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LESSON 76 BUDDHA RECITATION 01 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Eternal Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org that is part of the MARCH of the CARAVAN from PRABUDDHA BHARATH to PRABUDDHA UNIVERSE for “Sarvjan Hitay and Sarvajan Sukhay” i.e., for the Welfare and Happiness of Entire People & all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings-Thoughts give joy when they speak or act. Joy follows them like a shadow that never leaves them. - Buddha-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-GOOD GOVERNANCE
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LESSON 76 BUDDHA RECITATION 01 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Eternal Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org that is part of the MARCH of the CARAVAN from PRABUDDHA BHARATH to PRABUDDHA UNIVERSE for “Sarvjan Hitay and Sarvajan Sukhay” i.e., for the Welfare and Happiness of Entire People & all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings.

Thoughts give joy when they speak or act. Joy follows them like a shadow that never leaves them. - Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

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and

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Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

BUDDHA RECITATION

Buddha Recitation Methods

Four Methods of Buddha Recitation

  1. Real Mark [Self-Nature] Buddha Recitation
  2. Contemplation by Thought Recitation
  3. Contemplation of an Image Recitation
  4. Oral Recitation

Ten Variants of Oral Recitation

  1. Reflecting the Name Recitation
  2. Counting Rosary Beads Recitation
  3. Breath-by-Breath Recitation
  4. Continuously Linked Recitation
  5. Enlightened, Illuminating Recitation
  6. Bowing to the Buddha Recitation
  7. Decimal Recording Recitation
  8. Lotus Blossom Recitation
  9. Recitation Amidst Light
  10. “Contemplation of the Buddha” Recitation

Four Methods of Buddha Recitation

Buddha Recitation does not consist of oral recitation alone, but also includes contemplation and meditation. Therefore, within the Pure Land School, there are, in addition to Oral Recitation, three other methods, namely: Real Mark, Contemplation by Thought and Contemplation of an Image.

1. Real Mark [Self-Nature] Buddha Recitation

This entails penetrating the Mind’s foremost meaning — reciting our own original Buddha Nature. It is to contemplate the Real Mark Dharma Body of the Buddhas, resulting in attainment of True Thusness Samadhi.[41]

This method is really a Zen practice; however, since the realm revealed by the meditational mind is the Pure Land, it also qualifies as a Pure Land practice. This method is not for those of limited or moderate capacities — if the practitioner is not of the highest capacity, he cannot “become enlightened and enter” into it. For this reason, few Pure Land teachers promote it and the proponents of the method are found chiefly within the Zen tradition.

Incidentally, I would venture to say here that while we are still treading the path of Practice, not having reached the stage of Perfect Enlightenment, all Dharma methods are expedients; Buddha Recitation is an expedient and so is Zen. According to the Three Pure Land sutras, Buddha Sakyamuni provided the expedient teaching of the Western Pure Land, and urged sentient beings to recite Amitabha Buddha’s name seeking rebirth there. With this method, they can escape Birth and Death, avail themselves of that wonderful, lofty realm to pursue cultivation, and swiftly attain Buddhahood. Diligent Buddha Recitation also leads to Awakening, as in Zen; however, the principal goal of the Pure Land School is rebirth in the Land of Ultimate Bliss, while the degree of Awakening achieved is a secondary consideration.

Thus, the goal of Real Mark Buddha Recitation falls within Pure Land teachings. However, from the standpoint of an expedient leading to rebirth in the Land of Ultimate Bliss, it does not truly qualify as a Pure Land method within the meaning of the Three Pure Land sutras taught by Buddha Sakyamuni. This is, perhaps, the reason why Pure Land Patriarchs merely referred to it to broaden the meaning of Buddha Recitation, but did not expound it widely.

2. Contemplation by Thought Recitation

This entails meditation on the features of Buddha Amitabha and His Land of Ultimate Bliss, in accordance with the Meditation Sutra. (The Sutra teaches a total of sixteen contemplations.) If this practice is perfected, the cultivator will always visualize the Pure Land before him. Whether his eyes are open or closed, his mind and thoughts are always coursing through the Pure Land. At the time of death, he is assured of rebirth there.

The virtues obtained through this method are immense and beyond imagination, but since the object of meditation is too profound and subtle, few practitioners can achieve it. This is because, in general, the method presents five difficulties: i) with dull capacities, one cannot easily succeed; ii) with a crude mind, one cannot easily succeed; iii) without knowing how to use expedients skillfully and flexibly during actual practice, one cannot easily succeed; iv) without the ability to remember images clearly, one cannot easily succeed; v) with low energy, one cannot easily succeed.

Very few can avoid all five pitfalls. Thus, upon reflection, this method also belongs to the category of difficult Dharma doors.

3. Contemplation of an Image Recitation

In this method, the practitioner faces a statue of Amitabha Buddha and impresses all the features of that statue in his memory — contemplating to the point where, even in the absence of a statue, and whether his eyes are open or closed, he clearly sees the image of Amitabha Buddha.

This method is also difficult, because it requires a great deal of energy, a faithful memory and skillful use of expedients. There are cases of individuals who have practiced it in an inflexible way and have developed headaches difficult to cure. Moreover, upon examination, this method of seeking rebirth in the Pure Land is not mentioned in the sutras. It is merely a technique to assist in the practice of Buddha Recitation, so that the practitioner can harness his mind and achieve right thought. Still, if we practice this method in a pure, devoted frame of mind, we can obtain a response, eradicate our bad karma, develop virtue and wisdom, and, through an “illusory” statue of Amitabha Buddha, awaken to His True Marks and achieve rebirth in the Pure Land.

4. Oral Recitation

In this method, the practitioner recites, aloud or silently, either “Nam Mo Amitabha Buddha or “Amitabha Buddha.” The short form (Amitabha Buddha) has the advantage of easily focusing the cultivator’s mind, while the longer version facilitates development of a truly earnest, respectful mind conducive to a response.

This method, taught by Sakyamuni Buddha in the Shorter Amitabha Sutra, is the dominant form of Pure Land practice at the present time.

A brief examination of the four methods of Buddha Recitation shows that the Real Mark [No. 1] and Contemplation of an Image [No. 3] methods are not mentioned in the Three Pure Land sutras. They are referred to only in the Buddha Recitation Samadhi Sutra and a few other sutras or commentaries. Both of these methods are secondary expedients to expand on the true meaning of Buddha Recitation; they are not recognized methods traditionally taught by Pure Land Patriarchs.

The Real Mark method has the unique advantage of teaching the profound and exalted meaning of Buddha Recitation. However, it is too lofty to embrace people of all capacities and “strays” in the direction of Zen. The Contemplation of an Image method is merely a subsidiary technique and is not easy to practice. These two methods, therefore, are not recommended for Pure Land practitioners. Likewise, the Contemplation by Thought method [No. 2], although expounded by Buddha Sakyamuni and leading to immense virtue, is reserved for those of high capacities. In the present Dharma-Ending Age, few can practice it.

In conclusion, only Oral Recitation [No. 4] embraces people of all capacities, leads to swift results and is easy enough for anyone to practice. Oral Recitation, practiced earnestly and correctly, will bring a response; in this very life, we can immediately see the features of Amitabha Buddha and the adornments of the Western Pure Land and awaken to the Original Mind. Even if we cannot attain True Mark in this life, we will certainly attain it after rebirth in the Pure Land. For this reason, the Thirteenth Pure Land Patriarch, Master Yin Kuang, wrote the following words of praise:

Exclusively reciting the Name will bring attainment of True Mark, 
Without contemplation we will still see the Land of Ultimate Bliss.

Ancient masters have also commented:

Among Dharma methods, Pure Land is the short cut for attaining the Way. 
Within Pure Land, Oral Recitation is the short cut.

Nowadays, this method is the most popular form of Buddha Recitation.

Ten Variants of Oral Recitation

As indicated above, Oral Recitation is the most common Pure Land method at the present time. However, this method has many variants, to accommodate the circumstances and capacities of the individual. A few of these variants are summarized below.

1. Reflecting the Name Recitation

With this technique, the ear catches the sound as the mouth recites, examining each individual word and each individual phrase, to make sure they are clear and distinct, phrase after phrase. There are two ways of hearing, with the ears or with the mind. Although the ears “hear deep inside,” the sounds do not reside anywhere. The practitioner gradually forgets everything inside and out — even body, mind, realm, time and space — with only the Buddha’s name remaining.

This technique of “reflecting the name,” makes it easy for the cultivator to filter out deluded thoughts and swiftly achieve one-pointedness of mind. The Surangama Sutra expresses this very idea when it states, in the words of the Bodhisattva Manjusri:

This common method of concentrating the mind on its sense of hearing, turning it inward … is most feasible and wise. (Wai-tao, tr. “The Surangama Sutra,” in D. Goddard, ea., A Buddhist Bible, p. 260.)

2. Counting Rosary Beads Recitation

In this method, as the mouth recites, the hand fingers the rosary. At first, thoughts are tied to the rosary beads, but later on they gradually move away from the beads, leading to the state of one-pointedness of mind. This technique increases the power of recitation in the same way that a cane enables a mountain climber with weak legs to ascend higher and higher.

With this technique, we should write down the number of recitations per session or per day. This has the advantage of forcing us to keep an exact count, eliminating the affliction of laziness. However, we should take care not to be too ambitious, attempting to achieve too much too soon, or our recitation will not be clear and distinct. The ancients, while reciting the Buddha’s name over and over, did so in a clear, distinct manner thanks to two factors: “correct understanding” and “correct concentration of mind.” Elder Master Ou-I, the Ninth Patriarch of Pure Land once taught:

There is no better or loftier way to reach the state of one-pointedness of mind. At first the practitioner should finger the rosary, keeping an exact count, while reciting the Buddha’s name over and over in a clear, distinct manner, 30,000, 50,000 up to 100,000 times each day, maintaining that number without fail, determined to remain constant throughout his life. Such recitation will, in time, become second nature — not reciting being reciting. At that time, recording or not recording no longer matters. If such recitation, accompanied by earnest Faith and Vows, did not lead to rebirth in the Pure Land, the Buddhas of the Three Periods (past, present and future) would all be guilty of false speech. Once we are reborn in the Pure Land, all Dharma methods will appear before our eyes.[42]

If at the outset we seek too high a goal, are over-confident and eager to show that we are not attached to forms and marks, preferring to study according to the free and perfect method, we reveal a lack of stability and depth in our Faith and Vows as well as perfunctoriness in our Practice. Even if we were to lecture exhaustively on the Twelve Divisions of the Dharma [all the teachings of Buddha Sakyamuni] and become enlightened to the 1,700 Zen koans, these would merely be activities on the fringes of life and death.

This advice is indeed a compass for the Pure Land practitioner.

3. Breath-by-Breath Recitation

This technique consists of reciting silently or softly, with each breath, inhaling or exhaling, accompanied by one recitation of the Buddha’s name. Since life is linked to breath, if we take advantage of breath while practicing Buddha Recitation, we will not be apart from Buddha Amitabha in life and at the time of death, when breath has stopped, we will be immediately reborn in the Pure Land. The practitioner should remember, however that once he has mastered this technique, he should recite aloud as well as silently. In this way, the power of recitation will be strengthened and the will to be reborn in the Pure Land more easily developed. Otherwise, his resolve will not be earnest and he might “stray” into the practice of the “Five Meditations to calm the mind” of the Theravada tradition.

4. Continuously Linked Recitation

With this technique, the practitioner recites softly, each word following the one immediately before, each phrase closely following the previous phrase …

During this practice, through discretion and patience, there are no empty time frames and therefore “sundry thoughts” cannot intrude. The cultivator’s feelings and thoughts are intense, his mind and mouth move boldly forward reciting the Buddha’s name; the power of right thought embraces everything, temporarily subduing ignorance and delusive thought. Thus, the light of transcendental samadhi breaks through and shines forth.

From early times, Pure Land practitioners would avail themselves of this method when their emotions and thoughts wandered or were in a state of confusion.

5. Enlightened, Illuminating Recitation

With this technique, the practitioner on the one hand recites the Buddha’s name and on the other, “returns the light” and illumines his True Nature. He thus enters into the realm of ultimate transcendental emptiness; what remains is only the consciousness that his body-mind and the True Mind of the Buddha have become one — all-illuminating and all-encompassing. At that time, meditation rooms, cushions, gongs and all else have disappeared. Even the illusory, “composite body” is nowhere to be found.

With this practice, even while our present “retribution body” is not yet dead, silent illumination is attained. Uttering the Buddha’s name, the practitioner immediately achieves the state of samadhi. There is no swifter method for common mortals to enter the realm of the saints.

Unfortunately, we cannot understand or practice this method unless we are of the highest capacity. Therefore, its scope is rather modest and limited.

6. Bowing to the Buddha Recitation

This technique consists of making bows as we recite the Buddha’s name. Either we recite once before each bow or we bow as we recite, regardless of the number of recitations. The bowing should be supple yet deliberate, complementing recitation, bowing and reciting perfectly synchronized. If we add a sincere and earnest mind, body, speech and mind are gathered together. Except for the words Amitabha Buddha, there is not the slightest deluded thought.[43]

This method has the ability to destroy the karma of drowsiness. Its benefits are very great, because the practitioner engages in recitation with his body, speech and mind. A lay practitioner of old used to follow this method, and each day and night, he would bow and recite an average of one thousand times.

However, this practice is the particular domain of those with strong mind-power. Lacking this quality, it is difficult to persevere, because with extended bowing, the body easily grows weary, leading to discouragement. Therefore, this method is normally used in conjunction with other methods and is not practiced in exclusivity.

7. Decimal Recording Recitation

This is the inscription technique of Buddha Recitation, taking each ten utterances of the Buddha’s name as a unit. Individuals with short breath spans can divide the ten utterances into two subunits (five utterances each) or three smaller subunits (two three-utterance units and one four-utterance unit). One rosary bead is fingered after each group of ten utterances is completed.

With this practice, the mind must not only recite, it must also remember the number of utterances. In this way, if we are not diligent we must become so; otherwise, it will be impossible to avoid mistakes.

This technique, in general, is an excellent expedient forcing the cultivator to concentrate his mind and is very effective with those subject to many errant thoughts. Elder Master Yin Kuang used to recommend it to Pure Land practitioners.

8. Lotus Blossom Recitation

As he recites, the practitioner contemplates the four colors of the lotus blossom (blue, yellow, red and white), one color after another without interruption. With his first utterance of the Buddha’s name, he visualizes a huge, blue lotus blossom before his eyes, emitting a blue light. With the second utterance, he visualizes a yellow lotus blossom, emitting a yellow light. The third and fourth utterances are accompanied, respectively, by visualization of red and white lotus flowers, each color emitting its own light. He then repeats the visualization in the same sequence. As the flowers appear, he imagines a vague, lingering touch of pure, soft lotus fragrance.

Ancient masters devised this method because many practitioners in the T’ien T’ai School, despite using all available techniques, found it difficult to stem their errant thoughts. This method uses various forms and colors to focus mind and thought. These forms and colors take the marks of lotus blossoms in the Seven-Jewel Pond of the Pure Land (”one utterance of the Buddha’s name, one jeweled lotus blossom”), because the lotus blossoms appearing in the Pure Land are inseparable from the lotus blossoms created by the virtues of the reciting mind. At the time of death, the mind-consciousness of the practitioner relies on these jeweled lotus blossoms to achieve rebirth in the Western Pure Land.

If the Pure Land cultivator should discover that he has an affinity with this technique, he should apply it and quickly enter the Wonderful Lotus Blossom Buddha Recitation Samadhi.

9. Recitation Amidst Light

This method was specially designed for certain practitioners who, as soon as they close their eyes to recite, suddenly see filthy forms and marks (ugly grimacing faces, for example), or dark forms and colors swirling around.

With this technique, the practitioner, while reciting the Buddha’s name, visualizes himself seated in the middle of an immense, brilliant zone of light. Within that zone of light, when his mind has quieted down, the practitioner feels bright and refreshed. At that time, not only have deluded thoughts been annihilated, filthy, evil forms have also disappeared. After that, right thought is reinforced and samadhi is, in time, achieved.

Although this is a special expedient to destroy evil deluded marks, even the practitioner who is not in this predicament can apply this method to clear his mind and enter deeply into the Buddha Recitation Samadhi.

10. “Contemplation of the Buddha” Recitation

The methods of contemplation taught in the Meditation Sutra are very important and lead to immense virtue, but they are not a popular expedient for sentient beings in the Dharma-Ending Age. Nevertheless, since the ancient masters did not wish to see the special benefits of the meditation method go unused, they selected the easiest of the Sixteen Contemplations (Contemplation of Amitabha Buddha) and combined it with Oral Recitation to form the Contemplation of the Buddha-Oral Recitation technique. (Recitation is predominant, with contemplation of the Buddha occupying a subsidiary position.)

Each day, after reciting the Buddha’s name, the practitioner reserves a special period of time for concentrating his mind and contemplating the Embellishments and Light of Amitabha Buddha. This method is derived from Contemplation Number Thirteen in the Meditation Sutra, in which Buddha Amitabha is visualized as some sixteen feet tall and of golden hue, standing at the edge of the Seven-Jewel Pond. If the practitioner cannot yet visualize the Seven-Jewel Pond, he can picture Amitabha Buddha standing before his eyes in a zone of light, in open space, the left hand held at chest level and forming the auspicious mudra, the right arm extending downward in the position of “welcoming and guiding.”

To be successful in this meditation, it is necessary, at the outset, to visualize the body of Amitabha Buddha in general, then concentrate on the urna (white mark between the eyebrows). This mark is empty and transparent, like a white gem with eight facets … The urna is the basic mark among the thirty-two auspicious marks of the Buddhas. When this visualization is successful, thanks to the affinity thus created between Amitabha Buddha and the practitioner, other marks will appear clearly, one after another. However, to ensure success, the practitioner should read through the Meditation Sutra memorizing the thirty-two auspicious marks of Buddha Amitabha before commencing his practice.

With this method, Buddha Recitation should be primary, because if the practitioner does not succeed at visualization, he can still fall back on recitation to ensure rebirth in the Pure Land. In truth, however, recitation aids visualization and visualization complements recitation, so that these two aspects work in parallel, leading the practitioner toward the desired goal.

Although this technique is somewhat more difficult than the others, if it can be accomplished successfully, immeasurable benefits are achieved. It is therefore described here at the very end, to foster diligent practice.

As stated earlier, these ten variants of Oral Recitation are also the ten basic techniques to combat the various mental hindrances faced by Buddha Recitation practitioners. Pure Land books discuss several dozen variants. However, they are merely techniques using, inter alia, a loud voice or a low voice at busy moments or at times of leisure. They cannot as such qualify as methods of recitation. For this reason, the author has singled out these ten basic variants of Oral Recitation to combat the obstructions of drowsiness and mind-scattering. They are the methods best suited to the majority of today’s practitioners. The cultivator can try them out and select the one that fits his particular case. 

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Jataka: Stories of Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives, episode 30b       3.37mins


GOOD GOVERNANCE

 

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon’ble C.M. reviews beautification and development works of Hazaratganj

Lucknow: 31 October 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji has

directed the officers to make such arrangements in Hazaratganj before

Dhanteras and Deepawali, so that traders and common man could not

face any difficulty. Directing the officers to get road repair works

completed, she said that laying of slabs over drains and trench should

be completed before Dhanteras at all costs. She said that cleanliness

drive should be ensured on priority basis in Hazaratganj. She said that

Hazaratganj has special importance in the historic, cultural and

economic activities of Lucknow and there should not be any

compromise with the quality in construction works.

Hon’ble Chief Minister was reviewing the beautification and

development works, besides the proposed programmes on completion

of 200 years of Hazaratganj in December 2010 at her official residence

here today. She apprised herself with the detailed information

regarding the renovation works being done by Lucknow Development

Authority and Nagar Nigam and gave necessary directives to the

officers in this connection. Hon’ble Chief Minister directed the officers

that remaining construction works should be started immediately after

Deepawali and be completed by November 30 at all costs. Directing

the officers to get construction works of basement and ground floor of

multi-level parking completed by November 15, she said that

remaining construction works should be also completed by December

31 next. She said that after the construction of this multi-level

parking, the roads of Hazaratganj would be available completely and

the traffic would become convenient for the people.

Hon’ble Chief Minister said that necessary provisions for the

physically handicapped people should be ensured in the multi-level

parking and other construction works of Hazaratganj, so that they

could not face any difficulty in their movement.

It may be recalled that the Hon’ble Chief Minister has already

sanctioned the schemes worth Rs. 3500 crore to provide civic

amenities and restore the glory of Lucknow. She has directed the

officers to complete these schemes soon, owing to which Lucknow

would become a frontline city in view of high class facilities in the

country.

On this occasion Chairman, U.P. State Advisory Council Mr.

Satish Chandra Mishra and Senior Officers were present.

********

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LESSON 75 PURE LAND PART V 31 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-There is, Oh Monks, a not-born, a not-become, a not-made, a not-compounded. Monks, if that unborn, not-become, not-made, not-compounded were not, there would be no escape from this here that is born, become, made and compounded. - Buddha-Anyone Can Attain Eternal Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org that is part of the march past of the CARAVAN from PRABUDDHA BHARATH to PRABUDDHA PRAPANCH for “Sarvjan Hitay and Sarvajan Sukhay” i.e., for the Welfare and Happiness of Entire People & all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble Chief Minister reviews law and order situation C.M. directs Principal Secretary (Home), DGP and ADG (law and order) to review law and order situation on 1st November, 2010 with police and administrative officers of all divisions/districts through video-conferencing- Campaigning ends for fourth phase of Bihar polls
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comments (0)
10/30/10
LESSON 74 PURE LAND PART IV 30 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Eternal Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org that is part of the march past of the CARAVAN from PRABUDDHA BHARATH to PRABUDDHA PRAPANCH for “Sarvjan Hitay and Sarvajan Sukhay” i.e., for the Welfare and Happiness of Entire People & all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings-Let yourself be open and life will be easier. A spoon of salt in a glass of water makes the water undrinkable. A spoon of salt in a lake is almost unnoticed. - Buddha-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-GOOD GOVERNANCE-FIRs against 395 adulterators lodged and food articles worth Rs. 2.47 crore seized in a drive launched against adulteration Drive against adulterators to continue
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 9:49 am

 

LESSON 74 PURE LAND PART IV  30 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Eternal Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org that is part of the march past of the CARAVAN from PRABUDDHA BHARATH to PRABUDDHA PRAPANCH for “Sarvjan Hitay and Sarvajan Sukhay” i.e., for the Welfare and Happiness of Entire People & all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings

Let yourself be open and life will be easier. A spoon of salt in a glass of water makes the water undrinkable. A spoon of salt in a lake is almost unnoticed. - Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

PURE LAND PART IV

Origami (折り紙?, from ori meaning “folding”, and kami meaning “paper”)

 is the traditional Japanese folk art of paper folding, which started in the 17th century AD and was popularized in the mid-1900s. It has since then evolved into a modern art form. The goal of this art is to transform a flat sheet of material into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques, and as such the use of cuts or glue are not considered to be origami.

The number of basic origami folds is small, but they can be combined in a variety of ways to make intricate designs. The most well known origami model is probably the Japanese paper crane. In general, these designs begin with a square sheet of paper whose sides may be different colors or prints. Traditional Japanese origami, which has been practiced since the Edo era (1603–1867), has often been less strict about these conventions, sometimes cutting the paper or using nonsquare shapes to start with.

Origami cranesCrane.ogvthe folding of an Origami crane

History

Swan by Akira Yoshizawa, the father of modern origami.

There is much speculation as to the origin of origami. While Japan seems to have had the most extensive tradition, there is evidence of independent paperfolding traditions in China, Germany, and Spain, among other places. However because paper decomposes rapidly, there is very little direct evidence of its age or origins, aside from references in published material.

The earliest evidence of paperfolding in Europe is a picture of a small paper boat in Tractatus de sphaera mundi from 1490. There is also evidence of a cut and folded paper box from 1440.[1] It is probable paperfolding in the west originated with the Moors much earlier,[2] it is not known if it was independently discovered or knowledge of origami came along the silk route.

In Japan, the earliest unambiguous reference to a paper model is in a short poem by Ihara Saikaku in 1680 which describes paper butterflies in a dream.[3] Origami butterflies were used during the celebration of Shinto weddings to represent the bride and groom, so paperfolding already become a significant aspect of Japanese ceremony by the Heian period (794–1185) of Japanese history, enough that the reference in this poem would be recognized. Samurai warriors would exchange gifts adorned with noshi, a sort of good luck token made of folded strips of paper. In Japan, origami is a sport. every year, an origami tournament called Yaru Sano Origami is held in Kyoto.[citation needed]

In the early 1900s, Akira Yoshizawa, Kosho Uchiyama, and others began creating and recording original origami works. Akira Yoshizawa in particular was responsible for a number of innovations, such as wet-folding and the Yoshizawa-Randlett diagramming system, and his work inspired a renaissance of the art form.[4] During the 1980s a number of folders started systematically studying the mathematical properties of folded forms, which led to a steady increase in the complexity of origami models, which continued well into the 1990s, after which some designers started returning to simpler forms.[5]

Techniques and materials

Techniques

Many origami books begin with a description of basic origami techniques which are used to construct the models. These include simple diagrams of basic folds like valley and mountain folds, pleats, reverse folds, squash folds, and sinks. There are also standard named bases which are used in a wide variety of models, for instance the bird base is an intermediate stage in the construction of the flapping bird.[6]

Origami paper

Action origami

Origami not only covers still-life, there are also moving objects; Origami can move in clever ways. Action origami includes origami that flies, requires inflation to complete, or, when complete, uses the kinetic energyof a person’s hands, applied at a certain region on the model, to move another flap or limb. Some argue that, strictly speaking, only the latter is really “recognized” as action origami. Action origami, first appearing with the traditional Japanese flapping bird, is quite common. One example is Robert Lang’s instrumentalists; when the figures’ heads are pulled away from their bodies, their hands will move, resembling the playing of music.

A stellated icosahedron made from custom papers

Modular origami

Modular origami consists of putting a number of identical pieces together to form a complete model. Normally the individual pieces are simple but the final assembly may be tricky. Many of the modular origami models are decorative balls like kusudama, the technique differs though in that kusudama allows the pieces to be put together using thread or glue.

Chinese paper folding includes a style called 3D origami where large numbers of pieces are put together to make elaborate models. Sometimes paper money is used for the modules. This style originated from some Chinese refugees while they were detained in America and is also called Golden Venture folding from the ship they came on.

[edit]Wet-folding

Wet-folding is an origami technique for producing models with gentle curves rather than geometric straight folds and flat surfaces. The paper is dampened so it can be moulded easily, the final model keeps its shape when it dries. It can be used for instance to produce very natural looking animal models.

[edit]Pureland origami

Pureland origami is origami with the restriction that only one fold may be done at a time, more complex folds like reverse folds are not allowed, and all folds have straightforward locations. It was developed by John Smith in the 1970s to help inexperienced folders or those with limited motor skills. Some designers also like the challenge of creating good models within the very strict constraints.

[edit]Origami Tessellations

This branch of origami is one that has grown in popularity recently, but has an extensive history. Tessellations refer to the tiling of the plane where a collection of 2 dimensional figures fill a plane with no gaps or overlaps. Origami tessellations are tessellations made from a flat material, most often paper, but it can be from anything that holds a crease. The history of costuming includes tessellations done in fabric that are recorded as far back as the Egyptian Tombs.

Fujimoto was an early Japanese origami master who published books that included origami tessellations and in the 1960s there was a great exploration of tessellations by Ron Resch. Chris Palmer is an artist who has extensively explored tessellations and has found ways to create detailed origami tessellations out of silk. Robert Lang and Alex Bateman are two designers who use computer programs to design origami tessellations. The first American book on origami tessellations was just published by Eric Gjerde and the field has been expanding rapidly. There are numerous origami tessellation artists including Chris Palmer (U.S.), Eric Gjerde (U.S.), Polly Verity (Scotland), Joel Cooper (U.S.), Christine Edison (U.S.), Ray Schamp (U.S.), Roberto Gretter (Italy), Goran Konjevod (U.S.),and Christiane Bettens (Switzerland) that are showing works that are both geometric and representational.

Kirigami

In Kirigami it is allowed to make cuts. In traditional Origami, there was no Kirigami. Kirigami was simply called Origami. Just in the recent century the term Kirigami developed in order to distinguish it from “pure Origami”

Mathematics and technical origami

Spring Into Action, designed by Jeff Beynon, made from a single rectangular piece of paper.[7]

Hercules Beetle by Robert Lang

Mathematics and practical applications

The practice and study of origami encapsulates several subjects of mathematical interest. For instance, the problem of flat-foldability (whether a crease pattern can be folded into a 2-dimensional model) has been a topic of considerable mathematical study.

The problem of rigid origami (”if we replaced the paper with sheet metal and had hinges in place of the crease lines, could we still fold the model?”) has great practical importance. For example, the Miura map fold is a rigid fold that has been used to deploy large solar panel arrays for space satellites.

There may soon be an origami airplane launched from space. A prototype passed a durability test in a wind tunnel on March 2008, and Japan’s space agency adopted it for feasibility studies.

Technical origami

Technical origami, also known as origami sekkei (折り紙設計?)

, is a field of origami that has developed almost hand-in-hand with the field of mathematical origami. In the early days of origami, development of new designs was largely a mix of trial-and-error, luck and serendipity. With advances in origami mathematics however, the basic structure of a new origami model can be theoretically plotted out on paper before any actual folding even occurs. This method of origami design was developed by Robert Lang, Meguro Toshiyuki and others, and allows for the creation of extremely complex multi-limbed models such as many-legged centipedes, human figures with a full complement of fingers and toes, and the like.

The main starting point for such technical designs is the crease pattern (often abbreviated as CP), which is essentially the layout of the creases required to form the final model. Although not intended as a substitute for diagrams, folding from crease patterns is starting to gain in popularity, partly because of the challenge of being able to ‘crack’ the pattern, and also partly because the crease pattern is often the only resource available to fold a given model, should the designer choose not to produce diagrams. Still, there are many cases in which designers wish to sequence the steps of their models but lack the means to design clear diagrams. Such origamists occasionally resort to theSequenced Crease Pattern (abbreviated as SCP) which is a set of crease patterns showing the creases up to each respective fold. The SCP eliminates the need for diagramming programs or artistic ability while maintaining the step-by-step process for other folders to see. Another name for the Sequenced Crease Pattern is the Progressive Crease Pattern (PCP).

Paradoxically enough, when origami designers come up with a crease pattern for a new design, the majority of the smaller creases are relatively unimportant and added only towards the completion of the crease pattern. What is more important is the allocation of regions of the paper and how these are mapped to the structure of the object being designed. For a specific class of origami bases known as ‘uniaxial bases’, the pattern of allocations is referred to as the ‘circle-packing’. Using optimization algorithms, a circle-packing figure can be computed for any uniaxial base of arbitrary complexity. Once this figure is computed, the creases which are then used to obtain the base structure can be added. This is not a unique mathematical process, hence it is possible for two designs to have the same circle-packing, and yet different crease pattern structures.

As a circle encloses the minimum amount of area for a given perimeter, circle packing allows for maximum efficiency in terms of paper usage. However, other polygonal shapes can be used to solve the packing problem as well. The use of polygonal shapes other than circles is often motivated by the desire to find easily locatable creases (such as multiples of 22.5 degrees) and hence an easier folding sequence as well. One popular offshoot of the circle packing method is box-pleating, where squares are used instead of circles. As a result, the crease pattern that arises from this method contains only 45 and 90 degree angles, which makes for easier folding.

Gallery

Cuckoo clock by Robert J. LangDollar bill elephantKawasaki roseCannabis leafWood intarsia

http://www.truehappiness.ws/146.html

Please watch videos on

LIFE OF SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA (GAUTAMA BUDDHA, HISTORICAL BUDDHA or SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA)  

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637766/10026465

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha (Gotama Buddha), 1 of 8         9.25 mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637786/10024606

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha (Gotama Buddha) 2         4.33 mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637803/10026487

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha 3    5.43mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637837/10024746

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha 4    10.14mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637881/10024782

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha 5    7.12mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637904/10026525

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha 6    4.45mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637912/10026533

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha 7    7.34mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3637923/10024830

Life of Shakyamuni Buddha, 8 of 8    10.23mins

LIFE OF SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/4077889/11007558

The Buddha’s Life, 1 of 5  9.42mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/4078012/11007872

The Buddha’s Life 2  8.57mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/4078082/11007993

The Buddha’s Life 3  9.18mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/4078126/11008041

The Buddha’s Life 4  8.50mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/4078161/11008189

The Buddha’s Life 5  7.01mins

The Life of Buddha with English Subs (English subtitle):

The Life of Buddha (with English subtitle) 49.54mins

Vesak Day with English Subs:

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3624909/9994083

Vesak Day, 1 of 8       4.58mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3624932/9994144

Vesak Day 2      4.58mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3624975/9994254

Vesak Day 3      9.31mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3625032/9994372

Vesak Day 4      4.11mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3625066/9994459

Vesak Day 5      9.54mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3625230/9994850

Vesak Day 6      6.03mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3625261/9994919

Vesak Day 7      9.23mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3625297/9994964

Vesak Day 8      4.51mins

Jataka:  Stories in Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives with English  Subs:

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3899354/10617692

Jataka, Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 1a               9.08mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3899398/10617805

Jataka, Shakyamuni Buddha’ past lives stories, episode 1b       5.40mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3900212/10619753

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 2b     3.49mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3900237/10619977

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 3a     9.01mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3900261/10620159

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 3b     4.52mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3902801/10625362

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 4a     9.55mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903005/10625826

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 4b     3.34mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3902759/10625262

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 5a     8.52mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903026/10625905

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 5b     3.45mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903078/10626015

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 6a     9.18mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903102/10626076

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 6b     4.45mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903120/10626129

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 7a     8.35mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903179/10626195

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 7b              4.02mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903301/10626491

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 8a     8.07mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3903369/10626573

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 8b     4.07mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3909979/10641069

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 9a     7.39mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3910014/10641152c

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 9b     5.17mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3910038/10641236

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 10a   9.14mins

http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3910083/10641311

Jataka: Shakyamuni Buddha’s past lives stories, episode 10b   2.12mins

 

GOOD GOVERNANCE



Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

FIRs against 395 adulterators lodged and food articles worth Rs. 2.47 crore seized in a drive launched against adulteration Drive against adulterators to continue

Lucknow: 29 October 2010

On the directives of the hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh

Ms. Mayawati ji, a drive against adulteration in food articles and

circulation of spurious drugs had been launched on 1

st June 2010 to

control such activities effectively and also to take legal action against

the guilty. FIRs against 395 persons had been lodged till today and

569 persons had been named in it. Food article worth Rs. 2.47 crore

had been seized and the same worth Rs. 10.40 lakh had been

destroyed/captured.

A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Department spokesman,

while giving this information here today, said that the hon’ble Chief

Minister Ms. Mayawati ji had given explicit orders that this drive

should continue till this menace is completely eliminated. The

Spokesman said that those indulging in adulteration and circulation

of spurious drugs would not be spared at any cost and nobody would

be allowed to affect people’s health adversely and punitive action

would be taken against the guilty.

The spokesman said that the drive was continuing against the

adulterators all over the State. Besides, participation of common

people was also being sought in it. The spokesman said that in

today’s raid conducted in Aligarh adulterated khoya worth Rs. 67,000

and other adulterated dairy products were seized and destroyed.

Likewise, adulterated khoya costing Rs. 3.64 lakh was recovered

from Gorakhpur, the same worth Rs. 2 lakh was recovered in

Mathura, adulterated milk cake and doda barfi worth Rs. 40,000 was

captured in Sonbhadra, adulterated khoya worth Rs. 45,000 was

recovered in Meerut and the same worth Rs. 3,000 was seized in

Unnao and destroyed.

Likewise, fake paneer worth Rs. 1.2 lakh was seized in

Ghaziabad, adulterated khoya worth Rs. 52,000 was recovered in

Deoria and the same worth Rs. 1,29,400 was recovered in Ambedkar

Nagar and destroyed.

********

comments (0)
10/29/10
LESSON 73 PURE LAND PART III 29 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Eternal Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org that is part of the march past of the CARAVAN from PRABUDDHA BHARATH to PRABUDDHA PRAPANCH for “Sarvjan Hitay and Sarvajan Sukhay” i.e., for the Welfare and Happiness of Entire People & all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings-There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth…not going all the way, and not starting. - Buddha-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 12:20 am

 

LESSON 73 PURE LAND PART III  29 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Eternal Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org that is part of the march past of the CARAVAN from PRABUDDHA BHARATH to PRABUDDHA PRAPANCH for “Sarvjan Hitay and Sarvajan Sukhay” i.e., for the Welfare and Happiness of Entire People & all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings

There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth…not going all the way, and not starting. - Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

PURE LAND PART III

Photo: Xiang Ju Chan/Dreamstime Stock Photos

Origins of Pure Land Buddhism

Mount Lushan, in southeast China, is celebrated for the soft mists that blanket its sheer peaks and deep forest valleys. This scenic area is also a world cultural site. Since ancient times many spiritual and educational centers have been located there. Among these is the birthplace of Pure Land Buddhism.

In 402 CE the monk and teacher Hui-yuan (336-416) gathered 123 followers in a monastery he had built on the slopes of Mount Lushan. This group, called the White Lotus Society, vowed before an image of Amitabha Buddhathat they would be reborn in the Western Paradise.

In the centuries to follow, Pure Land Buddhism would spread throughout China.

The Western Paradise

Sukhavati, the Pure Land of the West, is discussed in the Amitabha Sutra, one of the three sutras that are the principal texts of Pure Land. It is the most important of the many blissful paradises into which Pure Land Buddhists hope to be reborn.

Buddhist scholars generally understand a Pure Land as a transcendent state of being. In Asian folklore, on the other hand, a Pure Land is thought of as a real place, not unlike the way many people conceptualize Heaven. The Pure Land is not the final destination, however.

Hui-yuan and other early masters of Pure Land believed that achieving the liberation of Nirvana through a life of monastic austerity was too difficult for most people. They rejected the “self effort” emphasized by earlier schools of Buddhism. Instead, the ideal is rebirth in a Pure Land, where the toils and worries of ordinary life do not interfere with devoted practice of the Buddha’s teachings. By the grace of Amitabha’s compassion, those reborn in a Pure Land find themselves only a short step from Nirvana.

Practices of Pure Land

Pure Land Buddhists accept the basic Buddhist teachings of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. The primary practice common to all schools of Pure Land is the recitation of the name of Amitabha, who is also called Amida.

In Chinese, this chant is “Na-mu A-mi-to Fo” (Hail, Amida Buddha). The same chant in Japanese, called the Nembutsu, is “Namu Amida Butsu.” Sincere and focused chanting becomes a kind of meditation that helps the Pure Land Buddhist visualize Amitabha Buddha. In the most advanced stage of practice, the follower contemplates Amitabha as not separate from his own being.

Pure Land in Japan

Pure Land was founded in Japan by Honen Shonin (1133-1212), a Tendai monk who had become discouraged by monastic practice. Honen emphasized the recitation of the Nembutsu above all other practices, including visualization, rituals, and even the Precepts. Honen’s school was calledJodo-kyo or Jodo Shu (School of the Pure Land).

Honen was said to have recited the Nembutsu 60,000 times a day. When not chanting, he preached the virtues of the Nembutsu to laypeople and monastics alike, and he attracted a large following.

Honen’s openness to followers from all walks of life caused the displeasure of Japan’s ruling elite, who had Honen exiled to a remote part of Japan. Many of Honen’s followers were exiled or executed. Honen eventually was pardoned and allowed to return to Kyoto just a year before his death.

Jodo Shu and Jodo Shinshu

After Honen’s death, disputes over the proper doctrines and practices of Jodo Shu broke out among his followers, leading to several divergent factions. One faction was the Chinzei, headed by Honen’s disciple Shokobo Bencho (1162-1238), also called Shoko. Shoko also stressed many recitations of the Nembutsu but believed the Nembutsu did not have to be one’s only practice. Shokobo is considered to be the Second Patriarch of Jodo Shu.

Another disciple, Shinran Shonin (1173-1262), was a monk who broke his vows of celibacy to marry. Shinran stressed faith in Amitabha over the number of times the Nembutsu must be recited. He also came to believe that devotion to Amitabha replaced any need for monasticism. He founded Jodo Shinshu (True School of the Pure Land), which abolished monasteries and authorized married priests. Shodo Shinshu is also sometimes called Shin Buddhism.

Today, Pure Land–including Jodo Shinshu, Jodo Shu, and some smaller sects–is the most popular form of Buddhism in Japan.

Namo Shakyamuni Buddha

International Association of Buddhist Universities

 

Members

1. Member Universities as of May 2007

Cambodia Preah Sihamoni Raja Buddhist University
Cambodia Preah Sihanouk Raja Buddhist University
China The Buddhist Academy of China
Hungary Budapest Buddhist University (The Dharma Gate Buddhist College)
India Nalanda University
India Institute of Buddhist Dialectics Dharamsala
India Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies (CIHTS) (Deemed University)
India University of Calcutta
Indonesia Kertarajasa Buddhist College
Indonesia Bodhi Dharma Buddhist College
Indonesia Nalanda Buddhist College
Indonesia Syailendra Buddhist College
Indonesia Smaratungga Buddhist College
Indonesia Jinarakkhita Buddhist College
Japan Koyasan University
Japan Minobusan University
Japan Rissho University
Korea Joong-Anng Sangha University
Korea Wonkwang University
Korea Dongguk University
Korea Dong Bang Buddhist College
Korea Daejin University
Korea Dongguk Chonbop Buddhist College
Laos Sangha College of Vientiane
Laos Sangha College of Champassak
Thailand/Malaysia International Buddhist College (IBC)
Mongolia Zanabazar Buddhist University
Mongolia Dashi Choiling College
Myanmar International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University (ITBMU)
Myanmar Sitagu International Buddhist Academy (SIBA)
Myanmar State Pariyatti Sasana University (Yangon)
Myanmar State Pariyatti Sasana University (Mandalay)
Myanmar Buddhist University
Singapore Buddhist and Pali College of Singapore
Sri Lanka Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka Buddhasravaka Bhikshu University
Chinese Taipei Ching Chueh Buddhist Sangha University
Chinese Taipei Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies - Dharma Drum Sangha University
Chinese Taipei Nan Hua University
Chinese Taipei Fo Guang University
Chinese Taipei Hua Fan University
Chinese Taipei Yuan Guang Buddhist College and Institute of Buddhist Studies
Thailand Mahachulalongkronrajvidalaya University
Thailand Mahamakut Buddhist University
USA Naropa University
USA University of the West
Vietnam Vietnam Buddhist University, Van Hanh Monastery
Vietnam Vietnam Buddhist University in Hanoi, Non Nuoc Temple
Vietnam Vietnam Buddhist University in Thua Thien-HueHong Duc Temple
Vietnam Vietnam Buddhist Research Institute
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City College for Buddhist Studies
Vietnam Hanoi College for Buddhist Studies
Vietnam Hue College for Buddhist Studies
Vietnam Can Tho College for Buddhist Studies
Vietnam Lam Dong College for Buddhist Studies
Vietnam Ba Ria – Vung Tau College for Buddhist Studies
Vietnam Bac Lieu College for Buddhist Studies
Vietnam Advanced School for Dharma Dissemination
Vietnam Khmer Theravada Academy for Buddhist Studies in Can Tho
Vietnam National Council for Monastic Education

2. Members of Council

Chairman

The Most Venerable Professor Phra Dharmakosajarn 
Rector, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, Thailand

Vice Chairmen

  1. Venerable Xue Chen 
    Vice President, Buddhist Association of China & Buddhist Academy of China
  2. Prof. Dr. Chisho M. Namai 
    Former President & Director of the Research Institute of Esoteric Buddhist Culture, Koyasan University, Japan
  3. Prof. Dr. Le Mahn That 
    Acting Rector, Vietnam Buddhist University , Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Executive Secretary

Venerable Dr. Khammai Dhammasami 
Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, University of Oxford, UK and 
Professor, International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University (ITBMU), Yangon, Myanmar

Assistant Executive Secretaries

  1. Venerable Dr. Kim Misan 
    Joong-Ang Sangha University, Korea
  2. Dr. Tamas Agocs 
    Foreign Relations Manager & Director of Research Institute of East and West,
    Budapest Buddhist University, Hungary
  3. Venerable Associate Prof. Dr. Phramaha Somjin Samapanyo 
    Pro-Rector for Academic Affairs,
    Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, Thailand

Members

Venerable Bhikkhuni Dr. Yifa, PhD (Yale),
Chair, Department of Religious Studies, University of the West, L.A, USA
Email: 
yifa@hsilai.org

The Most Venerable Dr. Ashin Nyanissara, PhD., D.Litt.,
Chancellor, Sitagu International Buddhist Academy, Myanmar
Email: 
tln3star@myanmar.com.mm

The Most Venerable Ching Hsing, PhD,
Ching Cheuh Buddhist Sangha University, Chinese-Taipei
Email: 
wusungshyi@hotmail.com

Venerable Prof. Geshe Gnawang Samten,
Director/Rector, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, India
Email: 
gh_samten@yahoo.co.in

Venerable Prof. Tepsattha Sovanratana, MA (Kelaniya),
Vice Rector, Preah Sihanouk Raja Buddhist University, Cambodia
Email: 
sovanratana@yahoo.com

Prof. Sumanapala Galmangoda, PhD (Kelaniya),
Director, Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies & Senior Professor, Department of Pail and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Email: 
galman@sltnet.lk

Dr. Eko Legowo, PhD (Hawaii),
Principal, Kertarajasa Buddhist College, Batu, Jawa, Indonesia
Email: 
ssc-ina1@telkom.net

Dr. Rabindra Panth, PhD (Delhi),
Director/Rector, Nalanda University (Nalanda Mahavihar), India
Email: 
nnmdirector@sify.com

Prof. Philip Stanley, PhD (Chicago),
Chair, Department of Religious Studies, Naropa University, Colorado, USA
Email: 
philstanley@comcast.net

Comments Off
10/28/10
LESSON 72 PURE LAND PART II 28 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Born out of concern for all beings. - Buddha-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji orders suspension of seven officers of Chandauli and Sonbhadra districts for showing laxity in various development works-Carry out all-round development of naxal affected areas on war footing-.Third phase of Bihar elections - Factfile
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 12:52 am

LESSON 72 PURE LAND PART II  28 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Born out of concern for all beings. - Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

PURE LAND PART II

japanese garden and meditation centre

the beautiful Pureland Japanese Garden and Meditation Centre - a special venue for self-discovery, team development, meditation and wellness - or simply to visit the garden

The Pureland Japanese Garden and Meditation Centre is a remarkable place. It is a uniquely beautiful garden, and also the home of Buddha Maitreya (pronounced ‘My-treeya’), a spiritual teacher and creator of this wonderful space.

There is now a Pureland Japanese Garden website, which contains some of the information explained here, and additional details besides.

The Pureland Japanese Garden, and the teachings and sessions provided by Buddha Maitreya, present a wonderful opportunity to bring spirituality and enlightenment into organisational learning and development. Spirituality and business - or love and business - might not seem an obvious ‘fit’ according to traditional thinking, however, we live in enlightened times. More and more people are seeking a new meaning from life and work. So there are increasingly significant connections between the ideas of spiritual peace, and what people want from their work and life beyond work. Pureland, based in the English East Midlands close to Newark Nottinghamshire, and Buddha Maitreya, offer a wonderful way to make these connections real.

The Pureland garden reflects Maitreya’s approach to meditation and philosophy, in which he teaches self-awareness, peace, and harmony with nature.

Buddha Maitreya acquired the land in 1973. It was then one and a half acres of flat wasteland - the site of an old farm house.

Maitreya has since transformed the space into an extraordinary venue, for people who seek peace and well-being, to discover more about themselves, or for others who simply enjoy visiting beautiful gardens.

The pictures convey a little of the Pureland experience. Visit the garden, or arrange a session for yourself or your team, with Buddha Maitreya, and discover for yourself the wonder of this special place, and this special teacher.

For those too distant to reach the Pureland venue, you might instead consider asking Buddha Maitreya to visit you, to teach relaxation and meditation, and/or maybe to give his talk and slide show about this beautiful Japanese garden and how it was created.

 

pureland japanese garden views

pureland japanese garden

Traditional Japanese garden elements combine to create a special peaceful space.

pureland japanese garden

Beautiful ponds, bridges, reeds, lillies and carp, and the sound of gently flowing waterfalls

japanese garden meditation centre

Bridges and walkways.

japanese garden meditation centre

Steps and grassy mounds.

pureland japanese garden

The variety of textures, shapes and patterns takes your breath away.

japanese garden meditation centre

japanese garden meditation centre

pureland activities information

Pureland is a maze of seemingly endless features, exquisitely crafted, and immaculately maintained. The story of the garden’s construction, from disused farmland into a stunning garden, over many years, and virtually single-handedly by Buddha Maitreya is remarkable in itself.

Maitreya’s slideshow of the garden through the seasons is an absolute wonder to behold.

Buddha Maitreya is a wonderful teacher and host. In his company you feel uplifted and centred. People who possess such wisdom and calm, plus the ability to transfer a genuine sense of peace and serenity to others, are extremely rare.

He offers meditation classes, tea ceremonies, and friendly, very reasonably-priced hospitality.

Activities at Pureland include:

  • individual relaxation and meditation tuition
  • individual consultation
  • regular monthly meetings at which Maitreya teaches his simple ‘pure meditation’ approach to inner peace
  • group relaxation and meditation sessions
  • Japanese garden viewings - from the last weekend in March to the last weekend in October
  • lantern lit evening garden viewings - Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays during August and September, 7pm - 10pm
  • Japanese tea ceremonies - for up to five people
  • group visits to the garden - available day or evening by appointment

Activities other than garden viewings generally include food and/or afternoon tea, which is available separately if required, and highly recommended when viewing the garden. (You don’t have to have an interest in religion and peace and love to view the garden - many people come to Pureland simply to see the Japanese garden.)

Please bear in mind that Pureland is not a large commercial concern. Do not expect the venue to be like a modern conference facility. The meditation centre is basically Maitreya’s house and the tea-room for visitors. The meditation centre - house and team-room - accommodates up to fifteen visitors. Of course there is a lot more room outside.

Pureland’s appeal lies in its simple beauty, the richness and tranquility of the garden, and the wisdom and teaching of Buddha Maitreya.

Pureland Japanese Garden and Meditation Centre is based in North Clifton, Nottinghamshire, England, just off the A1133 road, half way between Newark and Gainsborough and about 12 miles from each. Pureland is signposted from the main road.

There is ample car parking space.

To make a booking for a lecture, relaxation, meditation or a group visit contact Buddha Maitreya.

Buddha Maitreya is also available to visit you to give talks on higher self-awareness, meditation and meditation guidance.

Maitreya offers a wonderful slideshow presentation (35mm slide projector required) and talks about the creation of the Pureland Japanese garden.

Buddha Maitreya also offers talks and classes in Haiku poetry.

To enquire about visiting Pureland, or Buddha Maitreya’s availability for external talks, meditation and relaxation sessions, slide-show, etc, telephone: 01777 228567, or from outside the UK +44 (0) 1777 228567.

Pureland Japanese Garden and Meditation Centre 
North Clifton 
Near Newark 
Nottinghamshire 
NG23 7AT

 

 

buddha maitreya

Maitreya was born and raised in Handa, near Nagoya, in Japan. From an early age he sought to find truth, and attained enlightenment through meditation, which he then followed through teaching and sharing with others. He completed a Masters degree in Buddhist Theology, and for a while afterwards lived the life of a Zen Buddhist monk. His experiences as a Zen Buddhist monk led him to feel that monastic existence was too harsh and inflexible for modern teaching and application of meditation and Buddhist ideas. Maitreya left Japan and travelled to Thailand, India and Nepal, where he taught meditation for several years. On the invitation of a friend Maitreya visited England, where he began teaching and lecturing at various English universities, including Cambridge, Reading and Lancaster. While visiting Nottingham Maitreya learned of the old pig-farm property for sale in North Clifton, which he decided would be a good base from which to teach meditation, and in 1973 Pureland meditation centre was born.

Maitreya began the serious work of creating the Pureland Japanese garden in 1980. He had no previous gardening or agricultural experience. The flat featureless land was re-shaped into small hills around a newly dug central pond. Large boulders were brought in from a Derbyshire quarry, which helped form the winding paths and walkways. Elements were positioned harmoniously, and to reflect Maitreya’s philosophical ideals. Maitreya completed most of the work by hand over many years.

At the core of Maitreya’s philosophy are the following principles:

  • Self-awareness.
  • Harmony with nature.
  • Peace - the most important thing in our life.
  • Meditation provides you with peace, and also lets you be in touch with your inner self.
  • The purpose of life for human beings is not just to pursue one’s ‘wordly’ life, but more importantly to realise one’s True Self.
  • Life is for us to evolve from ‘ego’ existence become to Self Awakened.
  • Learning meditation enables us to become Self Awakened.

 

Maitreya teaches his own form of ‘Pure Meditation’ .

His teaching is accessible to all.

Maitreya’s teachings are simple and aim to provide a direct path to fulfil the purpose of life, namely ‘Self Realisation’, and for all people to contribute to the ‘Higher Evolution’ of mankind.

“Not only the cherry blossom
That has cracked into a smile 
But also my face.”

(Maitreya, 25 April 2006)

Buddha Maitreya’s teachings, and the inspiration and peace offered at Pureland, provide a wonderful perspective for living a good, positive and fulfilled life.

With acknowledgements Buddha Maitreya.

   maitreya haiku

The Japanese characters and written or spoken words are are called ‘kanji’. The word kanji is from kan (the name given to a great part of China thousands of years ago, from where the language and characters were adopted by Japan) and ji, meaning language or words.

Kanji is written from right to left and from top to bottom. The three columns on the right are the cherry blossom haiku verse; the next column of two characters represents Maitreya’s original Japanese name, Koji, which interestingly means ’supervisor of cultivation’; and the final column far left is the date, which traditionally includes the emperor’s name, hence so many characters.

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji orders suspension of seven officers of Chandauli and Sonbhadra districts for showing laxity in various development works

Carry out all-round development of naxal affected areas on war footing

Lucknow: 27 October 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji ordered

immediate suspension of seven officers of various departments for

showing laxity in implementation of various schemes/ programmes

related with the forest, public works, rural development, education, social

welfare, medical and energy departments being carried out for the

development of SC/ST and other poor sections living in Chandauli and

Sonbhadra districts of the State. She directed the officers to ensure rapid

development of these districts so that tribal and forest dwellers got its

benefits and they were not allured towards naxalism.

On the directives of the Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji, the Principal

Secretary Public Works Mr. Ravindra Singh, Principal Secretary Forest Mr.

Chanchal Kumar Tiwari, Principal Secretary Social Welfare Mr. Balvindra

Kumar and Secretary Rural Development Mr. Manoj Kumar Singh

undertook extensive tour of the Chandauli and Sonbhadra on October 23

and 24 last and conducted spot verification of various schemes and

development works being carried out in these districts. Thereafter, they

submitted their inspection report to the C.M.

Hon’ble Ms. Mayawati Ji reviewed this report at a high-level meeting

held at her official residence and attended by Cabinet Secretary Mr.

Shashank Shekhar Singh, Additional Cabinet Secretary Mr. Net Ram,

Principal Secretary Public Works Mr. Ravindra Singh, Principal Secretary

Home Kunwar Fateh Bahadur, D.G.P. Mr. Karmveer Singh and other

senior officers. After reviewing the report, she took some important

decisions and gave directives to the officers of the related departments.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji ordered immediate suspension of

divisional forest officer (DFO) and ranger of Obra for showing

carelessness in distribution of

Patta of forest land and for tampering/over

writing the documents without getting permission from the competent

authorities. She also directed the officers to conduct departmental inquiry

against them. She ordered immediate suspension of the superintending

engineer of P.W.D. Mirzapur for showing laxity in his works. She further

ordered suspension of the BDOs of Sonbhadra district Mr. Rajesh Yadav

and Mr. Sanjai Pandey, as a lot of complaints of serious financial

irregularities had been lodged against them. She also ordered that

departmental action should be taken against them. She ordered action

under Prevention of Corruption Act against Gram Panchayat Adhikari Mr.

Rajesh Dubey. Besides, the C.M.O. Chanduali, on the directives of the

C.M., has been suspended with immediate effect and departmental action

has also been initiated against him.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji directed the officers to ensure that the

Naib Tehsildar conducted measuring of land under the supervision of the

new committee formed for the purpose of Pattas under the Chairmanship

of the Dy. Collector. Besides, she also directed that the GPRS technology

should also be used to provide a computerised print of the patta along

with the map.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji directed the officers that about 7000

petty cases pending in these districts should be withdrawn after getting

them examined/approved from the competent level. She said that if the

same could not the withdrawn then they should be disposed of through

Lok Adalats. She ordered that the half of the royalty of the Tendu Patta

should be distributed among the Tendu Patta labourers. Likewise, she

directed that the registration and account opening action for the JFMC

(Joint Forest Management Committees) should be completed by 15

November 2010. She directed the officers that quick decision should be

taken for transfer of land for community works within the two days of

receiving the proposal from district level.

The Hon’ble C.M. Ji directed the officers of the P.W.D. to ensure

that overloading of trucks was controlled through its contractors and the

Transport and Home Departments should take action against other

departments, so that road damage through overloading could be checked.

She ordered third party monitoring of the construction of the link roads

being constructed by the P.W.D. in the Sonbhadra district at a cost of Rs.

500 crore, so that their quality could be ensured. She said that the

P.W.D. had been carrying out various development works of about Rs.

500 crore in Sonbhadra district. Therefore, it was necessary to create the

post of superintending engineer there.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji said that one third of the mineral areas

of the naxal affected districts should be allotted to self help groups

through a notification issued on 29 Jan 2010. In such groups, one third

members of SC/ST and castes like Mallah, Dheemar etc. traditionally

involved in these works should be included. She said that effective

implementation of it should be ensured. She directed the officers to

appoint 10 each land conservation inspectors and junior engineers of the

land conservation and irrigation department respectively in the

development blocks of both the districts on deputation, so that the quality

of the works being carried out in Sonbhadra and Chanduali districts under

MNREGA could be ensured. She said that if a cluster of five houses was

situated in a separate area then a handpump should be installed there.

The Hon’ble C.M. Ji directed that the land and water conservation

works should be carried out in an organised manner and all the deprived

families should be provided 100 day’s employment under MNREGA by

March 2011. Besides, she ordered that the lands should be made fertile of

at least 10 Patta holders of every gram panchayat (which included forest

patta holders) whose land was infertile and the Rural Development

Department should develop irrigation facility by March 2011.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji directed the officers to appoint

teachers in all the colleges of Sonbhadra, where teachers were not posted

within a month and asked them to appoint 6000 teacher by June 2011.

She directed that the appointment/posting against all the vacancies of

Shiksha Mitra in Sonbhadra, Chandauli and Mirzapur districts should be

made immediately. Besides, she directed the Education Department to

ensure cent per cent presence of teachers in the colleges and action

should be taken against those absent. She directed the Social Welfare

Department to request the GOI to relax the condition of the 75 years

proof for providing land patta of Forest Department to the people of the

SC. She directed that two boys/girls ashram system schools/eklavya

schools should be established in Chandauli and four such schools should

be set up in Sonbhadra district. Besides, she also sanctioned 6000

proposals of widow pension for Sonbhadra district and 3000 old age

pension proposals for Chandauli district.

The Hon’ble C.M. Ji ordered immediate suspension of C.M.O.

Chandauli for mismanagement of Naugarh CHC and also ordered officers

to take departmental action against him. She directed Principal Secretary

Medical & Health and Family Welfare to visit both the districts and

streamline the arrangements at the hospitals himself. She directed

intensive monitoring of the distribution of medicines being distributed by

mobile medical unit and also the treatment being undertaken by it.

Reviewing the works of the Energy Department, she directed that the

remaining electrification works of the 46 Ambedkar Villages selected for

the year 2009-10 should be completed by 31 December 2010. She said

that the decision taken regarding 104 Ambedkar Villages, in which works

had to be carried out through NEDA, should be reviewed.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji said that the State Government did not

view naxalism as a law and order problem but it viewed the same as

social problem. Keeping this in view, all the villages of the naxal affected

areas had been declared as Ambedkar villages and serious efforts were

being made for their all-round development. She said that the State

Government had issued authority letters of about 10,000 pattas under

the ST and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest

Rights) Act.

********

Third phase of Bihar elections - Factfile


The third of the six phases of the month-long elections to the Bihar state assembly is to be held Thursday. The following is a factfile for the third phase:

Number of assembly constituencies going to polls - 48

Total voters - 10,376,022 (5,604,851 men and 4,771,171 women)

Total number of candidates - 785

Total number of woman candidates - 65

Assembly constituency with maximum candidates - Mahua (31 candidates)

Assembly constituency with minimum candidates - Raxual (7 candidates)

Party-wise list of candidates - Bahujan Samaj Party (48), Bharatiya Janata Party (24), Communist Party India (10), Communist Party of India-Marxist (5), Congress (48), Nationalist Congress Party (38), Janata Dal-United (24), Rashtriya Janata Dal (35) and other parties (186).

Independent candidates - 354

Electronic voting machines to be used - 28,616

Largest assembly constituency area-wise - Valmiki Nagar

Largest assembly constituency voter-wise - Raghopur

Smallest assembly constituency voter-wise - Kesaria

 

comments (0)
10/27/10
LESSON 71 PURE LAND 27 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, We make our world. - Buddha-BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-GOOD GOVERNANCE-UP has not reported a single case of polio in the last six months-Sugar output in UP seen up 27%-Bahujan Samaj Party’s Satish Mishra wanted the prime minister to reserve 50 percent of all seats in legislatures for women in line with their population ratio is the correct position
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 3:58 am

 

LESSON 71 PURE LAND   27 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, We make our world. - Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

          Course Programs:

PURE LAND

THE RESEARCH OF PURE LAND

This is the most important doctrine in Buddhism, we wish all the practitioners could concentrate on this page and get the most benefit you can get. Good Luck.

ACCOMPLISHED practitioners in history admonished us that a practitioner when study the Buddhist doctrines at the same time should match real practice, then we will not go to the wrong way which is to hold the subjective views of ego. This will produce all kinds of differently wrong idea and mislead those who are interested in Buddhist doctrines and practices.

THE Buddhist cosmology is the description of truth which is from the experientially entering of limitless practitioners. And most of Mahayana doctrines remind us that If we do not have the real practice, we will not have the mercy and wisdom of Bodhisattva, then we will not understand the width and depth of the Buddhist cosmology.

WHEN we study The Canon deeply, we will discover that Pure Land is as a matter of fact the greatest institution of learning cosmic reality. Pure Land is the achievements of entering experientially of all Buddhas. What a word means in its broadest, Pure Land as a matter of fact is the method of becoming Buddha (as a Bodhisattva does on reaching supreme perfect bodhi).

THERE ARE NUMBERLESS WORLDS IN COSMOS
The Four Agamas Sutra say that there are numberless worlds which have all kinds of beings live there in the cosmos.
No matter from the point of view of numberless planets in so many outer spaces which is approved by modern scientific research, or from the point of view of numberless chiliocosm which is put down in writing in The Four Agamas Sutra and the Mahayana Sutras, they all approve that the world (Earth) we live, is just one of the groups of star light which has life forms in this limitlessly great cosmos.

THERE are numberless different kinds of life forms live in limitless world in the cosmos, most of scientists believe in that, but just cannot approve it, because we have not reach that territory yet. In some Buddhist Sutras already describe very clearly about this.

THE EARTH –The world we live
The earth has three evil paths, and the Pure Land has no evil path. Why? It is because of the projections of sentient beings in the earth. If we want the Earth to be like the Pure Land, first thing we have to do is to get rid of these evil paths. To change the mind of sentient beings and the projections of deeds of community (collective accumulation of past activities of all sentient beings), then the quality of the Earth can be changed. But it is impossible to change the Earth, according to the reality of present environment, we can see the future of the Earth.

THE WARFARE in this world
Any weapon built in this high technical era will easily destroy this world in just few minutes. And many more countries now own more powerful nuclear weapons than before, any war happens between any countries will easily lead this world to the vanished level. From this standpoint of view of war, killing, and reprisal breeds reprisal, we really cannot get rid of these evil paths.

ECOCIDE OF THE EARTH
Such as the more and more desert crisis in Africa, the violation of forest of the torrid zone in South America, the death of West Germany’s forest because of the sour rain, the death of the forest in Alps area, and the crisis of the corals of oceanic oasis in Japan and the whole world, these are only part of the problems. Almost all forests in this world are damaged by the sour rain daily. All deserts in this world are expanding day by day. And many other ecocide are beyond we can image.

AND because of the activities of human daily life, such as the discards from industries, automobiles, … these things cause the increase of carbon dioxide and bring about the hothouse effect, then damage and pollute our surroundings, this is also why the average air temperature of our planet is higher and higher than before.

THE POLLUTED HUMAN MIND
“Birds of the same feather flock together” is the unofficial principle or rule of living for sentient beings.
 
All sentient beings in this world no matter what happen to them always follow the principle of “Birds of the same feather flock together”. The 

karma of beings is just like magnet. All beings will follow the circle of karma which is made by being itself, rebirth and redeath, will live in this kind of retribution forever.

WHEN our mind is in darkness, it will correspond with the karma of darkness naturally, when our mind is in brightness, it will correspond with the karma of brightness. This principle of existence is always existent naturally, with or without Buddha, with or without Dharma.

IN general, there are six directions of reincarnation in different dimensions around the Earth, hells, hungry ghosts, animals, malevolent nature spirits, human existence, and deva existence.

THE world we live, is from the collective and corresponding karma of numberless beings who are greedy and desirous deeply. That’s why we call this world “the world of impurity or degeneration”. Same reason the other directions of reincarnations in different dimensions are created naturally according to the degree of karma.

TODAY, there are many Buddhist and other religious organizations, many organizations of charity, and many merciful people try to spread the idea of modernizing religions through modern media. They are working hard and trying to change the bad moral atmosphere through religious spreading. Every body has a common understanding, that the time is changed, the trend is changed, the human mind is changed, the information science is changed, and the thought is changed, and the way of spreading abroad teaching should be changed in order to match the demand of modern world and human mind.

ALL things are changed, but do not forget that the response of karma cannot be changed, the moral laws of retribution cannot be changed, the truth of becoming Buddha cannot be vanished, the foundation of deliverance of transmigration cannot be vanished, the “in turn” of cultivating the Dharma cannot be vanished. Therefore we should learn, understand, and practice the Dharma in order to change societies, countries, and the world.

ALTHOUGH relying on the strength of small amount of people cannot change the collective karma or deeds of the community, but remember as long as we are in this world, we must do our level best to do good things for other people, cultivate Dharma, and preach Dharma, in order to build the differentiated karma within collective karma, then we will get more chance to surpass and liberate ourselves.

THE WORLD OF UTMOST JOY – Pure Land
Why there is no three evil paths in Pure Land (The World of Utmost Joy)?
The Earth has three evil paths, because every being in the Earth has the karma of “greedy for darkness” and we create automatically the karma net for the Earth.

THE World of Utmost Joy has no three evil paths, the same reason because all the beings in Pure Land, under the support of power of Amitabha Buddha, do good things for others and cultivate the Dharma, then Utmost Joy World is created for their collective karma.

MIND LEADS US TO THE TRANSMIGRATION
Buddhist doctrine tell us, our mind has all kinds of
 dirty thought and that’s the reason why we are always in the circle of transmigration, because these thoughts lead us to do things which correspond with the circle of transmigration. Therefore we have to observe our mind, self-reflect our mind, are there any greedy thought, hate thought, ……. in our mind?

NUMBERLESS BEINGS AND NUMBERLESS KARMA
The truth of karma and retribution (the chain of cause and effect) always are existent in appearance of all kinds of things in the cosmos naturally with or without Buddhas. The transmigration of six directions is created by the response to collective karma of all beings. And any direction of these six directions is created by the response to individual karma of all beings of certain direction.

FURTHERFORE, the world of hells, hungry ghosts, animals, malevolent nature spirits, human existence, and deva existence, all have the same situation, every world is created by the response to collective karma of the being in that world. And every directional world has its own all different kinds of worlds of individual karma and collective karma. These worlds are in all kinds of different sizes, from big to small, from small to tiny …….. And the collective and individual karma of numberless beings are intertwined mutually, intermingled mutually, interwork mutually, reduplicated mutually, intermixed mutually, hard to understand, incomprehensible, mysterious, incredible, ……..

NUMERLESS beings of good and bad karma, are back and forth, in and out in the transmigration of this world and the worlds of ten directions space. And all these cannot be seen and understood by ordinary eyes and wisdom of human being in this planet. Also numberless beings of pure karma, are back and forth, in and out in pure land world of ten directions space. And all these also cannot be seen and understood by ordinary eyes and wisdom of human being in this planet.

IN doctrine of the Four Agamas Sutra, we should understand one thing, the regions (class) of being are numberless, the karma of being are numberless, the worlds which human collective karma correspond with are numberless, the individual karma worlds which human individual karma correspond with are numberless, the impure worlds which human alike bad karma correspond with are numberless, and the pure worlds which human alike good karma correspond with are numberless.

WORLD OF UTMOST JOY – Pure Land
The World of Utmost Joy was built by the cause of Amitabha’s original vow of redeeming beings from the misery of all worlds, even if the beings have all kinds of karma in their past life, when they are in the World of Utmost Joy, all their mind-nature, the force of habit, the remaining influence of illusion, ……., will be purified by the guides of Amitabha, all bodhisattvas, and the surrounding of hearing and learning the Dhamas naturally.

The beings in Pure Land, cultivate themselves with pure mind, therefore the major condition for beings who want to go to or stay in Pure Land is to purify their mind, when mind is purified then all the causes of becoming three evil paths will be destroyed totally.

When we chant NOMO AMITABHA, will destroy all the causes which correspond with three evil paths, then we will build the good individual karma of collective karma, this will lead us to the place which correspond with pure karma of beings.

BEINGS IN THE WORLD OF UTMOST JOY
In our world there are all kinds of human races in different color because of the weather and surroundings. Also there are confused wrangling and distance separating one from another because of the difference in color. All races think that they are the best of all.

IN the Pure Land, there is no such problem of color of race, because all the beings are the same in color, and that is the color in gold. Why gold? There are two meanings for the gold. First, that is the correspondence with retribution of the beings who cultivate the blessed virtues or all good deeds for many lives, here the gold means bright and pure, noble and kindly, exemplary conduct and nobility of character, ……. , second, when the deva existence are in deep meditation, their body will produce automatically hollow light with color in bright gold.

COLOR IN GOLD
Scientists have already proved that the electromagnetism of human being’s body can emit light, even leaves of tree and beings low in grade also have some kind of invisible light, with very special photographic skill.

WHY can human being emit light? We all knew that human body has static electricity, our fingers can produce or emit light because of the theory of static electricity. As a matter of fact, every part of our body has this kind of magnetic field’s light, these lights sometimes are strong, sometimes are weak according to the power of our body and mind.

THERE are seven kinds of lights or flames in human body: the light overhead, the lights on shoulders, the light on chest, the light on navel, the lights on knees, the lights on feet, and the lights on hands. We all have lights on our body, and the light overhead usually is the color in purple. These lights of human body are already proved by scientists with very special photographic skill.

THE science also prove, when practitioners are in deep meditation, their mind are calm, their brain wave are concentrating, then the super microwave will be produced, and emitted constantly. These super microwave are much tinier than light wave and sound wave, when they are emitted just like the laser beam, not just powerful but also make lots of essential functions.

THE Buddhist practitioners, when they are in the deep cultivation of wisdom, their body and mind cannot be tangled, bothered, and mutable then the color of their brain wave will be changed from the purple of ordinary people to the brilliant gold. The color in gold does not mean wealth but the highest pure and brilliance.

AS we mentioned in the beginning of this page, when we believe in Amitabha, and chant Amitabha, then we can concentrate our mind, we will receive the super energy of Amitabha, when we reach this step, our mind will be delivered from imprisonment.

MOST of the time the beings in deva’s worlds are in deep meditation, all emit their light of mind and materialize their gold, pure, and brilliant appearance, and the degree of appearance are different according to their degree of meditation and degree of virtue and wisdom. And because of gold, pure, and brilliant appearance of all beings, make Pure Land world a pure and brilliant world.

THE seven chief sutras (textbooks) of Pure Land School all describe that the land of Pure Land is made of gold, the trees and ponds are made of jewel and all over the places. When Buddhist sutras describe the environment of deva’s worlds always use the same words such as gold and jewel.

WE should understand the gold and jewel are just some kind of parable, to hint that beings in Pure Land emit their gold, pure, and brilliant light of mind, then brighten the world they live like a world of gold.

THE CULTIVATION OF BEINGS OF PURE LAND
When human in this world cultivate themselves in blessedness and goodness without the mind of “Worry”, “Desire”, “Arrogance”, and “Five
 skandhas” then it is to cultivate blessedness and goodness in the way of spiritual world. When we cultivate ourselves with broadening the capacity of our mind and emptying our mind, then our mind will surpass the limitation of time and space of this world and become more closed to the condition of nirvana.

THE Wisdom Sutras introduce the doctrine [When we practice the almsgiving, we have to remember that we should not have the following notions “the one who gives”, “the one whom is given”, and “the physical and mental effect due to the giving”]. This is the “real almsgiving”, and also is the level almost impossible to reach, unless we enter experientially the emptiness, but this is the elevation of spirit of Arahat who have already destroyed or removed the “attach to self” or “persisting in self”.

MOST of the Buddhist misunderstand the “real almsgiving”, their idea is when practicing almsgiving if they don’t think that “I am the one who gives”, “Somebody who is given”, and “Persisting in the materials of almsgiving”, then they will destroy the mind of “attach self”, “Worry”, “Desire”, “Arrogance”, and “Five Skandhas”. But this is terribly wrong.

“Real almsgiving” is just a example for cultivating ourselves with the mind of spiritual world. But what is the spiritual world? According to Nagarjuna Bodhisattva’s words: “The practitioners who search for the world and the spiritual world, and cannot find, because of that, then should understand that the world and the spiritual world which exist only in name. To say [the spiritual world] in order to destroy [the world], the appearance of [the world] is the appearance of [the spiritual world] and nothing else. The practitioners cannot find [the world] and do not attach [the spiritual world], when cannot find [the world] also do not attach [the spiritual world] then the mind of [Desire] and [Arrogance] are destroyed right away, no more remonstrate with the beings of [the world]”.

THE beings in Pure Land cultivate themselves in blessedness and goodness with the mind of spiritual world. Therefore their appearance of retribution are corresponding with the appearance of retribution that is cultivating with the mind of spiritual world.

IS THERE ANY WAY TO MAKE THIS WORLD PURE LAND?
If we want to make this world a kind of pure land, we have to cultivate ourselves in blessedness and goodness with the mind of spiritual world. When every body change their thought of envy, hatred, glower, harm ……. to the thought of gentleness, blessed virtues, not bothering by material concerns, brilliance, tranquil concentration, glory ……. Then our physical appearance will be greatly changed because of the changing of that huge collective karma. Also the dependent environment (surroundings) will be changed totally because of the greatly changing of collective karma of human being.

TO make the dream of pure land of this world come true, we have to remember that pure land is the projection of cause of cultivating blessedness and goodness with “the mind of spiritual world” of huge amount of beings. And also this is the only way to get rid of the evil paths (same reason the evil paths is also the projection of our mind) and upgrade the beings in this world.

THE ILLUSION THAT BODY OR SELF IS REAL
VIEWING THE EGO AS REAL
Every being in Utmost World of Joy (Pure Land) does not have the thought of greed, the greed of keeping the body forever.
 
The Miscellaneous Treatises of The Four Agamas Sutra says:{Beings in all the worlds of impurity, the scope of their hearing, thinking, seeing, talking … and so on are always within “I’, “Mine”, “Being”, “Other people’s worldly business”, “People’s life span”, “Good and bad, misfortune and fortune” … and so on.} All the phenomena, we are talking about here, are a “viewing the ego as real” (persisting the notions of self). If we can leave these scope of “viewing the ego as real”, then we are going to be in a elevation of spirit of “spiritual world”.

AND the beings in the Pure Land never talk about the things like “I, Mine, You, Him, Business, feeling ……. and so on.” therefore they will not have the thought of persisting in self or ego.

WHAT is the “the illusion that body or self is real”?
If we look around all the beings in the six directions of reincarnation, the most important thing to them is nothing more than the body or the life they have. We know nothing about the future life, therefore only thing we could is to hold and keep everything we have at present time. But from the Buddhist doctrine point of view, the body we have in this life is the karma from former lives, and they will end in any minute when the karma from former lives is vanished temporarily. And the phenomena of persisting in present life is called “the illusion that body or sell is real”. This also include “I” and “Mine”.

SHAKYAMUNI Buddha told us: “All beings in Pure Land are direct birth by transformation through the lotus. They all cultivate themselves in leading to Buddha-hood with all their heart and mind. The only thing in their pure mind is Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.”

TO CULTIVATE THE SAMADHI 
To cultivate the samadhi is the most important thing for almost all the Buddhist practitioners if they want to reach the Buddha-hood, especially for the Pure Land practitioners.

FROM now on we are going to introduce the EASIEST and BEST way to practicing meditation for the people with DISTRACTED mind all the time.

WHEN we try to calm down our mind (try to make thoughts less), but most of the time it gets worse (more thoughts come out), sometimes even is impossible to do a little meditative thing. From the Buddhist point of view, all these are because of the karma from our past lives. The degree of karma (more or less) influences the degree of thoughts in our mind (more or less).

THE reason we want to learn more about the Buddhism is that we want to learn Buddha’s wisdom that extends beyond the limitations of time and sense. And we want to cultivate the meditation in order to stop the thoughts in our mind, also we want to practice the Buddhist teachings in our daily life in order to reach the elevation of spirit of Buddha some day.

THE RELIABLE STEPS FOR REACH THE MIND OF SAMADHI
To cultivate calm mind in CHANTING AMITABHA
If we want to reach the samadhi, we have to calm down the distracted mind first, plus transforming character by Buddhist doctrine daily, and cultivate ourselves in any correct Buddhist way according to our different causes, then gradually we will reach the samadhi.

FOR the Pure Land’s practitioners, seek forgiveness and repentance for past evil karma by chanting Amitabha and worshipping the Buddhas, by slow accumulation, the distracted mind will be getting better and better, then we will understand and perceive the reality of ordinary things around us. And this is the first step we have to reach. When we reach this step, anything happen to us, we will meekly accept the humiliations and deal with them unperturbedly.

TO cultivate samadhi is a very hard job, once the Shakyamuni Buddha taught us quite a few ways of practicing samadhi, but today is in the period of decay and termination, not too many people can accept those perfect teaching of samadhi that were for the bodhisattvas who are in the degree of “complete and immediate”. And we have to practice million lives to reach this kind of degree.

PRAJNA WISDOM FOR SAMADHI
We need Prajna wisdom to guide us to cultivate samadhi. But the people in the period of decay and termination are impossible to perceive and obtain the prajna wisdom. In The Wisdom Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha told his oldest student: [Do you know what kind of natural capacity of being can receive the deep prajna doctrine of unsurpassed samadhi? There are two kinds of being can receive the meaning of emptiness of prajna. The first one is the
 Avaivartika bodhisattvas who already enter the bhutatathata, obtain the overcoming of illusion, and cultivate in prajna paramita, and the second one is the one who practice the six paramita for a long time, and always learn the meaning of emptiness of Mahayana from the experienced teachers, therefore they got help of “inside blessed virtues” and “outside co-operating cause”]

THE first kind, like the experienced people say: “The Avaivartika bodhisattva we will not find a single one in this world.” And the second kind of practitioners who have been practicing very hard the six prajna paramita for million lives, therefore accumulating profound virtues and wisdom, it is very hard to find one in today’s modern world.

THE BEGINNERS MISDERSTANDING THE PRAJNA WISDOM 
Shakyamuni Buddha told us, for the beginners who don’t know how to control the distracted mind and understand the steps of cultivating the “eightfold noble path”, shouldn’t teach them the deep meaning of prajna wisdom.

THE beginners who start out for Bodhi, their good roots and blessed virtues of former existences are very meager, therefore when they receive the “Fundamentally void or emptiness”, most of the time they cannot swallow it and cause wrong views. What kind of wrong views are they? When the beginners who start out for Bodhi, first time learn the theory of “all things are empty”, then they will attach the “emptiness” (persisting in emptiness) automatically, and even think like this “If all things in the world are empty eventually, why should I do good things for other, and cultivate so hard in blessed virtues?”

CHANTING AMITABHA
Buddha Shakyamuni understood that not too many people in this world have practiced the six prajna paramita for million lives and accumulated profound virtues and wisdom enough to reach the samadhi immediately. Therefore for the beings who have heavy karma in this world, introduced a easiest and best way of reaching the samadhi. And this is to chant the “NAMO AMITABHA”, this is the most correct contemplation, just hold to the name of Amitabha with all you heart, then we will reach the samadhi, eventually we will enter experientially the nirvana that is “neither dying nor being reborn” or “neither to be born nor ended”.

EVEN easy like this, for some people are still hard too, when they are chanting Amitabha they notice that in this chanting Amitabha moment they don’t know why so much thoughts come to their mind and cannot control these thoughts (one thought vanishing and another thought arising and never stop).

THERE is another way to chant Amitabha. The way of “hearing, thinking, and cultivating” is to concentrate on chanting Amitabha through hearing, thinking, and cultivating. And this is the way that Shakyamuni Buddha perceived experientially during the moment when HE was reaching the Buddha-hood.

HEARING THINKING CULTIVATING AND THE SAMADHI
The beginners think that the “hearing, thinking, and cultivating” must be a special way of practicing Buddhist doctrine, and neglect the deep relation between IT and our daily life. The Shakyamuni Buddha wanted us to observe and perceive all kind of appearance of beings in our daily life, to think, examine, and understand the true meaning of life through joys and sorrows, separations and reunions in the drama of life.

THE Madhyamika sastra told us: [The Buddhas in the past, present, and future preach the Buddhist doctrine through two categories, the first one is the fact in our daily life (ordinary categories), the second one is the absolute truth (categories of reality). If we want to study, understand, and cultivate the Buddhist doctrine deeply, we have to understand the mutual relation between the fact and the truth. Otherwise when we talk about truth, we will neglect the fact, when we talk about fact, we will neglect the truth. We never understand and perceive the true meaning of Buddhist doctrine. We have to rely on the fact in order to reach the truth, we have to rely on the truth in order to reach the nirvana.]

WHEN we read the history of Shakyamuni Buddha, we will get the idea like this, the utmost truth of Shakyamuni Buddha’s entry experiential was found or revealed through the research of all kinds of worldly things in our daily life. Therefore we should understand that we will not find out, understand, and perceive the absolute truth (categories of reality) without the fact in our daily life (ordinary categories). And if we don’t understand and perceive the absolute truth, it will be impossible for us to reach the nirvana.

THE idea we should get from the Madhyamika sastra is that the Buddhist doctrine will not abandon the law of this world, because if there is no law of this world, the Buddhist doctrine will have no dependence.

THEREFORE if we want to destroy our polluted and illusional mind totally, we have to perceive the fact of our life through the long time thoughtful research of our life, and this research will be completed through the observation and contemplation of the reality of cause of birth, age, sickness, death, pain, and emptiness.

THE EIGHTFOLD NOBLE PATH
Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Remembrance, and Right Meditation are the Eightfold Noble Path. In this paragraph we will talk about the relation between the Eightfold Noble Path and the Samadha of chanting Amitabha.

THE right view is the foundation for cultivating Buddhist doctrine in any correct way. Buddha Shakyamuni told us: “When cultivating Buddhist doctrine, always use the right view as guide or basis, otherwise the other seven noble paths will have no eyes to guide them, then we will go to the wrong way.”

THE definition for the right view is that all things arising are depending on conditions. The way to practice the right view is to observe and contemplate our surroundings, sufferings, and pains, try to find out the reality of those pains, then we will cultivate ourselves in the correct way more effectively. This is especially for the Zen practitioners. And this is the procedure for reaching the Buddha-hood according to Shakyamuni Buddha’s experience.

RIGHT VIEWS FOR PURE LAND PRACTITIONERS
Buddha Shakyamuni told us in The
 Sukhavativyuha Sutra a special way of surpassing this Saha world that is to beseech for rebirth in Utmost Joy World.

THE first step for beseeching for rebirth in Pure Land is to understand different kinds of impermanent appearance in the world correctly and totally, this is called the right view of the world. The next step is to think, observe, and experience the suffered, painful, and impermanent world through Buddhist wisdom any time any place in our daily life. Also quiet our thought and mind on the truth of impermanent life all the time.

SHAKYAMUNI Buddha told us: [If Buddhist practitioners only concentrate on wisdom obtained from hearing and do not go further for more and deeper “research and practice” for utmost Buddhist doctrine, then they will not reach the final destination of complete enlightenment.] The main reason for us to beseech for rebirth in Pure Land is to listen to Amitabha Buddha’s preaching directly and release from the bonds of births-and-deaths eventually.

WE should understand wisely the phenomena that we experience in this world are all changed quickly even in the shortest measure of time, changed any minute any second, and nothing can stop them. All these phenomena of production and annihilation (birth and death) of things in any second any minute are doubly small and deep, cannot be compared and seen the difference or noticed by the ordinary people like us whose mind are always polluted by all kinds of garbage thoughts. Unless we can get rid of those different thoughts through contemplation all the time, then we can perceive experientially the phenomena of production and annihilation of things.

TO UNDERSTAND REALITY OF IMPERMANENCE IS THE FIRST STEP
During Shakyamuni Buddha’s cultivating time, he perceived the reality of impermanence of the worldly things first, then made up his mind to find a way of deliverance from suffering. Buddha perceived that all the material or non-material things in this world are arising depending on all kinds of complicate causes, when causes are get together, then things are arising, when causes are dispelled, then things are vanishing. When we observe our surroundings carefully we will find out that the surroundings are constantly changed because of the relating and tangling of all kinds of causes.

THE enlightened one of universes – Buddha told us according to his wisdom of cultivating experientially, we should know there is no ego at all, not only in the moment our visible body is vanishing, even in the moment that we are living in this world, there is no true ego ever existent. All this we see, hear, touch, and think of are the illusions of unreal ego or the illusory existence of causes gathering.

RIGHT VIEW AND RIGHT THOUGHT
Once Shakyamuni Buddha told his followers: [When you have the right view of this world and perceive that things in this world are impermanent, therefore are suffering, empty, and no ego, and the appearance of the things you see, hear, touch, smell, taste, and think of are all unreal. Then furthermore try to contemplate, think, and enter experientially the impermanent body and mind.] And the fact is just like the Buddha said, all the existences in our life are “arising depending on conditions and their original nature are empty” and “not real but a illusion”.

HOW to REACH this level?
Shakyamuni Buddha told his followers: [All the dharma I told you, you have to remember, and always try to recall every word I told you. Beside that you should find a quiet place, contemplate why are the body and mind painful, dream, not real, and empty? Is this physical body real I? Am I the physical body? Is there mind and cognition without physical body? Is there physical body without mind and cognition? Am I dwelling in this physical body? Or is the physical body dwelling in my mind? Does this physical body belong to me “I”? If the physical body belongs to me, but why I cannot control it at will always? Another words, supposed “I” belong to this physical body, then the mind and cognition should be vanished as the physical body is vanished. But although being’s physical body is vanished, the “cause and effect” of karma is still existent. So many practitioners when they are in deep meditation, they approve experientially the truth of six directions of reincarnation (transmigration). They tell people the fact of human’s death, when being’s eighth consciousness leave the unreal physical body, it will follow the causes of being’s good and bad karma to search for another occasion and begin another life. In this case, do I belong to this physical body? Or don’t I belong to this physical body? If I don’t belong to the physical body of present life, how come my body won’t move without the command of my consciousness? The reality approve that the “I” and the present body cannot be separated, it is because of the existence of arising depending on causes or conditions, there is no mind and cognition can be existent without physical body, also there is no physical body can be existent without mind and cognition. ……. When you are in meditation, try to purify your mind and contemplate always the doubly hard “the concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence” that is no “I” and “MINE” (the self and its possessions). Then you will give up passions, feelings, and desires, destroy worries, you will cultivate the pure living and deliverance. In your daily life, when seeing things you won’t have second thought, when hearing things you won’t be influenced by difference, when smelling things you won’t be greedy for better, when eating things you won’t be greedy for more, when in different surroundings you won’t have mind for them, for all the things no matter good or bad around you, you understand totally, you won’t be removed by any things happened, you will be less in talking, your mind will be free from temptation and distress ……. finally you will enter experientially that
 five skandhas is “nature void” 
(immateriality of the nature of all things), and the “nature void” is five skandhas, eventually you perceive that you have already entered experientially the nirvana, the retributive body of skandhas of present life is complete, and the your pure living also has been built, you know that you won’t have any other retribution in the future. This kind of nirvana that you perceive and approve experientially is not from outside, but inside yourself, also you don’t need anybody to approve for you, you will approve for yourself.]

THE Pure Land’s practitioners should have the same right thought like this, we will introduce more about the right thought of practicing Pure Land. If we could understand, cultivate, and perceive no “I” and “Mine” (No self and its possessions), then we will not attach too many things in present life, and benefit our goal of beseeching for rebirth in Utmost Joy World.

DECISION OF LEAVING THE PAIN OF TRANSMIGRATION 
The decision of leaving the pain of transmigration is the premise of beseeching for rebirth in Pure Land, if we still are greedy for all kinds of love, feeling, and desire in this world, then rebirth in Pure Land become impossible.

ONLY observing this unreal world of “as an illusion and as if transforming” in our daily life, contemplating this unreal mind of impermanence and changing, from here we will build very strong mood of abandoning the transmigration, then we will have the real mind of abandoning the transmigration and the real mind of beseeching for rebirth in Pure Land. This is the right view of Pure Land practitioners.

UNDERSTAND REALITY OF UNREAL LIFE
To understand the reality of the life is like a dream, smoke, a bubble, lightning, shadow, and as an illusion is one of the right thoughts.
Buddha Shakyamuni told his followers, according to the experience of his cultivating in the past, [I was always in deep meditation in a quiet place, my mind was arising this kind of thought “How hard for us to become human being from six directions of transmigration, but we have to go through a series of mishaps of constant changing of birth, age, sickness, and death. The happiness of our life is too short, too impermanent, and too painful. However, the human being never try to find out the reason of causing the birth, age, sickness, and death. Why am I here? Why should I accept numberless pain and stress? What causes make the beginning of rebirth? And what causes support the “carry on” of life?” When thinking of these questions, I was sitting straight with a proper mind and regulated will, cultivating very hard day and night, meditating and thinking over and over unintermittedly. One day I suddenly realized like coming out of a dream, as a matter of fact this world is the unreal dream of projection of our unreal mind and cognition. The human beings all are in the unreal dream of “birth and death” of ignorance ever since from the time without beginning. “I was in the dream ever since I was born, I was in the dream ever since I had consciousness.”]

SHAKYAMUNI Buddha told us: [If you want to leave the lifetime dream that is the circle of impermanence, do not try to get the answer from the surroundings are in front of you. Because all the things reveal in front of you are all the projections of your dream.]

TWELVE LINKS IN THE CHAIN OF EXISTENCE
The
 twelve nidanas is the right thought of leaving the dream of life.
The Buddha told us: [To surpass the dream of life is not a difficult thing, the first thing you have to do is not to have a polluted mind of desiring for all things in surroundings.] [ When we perceive that life is a huge dream, and do not attach the appearances of dream, in addition to that, cultivate yourself with right meditation for a period of time, then you will come out of the huge dream of life.]

THE Buddha told us: [Human beings don’t understand all surroundings in our present life are the huge dream that is produced by worries of greed, hatred, and ignorance. And because our body, mouth, and mind produce all kinds of good and bad karmas, therefore human beings follow these numberless karmas, which are stored in our eighth consciousness or database consciousness, and stay in the six directions of transmigration forever.

THE twelve links in the chain of existence also called twelve links of dependent origination are circulated forever, therefore all beings cannot break this circle of rebirth and redeath, and jump out of the dream of birth and death.

HOW TO COME OUT OF THE DREAM 
The causes for creating dream of birth and death are the result of greed, hatred, and ignorance of all human beings. If we could get rid of all the desires of greed, hatred, and ignorance in our mind, then we will not create the new karma of good and bad, for which we will have more and new retributions.

LET’S review the twelve links in the chain of existence. Ignorance, activity or conception, consciousness, name and form, the six sense organs, contact or touch, feeling or sensation, craving or desire, clinging or grasping, becoming or existing, birth, aging and death are the chain of existence.

IGNORANCE is the condition for activity or conception.
Activity or conception is the condition for consciousness.
Consciousness is the condition for name and form.
Name and form is the condition for the six sense organs.
The six sense organs are the conditions for contact or touch.
Contact or touch is the condition for feeling or sensation.
Feeling or sensation is the condition for craving or desire.
Craving or desire is the condition for clinging or grasping.
 
Clinging or grasping is the condition for becoming or existing.
Becoming or existing is the condition for birth.
Birth is the condition for aging and death.
Aging and death is the condition for ignorance.

THE idea for coming out of the dream of birth and death is: To get rid of totally the worries of greed, hatred, and ignorance that are existent ever since time without beginning, then we will not make new karma, if there is no new karma, we will not follow the activity-consciousness to have another life, if there is no another life, we will have no contact or touch, if there is no contact or touch, we will have no feeling or sensation, if there is no feeling or sensation, we will have no craving or desire, if there is no craving or desire, we will have no clinging or grasping, if there is no clinging or grasping, we will have no becoming or existing, if there is no becoming or existing, we will have no birth, if there is no birth, we will have no aging and death.

STARTING OUT FOR BESEECHING FOR REBIRTH IN WESTERN PURE LAND
The Pure Land practitioners also should be cultivating in destroying the worries of greed, hatred, and ignorance with the way of twelve links in the chain of existence. The practitioners should concentrate on chanting AMITABHA with all their heart, vow for beseeching for rebirth in Western Pure Land with all their heart also, then every thought in our mind is “chanting Amitabha”, when we are doing this, all the causes for retribution will be removed, we will not be distracted by material world, then, the mind of desire, erroneous thinking, and worries will be destroyed totally.

WITH all the though of chanting Amitabha, our unreal mind of greed, hatred, and ignorance will turn into pure thought of Buddha. And the dream of trouble of the world will be vanished gradually because of the less and less desire. Then the practitioners will be reaching the “Right concentration of chanting Amitabha”.

RIGHT SPEECH RIGHT CONDUCT RIGHT LIVELIHOOD
Wherever and whenever the Buddhist practitioners should always observe their work of mouth, watch the evil karma produced by the mouth, especially from lying, double-tongue, ill words, and exaggeration. In addition do not do any talking against the truth. The practitioners should always observe their work of body, watch the evil karma produced by the body, especially from fighting, killing and all the karma operating in the body. In addition do not do any activity that will hinder the deliverance of birth and death. The practitioners live in this world with right livelihood or right life in order to seek after the truth, the correct doctrine, and the deliverance, therefore remember strongly these words “abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living.”

SHAKYAMUNI Buddha told us: [……. In order to reach the goal of deliverance, you should feel terrible anywhere anytime for anything may cause you a tiny dirty thought that will lead you to make bad karga. You have to guard yourself against this kind of thought carefully, so call a little spark can cause a conflagration, this tiny dirty thought in your mind, will become the karma seed and let you receive the retribution of transmigration in the future, with changing and cumulation of surroundings, experiences, thinking, and causes …….]

SHAKYAMUNI Buddha told us: [……. No matter you are working in the city, eating, rescuing from life of pains and misery for others, and especially when you are planting all virtuous roots for being with carrying a almsbowl and begging for food, you have to think this way: Today I beg for food lowly in order to cut off my mind of greed for food and destroy my mind of arrogance. Going to houses one by one, no matter rich or poor, and begging for food with pure mind. If I am eating, at the same time seeing beautiful things or people, and making the greedy, desiring, and polluted thoughts arising, then I will make the cause of “planting all virtuous roots for being” less and also I will violate the rule of deliverance of birth and death, this will hinder me for reaching the deliverance. In order to enter experientially the nirvana that is free from temptation and distress, also in order to plant all virtuous roots for being, therefore no matter I am begging food in the street or eating in place of assemblage, I should contemplate my thoughts and mind with wisdom and all my heart. When I see or hear beautiful things, if any impurely greedy, desired, and polluted thoughts are arising ……. then I should right away contemplate that the original force of the form and sound are the impermanent and unreal appearance which are arising depending on causes temporarily, and do not have their entity existent. All things are arising depending on causes, all things also are vanishing depending on cause. Only the nirvana of calmness and extinction, is our hometown which is real, eternal, and no birth and death. With seeking after the truth, urge yourself in cultivating the correct Buddhist way, for a while, when you are begging for food, if you see things you will not go with them (your mind will not be moved), if you hear sounds you will not go with them (your mind will not be moved) very naturally. Any moment any place you can control your own mind and thoughts completely and without any delusion ……. ]

RIGHT SPEECH RIGHT CONDUCT RIGHT LIVELIHOOD 
RIGHT EFFORT OF PURE LAND PRACTITIONERS
The Pure Land practitioners should watch the mouth any moment, because we use our mouth to practice and cultivate the Pure Land doctrine with chanting Amitabha, therefore our mouth must be very clean all the time.

SONG dynasty of China, Pure Land transcripts of Long Shu sayings: “For the people no matter we know or we don’t know, we should have this kind of good thought in our mind always that we should try to find the best chance whenever wherever use the easiest and clearest words to introduce the wonderful and auspicious West Land to them in order to lead them to the Pure Land. Even birds that fly and beasts that run, insects, worms, crawlers … and so on, anything visible as long as we see them, we should always chant NA MO AMITABHA few times for them, and start out a vow: [With the reward of virtue of chanting Amitabha, wish you could be reincarnated as being in good path, to turn and rely on the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha (Triratna), cultivate yourself in Pure Land doctrine, beseech for rebirth in Western Pure Land (Utmost Joy World), when I become Buddha, I will save and release you from the ocean of misery first, we will ascend the yonder shore together.]

RIGHT CONDUCT OF PURE LAND PRACTITIONERS
Ming dynasty of China, West Pure Land transcripts of Yuan Hung Dao: [For those who want to achieve the Buddhahood in chanting Buddha category, should cultivate themselves in pure commandment. The pure commandment is the door for all pure categories, the foundation of cultivating all good dharmas, and also the door for entering all Buddha’s pure land. Here we will give ten pure commandments for cultivating purpose for those who have already started out their vow for rebirth in Pure Land:

FIRST, Greed Commandment: the pure land practitioners should practice wealth almsgiving (offerings or gifts of material goods) and dharma almsgiving (the almsgiving of the Buddha-truth including preaching and explanation), even sacrifice themselves for saving other beings, in order to destroy the mind of greed, and corresponding with all pure and bright categories earlier.

SECOND, Prohibiting Defamation Commandment: for the beginner of cultivating pure land doctrine should keep the first five of Ten Commandments (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxication liquors) very strictly. In order to deliver all beings and ask them to keep the pure commandment for rebirth in Pure Land, the practitioners should make themselves serve as example to others, give heed to their behavior and demeanor, otherwise might cause satirizing of beginners and forfeit the cause of beings who want to beseech rebirth in Pure Land. The practitioners should chant NOMO AMITABHA with all their heart in order to destroy all the worries of greed and hatred whenever walking, standing, sitting, and lying in every state, then the practitioners will satisfy their wish of superior order of birth in the Pure Land.

THIRD, Hatred Commandment: when the practitioners of Pure Land are not in agreement with what they want for all kinds of things in daily life, they should handle with the way of meekly accepting humiliations, readjust and submit our thought of impulse with the word “Tolerance”.

Fourth, Loose Commandment: ……. If you let the five desires (arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, and touched. Or the five desires of wealth, sex, food-and-drink, fame, and sleep) run wild, and any behavior against the pure commandment, these will become the bad karma, also the cause of blocking you for beseeching for rebirth in Pure Land.

Fifth, Dispersal Commandment: the practitioners of Pure Land should always control the dispersal mind, cut off the bad cause, purify the six sense-organs, and chant NAMO AMITABHA with all your mind and all your life …….

Sixth, Ignorance Commandment: the practitioners of Pure Land should always destroy the illusion, delusion, and doubt in the mind with the wisdom of entering experientially truth …….

Seventh, Arrogance Commandment: the practitioners of Pure Land shouldn’t have the thought of arrogance in the mind because of the higher practical ability, forensic skill, wisdom, and exposition …….

Eighth, Coverture Commandment: if the practitioners of Pure Land have any behavior of harming the pure land cultivation, should always confess the crime or problem in front of the Buddha or Bodhisattva and do not offend again …….

Ninth, Non-benefit Commandment: the practitioners of Pure Land should leave argument, seeking profit, frivolities ……and so on, because this kind of vulgar business will delude the mind and block the idea of rebirth in Pure Land.

Tenth, No attachment Commandment: the purpose for the practitioners of Pure Land is to seek for deliverance and get the wisdom of Prajna, then try their best to deliver all beings in all directions of the universes. So attaching the fame, wealth, becoming beings in heaven, and becoming human being again is not the purpose of the practitioners of Pure Land.

THE LIVELIHOOD OF PURE LAND PRACTITIONERS
Song dynasty of China, Pure Land transcripts of Long Shu sayings: [For the Pure Land practitioners who have family and business or career, should cultivate doctrine with this kind of attitude:

FOR those who are in student post, should study hard for knowledge, obey parents, and be kind to brothers.

FOR those who hold an official post, should practice kindness to the people and associate with the virtuous and benefit public utility in order to cultivate goodness in the field of blessedness. And devote their merits to West Pure Land …….

FOR those who hold a wealth post, should help with food, necessities or money to the poor, famine victims according to situation …….

FOR those who are slow-witted or in straitened circumstances, do not blame God and others, should seek for repentance and forgiveness in front of Buddha or budhisattvas, and always chant NAMO AMITABHA in order to get rid of the hindrance of past karma, and increase blessed virtues, all good deeds, or the nutriment of blessedness …….

FOR those who are in business of agriculture, trade, and industry ……. should always remember do not have the illegal behavior or improper demand. And always chanting NAMO AMITABHA, having the mind of seeking for repentance and forgiveness, starting vows for seeking after the good …….. and also starting a vow in front of Buddha “Wish when my life ends, I could be in West Pure Land, behold the Buddha when the lotus blossom, and enter experientially the law of no-birth, then I will deliver first the beings who were killed by me in past life, second I will deliver the beings who were my relatives, friends, and enemies in former existences, and also all the beings who are either affinitive or non-affinitive with me.” …….

FOR those who are in business of fishing, hunting, butchering, cooking, and running restaurant, should always examine oneself strongly that “all the animals no matter in the sea, sky, and ground, are all like the human being, are life form with consciousness. If I kill them I will make numberless karma of enmity.” Changing job is the best way, otherwise should cut down the amount of killing, do not kill them for bodily desires, remember the animals in the sea such as spiral shellfishes, eels, and turtles are hard to kill, they will die with crying pitifully for quite a long time ……. (If we have to kill animals for making living or job, during the time we doing that, we should always chant NAMO AMITABHA for the animals we kill, and wish them could be in good paths in their next life.)

FOR those who are in business of prostitute or relating work, should always realize and examine themselves that the job or work of immoral conduct, obscene talk, porno, violating female, violating plays ……. are the main cause of blocking rebirth in Pure Land …….]

RIGHT EFFORT RIGHT REMEMBRANCE AND RIGHT MEDITATION
Right effort for the Chan or Zen practitioners
Shakyamuni Buddha once told his followers: {When the Vipasyin Buddha was still on his way to buddhahood, in one of his past life, he was sitting on mats of grass, with cross-legged and soles upward under the Bodhidruma (the wisdom-tree), contemplate the
 twelve nidanas (twelve links in the chain of existence) day and night, neither sleep nor rest …….}. There was another time, the Boddha told his followers: {If you want to deliver yourselves from birth and death, you should be zealous courageously day and night in contemplating meditation thoughts of truth (Chan) opportunely, also should calm your mind within …….}

WHAT is Chan or Zen? The meaning of Chan, in fine, “is wisdom of becoming enlightened”. The contemplating opportunely means contemplating the truth of calm thought with the opportune wisdom. And all the truth that are from contemplating, observing, and choice with the mind of consciousnesss, we could call them “opportune wisdom”.

HOW TO CULTIVATE THE RIGHT EFFORT
Like Shakyamuni Buddha used to praise Nanda bhiksu: {that good sons (one of the Buddha’s terms of address to his disciples like we say “gentle” today), the
 Nanda bhiksu, after he comprehends experientially the twelve nidanas (links are “the concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence”), he closes his senses as doors (through which illusion enters), enjoys the drink and food the right way (drink and food these two things on which sentient beings depend, desire for them is one of the three passions, offerings of them are one of the five forms of offerings), cultivates himself in right Buddhist way with right effort, accomplish the correct knowledge (samyagjnana), purifies himself completely, and builds up the pure living (the discipline of celibacy which ensure rebirth in the Brahmaloka, or in the realms beyond form) with all his life.}

RIGHT REMEMBRANCE FOR CHAN PRACTITIONERS
The remembrance is generated in mind, when the mind does not leave the right path, and only remember the “with form” (from the point of view of phenomena) and “without form” (from the point of view of void), therefore is called the right remembrance. When we have the right remembrance, then will correspond with the Bodhi, the mind will make no mistakes.

RIGHT MEDITATION FOR CHAN PRACTITIONERS
When we have the right view and understand the reality of twelve links of dependent origination, then we will start by ourselves automatically, guard our senses as doors (through which illusion enters), tranquilize our thoughts and mind, control our food and drink, comprehend spiritual reality with right effort all day and night. [Contemplating the five skandhas(the five fundamental conditions of passions and delusions), no “I” and no “Mine” (no subject and object)(I and Its possessions), all these are the projections of our dreams. Understanding the differences of appearance of five skandhas, and contemplating the unreal appearances of five skandhas with right remembrance, purifying the hindrances of five skandhas, cultivating the pure living with all our heart. Getting rid of the lust for sleep when in cultivating. Do not doubt the law of correct Buddhist doctrine. Trying to leave all the delusive bondage of desire to its environment in order to get the correct remembrance and knowledge, then we will enter the right meditation.

ENTER EXPERIENTIALLY THE TRUTH OF WITHOUT FORM AND WITH FORM THROUGH PRACTICE 
For the Chan practitioners, if there is no Prajna wisdom (right view and understanding) as guide, no matter how much improvement we have gotten in cultivating meditation, this is just the illusion of consciousness, eventually we will go to the wrong way. Also if there is no practice or cultivation in performing the proper duties, the meaning of teachings, and meditation, no matter how much result we have gotten in research, hearing the doctrine, and recognizing, eventually we will be in the level of “take a wait-and-see attitude”, “I know”, “I understand”, and “but I can’t do it” forever.

UNDERSTANDING OUR NATURAL CAPACITY
We are the ordinary people, the only difference between us and the others, who don’t know or never heard of Buddhist doctrine, is that we accumulate a little bit karma of blessedness in our past numberless lives, and these karma of blessedness lead us to the Buddhist world.

BUT if we want to deliver ourselves from the ocean of birth and death (rebirth and redeath) in this life, is almost a hundred percent impossible. Because we need several lives even several hundred lives to complete the procedures we mentioned above. And remember nobody knows what will be the next life, not always human being, maybe some kind of animal, ghost, or even in hell, supposed we go to heaven, eventually we still have to reenter this circle of the transmigration.

PRACTICE IN PROPER ORDER
For the Chan practitioners, right view, right understanding, right thoughts, destroying desires, and cultivating the pure living is the foundation of the deliverance. Same reason for the Pure Land practitioners, right view, right understand, right thoughts, destroying desires, cultivating the pure living, and chanting Amitabha with pure thought is the foundation of beseeching rebirth in West Pure Land.

WHEN we read the Buddhist scriptures, we should understand that for a budhisattva practitioner, Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Remembrance, Right Meditation, Destroying desires, Destroying worries, Cultivating pure living, and Purifying the senses in the daily life are just a basic practice, a very basic practice. When we have this kind of practice for certain time, then when we are in the environment of quality of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought, our mind won’t be tangled, illusive, and polluted.

WHEN we understand the Buddhism, the law preached by the Buddha, or the principles underlying these teachings, and purify our mind for quite a long time, we will discover the side of “nothing exciting” and “direct honest” of the Buddhism, we will also discover the limitless treasure of the true, the good, and the beautiful in human being’s mind nature. Then we will start out our first step of cultivating Buddhist doctrine that is lower our desire and cut off our worries, and try to understand and perceive “the time of depending arising also is the time of cultivating” in our daily life and the environment of depending arising.

THE GOAL OF PURE LAND PRACTITIONERS
The Pure Land practitioners although are doing their level best for delivering from the circle of transmigration and becoming Buddha, but the first step or first goal for the Pure Land practitioners is to beseech rebirth in Pure Land.

WHEN the Pure Land practitioners start out a decision of leaving this Saha (refer to http://maxpages.com/drfu1) world of impermanence, then all their thinking, thoughts, and actions are for the purpose of perceiving the Pure Land truth, the deeds which lead to birth in the pure land, and devoting their merits to the Pure Land. In this present life, repeating (chanting) the name of Amitabha,, exhorting others to chanting Amitabha, and proclaiming the Pure Land truth widely, eventually they will rebirth in the West Pure Land because of the great vows of Amitabha’s great mercy.

PURE LAND PRACTITIONERS’S RIGHT VIEW RIGHT THOUGHT

BASIC SUPPLIES FOR BESEECHING FOR REBIRTH IN PURE LAND
We should have some ideas about the supplies for beseeching for rebirth in Pure Land according to the “Amitabha Sutra”, such as:

THE practitioners must believe in the utmost joy world just like Shakaymuni Buddha said: {Passing from here through hundreds of thousands of millions of Buddha-lands to the West, there is a land called Ultimate Bliss.}

THE practitioners must start out vows “I beseech for rebirth in the West Pure Land”, must hold and chant the holy name of Amitabha with one heart unconfused in daily life.

WHEN the practitioners approach the end of life, their heart must be without inversion. In the moment, before the practitioners will appear Amitabha and all the Assembly of Holy Ones, the practitioners must beseech for rebirth in West Pure Land, then almost at the same time the practitioners will be reborn in West Pure Land.

FOR the Pure Land practitioners, these ideas “hold and chant the holy name of amitabha with one heart unconfused in daily life” and “approach the end of life, their must be without inversion” are the pivot of the door of opening West Pure Land (REMEMBER THIS IS DOUBLY IMPORTANT). “One heart unconfused” is the result of abstract meditation with chanting Amitabha Buddha, also is the result of supplies of right thought, also is the result of keeping Amitbha Buddha in mind, and the result of chanting Amitabha Buddha to the level of pure thought continuously (only the thought of Amitabha and nothing else), that is the level Surangama Sutra always emphasizes.

BEFORE talking about the right view and right thought for the Pure Land practitioners, let’s have some idea of Pure Land arising of phenomenon.

THERE MUST BE ANOTHER HIGHER LIFE FORM EXIST IN COSMOS
In the Amitabha Sutra mentioned: {hundreds of thousands of millions of Buddha-lands}, from the scientific knowledge of outer space point of view, we may say that the “hundreds of thousands of millions of Buddha-lands” is those numberless world in cosmos far far away from the Earth, or the numberless galaxies of material cosmos, or the non-material cosmos of numberless dimensions that we know or we don’t know yet.

THE scientific knowledge of outer space approved that there are numberless Milky Way systems (the Galaxy) and solar systems in limitless cosmos. And the surroundings or the environments of these solar systems have the possible conditions of creating all kinds of life form including the life form of higher wisdom like human being in the Earth.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SAHA AND PURE LAND WORLD IN RETRIBUTION
Saha world is a impure world of projection of beings’s all kinds of good and bad karma in the Earth. And the West Pure Land is the pure world of projection of Amitabha Buddha’s vow and the pure karma of numberless Pure Land practitioners.

THERE are numberless pure world and impure world in cosmos. So call “birds of a feather flock together” or “things of a kind come together”, brightness always corresponds with brightness, and the darkness always corresponds with darkness. The beings in Saha world, are always greedy, hated, and ignorant, therefore create all kinds of collective good and bad karma, forever are in the circle of transmigration. The beings in West Pure Land always are in the deep meditation, no greed, hatred, and ignorance, therefore create only pure collective karma, and only one final destination for all the beings of West Pure Land is to get nirvana.

IF we could understand the point of “things of a kind come together”, we should try our level best to get the collective pure karma and cause of Pure Land, then we will have chance to correspond with the retribution of “Pure and Glory” of the Pure Land.

PURE LAND PRACTITIONERS BESEECH FOR REBIRTH IN PURE LAND WITH PURE KARMA
The West Pure Land is a pure Buddhist land of happiness of “calmness, extinction, deliverance”, corresponds with the nirvana of right view of Eightfold Noble Path, therefore the Pure Land practitioners should have the right view of “calmness, extinction, and deliverance”. Whenever and wherever chanting Amitabha, should be with the mind of beseeching for calmness, extinction, and deliverance. Just like the Sukhavativyuha Sutra says:{the beings come from ten directions all have pure mind free from doubt or defilement}. And finally devoting all the merits to the West Pure Land, then can be corresponding with the pure retribution of calmness, extinction, and deliverance of Utmost Joy World (West Pure Land).

THE RULE OF CAUSE AND EFFECT (RETRIBUTION)
All the dimensions, appearances, phenomena, beings, species ……. and so on, are always affected and decided by the law of “cause and effect” (every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause), the impure world we live in now is the projection “cause and effect” of our collective good and bad karma ever since the time beginningless. And the Utmost Joy World (West Pure Land) is the projection of Amitabha Buddha’s great mercy vow and Amitabha Buddha’s limitless time’s cultivation.

WHEN we make causes of greed, hatred, and ignorance, then we will have effect of living in this impure world for more lives. And if we make causes of pure karma which correspond with the great mercy vow of Amitabha Buddha, and start out a vow of beseeching for rebirth in West Pure Land, then Amitabha Buddha will lead us to the West Pure Land without any doubt.

THE REAL BODHI PRACTITIONER
From the Hua-Yen Sutra standpoint of view, we will have an idea about the process of cultivation for all the great bodhisattva. All bodhisattvas, during the deep meditation, discover the real natural capacity of human beings with their eyes of wisdom, then expound the doctrine fittingly and properly. All great bodhisattvas, during the deep meditation, receive limitless treasure of wisdom. All highest bodhisattvas, during the deep meditation, complete the ideal of adorning and glorying the pure land, and rescue all being widely, then will be on their way to the Buddha-hood without any hindrance.

THE limitless wisdom of brightness of all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are come out gradually during the right meditation of cultivating Chan (Zen). Later on we will talk about the great vow of limitless brightness of Amitabha.

THE GREAT VOW OF LIMITLESS BRIGHTNESS OF AMITABHA BUDDHA:
THE FINAL GOAL OF BUDDHIST PRACTITIONERS
When Amitabha Buddha was in the causal ground (the state of practising the Buddha-religion which leads to the resulting Buddhahood) said: {When I become Buddha, if my light of wisdom is limited in such a way that it is bound by time and space, and cannot illuminate limitless Buddha’s worlds, then may I not attain enlightenment.}

FROM the point of view of cultivating Buddhist doctrine of Hua Yen Sutra, the twelfth vow of Amitabha Buddha, that is the vow of limitless brightness, is the utmost and most wholly complete vow of Amitabha Buddha’s forty-eight great mercy vows. And also is the final goal for the Mahayana Bodhisattva practitioners. Any Mahayana Buddhist practitioners, no matter which doctrine they chose for starting out, but the final goal for their cultivation is to beseech for the completely revealing and realizing of brightness of supreme Buddha-nature.

CHANTING AMITABHA WILL CORRESPOND WITH THE GREAT VOW OF BRIGHTNESS
When Amitabha Buddha wholly complete the forty-eight mercy vows of becoming Buddha, also is the time of Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land of benefiting numberless beings, become real. When Amitabha Buddha shows the light of wisdom limitless and entered everywhere without hindrance, also is the time of all beings receiving the Buddha Light in universes. And when Amitabha Buddha becoming Buddha, also is the time that the name of Amitabha has the infinite power of welcoming and leading all beings to the West Pure Land.

WHEN the being of ten directions in universes, hear the name of Amitabha and under the control of the power of Amitabha’s great mercy vows, automatically build up the most believing mind (which receives without doubting) to the Amitabha Buddha’s great mercy vows. Then holding and chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha that has limitlessly meritorious virtue and power, and because of that, all beings will receive the Buddha aid. When chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha, the beings will reveal the wisdom from previous existences, then will start out a decision of leaving this Saha world (the ocean of birth and death), and start out the trust and vow for beseeching for rebirth in the West Pure Land (enjoying the happiness of deliverance). When chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha always with all our heart, then we will turn our mind towards the Buddha aid of the great mercy vows.

WHEN we are holding and chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha, we must have this kind of believing thought in our mind, “When we are chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha with the thought in our mind that is to leave the suffering ocean of Saha World, and chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha with the every thought of [to the death]”. Then we will get into the welcome vow of great brightness and mercy of Amitabha Buddha, then we will build the function of devoting our merits to others deeply, then we will accomplish the samadhi in which the individual whole-heartedly thinks of the appearance of the Buddha, or repeats the Buddha’s name. then we will be on our way to the West Pure Land with every thought.

POWER OF MERITORIOUS VIRTUE OF THE NAME OF AMITABHA BUDDHA
The reason for the holy name of Amitabha Buddha is so powerful beyond thoughts and words is that the word of “Amitabha” comes from Amitabha Buddha spent numberless
 kalpa (a fabulous period of time) on cultivating and apprehending the truth of limitless great mercy vows and actions.

THE HUA-YEN SUTRA
The clearest explanation for the cultivating process of Buddha’s great mercy vows and actions should be in Hua-Yen Sutra. In Hua-Yen Sutra, we will learn the way of cultivating of completing Buddha-hood and the mercy vows of delivering beings. What kind of vow we start out, what kind of doctrine we cultivate, and what kind of cause we make, then it will have the certain kind of effect which corresponds with the cause we make. This is the law of “cause and effect”, (every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause), and no beings or things can escape from the law.

CHAN (ZEN) OF MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA
We will get the idea from the Hua-Yen Sutra about this question. The Hinayana practitioners after starting out for enlightenment, cultivating the deliverance with leaving desire and destroying worries directly. And the Mahayana practitioners after starting out for
 bodhi, use the great mercy vows and actions as guide to deliver other beings and wish all the being will get to the Buddha-hood at the same time.

THE FORTY-EIGHT VOWS
When Amitabha was in the ascetic life of cultivating Buddhist doctrine in a previous existence, made his great mercy forty-eight vows and actions in front of the Lokesvararaja Buddha. At the same time making the forty-eight vows and actions as a frame of reaching supreme perfect bodhi (becoming Buddha), a frame of complete way of cultivating Buddhist doctrine. The vows which relate to the cultivation of Pure Land doctrine:
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of cultivation and retribution of devas in Pure Land are number one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, fifteen, sixteen, twenty-one, thirty-eight, and thirty-nine.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of cultivation and retribution of Hinayana disciples in Pure Land is number fourteen.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of cultivation and retribution of bodhisattvas in Pure Land are number twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty nine, forty, and forty-six.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of cultivation and retribution of beings in the worlds of ten directions who beseech for rebirth in Pure Land are number eighteen, nineteen, and twenty.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of vows for beseeching for rebirth in Pure Land of bodhisattvas in the worlds of ten directions is number twenty-two.
 
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of all Buddhas praising the name of Buddha and the benefits of beings in the worlds of ten directions hearing the name of Buddha are number seventeen, thirty-four, thirty-five, and forty-eight.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of cultivation and benefit of bodhisattvas in the worlds of ten directions hearing the name of Buddha are thirty-six, forty-one, forty-two, forty-four, forty-five, forty-seven, and forty-eight.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of cultivation and benefit of bodhisattvas in the other world smelling doctrine is number thirty-two.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of mutual containing and depending of the beings and surroundings in the West Pure Land are number twenty-seven, twenty-eight, thirty-one, thirty-two, and forty.
IN forty-eight vows, talking about the questions of Amitabha’s light, wisdom, and age, and the beings who receiving the Buddha’s light are number twelve, thirty, and thirty-three.

THE HUA-YEN SUTRA
The Hua-Yen Sutra is one of the utmost and most thorough Mahayana sutras that leads us to putting in practice of great mercy of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The content and principle of Hua-Yen Sutra is abstruse, mysterious, profound and limitless, and very hard to be understood and accepted by the beginners. If we don’t have the background or foundation of Mahayana and Hinayana doctrines, and the three systems of Buddhist doctrine, we still cannot comprehend the whole picture even we read it very carefully.
Besides that, the numberless experiential level of limitlessly deep meditation of the process which is for completing the Buddha-hood and the level of cultivation of bodhisattvas cannot be reckoned and conjectured by the ordinary people like us who do not have any real cultivation and entering experientially, do not have any mercy bodhi mind.

IF we are lucky enough, can get a little bit non-worldly wisdom, understand, perceive, and practice a little bit of Pure Land’s doctrine as the Hua-Yen Sutra indicated, from the law of “cause and effect” standpoint of view, this all because of cultivating the Buddhist doctrine in our previous existences.

MAHAYANA PURE LAND DOCTRINE
When we try to understand the Amitabha Pure Land from Hua-Yen Sutra standpoint of view, we should apprehend this way, that there are numberless pure lands in cosmos, and every pure land has its different dimension of cause. For example, the Amitabha Pure Land is formed (built) by the power of vows of Amitabha Buddha and the collective pure karma of Pure Land practitioners. The West Pure Land (Utmost Joy World) is just a representation of pure land among numberless pure land in cosmos.

WE might say that Amitabha Pure Land doctrine is a very special, easy, and safe path that can access to all pure lands in cosmos. And this is a very special question in depth and width, if we want to discover how deep, profound, and abstruse about the Amitabha Pure Land doctrine, we have to read almost all the doctrines of Mahayana and Hinayana first, and understand or perceive the experiential meditation of great mercy vows of Buddha and bodhisattvas. Because the Mahayana Pure Land doctrine is the most important and final cultivating result for the process of cultivating Buddha-hood of all the bodhisattva practitioners.

IF we want to know more about the Mahayana Buddhist doctrine, Mahayana Pure Lande doctrine, levels of cultivating Buddha-hood of Mahayana bodhisattvas, and process of building pure lands, the Hua-Yen Sutra is a very important reference.

LIGHT-EMITTING (SENDING OUT AN ILLUMINATING RAY)
Like the Hua-Yen Sutra says: [In numberless experiential wisdom level of Buddha, there is wisdom of light-energy, that is built up by the cause of pure karma of pure land practitioners in previous existences who have very deep affinity with Buddha. When the cause of pure karma of pure land practitioners is reaching the mature level, Buddha will give the pure land practitioners this kind of power of light-emitting and lead them to the pure world during the time that pure land practitioners are approaching the end.

LECTURE FOR THE DYING BEINGS
When beings are dying, if we can lecture them with Pure Land doctrine as an expedient method, exhort them to start chanting Amitabha, make them love, respect, and believe in Amitabha, let them chanting Amitabha with the other practitioners, then their mind will follow the peaceful holy name of Amitabha and be on their way the Amitabha Pure Land, or make good cause of cultivating Pure Land doctrine in their future lives.

BUDDHA’S CONFERMENT
According to Hua-Yen Sutra, only the beings who follow Buddha in cultivating doctrine in previous existences and have the sharpest endowment with very good deeds or roots, when their cultivation are reaching the mature level, then they will correspond with the bright and pure power of meditation and wisdom of Buddha.

MAGNETIC FIELD AND BUDDHA’S LIGHT
Buddha and bodhisattvas turn their original ordinary bodies, who have all kinds of dark, selfish, greedy, hateful, and complicated magnetic waves surrounding their bodies, into high-minded, pure, and simple magnetic waves, and this kind of waves have higher spiritual frequency, surpassing the beings of three realms (Trailokya) in another inconceivable dimension. And this pure purple Buddha’s light will produce limitless function of guided launching, it will reach limitless outer space through different levels or dimensions, and will correspond with the magnetic waves that are the projections of minds of the beings whose affinities is reaching the mature level with Buddha or bodhisattvas.

BUDDHA’S ACTION AND VOW
The actions of all Buddhas, in fine, are charity or almsgiving (including the bestowing of the truth on others), moral or conduct or taking precepts, patience (especially bearing insult and distress without resentment), vigor or devotion or fortitude, contemplation or meditation, and supreme wisdom (the power to discern reality or truth). – the six paramitas. And the vows of all Buddhas are the mercy vow of becoming Buddha that is above to seek bodhi, below to save all (transform all beings).

TO HEAR TO THINK AND TO CULTIVATE
The ordinary beings like us, although we have learned the Mahayana and Hinayana doctrines and wish to get deliverance some day. But as long as we have not reached or entered experientially the Buddhism, any Buddhism we know, understand, and perceive is not the real Buddhism that is to perceive with wisdom of non-discriminating, but just is regular understand from the meaning of hearing Buddhist scriptures. And this kind of understanding always carry our subjective prejudice, this is not the real Buddhism but Buddhism-alike.

FOR today’s Buddhist or Buddhism researcher, no matter how much they know about Buddhism, is still in the level of “just hear but not to think”, in the level of “worldly philosophical research”, because they do not have the foundation of power of meditation.

FROM the cultivating Mahayana Pure Land doctrine standpoint of view, the Amitabha Buddha’s forty-eight vows is to lead us to the field of cultivating Buddhism, to show us the fruits of bodhisattvas’s cultivating action in six paramitas, to enlighten us to learn the mercy vow of limitless bodhi of bodhisattvas, and to devote our bodhi mind of great action and vow to Pure Land, then we will get the supplies of pure karma of the highest stages in the Pure Land.

TODAY’S Pure Land practitioners do not understand enough the attainment of Amitabha’s brightness and the cause of formation of Amitabha Pure Land, do not study the forty-eight great mercy vows of Amitabha enough, therefore when they are chanting the name of Amitabha always without the mind or thought of great mercy vow.

IF we are chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha, at the same time cannot give up our impermanent appearance, cannot chant with the mind or thought of great mercy vow, cannot turn around our power of karma and the force of habit (the uprising or recurrence of thoughts and passions, the remaining influence of illusion), cannot sever the gravitation of the earth (the omnipresent cause of karma), cannot make our mind towards the West Pure Land, then will be doubly hard to correspond with the retribution of West Pure Land (beseeching for rebirth in the Utmost Joy World).

PURE LAND IN SAHA WORLD
The Mahaparinirvana Sutra says: {This world has been experiencing many times of dimensions of the circle of four kalpas (The Viyarta kalpa, consisting of twenty small kalpas during which worlds and the beings on them are formed. The Vivarta-siddha kalpa, kalpa of abiding, or existence, sun and moon rise, sexes are differentiated, heroes arise, four castes are formed, social life evolves. The Samvarta kalpa, that of destruction, consisting of sixty-four small kalpas when fire, water, and wind destroy everything except the
 fourth Dhyana. And The Samvarta-siddha kalpa, that of annihilation.). Numberless kalpas ago, there was a pure land in this world because of the projection of the causes of good karmas of beings and the cause of responsive incarnation in accordance with the nature or needs of different beings for one of the Buddhas. That pure land was just like the Western Utmost Joy World, limitless, glorious, and pure (but difference in nature). And there were so many bodhisattva practitioners came to this world to respond the collective karma, above to seek bodhi, below to transform all beings. Therefore, made the world plentiful, sumptuous, and fruitful results in every field. The Buddha has numberless age because of the responses to pure karma of beings there, after numberless kalpas, when the pure cause of responsive incarnation in accordance with the nature of beings are reaching the end, then the Buddha entering into nirvana, but the Buddhist doctrines still were stayed in this world for quite a long time.}

EVER since time beginningless every Buddha forms numberless good and bad causes before and after cultivating of Buddha-hood. Also ever since time beginningless numberless beings who have cause with Buddha, in this vast wheel of transmigration, making all kinds of good and bad karma never stop, follow the karmas, discover the final destination of karmas, and get rebirth for the karmas in these vast ten directions of pure and pollute worlds.

THE Buddhas always are responding to the teaching and converting of all kinds of beings who have cause with Buddhas, then are back and forth in these ten direction worlds. Therefore, the Saha world is just one of the places that Shakyamuni Buddha responding to those who have the cause with Shakyamuni Buddha, showing Buddha’s teaching and converting, and completing the cause. Also there are numberless great beings who have the cause with Shakyamuni Buddha, live in pure lands that are from the projection of collective karmas of pure mind beings, are expecting another level of teaching and converting from Shakyamuni Buddha.

PURE LAND OF SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA 
The Mahaparinirvana Sutra says: {All bodhisattva practitioners, cultivating the glorious and pure actions of ten kinds of benefiting self and others, therefore when becoming Buddha, will accomplish the retribution of glorious and pure, and will never become Buddha in any impure world that is not responding with the pure karma and action. Gentlemen! When you see Buddhas in impure worlds and think that many Buddhas become Buddha in impure worlds, this is wrong. You should have this kind of understanding that all these mountains, rocks, thorns, ……. evils, illiberality, and despicable things in the surroundings of the Saha World are the collective projections of being’s minds that are illiberal and despicable. 
All Buddhas have gotten limitless pure mind already, how can they get the retribution of impure karma like the ordinary beings? All the beings when listening to Buddha’s preaching in any assembly for worship or preaching, should have this kind of awareness that although all beings cannot see my land of reward of becoming Buddha because of the obstacle by bad karmas, but I the Shakaymuni Buddha now really come to this impure world, teach and save all beings because of responding to the collective karma of the beings in this world. 
But if you think this way that the Sun and Moon only appear in this world, and cannot be seen in other worlds, this is terribly wrong. When looking at it this way, just like bodhisattva before the first stage bodhisattva, who doesn’t enter experientially the pure mind, during the preaching, mentions that the Shakaymuni Buddha’s world is impure, and the other Buddha’s worlds are pure. Gentlemen! Let me tell you now, my glorious and pure appearance of retribution of becoming Buddha appear in another kind of pure world that is the projections of all pure beings.
Passing from Saha World through as thirty-two the sands of Ganges, numberless and limitless Buddha-lands to the West, there is a land called the “Unexcelled Land”. Why is that world called “Unexcelled Land”? It because that all beings in that world are under the teaching and converting of Shakyamuni Buddha, and the slow influence and transforming of great virtue of bodhisattvas, turn towards the deliverance with all their heart, and during the process of cultivation, all have gotten a pure mind free from doubt or defilement and entered experientially the truth of equal attitude (mind) towards all beings. And because of responding to the “equal mind” of beings, it makes all glorious things in that world are equal and no difference, that is why called “Unexcelled Land”. The Unexcelled Land is glorious and pure just like the West Utmost Joy World and the East Full Moon World. My glorious and pure “reward body” appears in Unexcelled Land, teaches and convert the beings who are profound in virtue and wisdom, with mind of Mahayana. The reason I appear in the Saha World, is because the transformative cause of different level of the beings in this world is reaching the mature time with me, therefore I appear in this planet, preach the doctrine for and benefit all beings. I am not the only Buddha who appears in Saha World preaches the doctrine for beings in Saha World, there were many Buddhas when cultivating the way of bodhisattva in the past, if they had the co-operating cause with Saha World, they would show up here, the only difference is that the cause between the Buddhas and the beings sometimes is deep, sometimes is shallow. 
When reaching a certain level of saving the beings (give release from the wheel of transmigration) and completing the past cause between a honoured Buddha and the beings in certain world, naturally when the collective karma of all beings are reaching the mature time for this reason, the honoured Buddha will appear in certain world, becoming Buddha, and will give release from the wheel of transmigration for all beings wildly. 
Maitreya bodhisattva was starting a vow of appearing in Saha World and saving the beings who have deep cause or affinity with him, when the Saha World becoming pure land because of the responding to the good karma of all beings in that world. Therefore when Maitreya bodhisattva becoming Buddha, Maitreya bodhisattva will respond to the great mercy vow of himself, appears in this Saha World, accomplish the way of Buddha, benefit, guide, and release the beings.}

PURE MIND AND PURE LAND
The Vimalakirti-nirdesa Sutra says: {Buddha says:[If bodhisattva would like to get pure land, should purify their mind, when their mind are purified, then the land of Buddha is pure.] Sariputra has heard the words and asks Buddha for more for all others:[If the mind of bodhisattva is pure then the land of Buddha is pure, when our world’s most venerable was in bodhisattva position, the mind was so pure, but how come the land of Buddha, the Saha World, is so impure?] Buddha knows the doubt of everybody, asks a question in reply:[What do you think? Could it be true that the Sun and Moon are impure, then the blinds cannot see them?] Sariputra replies:[No, World’s Most Venerable, is the blinds themselves cannot see them (the Sun and Moon), not the Sun and Moon’s fault.] Buddha says:[Sariputra, same reason we could understand that impurely collective karma of beings respond the impure land, that’s why beings cannot see the glorious and pure reward land of Buddha that is from completing the virtue and wisdom. Sariputra, if beings can accomplish the numberless pure karma, when the pure karma reaching the mature moment, then will respond with the cause of great mercy vow of Buddha, see the glorious and pure world of Buddha naturally.] In this moment a Brahma explains for everybody:[Sariputra, the impure Saha world is the projection of impure karma of beings, the appearance appears according to the mind, the changing of appearance follows the changing of mind, if the original nature of mind of beings is changed, then should perceive that impure land responds to impure mind, not impure land itself makes the land impure. How? Take me as an example, I have been cultivating the pure living for many kalpas, therefore I don’t have to leave the Saha World, but in this present moment I see the glorious and pure land of Shakyamuni Buddha is just like the Palace of Isvaradeva (a title of Siva, king of the devas),] Sariputra asks a question in reply:[But we all see very clearly this world is filled up with knolls, holes, thorns, sands, stones, mountains ……. All kinds of impure appearance, how can you say do not leave the reality of Saha World and still can see the pure land of the Buddha just like the Palace of Isvaradeva?] the Brahma replies:[Because the mind of beings are filled up with haughtiness impudicity, greed, fame, wealth ……. and so on that respond with the retribution of impure karma of Kamadhatu (the realms of desire for food, sleep, and sex, consisting of souls in purgatory, hungry spirits, animals, asuras, men, and the six heavens of desire), responding to the collective karma of beings, of course you can only see the holes, thorns ……. all the impure appearance. If beings do not follow the Buddha’s preaching “Purify the mind with the emptiness of Prajna wisdom”, the wisdom of non-worldly cannot be built, then cannot turn the impure karma into pure karma in present life, cannot perceive and see the truth of mind making the appearance of pure and impure world. Sariputra a bodhisattva practitioners, during the process of cultivating the way of bodhisattva, treating, saving, and transforming all beings with the mind of equal attitude. And cultivating the enlightened mind and wisdom of emptiness with the deeply pure nature of mind, then will respond to the power of Buddha, can see the glorious and pure Buddha land of Shakyamuni Buddha without leaving the Saha World.]
At this moment, in order to remove everybody’s doubts, Buddha press the ground with his feet and fingers, suddenly the impure worlds turn into glorious and pure world with numberless jewels. It is just like named “numberless virtue precious glorious pure land” taught and converted by a honoured glorious Buddha. At the present time, everybody in the assembly, are receiving the Buddha aid, seeing themselves sitting on a lotus decorated with jewels, and feeling so exclaimed in surprise. In order to remove the doubt, Buddha tells Sariputra:[The disciples of Buddha should have this kind of contemplation, “the original appearance of things are not impure, the pure and impure mind makes the appearance pure and impure.” Beings would like to see the pure world, should rely on the power of Buddha (Buddha aid) and the own power, good roots, and the maturation of cause, then can see the pure land of Buddha.] Sariputra reply with respect:[Everybody’s cause of pure karma is mature now, receiving Buddha aid, seeing the land of reward of World Honor One becoming Buddha, that is glorious and pure, the reality of the pure land manifests before everybody, the doubts are already removed.]
 
Finally Buddha tells Sariputra:[The mind of beings in Saha World are impure, I appear in this impure world to teach and convert the beings because of responding to the collective karma of the beings who have the cause or affinity with me. In the future if the beings accomplish wisdom-eye, respond to the pure karma, then in the cause of responding with the pure power of Buddha, will see my pure land of becoming Buddha that is glorious and pure.] This is just like the devas in heaven, during the meal time, all the foods and tools for meals are the same, but the virtues of devas are different, either deep or shallow, therefore they will see “the meal are different”. [If the level of purity of being’s mind can respond with the cause of pure land, when the cause and action of pure karma are mature, will see the pure world of teaching and converting of Buddha, understand and perceive the truth of pure or impure world being from the mind.] ……. After benefiting the beings because of the appearance of the pure world, Buddha takes back the supernatural power, instantly the pure land is disappeared, all beings again live in Saha World that is filled up with greed, desire, sin, and evil.}

HOW TO MAKE “PURE LAND FROM PURE MIND” COME TRUE?
Vimalakirti-nirdesa Sutra says: {Bodhisattva purify their mind and benefit beings with causes and actions of numberless pure karma of straightforward or blunt, a mind profoundly engrossed, the mind of bodhi, almsgiving, keeping the rules or commandments, patience, fortitude or unfailing progress, meditation, prajna wisdom, four boundless mind, four all-embracing virtues, expedient methods, the thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi, devoting one’s merits to the salvation of others, ten good characteristics or virtues ……. and so on. When bodhisattvas wholly complete the achievement of bodhi, these beings, who have been receiving the teaching and converting in the past directly from the certain bodhisattva and doing numberless pure karman of straightforward, a mind profoundly engrossed, the mind of bodhi, almsgiving, keeping the rules, patience, fortitude, meditation, prajna wisdom ……. and so on with the bodhisattva, have special, deep, and good roots, also have very strong cause or affinity with the bodhisattva, will go to the pure land, that is the projection of the great perfect mirror wisdom of becoming Buddha of the bodhisattva, continue to receive the teaching and converting from the Buddha.}

WHOLE COMPLETE THE PURE MIND
Vimalakirti-nirdesa Sutra says: {Bodhisattva because of the straightforward, then will start out actions, because of the starting out actions, then will receive a mind profoundly engrossed, because of the mind profoundly engrossed, then will control thoughts, because of controlling thoughts, then will act as says (deeds suit words), because of acting as says, then can devote the merits to the others, because of devoting the merits to the others, then will have expedient methods, because of expedient methods, then will bring beings to perfection, because of bringing beings to perfection, then the Buddha land is pure, because the Buddha land is pure, then preaching doctrine is pure, because preaching doctrine is pure, then the wisdom is pure, because the wisdom is pure, then the mind is pure, because the mind is pure, then all the virtues are pure.}

DURING numberless kalpas time, any bodhisattva practitioners have to go through all the cultivating process of causes and actions of numberless pure karmas, then can reach the ideal of the “Whole Complete Pure Mind”.

WHEN bodhisattva practitioners reach the elevation of spirit of “Whole Complete Pure Mind”, then we can talk about “Pure Land is from Pure Mind”. When we are still in the ordinary people position, in the impure land, having and receiving all kinds of retribution of good and bad karmas, cannot respond with any Buddha’s pure land. We have to turn the impure karmas into pure karmas, turn the unreal mind into pure wisdom, when our blessed virtues or all good deeds and good roots are mature, then we will respond with the pure land of Buddhas who have deep cause or affinity with us.

THE common run of men do not understand the projective level of the “Pure Land is from Pure Mind”, misleading people with reaching the Pure Land naturally by just doing meditation or chanting name of Buddha, and this is terribly wrong. Like we mentioned that we are in the position of greed, hatred, and ignorance ever since from the beginningless time, we even never think of pure land. Buddha wants us to understand that cultivating the way of pure land should start out with “purify our mind” by saying “the pure land is from pure mind”.

WHEN our mind are purified enough, can reach the level of responding with the vows of welcome of Buddha, then we will get the retribution of pure karma, when we are nearing the end of life, will see the pure land is in front of us, rebirth in the pure land naturally.

THERE ARE FOUR KINDS OF BUDDHIST PRACTITIONERS
FIRST kind is the beings who have good roots, believe in Buddhism because of being influenced by other Buddhists, when they have heard of the doctrines of Buddha, right away gotten very strong faith, nobody can remove this kind of faith. But they always stop in the level of “Believing in other’s word but without their own ideas”, the intellection of others also is theirs, they don’t have the ability to discern the content and depth of doctrines. Buddhist scripture call them “Beings of believing action”.

SECOND kind is the beings who have good roots, when they have heard of the doctrines of Buddha, they can organize the doctrines and find out the best practicing way for their natural capacity. Because they know how to observe and discern the law of phenomena and non-phenomena, and the level of real and unreal business. Therefore they will not be effected by the words of others. Buddhist scripture call them “Beings of believing doctrines”.

THIRD kind is the beings who have good roots, and the good roots in the past are much better than the ordinary beings, when they find out the best practicing way from the vast doctrines, then they try to put down everything gradually, and get the deliverance of birth and death with all their heart. When they are in the process of cultivation in meditation, already entered experientially the four dhyanas on the form-realms and the eight concentrations. Buddhist scripture call them “Beings of entering experientially”.

FOURTH kind is the beings who have good roods, during the process, they can control their mind, body, and mouth, further more when they are in deep contemplation, don’t persist in “I am the one who keeps the commandments, and the others are not”. When they are in the meditation of cultivating “no ego”, they find out the reality of no original nature of their body. When the practitioners see the reality of emptiness through their eyes of purified mind, they perceive the “things arising depending on conditions and the original nature is empty”, eventually they see the source of transmigration of their impermanent bodies. Buddhist scripture call them “Beings of seeing the truth”

THESE four kinds of Buddhist practitioners tell us the process of a Buddhist practitioner who wants to enter experientially the truth of “the nature of emptiness”, should be through the faith, the teacher, the hearing of doctrines, the contemplating doctrines, the understanding and perceiving doctrines, and cultivating doctrines.

THE MEANING OF THREE REALMS
Buddhist scriptures describe three kinds of living dimensions of spiritual status that human being can reach through all kinds of meditation work.
The first kind is the living space of wealth desire, sex desire, fame desire, food desire, and sleep desire, we call it the realm of desire. The second kind is some kind of human beings who have more spiritual nature, dislike and leave the surroundings of hatred and desire, and enter the status of spiritual adjustment. During the cultivating process of meditation, the desire and hatred getting lighter gradually, but the mind and body are still bounded by material world, we call it the realm of form. The third kind is some kind of human being, when cultivating deeply in meditation, the mind and cognition surpass the bound of material world and appearance, and enter the spiritual status of deep meditation, we call it the realm of formless.

BUDDHA MADE STRICT RULES FOR SURPASSING THE REALM OF DESIRE
The numberless beings in different levels of cosmos, all live in the worlds or realms that respond with their different karmas. We are the one who lives in this Desire Realm according to our karmas of desire, hatred, and greed. If we want to surpass the boundary of the Desire Realm, we muse destroy the worries that respond with the Desire Realm. The practitioners of the first stage of the arhat start out their cultivation in surpassing the Desire Realm, cutting off all desires that respond with the Desire Realm, is just like the Diamond Sutra’s words {cannot be bothered by the form, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thinking}. And surpassing the Desire Realm is just a first step of reaching the goal of deliverance of birth and death. But to the numberless beings in the Desire Realm, the desire, hatred, greed, and worries are doubly hard to destroy. In order to help all the students and followers to reach the goal of deliverance in the present world, Shakyamuni Buddha made the strict rules for deed, word, and thought that are very hard to control and will make all beings sink into the karma net of Desire Realm.

WHAT IS THE STARTING OUT FOR BODHI FOR NEW PRACTITIONERS
When a practitioner can first try to control the body and mouth for making bad karmas, and practice the “the study of wisdom for deliverance” as the foundation of cultivation according to the teaching of The Agamas Sutra, then the practitioner will start out the mind of leaving the Saha World and going for the deliverance with keeping rules and cultivating meditation.

MIDDLE GRADE IN THE PURE LAND
The Contemplation Sutra says: {When beings can receive and retain the Panca veramani (the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors), keep the first eight of the ten commandments (not to kill, not to take things not given, no ignoble conduct, not to speak falsely, not to drink wine, not to indulge in cosmetics, personal adornments dancing, or music, not to sleep on fancy bed, but on a mat on the ground, and not to eat out of regulation hours), cultivate and practice all the rules, do not make any Pancanantarya (the five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity), and do not have the common defilement of all beings by the false view that the ego has real existence, devote this merit to and beseech for rebirth in, the Western Utmost Joy World with this good root, then when the beings are reaching the end of this life, Amitabha Buddha and all
 bhiksu and their retinues will come to the place with light-emitting, preaching the suffering, the emptiness, the impermanent, and the no ego, also praising to leave home and become a monk or nun therefore leaving all the sufferings. The being
when are seeing the whole process, feeling so great with the bottom of their heart, and seeing themselves are sitting on lotus throne, kneeling and worshipping with two palms together to pay their respects Buddha, in a very short instant, the beings are going to be born in the Pure Land of Amitabha, the lotus flowers blossom right away. When the lotus flowers are blossoming, the beings are hearing the sounds from all devas of Pure Land that is to praise the four dogmas or noble truths (the primary and fundamental doctrines of Shakyamuni Buddha), the beings at the same time have gotten the Arhat position, the three insights (insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives, supernatural insight into future mortal conditions, and insight into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome all passions or temptations), the six supernatural or universal powers, and the liberation or deliverance in eight forms. This is to be called the upper position of middle grade.}

STARTING OUT THE MIND OF LEAVING SUFFERING 
The pure land is non-worldly dharma (the way of leaving the world). The great practitioners of pure land in ancient and modern time instruct us again and again that if we want to beseech for rebirth in Utmost Joy World, we must start out the mind of leaving suffering first, no option at all, we must start out deeply the mind of strong vow and belief of leaving the suffering ocean of birth and death, for beseeching for rebirth in the Pure Land.

THE WAY OF CULTIVATING THE MIND OF LEAVING SUFFERING
According to the doctrines, we will start out the mind of leaving suffering through the process of keeping commandments, contemplation, and meditation.
The best way of cultivating contemplation is to learn “the meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others”, this will incite the mind of wearying of the world and abandoning it, and the mind of impermanence.

STARTING OUT THE MIND OF LEAVING SUFFERING 
The pure land is non-worldly dharma (the way of leaving the world). The great practitioners of pure land in ancient and modern time instruct us again and again that if we want to beseech for rebirth in Utmost Joy World, we must start out the mind of leaving suffering first, no option at all, we must start out deeply the mind of strong vow and belief of leaving the suffering ocean of birth and death, for beseeching for rebirth in the Pure Land.

THE WAY OF CULTIVATING THE MIND OF LEAVING SUFFERING
According to the doctrines, we will start out the mind of leaving suffering through the process of keeping commandments, contemplation, and meditation.
The best way of cultivating contemplation is to learn “the meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others”, this will incite the mind of wearying of the world and abandoning it, and the mind of impermanence.

WHEN the mind become much quieter and more concentrated, then we will feel more that the worldly things are impermanent, all things are suffering, and all things shouldn’t be greedy for and attached, only in this moment we will chant the name of Amitabha, keep the commandments, and beseech for rebirth in the Pure Land with the strong mind of leaving suffering, impermanent, and no ego.

LOW GRADE IN THE PURE LAND
The Highest Class of Low Grade in the Pure Land
According to Amitayus Sutra, when the beings of the highest class of low grade are leaded by the light of metamorphosed Buddha to the Lotus Lake of seven treasures in the Pure Land, forty-nine Pure Land days later, the lotus of the beings will be blossomed. The beings in these lotus will not see Amitabha Buddha, but
 Avalokitesvara (Guan Yin) Bodhisattva, and Mahasthama (Da Sh Tz or Great Power Arrived) Bodhisattva, with great light in front of the beings, and preaching the profound Buddhist doctrine for the beings.

AND because these beings had already started out the mind of faith and resolve in their past life, therefore their wisdom of bodhi automatically have been revealed, in order to understand and believe the profound Buddhist doctrines and perceive the supreme principle of becoming Buddha. They will learn and practice very hard the action and vow of becoming Buddha that is to benefit self and other beings for around ten kalpas. Then they will go to numberless Buddha worlds with their vast and deep power of works of supererogation, in order to learn the essentials of the Truth of becoming Buddha of all the Buddhas in ten directions in cosmoses, and perceive experientially the profound meaning of action and proof of the door to the knowledge of universal phenomena. This is to enter experientially the first of the ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvana, that is from the mutual entering and containing of action and vow of mercy and wisdom.

AND because these beings had already started out the mind of faith and resolve in their past life, therefore their wisdom of bodhi automatically have been revealed, in order to understand and believe the profound Buddhist doctrines and perceive the supreme principle of becoming Buddha. They will learn and practice very hard the action and vow of becoming Buddha that is to benefit self and other beings for around ten kalpas. Then they will go to numberless Buddha worlds with their vast and deep power of works of supererogation, in order to learn the essentials of the Truth of becoming Buddha of all the Buddhas in ten directions in cosmoses, and perceive experientially the profound meaning of action and proof of the door to the knowledge of universal phenomena. This is to enter experientially the first of the ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvana, that is from the mutual entering and containing of action and vow of mercy and wisdom.

THE Middle Class of Low Grade in the Pure Land
The beings of the middle class of low grade when reaching the end of present life, seeing the spiritual flowers showing in front of them, right away leaded by the appearance of the light of Buddha and Bodhisattvas on those flowers, to the Lotus Lake of seven treasures in the Pure Land. Six Pure Land kalpas later , the lotus of the beings will be blossomed. Also the beings will not see Amitabha Buddha but Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, and Mahasthama Bodhisattva. The two great Bodhisattva preaching the profound Buddhist doctrine for the beings. The beings when listening the Buddhist doctrines feel so deeply touched and start out the wisdom that were built in the past lives, then at the same time start out the supreme mind of becoming Buddha faithfully.

THE Low Class of Low Grade in the Pure Land
The beings of low class of low grade when reaching the end of present life, seeing a special lotus flower with gold light like the Sun showing in front of them, almost at the same time them are already in the Lotus Lake of seven treasure in the Pure Land. Twelve Pure Land kalpas later, the lotus of the beings will be blossomed. Also the Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva and Mahasthama Boddhisattva will be in front of them, preaching the prodound Buddhist doctrine for the beings, and showing the way of seeking forgiveness, patience, indulgence, and forbearance through the absolute fundamental reality. When the beings understand, practice, and perceive the theory and way of seeking forgiveness, patience and forbearance through the absolute fundamental reality, then under the situation of purifying all heavy karmas, the beings will start out the mind of bodhi, that is to beseech the Buddha-hood and save all beings.

THE LENGTH OF DAYS OF BEINGS IN PURE LAND
One of the main goals for Buddhist practitioners is to free from the constraint of the length of days. And it is almost impossible for the practitioners to reach this kind of goal unless beseeching rebirth in Pure Land.

WHY can the beings in Pure Land free from the constraint of the length of days? From the standing point of cultivating, there are two reasons: 
The power of meditative enlightenment on reality. 
Let’s read one of the paragraphs in HEART SUTRA:
When Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva is practicing the profound Prajna-paramita(Truth wisdom), He contemplates, sees, and illuminates to the emptiness of the five skandhas(the five fundamental conditions of passions and delusions, the first one is form, matter, or the physical form related to the five organs of sense, the second one is reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things, the third one is conception, or discerning, the functioning of mind in distinguishing, the fourth one is the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc., and the fifth one is mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things), and thus attains deliverance from all suffering.

THE most important word in this paragraph is “Illuminates”(pas’yati). When Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva is in profound meditation of Prajna-paramita, he illuminates with presenting facts, that all things including material and non-material are empty. A wise practitioner contemplates the five fundamental conditions of passions and delusions, sees experientially that all of them have no original nature, and reaches the level of deliverance of mind.

THE contents of Heart Sutra is a disclosure of the result of entering experientially the truth of universes that is through the prajna of literal, contemplation, and reality, for the process of cultivation of the sharp practitioners.

WHAT is PRAJNA? The Prajna is wisdom of experientially entering the truth. This kind of wisdom is totally differently from the worldly knowledge. If we want to reach the level of Prajna, we have to hear or study the Buddhist doctrines, try to understand the words of these doctrines through research, thinking, and examining, in this step we will find out the most suitable practice way to our natural capacity. Next step will be to contemplate and illuminate our mind and behavior any moment any place depending on doctrines of sutras or sastras, then we will enter the right track which responds with the wisdom of Buddha.

THE result of contemplation and illumination, and the result of controlling the thought and mind for a practitioner should be in direct proportion. When practicing the Buddhist doctrines, how much you can give up for thoughts of greed, hatred, ignorance, love ……., then how much you will get the response to the pure thought of non-greed, non-hatred, non-ignorance, and non-love. So call “The enlightened heart”, or “To behold the Buddha-nature within oneself”, or “Enter experientially the emptiness” are not so easy to reach by the ordinary people like us with some kind of meditation day and night or study all kinds of Buddhist doctrines.

ACCORDING to Buddhist doctrines, in the time of the last of the three periods of Buddhist Doctrines, the ordinary individuals like us have much more “The barrier of temptation, passion, or defilement” (which obstructs the attainment of the Nirvana-mind) and much more “The barrier of the known” (arising from regarding the seeming as real), therefore it is doubly hard to get rid of the heavy barrier of sin (which hinders the obtaining of good karma, and the obedient hearing of the truth) with ordinarily calm mind for just short period of time.

THERE are quite a few people, during the cultivating meditation reach some kind of joy of the mystic trance, therefore misunderstand that “This is the enlightenment”, or teach the beginners so call the best and fast way of reaching enlightenment of “When meditating, entering experientially the emptiness” and “When meditating, getting experientially the bodhi”, this will mislead the beginners that they are the sharp natural capacity and can enter experientially the emptiness and become Buddha without going through the removing all worries, and the cultivating of discipline, meditation, and wisdom (discipline wards off bodily evil, meditation calms mental disturbance, wisdom gets rid of delusion and proves truth).

BUDDHA Shyakiamuni once said in Agama Sutra: {Buddha attains enlightenment not because of meditation, or less food, or less sleep, but because of supreme discipline, supreme wisdom, supreme intellection, and supreme intelligent contemplation.} A practitioner when giving up one percent of thought of greed at the same time gaining one percent of thought of purification, when giving up two percent of thought of hatred at the same time gaining two percent of thought of purification ……., according to the principle of efficient causality, every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause.

REMEMBER that cause and effect in the moral realm have their corresponding relations. The levels of cultivating and contemplating should be in direct proportion with the levels of removing delusion and all kinds of thought in our daily life.

If we can reduce our thought and calm our mind only in meditative moment, and can not control our thought of greed, hatred, ignorance, jealousy, arrogance, fame, wealth, power ……. in our daily life, then no matter how much time we spend on meditation or how much effort we can provide, but still cannot reach the better level of cultivation and contemplation.

Same reason, If we can reduce our thought and calm our mind only in the moment of chanting Buddha’s name (Namo Amitabha), and cannot control ourselves and cannot remove all kinds of moral infection in our mind, then we will have no way to reach the level of Samadhi.

WHEN we get the POWER of MEDITATIVE ENLIGHTENMENT on REALITY, we will free from the constraint of the length of days.
When we cultivate the
 Rddhipada we will free from the constraint of the length of days. According the Agama Sutra: {When cultivating the Rddhipada will prolong life}, what is Rddhipada? The Rddhipada will make the body independent of ordinary or natural law. There are four steps in Rddhipada, the four steps are said to be the four kinds of dhyan, but there are several definitions, the first one is desire (intensive longing, or concentration), the second one is energy (or intensified effort), the third one is memory (or intense holding on to the position reached), and the fourth one is meditation (or survey, the state of dhyana).

THE Rddhipada, we call it Deva-Foot Ubiquity, when we cultivate the Rddhipada daily through the Desire (not the worldly desire), Energy, Memory (mind), and Meditation, eventually we will reach the elevation of spirit of free from everything including body and mind.

CULTIVATE OURSELVES IN SAMADHI
The Desire, Energy, Memory (mind), and Meditation are the only way for practitioners to start their cultivating (composing the mind, or intent contemplation, or perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation) in Samadhi.

HOW TO PRACTICE IN OUR DAILY LIFE
It is doubly hard for Buddhist practitioners to cultivate the Desire for doctrines, Energy for cultivation, Mind for holding on to it, and Meditation for illumination. Here we have some suggestions for the beginners, first we should cultivate the power in thought and selection of correct principles, and the power in controlling self, whenever and wherever starting out a bad desire, should always think this first “I have already start out vows in front of Buddha that I will turn to and rely on the
 Triratna, joyfully trust in the Buddha, study Buddhist doctrine, and become Buddha”, supervise and direct ourselves with the four steps of cultivation, and treat our mind as the mind of Buddha (a heart of mercy).

A sharp practitioner, who understands the impermanence of birth and death, tries to complete the nutriment of blessedness and wisdom (or virtue and wisdom), should always think of the way of deliverance, at the same time should always notice, cultivate, and control the arising of evil desire. When evil thought arising, purify it with the cultivation that is to contemplate the source of beginning, purify it with the desire of thinking doctrines, desire of unadulterated progress, desire of right believing, desire of at ease, desire of right views, and desire of cultivating doctrines. As time goes on, the elevation of spirit of continuing pure thought and removing evil desire, then will be corresponding with Samadhi, eventually the form of transmigration will be transformed.

THE POWER OF MIND AND THE PROLONGATION OF LIFE
When the wave of mind or the power of thought can adjust or change the magnetic field of electric current, then the electrical activity of elements in the body will be controlled by the power of will, meaning when the electromagnetic field in the body is changed by the power of mind, when the mind can transform things or forms, then the aging of body of another step or level will be changed or created.

THE ACHIEVEMENT OF VOWS OF MERIT
The Vijnaptimatrasiddhi-sastra says: {The birth and death of all the beings with consciousness have two kinds: first kind is the condition and station resulting from good or bad karma in the three realms (desire, form, and formlessness) and in the six paths, second kind is the condition and station resulting from good karma in the realms beyond transmigration, including arhats and higher saints. Like the life of human being, from one life transmigrate to another life, this is the first kind of birth and death. This kind of phenomena of one life to anther is the responding of causes of good and bad karmas which are created in the past and present lives, make these periodical reward or punishment bodies that are controlled by the karmas made in the past lives, and this kind of lives have time limit, cannot change the aging. And the saints like arhats they have already removed the illusory or misleading views and thoughts, surpassed the ordinary people of the three realms and belong to the phenomena of birth and death of spirit, this is called mortal changes (a body that is being transformed from mortality).}

THE Vijnaptimatrasiddhi-sastra explains more about Mortal Changes: {The inconceivable Mortal Changes is built by all passionless purity, good karma, and the barrier of the knows (arising from regarding the seeming as real) as a cause, then responding to another extraordinary kind of heterogeneous effect produced by heterogeneous cause. This kind of extraordinary transformation body or incarnation body that is from the power of great merit and vow, do not have time limit.}

{IF the practitioner during the cultivation of present life, reveals the passionless wisdom, vows and perform the merit, and starts out to cultivate the way of discipline of the bodhisattva. When reaching the end of present life, starting out to cultivate the way of the bodhisattva during the transmigration with the extraordinary power of passionless wisdom and merit, never receding (never retreating but going straight to nirvana) till becoming Buddha, then the body of the end of present life will be received by the Moral Changes.}

THE POINTS FOR CULTIVATING THE VOWS OF GREAT MERIT
Vijnaptimatrasiddhi-sastra says: {If the
 Atma-grah has been turned, when facing the attendant circumstances, always causing like or dislike, then the mind of great merit will be hindered. And if entering experientially the truth of NO EGO of no self, the Atma-grah will be either removed or turned, then the mind of great merit of “All living things are equal” will be built, then delivering all beings will be started out.}

FROM this standpoint of view, we should understand that if a practitioner, who has the mind of great merit, during the cultivation of meditation, can enter experientially the truth of NO EGO of “Whatever is phenomenal is impermanent”(non-permanence), “Nothing has an ego”(non-personality), “All feeling is suffering”, and “Complete extinction of individual existence”(nirvana), then during the process of cultivating the great way of bodhisattva in the future, will start out the mind of great merit of “all living things are equal” and save all the living beings.

THE FOUNDATION OF CULTIVATING BUDDHIST DOCTRINES 
Bodhipaksika dharma is the foundation of cultivating Buddhist doctrines, including five spiritual faculties(panca indriyani), the five powers of panca indriyani(panca balani), seven degrees of enlightenment or intelligence(sapta bodhyanga), the eight-fold noble path(asta-marga), four states of memory or subjects of reflection(smrtyupasthana), four proper lines of exertion(samyakprahana), and four steps towards supernatural power(rddhipada), these called thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi or Buddha-hood.


WE all know the “Thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi”, but most of the Buddhist treat it like some kind of reference, do not look into it closely, think it deeply, and practice it formally. The difference between the saints and the ordinary people is here “knowledge and action” (knowledge is easy, but action is difficult).

THE Sastra on the Prajna-paramita sutra says: {The ocean of Buddhist doctrines, only entering with believing, only delivering with wisdom.} meaning having the “The wisdom obtained from hearing” (hearing the word and becoming wise in it) of Buddhist doctrines is not enough. We have to remove our own thought of greed, desire, and evil with the Buddhist doctrines, then we will build “The knowledge of reality” for ourselves, with the knowledge of reality we can lead being to bodhi, this is called “Only delivering with wisdom”.

Hank Fu

Forty Eight Vows
Pure Land Sutra
Hua Yen Sutra
Bequeated Sutra
Enlightenment Sutra
Contemplation Sutra
Visualization Sutra
Buddhism as Education
Four Kinds of Buddhis
Taking Refuge
Infinite Life Sutra
Anapanasati Sutra
HELP for Dying and Bereaved
Perfection of Patience
Four Immeasurable Minds
Emptiness of Emptiness
Amitabha Sutra 
Pure Land Buddhism
Pure Land Buddhist Doctrine 
The Prayer of Pure Land 
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Embodiment of Compassion
Respect
Real Meaning of Pure Land 
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GOOD GOVERNANCE

UP has not reported a single case of polio in the last six months

Uttar Pradesh (UP),  that register the highest amount of polio cases also saw a decline in polio cases. UP has not reported a single case of polio in the last six months. The results come after the state has made efforts in organising immunisation campaigns in high-risk areas to ensure that most children are administered the vaccine.

Sugar output in UP seen up 27%

Uttar Pradesh is expected to produce 6.8 million tonne sugar this year, marginally higher than an estimate of 6.4 million tonne provided by a senior state government official late last month.

“There was no damage due to late rains. In fact, rains have helped and if sunshine continues, both yield and recovery will be better, giving us hope of 6.8 million tonne,” Shyam Lal Gupta, secretary general of the Uttar Pradesh Sugar Mills, said.

Output of 16.3 million tonne from  Uttar Pradesh and other states will help India churn out 24 million to 25 million tonne in new season that began in October, against 18.8 million tonne a year ago, leaving a larger surplus for exports. Analysts say higher exports from India, the world’s top consumer and the biggest producer behind Brazil, will put downward pressure on benchmark prices in New York, which touched a 29-year high in February due to large imports by the country in the past two years.

Bahujan Samaj Party’s Satish Mishra wanted the prime minister to reserve 50 percent of all seats in legislatures for women in line with their population ratio is the correct position

 

Bahujan Samaj Party’s Satish Mishra said his party would not be able to support the proposed legislation in the current form. He wanted the prime minister to reserve 50 percent of all seats in legislatures for women in line with their population ratio is the correct position. After all once Kanshiram Ji said ” If BJP was the ‘A’ team then the Congress is the ‘B’ team.” Now added to this is Prakash Karat’s party is the ‘C’ team and the AIDMK is the ‘D’ team< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />

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LESSON 70 MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED   26 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

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Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared. - Buddha

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

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The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

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LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

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MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

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ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

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MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study/comparison_buddhist_traditions/theravada_hinayana_mahayana/intro_comparison_hinayana_mahayana.html

Introductory Comparison of Hinayanaand Mahayana 

Alexander Berzin 
Berlin, Germany, January 2002 

[edited transcript]

The Terms Hinayana and Mahayana

The terms Hinayana (Lesser Vehicle or Modest Vehicle) andMahayana (Greater Vehicle or Vast Vehicle) originated in The Prajnaparamita Sutras (The Sutras on Far-Reaching Discriminating Awareness, The Perfection of Wisdom Sutras). They are a rather derogatory pair of words, aggrandizingMahayana and putting down Hinayana. Alternative terms for them, however, have many other shortcomings, and so therefore I shall use these more standard terms for them here.

[See: The Terms Hinayana and Mahayana.]

Hinayana encompasses eighteen schools. The most important for our purposes are Sarvastivada and Theravada. Theravada is the one extant today in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Sarvastivada was widespread in Northern India when the Tibetans started to travel there and Buddhism began to be transplanted to Tibet.

There were two main divisions of Sarvastivada based on philosophical differences: Vaibhashika and Sautrantika. Hinayanatenet systems studied at the Indian monastic universities such as Nalanda, and later by the Tibetan Mahayanists, are from these two schools. The lineage of monastic vows followed in Tibet is from another Sarvastivada subdivision, Mulasarvastivada.

[See: A Brief History of Buddhism in India before the Thirteenth-Century Invasions.]

Buddhas and Arhats

There is quite a significant difference between the Hinayana andMahayana presentations of arhats and Buddhas. Both agree that arhats, or liberated beings, are more limited than Buddhas, or enlightened beings, are. Mahayana formulates this difference in terms of two sets of obscurations: the emotional ones, which prevent liberation, and the cognitive ones, which prevent omniscience. Arhats are free of only the former, whereas Buddhas are free of both. This division is not found in Hinayana. It is purely a Mahayana formulation.

To gain liberation or enlightenment, both Hinayana andMahayana assert that one needs nonconceptual cognition of the lack of an impossible “soul.” Such a lack is often called “ selflessness,” anatma in Sanskrit, the main Indian scriptural language of Sarvastivada and Mahayana; anatta in Pali, the scriptural language of Theravada. The Hinayana schools assert this lack of an impossible “soul” with respect only to persons, not all phenomena. Persons lack a “soul,” an atman, that is unaffected by anything, partless, and separable from a body and a mind, and which can be cognized on its own. Such a “soul” is impossible. With just the understanding that there is no such thing as this type of “soul” with respect to persons, one can become either an arhat or a Buddha. The difference depends on how much positive force or so-called “ merit” one builds up. Because of their development of the enlightening aim ofbodhichitta, Buddhas have built up far more positive force than arhats have.

Mahayana asserts that Buddhas understand the lack of an impossible “soul” with respect to all phenomena as well as with respect to persons. They call this lack “voidness.” The various Indian schools of Mahayana differ regarding whether or not arhats also understand the voidness of phenomena. Within Mahayana, Prasangika Madhyamaka asserts that they do. However, the four Tibetan traditions explain this point differently regarding the Prasangika assertion. Some say that the voidness of phenomena understood by arhats is different from that understood by Buddhas; some assert the two voidnesses are the same. Some say that the scope of phenomena to which the voidness of phenomena applies is more limited for arhats than it is for Buddhas; some assert it is the same. There is no need to go into all the details here.

[See: Comparison of the Hinayana and Mahayana Assertions of the Understandings of Voidness by Arhats and Buddhas.]

Further Points Concerning Buddhas and Arhats

The assertions of Hinayana and Mahayana concerning arhats and Buddhas differ in many other ways. Theravada, for instance, asserts that one of the differences between a shravaka or “listener” striving toward the liberation of an arhat and abodhisattva striving toward the enlightenment of a Buddha is that shravakas study with Buddhist teachers, while bodhisattvas do not. The historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, for instance, did not study with another Buddha. He studied only with non-Buddhist teachers, whose methods he ultimately rejected. In the fact that Buddha’s understanding and attainment did not arise from reliance on a Buddhist teacher, Theravada asserts that a Buddha’s wisdom surpasses that of an arhat.

In addition, bodhisattvas work to become universal Buddhist teachers; shravakas do not, although as arhats they certainly teach disciples. Before passing away, Buddha himself deputed his arhat disciple Shariputra to continue “turning the wheel ofDharma.” According to Theravada, however, Buddhas excel arhats in being more skillful in methods for leading others to liberation and in the breadth of their conduct of teaching. This is the meaning of a Buddha’s being omniscient. However, according to this presentation, a Buddha would not know everyone’s address and would have to ask such information from others.

According to the Vaibhashika school of Hinayana, Buddhas are actually omniscient in knowing such information, but they only know one thing at a time. According to Mahayana, omniscience means knowing everything simultaneously. This follows from itsview that everything is interconnected and interdependent; we cannot speak of just one piece of information, totally unrelated to the rest.

Hinayana says that the historical Buddha achieved enlightenment in his lifetime and, like an arhat, when he died, his mental continuum came to an end. Therefore, according to Hinayana, Buddhas teach only for the rest of the lifetime in which they achieve enlightenment. They do not emanate to countless world systems and go on teaching forever, as Mahayana asserts. Only Mahayana asserts that the historical Buddha became enlightened in a previous lifetime many eons ago, by studying with Buddhist teachers. He was just demonstrated enlightenment under the bodhi tree as one of the twelve enlightening deeds of a Buddha. The precursor of this description of a Buddha is found in the Mahasanghika School of Hinayana, another of the eighteen Hinayana schools, but is not found in either Sarvastivada or Theravada.

[See: The Twelve Enlightening Deeds of a Buddha.]

Concerning Buddhas, another major difference is that onlyMahayana asserts the three corpuses or bodies of a Buddha – Nirmanakaya, Sambhogakaya, and Dharmakaya. Hinayana does not assert them. Thus, the concept of a Buddha is significantly different in Hinayana and Mahayana.

[See: Identifying the Objects of Safe Direction (Refuge).]

The Pathway Minds Leading to Liberation and Enlightenment

Hinayana and Mahayana both assert that the stages of progress to the purified state, or “bodhi,” of either an arhat or a Buddha entail developing five levels of pathway mind – the so-called “five paths.” These are a building-up pathway mind or path of accumulation, an applying pathway mind or path of preparation, a seeing pathway mind or path of seeing, an accustoming pathway mind or path of meditation, and a path needing no further training or path of no more learning. Shravakas and bodhisattvas who attain a seeing pathway of mind both becomearyas, highly realized beings. Both have nonconceptual cognition of the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths.

[See: The Five Pathway Minds: Basic Presentation. See also: The Sixteen Aspects and the Sixteen Distorted Ways of Embracing the Four Noble Truths.]

Both Hinayana and Mahayana agree that a seeing pathway mind rids both arya shravakas and arya bodhisattvas of doctrinally based disturbing emotions, while an accustoming pathway mind rids them of automatically arising disturbing emotions. The former are based on learning the set of assertions of one of the non-Buddhist Indian schools, while the latter arise automatically in everyone, including animals. The list of disturbing emotions that shravaka and bodhisattva aryas rid themselves of is part of a larger list of mental factors. Each of the Hinayana schools has its own list of mental factors, while Mahayana asserts yet another list. Many of the mental factors are defined differently in each list.

Both Hinayana and Mahayana agree that the course of progressing through the five pathway minds entails practicing the thirty-seven factors leading to a purified state. A “purified state” or “ bodhi” refers to either arhatship or Buddhahood. These thirty-seven factors include the four close placements of mindfulness, the eight branches of an arya pathway mind (the eightfold noble path), and so on. They are very important. Inanuttarayoga tantra, the thrity-seven are represented by Yamantaka’s thirty-four arms plus his body, speech and mind, as well as by the dakinis in the body mandala of Vajrayogini. The thirty-seven are a standard set of practices. The specifics of each practice, however, are often different in Hinayana and Mahayana.

[See: The Theravada Practice of the Four Close Placements of Mindfulness. See also: The Four Close Placements of Mindfulness According to Mahayana.]

Both Hinayana and Mahayana assert that the scheme of stream-enterer, once-returner, non-returner and arhat refers to stages of an arya shravaka’s path, but not to the path of an arya bodhisattva. Thus, stream-enterers have nonconceptual cognition of the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths, which include nonconceptual cognition of the lack of an impossible “soul” of persons. We should not think that stream-enterer is a beginner level. So if someone claims to have achieved the state of a stream-enterer, be suspicious.

Hinayana does not provide an extensive explanation of the bodhisattva pathway minds. Mahayana, however, explains that an arya bodhisattva’s path to enlightenment entails progressing through the development of ten levels of bhumi-mind. These levels of mind do not pertain to the path of shravakas.

Both Hinayana and Mahayana agree that traversing the bodhisattva path to enlightenment takes more time than traversing the shravaka one to arhatship. Only Mahayana, however, speaks of building up the two enlightenment-building networks – the two collections – for three zillion eons. “ Zillion,” usually translated as “countless,” means a finite number, though we would be unable to count it. Shravakas, on the other hand, can attain arhatship in as short as three lifetimes. In the first lifetime, one becomes a stream-enterer, in the next lifetime a once-returner, and in the third lifetime, one becomes a non-returner, achieves liberation, and becomes an arhat. This is quite tempting for many people.

The assertion that arhats are selfish is like bodhisattva propaganda. It is basically meant to point out an extreme to avoid. The sutras record that Buddha asked his sixty arhat disciples to teach. If they were truly selfish, they would not have agreed to do so. Arhats, however, can only help others to a more limited extent than Buddhas can. Both, however, can only help those with the karma to be helped by them.

Bodhisattvas

It is important to realize that the Hinayana schools do assert that before becoming a Buddha, one follows the bodhisattva path. Both Hinayana and Mahayana have versions of the Jataka tales describing the previous lives of Buddha Shakyamuni as a bodhisattva. Starting with King Siri Sanghabodhi in the third century CE, many Sri Lankan kings even called themselves bodhisattvas. Of course, this is a little tricky to untangle because there was some Mahayana present in Sri Lanka at the time. Whether this idea of bodhisattva kings preexisted a Mahayana influence is hard to say, but it did happen. Even more surprisingly, in the fifth century CE, the elders at the Sri Lankan capital Anuradhapura declared Buddhaghosa, a great Theravada Abhidharma master, to be an incarnation of the bodhisattva Maitreya.

Mahayana asserts that there are a thousand Buddhas in this “fortunate eon” who will start universal religions, and there have been and will be many more Buddhas in other world ages. Mahayana also asserts that everyone can become a Buddha, because everyone has the Buddha-nature factors that enable this attainment. Hinayana does not discuss Buddha-nature. Nevertheless, Theravada does mention hundreds of Buddhas of the past. One Theravada sutta even lists twenty-seven by name. All of them were bodhisattvas before becoming Buddhas. Theravada asserts that there will be innumerable Buddhas in the future as well, including Maitreya as the next one, and that anyone can become a Buddha if they practice the ten far-reaching attitudes.

The Ten Far-Reaching Attitudes

Mahayana says that the ten far-reaching attitudes are practiced only by bodhisattvas and not by shravakas. This is because Mahayana defines a far-reaching attitude or “perfection” as one that is held by the force of a bodhichitta aim.

According to Theravada, however, so long as the ten attitudes are held by the force of renunciation, the determination to be free, bodhichitta is not necessary for their practice to be far-reaching and act as a cause for liberation. Thus, Theravada asserts that both bodhisattvas and shravakas practice ten far-reaching attitudes. Aside from the different motivating aims behind them, the other main difference between a bodhisattva’s and a shravaka’s practice of the ten is the degree of their intensity. Thus, each of the ten far-reaching attitudes has three stages or degrees: ordinary, medium, and highest. For example, the highest practice of generosity would be giving one’s body to feed a hungry tigress, as Buddha did in a previous life as a bodhisattva.

The list of the ten far-reaching attitudes also differs slightly in Theravada and Mahayana. The Mahayana list is:

·         generosity

·         ethical self-discipline

·         patience

·         joyful perseverance

·         mental stability

·         discriminating awareness

·         skill in means

·         aspirational prayer

·         strengthening

·         deep awareness

The Theravada list omits mental stability, skill in means, aspirational prayer, strengthening, and deep awareness. It adds in their place

·         renunciation

·         being true to one’s word

·         resolution

·         love

·         equanimity

[See: The Ten Far-Reaching Attitudes in Theravada, Mahayana, andBon.]

The Four Immeasurable Attitudes

Both Hinayana and Mahayana teach the practice of the four immeasurable attitudes of love, compassion, joy, and equanimity. Both define love as the wish for others to have happiness and the causes of happiness, and compassion as the wish for them to be free of suffering and the causes of suffering. Hinayana, however, does not develop these immeasurable attitudes through a line of reasoning, such as that all beings have been our mother and so on. Rather, it starts by directing love at those whom we already love and then extending it, in stages, toward a widening range of others.

The definitions of immeasurable joy and equanimity are different in Hinayana and Mahayana. In Hinayana, immeasurable joy refers to rejoicing in the happiness of others, without anyjealousy, and wishing it to increase. In Mahayana, immeasurable joy is the wish that others have the joy of unending enlightenment.

Equanimity is the state of mind that is free from attachment, repulsion, and indifference. In Theravada, it is equanimity toward the outcome of our love, compassion, and rejoicing. The outcome of our attempts to help others really depends on their karma and their efforts; although, as with Mahayana, Theravada accepts the possibility of a transfer of positive force, “merit,” to others. We wish them to be happy and to be free from suffering, but have equanimity about what actually happens. This is because we know that they will have to do the work themselves. In Mahayana, immeasurable equanimity means wishing all others to be free of attachment, repulsion and indifference, because these disturbing emotions and attitudes bring them suffering.

Although reaching the liberated state of an arhat requires developing love and compassion, it does not entail developing anexceptional resolve or a bodhichitta aim. The exceptional resolve is the state of mind to take responsibility to help lead everyone to liberation and enlightenment. The bodhichitta aim is the state of mind to attain enlightenment oneself, in order to fulfill the goal of that exceptional resolve. Since Hinayana contains little elaboration on the bodhisattva path, it does not explain these two attitudes. Mahayana outlines in great detail the meditation practices for developing them.

[See: The Four Immeasurable Attitudes in Hinayana, Mahayana, and Bon.]

The Two Truths

Although Hinayana does not assert the lack of an impossible “soul” of phenomena, or voidness, it is not the case that Hinayana does not discuss the nature of all phenomena in general. Hinayana does this with its presentation of the two truths concerning all phenomena. The precursor to gaining an understanding of the voidness of phenomena is an understanding the two truths. In Mahayana, the two truths are two facts concerning the same phenomenon. In Hinayana, the two truths are two sets of phenomena. There are superficial or conventionaltrue phenomena and deepest or ultimate true phenomena.

Within Sarvastivada, Vaibhashika asserts that the superficial true phenomena are physical objects and states of mind, ways of being aware. The deepest true phenomena are all the atoms making up physical objects and all the tiniest moments of cognition. It is important to realize that what we see are the superficially true phenomena, but that, on the deepest level, things are made of atoms. We can see how this leads to an understanding of the superficial level as being like an illusion.

According to Sautrantika, superficial true phenomena aremetaphysical entities, our projections onto objects; whereas the deepest true phenomena are the actual objective things themselves. Here, one begins to understand that one’s projections are like an illusion. If we get rid of the projections, we just see objectively what is there. Our projections are like an illusion.

[See: The Two Truths in Vaibhashika and Sautrantika.]

According to Theravada, superficial true phenomena are imputed phenomena. This refers to persons as well as physical objects, whether within the body or external. The deepest true phenomena are what they are imputed on. The body and physical objects are imputed on the elements and the sense fields that we perceive. What is an orange? Is it the sight, the smell, the taste, the physical sensation? An orange it what is imputed on all that. Likewise, a person is what can be imputed on the aggregatefactors of body and mind. The six types of primary consciousnessand the mental factors are the deepest true phenomena, because a person is labeled or imputed on them.

Although none of the Hinayana schools talk about the voidness of all phenomena, they do say that it is important to understand deepest true phenomena nonconceptually in order to gain liberation. The flavor is thus very much the same as theMahayana discussion.

Theravada also has a very different explanation of karma, which is not found in the Sarvastivada schools or in Mahayana, but we will not go into that now.

With this introduction, we can begin to appreciate how theHinayana schools of Theravada and Sarvastivada really are in the full flavor of the Buddhist teachings. This can help us to avoid making the mistake of forsaking the Dharma by saying that any of Buddha’s teachings are not Buddhist teachings. When we understand different schools properly from their own point of view, we develop a great deal of respect for all of the teachings of the Buddha. This is very important.

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon’ble Chief Minister writes letter to External Affairs Minister about Haj pilgrims’ problems

Lucknow: 24 October 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji has

drawn the attention of External Affairs Minister Shri S.M. Krishna over

the negligent behaviour towards Haj pilgrims of Uttar Pradesh by Haj

Committee of India. She has written a letter in this connection to the

minister today. She said that Haj Committee of India, without any

reason had cancelled the selection of Haj pilgrims on internet who

were selected through lottery and deposited the entire amount, form

and international passport and received the visas from Saudi Embassy.

She has turned this decision as unilateral and discretionary.

Hon’ble Chief Minister said that the selected Haj pilgrims and

their family members including the entire muslim community have

resentment over this decision of Haj Committee of India. She has

apprised the External Affairs Minister that earlier, Haj Committee of

India, at its own level had fixed the dates from 18 October to 06

November, 2010 for flight, but suddenly without informing the State

Government these dates were preponed and fixed from 09 October to

28 October, 2010.

Ms. Mayawati ji as also said though the State Government had

told about the Navratri, Dussehra, Durga Puja etc. including the

panchayat elections were falling between the dates of 09 October and

17 October, 2010, Haj Committee of India did not send Haj pilgrims on

earlier fixed dates. Haj pilgrims and U.P. State Haj Committee faced

difficulties owing to this sudden change. Despite of it, State

Government keeping in view the interests of Haj pilgrims had made

arrangement, owing to which Haj Committee of India had sent the

pilgrims on revised dates.

Hon’ble Chief Minister said that about 30 per cent pilgrims go to

Haj from Uttar Pradesh out of the total pilgrims in the country. The

U.P. Cabinet Minister and Chairman, U.P. State Haj Committee Mr.

Naseemuddin Siddiqui had sent several letters for discriminatory and

negligent approach being adopted by the Central Government and Haj

Committee of India towards the Haj pilgrims of the State, but instead

of any improvement Haj Committee of India was bent upon the

harassment of Haj pilgrims.

Ms. Mayawati ji, in her letter has requested to the External

Affairs Minister to direct the Chairperson of Haj Committee of India

Mrs. Mohsina Kidwai to restore all cancellation and fix the flight

schedule for Haj pilgrims in such a way, so that all selected pilgrims of

the State could be sent to Haj timely.

Hon’ble Chief Minister reviews cleanliness and pure drinking water supply situation of all Nagar Nigams and Urban bodies of State

Lucknow: 24 October 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati

ji has directed the officers to make improvement in cleanliness

and supply of pure drinking water in all urban areas of the

State. She said that Nagar Nigam and Urban bodies of district

headquarters should prepare an action plan and implement

this plan in effective manner by launching special drive. She

said that proper supervision of sanitary workers should be

done to improve cleanliness in every ward. If, Nagar

Nigam/Urban bodies had shortage of sanitary workers, then

institutions willing for cleanliness should be engaged on the

basis of work contract fixing the quality norms during the

period of drive. She said that all senior/junior officers and

employees of Nagar Nigam/Urban bodies related to cleanliness

should be made responsible towards their work. She said that

sanitation system of the city should be done in such a manner,

so that people could feel the real change.

Before going to address election meetings in Bihar, the

Hon’ble Chief Minister held a high-level meeting to review the

action being taken by Nagar Nigams/Urban bodies especially

in Lucknow city regarding dengue and other fever oriented

diseases. The Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh,

Additional Cabinet Secretary Mr. Net Ram, Principal Secretary

to C.M. Mr. Durga Shankar Mishra, Commissioner Lucknow Mr.

Prashant Trivedi, DM Lucknow Mr. Anil Sagar and Municipal

Commissioner Mr. Shailesh Kumar Singh were present in the

meeting.

Hon’ble Chief Minister directed the Lucknow DM to recruit

100 officers for supervision of cleanliness works in the city.

She said that these officers would make surprise inspection

regarding cleanliness of wards of their recruitment place

between 7:00 AM and 1:00 PM. If the sanitation was not found

according to norms during inspection, then stringent action

should be taken against the concerning officers/employees.

She said that dumping ground on Mohaan road and waste land

of agriculture department at Mohaan road for the construction of Solid Waste Management Plant should be made immediately

available to Jal Nigam. Construction work of Solid Waste

Management Plant should be immediately started after

availability of the land, she added.

Hon’ble Chief Minister emphasised on disposal of waste,

drainage of stagnated water, cleanliness of drains and sewer

lines, spreading of pesticide and anti-larva and fogging. She

directed the commissioner and municipal commissioner to take

stringent action against the careless persons in this regard.

Hon’ble Chief Minister said that surprise checking of

drinking water supply should also be made in urban areas for

which besides Nagar Nigam, District Magistrate should

constitute a team of officers and they should check the quality

of drinking water by taking samples. If quality was not found

upto the mark, then necessary action should be taken in this

connection.

Hon’ble Chief Minister directed the officers that special

drive should be launched for next two months in the entire

State under the supervision of District Magistrates. Special cell

should be constituted by the District Magistrate to supervise

cleanliness and pure drinking water supply and if any

slackness was found by the concerning officers during surprise

inspection, then stringent action should be taken. The

Municipal Commissioner, Chief Medical Officer, Executive

Officers of Urban bodies, Officers of Jal Nigam and Jal

Sansthan would co-operate the District Magistrate in this

work. District Magistrate would review on daily basis during

the period of drive, so that cleanliness and drinking water

supply could be improved.

Hon’ble Chief Minister also directed the commissioners to

make surprise checking by constituting divisional teams and if

any slackness was found in this regard, then action should be

taken after fixing the responsibility. Officers should also be

sent from the State headquarters to cities for surprise

checking. She said that fortnightly progress report regarding

cleanliness and pure drinking water supply would be sent by

the District Magistrates to Urban Development Department.

Principal Secretary to C.M. Mr. Durga Shankar Mishra would

review the progress of this drive on first and third Monday of

every month.

[sakya] Fwd: [IHRO] Re: [humanrightsactivist] BJP- DRS Buy EVMs to Win Local Elections

From:

chunnu prasad

Add to Contacts

To:

humanhorizons@yahoogroups.co.uk; sakyagroup@yahoogroups.com

———- Forwarded message ———-
From:
प्रिय रंजन Priya Ranjan <pranjan@gmail.com>
Date: 2010/10/25
Subject: [IHRO] Re: [humanrightsactivist] BJP- Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Buy EVMs to Win Local Elections
To: humanrightsactivist@yahoogroups.com
Cc: dsgill4@gmail.com, IHRO@yahoogroups.com, awakening_india@yahoogroups.com, indiathinkersnet@yahoogroups.com, PWAP@yahoogroups.com, Branded_Indian@yahoogroups.com, Humane-Rights-Agenda@yahoogroups.com, issuesonline_worldwide@yahoogroups.com

 

One DRS knows the other

On Mon, Oct 25, 2010 at 10:53 AM, Ravinder Singh <progressindia008@yahoo.com> wrote:

 

BJP- DRS Buy EVMs to Win Local Elections

 

I always maintain BJP RSS are DRS with no character and ethics. They will tell you 70% of budget and bank credits will go to farmers and villages but actually reduce it 8%.

 

BJP had hired experts to ‘Temper’ with EVMs for three years.

 

When EC introduced secure EVMs that has sealed processor and memory module these were tried in few bye elections over years, code of EVM use was evolved to ensure EVMs are distributed randomly and list of the candidates too was not predetermined.

 

BJP may be number 1 in one constituency, no 2 in other etc to make sure no one could fix these machines in advance.

 

DRS bought and introduced the machines without prior testing and trials.

 

Ravinder Singh

October25, 2010

 

Congress Alleges Tampering of EVMs

Ahmedabad Oct 21, 2010

 

Gujarat Congress has written a letter to the State Election Commission alleging that the ruling party has tried to manipulate the results of civic elections held today by tampering electronic voting machines (EVMs).

“The ruling party (BJP) has tried to manipulate result of the elections by tampering EVMs by usage of laptops,” Congress general secretary Girish Parmar said in the letter to Chief Election Commissioner K C Kapoor.

“Some technocrats along with laptops have been sent by the BJP party to polling booths to tamper with the EVMs by use of blue tooth technology,” Parmar said in the letter.

Parmar requested that laptops or computers should be banned in the 100 meter area of polling booths. “Even after polling is completed, no computers or laptops should be permitted within or outside the premises where EVMs are stored”, Parmar further said.

“We expect nonprejudicial role of SEC in larger interest of upholding democratic value,” Parmar further said in the letter.

The election commission was of the view that the EVMs cannot be tampered with by using blue tooth technology but agreed that it will look in the complaint of the opposition party.

“We will look into the complaint of the Congress party,” SEC secretary P S Shah said

 

Gujarat procured EVMs on its own: EC

 

Express news service Posted online: Mon Oct 25 2010, 02:02 hrs

New Delhi : Adding fuel to the controversy over the Congress’s allegation that the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) used in the Gujarat local bodies polls were tampered with, the Election Commission has said that the machines were not provided by the Centre but procured by the state election commission.

 

“Let me make it clear that the EVMs used in the recent Gujarat local bodies elections were not provided by the Election Commission. The state had procured these on its own,” a senior Election Commission of India officer said on Sunday.

 

The Congress, which had months ago scoffed at L K Advani’s apprehensions about EVMs saying it hoped the BJP leader’s fears “do not betray a lack of grace over the loss of elections”, had complained to the Gujarat State Election Commission that the BJP was “tampering” with EVMs to “manipulate” the results of panchayat polls.

 

The BJP swept the local bodies elections, which were held earlier this month.

 

Priya Ranjan, Practicing Ph.D. in Internet Technologies

Official Internet Wanderer

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10/25/10
LESSON 69 FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE 25 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-”The discipline which I have imparted to you will lead you when I am gone. Practice to attain the goal of emptiness.” - The Buddha’s last words. -BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!-WISDOM IS POWER-BSP Overseas (London) UK pays tribute to Manyavar Kanshiram Sahab on 24th Ocetober 2010-Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance NANOTECHNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE-Impact of Nanotechnology on Biomedical Sciences: Review of Current Concepts on Convergence of Nanotechnology With Biology
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LESSON 69 FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE  25 10 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

“The discipline which I have imparted to you will lead you when I am gone. Practice to attain the goal of emptiness.” - The Buddha’s last words.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!                     DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!                   SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

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FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

Five Types of Buddhist Study and Practice

1) Study and Practice of the Teachings, 2) Study and Practice of the Moral Regulations (Vinaya), 3) Study and Practice of the Mysteries (Tantra) , 4) Study and Practice of Meditation (Chan), 5) Study and Practice for Rebirth in the Pure Land.

“The Buddha’s teachings are taught in Five Schools: the Teachings School, the Vinaya School, the Esoteric School, the Chan School, and the Pure Land School. There are many who like to say that these are five sects, or types of Buddhism, which leads to all kinds of doctrinal squabbling. It is not accurate; the schools might better be called five basic approaches to cultivation. Each of these Dharma-doors has special appeal to certain types of people, but only one can be said to be equally easy for all to cultivate, and that is the Pure Land Door.” (WM 17-18)

I. Teachings.

The Teachings includes the Buddhist doctrinal schools, such as the eighteen Hinayana schools, the Madhyamaka and Yogacara schools of the Mahayana, and sutra-based Mahayana schools such as Tyan-tai and Hwa-yan.

“The Teachings School emphasizes using skillful expedients, and therefore capitalizes on beautiful expression and elegant phraseology. Adherents to this school are well-versed in terminology and characteristics. They determine the different periods of the teachings and divide them into categories. Thus, the sea of meanings billows, and the Dharma’s principles run deep. They serve to focus the audience’s rambling thoughts, and to gather in stray mental activities that leak out through seeing and listening. When this occurs, it’s as if one has entered the hall of samadhi, and ascended the heavens of the six desires. Layer upon layer one bores in; step by step one ascends. Even if one wanted to stop, it would be nearly impossible, and it’s hard to fathom the very source.

“Regarding the teachings of the Teachings School–such as the Four Teachings of Tyan Tai, the Five Esoteric Meanings of Syan Shou (i.e., Hwa Yan), the Dharma-mark propagated by Consciousness Only–each has its strengths. Although each of these schools may not be extremely biased; nevertheless, on occasion they extol themselves at others’ expense.

“Whenever clear-eyed Good and Wise Advisors see such incidents, they feel greatly pained at heart. Since the foundation of the Teachings has not flourished, and true talent is scarce, these good advisors are willing to act personally as models, practice ascetic discipline, and cultivate the door of the Six Paramitas. In the face of a hundred oppositions they do not bend, and they are glad to undergo ten thousand vicissitudes, to the point that even if their bodies had to be smashed to pieces and their bones pulverized, they would not begrudge such a sacrifice. Supported by magnanimous vows, they are courageous and vigorous. Renouncing themselves for others, they take across everyone with whom they have causal connections. Observing the opportunities, they entice with the teachings and dispense medicine according to the illness. Not avoiding weariness or toil, they would offer up their heads, eyes, brains and marrow, give away their bodies and minds, all with the sole intention of causing living beings to turn away from confusion and return to enlightenment, to cast out the deviant and come back to what is proper. They want living beings to quickly attain Bodhi and perfect the sagely fruition. Therefore, they employ both provisional and actual means, and bestow both sudden and gradual teachings. With kindness they draw in those with whom they have no affinities; with compassion they embrace all things and become one with them. Revealing a vast and long tongue, they take great pains to exhort with earnest words, sparing no efforts. They teach and admonish without tiring, while always conducting themselves in accord with strict discipline. In such ways they act as the ‘dragons and elephants’ at the Dharma’s entrance, also as teachers of gods and people. Throughout long kalpas they practice the Bodhisattva Way and never rest.” (WM 74-75)

“The cultivation of the Teaching School, while serving as an excellent cure for the disease of stupidity, does demand certain qualifications. It cannot, for example, be cultivated by the illiterate, by those who do not know the languages in which the teachings are written, or by the very stupid. And so, although the teachings are universal and there is not a single being who cannot benefit from them, in their literary form there is a definite group of people to whom they are best suited.” (WM 18)

II. Moral Regulations

“The Vinaya School stresses the study of precepts, the rules and regulations. In the four comportments of walking, standing, sitting, and lying down, one has to be stern and dignified, and the three karmas of body, mouth and mind have to be pure. Upasakas and upasikas (laymen and laywomen), the two lay assemblies, may maintain the five precepts and the eight precepts, as well as the Ten Major and Forty-Eight Minor Bodhisattva Precepts. Shramanas and Shramanerikas take the Ten Novice Precepts. Bhikshus have 250 precepts, and bhikshunis have 348 precepts. One should maintain each and every one of those precepts without every violating them and believe in them, accept them, and offer up one’s conduct. One should be mindful of the agony of revolving in birth and death. If we lose this human body, it will be hard to recover it in ten thousand aeons. Therefore, at all times, we should strictly cultivate the Vinaya and never be lax.” (WM 75-76)

“The Vinaya, or ‘Rules and Regulations’ School, requires not only that one be literate, but also that one be living a monastic life. There is no way for the worldly man to perfect cultivation of the Vinaya. Pure maintenance of this Dharma-door serves as a supremely efficacious cure for greed, desire, and arrogance. Much of it, however, can be practiced by men and women in the world, and it can be an immense help in cultivation. All real practicers of Buddhadharma, Sangha-members or lay people, formally maintain precepts, ranging from the five for lay people to the more than three hundred for bhikshunis. There are few more awesome people in the world than the masters of Vinaya, perfect in the three thousand rules of deportment.” (WM 18)

III. Mysteries (Tantra)

“The School of the Mysteries specializes in the holding of mantras and maintains that one can realize Buddhahood in this very life. And yet, if practitioners are the slightest bit reckless, they can easily fall into the Dharma Realm of the asuras. That is because the majority of those in these practices have not subdued the hatred in their minds, and their tendency to seek revenge is extremely strong. They lack thoughts of kindness and compassion, and rarely practice the art of patience. Many of them are prone to be arrogant, and their pride and conceit are deeply rooted. In holding secret mantras they dare to slight others, and wielding their vajras they are not afraid of bullying people. However, if one can be rid of the bad habits described above, then one’s practice of samadhi can become successful, and one can go on to achieve the fruition that is Bodhi. In that case, this Dharma-door is also a skillful expedient for cultivators of the Way.” (WM 76)

“The School of the Mysteries requires among other things both a good memory to hold its many mantras and dharanis, plus a good deal of money to carry out its elaborate and splendid rituals. A fully adorned temple and bodhimanda are required as well as a profusion of images and various Dharma instruments. Also essential are numbers of Dharma Masters well-trained and conversant with the esoteric lore of this school. They are hard to find. Without them and without special instruction, it is not possible to be successful with the teachings of the School of the Mysteries.” (WM 19)

I have preached the truth without making any distinction exoteric and esoteric doctrine; for in respect of the truths, Ananda, the Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher who keeps some things back. (Dialogues of the Buddha II 107)

IV. Meditation (Chan)

“The Chan (Zen) or Dhyana-meditation School stresses the practice of meditation, and its cultivation requires a special set of circumstances. First, it is essential to have an advisor, one of great wisdom and skill, who can teach the student by all manner of expedient means. Without such a teacher, there is no way for ordinary people to have any success in Chan meditation. They may achieve some measure of attainment, but due to lack of wise counsel, they will be turned by their experience; thinking that they are like the great Chan Masters of old, they will go around committing all sorts of stupid and even dangerous or immoral acts. Such so-called ‘enlightened masters’ and ‘patriarchs’ are too often well-meaning practicers of Chan who have either not met or not submitted to the teaching of a Good and Wise Advisor. Too many of them have entered into the various demonic states that the Buddha discussed in theShurangama Sutra. Anyone who professes to be a follower of the Buddha should act in accordance with his teachings and find a capable advisor, one whose experience and lineage are unquestioned.

“In addition to the above qualifications, Chan cultivation requires a certain temperament which is rarely found. While some immediately get a response in Chan cultivation, there are many for whom it represents unbearable difficulty. If this is the only means of cultivation presented to them, many people will flee from the Buddhadharma as a small child screams upon seeing a tame but incredibly fierce-looking tiger on a leash. ” (WM 18-19)

See also Chan School.

V. Pure Land

“The Pure Land School Dharma is the most perfect and the most instantaneous, the simplest and the easiest. It is a Dharma that everyone can cultivate; one and all can practice it. Hence it is described as ‘universally including the three types of faculties (superior, average, and inferior capabilities), and gathering in both the keen and the dull.’ One only has to singlemindedly uphold the great name ‘Namo Amita Buddha’, that of the teaching host of the Land of Ultimate Bliss of the West. When one recites this name and arrives at the point of singleminded concentration, then one will definitely be reborn in the West from a lotus flower. When that lotus blooms, one will see the Buddha, awaken to a forbearance with the not coming into being of dharmas, and attain irreversible anuttara- samyaksambodhi. Therefore, if all cultivators only become replete with deep faith and earnest vows, and actually realize the three requisites–faith, vows, and practice, they all will most certainly reach their destination. It is my hope that all of you good people will exhort each other onwards.” (WM 76-77)

“Recitation is the central practice of the Pure Land Dharma-door. ‘Namo Amita Buddha’. ‘Namo’ means ‘to return in reliance’, ‘to take refuge’. ‘Amita’ means ‘limitless’ and refers to the fact that this Buddha has both ‘Limitless Light’ (Amitabha) and ‘Limitless Life’ (Amitayus). ‘Buddha’ means ‘Enlightened One’. And so ‘Namo Amita Buddha’ means ‘I take refuge with and return my life in worship to the Buddha of Limitless Light and Life.’ The constant repetition of this Buddha’s name is the core of the Pure Land Dharma-door. . . .

“The Pure Land Dharma-door requires no great learning. Many illiterates attain inconceivable spiritual benefit through it. Many, too, are the high and learned masters who praise this door. The Pure Land Dharma-door shows us how to purify our minds, and as such it is identical with the Teaching School, whose complex and learned systems serve to keep the mind from wandering off on useless excursions. To be able to hold (in one’s mind) the elaborate systems of the Teaching School requires prolonged concentration on the Buddhadharma. Concentrating on what is pure is fundamentally identical with recollection of the Buddha. The Pure Land Dharma does not require that one lead a monastic life and perfect the three thousand awesome deportments. This Dharma-door can be cultivated right in the midst of the most ordinary life. Lay people and Vinaya specialists alike can cultivate this Dharma. Nor does it require elaborate rituals and expensive ceremonies, or secret, esoteric lore to be learned from specialized teachers. The secret of the Pure land School–and there is indeed a great secret to it–lies in the response. It is a secret clothed not in elaborate ritual and ceremony but in the simplicity of faith and sincerity. Its secret, which is right out in the open, is in fact the highest secret.” (WM 19)

“The Five Schools were created by Buddhists who had nothing to do and wanted to find something with which to occupy their time. The Five Schools all issued from Buddhism. Since they came forth from Buddhism, they can return to Buddhism as well. Although the Five Schools serve different purposes, their ultimate destination is the same. It is said:

There is only one road back to the source.

But here are many expedient ways to reach it.”

(Shambala Review, v.5, nos.1&2, Winter, 1976, p. 26)

1) Ch. wu jyau , wu da dzung , 2) Skt. —–, 3) Pali —–, 4) Alternate Translations: five basic approaches to cultivation, five schools, five great schools. Teachings: 1) Ch. jyau. Moral Regulations: 1) Ch. jye, 2) Skt. vinaya, 3) Pali vinaya, 4) Alternate Translations: discipline. Mysteries: 1) Ch. mi dzung, 2) Skt. tantra, mantrayana, vajrayana. 4) Alternate Translations: esoteric, secret, tantric. Meditation: 1) Ch. chan, 2) Skt. dhyana, 3) Pali —–, 4) Alternate Translations: Zen (Japanese pronunciation of chan). PURE LAND: 1) Ch. jing du.

See also: Consciousness-Only School, Tyan Tai School, Hwa Yan School, Chan School, Buddha-recitation.

BTTS References: FAS Ch26 II 113-114; WM 16-19, 70-77; RH 230-231; VBS #12 (March, 1971) 32ff; VBS #185, 186 “Pure Land Dharma Door,” Oct.-Nov. 1985.

sachin>BSP Overseas (London) UK pays tribute to Manyavar Kanshiram Sahab on 24th Ocetober 2010
 
Bravo!! Aboriginal Inhabitants of Jambudipa, i.e., the Great PraBuddha Bharath(BSP Overseas(London)). We wish the cadres all over the world follow the same, for the welfare and happiness of the entire people (Sarvajan Hithay Sarvajan Sukhay).
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Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance

NANOTECHNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE

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Impact of Nanotechnology on Biomedical Sciences: Review of Current Concepts on Convergence of Nanotechnology With Biology

Herbert Ernest and Rahul Shetty

Topics Covered

Abstract

Background

Recent Developments

Nano-DNA Technology

Nanobiotechnology in High-Throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis

Nanoparticles as Biomarkers

Nanotechnology in Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen

Application of Nanotechnology to P450 Enzymes

Application of Nanotechnology to Tissue Engineering

Growth of New Organs

Molecular Imaging

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Contact Details

Abstract

Two of 21st century’s most promising technologies are biotechnology and nanotechnology.

This science of nanoscale structures deals with the creation, investigation and utilisation of systems that are 1000 times smaller than the components currently used in the field of microelectronics. Biotechnology deals with metabolic process with microoraganisms. Convergence of these two technologies results in growth of nanobiotechnology. This interdisciplinary combination can create many innovative tools.

The biomedical applications of nanotechnology are the direct products of such convergences.

However, the challenges facing scientists and engineers working in the field of nanotechnology are quite enormous and extraordinarily complex in nature.

Utility of nanotechnology to biomedical sciences imply creation of materials and devices designed to interact with the body at sub-cellular scales with a high degree of specificity. This could be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications aimed at maximal therapeutic effects with very limited adverse-effects.

Nanotechnology in biomedical sciences presents many revolutionary opportunities in the fight against all kinds of cancer, cardiac and neurodegenerative disorders, infection and other diseases.

This article presents an overview of some of the applications of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences.

Background

Nanotechnology is a new area of science that involves working with materials and devices that are at the nanoscale level. A nanometre is billionth of a meter. That is, about 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair, or ten times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. It manipulates the chemical and physical properties of a substance on molecular level. Nanotechnology alters the way we think, it blurs the boundaries between physics, chemistry and biology, the elimination of these boundaries will pose many challenges and new directions for the organisation of education and research.

Richard Feynman’s speech called ‘There is plenty of room at the bottom’ in 1959 emphasised this concept - If our small minds, for some convenience, divide this universe into parts, physics, biology, geology, astronomy, psychology and so on – Remember that nature does not know it [1].

Nanobiotechnology is the unification of biotechnology and nanotechnology. This hybrid discipline can also mean making atomic-scale machines by imitating or incorporating biological systems at the molecular level, or building tiny tools to study or change natural structure properties atom by atom. Nanobiotechnology can have a combination of the classical micro-technology with a molecular biological approach. Biotechnology uses the knowledge and techniques of biology to manipulate molecular, genetic, and cellular processes to develop products and services, and is used in diverse fields from medicine to agriculture. Convergence, is an activity or trend that occurs based on common materials and capabilities-in this case the discipline that enables convergence is nanotechnology. The potential opportunities offered by this interface is truly outstanding; the overlap of biotech, nanotech and information technology is bringing to fruition many important applications in life sciences.

This technology is expected to create innovations and play a vital role in various biomedical applications (fig. 1), not only in drug delivery and gene therapy, but also in molecular imaging, biomarkers and biosensors. Target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies are the priority research areas where nanotechnology would play a prominent role [2].

AZoNano - Online Journal of Nanotechnology - Schematic illustration of nanotechnology revolutionising biomedical sciences.

Figure1. Schematic illustration of nanotechnology revolutionising biomedical sciences.

The National Institutes of Health Bioengineering Consortium (BECON) held a symposium in 2000 entitled “Nanoscience and < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 />Technology: Shaping Biomedical Research″[3]. Eight areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology were addressed at the conference and believed to be the most pertinent to research in biomedicine. These areas included synthesis and use of nanostructures, applications of nanotechnology to therapy, biomimetic and biologic nanostructures, electronic-biology interface, devices for early detection of disease, tools for the study of single molecules, nanotechnology and tissue engineering.

The aim of BECON was to enhance communication between biomedical scientists and engineers who bring different aspects of their skills and knowledge to bear on these problems and to make the biomedical community more aware of the emerging developments in the field of nanotechnology. The deliberations of the conference are now widely reinforced by day-to-day experience, increasing ability to manipulate individual molecules at a nanoscale and to combine biomolecules with other nanoscale structures. This ability provides the opportunity for untold new therapeutic and diagnostic applications by enabling the building of novel structures from the bottom up [4].

In the foreseeable future, the most important clinical application of nanotechnology will probably be in pharmaceutical development. These applications take advantage of the unique properties of nanoparticles as drugs or constituents of drugs or are designed for new strategies to controlled release, drug targeting, and salvage of drugs with low bioavailability [5-7].

Nanoscale polymer capsules can be designed to break down and release drugs at controlled rates, to allow differential release in certain environments, such as an acid medium, and to promote uptake in tumours versus normal tissues [8]. A lot of research is now focused on creating novel polymers and exploring specific drug-polymer combinations. Nanocapsules can be synthesized directly from monomers or by means of nanodeposition of preformed polymers [9]. Nanocapsules have also been formulated from albumin and liposomes. Implantable drug delivery systems that are being developed will make use of nanopores to control drug release.

One of the key issues in bio-availability is cell transfection in DNA gene therapy. Current methods have significant limitations, including the risk of inadvertent transmission of disease by viral vectors. This has led researchers to explore polymer-DNA complexes and liposome-DNA complexes for gene delivery [10]. It has also been shown that compacted DNA in the form of nanoparticles can be used to transfect postmitotic cells [11].

Despite the risk and limitations, viral vectors are an efficient biomimetic approach to drug targeting and delivery. The tat peptide from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viral proteins are being attached to DNA, proteins, and other materials for uptake into cells. These nano-assemblies mimic the action of the fusion proteins that make viral transfection efficient [12, 13]. Nanotechnology has also enabled the development of biochips and has a role in green manufacturing (e. g biocompatibility and biocomplexity areas). Other applications include the design of sensors for astronauts, soldiers, biofluids (for handling DNA and other molecules), in vitro fertilization of live stock, nanofiltration, bioprocessing ‘by design’ and traceability of genetically modified food (Table 1).

Table 1. List of Nanotechnology applications to Biomedical sciences

Nano-Applications

References

 

Bio-detection of pathogens

15

 

Detection of proteins

16

 

Probing of DNA structure

17

 

Tissue engineering

18, 19

 

Heat destruction of tumour (hyperthermia)

20

 

Phagokinetic studies

21

 

MRI Contrast enhancement

22

 

Separation and purification of biomolecules and cells

23

 

Fluorescent biological markers

24, 25

 

Drug and gene delivery

26, 27

 

Artificial cells and their assemblies

28

Design of proteins for efficient electron transport or with mechanical features

29

Using dip pen technology

30, 31

Formation and growth of nanostructures in living biosystems (e.g by alfalfa plants)

32

Biosensors

33

Nanobiomotors

34-36

Biomineralization

37

Nanorobotics

14, 38

Nanocomputers

39

Nanorods for vaccination applications

40

Exploratory areas for nanotechnology will include research into the condition and/or repair of the brain and other areas for regaining cognition. It might also find application in designing pharmaceuticals as a function of patient genotypes and in applying chemicals to stimulate production as a function of plant genotypes. The synthesis of more effective and biodegradable chemicals for agriculture and the production of implantable detectors could be aided by nanotechnology with minimal quantities of blood. Employing this technology it should also be possible to develop methods that use saliva instead of blood for the detection of illnesses or that can perform complete blood testing within a short period of time. Broader issues include economic molecular medicine, sustainable agriculture, conservation of biocomplexity, and enabling emerging technologies.

Richard E. Smalley, winner of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry announced in his congressional testimony to the U.S. government about the increasing awareness in the scientific and technical community of our entry into a new golden age. Burgeoning interest in the medical applications of nanotechnology has led to the emergence of a new discipline known as nanomedicine [14]. On a wider scope, nanomedicine is the process of diagnosing, treating, preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and enhancing human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. The purpose of this review is to throw more light on the recent advances and impact of nanotechnology on biomedical sciences.

Recent Developments

Medical diagnosis with appropriate and effective delivery of pharmaceuticals are the medical areas where nanosize particles have found practical applications. However, there are many other interesting proposals for the use of nanomechanical tools in the fields of medical research and clinical practice. Such nanotools are awaiting construction, and presently are more like a fantasy. Nevertheless, they might be quite useful, and become a reality in the near future [41].

Nanodevices in medical sciences could function to replace defective or improperly functioning cells, such as the respirocyte proposed by Freitas [42]. This man-made red blood cell is theoretically capable of providing oxygen more effectively than an erythrocyte. It could replace defective natural red cells in blood circulation. Primary applications of respirocytes may involve transfusable blood substitution, partial treatment of anaemia, prenatal/neonatal problems, and lung disorders.

It has been reported that nanomachines could administer drugs within a patient’s body. Such nanoconstructions could deliver drugs to peculiar sites making treatment more accurate and precise [43]. Similar machines with specific ‘weapons’ could be used to remove obstacles in the circulatory system or in the identification and killing of tumour cells.

The other vital application of nanotechnology in relation to medical research and diagnostics are nanorobots. Nanorobots, operating in the human body, could monitor levels of different compounds and record the information in the internal memory. They could be rapidly used in the examination of a given tissue, surveying its biochemical, biomechanical, and histometrical features in greater detail. Just as biotechnology extends the range and efficacy of treatment options available from nanomaterials, the advent of molecular nanotechnology will again expand enormously the effectiveness, comfort and speed of future medical treatments while at the same time significantly reducing their risk, cost, and invasiveness.

Biotechnology permits tailor-made production and biopharmaceuticals and biotechnological drugs, many of which require special formulation technologies to overcome drug-associated problems. Such major challenges to solve include the following: poor solubility, limited chemical stability in vitro and in vivo after administration (i.e. short half-life), poor bioavailability and potentially strong side-effects requiring drug enrichment at the site of action (targeting) [44]. Nanoparticulate carriers have been developed as one solution to overcome such delivery problems, i.e. drug nanocrystals, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and lipid-drug conjugate (LDC) nanoparticles [44]. The carriers as reported by Muller and colleagues are suitable to solve delivery problems with biotech drugs of different solubility. Targeting with these carriers can be realised by a very simple approach, the differential protein adsorption (PathFinder® technology). This technology proved to be efficient enough to accumulate sufficiently high amounts of drugs in the brain to reach therapeutic levels and also fulfill the major requirement to be pursued by a pharmaceutical company.

Quantum Dot with nanodots of a specific colour are believed to be flexible and could offer a cheap and easy way to screen a blood sample for the presence of a number of different viruses at the same time. It could also give physicians a fast diagnosis tool to detect, say, the presence of a particular set of proteins that strongly indicates the onset of myocardial infarction. On the research front, the ability to simultaneously tag multiple biomolecules both on and inside cells could allow scientists to watch the complex cellular changes and events associated with disease, providing valuable clues for the development of future pharmaceuticals and therapeutics (Quantum Dot Corporation) [45].

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) plans to foster the application of nanotechnology to HLBS (Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep) research and disorders. A request for information (RFI) was developed, with advice from scientists and physicians with interests in nanotechnology, to canvas the broader scientific community on approaches to developing and applying nanotechnology to HLBS disorders. A working Group comprising scientists, engineers, and physicians with expertise across nanotechnology, nanoscience, and HLBS medicine met on February 28th, 2003, using the RFI responses as the starting point for discussions. The Working Group was entrusted with assessing the field of nanotechnology and suggesting ways for research. The Working Group cautioned against overly rigid or restrictive definition of nanotechnology, emphasizing the continuum of scale from the nanoscale to the microscale. The Group also identified areas of opportunity and challenges to further development associated with the application of nanoscience and nanotechnology to improved diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of HLBS disorders. It as well developed prioritized recommendations to facilitate the application of nanotechnology to biological questions and improved patient care [46].

The RESIST Group at the Welsh School of Pharmacy at Cardiff University and others have looked at how molecularly imprinted polymers could be medically useful in clinical applications such as controlled drug release, drug monitoring devices, and biological and antibody receptor mimics. Histamine and ephedrine molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were studied as potential biological receptor mimics whilst a propanolol MIP was investigated for its use as a rate attenuating selective excipient in a transdermal controlled device [47].

The first artificial voltage-gated molecular nanosieve was fabricated by Charles R. Martin and colleagues [48] at Colorado State University in 1995. Martin’s membrane contains an array of cylindrical gold nanotubules with inside diameters as small as 1.6nm. When the tubules are positively charged, positive ions are excluded and only negative ions are transported through the membrane. When the membrane receives a negative voltage, only positive ions can pass. Similar nanodevices may combine voltage gating with pore size, shape, and charge constraints to achieve precise control of ion transport with significant molecular specificity. An exquisitely sensitive ion channel switch biosensor was built by an Australian research group [49].

The year 2003 could be termed a very special year for biomedical research because we celebrated the completion of the sequencing of the entire human genome which coincided with the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the DNA double helix structure by Watson and Crick. In biomedical imaging, we also witnessed the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology to two pioneers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Professor Paul Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield. These landmark events helped to highlight the impact of the rapid development in many diverse disciplines to biomedical research. The leverage and tremendous advances in electronics and information technology has been brought about by biomedical imaging research [50]. The opportunities and challenges in future biomedical research lie in the incorporation of knowledge gained from molecular biology with chemistry, physics, engineering, information technology, and nanotechnology to understand the ambiguity and complexity of life and come up with new diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles present a unique class of non-viral vectors, which can serve as efficient and alternative DNA carriers for targeted delivery of genes. The design and synthesis of ultra-low size, highly monodispersed DNA doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles of size around 80nm in diameter has been reported [51]. The DNA encapsulated inside the nanoparticle is protected from the external DNase environment and could be used safely to transfer the encapsulated DNA under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

The application of a combination of nanomedicine with biophotonics for optically tracking the cellular pathways of gene delivery and the resulting transfection by using nanoparticles as a non-viral vector has been demonstrated recently [52]. Gene delivery is an area of considerable current interest; genetic materials (DNA, RNA, and oligonucleotides) have been used as molecular medicine and are delivered to specific cell types to either inhibit some undesirable gene expression or express therapeutic proteins.

Nano-DNA Technology

The discovery of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [53, 54] paved the way to a new era of biological research. The impact can be felt not only in the field of molecular biology, but also in other allied fields of science. Novel classes of semi-synthetic DNA-protein conjugates, self-assembled oligomeric networks consisting of streptavidin and double-stranded DNA, which can be converted into well-defined supramolecular nanocircles have been developed [55, 56].

The DNA-streptavidin conjugates are applicable as modular building blocks for the production of new immunological reagents for the ultrasensitive trace analysis of proteins and other antigens by means of immuno-PCR methodology [57-59]. Immuno-PCR is a combination of the specificity of an antibody-based immuno-assay with the exponential power of the amplification of PCR, hence resulting in a 1000-fold degree of sensitivity as compared with standard ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) methods.

Self-assembled DNA-streptavidin conjugates have also been applied in the field of nanotechnology. For example, the conjugates are used as model systems for ion-switchable nanoparticle networks, as nanometre-scale ‘soft material’ calibration standards for scanning probe microscopy [60, 61], or as programmed building blocks for the rational construction of complex biomolecular architecture, which may be used as templates for the growth of nanometre-scale inorganic devices [62, 63]. Covalent conjugates of single-stranded DNA and streptavidin are used as biomolecular adapters for the immobilization of biotinylated macromolecules at solid substrates through nucleic acid hybridization. This ‘DNA-directed immobilization’ allows for reversible and site-selective functionalization of solid substrates with metal and semiconductor nanoparticles or, vice versa, for the DNA directed functionalization of gold nanoparticles with proteins, such as immunoglobulins and enzymes. The fabrication of functional biometallic nanostructures from gold nanoparticles and antibodies are applied as diagnostic tools in bioanalytics [64].

Nanobiotechnology in High-Throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis

Following the publication of a map of variation in the human genome sequence containing over two million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (The International SNP Map Working Group, 2001), the next challenge is the development of the technologies to use this information in a cost-effective manner. Genotyping methods have to be improved in order to increase throughput by at least two orders of magnitude to enable pharmaceutical, biotechnological and academic research to uncover associations between genetic variants and diseases, with consequent potential for the development of novel diagnostics and therapies. New approaches to DNA extraction and amplification have curtailed the times required for these processes to seconds. Microfluidic devices enable polymorphism detection through very rapid fragment separation using capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography, together with mixing and transport of reagents and biomolecules in integrated systems [65]. The basic objectives in the development of a DNA extraction and purification system that will be compatible with high-throughput SNP genotyping requirements are:

·         Release of the DNA from the cells into solution without either enzymatic (i.e. endonucleases) or mechanical (shearing) breakdown of the DNA;

·         Removal of cellular debris (e.g. proteins) that may hamper DNA amplification or hybridization assays;

·         High-throughput and economical DNA sample preparation with simplified protocols that reduce the number of procedures involved;

·         Avoidance of hazardous chemical requirements as much as possible to minimize handling and disposal costs;

·         Consistency of both quality and quantity of DNA yield among samples so that quantification is unnecessary, and subsequent amplification and/or hybridization can be to a high degree of reproducibility;

·         A highly efficient process, to ensure enough supply for the enormous number of assays anticipated; and

·         An interface that will enable direct loading of conventionally sampled biopsies on to the system [65].

The potential for nanotechnology to contribute to rapid high-throughput SNP analysis is most evident with smart biochip platforms. The development of an electronically addressable microarray platform as described by Heller L. et al 2000 [66] has given rise to Nanogen Inc. (San Diego, California, USA). The challenge of providing one or more technology platforms capable of SNP screening throughput of the order of 107 genotypes per day will need to be achieved, to allow significant associations between genes and diseases to be established. Additionally, the technology platform(s) will also need to deliver economies of scale, such that the cost per genotype will be less than 0.01$ for the magnitude of screening necessary to be feasible. From the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology, novel tools and processes have been introduced with the potential to provide the capabilities required [67-69].

Differences of SNPs occurring in close proximity to each other on the genome is normally correlated due to linkage during the process of replication, and the extent of this correlation is termed linkage disequilibrium. Where a significant association occurs between the genetic variation observed at specific SNPs and the presence of a disease, susceptible genes can be identified. The statistical estimations needed to eliminate false-positive results were reviewed by McCarthy and Hilfiker (2000) [70]. They suggest a linear increase in sample size is necessary for every order of magnitude increase in the number of markers tested. Hence, positive identification of a susceptible gene from a screening programme including 1 Million SNPs would require a minimum sample size of 1000 (i.e. a minimum of 109 SNPs have to be screened).

Nanoparticles as Biomarkers

Nanoparticles can be used for both quantitative and qualitative in vitro detection of tumour cells. They enhance the detection process by concentrating and protecting a marker from degradation, in order to render the analysis more sensitive. For instance, streptavidin-coated fluorescent polystyrene nanospheres Fluospheres® (green fluorescence) and TransFluospheres® (red fluorescence) were applied in single colour flow cytometry to detect the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on A431 cells (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) [71]. The results have shown that the fluorescent nanospheres provided a sensitivity of 25 times more than that of the conjugate streptavidin-fluorescein.

New tools can now be developed, designed at the intersection of proteomics and nanotechnology, whereby nanoharvesting agents can be instilled into the circulation (e.g. derivatized gold particles) or into the blood collection devices to act as ″molecular mops″ that soak up and amplify the bound and complexed biomarkers that exist [72-74]. These nanoparticles, with their bound diagnostic cargo, can be directly queried via mass spectrometry to reveal the low molecular weight and enriched biomarker signatures. Ultimately, utility of any approach for detecting disease is assessed on its clinical impact to patient outcome and disease-free survival [75]. What is urgently required in the study of diseases in general, is the development of biomarkers that can detect curable diseases earlier, and not detecting advanced disease better.

Contrast agents have been loaded onto nanoparticles for tumour diagnosis purposes. The physico-chemical features (particle size, surface charge, surface coating, stability) of the nanoparticles allow the redirection and the concentration of the marker at the specific site of interest. Labelled colloidal particles could be used as radiodiagnostic agents. On the other hand, some non-labelled colloidal systems are already in use and some are still being tested as contrast agents in related diagnosis procedures such as computed tomography and NMR imaging.

To date, a study of radionucleide use in diagnostic imaging with nanoparticles for cancer detection is yet to be published. However, as conventional colloidal particles can be cells of organs like the liver, the spleen, the lungs and the bone marrow and as long-circulating nanoparticles can have a compartmental localization in the blood circulation or the lymphatic system- all these organs being potential sites for tumour development, these colloidal systems could potentially improve tumour diagnosis.

In the future, nanoparticles that are engineered with specific binding affinities can be resuspended into the collected body fluids, or perhaps even injected directly into the circulation. The nanoparticles, together with the bound molecules, could be directly captured on engineered filters and directly questioned by ultra high-resolution mass spectrometry (e. g. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance).

Nanotechnology in Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen

Oxygen is one of the major metabolites in aerobic systems, and the measurement of dissolved oxygen is of vital importance in medical, industrial, and environmental applications. Recent interest in the methods for measuring dissolved oxygen concentration has been focused mainly on optical sensors, due to their advantages over conventional amperometric electrodes in that they are faster, do not consume oxygen, and are not easily poisoned [76, 77].

Optical PEBBLE (probes encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) nanosensors have been developed for dissolved oxygen using organically modified silicate (ormosil) nanoparticles as a matrix. The ormosil nanoparticles are prepared through a sol-gel-based process, which includes the formation of core particles with phenyltrimethoxysilane as a precursor followed by the formation of a coating layer with methyltrimethoxysilane as a precursor [78]. The highly permeable structure and the hydrophobic nature of the ormosil nanoparticles, as well as their small size, result in an excellent overall quenching response to dissolved oxygen and a linear response over the whole range, from 0 -100% oxygen-saturated water. This PEBBLE sensor has a higher sensitivity and a broader linearity as well as longer excitation and emission wavelengths, resulting in reduced background noise for cellular measurement. The PEBBLE sensors are excellent in terms of their reversibility and stability to leaching and long-term storage. A real-time monitoring of changes in the dissolved oxygen due to cell respiration in a closed chamber was made by gene gun delivered PEBBLE. This sensor is now being applied for simultaneous intracellular measurements of oxygen and glucose [78].

Application of Nanotechnology to P450 Enzymes

Cytochromes P450 are highly relevant to the bio-analytical area [79]. They form a large family of enzymes present in all tissues essential to the metabolism of most drugs in use today, playing a vital role in the drug development and discovery process. They act as catalysts for the insertion of one of the two atoms of an oxygen molecule into a variety of substrates (R) with quite broad regioselectivity, leading to concomitant reduction of the other oxygen atom to water as shown in the equation below [29].

Several methods have been reported in the literature for the screening of substrate turnover by P450s in a high throughput format [80-83]. However, they all fall short of being limited to testing the activity of P450 enzymes through the detection of the conversion of a specific marker substrate, but Tsotsou et al 2002 [84] have been able to develop a method called the alkali method, which can detect the turnover of any NAD(P)H or NAD(P)+ dependent enzyme. The progress on these research fronts and their combinations provide a powerful platform for future applications of these enzymes, with particular reference to protein array technology.

Application of Nanotechnology to Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering is based on the creation of new tissues in vitro followed by surgical placement in the body or the stimulation of normal repair in situ using bioartificial constructs or implants of living cells introduced in or near the area of damage. Though it is mainly concerned with using human material, either from the patient themselves (autologous) or from other human sources (allogeneic), material from other mammalian sources have also been applied in humans (xenogeneic).

The involvement of microelectronics or nanotechnology in creating a truly bioartificial tissue or organ that can take the place of one that is terminally diseased, such as an eye, ear, heart, or joint has been envisaged. Implantable prosthetic devices and nanoscaffolds for use in the growing of artificial organs are goals of nanotechnology researchers. Nanoengineering of hydroxyapatite for bone replacement is reasonably advanced [85, 86].

In the future, we could imagine a world where medical nanodevices are routinely implanted or even injected into the bloodstream to monitor wellness and to automatically participate in the repair of systems that deviate from established norms. These nanobots could be personalized by tailoring them to patient genotype and phenotype to optimize intervention at the earliest stage in the course of disease expression [4].

Growth of New Organs

Nanoscale building of cells can be accomplished by their programmed replication. The signals are transmitted back and forth with the instruction for the desired size and shape form the construction site. When complete instructions are finished, the organs can be grown according to the prerequisite specifications.

These organs could have the necessary DNA encoded to be compatible with the required human body immunological status. This can enhance integration of artificial structures with living tissues, presenting a more appropriate interface to biological systems. With the advantage in absence of immune reaction unlike today’s donor organ transplantation. In the years to come this can accomplish a Quantum leap in the management of organ failure disorders.

AZoNano - Online Journal of Nanotechnology - Graphical representation of the nanoscale construction and growth of new organs.

Figure 2. Graphical representation of the nanoscale construction and growth of new organs.

Molecular Imaging

New imaging approaches using genetically encoded fluorescent and bioluminescent reporters (i.e., illuminated or glowing identification tags) are offering revealing insights to the living body as never observed before. Information provided by these reporters can be used to enhance our understanding of human biology and the development of therapeutic approaches for many diseases, including cancer, infection, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease.

In addition to progresses so far made with molecular agents, industry leaders are also showcasing rapidly evolving imaging technologies that allow scientists to view organisms at the molecular level (Table 2).

Table 2. Latest products in Molecular Imaging and associated producing Companies

Product Name

Company(ies)

 

SPECT/CT hybrid imaging systems

Philips Medical Systems/Siemens Medical Solutions

 

GFAP-luc (glial fibrillary acid protein)

Xenon

 

Ultrasound bubbles

Schering AG

 

NeuroSpec™ (radiodiagnostic agent)

Tyco Healthcare/Mallinckrodt Inc.

 

eXplore Locus Ultra (Volumetric CT system)

GE Medical system

Definity® or Sonolysis (nanosurgery)

ImaRx

·         SPECT/CT hybrid systems capture both functional information on molecular and cellular processes (growth and activity) and anatomical detail (size and shape) of a targeted molecular structure more quickly, efficiently and clearly than standard imaging devices. The images obtained from these systems can assist with the rapid identification of tumours, analysis of appropriate treatment, delivery of targeted therapy to precisely destroy target cells, and follow up to assess treatment effectiveness.

·         Xenon presented its newer light producing transgenic animal models (GFAP-luc) during the Society for Molecular Imaging’s 3rd Annual Meeting. This model may prove to be an important model for tracking damage and repair in chronic neurological conditions such as post-ischemic stroke or Parkinson’s disease.

·         An ultrasound contrast agent is made of tiny “microbubbles″ that scatter light and allow the clinician to see which part of the heart muscle is poorly functioning. The sensitivity and flexibility of ultrasound makes it the most sensitive method of imaging microbubbles because it deliberately disrupts the pattern and produces a very strong and highly characteristic transient effect. For example,

·         Definity® otherwise known as Sonolysis™ are gas-filled microbubbles for novel therapeutic applications. For dissolving vascular thrombosis, microbubbles are administered intravenously to a patient or injected locally into a specific vascular structure such as a vascular graft. Ultrasound is applied externally (or can be applied internally via catheter) over the area of the blood clot to provide localized, targeted action. As the microbubbles perfuse the clot, they act as micromechanical devices where ultrasound pulses the bubbles and blows up the bubbles in the ultrasound field, leading to blood clot dissolution. Sonolysis nanosurgery is locally targeted nanoinvasive therapy for treatment of vascular thrombosis. Compared with alternative therapies for treating thrombosis, sonolysis affords the potential merits of being less invasive than mechanical thrombectomy and faster than conventional drug therapy with less risk of bleeding.

·         NeutroSpec™ is a radiodiagnostic agent which labels white blood cells and myeloid precursors without the need for removal and re-injection of blood into patients. This new product is for patients with equivocal signs of appendicitis who are five-years-old and up. NeutroSpec also facilitates the visualization of images generated via gamma camera allowing physicians to quickly and easily locate the sites of infection thereby eliminating time delays and/or risks normally affiliated with alternative white blood cell labelling processes.

·         eXplore Locus Ultra is a first-class volumetric CT system capable of quantitating physiological measurements and elaborate anatomy of tissues, tumours and organ perfusion. The Locus Ultra also performs image acquisition at the rate of a sub-second, enabling dynamic imaging.

Summary

The multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology’s application for discovering new molecules and manipulating those available naturally could be dazzling in its potential to improve health care. The spin-offs of nanobiotechnology could be utilised across all the countries of the world.

In the future, we could imagine a world where medical nanodevices are routinely implanted or even injected into the bloodstream to monitor health and to automatically participate in the repair of systems that deviate from the normal pattern. The continued advancement in the field of biomedical nanotechnology is the establishment and collaboration of research groups in complementary fields. Such collaborations have to be maintained not only on specialty field level, but internationally as well. The successful development and implementation of international collaborations fosters a global perspective on research and brings together the benefits to mankind in general. However, nanotechnology in medicine faces enormous technical hurdles in that long delays and numerous failures are inevitable. Likewise, it should not be taken for granted the dangers and negative consequences of nanobiotechnology when applied in warfare, in the hands of terrorists and disasters associated with its application in energy generation when and wherever it strikes or the risks associated with nanoparticles in blood circulation. It should be appreciated that nanotechnology is not in itself a single emerging scientific discipline but rather a meeting point of traditional sciences like chemistry, physics, biology and materials science to bring together the required collective knowledge and expertise required for the development of these novel technologies.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to express their gratitude to Prof. Guy M. Tremblay and Dr. Jakob Bonlokke for their critical review of the manuscript and helpful suggestions and also Ms Cecile Bilodeau, audio-visual department for designing Figure 1.

References