions.

http://www.notonmap.com/destinations/ladakh/indus-valley/dragung-house


Dragung House

Near Alchi





The lowland of Ladakh, a green canvas valley that has backdrop of 958AD Alchi Monastery.
Closed for Winter

The village is famous for the existence
of one of the oldest monasteries in Ladakh (a national heritage) Alchi
Monastery. Mainly known for its magnificent, and well-preserved 11th- or
12th-century wall paintings, all in an Indo-Himalayan style.Dragung
House is traditionally built Ladakhi house which gives a dramatic view
of the Monasteries right from the doorstep

Alchi village is very
fertile and it is all green with apricot trees on both side of road.This
region had influence of Islam,Hinduism and Buddhism because it falls on
the route to Turkestan of China but its isolation helped the village
and gompas to keep their cultural traditions safe from the outer
influences.

Subscribe Our Newsletter

We don’t spam, We tempt you with stories about the valley

comments (0)
04/21/18
2599 Sun 21 Apr 2018 LESSON
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 8:29 pm

2599 Sun 21 Apr 2018 LESSON


Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha

http://www.yesterland.com/circarama.html
Yesterland
The Bell System presents
America the Beautiful
in Circarama

O beautiful for spacious skies,
For amber waves of grain,
For purple mountain majesties
Above the fruited plain!

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

Perhaps you’re here because you saw this advertisement in the Los Angeles Times of June 14, 1960:

New!

The Bell System Presents
“America the Beautiful”
in CIRCARAMA

Circarama puts you in the middle of the action, completely surrounded by magnificent motion pictures in color.

Among the many fascinating places Circarama takes you in “America the
Beautiful” are New York Harbor; Times Square; a Vermont country church
set against the splendor of the autumn foliage; Williamsburg,
Virginia—cradle of American culture; Pittsburgh steel mills; Detroit
automobile factories; Midwestern railroad freight yards; Oklahoma
cowboys rounding up cattle; wheat-harvesting combines in Montana; copper
mines in Utah; Monument Valley; Hoover Dam; The Grand Canyon; San
Francisco; The Golden Gate Bridge; and campus life at America’s great
University of California at Los Angeles.

Presented free of charge.

Yes, it’s free.
There’s no need to reach for your ticket book or to stop at a ticket booth.
You can thank The Bell System and your local host company, Pacific Telephone.

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

This presentation puts you “in the middle of everything.”
Eleven movie screens form a circle above your head.
Eleven perfectly synchronized projectors show eleven 16mm films, surrounding you with a 360-degree travelogue.

Most other guests are staring at the front screens.
But they’re missing half the fun.
The whole idea is to look all around to see what’s going on, even if the
filmmakers seem to be directing your attention primarily to the front
of the theater.

If you’ve seen this movie too many times—after all, it’s a free
attraction—here’s how you can have an entirely new experience: Watch the
entire movie facing back screens. See where you’ve been instead of
where you’re going.

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

The name Circarama is a play on Cinerama, the three-film,
three-projector process used to show some Hollywood features on wide,
curving screens in specially-equipped movie houses.
Does this mean 360-degree movie houses will be next?

A paragraph in a New York Times article (“Disney Presents Movies-In-Round,” June 28, 1955) suggests this might happen:

Although Circarama is not planned for theatre use at present, Mr. [Walt]
Disney, for one, does not rule out its potential adaptation to a highly
specialized form of dramatic motion picture presentation. It was less
than a decade ago that experienced Hollywood showmen failed to recognize
the commercial possibilities of Cinerama, when its late inventor, Fred
Waller, held demonstration showings in a barn in Oyster Bay, N. Y.


America the Beautiful in Circarama opened at Disneyland in June 1960.

But it wasn’t the first Circarama movie.
That honor went to A Tour of the West, presented by American Motors—builder of Hudson, Nash, and Rambler automobiles—and its appliance division, Kelvinator.

The 1987 book Disneyland: Inside Story by Randy Bright quoted an American Motors Corporation press release, dated June 27, 1955:

“This combination of photographic skills and entertainment talents
promises an unusual spectacle for visitors to Disneyland. We’re happy to
have a part to play in making Circarama possible. As it represents
added pleasure and value for the public, sponsorship of the Circarama is
another forward step in our program to make American Motors mean more
for Americans.”

— George Romney, President, American Motors Corporation

A Tour of the West was an original 1955 attraction at Disneyland.
(There’s no word on whether Romney took his eight-year-old son to the opening of the attraction.)
It closed around the beginning of 1960 to make way for America the Beautiful.

Walt Disney’s involvement with the 1964-65 New York World’s Fair is well
known.
Far fewer people know that six years earlier, a Disney attraction was
part of another Cold War era international expo, the 1958 Brussels
(Belgium) World’s Fair.

A New York Times article (“U. S. To Be Candid At Brussels Fair,” March 5, 1958) gave a preview of the American pavilion before the fair opened:

Innovations in photographic and movie projection methods will permit a
360-degree view of “the face of America” on a room-circling screen. The
projection method, developed by Walt Disney, is known as “Circarama”. A
color film, titled “America: The Land and The People,” showing a trip
across the country, will be exhibited.

By the time the fair opened, the color film had a new name.
Walt Disney’s America the Beautiful was a highlight of the American pavilion.

Los Angeles Times writer Jerry Hulse (“Miniature World Unfolds at
the Fair,” April 22, 1958) wrote about the audience reaction to the
Circarama presentation: “And with the ending there is a loud applause…
from persons of many countries… yes, even a few Russian visitors.”

The next stop for Circarama was the American National Exhibition in Moscow, Russia in 1959.
The U.S. Government arranged for Walt Disney to redo the narration of America the Beautiful in Russian.

By the time America the Beautiful opened at Disneyland in 1960, it was the third version of the 360-degree movie, playing in its third country.

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

Detail from 1964 Disneyland souvenir map
 
America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

Detail from 1968 Disneyland souvenir map

The eleven-screen America the Beautiful attraction at Disneyland closed permanently in September 1966.

America the Beautiful was replaced by… America the Beautiful!

Despite having the same name, the 1967 version of America the Beautiful
was an entirely new movie.
This time, it was filmed in the new nine-screen Circle-Vision 360
process, and was shown in a much larger theater using nine 35mm movie
projectors.

The original Circarama was housed in only the left section of the north
Tomorrowland building, and that space was also used for exhibits.
When the New Tomorrowland opened in 1967, the left section became the
pre-show area where guests would wait. The new Circle-Vision 360 theater
took up the round central section.
Today, both sections are used for Buzz Lightyear Astro Blasters.

Circarama was such an ingenious, original idea that Walt Disney had it patented.

Walt Disney Family Museum photo

Walt Disney Family Museum photo

Walt Disney Family Museum photo

Notice that the patent was filed on the first anniversary of Disneyland’s press opening and awarded the same month that America the Beautiful opened at Disneyland.

When you visit the Walt Disney Family Museum in San Francisco, be sure to look for the original Circarama camera.

Walt Disney Family Museum photoWalt Disney Family Museum photo

Circarama camera (center) at The Walt Disney Family Museum


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© 2012-2017 Werner Weiss — Disclaimers, Copyright, and Trademarks

Updated May 26, 2017.

http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/a-new-age-4dmovie-viewing-experience-with-circarama-cinema-619756.htm



China Aerospace Creation Technology Co., Ltd


A New Age 4DMovie Viewing Experience with Circarama Cinema

In the present years there have been a
wide popularity of the 4D cinema. After 3D cinema has come to the market
it had got all the attention it waited for and now the 4D cinema is
getting into the different corners of the globe. The companies all over
the world are coming with their best collections and technologies
regarding the 4D cinemas. This is further increasing the popularity of
this mode of cinema.


Beijing, China — (SBWIRE) — 08/24/2015 —
In the last one century the art of film making and film projections
system has undergone great many changes. In the light of the historical
events and series of changes that the film-making has gone through, a
great journey has already been made. From the Lumiere Brothers to the
recent 3D films, it was a great up and down journey for all. However,
the journey has not ended with the 3D films. Now the recent 4D films are
hitting the market with new variations of movie viewing experience.

Among the different cinemas that have hit the globe with their technical
superiority and great variation in the making and presentation, the 4D
films have surpassed all limits. The movie viewing experience of these
films have been spectacular. The unforgettable movie viewing experience
has brought a new wave in the film market where the films making
companies have been heavily inspired with the demands. Among the
companies that have come up with the 4D motion cinema technologies, one has to take the name of Circarama cinema.

Circarama cinema
has brought a never before movie viewing experience for the viewers.
The breathtaking visual effect will come life as if the viewer can touch
it. This is the kind of cinema that can transfer the viewers’
imagination into the next level.

In order to make that happen, many failed attempts were made before. But
now, the 4D cinemas are also being attached with the 5D, 6D and even 7D
effects. No wonder that these effects are adding more fun into the
movie viewing.

About Circarama Company
The Circarama Company whose mother company is China Aerospace Creation
Technology or CACT, now happens to be on the forefront of the 4D cinema
presentation companies and with the most advanced Chinese cinema making
technologies they have been able to produce long lists of the films
that have 4D presentations. Obviously this can be taken as a huge step
for the history of motion cinema.

Their cinema technique, which is also called as the circular Screen
cinema as a 120 to 180 degree screen and the ROI is the quickest in the
settings. The whole settings can be installed fast such is its fittings.
At the same time the requirements are lowest on the site. With the best
dynamic experience the viewers are loving thee presentations of these
cinemas. From the kind of response that these cinemas are having from
the different corners of the world, it can be said that the anticipation
is that in a very few years the 4D market will be the dominant one all
over.

For more information visit the website http://cactsim.com/show.asp?Id=26

For Media Contact:
Company: China Aerospace Creation Technology Co., Ltd
Phone: 0086-10-68647537
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Circle-Vision 360

Located in Tomorrowland, in Disneyland. Circarama
opened on July 15, 1955 screening “A Tour of the West” across 9 large
screens for a panaramic view of the movie. The audience stood in the
center of the auditorium. It was renamed Circle-Vision 360 in 1967.
Closed on September 8, 1997 with “America the Beautiful”.

It became the queue area for the short-lived Rocket
Rods ride (May 22, 1998 to April 27, 2001) and is now “Buzz Lightyear’s
Astro Blasters”(soft opening – March 10, 2005), official opening – March
17, 2005). It’s still operating.

Contributed by
David Coppock

Recent comments
(view all 1 comments)

Joe Pinney
Joe Pinney
on
August 8, 2017 at 7:32 pm

There’s been some confusion about Disney’s
360-degree film formats – the original format that opened in 1955 with A
TOUR OF THE WEST, which ran until 1960, and then with AMERICA THE
BEAUTIFUL until 1966, was an 11-screen, 16mm format (in 360 degrees)
called CIRCA-RAMA. When Tomorrowland was refurbished in 1967, with a new
version of AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL, the 360-degree film format was now a
9-screen, 35mm format (in 360 degrees) called CIRCLE-VISION360.

The original 16mm Circarama camera is on display in San Francisco at the Walt Disney Family Museum.

More info, as well as patent drawings of Circa-Rama that were submitted by Disney – http://www.yesterland.com/circarama.html


The
front of the “Cavalcade” Cinema.

Press image to see an enlargement
The “Circlorama” process was developed by the Russian professor E.
Goldovsky, Moscow Cinema Research Institute.
The London Circlorama cinema opened 9 May 1963. The circular
auditoria measured 18 meters in diameter and had a height of 15
meters. The screen surrounded the audience and had a total length of
45 meters. The lower edge of the screen was raised 2½ meters above
the floor.
11 projectors, were arranged in a gallery around the auditoria, and
projected their pictures on 1/11 per circular projection screen. The
9-channel sound was played from a separate 35mm Philips sound
reproducer.
The projectors and sound reproducer were electronically synchronized
through a interlock system. For sound reproduction 51 separate
speakers had been installed behind the screen and in the floor.
There were room for 500 spectators. The foyer was downstairs with
room
for a 1000 people.

Leonard Urry had set up Circlorama together with Leon Heppner, a Russian
entrepreneur who had lived in London for several years. They acquired a
bomb site in Denman Street just behind Piccadilly Circus and constructed
a building to house the new 360 degree cinema which they had imported
from Russia. I remember Leonard telling me the building had cost
£120K. It housed the now familiar eleven screens which were arranged
round the wall of the circular building. The diameter of the auditorium
was 70ft and was served by eleven 35mm Phillips water-cooled, pulse
light projectors which were housed in an enclosed gallery. On a level
with the centre of the screens the eleven projectors were synchronised
to form a continuous 360 degree projected image, and together with a
nine track stereo system it was quite a spectacular cinematic
experience. The installation had been carried out by Frank Brockliss Ltd
who were located in Wardour Street.

Mr.
Stanley Long 2006.


I had known Leonard for several years. He had financed one of my early
films “West End Jungle” which was a low budget dramatised documentary
destined for theatrical release. The venture had been financially very
successful despite censorship problems. Leonard asked if I might be
interested in making a new film for Circlorama, to replace the one which
had been running unsuccessfully for about 6 months. The business was
terrible he told me, in spite of buying, at great cost, a new entrance
from Piccadilly Circus. The problem, he thought was due to the very
boring ‘propaganda’ nature of the Russian film. He wanted a lighter form
of entertainment with rollercoaster type shots which would be more
exciting for an audience, who had to stand in the auditorium to watch
the twenty minute show. Being by nature a technically minded film maker
(I was a Cameraman) I was intrigued by the prospect.

The process didn’t seem too much of a problem to me, and before long,
after I had worked out how to do it, I came back to Leonard with a
positive interest. I told him that it would require a small budget to
make a test in order to make sure it was possible, and to project the
result in the cinema, so that they could make a final decision. He
agreed to funding a test and within a few days I was busy working out
how to go about it. Firstly I worked out the geometry, and found that
the eleven cameras would require to be fitted with 35mm lenses to
cover
the picture circle. The cameras would be mounted on a circular
aluminium
plate one half inch thick. Synchronisation would be achieved with
mains
motors.
 

 

Making a British Circlorama

 


35mm
rig with the eleven ARRIs. Magazines are off (they were being reloaded).
Press image for an enlargement.

Getting hold of
eleven 35mm Arriflex cameras to do such a test proved to
be a problem in 1963. A phone call to the new camera hire company run
by Sydney Samuelson (now Sir Sydney) and his brothers David and
Michael, requesting to rent eleven Arriflexes complete with mains motors
driven through a rectifier with a fram meter to hold sync, produced
peals of laughter at the other end of the phone.

“What an earth are you doing Stanley? I have never heard of anyone
needing anything like that number of cameras”.

When he had calmed down from his initial reaction, I
explained why I wanted them and that I only wanted them for one day for
the test. He promised to let me know the following day. I had a call at 12
o’clock to say that he had managed to find the eleven cameras but it
would have to be on a Sunday when the cameras were not in use
although he was having difficulty finding the right number of 35mm
lenses as the standard kit of lenses contained only a 28mm lens. He
would be short of at least 4. I decided to go ahead replacing the
shortfall with 4×40mm lenses which would slightly affect some of the
screens.

A Sunday was chosen and arrangements made to use a 40ft boat which was
kept on the river Thames at Chelsea Reach in London. The cameras were
mounted on the cabin roof, and we set off down river to make a series of
shots passing the Houses of Parliament and Tower Bridge. We shot in black
and white for the sake of economy.
 

 

Filming
a short test film in 35mm B&W to demonstrate the Circlorama system.
Scenes included footage made on the Themes river. Stanley Long (left) and Don Lord
(right) operating the cameras.

The film was processed at Technicolor the following day and we waited
until the cinema was closed that evening to screen the results. It
worked! And apart from the four screens that had the 40mm lenses, the
matching was perfect. Leonard and Leon were delighted and a meeting was
arranged for the following day to discuss further arrangements for the
production and I was to come up with an approximate budget to complete
the twenty minute ‘epic’. I worked most of the night on this and came up
with a rough figure of what it might cost. One of the problems I had was
the availability of the cameras. Obviously it would not be practical to
hire them. Also there was another problem. Once the cameras had been
mounted in position I would be unable to move them, because every camera
has a slightly different gate pitch and changing a camera would mean
that the racking would be affected and each time a new shot was done, if
a camera had changed, the projectors would have to be adjusted. So it
meant that eleven cameras had to be purchased. This of course made the
budget sky high. Another problem was that even shooting one take was
eleven to one over normal shooting, take two would put the shooting
ratio to 22 to 1 not counting run ups etc. The stock cost in colour would
be horrendous not withstanding I came up with the final figure which I
then presented at the meeting. It was £150.000! more than the cost of
the original cinema!

Obviously with only one cinema in the country which was capable of
showing the finished film, it was a ‘no go’. Even the possibility of
selling off the cameras after the production didn’t ease the budget
sufficiently to make the project viable. Leonard called me a week later
and said the cinema was doing so badly at the box office that they faced
closure unless something was done. There was one possibility in that
the Russians had a new gimmick. They had fitted Cinemascope lenses to
the cameras vertically and produced a new film which used double height
screens. A print was despatched to England and Harkness Ltd were given
the order to put extra screens in the auditorium. It also meant that
eleven anamorphic lens had to be purchased for the projectors.

The day arrived when all this was put in place and I was asked to attend
the test screening. The whole thing was a disaster, not only was the film
content worse than the first one, but the print suffered from racking
problems similar to those I knew about when we tried to change camera
positions between shots. The screening ended up with the poor
projectionists running round the gallery adjusting the racking after
every scene. By the time the picture was correctly lined up the scene
changed and they had to start all over again. It was a disaster. Leonard
came up to me after the screening, his face said everything.

“Unless we
can sort something out, we’re facing closure.”

I thought long and hard
that evening. How could we reduce the budget?
 

 

Enter, an eccentric Millionaire

 

The
front of the “Cavalcade” Cinema.

The following morning I telephoned Leonard. I told him I had an idea and
arranged to meet him that afternoon. My idea was to change the whole
operation over to 16mm! We could buy eleven 16mm cameras for a fraction
of the cost of 35mm. The stock cost would be dramatically reduced and
likewise the processing. I had worked out some rough figures and it
looked as if I could reduce the cost by about seventy five per cent. It
meant changing all the projection equipment in the cinema, but the 35mm
machines could be sold as replacements to cinemas. So they would be
looking at the difference between the cost of the 16mm and the sale of
the 35mm ones, plus the cost of the changeover. There was a marginal
advantage in that, as we owned the cameras we could make regular changes
to the programme. It all sounded quite practical and Leonard and Leon
were convinced that this could be the solution. However there would be
no going back once the decision had been made, and there was no way we
could make tests. It was a simple - go or no go! It was then that I was
told where the money was coming from for this whole venture.

Leonard acted as a trustee for an eccentric millionaire by the name of
Harry de Vere Clifton. Apparently soon after Circlorama had opened, he
had walked on his own from the Ritz hotel Piccadilly to the Circlorama
cinema in Piccadilly Circus, paid his 3/6p and went in to see the show
unannounced. He didn’t like what he saw, and thought the film should be
changed to something more interesting. Leonard had talked to him about
me and he asked Leonard to arrange a meeting to talk about his ‘little
toy’ as he called it. The ‘meeting’ turned out to be at the Ritz Hotel.

I was met by a Butler and shown into the enormous penthouse suite, and
then into a large bedroom with a four poster bed, in which was sitting
bolt upright an elderly man with a long grey beard and long hair. He
looked for all the world like Rip Van Winkle. I was summoned to sit at
his bedside and was introduced to this strange figure who Leonard had
told me was worth about 90 million pounds and that was in 1963!! Clifton
started the conversation

“Mr Stanley Long, I have heard all about you,
and I am delighted that you may be able to save my little toy from
closing. Urry has told me all about your ideas for a new film. Do you
know anything about Hobgoblins?”

The question was quite out the blue
‘not much I confessed’. ’Oh that’s a pity’ he replied, ‘but I would like
a scene with some Hobgoblins. See what you can do’. With that he
politely dismissed me. ‘Well off you go and good luck, I look forward to
seeing your new film’. I left the room in a daze, this had been the most
bizarre meeting I had ever experienced., and certainly the oddest project
I had been involved with. I asked Leonard if it had all been some kind
of joke ‘No its no joke’ he said. ‘I am trustee to the inherited
fortune of Harry De Vere Clifton and the Clifton estate and my job is to
look after the crazy whims and investments of Harry De Vere Clifton’.
‘Why then’, I asked ‘was there so much problem with the budget?’  ‘I told
you’ he said ‘I have to do the best job I can to control expenditure. Now
you go off and make the film in 16mm’. ’And what about the Hobgoblins’? I
asked , ‘Oh forget that, he won’t remember’ Leonard smiled.

And so it was, that I set out to start the most interesting and
challenging job I had ever undertaken. I arrived in Paris later that
month to purchase 12 (one spare) Beaulieu 16mm 100’ loading cameras with
15mm lenses. On my return to England, I set about designing the rig
which was to hold the eleven cameras and to find a way of keeping them
‘in sync’ during shooting. I tried several ways of doing this including
a rather clumsy method of mechanical linkage. Nothing worked. Then I
discovered that there was a small synchronous motor manufactured by a
company in West London, Evershed Vignoles Ltd, I went to see the
technical man there, and I discovered that they could make a gear which
fitted into the side of the cameras and it was the perfect solution. I
purchased 12 (one spare), and the cameras ran in perfect sync after a
short run up. When the cameras were up to speed I dropped a hoop over
the rig thereby giving me a reference point to pick up during the
editing stage. Then I turned to the problem of editing.

 

 

Editing 11 Strips of Film

 


Stanley
Long with the 16mm camera rig in the middle of Clapham Junction railway
lines. Harry Green (Production manager) with back to camera, on
the right is an employee of British rail, Don Lord is below Stanley Long
fiddling with something, gentlemen and lady on the left are
unidentified.

Press image to see enlargement

I approached Acmade Ltd, a company specialising in editing equipment,
and from my specs they constructed a 12 gang synchroniser from 3×4
gang
machines. This coped with the eleven picture tracks plus one for
sound.
The bench was 5 feet deep!! The editor required long arms to reach the

back tracks! During this time I was compiling a shot list, which
included amongst other things a view from inside a cage of lions
(Chipperfield), a scenic railway ride, a shot from the middle of the
rail
track at the busy Clapham Junction during a rush hour (courtesy
British Rail). Try doing that today with Health and Safety breathing
down your
neck. A lifeboat launch, various shots around London, including a
tracking shot from the roof of our camera car going down the Mall with

Buckingham Palace in the background and the Horseguards Cavalry in the

foreground (with the leader brandishing his sword at our camera car,
mouthing ‘f… off’, and a grand finale with ‘The Swinging Blue Jeans’ a
popular group of the time, which I photographed at the Leicester
Square
Ballroom. I also mounted the camera rig onto the back of an E type Jag

[Jaguar, ed] and had a racing driver go round Snetterton Race track in
the middle of
a gaggle of formula two cars. Ice skating from Streatham Ice rink.

The skating sequence was filmed at Streatham Ice rink (south London). I
rigged the cameras on a mount which had semi circular domes on the four
feet, this enabled me to push the rig about on the ice. We had a team of
champion skaters doing their bit skating round the cameras about 7 meters
from the centre. It all looked great on the screen. of course it was
essential for any crew to keep well away from the rig at all times, so I
fitted a remote control to the cameras, (this was very useful for the lions
cage!!). I remember slipping over on the ice as I came back to the cameras
after one take, I suffered for several days with a very sore arse!

There was something for everyone and I
soon learnt that I could quite effectively manipulate single tracks in
the cutting room to simulate the surround effect. An example of this
resulted in a comic scene with characters opening and closing doors on
various screens around the auditorium.

Whilst all this was going on Dr Leslie Knopp a well known expert on
cinema design, who had been responsible for the original installation,

was busy redesigning the new set up using a 16mm version of the
Phillips projector. In order to simplify the sound, I requested that
he
cut the original 9 track Sondor system using three follow reproducers,
with three track heads, down to one machine using one 35mm triple track
head. This proved to be as I thought, more effective as the separation
of sound was much clearer on three tracks rather than the nine in the
original. All these machines were interlocked with a Selsyn interlock
which was driven by one master motor and twelve slaves, one for each
projector and one for the sound reproducer. The projectors were water
cooled and the water jacket encased the rather ingenious lamp which
was
about the size of a cigarette and pulsed at the rate of 72 x 1 second
thereby giving three flashes per frame. This did away with the need
for
a shutter. These small lamps however never caught on as they had
drawbacks not least the problem of not being able to produce a good
red
on the screen. Therefore all the London buses came out a dirty shade
of
brown. Experiments with filters in front of the projector lens failed
to correct the problem. I suppose these tiny little lamps were the
forerunners of the halogen or HMI’s of today?

Finally the film was finished, the sound track recorded and the prints
were made. I had shot on 16mm Kodak Ektachrome reversal stock and as the
film was only made in 3200 K (Artificial light) I had to use Wratten 85
filters in front of the camera lenses when shooting in daylight. The film
was processed by Technicolor and because screen matching was imperative, I
requested the film go through the processing bath in the same order of the
cameras, so that any variation in the process would be gradual around the
360 degree screen. Technicolor were very helpful and did a wonderful job,
but all the way through shooting and post production I kept wishing for that
35mm. My goodness, it would have been so much easier!
 

 

“Circlorama Cavalcade” was an
Immediate Success

 


Click
to see enlargement

The show opened with the title
“Circlorama Cavalcade” and was an
immediate success. No doubt much to do with the advertising! Of course it didn’t match up
to the 35mm version in technical terms, but I think the content was more
interesting to the general public. And it continued to do good business, so much so that Circlorama
commissioned a portable version to be made (by the firm of Harkness
Ltd) and when the show closed the whole shooting match was erected on
the end of the West
Pier at Blackpool in readiness for the summer season [1965]. Alas this was
complete disaster. Not surprisingly the thing kept breaking down being
victim to the salt air. It has to be remembered that this was a highly
technical and complicated set up and to expect it to operate in such an
environment was expecting far too much. I had spoken to Leonard Urry
about this when they were thinking of doing it but the installation was
not my responsibility and they went ahead anyway.

At the end of a disastrous season they were left with a enormous
structure on the end of Blackpool Pier, a large loss and a
correspondingly large quote from Harkness Ltd to remove it and
reassemble in the Kelvin Hall Glasgow in an effort to recoup some of
their losses during the Christmas season. Searching for someone who
would do a cheaper job and of course someone who was familiar with the
system, Leonard once again contacted me ‘Would I give them a quote to
remove the operation from Blackpool to Glasgow in time for the Christmas
season?’ Now I’ve always been up to a challenge, but this? I said I’d
think about it. I then contacted a company, Burgess Lane Ltd in Chiswick
West London, who dealt in the repair and servicing of projector
equipment and explained the nature of the job. I told the boss Mr
Burgess, that whilst I was familiar with the system and had made the
film it used, I was totally under qualified for the technical side. Did
they have an engineer who would understand this? And would he give me a
price for his services for what I estimated to be about a week. A few
days went by and he rang me. Yes, he had an engineer who was very good
with electronics and would like the opportunity to have a go. He gave me
a price which of course excluded expenses.

I then cobbled together a budget which would give me a nice profit, then
doubled it (because I really didn’t really want to do the job), then I
phoned Leonard, who immediately accepted my quote without question.
Christ I thought what did Harkness Ltd quote? Knowing the financial
state of Circlorama, I asked for 50 percent up front and the balance
when the picture was up and running at Kelvin hall. Leonard agreed, said
‘give me your schedule and you can come up and collect your cheque’. I
glanced at the calendar. It was the middle of November! I’d have to get
my skates on! I contacted Mr Burgess and arranged the job with his
genius engineer and said it would be end of November 1965.
 

 

Click
to see enlargement

I had booked two tickets with Dan Air for a flight from Luton to
Blackpool and arranged to meet the brilliant engineer from Burgess
Lane
under the clock at Gloucester Road Terminal at 6pm. As I had not yet
met
this man, I arranged to identify myself by wearing a white carnation
(corny, I know, but it worked). Alan Lavender tapped me on the shoulder
at two minutes after six. ‘Are you Mr Long ?’ said this young man, who
I
judged could have been hardly more than about 17 years of age. ’Yes I
am’
I said eyeing him up and down convinced Mr Burgess had sent the tea
boy.
‘Do you know about SELSYN INTERLOCK SYSTEMS?’ I asked . ‘Yes I do’ he
confidently replied ‘Everyone thinks I’m young, actually I’m 23′.

On the
flight up to Blackpool in deep technical conversation with Alan I
quickly realised that what he didn’t know about electronics wasn’t worth
knowing. He certainly was a brilliant technician.

Our first job, as we eyed the massive structure at the end of the Pier
the following morning, was to get together a work force to act under our
instructions to dismantle and load the whole damn thing onto lorries for
the journey to Glasgow. So we visited the local labour exchange and
picked a motley bunch of unemployed Irishmen. They were to report for
work at the end of the pier at 8am sharp. There were eight in all, but
only seven turned up and we set to work. Payment would be made at the
end of the day ..in cash. They worked very well and by 5pm we had most
of the equipment out. Alan was dismantling and carefully storing
everything in the first lorry. Some of it was very heavy and we were glad
to have our willing helpers.
 

 

Circlorama Roadshow

 

Photograph
taken on Blackpool Central pier, July 1965. Image from Ray Downing.

The next day we
awoke in our hotel rooms which overlooked the pier, looked out of the window
to discover there was a gale which we later learnt was force eight. After
breakfast, In our youthful ignorance, we set out for the end of the pier.
Out there it was worse, the wind was horrendous but we still set about the
task of dismantling the main structure . We must have been mad, stupid or
both. All the canvas panels which were fixed by rope to the outer structure
blew in the wind like huge sails. It was very difficult to fold the large
panels but somehow we managed. The third day was much the same weather
conditions but we were now under more pressure having fallen behind
schedule.

Our next job was to remove the dome covering. This consisted of one
piece of heavy canvas, seventy feet in diameter. A huge parachute like

piece of canvas held in position by rope at the edges and a metal
plate
made of steel, about two feet in diameter, at the centre. This in turn

was held in place by a large one inch bolt. The dome structure was
lowered by eleven winch like columns which held the roof. These had to

be gently lowered until the roof was level with the gallery. This is
when we could get to the large bolt which held the ‘parachute’ in
place.
We undid the bolt, the wind got inside the structure and blew the roof

canvas up and took the disc with it, tossing it a good 500ft into the
air. We shouted for everyone to take cover. The disc hit the wooden deck

of the pier just a few feet from some fishermen who were blissfully
unaware of what was happening a few hundred feet from where they were
sitting. We recovered the disc, which had dug itself vertically into
the
timber and thanked our lucky stars that no one had been injured. The
roof meanwhile was flapping like fury in a full force eight gale. We
had
to release it quickly or it would have shaken the structure to bits so

we decided to undo it from one side in order for it to blow away. When

it finally detached from the main structure, it flew into the wind and

ended up a mile to the north on the beach. We immediately sent a
recovery party, who bought it back on a truck as it was too heavy for
four men to carry.
 

 


Perlux’s
advert for the 11 screens. Image: CTA Bulletin, July/ August 2011.

Click the image, to see enlargement.

We had started on the Monday, it was now Wednesday and being winter it
was too late to work. By four o’clock we had loaded two lorries and had
one to go. It was touch and go whether we would have sufficient space
to pack everything into the three vehicles. We did however complete the
loading by three o’clock the following afternoon. We had one anxious
moment when we realised the bolts which anchored the structure to the
pier had rotted due to a season of salt water spray. These would not
budge in spite of huge spanners which formed part of our dismantling
kit. We solved that one by hiring an oxyacetylene welding torch and
burning the buggers off. We waved the three vehicles off at 5pm that
afternoon with two of our team on board to look after things. Alan and I
took the train to Glasgow in order to arrive ahead of our convoy and
also to engage further labour for the erection. After our arrival in
Glasgow and fitting ourselves up with accommodation near the Kelvin hall
we took a cab down to recess the site where the Circlorama operation was
going to be. Bertram Mills Circus’ team was busy erecting a three ring circus
adjacent to where our structure was to be.
 

 

Stanley
Long (left) with Leonard Urry c1976. How many of the guys will recognise
“The Govenor”.

The following morning bought some bad news. Our convoy had encountered
snow drifts on the Shaps Pass and would be held up until the pass was
cleared. This we were told could take days and as we were already behind
schedule, we were worried that we could miss the day when we had to
complete in order to qualify for the opening day. We couldn’t engage
labour until we knew the lorries would definitely arrive. However help
was at hand in the form of the rigging team from Bertram Mills’ circus. They had
already finished their job and by arrangement with Albert du Bois the
ringmaster, who kindly offered the services of his team, the moment our
vehicles arrived. Which they did after three worrying days. We had in
the meantime on behalf of Circlorama Ltd engaged all the staff necessary
for the running of the show once it was operational. It included three
projectionists on shifts, box office staff and a couple of managers. So
far, not bad for two of us plus unskilled labour. Our vehicles arrived
in the nick of time giving us just 24 hrs in which to get the whole
thing up and running. A daunting task, considering we had taken four
days to pull it down and load it on the transport. We geared into action
with the help of the Bertram Mills’ circus riggers.

Soon, at our direction, they were climbing all over the steel structure
like a load of monkeys. They were incredible. Alan started to unravel
the miles of wiring which he had carefully packed away in Blackpool. He
certainly was an electronic genius. It looked as if we might make it
after all. We did save a lot of time by not using the steel roof which
held the canvas. Instead we hired a block and tackle and suspended the
canvas from the roof of the Kelvin Hall and attached it to the perimeter
of the structure like a huge Arabian tent. The new staff had been
called in to be briefed and Alan fixed in the final connections. We had
not had any sleep for nearly 24 hours. We were both knackered, but we
had done the impossible. I hurried to telephone Leonard to tell him the
good news. He was pleased to hear from me, but in a solemn voice
declared he had some bad news. Circlorama had filed for bankruptcy and
would be unable to meet all its debts. This was shattering news. ‘What
do I do Leonard ?’ He replied ‘I’m sending some money to pay off the
staff. Give them a week’s notice and I’ll send enough to cover you above
the fifty per cent you have already received. But I’m afraid you’ll have
to wait for any further monies until after the creditor’s inspection.’
The cinema staff and the riggers were paid off.

Shattered, Alan and I went to our Hotel and slept the sleep of the
dead. We departed for London the next day and we went our different
ways. We had shared a most unusual adventure and to this day we have
remained good friends. Shortly after, he started his own company which
he built into the leading battery technology company in Europe (Pag
Ltd). His batteries power thousands of cameras worldwide. He also
manufactures lighting equipment for the film and T V industry. He has
been deservedly successful. You can visit his website
www.paguk.com
 

 

Where it all ended up

 

Stanley
Long (right) with Jack Cardiff 2006

Being a major creditor I was invited to sit on the inspection committee
which consisted of other creditors besides myself. The late Ray Dutfield,
financial director Technicolor later to become Managing Director. The
accountant for Circlorama, the late George Winter and various people
from, I think, The Board of Trade etc. I’m not much up on this kind of
thing but I think the payout was something like two pence in the pound
so there was nothing in the kitty in the end. What happened to Harry De
Vere Clifton? I have no idea! Leon Heppner died in the eighties.
Leonard Urry retired in 1978 and went to live in Spain. He also died in
the mid eighties.

The structure went to scrap, the projection equipment was sold to
various post production film and TV companies for very little, and the
cameras were sold to the Ministry of Defence, through a contact of mine,
and were fitted into the helmets used by the RAF free fall team!. These
cameras were ideal because the ones they were using were clockwork with
a duration of only 40 seconds whilst the Circlorama cameras could run a
full 100 feet of film without stopping. So whilst I lost money I gained
a lot of experience, met a good and lasting friend, and had an adventure
which I have told many times. But now because Thomas Hauerslev, the
editor of in 70mm.com encouraged me to put the memories down on paper, the
full information of a most remarkable oddity in the history of film is
now available for posterity.

 
http://davelandweb.com/tomorrowland/circarama.html

Circarama

BACKSTORY (July 17, 1955–September 7, 1997):
Initially presented by American Motors, Circarama was previewed before
opening day with the film “A Tour of the West.” Circarama used eleven
16mm projectors mounted on the roof of an American Motors car (thus the
red color for the letters “car” on the marquee in pic #3) to create a
completely circular picture on a 360-degree screen. The original films
were shot by Paul Mantz and Frank Tallman, of TallMantz Aviation.

Guests stood in the center of the screen and were able to look
out in every direction and observe views of the Grand Canyon, Monument
Valley, Las Vegas, Balboa Bay, and the streets of Los Angeles. The
patent for Circarama was filed on the one-year anniversary of Disneyland
by both Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, and was granted four years later on
June 28, 1960.

1960 brought a number of changes: in June, the film was now
“America the Beautiful” and the sponsor became The Bell System. The film
process changed, coinciding with the opening of the New Tomorrowland on
June 25, 1967, this time using a 35mm print that was enlarged from the
film of nine 16mm cameras instead of eleven. A few Bicentennial scenes
were added in 1975 and ran until January 3, 1984. The film was changed
again on July 4, 1984, this time to “Wonders of China” (shown in the
morning) and “American Journeys” (shown in the afternoon & evening),
lasting until July 7, 1996. The attraction closed down for good in
1997, with “America the Beautiful” (the 1975 version) returning for the
final year (July 11, 1996–September 7, 1997).

VACATIONLAND MAGAZINE SUMMER 1960

America the Beautiful

America’s magnificent natural and man-made wonders are on view for
Disneyland’s guests this summer in the unique Circarama film “America
the Beauitful” presented as a free attraction through the courtesy of
the companies that form the Bell System communications network.

The Circarama process, first developed for Disneyland by Disney
Studio technicians, has been exhibted only two other places in the
world: the Brussell’s World Fair where it was an important part of the
United States special exhibit in Moscow last summer.

Circarama tells its story through a 360-degree circular “screen”
(actually 11 screens blended to ahcieve the effect of complete circle
vision) shown through 11 synchronized projectors. The audience enjoys
the show from the center of the circle.

The Bell System’s presentation of Circarama is housed in the graceful
and futuristic exposition building at the left of Tomorrowland’s
entrance, just past the World Clock.

Entering visitors are given a demonstration of cross-country Direct
Distance Dialing by Bell System representatives, then invited to view
the wide-ranging story of communications, told through a dimensional,
curving mural that carries out the theme “…from sea to shining sea.”

The Circarama film, “America the Beautiful” is presented in regular
showings throughout the day in the adjacent Circarama theater, only one
of its kind in the United States.

VACATIONLAND MAGAZINE SUMMER 1967

Vacationland New TL Header

Bell Telephone New Circle-Vision Film

Expanding and re-developing what was one of the most popular
shows in Disneyland the past twelve years, the Bell System announces the
completion in Tomorrowland this summer of an entirely new exhibit
pavilion and an all-new “America the Beautiful” presentation.

Through the versatility of “Circle-Vision 360,” an enlarged
theater-in-the-round where guests view the motion picture on a screen
that completely encircles them, Bell presents a trip through beautiful
America.

In addition to the “America the Beautiful” presentation, the
show also presents a display of present and future communications
systems and techniques. Most advanced of these systems will be Bell’s
futuristic “Picturephone,” where guests can actually see the person to
whom they are talking.

New Tomorrowland Presents Restaurant of the Future

Cox Pilot and Circarama and the ATT &Satellite

Daveland Cox Pilot Header PhotoAs I recall, there was a satellite that circled around on a big arm on top of the building
that housed the Circarama show that included space and satellites. Both
the arm and the satellite would turn, and they were a replica of the
AT&T telecommunications satellite. It was a big deal in those days
because of the TV broadcasts of the Olympics. Later the big ball stopped
turning (another detail that was left to fall apart). A little side
note: one of our airplanes, called the Piper Comanche, broke its lines
during a show. It was the largest, green and cream colored, plane. It
was very powerful, and actually should have been on 100 feet of control
line. Our circle would only allow 50′ of line, so we had to use steel
fishing line with special connectors, and we would set the engine to
“full rich” so it would run slow. BUT; on very hot days, the full
mixture would lean out, and the plane would start to go full speed half
way through the flight. When that would happen, you could only hang on
until the fuel ran out in about 5 minutes, and keep the plane below the
fence line just in case. The fuselage of the plane would start to slide
off the wing, and then the lines would give out, and the plane would
slam into the fence at about 60 mph.

That particular day we had a bit of a Santa Ana wind, and a gust took
the plane above the fence line just as the lines broke and off it went.
It did a half roll and zoomed right towards the clock about 20′ off the
ground. At the last minute, it rolled over again and took a right turn
and slammed right into the big round AT&T sign on the SIDE of the
building that faced our circle (not visible in this photo),
smashing the plastic. One man near the sign was showered with plastic
and was very upset. We gave him the plane, and it seemed to calm him
down. We paid, and WED began to re-think our being in the park.

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=VIAuGUuswZc
Circarama - Apple Queen (Official Lyric Video)

u Circarama

i 2,582 views

Oct 24 2017


A single by Circarama entitled “Apple Queen”. Taken from our…
youtube.com

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=_ZAXOoICSw4

Circarama - Porcelain Sky (Official Video)

u Circarama

i 4,303 views

Mar 07 2017

More at YouTube


“Porcelain Sky” by Circarama —– Music Link Download : https://goo.gl/17wmex —– Director: Mokhamad Edhy Starring:…
youtube.com

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=VGcPwoCP9tc

Italia 1961 in Circarama

u Archivio Nazionale Cinema d’Impresa

i 2,312 views

Dec 11 2013

More at YouTube


Archivio
Nazionale del Cinema d’Impresa di Elio Piccon 1961 Una delle attrazioni
di maggior successo di “Italia ‘61″ è il Circarama…
youtube.com
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=1jEfMvD41RM

.

The first one of Dynamic Dome Screen Cinema with lowest price…
youtube.com
comments (0)
04/20/18
2598 Sat 21 Apr 2018 LESSONS-The Life Story of the Buddha
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 11:48 pm

2598 Sat 21 Apr 2018 LESSONS


The Life Story of the Buddha


https://in.pinterest.com/pin/194288171409360963/

Buddhist GIF ☸️

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHQiS9L-xHU
Hologram Pyramid Movie Buddha 3D
Belinda Hexadez
Published on Jul 16, 2016
Hologram-Video for Smartphone and Tablet with Holho Pyramid!

See more

Hologram-Video for Smartphone and Tablet with Holho Pyramid! Important: Make you Screen on full Power!!! enjoy:) Video:…
youtube.com

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/194288171408120049/
Buddhist GIF ☸️ Your worst enemy can not harm you as much as your own thoughts, unguarded. But once mastered, no one can help you as much, not even your father or your mother. (Dh., ch. 3)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UV-9tJQ0Srw
巴米安(Bamiyan / 巴米揚) 大佛
fvon
Published on May 2, 2013
深藏在興都庫什山中的阿富汗巴米安峽谷因豐富的佛教洞窟遺址及高達五十三公尺的石雕佛像而與敦煌石窟、印度的阿占塔石窟同被列為三大佛教藝術最珍貴的遺產地,但在西元二○○一年三月九日巴米揚兩尊立佛在阿富汗「塔里班」政權的炸藥聲中化為灰燼.
這一部紀錄片 是由日本NHK / FuturePlanet Co.動畫製作, 根據三藏玄奘大師的著作 - “大唐西域記” 其中所描述 梵衍那國 (今 阿富汗巴米安地區) 大佛的相關細節, 以電腦3D畫面技術重新呈現出來, 揣摩當時的宏偉景像 !!
Category
People & Blogs


深藏在興都庫什山中的阿富汗巴米安峽谷因豐富的佛教洞窟遺址及高達五十三公尺的石雕佛像而與敦煌石窟、印度的阿占塔石窟同被列…
youtube.com

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/194288171408077971/
Buddhist GIF ☸️ It is a man’s own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDEk9rjM39c
Image of Destroyed Bamiyan Buddhist Statue Recovered by Chinese with Lighting Technology
CCTV+
Published on Jun 13, 2015
The glorious image of the 6th-century Bamiyan Buddhist statue,destroyed
14 years ago by the Taliban, was recovered by a Chinese couple on June 6
and 7 with lighting technology in Afghanistan.

See more

youtube.com

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/194288171407974305/

Buddhist GIF ☸️ No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nfEe09vOya4
Cute Robot Monk Xian’er Help Spread Buddhist Teachings in China
CCTV+
Published on May 15, 2016
A robot monk sharing Buddhist teachings has become popular on social media networks in China recently.

See more

A robot monk sharing Buddhist teachings has become popular…
youtube.com

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/194288171407972103/
Buddhist GIF ☸️ If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.


https://www.youtube.com/watch…
25 Inspiring Gautam Buddha Teachings | Idiotboxplay
idiotboxplay_in
Published on Jan 16, 2016
Gautam Buddha or “the enlightened one” was a sage whose teachings laid
the foundation of Buddhism. His teachings are a bit different from other
religions as he asks people to make their own choices, without being
too extreme on the religion. Let’s have a look at some of the famous
teachings of Buddha and try to learn something from them.

Music Courtesy
Chance, Luck, Errors in Nature, Fate, Destruction As a Finale by Chris
Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/…)
Source: http://chriszabriskie.com/reappear/
Artist: http://chriszabriskie.com/
Category
Education


Gautam Buddha or “the enlightened one” was a sage whose…
youtube.com

http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/downloads/the-life-story-of-the-buddha.html
Tsem Rinpoche

The Life Story of the Buddha (Free Download)

Please enjoy these wonderful images telling the life story of Lord
Buddha Shakyamuni. The historical Buddha Shakyamuni was the founder of
Buddhism. His life story and teachings are the basis of all authentic
Buddhist teachings existing in the world today. Through the deeds of his
glorious life, we see how and what we as Buddhist aspirants should
practice, cultivate and aim for in our own spiritual journey. His story
is taught at all Buddhist institutions all over the world. Here the life
story of the Buddha is presented in visual form. Viewing these images
will plant strong imprints into your mind, to achieve the same qualities
of compassion and wisdom that the Buddha showed and taught during his
lifetime and ultimately Buddhahood itself. May you be blessed by these
holy images.

 

To download all of the pictures in one convenient .Zip file, please click below on the link:























comments (0)
2596 Thu & Fri 2597 19 & 20 Apr 2018 LESSONS Nomination BSP Karnataka State In-Charge Mr Marasandra Muniappa would file his nomnationfor Bidar NorthAssembly seat on Monday 23 April at 11 AM . R Muniappa Impeachment motion against CJI:
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 7:42 am
2596 Thu & Fri 2597 19 & 20 Apr 2018 LESSONS

Nomination
BSP
Karnataka State In-Charge Mr Marasandra Muniappa would file his
nomination for Bidar North  Assembly seat on Monday 23 April at 11 AM .
R Muniappa


Impeachment motion against CJI:

http://indianexpress.com/…/karnataka-assembly-elections-20…/

[This is an implicit admission on the part of the Sanghis that the
“Development”/”Gujarat Model’ and “anti-corruption” pitches are just not
working.
So, it has got to be a hate campaign, with very few ifs and buts.

《”This election is not about roads, water or other issues. This
election is about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid,” ANI
quoted BJP lawmaker Sanjay Patil as saying in Belagavi. Patil represents
the Belagavi Rural constituency in north Karnataka. The video of Patil
making this comments has been doing rounds on social media and has
evoked criticism from many quarters.》]

http://indianexpress.com/…/karnataka-assembly-elections-20…/

Karnataka polls 2018 about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid, not about other issues: BJP MLA
Karnataka will go to polls on May 12 and the results will be declared
on May 15. The tenure of the current Karnataka Legislative Assembly will
expire on May 28.

By: Express Web Desk | New Delhi |

Updated: April 19, 2018 9:51:45 pm

Karnataka assembly elections 2018: “This election is not about roads,
water or other issues.This election is about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram
Mandir vs Babri Masjid,” says BJP MLA Sanjay Patil.

A Bharatiya
Janata Party (BJP) MLA in Karnataka has raked up a controversy with his
comment that the upcoming state assembly election is “not about roads
and drinking water but about Hindu-Muslim incidents”.

“This
election is not about roads, water or other issues. This election is
about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid,” ANI quoted BJP
lawmaker Sanjay Patil as saying in Belagavi. Patil represents the
Belagavi Rural constituency in north Karnataka. The video of Patil
making this comments has been doing rounds on social media and has
evoked criticism from many quarters.

View image on Twitter
View image on Twitter

ANI


@ANI
This election is not about roads, water or other issues.This election
is about Hindus vs Muslims, Ram Mandir vs Babri Masjid: BJP MLA Sanjay
Patil in Belagavi. #KarnatakaElections2018
(17.4.18)

3:23 PM - Apr 19, 2018
1,033
1,175 people are talking about this
Twitter Ads info and privacy
Karnataka will go to polls on May 12 and the results will be declared
on May 15. The tenure of the current Karnataka Legislative Assembly will
expire on May 28.

ALSO READ | Karnataka Assembly Elections 2018: BJP’s 22 or Congress’ resurgence?

BJP MLA from Bairia, Surendra Singh, had recently said that the 2019
Lok Sabha elections will be a contest between two “mentalities” — Hindu
and Islamic. “Ye 2019 ka chunav Islam banam bhagwan hone ja raha hai
(The 2019 elections are going to be Islam versus bhagwan),” Singh told
the public during a rally in Ballia on Thursday.

READ | Bairia BJP MLA at UP rally: ‘Lok Sabha elections will be Islam versus bhagwan’


Peace Is Doable

https://barandbench.com/sc-petition-curb-discussion-judges-legislators-media/

Indian Legal News

Breaking: SC seeks AG’s assistance in petition to curb discussion on judges by legislators, media

The
ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering
the the EVMs with the software and source code kept secret and not made
public to the voters could be replaced in a phased manner which itself
is a clear proof that the EVMs could be tampered. This was done on the
suggestion of the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs1600 crore to
replace the entire EVMs that has negated the Universal Adult Franchise
guaranteed to all the voters by our Marvellous Modern Constitution. The
CJI never ordered for using Ballot Papers till all the3 fraud EVMs.This
helped the Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) to gobble the
Master Key. The just 0.1% intolerant, cunning, crooked, number one
terrorists of the world, violent, militant, ever shooting, lynching,
lunatic, mentally retarded outsiders from Bene Israeli paradesis
chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy, Rakshsa Swayam Sevaks ) remotely
controlling the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) have become
emboldened to implement their stealth, shadowy, discriminatory
manusmriti cult. Therefore taking action on such CJIs including
impeachment as per our Constitution is in order. To avoid the thinking
that such motion is sure to be defeated and in the not too likely of
being admitted e-filing to the Supreme Court must be done by all the
voters of this country. Online trials could be conducted by honest
judges in a collegium system and the judgements could be published in
all social media as the loyal users are the owners of the Internet. 


Prasad Vaidya ·

Why
peoples should not criticise judges ? You can criticise pm,cm then why u
need to exclude judges They are not very special They have enough
protection and their corruption is also protected under it.

Amittabha Datta ·
Works at Self-employed

You
criticize God religions gurus and really great people , why not judges,
are they above everything and everyone . Good will come out unscathed.
This world is a great test centre and everyone has to appear In the
test.
Like · Reply · 5h

The Court then sought the assistance of Attorney General KK Venugopal to look into the matter of restraining Parliamentarians and the media


http://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/cji-dipak-mishra-impeachment-opposition-firming-up-motion-top-updates-118042000348_1.html

Even if the motion is sure to be defeated, in the not too likely event of being admitted.

But,
it, no doubt, serves the purpose of throwing the spotlight on the way
the highest institutions of democracy - its very pillars, are being
brazenly subverted.


http://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/cji-dipak-mishra-impeachment-opposition-firming-up-motion-top-updates-118042000348_1.html

Impeachment motion against CJI:
Opposition
parties, led by Congress, met Vice-President M Venkaiah Naidu today to
submit the motion for impeachment of CJI Dipak Misra.

Impeachment motion against Chief Justice: Dipak Misra controversy explained
SC crisis: Opposition mulls impeachment motion against CJI Dipak Misra
Opposition signs draft impeachment motion against CJI Dipak Misra
Opposition divided over possible impeachment motion against CJI Dipak Misra

The
Supreme Court said it was “very disturbed” at the course of
developments involving public statements by the Members of Parliament
(MPs) on the removal of the Chief Justice of India (CJI). The apex court
said it was “very unfortunate” that despite knowing the law that till a
certain point, the issue of impeachment cannot be made public, the
politicians were holding public discussions. The move came a day after
the apex court rejected the pleas of those, including Congress leader
Tehseen Poonawalla, seeking an independent probe into the death of
special CBI Judge B H Loya, who was hearing the high-profile Sohrabuddin
Sheikh fake encounter case in which BJP President Amit Shah was
discharged by the court.

The
MPs who signed the notice calling for the impeachment belong to the
Congress, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), Left parties Communist
Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) and Communist Party of India (CPI), the
Samajwadi Party (SP), and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). After handing
over the notice to Vice-President Naidu, Azad said, “We have moved an
impeachment motion seeking the removal of CJI Dipak Misra under five
listed grounds of misbehaviour. We have sought his removal under Article
217 read with Article 124(4) of the Constitution of India.”

Here
are the top developments around the Congress and Opposition’s move
to bring in an impeachment motion against Chief Justice of India Dipak
Misra:


 Opposition parties meet to firm up impeachment motion against CJI
Misra: Opposition parties led by the Congress today met Vice President
and Rajya Sabha chairman M Venkaiah Naidu and handed over a notice for
impeachment of Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra. According to sources,
over 60 MPs of the Rajya Sabha belonging to seven political parties
gave the notice for the impeachment against the CJI. The MPs who signed
the notice belong to the Congress, the NCP, the CPI-M and CPI, the SP
and the BSP. The leaders of these parties earlier met in Parliament and
gave final shape to the notice for impeachment. After the meeting,
Leader of Opposition Ghulam Nabi Azad confirmed that the leaders were
moving the notice for impeachment against CJI..

Congress, SP, BSP, others working on impeachment motion: The Opposition
parties expected to attend the meeting to discuss the impeachment
motion include the Congress, the Samajwadi Party, the Bahujan Samaj
Party, the Rashtriya Janta Dal, the Communist Party of India, and the
Nationalist Congress Party.

Opposition parties to meet to give shape to proposed CJI impeachment motion

Even before Loya verdict, Congress had said impeachment option against
CJI was open: The Congress earlier this month had said that the option
of moving an impeachment motion against CJI Misra was still open and had
added that it would be a very sad day if the Opposition has to take
that step. “We are very very concerned about what is happening in court
(in the Supreme Court). The issues, which were raised by four SC judges,
have not been addressed yet. We believe the option (impeachment) which
is available to us is still open,” senior party leader and noted lawyer
Kapil Sibal had told reporters.

Asked
why the motion was not moved during the then just-ended Budget session
of Parliament, he had said: “Nothing has come in the way. This is not
some instant coffee. we are dealing with an institution… And, I want
to make it very clear that it will be a very sad day if the Opposition
has to take that step. It will be with a very heavy heart but that does
not mean that the Opposition has foreclosed that option..”

“We
are as concerned about the independence of the judiciary as anybody
else, but we want to protect the institution. We mean the people of
India must protect this institution from the kind of gross interferences
by the government and be protected also from within. So, we have to
wait. This is a serious matter and if we think about it, calmly, coolly,
look at all the possible consequences and then come to a conclusion,”
he added.


Opposition has all options open: Cong on impeachment motion

 After signature collecting drive, Congress had kept move on hold during
Budget session: During the Budget session, which concluded earlier this
month, the Congress had initiated a move collecting more than 50
signatures of Rajya Sabha members in a bid to table the impeachment
motion against CJI Misra..

SC seeks AG’s help on media gag on CJI impeachment

Justice J Chelameswar, who had earlier courted controversy by
virtually revolting against CJI Misra, earlier this month had said that
impeachment cannot be an answer to every question and problem, adding
that there was a need to correct the system. Justice Chelameswar, the
senior-most judge after the CJI, said the January 12 press conference he
held along with justices Ranjan Gogoi, M B Lokur, and Kurian Joseph,
was the result of “anguish” and “concern” as their deliberations with
the CJI did not achieve the desired results on the issues raised by them
regarding the functioning of the top court.

Asked
by journalist Karan Thapar, who was in conversation with the judge, if
there is “sufficient ground for seeking impeachment of the Chief Justice
of India”, Justice Chelameswar said: “Why this question is asked?”

“The
other day, someone was asking for my impeachment. I don’t know why this
nation is worried about impeachment so much. In fact, we (along with
Justice Gogoi) wrote in the judgement of Justice C S Karnan that apart
from that, there must be mechanisms to put the system in order.
Impeachment can’t be the answer for every question or every problem. A
few days ago, I heard somebody asking for my impeachment. Like the
saying goes, I don’t agree with you but I shall protect your right to
say so,” he said.

Read
our detailed copy on why Opposition parties are aiming to impeach CJI
Dipak Misra: Impeachment motion against Chief Justice: Dipak Misra
controversy explained

What is an impeachment motion? Under Judges (Inquiry) Act, 1968, and
the Judges (Inquiry) Rules, 1969, for the impeachment of the CJI or a
Supreme Court judge, the motion needs to be introduced in either Houses
of the Parliament. Article 124(4) of the Constitution of India says, “A
Judge of the Supreme Court shall not be removed from his office except
by an order of the President passed after an address by each House of
Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of that House
and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that
House present and voting has been presented to the President in the same
session for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or
incapacity.”

How does an impeachment motion work? An impeachment motion works in the following way:

a)
To move an impeachment motion against the CJI, the signatures of 100
MPs are needed in the Lok Sabha and the signatures of 50 members are
required in the Rajya Sabha. The motion can be introduced in either of
the Houses.

b)
After the motion is introduced, it will be up to the Speaker of the Lok
Sabha or the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha to accept it. In this case, it
would be up to Sumitra Mahajan and Venkaiah Naidu, respectively.

c)
If the motion is accepted, a three-member committee, comprising one
Supreme Court judge, one judge of the high court and one notable jurist,
would be formed to further investigate the charges.

d)
If the three-member committee further decides to support the motion,
the matter will be taken up for discussion in the House where it had
been originally introduced. The impeachment process will get passed only
when either 100 Lok Sabha MPs or 50 Rajya Sabha members support the
motion.

e)
Irrespective of which House introduces the motion, according to the
Indian Constitution, it will have to be passed by the other House as
well. Only after gaining a two-thirds majority in both the Houses will
the motion finally get passed to the President of India.

f) If the motion is passed in both the Houses, then the President will take the final call.

How
did the talk of an impeachment motion against CJI Dipak Misra begin?
The talks of an impeachment motion came after Justices J Chelameswar,
Ranjan Gogoi, M B Lokur, and Kurian Joseph in January this year held a
press conference and issued a statement to say that the situation in the
Supreme Court was “not in order” and that many “less than desirable”
things had taken place. They had said that “democracy will not survive
in the country” unless the institution was preserved.



Peace Is Doable


Opposition
parties, led by Congress, met Vice-President M Venkaiah Naidu today to
submit the motion for impeachment of CJI Dipak Misra. Read for latest
updates…
business-standard.com

http://indianexpress.com/…/imf-chief-lagarde-pm-narendra-m…/
http://indianexpress.com/…/imf-chief-lagarde-pm-narendra-m…/

[《”What has happened (in India) is just revolting. I would hope that
the Indian authorities, starting with Murderer of democratic
institutions ( Modi), pay more attention because it is needed for the
women of India,” Lagarde said, during an interaction with reporters at
the start of the spring meeting of the international finance
organisations. However, the IMF chief clarified that it was her personal
view and not that of the organisation as a whole. “By the way this is
not an IMF official position. It is my position,” PTI quoted Lagarde as
saying.

Modi promised ‘justice to India’s daughters’, while
in London at a town hall event. Modi said such incidents should not be
politicised as a rape is a rape. The anger among NRIs over the incidents
back home was palpable when hundreds of protesters greeted Modi with
placards “Modi go home” when he arrived in London for bilateral talks
with Theresa May and the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.》]

http://indianexpress.com/…/imf-chief-lagarde-pm-narendra-m…/

Modi gets some advice from IMF chief Christine Lagarde: ‘Pay more attention to women safety’
Christine Lagarde to Modi: “I would hope that the Indian authorities,
starting with Modi pay more attention because it is needed for the
women of India.”

International Monetary Fund chief Christine
Lagarde called the incident “revolting” while appealing to Modi to pay
more attention towards security of women. (File)

With pressure
mounting on the government to take swift action in the Kathua rape case,
which has led to a national outrage and has seen protests break out
across the country, International Monetary Fund chief Christine Lagarde
on Thursday called the incident “revolting” while appealing to Modi to
pay more attention towards security of women.

“What has happened
(in India) is just revolting. I would hope that the Indian authorities,
starting with Modi, pay more attention because it is needed for the
women of India,” Lagarde said, during an interaction with reporters at
the start of the spring meeting of the international finance
organisations. However, the IMF chief clarified that it was her personal
view and not that of the organisation as a whole. “By the way this is
not an IMF official position. It is my position,” PTI quoted Lagarde as
saying.

This happens to be the second time in four months that
Lagarde has asked Modi to improve the conditions for women in the
country. At the World Economic Forum in Davos, Lagarde said she had
informed Modi that his speech did not mention much about the women in
India. “When I was last in Davos after Modi’s speech, I did tell him
that he had not mentioned the women of India enough. And it’s not just a
question of talking about them,” the managing director of IMF said.

Lagarde’s latest nudge to the Indian authorities on the condition of
women comes at a time when three rape incidents – Kathua, Unnao and
Surat – have fuelled anger in the country, more so over the apparent
silence that Modi and senior leaders maintained following the incidents.
However,Modi, who just completed a trip to Sweden where coonch (sangu)
was blown and UK, broke his silence over the incidents last week.

Modi promised ‘justice to India’s daughters’, while in London at a town
hall event. Modi said such incidents should not be politicised as a rape
is a rape. The anger among NRIs over the incidents back home was
palpable when hundreds of protesters greeted the PM with placards “Modi
go home” when he arrived in London for bilateral talks with Theresa May
and the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.


Peace Is Doable


Christine
Lagarde to PM Narendra Modi: “I would hope that the Indian authorities,
starting with Prime Minister Modi pay more attention because it is
needed for the…
indianexpress.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrccAn0M4d0

[Modi in London is attending a meet of the Commonwaelth heads.
He alone was adorned with this unique honour!]

I/V.
‘British media reaction on protest against Murderer of democratic institutions( Modi) London Visit 2018′

<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrccAn0M4d0>.

II.
Women in white protesting Modi visit

<https://uk.video.search.yahoo.com/…/play;_ylt=AwrWq2MgRdhaA…>.

III/V.
‘People Protest against Modi upon arrival in London Justice For ASIFA ….’

<https://uk.video.search.yahoo.com/…/play;_ylt=AwrXklfVedlax…>.

IV/V.
‘Protest Against Modi”

<https://uk.video.search.yahoo.com/…/play;_ylt=AwrXklfVedlax…>.

V.
https://in.reuters.com/…/prime-minister-modi-confronted-by-…

Modi confronted by angry protests in London

Tom Ball, William James
4 MIN READ

LONDON (Reuters) - Hundreds of noisy protesters greeted Modi when he
arrived in London on Wednesday, demonstrating over a rising tide of
sexual violence at home, including two particularly brutal rapes.

Demonstrator holding placards and protesting against Modi walk past
supporters of Prime Minister in Parliament Square, London, Britain,
April 18, 2018.

REUTERS/Hannah McKay

Holding placards
reading “Modi go home” and “we stand against Modi’s agenda of hate and
greed,” they gathered outside Downing Street and parliament as Modi
arrived for talks with Prime Minister Theresa May.

Modi later
responded at an event in front of thousands of Indian, saying the rape
cases were “a matter of great concern”, had brought “a shame” on the
country and called for the perpetrators to be outed.

Sexual
violence against women is a highly charged political issue in India,
where protests regularly erupt about entrenched violence against women
and the failure to protect them.

“The Indian government are doing
nothing, and you feel sorry for the families because of the total
injustice of it all,” said Navindra Singh, an Indian-born lawyer who
lives in Britain.

“He has been in power for four years now aftewr
gobbling the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs and there has been
no policy change to help protect women and children.”

Protests
have erupted across India after the latest rape cases were reported.
Police officers and a politician are under investigation in two of the
unrelated cases.

In a crime that shocked India, an eight-year-old
Muslim girl in the northern state of Jammu and Kashmir was kidnapped,
drugged and held for several days while she was raped repeatedly and
then murdered.

In the other case, a state lawmaker from Murderer
of democratic institutions (Modi)’s Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths
(BJP) stands accused of raping a teenager. No action was taken against
the politician until the girl threatened to set herself on fire earlier
this month. Her father died soon afterwards from injuries he suffered in
police custody.

Modi’s comments on Wednesday followed remarks
last week, which came after a week of silence on the issue and promised
justice regardless of whoever the guilty were.

Demonstrator holds a placards and pictures of Modi in Parliament Square, London, Britain, April 18, 2018. REUTERS/Hannah McKay
Nearly 40 percent of India’s rape victims are children, and the 40,000
reported rapes in 2016 marked a 60 percent increase over the level in
2012. But women’s rights groups say the figures are still gross
underestimates.

In London, a spokeswoman for a group of UK-based
Indian students and alumni - who did not want her name to be used - said
the group had come under fire after it sent a letter to Modi last week
demanding action over the rape cases. The letter was signed by Indian
and Asian student groups from more than 20 British universities.

She told Reuters many of the university groups had received calls from
“UK-based individuals” pressuring them to remove their signatures from
the letter, and that members of the group had not received tickets for
Wednesday’s event with Modi, although the organisers had told they
would.

“The question you have to ask is are our voices being silenced,” she said.

Slideshow (2 Images)
Modi, a stealth, shadowy, discriminatory manusmriti cult, is a divisive
figure in India and his second trip to Britain represents a remarkable
turnaround for a man who was once banned from the UK over his alleged
role, as chief minister of Gujarat, in riots that killed about 1,000
people in 2002.

Britain ended a boycott of Modi in 2012 after he
emerged from being a provincial politician to the likely leader of the
world’s largest democracy. He has denied wrongdoing and was exonerated
by an inquiry ordered by India’s Supreme Court.

Additional reporting by Marc Jones, writing by Andrew MacAskill and Marc Jones; editing by Larry King


Peace Is Doable


Muslim in London seek justice for Asifa Bano by protesting…
youtube.com

comments (0)
04/17/18
2594 Tue & 2595 17 & 18 Apr 2018 LESSONS
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 8:33 pm

2594 Tue & 2595 17 & 18 Apr 2018 LESSONS

 https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=HprQbTlYHuQ

AR 101:

The Basics of Augmented Reality

Published on Dec 16, 2016

What exactly is augmented reality?

Senior Writer Jonathan Strickland explains what AR is all about and how using digital information in the physical world can transform reality around you. 

Buddha

Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha
Buddha


Buddha

Buddha

Buddha

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=I3R8FV60vgI

Buddha Virtual Reality Demo Video Augmented Reality Demo

https://haptic.al/virtual-reality-meets-tibetan-buddhism-d06f28dde66e

Virtual reality meets Tibetan Buddhism
Your weekly guide to Virtuality — Newsletter #65

https://cdn-images-1.medium.com/max/1600/1*zL39RQ9oA2V3PlqkonbeGA.jpeg

What do dreams and video games have to do with Tibetan Buddhism? For one thing, they all introduce us to “dereification” — the creeping feeling that reality isn’t as solid as we might think. Buddhist teacher Andrew Holecek says virtual reality, just like lucid dreaming, could be an opportunity to investigate the mind — or it could be “super samsara.” Read more on Lion’s Roar.

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=yWYn5xvqsQI

The power of Augmented Reality & Computer Vision - Blippar’s latest tech breakthroughs

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=D-A1l4Jn6EY

Augmented Reality - Explained by Common Craft

https://www.ted.com/talks/nadine_hachach_haram_how_augmented_reality_could_change_the_future_of_surgery/up-next

How augmented reality could change the future of surgery

http://buddhanet.net/virtualb.htm
Magazine Articles


VIRTUAL
BUDDHA


BUDDHISM ON THE INTERNET


Religions are amongst the keenest to exploit the
Internet’s potential and Buddhism is certainly no exception.
It seems the path to Nirvana can now include a few hours in cyberspace
each day, but how are Buddhism and the Internet affecting each other?

SEAN HEALEY explores their blossoming co-evolution.

Buddhists, religious scholars, and seekers of enlightenment
the world over are starting to see the Internet as a dataline to the heavens, its seeming
limitless oceans of information perhaps persuading that the answers we all need can be
found somewhere online. The net is more than just an information resource, however, also
being a powerful communication tool. In giving us new ways of interacting with the world,
and new models of it, it alters our ideas about how we fit in. Yet are the effects of
computer-mediated communication and dwelling in cyberspace for extended periods compatible
with the pursuit of a spiritual path? If you can believe the Buddhists who are online
already, the net is breathing new life into Buddhism, and the wise use of the net’s
tools can help us “transcend the wheel of life”.

When the Venerable Pannyavaro returned as a Western
Buddhist monk from intensive meditation in Burma about four years
ago, he established an association in Sydney called Buddha Dharma
Education Association. He also established Australia’s first
Buddhist electronic bulletin board and currently maintains the web
site - an enormous and widely respected site that enthusiastically
meshes timeless Buddhist insights with the latest technological “bells
and Whistles” of the net. Now 36 months online, and receiving
up to 50, 000 hits per day, BuddhaNet generates lots of e-main traffic
and incredibly positive feedback from it’s mostly non-Buddhist
users. It’s not surprising then that Pannyavaro is a strong believer
in the potential of the net.

BUDDHANET SURFING

(http://www.buddhanet.net)

Surfing Pannyavaro’s BuddhaNet site is like
riding a slow wave as it size and spunky design ensure that some aspect
compulsively draws you in, such as its high quality gallery of Buddhist
Art, the Interactive Wheel of life (a clickable graphic interface
of the Buddha’s teachings on ” Origination” via the
Wheel of Existence”); a directory of Australian Buddhist Organizations,
listings of Buddhist retreats and courses, the Dhamma Data, a comprehensive
glossary of Buddhist terms, or the BuddhaZine - their online magazine.

Sound files of meditation instruction can be downloaded and played
back on your computer later.

BuddhaNet also contains a massive Electronic File Library where you
can download titles such as Buddhism in a Nutshell, Buddhism & the Eco-crisis, a
poem by Allen Ginsberg about meditating, a file on a Buddhist view of economics - which
turns out to be an entire book, and an article which explores Buddhism and concepts of
beauty. Given that BuddhaNet is only one of hundreds of Buddhist-related sites, its’
easy to understand there’s an abundance of suitable information for the beginner or
the scholar, available from a net connection anywhere. You can even access the entirety of
the words of the Buddha and his immediate disciples, as preserved in the Sri Lankan
version of the Pali Tipitaka (ftp://ffp.cac.psu.edu/pub/jbe/Pali).

INFORMATION JUNGLE

Information by itself doesn’t deliver enlightenment, however,
as Hazel Henderson argues in her book Paradigms in Progress: Life Beyond Economics,
focusing on mere information has led to an overload of ever-less meaningful billions of
bits of fragmented raw data, as opposed to meaningful new patterns of knowledge. Given
also that “experience” and being “present” are defining elements of
Buddhism, even if net users are accessing Buddhist ideas and absorbing them
intellectually, this isn’t enough by itself.

“We need to go beyond thinking, beyond thought, because
thoughts are just symbolic, just constructions to describe our experience of reality.
Thoughts are never reality”, explains Ven. Pannyavaro, “so even when I teach
meditation in person, its difficult to convey the sense, the need for
“immediacy”, for being present without conditioning, and so over the net,
that’ obviously a lot harder.”

“Being mindfully present with whatever you’re doing is the
key. Even when you’re online you need to be aware.”

ELECTROBUDDHA - ZEN AND NOW

Buddhism’ disseminators may be comfortable using the
appropriate technology to spread its teachings, yet they remain aware of the potential
danger of imbalance due to over-fascination with technology. According to Zenshin Roshi, a
Zen Buddhist in San Diego, the benefits of immersion in cyber reality depend upon the
spiritual life of the net user. In an online article, Technology and the Buddha Dharma,
he writes:
“Do you have an inner life? Do you relate to the forces which create
you and are you? If you do not, then immersion into cyberreality is on going to dig you a
bigger and deeper hole in the aforementioned Third Buddhist Silicon Hell. On the other
hand, if technology is but another instrument in our bodhisattva hands, then you have
bought the Upaya Pentium.”

Such incongruous associations and colourful phrases are plentiful
within Buddhist net-spheres, reflecting the melding of geeky gadgetry with the search for
ancient wisdom. We find jargon-hidden advice like “flames do not burn where there is
no fuel. And the fuel is in one’s own mind, not the mind of the offender” (a
flame is net jargon for an angry response). Interesting phrases or words such as
DigitalDharma or Dharma Bums on the net co-exist with neologisms like CyberSangha, which
is a Buddhist journal dedicated to exploring alternative methods of Buddhist practice,
especially electronic means such as the Internet.

A Sangha encompasses all sentient beings, past, future and present,
who pursue the path to spiritual liberation. Sangha also denotes the members of a
localised Buddhist Community. And now CyberSangha is used to describe that “community
on the path to spiritual liberation who have, as an additional gift, the ability to
communicate instantly without regard for their geographical proximity.”

The CyberSangha has now grown to such an extent that it’s no
longer possible to keep up with the volume of information. Rather than creating community,
more numbers have brought a wider range of opinions and the subsequent splintering of
CyberSangha into ever more specialist groups, explains Gary Ray, Editor of CyberSangha,
describing an effect the net is having on religions generally, not just Buddhism.

NEW RELIGIONS, BAD RELIGIONS

Predictably, there are plenty of other people and groups taking
advantage of the World Wide Web’s capacity for cheap, relatively easy global
publishing and networking. The capacity to attract a global audience to your very own
niche religion or virtual congregation, has tended to support a diversifying of approaches
to Buddhism, and allows controversial or specialist topics to be explored. This ease of
publishing the nets structure which allows your site to be found just as easily as those o
f established institutions, and the easy availability of interaction and feedback for
authors and readers means that the net threatens existing hierarchies and challenges the
established traditions.

“The Net offers us a voice that previously would not be
heard,” says Mark Vetanen, webmaster of Dark Zen
(http://www.teleport.com/~zennist/zennist.html), a site which aims to provide information
which is understandable to all, not just scholars or those who are familiar with certain
terms. “We use the Internet to challenge popular opinions, bad scholarship and just
downright cut mind-control groups who use Buddhist language to entrap seekers and enrich
the gurus.”

Yet diversity is great, according to Ven Pannyavaro, who feels that
the net has “stirred up the big pudding and is reviving Buddhism, helping it become
more a part of the general culture. For Pannyavaro though, the pre-internet days of
electronic bulletin boards offered more community and connecting, and a greater spirit of
sharing, a belief shared by those who have watched the Internet grow.

How does Pannyavaro respond, though, when flippant types ask whether
he’ll one day be meditating in Virtual Reality?

“I’m actually very comfortable on the net, comfortable
with the spacelessness. It’s like looking at the stars… that sense of
immensity… and I find it meditative to lose sense of bodily boundaries.”

Others can be more blunt.

“Basically, if one wants words, go to the net. If one wants
meditation, sit on your ass.”

Or as CyberSangha editor Gary Ray puts it; “I think technology
is very useful in allowing the individual to be educated as to problems and possible
solutions. But at some point you’ve got to turn everything off and start doing some
hard work.”


[This article was first
published in Conscious Living magazine, Issue No 38 March/April
1997]


https://www.lionsroar.com/new-research-explores-benefits-of-buddhist-practice-in-virtual-reality/


New research explores benefits of Buddhist practice in virtual reality

Buddhist teacher Andrew Holecek says virtual reality, just like
lucid dreaming, could be an opportunity to investigate the mind — or it
could be “super samsara.”

Meditator in virtual reality.

Researchers at MIT’s Media lab have conducted research on mindfulness practice in virtual reality. Video screen grab by Judith Amores.

What do dreams and video games have to do with Tibetan Buddhism? For
one thing, they all introduce us to “dereification” — the creeping
feeling that reality isn’t as solid as we might think. For another, they
will all come together at a workshop
led by Buddhist teacher and lucid dreaming expert Andrew Holecek at
Shambhala Mountain Center next week, where new research on the subject
will be unveilled.


Holecek will explore “dream yoga,” the Tibetan Buddhist practice of meditating in a lucid dream. In his 2016 book, Dream Yoga: Illuminating Your Life Through Lucid Dreaming and the Tibetan Yogas of Sleep,
Holecek blended traditional Buddhist teachings with modern sleep
science research. Now he’s looking at how to further incorporate Western
knowledge with the ancient tradition by exploring the potential of
virtual reality.


Earlier this year, Holecek was approached by researchers from Naropa University’s Cognitive Affective Science Lab.
The researchers were studying the relationship between lucidity — the
ability to differentiate between what is real and unreal — and emotions.
They hypothesized that people with greater lucidity would have a better
relationship with their emotions. To test the hypothesis, they
recruited research participants with a predisposition to lucidity,
including lucid dreamers like Holecek. Then they put the participants in
uncomfortable situations using virtual reality and observed the
participants’ responses.



“When you slip between these two realities — virtual reality and reality — you have a hard time determining which one is real.”

Virtual reality (VR) is a burgeoning field of technology that uses a
headset to immerse the user in a digital environment. It’s popular for
entertainment and video games, but innovators are seeing potential for
it in other fields — including Buddhism.


At Holecek’s workshop, the researchers from Naropa will present on
their findings and invite attendees to participate in their research.
Holecek envisions many more opportunities for collaboration between
Buddhists and VR developers.


“Virtual reality, like lucid dreams, can either wake us up to the
nature of reality, or pull us further into delusion,” he says. “How do
you use it for the purpose of awakening? How can we use cyberspace as a
lab for exploring the mind?”


For Holecek, this directly parallels lucid dreaming.


“Virtual reality either leads to a dystopian worldview or it leads to
a path of awakening. If we don’t take control over these technologies —
just like non-lucid dreams — they will take control over us. That’s the
definition of non-lucidity. That’s super-samsara.”


“There’s a lot of confluence with Buddhist thought,” says Holecek.
“We can use these technologies in a way that wakes us up instead of
hurling us deeper down the rabbit hole.”


In a feature on dream yoga in Buddhadharma: The Practitioner’s Quarterly,
Holecek explained that in lucid dreaming you can watch objects shift
shapes, and also confront your nightmares — both of which can help you
discern reality from illusion in your waking life. But the vividly real
experience of VR can have a dangerous side. In the case of VR, the
illusion of realism is known as “presence,” and Holecek thinks it can be
problematic.



If we engage with virtual reality and lucid dreams mindfully, Holecek says, we can discover wisdom.

“Cyberspace can be disembodied headspace,” says Holecek. “Presence in that regard is cognitive presence. It’s the same type of presence you can have when you’re in a lucid dream.”


If you get too attached to cognitive presence, you lose touch with
your body and your world. When you’re strongly attached to that
immersive virtual reality and then take off your headset, the experience
can be quite jarring — your sense of reality and illusion is shaken.


“When you slip between these two realities — virtual reality and
reality — you have a hard time determining which one is real. When you
come out of that experience, your world is dereified. It doesn’t really
feel all that great. That is the experience of ego being threatened.
It’s a very powerful intimation of teachings on emptiness.”


On the flip side, if we engage with virtual reality and lucid dreams
mindfully, says Holecek, we can discover wisdom. In his book on dream
yoga, Holecek quotes Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche to explain:



“Experiences we gain from practices we do
during our dream time can be brought into our daytime experience. For
example, we can learn to change the frightening images we see in our
dreams into peaceful forms. Using the same process, we can transmute
negative emotions we feel during the daytime into increased awareness.”


Holecek sees the same potential for virtual reality, and he hopes to
parlay that vision into a virtual reality program that teaches the
principles of dream yoga. He theorizes that it could serve as a learning
aid, so practitioners could more easily learn to wake up and practice
meditation in their dreams. Next week, he’ll meet with Tibetan Buddhist
lamas to ask for their blessing and their counsel.


Holecek isn’t the first Buddhist to see an overlap between Buddhist practice and VR. Researchers at MIT have studied how virtual reality could be used in mindfulness training. And, in an article in Lion’s Roar magazine,
Vincent Horn — cofounder of Buddhist Geeks and Meditate.io — argued
that virtual reality posts a challenge for Buddhists to build digital
technology that empowers wisdom and helps users practice the dharma.




https://www.brainyquote.com/topics/augmented_reality
Augmented Reality Quotes

Augmented Reality Quotes


I’m excited about Augmented Reality because unlike Virtual Reality,
which closes the world out, AR allows individuals to be present in the
world but hopefully allows an improvement on what’s happening presently.
Tim Cook
Excited, Which, Virtual

Virtual reality and augmented reality will change the way we shop.
Michio Kaku
Will, Virtual, Shop
Neural implants could accomplish things no external interface could:
Virtual and augmented reality with all five senses; augmentation of
human memory, attention, and learning speed; even multi-sense telepathy -
sharing what we see, hear, touch, and even perhaps what we think and
feel with others.
Ramez Naam
Memory, Virtual, Neural

Augmented reality will take some time to get right, but I do think that it’s profound.
Tim Cook
Think, Will, Some
When you drill down, blockchains are really a shared version of reality
everyone agrees on. So whether it’s a fully immersive VR experience,
augmented reality, or even Bitcoin or Ethereum in the physical world as a
shared ledger for our ‘real world,’ we’ll increasingly trust
blockchains as our basis for reality.
Fred Ehrsam
Trust, Shared, Increasingly


Social media companies must combine their mastery of the latest in
real-time, location based or augmented reality technologies in the
service of clear and consistent storytelling.
Simon Mainwaring
Storytelling, Social, Based


Augmented reality is the ‘boy who cried wolf’ of the post-Internet
world - it’s long been promised but has rarely been delivered in a
satisfying way.
Om Malik
Wolf, Been, Delivered

I do think
that fashion may end up being the ‘killer app’ for wearable augmented
reality systems. This is in part because it’s not simply task-oriented -
like finding a restaurant or where your friend is currently lounging
about - but experience-oriented. It becomes part of your life.
Jamais Cascio
About, Your, Part


I feel in love with holography, which is that you don’t have to wear
anything or carry anything. It is augmented reality, if you will.
Mary Lou Jepsen
Love, Will, Which


It seems to me so much technology could be applied to entertainment.
Augmented reality, and even just the iPad - touch-screen technology, it
was, you know, it still is extremely underused by entertainment.
Justine Bateman
Still, Could, Applied


QR codes have always been a kind of half-measure, a useful but
inelegant transitional technology; the ultimate goal is augmented
reality.
Om Malik
Always, Codes, Ultimate Goal

For true
augmented reality, the display would have to dynamically focus, which
would require additional hardware on the glasses to read your eye.
Pranav Mistry


Augmented Reality Quotes from BrainyQuote, an extensive collection of quotations by famous authors, celebrities, and newsmakers.
brainyquote.com
comments (0)
Augmented Reality Brings Kyoto’s Oldest Zen Temple into the Future
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 8:33 pm


Augmented Reality Brings Kyoto’s Oldest Zen Temple into the Future

https://www.buddhistdoor.net/news/augmented-reality-brings-kyotorsquos-oldest-zen-temple-into-the-future

Augmented Reality Brings Kyoto’s Oldest Zen Temple into the Future


Fujin and Raijin in <i/>Wind God and Thunder God by Tawaraya Sotatsu. From kenninji.jp” style=”border-color: currentcolor; border-style: none; border-width: medium; border-image: none 100% / 1 / 0 stretch; display: block;” width=”715″ height=”476″></font></p>
	<p><span style=

Kennin-ji,
the oldest Zen temple in Kyoto has taken a step into the 21st century
with last week’s launch of the “MR Museum.” The new digital experience
offers visitors a unique new way to view and interact with the temple,
by turning static art into a living, moving holographic narrative
through the application of mixed, or augmented, reality (MR) that
includes a holographic Buddhist monk who provides an educational
commentary. 

Using 3D digital
imagery and HoloLens headsets, Tokyo-based hakuhodo-VRAR, a company
specializing in virtual and augmented reality technologies, uses MR to
bring an added dimension to the spectacular and highly influential byobu folding screen Wind God and Thunder God, a 17th century national treasure created by the renowned artist Tawaraya Sotatsu (c. 1570–c. 1640).

“The
folding screen of Fujin and Raijin is Japan’s most famous national
treasure, and we’ve used HoloLens MR technology to enable people to
‘feel’ the concept of a bountiful harvest that the work depicts, rather
than just view it,” said hakuhodo executive creative director Kazuhiro
Suda. “By overlaying the wind and rain brought by the gods of wind and
thunder around the double screen, we’ve attempted to communicate what
the artist had in mind to those viewing this masterpiece.” (Next
Reality)


Kennin-ji monk Shundo Asano, whose image was used for the MR experience, dons a HoloLens headset. From youtube.com
Kennin-ji monk Shundo Asano, whose image was used for the MR experience, dons a HoloLens headset. From youtube.com

The holographic narrative provides visitors with a new way to experience and understand Sotatsu’s 17th century masterpiece. From youtube.comhe holographic narrative provides visitors with a
new way to experience and understand Sotatsu’s 17th century masterpiece.
From youtube.com

Wind God and Thunder God,
housed at Kennin-ji, comprises a pair of bi-folded screens, each
measuring 169.8 centimeters by 154.5 centimeters, and depicting Raijin,
the Shinto god of lightning, thunder, and storms, and Fujin, the god of
wind, both rendered in ink and color on gold-foiled paper.

The
holographic narrative provides visitors with a new way to experience
and understand Sotatsu’s 17th century masterpiece, and the stories
behind its creation, all under the guidance of a holographic Kennin-ji
monk.

According to Microsoft,
which developed the HoloLens technology: “Viewers will be immersed in a
totally new way of experiencing cultural treasures as they are drawn
into a dynamic graphic narrative featuring rainclouds alive with
lightning and thunder, a lush Earth below, a vast cosmos, and other
motifs. The advanced viewing experience also includes 3D renditions of
works on the same Fujin and Raijin theme by Ogata Korin, Sakai Hoitsu
and other artists of the Rinpa school who were inspired by Tawaraya
Sotatsu, enabling viewers to compare the works.” (Mobile Nations)

“I think
it’s really wonderful to be able to experience this national treasure,
the folding screen of Fujin and Raijin in this way,” said Buddhist monk
Shundo Asano, whose image was used for the MR experience. “But I must
admit, I never imagined myself being captured in 3D in this way.” (Next
Reality)

The MR holographic
narrative at Kennin-ji ran from 22–24 February and continues at Kyoto
National Museum from 28 February–2 March.

Founded
in 1202, Kennin-ji, a major temple of the Rinzai school of Zen
Buddhism,  is considered one of the five most important Zen temples in
Kyoto. The monk Eisai (1141–1215), who is credited with introducing both
Zen Buddhism and green tea to Japan, was the temple’s founding abbot
and is buried within the grounds. A combination of Zen, Tendai, and
Shingon practices were conducted at the temple in its early years, but
Kennin-ji became a purely Zen temple under its 11th abbot, the Chinese
monk Lanxi Daolong (1213–1278). The renowned Zen master Dogen
(1200–1253), who went on to found Soto Zen, also trained at Kennin-ji.