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05/21/19
LESSON 2998 Wed 22 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
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112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 3:56 pm

LESSON 2998 Wed 22 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
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112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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05/20/19
LESSON 2997 Tue 21 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 2:31 pm

LESSON 2997 Tue 21 May 2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Tipitaka
is the MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
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112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

https://www.oneindia.com/india/why-mayawati-is-regularly-challenging-bjp-conduct-elections-2599689.html
Why Mayawati is regularly challenging BJP to conduct elections with
ballot papers
By Oneindia
| Updated: Monday, December 11, 2017, 9:47 [IST]
Mumbai, Dec 11: Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo Mayawati was the first
one to allege that the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) used during
the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections earlier this year were “faculty and
tampered” which resulted in helping the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to
win the polls in a massive way.

Since then the issue of “faculty and tampered” EVMs used in various
elections has been hogging the limelight. While the Election Commission
(EC) has denied such “wild allegations” by the opposition parties, the
BJP accused rivals of complaining about the EVMs as they have failed to
defeat the saffron party.
evm
Image of an EVM

During the first phase of polling for the Gujarat Assembly elections on
Saturday, several instances of non-functioning and faculty EVMs were
reported from various polling booths.

The Congress has also accused “rigging” of EVMs by the BJP during the
Gujarat elections, which the EC has once again denied. The second and
final phase of polling for the Gujarat Assembly elections is scheduled
on December 14. The results of the elections will be declared on
December 18.

A day after the first phase of polling for the Gujarat elections, the
BSP chief has once again raked up the issue of EVMs by challenging the
ruling BJP to conduct all polls–both Vidhan Sabha and Lok Sabha–with
ballot papers on Sunday.

Addressing a rally in Nagpur, Maharashtra, Mayawati said, “If the BJP
thinks that they are honest and transparent then they should conduct all
the upcoming elections in the country with the ballot paper instead of
the EVM.”

She added that the BJP’s silence on the issue showed that EVMs had
irregularities in elections that were conducted in various parts of
India since 2014.

Mayawati claimed that the BSP had to suffer heavy losses in elections to
the Lok Sabha in 2014 as well as the Assembly elections in UP in 2017
due to these irregularities.

Further attacking the BJP and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the
former UP chief minister said that Dalits, tribals, OBCs and minorities
were facing castiest, religious and communal attitude from the
so-called thekedars (custodians) of the Hindu religion across the
country.

“It was due to this attitude that Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar along with lakhs
of his followers had to embrace Buddhism. He was not against Hinduism
but he was against the inequality meted out,” Mayawati said.

She warned the BJP and the RSS that if this attitude towards the
backward sections of society didn’t change, she along with crores of
others would embrace Buddhism.

Asking her party cadres to be ready for polls, Mayawati said that the
BJP would start constructing the Ram Mandir in UP just before the Lok
Sabha elections to hide their administrative failure in various states
and at the Centre.

She added that the BJP would play the “nationalism” card as well to
garner votes.

Now, it needs to be seen if the EC would once again look into all the
allegations levelled against EVMs by Mayawati to allay such fears to
make the whole process of elections transparent and trustworthy.

OneIndia News

On 23-5-2019 the world will watch competition between Fraud EVMs with their software and its source code hidden from the eyes of the voters vs VVPATs not being verified 100%

If elections were conducted with ballot papers BJP cannot garner 0.1% votes. With the VVPATs verified 100% again the results will be different.

Napoleon said “ I can face two battalions but not two scribes, such bold scribes are there in social media while the regular media are filled with PRESSTITUTES along with the Chief In Justice (CJI), CEC (Chief Election Criminals) etc.

This seems to be little closer to the fact….

#Final_Latest_analysis_BBC_London

1. U P 80

Cong 08
BJP 17
RLD 03
BSP 27
SP 25

2. Maha 48
Cong+NCP 10+10=20
BJP+SS 13+13=26
Others 02

3. AP 25

Cong+TDP 02+08=10
Left 01
YSR 14

4. Telengana 17

Cong 03
Left 01
AIMIM 01
TRS 12

5. W B 42

Cong =04
BJP =04
Left =03
TMC =31

6. Bihar 40

Cong+RJD& others
06 + 13 =19
BJP+LJP etc.
10 +06+04 =20
Left =01

7. T N 39

Cong+DMK
07+24 =31
BJP+AIDMK
00+05 =05
Left =03

8. M P 29

Cong =14
BJP =15

9. Chhaittsgarh 11

Cong =07
BJP =04

10. Karnataka 28

Cong+DS
13+04 =17
BJP =11

11. Gujrat 26

Cong =04
BJP =22

12. Rajasthan 25

Cong. =10
BJP =15

13. Orrisa 21

Cong =01
BJP =04
Left =01
BJD =15

14. Kerala 20

Cong+KC (M G)
08+03 11
Left 07
Others 02

15. Jharkhand 14

Cong+JMM&JVM
05+05 =10
BJP =04

16. Assam 14

Cong =06
BJP+AGP 04+01 =05
AIUDF =03

17. Punjab 13

Cong =11
BJP+SAD 00+01 =01
AAP =01

18. Haryana 10

Cong =03
BJP =06
JJP =01

19. H P 04
Cong =01
BJP =03

20. Delhi 07
Cong =04
BJP =02
AAP =01

21. J&K 06
Cong+NC
02+02 =04
BJP =01
PDP =01

22. Uttarakhand 05

Cong =02
BJP =03

23. Goa 02

Cong =01
BJP =01

24. Tripura 02

Cong =00
BJP =02

25. North East 09

Cong =02
BJP =02
Regn. Parties =05

26. U T 06

Cong =03
B J P =03

Others =161
_____________________

Party-wise Seats
Cong+ =137+69=206
BJP+ =146+30=176
Others =161
=543
_____________________

Others include:-

BSP+SP+RLD =55
(27+25+03)
TMC =31
YSR =14
TRS =12
BJD =15
PDP =01
AAP =02
Others =04
Rgnl Parties =05
AIUDF =03
Left =17
AIMIM =01
JJP =01
__________
=161
Have A Nice Day
So long folks…..

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

https://www.tipitaka.org/stp-pali-eng-parallel.shtml

Home > English Publications > Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna
Sutta
The Great Discourse
on the Establishing of Awareness
Visayasūcī
Contents
Note on the Pronunciation of Pāli
Vedanā in the Practice of Satipaṭṭhāna

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Awareness

1. Uddeso

1. Introduction

2. Kāyānupassanā

2. The Observation of Body

A. Ānāpānapabbaṃ

B. Iriyāpathapabbaṃ

C. Sampajānapabbaṃ

D. Paṭikūlamanasikārapabbaṃ

E. Dhātumanasikārapabbaṃ

F. Navasivathikapabbaṃ

A. Section on Respiration

B. Section on Postures

C. Section on Constant Thorough Understanding of Impermanence

D. Section on Reflections on Repulsiveness

E. Section on the Reflections on the Material Elements

F. Section on the Nine Charnel-ground Observations

3. Vedanānupassanā

3. The Observation of Sensations

4. Cittānupassanā

4. The Observation of Mind

5. Dhammānupassanā

5. The Observation of Mental Contents

A. Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ

B. Khandhapabbaṃ

C. Āyatanapabbaṃ

D. Bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ

E. Saccapabbaṃ

Dukkhasaccaniddeso

Samudayasaccaniddeso

Nirodhasaccaniddeso

Maggasaccaniddeso

A. Section on the Hindrances

B. Section on the Aggregates

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

D. Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

E. Section on the Noble Truths

Exposition of the Truth of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Arising of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Path

6. Satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānisaṃso

6. The Results of Practising the Establishing of Awareness

Notes (subscript numbers are explained in the endnotes to this book)

Note on the Pronunciation of Pāli
Pāli was a spoken language of northern India in the time of Gotama the
Buddha. It was written in the Brāhmī script in India in the time of
Emperor Aśoka and has been preserved in the scripts of the various
countries where the language has been maintained. In Roman script the
following set of diacritical marks are used to indicate the proper
pronunciation.

The alphabet consists of forty-one characters: eight vowels and thirty-three consonants.

Vowels: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o

Consonants:

Velar: k kh g gh ṅ

Palatal: c ch j jh ñ

Retroflex: ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ

Dental: t th d dh n

Labial: p ph b bh m

Miscellaneous: y, r, l, v, s, h, ḷ, ṃ

The vowels a, i, u are short; ā, ī, ū are long; e and o are
pronounced long except before double consonants: deva, mettā; loka,
phoṭṭhabbā.

a is pronounced like ‘a’ in ‘about’; ā like ‘a’ in ‘father’;

i is pronounced like ‘i’ in ‘mint’; ī like ‘ee’ in ‘see’;

u is pronounced like ‘u’ in ‘put’; ū like ‘oo’ in ‘pool’.

The consonant c is pronounced as in the ‘ch’ in ‘church’. All the
aspirated consonants are pronounced with an audible expulsion of breath
following the normal unaspirated sound. Therefore th is not as in
‘three’ but more like the sound in ‘Thailand’, and ph is not as in
‘photo’ but rather is pronounced ‘p’ accompanied by an expulsion of
breath.

The retroflex consonants, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ are pronounced with the
tip of the tongue turned back, whereas in the dentals, t, th, d, dh, n,
it touches the upper front teeth.

The palatal nasal, ñ, is the same as the Spanish ‘ñ’, as in señor.
The velar nasal, ṅ, is pronounced like ‘ng’ in ‘singer’ but occurs only
with the other consonants in its group: ṅk, ṅkh,ṅg, ṅgh. The
pronunciation of ṃ is similar to ṅ but occurs most commonly as a
terminal nasalization: ‘evaṃ me sutaṃ’. The Pāli v is a soft ‘v’ or ‘w’
and ḷ, produced with the tongue retroflexed, is almost a combined ‘rl’
sound.

Vedanā in the Practice of Satipaṭṭhāna
Vipassana Research Institute

The practice of the four-fold satipaṭṭhāna, the establishing of
awareness, was highly praised by the Buddha in the suttas. Mentioning
its importance in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, the Buddha called it
ekāyano maggo - the only way for the purification of beings, for
overcoming sorrow, for extinguishing suffering, for walking on the path
of truth and for realising nibbāna (liberation).1

In this sutta, the Buddha presented a practical method for
developing self-knowledge by means of kāyānupassanā (observation of the
body), vedanānupassanā (observation of sensations), cittānupassanā
(observation of the mind), and dhammānupassanā (observation of the
contents of the mind).2

To explore the truth about ourselves, we must examine what we are:
body and mind. We must learn to observe these directly within ourselves.
Accordingly, we must keep three points in mind: 1) The reality of the
body may be imagined by contemplation, but to experience it directly one
must work with vedanā (body sensations) arising within it. 2)
Similarly, the actual experience of the mind is attained by working with
the contents of the mind. Therefore, in the same way as body and
sensations cannot be experienced separately, the mind cannot be observed
apart from the contents of the mind. 3) Mind and matter are so closely
inter-related that the contents of the mind always manifest themselves
as sensations in the body. For this reason the Buddha said:

Vedanā-samosaraṇā sabbe dhammā.3
Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations.

Therefore, observation of sensations offers a means - indeed the
only means - to examine the totality of our being, physical as well as
mental.

Broadly speaking, the Buddha refers to five types of vedanā:

Sukhā vedanā - pleasant sensations
Dukkhā vedanā - unpleasant sensations
Somanassa vedanā - pleasant mental feeling
Domanassa vedanā - unpleasant mental feeling
Adukkhamasukhā vedanā - neither unpleasant nor pleasant sensations.
In all references to vedanā in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta the Buddha speaks
of sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, i.e., the body sensations; or
adukkhamasukhā vedanā, which in this context also clearly denotes
neutral body sensations.

The strong emphasis is on body sensations because they work as a
direct avenue for the attainment of fruition (nibbāna) by means of
“strong dependence condition” (upanissaya-paccayena paccayo), i.e., the
nearest dependent condition for our liberation. This fact is succinctly
highlighted in the Paṭṭhāna, the seventh text of Abhidhamma Piṭaka under
the Pakatūpanissaya, where it is stated:

Kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Kāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Utu kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Bhojanaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Senāsanaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.4

Pleasant body sensation is related to pleasant sensation of the
body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition
(nibbāna) by strong dependence condition.

Unpleasant body sensation is related to pleasant sensation of the
body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition by
strong dependence condition.

The season (or surrounding environment) is related to pleasant
sensation of the body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment
of fruition by strong dependence condition.

Food is related to pleasant sensation of the body, unpleasant
sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition by strong dependence
condition.

Lying down and sitting (i.e., the mattress and cushions, or the
position of lying, sitting, etc.) is related to pleasant sensation of
the body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition
by strong dependence condition.

From the above statement it is clear how important vedanā,
sensation, is on the path of liberation. The pleasant and unpleasant
body sensations, the surrounding environment (utu), the food we eat
(bhojanaṃ), and the sleeping and sitting position, the mattress or
cushions used, etc. (senāsanaṃ) are all responsible for ongoing body
sensations of one type or another. When the sensations are experienced
properly, as the Buddha explained in Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, these
become the nearest dependent condition for our liberation.

There are four dimensions to our nature: the body and its
sensations, and the mind and its contents. These provide four avenues
for the establishing of awareness in satipaṭṭhāna. In order that the
observation be complete, we must experience every facet, which we can
only do by means of vedanā. This exploration of truth will remove the
delusions we have about ourselves.

In the same way, to come out of the delusion about the world
outside, we must explore how the outside world interacts with our own
mind-and-matter phenomenon, our own self. The outside world comes in
contact with the individual only at the six sense doors: the eye, ear,
nose, tongue, body and mind. Since all these sense doors are contained
in the body, every contact of the outside world is at the body level.

The traditional spiritual teachers of India, before the Buddha, in
his day and afterwards, expressed the view that craving causes suffering
and that to remove suffering one must abstain from the objects of
craving. This belief led to various practices of penance and extreme
abstinence from external stimuli. In order to develop detachment, the
Buddha took a different approach. Having learned to examine the depths
of his own mind, he realized that between the external object and the
mental reflex of craving is a missing link: vedanā. Whenever we
encounter an object through the five physical senses or the mind, a
sensation arises; and based on the sensation, taṇhā (craving) arises. If
the sensation is pleasant we crave to prolong it, if it is unpleasant
we crave to be rid of it. It is in the chain of Dependent Origination
(paṭiccasamuppāda) that the Buddha expressed his profound discovery:

Saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso
Phassa-paccayā vedanā
Vedanā-paccayā taṇhā.5

Dependent on the six sense-spheres, contact arises.
Dependent on contact, sensation arises.
Dependent on sensation, craving arises.

The immediate cause for the arising of craving and, consequently, of
suffering is not something outside of us but rather the sensations that
occur within us.

Therefore, just as the understanding of vedanā is absolutely
essential to understand the interaction between mind and matter within
ourselves, the same understanding of vedanā is essential to understand
the interaction of the outside world with the individual.

If this exploration of truth were to be attempted by contemplation
or intellectualization, we could easily ignore the importance of vedanā.
However, the crux of the Buddha’s teaching is the necessity of
understanding the truth not merely at the intellectual level, but by
direct experience. For this reason vedanā is defined as follows:

Yā vedeti ti vedanā, sā vediyati lakkhaṇā, anubhavanarasā…6

That which feels the object is vedanā; its characteristic is to feel, it is the essential taste of experience…

However, merely to feel the sensations within is not enough to
remove our delusions. Instead, it is essential to understand the
ti-lakkhaṇā (three characteristics) of all phenomena. We must directly
experience anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), and anatta
(selflessness) within ourselves. Of these three, the Buddha always
stressed the importance of anicca because the realization of the other
two will easily follow when we experience deeply the characteristic of
impermanence. In the Meghiya Sutta of the Udāna he said:

Aniccasaññino hi, Meghiya, anattasaññā saṇṭhāti, anattasaññī asmimānasamugghātaṃ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbānaṃ.7

In one, Meghiya, who perceives impermanence, the perception of
selflessness is established. One who perceives what is selfless wins the
uprooting of the pride of egotism in this very life, and thus realizes
nibbāna.

Therefore, in the practice of satipaṭṭhāna, the experience of
anicca, arising and passing away, plays a crucial role. This experience
of anicca as it manifests in the mind and body is also called vipassanā.
The practice of Vipassana is the same as the practice of satipaṭṭhāna.

The Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta begins with the observation of the body.
Here several different starting points are explained: observing
respiration, giving attention to bodily movements, etc. It is from these
points that we can progressively develop vedanānupassanā,
cittānupassanā and dhammānupassanā. However, no matter from which point
the journey starts, stages come which everyone must pass through on the
way to the final goal. These are described in important sentences
repeated not only at the end of each section of kāyānupassanā but also
at the end of vedanānupassanā, cittānupassanā and each section of
dhammānupassanā. They are:

Samudaya-dhammānupassī vā viharati.
Vaya-dhammānupassī vā viharati.
Samudaya-vaya-dhammānupassī vā viharati.8
One dwells observing the phenomenon of arising.
One dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away.
One dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away.
These sentences reveal the essence of the practice of satipaṭṭhāna.
Unless these three levels of anicca are experienced, we will not develop
paññā (wisdom) - the equanimity based on the experience of
impermanence - which leads to detachment and liberation. Therefore, in
order to practise any of the four-fold satipaṭṭhānā we have to develop
the constant thorough understanding of impermanence which in Pāli is
known as sampajañña.

Sampajañña has been often misunderstood. In the colloquial language
of the day, it also had the meaning of “knowingly.” For example, the
Buddha has spoken of sampajānamusā bhāsitā,9 and sampajāna musāvāda10
which means “consciously, or knowingly, to speak falsely.” This
superficial meaning of the term is sufficient in an ordinary context.
But whenever the Buddha speaks of vipassanā, of the practice leading to
purification, to nibbāna, as here in this sutta, then sampajañña has a
specific, technical significance.

To remain sampajāno (the adjective form of sampajañña), one must
meditate on the impermanence of phenomena (anicca-bodha), objectively
observing mind and matter without reaction. The understanding of
samudaya-vaya-dhammā (the nature of arising and passing away) cannot be
by contemplation, which is merely a process of thinking, or by
imagination or even by believing; it must be performed with paccanubhoti
11 (direct experience), which is yathābhūta-ñāṇa-dassana 12
(experiential knowledge of the reality as it is). Here the observation
of vedanā plays its vital role, because with vedanā a meditator very
clearly and tangibly experiences samudaya-vaya (arising and passing
away). Sampajañña, in fact, is directly perceiving the arising and
passing away of vedanā, wherein all four facets of our being are
included.

It is for this reason that the three essential qualities - to remain
ātāpī (ardent), sampajāno, and satimā (aware) - are invariably repeated
for each of the four satipaṭṭhānas. And as the Buddha explained,
sampajañña is observing the arising and passing away of vedanā.13 Hence
the part played by vedanā in the practice of satipaṭṭhāna should not be
ignored or this practice of satipaṭṭhāna will not be complete.

In the words of the Buddha:

Tisso imā, bhikkhave, vedanā. Katamā tisso? Sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, adukkhamasukhā vedanā.
Imā kho, bhikkhave, tisso vedanā. Imāsaṃ kho, bhikkhave, tissannaṃ vedanānaṃ pariññāya cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvetabbā.14

Meditators, there are three types of body sensations. What are the
three? Pleasant sensations, unpleasant sensations and neutral
sensations. Practise, meditators, the four-fold satipaṭṭhānā for the
complete understanding of these three sensations.

The practice of satipaṭṭhāna, which is the practice of Vipassana, is
complete only when one directly experiences impermanence. Sensations
provide the nexus where the entire mind and body are tangibly revealed
as impermanent phenomena, leading to liberation.

References

1. Dīgha-nikāya: VRI II. 373; PTS II. 290

2. Loc. cit.

3. Aṅguttara-nikāya, VRI II, 58; PTS V, 107

4. Paṭṭhāna, Vol. I, Kusalatika: VRI, 324

5. Vinaya, Mahāvagga: VRI, 1; PTS 2

6. Abhidhammattha-saṅgaho, Hindi translation and commentary by Ven.
Dr. U Rewata Dhamma, Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishva-vidyalaya, Varanasi,
Vol. I p. 101. By using the term anubhavanarasā, the commentator is
pointing to the fact that the essence of experience itself is vedanā,
the sensations on the body.

7. Udāna: VRI, 31; PTS, 37

8. Dīgha-nikāya: VRI II. 374-404; PTS II. 292-314

9. Dīgha-nikāya: VRI III. 62; PTS III 45. Aṅguttara-nikāya : VRI I, Tikanipāta, 28; PTS I. 128

10. Vinaya, Pācittiya: VRI, 3; PTS 2

11. Majjhima-nikāya: VRI I. 455; PTS I. 295; Saṃyutta-nikāya: VRI III. 512, 823 ff., 839 ff.; PTS V. 217, 264ff., 286 ff.

12. Aṅguttara-nikāya: VRI II, Pañcakanipāta, 24, 168, Sattakanipāta,
65, VRI III, Aṭṭhakanipāta, 81; PTS III, 19, 200; IV, 99, 336

13. Saṃyutta-nikāya: VRI III. 401; PTS V. 180

14. Ibid.: VRI III. 415; PTS V. 180

_____________________________

Note: Pāli references are from the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana edition of the
Tipiṭaka, published by the Vipassana Research Institute (VRI), giving
book and paragraph number, followed by the Pali Text Society (PTS)
edition, giving book and page number.

Namo Tassa

Bhagavato Arahato

Sammāsambuddhassa

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Awareness
Evaṃ me sutaṃ.

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ
nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi, ‘Bhikkhavo’1 ti. ‘Bhaddante’
ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

Thus have I heard:

At one time the Enlightened One was staying among the Kurus at
Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kuru people. There the Enlightened
One addressed the monks thus: “Monks,”1 and they replied, “Venerable
Sir!” Then the Enlightened One spoke as follows:

1. Uddeso

1. Introduction

Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, sokaparidevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.2

This is the one and only way, monks, for the purification of beings,
for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the extinguishing of
suffering and grief, for walking on the path of truth, for the
realisation of nibbāna: that is to say, the fourfold establishing of
awareness.2

Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno3 satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.4

Which four? Here, monks, a monk dwells ardent with awareness and
constant thorough understanding of impermanence, 3 observing body in
body, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and
matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough
understanding of impermanence, observing sensations in sensations,
having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and
matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough
understanding of impermanence, observing mind in mind, having removed
craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells
ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, observing mental contents in mental contents, having
removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter].4

2. Kāyānupassanā

2. The Observation of Body

A. Ānāpānapabbaṃ

A. Section on Respiration

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati?

And how, monks, does a monk dwell observing body in body?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā
suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā, ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya,
parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato va assasati, sato va passasati.
Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti,5 dīghaṃ vā passasanto
‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti. Rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’
ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti.
‘Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī
passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. ‘Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

Here a monk, having gone into the forest, or to the foot of a tree,
or to an empty room, sits down cross-legged, keeps his body upright and
fixes his awareness in the area around the mouth. With this awareness,
he breathes in, with this awareness, he breathes out. Breathing in a
deep breath, he understands properly:5 “I am breathing in a deep
breath.” Breathing out a deep breath, he understands properly: “I am
breathing out a deep breath.” Breathing in a shallow breath, he
understands properly: “I am breathing in a shallow breath.” Breathing
out a shallow breath, he understands properly: “I am breathing out a
shallow breath.” In this way he trains himself: “Feeling the whole body,
I shall breathe in.” “Feeling the whole body, I shall breathe out,”
thus he trains himself. “With the bodily activities calmed, I shall
breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “With the bodily activities calmed,
I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself.

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakārantevāsī vā
dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā añchanto
‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā
assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti, dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ
passasāmī’ ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti
pajānāti, rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti.
‘Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī
passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

Just as a skilful turner or a turner’s apprentice, while making a
long turn understands properly: “I am making a long turn,” and while
making a short turn, understands properly: “I am making a short turn,”
just so, the monk, breathing in a deep breath, understands properly: “I
am breathing in a deep breath.” Breathing in a shallow breath, he
understands properly: “I am breathing in a shallow breath.” Breathing
out a deep breath, he understands properly: “I am breathing out a deep
breath.” Breathing out a shallow breath, he understands properly: “I am
breathing out a shallow breath.” In this way he trains himself: “Feeling
the whole body, I shall breathe in.” “Feeling the whole body, I shall
breathe out,” thus he trains himself. “With the bodily activities
calmed, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “With the bodily
activities calmed, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself.

Iti6 ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā7 vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’8 ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva
ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya9 anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus6 he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally.7 Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!”8 Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness.9 In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

B. Iriyāpathapabbaṃ

B. Section on Postures

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti
pajānāti, ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti
pajānāti, sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā panassa kāyo
paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti.10

Again, monks, a monk while he is walking, understands properly: “I
am walking”; while he is standing, he understands properly: “I am
standing”; while he is sitting, he understands properly: “I am sitting”;
while he is lying down, he understands properly: “I am lying down.” In
whichever position he disposes his body, he understands it properly.10

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

C. Sampajānapabbaṃ

C. Section on Constant Thorough Understanding of Impermanence

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti,11 ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

Again, monks, a monk, while going forward or backward, he does so
with constant thorough understanding of impermanence;11 whether he is
looking straight ahead or looking sideways, he does so with constant
thorough understanding of impermanence; while he is bending or
stretching, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence; whether wearing his robes or carrying his bowl, he does so
with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is
eating, drinking, chewing or savouring, he does so with constant
thorough understanding of impermanence; while attending to the calls of
nature, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence;
whether he is walking, standing, sitting, sleeping or waking, speaking
or in silence, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

D. Paṭikūlamanasikārapabbaṃ

D. Section on Reflections on Repulsiveness

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho
kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ
nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, that is covered
with skin and full of impurities of all kinds from the soles of the feet
upwards and from the hair of the head downwards, considering thus: “In
this body, there are hairs of the head, hairs of the skin, nails, teeth,
skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, pleura,
spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, faeces,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal
mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa
dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ
taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī
ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā,
tacapariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti.

Just as if there were a double-mouthed provision bag, full of
various kinds of grains and seeds, such as hill-paddy, paddy,
mung-beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice, and as if there were
a man with discerning eyes, who, after having opened that bag would
examine the contents, saying: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, these
are mung-beans, these are cow-peas, these are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice”; in this same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very
body, that is covered with skin and full of impurities of all kinds from
the soles of the feet upwards and from the hair of the head downwards,
considering thus: “In this body, there are hairs of the head, hairs of
the skin, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with
its contents, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears,
grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

E. Dhātumanasikārapabbaṃ

E. Section on the Reflections on the Material Elements

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ
yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu
āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, however it is
placed or disposed, considering it according to the characteristic of
each element: “In this body, there is the earth-element, the
water-element, the fire-element and the air-element.”

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā gāviṃ
vadhitvā catumahāpathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu
vāyodhātū’ ti.

Just as if, monks, a skilful cow-butcher or his apprentice, after
having slaughtered a cow and having divided it into portions, would sit
down at the junction of four roads; in the same way, monks, a monk
reflects on this very body, however it is placed or disposed,
considering the material elements: “In this body, there is the
earth-element, the water-element, the fire-element and the air-element.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

F. Navasivathikapabbaṃ

F. Section on the Nine Charnel-ground Observations

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ ekāhamataṃ vā dvīhamataṃ vā tīhamataṃ vā
uddhumātakaṃ vinīlakaṃ vipubbakajātaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati:
‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, dead for one, two or three days, swollen, blue and
festering, regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is
of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ
gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ
byagghehi vā khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ
vividhehi vā pāṇakajātehi khajjamānaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati:
‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by vultures,
being eaten by falcons, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs,
being eaten by tigers, being eaten by leopards, being eaten by jackals
and being eaten by different kinds of creatures, regarding his own body
considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become
like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ samaṃsalohitaṃ nhārusambandhaṃ.
So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī
evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton with some flesh and blood
attached to it and held together by tendons, regarding his own body
considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become
like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ nimaṃsalohitamakkhitaṃ
nhārusambandhaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton without any flesh but smeared
with blood and held together by tendons, regarding his own body
considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become
like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ apagatamaṃsalohitaṃ
nhārusambandhaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton without any flesh or blood,
held together by tendons, regarding his own body considers thus:
“Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and
cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagatasambandhāni disā vidisā
vikkhittāni, aññena hatthaṭṭhikaṃ aññena pādaṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gopphakaṭṭhikaṃ aññena jaṅghaṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūruṭṭhikaṃ aññena
kaṭiṭṭhikaṃ aññena phāsukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭhiṭṭhikaṃ aññena
khandhaṭṭhikaṃ aññena gīvaṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena
dantaṭṭhikaṃ aññena sīsakaṭāhaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi
kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to disconnected bones, scattered in all
directions, here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, here a
bone of the ankle, there a bone of the knee, here a bone of the thigh
and there a bone of the pelvis, here a bone of the spine, there a bone
of the back, again there a bone of the shoulder, here a bone of the
throat, there a bone of the chin, here a bone of the teeth and there a
bone of the skull, regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this
body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape
it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkhavaṇṇapaṭibhāgāni. So
imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī
evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to bleached bones of conch-like colour,
regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same
nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñjakitāni terovassikāni. So imameva
kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’
ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, of bones that are piled up in a heap more than a
year old, regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is
of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇakajātāni. So imameva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, the bones having rotted away to powder, regarding
his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature,
it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

3. Vedanānupassanā

3. The Observation of Sensations

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing sensations in sensations?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; adukkhamasukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno
‘adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti;
nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ
dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā
adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno
‘nirāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti.12

Here, monks, a monk, while experiencing a pleasant sensation,
understands properly, “I am experiencing a pleasant sensation”; while
experiencing an unpleasant sensation, he understands properly, “I am
experiencing an unpleasant sensation”; while experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation, he understands properly, “I
am experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation.” While he
is experiencing a pleasant sensation with attachment, he understands
properly, “I am experiencing a pleasant sensation with attachment”;
while he is experiencing a pleasant sensation without attachment, he
understands properly, “I am experiencing a pleasant sensation without
attachment”; while experiencing an unpleasant sensation with attachment,
he understands properly, “I am experiencing an unpleasant sensation
with attachment”; while experiencing an unpleasant sensation without
attachment, he understands properly, “I am experiencing an unpleasant
sensation without attachment”; while experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation with attachment, he
understands properly, “I am experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation with attachment”; while
experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation without
attachment, he understands properly, “I am experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation without attachment.”12

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā13 vā
vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
vedanāsu viharati, ‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati.

Thus he dwells observing sensations in sensations internally, or he
dwells observing sensations in sensations externally,13 or he dwells
observing sensations in sensations both internally and externally. Thus
he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in sensations, thus he
dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in sensations, thus he
dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in
sensations. Now his awareness is established: “This is sensation!” Thus
he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing sensations in sensations.

4. Cittānupassanā

4. The Observation of Mind

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte14 cittānupassī viharati?

Again, monks, how does a monk dwell, observing mind in mind?14

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sarāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti
pajānāti, vītarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītarāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sadosaṃ vā
cittaṃ ‘sadosaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vītadosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītadosaṃ
cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, samohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti,
vītamohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītamohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ
‘saṅkhittaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vikkhittaṃ
cittaṃ’15 ti pajānāti, mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘mahaggataṃ cittaṃ’ ti
pajānāti, amahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘amahaggataṃ cittaṃ’16 ti pajānāti,
sa-uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa-uttaraṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, anuttaraṃ vā
cittaṃ ‘anuttaraṃ cittaṃ’17 ti pajānāti, samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samāhitaṃ
cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘asamāhitaṃ cittaṃ’18 ti
pajānāti, vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, avimuttaṃ vā
cittaṃ ‘avimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly mind with craving as mind
with craving, he understands properly mind free from craving as mind
free from craving, he understands properly mind with aversion as mind
with aversion, he understands properly mind free from aversion as mind
free from aversion, he understands properly mind with delusion as mind
with delusion, he understands properly mind free from delusion as mind
free from delusion, he understands properly collected mind as collected
mind, he understands properly a scattered mind as scattered mind,15 he
understands properly expanded mind as expanded mind, he understands
properly unexpanded mind as unexpanded mind,16 he understands properly
surpassable mind as surpassable mind, he understands properly
unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable mind,17 he understands properly
concentrated mind as concentrated mind, he understands properly
unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated mind,18 he understands properly
freed mind as freed mind, he understands properly not freed mind as not
freed mind.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā citte
cittānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī
viharati,19 samudayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
cittasmiṃ viharati, ‘atthi cittaṃ’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca
kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī
viharati.

Thus he dwells observing mind in mind internally, or he dwells
observing mind in mind externally, or he dwells observing mind in mind
both internally and externally.19 Thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of arising in the mind, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mind, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mind. Now his awareness is
established: “This is mind!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an
extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In
this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the
world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing
mind in mind.

5. Dhammānupassanā

5. The Observation of Mental Contents

A. Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ

A. The Section on the Hindrances

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati?

Again, monks, how does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati - pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

Here, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five hindrances.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati - pañcasu nīvaraṇesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five hindrances?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ kāmacchandaṃ ‘atthi me
ajjhattaṃ kāmacchando’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ kāmacchandaṃ
‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ kāmacchando’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa
kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa
kāmacchandassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa
kāmacchandassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk, whenever sense desire is present in him, he
understands properly that, “Sense desire is present in me.” Whenever
sense desire is absent from him, he understands properly that, “Sense
desire is absent from me.” He understands properly, how sense desire
that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly,
how sense desire that has now arisen in him, gets eradicated. He
understands properly, how sense desire that has now been eradicated,
will in future no longer arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ byāpādaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ byāpādo’ ti
pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ byāpādaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ byāpādo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa byāpādassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti,
yathā ca uppannassa byāpādassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
pahīnassa byāpādassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Whenever aversion is present in him, he understands properly that,
“Aversion is present in me.” Whenever aversion is absent from him, he
understands properly that, “Aversion is absent from me.” He understands
properly, how aversion that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise.
He understands properly, how aversion that has now arisen in him, gets
eradicated. He understands properly, how aversion that has now been
eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ thinamiddhaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ thinamiddhaṃ’
ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ thinamiddhaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ
thinamiddhaṃ’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa thinamiddhassa uppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa thinamiddhassa pahānaṃ hoti
taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa thinamiddhassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti
taṃ ca pajānāti.

Whenever sloth and torpor are present in him, he understands
properly that, “Sloth and torpor are present in me.” Whenever sloth and
torpor are absent from him, he understands properly that, “Sloth and
torpor are absent from me.” He understands properly, how sloth and
torpor that have not yet arisen in him, come to arise. He understands
properly, how sloth and torpor that have now arisen in him, get
eradicated. He understands properly, how sloth and torpor that have now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
uddhaccakukkuccaṃ’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ
‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca
anuppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
uppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
pahīnassa uddhaccakukkuccassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Whenever agitation and remorse are present in him, he understands
properly that, “Agitation and remorse are present in me.” Whenever
agitation and remorse are absent from him, he understands properly that,
“Agitation and remorse are absent from me.” He understands properly,
how agitation and remorse that have not yet arisen in him, come to
arise. He understands properly, how agitation and remorse that have now
arisen in him, get eradicated. He understands properly, how agitation
and remorse that have now been eradicated, will in future no longer
arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vicikicchaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ vicikicchā’ ti
pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vicikicchaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ
vicikicchā’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannāya vicikicchāya uppādo hoti
taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannāya vicikicchāya pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnāya vicikicchāya āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti.

Whenever doubt is present in him, he understands properly that,
“Doubt is present in me.” Whenever doubt is absent from him, he
understands properly that, “Doubt is absent from me.” He understands
properly, how doubt that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He
understands properly, how doubt that has now arisen in him, gets
eradicated. He understands properly, how doubt that has now been
eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the five hindrances.

B. Khandhapabbaṃ

B. The Section on the Aggregates

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu.20

Again, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five aggregates of clinging.20

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five aggregates of clinging?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu, ‘iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti
rūpassa atthaṅgamo; iti vedanā, iti vedanāya samudayo, iti vedanāya
atthaṅgamo; iti saññā, iti saññāya samudayo, iti saññāya atthaṅgamo; iti
saṅkhārā, iti saṅkhārānaṃ samudayo, iti saṅkhārānaṃ atthaṅgamo; iti
viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ ti.

Here, monks, a monk [understands properly]: “Such is matter, such is
the arising of matter, such is the passing away of matter; such are
sensations, such is the arising of sensations, such is the passing away
of sensations; such is perception, such is the arising of perception,
such is the passing away of perception; such are reactions, such is the
arising of reactions, such is the passing away of reactions; such is
consciousness, such is the arising of consciousness, such is the passing
away of consciousness.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the five aggregates of clinging.

C. Āyatanapabbaṃ

C. The Section on the Sense Spheres

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu.

Again, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental
contents, as regards the six internal and external sense spheres.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental
contents, as regards the six internal and external sense spheres?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhuṃ ca pajānāti, rūpe ca pajānāti, yaṃ
ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa
saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly the eye, he understands
properly the visible object and he understands properly the bondage that
arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage
that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the
bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly
how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer
arise.

Sotaṃ ca pajānāti, sadde ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the ear, he understands properly sound and
he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two.
He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes
to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen,
gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Ghānaṃ ca pajānāti, gandhe ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the nose, he understands properly smell and
he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two.
He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes
to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen,
gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Jivhaṃ ca pajānāti, rase ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the tongue, he understands properly taste
and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these
two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen,
comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now
arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that
has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Kāyaṃ ca pajānāti, phoṭṭhabbe ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa
saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa
saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa
saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the body, he understands properly touch and
he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two.
He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes
to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen,
gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Manaṃ ca pajānāti, dhamme ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the mind, he understands properly the
contents of the mind and he understands properly the bondage that arises
dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that
has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the
bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly
how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer
arise.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the six internal and external sense spheres.

D. Bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ

D. The Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu.

Again, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the seven factors of enlightenment.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the seven factors of enlightenment?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgaṃ
‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
satisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti,
yathā ca anuppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti,
yathā ca uppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, awareness, is present within him, “The factor of
enlightenment, awareness, is present in me.” He understands properly
that, when the factor of enlightenment, awareness, is absent from him,
“The factor of enlightenment, awareness, is absent from me.” He
understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, awareness, that
has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how
the factor of enlightenment, awareness, that has now arisen, is
developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ21 ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo’
ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa
bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma,21 is
present in him, he understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment,
investigation of Dhamma, is present in me.” He understands properly
that, when the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, is
absent from him, “The factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma,
is absent from me.” He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma that has not yet arisen in him,
comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, that has now arisen, is
developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
vīriyasambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, effort, is present in him, he
understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, effort, is present
in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment,
effort, is absent from him, “The factor of enlightenment, effort, is
absent from me.” He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, effort, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise.
He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, that has now
arisen, is developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ22 ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
pītisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ
‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca
anuppannassa pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
uppannassa pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, rapture,22 is present in him, he
understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, rapture, is present
in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment,
rapture, is absent from him, “The factor of enlightenment, rapture, is
absent from me.” He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, rapture, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise.
He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, rapture, that
has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ23 ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
passaddhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ
ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya
pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity,23 is present in him,
he understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, is
present in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, tranquillity, is absent from him, “The factor of
enlightenment, tranquillity is absent from me.” He understands properly,
how the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, that has not yet arisen
in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, tranquillity, that has now arisen, is developed and
perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
samādhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ
ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya
pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, concentration, is present in him,
he understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, concentration, is
present in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, concentration, is absent from him, “The factor of
enlightenment, concentration, is absent from me.” He understands
properly, how the factor of enlightenment, concentration, that has not
yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the
factor of enlightenment, concentration, that has now arisen, is
developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ
ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya
pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is present in him, he
understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is
present in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, equanimity, is absent from him, “The factor of
enlightenment, equanimity, is absent from me.” He understands properly,
how the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, that has not yet arisen in
him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, equanimity, that has now arisen, is developed and
perfected.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the seven factors of enlightenment.

E. Saccapabbaṃ

E. The Section on the Noble Truths

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu.

Again, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the four noble truths.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the four noble truths?

Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘idaṃ dukkhaṃ’ ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti,
‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ ti
yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ ti yathābhūtaṃ
pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly as it is, “This is
suffering”; he understands properly as it is, “This is the arising of
suffering”; he understands properly as it is, “This is the cessation of
suffering”; he understands properly as it is, “This is the path leading
to the cessation of suffering.”

Dukkhasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of Suffering

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ?

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering?

Jāti pi dukkhā, jarā pi dukkhā, (byādhi pi dukkhā,)24 maraṇaṃ pi
dukkhaṃ, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā pi dukkhā, appiyehi sampayogo
pi dukkho, piyehi vippayogo pi dukkho, yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi
dukkhaṃ, saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.

Birth is suffering, old age is suffering, (sickness is suffering),24
death is suffering, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress are
suffering, the association with something that one does not like is
suffering, the disassociation with something that one does like is
suffering, not to get what one desires is suffering; in short, the
clinging to the five aggregates is suffering.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi
sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo
āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, jāti.

And what, monks, is birth? If there is birth for all kinds of beings
in whatever kind of existence, their conception, their being born,
their becoming, the coming into manifestation of their aggregates, the
acquisition of their sense faculties - this, monks, is called birth.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jarā? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi
sattanikāye jarā jīraṇatā khaṇḍiccaṃ pāliccaṃ valittacatā āyuno saṃhāni
indriyānaṃ paripāko, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, jarā.

And what, monks, is old age? If there is old age for all kinds of
beings in whatever kind of existence, their getting frail and decrepit,
the breaking [of their teeth], their becoming grey and wrinkled, the
running down of their life span, the deterioration of their sense
faculties - this, monks, is called old age.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, maraṇaṃ? Yaṃ tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhā tamhā
sattanikāyā cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaṃ maccu maraṇaṃ kālakiriyā
khandhānaṃ bhedo kaḷevarassa nikkhepo jīvitindriyassupacchedo, idaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, maraṇaṃ.

And what, monks, is death? If there is vanishing and passing away
for all kinds of beings in whatever kind of existence, their
disintegration, their disappearance, their dying, their death, the
completion of their life span, the dissolution of the aggregates, the
discarding of the body, the destruction of their vitality - this, monks,
is called death.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, soko? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena
byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa
soko socanā socitattaṃ antosoko antoparisoko, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
soko.

And what, monks, is sorrow? Whenever one, monks, is affected by
various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that
kind of painful state of mind, by sorrow, by mourning, by sorrowfulness,
by inward grief, and by deep inward woe - this, monks, is called
sorrow.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paridevo? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena
byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa
ādevo paridevo ādevanā paridevanā ādevitattaṃ paridevitattaṃ, ayaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, paridevo.

And what, monks, is lamentation? Whenever one, monks, is affected by
various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that
kind of painful state of mind, by wailing and crying, by lamentation,
by deep wailing, by deep lamentation, by the state of deep wailing and
deep lamentation - this, monks, is called lamentation.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ?25 Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, kāyikaṃ
dukkhaṃ kāyikaṃ asātaṃ kāyasamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ.

And what, monks, is pain?25 If there is, monks, any kind of bodily
pain, any kind of bodily unpleasantness or any kind of painful or
unpleasant sensation as a result of bodily contact - this, monks, is
called pain.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, domanassaṃ?25 Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, cetasikaṃ
dukkhaṃ cetasikaṃ asātaṃ manosamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, domanassaṃ.

And what, monks, is grief?25 If there is, monks, any kind of mental
pain, any kind of mental unpleasantness or any kind of painful or
unpleasant sensation as a result of mental contact - this, monks, is
called grief.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, upāyāso? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena
byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa
āyāso upāyāso āyāsitattaṃ upāyāsitattaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
upāyāso.

And what, monks, is distress? Whenever one, monks, is affected by
various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that
kind of painful state of mind, by tribulation, by distress, affliction
with distress and affliction with great distress - this, monks, is
called distress.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti
aniṭṭhā akantā amanāpā rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā, ye vā
panassa te honti anatthakāmā ahitakāmā aphāsukakāmā ayogakkhemakāmā, yā
tehi saddhiṃ saṅgati samāgamo samodhānaṃ missībhāvo, ayaṃ vuccati,
bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho.

And what, monks, is the suffering of being associated with what one
does not like? Wherever and whenever one finds unpleasant, disagreeable
or disliked objects of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch or of the mind,
or, whenever and wherever one finds that there are wishers of one’s own
misfortune, harm, difficulties or of one’s own insecurity; if one gets
associated, one meets, one comes into contact or gets combined with them
- this, monks, is called the suffering of being associated with what
one does not like.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti
iṭṭhā kantā manāpā rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā, ye vā
panassa te honti atthakāmā hitakāmā phāsukakāmā yogakkhemakāmā mātā vā
pitā vā bhātā vā bhaginī vā mittā vā amaccā vā ñātisālohitā vā, yā tehi
saddhiṃ asaṅgati asamāgamo asamodhānaṃ amissībhāvo, ayaṃ vuccati,
bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho.

And what, monks, is the suffering of being disassociated with what
one does like? Wherever and whenever one finds pleasant, agreeable or
liked objects of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch or of the mind, or,
whenever and wherever one finds that there are wishers of one’s own
fortune, prosperity, comfort or of one’s own security, like mother and
father, like brother and sister, like friends and colleagues or
relatives; if one gets disassociated, one does not meet, one does not
come into contact or does not get combined with them - this, monks, is
called the suffering of being disassociated with what one does like.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ?
Jātidhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaṃ
na jātidhammā assāma na ca vata no jāti āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na kho panetaṃ
icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ.

And what, monks, is not getting what one desires? In beings, monks,
who are subject to birth the desire arises: “Oh, truly, that we were not
subject to birth! Oh, truly, may there be no new birth for us!” But
this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is
suffering.

Jarādhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata
mayaṃ na jarādhammā assāma, na ca vata no jarā āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na kho
panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to old age the desire arises: “Oh,
truly, that we were not subject to old age! Oh, truly, may we not be
subject to old age!” But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not
to get what one wants is suffering.

Byādhidhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata
mayaṃ na byādhidhammā assāma, na ca vata no byādhi āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na
kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi
dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to sickness the desire arises:
“Oh, truly, that we were not subject to sickness! Oh, truly, may there
be no sickness for us!” But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and
not to get what one wants is suffering.

Maraṇadhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata
mayaṃ na maraṇadhammā assāma, na ca vata no maraṇaṃ āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na
kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi
dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to death the desire arises: “Oh,
truly, that we were not subject to death! Oh, truly, may we never have
to die!” But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what
one wants is suffering.

Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ
icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaṃ na
sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā assāma, na ca vata no
sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā āgaccheyyuṃ’ ti. Na kho panetaṃ
icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain,
grief and distress the desire arises: “Oh, truly, that we were not
subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress! Oh, truly, may
we not suffer from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress!” But
this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is
suffering.

Katame ca, bhikkhave, saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā?
Seyyathidaṃ - rūpupādānakkhandho vedanupādānakkhandho
saññupādānakkhandho saṅkhārupādānakkhandho viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Ime
vuccanti, bhikkhave, saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.

And how, monks, in short, is clinging to the five aggregates
suffering? It is as follows - clinging to the aggregate of matter is
suffering, clinging to the aggregate of sensation is suffering, clinging
to the aggregate of perception is suffering, clinging to the aggregate
of reaction is suffering, clinging to the aggregate of consciousness is
suffering. This, monks, in short, is called suffering because of
clinging to these five aggregates.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering.

Samudayasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of the Arising of Suffering

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ?

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering?

Yāyaṃ taṇhā ponobbhavikā nandīrāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathidaṃ, kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā.

It is this craving that occurs again and again and is bound up with
pleasure and lust and finds delight now here, now there. That is, the
craving for sensual pleasures, the craving for repeated rebirth and the
craving for annihilation.

Sā kho panesā, bhikkhave, taṇhā kattha uppajjamānā uppajjati, kattha nivisamānā nivisati?

But where does this craving, monks, arise and where does it get established?

Yaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Wherever in the world [of mind and matter] there is something
enticing and pleasurable, there this craving arises and gets
established.

Kiñca loke26 piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ? Cakkhu loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Ghānaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Jivhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Kayo loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Mano loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

But what in the world26 [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable? The eye in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The ear …
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The nose … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The tongue … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The body … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
mind in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established.

Rūpā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati,
ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Gandhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Rasā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Dhammā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Visible objects, material forms in the world [of mind and matter],
are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. Sounds … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. Smells … are enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. Tastes … are enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. Touch …
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The contents of the mind in the world [of mind and matter]
are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established.

Cakkhuviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Ghānaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Jivhāviññāṇaṃ loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Kāyaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Manoviññāṇaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The eye consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The ear
consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established. The nose consciousness … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The tongue
consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established. The body consciousness … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mind
consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

Cakkhusamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Ghānasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Jivhāsamphasso loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Kāyasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Manosamphasso
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The eye contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
ear-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and
gets established. The nose-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving arises and gets established. The tongue-contact … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The body-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established. The mind-contact in the world [of
mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established.

Cakkhusamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotasamphassajā vedanā
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Ghānasamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.
Jivhāsamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Kāyasamphassajā vedanā
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Manosamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

The sensation arising from the eye-contact in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The sensation arising from the ear-contact … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
sensation arising from the nose-contact … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising
from the tongue-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising from the
body-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established. The sensation arising from the mind-contact in the
world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established.

Rūpasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasasaññā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammasaññā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The perception of visible objects, of material forms, in the world
[of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The perception of sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
perception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The perception of tastes … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
perception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The perception of mental contents in the
world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established.

Rūpasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasasañcetanā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.
Dhammasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

The mental reaction to visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The mental reaction to sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mental
reaction to smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The mental reaction to tastes … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
mental reaction to touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established. The mental reaction to mind
objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

Rūpataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasataṇhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammataṇhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The craving after visible objects in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The craving after sounds … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after smells
… is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The craving after tastes … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after touch …
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The craving after mind objects, mental contents in the
world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established.

Rūpavitakko27 loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasavitakko loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammavitakko
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The thought conception27 of visible objects in the world [of mind
and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and
gets established. The thought conception of sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought
conception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The thought conception of tastes … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The thought conception of touch … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought
conception of mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established.

Rūpavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasavicāro loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammavicāro
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The rolling in thoughts of visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The rolling in thoughts of sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling
in thoughts of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The rolling in thoughts of tastes … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The rolling in thoughts of touch … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling
in thoughts of mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering.

Nirodhasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ?

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering?

Yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti
anālayo. Sā kho panesā, bhikkhave, taṇhā kattha pahīyamānā pahīyati,
kattha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati? Yaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

It is the complete fading away and cessation of this very craving,
forsaking it and giving it up; the liberation from it, leaving no place
for it. But where may this craving, monks, be eradicated; where may it
be extinguished? Wherever in the world [of mind and matter] there is
something enticing and pleasurable: there this craving may be eradicated
and extinguished.

Kiñca loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ? Cakkhu loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghānaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Kāyo loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Mano loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

But what in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable? The eye in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
ear … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated
and extinguished. The nose … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The tongue … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
body … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The mind in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished.

Rūpā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhammā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The objects of sight, the material forms in the world [of mind and
matter], are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sounds … are enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The smells … are
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The tastes … are enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. Touch … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
contents of the mind in the world [of mind and matter] are enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Cakkhuviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Ghānaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhāviññāṇaṃ loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kāyaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Manoviññāṇaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The eye-consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.
The ear-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
may be eradicated and extinguished. The nose-consciousness … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.
The tongue-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The body-consciousness … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The mind-consciousness in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished.

Cakkhusamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Ghānasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhāsamphasso loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kāyasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Manosamphasso
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The eye-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
ear-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The nose-contact … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
tongue-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The body-contact … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
mind-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Cakkhusamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotasamphassajā
vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghānasamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Jivhāsamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Kāyasamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Manosamphassajā
vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The sensation that arises from the eye contact in the world [of mind
and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the ear
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the nose
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the tongue
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the body
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the mind
contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasasaññā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The perception of visible objects in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The perception of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of
smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The perception of tastes … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
perception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of mental contents in
the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasasañcetanā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The mental reaction towards visible objects in the world [of mind
and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards sounds … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The mental reaction towards smells … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
mental reaction towards tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards
touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards mental contents
in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasataṇhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The craving after visible objects in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The craving after sounds … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after
smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The craving after tastes … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
craving after touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after mental contents in
the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasavitakko loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The thought conception of visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of sounds … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The thought conception of smells … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
thought conception of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of
touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of mental contents
in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasavicāro loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The rolling in thoughts of visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of sounds … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of smells … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
rolling in thoughts of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of
touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of mental contents
in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

Maggasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of the Path

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ?
Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ, sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo,
sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati,
sammāsamādhi.

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the
Cessation of Suffering? It is this, the Noble Eightfold Path, namely:
right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right awareness and right concentration.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi? Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, dukkhe ñāṇaṃ,
dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā
paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi.

And what, monks, is Right Understanding? It is this, monks: the
knowledge of suffering, the knowledge of the arising of suffering, the
knowledge of the cessation of suffering, the knowledge of the path
leading to the cessation of suffering. This, monks, is called Right
Understanding.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo? Nekkhammasaṅkappo,
abyāpādasaṅkappo, avihiṃsāsaṅkappo. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
sammāsaṅkappo.

And what, monks, is Right Thought? Thoughts of renunciation,
thoughts that are free from aversion and thoughts that are free from
violence. This, monks, is called Right Thought.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāvācā? Musāvādā veramaṇī, pisuṇāya vācāya
veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī. Ayaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvācā.

And what, monks, is Right Speech? Abstaining from lying, abstaining
from slander and backbiting, abstaining from harsh words and abstaining
from frivolous talk. This, monks, is called Right Speech.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammākammanto? Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā
veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
sammākammanto.

And what, monks, is Right Action? Abstaining from killing,
abstaining from taking what has not been given and abstaining from
sexual misconduct. This, monks, is called Right Action.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo? Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako
micchā-ājīvaṃ pahāya sammā-ājīvena jīvitaṃ kappeti. Ayaṃ vuccati,
bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo.

And what, monks, is Right Livelihood? Here, monks, a noble disciple
having given up wrong ways of livelihood earns his livelihood by right
means. This, monks, is called Right Livelihood.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti
vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ
pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ
ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ
uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti
padahati; uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya
bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati
vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
sammāvāyāmo.

And what, monks, is Right Effort? Here, monks, a monk generates the
will to prevent the arising of unarisen evil unwholesome mental states;
he makes strong effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and
strives. To eradicate those evil unwholesome mental states that have
arisen in him, he generates the will, makes strong effort, stirs up his
energy, applies his mind to it and strives. To develop wholesome mental
states that have not yet arisen in him, he generates will, makes strong
effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and strives. To
maintain wholesome mental states that have arisen in him, not to let
them fade away, to multiply them and bring them to full maturity and to
full development, he generates will, makes strong effort, stirs up his
energy, applies his mind to it and strives. This, monks, is called Right
Effort.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhādomanassaṃ, vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsati.

And what, monks, is Right Awareness? Here, monks, a monk dwells
ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, observing body in body, having removed craving and
aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with
awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing
sensations in sensations, having removed craving and aversion towards
the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and
constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing mind in mind,
having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and
matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough
understanding of impermanence, observing mental contents in mental
contents, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind
and matter]. This, monks, is called Right Awareness.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ27
vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati,
vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ
avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja
viharati, pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno
sukhaṃ ca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako
satimā sukhavihārī’ ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, sukhassa ca
pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā
adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja
viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi.

And what, monks, is right concentration? Here monks, a monk,
detached from craving, detached from unwholesome mental states, enters
into the first absorption, born of detachment, accompanied by initial
and sustained application of the mind27 and filled with rapture and
bliss and he dwells therein. With the subsiding of initial and sustained
application of the mind and gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of
mind he enters into the second absorption, born of concentration, free
from initial and sustained application of the mind, filled with rapture
and bliss and he dwells therein. After the fading away of rapture he
dwells in equanimity, aware with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, and he experiences in his body the bliss of which the
noble ones say: “That bliss is experienced by one with equanimity and
awareness.” Thus he enters the third absorption and dwells therein.
After the eradication of pleasure and pain and with joy and grief having
previously passed away, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and
pain, the fourth absorption, that is totally purified by equanimity and
awareness and he dwells therein. This, monks, is called Right
Concentration.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the Four Noble Truths.

6. Satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānisaṃso

6. The Results of the Establishing of Awareness

Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ28 bhāveyya
sattavassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ:
diṭṭheva dhamme aññā,29 sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.30

Indeed, monks, whoever practises this fourfold establishing of
awareness in this manner28 for seven years, he may expect one of two
results: in this very life highest wisdom29 or, if a substratum of
aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.30

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, sattavassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime
cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ
aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese
anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven years, monks. Should any person practise this
fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner for six years, one of
two results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom or,
if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇi vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve vassāni..pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ vassaṃ. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro
satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattamāsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ
aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese
anāgāmitā.

Let alone six years, monks…

Let alone five years, monks…

Let alone four years, monks…

Let alone three years, monks…

Let alone two years, monks…

Let alone one year, monks. Should any person practise this fourfold
establishing of awareness in this manner for seven months, one of two
results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom or, if a
substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇi māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ māsaṃ…pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, aḍḍhamāsaṃ…pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, aḍḍhamāso. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro
satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattāhaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ
phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven months, monks…

Let alone six months, monks…

Let alone five months, monks…

Let alone four months, monks…

Let alone three months, monks…

Let alone two months, monks…

Let alone one month, monks…

Let alone half a month, monks…

Let alone half a month, monks. Should any person practise this
fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner for seven days, one of
two results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom
or, if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

‘Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, sokaparidevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā’ ti. Iti yaṃ taṃ
vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ ti.

It is for this reason that it was said: “This is the one and only
way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow
and lamentation, for the extinguishing of suffering and grief, for
walking on the path of truth, for the realisation of nibbāna: that is to
say, the fourfold establishing of awareness.”

Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinanduṃ ti

Thus the Enlightened One spoke. Glad in heart, the monks welcomed the words of the Enlightened One.

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna-suttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

The End of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

Notes
N.B. For clarity, the footnoted passage will be indicated in the notes
by Pāli in italics followed immediately by the English translation in
square brackets, e.g. sati [awareness]. Other Pāli words used in the
notes will be followed by their equivalent terms in parentheses where
appropriate, e.g. anicca (impermanence).

1. The word bhikkhū [monks] was used to address all the people who
listened to the discourses given by the Buddha. Thus every meditator,
everyone who is walking on the path of Dhamma, though not literally a
bhikkhu, can benefit by following the instructions given here.

2. Satipaṭṭhāna [establishing of awareness] Sati means “awareness.”
Satipaṭṭhāna implies that the meditator has to work diligently and
constantly to become firmly established in awareness or mindfulness.
Therefore we have used “the establishing of awareness,” to convey the
sense that one actively strives to maintain continuous awareness of mind
and body at the level of sensations, as will become clear from the rest
of the discourse.

There are certain passages in the Buddha’s discourses where sati has
the meaning of “memory.” (Dīgha-nikāya: VRI I. 411; II. 374; PTS I.
180; II. 292). This is especially true when he refers to the special
ability of remembering past lives which is developed by means of the
practice of the jhānas (deep absorption concentration). But in the
context of Satipaṭṭhāna, the practice of Vipassana, leading not to the
jhānas but to purification of mind, sati can only be understood to mean
awareness of the present moment rather than a memory of the past (or a
dream of the future).

3. The Buddha always included the term sampajañña [constant thorough
understanding of impermanence] or sampajāno (the adjective form of
sampajañña) whenever he was asked to explain sati (awareness). (See, for
example, the definition of sammāsati in the Chapter on the Four Noble
Truths: Truth of the Path.) As a result of the frequent association of
these words, sampajañña has often been defined as nearly synonymous with
sati - as “full awareness,” or “clear comprehension” - or as an
exhortation to remain mindful. Another traditional translation of
sampajañña, which is closer to the full meaning is “thorough
understanding.”

In the Sutta Piṭaka the Buddha gave two explanations of the term. In
the Saṃyutta-nikāya (VRI III. 401; PTS V, 180-1) he defines it as
follows:

Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha bhikkhave,
bhikkhuno viditā vedanā uppajjanti, viditā upaṭṭhahanti, viditā
abbhatthaṃ gacchanti; viditā saññā uppajjanti, viditā upaṭṭhahanti,
viditā abbhatthaṃ gacchanti; viditā vitakkā uppajjanti, viditā
upaṭṭhahanti, viditā abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
sampajāno hoti.

And how, monks, does a monk understand thoroughly? Here, monks, a
monk experiences sensations arising in him, experiences their
persisting, and experiences their vanishing; he experiences perceptions
arising in him, experiences their persisting, and experiences their
vanishing; he experiences each initial application of the mind [on an
object] arising in him, experiences its persisting, and experiences its
vanishing. This, monks, is how a monk understands thoroughly.

In the above statement it is clear that one is sampajāno only when
one understands the characteristic of impermanence (arising, persisting
and vanishing). This understanding must be based on sensation (viditā
vedanā). If the characteristic of impermanence is not experienced at the
level of vedanā, then one’s understanding is merely an
intellectualization, since it is only through sensation that direct
experience occurs. The statement further indicates that sampajañña lies
in the experience of the impermanence of saññā and vitakkā. Here we
should note that impermanence understood at the level of vedanā actually
covers all three cases since according to the Buddha’s teaching in the
Aṅguttara-nikāya (VRI III. Dasakanipāta, 58; PTS V. 107):

Vedanā-samosaraṇā sabbe dhammā.

Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations.

The second explanation of sampajañña given by the Buddha emphasizes
that it must be continuous. In several places he repeats the words of
the Sampajānapabbaṃ of Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, as in this passage from
the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (Dīgha-nikāya II: VRI. 160; PTS 95):

Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu
abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite
sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti,
saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite
sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite
nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

And how, monks, does a monk understand thoroughly? Here, monks, a
monk, while going forward or backward, he does so with constant thorough
understanding of impermanence; whether he is looking straight ahead or
looking sideways, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence; while he is bending or stretching, he does so with
constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether wearing his
robes or carrying his bowl, he does so with constant thorough
understanding of impermanence; whether he is eating, drinking, chewing
or savouring, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence; while attending to the calls of nature, he does so with
constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is walking,
standing, sitting, sleeping or waking, speaking or in silence, he does
so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence.

With proper understanding of the teaching of the Buddha, it becomes
clear that if this continuous sampajañña consists only of the thorough
understanding of the external processes of walking, eating, and other
activities of the body, then what is being practised is merely sati. If,
however, the constant thorough understanding includes the
characteristic of the arising and passing away of vedanā while the
meditator is performing these activities, then sampajāno satimā is being
practised, paññā (wisdom) is being developed.

The Buddha describes this more specifically in this passage from the
Aṅguttara-nikāya (VRI I. Catukkanipāta, 12; PTS II 15) in words
reminiscent of Sampajānapabbaṃ:

Yataṃ care yataṃ tiṭṭhe, yataṃ acche yataṃ saye
yataṃ samiñjaye bhikkhu, yatamenaṃ pasāraye
uddhaṃ tiriyaṃ apācīnaṃ, yāvatā jagato gati,
samavekkhitā ca dhammānaṃ, khandhānaṃ udayabbayaṃ.

Whether the monk walks or stands or sits or lies,
whether he bends or stretches, above, across, backwards,
whatever his course in the world,
he observes the arising and passing away of the aggregates.

The Buddha clearly emphasized the thorough understanding of anicca
(impermanence) in all bodily and mental activities. Therefore, since the
proper understanding of this technical term, sampajañña, is so critical
for an understanding of this sutta, we have translated it as “the
constant thorough understanding of impermanence,” even though this
definition is less concise than the traditional “thorough
understanding.”

4. In this introductory paragraph the Buddha repeats a basic verbal
formula reminding us that we must continuously observe “body in body,”
or “sensations in sensations,” or “mind in mind,” or “mental contents in
mental contents.” Though these verbal constructs may seem unusual, they
refer to the fact that this observation has to be directly experiential
rather than dealing only with thought, imagination or contemplation of
the object.

The Buddha emphasizes this point in the Ānāpānasati Sutta
(Mājjhima-nikāya III: VRI. 149; PTS 83-4), where he describes the
progressive stages of the practice of ānāpāna meditation. In the section
where he explains how the four satipaṭṭhānā are brought to perfection
by ānāpāna he says:

…kāyesu kāyaññatarāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ vadāmi yadidaṃ
assāsapassāsā. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, kāye kāyānupassī tasmiṃ samaye
bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

…Monks, when I say, ‘inhalation-exhalation,’ it is like another body
in the body. Observing body in body in this way, monks, at that time a
monk dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, having removed craving and aversion towards this world
[of mind and matter].

This indicates that practising ānāpāna meditation leads directly to
experiencing the body, which means feeling sensations in the body. The
sensations may be related to the breath, the oxygen flowing in the
blood, etc. but those details are not important. The body-in-body
experience is not imagined or contemplated but felt throughout the body.
More specifically, he continues:

…vedanāsu vedanāññatarāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ vadāmi yadidaṃ
assāsapassāsānaṃ sādhukaṃ manasikāraṃ. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, vedanāsu
vedanānupassī tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā
vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

…monks, when I say, ‘by proper attention to inhalation-exhalation,’
it is like other sensations in the sensations. Observing sensations in
sensations in this way, monks, at that time a monk dwells ardent with
awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, having
removed craving and aversion towards this world [of mind and matter].

By equating the observation of the breath with experiencing
sensations the Buddha is pointing to the critical importance of the body
and the sensations in proper practice of meditation. It is the
awareness of these sensations by direct experience throughout the body,
while maintaining equanimity with the understanding of impermanence,
that perfects the four satipaṭṭhānas.

It is instructive that in Ānāpānasati Sutta he describes the
experience of body-in-body and sensations-in-sensations as one observes
the breath but when he turns to the observation of mind he does not
continue with the same verbal formula. Instead, he again directs our
attention to the importance of sampajañña:

…citte cittānupassī, bhikkhave, tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave,
muṭṭhassatissa asampajānassa ānāpānassatiṃ vadāmi.

…observing mind in mind, monks, at that time a monk dwells ardent
with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence,
having removed craving and aversion towards this world [of mind and
matter]. I say, monks, one who is inattentive, who is not constantly
aware of impermanence, he is not one doing ānāpāna.

Beginning with ānāpāna as a starting point the practice described
has led directly to Vipassana, i.e., to the practice of the four
satipaṭṭhānas. And here we see how emphatically the Buddha states that,
even while observing the mind, one is not practising properly unless
there is awareness of impermanence with the direct experience of the
sensations.

5. Pajānāti [understands properly] means, “to understand, to know
deeply or intently with wisdom.” It is the result of the intensification
of the verb jānāti (he or she knows) by the addition of the prefix pa-,
from paññā (wisdom).

6. Iti ajjhattaṃ…kāye kāyānupassī viharati. [Thus he dwells…dwells
observing body in body.] This paragraph is repeated twenty-one times
throughout the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, with variations according to
which section of the four satipaṭṭhānas one has reached: body,
sensations, mind or mental contents.

In this key paragraph the Buddha describes the common steps in
Vipassana that all meditators must pass through no matter what section
of the sutta one begins with. In each repetition, this paragraph focuses
our attention on the essential fact that, no matter if one is observing
body, sensations, mind or mental contents, one must understand the
fundamental characteristic of arising and passing away. This
understanding of impermanence then leads directly to the total
detachment from the world of mind and matter which takes us to nibbāna
(liberation).

7. Bahiddhā [externally] is sometimes translated as “outer things”
or “observing another’s body.” In the following section, on the
observation of sensations, it has sometimes been taken to mean “feeling
the sensations of others.” While such an experience is not impossible,
it would be practised only at a very high stage of development.
According to the sutta, the meditator is asked to sit alone somewhere in
a forest, under a tree or in an empty room, and start practising. In
such a situation observing others would be meaningless, and the
sensations of someone or something else would be of no use. For a
meditator, therefore, “externally,” meaning the surface of the body, is
the most practical definition of bahiddhā.

See also note no. 19.

8. The Pāli atthi kāyo [this is body] indicates that the meditator
at this stage clearly understands experientially, at the level of
sensations, “body” in its true nature: its characteristic of arising and
passing away. Therefore the meditator neither makes any identification
of “body” as male or female, young or old, beautiful or ugly, etc., nor
has any attachment towards “I,” “me,” or “mine.”

In the other three sections of the sutta, the sensations, mind and
mental contents are each identified similarly in their corresponding
paragraphs: “This is sensation,” “This is mind,” “These are mental
contents,” to indicate the lack of identification of the meditator with
the object, and his or her understanding of the object in its true
characteristic of anicca (impermanence).

9. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya [Thus he develops his
awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with
mere awareness.] The mind of the meditator at this stage is absorbed in
the wisdom of anicca (the arising and passing away of sensations), with
no identification beyond this awareness. With the base of this awareness
he develops understanding with his own experience. This is paññā
(wisdom). With his awareness thus established in anicca, there is no
attraction to the world of mind and matter.

10. This includes the changing of position as well as the four basic
postures of the body. Whatever one does, an ardent meditator is always
aware with wisdom: yathā yathā vā…tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti (whatever he
does…that he understands properly).

11. Sampajānakārī hoti [does so with constant thorough understanding
of impermanence] literally means: “He is doing (all the time)
sampajañña.” It is helpful to follow the progression of the Buddha’s
words in Pāli: he uses “jānāti” (he knows), “pajānāti” (understands
properly - intently or deeply with wisdom), and “sampajānāti” (he
constantly and thoroughly understands the impermanent nature of his
experience). Each word indicates a progressive step, that the meditator
takes by following the instructions given in the sutta. Thus he proceeds
from simple experience, to understanding based on direct experience, up
to thorough and constant understanding of the impermanence, at the
level of sensations, of each and every experience.

12. Sāmisa [with attachment] literally means: sa-āmisa (with-flesh);
nirāmisa [without attachment]: means nir-āmisa (without-flesh). They
can also be rendered as: “impure” and “pure,” “material” and
“immaterial” or, “sensual” and “nonsensual.” A common interpretation is
that a sensation which is sāmisa is related to the world of sensual
pleasures and a nirāmisa sensation is a sensation related to the higher
meditational realms.

In this context, related to the observation of sensations without
any reaction of craving or aversion by the meditator, we have used “with
attachment” and “without attachment.” These terms seem clearest insofar
as they relate to the practice.

13. See note no. 7.

14. Citta [mind], in this context, is correctly translated as
“mind.” The meditator experiences different states of mind and observes
them in an objective and detached manner. It might be misleading to
translate citta here as “thought.”

Citte cittānupassī [mind in mind] refers to the experiential nature of the observation required (see note no. 4).

15. Saṅkhittaṃ [collected] and vikkhittaṃ [scattered] correspond to
mental states either scattered because of the pañca nīvaraṇā, the “five
hindrances,” or collected when the hindrances are not manifesting their
respective effects. (See the following Section 5A, The Hindrances.)

16. Mahaggataṃ cittaṃ [expanded mind] means literally: “mind having
become great;” i.e., by the practice and development of the jhānas (the
practice of absorption samādhi). It refers to a mind expanded by the
practice of these deep samādhis, rather than the stage transcending mind
and matter. Amahaggataṃ cittaṃ [unexpanded mind] thus means a mind not
having become expanded in this way.

17. Sa-uttaraṃ [surpassable] means: “having something higher than
that” or “not superior.” This type of mind is still connected with the
mundane field. Anuttaraṃ [unsurpassable], correspondingly, is a mind
that has reached a very high stage of meditation, where nothing is
superior. Therefore “surpassable” and “unsurpassable,” though not very
precise, seem to be the nearest translations.

18. Samāhitaṃ [concentrated] and asamāhitaṃ [unconcentrated] are
related to the type of samādhi (concentration) that one has gained;
states of concentration that are called: upacāra (neighbourhood
concentration, i.e. approaching a level of absorption) and appanā
samādhi (absorption, or attainment, concentration). Asamāhitaṃ cittaṃ
therefore describes a mental state without that depth of concentration.

19. Iti ajjhattaṃ…bahiddhā…ajjhattabahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī
viharati [Thus he dwells observing mind in mind internally…
externally…both internally and externally]. Applied to the mind (and in
the next section, the mental contents) this sentence has sometimes been
interpreted to mean that the meditator observes his own mind
(internally) and the mind of others (externally). This can be done only
by a very highly developed meditator, therefore it is not a practical
instruction for most people.

In this section the meditator is asked to experience directly the
mind in mind (citte cittānupassī). This can be done only by observing
whatever arises in the mind. As the body was experienced by means of
what arises on the body (i.e., sensation); the mind is experienced only
when something arises in the mind (i.e., the mental contents). When the
mind is observing the internal objects - its own internal mental states -
it is observing the mind in mind internally.

To observe the mind and mental contents externally means to observe
experientially that any object which comes in contact with the mind-body
through any of the six sense doors (that is, an external stimulus)
causes an internal reaction. Any sight, sound, taste, smell, touch or
thought results in a sensation and the mind feels it. Of course,
internal mental states and sensation resulting from contact with
external objects will all mix and flow together.

Therefore, again, we see the importance of the Buddha’s statement:

Vedanā-samosaraṇā sabbe dhammā.

Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations. (Aṅguttara-nikāya: VRI III. Dasakanipāta, 58; PTS V. 107)

Whether the object is internal or external, if the mind remains
within the body observing the sensations, then it is directly
experiencing the mind and mental contents in a tangible way that easily
allows the meditator to experience the impermanent nature of the entire
mind-matter phenomenon.

20. Pañca upādānakkhandhā [the five aggregates of clinging] consist
of: rūpakkhandha (the material aggregate) connected with kāya (body) and
the four nāmakkhandhā (aggregates of mind), which are: viññāṇakkhandha
(the aggregate of consciousness);
saññākkhandha (the aggregate of perception);
vedanākkhandha (the aggregate of feeling of sensations on the body)
saṅkhārakkhandha (the aggregate of reaction).

The pañca upādānakkhandhā are aggregates of clinging, or attachment,
in two ways. They are the basic objects to which we cling because of
our illusion that the five together make up “I,” “me.” In addition, the
continual arising of the aggregates - with the attendant suffering that
goes with the cycle of becoming - is due to the clinging toward this
illusory “I.” Aggregates and clinging always go together, except in the
case of an arahant, who has pañca khandhā, the five aggregates, but no
clinging towards them; no upādāna (attachment or clinging) is possible
for such a person.

21. Here dhamma has to be understood as the law of nature, the
nature of the law in its totality. At a superficial level dhammavicaya
[investigation of Dhamma] can be understood to mean intellectual
investigation of the law. But to become a factor of enlightenment
dhammavicaya must become an experiential investigation - direct
experience of the phenomenon of arising and passing away at the level of
sensations.

22. Pīti [rapture] is difficult to translate into English. It is
often translated as: “joy,” “delight,” “bliss” or “thrill.” Each of
these words conveys at least partially the meaning of mental and
physical pleasantness. For pīti to become a factor of enlightenment it
must be experienced in its true nature as ephemeral, arising and passing
away. Only then can the meditator avoid the danger of becoming attached
to the pleasantness of this stage.

23. As with the previous factor of enlightenment, passaddhi
[tranquillity], becomes a factor of enlightenment only when it is
experienced as impermanent, anicca - arising and passing away. The
danger for the meditator here is that this stage of deep tranquillity
might be mistaken for the final goal of nibbāna. This deep illusion
(moha) is removed by the experience of anicca as one experiences this
tranquillity.

24. In the texts byādhi [sickness] is sometimes included, sometimes omitted.

25. Here it is very clear that the word dukkha [pain] is related to
the body, and domanassa [grief] to the mind. Correspondingly, sukha
(bodily pleasure) is related to the body, somanassa (mental pleasure) to
the mind and adukkhamasukha (neither painful nor pleasant) as neutral,
to both body and mind.

26. The word loke [world] has a wide spectrum of meaning:
“universe,” “world,” “region,” “people.” In this entire section it is
used in connection with everything that one experiences at any of the
six senses, and the entire process of the contact between the senses and
their respective objects. So in this context loke is to be understood
as the “world” of the mind-body phenomenon. Therefore the entire “world”
can be directly experienced at the level of the sensations in the body
that result from any of these interactions.

27. Vitakko [thought conception] refers to the initial application
of the mind to an object. This is contrasted with vicāro [rolling in
thoughts] in the next paragraph, which refers to a sustained application
of the mind on an object.

In the later section, dealing with the jhānas (see pp. 72,73), the
translation reflects this relationship more directly since the context
is one of deep absorption in the object of meditation rather than one
where mental impurities are arising.

28. Evaṃ [in this manner], as explained throughout the entire sutta,
is ātāpī sampajāno satimā (ardent with awareness of mind and body at
the level of sensations and with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence). In order to achieve these guaranteed results the
continuity should be sampajaññaṃ na riñcati ([the meditator] does not
lose the constant thorough understanding of impermanence even for a
moment).

29. The final stage of liberation of an arahant.

30. The stage of an anāgāmī [non-returner] is the third and next-to-last stage of liberation

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05/19/19
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LESSON 2996 Mon 20 May 2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Tipitaka Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://LESSON 2994 Sat 18 May 2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Tipitaka
is the MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana
Ytttyu

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA yuuuugyyyKUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana
Ytttyu

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA yuuuugyyyKUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGESh

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
H
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

@Anonymous: All Awakened Aboriginal Societies I.e., Sarvajan Samaj must unite to start a real freedom struggle against just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded paradesis from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (RowdyRakshahsa Swayam Sevaks) to make them quit Prabuddha Bharat. The Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting institutions (Modi) already declared more than 360 in his mission with the support of CJI, CEC, PRESSTITUTE Media as chelas, stooges, chamchas, slaves, bootlickers, own mother’s flesh eaters. 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj must insist on Ballot Papers to save Universal
Adult Franchise, Democracy, Equality, Fraternity, Liberty as enshrined in our Modern Marvelous Constitution.

https://youtu.be/9gt1nuXaZ4s

There are also some claims that the temple was a Buddhist shrine till the 8th century before Adi Shankara played his part in …
researches also showed that The Badrinath Temple was worshipped as Buddhist Temple too, during the reign of Asoka. If you will see the Badrinath Temple, then the outlook of this temple also brings the idea of Buddhist temples.

Modi on Sunday arrived at Badrinath, another temple in Uttarakhand’s revered …

http://indohistory.com/buddhist_temples.html

Buddhist Architecture

Gandhara Architecture Gave Rise To Buddhist Architecture

Buddhist ArchitecturePass to the river Indus which Alexander the Great used to invade India in 326BC. Gandhara architecture, the merger of Indian and Greek art, took the form of Buddhist cult objects, Buddhas and ornaments for Buddhist monasteries. Hindu icons were few. Monasteries were invariably made of stone, and most of the sculpture (like friezes) was used to decorate the lower levels of buildings.

The genesis of the first Buddhist stupa came about during this period. The more decorative art was in the form of small votive stupas illustrated with clay images of birds, dragons, sea serpents and humans.

The most characteristic trait of Gandhara sculpture is the standing or seated Buddha in the few hundreds of temples which have survived out of thousands. The seated Buddha is always cross legged in the traditional Indian way.

Magnificent Buddhist Sculptors

The teachings of the Buddhism were adopted by Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 255BC as the religion that he as well as most of his subjects would follow. Towards this the king undertook steps to awaken and enlighten his people about the teachings of the Buddha, and to make sure that they would not forget how important it was for them to be Buddhists Ashoka took certain measures. These are the most early Buddhist sculptors, and were mainly of six types: stone pillars with inscriptions on them called edicts; stupas; monolithic pillars; shrines; a vast palace and a group of rock cut chambers. Out of these the most important ones were the edicts and the stupas and can still be seen today.

Ashoka Edifices

The Construction of Pillars

Ashoka’s edicts were nothing but circular free standing pillars rising upto to great heights so that they could be seen from a distance, topped off with a stone lion.

Made of bricks, they carried declarations from the king regarding Buddhism. There were probably thirty in all, but now only two still stand. The pillars did not stand in isolation, and were usually found near stupas in a spot either unknowingly marked by the Buddha himself or along the royal route to Magadha, the capital. The pillars were about forty feet in height, circular and rising straight out of the ground without evidence of a base to hold it up. At the top space was left for a Buddhist symbol to be placed, normally a lion. The pillar itself would bear inscriptions from the king, or teachings of the Buddha, upto a readable height and in large letters.

The Stupas

The stupas were large halls capped with a dome and bore symbols of the Buddha. Their purpose was to instill awe into the minds of the common people who, at that time, lived in small wooden houses. But the stupa was not the only awe-inspiring monuments; it was associated with a number of additional smaller structures such as pillared gates, decorated railings, umbrellas and lion thrones. All these were first made with brick, but when Ashoka realized that they would not stand the vigours of time and weather, he switched to stone.

The most famous of the stupas, the one at Sanchi, was originally built by Ashoka. In 150BC, renovation work was undertaken and massive additions were made to it. The stupa was made higher and broader, 120 feet in diameter and 54 feet high, as it is today. The timber railings were replaced by stone ones, standing 11 feet high with entrances at five cardinal point, forming a barricade. The emblem of protection, this stone railing encompassed the entire area around the stupa and the sacred tree (actually a branch from the holy tree in Bodh Gaya in Bihar was planted here) under which the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment. The entrance to a stupa is through a stone gate, intricately carved with images of daily Buddhist life and stone lions guarding the images and the gate.

Palace of Ashoka - A ‘Magnum opus’

Ashoka’s palace near Patna was a masterpiece. Made mostly of wood, it seems to have been destroyed by fire. Enclosed by a high brick wall, the highlight of the palace was an immense pillared hall three storey and 250 feet high. Pillars were arranged at intervals of fifteen feet, and the ceiling was adorned with stone images and horizontally supported by wooden beams.

Construction of Monastries

The other all important Buddhist building is the shrine or the monastery.

Here the Gandhara style of architecture comes into play, following a similar pattern for all buildings. Definitely religious in nature, the construction of a monastery followed a somewhat irregular design.

Built on the patterns of a fort and defended by a stone wall, the monastery evolved from the site of an ancient stupa. Living quarters for monks were separated from that of prayer, with the former consisting of houses, small votive stupas, solitary pillars and tiny cells for low rank monks. The principle buildings were housed within a rectangular courtyard with a stupa in the south and the monastery in the north. The court was the most important building, surrounded on three sides by a range of small chapels. A flight of stairs connected the stupa with the monastery whose rooms were small and functional. Called the sanghrama, these cells were located around the central courtyard.

Buddhist Temples

While the stupas were places of religious learning, buddhist temples were used for dual purposes; prayers and teachings. Brick was rarely used, and stone formed the base of most temple building. The Hinayana sect concentrated in the southern and western sides of India and excavated halls out of mountains, creating temples out of them in secluded regions. The Mahayanas were more adventurous, as can be seen from the Buddhist temples in Ajanta and Ellora. The Ajanta carvings consist of viharas or halls, supported by pillars, all cut out from one solid piece of mountain.

Buddhist Cave Temples

The task of making a cave temple was a simple one. Wooden pegs were driven into the mountainside and then watered so that they expanded, breaking the rock face into manageable blocks. Huge sections of stone were either moved or left where they were depending on the requirement. The split rock face would then be dug into, carving entire halls from it. After that, all that was left to be done was to carve out intricate details into pillars, walls, ceilings and doorways, which usually took years to complete.

Rock art of the Buddhists was not constricted to temples and stupas. The Buddha himself was the inspiration behind massive statues of his likeness made out of stone, brass and copper. Buddha statues know no boundaries - they can be larger than life, going upto great heights (over 14 metres), reaching up into the sky or showing him reclining. However, in stupas and places of worship, the Buddha is almost never shown and is represented indirectly through foot impressions, empty thrones and the chakra (wheel).

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Posted by: site admin @ 1:03 am

LESSON 2994 Sat 18 May 2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Tipitaka
is the MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana
Ytttyu

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA yuuuugyyyKUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
through

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana

“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Buddha Purnima, also known as Buddha Jayanti is the birthday celebration of Lord Buddha. It is the most sacred Buddhist festival and commemorates Lord Buddha’s enlightenment and birth.
This year Buddha Purnima is falling on Saturday, 18th May. The day is considered to be a public holiday for most schools and offices. It is said that Lord Buddha was born in Lumbini, which is a part of Nepal. He was born around the 5th or 6th century as Prince Siddhartha Gautama to a royal family. He began his quest for enlightenment after seeing the suffering human race.

https://static-toiimg-com.cdn.ampproject.org/i/s/static.toiimg.com/photo/msid-69357527/69357527.jpg?resizemode=4&width=400

https://static-toiimg-com.cdn.ampproject.org/i/s/static.toiimg.com/photo/msid-69357518/69357518.It is believed that he gained enlightenment at Bodhgaya, state of Bihar. It is believed that he took his last breath at Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh at the age of 80.
This year it will be the 2,851st birth anniversary of Buddha. This festival is celebrated at various Buddhist sites across India, including Bodhgaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar. It is also celebrated in other Buddhist regions such as Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and North Bengal.
b2 (1)
In Sikkim, the festival is celebrated as Sage Dawa while in Gangtok, a procession of monks carries the holy book from Tsuklakhang Palace Monastery around town. This is accompanied by the blowing of horns, beating of drums and burning of incense sticks. Some people also dance in celebration.
b3 (1)
The festival is also celebrated in Buddha Jayanti Park, New Delhi. The park is located at the end of Delhi Ridge and the closest metro station to this location is Rajiv Chowk.

Vinay’s first Piano recital
Excellent Vinay. Keep it up. Thaatha, Paati, Pradeep mama, Banu mami, Tushar, Harshith
Bambaiyya’: A magic carpet tour of Mumbai
Mumbai’s past and present with a 360 degree view? Take a look at ‘Bambaiyya’

India Art Fair, which takes place each year at the NSIC grounds in Okhla, Delhi, is one of India’s biggest commercial events for contemporary and modern art from South Asia. It attracts art enthusiasts, fashion bloggers, celebrities, wannabe celebrities, and gawkers.

Then in 2018, pushing back against this juggernaut, came The Irregulars Art Fair (TIRAF) at Khirki Village. Co-founded by Tarini Sethi and Anant Ahuja, it was just the ‘anti-art fair’ art fair that Delhi needed. One of the main attractions of TIRAF was a virtual reality show called ‘Bambaiyya’. A long line had snaked in front of the enclosure and it was clear that the show was attracting a lot of attention. Earlier in May, there was a similar long line when ‘Bambaiyya’ was shown at Mumbai’s Bhau Daji Lad Museum.

Feel transported

‘Bambaiyya’ is a joint creation of Archit Vaze, Salil Parekh, Tejas Nair, Alap Parikh and Jyoti Narayan, conceived in 2017 at the Eyemyth New Media Arts Festival when the quintet had gotten together to create an encounter with Mumbai through the eyes of three communities — the Kolis, the Parsis and the mill workers — who form the core of the city. And how did they recreate it? By driving the viewer around virtually in a kaali-peeli, the ubiquitous black-and-yellow taxi. It gives the viewer a 360 degree view that makes her feel transported to the heart of the country’s financial capital.

Each of the five artists is from a different background. Vaze is a visual artist and storyteller. Parekh’s background is in design.

https://www.thehindu.com/society/ktiwsw/article27158875.ece/alternates/FREE_320/19SMBhalla3JPjpg

Nair is a music producer and DJ. Parikh is an artist focusing on immersive experiences. Narayan has worked in the design industry for the last decade and has a keen interest in Indian history, culture and mythology.

The group wanted to make the experience a stylised one — using both 360-degree videos and graphic stylisation — but due to resource constraints, had to make do with 2D and 3D animation and illustrations.

They chose virtual reality, they say, because it is a unique and niche medium. “It lets you experience places like you might not have before. It’s a very magical experience. You get to be in someone else’s shoes while still having a sense of your reality. This kind of storytelling is unique, and the younger audience relates to it well,” says Narayan.

And because VR is expensive, the group decided that a Samsung Gear VR along with a Samsung Galaxy Note was the ideal set-up to give the audience a comfortable viewing experience — while still being affordable. “Making a good VR experience requires a good team working behind it. This is the case with a lot of things in life. Finding the right people to collaborate with is the key,” Narayan says. Once that is done, the rest of the journey does not seem that difficult.

The phase after the research was a really difficult period for the group. Each community has its own unique narratives. To whittle them down to just three wasn’t easy. Furthermore, during the making of the VR experience, the stories had to be made shorter to create more suitable viewing times, so that as many people as possible get the chance to see it.

At home in a taxi

“The three communities were chosen keeping in mind the time and resources as well as the scope the medium allows. We plan to explore other communities as well, provided we get more funds for it,” Narayan says. “We focus on the contribution of these communities to building the city of Mumbai. Each of the three communities has contributed in different ways — the Kolis gave land, the Parsis gave money and administrative skills, and the mill workers gave labour.”

https://www.thehindu.com/society/flnj5a/article27158876.ece/alternates/FREE_320/19SMBhalla5jpg

A 360 degree view of the mill workers’ community | Photo Credit: Bambaiyya VR
Why did they choose to take the viewer around in a kaali-peeli? Narayan says that the kaali-peelis have been an integral part of the city ever since they replaced the horse-driven carriages or victorias. “The taxi, its interiors, its meter, its rolled-up windows, the driver talking throughout the journey, the radio playing in the background while the city’s commotion plays outside… it has a unique character. This is the spirit of Mumbai, which always makes you feel at home.”

Late in 2018, when the project was first displayed in Mumbai, the group came across many people who shared their own stories and experiences of living in chawls. “It was special when people felt connected to their past when experiencing our project,” Narayan says. “In Delhi, it was a completely different experience. Many knew the political history of Mumbai but were really fascinated to know the stories of these various communities that helped build it.”

Sharing stories

Narayan summaries what she has learnt from working on the project, “There are so many stories to tell. Each of us has something to narrate. And when we want to express these stories, we should find the right medium to do so. By sharing our stories with others, we make them a part of it and our stories live with them. The more people pass on this knowledge, the more of these stories will survive. But the physical spaces and the traditional occupations of these communities might not survive the test of time.”

VR as a medium is very exciting, even in its nascent stages. And it opens up a whole new dimension when it is used in art, a sort of merging of the real with the surreal that lets you interact with and experience “reality” on a different plane altogether. For a project and a concept like ‘Bambaiyya’, VR proved to be perfect.

The writer is a Delhi-based freelance journalist.

All Awakened Aboriginal Societies leader Ms Mayawati said that we all will return back to our own home Buddhism. It is hoped that days are not far away.

Best wishes to all celebrating Veshak, a sacred occasion to millon’s around the world, in a time of growing intolerance and inequality, the Buddha’s message of non violence and service to others is more relevant than ever. On the day of Veshak, let us review our commitment to building a world of peace and dignity for all.

“Train yourself to do the Good that last long & brings Happiness. Cultivate Generosity, the Life of Peace & the Mind of Love”. - THE SUPREMELY ENLIGHTENED BUDDHA.
The Day of Birth, The Day of Enlightenment & The Day of Great Liberation - The 2563rd VESHAKA BUDDHA POORNIMA CELEBRATIONS brings Universal Peace, Compassion & Happiness to all the Living Beings.

https://www.deccanherald.com/national/west/nevermind-horses-sc-youth-goes-with-elephant-in-guj-734339.html?fbclid=IwAR2LIPzlubZloQSN6J38OodUtRvdtD9wOpqwUeCsZLk74uunXE17sLouEls

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05/17/19
LESSON 2994 Sat 18 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 18-05-2019 Bengaluru Saturday Venue: Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India SACRED VESAKHA BUDDHA POORNIMA 9:00 AM
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 4:14 pm
LESSON 2994 Sat 18 May  2019


Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Tipitaka
is the
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]




from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca


Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās

 through 

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana


“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”


TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/events/happy-buddha-purnima-2019-wishes-messages-prayers-quotes-images-facebook-and-whatsapp-status/articleshow/69373617.cms
Budhha Purnima, also known as Vesak and Buddha Jayanti celebrates the
birth anniversary of Lord Buddha. This festival falls on the full moon
day in the month of Baisakh, and it would be celebrated on May 12 this
year.

Gautam Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha Gautama around 563 BC in
a place called Lumbini, which is in present-day Nepal now. Along with
the birth anniversary, it is also believed that Buddha achieved nirvana
on this day. The devotees celebrate this day by discussing the teachings
of Lord Buddha, chanting mantras, offering prayers at temples and
donating alms to the needy. Here are some wishes, messages, prayers,
quotes, images that you can share with your near and dear ones on the
occasion and also put up as Facebook and Whatsapp status.

Wishes
On Buddha Purnima, wishing that peace and tranquility be by your side…today and always!

May the full moon of Buddha Purnim

away the darkness of ignorance, bigotry and hatred

and herald an era of contentment

peace and enlightenment for the world!

Heartiest Greetings on this day

Happy Buddha Jayanti!!

“We live in illusion and the appearance of things. There is a
reality. We are that reality. When you understand this, you see that you
are nothing, and being nothing, you are everything. That is all.” Happy
Buddha Purnima.

Rely on the teachings, not on the person

Rely on the meaning, not on the words

Rely on the real life, not on the dreams

Rely on the wisdom, not on the mind inside

Happy Buddha Jayanti!

Spread the message

Of universal brotherhood

And compassion

Far and wide

Wishing you peace on

Buddha Jayanti

May Lord Buddha enlighten you on the path of love, peace and truth.

Let us pray for peace and harmony for all the humankind on this auspicious day…

Happy Buddha Jayanti!

On Buddha Jayanti…

Wishing that you find…

Rays of hope…

And your life is enlightened…

By the divine grace…

Of Lord Buddha!

May the Lord Buddha enlighten you on the path of

Truth, love and peace.

You may gather knowledge, power, prestige and money

Happy Buddha Purnima…!

On life’s journey—Faith is nourishment,

Virtuous deeds are a shelter,

Wisdom is the light by day and Right mindfulness is the protection by night.

If a man lives a pure life, nothing can destroy him.

If he has conquered greed, nothing can limit his freedom.

May Lord Buddha’s preachings for

right conduct,

right motive,

right speech,

right effort,

right resolve,

right livelihood,

right attention and

right meditation…

help us to eradicate evil and suffering from this world.

Happy Buddha Jayanti.

Wish you be showered with…

Abundant fortune and prosperity…

And find the path to…

Eternal happiness…

Happy Buddha Jayanti!

Quotes by Gautam Buddha

Your purpose in life is to find your purpose and give your whole heart and soul to it.

All that we are is the result of what we have thought. If a man
speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him. If a man speaks
or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that
never leaves him.

Pay no attention to the faults of others,

things done or left undone by others.

Consider only what by oneself is done or left undone.

Do not dwell in the past,

Do not dream of the future,

Concentrate the mind on the present moment

No one saves us but ourselves.

No one can and no one may.

We ourselves must walk the path.

Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the
life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by
being shared.

We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.

Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship.



Images




Happy Buddha Purnima 2019


Happy Buddha Purnima 2019


Happy Buddha Purnima 2019




Happy Buddha Purnima 2019


Happy Buddha Purnima 2019






https://www.latestly.com/lifestyle/festivals-events/buddha-purnima-2019-quotes-and-messages-share-these-inspirational-teachings-by-lord-buddha-to-celebrate-buddha-jayanti-846094.html



Buddha Purnima 2019 Quotes and Messages: Share These Inspirational Teachings by Lord Buddha to Celebrate Buddha Jayanti





Buddha Purnima 2019 Quotes and Messages: Share These Inspirational Teachings by Lord Buddha to Celebrate Buddha Jayanti

Happy Buddha Purnima (Photo Credits: File Image)

Devotees in India and across the
Asian countries will celebrate the birthday, enlightenment and death of
Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. Buddha Jayanti, also known as
Buddha Purnima or Vesak is the most sacred Buddhist festival. The birth
anniversary of Lord Buddha is held on a full moon in late April or May
each year. In 2019, Buddha Jayanti will be celebrated on May 18 in India
and it will be the 2581st birth anniversary of Lord Buddha. As the
auspicious festivity is nearing, Lord Buddha followers are looking for
his immortal quotes that continue to inspire them. Since the search
trend for Buddha Jayanti 2019 quotes is increasing, we have compiled
inspirational sayings of Gautama Buddha that will regain the
spirituality in you on the auspicious occasion of Buddha Purnima. Along
with Buddha Jayanti quotes, you can also download Lord Buddha images
that symbolise the spiritual leader’s emphasis on compassion, peace and
happiness. Vesak Poya 2019 Date and Significance: Buddha Jayanti or Buddha Purnima Celebrations in Sri Lanka. 

Buddhists regard Lumbini (which is now part of Nepal) to be the
birthplace of Gautama Buddha. Named Siddhartha Gautama, historians say
that he was born as a prince into a royal family sometime in the 5th or
6th century BC. At the age of 29, he left his family and began his quest
for enlightenment after seeing the extent of human suffering beyond the
walls of his magnificent palace. Gautama Buddha is believed to have
passed away at Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh, at the age of 80. Hindu
communities in India, believe Buddha to be the ninth incarnation of Lord
Vishnu, as indicated in Holy Scriptures. As auspicious the festival of
Buddha Jayanti is, Lord Buddha quotes inspire humanity and will help you
to attain peace and dedicate your life to good causes. Know Significance And Celebrations Associated With Buddha Jayanti.


Happy Buddha Purnima (Photo Credits: File Image)

“If you knew what I know about the power of giving you
would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.” -
Gautama Buddha


Happy Buddha Purnima (Photo Credits: File Image)

“Learn this from water: loud splashes the brook but the ocean’s depth are calm.” - Gautama Buddha

Happy Buddha Purnima (Photo Credits: File Image)

“I never see what has been done; I only see what remains to be done.” - Gautama Buddha

Happy Buddha Purnima (Photo Credits: File Image)

“Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who
said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own
reason and your own common sense.” - Gautama Buddha

Happy Buddha Purnima (Photo Credits: File Image)

“Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart,
kind speech, and a life of service and compassion are the things which
renew humanity.” - Gautama Buddha


Happy Buddha Purnima (Photo Credits: File Image)

“What you think, you become. What you feel, you attract. What you imagine, you create.” - Gautama Buddha

Lord Buddha left us in the ancient period, but his eternal quotes
are still enthralled by his followers. His teachings will continue to
inspire and develope good values within us. Gautama Buddha is the
greatest teacher of mankind. Share the above Buddha Jayanti 2019 quotes
on Buddha’s birth anniversary and spread his teachings and positivity to
all the close people you know this Buddha Purnima.

18-05-2019                         Bengaluru                           Saturday

Venue: Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India

SACRED VESAKHA BUDDHA POORNIMA

9:00 AM

Siri Mahabodhi Puja, Vishwa Maitri Puja,

Siriada Cetiya Puja, Buddha Puja,

at Mahabodhi Lokashanti Buddha Vihara,


Undertaking of Tisarana, Attasila and Pancasila

administered by

Ven. Pamakkha Thera,

Sr. Teacher, Mahabodhi Monastic Institute


Dhamma Desana and Blessing by

Chief Guest

Ven. Dr. Varasambodhi Maha Thera

Vice President, Mahabodhi Society of India, Bodhgaya


Offering of redecorated Buddha Image by

Maha Upasika K.S. Bharati Bai Kamble, Hyderabad


Release of Publications


The Buddha and His Dhamma - Part 1, by Ven. Acharya Buddharakkhita

Positive Response, by Ven. Acharya Buddharakkhita


Guided Kannada & English Meditation Audio CD


Presided by

Venerable Kassapa Maha Thera

President Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

11:00 AM

Sanghadana - Lunch offering for monks

12:30 PM

Lunch for devotees

1:30 PM

Dhamma Deeksha and Kannada Discourse by

Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda

General Secretary, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

3:00 PM

Upasampada - Higher Bhikkhu Ordination

and Documentary on Lord Buddha

4:30 PM

Tea Break

6:00 PM

Deepa Puja and Meditation under the Bodhi Tree and

Dhamma Desana, Offering Lights and

Vandana to Supremely Awakened Buddha

7:30 PM

Punanumodhana

Merit Sharing and conclusion with deepa puja


@ Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

09:30 AM

BUDDHA JAYANTI DHAMMA DEEPA PROGRAM

AtKanchi Mahabodhi Buddha Vihara,

Vaiyavoor Road, Near Old Railway Station, Kanchipuram, 631502

Led by Ven. Bhikku Dhammindo

Special Thanks to

Upasaka Nagasen, Dhoke, Upasaka Ambaresh, Upasaka Mali Patil,

& all other Upasakas & Upasikas

Kindly donate and earn merits, You may kindly send your donations to

Maha Bodhi Society

Account No. 353102010000137

IFSC Code: UBIN 0535311

MIRC Code: 560026005

Union Bank of India, Gandhinagar, Bangalore - 560009, India


We than all donors who have generously helped us

to make these programs successful

Maha Bodhi Society

14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India

Email: info@mahabodhi.info  www.mahabodhi.info

Mobile: 9731635108, 9343158020, 9845703702

Thank you very much

All are Welcome

mahabodhi.info
Maha
Bodhi Society, Bengaluru, is a Buddhist charitable Organization
established in 1956 by Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita with the main
objective of reviving the compassionate teachings of the Buddha in the
land of its origin, India. Our aim is to put into practice the precious
teachings of the B…
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LESSON 2993 Fri 17 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 18-05-2019 Bengaluru Saturday Venue: Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India SACRED VESAKHA BUDDHA POORNIMA 9:00 AM Siri Mahabodhi Puja, Vishwa Maitri Puja, Siriada Cetiya Puja, Buddha Puja, at Mahabodhi Lokashanti Buddha Vihara,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 12:07 am
LESSON 2993 Fri 17 May  2019


Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Tipitaka
is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]



from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās

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Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana


“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”


TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_buddha/
Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, India, built by King Ashoka, where Buddha gave his first sermon
The Great Stupa
at Sarnath, near Varanasi, is said to mark the site where the Buddha
preached
his first sermon.
 
THE
BUDDHA


 
AND
HIS
DHAMMA

                
by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

The Great Stupa
at Sarnath, near Varanasi, is said to mark the site where the Buddha
preached
his first sermon.


[*EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION*]

*AUTHOR’S UNPUBLISHED
PREFACE
*

*INTRODUCTION*

*PROLOGUE*

BOOK ONE:  SIDDHARTH GAUTAMA — HOW A
BODHISATTA BECAME
THE BUDDHA

*Part I — From Birth
to Parivraja
*


*Part II — Renunciation for Ever*

*Part III — In Search of New
Light
*


*Part IV — Enlightenment and
the
Vision of a New Way
*


*Part V — The Buddha and His
Predecessors
*


*Part VI — The Buddha and His
Contemporaries
*


*Part VII — Comparison and
Contrast
*

BOOK TWO: CAMPAIGN OF CONVERSION

*Part I — Buddha and
His
Vishad Yoga
*


*Part II — The Conversion of
the
Parivrajakas
*


*Part III — Conversion of the
High
and the Holy
*


*Part IV — Call from Home*

*Part V — Campaign for
Conversion
Resumed
*


*Part VI — Conversion of the
Low
and the Lowly
*


*Part VII — Conversion of Women*

*Part VIII — Conversion of the
Fallen
and the Criminals
*

BOOK THREE: WHAT THE BUDDHA TAUGHT

*Part I — His Place
in His
Dhamma
*


*Part II — Different Views of
the
Buddha’s Dhamma
*


*Part III — What is Dhamma*

*Part IV — What is Not Dhamma*

*Part V — What is Saddhamma*

BOOK FOUR: RELIGION AND DHAMMA

*Part I — Religion
and Dhamma
*


*Part II — How Similarities in
Terminology
Conceal Fundamental Difference
*


*Part III — The Buddhist Way
of
Life
*


*Part IV — His Sermons*

BOOK FIVE: THE SANGH

*Part I — The Sangh*

*Part II — The Bhikkhu: the
Buddha’s
Conception of Him
*


*Part III — The Duties of the
Bhikkhu
*


*Part IV — The Bhikkhu and the
Laity
*


*Part V — Vinaya for the Laity*

BOOK SIX: HE AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES

*Part I — His
Benefactors
*


*Part II — His Enemies*

*Part III — Critics of His
Doctrines
*


*Part IV — Friends and Admirers*

BOOK SEVEN: THE WANDERER’S LAST JOURNEY

*Book Seven, Part I
— The
Meeting of those Near and Dear
*


*Book Seven, Part II — Leaving
Vaishali
*


*Book Seven, Part III — His End*

BOOK EIGHT: THE MAN WHO WAS SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA

*Book Eight, Part I
— His
Personality
*


*Book Eight, Part II — His
Humanity
*


*Book Eight, Part III — His
Likes
and Dislikes
*

*EPILOGUE*

 

main book index pagedetailed
book section-map
sourcesfwp’s
main page


https://www.oneindia.com/india/why-mayawati-is-regularly-challenging-bjp-conduct-elections-2599689.html
Why Mayawati is regularly challenging BJP to conduct elections with
ballot papers
By Oneindia
| Updated: Monday, December 11, 2017, 9:47 [IST]

Mumbai, Dec 11: Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo Mayawati was the first
one to allege that the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) used during
the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections earlier this year were “faculty and
tampered” which resulted in helping the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to
win the polls in a massive way.

Since then the issue of “faculty and tampered” EVMs used in various
elections has been hogging the limelight. While the Election Commission
(EC) has denied such “wild allegations” by the opposition parties, the
BJP accused rivals of complaining about the EVMs as they have failed to
defeat the saffron party.
evm
Image of an EVM

During the first phase of polling for the Gujarat Assembly elections on
Saturday, several instances of non-functioning and faculty EVMs were
reported from various polling booths.

The Congress has also accused “rigging” of EVMs by the BJP during the
Gujarat elections, which the EC has once again denied. The second and
final phase of polling for the Gujarat Assembly elections is scheduled
on December 14. The results of the elections will be declared on
December 18.

A day after the first phase of polling for the Gujarat elections, the
BSP chief has once again raked up the issue of EVMs by challenging the
ruling BJP to conduct all polls–both Vidhan Sabha and Lok Sabha–with
ballot papers on Sunday.

Addressing a rally in Nagpur, Maharashtra, Mayawati said, “If the BJP
thinks that they are honest and transparent then they should conduct all
the upcoming elections in the country with the ballot paper instead of
the EVM.”

She added that the BJP’s silence on the issue showed that EVMs had
irregularities in elections that were conducted in various parts of
India since 2014.

Mayawati claimed that the BSP had to suffer heavy losses in elections to
the Lok Sabha in 2014 as well as the Assembly elections in UP in 2017
due to these irregularities.

Further attacking the BJP and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the
former UP chief minister said that Dalits, tribals, OBCs and minorities
were facing castiest, religious and communal attitude from the
so-called thekedars (custodians) of the Hindu religion across the
country.

“It was due to this attitude that Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar along with lakhs
of his followers had to embrace Buddhism. He was not against Hinduism
but he was against the inequality meted out,” Mayawati said.

She warned the BJP and the RSS that if this attitude towards the
backward sections of society didn’t change, she along with crores of
others would embrace Buddhism.

Asking her party cadres to be ready for polls, Mayawati said that the
BJP would start constructing the Ram Mandir in UP just before the Lok
Sabha elections to hide their administrative failure in various states
and at the Centre.

She added that the BJP would play the “nationalism” card as well to
garner votes.

Now, it needs to be seen if the EC would once again look into all the
allegations levelled against EVMs by Mayawati to allay such fears to
make the whole process of elections transparent and trustworthy.

OneIndia News

https://www.facebook.com/webindia123/posts/1472461176394748

1610151 FRI LESSON 1658

Tipiṭaka- from Online FREE Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University (OFTRPU) through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
in
92 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Email: chandrasekhara.tipitaka@gmail.com

conducts lessons for the entire society and requesting every one to


Render exact translation to this GOOGLE translation in their Classical
Mother Tongue and in any other languages they know and PRACTICE and
forwarding it to their relatives and friends will qualify them to be a
faculty and to become a STREAM ENTERER (SOTTAPANNA) and then to attain
ETERNAL BLISS as FINAL GOAL !

THIS IS AN EXERCISE FOR ALL THE ONLINE VISITING STUDENTS FOR THEIR PRACTICE

MAY ALL SENTIENT AND NON-SENTIENT BEINGS BE EVER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE !
MAY ALL HAVE CALM, QUIET, ALERT, ATTENTIVE AND EQUANIMITY MINDWITH A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT EVERYTHING IS CHANGING !

ALWAYS DO GOOD AND BE MINDFUL BY PURIFICATION OF THE MIND !

BUDDHA MEANS AWAKENED ONE (A1)WITH AWARENESS !

WE WERE BUDDHISTS, WE ARE BUDDHISTS AND WE CONTINUE TO BE BUDDHISTS

DHAMMO RAKKAHATHI RAKKHITHA !DHAMMA PROTECTS ONE WHO PROTECTS DHAMMA !

SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION NEWS
A VOLCANO


Ex CJI EVM SADHASIVAM, shirked its duty & committed a grave error
of judgment by allowing in phased manner Fraud Tamperable EVMs on the
request of CEC EVM SAMPATH because of the 1600 crore cost to replace
them and dealt a fatal blow to the Country’s democracy.

Ex CJI
did not order for ballot paper system would be brought in. No such
precautionary measure was decreed by the apex court. Ex CJI did not
order that till the time this newer set of about 1300000 voting machines
is manufactured in full & deployed totally. All the people in 80
democracies in the world who simply done away with fradulent EVMs should
not recognise EVM Murderer of democratic institutions(Modi) & his
Government. This had happened because of the the 1% chitpawan brahmins
of RSS practicing hatredness towards 99% Sarvajan Samaj including
SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and the poor upper caste in favour of Capitalists
and Industrialists. Hatred is a defilement of mind which is madness
requiring treatment in a mental asylum with Insight Meditation till they
are cured with this illness of hate.

SOLUTION

The
Intellectuals and intellegent Advocated belonging to Social
Transformation Movement of Sarvajan Samaj must unitedly move the Supreme
Court as the EVMs are insecure, to Scrap them and Order for fresh Lok
Sabha elections and all the State Assembly elections conducted with
these fraud EVMs. Propagate through Internet by creating websites,
creating facebook, tweet, and sending bulk emails TV channels and media
as the present media is a dead wood forgetting what Napolean said: “I
can face two battalions but not two scribes”.Democratic Institutions
such as CJI, CEC, and all other pillars of democracy such as Presidents,
Prime Minister, Chief Ministers, Defence etc. must follow Collegiate
system consisting SC/ST/OBCs/Minorities to challenge the following
judgement:
http://supremecourtofindia.nic.in/outtoday/9093.pdf

http://news.webindia123.com/…/A…/India/20100828/1575461.html

logo

RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutiny
New Delhi | Saturday, Aug 28 2010 IST


Joining the controversy regarding the reliablity of Electronic Voting
Machines (EVMs) which have been questioned by political parties, the RSS
today asked the Election Commission (EC) to revert back to tried and
tested paper ballots and subject EVMs to public scrutiny whether these
gadgets are tamper proof. In an editorial titled ‘Can we trust our
EVMs?’, The Organiser, the RSS mouthpiece, noted it was a fact that till
date an absolutely tamper-proof machine had not been invented and
credibility of any system depends on ‘transparency, verifiability and
trustworthiness’ than on blind and atavistic faith in its infallibility.
The issue is not a ‘private affair’ and it involves the future of
India. Even if the EVMs were genuine, there was no reason for the EC to
be touchy about it, the paper commented. The Government and the EC can’t
impose EVMs as a fait accompli on Indian democracy as the only option
before the voter. There were flaws like booth capturing, rigging, bogus
voting, tampering and ballot paper snatching in the ballot paper system
of polling leading the country to switch over to the EVMs and all these
problems were relevant in EVMs too. Rigging was possible even at the
counting stage. What made the ballot papers voter-friendly was that all
aberrations were taking place before the public eye and hence open for
corrections whereas the manipulations in the EVMs is entirely in the
hands of powers that be and the political appointees manning the sytem,
the paper commented. The EVM has only one advantage — ’speed’ but that
advantage has been undermined by the staggered polls at times spread
over three to four months. ‘’This has already killed the fun of the
election process,'’ the paper noted. Of the dozen General Elections held
in the country, only two were through the EVMs and instead of
rationally addressing the doubts aired by reputed institutions and
experts the Government has resorted to silence its critics by
‘intimidation and arrests on false charges’, the paper observed,
recalling the arrest of Hyederabad-based technocrat Hari Prasad by the
Mumbai Police. Prasad’s research has proved that the EVMs were
‘vulnerable to fraud’. The authorities want to send a message that
anybody who challenges the EC runs the risk of persecution and
harassment, the RSS observed. Most countries around the world looked at
the EVMs with suspicion and countries like the Netherlands, Italy,
Germany and Ireland had all reverted back to paper ballots shunning EVMs
because they were ‘easy to falsify, risked eavesdropping and lacked
transparency’. Democracy is too precious to be handed over to whims or
an opaque establishment and network of unsafe gizmos. ‘’For the health
of Indian democracy it is better to return to tried and tested methods
or else elections in future can turn out to be a farce,'’ the editorial
said.
— (UNI) — 28DI28.xml

Today the very same fraud EVMs
which was doubted by RSS on Saturday, Aug 28 2010 has been tampered in
favor of 1% RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for Murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi) who WERE HATERS, who ARE HATERS and will CONTINUE
TO BE HATERS.

Though the Supreme Court had ordered to replace all
the fraud EVMs with fool proof voting system that is being followed by
80 democries of the world and the tried and tested paper ballots used in
the recent UK elections, the ex CJI Sathasivan committed a grave error
of judgement in allowing the fraud EVMs to be replaced in phases as
suggested by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crore
involved in replacing the fraud EVMs totally.

Now the country is
OF the fraud EVMs favored 1% Horrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant,
Heckling, Lynching Stealth hindutva chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth
Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)!
BY the fraud EVMs favored 1% Terrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant,
Heckling, Stealth hindutva chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis
(BJP) for Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)!!
FOR the
fraud EVMs favored 1% Terrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant,
Heckling, Stealth hindutva chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis
(BJP) for Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)!!!

AND


OFF the 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including LOYAL Arogya
Rakshakas (Safai Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper
Castes!
to
BUY the 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies
including LOYAL Arogya Rakshakas (Safai
Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper Castes!

FAR
the 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including LOYAL Arogya
Rakshakas (Safai Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper
Castes!

Once again the Supreme Court has to be pursued by 99%
Sarvajan Samaj i.e., All Societies literates to SCRAP all the Central
and Sate Elections conducted with these fraud EVMs and order for fresh
elections with FOOL PROOF VOTING SYSTEM. Since the MEDIA has become
DEADWOOD for the 99% and ALIVE just for 1% brahmins and Baniyas
HIGHLIGHT this issue both ONLINE by creating WEBSITES, BLOGS, Emails,
SMSs etc., and OFFLINE by taking the message directly to the people.

Amar Khade

suggests

The practical techniques of Protest !!!


1) Protest using Motorcyles , have a good traffic jams .Mind that
police does not catch you up …..( Just like the Political Rally
…..Nobody will dare to catch you ..The Police are ill equipped to
catch you )

2) Protest using a Truck ….Leave the rented Truck
in middle of road ….Create a Traffic Jam ..Let People and Government
machinery suffer for a while .Let the Traffic Police come and impound
the truck …one can always pay a Little Fine and get the Truck back on
the technicalities that “Truck got broke down ” ….
.
3)Do not waste your energy by shouting in protest ..Play recorded protest messages loud in a Good Public Address System ……


4)Just carry out seating protest …it is the most practical approach
for protest …Government officials cannot use an kind of excessive
FORCE on the seating protesters …..Meanwhile play the protest message
loudly via PA system and take care to wear an ear plug or ear muffler
….The loud noise of PA system really make People crazy ……Sometimes
one have to make Loud Voice when not heard ….

5)Play patriotic
songs in middle of protest messages …that gives a stamp of being
Nationalist ..Nobody can book you under any so called Anti-National
activity ….

6) Different states got different laws regarding
“Offences on Public disruption “…..study those State specific Laws and
then conduct the Protests ….

7) The aim of Protest is
primarily Annoyance to the establishes elite class and the causes of
protest is Annoyance Due to the Public Policy or any Govt actions of
Elitist towards the other disadvantaged social group …..It is just a
game of Tit for Tat ….They annoy you ……You annoy them …They
exert power via Public policy , via their decisions via their newly
amended law …You exert power via Disruption …….Take a note that
Media will be never on your side ….It will always take side of Elite
class ….

8) Use your smart phone to fullest extent …It got a
Video Camera …A Still Camera and good internet connection …….If
any Excessive Force used by Govt Machinery …just Record them …..Use
it as a proof against the perpetrators of Excessive Force …….

We live in Democracy …Protest is my right too …..


Page
1
REPORTABLE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NO.9093 OF 2013
(Arising out of SLP (Civil) No. 13735 of 2012)
Dr. Subramanian Swamy
…. Appellant(s)
Versus
Election Commission of India
…. Respondent(s)
WITH
WRIT PETITION (C) NO. 406 OF 2012
J U D G M E N T
P. Sathasivam, CJI.
1)
Leave granted.
Civil Appeal @ SLP (C) No. 13735 of 2012
2)
This appeal is directed against the judgment and order
dated 17.01.2012 passed by the Division Bench of the High
Court of Delhi at New Delhi in W.P.(C) No. 11879 of 2009
whereby the High Court disposed of the petition by
Page
2
disallowing the prayer made by the appellant herein for
issuance of a writ of
mandamus
directing the Election
Commission of India (ECI)-Respondent herein to incorporate
a system of “paper trail/paper receipt” in the Electronic
Voting Machines (EVMs) as a convincing proof that the EVM
has rightly registered the vote cast by a voter in favour of a
particular candidate.
3)
Being aggrieved of the above, the present appeal has
been filed by way of special leave.
Writ Petition (Civil) No. 406 of 2012
4)
One Rajendra Satyanarayan Gilda has filed this Writ
Petition, under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, praying
for issuance of a writ of
mandamus/
direction(s) directing the
Union of India, the Chief Election Commissioner and the
Technical Experts Committee-Respondent Nos. 1-3 herein
respectively to effect the necessary modifications in the
EVMs so as to allow the voters to verify their respective votes
and to attach the printers to the EVMs with a facility to print
the running record of the votes for the purpose of verification
by the voters in the process of voting. He also prayed for a
2

Page
3
direction to frame guidelines and to effect necessary
amendments in the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961.
5)
In view of the pendency of the appeal filed by Dr.
Subramanian Swamy, this Court issued notice in the writ
petition and tagged with the said appeal.
6)
Heard Dr. Subramanian Swamy, appellant-in-person in
the appeal, Dr. R.R. Deshpande, learned counsel for the writ
petitioner, Mr. Ashok Desai and Ms. Meenakshi Arora, learned
senior counsel for the ECI.
Contentions:
7)
Dr. Subramanian Swamy, the appellant herein
contended before this Court that the present system of
EVMs, as utilized in the last few general elections in India,
does not meet all the requirements of the international
standards and though the ECI maintains that the EVMs
cannot be tampered with, but the fact is that EVMs, like all
electronic equipments, are open to hacking.
8)
The appellant has further highlighted that the instant
matter arises out of the refusal of the ECI to incorporate a
certain obvious safeguard in the EVMs called “paper
3

Page
4
backup”, “paper receipt” or “paper trail”, presently in use
and mandated in some countries like USA, which would easily
and cheaply meet the requirement of proof that the EVM has
rightly registered the vote cast by a voter. The appellant has
further highlighted that the “paper trail” system is to
supplement the procedure of voting as in this procedure,
after recording a vote in the EVM, a print out will come out
which will appraise the voter that his vote has been rightly
registered and the same will be deposited in a box which can
only be used by the ECI in case of election dispute.
9)
It is the categorical stand of the appellant that the
above said system will bring more accuracy in the present
system and if a particular election is challenged on the
ground that some particular identified voter’s voter or the
votes of a group of voters have been suppressed/have not
been correctly assigned by the EVMs, the accepted current
procedure is for a re-run of the same EVMs for a re-count,
however, under the new procedure, a re-count will be of the
receipts in the ballot box containing the printouts the EVMs
4

Page
5
had issued to the voter thereby ensuring more transparency
in the process.
10)
The writ petitioner has also raised similar contentions as
those of Dr. Swamy. According to the petitioner, in the
present system of voting through EVMs, there is no such
facility by which a voter can verify and confirm his own
voting. At present, a voter presses a button only but cannot
ascertain the actual voting. He is not sure whether his vote
is recorded or not, if recorded, whether it is recorded in
favour of the person to whom it was intended or not.
Whether it is valid or invalid and whether it is counted or not.
It is submitted by the petitioner that unless and until answers
to these questions are personally seen by the voter, it cannot
be said that voting is made by him because “pressing a
button of choice and getting flashed the red-light” is not
actual voting in real sense unless the voter knows well that
what has happened in consequence of pressing a button of
his choice from the EVMs.
Stand of the Election Commission of India:
5

Page
6
11)
Mr. Ashok Desai, learned senior counsel for the ECI
submitted that the apprehension that EVMs could be
tampered with is baseless. It was also informed to this Court
that the ECI has been exploring the possibility of
incorporating a viable Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail
(VVPAT) system as a part of the presently used EVMs to
make the election system more transparent. Further, it was
brought to our notice that the ECI conducted field trials for
VVPAT system earlier also but the same had not been
successful and were discontinued. The ECI also filed a
counter affidavit stating that the EVMs provided by the
Commission are of such a high end technology that it cannot
be hacked.
12) Referring to Section 61A of the Representation of the
People Act, 1951, it is submitted that the Statute itself
provides for recording of votes by EVMs and the ECI has been
given the discretion to prescribe recording of votes by such
EVMs as it may deem fit. This discretion has to be exercised
in a manner to preserve the sanctity of the election process
and ensure that the election is conducted in a free and fair
6

Page
7
manner. The ECI has exercised due diligence to ensure that
EVMs so used are “tamper proof” and it is also in the process
of exploring to incorporate VVPAT system which is
compatible with the present EVMs used by it. It is asserted
that there is no instance of tampering with EVMs so far by
anyone.
13)
It is further submitted that the EVMs used in India are
unique and unlike the ones used in the elections in USA and
other countries, which are personal computer based. EVMs
deployed by the ECI have been lauded not only in India but
also abroad. EVM’s Control Unit retains in the memory each
vote recorded elector-wise. The information stored in the
memory of the Control Unit can be retrieved by using a
device called the “decoder” which, when attached to the
Control Unit of EVM, can print out the statement of voting
data showing the order in which each voter has voted and to
whom he has voted.
14)
Insofar as the transparency of the election process as
well as the right of a voter to know whether his vote has
actually been recorded for the candidate for whom it was
7

Page
8
cast is concerned, it is submitted that as soon as a vote is
recorded by a voter by pressing the “candidate’s” button on
the Ballot Unit, a light glows against the name and symbol of
the candidate, which the voter can see for himself/ herself.
This is a visual (electronic) assurance to the voter that the
candidate for whom he has cast his vote has actually got that
vote. Thereafter, the light goes off to protect the secrecy of
voting.
15)
It is further submitted that the feasibility of VVPAT
system was sought to be explored to by various political
parties and they were explained the technical and
administrative safeguards. The ECI also constituted a
Technical Experts Committee to examine the viability of the
VVPAT system. On 27.05.2011, the Technical Experts
Committee, after discussion with political parties and civil
society members and also after seeing the demonstration of
the prototype VVPAT system developed by M/s. Bharat
Electronics Ltd. (BEL) and M/s. Electronics Corporation of
India Ltd. (ECIL), recommended that a field test of the
prototype VVPAT system should be carried out in a simulated
8

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9
election under different environmental conditions in
Jaisalmer, Thiruvananthapuram, Delhi, Leh and Cherapunji.
The ECI also held further meetings with the manufacturers of
EVMs on various dates to fine tune the system and expedite
the follow up action required. Several meetings were also
held with the Expert Committee on VVPAT system.
16)
In wider fulfillment of the objectives of the field trial, the
ECI has requested the National and State parties to extend
necessary cooperation by getting involved in the trial process
actively and also witness the trial in order to have a first
hand experience of the system. The ECI has also requested
the individuals including the appellant – Dr. Subramanian
Swamy and the groups, who have been engaged with the ECI
on the issue of EVM-VVPAT, to witness the trial.
17) We have carefully perused the relevant materials and
considered the rival contentions.
Discussion
18)
When the matter was listed before this Court for
hearing on 27.09.2012, Mr. Ashok Desai had brought to our
notice that the ECI is contemplating foolproof method in
9

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10
EVMs for which they are taking various steps in consultation
with the Technical Experts Committee and the views of all
recognized political parties. Mr. Desai also promised to
appraise this Court about the deliberations and the ultimate
decision to be taken by them in this regard. Accordingly, this
Court granted sufficient time to the ECI to file Status Report
regarding introduction of VVPAT system in EVMs to be used
in the elections.
19)
Pursuant to the directions of this Court, the ECI filed a
Status Report on the developments of VVPAT system. In the
said report, the ECI, citing various technicalities, prayed for
further time to make the system more robust for the field
conditions.
20)
On 15.12.2012, M/s BEL, Bangalore filed a report
showing the status of development of VVPAT system which
contains changes that have been carried out in VVPAT from
September to December, 2012 and also furnished
chronological changes made in VVPAT system after the field
trial of the VVPAT system held in July and August, 2012.
10
Page
11
21)
Pursuant to the directions of this Court, the Secretary,
ECI, filed an affidavit highlighting the following steps/
information:

(i)
That vide its Affidavit dated 14.01.2013, the
Commission had filed the status report regarding
introduction of the VVPAT system in the Electronic
Voting Machines (EVMs).
(ii)
That subsequently, in the Technical Expert
Committee meeting held on 04.02.2013, the
Committee approved the design of the VVPAT and
decided that software fine tuning will be done and
completed by the end of February, 2013, and
modified design specifications will be submitted to
the Technical Expert Committee for approval.
The Committee also recommended that the
Commission may for using the VVPAT and that the
VVPAT should be tried in a bye-election.
(iii)
That in the Technical Expert Committee
meeting held on 19.02.2013, the Committee
finalized the VVPAT design.
The manufacturers, namely, M/s. Bharat Electronics
Limited and M/s. Electronics Corporation of India
Limited have quoted Rs. 16,200/- (excluding duties,
taxes and transport charges) per VVPAT system.
The Commission has decided to purchase sufficient
units of VVPAT for trials in a Bye-election, at an
approximate cost of Rs.72,90,000/- (Rupees seventy
two lakh ninety thousand) approximately.
(iv)
It is submitted that the Commission will
require approximately 13 lakh VVPAT units to be
manufactures for 13 lakh EVMs presently available
and roughly about Rs. 1690 crores (One Thousand
Six Hundred Ninety Crores)(i.e. 13 lakh units x
Rs.13,000 per unit) are required for the purpose of
implementation of the VVPAT system taking into
account the possible reduction in the cost per unit
when produced in bulk.
(v)
It is further submitted that in order to
implement the new system the Conduct of Election
Rules, 1961 will require certain amendments.
In this connection, vide letter No.
3/1/2013/Vol.II/SDR/86 dated 28.03.2013, the
11
Page
12
Commission has informed the Legislative
Department of the Ministry of Law and Justice
inter
alia
the various amendments required to the
relevant parts of Rules 49A to 49X, 66A, 55C, 56C,
57C and Form 17C of the Conduct of Elections Rules,
1961, as well as introduction of Rules 49MA and 56D
in the said Rules…
(vi)
That the Commission has called for a meeting
of all the recognized National and State Parties on
10
th
May, 2013 for the purpose of demonstration of
VVPAT unit to them and for discussion with them for
eliciting their views regarding use of VVPAT system
in the elections. The petitioner herein and others
interested in the matter would also be invited at the
meeting.”
22)
It is seen from the records that after various
deliberations with the experts and persons concerned with
the technology, the Technical Experts Committee approved
the final design of VVPAT units in its meeting held on
19.01.2013. In order to meet the directions of this Court and
for proper execution of VVPAT system, as noticed above, the
ECI in its letter dated 28.03.2013, addressed to the Secretary
to the Government of India, Ministry of Law and Justice stated
that necessary ground work for amendment to the Conduct
of Election Rules, 1961 (in relevant parts in Rules 49A to 49X,
66A, 55C, 56C, 57C and Form 17C) may be made so that the
amendment to the Rules can be notified immediately which
12
Page
13
will enable the ECI to use the VVPAT system in bye-elections
in consultation with the political parties. By placing all those
materials, the ECI requested the Ministry of Law and Justice
for drafting and notifying amendment Rules expeditiously.
23)
From the materials placed by the ECI, it is noted that
the purchase order has been placed with M/s BEL and M/s
ECIL for supplying 150 and 300 VVPAT units respectively at
Rs. 16,200/- per unit excluding excise duty, sales tax and
transportation etc. costing Rs. 72,90,000/- (approx.). The ECI
has also highlighted that if the VVPAT systems are ultimately
to be used with all the 13 lakh EVMs available, the total cost
in the purchase of VVPAT units may come to about Rs. 1,690
crores, taking into account the possible reduction in the cost
per unit due to bulk production the cost may come to Rs.
13,000/- per unit approximately.
24)
The affidavit dated 21.08.2013, filed on behalf of the
ECI, shows that the Ministry of Law and Justice, on
24.07.2013, referred the draft notification to amend the
Conduct of Election Rules, 1961 to provide for use of VVPAT
system of elections to the ECI for its views and comments.
13
Page
14
The ECI suggested certain minor modifications in the draft
notification and sent the same back to the Ministry of Law
and Justice on 02.08.2013 with a request to notify the
amendment Rules at the earliest. Accordingly, the Ministry
of Law and Justice notified the amendments to the Conduct
of Election Rules, 1961 in the Gazette of India vide
notification No. S.O. 2470(E) dated 14.08.2013 to enable use
of VVPAT with EVMs.
25)
The aforesaid affidavit of the ECI also shows that the
ECI had also convened a meeting of all the recognized
National and State political parties on 10.05.2013 and
demonstrated before their representatives the working of
VVPAT system. Separately, on the same day, the ECI also
held a meeting with individuals including the appellant
herein who had been engaged with the ECI over the past
several years regarding the functioning of EVMs. VVPAT
system was demonstrated before them as well.
Representatives of political parties and other individuals
expressed their satisfaction over the VVPAT system.
Thereafter, the ECI had decided to use the VVPAT system in
14
Page
15
the bye-election from 51-Noksen (ST) Assembly Constituency
in the State of Nagaland. Instructions were issued to hold
special meetings with the contesting candidates in that
constituency to brief them about the use of VVPAT system.
The ECI also organized special training sessions for poll
officers for the use of VVPAT and steps were taken to
educate the electors for the same.
26)
After various hearings, when the matter was heard on
4.10.2013, an affidavit dated 01.10.2013 filed on behalf of
the ECI was placed before this Court. The said affidavit was
filed to place on record the performance/result of the
introduction of the VVPAT system in the bye-election from
51-Noksen (ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland for which
the poll was conducted on 04.09.2013 indicating the future
course of action to be decided by the ECI on the basis of said
performance. By this affidavit, it was brought to our notice
that since VVPAT system was being used for the first time,
the ECI has decided that intensive training shall be given to
the polling officers. Members of the Technical Experts
Committee of the ECI also went to supervise training and the
15
Page
16
actual use of VVPAT in the bye-election. It is further stated
that the ECI also wrote letters to all the recognized political
parties and other persons, including the appellant herein,
engaged with the ECI on this subject inviting them to witness
the use of VVPAT. It is also brought to our notice that VVPAT
was successfully used in all the 21 polling stations of 51-
Noksen (ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland. It was also
stated that as per the Rules, the paper slips of VVPAT shall
not be counted normally except in case the Returning Officer
decides to count them on an application submitted by any of
the candidates. However, since VVPAT system was being
used for the first time in any election, the ECI decided on its
own to count paper slips of VVPAT in respect of all polling
stations. According to the ECI, no discrepancy was found
between the electronic and paper count.
27)
In the said affidavit, it is finally stated that the ECI has
decided to increase the use of VVPAT units in a phased
manner and for this purpose the ECI has already written to
the Government of India, Ministry of Law and Justice to issue
administrative and financial sanction for procurement of
16
Page
17
20,000 units of VVPAT (10,000 each from M/s BEL and M/s
ECIL) costing about Rs. 38.01 crore.
28)
Though initially the ECI was little reluctant in
introducing “paper trail” by use of VVPAT, taking note of the
advantage in the system as demonstrated by Dr.
Subramanian Swamy, we issued several directions to the
ECI . Pursuant to the same, the ECI contacted several expert
bodies, technical advisers, etc. They also had various
meetings with National and State level political parties,
demonstrations were conducted at various places and finally
after a thorough examination and full discussion, VVPAT was
used successfully in all the 21 polling stations of 51-Noksen
(ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland. The information
furnished by the ECI, through the affidavit dated 01.10.2013,
clearly shows that VVPAT system is a successful one. We
have already highlighted that VVPAT is a system of printing
paper trail when the voter casts his vote, in addition to the
electronic record of the ballot, for the purpose of verification
of his choice of candidate and also for manual counting of
votes in case of dispute.
17
Page
18
29)
From the materials placed by both the sides, we are
satisfied that the “paper trail” is an indispensable
requirement of free and fair elections. The confidence of the
voters in the EVMs can be achieved only with the
introduction of the “paper trail”. EVMs with VVPAT system
ensure the accuracy of the voting system. With an intent to
have fullest transparency in the system and to restore the
confidence of the voters, it is necessary to set up EVMs with
VVPAT system because vote is nothing but an act of
expression which has immense importance in democratic
system.
30)
In the light of the above discussion and taking notice of
the pragmatic and reasonable approach of the ECI and
considering the fact that in general elections all over India,
the ECI has to handle one million (ten lakhs) polling booths,
we permit the ECI to introduce the same in gradual stages or
geographical-wise in the ensuing general elections. The
area, State or actual booth(s) are to be decided by the ECI
and the ECI is free to implement the same in a phased
18
Page
19
manner. We appreciate the efforts and good gesture made
by the ECI in introducing the same.
31)
For implementation of such a system (VVPAT) in a
phased manner, the Government of India is directed to
provide required financial assistance for procurement of units
of VVPAT.
32)
Before parting with the case, we record our appreciation
for the efforts made by Dr. Subramanian Swamy as well as
the ECI, in particular Mr. Ashok Desai and Ms. Meenakshi
Arora, learned senior counsel for the ECI.
33)
With the above directions, the appeal and the writ
petition are disposed of. No separate order is required in the
applications for intervention. Both sides are permitted to
approach this Court for further direction(s), if need arises.
………………………………………….CJI
(P. SATHASIVAM)
………………………………………..J.
(RANJAN GOGOI)
19
Page
20
NEW DELHI;
OCTOBER 8, 2013.


SAMAPATH, EVM GOVERNMENT- NEED OF THE HOUR IS Electronic Virtual Movement 4 Replacing all EVMs (EVM4RAEVMs) to save Democracy.


Ex CJI EVM SADHASIVAM, shirked its duty & committed a grave error
of judgment by allowing in phased manner Fraud Tamperable EVMs on the
request of CEC EVM SAMPATH because of the 1600 crore cost to replace
them and dealt a fatal blow to the Country’s democracy.

Ex CJI
did not order for ballot paper system would be brought in. No such
precautionary measure was decreed by the apex court. Ex CJI did not
order that till the time this newer set of about 1300000 voting machines
is manufactured in full & deployed totally. All the people in 80
democracies in the world who simply done away with fradulent EVMs should
not recognise EVM Modi & his Government.

EVM Narendra Modi
full of hatred for non-brahmins & non baniyas intoxicated for power
violated all good Silas of not killing, lying, stealing. EVM Militant
Violent Stealth Cult RSS saying no reservation on the basis of castes
means it is against Constitution providing reservation for SC/STs. RSS’s
Mr. Mohan Bagawath, a brahmin & a dropout is not a Constitutional
expert to say that there should not be any caste based reservation.

Attempt to E-File through http://sc-efiling.nic.in/sc-efiling/registration.jsp while trying to attach Driving Licence through http://sc-efiling.nic.in/sc-efiling/identity_file.jsp - got the result java.lang. StringIndexOutOfBounds Exception: String index out of range: - could not proceed further.


Brought this to the notice of supremecour@nic.in without any response.
through supremecour[at]nic[dot]in with a confusion whether it is
supremecour[at]nic[dot]in supremecour@nic.in or
supremecourt[at]nic[dot]in
supremecourt@nic.inhttp://goidirectory.nic.in/feedback.php - all
maintained by wim@nic.in also does not work. It often says “invalid
characters found, Please Re-Enter”

A correct procedure for E-Filing must be known to all procedures/ steps required to be taken for E-Filing process ? http://www.indg.in/…/ict-in-legal-servi…/egov-legal-efilling
Supreme Court initiatives for citizens via e -Filing - e-Filing in
Supreme Court of IndiaSupreme Court of India is also on the e-governance
track and providing its services at doorstep of the Indian citizens.


In this regard, on October 2, 2006 Supreme Court started e-filing
facility. It is a simple way of filing any case via internet from his
house. e-filing via internet does not require the help of advocate.


This service can be utilized by any common man as well as registered
advocate. Anybody desiring to avail this service may log on to www.sc-efiling.nic.in/sc-efiling/index.html and sign up as a user.


For sign up procedure please follow up these steps: First time users of
Supreme Court’s E-filing have to register him/her through the ‘Sign Up’
option.Through ‘e-FILING’ only Advocate-on Record’ and
petitioners-in-person can file cases in the Supreme Court of India
Advocate option is to be chosen if you are an ‘Advocate-on-Record’,
otherwise choose ‘In-person’ option in case you are
petitioner-in-person.

For registering first time personal details
such as Address, contact details, E-mail Id etc., which are mandatory,
need to be entered.For Advocate-on-record, his/her code
(Advocate-on-record code) will be ‘Login-ID’, while ‘In-person’will
create his/her Login-Id through ‘Sign Up’ option. Password needs to be
entered thereafter. Login Id and password will be created once the
mandatory requirements are filled properly. After successful login the
‘Disclaimer screen’ appears on the screen.

Clicking of ‘I agree’
button on Disclaimer allows the user to proceed further, while ‘I
decline’ button sends the control back to the Login screen. After
successful login, the user can file the case electronically. ‘New Case’
option allows the user to file a new case ‘Modify’ option allows a user
to carryout changes to the already e-filed case, provided the court fee
payment option is not invoked. Defects associated with the e-filed case
will be e-mailed to the advocate/petitioner by the Supreme Court
Registry.For further assistance, ‘Help’ option is available.Click here
to file case online in Supreme Court of India http://kohram.in/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms/
- Reasons For Banning Fradulent Tamperable EVMs Electronic voting
machines (EVMs) were introduced in a limited way in Indian elections in
1982, and they have been in universal use since the general elections of
2004, when paper ballots were phased out completely.

It is
about time this country reformed its voting system to ensure that the
electoral verdicts reflect the true will of the people of the country.
1. The Whole World has Discarded Similar EVMs
2. Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional and Illegal Too!
3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe
4. Nor is The Hardware
5. EVMs are Sitting Ducks
6. “Insider” Fraud a Concern
7. Storage and Counting are Concerns
8. Vote of No Confidence
9. EC is Clueless on Technology
10. Trust Deficit1.

The Whole World has Discarded Similar EVMs.


The electronic voting machines used in this country’s elections are
internationally known as Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) voting
machines which record votes directly in electronic memory.


Similar voting machines have been banned in many countries such as
Germany, the Netherlands, Irelands etc. and such machines are allowed in
most states of the US only with a paper back up. Potential dangers of
“vote fraud” and more importantly, lack of transparency and
verifiability associated with them prompted ban or restrictions of their
use. Developed nations like the United Kingdom and France and advanced
countries in our region like Japan and Singapore have so far stuck to
voting on paper ballots, owing to their simplicity, verifiability and
voter confidence in the system. This country is an exception to this
international trend and we continue to use these voting machines long
discarded by the world due to lack of awareness and appreciation of the
lay public of the concerns.

2. Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional
and Illegal Too! This country’s EVMs may also be held unconstitutional
because they infringe upon the fundamental rights of the voters. In this
country, Right to vote is a legal right but how that vote should be
exercised by a voter is his/ her individual expression covered by
Article 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution, which guarantees fundamental
rights to the citizens. In the 2002 case pertaining to disclosure of
assets and the criminal background of candidates, the Supreme Court
ruled that voters have a right to know the antecedents of the
contesting candidates and this is fundamental and basic for survival of
democracy. Accordingly, a voter has the right to know that his vote
which he exercised as a part of freedom of expression has really gone in
favour of the candidate whom he/she has chosen. This right, fundamental
in nature, is absent in the electronic voting system.

In the
traditional paper ballot system, that fundamental right was preserve
because a voter knew exactly how his/ her vote was recorded and
Universal use of EVMs in Indian elections is illegal too! In 1984, the
Supreme Court of India held that the use of electronic voting machines
in elections was “illegal” as the Representation of People (RP) Act,
1951 did not permit use of voting machines in elections. Later, the R.P.
Act was amended in 1989 incorporating Section 61A. However, the
amendment says voting machines “may be adopted in such constituency or
constituencies as the Election Commission may, having regard to the
circumstances of each case, specify.” Violating the provisions of the
R.P Act, the Election Commission has conducted 2004 and 2009 nationwide
general elections only using electronic voting machines. Going by the
1984 judgment of the Supreme Court, parliamentary elections of 2004 and
2009 may be held illegal.

3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe.

The electronic voting machines are safe and secure only if the source code used in the EVMs is genuine.


Shockingly, the EVM manufacturers, the BEL and ECIL, have shared the
‘top secret’ EVM software program with two foreign companies, Microchip
(USA) and Renesas (Japan) to copy it onto microcontrollers used in EVMs.
This process could have been done securely in-house by the Indian
Worse, when the foreign companies deliver microcontrollers fused with
software code to the EVM manufacturers, the EVM manufacturers cannot
“read back” their contents as they are either OTP-ROM or masked chips.


Amusingly, the software given to foreign companies is not even made
available with the Election Commission, ostensibly for security reasons.
With such ridiculous decisions, the Election Commission and the public
sector manufacturers have rendered security of the EVMs a mockery.
Adopting an open standards policy by making the software public and
allowing parties to test the software installed in the EVMs would have
offered better.

4. Nor is The Hardware. The danger for EVM manipulations is not just from its software.


Even the hardware isn’t safe. Dr. Alex Halderman, professor of computer
science in the University of Michigan says, “EVMs used in the West
require software attacks as they are sophisticated voting machines and
their hardware cannot be replaced cheaply. In contrast, the Indian EVMs
can easily be replaced either in part or as wholesale units.” One
crucial part that can be faked is microcontrollers used in the EVMs in
which the software is copied. EVM manufacturers have greatly facilitated
fraud by using generic microcontrollers rather than more secure ASIC or
FPGA microcontrollers. Not just only microcontrollers, mother boards
(cards which contain microcontrollers) and entire EVMs can be replaced.
Neither the Election Commission nor the manufacturers have undertaken
any hardware or software audit till date. As a result, such manipulation
attempts would go undetected. To detect such fraud, the upgraded EVMs
have a provision to interface with an Authentication Unit that would
allow the manufacturers to verify whether the EVM being used in the
election is the same that they have supplied to the Election Commission.
The EVM manufacturers developed an “Authentication Unit” engaging the
services of Secure Spin, a Bangalore based software services firm.


The Unit was developed and tested in 2006 but when the project was
ready for implementation, the project was mysteriously shelved at the
instance of the Election Commission. Several questions posed to the
Election Commission for taking this decision went unanswered. 5. EVMs
are Sitting Ducks. This country’s EVMs can be hacked both before and
after elections to alter election results. Apart from manipulating the
EVM software and replacing many hardware parts discussed above,
discussions with knowledgeable sources revealed that our country’s EVMs
can be hacked in many ways. I mention just two of them below. Each EVM
contains two EEPROMs inside the Control Unit in which the voting data
is stored.

They are completely unsecured and the data inside
EEPROMs can be manipulated from an external source. It is very easy to
read (data from) the EEPROMs and manipulate them. The second and the
most deadly way to hack our country’s EVMs is by inserting a chip with
Trojan inside the display section of the Control unit. This requires
access to the EVM for just two minutes and these replacement units can
be made for a few hundred rupees. Bypassing completely all inbuilt
securities, this chip would manipulate the results and give out “fixed”
results on the EVM screen. The Election Commission is completely
oblivious to such possibilities. A demonstration of these
vulnerabilities is on the cards.

6. “Insider” Fraud a Concern.
Personal accounts from some well placed political sources and experts
say that there are some “insiders” demanding vast sums (Rs. 5 Crore for
each assembly constituency) to fix election results. Who are these
insiders? Unlike in the traditional ballot system where only the
election officials were the “insiders”, electronic voting machine regime
has spawned a long chain of insiders, all of whom are outside the ambit
and control of the Election Commission of this country. There is every
possibility that some of these “insiders” are involved in murky
activities in fixing elections. The whole world—except us in this
country–is alive to the dangers of insider fraud in elections. The
“insiders” include the public sector manufacturers of this country’s
electronic voting machines namely, the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)
and Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL), the foreign companies
supplying micro controllers, private players (some of which are
allegedly owned by some political leaders) for carrying out checking and
maintenance of electronic voting machines during.

7. Storage
and Counting are Concerns. The EVMs are stored at the district
headquarters or in a decentralized manner in different locations.
Election Commission’s concern for EVM safety becomes apparent only
during elections, where as security experts say that voting machines
must remain in a secure environment throughout their life cycle. There
could be many malpractices associated with electronic counting.
“Everybody watches polling closely. Nobody watches counting as
closely),” says Bev Harris, an American activist. Our Election
Commission takes three months to conduct parliamentary elections but
wants counting to be over in just three hours! In the rush to declare
results and the winners, several serious lapses go unnoticed in the
counting process. As a result, parties cannot give it the kind of
attention that this activity deserves.

Massive discrepancies
between votes polled and counted in a large number of polling stations
across the country raise serious concerns in this regard.

8. Vote
of No Confidence.The political class cutting across all sides of the
divide has just one verdict: “we don’t trust the EVMs”. This vote of “no
confidence” stems from the personal experiences of parties and leaders
as well as the nature of results thrown up by the EVMs. Parties are
looking at EVMs with great suspicion and dread the prospect of EVMs
“defeating” them.This mistrust in EVMs is not confined to any single
party and is all pervasive. Almost all mainstream political parties,
including the BJP, Congress, left parties, regional parties like the
Telugu Desam party (TDP), AIADMK, Samajwadi party, Rastriya Lok Dal
(RLD), Janata Dal (United) etc. have all expressed reservation about
EVMs in the aftermath of 2009 Lok Sabha polls. Even the Congress party
that decisively won the 2009 general elections alleged that the EVMs
have been manipulated in Orissa. Today, it is difficult to find parties
that vouch for the continued use of EVMs in Indian elections. On the
contrary, there is a flood of opposition to the EVMs from the political
class.

9. EC is Clueless on Technology.The Election Commission
has adopted the EVM technology about which it has practically no
knowledge.

As a result, it has little control over many aspects
of the election process. None of the election commissioners, neither the
present commissioners nor their predecessors, have proper understanding
of the EVM technology. The only source of technical understanding for
the Election Commission is a Committee of experts led by its chairman,
Prof. P.V.Indiresan. Even the Expert Committee seems very weak in its
capacities and understanding. Alex Halderman, professor of computer
science at the University of Michigan and an expert on the security of
voting systems who was present in New Delhi for the launch of the book,
Democracy at Risk, Can We Trust our EVMS? commented, “When I read the
2006 technical report prepared by the Expert Committee of the Election
Commission. I scribbled on it that there was a cause for alarm and
quickly decided to agree to come here.” That speaks volumes for the
quality and rigor of security testing done on the Country’s EVMs.


10. Trust Deficit. Election Commission’s conduct in the wake of the
serious reservations expressed by people has been unbecoming of a
constitutional body. It has uttered many lies – our EVMs are “tamper
proof”, they are “different” etc. etc. It has refused to provide any
clarifications sought to the petitioners in the Supreme Court, despite a
reference from the Supreme Court of India. It has taken several
questionable decisions for which it has refused to offer any
explanations. For instance, it does not explain why old EVMs were used
in Lok Sabha elections despite the recommendations of its own Expert
Committee.

It does not explain why as many as 4.48 Lakh new EVMs
(which are more secure as per the Expert Committee) were not used in any
Congress party or UPA ruled states? Why and where it had allowed use of
state government owned EVMs? The non-transparent conduct of Election
Commission in the use of EVMs and the farce of an “enquiry” it has
conducted following serious reservations on EVMs does not inspire
confidence in its unbiased functioning.

How EVM Works and how can changed it’s functionality Watch this video [youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″]

- See more at: http://kohram.in/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms/… youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″ - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlCOj1dElDY


This country’s EVMs are Vulnerable to Fraud-Contrary to claims by our
country,s election authorities, the paperless electronic voting systems
used in India suffer from significant vulnerabilities. Even brief access
to the machines could allow criminals to alter election results.


In this video, we demonstrate two kinds of attacks against a real
Indian EVM. One attack involves replacing a small part of the machine
with a look-alike component that can be silently instructed to steal a
percentage of the votes in favor of a chosen candidate. These
instructions can be sent wirelessly from a mobile phone. Another attack
uses a pocket-sized device to change the votes stored in the EVM between
the election and the public counting session, which in India can be
weeks later.These attacks are neither complicated nor difficult to
perform, but they would be hard to detect or defend against. The best
way to prevent them is to count votes using paper ballots that voters
can see. indiaEVM.org

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=br2Mjt1BecI
- EVMs Can Be Tampered - Says Net India - Net India company says that
the Electronic Voting Machines EVMs which are used in polling stations
can be tampered in favor of the candidates. Watch this to find out
more…..To watch live news, videos subscribe to CVR News @ https://www.youtube.com/user/CVRNewsO…- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1xov8mrLZc -


EVM in INDIA REALITY EXPOSED by Dr Subramanian
Swamyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3THfIvvxPY - EVMs can be tampered,
experts say - Electronic voting machines could be easily tampered to
manipulate elections results, a group of foreign experts said at a
seminar in Dhaka on Tuesday. A standing committee member of the main
opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Abdul Moyeen Khan, in the
seminar said that the party would make some prototypes of the EVMs the
Election Commission made to show the people how the device could be
tampered.

Non-governmental organisation Centre for Sustainable
Development organised the seminar, ‘Electronic voting machines: use and
abuse,’ at the Lake Shore hotel in the city. The organisation’s
secretary general Mahfuzullah conducted the seminar and its president
Anwar Hashim, also a former ambassador, presided over the programme.
Computer science professor in the University of California Mathew Allen
Bishop, senior software architect of Yahoo in India Shashank Shekhar and
research and development director of Hewlett Packard of the United
States Shawn Islam made presentation in the seminar highlighting how
EVMs could be tampered. All the three experts said the EVMs could be
tampered in several ways in a short span of time to manipulate the
elections results in favour of a certain candidate if the manipulators
would get physical access to EVMs. Citing an example of the flaws of the
EVM used in the United States and in other parts of the world, Bishop
said the EVMs, electronic devices which need software to function, could
be easily tampered. Bishop, however, asked the authorities concerned to
look into certain issues before using EVMs. ‘When votes are counted,
how do you know that the button pushed to vote for scales on the ballot
unit is in fact counted as a vote for scales?’ he said. Bishop also
said, ‘How do you know that the software is correct? There are no bugs
that affect the vote counting?

How do you know that the software on the EPROM chip is the version that is supposed to be used? There was no malware?’


He said the security of the software running the EVM must be part of
the inbuilt design of the device. Earlier, Shawn Islam,m a
Bangladeshi-American, demonstrated how a vote cast for a candidate could
be stored for the candidate the voter did not vote for through software
manipulation effected beforehand. Both of the experts said that there
be a system of paper trail of the votes cast so that the voters could
see that their votes were stored for the candidate they voted for.’But,’
Shawn Islam added, ‘the EVMs developed by Bangladesh do not have any
option to add the paper trail system.’ He claimed that the EVM developed
in Bangladesh have plenty of problems. Shashank said that there was no
electronic device in the world which could not be tampered. All of the
experts said that the device must be tested by a third party before its
use.

In reply to a question whether the EVM can be manipulated
with remote control devise without physical intervention once EVMs are
tested and certified by the experts of the political parties just before
the elections, Shawn said, ‘You must have physical interventions to
manipulate it if the EVM does not belong to any wireless network.’


When a reporter asked Abdul Moyeen Khan whether the BNP would accept it
if EVMs were tested by their experts, the BNP leader parried the answer
saying that the party would develop some EVM prototypes to show how
they could be tampered.

Representatives from the Bangladesh
Nationalist Party, including its acting secretary general Mirza Fakhrul
Islam Alamgir, the chairperson’s advisers Iqbal Hasan Mahmud, Sabiuddin
Ahmed, Ruhal Alam and opposition chief whip Zainul Abdin Farroque,
attended. Speaking on the occasion, former Dhaka University
vice-chancellor Moniruzzaman Mia, BRAC University professor Piash Karim
and Sushaner Janya Nagarik secretary Badiul Alam Majumder stressed the
need for building trust among political parties before introducing any
new device in the elections process.The country’s two major political
camps are now at loggerheads over the introduction of EVMs in the next
polls. The ruling Awami League-led alliance said that it would extend
all cooperation to the E C in using EVMs in the next general elections
while the opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party-led alliance vowed to
resist the move.Attachments area- Preview YouTube video India’s EVMs are
Vulnerable to Fraud
-Preview YouTube video EVMs Can Be Tampered -
Says Net India Preview YouTube video EVM in INDIA REALITY EXPOSED by Dr
Subramanian Swamy.

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/well-convert-to-buddhism-mayawati-warns-bjp-rss/article21386755.ece?homepage=true

We’ll convert to Buddhism, Mayawati warns BJP, RSS








Pavan Dahat


Nagpur,



December 10, 2017 23:56 IST


Updated:


December 11, 2017 01:18 IST








Sharp message: BSP leader Mayawati at a public meeting in Nagpur on Sunday.

Sharp message: BSP leader Mayawati at a public meeting in Nagpur on Sunday.
  | Photo Credit: S. Sudarshan






Asks Sangh Parivar to stop ‘atrocities’ on Dalits, backward castes




Bahujan Samaj Party supremo Mayawati said on Sunday that she would
quit Hinduism and convert to Buddhism, along with her followers, if the
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the Bharatiya Janata Party did not stop
their ‘atrocities’ on Dalits and backward castes and end exploitation of these communities.

Invokes Ambedkar

Addressing
a BSP conclave, hardly a kilometre from the RSS headquarters in Nagpur,
the BSP chief said, “Dr. Ambedkar had made an announcement in 1935 that
he was born a Hindu but he won’t die a Hindu. He gave 21 years to Hindu
religious leaders to reform. But when there was no change in their
attitude, he converted to Buddhism in 1956 in Nagpur. We thought the
contractors and custodians of the Hindu religion would change after his
conversion and give respect to the Dalit and backward caste communities.
But they continue to exploit the backward communities and the Dalits.
Today, I want to warn the BJP and the RSS that if they don’t change
their disrespectful, casteist and communal behaviour towards the Dalits
and backward caste people and their leaders, I will also convert to
Buddhism with my crores of followers.”

Ms. Mayawati said she
wanted to give a chance to the RSS-BJP to reform and change their
mindset towards the Dalits and backward communities and then take a call
on conversion to Buddhism “at an appropriate time like Ambedkar.”

She also alerted the BSP workers to the possibility of an early Lok Sabha election and asked them to start preparing for it.

“There is a possibility that the BJP can start the construction of Ram temple in Ayodhya just before Lok Sabha elections.

“They
can even sponsor some dramatic events in the name of patriotism to save
their government and hide their failures. Be aware of such
conspiracies.

“The Electronic Voting Machines were tampered with
in every election since 2014 to defeat the BSP,” she alleged and dared
the BJP to contest all upcoming elections on ballot paper.

The BSP supremo also claimed that the Mandal commission report was implemented because of her party’s efforts.

“The
backward communities got reservation and other benefits only because of
Ambedkar’s efforts and not because of the Congress, Nehru or BJP and
company.

“Now, all these parties are trying to end reservation
which is why they are denying it in the private sector and outsourcing
most of the works. Reservation in job promotions has been rendered
ineffective,” she said.

“They [BJP] are talking of
‘Opposition-free India’ and are misusing Central agencies like the CBI,
Income Tax department, the ED and State governments’ machinery to weaken
Opposition parties,” she charged.

Just
0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the
world,ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, Paradesis
from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam
Sevaks and their slaves, stooges, chamchas, chelas, bootlickers, own
mother’s flesh eaters of BJP (Maharashtra Jhoothe Psychopaths) after
gobbling the Master Key by Murderers of democratic institutions and
Master of diluting institutions (Modi) by tampering the fraud EVMs with
its software and the source code kept hidden to the eyes of voters and
candidates have become emboldened to commit atrocities on SC/ST/
OBCS/Religious minorities. Therefore 99.9% All Awakened Aboriginal
Societies have already decided to return back to their own mother
religion as they were Buddhists, are Buddhists and continue to be
Buddhists because of the hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity
which are defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment in Mental
Asylums at Bene Israel the native land of chitpavan brahmins. A real
freedom struggle will erupt to see that the chitpavan brahmins quit
prabuddha Bharat.

in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu

ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA






Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —


Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
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Maha Sathipattana Suthraya - මහා සතිපට්ඨාන සුත්‍රය -




LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
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health mind in a healthy body.

 







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05/15/19
LESSON 2992 Thu 16 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org JAY BHIM namo buddhay Image may contain: 1 person 24 Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19 Question 7. Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) https://www.deccanherald.com/lok-sabha-election-2019/mayawati-supports-mamta-says-ec-acting-under-pressure-734135.html Mayawati supports Mamta, says EC acting under pressure GmailLinkedinPinterest Press Trust of India Press Trust of India, Lucknow, May 16 2019, 14:06pm ist updated: May 16 2019, 14:12pm ist Rallying behind Mamata Banerjee, BSP supre…
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 9:30 am
LESSON 2992 Thu 16 May  2019


Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Tipitaka
is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]



from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās

 through 

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana


“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”


TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

JAY BHIM namo buddhay

Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

Question
7.

https://www.deccanherald.com/lok-sabha-election-2019/mayawati-supports-mamta-says-ec-acting-under-pressure-734135.html

Mayawati supports Mamta, says EC acting under pressure

GmailLinkedinPinterest

Press Trust of India
Press Trust of India, Lucknow,

May 16 2019, 14:06pm ist updated: May 16 2019, 14:12pm ist

Rallying behind Mamata Banerjee, BSP supre…

Mayawati comes out in support of Mamata, says Election Commission acting under pressure

The EC on Wednesday ordered campaigning in 9 West Bengal constituencies to end at 10pm on Thursday


By PTI in Lucknow



  • Published 16.05.19, 12:14 PM
  • Updated 16.05.19, 12:14 PM


  • a min read
  •  

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West
Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee at a protest rally against the
clashes that broke out during BJP President Amit Shah’s election
roadshow for Lok Sabha polls, in Calcutta, Wednesday, May 15, 2019.
(PTI)

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Bahujan
Samaj Party chief Mayawati on Thursday charged that West Bengal chief
minister Mamata Banerjee is being targeted as part of a conspiracy to
divert attention from failures of the Modi government.

It is now
clear that under the present Chief Election Commissioner, Lok Sabha
polls are not being held in a totally free and fair manner, the former
Uttar Pradesh chief minister told reporters here.

The Election Commission curtailed campaigning in West Bengal under pressure of central government, she further charged.

The
Election Commission on Wednesday ordered campaigning in nine West
Bengal constituencies to end at 10pm on Thursday, a day before its
scheduled deadline, in the wake of violence between BJP and TMC workers
in Calcutta.

Deputy Election Commissioner Chandra Bhushan Kumar
had said that it was for the first time that such an action has been
taken using constitutional powers of the poll panel.

The EC’s
action came after parts of Calcutta witnessed widespread violence during
BJP president Amit Shah’s massive road show in the city. A bust of 19th
century Bengali icon Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar was also vandalised
during the violence.

The order said it has been brought to the
notice of the Commission that there have been growing incidents of
disruption and violence during the political campaigns and processions
in West Bengal during the ongoing elections.

The EC invoked Article 324 of the Constitution to curtail the campaigning for the last phase of the election on May 19.

The
constituencies where campaigning has been curtailed are - Dum Dum,
Barasat, Basirhat, Jaynagar, Mathurapur, Diamond Harbour, Jadavpur,
Kolkata Dakshin and Kolkata Uttar.

The EC is now Election Criminals. The Judiciary, Executive,
Parliament and the PRESSTITUTE Media are slaves, stooges, chelas,
chamchas, bootlickers and own mother’s flesh eaters. They are all
remotely controlled by just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number
one terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic,
mentally retarded Parasesis from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS
(Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks full of haterd, anger, jealousy, delusion,
stupidity which are defilement of mind requiring mental treatment at
mental asylums in Bene Israel. 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened Societies
must unitedly go for a real freedom struggle against chitpavan brahmins
to quit Prabuddha Bharath to save Universal Adult Franchise demanding
for Ballot Papers instead of fraud EVMs/VVPATs. Their software and its
source code being kept secret in the eyes of candidates and voters to
save Democracy, Equality, Fraternity, Liberty as enshrined in our
Marvelous Modern Constitution.

The ex CJI ( Chief In Justice)
Sathasivam committed a deliberate error of judgement by ordering that
the fraud EVMs must be replaced in a phased manner where the question of
replacement in itself is a clear proof that the EVMs can be tampered.
the ex CEC Sampath suggested for replacement of EVMs in a phased manner
as it cost Rs 1600 crore to replace the entire EVMs.

The EC
ordered for draping the elephant symbol of BSP for level playing ground.
But did not order for draping the Nationl flower Lotus symbol of BJP.
Every government, Public sector offices and temples whre the god are
seated on lotus flower.



As BSP chief drags Modi’s wife into polls, BJP says Mayawati unfit for public life

“How
can he (Modi) respect sisters and wives of others when he has left his
own innocent wife for political gains?” Mayawati asked.

Mayawati
https://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/rss-has-abandoned-bjp-says-mayawati-in-latest-jibe-at-pm-modi-119051400297_1.html

RSS has abandoned BJP, says Mayawati in latest jibe at PM Modi


ANI  | 
Politics 

Last Updated at May 14, 2019 11:26 IST

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In the run-up to the last and final phase of the Lok Sabha polls, on
Tuesday accused BJP of not fulfilling election promises while asserting
that even RSS has stopped supporting the party fearing public backlash.

Speaking to ANI, said, “It is known to everyone now that led
government is losing. It is evident from the fact that even RSS has
left supporting them. Owing to public anger over non-fulfillment of
poll-promises, RSS workers are not visible to us campaigning for BJP
anywhere. Because of this, is nervous and facing a hard time.”

Denouncing BJP’s ‘Main Bhi Chowkidar’ campaign, she said, “Country
has seen many leaders who have misled the country as Sevak, Jan-Sevak,
Chaiwala and Chowkidar but now it wants a who can run the country as per the tenets of the constitution for the welfare of the people.”

The
BSP supremo also took a jibe at temple visits by politicians saying it
has become a “fashion” for candidates contesting polls to offer prayers
before elections.

Mayawati, who isn’t known for doing road shows,
also pressed for the cost of such exercises to be included in
candidates’ expenditure.

“Roadshow and worshipping at different religious places has become a new fad, in which a lot of money is being spent. should add this expenditure in the expenses of the candidate. Our party also demands to that
the money being spent on road show by any leader should also be added
in the expenditure of the candidate from the constituency,” said to ANI.

Her comments come a day after and offered prayers at the in Ujjain.

Mayawati
also said that coverage of politicians visiting religious places while
being banned by EC from campaigning must be stopped by the poll body.

“During
a ban on a candidate for violating Model Code of Conduct (MCC), if they
go to a public place or offer prayers at a temple and it is widely
covered by media. This practice must also be banned. should take action on it,” she said.

Exuding
confidence of doing well in the ongoing general elections, Mayawati
said people have experienced “enough deceit due to dual-character of
some leaders”.

“But this time, it is not going to happen,” she added.

The last phase of polling will be held on May 19 and results will be declared on May 23.

https://www.thehindu.com/elections/lok-sabha-2019/general-election-2019-live-updates-may-15-2019/article27134114.ece
Uttar Pradesh

PM is honest only on paper just like he is an OBC only on paper: Mayawati

Hitting
out at Prime Minister Narendra Modi, BSP president Mayawati on
Wednesday said his legacy as the chief minister of Gujarat was a black
spot and burden on the BJP as well as the communal history of the
country.

She alleged that the Prime Minister had crossed all limits of decency in terming the BSP the personal property of its president.

“The
entire country knows that most of those having benami properties and
the corrupt are connected with the BJP,” Ms. Mayawati said, adding that
the prime minister is honest only on paper just like he is an OBC only
on paper.

She said her tenures as chief minister of Uttar Pradesh had been clean.

“PM
Modi has been CM of Gujarat for a longer time than me but his legacy is
such that it is a black spot not only on himself but also on the BJP
and a burden on the communal history of the country,” Mayawati said
here.

Terming note ban the biggest scam, she said it is also an issue which needs investigation - PTI

Godse remark: What I spoke in Aravakurichi is historic truth, says Kamal Haasan

“What
I spoke in Aravakurichi is historic truth,” says Kamal Haasan on his
remarks on Nathuram Godse. Mr. Haasan clarifies that he did not use term
terrorist when talking about Godse.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitpavan

After Gandhi’s assassination by Nathuram Godse, a Chitpawan, Brahmins
in Maharashtra, became targets of violence, mostly by members from the
Maratha
caste. The motivating factor for the violence was not love for Gandhi on
the part of the rioters but the denigration and humiliation that the
Marathas were subjected to due to their caste status.

RSS : World’s largest terrorist Organization

http://www.terrorism.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=Countries&file=index&view=113

What makes one or an organization terrorist?

American Heritage Dictionary: The unlawful use or threatened use of
force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or
property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or
governments, often for ideological or political reasons.

Does the Sanghparivar have any of these qualities in its work to make it not to declare a terrorist organization?

An American research centre has placed our ultra-nationalist
Rashtrya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) on its terrorist list. The East
Virginia-based Terrorism Research Center (TRC) is closely connected to
the American government and many of its directors and researchers have
closely worked with US administrations and have taken part in research
and planning for the US administration.

In the list of ?? in India, the TRC has placed RSS under no. 21.
Here is the link as it appeared on 9 September 2004 on the group?s
website under the caption ?Known Terrorist Groups Operating in India?.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitpavan

The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale,
whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his
outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the “jewel of his
disciples”, and recognised Gokhale as his political guru. However,
strong opposition to Gandhi came from the Chitpavan community. Vinayak
Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the political ideology hindutva,
was a chitpavan brahmin and several other chitpavans were among the
first to embrace it because they thought it was a logical extension of
the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak.
These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the
community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. ,
drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.The
upper castes, that is, Marathi Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins and Prabhus
(CKPs and Pathare Prabhus)
were only about 4% of the population in Maharashtra. A majority of this
4% were Brahmins. As per the 1901 census, about 5% of the Pune
population was Brahmin and about 27% of them were Chitpawans.
Anti-Brahmin violence in the 20th century after Gandhi’s assassination

https://www.huffingtonpost.in/…/rss-terrorist-organisatio_n…

RSS India’s Number One Terrorist Organisation, Says Former Mumbai Police Officer S M Mushrif

By Naina Chaturvedi

Volunteers of the militant Hindu group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) participate in a three-day workers…
ASSOCIATED PRESS
Volunteers of the militant Hindu group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
(RSS) participate in a three-day workers camp on the outskirts of
Ahmadabad, India, Saturday, Jan. 3, 2015. The RSS, parent organization
of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party, combines religious education with
self-defense exercises. The organization has long been accused of
stoking religious hatred against Muslims. (AP Photo/Ajit Solanki)


S M Mushrif, former Maharashtra inspector general of police, on
Thursday described the BJP’s ideological mentor, RSS as India’s ‘number
one terrorist organisation’.

According to a report in The Times
Of India, Mushrif was quoted saying, “RSS activists have been
chargesheeted in at least 13 cases of terror acts in which RDX has been
used. If organisations like Bajrang Dal are taken into the account, then
the number of such cases goes up to 17.”

Also Read: RSS Is ‘Distorting’ The Definition Of Hindu Religion, Says Poet Ashok Vajpeyi


Recalling the incidents of 2007 Mecca Masjid bombing in Hyderabad, the
2006 and 2008 Malegaon blasts in Maharashtra and the 2007 Samjhauta
Express bombings among others, the former inspector general of police
said, “The RSS is India’s number one terrorist organisation, there is no
doubt on this.”

He also stated that the “terror group” has nothing to do with which party is in the power.


Speaking about intolerance, Mushrif disagreed with the view of growing
intolerance in recent times. “Intolerance has been going on for a long
time. There have been many severe bigger incidents earlier, I don’t
understand why it is being highlighted now,” IANS reported him saying.


He also reiterated his claim of that Intelligence Bureau (IB) was
behind the killing of Hemant Karkare who was investigating the
involvement of Hindu radicals in terror acts. Karkare was killed during
the Mumbai terror attack in 2008..

Mushrif went on to say that,
“There is clinching evidence about the IB’s involvement but all efforts
to establish that have been defeated. Our efforts to call for an
independent probe have always been defeated. Unless there is a massive
public movement, this will never be established,” said Mushrif, who made
the sensational claims in his book “Who Killed Karkare”.


https://kractivist.org/america-enlisted-rss-in-one-of-the-biggest-terrorist-organisation-in-the-world/

America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World

 


New Delhi: A US-based risk management and consulting company has put the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in its category of ‘Threat Group’ and called it “a shadowy, discriminatory group that seeks to establish a Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu Nation.”


Terrorism Watch & Warning provides
intelligence, research, analysis, watch and warning on international
terrorism and domestic terrorism related issues; and is operated by OODA
Group LLC that helps clients identify, manage, and respond to global
risks and uncertainties while exploring emerging opportunities and
developing robust and adaptive strategies for the future.


Although the company had included RSS in its ‘Threat Group’ in April
2014, the post seems to have been modified after the BJP led government
assumed power at the Centre. Apart from the RSS, Terrorism Watch has
also put Naxalites, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and Students’ Islamic
Movement of India (SIMI) among others in the category of ‘Threat
Group’.


The websites describes:
“The RSS is a shadowy, discriminatory group that seeks to establish a
Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu Nation. The group is considered the radical
ideological parent group of India’s ruling Hindu nationalist party – the
Indian Peoples Party (BJP).”


“The RSS is a Hindu nationalist movement, a right wing group that was
founded in 1925. Their philosophy, called Hindutva, was termed fascist
by Communists, and their main demand of the central government was that
it stop appeasing Muslims,” the description continues, adding, “Hindutva
has been translated to mean variously: Hindu pride, patriotism,
fundamentalism, revivalism, chauvinism, or fascism. The group
self-justifies by ‘asserting the natural rights’.”


In its ‘Intel analysis,’ it further adds, “The RSS was banned in 1948 following the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
by an ex-RSS member, Nathuram Godse. The ban was lifted the following
year. Since then, the group has gained popularity. It later began the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), widely considered the political arm of the RSS, which now heads the central government of India.”


RSS Featured as ‘Threat Group’ on US-based Terrorism Watch List


Describing violence as ‘Group Activities’ for the RSS, the site further says, “Violence has been a strategy for the Sangh movement.
It is often couched as a method of self-defense against minority
groups. Hindutva has been clear about the need for violence,
particularly communal riots. The Sangh has incited rioting to cause
further chasms between religions, and thus a further separation of
religions, and to rally the Hindu community around the philosophy of
Hindutva.”


The Terrorism Watch & Warning database contains over 1,00,000
Open source intelligence (OSINT) excerpts from 1999 to present on
terrorism and security related issues, attack database of over 10,000
attacks, original terrorism analysis, terrorism document repository,
Homeland Security Fact Sheets and profiles over 500 Terrorist/Threat
Groups.

http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-terrorist-organisation-world/

https://www.hindustantimes.com/india/ban-rss-india-s-no-1-terror-organisation-former-maharashtra-cop/story-EqYMsbzYbhDOtNgocROfNM.html


Ban RSS, India’s no 1 terror organisation: Former Maharashtra cop

Maharashtra’s former inspector general of police SM Mushrif on
Tuesday accused the Intelligence Bureau (IB) of being hand-in-glove
with right-wing extremists, and called for a ban on the RSS describing
it as India’s No.1 terror organisation.

india
Updated: Feb 23, 2016 20:25 IST

PTI
RSS,RSS terror outfit,RSS Hindutva
SM Mushrif speaking at the launch of his book.(PTI Photo)




Maharashtra’s former inspector general of police SM
Mushrif on Tuesday accused the Intelligence Bureau (IB) of being
hand-in-glove with right-wing extremists, and called for a ban on the
RSS describing it as India’s No.1 terror organisation.

At the
launch of the Bengali version of his book “RSS - Country’s Greatest
Terror Organisation”, Mushrif also termed the ongoing JNU controversy as
a manifestation of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh’s (RSS) attempt to
turn India into a Hindu nation.

“The IB has been and continues to
be the most powerful organisation in the country and irrespective of
which political party is in power at the centre, it continues to operate
the way it wants.

“Whatever the IB says or does is considered the
truth and its claims or acts are never questioned or verified,” said
Mushrif, indicting the agency for colluding with the RSS and its
subsidiaries for the killing of anti-terror squad chief Hemant Karkare,
who was probing the involvement of Hindu radicals in terror acts.

Karkare was killed during the 2008 Mumbai terror attack.

“No
other terror organisation has used RDX like the RSS has. At least 18
chargesheets have been filed against the RSS and its subsidiaries like
Abhinav Bharat and Bajrang Dal in terror cases.

“The RSS should be immediately banned for being the country’s No.1 terror organisation,” said Mushrif.

Condemning the Jawaharlal Nehru University row, Mushrif expressed alarm over rising right-wing extremism.

“This
is only a manifestation of the RSS’s bid to establish the Aryavart
Hindu Rashtra based on the tenets of Smritis and Vedas. Its time the
entire country stood up against this rise of extremism,” said the author
of “Who Killed Karkare? : The Real Face of Terrorism in India”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saffron_terror

Saffron terror




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Saffron terror is a neologism used to describe acts of violence motivated by Hindu nationalism, usually perpetrated by members, or alleged members, of Hindu nationalist organisations like Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) or Abhinav Bharat.[1][2][3] The term comes from the symbolic use of the saffron colour by many Hindu nationalist organisations.[4][5][6][7]




Term usage


The first known use of the term “Saffron Terror” is from a 2002 article in Frontline.[8] However, it was in the aftermath of the 29 September 2008 bomb blast in the predominantly Muslim town of Malegaon in Maharashtra that it came to be used widely.[9]
In late 2008, Indian police arrested members of a Hindu cell allegedly involved in the Malegaon blasts. Former Home Minister of India P. Chidambaram urged Indians to beware of “Saffron terror” in August 2010 at a meeting of state police chiefs in New Delhi.[10] Since making that remark, a Hindu swami in the Patan district has filed a defamation
lawsuit against Chidambaram, saying that the saffron colour is a symbol
of Hindu religion and that saints across the country wear attire of the
same colour. The swami also said that saffron was a symbol of peace,
sacrifice and God, and that Chidambaram has hurt the sentiments of
Hindus by linking the symbol with terrorism.[11] On 6 September 2010, a Gujarat court ordered a probe into the use of the term by Chidambaram.[12] Chidambaram was also criticised by members of his own party (the Indian National Congress) for the use of the term, with Congress spokesman Janardhan Dwivedi claiming “terrorism does not have any colour other than black.”[13]

The saffron colour appears in the party flags of various national parties of India like the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).[14][15] A saffron-coloured flag is commonly seen in most temples in India. Buddhist monks typically wear saffron robes as a symbol of wisdom.[16]
It has been claimed that the term “saffron terrorism” is a misnomer
considering the historical descriptions of the saffron colour compared
to the definitions of terrorism.[17][18] Saffron is the colour of the upper band of the Indian national flag. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,
who was India’s first Vice-President and second President, described
the saffron colour as follows: “Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes
renunciation of disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to
material gains and dedicate themselves to their work.”[19]



Criticism of the term


The term “saffron terror” has been called a “myth” by the journalist and BJP leader Balbir Punj, who claims that it is an invention of the Congress party to demonise their political opposition as “terrorists”.[20] Similar views have been expressed by other journalists in India.[21] Kanchan Gupta and Swapan Dasgupta have accused investigators of making statements using “saffron terror” to the media to promote the agenda of the Congress.[22][23] Raman accused the media of measuring Muslim and Hindu suspects by different yardsticks.[24]

The Bharatiya Janata Party’s (BJP) president, Rajnath Singh, spoke of a “political conspiracy” aimed at the “vilification of Hindu saints and army officers in the name of Hindu terrorism”.[25]
In 2010, the internet whistleblower organisation WikiLeaks released US embassy cables in which the US ambassador to India scornfully dismissed suggestions by an Indian minister that the death of Hemant Karkare,
a senior anti-terrorism investigator killed by Islamist militants
during the 2008 Mumbai attacks, was somehow orchestrated by Hindu
extremists. The term “saffron terror” was prominently used by some
Congress party members in this campaign, most prominently by Digvijaya Singh.[26][27] The BJP criticised these statements and filed a complaint with the Election Commission of India,
citing it as a violation of the Model Code of Conduct for political
parties. The Election Commission issued a show-cause notice to Digvijay
Singh on this complaint.[28] The Hindu spiritual leader Sri Sri Ravi Shankar has also criticised it, saying that it is a myth and insult to the Hindu religion, which he said is the most tolerant religion.[29]

On 15 April 2015, the Apex Court ruled that there was no evidence to charge Sadhvi Pragya
and Shrikant Purohit under the stringent MCOCA, and therefore their
bail plea should be examined afresh by the special trial court. A bench
headed by Justice F. M. I. Kalifulla said there is no reliable material
to prima facie show that the duo along with four other accused was “criminally liable under the provisions of MCOCA”.[30]

R.V.S Mani, a former officer in the Home Ministry, published a book Hindu Terror: Insider Account of Ministry of Home Affairs
in 2018, alleging that the UPA government had forced Home Ministry
officials to “manufacture” a false narrative about the presence of
“Hindu terror”.[31]



Incidents


Hindu extremist organisations have allegedly carried out terrorist attacks like 2006 Malegaon blasts, Mecca Masjid bombing (Hyderabad), Samjhauta Express bombings and the Ajmer sharif dargah blast. There are some links and connections with Islamist organisations with these blasts.[32][33]

Arif Qasmani of Karachi has been specifically named by the
notification on 1 July 2009, by the US Department of Treasury as
involved in the Mumbai suburban train blasts of July 2006, and in the
Samjhauta Express blast of February, 2007.[33][34]



1999 killing of Graham Staines


The killing of Graham Staines has been cited as example of Saffron terror.[35] Staines, a Christian missionary, and his two sons were burned to death in January 1999. In 2003, a Bajrang Dal activist, Dara Singh, was convicted of leading the gang that murdered Graham Staines and his sons, and was sentenced to life in prison.[36]



2002 Gujarat riots




The 2002 communal riots in Gujarat, where the majority of victims were Muslims, are attributed largely to “foot soldiers” of the Hindutva movement.[37] The riots are part of a recent rise of Hindu extremist movements in India that have been linked to Saffron terrorism.[37]



2007 Samjhauta Express bombings




Twin blasts shook two coaches of the Samjhauta Express around midnight on 18 February 2007. Sixty-eight people were killed in the ensuing fire and dozens were injured.[38] It has been allegedly linked to Abhinav Bharat, a Hindu fundamentalist group.[39]
In November 2008, it was reported that the Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism
Squad (ATS) suspected the attacks were linked to Prasad Shrikant
Purohit, an Indian army officer and member of Abhinav Bharat.[40]
Purohit himself claimed that he had “infiltrated” the Abhinav Bharat.
During an army’s Court of Inquiry, 59 witnesses stated to the court,
along with Officers who testified, that Purohit was doing his job of
gathering intelligence inputs by infiltrating extremist organisations.[41][42] On 8 January 2011, Swami Aseemanand, a pracharak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), confessed that he was involved in the bombing of Samjhauta express,[43] a statement he later claimed to have made under duress.[44] Aseemanand claimed that he was tortured to give a false statement.[45]

There have also been allegations that Lashkar-e-Taiba was responsible for the bombings.[46] The United States declared Arif Qasmani, a Pakistani national and alleged ‘LeT financier’, to be the chief coordinator of the 2006 train bombing in Mumbai as well as the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings, and labelled him an international terrorist via the United Nations.[47][48][49]



2007 Ajmer Dargah attack



Main article: Ajmer Dargah attack

The Ajmer Dargah blast occurred on 11 October 2007, outside the Dargah (shrine) of Sufi saint Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, Rajasthan, allegedly by the Hindutva organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and its groups.[50][51][52]
On 22 October 2010, five accused perpetrators, of which four said to
belong to the RSS, were arrested in connection with the blast.[53][54] Swami Aseemanand, in his confession, implicated the then General Secretary Mohan Bhagwat for ordering the terrorist strike.[55] Bhavesh Patel, another accused in the bombings, has corroborated these statements but later claimed that the Home Minister Sushilkumar Shinde and some other Congress leaders forced him to implicate the RSS leaders.[56]



2008 Malegaon blasts




On 29 September 2008, three bombs exploded in the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra
killing 8 persons and injuring 80. During the investigation in
Maharashtra, a Hindu group was alleged to have been involved in the
blasts. Three of the arrested persons were identified as Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur,[57][58]
Shiv Narayan Gopal Singh Kalsanghra and Shyam Bhawarlal Sahu. All three
were produced before the Chief Judicial Magistrate’s court in Nashik, which remanded them to custody till 3 November.[59] On 28 October, the Shiv Sena,
came out in support of the accused saying that the arrests were merely
political in nature. Lending credence to this, the party chief, Uddhav Thackeray, pointed out a potential conflict of interest in political rivalry as the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) controlled the relevant ministry.[60]
NIA, National Investigation Agency, has found no evidence against
Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur and it has recommended the court to drop all
charges against her.[61][62] following which Bombay High Court granted bail to Pragya Thakur on 22 April 2017.[63][64]

The Army officer Prasad Shrikant Purohit was also accused of being involved in the blast.[65]
His counsel alleged that he was being falsely framed for political
reasons because he has intelligence data of a sensitive nature
pertaining to the operations of Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) and Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence, which could embarrass some quarters.[66]



2007 Mecca Masjid bombing



Main article: Mecca Masjid bombing

The Mecca Masjid bombing occurred on 18 May 2007 inside the Mecca Masjid, a mosque in Hyderabad. Fourteen people were reported dead in the immediate aftermath.[67] The National Investigation Agency,[68] Central Bureau of Investigation[69] and Anti Terrorist Squad (India)[70] questioned former members of the RSS[71][72] On 19 November 2010, the Central Bureau of Investigation produced Swami Aseemanand
before the court in connection with the Blast. But later he has
retracted the confession citing the mental and physical pressure to
provide that confession.[73]
The Special investigation Team (SIT) of Hyderabad Police arrested
‘south India commander’ of the LeT, identified as Shaik Abdul Khaja
alias Amjad, from Afzalgunj area of the city. Police said that the
arrestee was linked to Mohammed Abdul Shahid Bilal, key suspect in the
bombing.[74] In 2013, Yasin Bhatkal confessed that Indian Mujahideen had bombed two other places in Hyderabad later in August 2007 to avenge Mecca Masjid blast which was then allegedly attributed to Hindu fundamental groups.[75]

The South Asia Terrorism Portal,[76] the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses,[77] the National Counter Terrorism Centre[78] the United States,[79] and the United Nations[80] reported that Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami
was actually behind the attacks while excluding involvement by any
Hindu group. Noting this, security analyst Bahukutumbi Raman has
questioned “the two different versions that have emerged from Indian and
American investigators.”[81] The South Asia Terrorism Portal cited Vikar Ahmed as a main suspect in the blast.[74][82]
Mohammed Abdul Shahid Bilal, former chief of HuJI’s Indian operations,
is also regarded as a key suspect in the Mecca Masjid bombing. Later he
was shot by unknown gunmen in Karachi on 30 August 2007.[74][83] .



2018 Court Verdict


The NIA began the probe in April 2011 after the initial
investigations by the local police and the chargesheet filed by the CBI.
226 witnesses were examined during the trial and about 411 documents
exhibited. The verdict was pronounced by a special NIA court acquitting
all the accused due to lack of evidence.[84]



Other allegations


Members of Abhinav Bharat have been alleged to have been involved in a plot to kill Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh President Mohan Bhagwat,[85] allegedly with the help of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence.[86] Headlines Today released a recorded video tested by the Central Forensic Science Laboratory which indicated the uncovering of an alleged plot to assassinate the Vice-President of India Hamid Ansari.[87]
Tehelka also released alleged audio tape transcripts of main
conspirators of Abhinav Bharat, which indicated involvement of Military
intelligence officers with the Abhinav Bharat group, in their January 2011 edition.[88]

The Indian Home Secretary Raj Kumar Singh
said that at least 10 people having close links with the Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and its affiliated organisations were named
accused in various acts of terror across India.[89]

According to released documents by WikiLeaks, Congress(I) party’s general secretary Rahul Gandhi remarked to US Ambassador Timothy Roemer,
at a luncheon hosted by Prime Minister of India at his residence in
July 2009, that the RSS was a “bigger threat” to India than the Lashkar-e-Tayiba.[90]
At The Annual Conference of Director Generals of Police held in New
Delhi on 16 September 2011, a special director of the Intelligence
Bureau (IB) reportedly informed the state police chiefs that Hindutva
activists have either been suspected or are under investigation in 16
incidents of bomb blasts in the country.[91][92]



Torture by Maharashtra ATS


After receiving a complaint letter, the National Human Rights Commission
(NHRC) has initiated a probe into the allegation that Melagaon blast
accused Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur was illegally detained and tortured
by the Maharashtra ATS and state police. The statement was recorded at
the Ved Khushilal Ayurvedic College where Pragya is undergoing treatment
as the lower part of her body is now paralysed, which she claims is an
outcome of the police atrocities. A copy of Pragya Thakur’s statement is
with TOI, in which she argued that the Maharashtra police beat her with
leather belts through the nights, starved her for 24 days without even a
morsel of food, gave her electric shocks, verbally abused her and made
her listen to objectionable pornographic recordings in the company of
male undertrials. When an undertrial objected at the Kala Chouki police
station on 26 October 2008, he was brutally beaten.[93]



See also






Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan


May 15, 2019 at 6:06 am


Your comment is awaiting moderation

Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

BSP chief Mayawati addressed the allegations of having made a
“personal attack” on Prime Minister Narendra Modi, after she said that
he had abandoned his wife for political gains. She said that those who
“deserve to get abused”, get abused “eventually”.

Makkal Needhi Maiyam (MNM) founder Kamal Haasan stoked a controversy,
saying free India’s first “terrorist was a Hindu, and his name was
Nathuram Godse” — who killed Mahatma Gandhi. Addressing an election
campaign in Tamil Nadu on Sunday night, the actor-politician said he was
one of those “proud Indians” who desires an India with equality and
where the “three colours” in the tricolour, an obvious reference to
different faiths, “remained intact.”

“I am not saying this because this is a Muslim-dominated area, but I
am saying this before a statue of Gandhi. Free India’s first terrorist
was a Hindu, his name is Nathuram Godse. There it (terrorism,
apparently) starts,” he said.

Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting
institutions (Modi) gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud
EVMs.Its software and the source code is hidden from the candidates and
voters diluting the Universal Adult Franchise. To restore it 99.9% all
aboriginal awakened societies must unite for a real freedom struggle
against just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists
of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
Paradesis from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks) remotely controlling the stooges, slaves, chamchas,
chelas, bootlickers, own mother’s flesh eaters ( Brashtachar Jhoothe
Psychopaths (BJP) full of haterd, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity
that are defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment in mental
asylums at Bene Israel. to save Universal Adult Franchise, Democracy,
Equality, Fraternity, Liberty as enshrined in our Marvelous Modern
Constitution.

Because the Ruler changes but not the Ruling! Policy changes but not
principle of governance ! Ruling Brahman changes but not Brahmanism! BJP
Brahman goes & Congress Brahman comes! Congress Brahman goes &
BJP Brahman comes! Both are against your change from slavery to
liberation!

Just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the
world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded paradesi
foreigners of Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks) are ruling 99.9% all Awakened Aboriginal Societies by
tampering the Fraud EVMs/ VVPATs. Savarkar, naturam Godse, Vinoba Bhave,
Tilak, Gokhale are RSS, Hindu Mahasabha are all chitpavan brahmins. It
is of the chitpavan brahmins, by the chitpavan brahmins and for the
chitpavan brahmins. If elections are conducted with ballot papers they
will get only 0.1% votes. In other phases more than 180 candidate must
contest in each constituency where the EC (Election Criminals ) will be
compelled to use Ballot Papers and to save Universal Adult Franchise.

The Bene Israel claim that Chitpavans are also of Jewish origin.

The Konkan region witnessed the immigration of groups, such as the Bene Israel, and Kudaldeshkars.
Each of these settled in distinct parts of the region and there was
little mingling between them. The Chitpavans were apparently the last
major community to arrive there and consequently the area in which they
settled, around Ratnagiri, was the least fertile and had few good ports
for trading.

Historians cite nepotism and corruption
as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell
Eaton states that this rise of the Chitpavans is a classic example of
social rank rising with political fortune.
The British would not subsidize the Chitpavans on the same scale that
their caste-fellow, the Peshwas, had done in the past. Pay and power was
now significantly reduced.

http://www.terrorism.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=Countries&file=index&view=113

RSS

The RSS was founded in 1925 by the Maratha Brahmin Keshav Baliram
Hegdewar on the Aryan Vaishnava Holy day of Vijaya Dashami (the 10th day
of the moon) when the Aryan invader Rama destroyed the Dravidian Empire
of Lanka [ Sangh ]. This was done to symbolise its inherent anti-Sudra
nature. Its organisation is highly skewed, with the Sar Sangh Chalak
(supreme dictator) at the top [ Roots ]. This person can only be a
Brahmin.

RSS militia is organised around local cells or `shakas’ where
weapons are distributed to its hardcore members, who are drilled in a
vigorous program of harsh discipline. RSS converted hindu temples serve
as repositories of weapons as well as centers of dissemination of its
racist ideology of Aryan supremacy. RSS cadre graduate to the BJP.

VHP (Vishwa Hindu Parishad)

The council was established on August 29, 1964 in Bombay, Maharastra
[ Biju ] with a political objective of establishing the supremacy of
Hinduism all over the world. It obtains funds and recruits from Aryan
Hindus all across the globe, especially from the US, UK and Canada and
has grown to become the main fund-raising agency of Brahmanist
Fundamentalism. The council was instrumental in the demolition of the
holiest Islamic shrine in Oudh, the Babri Masjid at Ayodhya and has
organised several massacres of Muslims and Christians. It is in the
forefront in the call for a Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu State ethnically
cleansed of its non-Aryan populations.

Bajrang Dal ( Party of Monkey God called Hanuman.)

The militant wing of the VHP, it was formed “to counter `Sikh
militancy’ ” during the Sikh Genocide of 1983-84 [ Bajrang ]. Created
with the objective of the eradication of Sikhs which it has termed
“Muslims in disguise”, its cadres fought alongside Congress-backed
Hindutva militias during the massacre of 200,000 Sikhs under Indira
Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. Recruits carry a ” knife-like trident to be
slung across the shoulder – an answer to the Sikh kirpan ” [ Bajrang ].
later it has subsequently expanded its targets to include Muslims and
Christians as well.

ABVP

This front comprises students of Hindu religious schools
(vidyalayas). It has expanded its base by infiltration into `secular’
universities. Its higher-ranking cadres are well-equipped with weaponry;
they often organise communal campus disturbances against Christians,
Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains. Most of its members graduate to
become hardcore RSS and VHP militants.

All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) Votes are for
All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) and not for just
0.1% intolerant,militant,violent, number one terrorists of the
world,ever shooting, mob lynching,lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners
of Bend Israel paradesis chitpavan brahmins of
Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) remotely controlling Stooges, chamchas,
Slaves, chelas, bootlickers, own mother’s flesh eaters Murderers of
democratic and Master of diluting institutions(Modi) and the
Brashtachar Jhoothe Psychopaths(BJP)

RSS : World’s largest terrorist Organization?
Oct 22, 2016 #1
Banglar Bir
Banglar Bir
SENIOR MEMBER

Messages:7,812
Joined:Mar 19, 2006
Ratings:+1 / 3,846 / -4 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
About Hindutva, Sanghparivar, RSS, Fascism, Religious Terror,
“The whole business of Hindutva and its nationalism is a poison in the
body politic of India. We have to accept that the poison has been
injected and it will take a lot to purge it,” Arundhati Roy

SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 2006
RSS : World’s largest terrorist Organization?

What makes one or an organization terrorist?

American Heritage Dictionary: The unlawful use or threatened use of
force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or
property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or
governments, often for ideological or political reasons.

Does the Sanghparivar have any of these qualities in its work to make it not to declare a terrorist organization?

An American research centre has placed our ultra-nationalist
Rashtrya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) on its terrorist list. The East
Virginia-based Terrorism Research Center (TRC) is closely connected to
the American government and many of its directors and researchers have
closely worked with US administrations and have taken part in research
and planning for the US administration.

In the list of ?? in India, the TRC has placed RSS under no. 21.
Here is the link as it appeared on 9 September 2004 on the group?s
website under the caption ?Known Terrorist Groups Operating in India?.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitpavan

The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale,
whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his
outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the “jewel of his
disciples”, and recognised Gokhale as his political guru. However,
strong opposition to Gandhi came from the Chitpavan community. Vinayak
Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the political ideology hindutva,
was a chitpavan brahmin and several other chitpavans were among the
first to embrace it because they thought it was a logical extension of
the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak.
These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the
community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. ,
drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.The
upper castes, that is, Marathi Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins and Prabhus
(CKPs and Pathare Prabhus)
were only about 4% of the population in Maharashtra. A majority of this
4% were Brahmins. As per the 1901 census, about 5% of the Pune
population was Brahmin and about 27% of them were Chitpawans.
Anti-Brahmin violence in the 20th century after Gandhi’s assassination

After Gandhi’s assassination by Nathuram Godse, a Chitpawan, Brahmins
in Maharashtra, became targets of violence, mostly by members from the
Maratha
caste. The motivating factor for the violence was not love for Gandhi
on the part of the rioters but the denigration and humiliation that the Marathas were subjected to due to their caste status.
In the Patwardhan princely states such as Sangli, the Marathas were joined by the Jains and the Lingayats
in the attacks against the Brahmins. Here, specifically, advanced
factories owned by the Chitpawans were destroyed. This event led to the
hasty integration of the Patwardhan states into the Bombay Province by
March 1948 – a move that was opposed by other Brahmins as they feared
the Maratha predominance in the integrated province. During early 20th
century, the ruler of Kolhapur state, Shahu had collaborated with the
British against the Indian freedom struggle – a struggle that was
identified with Chitpavans like Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
He was also instrumental in shaping anti-Brahmin attitude in the
non-Brahmin communities during that period. This led to great violence
against Brahmins in Kolhapur.
Social status

Earlier, the Deshastha Brahmins believed that they were the highest
of all Brahmins and looked down upon the Chitpavans as parvenus (a
relative newcomer to a socio-economic class), barely equal to the
noblest of dvijas. The Deshastha Brahmins and the Karhadas
treated the Peshwa’s caste with contempt and refused to interdine with
them. Even during the days of earlier Peshwa’s they hesitated the admit
the Chitpavans to social equality.Even the Peshwa was denied the rights
to use the ghats reserved for Deshastha priests at Nashik on the
Godavari river.
The rise in prominence of the Chitpavans compared to the
Deshastha Brahmins resulted in intense rivalry between the two
communities.19th century records also mention Gramanyas or village-level
debates between the Chitpavans and Daivajnas, Chandraseniya Kayastha
Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Saraswat Brahmins and the Chitpavans,
Pathare Prabhus and the Chitpavans and Shukla Yujurvedi Deshastha
Brahmins and the Chitpavans. These were quite common in Maharashtra.


in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu

ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA






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 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
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final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
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Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

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05/14/19
LESSON 2991 Wed 15 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
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112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19 Question 6. Write clearly an account on Sumedha’s thought concerning each Parami.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 4:43 pm
LESSON 2991 Wed 15 May  2019


Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Tipitaka
is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]



from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
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112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās

 through 

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana


“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”


TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

Question
6. Write clearly an account on Sumedha’s thought concerning each Parami.
http://hsingyun.org/parami-true-success/
image.png



Parami: True Success




“Success,” as it is generally understood, is nothing more than
personal success in the present lifetime, things like fame, wealth, and
power. In the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, “success” means benefiting
living beings, having successful cultivation, and becoming a Buddha or
bodhisattva.


Quite a number of people believe that for Buddhist monastics to
develop from ordinary people into sages they must cut themselves off
from their family and loved ones and hide away in some remote mountain
hermitage. Likewise, there is a saying in Buddhism that “All things are
empty,” though this concept of “emptiness” is often misunderstood to
mean that we should not want or pursue anything. This misapprehension
recasts the Buddhist teaching on “emptiness” into nothing but
meaningless talk about metaphysical ideas. But, according to Buddhism,
success comes as the fruition of karmic causes and conditions. These
instances of karmic fruition are also called paramitas.


Parami is an ancient Sanskirt word which means “to cross
over,” in that one crosses from the shore of suffering over to the other
shore of nirvana, while “ta” is an auxiliary particle
that indicates completion. When the Buddhist sutras were translated from
Sanskrit to Chinese, the choice was made to transliterate the term paramita,
rather than translating its meaning, and most English translations
follow in suit. This was done in order to preserve the concept as close
to the time of the Buddha’s transmission of the Dharma and not to limit
it by a particular translated term.


If we want to cross over affliction, trouble, and the cycle of birth
and death, and transform suffering into happiness, partiality into
universality, and affliction into enlightenment, we must rely upon the
six paramitas. Also known as the “six perfections,” the six paramitas are six methods that enable us to cross over and transcend. The six paramitas are giving, morality, patience, diligence, meditative concentration, and prajna. Each of the paramitas will be explained more fully later.


The four main teachings of the Diamond Sutra are to give
without notions, to liberate with no notion of self, to live without
abiding, and to cultivate without attainment; this way of practicing the
Dharma allows us to cross from this shore to the other shore and to
fulfill our paramitas. To put it more simply, one should use a spirit that transcends the world to do the work of the world.


Human life can be divided into four levels:


  1. Physical life
  2. Community life
  3. Transcendent life
  4. Unending life

“Physical life” refers to the physical body as given to us by our
parents. This human body is hard to come by, so we should take good care
of it. “Community life” means fulfilling one’s role within the larger
life of the group. “Transcendent life” means altruistically contributing
what you can for the sake of others, the larger community, and for all
living beings. “Unending life” refers to what Buddhism calls the “life
of wisdom.” Someone who lives this way is not worried about whether he
lives or dies, having transcended the suffering of life and the fear of
death. This is eternal life where one no longer wanders through the
cycle of birth and death.


Every human life has boundless potential. It is up to the mind of each individual to fulfill the value and success of life.



Reconsidering Value


In her later years, my mother was a patient at Whittier Hospital in
Los Angeles, U.S.A. On May 31, 1996, I received news in Taipei that my
mother’s illness had taken a turn for the worse, and I immediately
boarded a plane for Los Angeles. During the flight I kept reflecting on
the past. In my mind I could see my mother’s tender, smiling face as if
it were before my very eyes. My heart filled with all manner of
emotions, and I silently recited the name of Amitabha Buddha as a
blessing for my mother.


Upon arriving at Los Angeles International Airport, I raced over to
the hospital, but my mother had already passed on. All I could do was go
over to Rose Hills Memorial Park to pay my last respects.


The nursing staff that had been looking after her told me that she
was kind and frugal, and was plain and simple in her daily needs. She
rarely bothered others and was always thinking of other people. My
mother did not even want them to tell me about her worsening condition,
to spare me any alarm or worry. My mother always took everything upon
herself, and kept her feelings of care and loving concern inside. Twenty
minutes before she died, she still left instructions with Venerable Tzu
Chuang, the abbess of Hsi Lai Temple who was attending at her side:



Thank you for reciting the name of Amitabha Buddha on my
behalf. I am leaving now, so, please, under no circumstances are you to
let my son know, thus sparing him any distress. He should busy himself
with the problems of all sentient beings and not be troubled on my
account alone.


In the face of disciples and family members who had hurried to Los
Angeles from various places, I decided to follow my mother’s final
instructions by not disturbing the outside world and keeping everything
simple. In accordance with her wishes, no formal condolences, no
funerary contributions of money and no gifts or flowers were accepted. I
then dictated the following obituary notice to solemnly inform all
those concerned:



My mother, Mrs. Liu Yuying, peacefully passed away at
4:20 a.m. on the 30 of May, 1996, at Whittier Hospital in Los Angeles,
U.S.A, amid the sounds of chanting “Amitofo.” She was ninety-five years
old. Many of her children and grandchildren as well as my disciples were
by her side. Her body was then transferred to Rose Hills that same day.


Four days later, my mother was cremated at Rose Hills. Amid the
sounds of those assembled there chanting sutras and reciting Amitabha
Buddha’s name, I gently pressed the green switch to activate the
cremation process. At that time I composed the following poem in my
mind:



Between this mundane world and the Pure Land,

There remains the unchanging bond between mother and son;

For whether here on earth or there in heaven,

She remains forever my dear mother.

With a burst of fire,

A puff of wind,

And a flash of light,

I bid eternal farewell to my mother.


My mother was twenty-five when she gave birth to my body. Since then
seventy years had slipped away, and my mother has passed on. And so,
with a push of a button, the body of my mother was cremated. Our
physical bodies are like houses that we live in only for a short time.
Time passes and the house becomes leaky and in need of repair. This
temporary residence of ours will surely decay, and there will come a
time when we will be unable to live in it anymore.


Some twenty years earlier, my mother once came to stay for a while at
Fo Guang Shan, and on one occasion during a grand assembly of lay
disciples, I asked whether or not she was willing to meet with them and
say a few words. She agreed, but I was worried that my mother would be
intimidated by stage fright. But to my surprise, she faced the assembled
audience of more than twenty thousand and said with a calm assurance,
“Fo Guang Shan is indeed the Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss; a
heaven on earth. We should rely upon the venerable master to be our
guide in the hope that everyone will achieve enlightenment here at Fo
Guang Shan. Everyone has been so kind to me, but this old woman has
nothing to give to you in return. I can only offer my son as a gift to
everyone.”


Her words were met by thunderous applause from the audience. My
mother was illiterate and had never read any sacred literature, nor ever
prepared herself to speak in front of others. But she had experienced
the chaos of the late Qing dynasty, the Revolution of 1911, the
establishment of the Republic of China, the armed occupations of the
warlords, the Sino-Japanese War, the stand-off between the Nationalist
Party and the Chinese Communist Party, and the Great Cultural
Revolution, as well as the changes over time in relations between Taiwan
and Mainland China.


The turmoil of the times had kept her constantly on the move; she
lived through nearly one hundred years of epoch-making change. In her
life, she practiced the Dharma, but she was too busy to let the question
of whether or not she had a firm background in Buddhism bother her. She
had already transcended the scriptural understanding with all its
careful wording to bring fulfillment to her own life.


And yet, through the power of a vow, we have the power to return again to this human world.



Humanistic Buddhism


As Buddhists we acknowledge that the Dharma exists in the world, but what exactly is the Dharma as taught by the Buddha?


The word Buddha means “enlightened one,” for he is one who has
enlightened himself, enlightens others, and has completed his mission
of enlightening others. A Buddha is one who transcends the ignorance of
sentient beings. The quality of his enlightenment is unlike that of the sravaka or pratyekabuddha,
who pursue enlightenment for themselves alone. A Buddha has realized a
state of enlightenment that even a bodhisattva has yet to fully attain.


The founder of Buddhism was originally named Siddhartha, though he is
also called Sakyamuni Buddha, the World-honored One, the Tathagata, and
so on. He was born on the eighth day of the fourth month of the lunar
calendar in Lumbini Garden within the Indian state of Kapilavastu. His
father, King Suddhodana, was head of the Sakya clan. His mother, Queen
Maya, died seven days after his birth.


Sakyamuni Buddha was raised into adulthood by his maternal aunt, Lady
Mahaprajapati. As a prince, Siddhartha was a handsome and intelligent
young man, who was skilled in both the civil and military arts. From
boyhood, he was much beloved by the common people. His father put all
his effort into training him to become a wise ruler. When he was
seventeen, Siddhartha married the beautiful Yasodhara, and the following
year she bore him a son, Prince Rahula.


However, despite his life in the palace with all its comfort and
contentment, and the warm love and affection of his family, Siddhartha
felt a deep void in his heart. He was seeking something more from life
and needed a truer understanding of human existence. So at the age of
twenty-nine, he bid farewell to his family, gave up all his pleasures
and comforts, and left the palace to pursue his spiritual quest. At age
thirty-five, after six years of austere practice, he sat underneath the
bodhi tree, and attained enlightenment while looking up at a bright
star, and said, “Marvelous, marvelous! All sentient beings have the
Tathagata’s wisdom and virtue, but they fail to realize it because they
cling to deluded thoughts and attachments.”


The now enlightened Buddha shared his realization with others,
setting the wheel of Dharma turning, and established the monastic order.
He then taught the Dharma for the liberation of living beings for
forty-nine years, and entered nirvana while lying between two sala trees outside the city of Kusinara in the year 483 bce.


The Buddha was born in this human world, grew up and attained enlightenment in this human world; he passed into nirvana
in this human world, as well. Buddhism has always been concerned with
this human world. The Buddhist sutras which circulate today are a record
of the Buddha’s teachings to liberate living beings, gathered and
organized by his disciples after the Buddha’s final nirvana. From
the time of the Buddha, the Buddhist teachings are meant to
fundamentally address the issues of how we as human beings are to
conduct ourselves, how we are to act and think throughout the course of
our lives, as well as how we can gain liberation. The Dharma quite
naturally serves as a guide to how to live our daily lives. As Buddhism
enters the modern era, we as Buddhists must take an active role in the
world and be diligent.


There are some people who think the Dharma serves as an escape, that
one may “retreat into Buddhist practice,” as if Buddhism is some sort of
pessimistic escape or resignation that does not demand that we
accomplish anything. The Ekottara Agama states:



All the Buddhas and World-honored Ones come from the
human world; their realization is not something attained in the heavenly
realms.


Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of the Chan School, also said in the Platform Sutra:



The Dharma is within the world, apart from this world there is no awakening. Seeking bodhi apart from the world is like looking for a rabbit’s horn.


If we seek enlightenment by rejecting the world, in doing so we throw
away our potential. This creates a sense of withdrawal and escape in
the mind, and then nothing whatsoever will succeed.


Buddhism is not a religion that belongs only to monastics, nor is it a
body of philosophical texts to be studied by scholars. Buddhism should
be something that benefits all people. Buddhism is not an abstract
theory; it is a religion that brings happiness and well-being into the
world. To learn Buddhism is to learn how to be happy, carefree,
liberated, and attain meditative bliss and Dharma joy. Joy and happiness
are the most precious things in life, and living a happy, blessed, and
carefree life is what Humanistic Buddhism promotes. Humanistic Buddhism
is the practical application of the Buddhist spirit in the world.


One day, the Buddha and his disciples entered the city of Sravasti to
gather alms, and it so happened that they encountered someone who bore a
grudge against the Buddha. This person started to malign, slander, and
shout in a loud voice as the Buddha walked along the street.


Seeing how the Buddha was being insulted in public, one of his
disciples said to the Buddha angrily, “The people here lack any speck of
goodness and do not know how to respect the Triple Gem. Lord Buddha, it
would be better if we left this place and went to a city with
kind-hearted people!”


The Buddha replied, “Suppose we do move to another place but the
people there still do not believe in the Dharma, what would you do
then?”


The disciple said, “We should move to yet another place!”


“When will we ever stop moving if we do so because of external
conditions? This is not the way to ultimately solve the problem! We can
resolve the root of the problem this way: If we are treated with scorn,
we must remain unperturbed and bring an end to slander through patience.
We must not stop guarding our speech and training our minds until we
are no longer treated with scorn.”


The Buddha continued, “An enlightened person remains calm and patient
like the earth. We should not allow our mission to be shaken by either
praise or blame. By contemplating the absence of an independent self, we
will observe how all phenomena are false fabrications. Then the
illusory distinctions of self and others, as well the so-called good and
bad of the world, will become nothing more than froth upon the water
that suddenly appears, and just as suddenly disappears. Can anything
remain constant and unchanging?”


Buddhism such as this is what allows people to experience well-being
and success. It is a religion for people, and one that is concerned with
the development of people. In Buddhism there is a teaching called the
“three Dharma seals,” which are three qualities that certify something
as an authentic teaching. They are all conditioned phenomena are
impermanent, all phenomena are without an independent self, and nirvana
is perfect tranquility. By viewing the world through the teaching on
impermanence, one can come to understand that all conditioned phenomena
are impermanent. Determination and diligence allows us to see that “all
phenomena are without an independent self.” In Buddhism there is a
saying that “there is nothing to attain,” and it is because of this
understanding that all the wonders of existence can arise out of true
emptiness. The last of the three Dharma seals, “nirvana is perfect tranquility” asserts that our potential for success is unlimited.



Wholesome Wealth


There are many people in this world who believe that one of the
standards for measuring success is making a lot of money. In terms of
material wealth, Buddhist monastics live a plain and simple life: they
live with three robes, a bowl, and few small items, such as sutras and a
Buddha statue. There is even a saying in Chinese that, “A monastic’s
rucksack weighs only two and a half pounds.” That being said, even a
skilled housewife cannot prepare a meal without rice, and a poor couple
will suffer hundreds of sorrows. A lay Buddhist must have some monetary
wealth, or else he will be unable to care for his parents and support
his family. Buddhist practice and acts of charity also require a certain
amount of money to support them, let alone the riches required to
engage in various social development programs. Therefore, Humanistic
Buddhism does not disdain money, for wealth that is acquired through
pure and wholesome means can serve as supporting resources.


However, we must also understand that worldly success arises from a
combination of causes and conditions. Consider the example of a single
individual. The process that takes this person from birth as a crying
baby to maturity as an adult is supported by many causes and conditions,
such as the safeguarding by parents, instruction of teachers and
elders, as well as the various trades and professions that supply
clothing, food, housing, transportation and so on. We go to school, find
our place in society, start a family, and begin our careers; and we all
hope we will be successful in these. But success is not building
castles in the sky, nor is it possible to achieve it without hard work.
Having the right conditions in place to support us is to our advantage,
but even then depending upon others too much cannot lead to success
either.


People are often greedy. If they have even a bit of money, they think
of depositing it in the bank where it will accumulate interest. But in
that case, such money cannot be used to launch new enterprises. We bring
no money with us when we are born, and take none of it with us when we
die, and during our lives it is always taken away by fire, flood,
thieves, corrupt officials, and wayward children.1
We can only appreciate the value of money if we do not feel attached to
it, but rather allow our wealth to circulate and accomplish good
things. There is a Buddhist saying that captures this sentiment well:



What comes from all directions

Supports undertakings in all directions;

The generosity of thousands of people

Creates connections for thousands of people.


In this way worldly money can serve both worldly causes, as well as those that transcend this world.


There are some people who have a fixed view that spiritual practice
does not need money and cannot involve money, and expect spiritual
seekers to live in poverty. But poverty cannot guarantee a higher level
of practice. These attitudes come from a fixed sense of self which is
attached to appearing impoverished, that it is the only way to be a
practitioner. This is a question of reality. If you have nothing, how
then can you give something? To liberate living beings and practice
giving, we need the qualities of physical strength, practical talent,
ability, and commitment. Why must monetary wealth be singled out for
disdain and rejection? To varying levels, lacking mental or material
resources will limit our ability to give and liberate others.


The question that is truly worthy of our concern is how to best
utilize the pure, wholesome, and noble wealth that is donated to benefit
living beings. We should not fall into the view that only poverty can
show that one is well cultivated. For a modernized Buddhism, Buddhists
should engage in enterprise so long as such activities are beneficial to
the economy of the country and the lives of its people. This then is
the true meaning of the Buddhists teachings on “non-abiding” and
“non-self.”



Oneness and Coexistence


There is a story recounted in the Samyukta Agama about two
monastics who argue about who is better at chanting. One day the
Buddha’s great disciple Mahakasyapa reported to the Buddha, “Lord
Buddha, there are two monks who are both unyielding in nature; one is
Ananda’s disciple Nantu and the other is Maudgalyayana’s disciple Abifu.
The two of them argue with each other from time to time over who is the
best at chanting, and tomorrow they are going to decide once and for
all who can chant the most sutras and teach the Dharma the best!”


The Buddha sent someone to summon Nantu and Abifu. He then asked
them, “Have you heard my teaching on how to determine the winner and the
loser when two people are arguing with one another?”


“We have never heard of such a teaching concerning winning or losing.”


“The real winner is someone who puts a stop to the confusion caused
by greed, anger, and ignorance; diligently practices the threefold
training of morality, meditative concentration, and wisdom; and can
destroy the thieves of the six sense organs. One who can truly
contemplate how the five aggregates of form, feeling, perceptions,
mental formation, and consciousness are as insubstantial as a plantain
trunk; and can make the Noble Eightfold Path their guide can realize the
bliss and tranquility of great nirvana. You may be able to
recite hundreds of thousands of verses from memory, but if you do not
understand their meaning, then how does that benefit your liberation?”


The Buddha wants us to cultivate right concentration, part of the
Noble Eightfold Path, and stay away from any conflict between ourselves
and others. The Diamond Sutra emphasizes how one should not abide
in anything. In terms of human commercial enterprises, one must not
become attached to a single fixed market. Do not cling to old markets
and old industries, but have the courage instead to open up alternative
avenues, seek out alternative markets, and set up new creative teams. By
implementing strategies like “value reassessment,” “collective
creation,” and “systematic leadership,” one can develop brand new
enterprises and live a life as vast as endless space.



Value Reassessment


In the Diamond Sutra, the Buddha instructs living beings to
not cling to the notion of self, the notion of others, the notion of
sentient beings, or the notion of longevity, nor to allow the
discriminating mind to hinder our practice. If organizations and
commercial enterprises are able to align themselves closely with human
nature, be attentive to the needs of the larger community, and offer
more varied opportunities, then they can create new value.


In the past, hearing Buddhist teachings required a visit to a temple,
but since such temples were located in remote locations with poor
transportation, people often hesitated to go. Even the infrastructure of
the temples failed to meet the needs of those who came to hear the
teachings. Having done their best to visit once or twice, some beginning
Buddhists would give up on their good intention of listening to the
Dharma.


The Lotus Sutra states:



In whatever land where this sutra is received and upheld,
read and recited, explained and copied, and cultivated and practiced as
taught; whether in a place where a volume of scripture is kept, or in a
grove, or in a forest, or under a tree, or in a monastery, or in a
layman’s house, or in a temple hall, or in a mountain valley, or upon an
open plain; in all of these places one should erect a memorial stupa
and make offerings. Why is that? One must know that these places are
temples.


The Vimalakirti Sutra also states:



The upright mind is a temple, the profound mind is a temple, the mind aspiring to bodhi is a temple, generosity is a temple, the three kinds of supernatural knowledge2 are a temple, the knowledge of all phenomena within a single thought is a temple.


That is to say, everywhere in the world can be a place for us to
learn the Dharma and attain enlightenment. In order to spread the Dharma
throughout the world, it should go into homes, schools, factories,
farms, workplaces, and military bases. By upholding the principles of
harmonizing the traditional and the modern, by sharing ownership between
monastics and laypeople, by equally emphasizing both practice and
understanding, and by integrating literature and art with Buddhism, we
will continue to promote Humanistic Buddhism.


Fo Guang Shan and its branch temples all include facilities like
auditoriums, conference rooms, classrooms, lounge areas, reception
areas, and libraries, along with the gradual addition of the Fo Guang
Yuan art galleries, Water Drop teahouses, and so on. Such an approach
allows devotees to come to the temple not only to worship the Buddha,
but also to receive the Dharma instruction that is offered in
auditoriums, conference rooms, and classrooms. In this way Fo Guang Shan
endeavors to combine the worldly with that which transcends the world,
and integrate society with the mountain monastery, so that monastics and
laypeople can practice anytime and anywhere.


With its transcendent spirit and worldly practicality, Buddhism
liberates living beings by bestowing upon them the Buddha’s wisdom and
compassion. The enterprises of the world with their profit motive must
also adapt to changes in external conditions from time to time, so that
they can provide the products and services that are aligned with the
people’s demands in a planned, organized, and efficient manner. That too
is using a spirit that transcends the world to do the work of the
world.



Collective Creation


Organizations and enterprises must create new value, but this is
impossible to accomplish by relying solely on one individual to take
charge of everything and make all the decisions. What is needed is for
everyone to pull together their creative ideas and the will for
collective success.


In its early days, Fo Guang Shan had absolutely nothing. We had
neither modern equipment nor today’s popular management theory, but what
we did have was group planning and effort, and the tacit understanding
we all shared about collective creation. In 1967, the construction of
the temple began, and I brought along the first generation of my
disciples—Hsin Ping, Hsin Ting, Tzu Chuang, Tzu Hui, and Tzu Jung—and
together we began to toil and work. We cleared away each tree and moved
every rock. We drafted the general layout for the temple’s structure in
the Lichee Garden, and came up with our teaching guidelines in the old
Huiming Hall.


At each stage in going from nothing to something, there were perhaps
personal differences over understanding, conceptualization, and
judgment, but once an issue affected the general direction of Fo Guang
Shan, or what was needed to bring success to Buddhism, everyone promptly
came together. There was never any conflict sparked by personal or
selfish motives, for we shared a common determination to overcome any
difficulties and help each other work towards the same goal. This was
the spirit behind the founding of Fo Guang Shan.


“Collective creation” does not mean many people supporting the
dictatorship of one individual; rather, it means that each individual
within the collective participates equally, so we can broadly solicit
views and opinions from all corners. From Fo Guang Shan’s founding to
the present day, nearly every single issue has been decided
democratically. At all of our meetings at every level of the
organization, everyone has an equal opportunity to speak and exercise
their right to vote, regardless of their degree of seniority or the
duties they undertake. At the meetings I chair personally, anybody who
is so inclined is free to sit in and listen at any time. Not only does
this style reduce many of the barriers to getting things done, it also
ensures that members of Fo Guang Shan who attend these meetings can
learn the art of communication. Everyone has an opportunity to grow from
such experiences.


When I think of Fo Guang Shan’s initial building phase, images of how
all of us worked together from morning to night, shouldering loads of
bricks, sand, rock, and cement with sweat streaming down our backs flash
in my mind. After the hired workers had finished their day’s work and
gone home, Fo Guang Shan’s disciples would continue working. In
addition, there are no words to describe the assistance we received from
all of the laypeople who wished to support the Dharma. This is why I
often say, “the success of Fo Guang Shan belongs to everyone.” Fo Guang
Shan is not for any individual. Rather, it belongs to its more than
thirteen hundred monastic disciples, the millions of lay followers
around the world, its many benefactors, as well as people from all walks
of life. Fo Guang Shan was not something that was completed in a day or
a certain period of time; it succeeded, bit by bit, through the
continuous effort due to oneness and coexistence.



Systematic Leadership


Even during the Buddha’s time the monastic community had a well-developed organizational system. The Buddha set up the posadha system, in which monastics met regularly to reflect upon their religious lives and confess their faults, and the karman
system for conducting meetings and adopting resolutions. In these
systems we can see a set of legal procedures that are even more complete
in their details than those of many modern countries. The Buddha’s
management style reflects a deep understanding of human nature and his
system of rules and regulations are skillfully adaptive. The Buddha’s
monastic community could be ranked among the best of the many successful
enterprises we have today.


Never in my life have I worried about my future, and I have not set
my mind on any particular achievement. Things just fell into place
naturally. The year I turned fifty-eight, I relinquished my position as
abbot of Fo Guang Shan, but even then I was merely stepping down in
accordance with the system. I then left Fo Guang Shan and went directly
to Beihai Temple. I wanted to let my successor get on with the job,
which is why I did not want to linger at Fo Guang Shan. In Buddhism
there is a saying that one should “rely on the Dharma rather than an
individual”; organizations and enterprises, likewise, need clearly
defined and implementable system as they pursue success.


The Buddha’s Light International Association, a Buddhist organization
founded to encourage the participation of lay Buddhists, has a
membership now in the millions, while the entire Fo Guang Shan
organization operates harmoniously. We have furthered the work of
spreading the Dharma to all parts of the world, and each of our
successes has been achieved by operating within our system. In this way
the Dharma has been able to break through the barriers of race,
language, and culture, and we have been able to use Buddhist chanting,
calligraphy, writing, publishing, and visual and performing arts to
spread Humanistic Buddhism to every corner of the world.


The success of Fo Guang Buddhists can be seen as an example of
“cultivation without attainment”: in Fo Guang Shan, we have a policy
that glory belongs to the Buddha, and the success belongs to the
community. In this instance these achievements “belong” in the sense
that each person contributes their cultivation without expecting to gain
anything in return. In this way, Fo Guang Buddhists are one with all
living beings, and can coexist together in harmony.



Building One Brick at a Time


In Chinese there is an old saying: “When the eggs are not ready to
hatch, do not crack the shell; when the rice is not fully cooked, do not
lift the lid.” Trying to break open the eggs when they are not ready to
hatch will bring an untimely death to these small creatures, and trying
to lift the lid of the pot before the rice is fully cooked will make it
hard for the rice to be cooked tender.


There is no free lunch in this world. If you want to get something
you must give something. I would suggest that, when a person is young,
he or she should fear neither hardship, nor being at a disadvantage. One
should harden oneself with real experience with no expectation of
compensation. One should increase one’s own knowledge and experience, no
matter if that be through reading books, starting a major undertaking,
or engaging in some sort of work. Do not be eager for success: success
that comes too easily can lead to pride and disdain for others, and with
such irresolute aspirations, one will quickly fail and be laid low. A
lofty tower is built from the ground up: no real success in this world
is achieved all at once. Success does not happen by mere chance, nor is
it a product of instant results. Rather, it is solidly built one brick
at a time. Great minds often develop gradually. Likewise, there is a
saying in Taiwan that goes: “a big rooster takes its time crowing.”


Quick success is not really all that good. Take trees for example:
those that mature in a year are only good for firewood, while those that
mature in three to five years can be made into tables and chairs. Only
trees that take decades and decades to mature can be made into pillars
and beams. That is why we should “cultivate without attainment,” and
free ourselves of that win or lose mentality that leads to hasty work.
We must gradually cultivate and refine ourselves, and wait until the
conditions are right. As it is said, the journey of a thousand miles
begins with the first step; so never get ahead of yourself nor delude
yourself with the idea that chanting Amitabha Buddha’s name for two days
will give you a diamond-like mind capable of overcoming evil.


After Hongren, the Fifth Patriarch of the Chan School, gave the
monastic robe and alms bowl to Huineng, signifying that he was now the
Sixth Patriarch, he escorted Huineng to a riverbank and said to him:



Henceforth, you shall spread the Dharma far and wide. You
should depart now and quickly travel south. Do not start teaching too
quickly because it is difficult to spread the Dharma.


The Fifth Patriarch was telling Huineng not to be too eager to spread
the Dharma publicly. It is important to wait for the right opportunity.
This was why Huineng lived in seclusion among a band of hunters, eating
some vegetables that he added to their pot of meat, as he bided his
time. A favorable opportunity is when all the conditions are right. Any
matter can easily succeed, if it happens at just the right moment when
the causes and conditions are in place.



The Ten Directions and Three Time Periods


People often ask me, “The Fo Guang Shan monastic order is large and
its activities are on an immense scale, how do you manage it all? How do
you keep everyone focused, harmonious, and without contention?”


I always like to reply by sharing an old Buddhist expression:
“Pervade across the ten directions and extend down through the three
time periods.”3


The expression “Pervade across the ten directions and extend down
through the three times periods” describes our own intrinsic Buddha
nature. The size of everything in the world is limited, the only things
large enough to “pervade across the ten directions” are prajna,
our intrinsic nature, and the Dharmakaya. Such things are so large that
nothing is outside them and so small that nothing more can be contained
within; for they pervade everyplace and exist everywhere. In terms of
time, although our physical bodies are born and die and our lives come
to an end, our intrinsic Buddha wisdom can transcend the temporal
limitations of past, present, and future. It neither arises nor ceases
and does not come or go, which is why it “extends down through the three
time periods.”


The year I stepped down as abbot of Fo Guang Shan my successor,
Venerable Hsin Ping, would come and ask me the same question whenever
any major event was about to take place at the monastery. He would ask,
“How should we handle it this year?”


I would always answer, “Look to what was done before.”


Referencing earlier precedents means striving for consistency with
the monastery’s guiding principles, yet as times change, all things
should also undergo some reform and innovation. This is why I said to
look to what was done before, not to follow what was done before.


To build people’s faith in the Dharma I have gone from riding a
bicycle down to the village in my early years to taking automobiles.
Because of this modernized society, instead of walking, I can now fly to
and fro through the sky. I deeply appreciate how these modern forms of
transportation offer many conveniences for teaching the Dharma. However,
an appropriate respect for tradition can allow people to see the true
meaning of Buddhism. For example, beginning in 1988 and continuing every
other year afterwards, Fo Guang Shan has an alms procession, in which
monastics collect donations with their bowls as in the time of the
Buddha. Not only does this activity serve to bring the light of the
Buddha’s compassion to every corner of Taiwan and give Buddhists an
opportunity to make offerings and generate merit, it is a good
experience for the monastics as well. In 1988 I launched a series of
events across Taiwan entitled “Returning to the Buddha’s Time,”
featuring ceremonies, performances, and a Dharma talk. The events used
modern audio-visual multimedia to enable the audience of tens of
thousands to travel back in time and return to the sacred site of
Vulture Peak where the Buddha was teaching twenty-five hundred years ago
and share in the Dharma joy of Buddhist chanting.


The policy of referring to past precedents is a manifestation of
“extending down through the three time periods.” Whenever some
improvement is introduced, it goes through a process of discussion and
coordination and then later becomes widely known to everyone. Meetings
are an indispensable part of this process. There are times when students
ask to attend our meetings, and I do not refuse them.


In the past I served on the monastery staff, and while taking care of
guests I developed a keen awareness as to how all things are connected.
Each moment can be considered as a point that leads to some other
point, together these points make a line, and by observing many of these
lines, one comes to an understanding of the whole. By seeing some
individual matter as part of the whole, then one can tweak its temporal
and spatial qualities in just the right way so that nothing will be left
out.


Buddha nature permeates everywhere, “pervading across the ten
directions and extending down through the three time periods.” Because
of this, in terms of our essence, both the Buddha and I possess the same
Buddha nature. Therefore, I need not submit to force, nor become
beguiled by wealth and honor. I am one with all living beings. Sometimes
I may sit upon a high throne and expound the sublime truths of the
Buddha, while at other times I can toil and work for the benefit of
living beings and contribute through my sacrifice. I can be great or be
small, I can come first or come last, I can do with or do without, I can
handle happiness or suffering, I can expand or contract, and I can bear
being full or being hungry. I was not born with the ability to do
everything, but I am always willing to try.


It is because of the maxim “pervade across the ten directions and
extend down through the three time periods” that we must throw open the
universal gate. There can be no racial barriers or special treatment. We
must be able to lead people from all walks of life, regardless of their
religious and social backgrounds, into sharing equally in the benefits
of the Dharma. This will enable all living beings from different regions
of the world and different stations in life to benefit from the
Dharma’s various positive connections, and bestow them upon society.



Buddhist Success: Paramita


As mentioned previously, paramita is a Sanskrit word that means “success,” “crossing from this shore to the other shore,” and “the perfect tranquility of nirvana.


We know that we must go from this shore of delusion and cross to the
other shore of enlightenment, but can we do this just by thinking about
it from time to time?


The Diamond Sutra says we should “Give rise to a mind that does not abide in anything.
In this instance, “abide” means to be attached to something,
particularly attached to an independent self. When we become too focused
on this sense of an independent self we become attached to the
perceived value of this “self,” and thus cling to certain ideas and
never let them go. When we worry too much about the gains and losses of
this “self” our feelings become deluded by love, hate, sadness, and
happiness. Having a mind that does not abide in anything calls upon us
to live in the world according to the selflessness of prajna, for this is the only way to reach the state of nirvana. Nirvana is:


  • Complete tranquility
  • The highest bliss
  • Everlasting happiness
  • Complete merit and wisdom
  • Total freedom from desire
  • The ultimate state of liberation
  • True reality

Success in Buddhism is transcending this shore with its affliction,
delusion, and suffering, and crossing to the other shore of purity and
tranquility, where no afflictions appear and all suffering has ended.
The specific practice to accomplish this is a group of virtues called
the “six paramitas” or “six perfections.” The six paramitas are:


  1. Giving (dana-paramita)Giving is to take what one has or knows
    and give it to others. Besides the giving of wealth and property, this
    also includes giving the Dharma and confidence or fearlessness to
    others. The paramita of giving can help to eliminate the defilement of greed.
  2. Morality (sila-paramita)The basis of Buddhist morality is the
    five precepts, but it is not enough to think that the five precepts are
    just about not doing this or not doing that. The five precepts should
    be viewed in positive terms, for that is the path to happiness. For
    example, one should go beyond the first precept “not to kill” and in
    addition actively protect life. One can go beyond “not stealing” and
    practice giving. One can go beyond “not committing sexual misconduct”
    and be respectful. One can go beyond “not lying” and give praise. Going
    beyond not killing to protect life leads to a long life; going beyond
    not stealing to practice giving brings riches; going beyond not
    committing sexual misconduct to being respectful leads to a pleasant
    family life; and going beyond not lying to giving praise means that one
    will have a good reputation.
  3. Patience (ksanti-paramita)In Buddhism there are three kinds
    of patience: the patience for life, the patience for phenomena, and the
    patience for non-arising phenomena.4 A bodhisattva is one who patiently endures all the humiliations of life, as well as cold, heat, hunger, thirst, and so on. The paramita of patience can help to eliminate the defilement of anger.
  4. Diligence (virya-paramita)The paramita of diligence
    includes physical diligence and mental diligence. Mental diligence means
    earnestly practicing wholesome teachings while taking care to eliminate
    the roots of unwholesomeness. The paramita of diligence is the antidote for laziness and idleness.
  5. Meditative Concentration (dhyana-paramita)The paramita
    of meditative concentration comes from making one’s mind free of
    distractions such that it does not become confused or deluded by worldly
    matters. The paramita of meditative concentration can remove the defilement of doubt.
  6. Prajna (prajna-paramita)The paramita of prajna is the most important of the paramitas, and the forerunner of the other five. By using prajna wisdom one can eradicate the defilement of ignorance.

I loved playing basketball when I was young, so I often draw my
analogies from basketball: be it spiritual cultivation, academic study,
or interacting with others, they’re all like playing basketball. For
example, when trying to get along with others, you should not go off to
fight your own battles, for it is important to remember team spirit. One
should wait for the right time to act, just as when one has possession
of the ball, one must wait for any opportunity to make a shot. And if
you break the rules, you must admit your fault, just as in raising one’s
hand in a game.


When playing basketball, one must have the spirit of the six paramitas:
you must pass the ball to your teammates to help them to score points
on a basket (giving), you need to play by the rules of the court
(morality), you must show restraint to avoid being bumped by others
during the heat of a match (patience), you must practice your skills if
you want to score (diligence), and, in addition to fundamentals, you
must develop basketball strategy in order to win (prajna).


Why is prajna considered the foremost paramita? The Treatise on the Perfection of Great Wisdom says, “the other five perfections are blind without prajna to guide them.” It is impossible to reach the ultimate goal by relying only upon the other five paramitas and attempting to do without prajna. This is why prajna is described as the foundation of the six paramitas and is also the foundation of the Dharma.


The Lotus Sutra states, “The turmoil of the three realms is
like a burning house.” The three realms of Buddhist cosmology (the
desire realm, the form realm, and the formless realm) are like a burning
house. But if we make our minds nice and cool, then the blaze of
suffering that presses upon us will disappear. Only by cultivating prajna without the expectation of gain can we succeed with the six paramitas.


Once the Chan master Caoshan Huixia said to his attendant, “An
enlightened person will be unperturbed by heat, no matter how hot it
gets inside or outside.”


Huixia’s attendant agreed. Huixia then asked, “If it were extremely hot now, where would you go to escape it?”


The attendant answered, “I would seek refuge in a burning-hot cauldron.”


Huixia was puzzled. He asked further, “Nothing is hotter than a cauldron. Why would you seek refuge in such blazing heat?”


Pointing at his heart, the attendant answered, “The great mass of suffering cannot reach me here.”


The Diamond Sutra reveals to us the secret of success: to have a mind that does not abide in anything. This is prajna.
The mind itself is all of wondrous existence, while abiding in nothing
is true emptiness; and there cannot be wondrous existence without true
emptiness. The prajna of the Buddha can make one
understand the mind and body with crystal clarity, like the moon
reflected in water, transporting one from this shore of delusion and
attachment to the other shore that is permanent, blissful, pure, and has
an inherent self. Practitioners are able to turn a world of blazing
heat into a realm that is refreshingly cool, and transform defilement
and affliction into the Pure Land. Such people find no situation in
which they are not content.







1. These are the “five causes of loss”: five things mentioned in the Buddhist sutras that can destroy our wealth. Ed.



2.
The three kinds of supernatural knowledge are knowledge of past,
present, and future lives, heavenly eyes, and the power of ending all
defilement. Ed.



3.
橫遍十方,豎窮三際: The ten directions are the four cardinal directions, the
four intermediate directions, plus above and below, and the three time
periods are the past, present, and future. There is a suggestion in the
Chinese expression that space exists on a horizontal plane and that time
exists on a vertical plane, with the two together encompassing
everything. Ed.



4.
This type of patience comes from the realization that, on a
supramundane level, phenomena do not truly arise or cease, and all
things are simply as they are. Ed.



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Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

BSP chief Mayawati addressed the allegations of having made a
“personal attack” on Prime Minister Narendra Modi, after she said that
he had abandoned his wife for political gains. She said that those who
“deserve to get abused”, get abused “eventually”.

Makkal Needhi Maiyam (MNM) founder Kamal Haasan stoked a controversy,
saying free India’s first “terrorist was a Hindu, and his name was
Nathuram Godse” — who killed Mahatma Gandhi. Addressing an election
campaign in Tamil Nadu on Sunday night, the actor-politician said he was
one of those “proud Indians” who desires an India with equality and
where the “three colours” in the tricolour, an obvious reference to
different faiths, “remained intact.”

“I am not saying this because this is a Muslim-dominated area, but I
am saying this before a statue of Gandhi. Free India’s first terrorist
was a Hindu, his name is Nathuram Godse. There it (terrorism,
apparently) starts,” he said.

Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting
institutions (Modi) gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud
EVMs.Its software and the source code is hidden from the candidates and
voters diluting the Universal Adult Franchise. To restore it 99.9% all
aboriginal awakened societies must unite for a real freedom struggle
against just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists
of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
Paradesis from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks) remotely controlling the stooges, slaves, chamchas,
chelas, bootlickers, own mother’s flesh eaters ( Brashtachar Jhoothe
Psychopaths (BJP) full of haterd, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity
that are defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment in mental
asylums at Bene Israel. to save Universal Adult Franchise, Democracy,
Equality, Fraternity, Liberty as enshrined in our Marvelous Modern
Constitution.

Because the Ruler changes but not the Ruling! Policy changes but not
principle of governance ! Ruling Brahman changes but not Brahmanism! BJP
Brahman goes & Congress Brahman comes! Congress Brahman goes &
BJP Brahman comes! Both are against your change from slavery to
liberation!

Just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the
world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded paradesi
foreigners of Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks) are ruling 99.9% all Awakened Aboriginal Societies by
tampering the Fraud EVMs/ VVPATs. Savarkar, naturam Godse, Vinoba Bhave,
Tilak, Gokhale are RSS, Hindu Mahasabha are all chitpavan brahmins. It
is of the chitpavan brahmins, by the chitpavan brahmins and for the
chitpavan brahmins. If elections are conducted with ballot papers they
will get only 0.1% votes. In other phases more than 180 candidate must
contest in each constituency where the EC (Election Criminals ) will be
compelled to use Ballot Papers and to save Universal Adult Franchise.

The Bene Israel claim that Chitpavans are also of Jewish origin.

The Konkan region witnessed the immigration of groups, such as the Bene Israel, and Kudaldeshkars.
Each of these settled in distinct parts of the region and there was
little mingling between them. The Chitpavans were apparently the last
major community to arrive there and consequently the area in which they
settled, around Ratnagiri, was the least fertile and had few good ports
for trading.

Historians cite nepotism and corruption
as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell
Eaton states that this rise of the Chitpavans is a classic example of
social rank rising with political fortune.
The British would not subsidize the Chitpavans on the same scale that
their caste-fellow, the Peshwas, had done in the past. Pay and power was
now significantly reduced.

http://www.terrorism.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=Countries&file=index&view=113

RSS

The RSS was founded in 1925 by the Maratha Brahmin Keshav Baliram
Hegdewar on the Aryan Vaishnava Holy day of Vijaya Dashami (the 10th day
of the moon) when the Aryan invader Rama destroyed the Dravidian Empire
of Lanka [ Sangh ]. This was done to symbolise its inherent anti-Sudra
nature. Its organisation is highly skewed, with the Sar Sangh Chalak
(supreme dictator) at the top [ Roots ]. This person can only be a
Brahmin.

RSS militia is organised around local cells or `shakas’ where
weapons are distributed to its hardcore members, who are drilled in a
vigorous program of harsh discipline. RSS converted hindu temples serve
as repositories of weapons as well as centers of dissemination of its
racist ideology of Aryan supremacy. RSS cadre graduate to the BJP.

VHP (Vishwa Hindu Parishad)

The council was established on August 29, 1964 in Bombay, Maharastra
[ Biju ] with a political objective of establishing the supremacy of
Hinduism all over the world. It obtains funds and recruits from Aryan
Hindus all across the globe, especially from the US, UK and Canada and
has grown to become the main fund-raising agency of Brahmanist
Fundamentalism. The council was instrumental in the demolition of the
holiest Islamic shrine in Oudh, the Babri Masjid at Ayodhya and has
organised several massacres of Muslims and Christians. It is in the
forefront in the call for a Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu State ethnically
cleansed of its non-Aryan populations.

Bajrang Dal ( Party of Monkey God called Hanuman.)

The militant wing of the VHP, it was formed “to counter `Sikh
militancy’ ” during the Sikh Genocide of 1983-84 [ Bajrang ]. Created
with the objective of the eradication of Sikhs which it has termed
“Muslims in disguise”, its cadres fought alongside Congress-backed
Hindutva militias during the massacre of 200,000 Sikhs under Indira
Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. Recruits carry a ” knife-like trident to be
slung across the shoulder – an answer to the Sikh kirpan ” [ Bajrang ].
later it has subsequently expanded its targets to include Muslims and
Christians as well.

ABVP

This front comprises students of Hindu religious schools
(vidyalayas). It has expanded its base by infiltration into `secular’
universities. Its higher-ranking cadres are well-equipped with weaponry;
they often organise communal campus disturbances against Christians,
Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains. Most of its members graduate to
become hardcore RSS and VHP militants.

All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) Votes are for
All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) and not for just
0.1% intolerant,militant,violent, number one terrorists of the
world,ever shooting, mob lynching,lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners
of Bend Israel paradesis chitpavan brahmins of
Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) remotely controlling Stooges, chamchas,
Slaves, chelas, bootlickers, own mother’s flesh eaters Murderers of
democratic and Master of diluting institutions(Modi) and the
Brashtachar Jhoothe Psychopaths(BJP)

RSS : World’s largest terrorist Organization?
Oct 22, 2016 #1
Banglar Bir
Banglar Bir
SENIOR MEMBER

Messages:7,812
Joined:Mar 19, 2006
Ratings:+1 / 3,846 / -4 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
About Hindutva, Sanghparivar, RSS, Fascism, Religious Terror,
“The whole business of Hindutva and its nationalism is a poison in the
body politic of India. We have to accept that the poison has been
injected and it will take a lot to purge it,” Arundhati Roy

SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 2006
RSS : World’s largest terrorist Organization?

What makes one or an organization terrorist?

American Heritage Dictionary: The unlawful use or threatened use of
force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or
property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or
governments, often for ideological or political reasons.

Does the Sanghparivar have any of these qualities in its work to make it not to declare a terrorist organization?

An American research centre has placed our ultra-nationalist
Rashtrya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) on its terrorist list. The East
Virginia-based Terrorism Research Center (TRC) is closely connected to
the American government and many of its directors and researchers have
closely worked with US administrations and have taken part in research
and planning for the US administration.

In the list of ?? in India, the TRC has placed RSS under no. 21.
Here is the link as it appeared on 9 September 2004 on the group?s
website under the caption ?Known Terrorist Groups Operating in India?.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitpavan

The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale,
whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his
outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the “jewel of his
disciples”, and recognised Gokhale as his political guru. However,
strong opposition to Gandhi came from the Chitpavan community. Vinayak
Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the political ideology hindutva,
was a chitpavan brahmin and several other chitpavans were among the
first to embrace it because they thought it was a logical extension of
the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak.
These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the
community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. ,
drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.The
upper castes, that is, Marathi Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins and Prabhus
(CKPs and Pathare Prabhus)
were only about 4% of the population in Maharashtra. A majority of this
4% were Brahmins. As per the 1901 census, about 5% of the Pune
population was Brahmin and about 27% of them were Chitpawans.
Anti-Brahmin violence in the 20th century after Gandhi’s assassination

After Gandhi’s assassination by Nathuram Godse, a Chitpawan, Brahmins
in Maharashtra, became targets of violence, mostly by members from the
Maratha
caste. The motivating factor for the violence was not love for Gandhi
on the part of the rioters but the denigration and humiliation that the Marathas were subjected to due to their caste status.
In the Patwardhan princely states such as Sangli, the Marathas were joined by the Jains and the Lingayats
in the attacks against the Brahmins. Here, specifically, advanced
factories owned by the Chitpawans were destroyed. This event led to the
hasty integration of the Patwardhan states into the Bombay Province by
March 1948 – a move that was opposed by other Brahmins as they feared
the Maratha predominance in the integrated province. During early 20th
century, the ruler of Kolhapur state, Shahu had collaborated with the
British against the Indian freedom struggle – a struggle that was
identified with Chitpavans like Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
He was also instrumental in shaping anti-Brahmin attitude in the
non-Brahmin communities during that period. This led to great violence
against Brahmins in Kolhapur.
Social status

Earlier, the Deshastha Brahmins believed that they were the highest
of all Brahmins and looked down upon the Chitpavans as parvenus (a
relative newcomer to a socio-economic class), barely equal to the
noblest of dvijas. The Deshastha Brahmins and the Karhadas
treated the Peshwa’s caste with contempt and refused to interdine with
them. Even during the days of earlier Peshwa’s they hesitated the admit
the Chitpavans to social equality.Even the Peshwa was denied the rights
to use the ghats reserved for Deshastha priests at Nashik on the
Godavari river.
The rise in prominence of the Chitpavans compared to the
Deshastha Brahmins resulted in intense rivalry between the two
communities.19th century records also mention Gramanyas or village-level
debates between the Chitpavans and Daivajnas, Chandraseniya Kayastha
Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Saraswat Brahmins and the Chitpavans,
Pathare Prabhus and the Chitpavans and Shukla Yujurvedi Deshastha
Brahmins and the Chitpavans. These were quite common in Maharashtra.


in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu

ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA






Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —


Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
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University
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Maha Sathipattana Suthraya - මහා සතිපට්ඨාන සුත්‍රය -




LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/




from

Image result for Gifs of Vinaya pitaka compared with Vinayaka


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(A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss


as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on


Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic


Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).

Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start


using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use


of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice



Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,



lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for



health mind in a healthy body.

 







Button Plant Green Butterfly E Mail Animation Clip



buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in


jcs4ever@outlook.com

is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio
Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions
of people all over the world in 112 Classical languages.



Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal









SARVA SAMAJ MEDIA

for

WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE
of
ALL SOCIETIES





From

MEDIA PRABANDHAK

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MEDIA
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Preview YouTube video Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

comments (0)
05/13/19
LESSON 2990 Tue 14 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 11:05 pm
LESSON 2990 Tue 14 May  2019


Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Tipitaka
is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]



from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās

 through 

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana


“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”


TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)
https://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/meet-the-woman-challenging-pm-modi-in-varanasi_in_5cd97e05e4b0796a95dfa87f?ncid=newsletter-India%20Daily%20Brief_140519&utm_campaign=newsletter_India%20Daily%20Brief_140519

VARANASI, Uttar Pradesh  On May 19, Shalini Yadav will fight her first ever Lok Sabha election against Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting institutions  (Modi) in Varanasi.

Yadav,
a fashion designer, and the editor of her family-run Hindi language
newspaper, was named the Samajwadi Party (SP)-Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
alliance candidate.

The
2017 mayoral election in Varanasi is the only poll which Yadav has
fought since she joined politics. She contested and placed second, with 1.14 lakh votes — the highest tally of a Congress candidate in any recent electoral contest in the Brashtachar  Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) bastion.

 Yadav spoke about how she ended up contesting against Modi.

You are going up against the most powerful man in the country. How do you see this contest?

First
of all, it’s very interesting. I’m excited. I feel very fortunate to
have been chosen — as a woman — to contest the most high-profile
election in the most high-profile seat of the country at this time. I
don’t think it’s a challenge for me, but a challenge for the Modi. The hopes and aspirations of the people of Varanasi were —
aur kisi ke acche din aaye naa aaye, Kashi ke to acche din aayenge. On the ground we see that nothing of the sort has happened.

There was a
complete anti-establishment wave, which defied all expectations, across
all religions and castes. We feel the same undercurrent here, this time.
People are very angry. They feel cheated. People realise they did not
get their acche din.
 

When it comes down to basics — clean drinking water, removing garbage on
a daily basis, sewers overflowing, severe pollution and traffic jams in
the city, the plight of the Ganga. In the name of making Varanasi like
“Kyoto,” the demolition of our temples in the Vishwanath corridor. These
two are the sentiments which are the base of every Banarsi— and Modi used
them to connect with the people. But Ganga, go see, is totally pathetic. Modi hardly met the local people here. I feel that he has more of a challenge.

Is it also about going down in the history books as the woman who challenged Modi in Varanasi? 

Definitely.
I have already, I think. And let me tell you, I’m really going to give
him a tough fight. His popularity has gone down, his vote share will go
down, his margin will go down. If elections were conducted with Ballot
Papers Modi and his BJP remotely controlled by just 0.1% intolerant,
violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world, ever shooting,
mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, Paradesis from Bene Israel
chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Raskhasa Swayam Sevaks will get only
0.1% votes as they practice hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity
which are defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment in mental
asylums in Bene Israel. They are working against 99.9% All Aboriginal
Awakened Societies  who are preparing to start real freedom struggle
against chitpavan brahmins to make them to quit Prabuddha Bharat.Being a
woman gives me an edge. The
plight of women has been bad in his tenure. As you have used Ma Ganga,
you have used that teen talaq slogan.

I’m really going to give him a tough fight. His popularity has gone down, his vote share will go down, his margin will go down.

I’ve
been in politics since 2017. Since then, since it was a local election,
I’ve been fighting on these local issues. After five years of the
Modi’s
tenure after he gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs with
their software and its source code being kept secret from the eyes of
the candidates and the voters and the VVPATs not being verified 100%, I
see those issues are unaddressed. I’m raising Varanasi’s local
issues. I don’t have to talk about Rafale or national issues. I don’t
want to lose focus.
 

If you see the history of Benaras, the people have always decided who are the two main fighters. This is the trend of the city if you see in 2009
also. Mukhtar Ansari was from BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party), which also has
no presence in the city as such. But he lost by only 17,000 votes to
Murli Manohar Joshi. The anti-BJP or
anti-establishment votes are across caste and religious lines. This has
been a pattern of the city. They experiment and they have a liking of
new faces.

The (SP-BSP) alliance is giving me a strong
start.

The anti-BJP or anti-establishment votes are across caste and religious lines.

in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu

ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA






Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —


Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org



Maha Sathipattana Suthraya - මහා සතිපට්ඨාන සුත්‍රය -




LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/




from

Image result for Gifs of Vinaya pitaka compared with Vinayaka


Rector
JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart


an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan


of




Free Online

Awaken One With Awareness Mind


(A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss


as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on


Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic


Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).

Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start


using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use


of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice



Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,



lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for



health mind in a healthy body.

 







Button Plant Green Butterfly E Mail Animation Clip



buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in


jcs4ever@outlook.com

is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio
Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions
of people all over the world in 112 Classical languages.



Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal









SARVA SAMAJ MEDIA

for

WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE
of
ALL SOCIETIES





From

MEDIA PRABANDHAK

JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart


MEDIA
PRABANDHAK


https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/1064016958461362176/3MPYJEUU_400x400.jpg

Peace and joy for all


Preview YouTube video Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

comments (0)
05/12/19
LESSON 2989 Mon 13 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 17-05-2019 at Nagavalli Friday 9:30 AM BUDDHA JAYANTI DHAMMA DEEPA PROGRAM
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 5:07 pm
LESSON 2989 Mon 13 May  2019


Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Tipitaka
is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]



from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās

 through 

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



Buddhasasana

Buddha Sasana


“In
the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”


TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI
TBSKPB
668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

17-05-2019                         at Nagavalli                           Friday


9:30 AM


BUDDHA JAYANTI DHAMMA DEEPA PROGRAM

 

At Nagavalli Village, Taluk Chamarajanagar, Dist. Chamarajanagar

Near City Market, Bengaluru -560002

Led by Ven. Bhikku Vimalarakkhita

Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India

Led by Ven. Bhikku Dhammacitta


18-05-2019                         Bengaluru                           Saturday

Venue: Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India

SACRED VESAKHA BUDDHA POORNIMA

9:00 AM

Siri Mahabodhi Puja, Vishwa Maitri Puja,

Siriada Cetiya Puja, Buddha Puja,

at Mahabodhi Lokashanti Buddha Vihara,


Undertaking of Tisarana, Attasila and Pancasila

administered by

Ven. Pamakkha Thera,

Sr. Teacher, Mahabodhi Monastic Institute


Dhamma Desana and Blessing by

Chief Guest

Ven. Dr. Varasambodhi Maha Thera

Vice President, Mahabodhi Society of India, Bodhgaya


Offering of redecorated Buddha Image by

Maha Upasika K.S. Bharati Bai Kamble, Hyderabad


Release of Publications


The Buddha and His Dhamma - Part 1, by Ven. Acharya Buddharakkhita

Positive Response, by Ven. Acharya Buddharakkhita


Guided Kannada & English Meditation Audio CD


Presided by

Venerable Kassapa Maha Thera

President Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

11:00 AM

Sanghadana - Lunch offering for monks

12:30 PM

Lunch for devotees

1:30 PM

Dhamma Deeksha and Kannada Discourse by

Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda

General Secretary, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

3:00 PM

Upasampada - Higher Bhikkhu Ordination

and Documentary on Lord Buddha

4:30 PM

Tea Break

6:00 PM

Deepa Puja and Meditation under the Bodhi Tree and

Dhamma Desana, Offering Lights and

Vandana to Supremely Awakened Buddha

7:30 PM

Punanumodhana

Merit Sharing and conclusion with deepa puja


@ Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

09:30 AM

BUDDHA JAYANTI DHAMMA DEEPA PROGRAM

AtKanchi Mahabodhi Buddha Vihara,

Vaiyavoor Road, Near Old Railway Station, Kanchipuram, 631502

Led by Ven. Bhikku Dhammindo

Special Thanks to

Upasaka Nagasen, Dhoke, Upasaka Ambaresh, Upasaka Mali Patil,

& all other Upasakas & Upasikas

Kindly donate and earn merits, You may kindly send your donations to

Maha Bodhi Society

Account No. 353102010000137

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Maha Bodhi Society

14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India

Email: info@mahabodhi.info  www.mahabodhi.info

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mahabodhi.info
Maha
Bodhi Society, Bengaluru, is a Buddhist charitable Organization
established in 1956 by Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita with the main
objective of reviving the compassionate teachings of the Buddha in the
land of its origin, India. Our aim is to put into practice the precious
teachings of the B…
http://www.myanmarnet.net/nibbana/tipitaka.htm
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TIPITAKA

HISTORY

       Although the Buddha has left no
written records of His Teachings after attaining parinibbana (Demise) in 543
BC, His disciples preserved them, generation after generation, by committing to
memory.

       Subhadda, a bhikkhu in the
Buddha’s time, disparaged the Buddha’s Teachings on the seventh day after the
Buddha had passed away. ” Venerable Mahakassapa was very alarmed and
organised a Council of leading Arahants to collect and rehearse the teachings
of the Buddha. This First Buddhist council was held at Rajagaha, 3
months later, with Five hundreds Arahants, including Venerable Ananda and
Venerable Upali who led the sessions on the Doctrine and the Discipline
aspects. These foremost disciples managed to arrange the Tipitaka, the Buddhist
Bible, in its present form.

       The Second Councilwas held
near the city of Vesali in 100 B.E. (Buddhist Era) (443 B.C). It was held
because the bhikkhus of the Vajji clan from Vesali practised ten unlawful
modifications in the Rules of the Order. The seven hundred Arahants, led by
Venerable Yasa, Venerable Sabbakami and Venerable Revata, took part in that
council.

       The Third Council was held
in the city of Pataliputta in 235 B.E, (308 B.C). Sixty thousand ascetics had
already infiltrated into the Samgha Order and polluted the Master’s Teaching by
their corrupt and heretical views. That is the main reason why the Third
Council was held by one thousand Arahants, presided over by Venerable
Mahamoggaliputta Tissa. After the Third Council, nine missions were sent to
nine different places, as far as Indonesia, to propagate the Sasana.

       The Fourth Council was held
in Sri Lanka, in 450 B.E (94 B.C). Later in 83 B.C., the Tipitaka was, for the
first time committed to writing in Ceylon (Sri Lanka, now) on the ola leaves.
Five hundred bhikkhus, led by Venerable Mahadhammarakkhita, inscribed the
entire words of the Buddha’s Teachings on palm leaves. When books of these
leaves were piled together, it was said to exceed the heights of six elephants.

       The Fifth Council was
convened at Mandalay in Burma (Myanmar now) in 2415 B.E (AD 1871). The
scriptures were inscribed on seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs at the
foot of Mandalay Hill.

       The Sixth and the last Great
Council
was held at Rangoon (Yangon now) again in Burma in 2498 B.E
(AD1954). The Most Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw and Mingun Sayadaw took the leading
roles in that council. At that Council, not only the canonical Pali Texts of
the Buddha but also the commentaries and sub-commentaries were re-examined and
approved.

       Thanks to the efforts of those
noble persons, supported by the rulers and followers, over more than 25
centuries since the Master’s demise, the Tipitaka has been preserved in its
pristine purity, well-protected from the ill-conceived attempts of some selfish
critics who tried unsuccessfully to pollute the pure Teaching.

CONTENTS

       This voluminous Tipitaka is
estimated to be about eleven times the size of the Bible and the word Tipitaka
means ‘Three Baskets’ literally. This teachings taking place in the course of
45 years of His Buddhahood have been divided into three collections, the Basket
of Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka), the Basket of Discourses (Sutta
Pitaka)
and the Basket of Ultimate Philosophy (Abbidhamma Pitaka).

       In Vinaya pitaka,
Buddha used His authority over the members of the Order of Samgha or Sangha,
also known as Bhikkhus (monks) and Bhikkhunis (nuns), to lay down rules and
disciplines (highest code of ethics) for them to follow. These rules were
introduced gradually by Him as occasion arose mostly in the second half of the
45 years of His Ministry. The reasons and implications of these strict rules
and procedures for conducting specific Samgha ceremonies are fully described in
the Vinaya pitaka.

       In Sutta pitaka, or
conventional teaching, the Buddha explained His teachings which included
practical aspects of tranquillity and insight meditations in the form of
instructive discourses delivered to both the Samgha and the laity although most
of the sermons were intended mainly for the benefit of Bhikkhus.

       The third collection,
Abhidhamma pitaka, is the higher teaching of the Buddha,
describing the ultimate realities in the Universe and Nibbana. This
philosophical contents of the Buddha’s teaching is regarded as the most
important of the Tipitaka and a good understanding of this Division is
essential to comprehend the profound Teachings of the Buddha, paving the way to
ultimate liberation through meditation.

       The most wonderful thing about all
these massive instructions, both in theory and practical aspects, is that it
can be verified at any time by any able person who will steadfastly practise
with Nibbana as the ultimate goal and realises the Truths and joins the
exclusive membership of Enlightened Beings (Ariya persons) even in this very
life.

       The size of the Tipitaka Texts do
not frighten the followers as the Buddha made it clear in His numerous
discourses that only the knowledge realised through meditation is the final key
to Nibbana, the ultimate peace. But before we become enlightened in this life
or future lives, we as Buddhists, have to live the Buddhist way of life, in
accordance with what the Buddha taught. So, preservation of the Buddha’s
Teaching (Buddha’s Sasana) is very important for us as well as for the future
generations.

VINAYA PITAKA

(Monastic Discipline)

Patimokkha ( codes of training rules for bhikkhus
and bhikkhunis)

227 rules for monks (311 for nuns)

  1. Parajika Pali ( Major Offences )
  2. Pacittiya Pali
  3. Mahavagga Pali
  4. Cullavagga Pali
  5. Parivara Pali

SUTTA PITAKA

( Basket of Discourses )

The Sutta Pitaka consists of instructive discourses delivered
by the Buddha on various occasions.

  1. Digha Nikaya( Collection of
    34 ‘ Long Discourses ‘ in 3 volumes )
  2. Majjhima
    Nikaya
    ( Collection of 152 ‘ Middle-length Discourses ‘ in 3
    volumes )
  3. Samyutta
    Nikaya
    ( Collection of 7,762 ‘ Connected Discourses/ Kindred
    Sayings ‘ in 5 volumes )
  4. Anguttara Nikaya ( Collection of 9,775
    Single-item Upwards Discourses/ Gradual Sayings in 11 volumes )
  5. Khuddaka
    Nikaya

    (
    Collection of 15 ‘ Little Texts ‘ in 18 volumes )
    • Apadana:
      stories
      on past lives of early monks and nuns/ Lives of Arahants
    • Buddhavamsa:

      ‘Chronicle’ of 24 previous Buddhas
    • Cariya Pitaka:
      building
      up the ‘ Perfections ‘ of a Bodhisatta in previous lives
    • Dhammapada:
      423
      verses on Dhamma/ the Way of Truth
    • Itivuttaka:
      112
      short ” Thus said” Discourses
    • Jataka:
      a
      collection of 547 (550) stories of previous lives of the Buddha
    • Khuddaka-patha: a collection of ‘ Little
      Readings/ Shorter Texts ‘ for recitation
    • Niddesa: an ‘ Exposition ‘ on part of
      Sutta-nipata
    • Patisambhida-magga:
      Book on
      Analytical Knowledge
    • Peta Vatthu:
      stories
      of Petas/ the departed on rebirths
    • Sutta Nipata:
      a
      collection of 71 verse on Collected Discourses
    • Theragatha:
      verses
      about early monks attaining enlightment/ Psalms of the Brethren
    • Therigatha:
      verses
      about early nuns attaining enlightment/ Psalms of the Sisters
    • Udana:
      80 short
      Paeans of Joy
    • Vimana Vatthu:
      stories
      on heavenly rebirths/ Celestial Mansions

ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA

( Basket of Further Teachings )

The Abhidhamma Texts were added in the 3rd Century BC, aiming
to present the the teachings of the Suttas.

( 7 Texts in 12 volumes )
  1. Dhamma-sangani (
    Enumeration/Classification of Dhamma )
  2. Dhatu-katha( Discourse
    on Elements )
  3. Vibhanga( Book of Analysis/ Divisions )
  4. Patthana( Book of Causal Relations )
  5. Puggalapannatti ( The Book on
    Individuals )
  6. Kathavatthu {short description of image}( Points of Controversy )
  7. Yamaka ( The Book of Pairs )
{short description of image} History
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Classification: (1) Vinaya, (2)
Sutta, (3) Abhidhamma

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‘A Guide to Tipitaka’ Professor U Ko Lay

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Suttas

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Alphabetical List

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Buddhist Literatures in Archives in Burma
(Myanmar)

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Tipitakadhara Sayadaws of Burma (Myanmar)


https://www.nalanda.org.my/introducing-the-pali-tipitaka/

The Pāli Language was derived from a Prakrit
(folks’ dialect) of Magādha in ancient India ( All spices in the world have their own Prakrit
(natural)  languge to communicate.Sinillarly if a new born baby is
separated and kept in isolation without any communication, it will speak
a natural language just like other spcies. That language is Magādha (Prakrit
) the natural language of Human Beings. All other languages emerged
from Magadha which was the mother tounge of Buddha. Its grammar is
similar to
those of Sanskrit and Latin. Pāli was chosen as the language to
rehearse and record the Buddhist teachings at the First Rehearsal (Sangāyana)
in 543 BCE. Pāli is unique among languages in that it is not used for
any other purpose except to record Buddhist doctrines. Thus the meanings
of its words were not ‘corrupted’ by common usage or ‘evolution’ over
time.

The Three Major Divisions of Pāli Tipitaka

Vinayapitaka

The Vinayapitaka is a collection of monastic rules, their origin,
issues regarding the administration of the monastic order, training
rules outside the Patimokkha, and rules concerning the use of
requisites. It also records the history of the Sangha’s formation, and
the events leading to the first and second rehearsals of the Pāli Canon.
This Pitaka is divided into five books – the Mahāvibhanga, Cullavibhanga, Mahāvagga, Cullavagga and Parivāra Pāli.

Novice monks are taught the Dhamma and Vinaya for many
years before being allowed to undergo their “Higher Ordination” as
full-fledged bhikkhus.

Suttapitaka

The Suttapitaka is a large collection of discourses, sermons and
sayings of the Buddha, and some of His foremost disciples, delivered on
various occasions to individuals and groups. It is divided into five
major collections (Nikāya) – the Dīghanikāya, Majjhimanikāya, Samyuttanikāya, Anguttaranikāya, and Khuddakanikāya
which in turn are further divided into many books and sections. These
discourses touch on mundane topics to the supramundane, as they were
delivered to beginners as well as to adept Arahant disciples.
Informative narrations and prose can be found in many longer texts,
while shorter ones, such as the Dhammapada, Udāna, Theragātha and Therigātha, contain some of the most poetic literature in verse.

Abhidhammapitaka

The Abhidhammapitaka contains seven treatises – the Dhammasanganī, Vibhanga, Dhātukathā, Puggalapaññatti, Kathāvatthu, Yamaka, and Patthāna.
These treatises deal with Dhamma subjects in purely academic terms,
without referring to any individuals or providing narrations of events
as found in the Suttapitaka. Important doctrinal points, such as
consciousness, the mind, wholesome and unwholesome qualities, meditative
absorption, the nature of elements, stages of purification and
enlightenment, are all detailed in this massive collection.

Bhikkhus and novice monks often recite passages from the Abhidhamma in communal chantings.

Commentarial Tradition

Over the centuries, learned scholar-monks have composed commentaries to aid the learning of the Tipitaka. These are called Atthakathā in Pāli Language. Although they are not regarded as canonical, the Atthakathās are
nevertheless indispensable in better understanding certain parts of the
Canon. The most famous commentators were two 4th to 5th Century CE
monks – the Elders Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala – both of whom authored
the greater part of Pāli commentaries.

Additions to the Canon

The present structure of the Pāli Canon is largely the compilation of the Third Rehearsal of Dhamma-vinaya during Mauryan Emperor Asoka’s reign in the 3rd Century BCE. The Abhidhammapitaka was formally recited and incorporated into the Canon (thus making it “Ti-pitaka” – 3 divisions) during this rehearsal.

In the 1871CE Fifth Rehearsal in Mandalay, three ancient and highly venerated Pāli works – the Nettippakarana, Petakopadesa and Milindapañhā – were added to the Canon and placed under the Khuddakanikāya division of the Suttapitaka. These last three additions appeared in printed form as part of the Pāli Canon after the Sixth International Rehearsal in 1956.

The entire Pāli Tipitaka is nowadays commonly produced in a 40 to 45
volume (book) collection. For example, the Thai Pāli Tipitaka usually
contains 45 printed volumes, symbolically representing the 45 years of
Buddha’s mission.

Pāli Tipitaka

The Pāli Tipitaka comprises 31 books of various sizes.  Certain
treatises of the Tipitaka are so large that they are spread over several
volumes.  Together with their equally voluminous commentaries, the
Tipitaka offers a thorough exposition of Buddhist teachings covering all
aspects of practice from the mundane to the supramundane.  Below is a
list of the 31 books in their original Pāli names and brief descriptions
of their contents, as well as their respective commentarial texts.

Note: Three later additions to the Pāli Canon (the
Nettippakarana, Petakopadesa and Milindapañhā classified under the
Khuddakanikāya) 
are not listed below.  Their inclusion will result in the Canon having 34 books (and the Suttapitaka having 18 books).

Pāli Tipitaka
Canonical Books
General description & Major contents Commentaries
(Atthakathā)
1. Vinayapitaka
Collection of monastic rules, their origin, and historical
events relating to the Sangha’s formation.  Divided into 5 collections.
The entire collection in the Vinayapitaka shares a single commentary.
1.1 Mahāvibhanga Major rules for bhikkhus (monks). Samantapāsādikā
1.2 Cullavibhanga Major rules for bhikkhunis (nuns). Samantapāsādikā
1.3 Mahāvagga
Rules of admission to the Bhikkhu Sangha; concerning the monks’ way of life, and the administration of the monastic order.
Samantapāsādikā
1.4 Cullavagga
Training rules regarding the use of requisites; origin of the
Bhikkhunī Sangha; historical records of the first and second rehearsals.
Samantapāsādikā
1.5 Parivāra Catechism on the knowledge of Discipline. Samantapāsādikā
2. Suttapitaka
Collection of discourses, sermons and sayings of the Buddha and
some of His foremost disciples.  Divided into 5 major collections and
many subdivisions according to subjects and the length of the
discourses.
The first 4 Nikāyas have their own commentaries.  The Khuddakanikāya has 8 commentarial texts.
2.1 Dīghanikāya Collection of 34 long discourses, divided into 3 sections. Sumangalavilāsinī
2.2 Majjhimanikāya Collection of 152 medium-length discourses divided into 3 sections. Papañcasūdanī
2.3 Samyuttanikāya
Collection of more than two thousand discourses specially
arranged in 5 major divisions and further subdivided into 56 groupings
(Samyutta) according to their subject matters.
Sāratthapakāsinī
2.4 Anguttaranikāya
Collection of more than nine thousand discourses divided into 11 major numerical divisions (from Number One to Number Eleven).
Manorathapūranī
2.5 Khuddakanikāya
Collection of discourses and sayings other than those classified
under the earlier 4 Nikāyas.  There are 15 books under this Nikāya.
(Note : 18 books if the three later additions were included.)
The 15 books in the Khuddaka-nikāya share 8 commentarial
texts between them.
2.5.1 Khuddakapātha
Collection of short discourses and text commonly used in chanting and blessings.
Paramatthajotikā
2.5.2 Dhammapada Collection of 423 concise and inspiring verses of Dhamma in 26 chapters. Dhammapadātthakathā
2.5.3 Udāna
Collection of 80 discourses containing the Buddha’s solemn utterances – the “Paeans of Joy”.
Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.4 Itivuttaka Collection of 112 discourses, all beginning with “Iti vuccati… Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.5 Suttanipāta
Special “collected discourses” of 71 sermons composed entirely or mostly in verses.
Paramatthajotikā
2.5.6 Vimānavatthu
Stories of celestial splendour” – 85 narrations by celestial beings on the effects of their past lives’ good deeds.
Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.7 Petavatthu
Stories of deprived beings” – 51 remorseful narrations by spirits on the effects of their past lives’ evil deeds.
Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.8 Theragātha
Collection of verses uttered by 264 Arahant bhikkhus on their lofty spiritual attainments.
Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.9 Therīgātha Collection of verses uttered by 73 Arahant bhikkhunis as above. Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.10 Jātaka
Collection of 547 tales about the past lives of the Buddha before His final birth.
Jātakātthakathā
2.5.11 Niddesa
Exposition” – collection of the Elder Sariputta’s explanation of the Dhamma based on the Buddha’s preaching in the Suttanipāta.
Saddhammapajjotikā
2.5.12 Patisambidāmagga
Way of Analysis” – collection of Elder Sariputta’s
detailed explanation of topics such as insight, mindfulness, views,
spiritual faculties and deliverance.
Saddhammapakāsinī
2.5.13 Apadāna
Collection of nearly 600 accounts concerning the past lives of Buddhas, Pacceka-Buddhas, Arahant bhikkhus and bhikkhunis.
Visuddhajanavilāsinī
2.5.14 Buddhavamsa
Collection of stories concerning the previous 24 Buddhas, and concluding with the story of Buddha Gotama.
Madhuratthavilāsinī
2.5.15 Cariyāpitaka
Collection of 35 stories of Buddha’s past lives (as told in the
Jātaka), with special emphasis on His mode of conduct in fulfilling the
ten compulsory perfections of Buddhahood.
Paramatthadīpanī
3. Abhidhammapitaka
Collection of academic and philosophical terms of the teachings. Divided into seven treatises.
The first 2 treatises have their own commentaries. The latter 5 share a common one.
3.1 Dhammasanganī Collection of teachings – 164 matrices and summaries of all phenomena. Atthasālinī
3.2 Vibhanga
Collection of 18 sections dealing with 18 important subjects in the
Teachings, such as the Four Noble Truths, the Factors of Enlightenment,
and Dependent Origination.
Sammohavinodanī
3.3 Dhātukathā Discussions on Elements – the five aggregates, twelve sense-fields, etc. Pañcapakaranātthakathā
3.4 Puggalapaññatti On Individuals – designation of individuals according to their virtues. Pañcapakaranātthakathā
3.5 Kathāvatthu
Collection of 219 subjects in question and answer format, refuting
false views held by heretics.  This treatise was compiled by
Moggalliputta-Tissa Thera, and added to the Canon in the Third
Rehearsal, held in the 3rd Century BCE.
Pañcapakaranātthakathā
3.6 Yamaka Collection of questions and answers to important topics in 10 pairings. Pañcapakaranātthakathā
3.7 Patthāna
Large collection of explanations to the conditionality, interdependence, and causality of phenomena.
Pañcapakaranātthakathā