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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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LESSON 3047 Mon 1 Jul 2019 Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god. Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha. https://www.budsas.org Sabbapapassa akaranam Kusalassa upasampada Sacitta pariyodapanam Etam buddhana sasanam Every evil never doing and in wholesomeness increasing and one’s heart well-purifying: this is the Buddhas’ Sasana (Dhammapada, 183) Sabbe satta sada hontu avera sukhajivino. Katam punnaphalam mayham sabbe bhagi bhavantu te. May all living beings always live happily, free from animosity. May all share in the blessings springing from the good I have done. http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — VOICE OF AWAKENED ABORIGINAL SOCOETIES (VoAAAS) One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one EVM (Electronic Voting Mission 543 +all states) selection One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one ration card - all saffronised rice, wheat, sugar, maida, Dal etc. One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan - Cricket saffronised uniform with om, bat, stumps, ground etc. In BJP’s One Nation One Poll proposal, Mayawati sees manipulation in 60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba, 64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 4:42 pm
LESSON 3047 Mon 1 Jul 2019

Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the
Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god
the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god.



Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha.


https://www.budsas.org



Sabbapapassa
akaranam
Kusalassa upasampada
Sacitta pariyodapanam
Etam buddhana sasanam

Every evil
never doing
and in wholesomeness increasing
and one’s heart well-purifying:
this is the Buddhas’ Sasana

  (Dhammapada,
183)



Sabbe satta sada
hontu

avera sukhajivino.
Katam punnaphalam mayham
sabbe bhagi bhavantu te.

May
all living beings always live happily,

free from animosity.
May all share in the blessings
springing from the good I have done.


http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

 Buddha Vacana
— The words of the Buddha —

VOICE OF AWAKENED ABORIGINAL SOCOETIES (VoAAAS)

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one EVM (Electronic Voting Mission 543 +all states) selection

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one ration card - all saffronised rice, wheat, sugar, maida, Dal etc.

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan - Cricket saffronised uniform with om, bat, stumps, ground etc.

In BJP’s One Nation One Poll proposal, Mayawati sees manipulation



in 60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,




60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,

60) ຄລາສສິກລາວ - ຄລາສສິກລາວ,


ພຸດທະສາສະຫນາ, ຊຶ່ງຫມາຍຄວາມວ່າ “ພະພຸດທະສາວາຊາ -
ການສອນຂອງຄົນທີ່ປຸກດ້ວຍຄວາມຮູ້”.
ເນື່ອງຈາກວ່າໃນພຸດທະສາສະຫນາບໍ່ມີພຣະເຈົ້າທີ່ມີຄວາມຫມາຍວ່າຄໍາສັບທີ່ຖືກຖືວ່າຖືກຕ້ອງຫຼາຍກວ່າຄໍາວ່າ
“ສາສະຫນາ”
ຍ້ອນວ່າມັນສະແດງອອກເຖິງທັດສະນະແລະການປະຕິບັດທີ່ບໍ່ສາມາດປ່ຽນແປງໄດ້.

ສາສນາອາດຈະອ້າງເຖິງການພິພາກສາ 5000 ປີຂອງພະພຸດທະເຈົ້າໂດຍສະເພາະ. ນັ້ນແມ່ນ, ພວກເຮົາກໍາລັງອາໃສຢູ່ໃນāsanaຂອງພຣະພຸດທະເຈົ້າ.

ທຸກໆຄວາມຊົ່ວຮ້າຍ
ບໍ່ເຄີຍເຮັດ
ແລະໃນຄວາມງາມທີ່ເພີ່ມຂຶ້ນ
ແລະຫົວໃຈຂອງຄົນທີ່ບໍລິສຸດທີ່ດີ:
ນີ້ແມ່ນພະພຸດທະສາສະຫນາ

(Dhammapada,
183)

ພຶດສະພາ
ທຸກຄົນດໍາລົງຊີວິດຢູ່ສະເຫມີມີຄວາມສຸກ,
free from animosity
ທຸກໆຄົນຄວນແບ່ງປັນໃນພອນຕ່າງໆ
ຈາກການທີ່ດີທີ່ຂ້ອຍໄດ້ເຮັດ.

http: // wwwbuddha-vacanaorg / indexhtml

Buddha Vacana
- ຄໍາເວົ້າຂອງພະພຸດທະເຈົ້າ -

ຄວາມເຂົ້າໃຈຂອງພຣະພຸດທະເຈົ້າວາລະສານຈະກາຍເປັນທີ່ຊັດເຈນຫຼາຍຍ້ອນວ່າພວກເຂົາໄດ້ຮຽນຮູ້ແລະຈົດຈໍາຄໍາເວົ້າແລະສູດທີ່ສໍາຄັນທີ່ເປັນພື້ນຖານໃນການສອນຂອງພະພຸດທະເຈົ້າໂດຍວິທີການອ່ານປົກກະຕິ.

ການຮຽນຮູ້ຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າແລະການດົນໃຈທີ່ເຂົາເຈົ້າໄດ້ຮັບຈາກມັນຈະເຕີບໂຕຢ່າງເລິກເຊິ່ງຍ້ອນວ່າເຂົາເຈົ້າຍອມຮັບຂໍ້ຄວາມຂອງຄູຈະປັບປຸງ.


ໃນເວລາຕໍ່ໄປ, ຈະມີຄົນທີ່ບໍ່ເຊື່ອຟັງຄໍາເວົ້າຂອງຄໍາເວົ້າທີ່ເປັນຄໍາເວົ້າຂອງ
Tathagga, ເລິກເຊິ່ງ, ມີຄວາມຫມາຍອັນເລິກເຊິ່ງ, ນໍາໄປສູ່ໂລກນອກ,
(ໂດຍສະເພາະ) ເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ກັບຄວາມບໍ່ສະເຫມີພາບ, ພວກເຂົາຈະບໍ່ປ່ອຍໃຫ້ເຂົາຟັງ,
ຈະບໍ່ນໍາໃຊ້ຈິດໃຈຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າກ່ຽວກັບຄວາມຮູ້,
ພວກເຂົາຈະບໍ່ພິຈາລະນາຄໍາສອນເຫຼົ່ານັ້ນທີ່ຈະໄດ້ຮັບແລະໄດ້ຮຽນຮູ້.


ໃນທາງກົງກັນຂ້າມ,
ພວກເຂົາຈະຟັງຄໍາເວົ້າຂອງຄໍາເວົ້າເຫຼົ່ານີ້ເຊິ່ງເປັນບົດຂຽນທີ່ຂຽນໂດຍນັກກະວີ,
ຄໍາທີ່ມີຄວາມຊື່ສັດ, ຈົດຫມາຍທີ່ມີຄວາມສຸພາບ, ໂດຍປະຊາຊົນຈາກພາຍນອກ,
ຫຼືຄໍາເວົ້າຂອງພວກສາວົກ, ພວກເຂົາຈະປ່ອຍໃຫ້ພວກເຂົາຟັງ, ,
ພວກເຂົາຈະພິຈາລະນາຄໍາສອນເຫລົ່ານັ້ນທີ່ຈະໄດ້ຮັບການເອົາໃຈໃສ່ແລະມີຄວາມເຂົ້າໃຈ.


ດັ່ງນັ້ນ, ບັນດາຂົງເຂດ, ຄໍາເວົ້າທີ່ເປັນຄໍາເວົ້າຂອງ Tathagata, ເລິກເຊິ່ງ,
ມີຄວາມຫມາຍອັນເລິກເຊິ່ງ, ນໍາໄປສູ່ໂລກນອກ, (ໂດຍສະເພາະ)
ທີ່ເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ກັບຄວາມເປົ່າ, ຈະຫາຍໄປ.

ເພາະສະນັ້ນ,
ພວກທ່ານຄວນຝຶກອົບຮົມດັ່ງນີ້:
“ພວກເຮົາຈະຟັງຄໍາເວົ້າຂອງຄໍາເວົ້າເຫຼົ່ານີ້ທີ່ເປັນຄໍາຂອງ Tathagga,
ເລິກເຊິ່ງ, ມີຄວາມຫມາຍໃນຄວາມຫມາຍ, ນໍາໄປສູ່ໂລກເຫນືອ (ໂດຍສະເພາະ)
ທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບຄວາມບໍ່ສະເຫມີພາບ, ຈະນໍາໃຊ້ຈິດໃຈຂອງພວກເຮົາໃນຄວາມຮູ້,
ພວກເຮົາຈະພິຈາລະນາຄໍາສອນເຫຼົ່ານັ້ນທີ່ຈະໄດ້ຮັບການເອົາໃຈໃສ່ແລະໄດ້ຮຽນຮູ້. ‘
ນີ້ແມ່ນວິທີການ, bhikkhus, ທ່ານຄວນຈະຝຶກອົບຮົມຕົວທ່ານເອງ.

- ອັນທີ່ວ່າ -

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61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

LXI) LXII-Classical Latin) Classical Latin:


Śãsana Buddha, qui est “Buddha vacana - suscitavit de doctrina et de
conscientia.” Quia et in Romanorum non est magis accurate quam
consideretur divina verbum Dei Verbum “religio” quod sit subjugationis,
habilius et philosophiae usu quam a non-vocationem divinam mutantur et
universi qui scitis a Deo.

Śāsana potest esse etiam in dispensatione certo annorum (V) Buddha. Id est ad nos in śāsana Sakyamuni Buddha.

omne malum
nunquam faciunt
et augendae salubritatis magisque,
et unum de purificatione cordis bene:
id est Buddhas, Sasana

(Dhammapada,
CLXXXIII)

May
semper in vita feliciter viventibus,
a animositate defendunt.
Ut omnes participes ad beneficia
feci ex bono.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Buddha vacana
- Verba Buddha -


Multo magis fiet eorum intellectus vacana Buddha scire precise quod non
sine labore et memoria et magna verborum formulis quibusdam fundamental
doctrina in in Buddha, in a ordinarius Lectio via. Quorum numine et
doctrina in ut crescere altius quam ab eo non faciet avolare de nuntiis
ad receptionem illorum meliorem.

In futuris diebus erunt bhikkhus
qui nolunt audire verba novissima eiusmodi quae verba in Tathagata,
altum, altum videtur esse putarunt, ducit quam ex mundo, (stat), cum
vanitatis loquentes, nec audias, qui mentem non scientia, non autem ex
his doctrinas esse sinant.

Sed audierint sermonem eiusmodi quae
litteris scriptis a poeta eleganter verbis eleganter litteras ab
extraneis vel sermones suos illi commodet aurem suam mentem scientia ,
sunt doctrinalia ut conplerentur dies adsumptionis deliberabimus et
dicere.

Et sic, bhikkhus, in sermone de verbis quae Tathagata,
altum videtur, in altum videtur significatio, ducit quam ex mundo,
(stat), quae sunt vanitates frustra, neque ultra intuebitur eum.


Ideo bhikkhus, vos should instituendi ita: ‘Non et audi verba novissima
eiusmodi quae verba in Tathagata, altum, altum videtur esse putarunt,
ducit quam ex mundo, (stat), quae sunt vanitates, et non audias nos non
applicare animum ad nostri scientiam, deliberabimus easdem cum
conplerentur dies adsumptionis et dominatus amborum. Sic, bhikkhus tu
exerceamini.

- Sutta ani -

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62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

62) Klasiskā latviešu-klasiskā latviešu valoda,


Budas Šãana, kas nozīmē „Budas Vacana - pamudinātā mācīšana ar
izpratni”. Tā kā budismā nav dievišķo dievu, termins tiek uzskatīts par
precīzāku nekā vārds “reliģija”, jo tas apzīmē pielāgojamu filozofiju un
praksi, nevis nemainīgu dievišķo aicinājumu no visiem zinošajiem
dieviem.

Šāsana var atsaukties arī uz konkrētas Budas 5000 gadu atbrīvošanu. Tas ir, mēs dzīvojam Śakyamuni Budas šāsanā.

Katrs ļaunums
nekad nedarīt
un veselīguma paaugstināšanā
un sirds labi attīra:
tā ir Budas Sasana

(Dhammapada,
183)

Maijs
visas dzīvās būtnes vienmēr dzīvo laimīgi,
brīva no naidīguma.
Varēs piedalīties svētībās
no labās, ko esmu darījis.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Buddha Vacana
- Budas vārdi -


Viņu izpratne par Budas Vacanu kļūs daudz precīzāka, jo viņi bez
piepūles mācās un iegaumē vārdus un svarīgās formulas, kas ir būtiskas
Budas mācībā, ar regulāras lasīšanas veidiem. Viņu mācīšanās un
iedvesma, ko viņi saņem no tās, kļūs dziļāka, jo uzlabosies viņu
uztveramība pret skolotāja vēstījumiem.

Nākotnē būs bhikkhs, kurš
neklausīsies tādu diskursu izteikumu, kas ir Tathāgatas vārdi, dziļi,
dziļi, kas ved pāri pasaulei (konsekventi), kas saistīti ar tukšumu,
viņi nepiedos ausīm. neizmantos savas domas par zināšanām, tās
neuzskatīs šīs mācības par pieņemamām un apgūstamām.

Gluži
pretēji, viņi uzklausīs tādu diskursu izpausmi, kas ir dzejnieku,
asprātīgu vārdu, asprātīgu vēstuļu, cilvēku no ārpuses vai mācekļu
vārdi, viņi aizdosies, viņi piemēros savas domas par zināšanām , viņi
uzskatīs, ka šīs mācības tiks uzņemtas un apgūtas.

Tādējādi,
bhikkhūs, pazudušie diskursi, kas ir Tathāgatas vārdi, dziļi, dziļi
nozīmē, kas ved ārpus pasaules (konsekventi), kas saistīti ar tukšumu.


Tāpēc, bhikkhus, jums jāapmāca šādi: “Mēs uzklausīsim tādu diskursu
izpausmi, kas ir Tathāgatas vārdi, dziļi, dziļi nozīmē, kas ved pāri
pasaulei (konsekventi), kas saistīti ar tukšumu, mēs aizdosimies, mēs
mēs pielietosim mūsu prātu par zināšanām, mēs uzskatīsim šīs mācības,
lai tās tiktu uzņemtas un apgūtas. ” Tas ir, kā, bhikkhus, jums
vajadzētu apmācīt sevi.

- Āšī Sutta -

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63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

63) Klasikinė lietuvių-klasikinė lietuvių kalba,


Budos Śãsana, o tai reiškia „Budos Vacana - pažadinto žmogaus mokymas
su sąmoningumu“. Kadangi budizme nėra dieviškojo dievo, terminas
laikomas tikslesniu už žodį „religija“, nes jis reiškia prisitaikomą
filosofiją ir praktiką, o ne nekintantį dieviškąjį skambutį iš visų
žinančių dievų.

Šāsana taip pat gali remtis 5000 metų išleidimu tam tikrame Budoje. Tai yra, mes gyvename Śakyamuni Budos šašanoje.

Kiekvienas blogis
niekada nedarykite
didėjant sveikumui
ir širdis gerai išvalo:
tai yra Budos Sasana

(Dhammapada,
183)

Gegužė
visos gyvos būtybės visada gyvena laimingai,
be priešiškumo.
Gali visi dalytis palaiminimais
iš to, ką aš padariau.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Budos Vacana
- Budos žodžiai -


Jų supratimas apie Budos Vacaną taps daug tikslesnis, nes jie lengvai
išmoksta ir įsimena žodžius ir svarbias formules, kurios yra esminės
Budos mokyme, reguliaraus skaitymo būdu. Jų mokymasis ir įkvėpimas, kurį
jie gauna, išaugs giliau, nes jų imlumas mokytojo žinioms pagerės.


Ateityje bus bhikkhus, kuris neklausys tokių diskursų, kurie yra
Tathāgata žodžiai, gilūs, gilūs prasme, vedantys už pasaulio ribų
(nuosekliai), susiję su tuštumu, jie neklausys, jie nepaisys savo proto
apie žinias, jie nemanys, kad šie mokymai bus priimti ir įvaldyti.


Priešingai, jie išklausys tokių diskursų, kurie yra poetų, šmaikštų
žodžių, šmaikštų laiškų, žmonių iš išorės ar mokinių žodžių, išsakymą,
jie suteiks ausies, jie taikys savo mintis žinioms , jie atsižvelgs į
tuos mokymus, kuriuos reikia įsisavinti ir įsisavinti.

Taigi,
bhikkhus, diskursai, kurie yra Tathāgatos žodžiai, gilūs, gilūs prasme,
vedantys už pasaulio ribų (nuosekliai), susiję su tuštumu, išnyks.


Todėl, bhikkhus, turėtumėte mokyti taip: „Mes išklausysime tokius
diskursus, kurie yra Tathāgata žodžiai, gilūs, gilūs prasme, vedantys už
pasaulio ribų (nuosekliai), susiję su tuštumu, mes suteiksime ausį, mes
taikys mūsų mintis apie žinias, mes apsvarstysime tuos mokymus, kuriuos
reikia įsisavinti ir įsisavinti “. Štai kaip, bhikkhus, turėtumėte
mokyti save.

- ṇi Sutta -

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64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch

64) Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,


Buddha Śãsana, dat heescht “Buddha Vacana - d’Léier vu der Awakened One
with Awareness”. Zënter dem Buddhismus gëtt et keng göttlech Gott de
Begrëff gitt méi genee wéi d’Wuert “Relioun”, wéi et eng adaptable
Philosophie a Praxis anstatt eng net verännert Gottesdéngung vun engem
alldeegend Gott ass.

Śāsana kann och d’5000-Joer-Dispensioun vun engem Buddha bezéien. Dat ass, mir wunnen am śāsana vum Śakyamuni Buddha.

All Béis
ni maachen
an an der ganzer grousser Erhéijung
an eens häerzlech gutt purifizéiert:
dat ass de Buddhas ‘Sasana

(Dhammapada,
183)

Mee
all Liewewiesen ëmmer liewen glécklech,
fräi vun der Animositéit.
All Mataarbecht an de Segen
Fréi vun der gudder, déi ech gemaach hunn.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Buddha Vacana
- D’Wierder vum Buddha -


Seng Verständnis vum Buddha Vacana wäert vill méi präzis ginn wéi se
d’Wierder an déi wichteg Formulairen léiere kënnen, déi fundamental an
der Buddha-Léiermethod sinn, duerch regelméisseg Liesen. Hir
Léierpersonal an d’Inspiratioun, déi si kréien, gi méi déif gewuess wéi
d’Empfänegkeet fir d’Botschaften vum Léierpersonal verbessert.

An
Zukunft wäert et Bhikkhus ginn, déi net op d’Äusserung vu sougen
Diskussiounen héieren, déi Wierder vun der Tathāgata, déif a profound
Bedeitung sin, déi iwwer d’Welt leit (konsequent) mat Leedere verbonne
sinn, se ginn net Oueren ze leeën, se sinn net an hir Gedanken op Wëssen
anzehalen, sie wäerten dës Léierpersonen net berücksichtegen an
iwwerwaachen.

Am Géigendeel lauschteren si d’Äusserung vu sou
Diszele wéi déi literaresch Kompositioune vu Poeten, witty Words,
bruëcht Briefe, vu Leit aus der Äusserung oder de Wierder vun de Jénger
leien, si ginn d’Oueren zou, si ginn hir Gedanken op Wëssen aus. , si
wäerten dës Léierpersonal berücksichtegt wéi se agehale ginn.


Bhikkhus, déi Diskussiounen déi Wierder vun der Tathāgata sinn, a
profound, profonder Bedeitung, déi iwwer d’Welt hinausgeet, (konsequent)
mat Leedere verbonne sinn, verschwannen.

Duerfir bhikkhus, Dir
musst elo sou trainéieren: “Mir héieren der Äusserung vu sougen
Diskussiounen, déi Wierder vun der Tathāgata, profound, profonder
Bedeitung sinn, déi iwwer d’Welt hinausgeet (konsequent) mat Leerheet
verbonne sinn, an eis Gedanken op Wëssen unzeginn, mir wäerte dës
Léierpersonal berücksichtegt an iwwerwaachen. ” Dëst ass wéi bhikkhus,
sollt Dir selwer trainéieren.

- Āṇi Sutta -

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https://www.oneindia.com/…/in-bjps-one-nation-one-poll-prop…

VOICE OF AWAKENED ABORIGINAL SOCOETIES (VoAAAS)

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one EVM (Electronic Voting Mission 543 +all states) selection

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one ration card - all saffronised rice, wheat, sugar, maida, Dal etc.

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan - Cricket saffronised uniform with om, bat, stumps, ground etc.

In BJP’s One Nation One Poll proposal, Mayawati sees manipulation


BSP chief Mayawati opposed The BJP’s “one nation, one election” idea
aimed at having simultaneous Lok Sabha and state assemblies polls,
saying it is a saffron party’s ploy to win all elections through
one-time “manipulation” of EVMs.

“The new gimmick of ‘one nation,
one election’ is a BJP’s ploy to win the Lok Sabha and assembly
elections by a single ‘dhandhli’ (malipulation) misusing the EVMs,” she
said. “It will put the nation in an era of casteism making it free from
any opposition,” she added, addressing a party meeting convened to
discuss the purported “national concern” over the alleged “hijacking” of
the democracy via EVMs here. “If there is no manipulation in the BJP’s
victory and if it has the majority votes by its side, why is the party
shying away from going to the people and avoiding elections through
ballots?” a BSP statement quoted her as asking. The meeting was also
attended by the BSP’s representatives from other states, who alleged
that the Election Commission was working on directions of the BJP and
Prime Minister Narendra Modi. After LS Poll debacle, Mayawati calls for
key party meet; Phones, bags, car keys barred “The way the EC bowed
before the prime minister also gives rise to the apprehension over the
free and fair polls in the country and weakening of the democracy,” she
alleged and demanded that “constitutional bodies should find solution to
the people’s concern”. She said the BJP’s victory is “unexpected and
against the people’s mandate”, which is not possible without a “planned
manipulation and conspiracy”. The BSP supremo demanded that elections in
India be held through ballot papers in future. “All the main opposition
political parties are of the view that elections should be held through
ballot papers but the BJP and the EC are against it, which has created
uneasiness in the country,” she said. Mayawati also questioned the BJP’s
keenness on having simultaneous Lok Sabha and assembly elections. “If
the BJP is so keen on one nation, one poll, why didn’t it hold the
assembly elections in states like Haryana and Maharashtra with the Lok
Sabha polls. She asked party workers to to remain cautious to deal with
discrepancies in functioning of EVMs during upcoming polls and
emphasised upon them to stick to the party’s “brotherhood formula”
successfully tested in the 2007 Uttar Pradesh assembly polls to ensure
that the party’s base remains intact. In the meeting, Mayawati also took
stock of the party’s readiness for the upcoming assembly elections in
Haryana and Maharashtra.


Mass
Buddhist Marriage at Chikkaballapur on 30.6.2019 organised by
International Friends of Buddhists, Samantha Sianika Dal, Republican
Party of India & Nagasena Buddha Vihar.


https://tamil.oneindia.com/news/delhi/vaiko-says-no-for-one-nation-one-ration-card-355527.html#vuukle-comments

ஒரே நாடு ஒரே ரேஷன் கார்டு வேண்டாம்.. என்னென்ன விபரீதங்கள் வரும் தெரியுமா.. வைகோ எச்சரிக்கை

டெல்லி: இந்தியா முழுவதிலும் ஒரே குடும்ப அட்டை முறையை அமல்படுத்த
திட்டமிட்டுள்ளதாக, உணவுத்துறை அமைச்சர் ராம்விலாஸ் பாஸ்வான் தெரிவித்தார்.
நாட்டில் எங்கே இருந்தாலும், அங்கங்கு உள்ள ரேஷன் கடைகளில் பொருட்களை
வாங்கிக் கொள்ள முடியும் என்கிறது இந்த திட்டம்.

உதாரணத்திற்கு, பீகார் தொழிலாளர்கள் தமிழக ரேஷன் கடைகளில் பொருட்கள் வாங்க
முடியும். இதனால் வீண் குழப்பம் ஏற்படுவதோடு, உணவுப் பொருள் வினியோகம்
சிறப்பாக உள்ள தமிழகத்திற்கு, பற்றாக்குறை நிலை ஏற்பட வாய்ப்பு உள்ளதாக
விமர்சனங்கள் எழுந்துள்ளன.
Vaiko says no for One Nation One Ration Card

ஒரு இந்தியா, ஒரு ரேஷன் கார்டு திட்டத்திற்கு மதிமுக பொதுச் செயலாளர் வைகோ
கடும் கண்டனம் தெரிவித்துள்ளார்.

இதுகுறித்து வைகோ வெளியிட்டுள்ள அறிக்கை: இந்தியா முழுவதையும் ஒரே குடையின்
கீழ் கொண்டுவந்து, அனைத்து மாநிலங்கள் மீதும் ஆதிக்கம் செலுத்துவதை
ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ்., சங் பரிவார், சனாதன சக்திகள் தங்கள் கொள்கையாக
கொண்டிருக்கின்றன. இதனால்தான் ஒரே நாடு; ஒரே மதம்; ஒரே மொழி; ஒரே பண்பாடு
என்பதை நடைமுறைப்படுத்திட பா.ஜ.க. ஆட்சி கடந்த 5 ஆண்டுகளாக முனைந்து
செயல்பட்டது. தற்போது இரண்டாவது முறை ஆட்சிப் பொறுப்பை ஏற்ற பின்னர்
நரேந்திர மோடி தலைமையிலான பா.ஜ.க. அரசு முன்பைவிட மூர்க்கத்தனமான வேகத்தில்
இயங்கத் தொடங்கி இருக்கிறது.

ஒரே தேர்தல்; ஒரே தேசிய கல்விக் கொள்கை; ஒரே சுகாதாரக் கொள்கை; ஒரே
நுழைவுத் தேர்வு; ஒரே வரி என்பதில் தொடங்கி, தற்போது நாடு முழுவதும் ஒரே
குடும்ப அட்டை எனும் திட்டத்திற்கு அகரம் எழுதி உள்ளனர். பொதுவிநியோகத்
திட்டத்தைச் சிறப்பாக நடைமுறைப்படுத்திவரும் மாநிலங்களில் தமிழ்நாடு
முதன்மையான இடத்தைப் பெற்றிருக்கிறது. இதனைச் சீர்குலைக்கவும், வட
இந்தியாவிலிருந்து புலம்பெயரும் மக்களை ஊக்குவித்துத் தமிழ்நாடு உள்ளிட்ட
பிற தென்னக மாநிலங்களில் வலிந்து குடியேற்றவும், ஏழை - எளிய சாதாரண
தொழிலாளர்களுக்கு பொது விநியோக முறையில் எந்த மாநிலத்திலும் உணவுப்
பொருட்களை வாங்கிக் கொள்ளலாம் என்று பா.ஜ.க. அரசு ஒரே நாடு; ஒரே குடும்ப
அட்டைத் திட்டத்தை அறிமுகம் செய்கிறது.

பொது விநியோகமுறை என்பது மத்திய மாநில அரசுகளின் பொதுப்பட்டியலின் கீழ்
வருவதைப் பயன்படுத்தி, மாநில அரசின் அதிகாரத்தைப் பறித்து ஆதிக்கம் செலுத்த
முயற்சிப்பது கடும் கண்டனத்திற்கு உரியது ஆகும். குடும்ப
அட்டைதாரர்களுக்கு குறைந்த விலையில் உணவுப் பொருட்களை வழங்குவதும், அதனைக்
கண்காணிப்பதும், முறைகேடுகள் இருந்தால் அவற்றைக் களைந்து, செம்மையாக
செயல்படுத்துவதும் மாநில அரசுகளின் முழு முதற் கடமை. இது முழுக்க முழுக்க
மாநிலங்களின் நேரடியான கட்டுப்பாட்டில் இருக்க வேண்டுமே தவிர, மத்திய அரசு
மூக்கை நுழைப்பது வேண்டாத வேலை.

இது மாநிலங்களை நகராட்சிகளைவிடக் கேவலமாக நடத்துவதற்கான சதித் திட்டமாகும்.
மத்தியில் அதிகாரக் குவிப்பு என்பதை ஒரு கொள்கையாக வைத்துக்கொண்டு பா.ஜ.க.
அரசு ‘நிதி ஆயோக்’ வடிவமைத்துத் தருவதை செயல்படுத்த மோடி அரசு துடிப்பது
கூட்டாட்சிக் கோட்பாட்டை சீர்குலைப்பது மட்டுமல்ல, அரசியல் சட்டத்தைக்
குழிதோண்டிப் புதைக்கும் முயற்சி ஆகும்.

இந்தியா முழுவதும் உள்ள பல்வேறு தேசிய இனங்களின் உணவுப் பழக்க வழக்கங்கள்
வெவ்வேறானவை. பொது விநியோக முறையை மத்திய அரசின் கட்டுப்பாட்டின் கீழ்
கொண்டுவருவதன் மூலம் இந்தியா முழுவதும் உணவுப் பழக்க வழக்கங்களையும் ஒரே
முறையில் மாற்ற வேண்டும் என்கிற பா.ஜ.க. அரசின் உள்நோக்கம் நாட்டில் விபரீத
விளைவுகளை ஏற்படுத்திவிடும்.

எனவே, மத்திய அரசு ‘ஒரே நாடு; ஒரே ரேசன்’ திட்டத்தைக் கைவிட வேண்டும் என்று
வலியுறுத்துகிறேன். குடும்ப அட்டைத் திட்டத்தைச் சிறப்பாக செயல்படுத்தி
வருகிற தமிழக அரசு, பா.ஜ.க. அரசின் ஒரே குடும்ப அட்டைத் திட்டத்தை ஏற்கக்
கூடாது. கடுமையாக எதிர்க்க வேண்டும். இவ்வாறு வைகோ அந்த அறிக்கையில்
தெரிவித்துள்ளார்.

நல்ல பதிவு..பிஜேபி ஒரு மக்கள் விரோத கட்சி

சப்பாத்தி பிசைய மாவு மட்டும்தான் கிடைக்கும் ..மானியங்கள் காலாவதியாகும் …கீழ்த்தரமான செயல் ….!

ரேஷன்
கடைகள் அனைத்தும் மத்திய அரசு எடுத்து கொண்டு வடநாட்டுக்காரர்களை
வேலைக்கு அமர்த்தும். சொந்த மண்ணிலேயே தலக்கிழான் அகதி போல் வாழ வேண்டும்.


முள்ளிவாய்க்காலில்
புலிகளை அடக்கியபின் அதே கொள்கையை பின்தொடர இந்திய கொள்கை வகுப்பாளர்கள்
முடிவெடுத்தார்கள் .நூறு மணிநேர வேலைத்திடடம் , இலவச செல் போன் எல்லாமே
மூக்குநுழைக்கும் வேலைதான் .வாய்மூலம்தான் நேரு சமஸ்டி அறிவித்தார் ,
அரசியலமைப்புமுலம் அல்ல . ஏமாத்த பட்டுவிட்டொம் . வைகோவின் வாய்ச்சொல்லு
எதையுமே பெற்றுத்தராது . அறிவுள்ள இளைஞர்கள்தான் சிந்திக்கவேண்டும் .


நல்லா கத்தி அழு…கதறி அழு….அய்யா வாங்க …அம்மா வாங்க…

இதன்
மூலம் இந்தி பேசுபவர்களை தமிழ்நாட்டில் முழுவதுமாக குடியமர்த்தி,
தமிழர்களை இரண்டாம் ரக பிரஜை ஆக்க திட்டம் போல தெரிகிறது!!…இப்போது தமிழ்நாட்டில்
இப்படிப்பட்ட முயற்சிகளை எடுக்க பார்க்கிறது பிஜேபி!!… இதை
அனுமதித்தால், தமிழர்களை முன்பு குஜராத்தில் இருந்து சங்க காலத்தில்
துரத்தப்பட்டது போல, மீண்டும் தமிழ்நாட்டில் இருந்து துரத்தியடிக்க
பார்ப்பார்கள் இந்த கபோதிகள்!!…ஏற்கனவே, ரயில்வே, மின்வாரியம் என கணக்கு
போட்டு, நுழைந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறார்கள் வடஇந்தியர்கள் !!… வேற்றுமையில்
ஒற்றுமை தத்துவத்தை மோடி குழி தோண்டி புதைக்க பார்க்கிறார்!!…இது
பிரிவினைக்கு தான் வழிவகுக்கும்!!…சிந்திக்க தெரியாத சங்கிகளுக்கு உரைக்கப்போவதில்லை
!!….


ஹா
ஹா ஹா ஹா ஆரம்பித்துவிட்டர்களையா அரம்பித்து விட்டார்கள் …இப்பொது ஒரே
தேசம் ஒரே ரேஷன் கார்டு ..இன்னும் கொஞ்சம் நாள் கழித்து ஒரே நாடு ஒரே
தேர்தல் …அப்புறம் ஒரே நாடு ஒரே கட்சி [ பிஜேபி ] அப்புறம் ஒரே நாடு
ஒரே [கட்சி ] ஆட்சி அப்புறம் ஒரே நாடு ஒரே அதிபர் [ மோடி ] நடத்துங்க
நடத்துங்க …உங்க ராமரும் கிருஷ்ணரும் பார்த்துக்கொண்டுதான்
இருக்கிறார்கள்

VOICE OF AWAKENED ABORIGINAL SOCOETIES (VoAAAS)

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one EVM (Electronic Voting Mission 543 +all states) selection

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan one ration card - all saffronised rice, wheat, sugar, maida, Dal etc.

One chitpavan brahminised hindutvastan - Cricket saffronised uniform with om, bat, stumps, ground etc.

In BJP’s One Nation One Poll proposal, Mayawati sees manipulation


BSP chief Mayawati opposed The BJP’s “one nation, one election” idea
aimed at having simultaneous Lok Sabha and state assemblies polls,
saying it is a saffron party’s ploy to win all elections through
one-time “manipulation” of EVMs.

ஒரே
நாடு ஒரே தேசியக்கொடி ஒரே தலைநகரம் ஒரே ராணுவம் RSS சங்
பரிவார் சதி ஐய்யோ ஐயகோ கேட்பாரில்லையா அநீதி வேண்டும் அநீதி
வேண்டும் தமிழா ஒன்றுபட்டு போராட்டம் செய் கோட்டர் குஸ்கா
இலவசம் குண்டடி பட்டு சாவு தமிழன் அழிஞ்சாதான் தெலுங்கன் நாங்க
சுகமா வாழ முடியும்



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06/29/19
30 Sun 2019 Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 9:20 pm

30  Sun  2019 Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19


DiplomainTheravadaBuddhistStudies(DBS) ModelQuestionPaper 2018-19
1. ItissaidBuddhism rejectsacreatorGod,butacceptstheexistenceofinfinite numberofgodsindiferentdivineplanes.Doyoufinditcontradictory?Ifso,how,if nowhy?Explain.
2. WhatisthemotivationunderlyingtheatemptatcalingtheBuddhaanavatarof Vishnu?
3. Brieflydescribethefolowing– i.TheDream ofQueenMahamaya i.BirthofPrinceSiddhatha i.PrinceSiddhatha’sproclamationathisbirth. iv.Whatdoyouunderstandbythisproclamation?Whydidthebabyprincedothat? Describe.
4. WriteanaccountofthevisitofSageAsitaandhisprophecy.Whydidhelaughand thencry?Describethesignificanceofthiscontradictoryscene. 2.WriteanessayontheBodhisataIdeal.
5.AfterSumedhawasconsecratedasaBodhisatabyBuddhaDipankara,how didhe contemplateontheprerequisitesofBuddhahood,namely,onthethirtyPàramis?
6.WriteclearlyanaccountonSumedha’sthoughtconcerningeachPārami.
7.WritedownSanghaVandanāinPāliaswelasinEnglish.
8.Writeanessayonwhatyouunderstandaboutthemeaningofeachoftheninequalities oftheSangha.
9.WhatwasSiddhathainhisimmediatepastlife?Whatwashisrole?
10.GiveanaccountofBodhisataSetaketu.
11.HowmanytypesofBodhisatasarethere?Elaborateoneachofthem?
12.HowmanyperfectionsaBodhisatamustfulfiltobecomeaBuddha?
13.WriteanessayonthetenPàramis.
14.Explainthediferencebetweenanordinaryactofdàna(giving)andanactof dāna pārami(perfectionofgiving).
15.WriteclearlyinPāliandEnglishtheDhammaVandanàGàtha?Explainthemeaning,as youunderstandit.
16.EnumeratethequalitiesoftheDhammaandwritethesignificanceofeachquality.
17.WhatdoyouthinkofthefiveBuddhistprecepts(PancaSila)?Ifyouarepracticing, whatarethebenefitsyouderive?Pleaseelaborate.
18.OnthefulmoondayofAsalha(July),twomonthsafterenlightenment,theBuddha walkedalthewayfrom BodhiMandapa(Bodhgaya)toIsipatanainBaranasi.Whydidhe choosethismodeoftravelingratherthanusinghispsychicabilitiesasinthecaseof otherBuddhas?
19.Havinginmindwhosespiritualwel-beingdidhedecidetowalkratherthanlevitate?
20.WhatdidtheBuddhasayregardingthenatureofaSupremeEnlightenedOneasgiven inthefiveverses?
21.WritedowntheidealsenunciatedbytheBuddhainthefiveverses.
22.Whoisthetrueconquer(Jino),andwhyso?Elaborate.
23.OnhearingthefivegāthāsoftheBuddhawhatdidtheothertravelersay?
24.IsitpossibletoconstruetheBuddhaeitherasagodoranincarnation,prophetor messiahofagodfrom whathasbeensaidaboutBuddhahoodinBuddha’sownwordsin thefivegāthas? I)Ifyouranswerisno,writewhydoyouthinkso? I)Ifyouranswerisyes,pleaseexplainwhydoyouthinkso?
25.WriteanessayonBuddha’sowndefinitionofBuddhahoodasgivenintheDonaSuta. 1
26.WhydidtheBrahminDonaputthosefourquestionsbasedonhisknowledgeofthe footprint?
27.WhydidtheBuddhagivenegativeanswerstoalthefourquestionsandwhatwashis explanationregardingcankers?
28.Whatdoyouunderstandbythewordi)‘canker’?i)bythelotusanalogy?
29.Whatdo you understand aboutThe Buddha-nature as compared with the lotus? Elaborateasclearlyasyoucan.
30.ThemessageoftheBuddhainthissutacanbebrieflyexpressedthus:“ThoughIam bornintheworld,Iam aboveit.Itcannotsoilme.”Howwouldyouinterpretit?
31.Howareyougoingtoapplythismessageinyourdailylife?Pleasewriteclearly.
32.Pleaseclarify:- i.WhatisBodhiandhowmanykindsofBodhiarethere? i.WhoisaBodhisataandhowmanytypesofBodhisatasarethere? i.WhoisaBuddhaandhowmanytypesofBuddhasarethere?


33.TogetherwiththeThreeRefugeswhatmoralprinciplesshouldaBuddhistfolows?

Q 33 Together with the Three Refugees what moral principles should a Buddhist follow ?

34.WriteabriefessayonthemeaningofBuddhaVandanā,asyouunderstandit.

Q 34 Write a brief esssay on the meaning of Buddha Vandana, as you understand it ?

35.Istheword‘Buddha’apersonalnameortitle,ordoesitstandsforanofice?

Q 35 Is the word “Buddha ” a personal name or title, or does it stands for an office ?

36.Explainclearlythemeaningoftheword‘Buddha’asyouunderstandit.

Q 36 Explain clearly the meaning of the word “Buddha” as you understand it.

37.WhyishecaledBuddha?Whatarethepre-requisitesforbecomingaBuddha?

Q 37 Why is he called Buddha ? What are the prerequisites for becoming a Buddha ?

38.Whatisthemeaningoftheterm Bodhisata?HowmanydiferenttypesofBodhisata
arethere?Enumerate.

Q 38 What is the meaning of the term Bodhisatta ? How many different types of Bodhisatta are there ? Enumerate.

39.WhataretherequirementsforbecomingthediferenttypesofBodhisata?

Q 39 What are the requirements for becoming the different types of Bodhisatta?

40.How manytypesofBuddhaarethere?Whataretheprerequisitesforbecomingthese
diferenttypesofBuddha?

Q 40 How many types of Buddha are there ? What are the prerequisites for becoming these different types of Buddha ?

41.WhatisPārami?HowmanyPāramisarethere?Enumerate.

Q 41  What id parami ? How many Paramis are there ? Enumerate .

42HowdothePāramisdeterminetheatainmentofdiferenttypesofBodhi?

Q 42 How do the Paramis determine the attainment of different types of Bodhi ?

4 3 . W rite a n e s s a y o n th e c o re te a c h in g o f a l l B u d
d h a s . W h e n a n d w h e re w a s th is discoursedelivered?

Q 43 Write an essay on on the core teaching of all Buddhas.

44.HowcantheMiddlePathbeexplainedintermsofethics,psychologyandphilosophy?

Q 44 How can the Middle path be explained in terms of ethics, psychology and philisophy ?

45.DescribewhentheBuddhaRatana,DhammaRatanaandSanghaRatanaarose.What
isthesignificanceoftheterm
Ratanainthiscontext,i.e.,whyareBuddha,Dhammaand SanghacaledTreasureGems?

Q
45 Describe when the Buddha Ratana, Dhamma Ratana, and Sangha Ratana
arose. What is the significance of the term Ratana in this context,
i.e., why are Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha called Treasure Gems ?

4 6 . W h a t th e e s s e n tia l p o in ts o f th e D is c o u rs e o n
N o n -s e lf a s fo u n d in h is s e c o n d
discourse?

Q 46 What is the essential points of the Discourse on non-self as found in his second discourse ?

47.WhatistheNobleEightfoldPath?Analyzeintermsof3modesofSpiritualtraining?

Q 47 What is the Noble Eightfold Path ? Analyse in terms of 3 modes of Spiritual training ?

48.WriteanessayoftwelvefactorsoftheLaw
ofdependentorigination.Whatdoesthe dependentoriginationportray?

Q 48 Write an essay of twelve factors of the law of dependent origination. What does the dependent origination portray ?

49.WritedownthetextofthePaticcaSamuppadabothinPàliandEnglishinforwardand
backwardorders.

Q 49 Write down text of the Paticca Samppada both in Pali and English in forward and backward orders ?

50.GivedetailsaccountofAshoka’sNinemessangersofDhammadispatchedtonine
countries?

Q 50 Give details account of Ashoka’s Nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?

51WriteanessayontheAditapariyāyasutaexplainingtheimportantfeatures?

Q 51 Write an essay on the Aditta Pariyaya sutta explaining the important features ?

52.WhatisDhammapada,inwhichpitakaitappears?Howmanychaptersandversesare
there?

Q 52 What id Dhammapada, in which pitaka it appears ? How many chapters and verses are there ?

53.Explain Dhpd.verse no.42 & Verse no 43 with back ground story and
give your comments?

Q 53 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 42 & Verse no. 43 with back ground story and give your comments ?

54.ExplainDhpdverseno.127and128withbackgroundstory?

Q 54 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 127 and 128 with background story ?

55.W rite dow n in pāliany 10 verses from cit ta vagga?

Q 55 Write down in Pali any 10 verses from citta vagga ?

56.Whatarethefourprotectivemediationsandhowdoesonecanpracticeindialylife?
W rtie s h o rt N o te s o n e a c h A ra k k h ā b h a v a n a i.e . B u
d d h a ā n u s s a ti, m e t tā , a s u b h ā a n d

Q
56 What are the four protective meditations and how does one can
practice in daily life ? Write short Notes on each Arakkha bhavana ie.,
Buddhaanusatti, metta, ashubha and maranussati?




1.
It is said Buddhism rejects a creator God, but accepts the existence of
infinite number of gods in different divine planes. Do you find it
contradictory ? If so, how, if no why?
Explain.

https://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/buddhaongod.asp
THE BUDDHA ON GOD

Monks,
that sphere should be realized where the eye (vision) stops and the
perception (mental noting) of form fades. That sphere is to be realized
where the ear stops and the perception of sound fades… where the nose
stops and the perception of aroma fades… where the tongue stops and
the perception of flavor fades… where the body stops and the
perception of tactile sensation fades… where the intellect stops and
the perception of idea/phenomenon fades: That sphere should be realized.
— Samyutta Nikaya XXXV.116

Buddhism and belief in god

Buddhism
believes in the existence of neither god nor soul in the theistic
sense. It is essentially a religion of the mind, which advocates present
moment awareness, inner purity, ethical conduct, freedom from the
problem of change, impermanence and suffering, and reliance upon one’s
own experience and discernment on the Eightfold path as the teacher and
guide, rather than an external authority other than the Dhamma. One may
take guidance from a teacher, but insightful awareness and experiential
knowledge of the Dhamma are vital to progress on the path.

Unlike
the other major religions of the world, Buddhism is not centered on the
concept of god as the upholder and sum of all or a universal supreme
being, who is responsible for the creation and dissolution of the world
and the existence of sentient beings.

Buddhism does not even
support the idea of an eternal and unchanging soul residing in the body.
According to Buddhism the whole existence is in a state of flux, and
there is nothing that is either permanent or unchanging. Some things may
last longer, but never forever.

The Buddhist scriptures do
confirm the existence of devas or celestial beings, bodhisattvas or pure
beings, heavens and hells and other planes of existence. They may last
for eons.

However, none of them are permanent entities. They are
all subject to change, impermanence and evolution. It is said that the
Buddha either remained silent or discouraged speculation when he was
asked questions about the existence of god or a Supreme Being.

Buddha’s views on god

The
Buddha did so with a purpose. He wanted his followers to remain focused
upon Nibbana and the permanent resolution of suffering, without
distractions and wasteful discussions. Therefore, he did his best to
keep them focused upon that single and virtuous goal, without becoming
distracted by theological speculation or intellectual disputation, which
was the common preoccupation of many scholars and religious teachers of
his time.

However, his silence does not mean that he was an
agnostic or he favored the notion of god as the ruler and creator of the
worlds and beings. His silence was not an affirmation of the existence
of an eternal creator. The Buddha did not believe in hidden causes but
apparent causes, which made sense to the mind and the intellect and
which were humanly relatable, experiential and explicable.

One
may wonder if it was so, why he accepted kamma and reincarnation as
governing laws, which were in some respects abstract concepts. Kamma was
a hidden process of cause and effect, but with mindfulness practice its
working could be discerned and experienced in the world by one and all.
No supernatural testimony was required to establish its universality or
working. Therefore, he accepted kamma as an operating principle. He
believed in reincarnation because he saw his own past lives (and
probably those of others) in contemplative states and understood their
significance in attaining the Buddhahood. However, he held that the
incarnating entity was not an eternal soul but a temporary formation.

Seven reasons why the existence of god is unacceptable

On
occasions, he expressed his opinions about creation and the role of
god. When Ananthapindika, a wealthy young man, met the Buddha at a
bamboo groove at Rajagaha, the Buddha made a few statements before him
about the existence of god and the real cause behind the creation of
beings in this world. Those views are summarized as below:

1. If
god is indeed the creator of all living things, then all things here
should submit to his power unquestioningly. Like the vessels produced by
a potter, they should remain without any individuality of their own. If
that is so, how can there be an opportunity for anyone to practice
virtue?

2. If this world is indeed created by god, then there
should be no sorrow or calamity or evil in this world and no need for
the existence of the principle of kamma since all deeds, both pure and
impure, must come from Him.

3. If it is not so, then there must
be some other cause besides god which is behind him, in which case He
would not be self-existent.

4. It is not convincing that the
Absolute has created us, because that which is absolute cannot be a
cause. All things here arise from different causes. Then can we can say
that the Absolute is the cause of all things alike? If the Absolute is
pervading them, then certainly It is not their creator.

5. If we
consider the Self as the maker, why did it not make things pleasant? Why
and how should it create so much sorrow and suffering for itself?

6.
It is neither god nor the self nor some causeless chance which creates
us. It is our deeds which produce both good and bad results according to
the law of causation.

7. We should therefore “abandon the heresy
of worshipping god and of praying to him. We should stop all
speculation and vain talk about such matters and practice good so that
good may result from our good deeds.

For such reasons, the Buddha
did not encourage speculation on the existence of Isvara, (god) among
his disciples. He wanted them to confine themselves to what was within
their field of awareness, that is, to understand the causes of suffering
and work for their mitigation. For the same reason, he discouraged
speculation upon the nature of Nibbana.

He preached that
initially each being was a product of ignorance and illusion and subject
to suffering, kamma and transmigration. Life was full of suffering and
it could be resolved only by overcoming desires and attraction and
aversion. The Dhamma served as the lamp in the darkness of existential
suffering. By knowing it and practicing it one could find a way to
escape from the cycle of births and deaths and from suffering itself.

Therefore,
for their final liberation he urged his disciples to contemplate upon
the Four Noble Truths, practice the Eightfold path and lead a virtuous
life by performing good deeds. He declared that by ending the transient
states of having, becoming, being and changing and removing the
defilements of the mind and body they could resolve suffering and enter
the state of beatitude or Nirvana on a lasting basis. Thus, in Buddhism
knowledge of the Dhamma has far greater significance than idle
speculation in resolving suffering. One may inquire into it and
contemplate upon it since it is experiential, relatable and verifiable,
unlike the speculative subjects such as the nature of god or the
existence of god and soul.

The complex and diverse nature of Buddhism

It
is difficult to categorize Buddhism as atheistic, theistic or agnostic
because it has aspects of them but does not particularly fit well into
any of them. For example, Buddhism may not believe in god and may not be
considered a theistic tradition, but it does believe in the Buddha and
the Buddhahood. Indeed, it not only believes in the Buddha but also in
numerous past and future Buddhas who exist in numerous higher worlds.
Buddhists worship them with devotion and reverence and make them
offerings just as the Hindus worship their gods. Thus, as explained in
the concluding part of this discussion, Buddhism is a diverse religion,
with elements of theistic, atheistic and agnostic beliefs and practices.
However, it cannot conclusively be placed in any of them with enough
justification because of its inherent contradictions.

Although it
was founded by the Buddha and its teachings are more organized,
concrete and systematic, Buddhism, just as Hinduism, is a complex
religion. It underwent further changes after his death, resulting in the
formation of many sects, sub-sects and regional versions, which made it
even more complex. Some of them made a radical departure from the
original teachings of the Buddha to the extent that they stand in their
own light as independent religions.

Were he alive, the Buddha
would have been surprised to witness the emergence of so many traditions
that rely upon his name to mark their teachings and philosophy but show
a marked deviation from his very teachings, doctrinal expositions and
stand points. What mostly binds them to Buddhism and keeps them in its
fold is their adherence to the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.

While
scholars may keep arguing about the essential nature of Buddhism it is
the firm opinion of this writer that according to the teachings of the
Buddha it is difficult to place Buddhism on the same footing as Hinduism
or Christianity and consider it a theistic tradition. It is theistic
only in the sense that some of its sects (especially those of Mahayana)
believe in a deity, the Buddha, who is not god but seem to possess some
attributes of god.

The centrality of Dhamma rather than god

The
Buddha did not ascribe any role to god either in creation or in human
suffering or in the liberation of beings. For the Buddha, the world was a
godless world, a formation or aggregate of objects and living beings,
in which both good and evil were produced by the actions of individual
beings, and their fate was determined by the law of causation (kamma).
While beings which lacked intelligence had no choice until they evolved
through rebirths, human beings and those above them had a unique
opportunity to exercise their discerning intellect (buddhi) and chose
right actions and the principles of right living to escape from the law
of kamma and the cycle of births and deaths.

Therefore, to awaken
their minds to the idea of righteous living and virtuous actions, he
taught the world the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, ascribing
no role to god in either of them and putting the entire burden of
resolving individual suffering upon the individuals themselves. In
Buddhism, there is nothing like the grace of god which can resolve the
kamma of a devotee. An arhant (awakened master) or a selfless monk may
transfer his good karma to a suffering soul out of compassion, as
believed in some sects, but such decisions are purely personal in which
neither god nor Buddha has any role.

While drawing his
conclusions and formulating the principles of Dhamma and the Code of
Conduct (Vinaya) for the monks or in his teachings, the Buddha
assiduously avoided to the extent possible all manners of speculation
about supernatural matters and abstract concepts, keeping his focus
firmly fixed upon the causes as well as solutions to the problems of
human existence within the realm of the mind and its abilities, and
without alluding to anything beyond them.

If he had any opinions
or knowledge about transcendence or eternal realities, he kept them out
of the purview of his discussion and deliberations to avoid causing
confusion and delusion. Even when he was pressed for a clear answer, he
remained silent, knowing that it would be a distraction for his
followers in their quest for Nibbana, and for himself in his attempts to
show them the right way and teach them the right knowledge.  Besides,
speculation would not lead to right perception, right awareness, right
understanding and right knowledge.

Belief in gods, Bodhisattvas and Primordial Buddhas

While
Buddhism does not believe in the existence of an all pervading eternal
god who is the cause of the causes and the soul of the souls, it does
believe in the existence of Noble beings or gods of heaven. The Buddhist
texts mention the names of several gods and goddesses, whose names are
similar in many cases to those of the gods and goddesses of Hinduism.

However,
while the deities of Hinduism are immortal, those of Buddhism are not.
They live for longer duration of time, but like all other beings, they
are prone to decay and subject to the cycle of births and deaths. They
may be even humans who evolve into gods through self-effort.

Some
of the gods whose names frequently appear in the Buddhist Pantheon are
Brahma, Indra, Aapo (Varuna), Vayo (Vayu), Tejo (Agni), Surya, Pajapati
(Prajapati), Soma, Yasa, Venhu (Vishnu), Mahadeva (Siva), Vijja
(Saraswati), Usha, Pathavi (Prithvi), Sri (Lakshmi), Yama, Kala, Kuvera
(Kubera), and Garuda.

The texts also refer to the existence of
celestial beings such as yakkhas (Yakshas), gandhabbas (Gandharvas),
Nāgas, and demons such as Bali and his sons, Veroca, etc. Brahma figures
frequently in Pali Canon, which refers to not one but several Brahmas
inhabiting different planes. Brahma is the leader of the heaven.
However, he is not a creator god, and in all the worlds where he
presides he is also subject to change and decay as the other gods.

Apart
from them, Mahayana Buddhism refers to the Bodhisattvas or
compassionate beings and primordial Buddhas who inhabit the higher
heavens and act as the guardians of the world.

The Bodhisattvas
are truth beings, who are fully qualified for Nirvana. However, out of
compassion they decide to postpone their liberation and work for
alleviating the suffering of the sentient beings upon earth.

The
primordial Buddhas such as Samantabhadra, Vajradhara, Vairochana, and
Adi-Buddha among others are personalized embodiments of different
aspects of Buddha Nature. They are pure beings who possess dharmakayas
(bodies of truth).

Hindu gods vs. Buddhist gods

The gods
of Buddhism have greater powers than humans, but unlike the gods of
Hinduism, they do not possess absolute powers. They can have an impact
upon our lives and destinies, but they cannot change or alter the course
of life upon earth beyond a point.

Besides, the gods are not
liberated beings. Their actions have consequences. Hence, just as humans
they too are subject to the law of kamma. If they indulge in wrong
actions, they will fall down from heaven into lower worlds according to
their deeds. However, the same is not true in case of the primordial
Buddhas. They are not only free from decay and the law of kamma but also
endowed with supernatural powers.

According to Buddhism life in
heaven is not a class privilege, which only a few chosen ones are
entitled to enjoy according to the will or at the pleasure of god. The
gods are not created by a supreme god. They are self-made. Their
divinity is the consequences of their good kamma and their personal
choice. Beings evolve through self-effort and good kamma and earn the
right to enter the world of gods. In other words, anyone can be reborn
in the worlds of gods through righteous self-effort and become a
divinity.

Although it is not encouraged, Buddhism does not rule
out the possibility of humans taking birth in the world of gods and
gods, having lost their virtue and due to bad kamma, taking birth in our
world. Since life in heaven is equally conducive to suffering,
Buddhists aim for liberation rather than rebirth in the heavens.

Devotion in Buddhism

The
origin of Buddhism is rooted in the ascetic and monastic traditions of
ancient India. The Buddha did not advise the monks to indulge in ritual
worship or venerate him or other beings with devotion.

However, a
few centuries after his death, a schism in Buddhism led to the
formation of Mahayana sect of Buddhism, which made a radical departure
from the traditional teachings of the Theravada or Hinayana Buddhism and
projected ritual worship of venerable Buddha in his highest and purest
aspect as worthy of worship and devotion.

The Mahayana tradition
supports the worship of Buddha to cultivate virtues, practice love and
compassion and receive enlightenment. The purpose of worship in Buddhism
seems to be to enable the worshippers to form a clear concept of the
ideal of Buddhahood and understand the Buddha nature rather than seeking
his grace or intervention in their personal lives for the alleviation
of their suffering.

Conclusion

Buddhism is primarily a
monastic and ascetic religion, which shares some aspects of theism with
Hinduism and some aspects of atheism with Jainism. Yet, you cannot say
it is a cross between the two. It is a unique tradition in its own
right. It adapted the theistic practices of Hinduism mostly in the
context of its own teachings and for the ultimate purpose of putting the
onus of attaining Nirvana entirely upon individual effort rather than
upon divine intervention or the grace of god.

While in Hinduism,
the householders may pursue the four chief aims life (Purusharthas)
namely Dharma (the law), Artha (wealth), Kama (pleasure) and Moksha
(liberation) apart from categories of athmas (souls), 1st rate, 2nd, 3rd
and 4th rate souls and the all awakened aboriginal societies the
untouchable as having no souls at all so that they can commit any
atrocities on them. Buddha never believed in any soul. He said all are
equal. In Buddhism the lay followers as well as the monks aim for only
two namely the practice of Dhamma  and the attainment of Nibbana.

In
ancient India, atheists such as the Lokayatas and Charvakas also
believed in the nonexistence of god. At the same time, they did not
believe in the possibility of life after death. For them, death itself
was Nibbana. Hence, they ignored both Dhamma and Moksha and focused only
upon the other two aims namely Artha and Kama. They considered life a
unique opportunity to strive for happiness while it lasted, since death
the end of all. They saw no greater virtue or justification to suffer
here and now for the sake of a better life in the next birth or
enjoyment in a heaven.

Thus, even in comparison to atheistic
traditions of ancient India, Buddhism retains its distinct character as a
spiritual religion which can be categorized neither as theistic just as
Hinduism nor as atheistic just as the Carvaka or the Lokayata
doctrines. It is a tradition which is uniquely human, intellectual,
practical and which is principally rooted in verifiable, relatable and
perceptual human experience.There Is No God in Buddhism
Buddhism
facts reveal that Buddhism is defined as a nontheistic religion, but the
relationship of Buddhist teachings and god(s) is a complicated one.
Buddha himself rejected the existence of a creator deity, but the notion
of divinity is not incompatible with his teachings. In fact, there are
gods found in Buddhist teachings, but these are considered to be
inferior to Buddha and not necessarily wiser than us.

In
conclusion, the concept of god(s) exists in Buddhism, but is not central
to the religion, in contrast to Christianity, for example. While most
experts agree that this makes Buddhism a nontheistic religion, there are
also some who believe that naming Buddhism nontheistic is overly
simple..

2. What is the motivation underlying the attempt at calling the Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu ?

Buddha is rarely worshipped like Krishna and Rama in Hinduism.

Buddha
criticised the Vedic/Astik shastras, rejected the Vedic religion and
the Astik school of thought, and challenged the hegemony of the
Brahmans. Buddha didn’t believe in a Supreme Being or an universal soul.

The
late S. Radhakrishnan, former President of India who was also a
Brahman, claimed that the Buddha was actually preaching Hinduism:
“Famous Indian Hindu scholars like the ex-President of India the late S.
Radhakrishnan stated: ‘The Buddha did not feel that he was announcing a
new religion. He was born, grew up, and died a Hindu. He was restating
with a new emphasis the ancient ideals of the Indo-Aryan civilization’”
(2500 Years of Buddhism, 1971, Government of India)

While
Babasaheb Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Father of the Indian Constitution and
one of the greatest Buddhist personalities of India, called this belief
“sheer madness and false propaganda”.

In Dona Sutta, Gautama Buddha didn’t claim to be God.

On seeing Buddha, Dona went to him and said, “Master, are you a deva?”

“No, brahman, I am not a deva.”

“Are you a gandhabba?”

“No…”

“… a yakkha?”

“No…”

“… a human being?”

“No, brahman, I am not a human being.”

…………..’ Then what sort of being are you?”

“Brahman,
the fermentations by which — if they were not abandoned — I would be a
deva: Those are abandoned by me, their root destroyed, made like a
palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined
for future arising. The fermentations by which — if they were not
abandoned — I would be a gandhabba… a yakkha… a human being: Those
are abandoned by me, their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump,
deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future
arising.

“Just like a red, blue, or white lotus — born in the
water, grown in the water, rising up above the water — stands unsmeared
by the water, in the same way I — born in the world, grown in the world,
having overcome the world — live unsmeared by the world. Remember me,
brahman, as ‘awakened.’

3. Briefly describe the following:

i. The dream of Queen Mahamaya

http://ariyamagga.net/queen-maha-mayas-dream/

Freedom
is not given to us by anyone; we have to cultivate it ourselves. It is a
daily practice… No one can prevent you from being aware of each step
you take or each breath in and breath out. ~Thich Nhat Hạnh

The Dream of Queen Siri Mahamaya Devi

More
than 2,500 years ago, there was a king called Suddhodana. He married a
beautiful Koliyan princess named Maha Maya. The couple ruled over the
Sakyas, a warrior tribe living next to the Koliya tribe, in the north of
India, in what is now known as Nepal. The capital of the Sakya country
was laid out across the foothills of the Himalayas and called
Kapilavatthu.

Queen Maha Maya was the daughter of King Anjana of
the Koliyas. Such was her beauty that the name Maya, meaning “vision”
was given to her. But it was Maya’s virtues and talents that were her
most wonderful qualities, for she was endowed with the highest gifts of
intelligence and piety. King Suddhodana was indeed worthy of his lovely
wife. He himself was called “King of the Law” because he ruled according
to the law. There was no other man among the Sakyas more honored and
respected. The king was admired by his nobles and courtiers, as well as
by the householders and merchants. Such was the noble family from which
the Buddha was to arise.

One full moon night, sleeping in the
palace, the queen had a vivid dream. She felt herself being carried away
by four devas (spirits) to Lake Anotatta in the Himalayas. After
bathing her in the lake, the devas clothed her in heavenly cloths,
anointed her with perfumes, and bedecked her with divine flowers. Soon
after a white elephant, holding a white lotus flower in its trunk,
appeared and went round her three times, entering her womb through her
right side. Finally the elephant disappeared and the queen awoke,
knowing she had been delivered an important message, as the elephant is a
symbol of greatness in Nepal. The next day, early in the morning, the
queen told the king about the dream. The king was puzzled and sent for
some wise men to discover the meaning of the dream.

The wise men
said, “Your Majesty, you are very lucky. The devas have chosen our queen
as the mother of the Purest-One and the child will become a very great
being.” The king and queen were very happy when they heard this.

They
were so pleased that they invited many of the noblemen in the country
to the palace to a feast to tell them the good news. Even the needy were
not forgotten. Food and clothes were given to the poor people in
celebration. The whole kingdom waited eagerly for the birth of the new
prince, and Queen Maya enjoyed a happy and healthy pregnancy, living a
pure life for herself and her unborn child.

Life of the Buddha
Source: BuddhaNet

ii. Birth of Prince Siddharttha

https://tipitaka.fandom.com/wiki/Birth_of_Prince_Siddhartha

ii. Birth of Prince Siddharttha

http://ariyamagga.net/birth-future-buddha/

Birth of the future Buddha in the Lumbini Grove

5. Birth of the future Buddha in the Lumbini Grove

Queen
Maha-Maya carried the Future Buddha in her womb for ten months; and on
the full moon day in May (Vesak) she said to King Suddhodana—”I wish, O
King, to go to Devadaha, the city of my family”. The King approved and
caused the road from Kapilavatthu to Devadaha to be made smooth and
adorned, and sent her with a great retinue. Between the two cities there
was a pleasure grove of sal trees, called Lumbini Grove. She entered
the grove for a rest. And at this particular time, this grove was one
mass of flowers presenting a very pretty scene. She went to the foot of a
great sal tree and reached out her hand to seize hold of one of its
branches. She was at once shaken with the pains of birth. Thereupon the
people hung a curtain about her, and her delivery took place while she
was standing up. At that moment came four Mahabrahmas (higher gods) with
a golden net; and, receiving the Future Buddha with it, they placed him
before his mother and said, “Rejoice, O Queen! A mighty son has been
born to thee”.

iii. Prince Siddharttha’s proclamation at his birth

https://www.learnreligions.com/the-birth-of-the-buddha-449783

Aspects
of the story of Buddha’s birth may have been borrowed from Hindu texts,
such as the account of the birth of Indra from the Rig Veda. The story
may also have Hellenic influences. For a time after Alexander the Great
conquered central Asia in 334 BCE, there was a considerable
intermingling of Buddhism with Hellenic art and ideas. There also is
speculation that the story of the Buddha’s birth was “improved” after
Buddhist traders returned from the Middle East with stories of the birth
of Jesus.

The Traditional Tale of the Buddha’s Birth

Twenty-five centuries ago, King Suddhodana ruled a land near the Himalaya Mountains.

One
day during a midsummer festival, his wife, Queen Maya, retired to her
quarters to rest, and she fell asleep and dreamed a vivid dream, in
which four angels carried her high into white mountain peaks and clothed
her in flowers. A magnificent white bull elephant bearing a white lotus
in its trunk approached Maya and walked around her three times. Then
the elephant struck her on the right side with its trunk and vanished
into her.

When Maya awoke, she told her husband about the dream.
The King summoned 64 Brahmans to come and interpret it. Queen Maya would
give birth to a son, the Brahmans said, and if the son did not leave
the household, he would become a world conqueror. However, if he were to
leave the household he would become a Buddha.

When the time for
the birth grew near, Queen Maya wished to travel from Kapilavatthu, the
King’s capital, to her childhood home, Devadaha, to give birth. With the
King’s blessings, she left Kapilavatthu on a palanquin carried by a
thousand courtiers.

On the way to Devadaha, the procession passed
Lumbini Grove, which was full of blossoming trees. Entranced, the Queen
asked her courtiers to stop, and she left the palanquin and entered the
grove. As she reached up to touch the blossoms, her son was born.

Then
the Queen and her son were showered with perfumed blossoms, and two
streams of sparkling water poured from the sky to bathe them. And the
infant stood, and took seven steps, and proclaimed “I alone am the
World-Honored One!

Then Queen Maya and her son returned to
Kapilavatthu. The Queen died seven days later, and the infant prince was
nursed and raised by the Queen’s sister Pajapati, also married to King
Suddhodana.

Symbolism

There is a jumble of symbols
presented in this story. The white elephant was a sacred animal
representing fertility and wisdom. The lotus is a common symbol of
enlightenment in Buddhist art. A white lotus, in particular, represents
mental and spiritual purity. The baby Buddha’s seven steps evoke seven
directions—north, south, east, west, up, down, and here.

Buddha’s Birthday Celebration

In
Asia, Buddha’s birthday is a festive celebration featuring parades with
many flowers and floats of white elephants. Figures of the baby Buddha
pointing up and down are placed in bowls, and sweet tea is poured over
the figures to “wash” the baby.

Buddhist Interpretation

Newcomers
to Buddhism tend to dismiss the Buddha birth myth as so much froth. It
sounds like a story about the birth of a god, and the Buddha was not a
god. In particular, the declaration “I alone am the World-Honored One”
is a bit hard to reconcile with Buddhist teachings on nontheism and
anatman.

However, in Mahayana Buddhism, this is interpreted as
the baby Buddha speaking of the Buddha-nature that is the immutable and
eternal nature of all beings. On Buddha’s birthday, some Mahayana
Buddhists wish each other happy birthday, because the Buddha’s birthday
is everyone’s birthday.

iv. What do you understand by this proclamation?

Why did the baby prince do that ?

Describe.

4.
Write an account of the visit of Sage Asita and his prophecy. Why did
he laugh and then cry? Describe the significance of this contradictory
scene.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Asita

 
Asita
was a hermit ascetic of ancient India in the 6th century BCE. He is
best known for having predicted that Prince Siddhattha of Kapilavatthu
would either become a great king (chakravartin) or become a supreme
religious leader (Buddha).

According to legend, Asita noticed the
32 signs of a great man on the Buddha, which shows that this concept
pre-dates Buddhism. (Sutta Nipata 3.11)

Asita, also known as
Kanhasiri, was a sage who lived in the forest in the Sakyan country. He
is described as wearing matted hair (Sn.689). One day he noticed that
the gods were wildly celebrating and he asked them why they were so
happy. They replied, ‘A Bodhisattva, an excellent and incomparable
jewel, has been born in the Sakyan town in Lumbini, for the welfare and
happiness of the human world. This is why we are so happy.’(Sn.683).
Anxious to see this child Asita went to Kapilavastu where Suddhodana
welcomed him and gave him the child to hold. Being accomplished in the
art of ‘signs and mantras’ (lakkhana mantra, Sn.690) he examined the
baby and proclaimed that he would ‘attain complete enlightenment’
(Sambodhi), reach the ultimate purified vision’ (paramavisuddhidassi),
and proclaim the Truth ‘out of compassion of the many’
(bahujamhitanukampii, Sn.693). Then tears welled up into his eyes.
Noticing this and being worried by it, the Sakyans asked Asita if he had
foreseen some misfortune in the boy’s future. He replied that he was
sad because he knew that he would pass away before this all happened
(Sn.694).

The name Asita literally means ‘not clinging’ while Kanhasiri means ‘dark splendour’.

This
is the only mention of Asita in the Tipitaka. According to some
scholars the story about him is purely legendary and it may be. However,
there is little in it that is inherently fantastic or unbelievable. It
would have been quite common in ancient India for a monarch to invite a
local holy man to bless and perhaps name his new-born son. Likewise, it
would be normal for the holy man to ‘predict’ that the king’s son would
grow up to be a great man. Later re-tellings of the Asita story, and
there are many of them, each more detailed and elaborate than the
earlier ones, often say that Asita predicted than the baby prince would
become either a universal monarch (cakkavattin) or a fully enlightened
sage (Buddha). This ‘either or’ prediction is absent from the Tipitaka
story.

Write an essay on Bodhisatta Ideal

https://www.bookrix.com/book.html?bookID=nicomoonen_1407765907.8734900951#1728,432,107226

Startpagina

Preface
 
 
   The Buddha taught that for a layman it is not a noble monk who
should be the example, but a good layman.[1] The best layman who can
serve as our example is the Bodhisatta. In Mahāyāna supernatural powers
and some degrees of holiness are attributed to him. But according to the
Theravāda tradition the Bodhisatta belongs still to the worldlings and
not yet to the Ariyasangha, the community of the Buddhist saints of the
first, second, third or fourth level.
 
     The Pāli word
Bodhisatta and the Sanskrit word Bodhisattva differ only by a single
letter, yet there is an essential difference between the two concepts.
Several studies have been published that show direct or indirect concern
with the doctrine of the Bodhisatta in Theravāda. A systematic survey
of these has not yet been published, as far as I know. As I have been
interested in this topic for many years, I thought it would be useful to
make a compilation of my research. I was encouraged to do so by
Venerable Rassagala Seewali from Opanayaka, Sri Lanka, whom I met when
he was studying in Thailand. He, too, is very much interested in this
topic. A first attempt was made at the beginning of 2000. However, it
turned out that the information available was too limited. Fortunately,
Dr. K.H. Eckert, a good acquaintance of mine, donated more than 1100 of
his books about Buddhism to me – May that donation be for his welfare
and happiness for a long time. I had now at my disposal a large library
of invaluable material and for that reason I was able to make a fresh
attempt at presenting an examination of the teachings relating to the
Bodhisatta.
 
     In the Suttas of the Pāli Canon only a little
information can be found about the Bodhisatta where the word is used
there to indicate the Buddha Gotama before he attained Enlightenment. In
the Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda sutta (Digha Nikaya 26) the name of the next
Buddha is mentioned. And in the Buddhavamsa and the Cariyapitaka there
is information about other future Buddhas. Another source for this topic
is the Dasa­bodhisattuppatti­kathā (about the births of the ten
Bodhisattas). The value of these works will be discussed later.
 
 
   Much has been written about the Bodhisattas by Venerable Narada
Thera and also by Venerable Ledi Sayadaw. It is a pity that they did not
give the sources from which they derived their information. This has
made assessing the value of their observations quite difficult.
   
 
   Venerable Dr. Sangharatana Thero, chief incumbent of Pitaramba
Temple, Bentota, Sri Lanka, advised me – after reading of the first
draft – to dwell a little more on the Mahāyāna. That good advice was
accepted thankfully. It was of great profit for the study of the concept
of the Bodhisatta / Bodhisattva.
 
     The English typescript
was sent to the Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka. There it
is read carefully by Mr. Dennis Candy and Prof. Handunukanda. They made
many suggestions to improve this study, which suggestions are accepted
thankfully.
 
     This study deals mainly with the Bodhisatta in
Theravāda Buddhism. Many works have already been published about the
Bodhisattvas in Mahāyāna. Therefore only a little is written here about
them.  First I try to explain how there arose a difference in thinking
about these matters and what those main differences were between
Theravāda on the one hand and Mahāyāna on the other hand. Then I
describe in brief the concept of the Bodhisattvas in Mahāyāna. Next
follows a discussion of the concept of the Bodhisatta in Theravāda. Then
there is a chapter referring to the Jātakas and another to the Pāramīs
as well. A separate chapter is devoted to the future Buddhas. Finally
there is a short survey and a comparison of the concepts in Theravāda
and Mahāyāna.
 
     To get a good understanding of the teaching
of the Buddha, we must try to identify all alien and irrelevant elements
that have accumulated in the course of time. This too is necessary for
the doctrine of the Bodhisatta. I hope that I have succeeded in doing
this to some degree.

5. After Sumeda was consecrated as
Buddhahood by Buddha Dipankara, how did he contemplate on the
prerequisites of Buddhahood,namely, on the thirty Paramis ?

The story of Sumedha

   
Four
Asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons ago, in the city of
Amaravati, there lived a very rich and learned man called Sumedha. After
the death of his parent, his Treasurer showed him the colossal wealth
he had inherited; also the names of his parents and forefathers who were
the former owners whose names where written in the record books. The
Treasurer replied that all were dead. He then asked why they did not
take away their wealth with them. The treasurer told him that the world
was such that after death no one could take anything away with them, but
must leave all their wealth behind. On hearing this, Sumedha realized
the wantonness of Samsara (the cycle of birth and death).

He
then went to the king’s palace and asked for permission to distribute
his wealth. When he could not finish one warehouse full of gold and
precious stones in seven days, he become inpatient and though that he
might die at any moment, and he had not yet finished distributing his
twelve thousand five hundred warehouse full of treasures. He forthwith
took the keys of the warehouses to the middle of the city and signed
away all his wealth. He freed his slaves, gave them immense wealth, and
advised the people to renounce the world. He himself then entered the
jungle and become a hermit.

Sakka the King of the Devas, ordered
Vissa-kamma to build a temple for Sumedha and also to provide for the
requirement of a hermit. That Deity built the temple and provided
Sumedha with the necessary things. After seven days of deep meditation,
he attained “Jhana” or divine ecstasy, i.e. Supernatural Powers, etc. At
that time Dipankara Buddha was staying at Sudasana Monastery in
Amaravati together with four hundred thousand Arahats. People of the
neighboring city invited the Lord Buddha and his disciples to their
city, where they prepared and built large halls to accommodate Lord
Buddha and his disciples. The people built and leveled the road with
flags and flowers. They also strewed white sand on the ground. All the
workers were eager and happy.

Sumedha the hermit, because he was
always in the state of “Jhana”, i.e. ecstasy, did not know that
Dipankara Buddha was staying in the city. One day as he was coming out
of the jungle in search of food, he was surprised to see so many people
working happily, leveling the roads. He flew down and enquired of the
reason. They told him that they were preparing the roads for Lord Buddha
and his disciples to enter the city, to receive their offering of food,
etc. Sumedha thought to himself, “This word “Buddha” is very rare and
we seldom hear it”. So he asked them to allow him to help. The people
knowing that he had supernatural powers, gave him a deep muddy valley to
fill up.

 

He could use his supernatural powers,
but he knew that he would get no merit for it. So instead of that, he
worked very hard carrying basket of sand and trying to fill up the
valley. Before that part of the road was complete, Dipankara Buddha and
his disciples together with a great procession of followers arrived.
Sumedha at once threw himself flat on the ground and asked the Buddha to
step on his body in order to cross the muddy valley. By doing this
meritorious deed, he knew that he could become an Arahat, but he gave up
the idea and aspired to become a Buddha in the presence of the Supreme
Buddha. The deities of the ten thousand worlds and other beings knowing
that on that day Sumedha would be registered as a Bodhisatta, came down
and mingled with human beings.

At that time the people could see
the Deities, and heavenly music rank in harmony with earthly music.
Dipankara Buddha announce to all the assembly of Deities and men that
this Sumedha in the future would become a Buddha like himself. The
Buddha then offered eight handfuls of jasmine flowers given by a Novice
and the Arahats and Deities did likewise. Sumedha sat on the heap of
flowers and meditated on what could be the Pre-requisites of Buddhahood.
He then found out that they were : -Dana (Charity), Sila (Observance of
precepts), Nekkhamma (Renunciation), Panna (Wisdom), Viriya (Energy),
Khanti (Patience), Sacca (Truthfulness), Adhitthana (Determination),
Metta (Loving Kindness), and Upekkha (Equanimity). When he realized
this, the earth shook and everyone present shouted “Sadhu”, “Sadhu”,

After becoming Bodhisatta a man is free from : -

    Blindness, i.e. he can never be totally blind.

    Deafness, i.e. he is never deaf.

    Madness, i.e. he never is insane.

    Dumbness, i.e. he is never dumb.

    Becoming a cripple, i.e. he will never be one who crawls by means of a chair or bench.

 

    Birth in a barbarian country, i.e. he can never be a barbarian.

    Birth in the womb of a slave-girl, i.e. he can never be born a slave.

    Becoming an absolute wrong believer, i.e. he will never have wrong beliefs.

    Become a person of the effeminate sex, i.e. he will always be a male.

 
  Committing the five deathly crimes, i.e. he will never kill father or
mother or any Arahats. He will never create dissention among the Order
and he will never injure Lord Buddha.

    Leprosy, i.e. he will never be a leper.

    Birth as a creature smaller that a quail (Vattaka).

    Birth as an animal bigger than an elephant.

    Becoming petas, i.e. he will never born as fire-consuming petas, etc.

    Avici Hell and Lokantarika Hell, i.e. he will never be born in such a kind of hell.

 

    Birth in the Celestial world, i.e. he will never be born in the Celestial world

    Becoming Mara.

    Birth in other world, i.e. he will never be born in other worlds.

After
Dipankara Buddha, there was no Buddha for one Asankheyya. Then came
Kondanna Buddha. During this period, Sumedha the Bohdisat, who was born
as a world monarch called Vijitavi, did many meritorious deeds and on
Wesak Full Moon Day, aspired to become a Buddha.

At the time of
Mangala Buddha, the Bodhisatta was born as a Brahmin called Surici. He
renounced the world and aspired to be a Buddha.

During Sumana Buddha’s era, he become Atula the Dragon King. He also aspired to become a Buddha.

At the time of Revata Buddha, he was born as the Brahmin Atideva. He also aspired to become a Buddha.

When Sobhita Buddha was in the world, the Bodhisatta was born as the Brahmin Sujata. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

During Anoma-dassi Buddha’s period, the Bodhisatta, become a great Devil-King called Yakkha. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

At the time of Paduma Buddha, the Bodhisatta who was born as a lion, also aspired to be a Buddha.

 

During Narada Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta became a hermit, attained divine ecstasy and aspired to be a Buddha.

When
Padumuttara Buddha was on earth, the Bodhisatta was born as a great man
called Jatila. He also made aspirations for Buddhahood.

During Sumedha Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born as a man called Uttara. H also aspired to become a Buddha.

At the time of Sujata Buddha, he became a world monarch also made aspiration to become a Buddha.

In Piya-dassi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born in a Brahmin family called Kassapa. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

During Atta-dassi Buddha’s period, the Bodhisatta became a powerful hermit called Susima. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

In Dhamma-dassi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta who became Sakka Deva Raja, i.e. King of Gods, also aspired to be a Buddha.

When Siddhartha Buddha was in the world, the Bodhisatta became Mangala the hermit. He also made aspiration for Buddhahood.

During
the time of Tissa Buddha, the Bodhisatta became King Sujata. He
renounced the world, studied the Doctrine, and made aspirations to
become a Buddha.

At the time of Phussa Buddha, the Bodhisatta was
born as the King Vijitavi. He renounced the world, studied the Doctrine
and made aspiration for Buddhahood.

During Vipassi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born as a Dragon King. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

In Sikhi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born as King Arindama. He also made aspirations to become a Buddha.

 

During the period of Buddha Vessabhu, the Bodhisatta who became King Sudassana also made aspirations for Buddhahood.

At the time of Kaku-sandha Buddha, the Bodhisatta was born as King Khema. He renounced the world and aspired to become a Buddha.

During
the era of Konagamana Buddha, the Bodhisatta became King Pabbata. He
offered Chinese silk robes, carpets, etc. He also aspired to become a
Buddha.

When Kassapa Buddha was on earth, the Bodhisatta was born
as a man called Jotipala. He renounced the world and made aspirations
to become a Buddha.

During this long period, the Bodhisatta had been practicing the Ten Paramitas or Pre-requisites of Buddhahood,

http://hsingyun.org/parami-true-success/

Parami: True Success

Saturday February 7th, 2015 admin
“Success,”
as it is generally understood, is nothing more than personal success in
the present lifetime, things like fame, wealth, and power. In the
teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, “success” means benefiting living
beings, having successful cultivation, and becoming a Buddha or
bodhisattva.

Quite a number of people believe that for Buddhist
monastics to develop from ordinary people into sages they must cut
themselves off from their family and loved ones and hide away in some
remote mountain hermitage. Likewise, there is a saying in Buddhism that
“All things are empty,” though this concept of “emptiness” is often
misunderstood to mean that we should not want or pursue anything. This
misapprehension recasts the Buddhist teaching on “emptiness” into
nothing but meaningless talk about metaphysical ideas. But, according to
Buddhism, success comes as the fruition of karmic causes and
conditions. These instances of karmic fruition are also called
paramitas.

Parami is an ancient Sanskirt word which means “to
cross over,” in that one crosses from the shore of suffering over to the
other shore of nirvana, while “ta” is an auxiliary particle that
indicates completion. When the Buddhist sutras were translated from
Sanskrit to Chinese, the choice was made to transliterate the term
paramita, rather than translating its meaning, and most English
translations follow in suit. This was done in order to preserve the
concept as close to the time of the Buddha’s transmission of the Dharma
and not to limit it by a particular translated term.

If we want
to cross over affliction, trouble, and the cycle of birth and death, and
transform suffering into happiness, partiality into universality, and
affliction into enlightenment, we must rely upon the six paramitas. Also
known as the “six perfections,” the six paramitas are six methods that
enable us to cross over and transcend. The six paramitas are giving,
morality, patience, diligence, meditative concentration, and prajna.
Each of the paramitas will be explained more fully later.

The
four main teachings of the Diamond Sutra are to give without notions, to
liberate with no notion of self, to live without abiding, and to
cultivate without attainment; this way of practicing the Dharma allows
us to cross from this shore to the other shore and to fulfill our
paramitas. To put it more simply, one should use a spirit that
transcends the world to do the work of the world.

Human life can be divided into four levels:

Physical life
Community life
Transcendent life
Unending life
“Physical
life” refers to the physical body as given to us by our parents. This
human body is hard to come by, so we should take good care of it.
“Community life” means fulfilling one’s role within the larger life of
the group. “Transcendent life” means altruistically contributing what
you can for the sake of others, the larger community, and for all living
beings. “Unending life” refers to what Buddhism calls the “life of
wisdom.” Someone who lives this way is not worried about whether he
lives or dies, having transcended the suffering of life and the fear of
death. This is eternal life where one no longer wanders through the
cycle of birth and death.

Every human life has boundless potential. It is up to the mind of each individual to fulfill the value and success of life.

Reconsidering Value

In
her later years, my mother was a patient at Whittier Hospital in Los
Angeles, U.S.A. On May 31, 1996, I received news in Taipei that my
mother’s illness had taken a turn for the worse, and I immediately
boarded a plane for Los Angeles. During the flight I kept reflecting on
the past. In my mind I could see my mother’s tender, smiling face as if
it were before my very eyes. My heart filled with all manner of
emotions, and I silently recited the name of Amitabha Buddha as a
blessing for my mother.

Upon arriving at Los Angeles
International Airport, I raced over to the hospital, but my mother had
already passed on. All I could do was go over to Rose Hills Memorial
Park to pay my last respects.

The nursing staff that had been
looking after her told me that she was kind and frugal, and was plain
and simple in her daily needs. She rarely bothered others and was always
thinking of other people. My mother did not even want them to tell me
about her worsening condition, to spare me any alarm or worry. My mother
always took everything upon herself, and kept her feelings of care and
loving concern inside. Twenty minutes before she died, she still left
instructions with Venerable Tzu Chuang, the abbess of Hsi Lai Temple who
was attending at her side:

Thank you for reciting the name of
Amitabha Buddha on my behalf. I am leaving now, so, please, under no
circumstances are you to let my son know, thus sparing him any distress.
He should busy himself with the problems of all sentient beings and not
be troubled on my account alone.

In the face of disciples and
family members who had hurried to Los Angeles from various places, I
decided to follow my mother’s final instructions by not disturbing the
outside world and keeping everything simple. In accordance with her
wishes, no formal condolences, no funerary contributions of money and no
gifts or flowers were accepted. I then dictated the following obituary
notice to solemnly inform all those concerned:

My mother, Mrs.
Liu Yuying, peacefully passed away at 4:20 a.m. on the 30 of May, 1996,
at Whittier Hospital in Los Angeles, U.S.A, amid the sounds of chanting
“Amitofo.” She was ninety-five years old. Many of her children and
grandchildren as well as my disciples were by her side. Her body was
then transferred to Rose Hills that same day.

Four days later, my
mother was cremated at Rose Hills. Amid the sounds of those assembled
there chanting sutras and reciting Amitabha Buddha’s name, I gently
pressed the green switch to activate the cremation process. At that time
I composed the following poem in my mind:

Between this mundane world and the Pure Land,

There remains the unchanging bond between mother and son;

For whether here on earth or there in heaven,

She remains forever my dear mother.

With a burst of fire,

A puff of wind,

And a flash of light,

I bid eternal farewell to my mother.

My
mother was twenty-five when she gave birth to my body. Since then
seventy years had slipped away, and my mother has passed on. And so,
with a push of a button, the body of my mother was cremated. Our
physical bodies are like houses that we live in only for a short time.
Time passes and the house becomes leaky and in need of repair. This
temporary residence of ours will surely decay, and there will come a
time when we will be unable to live in it anymore.

Some twenty
years earlier, my mother once came to stay for a while at Fo Guang Shan,
and on one occasion during a grand assembly of lay disciples, I asked
whether or not she was willing to meet with them and say a few words.
She agreed, but I was worried that my mother would be intimidated by
stage fright. But to my surprise, she faced the assembled audience of
more than twenty thousand and said with a calm assurance, “Fo Guang Shan
is indeed the Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss; a heaven on earth.
We should rely upon the venerable master to be our guide in the hope
that everyone will achieve enlightenment here at Fo Guang Shan. Everyone
has been so kind to me, but this old woman has nothing to give to you
in return. I can only offer my son as a gift to everyone.”

Her
words were met by thunderous applause from the audience. My mother was
illiterate and had never read any sacred literature, nor ever prepared
herself to speak in front of others. But she had experienced the chaos
of the late Qing dynasty, the Revolution of 1911, the establishment of
the Republic of China, the armed occupations of the warlords, the
Sino-Japanese War, the stand-off between the Nationalist Party and the
Chinese Communist Party, and the Great Cultural Revolution, as well as
the changes over time in relations between Taiwan and Mainland China.

The
turmoil of the times had kept her constantly on the move; she lived
through nearly one hundred years of epoch-making change. In her life,
she practiced the Dharma, but she was too busy to let the question of
whether or not she had a firm background in Buddhism bother her. She had
already transcended the scriptural understanding with all its careful
wording to bring fulfillment to her own life.

And yet, through the power of a vow, we have the power to return again to this human world.

Humanistic Buddhism

As Buddhists we acknowledge that the Dharma exists in the world, but what exactly is the Dharma as taught by the Buddha?

The
word Buddha means “enlightened one,” for he is one who has enlightened
himself, enlightens others, and has completed his mission of
enlightening others. A Buddha is one who transcends the ignorance of
sentient beings. The quality of his enlightenment is unlike that of the
sravaka or pratyekabuddha, who pursue enlightenment for themselves
alone. A Buddha has realized a state of enlightenment that even a
bodhisattva has yet to fully attain.

The founder of Buddhism was
originally named Siddhartha, though he is also called Sakyamuni Buddha,
the World-honored One, the Tathagata, and so on. He was born on the
eighth day of the fourth month of the lunar calendar in Lumbini Garden
within the Indian state of Kapilavastu. His father, King Suddhodana, was
head of the Sakya clan. His mother, Queen Maya, died seven days after
his birth.

Sakyamuni Buddha was raised into adulthood by his
maternal aunt, Lady Mahaprajapati. As a prince, Siddhartha was a
handsome and intelligent young man, who was skilled in both the civil
and military arts. From boyhood, he was much beloved by the common
people. His father put all his effort into training him to become a wise
ruler. When he was seventeen, Siddhartha married the beautiful
Yasodhara, and the following year she bore him a son, Prince Rahula.

However,
despite his life in the palace with all its comfort and contentment,
and the warm love and affection of his family, Siddhartha felt a deep
void in his heart. He was seeking something more from life and needed a
truer understanding of human existence. So at the age of twenty-nine, he
bid farewell to his family, gave up all his pleasures and comforts, and
left the palace to pursue his spiritual quest. At age thirty-five,
after six years of austere practice, he sat underneath the bodhi tree,
and attained enlightenment while looking up at a bright star, and said,
“Marvelous, marvelous! All sentient beings have the Tathagata’s wisdom
and virtue, but they fail to realize it because they cling to deluded
thoughts and attachments.”

The now enlightened Buddha shared his
realization with others, setting the wheel of Dharma turning, and
established the monastic order. He then taught the Dharma for the
liberation of living beings for forty-nine years, and entered nirvana
while lying between two sala trees outside the city of Kusinara in the
year 483 bce.

The Buddha was born in this human world, grew up
and attained enlightenment in this human world; he passed into nirvana
in this human world, as well. Buddhism has always been concerned with
this human world. The Buddhist sutras which circulate today are a record
of the Buddha’s teachings to liberate living beings, gathered and
organized by his disciples after the Buddha’s final nirvana. From the
time of the Buddha, the Buddhist teachings are meant to fundamentally
address the issues of how we as human beings are to conduct ourselves,
how we are to act and think throughout the course of our lives, as well
as how we can gain liberation. The Dharma quite naturally serves as a
guide to how to live our daily lives. As Buddhism enters the modern era,
we as Buddhists must take an active role in the world and be diligent.

There
are some people who think the Dharma serves as an escape, that one may
“retreat into Buddhist practice,” as if Buddhism is some sort of
pessimistic escape or resignation that does not demand that we
accomplish anything. The Ekottara Agama states:

All the Buddhas
and World-honored Ones come from the human world; their realization is
not something attained in the heavenly realms.

Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of the Chan School, also said in the Platform Sutra:

The
Dharma is within the world, apart from this world there is no
awakening. Seeking bodhi apart from the world is like looking for a
rabbit’s horn.

If we seek enlightenment by rejecting the world,
in doing so we throw away our potential. This creates a sense of
withdrawal and escape in the mind, and then nothing whatsoever will
succeed.

Buddhism is not a religion that belongs only to
monastics, nor is it a body of philosophical texts to be studied by
scholars. Buddhism should be something that benefits all people.
Buddhism is not an abstract theory; it is a religion that brings
happiness and well-being into the world. To learn Buddhism is to learn
how to be happy, carefree, liberated, and attain meditative bliss and
Dharma joy. Joy and happiness are the most precious things in life, and
living a happy, blessed, and carefree life is what Humanistic Buddhism
promotes. Humanistic Buddhism is the practical application of the
Buddhist spirit in the world.

One day, the Buddha and his
disciples entered the city of Sravasti to gather alms, and it so
happened that they encountered someone who bore a grudge against the
Buddha. This person started to malign, slander, and shout in a loud
voice as the Buddha walked along the street.

Seeing how the
Buddha was being insulted in public, one of his disciples said to the
Buddha angrily, “The people here lack any speck of goodness and do not
know how to respect the Triple Gem. Lord Buddha, it would be better if
we left this place and went to a city with kind-hearted people!”

The
Buddha replied, “Suppose we do move to another place but the people
there still do not believe in the Dharma, what would you do then?”

The disciple said, “We should move to yet another place!”

“When
will we ever stop moving if we do so because of external conditions?
This is not the way to ultimately solve the problem! We can resolve the
root of the problem this way: If we are treated with scorn, we must
remain unperturbed and bring an end to slander through patience. We must
not stop guarding our speech and training our minds until we are no
longer treated with scorn.”

The Buddha continued, “An enlightened
person remains calm and patient like the earth. We should not allow our
mission to be shaken by either praise or blame. By contemplating the
absence of an independent self, we will observe how all phenomena are
false fabrications. Then the illusory distinctions of self and others,
as well the so-called good and bad of the world, will become nothing
more than froth upon the water that suddenly appears, and just as
suddenly disappears. Can anything remain constant and unchanging?”

Buddhism
such as this is what allows people to experience well-being and
success. It is a religion for people, and one that is concerned with the
development of people. In Buddhism there is a teaching called the
“three Dharma seals,” which are three qualities that certify something
as an authentic teaching. They are all conditioned phenomena are
impermanent, all phenomena are without an independent self, and nirvana
is perfect tranquility. By viewing the world through the teaching on
impermanence, one can come to understand that all conditioned phenomena
are impermanent. Determination and diligence allows us to see that “all
phenomena are without an independent self.” In Buddhism there is a
saying that “there is nothing to attain,” and it is because of this
understanding that all the wonders of existence can arise out of true
emptiness. The last of the three Dharma seals, “nirvana is perfect
tranquility” asserts that our potential for success is unlimited.

Wholesome Wealth

There
are many people in this world who believe that one of the standards for
measuring success is making a lot of money. In terms of material
wealth, Buddhist monastics live a plain and simple life: they live with
three robes, a bowl, and few small items, such as sutras and a Buddha
statue. There is even a saying in Chinese that, “A monastic’s rucksack
weighs only two and a half pounds.” That being said, even a skilled
housewife cannot prepare a meal without rice, and a poor couple will
suffer hundreds of sorrows. A lay Buddhist must have some monetary
wealth, or else he will be unable to care for his parents and support
his family. Buddhist practice and acts of charity also require a certain
amount of money to support them, let alone the riches required to
engage in various social development programs. Therefore, Humanistic
Buddhism does not disdain money, for wealth that is acquired through
pure and wholesome means can serve as supporting resources.

However,
we must also understand that worldly success arises from a combination
of causes and conditions. Consider the example of a single individual.
The process that takes this person from birth as a crying baby to
maturity as an adult is supported by many causes and conditions, such as
the safeguarding by parents, instruction of teachers and elders, as
well as the various trades and professions that supply clothing, food,
housing, transportation and so on. We go to school, find our place in
society, start a family, and begin our careers; and we all hope we will
be successful in these. But success is not building castles in the sky,
nor is it possible to achieve it without hard work. Having the right
conditions in place to support us is to our advantage, but even then
depending upon others too much cannot lead to success either.

People
are often greedy. If they have even a bit of money, they think of
depositing it in the bank where it will accumulate interest. But in that
case, such money cannot be used to launch new enterprises. We bring no
money with us when we are born, and take none of it with us when we die,
and during our lives it is always taken away by fire, flood, thieves,
corrupt officials, and wayward children.1 We can only appreciate the
value of money if we do not feel attached to it, but rather allow our
wealth to circulate and accomplish good things. There is a Buddhist
saying that captures this sentiment well:

What comes from all directions

Supports undertakings in all directions;

The generosity of thousands of people

Creates connections for thousands of people.

In this way worldly money can serve both worldly causes, as well as those that transcend this world.

There
are some people who have a fixed view that spiritual practice does not
need money and cannot involve money, and expect spiritual seekers to
live in poverty. But poverty cannot guarantee a higher level of
practice. These attitudes come from a fixed sense of self which is
attached to appearing impoverished, that it is the only way to be a
practitioner. This is a question of reality. If you have nothing, how
then can you give something? To liberate living beings and practice
giving, we need the qualities of physical strength, practical talent,
ability, and commitment. Why must monetary wealth be singled out for
disdain and rejection? To varying levels, lacking mental or material
resources will limit our ability to give and liberate others.

The
question that is truly worthy of our concern is how to best utilize the
pure, wholesome, and noble wealth that is donated to benefit living
beings. We should not fall into the view that only poverty can show that
one is well cultivated. For a modernized Buddhism, Buddhists should
engage in enterprise so long as such activities are beneficial to the
economy of the country and the lives of its people. This then is the
true meaning of the Buddhists teachings on “non-abiding” and “non-self.”

Oneness and Coexistence

There
is a story recounted in the Samyukta Agama about two monastics who
argue about who is better at chanting. One day the Buddha’s great
disciple Mahakasyapa reported to the Buddha, “Lord Buddha, there are two
monks who are both unyielding in nature; one is Ananda’s disciple Nantu
and the other is Maudgalyayana’s disciple Abifu. The two of them argue
with each other from time to time over who is the best at chanting, and
tomorrow they are going to decide once and for all who can chant the
most sutras and teach the Dharma the best!”

The Buddha sent
someone to summon Nantu and Abifu. He then asked them, “Have you heard
my teaching on how to determine the winner and the loser when two people
are arguing with one another?”

“We have never heard of such a teaching concerning winning or losing.”

“The
real winner is someone who puts a stop to the confusion caused by
greed, anger, and ignorance; diligently practices the threefold training
of morality, meditative concentration, and wisdom; and can destroy the
thieves of the six sense organs. One who can truly contemplate how the
five aggregates of form, feeling, perceptions, mental formation, and
consciousness are as insubstantial as a plantain trunk; and can make the
Noble Eightfold Path their guide can realize the bliss and tranquility
of great nirvana. You may be able to recite hundreds of thousands of
verses from memory, but if you do not understand their meaning, then how
does that benefit your liberation?”

The Buddha wants us to
cultivate right concentration, part of the Noble Eightfold Path, and
stay away from any conflict between ourselves and others. The Diamond
Sutra emphasizes how one should not abide in anything. In terms of human
commercial enterprises, one must not become attached to a single fixed
market. Do not cling to old markets and old industries, but have the
courage instead to open up alternative avenues, seek out alternative
markets, and set up new creative teams. By implementing strategies like
“value reassessment,” “collective creation,” and “systematic
leadership,” one can develop brand new enterprises and live a life as
vast as endless space.

Value Reassessment

In the Diamond
Sutra, the Buddha instructs living beings to not cling to the notion of
self, the notion of others, the notion of sentient beings, or the notion
of longevity, nor to allow the discriminating mind to hinder our
practice. If organizations and commercial enterprises are able to align
themselves closely with human nature, be attentive to the needs of the
larger community, and offer more varied opportunities, then they can
create new value.

In the past, hearing Buddhist teachings
required a visit to a temple, but since such temples were located in
remote locations with poor transportation, people often hesitated to go.
Even the infrastructure of the temples failed to meet the needs of
those who came to hear the teachings. Having done their best to visit
once or twice, some beginning Buddhists would give up on their good
intention of listening to the Dharma.

The Lotus Sutra states:

In
whatever land where this sutra is received and upheld, read and
recited, explained and copied, and cultivated and practiced as taught;
whether in a place where a volume of scripture is kept, or in a grove,
or in a forest, or under a tree, or in a monastery, or in a layman’s
house, or in a temple hall, or in a mountain valley, or upon an open
plain; in all of these places one should erect a memorial stupa and make
offerings. Why is that? One must know that these places are temples.

The Vimalakirti Sutra also states:

The
upright mind is a temple, the profound mind is a temple, the mind
aspiring to bodhi is a temple, generosity is a temple, the three kinds
of supernatural knowledge2 are a temple, the knowledge of all phenomena
within a single thought is a temple.

That is to say, everywhere
in the world can be a place for us to learn the Dharma and attain
enlightenment. In order to spread the Dharma throughout the world, it
should go into homes, schools, factories, farms, workplaces, and
military bases. By upholding the principles of harmonizing the
traditional and the modern, by sharing ownership between monastics and
laypeople, by equally emphasizing both practice and understanding, and
by integrating literature and art with Buddhism, we will continue to
promote Humanistic Buddhism.

Fo Guang Shan and its branch temples
all include facilities like auditoriums, conference rooms, classrooms,
lounge areas, reception areas, and libraries, along with the gradual
addition of the Fo Guang Yuan art galleries, Water Drop teahouses, and
so on. Such an approach allows devotees to come to the temple not only
to worship the Buddha, but also to receive the Dharma instruction that
is offered in auditoriums, conference rooms, and classrooms. In this way
Fo Guang Shan endeavors to combine the worldly with that which
transcends the world, and integrate society with the mountain monastery,
so that monastics and laypeople can practice anytime and anywhere.

With
its transcendent spirit and worldly practicality, Buddhism liberates
living beings by bestowing upon them the Buddha’s wisdom and compassion.
The enterprises of the world with their profit motive must also adapt
to changes in external conditions from time to time, so that they can
provide the products and services that are aligned with the people’s
demands in a planned, organized, and efficient manner. That too is using
a spirit that transcends the world to do the work of the world.

Collective Creation

Organizations
and enterprises must create new value, but this is impossible to
accomplish by relying solely on one individual to take charge of
everything and make all the decisions. What is needed is for everyone to
pull together their creative ideas and the will for collective success.

In
its early days, Fo Guang Shan had absolutely nothing. We had neither
modern equipment nor today’s popular management theory, but what we did
have was group planning and effort, and the tacit understanding we all
shared about collective creation. In 1967, the construction of the
temple began, and I brought along the first generation of my
disciples—Hsin Ping, Hsin Ting, Tzu Chuang, Tzu Hui, and Tzu Jung—and
together we began to toil and work. We cleared away each tree and moved
every rock. We drafted the general layout for the temple’s structure in
the Lichee Garden, and came up with our teaching guidelines in the old
Huiming Hall.

At each stage in going from nothing to something,
there were perhaps personal differences over understanding,
conceptualization, and judgment, but once an issue affected the general
direction of Fo Guang Shan, or what was needed to bring success to
Buddhism, everyone promptly came together. There was never any conflict
sparked by personal or selfish motives, for we shared a common
determination to overcome any difficulties and help each other work
towards the same goal. This was the spirit behind the founding of Fo
Guang Shan.

“Collective creation” does not mean many people
supporting the dictatorship of one individual; rather, it means that
each individual within the collective participates equally, so we can
broadly solicit views and opinions from all corners. From Fo Guang
Shan’s founding to the present day, nearly every single issue has been
decided democratically. At all of our meetings at every level of the
organization, everyone has an equal opportunity to speak and exercise
their right to vote, regardless of their degree of seniority or the
duties they undertake. At the meetings I chair personally, anybody who
is so inclined is free to sit in and listen at any time. Not only does
this style reduce many of the barriers to getting things done, it also
ensures that members of Fo Guang Shan who attend these meetings can
learn the art of communication. Everyone has an opportunity to grow from
such experiences.

When I think of Fo Guang Shan’s initial
building phase, images of how all of us worked together from morning to
night, shouldering loads of bricks, sand, rock, and cement with sweat
streaming down our backs flash in my mind. After the hired workers had
finished their day’s work and gone home, Fo Guang Shan’s disciples would
continue working. In addition, there are no words to describe the
assistance we received from all of the laypeople who wished to support
the Dharma. This is why I often say, “the success of Fo Guang Shan
belongs to everyone.” Fo Guang Shan is not for any individual. Rather,
it belongs to its more than thirteen hundred monastic disciples, the
millions of lay followers around the world, its many benefactors, as
well as people from all walks of life. Fo Guang Shan was not something
that was completed in a day or a certain period of time; it succeeded,
bit by bit, through the continuous effort due to oneness and
coexistence.

Systematic Leadership

Even during the
Buddha’s time the monastic community had a well-developed organizational
system. The Buddha set up the posadha system, in which monastics met
regularly to reflect upon their religious lives and confess their
faults, and the karman system for conducting meetings and adopting
resolutions. In these systems we can see a set of legal procedures that
are even more complete in their details than those of many modern
countries. The Buddha’s management style reflects a deep understanding
of human nature and his system of rules and regulations are skillfully
adaptive. The Buddha’s monastic community could be ranked among the best
of the many successful enterprises we have today.

Never in my
life have I worried about my future, and I have not set my mind on any
particular achievement. Things just fell into place naturally. The year I
turned fifty-eight, I relinquished my position as abbot of Fo Guang
Shan, but even then I was merely stepping down in accordance with the
system. I then left Fo Guang Shan and went directly to Beihai Temple. I
wanted to let my successor get on with the job, which is why I did not
want to linger at Fo Guang Shan. In Buddhism there is a saying that one
should “rely on the Dharma rather than an individual”; organizations and
enterprises, likewise, need clearly defined and implementable system as
they pursue success.

The Buddha’s Light International
Association, a Buddhist organization founded to encourage the
participation of lay Buddhists, has a membership now in the millions,
while the entire Fo Guang Shan organization operates harmoniously. We
have furthered the work of spreading the Dharma to all parts of the
world, and each of our successes has been achieved by operating within
our system. In this way the Dharma has been able to break through the
barriers of race, language, and culture, and we have been able to use
Buddhist chanting, calligraphy, writing, publishing, and visual and
performing arts to spread Humanistic Buddhism to every corner of the
world.

The success of Fo Guang Buddhists can be seen as an
example of “cultivation without attainment”: in Fo Guang Shan, we have a
policy that glory belongs to the Buddha, and the success belongs to the
community. In this instance these achievements “belong” in the sense
that each person contributes their cultivation without expecting to gain
anything in return. In this way, Fo Guang Buddhists are one with all
living beings, and can coexist together in harmony.

Building One Brick at a Time

In
Chinese there is an old saying: “When the eggs are not ready to hatch,
do not crack the shell; when the rice is not fully cooked, do not lift
the lid.” Trying to break open the eggs when they are not ready to hatch
will bring an untimely death to these small creatures, and trying to
lift the lid of the pot before the rice is fully cooked will make it
hard for the rice to be cooked tender.

There is no free lunch in
this world. If you want to get something you must give something. I
would suggest that, when a person is young, he or she should fear
neither hardship, nor being at a disadvantage. One should harden oneself
with real experience with no expectation of compensation. One should
increase one’s own knowledge and experience, no matter if that be
through reading books, starting a major undertaking, or engaging in some
sort of work. Do not be eager for success: success that comes too
easily can lead to pride and disdain for others, and with such
irresolute aspirations, one will quickly fail and be laid low. A lofty
tower is built from the ground up: no real success in this world is
achieved all at once. Success does not happen by mere chance, nor is it a
product of instant results. Rather, it is solidly built one brick at a
time. Great minds often develop gradually. Likewise, there is a saying
in Taiwan that goes: “a big rooster takes its time crowing.”

Quick
success is not really all that good. Take trees for example: those that
mature in a year are only good for firewood, while those that mature in
three to five years can be made into tables and chairs. Only trees that
take decades and decades to mature can be made into pillars and beams.
That is why we should “cultivate without attainment,” and free ourselves
of that win or lose mentality that leads to hasty work. We must
gradually cultivate and refine ourselves, and wait until the conditions
are right. As it is said, the journey of a thousand miles begins with
the first step; so never get ahead of yourself nor delude yourself with
the idea that chanting Amitabha Buddha’s name for two days will give you
a diamond-like mind capable of overcoming evil.

After Hongren,
the Fifth Patriarch of the Chan School, gave the monastic robe and alms
bowl to Huineng, signifying that he was now the Sixth Patriarch, he
escorted Huineng to a riverbank and said to him:

Henceforth, you
shall spread the Dharma far and wide. You should depart now and quickly
travel south. Do not start teaching too quickly because it is difficult
to spread the Dharma.

The Fifth Patriarch was telling Huineng not
to be too eager to spread the Dharma publicly. It is important to wait
for the right opportunity. This was why Huineng lived in seclusion among
a band of hunters, eating some vegetables that he added to their pot of
meat, as he bided his time. A favorable opportunity is when all the
conditions are right. Any matter can easily succeed, if it happens at
just the right moment when the causes and conditions are in place.

The Ten Directions and Three Time Periods

People
often ask me, “The Fo Guang Shan monastic order is large and its
activities are on an immense scale, how do you manage it all? How do you
keep everyone focused, harmonious, and without contention?”

I
always like to reply by sharing an old Buddhist expression: “Pervade
across the ten directions and extend down through the three time
periods.”3

The expression “Pervade across the ten directions and
extend down through the three times periods” describes our own intrinsic
Buddha nature. The size of everything in the world is limited, the only
things large enough to “pervade across the ten directions” are prajna,
our intrinsic nature, and the Dharmakaya. Such things are so large that
nothing is outside them and so small that nothing more can be contained
within; for they pervade everyplace and exist everywhere. In terms of
time, although our physical bodies are born and die and our lives come
to an end, our intrinsic Buddha wisdom can transcend the temporal
limitations of past, present, and future. It neither arises nor ceases
and does not come or go, which is why it “extends down through the three
time periods.”

The year I stepped down as abbot of Fo Guang Shan
my successor, Venerable Hsin Ping, would come and ask me the same
question whenever any major event was about to take place at the
monastery. He would ask,  “How should we handle it this year?”

I would always answer, “Look to what was done before.”

Referencing
earlier precedents means striving for consistency with the monastery’s
guiding principles, yet as times change, all things should also undergo
some reform and innovation. This is why I said to look to what was done
before, not to follow what was done before.

To build people’s
faith in the Dharma I have gone from riding a bicycle down to the
village in my early years to taking automobiles. Because of this
modernized society, instead of walking, I can now fly to and fro through
the sky. I deeply appreciate how these modern forms of transportation
offer many conveniences for teaching the Dharma. However, an appropriate
respect for tradition can allow people to see the true meaning of
Buddhism. For example, beginning in 1988 and continuing every other year
afterwards, Fo Guang Shan has an alms procession, in which monastics
collect donations with their bowls as in the time of the Buddha. Not
only does this activity serve to bring the light of the Buddha’s
compassion to every corner of Taiwan and give Buddhists an opportunity
to make offerings and generate merit, it is a good experience for the
monastics as well. In 1988 I launched a series of events across Taiwan
entitled “Returning to the Buddha’s Time,” featuring ceremonies,
performances, and a Dharma talk. The events used modern audio-visual
multimedia to enable the audience of tens of thousands to travel back in
time and return to the sacred site of Vulture Peak where the Buddha was
teaching twenty-five hundred years ago and share in the Dharma joy of
Buddhist chanting.

The policy of referring to past precedents is a
manifestation of “extending down through the three time periods.”
Whenever some improvement is introduced, it goes through a process of
discussion and coordination and then later becomes widely known to
everyone. Meetings are an indispensable part of this process. There are
times when students ask to attend our meetings, and I do not refuse
them.

In the past I served on the monastery staff, and while
taking care of guests I developed a keen awareness as to how all things
are connected. Each moment can be considered as a point that leads to
some other point, together these points make a line, and by observing
many of these lines, one comes to an understanding of the whole. By
seeing some individual matter as part of the whole, then one can tweak
its temporal and spatial qualities in just the right way so that nothing
will be left out.

Buddha nature permeates everywhere, “pervading
across the ten directions and extending down through the three time
periods.” Because of this, in terms of our essence, both the Buddha and I
possess the same Buddha nature. Therefore, I need not submit to force,
nor become beguiled by wealth and honor. I am one with all living
beings. Sometimes I may sit upon a high throne and expound the sublime
truths of the Buddha, while at other times I can toil and work for the
benefit of living beings and contribute through my sacrifice. I can be
great or be small, I can come first or come last, I can do with or do
without, I can handle happiness or suffering, I can expand or contract,
and I can bear being full or being hungry. I was not born with the
ability to do everything, but I am always willing to try.

It is
because of the maxim “pervade across the ten directions and extend down
through the three time periods” that we must throw open the universal
gate. There can be no racial barriers or special treatment. We must be
able to lead people from all walks of life, regardless of their
religious and social backgrounds, into sharing equally in the benefits
of the Dharma. This will enable all living beings from different regions
of the world and different stations in life to benefit from the
Dharma’s various positive connections, and bestow them upon society.

Buddhist Success: Paramita

As
mentioned previously, paramita is a Sanskrit word that means “success,”
“crossing from this shore to the other shore,” and “the perfect
tranquility of nirvana.”

We know that we must go from this shore
of delusion and cross to the other shore of enlightenment, but can we do
this just by thinking about it from time to time?

The Diamond
Sutra says we should “Give rise to a mind that does not abide in
anything.” In this instance, “abide” means to be attached to something,
particularly attached to an independent self. When we become too focused
on this sense of an independent self we become attached to the
perceived value of this “self,” and thus cling to certain ideas and
never let them go. When we worry too much about the gains and losses of
 this “self” our feelings become deluded by love, hate, sadness, and
happiness. Having a mind that does not abide in anything calls upon us
to live in the world according to the selflessness of prajna, for this
is the only way to reach the state of nirvana. Nirvana is:

Complete tranquility
The highest bliss
Everlasting happiness
Complete merit and wisdom
Total freedom from desire
The ultimate state of liberation
True reality
Success
in Buddhism is transcending this shore with its affliction, delusion,
and suffering, and crossing to the other shore of purity and
tranquility, where no afflictions appear and all suffering has ended.
The specific practice to accomplish this is a group of virtues called
the “six paramitas” or “six perfections.” The six paramitas are:

Giving
(dana-paramita)Giving is to take what one has or knows and give it to
others. Besides the giving of wealth and property, this also includes
giving the Dharma and confidence or fearlessness to others. The paramita
of giving can help to eliminate the defilement of greed.
Morality
(sila-paramita)The basis of Buddhist morality is the five precepts, but
it is not enough to think that the five precepts are just about not
doing this or not doing that. The five precepts should be viewed in
positive terms, for that is the path to happiness. For example, one
should go beyond the first precept “not to kill” and in addition
actively protect life. One can go beyond “not stealing” and practice
giving. One can go beyond “not committing sexual misconduct” and be
respectful. One can go beyond “not lying” and give praise. Going beyond
not killing to protect life leads to a long life; going beyond not
stealing to practice giving brings riches; going beyond not committing
sexual misconduct to being respectful leads to a pleasant family life;
and going beyond not lying to giving praise means that one will have a
good reputation.
Patience (ksanti-paramita)In Buddhism there are
three kinds of patience: the patience for life, the patience for
phenomena, and the patience for non-arising phenomena.4 A bodhisattva is
one who patiently endures all the humiliations of life, as well as
cold, heat, hunger, thirst, and so on. The paramita of patience can help
to eliminate the defilement of anger.
Diligence (virya-paramita)The
paramita of diligence includes physical diligence and mental diligence.
Mental diligence means earnestly practicing wholesome teachings while
taking care to eliminate the roots of unwholesomeness. The paramita of
diligence is the antidote for laziness and idleness.
Meditative
Concentration (dhyana-paramita)The paramita of meditative concentration
comes from making one’s mind free of distractions such that it does not
become confused or deluded by worldly matters. The paramita of
meditative concentration can remove the defilement of doubt.
Prajna
(prajna-paramita)The paramita of prajna is the most important of the
paramitas, and the forerunner of the other five. By using prajna wisdom
one can eradicate the defilement of ignorance.
I loved playing
basketball when I was young, so I often draw my analogies from
basketball: be it spiritual cultivation, academic study, or interacting
with others, they’re all like playing basketball. For example, when
trying to get along with others, you should not go off to fight your own
battles, for it is important to remember team spirit. One should wait
for the right time to act, just as when one has possession of the ball,
one must wait for any opportunity to make a shot. And if you break the
rules, you must admit your fault, just as in raising one’s hand in a
game.

When playing basketball, one must have the spirit of the
six paramitas: you must pass the ball to your teammates to help them to
score points on a basket (giving), you need to play by the rules of the
court (morality), you must show restraint to avoid being bumped by
others during the heat of a match (patience), you must practice your
skills if you want to score (diligence), and, in addition to
fundamentals, you must develop basketball strategy in order to win
(prajna).

Why is prajna considered the foremost paramita? The
Treatise on the Perfection of Great Wisdom says, “the other five
perfections are blind without prajna to guide them.” It is impossible to
reach the ultimate goal by relying only upon the other five paramitas
and attempting to do without prajna. This is why prajna is described as
the foundation of the six paramitas and is also the foundation of the
Dharma.

The Lotus Sutra states, “The turmoil of the three realms
is like a burning house.” The three realms of Buddhist cosmology (the
desire realm, the form realm, and the formless realm) are like a burning
house. But if we make our minds nice and cool, then the blaze of
suffering that presses upon us will disappear. Only by cultivating
prajna without the expectation of gain can we succeed with the six
paramitas.

Once the Chan master Caoshan Huixia said to his
attendant, “An enlightened person will be unperturbed by heat, no matter
how hot it gets inside or outside.”

Huixia’s attendant agreed. Huixia then asked, “If it were extremely hot now, where would you go to escape it?”

The attendant answered, “I would seek refuge in a burning-hot cauldron.”

Huixia was puzzled. He asked further, “Nothing is hotter than a cauldron. Why would you seek refuge in such blazing heat?”

Pointing at his heart, the attendant answered, “The great mass of suffering cannot reach me here.”

The
Diamond Sutra reveals to us the secret of success: to have a mind that
does not abide in anything. This is prajna. The mind itself is all of
wondrous existence, while abiding in nothing is true emptiness; and
there cannot be wondrous existence without true emptiness. The prajna of
the Buddha can make one understand the mind and body with crystal
clarity, like the moon reflected in water, transporting one from this
shore of delusion and attachment to the other shore that is permanent,
blissful, pure, and has an inherent self. Practitioners are able to turn
a world of blazing heat into a realm that is refreshingly cool, and
transform defilement and affliction into the Pure Land. Such people find
no situation in which they are not content.

1. These are the “five causes of loss”: five things mentioned in the Buddhist sutras that can destroy our wealth. Ed.

2.
The three kinds of supernatural knowledge are knowledge of past,
present, and future lives, heavenly eyes, and the power of ending all
defilement. Ed.

3. 橫遍十方,豎窮三際: The ten directions are the four
cardinal directions, the four intermediate directions, plus above and
below, and the three time periods are the past, present, and future.
There is a suggestion in the Chinese expression that space exists on a
horizontal plane and that time exists on a vertical plane, with the two
together encompassing everything. Ed.

4. This type of patience
comes from the realization that, on a supramundane level, phenomena do
not truly arise or cease, and all things are simply as they are. Ed.

Q 7 Write down Sangha Vadana in Pali as well as in English

Sangha Vandana

Supati-panno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho, Ujupati-panno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho.
Ñâya-patipanno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho. Sâmici-patipanno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho
Yadidam cattâri purisa yugâni attha-purisa-puggalâ Esa Bhagavato sâvaka sangho.
Âhu-neyyo, pâhu-neyyo, Dakkhi-neyyo,añjalikaraniyo, anuttaram puññakkhetam lokassâti

Translation - Homage to the Disciples of the Buddha
The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the good way; the
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the straight way;
the Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the proper way,
that is to say; the Four Pairs of Men, the Eight Types of Persons; the
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples is fit for gifts, fit for
hospitality, fit for offerings, and fit for reverential salutation, as
the incomparable field of merit for the world.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keaSoeWDbPo
Buddhism - Pali Chantings {Salutations to Sangha of Blessed}

Harshavardhan Devde
Published on Jul 12, 2007
These
verses are recited to pay homage to the Triple Gem - Buddha, Dhamma and
Sangha. These words explain some of the great qualities and virtues
pertaining to the Triple Gem. By reciting these words, one can
understand the admirable qualities of the Triple Gem and so develop
one’s confidence in their intrinsic worth.

The Buddha himself
explained these qualities in many of His Suttas. He also advised his
followers to recite these words to be mindful of the Buddha, Dhamma and
Sangha in times of fear or disturbance, whether arising from external
sources or through evil influences so that such disturbances can be
vanquished. This is because the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha are free from
all kinds of defilements and hindrances such as greed, anger and
ignorance.

Pali

Supatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Ujupatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Ñayapatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Samicipatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Yadidam cattari purisayugani attha

purisa-puggala, esa Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Ahuneyyo, pahuneyyo, dakkhineyyo,

Anjalikaraniyo, anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa ti

English Translation

The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the good way; The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the straight way;
The Sangha of the Blessed Ones disciples has entered on the right path;
The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the proper way;
That is to say, the Four Pairs of Men, the Eight Types of Persons; The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples is fit for gifts, fit for
hospitality, fit for offerings and fit for reverential salutation As the
incomparable field of merits for the world.

Pali Chantings

Sangham jivitam yava nibbanam

saranam gacchami

Ye ca Sangha atita ca

Ye ca Sangha anagata

Paccuppanna ca ye Sangha

Aham vandami sabbada

English translations

The Sangha of the ages past,

The Sangha that are yet to come,

The Sangha of the present age,

I always pay homage to them.

Pali Chantings

Natthi me saranam annam

Sangho me saranam varam

Etena sacca-vajjena

Hotu me jayamangalam

English translations

No other refuge do I seek;

The Sangha is my matchless refuge;

By the might of this truth,

May joyous victory be mine!

Pali

Uttamangena vandeham

Sangham ca tividhuttamam

Sanghe yo khalito doso

Sangho khamatu tam mamam

English translation

With my bows I humbly worship,

The Sangha triply unrivalled;

If I have done wrong to the Sangha

May the Sangha forgive me.
Category
People & Blogs

youtube.com
Buddhism - Pali Chantings {Salutations to Sangha of Blessed}
These verses are recited to pay homage to the Triple Gem - Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. These words…

Q 8 Write an essay on what you understand about the meaning of each of the nine qualities of the Sangha

Supreme Qualities of the Sangha (Sangha Guna)

1.
Here it must be noted that Sangha is not bhikkhus. Sangha means the
Nobles or Ariyas, those who have attained one of the magga phala.
(Sangha means one who has removed  “san“, i.e., “san” + “gha“).

Supatipannō,
Bhagavatō Savakasanghō. Ujupatipannō, Bhagavatō Savakasanghō.
Nayapatipannō, Bhagavatō Savakasanghō. Sämichipatipannö, Bhagavatō
Savakasanghō. Yadidam chattari purisayugāni atta purisapuggalā, esa
Bhagavato Savakasanghō, Āhuneyyō, pāhuneyyō, dakkhineyyō,
anjalikaraneeyō, anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa ti.

2. Bhagavatō
Savakasanghō means Noble disciples of the Buddha. The first four
phrases describe four Noble qualities: Supatipannō, Ujupatipannō,
nāyapatipannö, and Sämichipatipannö.

Patipannö means “having such
quality”: “Su” means goodness and morality; “uju” means straightforward
and not crooked in character; “nāya” means nana or wise; “sāmichi”
means pleasant to associate. Thus it is easy to what is meant
(succinctly) by those phrases. But as with all these qualities, it is
not possible to describe them fully in words.
3. “Yadidam chattari
purisayugāni atta purisapuggalā” means thus described eight types of
persons (attapurisa puggala) of four Noble (purisa) lineages. Eight
types comes when each stage is divided into two, for example, Arahant
magga and Arahant phala.

4. Then starting with “esa Bhagavato
Savakasanghō” (i.e., those Noble disciples of the Buddha), five more
qualities are stated:  Āhuneyyō, pāhuneyyō, dakkhineyyō, anjalikaraniyō,
anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa.

In those words, “neyyō” means
niyama dhamma or core principle of nature; also called “nyāma“. Then
“āhu” means “grasped”, “pāhu” means “inseparable” or “fused together”,
“dakkhi” means “see”. Thus those disciples have clearly seen the core
principles of nature (paticca samuppada), have grasped them and will not
be separated from them ever.
Because of that, they can dissolve and
remove the causes (food) that fuel the sansaric journey:
anjalikaraneeyō. Here “an” means “āhara” or causes, “jali” is water
(dissolve), and karenneya means “do”. Another meaning of “an” is “horn”
with sharp tips (as in a bull), which can hurt others; here
anjalikaraneeyō means dissolving them (by cultivating metta) so that
they cannot hurt others.
anuttaram punnakkhettam:  anuttara is
unmatached, punna is meritorious, and ketha is for a field. Thus it
means these disciples are like fertile fields, that can provide
unlimited resources to others (just like a well-cultivated field can
provide food for many).
You can download the above audio files below
by clicking “DOWNLOAD”. You can play it there or right-click on the
screen and choose “save as..” to save to your computer.

DownloadDownload

More audio files are at: “Sutta Chanting (with Pali Text)“.

DownloadDownload
More audio files are at: “Sutta Chanting (with Pali Text)“.

puredhamma.net
Supreme Qualities of Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha | Pure Dhamma
The
24 supreme qualities of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha (called “suvisi
guna”) are discussed. Audio recordings of the Pali recitals are
provided.
puredhamma.net
Supreme Qualities of Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha | Pure Dhamma
The
24 supreme qualities of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha (called “suvisi
guna”) are discussed. Audio recordings of the Pali recitals are
provided.

Q 9  What was Siddhartha in his immediate past life ? What was his role ?

Siddhartha is a  name meaning “one who has accomplished a goal,” and Gautama is a family name.
His
father, King Suddhodana, was the leader of a large clan called the
Shakya (or Sakya). It’s not clear from the earliest texts whether he was
a hereditary king or more of a tribal chief. It is also possible that
he was elected to this status.
Suddhodana married two sisters, Maya
and Pajapati Gotami. They are said to have been princesses of another
clan, the Koliya, from what is northern India today. Maya was the mother
of Siddhartha, and he was her only child. She died shortly after his
birth. Pajapati, who later became the first Buddhist nun, raised
Siddhartha as her own.

By all accounts, Prince Siddhartha and his
family were of the Kshatriya caste of warriors and nobles. Among
Siddhartha’s more well-known relatives was his cousin Ananda, the son of
his father’s brother. Ananda would later become the Buddha’s disciple
and personal attendant. He would have been considerably younger than
Siddhartha, however, and they didn’t know each other as children

Everyone
in their village loves Siddhartha. But although he brings joy to
everyone’s life, Siddhartha feels little joy himself. He is troubled by
restless dreams and begins to wonder if he has learned all that his
father and the other Brahmins can teach him. As Hesse says, “…they had
already poured the sum total of their knowledge into his waiting
vessel; and the vessel was not full, his intellect was not satisfied,
his soul was not at peace, his heart was not still” (5).

Siddhartha
is dissatisfied with the Brahmans because despite their knowledge, the
Brahmins are seekers still, performing the same exercises again and
again in order to reach their goal‹Nirvana: the peace of oneness with
Atman the Divine within‹without ever finding it. But if Atman is within,
then oneness with it must proceed by focusing on the world within. As
Siddhartha says, “One must find the source within one’s Self, one must
possess it. Everythig else was seeking‹a detour, error” (7). It is
Siddhartha’s search for this new path that leads him to the ascetic
Samanas.

When Siddhartha announces his intention to join the
Samanas, his father becomes very upset and forbids Siddhartha’s
departure. In respectful defiance, Siddhartha does not move. His
frustrated father leaves him, gazing out of his window periodically to
see if Siddhartha has left. The obstinate youth, though, remains
motionless. Night passes. In the morning, Siddhartha’s father returns to
his intransigent son and realizes that while Siddhartha’s body remains
is present, his mind had already departed. Siddhartha’s father
acquiesces to his son’s wishes and allows him to leave, reminded him
that he is welcome back should he find disillusionment with the Samanas.
Govinda joins Siddhartha as they disappear into the forest in search of
the Samanas.

With the Samanas

As Samanas, Siddhartha and
Govinda relinquish all their possessions and dedicate themselves to
meditation, fasting, and other methods of mortification. As a result of
this, the normal human world becomes anathema to Siddhartha. It is all
illusory and destined to decay, leaving those who treasure it in great
pain. With the Samanas, “Siddhartha had one goal - to become empty, to
become empty of thirst, desire, dreams, pleasure, and sorrow‹to let the
Self die” (14). His path to self-negation was through physical pain,
pain he endured until he no longer felt it as pain. When pain is gone,
the Self fades into oblivion and peace is attained. But while pain
became a memory for Siddhartha, peace did not come.

After having
been with the Samanas for some time, Siddhartha expresses concern that
he is no closer to his goal than he was before joining the Samanas.
Govinda replies that while they have grown in spirit, they still have
much to learn. In response, Siddhartha derisively comparesthe Samanas’
 life to that of a drunkard, a series of temporary respites from the
pains of existence. Ultimately, Siddhartha reasons, one cannot really
learn anything from teachers or the doctrines they espouse. As
Siddhartha tells Govinda, “There is, my friend, only a knowledge‹that is
everywhere, that is Ataman, that is in me and you and every creature,
and I am beginning to believe that this knowledge has no worse enemy
than the man of knowledge, than learning” (19). Siddhartha is unsettled
by the implications of his thoughts but feels certain that the Samanas
have nothing for to teach him. For this reason, Siddhartha declares that
he will leave the Samanas soon.

Three years after joining the
Samanas, Siddhartha and Govinda hear intriguing rumors of a great man,
Goatama, the Buddha, who, having attained enlightenment, teaches others
the way to peace. Govinda is immediately entranced by this tale and
tells Siddhartha of his intent to seek out Goatama. Siddhartha,
surprised by Govinda’s uncharacteristic initiative, wishes his friend
well. Govinda, though, wishes Siddhartha to seek the Buddha with him.
Siddhartha expresses his doubt that anything new can be learned from
this man, but surrenders to Govinda’s enthusiasm and agrees to go. The
leaders of the Samanas scolds Siddhartha and Govinda for their
departure. Siddhartha then demonstrates his mastery of the Samana ways
by hypnotizing the old master.

Goatama

Siddhartha and
Govinda travel to Savathi, where they discover that the Buddha is
staying in Jetavana, in the garden of Anathapindika. Arriving in
Jetavana, Siddhartha recognizes Goatama immediately despite his
nondescript dress: “he wore his gown and walked along exactly like the
other monks, but his face and his step…spoke of peace, spoke of
completeness,…an unfading light, an invulnerable peace.”(28). And
while Siddhartha is not terribly interested in what the Buddha has to
say, he is completely taken with the Buddha’s demeanor.

The two
men hear Gotama’s sermon, after which Govinda announces his intention to
join in Goatama’s discipleship. Siddhartha commends Govinda for his
decision, but says that he will not join up. Govinda asks Siddhartha
what fault he finds in the Buddha’s program that makes him resist
pledging his allegiance. Siddhartha says that he finds no fault; he just
does not want to join. The next day Govinda takes his monk’s robe and
bids Siddhartha a sad farewell.

As Siddhartha is leaving, he
runs into Goatama in the woods and questions the Buddha about his
teachings. Siddhartha compliments the theoretical coherence of Gotama’s
worldview, the ultimate unity of creation and the incessant chain of
causes and effects, but remarks that Goatama’s doctrine of salvation,
the transcendence of causation, calls into question the consistency of
his position. Goatama responds by saying that he goal of his teaching is
not “to explain the world to those who are thirsty for knowledge. It’s
goal is quite different; its goal is salvation from suffering. That is
what Goatama teaches, nothing else” (33). Siddhartha, afraid that he has
offended the Buddha, reiterates his confidence in the Buddha’s
holiness, but expresses his doubt that any teaching can ever provide the
learner with the experience of Nirvana. And while Gotama’s path may be
appropriate for some, Siddhartha says that he must take his own path,
lest self-deception overtake him and he admit to Nirvana before having
actually attained it. The Buddha admonishes Siddhartha to beware his own
cleverness then wishes him well on his path.

Awakening

As
Siddhartha leaves the Buddha, he realizes that a change has overcome
him: he has outgrown the desire for teachers. From teachers he had
sought to discover the mystery of his Self. As Siddhartha says, “Truly,
nothing in the world has occupied my thoughts as much as the Self, this
riddle, that I live, that I am one and am separated and different from
everybody else, that I am Siddhartha” (38). But in seeking this Self,
Siddhartha has only succeeded in fleeing from it. He was so consumed in
annihilating this Self that he had lost sight of it completely. The path
to self-knowledge‹and with it a knowledge of everything: Atman and
Brahman are one‹cannot proceed by listening to the voice of others.
Instead, as Siddhartha puts it, “I will learn from myself, be my own
pupil; I will learn from myself the secret of Siddhartha” (39).

This
awakening leads to a change in Siddhartha’s perception of the world.
Whereas he formerly reviled the world as a painful illusion, a
distraction from a submerged, unitary reality, he now sees that the
value in the world of the senses. Unlike the Brahmins and Samanas who
ignored the wondrous  diversity of shapes and colors around them,
seeking to reduce everything to the common denominator of Braham,
Siddhartha became convinced that truth was in the plurality rather than
the commonality of nature. As he says, “meaning and reality were not
hidden somewhere behind things, they were in them, in all of them” (40).

This realization set Siddhartha apart from all of his previous
associations. He was no longer a Brahmin or a Samansa, and he had
resisted following his friend Govinda into the Buddha’s discipleship.
While this consciousness of solitude was frightening, it was also
exhilarating; untethered from these communities and languages of
thought, Siddhartha was more himself than ever. Enlivened by this new
feeling of authenticity, Siddhartha “bean to walk quickly and
impatiently, no longer homewards, no longer to his father, no longer
looking backwards” (42).

https://www.answers.com/Q/What_was_Prince_Siddharthas_life

What was Prince Siddharthas life?

Prince
Siddhartha’s life was different than most peoples. When he was born his
mother Maya died. So then his dad had to take care of him and he said
that he would only let his son have the best of everything best food,
the best education, and of course the best clothes.His dad also said
that he would have nothing less than the best and that he was not
allowed to see the world outside the walls of the palace. One day Prince
Siddhartha made his bus driver take him around in the city.First he
came accross two old men aging. But the prince did not know what aging
was and when he say it he did not like it. On his second trip he saw a
person with a sickness but he did not know what sickness was either. And
he did not like that either. On his  third trip he saw and old person
die .And he definetly didnt like that either.(who does!) And on his last
trip he saw an astetic.

An astetic is a person that gives up
worldly pleasures to find enlightenment.When Siddhartha saw this he
wanted tobecome an astetic. One day the prince asked a taxi driver to
take him to the forest. When he was there he took of all of his jewelry
and he vauluable stuff. When he was done he took of his clothes and put
on a white robe.Then he started walking around to start his new life.
(More stuff astetics can do is……………………….……………………………………. Hold their breath for long periods of time. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..)
After a while the prince did not reach enlightenment beign and astetic
and he didnt reach it beign a prince so he made a middle way. This way
was becoming the BUDDHA! Siddhartha walked under a Bodhi tree and then
he started to medidtate.Then and evil sprirt named Mana tried to delude
Siddhartha into become evil but Siddhartha didnt pay attention to any of
them. AND FROM THERE ON PRINCE SIDDHARTHA HAS BEEN TEACHING PEOPLE HOW
TO BECOME AWAKENED. UNTIL HE DIED AT AGE 80. THE END!

Q10 Give an account of Bodhistta Setaketu

http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php

Buddism 14172.jpg
Svetaketu
(Pali: Setaketu), who was reborn as Siddhartha, who would become the
Buddha Sakyamuni; since then the Bodhisattva has been Natha (or
Nathadeva) who will be reborn as Ajita and will become the Buddha
Maitreya (Pali Metteyya). While this Bodhisattva is the foremost of the
dwellers in Tusita, the ruler of this world is another deva called
Santusita (Pali: Santusita). The beings of this world are 3,000 feet
(910 m) tall and live for 576,000,000 years (Sarvastivada tradition).
The height of this world is 320 yojanas above the Earth.

chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com
Svetaketu - Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Svetaketu
(Pali: Setaketu), who was reborn as Siddhartha, who would become the
Buddha Sakyamuni; since then the Bodhisattva has been Natha (or
Nathadeva) who will be reborn as Ajita and will become the Buddha…

Q 11. How many types of Bodhisattas are tere ? Elaborate on each of them.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bodhisattvas
List of bodhisattvas
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation
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Relief image of the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara from Mount Jiuhua, Anhui, China

In
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Chinese: 菩薩;
pinyin: púsà; Japanese pronunciation: bosatsu; Korean pronunciation:
bosal) is a being who is dedicated to achieving complete Buddhahood.
Conventionally, the term is applied to beings with a high degree of
enlightenment. Bodhisattva literally means a “bodhi (enlightenment)
being” in Sanskrit. Mahayana practitioners have historically lived in
many other countries that are now predominantly Hindu, Muslim or
Theravada Buddhist; remnants of reverence for bodhisattvas has continued
in some of these regions.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of bodhisattvas primarily respected in Indian, Tibetan Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism.

Primary Bodhisattvas

Ākāśagarbha

Chinese:
虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장,
Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who
is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

Avalokiteśvara (Padmapani)

(Chinese:
觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음;
Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The
bodhisattva of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries who uses
skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally acknowledged
bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially in Theravada
Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This bodhisattva
gradually became identified predominantly as female in East Asian
Buddhism and its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

Kṣitigarbha

(Chinese:
地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장;
Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha
is a bodhisattva primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually
depicted as a Buddhist monk. His name may be translated as “Earth
Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha
is known for his vow to take responsibility for the instruction of all
beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the
rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all
hells are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisattva of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.

Mahāsthāmaprāpta

(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom,
often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially
in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great
strength”.

Maitreya, Pali Metteyya

In some Buddhist texts
such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as
Ajita. Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku;
Korean: 미륵; Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According
to both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is regarded as the
future buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will
appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach
the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor
to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha.[1][2] The prophecy of the arrival
of Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have
been forgotten by most on the terrestrial world. This prophecy is found
in the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya
has also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist
religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new
religious movements such as Yiguandao.

Mañjuśrī

(Chinese:
文殊; pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수;
Vietnamese: Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī
is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in
Mahayana Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name
means “Gentle Glory”.[3] Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit
name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or,
less literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.

Samantabhadra

Chinese:
普賢菩薩; pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현;
Vietnamese: Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo,
Mongolian: Хамгаар Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is
associated with practice and meditation. Together with the Buddha and
Mañjuśrī, he forms the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron
of the Lotus Sutra and, according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten
great vows which are the basis of a bodhisattva. In China, Samantabhadra
is associated with action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated with prajñā.
In Japan, Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon
Buddhism, and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism.
In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the
name of the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort,
Samantabhadrī.

Vajrapāṇi

(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin:
Jīngāngshǒu; Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese:
Kim cương thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi
(Sanskrit, “Vajra in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing
bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of
Gautama Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi
is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as one of the three
protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one
of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom,
Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi
manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five
tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only
Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped
in the Shaolin Monastery, in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land
Buddhism, where he is known as Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with
Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can also
be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors called
the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and muscular
guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist
temples in East Asian Buddhism. They are said to be dharmapala
manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According to Japanese tradition, they
traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him, reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s
role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally
pacifist tradition of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use
of physical force to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil.
The Niō are also seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure
Land Buddhism and as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi
is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan,
where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.[6]
Classification
Four Great Bodhisattvas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattvas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:

Avalokiteśvara
Kṣitigarbha
Mañjuśrī
Samantabhadra

The
Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism provides another enumeration.
These bodhisattvas are featured in the Eight Petal Hall in the center of
the mandala. They are as follows:

Samantabhadra
Mañjuśrī
Avalokiteśvara
Maitreya

The
Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a
portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattva Practice.

Dharmaprajñā
Guṇavana
Vajraketu
Vajragarbha

The Lotus Sutra provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattvas of the Earth.

Viśiṣṭacāritra
Anantacāritra
Viśuddhacāritra
Supratiṣṭhitacāritra

Five Great Bodhisattvas

Chapter
7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five
bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power (五大力菩薩).”
There are two Chinese translations of this text, each providing an
entirely different name to these figures. Their association with the
cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as
follows:
Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼 West Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多) Central
雷電吼 North Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉) North
無畏方吼 East Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利) West
龍王吼 South Vajraratna (金剛宝) South
金剛吼 Central Vajrapāṇi (金剛手) East
Sixteen Bodhisattvas

The
Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattvas known as the “Sixteen
Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.” They also appear in a Sutra with
the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as follows, along with their respective
associated directions:
East South West North

Maitreya
Amoghadarśana
Sarvāpāyajaha
Sarvaśokatamonirghātana

Gandhahastin
Śauraya
Gaganagañja
Jñānaketu

Amitaprabha
Bhadrapāla
Jālinīprabha
Candraprabha

Akṣayamati
Pratibhānakūṭa
Vajragarbha
Samantabhadra

Another
set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattvas” and make
up a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the
Buddhas of the cardinal directions.
Akṣobhya
(East) Ratnasaṃbhava
(South) Amitābha
(West) Amoghasiddhi
(North)

Vajrasattva
Vajrarāga
Vajrarāja
Vajrasādhu

Vajraratna
Vajraketu
Vajrateja
Vajrahāsa

Vajradharma
Vajrahetu
Vajratīkṣṇa
Vajrabhāṣa

Vajrakarma
Vajrayakṣa
Vajrarakṣa
Vajrasaṃdhi

Twenty-five Bodhisattvas

According
to the Sūtra on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land
(十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the
Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas.
Twenty-five of them are given by name:

Avalokiteśvara
Mahāsthāmaprāpta
Bhaiṣajyarāja
Bhaiṣajyasamudgata
Samantabhadra
Dharmeśvara
Siṃhanāda
Dhāraṇī
Ākāśagarbha
Guṇagarbha
Ratnagarbha
Vajragarbha
Vajra
Girisāgaramati
Raśmiprabharāja
Avataṃsakarāja
Gaṇaratnarāja
Candraprabharāja
Divākararāja
Samādhirāja
Samādhīśvararāja
Maheśvararāja
Śuklahastarāja
Mahātejarāja
Anantakāya

en.wikipedia.org
List of bodhisattvas - Wikipedia
In
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Chinese: 菩薩;
pinyin: púsà; Japanese pronunciation: bosatsu; Korean pronunciation:
bosal) is a being who is dedicated to achieving complete Buddhahood.
Conventionally, the term is applied to beings with a high degree of
enlightenment. B…

in
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19


Q 11 How many types of Bodhisattas are there ? Elaborate on each of them.

Bodhisatta
refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has
also received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that
this will be so.

A Crowned Bodhisatta Head and its type

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An Excerpt from The Bodhisatta Guide | Shambhala

Guanyin Bodhisatta.

Bodhisatta Avalokitesvara

Gandhara, bodhisatta assiso, II sec.

Seated Bodhisatta, c. 775, Japan

Bodhisatta statue at National Museum, New Delhi

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Bodhisatta

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Difference Between Buddha and Bodhisatta - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKhY2HxRojQ
Difference Between Buddha and Bodhisatta

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Kan iemand mij het Japans boeddhisme uitleggen …

Mural Worshipping Bodhisatta

Bodhisatta

A Crowned Bodhisatta Head and its type.

Buddhist Bodhisatta

Met, afghanistan (maybe bhadda), head of bodhisatta …

Ākāśagarbha
Chinese:
虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장,
Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who
is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

Avalokiteśvara (Padmapani)
(Chinese:
觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음;
Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The
bodhisatta of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries who uses
skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally acknowledged
bodhisatta in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially in Theravada
Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This bodhisatta gradually
became identified predominantly as female in East Asian Buddhism and
its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

Kṣitigarbha
(Chinese:
地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장;
Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha
is a bodhisatta primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually
depicted as a Buddhist monk. His name may be translated as “Earth
Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha
is known for his vow to take responsibility for the instruction of all
beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the
rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all
hells are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisatta of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom,
often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially
in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great
strength”.

Maitreya, Pali Metteyya
In some Buddhist texts such
as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.
Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku; Korean: 미륵;
Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According to
both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is regarded as the future
buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear
on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the
pure dhamma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to
the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha. The prophecy of the arrival of
Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have been
forgotten by most on the terrestrial world. This prophecy is found in
the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya has
also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist
religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new
religious movements such as Yiguandao.

Mañjuśrī
(Chinese: 文殊;
pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수; Vietnamese:
Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī is a
bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in Mahayana
Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means
“Gentle Glory” Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of
Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or, less
literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.

Samantabhadra
Chinese: 普賢菩薩;
pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현; Vietnamese:
Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo, Mongolian: Хамгаар
Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is associated with practice
and meditation. Together with the Buddha and Mañjuśrī, he forms the
Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and,
according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are
the basis of a bodhisatta. In China, Samantabhadra is associated with
action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated with prajñā. In Japan,
Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism,
and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the
Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the name of
the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort,
Samantabhadrī.

Vajrapāṇi
(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin: Jīngāngshǒu;
Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese: Kim cương
thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi
(Sanskrit, “Vajra in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing
bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of
Gautama Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi
is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as one of the three
protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one
of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom,
Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi
manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five
tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only
Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped
in the Shaolin Monastery, in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land
Buddhism, where he is known as Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with
Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can
also be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors
called the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and
muscular guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many
Buddhist temples in East Asian Buddhism. They are said to be dharmapala
manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According to Japanese tradition, they
traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him, reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s
role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally
pacifist tradition of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use
of physical force to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil.
The Niō are also seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure
Land Buddhism and as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi
is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan,
where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.

Classification

Four Great Bodhisattas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:

Avalokiteśvara
Kṣitigarbha
Mañjuśrī
Samantabhadra
The
Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism provides another enumeration.
These bodhisattvas are featured in the Eight Petal Hall in the center of
the mandala. They are as follows:

Samantabhadra
Mañjuśrī
Avalokiteśvara
Maitreya
The Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattv Practice.

Dharmaprajñā
Guṇavana
Vajraketu
Vajragarbha
The Lotus Sutta provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattas of the Earth.

Viśiṣṭacāritra
Anantacāritra
Viśuddhacāritra
Supratiṣṭhitacāritra
Five Great Bodhisattas

Chapter
7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five
bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power (五大力菩薩).”
There are two Chinese translations of this text, each providing an
entirely different name to these figures. Their association with the
cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as
follows:

Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼 West Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多) Central
雷電吼 North Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉) North
無畏方吼 East Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利) West
龍王吼 South Vajraratna (金剛宝) South
金剛吼 Central Vajrapāṇi (金剛手) East
Sixteen Bodhisattas

The
Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattas known as the “Sixteen
Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.” They also appear in a Sutra with
the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as follows, along with their respective
associated directions:

East South West North
Maitreya
Amoghadarśana
Sarvāpāyajaha
Sarvaśokatamonirghātana
Gandhahastin
Śauraya
Gaganagañja
Jñānaketu
Amitaprabha
Bhadrapāla
Jālinīprabha
Candraprabha
Akṣayamati
Pratibhānakūṭa
Vajragarbha
Samantabhadra

Another
set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattas” and make up
a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the
Buddhas of the cardinal directions.

Akṣobhya
(East) Ratnasaṃbhava
(South) Amitābha
(West) Amoghasiddhi
(North)
Vajrasattva
Vajrarāga
Vajrarāja
Vajrasādhu
Vajraratna
Vajraketu
Vajrateja
Vajrahāsa
Vajradharma
Vajrahetu
Vajratīkṣṇa
Vajrabhāṣa
Vajrakarma
Vajrayakṣa
Vajrarakṣa
Vajrasaṃdhi
Twenty-five Bodhisattas

According
to the Sūtta on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land
(十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the
Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas.
Twenty-five of them are given by name:

Avalokiteśvara
Mahāsthāmaprāpta
Bhaiṣajyarāja
Bhaiṣajyasamudgata
Samantabhadra
Dharmeśvara
Siṃhanāda
Dhāraṇī
Ākāśagarbha
Guṇagarbha
Ratnagarbha
Vajragarbha
Vajra
Girisāgaramati
Raśmiprabharāja
Avataṃsakarāja
Gaṇaratnarāja
Candraprabharāja
Divākararāja
Samādhirāja
Samādhīśvararāja
Maheśvararāja
Śuklahastarāja
Mahātejarāja
Anantakāya
ood core, dry …

Ākāśagarbha
Chinese:
虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장,
Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who
is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

Avalokiteśvara (Padmapani)
(Chinese:
觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음;
Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The
bodhisatta of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries who uses
skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally acknowledged
bodhisatta in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially in Theravada
Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This bodhisatta gradually
became identified predominantly as female in East Asian Buddhism and
its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

Kṣitigarbha
(Chinese:
地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장;
Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha
is a bodhisatta primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually
depicted as a Buddhist monk. His name may be translated as “Earth
Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha
is known for his vow to take responsibility for the instruction of all
beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the
rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all
hells are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisatta of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom,
often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially
in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great
strength”.

Maitreya, Pali Metteyya
In some Buddhist texts such
as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.
Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku; Korean: 미륵;
Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According to
both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is regarded as the future
buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear
on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the
pure dhamma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to
the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha. The prophecy of the arrival of
Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have been
forgotten by most on the terrestrial world. This prophecy is found in
the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya has
also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist
religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new
religious movements such as Yiguandao.

Mañjuśrī
(Chinese: 文殊;
pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수; Vietnamese:
Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī is a
bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in Mahayana
Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means
“Gentle Glory” Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of
Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or, less
literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.

Samantabhadra
Chinese: 普賢菩薩;
pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현; Vietnamese:
Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo, Mongolian: Хамгаар
Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is associated with practice
and meditation. Together with the Buddha and Mañjuśrī, he forms the
Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and,
according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are
the basis of a bodhisatta. In China, Samantabhadra is associated with
action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated with prajñā. In Japan,
Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism,
and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the
Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the name of
the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort,
Samantabhadrī.

Vajrapāṇi
(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin: Jīngāngshǒu;
Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese: Kim cương
thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi
(Sanskrit, “Vajra in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing
bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of
Gautama Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi
is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as one of the three
protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one
of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom,
Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi
manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five
tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only
Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped
in the Shaolin Monastery, in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land
Buddhism, where he is known as Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with
Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can
also be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors
called the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and
muscular guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many
Buddhist temples in East Asian Buddhism. They are said to be dharmapala
manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According to Japanese tradition, they
traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him, reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s
role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally
pacifist tradition of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use
of physical force to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil.
The Niō are also seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure
Land Buddhism and as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi
is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan,
where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.

Classification

Four Great Bodhisattas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:

Avalokiteśvara
Kṣitigarbha
Mañjuśrī
Samantabhadra
The
Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism provides another enumeration.
These bodhisattvas are featured in the Eight Petal Hall in the center of
the mandala. They are as follows:

Samantabhadra
Mañjuśrī
Avalokiteśvara
Maitreya
The Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattv Practice.

Dharmaprajñā
Guṇavana
Vajraketu
Vajragarbha
The Lotus Sutta provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattas of the Earth.

Viśiṣṭacāritra
Anantacāritra
Viśuddhacāritra
Supratiṣṭhitacāritra
Five Great Bodhisattas

Chapter
7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five
bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power (五大力菩薩).”
There are two Chinese translations of this text, each providing an
entirely different name to these figures. Their association with the
cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as
follows:

Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼 West Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多) Central
雷電吼 North Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉) North
無畏方吼 East Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利) West
龍王吼 South Vajraratna (金剛宝) South
金剛吼 Central Vajrapāṇi (金剛手) East
Sixteen Bodhisattas

The
Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattas known as the “Sixteen
Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.” They also appear in a Sutra with
the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as follows, along with their respective
associated directions:

East South West North
Maitreya
Amoghadarśana
Sarvāpāyajaha
Sarvaśokatamonirghātana
Gandhahastin
Śauraya
Gaganagañja
Jñānaketu
Amitaprabha
Bhadrapāla
Jālinīprabha
Candraprabha
Akṣayamati
Pratibhānakūṭa
Vajragarbha
Samantabhadra

Another
set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattas” and make up
a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the
Buddhas of the cardinal directions.

Akṣobhya
(East) Ratnasaṃbhava
(South) Amitābha
(West) Amoghasiddhi
(North)
Vajrasattva
Vajrarāga
Vajrarāja
Vajrasādhu
Vajraratna
Vajraketu
Vajrateja
Vajrahāsa
Vajradharma
Vajrahetu
Vajratīkṣṇa
Vajrabhāṣa
Vajrakarma
Vajrayakṣa
Vajrarakṣa
Vajrasaṃdhi
Twenty-five Bodhisattas

According
to the Sūtta on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land
(十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the
Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas.
Twenty-five of them are given by name:

Avalokiteśvara
Mahāsthāmaprāpta
Bhaiṣajyarāja
Bhaiṣajyasamudgata
Samantabhadra
Dharmeśvara
Siṃhanāda
Dhāraṇī
Ākāśagarbha
Guṇagarbha
Ratnagarbha
Vajragarbha
Vajra
Girisāgaramati
Raśmiprabharāja
Avataṃsakarāja
Gaṇaratnarāja
Candraprabharāja
Divākararāja
Samādhirāja
Samādhīśvararāja
Maheśvararāja
Śuklahastarāja
Mahātejarāja
Anantakāya

Q 12 How many perfections a Bodhisatta must fulfil to become a Buddha ?

Q 13 Write an essay on the ten Paramis.

https://quizlet.com/7936317/the-ten-perfections-paramis-flash-cards/

Terms in this set (10)

Generosity (dana)

This
can be characterized by unattached and unconditional generosity, giving
and letting go. Giving leads to being reborn in happy states and
material wealth. Alternatively, lack of giving leads to unhappy states
and poverty. The exquisite paradox in Buddhism is that the more we give -
and the more we give without seeking something in return - the
wealthier (in the broadest sense of the word) we will become. By giving
we destroy those acquisitive impulses that ultimately lead to further
suffering.

Morality (sila)-virtue, integrity

It is an
action that is an intentional effort. It refers to moral purity of
thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of sila are chastity,
calmness, quiet, and extinguishment, i.e. no longer being susceptible to
perturbation by the passions like greed and selfishness, which are
common in the world today. Sila refers to overall (principles of)
ethical behaviour.

Renunciation (nekkhamma)

Nekkhamma is a
Pali word generally translated as “renunciation” while also conveying
more specifically “giving up the world and leading a holy life” or
“freedom from lust, craving and desires.” In Buddhism’s Noble Eightfold
Path, nekkhamma is the first practice associated with “Right Intention.”
In the Theravada list of ten perfections, nekkhamma is the third
practice of “perfection.”

Wisdom (pañña)

Prajña (Sanskrit)
or pañña (Pali) has been translated as “wisdom,” “understanding,”
“discernment,” “cognitive acuity,” or “know-how.” In some sects of
Buddhism, it especially refers to the wisdom that is based on the direct
realization of the Four Noble Truths, impermanence, interdependent
origination, non-self, emptiness, etc. Prajña is the wisdom that is able
to extinguish afflictions and bring about enlightenment.

Energy/Strength (viriya)- effort

It
stands for strenuous and sustained effort to overcome unskillful ways,
such as indulging in sensuality, ill will and harmfulness. It stands for
the right endeavour to attain dhyana. Virya does not stand for physical
strength. It signifies strength of character and the persistent effort
for the well-being of others. In the absence of sustained efforts in
practicing meditation, craving creeps in and the meditator comes under
its influence. Right effort known as viryabala is, thus, required to
overcome unskillful mental factors and deviation from dhyana.

Patience (khanti)

Khanti
(Pali) has been translated as patience, forbearance and forgiveness. It
is the practice of exercising patience toward behavior or situations
that might not necessarily deserve it. It is seen as a conscious choice
to actively give patience as if a gift, rather than being in a state of
oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.

Truthfulness (sacca)

Sacca
is a Pali word meaning “real” or “true.” In early Buddhist literature,
sacca is often found in the context of the “Four Noble Truths,” a
crystallization of Buddhist wisdom. In addition, sacca is one of the ten
paramis or perfections that a bodhisatta must develop in order to
become a Buddha.

Resolution - determination (adhitthana)

Adhitthana
(Pali; from adhi meaning “higher” or “best” plus stha meaning
“standing”) has been translated as “decision,” “resolution,”
“self-determination,” “will” and “resolute determination.” In the late
canonical literature of Theravada Buddhism, adhitthana is one of the ten
“perfections” (dasa paramiyo), exemplified by the bodhisatta’s resolve
to become fully awakened.

Lovingkindness (metta)

Metta
(Pali) or maitri (Sanskrit) has been translated as “loving-kindness,”
“friendliness,” “benevolence,” “amity,” “friendship,” “good will,”
“kindness,” “love,” “sympathy,” and “active interest in others.” It is
one of the ten paramitas of the Theravada school of Buddhism, and the
first of the four Brahmaviharas. The metta bhavana (”cultivation of
metta”) is a popular form of meditation in Buddhism.

The object
of metta meditation is loving kindness (love without attachment).
Traditionally, the practice begins with the meditator cultivating loving
kindness towards themselves,then their loved ones, friends, teachers,
 strangers, enemies, and finally towards all sentient beings. Commonly,
it can be used as a greeting or closing to a letter or note.

Buddhists
believe that those who cultivate metta will be at ease because they see
no need to harbour ill will or hostility. Buddhist teachers may even
recommend meditation on metta as an antidote to insomnia and nightmares.
It is generally felt that those around a metta-ful person will feel
more comfortable and happy too. Radiating metta is thought to contribute
to a world of love, peace and happiness.

Metta meditation is
considered a good way to calm down a distraught mind by people who
consider it to be an antidote to anger. According to them, someone who
has cultivated metta will not be easily angered and can quickly subdue
anger that arises, being more caring, more loving, and more likely to
love unconditionally.

Equanimity (upekkha)

American Buddhist monk Bhikkhu Bodhi wrote:
“The
real meaning of upekkha is equanimity, not indifference in the sense of
unconcern for others. As a spiritual virtue, upekkha means equanimity
in the face of the fluctuations of worldly fortune. It is evenness of
mind, unshakeable freedom of mind, a state of inner equipoise that
cannot be upset by gain and loss, honor and dishonor, praise and blame,
pleasure and pain. Upekkha is freedom from all points of self-reference;
it is indifference only to the demands of the ego-self with its craving
for pleasure and position, not to the well-being of one’s fellow human
beings. True equanimity is the pinnacle of the four social attitudes
that the Buddhist texts call the ‘divine abodes’: boundless
loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, and equanimity. The last
does not override and negate the preceding three, but perfects and
consummates them.”

Q 14 Explain the difference between an ordinary act of Dana (giving) and an act of dana parami (perfection of giving)

https://www.learnreligions.com/perfection-of-giving-449724
Buddhism’s Perfection of Giving

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Giving
is essential to Buddhism. Giving includes charity, or giving material
help to people in want. It also includes giving spiritual guidance to
those who seek it and loving kindness to all who need it. However, one’s
motivation for giving to others is at least as important as what is
given.

Motivation

What is the right or wrong motivation?
In sutra 4:236 of the Anguttara Nikaya, a collection of texts in the
Sutta-Pitaka, lists a number of motivations for giving. These include
being shamed or intimidated into giving; giving to receive a favor;
giving to feel good about yourself. These are impure motivations.

The
Buddha taught that when we give to others, we give without expectation
of reward. We give without attaching to either the gift or the
recipient. We practice giving to release greed and self-clinging.

Some
teachers propose that giving is good because it accrues merit and
creates karma that will bring future happiness. Others say that even
this is self-clinging and an expectation of reward. In many schools,
people are encouraged to dedicate merit to the liberation of others.

Paramitas

Giving
with pure motivation is called dana paramita (Sanskrit), or dana parami
(Pali), which means “perfection of giving.” There are lists of
perfections that vary somewhat between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism,
but dana, giving, is the first perfection on every list. The perfections
might be thought of as strengths or virtues that lead one to
enlightenment.

Theravadin monk and scholar Bhikkhu Bodhi said,

“The
practice of giving is universally recognized as one of the most basic
human virtues, a quality that testifies to the depth of one’s humanity
and one’s capacity for self-transcendence. In the teaching of the
Buddha, too, the practice of giving claims a place of special eminence,
one which singles it out as being in a sense the foundation and seed of
spiritual development.”
The Importance of Receiving

It’s
important to remember that there is no giving without receiving, and no
givers without receivers. Therefore, giving and receiving arise
together; one is not possible without the other. Ultimately, giving and
receiving, giver and receiver, are one. Giving and receiving with this
understanding is the perfection of giving. As long as we are sorting
ourselves into givers and receivers, however, we are still falling short
of dana paramita.

Zen monk Shohaku Okumura wrote in Soto Zen
Journal that for a time he didn’t want to receive gifts from others,
thinking that he should be giving, not taking. “When we understand this
teaching in this way, we simply create another standard to measure
gaining and losing. We are still in the framework of gaining and
losing,” he wrote. When giving is perfect, there is no loss and no gain.

In
Japan, when monks carry out traditional alms begging, they wear huge
straw hats that partly obscure their faces. The hats also prevent them
from seeing the faces of those giving them alms. No giver, no receiver;
this is pure giving.

Give Without Attachment

We are advised to give without attaching to either the gift or the recipient. What does that mean?

In
Buddhism, to avoid attachment doesn’t mean we can’t have any friends.
Quite the opposite, actually. Attachment can only happen when there are
at least two separate things — an attacher, and something to attach to.
But, sorting the world into subjects and objects is a delusion.

Attachment,
then, comes from a habit of mind that sorts the world into “me” and
“everything else.” Attachment leads to possessiveness and a tendency to
manipulate everything, including people, to your own personal advantage.
To be non-attached is to recognize that nothing is really separate.

This
brings us back to the realization that the giver and the receiver are
one. And the gift isn’t separate, either. So, we give without
expectation of reward from the recipient — including a “thank you” —
and we place no conditions on the gift.

A Habit of Generosity

Dana
paramita is sometimes translated “perfection of generosity.” A generous
spirit is about more than just giving to charity. It is a spirit of
responding to the world and giving what is needed and appropriate at the
time.

This spirit of generosity is an important foundation of
practice. It helps tear down our ego-walls while it relieves some of the
sufferings of the world. And it also includes being grateful for the
generosity shown to you. This is the practice of dana paramita.

Q 15 Write clearly in Paliand English Dhamma Vandana Gatha. Explain the meaning, as ytou understand it.
Svaakkhato Bhagavataa Dhamma, sandditthiko, akaaliko,

ehipassiko, opanayiko, paccattam veditabbo vinnuhiti.

Namo tassa niyyaanikassa Dhammassa!

Ya ca Dhammaa atitaaca,

Ya ca Dhammaa anaagataa

Paccuppannaa ca ye Dhammaa,

Aham Vandaami sabbadaa

Natthi me saranam annam

Dhammo me saranam varam

Etena Saccavajjene,

Hoto me jayamangalam

Uttamangena Vandeham

Dhammanca tividham varam

Dhamme yo Khalito doso,

Dhammo khamatu tam mamam

Dhamam yaava nibbaanapariyantam

Saranam gacchaami

The
Teaching is perfectly enunciated by the Blessed One; it is verifiable
here and now, and bears immediate fruit; it invites all the test for
themselves, leads one onward to Nibbana and is to be experienced by the
wise for himself.

Reverential salutation to the Noble Teaching, leading

onwards to deliverance.

The Noble Teachings of the past (Buddhas),

The Noble Teachings of the future (Buddhas),

The Noble Teachings of the Buddhas of present (aeon),

Humbly do I ever worship.

There is no other refuge for me.

The Noble Teaching is my Supreme Refuge,

By this avowal of Truth,

May joyous victory be mine!

With my brow do I worship the most exce;;ent threefold

Teaching

If the Teaching I have transgressed in any way,

May my error the mighty Dhamma deign forgive.

I go to sacred Teaching for refuge,

Till deliverance is attained.

Kindly visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlQtxa0KHnA

Buddhism - Pali Chantings {Salutations to Doctrine}

 

http://www.buddhanet.net/audio-chant.htm

06-chant-06.mp3
201 KB
Dhamma Vandana - Homage to the Doctrine.

http://www.geocities.com/ssdahampasala/

Dhamma: the characteristics of purity, radiance and peace which arise from morality, concentration and wisdom

Svakkhato bhagavata dhammo
Dhammam namassami.

The Dhamma well-expounded by the Exalted One
I bow low before the Dhamma.

To the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge

The Three Refuges

When
people ask, “Who is really a Buddhist?” the answer will be, “One who
has accepted the Three Refuges” — Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, as his
shelter and guiding ideal.”

So now that we have paid our respects
to the Teacher, it is usual for Buddhists to continue by affirming
their Refuge in Awakenment (bodhi) in three aspects: the Buddha, the
rediscoverer of Awakenment; the Dhamma, the way to that Awakenment; and
the Sangha, those who are practicing that way have discovered Awakenment
for themselves. That which has the nature of the Unsurpassed Perfect
Awakenment, unconfused and brilliant with the qualities of Great
Compassion, Purity and Wisdom, that is a secure refuge. So we recite
this sure refuge as a reminder every day:

To the Awakened One I go for refuge.
To the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge,
To the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

For the second time to the Awakened One I go for refuge.
For the second time to the Way Awakenment I go for refuge.
For the second time to the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

For the third time to the Awakened One I go for refuge.
For the third time to the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge.
For the third tome to the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

There
is a reason for repeating each refuge three times. The mind is often
distracted and if words are spoken or chanted at that time then it is as
though they have not been spoken at all. There is no strong intention
behind them and one’s Going for Refuge will be like that of a parrot.
Repeating words three times is common in many Buddhist ceremonies (such
as ordination) and ensures that the mind is concentrated during at least
one repetition.

When one has gone for refuge and so affirmed
that one is following the way taught by the Buddha, then it is time to
remind oneself of the basic moral precepts for daily conduct.

Dhamma sadhu, kiyam cu dhamme ti?
Apasinave, bahu kayane, daya, dane, sace, socaye.
Dhamma is good, but what constitutes Dhamma?
(It includes) little evil, much good, kindness,
generosity, truthfulness and purity.

King Asoka

Q 16  Enumerate the qualities of the Dhamma and write the significance of each quality

Dhammam saranam gacchami:
I go to the Dhamma for refuge.

There are three levels to the Dhamma, the teachings of the Buddha —

A. Pariyatti: studying the words of the Buddha as recorded in the Canon — the Discipline, the Discourses, and the Abhidhamma.
B. Patipatti: following the practice of moral virtue, concentration, and discernment as derived from one’s study of the Canon.

C. Pativedha: Liberation.

A. The study of the Dhamma can be done in any of three ways —

1 Alagaddupama-pariyatti: studying like a water viper.
2 Nissaranattha-pariyatti: studying for the sake of emancipation.

3 Bhandagarika-pariyatti: studying to be a storehouse keeper.

Studying
like a water viper means to study the words of the Buddha without then
putting them into practice, having no sense of shame at doing evil,
disobeying the monastic code, making oneself like a poisonous
snake-head, full of the fires of greed, anger, and delusion.

Studying
for the sake of emancipation means to study the Buddha’s teachings out
of a desire for merit and wisdom, with a sense of conviction and high
regard for their worth — and then, once we have reached an
understanding, bringing our thoughts, words, and deeds into line with
those teachings with a high sense of reverence and respect. To try to
bring the Buddha’s teachings into line with ourselves is the wrong
approach — because, for the most part, we are full of defilements,
cravings, views, and conceits. If we act in this way we are bound to be
more at fault than those who try to bring themselves into line with the
teachings: Such people are very hard to find fault with.

Studying
to be a storehouse keeper refers to the education of people who no
longer have to be trained, i.e., of arahants, the highest level of the
Noble Ones. Some arahants, when they were still ordinary,
run-of-the-mill people, heard the Dhamma directly from the Buddha once
or twice and were able immediately to reach the highest attainment. This
being the case, they lacked a wide-ranging knowledge of worldly
conventions and traditions; and so, with an eye to the benefit of other
Buddhists, they were willing to undergo a certain amount of further
education. This way of studying the Dhamma is called ’sikkha-garavata’:
respect for the training.

B. The practice of the Dhamma means to conduct oneself in line with the words of the Buddha as gathered under three headings:

— Virtue: proper behavior, free from vice and harm, in terms of one’s words and deeds.
— Concentration: intentness of mind, centered on one of the themes of meditation, such as the breath.


Discernment: insight and circumspection with regard to all fashioned
things, i.e., physical properties, aggregates, and sense media.

To
conduct oneself in this manner is termed practicing the Dhamma. By and
large, though, Buddhists tend to practice the Dhamma in a variety of
ways that aren’t in line with the true path of practice. If we were to
classify their ways of practice, there would be three:

1 Lokadhipateyya — putting the world first.
2 Attadhipateyya — putting the self first.
3 Dhammadhipateyya — putting the Dhamma first.

To
put the world first means to practice for the sake of such worldly
rewards as prestige, material gains, praise, and sensual pleasures. When
we practice this way, we are actually torturing ourselves, because
undesirable things are bound to occur: Having attained prestige, we can
lose it. Having acquired material gains, we can lose them. Having
received praise, we can receive censure. Having experienced pleasure, we
can see it disintegrate. Far from the paths, fruitions, and nibbana, we
torture ourselves by clinging to these things as our own.

To
put the self first means to practice in accordance with our own
opinions, acting in line with whatever those opinions may be. Most of us
tend to side with ourselves, getting stuck on our own views and
conceits because our study of the Dhamma hasn’t reached the truth of the
Dhamma, and so we take as our standard our own notions, composed of
four forms of personal bias —

a Chandagati: doing whatever we feel like doing.
b
Bhayagati: fearing certain forms of power or authority, and thus not
daring to practice the Dhamma as we truly should. (We put certain
individuals first.)

c Dosagati: acting under the power of anger, defilement, craving, conceits, and views.

d
Mohagati: practicing misguidedly, not studying or searching for what is
truly good; assuming that we’re already smart enough, or else that
we’re too stupid to learn; staying buried in our habits with no thought
of extracting ourselves from our sensual pleasures.

All of these ways of practice are called ‘putting the self first.’

To put the Dhamma first means to follow the Noble Eightfold Path —

a.
Right View: seeing that there really is good, there really is evil,
there really is stress, that stress has a cause, that it disbands, and
that there is a cause for its disbanding.
b. Right Resolve: thinking
of how to rid ourselves of whatever qualities we know to be wrong and
immoral, i.e., seeing the harm in sensual desires in that they bring on
suffering and stress.

c. Right Speech: speaking the truth; not
saying anything divisive or inciteful; not saying anything coarse or
vulgar in situations where such words would not be proper; not saying
anything useless. Even though what we say may be worthwhile, if our
listener isn’t interested then our words would still count as useless.

d. Right Action: being true to our duties, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to ourselves or others.

e. Right Livelihood: obtaining wealth in ways that are honest, searching for it in a moral way and using it in a moral way.

f.
Right Effort: persisting in ridding ourselves of all that is wrong and
harmful in our thoughts, words, and deeds; persisting in giving rise to
what would be good and useful to ourselves and others in our thoughts,
words, and deeds, without a thought for the difficulty or weariness
involved; acting persistently so as to be a mainstay to others (except
in cases that are beyond our control).

g. Right Mindfulness:
being mindful and deliberate, making sure not to act or speak through
the power of inattention or forgetfulness, making sure to be constantly
mindful in our thoughts (being mindful of the four frames of reference).

h.
Right Concentration: keeping the mind centered and resilient. No matter
what we do or say, no matter what moods may strike the heart, the heart
keeps its poise, firm and unflinching in the four levels of jhana.

These
eight factors can be reduced to three — virtue, concentration, and
discernment — called the middle way, the heart of the Buddha’s
teachings. The ‘middleness’ of virtue means to be pure in thought, word,
and deed, acting out of compassion, seeing that the life of others is
like your own, that their possessions are like your own, feeling
benevolence, loving others as much as yourself. When ‘you’ and ‘they’
are equal in this way, you are bound to be upright in your behavior,
like a well-balanced burden that, when placed on your shoulders, doesn’t
cause you to tip to one side or the other. But even then you are still
in a position of having to shoulder a burden. So you are taught to focus
the mind on a single preoccupation: This can be called ‘holding in your
hands’ — i.e., holding the mind in the middle — or concentration.

The
middleness of concentration means focusing on the present, not sending
your thoughts into the past or future, holding fast to a single
preoccupation (anapanaka-jhana, absorption in the breath).

As
for the middleness of discernment: No matter what preoccupations may
come passing by, you are able to rid yourself of all feelings of liking
or disliking, approval or rejection. You don’t cling, even to the one
preoccupation that has arisen as a result of your own actions. You put
down what you have been holding in your hands; you don’t fasten onto the
past, present or future. This is release.

When our virtue,
concentration, and discernment are all in the middle this way, we’re
safe. Just as a boat going down the middle of a channel, or a car that
doesn’t run off the side of the road, can reach its destination without
beaching or running into a tree; so too, people who practice in this way
are bound to reach the qualities they aspire to, culminating in the
paths and fruitions leading to nibbana, which is the main point of the
Buddha’s teachings.

So in short, putting the Dhamma first means to search solely for purity of mind.

C.
The attainment of the Dhamma refers to the attainment of the highest
quality, nibbana. If we refer to the people who reach this attainment,
there are four sorts —

1 Sukha-vipassako: those who
develop just enough tranquillity and discernment to act as a basis for
advancing to liberating insight and who thus attain nibbana having
mastered only asavakkhaya-ñana, the knowledge that does away with the
fermentation of defilement.
2 Tevijjo: those who attain the three skills.

3 Chalabhiñño: those who attain the six intuitive powers.

4 Catuppatisambhidappatto: those who attain the four forms of acumen.

To
explain sukha-vipassako (those who develop insight more than
tranquillity): Vipassana (liberating insight) and asavakkhaya-ñana (the
awareness that does away with the fermentation of defilement) differ
only in name. In actuality they refer to the same thing, the only
difference being that vipassana refers to the beginning stage of
insight, and asavakkhaya-ñana to the final stage: clear and true
comprehension of the four Noble Truths.

To explain tevijjo: The three skills are —

a
Pubbenivasanussati-ñana: the ability to remember past lives — one, two,
three, four, five, ten, one hundred, one thousand, depending on one’s
powers of intuition. (This is a basis for proving whether death is
followed by rebirth or annihilation.)
b Cutupapata-ñana: knowledge of where living beings are reborn — on refined levels or base — after they die.

c
Asavakkhaya-ñana: the awareness that enables one to do away with the
fermentations in one’s character (sensuality, states of being,
ignorance).

To explain chalabhiñño: The six intuitive powers are —

a
Iddhividhi: the ability to display miracles — becoming invisible,
walking on a dry path through a body of water, levitating, going through
rain without getting wet, going through fire without getting hot,
making a crowd of people appear to be only a few, making a few to appear
many, making oneself appear young or old as one likes, being able to
use the power of the mind to influence events in various ways.
b Dibbasota: clairaudience; the ability to hear far distant sounds, beyond ordinary human powers.

c Cetopariya-ñana: the ability to know the thoughts of others.

d Pubbenivasanussati-ñana: the ability to remember previous lives.

e
Dibba-cakkhu: clairvoyance; the ability to see far distant objects,
beyond ordinary human powers. Some people can even see other levels of
being with their clairvoyant powers (one way of proving whether death is
followed by rebirth or annihilation, and whether or not there really
are other levels of being).

f Asavakkhaya-ñana: the awareness that does away with the fermentation of defilement.

To explain catuppatisambhidappatto: The four forms of acumen are —

a
Attha-patisambhida: acumen with regard to the sense of the Doctrine and
of matters in general, knowing how to explain various points in line
with their proper meaning.
b Dhamma-patisambhida: acumen with regard to all mental qualities.

c
Nirutti-patisambhida: acumen with regard to linguistic conventions.
(This can include the ability to know the languages of living beings in
general.)

d Patibhana-patisambhida: acumen in speaking on the
spur of the moment, knowing how to answer any question so as to clear up
the doubts of the person asking (like the Venerable Nagasena).

This
ends the discussion of the virtues of the four classes of people —
called arahants — who have reached the ultimate quality, nibbana. As for
the essence of what it means to be an arahant, though, there is only
one point — freedom from defilement: This is what it means to attain the
Dhamma, the other virtues being simply adornment.

The three
levels of Dhamma we have discussed are, like the Buddha, compared to
jewels: There are many kinds of jewels to choose from, depending on how
much wealth — discernment — we have.

All of the qualities we
have mentioned so far, to put them briefly so as to be of use, come down
to this: Practice so as to give rise to virtue, concentration, and
discernment within yourself. Otherwise, you won’t have a refuge or
shelter. A person without the qualities that provide refuge and shelter
is like a person without a home — a delinquent or a vagrant — who is
bound to wander shiftlessly about. Such people are hollow inside, like a
clock without any workings: Even though it has a face and hands, it
can’t tell anyone where it is, what time it is, or whether it’s morning,
noon, or night (i.e., such people forget that they are going to die).

People
who aren’t acquainted with the Dhamma within themselves are like people
blind from birth: Even though they are born in the world of human
beings, they don’t know the light of the sun and moon that enables human
beings to see. They get no benefit from the light of the sun and moon
or the light of fire; and being blind, they then go about proclaiming to
those who can see, that there is no sun, no moon, and no brightness to
the world. As a result, they mislead those whose eyes are already a
little bleary. In other words, some groups say that the Buddha, Dhamma,
and Sangha don’t exist, that they were invented to fool the gullible.

Now,
the Dhamma is something subtle and fine, like the fire-potential
(tejas) that exists in the air or in various elements and that, if we
have enough common sense, can be drawn out and put to use. But if we’re
fools, we can sit staring at a bamboo tube [a device for starting fire
that works on the same principle as the diesel engine] from dawn to dusk
without ever seeing fire at all. Anyone who believes that there is no
Buddha, Dhamma, or Sangha, no series of paths or fruitions leading to
nibbana, no consciousness that experiences death and rebirth, is like
the fool sitting and staring at the bamboo tube.

Here I would
like to tell a story as an allegory of those who aren’t acquainted with
the Dhamma. There once was a man living in the woods who, with his five
sons, started growing crops in a clearing about a mile from their home
village. He built a small shack at the clearing and would often take his
sons to stay there. One morning he started a fire in the shack and told
his sons to look after the fire, for he was going out to hunt for food
in the forest. ‘If the fire goes out,’ he told them, ‘get some fire from
my bamboo tube and start it up again.’ Then he set out to search for
food for his sons.

After he had left, his sons got so wrapped
up in their play that when they finally took a look at the fire, they
found that it was completely out. So they had the first son go get some
fire to start it up again. The first son walked over and tried knocking
on the bamboo tube but didn’t see any fire. So they had the second son
get some fire from the tube: He opened it up but didn’t see any fire
inside. All he saw were two bamboo chips but he didn’t know what to do
with them. So the third son came over for a look and, since he didn’t
see any fire, he took a knife to cut the tube in half but still didn’t
see any fire. The fourth son went over and, seeing the two halves lying
there, shaved them down into thin strips to find the fire in them but
didn’t see any fire at all.

Finally the fifth son went over
to look for fire, but before he went he said to his brothers, ‘What’s
the matter with you guys that you can’t get any fire from the bamboo
tube? What a bunch of fools you are! I’ll go get it myself.’ With that,
he went to look at the bamboo tube and found it split into strips lying
in pile. Realizing what his brothers had done, and thinking, ‘What a
bunch of hare-brains,’ he reached for a mortar and pestle and ground up
the bamboo strips to find the fire in them. By the time he ran out of
strength, he had ground them into a powder, but he still hadn’t found
any fire. So he snuck off to play by himself.

Eventually,
toward noon, the father returned from the forest and found that the fire
had gone out. So he asked his sons about it, and they told him how they
had looked for fire in the bamboo tube without finding any. ‘Idiots,’
he thought, ‘they’ve taken my fire-starter and pounded it to bits. For
that, I won’t fix them any food. Let ‘em starve!’ As a result, the boys
didn’t get anything to eat the entire day.

Those of us who
aren’t acquainted with the brightness of the Dhamma — ‘Dhammo padipo’ —
lying within us, who don’t believe that the Dhamma has value for
ourselves and others, are lacking in discernment, like the boys looking
for fire in the bamboo tube. Thus we bring about our own ruin in various
ways, wasting our lives: born in darkness, living in darkness, dying in
darkness, and then reborn in more darkness all over again. Even though
the Dhamma lies within us, we can’t get any use from it and thus will
suffer for a long time to come, like the boys who ruined their father’s
fire-starter and so had to go without food.

The Dhamma lies
within us, but we don’t look for it. If we hope for goodness, whether on
a low or a high level, we’ll have to look here, inside, if we are to
find what is truly good. But before we can know ourselves in this way,
we first have to know — through study and practice — the principles
taught by the Buddha.

Recorded Dhamma (pariyatti dhamma) is
simply one of the symbols of the Buddha’s teachings. The important point
is to actualize the Dhamma through the complete practice of virtue,
concentration, and discernment. This is an essential part of the
religion, the part that forms the inner symbol of all those who practice
rightly and well. Whether the religion will be good or bad, whether it
will prosper or decline, depends on our practice, not on the recorded
doctrine, because the recorded doctrine is merely a symbol. So if we aim
at goodness, we should focus on developing our inner quality through
the Dhamma of practice (patipatti dhamma). As for the main point of
Buddhism, that’s the Dhamma of attainment (pativedha dhamma), the
transcendent quality: nibbana.

3. Can the Dhamma as
proclaimed by the Buddha be called a religious doctrine, or a
philosophy, or is it a spiritual path i.e., a way of life that each
seeker should adhere to at all times? If you think it is a way of life
to be lead every day, how have you tried doing it yourself? It would be
good to share your experience with others.

Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy?
The
Buddha referred to his teachings simply as Dhamma-vinaya — “the
doctrine and discipline” — but for centuries people have tried to
categorize the teachings in various ways, trying to fit them into the
prevailing molds of cultural, philosophical, and religious thought.
Buddhism is an ethical system — a way of life — that leads to a very
specific goal and that possesses some aspects of both religion and
philosophy:

It is a philosophy.
Like most philosophies,
Buddhism attempts to frame the complexities of human existence in a way
that reassures us that there is, in fact, some underlying order to the
Universe. In the Four Noble Truths the Buddha crisply summarizes our
predicament: there is suffering, it has a cause, it has an end, and
there is a way to reach the end. The teachings on kamma provide a
thorough and logically self-consistent description of the nature of
cause-and-effect. And even the Buddhist view of cosmology, which some
may at first find farfetched, is a logical extension of the law of
kamma. According to the Dhamma, a deep and unshakable logic pervades the
world.
It is not a philosophy.
Unlike most philosophical
systems, which rely on speculation and the power of reason to arrive at
logical truths, Buddhism relies on the direct observation of one’s
personal experience and on honing certain skills in order to gain true
understanding and wisdom. Idle speculation has no place in Buddhist
practice. Although studying in the classroom, reading books, and
engaging in spirited debate can play a vital part in developing a
cognitive understanding of basic Buddhist concepts, the heart of
Buddhism can never be realized this way. The Dhamma is not an abstract
system of thought designed to delight the intellect; it is a roadmap to
be used, one whose essential purpose is to lead the practitioner to the
ultimate goal, nibbana.
It is a religion.
At the heart of each of
the world’s great religions lies a transcendent ideal around which its
doctrinal principles orbit. In Buddhism this truth is nibbana, the
hallmark of the cessation of suffering and stress, a truth of utter
transcendence that stands in singular distinction from anything we might
encounter in our ordinary sensory experience. Nibbana is the sine qua
non of Buddhism, the guiding star and ultimate goal towards which all
the Buddha’s teachings point. Because it aims at such a lofty
transcendent ideal, we might fairly call Buddhism a religion.
It is not a religion.
In
stark contrast to the world’s other major religions, however, Buddhism
invokes no divinity, no supreme Creator or supreme Self, no Holy Spirit
or omniscient loving God to whom we might appeal for salvation.1
Instead, Buddhism calls for us to hoist ourselves up by our own
bootstraps: to develop the discernment we need to distinguish between
those qualities within us that are unwholesome and those that are truly
noble and good, and to learn how to nourish the good ones and expunge
the bad. This is the path to Buddhism’s highest perfection, nibbana. Not
even the Buddha can take you to that goal; you alone must do the work
necessary to complete the journey:
“Therefore, Ananda, be islands
unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge;
with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no
other refuge.”

Daily
training myself to practice of the Dhamma  to conduct myself in line
with the words of the Buddha to be Virtuous with proper behavior, free
from vice and harm, in terms of my words and deeds.

To train my mind for Concentration: intentness of mind, centered on one of the themes of meditation, such as the breath.

To
train my mind for Discernment: insight and circumspection with regard
to all fashioned things, i.e., physical properties, aggregates, and
sense media.

To conduct myself in this manner I feel is termed practicing the Dhamma by putting the Dhamma first.

To put the Dhamma first means to follow the Noble Eightfold Path —

a.
Right View: seeing that there really is good, there really is evil,
there really is stress, that stress has a cause, that it disbands, and
that there is a cause for its disbanding.
b. Right Resolve: thinking
of how to rid ourselves of whatever qualities we know to be wrong and
immoral, i.e., seeing the harm in sensual desires in that they bring on
suffering and stress.

c. Right Speech: speaking the truth; not
saying anything divisive or inciteful; not saying anything coarse or
vulgar in situations where such words would not be proper; not saying
anything useless. Even though what we say may be worthwhile, if our
listener isn’t interested then our words would still count as useless.

d. Right Action: being true to our duties, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to ourselves or others.

e. Right Livelihood: obtaining wealth in ways that are honest, searching for it in a moral way and using it in a moral way.

f.
Right Effort: persisting in ridding ourselves of all that is wrong and
harmful in our thoughts, words, and deeds; persisting in giving rise to
what would be good and useful to ourselves and others in our thoughts,
words, and deeds, without a thought for the difficulty or weariness
involved; acting persistently so as to be a mainstay to others (except
in cases that are beyond our control).

g. Right Mindfulness:
being mindful and deliberate, making sure not to act or speak through
the power of inattention or forgetfulness, making sure to be constantly
mindful in our thoughts (being mindful of the four frames of reference).

h.
Right Concentration: keeping the mind centered and resilient. No matter
what we do or say, no matter what moods may strike the heart, the heart
keeps its poise, firm and unflinching in the four levels of jhana.

These
eight factors can be reduced to three — virtue, concentration, and
discernment — called the middle way, the heart of the Buddha’s
teachings. The ‘middleness’ of virtue means to be pure in thought, word,
and deed, acting out of compassion, seeing that the life of others is
like your own, that their possessions are like your own, feeling
benevolence, loving others as much as yourself. When ‘you’ and ‘they’
are equal in this way, you are bound to be upright in your behavior,
like a well-balanced burden that, when placed on your shoulders, doesn’t
cause you to tip to one side or the other. But even then you are still
in a position of having to shoulder a burden. So you are taught to focus
the mind on a single preoccupation: This can be called ‘holding in your
hands’ — i.e., holding the mind in the middle — or concentration.

The
middleness of concentration means focusing on the present, not sending
your thoughts into the past or future, holding fast to a single
preoccupation (anapanaka-jhana, absorption in the breath).

As
for the middleness of discernment: No matter what preoccupations may
come passing by, you are able to rid yourself of all feelings of liking
or disliking, approval or rejection. You don’t cling, even to the one
preoccupation that has arisen as a result of your own actions. You put
down what you have been holding in your hands; you don’t fasten onto the
past, present or future. This is release.

When our virtue,
concentration, and discernment are all in the middle this way, we’re
safe. Just as a boat going down the middle of a channel, or a car that
doesn’t run off the side of the road, can reach its destination without
beaching or running into a tree; so too, people who practice in this way
are bound to reach the qualities they aspire to, culminating in the
paths and fruitions leading to nibbana, which is the main point of the
Buddha’s teachings.

So in short, putting the Dhamma first means to search solely for purity of mind.

Q
17 What do you think of the five Buddhist precepts (Panca Sila) ?If you
are practicing, what are the benefits you derive? Please elaborate.

Panca Sila

Pãnãti-pãtã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Adinnã-dãnã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Kãmesu micchã-cãrã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Musãvãdã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Surã meraya-majja-pamã-datthãnã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi

I take the precept to
abstain from destroying living beings.
I take the precept to
abstain from taking things not given.
I take the precept to
abstain from sexual misconduct.
I take the precept to
abstain from false speech.
I take the precept to
abstain from taking anything that causes
intoxication or heedlessness.

By my daily training of my mind to practice Panca Sila I have realised that they are

Five faultless gifts

“There
are these five gifts, five great gifts — original, long-standing,
traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning —
that are not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and are
unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & priests. Which five?

 

As
a disciple of the noble ones, abandoning the taking of life, abstains
from taking life. In doing so, I have dervived freedom from  danger,
freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of
beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom
from oppression to limitless numbers of beings,I gain a share in
limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from
oppression. This is the first gift, the first great gift — original,
long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from
the beginning — that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to
suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives &
priests…

“Furthermore, abandoning taking what is not given
(stealing), as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my mind to
abstain from taking what is not given. In doing so, it gives freedom
from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to
limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, I
gain a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity,
and freedom from oppression. This is the second gift…

“Furthermore,
abandoning illicit sex, as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my
my mind to abstain from illicit sex. In doing so, it gives freedom from
danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless
numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, I
gain a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity,
and freedom from oppression. This is the third gift…

“Furthermore,
abandoning lying, as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my mind
to abstain from lying. In doing so, it gives freedom from danger,
freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of
beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom
from oppression to limitless numbers of beings,I gain a share in
limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from
oppression. This is the fourth gift…

“Furthermore, abandoning the
use of intoxicants, as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my
mind to abstain from taking intoxicants. In doing so, it gives freedom
from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to
limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he
gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity,
and freedom from oppression. This is the fifth gift, the fifth great
gift — original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated,
unadulterated from the beginning — that is not open to suspicion, will
never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable
contemplatives & priests. And this is the eighth reward of merit,
reward of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness, celestial, resulting
in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable,
pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to happiness.”



Q 18  On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after awakenment, the Buddha walked all the way from

Bodhi
Mandapa (Bodhgaya) to Isipatana in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this
mode of travelling rather than using psychic abilities as in the case of
other Buddhas?

Q 19  Having in mind whose spiritual well-being did he decide to walk rather than levitate ?
https://buddhaimonia.com/blog/buddhas-8-fold-path

Wisdom Quotes
150 Buddha Quotes That Will Make You Wiser (Fast)

get the quote of the day  click here by maxime lagacé

There is no fear for one whose mind is not filled with desires. Buddha Click to tweet

Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others. Buddha Click to tweet

If anything is worth doing, do it with all your heart. Buddha Click to tweet

A
man is not called wise because he talks and talks again; but if he is
peaceful, loving and fearless then he is in truth called wise. Buddha
Click to tweet

Do not look for a sanctuary in anyone except your self. Buddha Click to tweet

No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path. Buddha Click to tweet

To live a pure unselfish life, one must count nothing as one’s own in the midst of abundance. Buddha Click to tweet

All that we are is the result of what we have thought. Buddha Click to tweet

If we fail to look after others when they need help, who will look after us? Buddha Click to tweet

One who acts on truth is happy in this world and beyond. Buddha Click to tweet

See also: zen quotes, Rumi quotes, gratitude quotes

The Best Buddha Quotes (aka Siddhartha Gautama)

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Give, even if you only have a little.

Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.

Irrigators channel waters; fletchers straighten arrows; carpenters bend wood; the wise master themselves.

Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.

Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.

If you knew what I know about the power of giving, you would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.

The root of suffering is attachment.

Silence
the angry man with love. Silence the ill-natured man with kindness.
Silence the miser with generosity. Silence the liar with truth.

People with opinions just go around bothering each other.

Even as a solid rock is unshaken by the wind, so are the wise unshaken by praise or blame. Click to tweet

You yourself must strive. The Buddhas only point the way. Click to tweet

Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.

Meditate… do not delay, lest you later regret it.

Understanding is the heartwood of well-spoken words.

Ceasing to do evil, cultivating the good, purifying the heart: this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

Delight in meditation and solitude. Compose yourself, be happy. You are a seeker.

Ardently do today what must be done. Who knows? Tomorrow, death comes.

What you are is what you have been. What you’ll be is what you do now.

If you propose to speak always ask yourself, is it true, is it necessary, is it kind.

If
you find no one to support you on the spiritual path, walk alone. (This
is one of my favorite Buddha quote. Leave a reply and let me know
what’s yours!)

Part 2. Buddha Quotes That ARE…

Inspirational Buddha Quotes

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Stop, stop. Do not speak. The ultimate truth is not even to think. Click to tweet

We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.

Just
as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, so also this
teaching and discipline has one taste, the taste of liberation.

The
one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst that perpetuate
becoming; how could you track that Awakened one, trackless, and of
limitless range.

Endurance is one of the most difficult disciplines, but it is to the one who endures that the final victory comes.

Long
is the night to him who is awake; long is a mile to him who is tired;
long is life to the foolish who do not know the true law.

Whatever precious jewel there is in the heavenly worlds, there is nothing comparable to one who is Awakened.

Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Joy follows a pure thought like a shadow that never leaves.

Like
a fine flower, beautiful to look at but without scent, fine words are
fruitless in a man who does not act in accordance with them.

Our
theories of the eternal are as valuable as are those which a chick which
has not broken its way through its shell might form of the outside
world.

An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.

However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?

Chaos is inherent in all compounded things. Strive on with diligence.

See also: positive quote

Short Buddha Quotes

One
liners, thoughts and captions for your bio, social status, self-talk,
motto, mantra, signs, posters, wallpapers, backgrounds, tattoos, SMS,
Facebook, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Tumblr, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram,
etc.

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Attachment leads to suffering. Click to tweet

May all beings have happy minds.

Born out of concern for all beings.

I am the miracle.

A jug fills drop by drop.

Every human being is the author of his own health or disease.

The tongue like a sharp knife… Kills without drawing blood.

The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart. Click to tweet

More short quotes

You may also like:
inspirational quotes
motivational quotes
happiness quotes
love quotes
life quotes

Fake Buddha Quotes (Most Of Them Are Famous Too)

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The mind is everything. What you think you become.

Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.

You can only lose what you cling to.

I never see what has been done; I only see what remains to be done.

As you walk and eat and travel, be where you are. Otherwise you will miss most of your life.

The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.

A
man asked Gautama Buddha, “I want happiness.” Buddha said, “First
remove “I,” that’s Ego, then remove “want,” that’s Desire. See now, you
are left with only “Happiness”.

A family is a place where minds come in contact with one another.

Believe
nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I
have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common
sense.

If your compassion does not include yourself, it is incomplete.

In
the end, only three things matter: how much you loved, how gently you
lived, and how gracefully you let go of things not meant for you.

The foot feels the foot when it feels the ground.

A dog is not considered a good dog because he is a good barker. A man is not considered a good man because he is a good talker.

If we destroy something around us we destroy ourselves. If we cheat another, we cheat ourselves.

Every experience, no matter how bad it seems, holds within it a blessing of some kind. The goal is to find it.

Doubt everything. Find your own light.

A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.

Just as a snake sheds its skin, we must shed our past over and over again.

When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky.

Meditate. Live purely. Be quiet. Do your work with mastery. Like the moon, come out from behind the clouds! Shine.

My doctrine is not a doctrine but just a vision. I have not given you any set rules, I have not given you a system.

In
the sky, there is no distinction of east and west; people create
distinctions out of their own minds and then believe them to be true.

Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.

What you think you create, what you feel you attract, what you imagine you become.

Your work is to discover your world and then with all your heart give yourself to it.

There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.

When you like a flower, you just pluck it. But when you love a flower, you water it daily.

It is better to travel well than to arrive.

It
is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the
victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by angels or by
demons, heaven or hell.

If you truly loved yourself, you could never hurt another.

Every morning we are born again. What we do today is what matters most.

Life is so very hard. How can we be anything but kind?

See also: https://fakebuddhaquotes.com/

Part 3. Buddha Quotes ABOUT…

Buddha Quotes About Life, Family And Friendship

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Live every act fully, as if it were your last. Click to tweet

Virtue is persecuted more by the wicked than it is loved by the good.

Nothing ever exists entirely alone; everything is in relation to everything else.

Purity or impurity depends on oneself. No one can purify another.

To support mother and father, to cherish wife and child and to have a simple livelihood; this is the good luck.

One moment can change a day, one day can change a life and one life can change the world.

She who knows life flows, feels no wear or tear, needs no mending or repair.

An
insincere and evil friend is more to be feared than a wild beast; a
wild beast may wound your body, but an evil friend will wound your mind.

Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.

To be idle is a short road to death and to be diligent is a way of life; foolish people are idle, wise people are diligent.

Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let them resolutely pursue a solitary course.

If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.

See also: family quotes, friendship quotes

Buddha Quotes On Love And Gratitude

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True love is born from understanding. Click to tweet

Radiate boundless love towards the entire world.

You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.

Ambition is like love, impatient both of delays and rivals.

Love is a gift of one’s inner most soul to another so both can be whole.

Let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours.

We
will develop and cultivate the liberation of mind by lovingkindness,
make it our vehicle, make it our basis, stabilize it, exercise ourselves
in it, and fully perfect it.

Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through love. This is an unalterable law.

As rain falls equally on the just and the unjust, do not burden your heart with judgments but rain your kindness equally on all.

He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes.

Kindness should become the natural way of life, not the exception.

Speak only endearing speech, speech that is welcomed. Speech, when it brings no evil to others, is a pleasant thing.

One is not called noble who harms living beings. By not harming living beings one is called noble.

Being deeply learned and skilled, being well trained and using well spoken words: this is good luck.

Just as a mother would protect her only child with her life, even so let one cultivate a boundless love towards all beings.

In whom there is no sympathy for living beings: know him as an outcast.

Let
us rise up and be thankful, for if we didn’t learn a lot today, at
least we learned a little, and if we didn’t learn a little, at least we
didn’t get sick, and if we got sick, at least we didn’t die; so, let us
all be thankful.

Buddha Quotes On Fear

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Those attached to the notion ‘I am’ and to views roam the world offending people. Click to tweet

There
is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates
people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up
pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a
sword that kills.

Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a
snared hare; let therefore mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after
passionlessness for himself.

When one has the feeling of dislike
for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in listening to
good teachings; when one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is
free of fear.

The instant we feel anger we have already ceased striving for the truth, and have begun striving for ourselves.

More fear quotes

See also: deep quotes

Buddha Quotes On Mind And Mastering Yourself

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He is able who thinks he is able. Click to tweet

It is a man’s own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.

Delight in heedfulness! Guard well your thoughts!

Everything
is based on mind, is led by mind, is fashioned by mind. If you speak
and act with a polluted mind, suffering will follow you, as the wheels
of the oxcart follow the footsteps of the ox.

There is nothing so disobedient as an undisciplined mind, and there is nothing so obedient as a disciplined mind.

A
mind unruffled by the vagaries of fortune, from sorrow freed, from
defilements cleansed, from fear liberated — this is the greatest
blessing.

Know from the rivers in clefts and in crevices: those
in small channels flow noisily, the great flow silent. Whatever’s not
full makes noise. Whatever is full is quiet.

You are a seeker. Delight in the mastery of your hands and your feet, of your words and your thoughts.

See
them, floundering in their sense of mine, like fish in the puddles of a
dried-up stream — and, seeing this, live with no mine, not forming
attachment for states of becoming.

‘As I am, so are these. As are these, so am I.’ Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill.

All experiences are preceded by mind, having mind as their master, created by mind.

To
enjoy good health, to bring true happiness to one’s family, to bring
peace to all, one must first discipline and control one’s own mind. If a
man can control his mind he can find the way to Enlightenment, and all
wisdom and virtue will naturally come to him.

All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?

What
we are today comes from our thoughts of yesterday, and our present
thoughts build our life of tomorrow: Our life is the creation of our
mind.

The one who has conquered himself is a far greater hero than he who has defeated a thousand times a thousand men.

Transcendental
intelligence rises when the intellectual mind reaches its limit and if
things are to be realized in their true and essential nature, its
processes of thinking must be transcended by an appeal to some higher
faculty of cognition.

I will not look at another’s bowl intent on finding fault: a training to be observed.

The
external world is only a manifestation of the activities of the mind
itself, and the mind grasps it as an external world simply because of
its habit of discrimination and false-reasoning. The disciple must get
into the habit of looking at things truthfully.

Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought.

If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts happiness follows him like his never-departing shadow.

Quotes By Buddha On Happiness And Joy

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There is no path to happiness: happiness is the path. Click to tweet

Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.

Thousands
of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the
candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.

It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.

The
enlightened one, intent on jhana, should find delight in the forest,
should practice jhana at the foot of a tree, attaining his own
satisfaction.

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.

Set your heart on doing good. Do it over and over again, and you will be filled with joy.

Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.

We
are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose minds are shaped by
selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act. Joy follows them like
a shadow that never leaves them.

See also: funny quotes

Quotes By Buddha On Peace, Forgiveness And Letting Go

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Resolutely train yourself to attain peace. Click to tweet

Indeed,
the sage who’s fully quenched rests at ease in every way; no sense
desire adheres to him whose fires have cooled, deprived of fuel. All
attachments have been severed, the heart’s been led away from pain;
tranquil, he rests with utmost ease. The mind has found its way to
peace.

Do not turn away what is given you, nor reach out for what is given to others, lest you disturb your quietness.

Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace. Click to tweet

Quotes By Buddha On Meditation And Spirituality

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Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life. Click to tweet

Looking deeply at life as it is in this very moment, the meditator dwells in stability and freedom.

Meditation
brings wisdom; lack of mediation leaves ignorance. Know well what leads
you forward and what hold you back, and choose the path that leads to
wisdom.

Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking and pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.

See also: introvert quotes

Quotes By Buddha On Wisdom And Virtues

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The fool who knows he is a fool is that much wiser.

Whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing.

Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two.

What
is the appropriate behavior for a man or a woman in the midst of this
world, where each person is clinging to his piece of debris? What’s the
proper salutation between people as they pass each other in this flood?

The greatest gift is to give people your enlightenment, to share it. It has to be the greatest. Click to tweet

When watching after yourself, you watch after others. When watching after others, you watch after yourself.

Let
none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and commissions
of others. But let one see one’s own acts, done and undone.

The true master lives in truth, in goodness and restraint, non-violence, moderation, and purity.

Offend
in neither word nor deed. Eat with moderation. Live in your heart. Seek
the highest consciousness. Master yourself according to the law. This
is the simple teaching of the awakened.

Life is like the harp
string, if it is strung too tight it won’t play, if it is too loose it
hangs, the tension that produces the beautiful sound lies in the middle.

Do
not believe in anything simply because you have heard it. Do not
believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored by many. Do
not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your
religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of
your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions because they have
been handed down for many generations. But after observation and
analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason and is
conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and
live up to it.

Just as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so
virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and
peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze of human life, one needs
the light of wisdom and the guidance of virtue.

The wise ones fashioned speech with their thought, sifting it as grain is sifted through a sieve.

The virtues, like the Muses, are always seen in groups. A good principle was never found solitary in any breast.

More wisdom quotes

Quotes By Buddha On Karma And Nirvana

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Someone
who has set out in the vehicle of a Bodhisattva should decide that ‘I
must lead all the beings to nirvana, into that realm of nirvana which
leaves nothing behind’. What is this realm of nirvana which leaves
nothing behind ?

Quotes By Buddha On Change, Failure And Suffering

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Nothing is forever except change. Click to tweet

There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.

Both formerly and now, it is only suffering that I describe, and the cessation of suffering.

He
who can curb his wrath as soon as it arises, as a timely antidote will
check snake’s venom that so quickly spreads, — such a monk gives up the
here and the beyond, just as a serpent sheds its worn-out skin.

May all that have life be delivered from suffering.

It
is easy to see the faults of others, but difficult to see one’s own
faults. One shows the faults of others like chaff winnowed in the wind,
but one conceals one’s own faults as a cunning gambler conceals his
dice.

Buddha Quotes On Anger And Jealousy

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You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger. Click to tweet

Wear your ego like a loose fitting garment.

Some do not understand that we must die, but those who do realize this settle their quarrels.

Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is a law eternal.

All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.

I do not dispute with the world; rather it is the world that disputes with me.

They
blame those who remain silent, they blame those who speak much, they
blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in the world who is
not blamed.

Those who cling to perceptions and views wander the world offending people.

Whoever doesn’t flare up at someone who’s angry wins a battle hard to win.

Anger
will never disappear so long as thoughts of resentment are cherished in
the mind. Anger will disappear just as soon as thoughts of resentment
are forgotten.

Do not overrate what you have received, nor envy others. He who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.

See also: jealousy quotes

Buddha Quotes On Success, Patience And Strength

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Neither fire nor wind, birth nor death can erase our good deeds. Click to tweet

Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.

As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse.

Praise
and blame, gain and loss, pleasure and sorrow come and go like the
wind. To be happy, rest like a giant tree in the midst of them all.

In separateness lies the world’s greatest misery; in compassion lies the world’s true strength.

Be a lamp for yourselves. Be your own refuge. Seek for no other. All things must pass. Strive on diligently. Don’t give up.

Better
it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to live a
hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.

If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.

More patience quotes, strength quotes

Buddha Quotes On Health

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Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship. Buddha

To keep the body in good health is a duty… otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.

Without health life is not life; it is only a state of langour and suffering – an image of death.

The
secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past,
not to worry about the future, not to anticipate the future, but to live
the present moment wisely and earnestly.

More health quotes

Buddha Quotes On Truth

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Those who have failed to work toward the truth have missed the purpose of living. Click to tweet

Teach
this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of
service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.

There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth…not going all the way, and not starting.

The
calmed say that what is well-spoken is best; second, that one should
say what is right, not unrighteous; third, what’s pleasing, not
displeasing; fourth, what is true, not false.

Conquer the angry
one by not getting angry; conquer the wicked by goodness; conquer the
stingy by generosity, and the liar by speaking the truth.

Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.

Part 4. Quotes About Buddha

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If you use your mind to look for a Buddha, you won’t see the Buddha. Bodhidharma Click to tweet

And the Buddha is the person who’s free: free of plans, free of cares. Bodhidharma

As long as you look for a Buddha somewhere else, you’ll never see that your own mind is the Buddha. Bodhidharma

Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. Bodhidharma

Buddhas don’t practice nonsense. Bodhidharma

A Buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. Bodhidharma

Buddhas move freely through birth and death, appearing and disappearing at will. Bodhidharma

But deluded people don’t realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside. Bodhidharma

To find a Buddha all you have to do is see your nature. Bodhidharma

No
one can force us to transform our minds, not even Buddha. We must do so
voluntarily. Therefore Buddha stated, ‘You are your own master’. Dalai
Lama

The color of the mountains is Buddha’s body; the sound of running water is his great speech. Dogen

The Buddha and all sentient beings are nothing but expressions of the one mind. There is nothing else. Huang Po

To
awaken suddenly to the fact that your own Mind is the Buddha, that
there is nothing to be attained or a single action to be performed. This
is the Supreme Way. Huang Po

The words of the Buddha offer this truth: Hatred never ceases by hatred but by love alone is healed. Jack Kornfield

Respect Buddha and the gods without counting on their help. Miyamoto Musashi

Even
the buddha does not want anyone to follow him. Even the greatest
masters cannot give you a single commandment. They see you so uniquely
you, they see your freedom to be so uniquely for you. Osho

Just
two small things: meditation and let-go. Remember these two key words:
meditation and surrender. Meditation will take you in, and surrender
will take you into the whole. And this is the whole of religion. Within
these two words Buddha has condensed the whole essence of religion. Osho

There
is no need for God! If you want to meditate you can meditate without
God. Buddha meditated without God; he had no belief in God. Osho

A Buddha is a Buddha, a Krishna is a Krishna, and you are you. Osho

He
taught virtue, mindfulness, and wisdom. These are the three pillars of
Buddhist practice, as well as the wellsprings of everyday well-being,
psychological growth, and spiritual realization. Rick Hanson

If you cannot bow to Buddha, you cannot be a Buddha. It is arrogance. Shunryu Suzuki

Buddha
says there are two kinds of suffering: the kind that leads to more
suffering and the kind that brings an end to suffering. Terry Tempest
Williams

You need to have confidence that you have the capacity
to become a Buddha, the capacity of transformation and healing. Thich
Nhat Hanh

Part 5. Buddhism And Zen Quotes

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Man suffers only because he takes seriously what the gods made for fun. Alan Watts Click to tweet

The
only thing that is ultimately real about your journey is the step that
you are taking at this moment. That’s all there ever is. Alan Watts

Everything in moderation, including moderation. Buddhist saying

Learning
to let go should be learned before learning to get. Life should be
touched, not strangled. You’ve got to relax, let it happen at times, and
at others move forward with it. Ray Bradbury

Even if things
don’t unfold the way you expected, don’t be disheartened or give up. One
who continues to advance will win in the end. Daisaku Ikeda

If we learn to open our hearts, anyone, including the people who drive us crazy, can be our teacher. Pema Chödrön

Awareness is the greatest agent for change. Huang Po Click to tweet

Zen has no business with ideas. Suzuki Roshi

To understand everything is to forgive everything. Osho

We are not going in circles, we are going upwards. The path is a spiral; we have already climbed many steps. Hermann Hesse

The
secret of Buddhism is to remove all ideas, all concepts, in order for
the truth to have a chance to penetrate, to reveal itself. Thich Nhat
Hanh

If you want to change the world, start with the next person who comes to you in need. Maezumi Roshi

We are here to awaken from our illusion of separateness. Martin Luther King Jr

When you do something, you should burn yourself up completely, like a good bonfire, leaving no trace of yourself. Eckhart Tolle

Wherever you are, be there totally. Eckhart Tolle

Only the hand that erases can write the true thing. Meister Eckhart

Treat every moment as your last. It is not preparation for something else. Shunryu Suzuki

Q 20  What did the Buddha say regarding the nature of a Supreme Awakened One as given in the five verses ?
https://zenstudiespodcast.com/buddhas-enlightenment/
Shakyamuni Buddha’s Awakenment with Awareness : What Did He Realize?

According
to tradition, Buddhism began with the Buddha’s awakenment. This was the
spiritual awakening of one man, Siddhartha Gautama, somewhere between
528 and 445 BCE, who afterwards was called the “Buddha,” or “awakened
one.” He then taught others what he realized, along with the methods he
used to achieve that realization, and those teachings have been passed
down to the present day. What exactly did Siddhartha comprehend in his
awakenment?

Q 21  Write down the ideals enunciate by the Buddha in the five verses ?
https://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/qanda02.htm

What are the main teachings of the Buddha?

All
of the many teachings of the Buddha center on the Four Noble Truths
just as the rim and spokes of a wheel center on the hub. They are called
‘Four’ because there are four of them. They are called ‘Noble’ because
they ennoble one who understands them and they are called ‘Truths’
because, corresponding with reality, they are true.

What is the First Noble Truth?

The
First Noble Truth is that life is suffering. To live, you must suffer.
It is impossible to live without experiencing some kind of suffering. We
have to endure physical suffering like sickness, injury, tiredness, old
age and eventually death and we have to endure psychological suffering
like loneliness, frustrations, fear, embarrassment, disappointment,
anger, etc.

Isn’t this a bit pessimistic?

The
dictionary defines pessimism as ‘the habit of thinking that whatever
will happen will be bad,’ or ‘The belief that evil is more powerful than
good.’ Buddhism teaches neither of these ideas. Nor does it deny that
happiness exists. It simply says that to live is to experience physical
and psychological suffering which is a statement so true and so obvious
that it cannot be denied. The central concept of most religions is a
myth, a legend or a belief that is difficult or impossible to verify.
Buddhism starts with an experience, an irrefutable fact, a thing that
all know, that all have experienced and that all are striving to
overcome. Thus Buddhism is the only truly universal religion because it
goes right to the core of every individual human being’s concern -
suffering and how to avoid it.

What is the Second Noble truth?

The
Second Noble Truth is that all suffering is caused by craving. When we
look at psychological suffering, it is easy to see how it is caused by
craving. When we want something but are unable to get it, we feel
frustrated. When we expect someone to live up to our expectation and
they do not, we feel let down and disappointed. When we want others to
like us and they don’t, we feel hurt. Even when we want something and
are able to get it, this does not often lead to happiness either because
it is not long before we feel bored with that thing, lose interest in
it and commence to want something else. Put simply, the Second Noble
Truth says that getting what you want does not guarantee happiness.
Rather than constantly struggling to get what you want, try to modify
your wanting. Wanting deprives us of contentment and happiness.

But how does wanting and craving lead to physical suffering?

A
lifetime wanting and craving for this and that and especially the
craving to continue to exist creates a powerful energy that causes the
individual to be reborn. When we are reborn, we have a body and, as we
said before, the body is susceptible to injury and disease; it can be
exhausted by work; it ages and eventually dies. Thus, craving leads to
physical suffering because it causes us to be reborn.

That’s all very well. But if we stopped wanting altogether, we would never get or achieve anything.

True.
But what the Buddha says is that when our desires, our craving, our
constant discontent with what we have, and our continual longing for
more and more does cause us suffering, then we should stop doing it. He
asks us to make a difference between what we need and what we want and
to strive for our needs and modify our wants. He tells us that our needs
can be fulfilled but that our wants are endless - a bottomless pit.
There are needs that are essential, fundamental and that can be obtained
and this we should work towards. Desires beyond this should be
gradually lessened. After all, what is the purpose of life? To get or to
be content and happy.

You have talked about rebirth, but is there any proof that such a thing happens?

There is ample evidence that such a thing happens, but we will look at this in more detail later on.

What is the Third Noble Truth?

The
Third Noble Truth is that suffering can be overcome and happiness
attained. This is perhaps the most important of the Four Noble Truths
because in it the Buddha reassures us that true happiness and
contentment are possible. When we give up useless craving and learn to
live each day at a time, enjoying without restless wanting the
experiences that life offers us, patiently enduring the problems that
life involves without fear, hatred and anger, then we become happy and
free. Then, and only then, do we being to live fully. Because we are no
longer obsessed with satisfying our own selfish wants, we find we have
so much time to help others fulfil their needs. This state is called
Nirvana. We are free from all psychological suffering as well. This is
called Final Nirvana.

What or where is Nirvana?

It
is a dimension transcending time and space and thus is difficult to
talk about or even to think about. Words and thoughts being only suited
to describe the time-space dimension. But because Nirvana is beyond
time, there is no movement and so no aging or dying. Thus Nirvana is
eternal. Because it is beyond space, there is no causation, no boundary,
no concept of self and not-self and thus Nirvana is infinite. The
Buddha also assures us that Nirvana is an experience of profound
happiness. He says:

Nirvana is the highest happiness.
Dp 204

But is there any proof that such a dimension exists?

No,
there is not. But its existence can be inferred. If there is a
dimension where time and space do operate and there is such a dimension -
the world we experience, then we can infer that there is a dimension
where time and space do not operate - Nirvana. Again, even though we
cannot prove Nirvana exists, we have the Buddha’s word that it does
exist. He tells us:

“There is an. Unborn, a Not-become, a
Not-made, a Not-compounded. If there were not, this Unborn, Not become,
Not-made, Not-compounded, there could not be made any escape from what
is born, become, made, and compounded. But since there is this Unborn,
Not become, Not-made, Not-compounded, therefore is there made known an
escape from what is born, become, made, and compounded.”
Ud. 80

We will know it when we attain it. Until that time, we can still practice.

What is the Fourth Noble Truth?

The
Fourth Noble Truth is the Path leading to the overcoming of suffering.
This path is called the Noble Eightfold Path and consists of Perfect
Understanding, Perfect Thought, Perfect Speech, Perfect Action, Perfect
Livelihood, Perfect Effort, Perfect Mindfulness and Perfect
Concentration. Being a Buddhist practice consists of practicing these
eight things until they become more complete. You will notice that the
steps on the Noble Eightfold Path cover every aspect of life: the
intellectual, the ethical, the social and economic and the psychological
and therefore contain everything a person needs to lead a good life and
to develop spiritually.

Q 22  Who is the real conquer (Jino), and why so ? elaborate.

Q 23  On hearing the five gathas of the Buddha what did the other traveler say ?

https://quotesnsmiles.com/quotes/calming-buddha-quotes/
Below are 48 Calming Buddha Quotes:

“You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.”
– Buddha

“You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself
– Buddha

“However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?
– Buddha

“When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky”
– Buddha

“Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”
– Buddha

“You only lose what you cling to.”
– Buddha

“There
is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates
people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up
pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a
sword that kills.
– Buddha

“The mind is everything. What you think you become.”
– Buddha

“Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.”
– Buddha

“Holding
on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it
at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.”
– Buddha

“Believe
nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I
have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common
sense.
– Buddha

“Have compassion for all beings, rich and poor alike; each has their suffering. Some suffer too much, others too little.
– Buddha

“Thousands
of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life of the candle
will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.”
– Buddha

“You yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.”
– Buddha

“All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What we think we become.
– Buddha

“Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.”
– Buddha

“To understand everything is to forgive everything”
– Buddha

“We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.”
– Buddha

Like our Page if you like these Quotes
“The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.
– Buddha

“An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.
– Buddha

“A jug fills drop by drop.”
– Buddha

In
recent years the concept of Zen has gained a lot of popularity, which
is a buddhist Mahayana movement originated from China which emphasizes
enlightenment for its student in a direct possible way. Zen Buddism is a
ancestral tradition which has been passed on since the time of the
Buddha. We also have a selection sayings and proverbs in the form of zen
quotes which convey and describe the philosophy behind Zen.

“The tongue like a sharp knife… Kills without drawing blood.
– Buddha

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.
– Buddha

“A
dog is not considered a good dog because he is a good barker. A man is
not considered a good man because he is a good talker.”
– Buddha

“The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart.
– Buddha

“Teach
this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of
service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.
– Buddha

“The
whole secret of existence is to have no fear. Never fear what will
become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are
you freed.
– Buddha

“No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.
– Buddha

“The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, worry about the future, or an

ticipate troubles, but to live in the present moment wisely and earnestly.
– Buddha

“Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it.
– Buddha

“Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others.
– Buddha

“What we think, we become.
– Buddha

“To conquer oneself is a greater task than conquering others
– Buddha

“Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.
– Buddha

“He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes.
– Buddha

“To keep the body in good health is a duty…otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.
– Buddha

“There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.
– Buddha

“Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through love. This is an unalterable law.
– Buddha

“Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.
– Buddha

“Every human being is the author of his own health or disease.
– Buddha

“All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What we think we become”
– Buddha

“All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?”
– Buddha

“Thousands
of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life of the candle
will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.”
– Buddha

“Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”
– Buddha

“However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you If you do not act on

upon them?”
– Buddha

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”
– Buddha

“Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”
– Buddha

“In
the sky, there is no distinction of east and west; people create
distinctions out of their own minds and then believe them to be true.”
– Buddha

“If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.”
– Buddha

“The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.”
– Buddha

“Doubt everything. Find your own light.”
– Buddha



Q 24  Is it
possible to construe the Buddha either as a god or an incarnation,
prophet or messaiah of a god from what has been said about Boddhahood in
Buddha’s own words in the five gathas ?

I ) If your answer is no, write why do you think so.
II) If your answer is yes, please explain why do you think so.

https://fakebuddhaquotes.com/one-of-his-students-asked-buddha-are-you-the-messiah/
“One of his students asked Buddha, ‘Are you the messiah?’”

This one seems to be doing the rounds at the moment.

One of his students asked Buddha, “Are you the messiah?”

“No”, answered Buddha.

“Then are you a healer?”

“No”, Buddha replied.

“Then are you a teacher?” the student persisted.

“No, I am not a teacher.”

“Then what are you?” asked the student, exasperated.

“I am awake”, Buddha replied

This
is an awkward one, because nothing the Buddha says is actually
inaccurate. After all, he says “no” a lot and then says he’s awake. None
of those things is a misquote. And the dialogue kinda sorta happened,
but not in the terms used in the quote — but that’s what makes it
suspect, because the Buddha’s words have been put in a new, and
inconguous, context.

https://www.stillwatermpc.org/practice-resources/mindfulness-gathas/

https://www.stillwatermpc.org/practice-…/mindfulness-gathas/

Mindfulness Gathas by Thich Nhat Hanh

Waking Up

Waking up this morning, I smile.
Twenty four brand new hours are before me.
I vow to live fully in each moment
and to look at all beings with eyes of compassion

Brushing Teeth

Brushing my teeth and rinsing my mouth,
I vow to speak purely and lovingly.
When my mouth is fragrant with right speech,
a flower blooms in the garden of my heart.

Washing Your Feet

Peace and joy in each toe –
my own peace and joy.

Beginning a Sitting

Sitting here is like sitting under the Bodhi Tree
My body is mindfulness itself,
entirely free from distraction.

Walking Meditation

The mind can go in a thousand directions.
But on this beautiful path, I walk in peace.
With each step, a gentle wind blows.
With each step, a flower blooms.

Drinking Tea

This cup of tea in my two hands –
Mindfulness is held uprightly
My mind and body dwell
in the very here and now.

Talking on the Telephone

Words can travel thousands of miles.
May my words create mutual understanding and love.
May they be as beautiful as gems,
as lovely as flowers.

Driving a Car

Before starting the car
I know where I am going.
The car and I are one.
If the car goes fast, I go fast.
If the car goes slowly, I go slowly.

Smiling at Your Anger

Breathing in, I know that anger makes me ugly.
Breathing out, I do not want to be contorted by anger.
Breathing in, I know I must take care of myself.
Breathing out, I know loving kindness is the only answer.

Starting a Meal: The Five Contemplations

This food is the gift of the whole universe – the earth the sky, and much hard work.
May we eat in mindfulness so as to be worthy to receive it.
May we transform our unskillful states of mind and learn to eat with moderation.
May we take only foods that nourish us and prevent illness.
We accept this food to realize the path of understanding and love and joy.

Washing the Dishes

Washing the dishes
is like bathing a baby Buddha.
The profane is the sacred.
Everyday mind is Buddha’s mind.

Meditating or Walking

I have arrived.
I am home.
In the here,
In the now.
I am solid. – I am free.
In the ultimate
I dwell.

stillwatermpc.org
Mindfulness Gathas by Thich Nhat Hanh | Still Water Mindfulness Practice Center
Mindfulness
Gathas by Thich Nhat Hanh Waking Up Waking up this morning, I smile.
Twenty four brand new hours are before me. I vow to live fully in each…

25.WriteanessayonBuddha’sowndefinitionofBuddhahoodasgivenintheDonaSuta. 1

Q 25  Write an essay on Buddha’s own definition of Buddhahood as given in the Dona Sutta
Here’s a translation of portions of the original sutta:

On seeing him, [Dona] went to him and said, “Master, are you a deva [a god]?”

“No, brahman, I am not a deva.”

“Are you a gandhabba [a kind of low-grade god; a celestial musician]?”

“No…”

“… a yakkha [a kind of protector god, or sometimes a trickster spirit]?”

“No…”

“… a human being?”

“No, brahman, I am not a human being.”

“Then what sort of being are you?”

“Remember me, brahman, as ‘awakened.’”

I’ve
done a lot of truncating here, so that the relevant portions of the
sutta and the Fake Buddha Quote can be contrasted more easily.

First,
who is this “Dona” who is talking to the Buddha? It’s not a “student”
of the Buddha, as is stated in the Fake Buddha Quote. It’s a brahmin
priest who has seen the miraculous footprints of the Buddha, complete
with wheels of 1000 spokes, and who follows the Buddha to question him.

And
then there are the categories used in both the fake quote and the
sutta. In the fake quote the first category into which Dona tries to
pigeonhole the Buddha is “Messiah.” This is very inappropriate language,
and in fact it’s straight from the New Testament, Matthew 11:3.

Dona
of course doesn’t ask whether the Buddha is the long-awaited savior of
the Jews, or if we are to take the term Messiah in its more popular
sense, does he ask if the Buddha is a savior of any sort at all. He
merely asks if the Buddha is a divine being.

Dona, of course, is
not a Buddhist, so he wouldn’t have had a Buddhist understanding of the
term “deva.” Devas (gods) in Buddhism are not immortal or spiritually
awakened beings. They live mortal lives, although on a vastly longer
timescale than our own. And although they may have greater powers than
us, those powers are not in a Buddhist sense spiritual. They have no
insight. They are not awakened, as the Buddha is. Dona would not have
seen the gods this way. Presumably he would have seen them as immortal
and spiritually magnificent beings. So the Buddha rules this out. No, he
is not a god. I think we can safely assume that in Dona’s mind the
terms deva, gandabbha, yakkha, and human being represent progressively
less exalted kinds of beings.

Nor does Dona ask the Buddha if he
is a healer or a teacher. He’s simply concerned with whether the Buddha
is a divine being or a human being. He doesn’t ask about the Buddha in
terms of being a teacher or healer.

Dona finally tries asking the
Buddha if he could be described using a non-divine category — a human
being. The Buddha denies that he is this.

So while something like
this dialogue is recorded in the Buddhist scriptures, the terms have
been changed a lot, and so I’m going to regard this as a Fake Buddha
Quote.

But let’s take a moment to go back to the sutta. The
Buddha not only denies that he is a devine being, but he says in effect
that he is indefinable. He’s not even definable as a human being.

Brahman,
the āsavas [negative mental states] by which — if they were not
abandoned — I would be a deva: Those are abandoned by me, their root
destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of
development, not destined for future arising. The āsavas by which — if
they were not abandoned — I would be a gandhabba… a yakkha… a human
being: Those are abandoned by me, their root destroyed, made like a
palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined
for future arising.

There are various ways to interpret this.
Here’s how I see it. The āsavas are the basis of our clinging and of,
therefore, our self-view, which is just one particular form of clinging.
The Buddha has no clinging, because the āsavas have been destroyed.
Therefore the Buddha does not identify anything (body, mind, etc.) as
being “his self.” The Buddha lacks any theory of or idea about his own
self, and lives without reference to a self. He doesn’t define himself.
In fact it’s because he’s a Buddha that he doesn’t define himself. And
so, the Buddha is essentially undefinable. Those of us who are not
Buddhas can certainly try to pigeonhole him into one of the categories
we use, but these categories don’t match up with how the Buddha sees
himself, which is certainly not in terms of any of those categories, or
indeed in terms of any category we could imagine.

The Buddha’s
view of himself is — and I step out of traditional language here — a
direct perception of an indefinable “flow” or “process.” This process is
not perceived as being separate from the world, or as being part of a
“oneness” with the world.

And so, in the words of another sutta,
“you can’t pin down the Tathagata as a truth or reality even in the
present life.” In fact this sutta, the Anuradha Sutta, leads us through a
socratic dialog in which it’s made clear that the Buddha has no view of
a self. In fact this sutta ends with one of the most misinterpreted
lines from the whole Buddhist canon:

“Both formerly and now, it is only suffering that I describe, and the cessation of suffering.”

This
is often taken to mean that the Buddha only has one purpose, which is
to teach suffering and how to end it, but it’s clear from other suttas
that what the Buddha is saying is that suffering and the end of
suffering can exist, without there being a “self” to experience either
suffering or its end.

This is a difficult thing for us to get our
heads around, and the Buddha admitted when talking about the same topic
to a wantered called Vacchagotta:

“Of course you’re befuddled,
Vaccha. Of course you’re confused. Deep, Vaccha, is this phenomenon,
hard to see, hard to realize, tranquil, refined, beyond the scope of
conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. For those with other
views, other practices, other satisfactions, other aims, other teachers,
it is difficult to know.”

26.WhydidtheBrahminDonaputthosefourquestionsbasedonhisknowledgeofthe
footprint?

Q 26  Why did the brahmin Dona put those four questions based on his knowledge of the footprint?
Postscript

Those
footprints with thousand-spoked wheels! They surely didn’t exist. I
suppose some might say that Dona saw these by means of psychic powers,
but that’s not a world view that I buy into. I’d suggest that the
Buddha’s “footprints” here refer to his impact on those around him.
Perhaps Dona had met people who had been affected by the newly awakened
Buddha’s personality as he passed by on his wandering, and saw in the
reactions of those around him signs of something special. This
presentation in terms of the Buddha’s divine footprints is a reminder
that the Buddhist scriptures were edited for effect, and that reminds us
that there is no such thing as a definitive “Genuine Buddha Quote.”

27.WhydidtheBuddhagivenegativeanswerstoalthefourquestionsandwhatwashis
explanationregardingcankers?

Q 27 Why did the Buddha give give negative answers to all the four questions and what was his explanation cankers ?

28.Whatdoyouunderstandbythewordi)‘canker’?i)bythelotusanalogy?

Q 28  What do you understand by the word i) ‘canker’? ii) by lotus analogy?

image.png
As
a lotus flower is born in water, grows in water and rises out of water
to stand above it unsoiled, so I, born in the world, raised in the world
having overcome the world, live unsoiled by the world

29.Whatdo you understand aboutThe Buddha-nature as compared with the
lotus? Elaborateasclearlyasyoucan.

Q 29 What do you understand about the Buddha-nature as compared with the lotus ? Elaborate as clearly as you can.

https://buddhaweekly.com/buddha-nature-one-important-understandings-mahayana-buddhism-tathagatagarbha-buddha-nature-not-soul/
https://buddhaweekly.com/buddha-nature-one-important-under…/
Why
Buddha Nature is one of the most important understandings in Mahayana
Buddhism and why Tathagatagarbha Buddha Nature is not the soul
“Buddha
nature is all-encompassing … This Buddha nature is present just as the
shining sun is present in the sky.” — Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche
“In
Buddhism we don’t have a soul, we don’t have a concept of soul.” said
Venerable Zasep Rinpoche [in a soon to be released video on Buddha
Nature.] “To me, soul sounds like some sort of permanent thing, within
us. Nothing is permanent. Instead of soul, we have consciousness, mind
stream, and Buddha Nature.” [1]
The two ways that both Buddha Nature
and soul are actually similar is in the concept of being both “natural”
and “luminous.” Where they absolutely differ is on the concept of ego
and self; soul implies permanent attachment to a “self” which, at its
core, is the opposite of the Buddhist ideal of Emptiness.

Also,
in most traditions, happiness of the soul rely on the blessings of God.
In Buddhism, you could say it is completely self-help — only you can
develop your Buddha Nature. (People, Yidams, Buddhas can help, but
ultimately you have to do it.)

If it is not the soul, what is Buddha Nature?

Buddha
Nature is a lofty concept, understood by Enlightened Beings, but in a
certain way unteachable to the unenlightened. In the Uttaratantra it
says:

“It is subtle, so it is not the object of learning.
It is ultimate, so it is not the object of contemplation.
The dharmata is profound, so it is not the object of mundane meditation…”

Realizing
it is there, as taught by infallible Buddhas, is uplifting and
wonderful. Understanding exactly what it is more difficult. It can be
discussed, to a certain extent taught or commented upon, but ultimately
it is “ultimate” wisdom, far beyond our current ability to fully grasp.
On that level, it requires faith. But, for those who accept the
infallible teachings of Buddha, it is not faith, but acceptance of truth
we don’t yet fully understand. Even though we can’t fully understand,
it is important to know we have Buddha Nature.

Save

Two Types of Buddha Nature: Natural and Developing

Zasep Rinpoche explains that there are actually two types of Buddha Nature (Tathagatagharba):

“Natural
Tathagatagarbha is something that is with us always, and developing
Tathagatagarbha means that we have to develop. So, in other words, the
consciousness, our consciousness, is developing Tathagatagarbha.


Our consciousness is perceiving and imputing labels on objects, seeing
things as subject and object, and relationship between subject and
object. The subject and object of consciousness is inter-dependent.
Dependent arising. There is no inherent existence. Therefore, the true
nature of the consciousness is Shunyata. The ultimate nature of the mind
is Empty, like it states in the Heart Sutra: “Likewise, consciousness
is Empty, and Emptiness is also consciousness.” Consciousness is
emptiness. So, natural Tathagatagarbha is the emptiness of the mind.”

buddhaweekly.com
Why Buddha Nature is one of the most important understandings in Mahayana Buddhism and why…

30.ThemessageoftheBuddhainthissutacanbebrieflyexpressedthus:“ThoughIam
bornintheworld,Iam aboveit.Itcannotsoilme.”Howwouldyouinterpretit?

Q
30 The message of the Buddha in this Sutta can be breifly expressed
thus: ” Though I am born in the world, I am above it. It cannot spoil
me.” How would you interpret it ?

31.Howareyougoingtoapplythismessageinyourdailylife?Pleasewriteclearly.

Q 31 How are you going to apply this message in your daily life ? Please write clearly.

32.Pleaseclarify:-
i.WhatisBodhiandhowmanykindsofBodhiarethere?
i.WhoisaBodhisataandhowmanytypesofBodhisatasarethere?
i.WhoisaBuddhaandhowmanytypesofBuddhasarethere?

Q 32 Please clarify:
i. What is Bodhi and how many kinds of Bodhi are there ?
ii Who is a Bodhisatta and how many typts of Bodhisattas are there ?
https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/…/are-there-bodhisatta-p…

Bodhisatta
practices in Theravada are mentioned in Buddhavamsa, Jataka and Apadana
atthakatha, especially in Visuddhajanavilāsiniyā, Apadana Atthakatha,
the commentary of Apadana, which is believed to be a late addition to
the Pali Canon, added after the Second and Third Buddhist Councils. This
is probably why we hear that the notion of bodhisatta is a late
addition. However, in Theravada countries like Sri Lanka where I come
from, the bodhisattas are widely accepted. (See also the wikipedia
section on Theravada bodhisattas. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhisattva)

According
to Buddhavagga section in Apadana Atthakathaa, Theravada Buddhism has
ten perfections dasapāramitā (Giving, morality, renunciation, wisdom,
energy, patience, truthfulness, determination, loving kindness and
equanimity) and there are three types of bodhisattas, the ones aspiring
to be Sammāsambuddha, Pacceka Buddha (a private Buddha) and Savaka
Buddha (arahant).

According to the section Buddhavagga in Apadana
Atthakathaa, to become a Sammāsambuddha, one requires either 4×10^140
(cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni), 8×10^140 (aṭṭha asaṅkhyeyyāni) or 16×10^140
(soḷasa asaṅkhyeyyāni) eons of pāramitā perfection

‘‘buddhānaṃ,
bhante, patthanā kīva ciraṃ vaṭṭatī’’ti. Buddhānaṃ, ānanda,
heṭṭhimaparicchedena cattāri asaṅkhyeyyāni kappasatasahassañca,
majjhimaparicchedena aṭṭha asaṅkhyeyyāni kappasatasahassañca,
uparimaparicchedena soḷasa asaṅkhyeyyāni kappasatasahassañca Apadana
Atthakathaa

depending on whether he has high wisdom (Paññādhika), faith (Saddhādhika) or effort (Vīriyādhika).

Ete ca bhedā paññādhikasaddhādhikavīriyādhikānaṃ
vasena ñātabbā. Paññādhikānañhi saddhā mandā hoti, paññā tikkhā.
Saddhādhikānaṃ paññā majjhimā hoti, saddhā tikkhā. Vīriyādhikānaṃ saddhā
paññā mandā hoti, vīriyaṃ tikkhanti.
Apadana Atthakathaa

A bodhisatta aspiring to be a pacceka buddha requires 2×10^140 (dve asaṅkhyeyyāni) eons of practice.

paccekabuddho paccekabodhisattabhūmiṃ ogāhanto dve asaṅkhyeyyāni kappasatasahassañca pāramiyo pūretvā
Apadana Atthakathaa

For an arahant a time limit is not given for the bodhisatta period.

buddhism.stackexchange.com
Are there Bodhisatta practices within Theravada?
In
the Majjhima Nikaya, there are mentions of Bodhisattvas. For instance,
Bhayabherava Sutta (4. Fear and Dread) says: “Before my awakenment,…

iii Who is a Buddha and how many types of Buddhas are there ?
Types of Buddha

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In Buddhism, three types of Buddha are recognized.

Sammasambuddha, often simply referred to as Buddha
Paccekabuddha
Savakabuddha
The
first two types of Buddha both achieve Nirvana through their own
efforts, without a teacher to point out the Dharma. The term
Savakabuddha does not occur in the Theravadin Pali Canon, but is
mentioned in three Theravadin commentarial works[dubious – discuss], in
Mahayana texts like Shantideva’s Bodhisattvacharlavadacrechlkyadifaeikyavatara[1] and in the Tibetan tradition[2], and refers to an enlightened disciple of the Buddha.

Contents

[show]
Samyaksambuddha

Samyaksambuddhas
(Pali: Sammasambuddha) gain Nirvana by their own efforts, and discover
the Dhamma without having a teacher to point it out. They then lead
others to enlightenment by teaching the Dhamma in a time or world where
it has been forgotten or has not been taught before, because a
Samyaksambuddha does not depend upon a tradition that stretches back to a
previous Samyaksambuddha, but instead discovers the path anew. The
historical Buddha, Gautama Buddha, is considered a Samyaksambuddha. See
also the list of 28 sammasambuddhas.

Three variations can be
distinguished in the way of achieving Samyaksambuddha-hood. With more
wisdom (prajñādhika), with more effort (vīryādhika) or with more faith
(śraddhādhika). Śākyamuni was a Prajñādhika (through more wisdom)
Buddha. The next Buddha of this world, Maitreya (Pāli: Metteyya) will be
a Vīryādhika (through more effort) Buddha.

Pratyekabuddha

Pratyekabuddhas
(Pali: Pacceka Buddha) are similar to Samyaksambuddhas in that they
attain Nirvāṇa without having a teacher. Unlike the Samyaksambuddha
however, they do not teach the Dhamma that they have discovered. Thus,
they also do not form a Saṅgha of disciples to carry on the teaching,
since they do not teach in the first place.

In some works they
are referred to as “silent Buddhas”. Several comparatively new Buddhist
scriptures (of later origin; after the Buddha’s demise, like the
Jātakas), show Pratyekabuddhas giving teachings. A Paccekabuddha can
sometimes teach and admonish people, but these admonitions are only in
reference to good and proper conduct (abhisamācārikasikkhā), not
concerning Nirvana.

In some texts, they are described as ‘one who
understands the Dharma by his own efforts, but does not obtain
omniscience nor mastery over the Fruits’ (phalesu vasībhāvam).

Śrāvakabuddha

Śrāvaka
(Skt.; Pali: sāvaka; means “hearer” or “follower”) is a disciple of a
Sammasambuddha. An enlightened disciple is generally called an arahant
(Noble One) or ariya-sāvaka (Noble Disciple). (These terms have slightly
varied meanings but can both be used to describe the enlightened
disciple.) The Theravadin commentary to the Udana uses the term
sāvaka-buddha (Pali; Skt. śrāvakabuddha) to describe the enlightened
disciple[3] This third types of Buddha is also acknowledged in Mahayana
texts [4] and in Tibetan Buddhism.[2]

Enlightened disciples
attain Nirvana as do the two aforementioned types of Buddhas. After
attaining enlightenment, disciples may also lead others to
enlightenment. One can not become a disciple of a Buddha in a time or
world where the teaching of the Buddha has been forgotten or has not
been taught before, because this type of enlightenment is dependent on a
tradition that stretches back to a Samyaksambuddha.

A rarely
used word, anubuddha, was a term used by the Buddha in the
Khuddakapatha[5] for those who become buddhas after being given
instruction.

Teaching and Studying

The types of Buddha do
not correspond to a different Dharma or truth; the truth discovered by
them is one and the same. The distinctions are based solely on issues
concerning studying and teaching. If one has a teacher who points out
the Dharma and one realises this Dharma for oneself also, one is an
Arahant (Śrāvaka). If one discovers the Dharma without a teacher, and
subsequently chooses to teach, one is a Sammasambuddha. If one discovers
the Dharma without a teacher and chooses not to teach one is a
Paccekabuddha.

Also in Theravada Buddhism one is warned against
striving for the purpose of attaining some status, and it is further
taught that the same Dharma (truth or teaching) both attract, guides and
saves living beings. No distinction in truths or teachings is being
made (as is sometimes common in Mahayana), although not everyone is
taught in the same way (people have different characters and
inclinations).




48.WriteanessayoftwelvefactorsoftheLaw
ofdependentorigination.Whatdoesthe dependentoriginationportray?

Q 48 Write an essay of twelve factors of the law of dependent origination. What does the dependent origination portray ?
https://www.budsas.org/ebud/whatbudbeliev/106.htm

Law of Dependent Origination
 

“No God, no Brahma can be found
No matter of this wheel of life
Just bare phenomena roll
Depend on conditions all.(Visuddhi Magga)”

The
Law of Dependent Origination is one of the most important teachings of
the Buddha, and it is also very profound. The Buddha has often expressed
His experience of Awakenment in one of two ways, either in terms of
having understood the Four Noble Truths, or in terms of having
understood the nature of the dependent origination. However, more people
have heard about the Four Noble Truths and can discuss it than the Law
of Dependent Origination, which is just as important.

Although
the actual insight into dependent origination arises with spiritual
maturity, it is still possible for us to understand the principle
involved. The basis of dependent origination is that life or the world
is built on a set of relations, in which the arising and cessation of
factors depend on some other factors which condition them. This
principle can be given in a short formula of four lines:

When this is, that is
This arising, that arises
When this is not, that is not
This ceasing, that ceases.

On
this principle of interdependence and relativity rests the arising,
continuity and cessation of existence. This principle is known as the
Law of Dependent Origination in Pali, Paticca-samuppada. This law
emphasizes an important principle that all phenomena in this universe
are relative, conditioned states and do not arise independently of
supportive conditions. A phenomenon arises because of a combination of
conditions which are present to support its arising. And the phenomenon
will cease when the conditions and components supporting its arising
change and no longer sustain it. The presence of these supportive
conditions, in turn, depend on other factors for their arising,
sustenance and disappearance.

The Law of Dependence Origination
is a realistic way of understanding the universe and is the Buddhist
equivalent of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. The fact that everything
is nothing more than a set of relations is consistent with the modern
scientific view of the material world. Since everything is conditioned,
relative, and interdependent, there is nothing in this world which could
be regarded as a permanent entity, variously regarded as an ego or an
eternal soul, which many people believe in.

The phenomenal world
is built on a set of relations, but is this the way we would normally
understand the world to be? We create fictions of its permanency in our
minds because of our desires. It is almost natural for human beings to
cling to what they consider as beautiful or desirable, and to reject
what is ugly or undesirable. Being subjected to the forces of greed and
hatred, they are misled by delusion, clouded by the illusion of the
permanency of the object they cling to or reject. Therefore, it is hard
for us to realize that the world is like a bubble or mirage, and is not
the kind of reality we believe it to be. We do not realize that it is
unreal in actuality. It is like a ball of fire, which when whirled
around rapidly, can for a time, create the illusion of a circle.

The
fundamental principle at work in dependent origination is that of cause
and effect. In dependent origination, what actually takes place in the
causal process is described in detail. To illustrate the nature of
dependent origination of the things around us, let us consider an oil
lamp. The flame in an oil lamp burns dependent upon the oil and the
wick. When the oil and the wick are present, the flame in an oil lamp
burns. If either of these is absent, the flame will cease to burn. This  
  example illustrates the principle of dependent origination with
respect to a flame in an oil lamp. Or in an example of a plant, it is
dependent upon the seed, earth, moisture, air and sunlight for the plant
to grow. All these phenomena arise dependent upon a number of causal
factors, and not independently. This is the principle of dependent
origination.

In the Dhamma, we are interested to know how the
principle of dependent origination is applied to the problem of
suffering and rebirth. The issue is how dependent origination can
explain why we are still going round in Samsara, or explain the problem
of suffering and how we can be free from suffering. It is not meant to
be a description of the origin or evolution of the universe. Therefore,
one must not be mistaken into assuming that ignorance, the first factor
mentioned in the dependent     origination, is the first cause. Since
everything arises because of some preceding causes, there can be no
first cause.

According to the Law of Dependent Origination,
there are twelve factors which account for the continuity of existence
birth after birth. The factors are as follows:

Through ignorance are conditioned volitional actions or kamma-formations.
Through volitional actions is conditioned consciousness.
Through consciousness are conditioned mental and physical phenomena.
Through mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the six faculties(i.e., five physical sense-organs and mind).
Through the six faculties is conditioned (sensorial and mental) contact.
Through (sensorial and mental)contact is conditioned sensation.
Through sensation is conditioned desire, ‘thirst”.
Through desire (’thirst’) is conditioned clinging.
Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming.
Through the process of becoming is conditioned birth.
Through birth are conditioned decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.

This
is how life arises, exists and continues, and how suffering arises.
These factors may be understood as sequentially spanning over a period
of three life-times; the past life, the present life, and the future
life. In the dependent origination, ignorance and mental formation
belong to the past life, and represent the conditions that are
responsible for the occurrence of this life. The following factors,
namely, consciousness, mental and physical phenomena, the six senses,
contact, sensation, desire, clinging and becoming, are factors involved
in the present life. The last two factors, birth and decay and death,
belong to the future life.

In this law, the first factor of
Ignorance gives rise to Volitional Activities (or kamma). Ignorance
means not knowing or understanding the true nature of our existence.
Through Ignorance, good or evil deeds are performed which will lead a
person to be reborn. Rebirth can occur in various planes of existence:
the human world, the celestial or higher planes, or even suffering
planes depending of the quality of a person’s kamma. When a person dies,
his Volitional Activities will condition the arising of Consciousness,
in this case to mean the re-linking Consciousness which arises as the
first spark of a new life in the process of re-becoming.

Once
the re-linking Consciousness has taken place, life starts once again.
Dependent on the Consciousness, there arise Mind and Matter, that is, a
new ‘being’ is born. Because there are Mind and Matter, there arise the
six Sense-organs (the sixth sense is the mind itself). With the arising
of the Sense-organs, there arises Contact. Contact with what? Contact
with sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile objects, and mental
objects.

These sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile objects,
and mental objects can be beautiful, pleasing and enticing. On the other
hand, they can be ugly and distasteful. Therefore, dependent on Contact
arises Sensations: feelings that are pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
Because of these feelings, the laws of attraction (greed)and repulsion
(aversion) are now set in motion. Beings are naturally attracted to
pleasant objects and repelled by unpleasant objects. As a result of
Sensation, Desire arises. A person desires and thirsts for forms that
are beautiful and enticing; sounds that are beautiful and enticing;
tastes, smells, touch, and objects which the mind regards as beautiful
and enticing. From these Desires, he develops very strong Clinging to
the beautiful object (or strongly rejects the repulsive object). Now
because of this Clinging and attachment, the next life is conditioned
and there arises Becoming. In other words, the processes of Becoming are
set in motion by Clinging.

The next link in this chain of
Dependent Origination is that Becoming conditions the arising of Birth.
And finally, dependence on Birth arise Decay and Death, followed by
Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief and Despair.

The process can be
ceased if the formula is taken in the reverse order: Through the
complete cessation of ignorance(through the cultivation of Insight),
volitional activities or kamma-formations cease; through the cessation
of volitional activities, consciousness ceases; °‚ through the cessation
of birth, the other factors of decay, death, sorrow, etc., cease.
Therefore, one can be free from the rounds of rebirth through the
eradication of ignorance.

To re-iterate what was mentioned
earlier, this doctrine of Dependent Origination merely explains the
processes of Birth and Death, and is not a theory of the evolution of
the world. It deals with the Cause of re-birth and Suffering, but in no
way attempts to show the absolute Origin of Life. Ignorance in Dependent
Origination is the ignorance of the Four Noble Truths. It is very
important for us to understand the Four Noble Truths because it is the
ignorance of these Truths that has trapped us all in the endless cycle
of birth and death.

According to the Buddha, while He was
speaking to Ananda: It is by their not being able to comprehend the
Dependent Origination, that people are entangled like a ball of cotton,
and not being able to see the Truth, are always afflicted by Sorrow,
–born often into conditions that are dismal and dreary, where confusion
and prolonged suffering prevail. And, they do not know how to
disentangle themselves to get out.

-ooOoo-

49.WritedownthetextofthePaticcaSamuppadabothinPàliandEnglishinforwardand
backwardorders.

Q 49 Write down text of the Paticca Samppada both in Pali and English in forward and backward orders ?

https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/paticcasamuppada
Paticcasamuppada, aka: Paticca-samuppada, Paṭiccasamuppāda; 7 Definition(s)

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Theravada > glossary [P]
[Paticcasamuppada in Theravada glossaries]
« previous · next »
Dependent
co arising; dependent origination. A map showing the way the aggregates
(khandha) and sense media (ayatana) interact with ignorance (avijja)
and craving (tanha) to bring about stress and suffering (dukkha). As the
interactions are complex, there are several different versions of
paticca samuppada given in the suttas. In the most common one, the map
starts with ignorance. In another common one, the map starts with the
interrelation between name (nama) and form (rupa) on the one hand, and
sensory consciousness (vinnana) on the other.

(Source): Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
Conditioned
production of the twelve interdependent causes. It is the explanation
of the anatta process, it rules over the appearance and disappearance of
each phenomenon.

See also: paticca samuppada

(Source): Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
‘dependent
origination’, is the doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and
psychical phenomena, a doctrine which, together with that of
impersonality (anattā), forms the indispensable condition for the real
understanding and realization of the teaching of the Buddha. It shows
the conditionality and dependent nature of that uninterrupted flux of
manifold physical and psychical phenomena of existence conventionally
called the ego, or man, or animal, etc.

Whereas the doctrine of
impersonality, or anattā, proceeds analytically, by splitting existence
up into the ultimate constituent parts, into mere empty, unsubstantial
phenomena or elements, the doctrine of dependent origination, on the
other hand, proceeds synthetically, by showing that all these phenomena
are, in some way or other, conditionally related with each other. In
fact, the entire Abhidhamma Pitaka, as a whole, treats really of nothing
but just these two doctrines: phenomenality - implying impersonality
and conditionality of all existence. The former or analytical method is
applied in Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka; the
latter or synthetical method, in Patthāna, the last book of the
Abhidhamma Pitaka. For a synopsis of these two works, s. Guide I and
VII.

Though this subject has been very frequently treated by
Western authors, by far most of them have completely misunderstood the
true meaning and purpose of the doctrine of dependent origination, and
even the 12 terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.

The formula of dependent origination runs as follows:
1.
Avijiā-paccayā sankhārā: “Through ignorance are conditioned the
sankhāras,” i.e. the rebirth-producing volitions (cetanā), or
‘karma-formations’ .
2. Sankhāra-paccayā viññānam: “Through the
karma-formations (in the past life) is conditioned consciousness (in the
present life).”
3. Viññāna-paccayā nāma-rūpam: “Through
consciousness are conditioned the mental and physical phenomena
(nāma-rūpa),” i.e. that which makes up our so-called individual
existence.
4. Nāma-rūpa-paccayā salāyatanam: “Through the mental and
physical phenomena are conditioned the 6 bases,” i.e. the 5 physical
sense-organs, and consciousness as the sixth.
5. Salāyatana-paccayā phasso: “Through the six bases is conditioned the (sensorial mental) impression.”
6. Phassa-paccayā vedanā: “Through the impression is conditioned feeling.”
7. Vedanā-paccayā tanhā: “Through feeling is conditioned craving.”
8. Tanhā-paccayā upādānam: “Through craving is conditioned clinging.”
9.
Upādāna-paccayā bhavo: “Through clinging is conditioned the process of
becoming,” consisting in the active and the passive life process, i.e.
the rebirth-producing karma-process (kamma-bhava) and, as its result,
the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava).
10. Bhava-paccayā jāti: “Through the (rebirth-producing karma-) process of becoming is conditioned rebirth.”
11.
Jāti-paccayā jarāmaranam, etc.: “Through rebirth are conditioned old
age and death (sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair). Thus
arises this whole mass of suffering again in the future.”
 

The following diagram shows the relationship of dependence between three successive lives:

PAST

1 Ignorance (avijjā)
2 Karma-formations (sankhārā)
Karma-Process (kammabhava) 5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10
PRESENT

3 Consciousness (viññāna)
4 Mind & Matter (nāma-rūpa)
5 Six Bases (āyatana)
6 Impression (phassa)
7 Feeling (vedanā)
Rebirth-Process (upapattibhava)

5 results: 3-7

8 Craving (tanhā)
10 Process of Becoming (bhava)
Karma-Process (kammabhava) 5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10
FUTURE

11 Rebirth (jāti)
12 Old Age and Death (jarā-marana)
Rebirth-Process (upapattibhava) 5 results: 3-7
Before
taking up the study of the following exposition, it is suggested that
the reader first goes thoroughly through the article on the 24
conditions (s. paccaya). For a thorough understanding of the
paticcasamuppāda he should know the main modes of conditioning, as
decisive support, co-nascence, pre-nascence, etc.

For a closer study of the subject should be consulted:

Vis.M. XVII;
Fund. III;
Guide (Ch. VII and Appendix);
Dependent Origination, by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 15);
The Significance of Dependent Origination (WHEEL 140).
(Source): Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Paticcasamuppada
is Pali language, a combination of three words, i.e. Patticca means
because” and “dependent upon.” Sam means well, Uppada means arising of
effect through cause, so dependent on cause there arises effect, hence
it is known in English as Law of Dependent Origination or Cycle of
Rebirth.

(Source): This is Myanmar: The Doctrine of Paticcasammupada
Paticcasamuppada
is Pali language, a combination of three words, i.e. Patticca means
because” and “dependent upon.” Sam means well, Uppada means arising of
effect through cause, so dependent on cause there arises effect, hence
it is known in English as Law of Dependent Origination or Cycle of
Rebirth.

(Source): This is Myanmar: The Doctrine of Paticcasammupada
context information
Theravāda
is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as
their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic
rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka
(philosophy and psychology).

Discover the meaning of paticcasamuppada in the context of Theravada from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Pali > glossary [P]
[Paticcasamuppada in Pali glossaries]
« previous · next »
paṭiccasamuppāda : (m.) causal genesis; dependent origination.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Paṭicca-samuppāda,
(p. +samuppāda, BSk. prātītyasamutpāda, e.g. Divy 300, 547) “arising on
the grounds of (a preceding cause)” happening by way of cause, working
of cause & effect, causal chain of causation; causal genesis,
dependent origination, theory of the twelve causes.—See on this Mrs. Rh.
D. in Buddhism 90 f. , Ency. Rel. & Ethics, s. v. & KS. II, ,
preface. Cpd. p. 260 sq. with diagram of the “Wheel of Life”; Pts. of
Controversy, 390 f.—The general formula runs thus: Imasmiṃ sati, idaṃ
hoti, imass’uppādā, idaṃ uppajjati; imasmiṃ asati, idaṃ na hoti; imassa
nirodhā, idaṃ nirujjhati. This being, that becomes; from the arising of
this, that arises; this not becoming, that does not become: from the
ceasing of this, that ceases M. II, 32; S. II, 28 etc. The term usually
occurs applied to dukkha in a famous formula which expresses the
Buddhist doctrine of evolution, the respective stages of which are
conditioned by a preceding cause & constitute themselves the cause
of resulting effect, as working out the next state of the evolving
(shall we say) “individual” or “being, ” in short the bearer of
evolution. The respective links in this chain which to study & learn
is the first condition for a “Buddhist” to an understanding of life,
and the cause of life, and which to know forward and backward
(anuloma-paṭilomaṃ manas’âkāsi Vin. I, 1) is indispensable for the
student, are as follows. The root of all, primary cause of all
existence, is avijjā ignorance; this produces saṅkhārā: karma, dimly
conscious elements, capacity of impression or predisposition (will,
action, Cpd.; synergies Mrs. Rh. D.), which in their turn give rise to
viññāṇa thinking substance (consciousness, Cpd.; cognition Mrs. Rh. D.),
then follow in succession the foll. stages: nāmarūpa individuality
(mind & body, animated organism Cpd.; name & form Mrs. Rh. D.),
saḷāyatana the senses (6 organs of sense Cpd.; the sixfold sphere Mrs.
Rh. D.), phassa contact, vedanā feeling, taṇhā thirst for life
(craving), upādāna clinging to existence or attachment (dominant idea
Cpd.; grasping Mrs. Rh. D.), bhava (action or character Cpd.; renewed
existence Mrs. Rh. D.), jāti birth (rebirth conception Cpd.), jarāmaraṇa
(+soka-parideva-dukkhadomanass’ûpayāsā) old age & death
(+tribulation, grief, sorrow, distress & despair). The BSk. form is
pratītya-samutpāda, e.g. at Divy 300, 547.

The Paṭicca-samuppāda
is also called the Nidāna (“basis, ” or “ground, ” i.e. cause)
doctrine, or the Paccay’ākāra (“related-condition”), and is referred to
in the Suttas as Ariya-ñāya (“the noble method or system”). The term
paccay’ākāra is late and occurs only in Abhidhamma-literature.—The
oldest account is found in the Mahāpadāna Suttanta of the Dīgha Nikāya
(D. II, 30 sq.; cp. Dial. II. 24 sq.), where 10 items form the
constituents of the chain, and are given in backward order, reasoning
from the appearance of dukkha in this world of old age and death towards
the original cause of it in viññāṇa. The same chain occurs again at S.
II, 104 sq.—A later development shows 12 links, viz. avijjā and saṅkhārā
added to precede viññāṇa (as above). Thus at S. II, 5 sq.—A detailed
exposition of the P. -s. in Abhidhamma literature is the exegesis given
by Bdhgh at Vism. XVII. (pp. 517—586, under the title of
Paññā-bhūmi-niddesa), and at VbhA. 130—213 under the title of
Paccayākāra-vibhaṅga. ‹-› Some passages selected for ref. : Vin. I, 1
sq.; M. I, 190, 257; S. I, 136; II, 1 sq. , 26 sq. , 42 sq. , 70, 92 sq.
, 113 sq.; AI. 177; V, 184; Sn. 653; Ud. 1 sq.; Ps. I, 50 sq.; 144;
Nett 22, 24, 32, 64 sq.; DA. I, 125, 126.

—kusala skilled in the (knowledge of the) chain of causation M. III, 63; Nd1 171; f. abstr. °kusalatā D. III, 212. (Page 394)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary

context information
Pali
is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda
Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to
Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of paticcasamuppada in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

50.GivedetailsaccountofAshoka’sNinemessangersofDhammadispatchedtonine
countries?

Q 50 Give details account of Ashoka’s Nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?

http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/budhist/asoka.htm

King Ashoka was responsible for a number of Buddhist monuments

Emperor Ashoka (B.C. 304-239)
Emperor Ashoka as a great ruler of India and as promoter of Buddhism holds an important role in the history of the world.

 

 

Asoka

and

the

spread

of

Dhamma

History
shows that during the time of the Buddha, the Kings Bimbisara,
Suddhodana, and Prasenajita received great benefit from their practice
of the Dhamma, and naturally wanted to share this benefit with others.
They enthusiastically supported the dissemination of the Buddha’s
teaching in their respective kingdoms. Yet the fact remains that the
Dhamma spread to the masses not only because of this royal patronage but
because of the efficacy of the technique itself. This technique enables
anyone who applies it to come out of misery by rooting out the mental
impurities of greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), and delusion (moha). A
simple and universal technique, it can be practised by men and women
from any class, any sect, any communal group, with the same results.
Suffering is universal: unwanted things happen and desired things may or
may not happen. A universal malady must have a universal remedy: Dhamma
is this remedy. The Buddha compassionately and freely distributed the
Dhamma throughout northern India, attracting a large number of people in
what was then called Majjhima Desa.

Similarly after the time of
the Buddha, during the time of Emperor Asoka in the third century B.C.,
the Dhamma spread widely. Again this was mainly because of the
practical, applied aspect of the teaching (Dhamma paṭipatti). Several
Asokan rock edicts prove this fact. Asoka must have himself experienced
the beneficial results of this technique, and he propagated the Dhamma
with great zeal. It was out of the volition to serve others, which
develops when the mind becomes purified, that he put forth so much
effort to help his subjects in both the mundane as well as the
supramundane spheres. On the Pillar Edict #7  he points out two reasons
why he succeeded in this. One was the rule of law and order in his
kingdom (Dhammaniyamani), but he gave more emphasis to the second reason
which was the practice of meditation (nijhatiya), the practical aspect
of the Dhamma. This shows that he appreciated the fact that the practice
of the Dhamma is the main reason for its spread.

It was after
the Third Council under Asoka’s patronage that fully liberated arahant
monks were sent out of northern India to nine different areas to make
the Dhamma available to more people. These monks were called Dhamma
dutas (Dhamma messengers). They naturally gave emphasis to the practical
aspect of the Dhamma by which they themselves had become free from
mental impurities. Filled with love and compassion, they attracted large
numbers of people to the path of liberation.

The following are the names of the elder monks (Theras) and the nine areas where they went to teach Dhamma:

Majjhantika Thera: Kasmira and Gandhara (Kashmir, Afghanistan, Peshawar and Rawalpindi in Northwest Pakistan)

Mahadeva Thera: Mahisamandala (Mysore)

Rakkhita Thera: Vanavasi (North Kanara in South India)

Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera: Aparantaka (Modern Northern Gujarat Kathiavar, Kachcha and Sindh)

Mahadhamma Rakkhita Thera: Maharattha (parts of Maharashtra around the source of Godavari)

Maha Rakkhita Thera: Yonakaloka (Ancient Greece)

Majjhima Thera: Himavanta Padesa Bhaga (Himalayan region)

Sona and Uttara Theras: Suvanna Bhumi (Burma)

Mahinda Thera and others: Tambapannidipa (Sri Lanka)

Asoka
also sent teachers to as far away as present day Syria and Egypt. He
paved the way for coming generations to spread the sublime Dhamma to the
entire world.

His lead was followed by King Kanishka who sent
teachers such as the Theras Kumarajiva and Bodhidhamma to Central Asia
and China.

From there the Dhamma went to Korea in the early 4th
century A.D., and then to Japan. In India, Dhamma
Universities—Takkasila, Nalanda, Vikkamasila, and others—developed,
flourished, and attracted learned people from as far away as China.
Dhamma also spread throughout Southeast Asia. Large numbers of people
started practising in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Indonesia.
Tibet also received the Dhamma, through the service of Santirakshita,
Padmasambhava, Atisha, and Kamalashila.

Today the technique which
the Buddha taught 2,500 years ago is once again flourishing, and is
giving the same results now as it did then. Thousands of people in India
and in countries around the world are learning Vipassana. What is
attracting so many different types of people to the Dhamma is the same
as what attracted them 2,500 years ago: the very practical nature of the
teaching which is vivid, tangible, wholesome, easily understood, giving
benefit here and now, leading one step-by-step to the goal.

As
many people start to practise Dhamma once again, we can begin to imagine
what life in the time of the Buddha, and later in the time of Asoka,
was like: a society full of peace and harmony as millions of people
became established in love, compassion, and wisdom through the practice
of Dhamma.

May all beings be happy. May peace and harmony prevail.

51WriteanessayontheAditapariyāyasutaexplainingtheimportantfeatures?

Q 51 Write an essay on the Aditta Pariyaya sutta explaining the important features ?

https://damsara.org/dhamma-talks-in-sinhala/most-ven-u-dhammajiva-maha-thero/adiththa-pariyaya-sutta_may-2014/

Adittapariyaya Sutta

Bhikkhus, all is burning. And what is the all that is burning?
Several
months after his Awakening, the Buddha delivered this sermon to an
audience of 1,000 previously fire-worshipping ascetics. In his
characteristically brilliant teaching style, the Buddha uses a metaphor
that quickly penetrates to the heart of the audience – in this case, the
metaphor of fire. At the end of the discourse the thousand monks,
erstwhile jatilas, who had been listening, became Arahants.

included a PDF file of the Thera Gatha from Buddha Jayanthi Tripitaka Publication. Please click here to download the PDF file.
To
listen directly:  Please left click on the link to listen directly.
Once the link is clicked, you will be directed to a separate page
containing the talk. Usually the file starts to play in that window. If
it doesn’t, you could highlight the browser window and click ‘reload
this page’. It will start to play.

 To download: You could download the file by right clicking on the link and then selecting “save as” from the drop down menu.

01 RET 72_ Adittapariyaya Sutta_QandA 01_08-05-2014
02 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 01_08-05-2014
03 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 02_09-05-2014
04 RET 72_Aditta Pariyaya Sutta_Interview 01_09-05-2014
05 RET 72_Aditta Pariyaya Sutta_QandA 02_10-05-2014
06 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 03_10-05-2014
07 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 04_11-05-2014
08 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Interview 02_11-05-2014

52.WhatisDhammapada,inwhichpitakaitappears?Howmanychaptersandversesare
there?

Q 52 What id Dhammapada, in which pitaka it appears ? How many chapters and verses are there ?

https://www.tipitaka.net/tipitaka/dhp/

The Dhammapada: Verses and Stories
The Dhammapada: Verses and Stories

Translated by Daw Mya Tin, M.A.

Edited by Editorial Committee, Burma Tipitaka Association Rangoon, Burma, 1986

Courtesy of Nibbana.com
For free distribution only, as a gift of dhamma.

Preface

 
   Dhammapada is one of the best known books of the Pitaka. It is a
collection of the teachings of the Buddha expressed in clear, pithy
verses. These verses were culled from various discourses given by the
Buddha in the course of forty-five years of his teaching, as he
travelled in the valley of the Ganges (Ganga) and the sub-mountain tract
of the Himalayas. These verses are often terse, witty and convincing.
Whenever similes are used, they are those that are easily understood
even by a child, e.g., the cart’s wheel, a man’s shadow, a deep pool,
flowers. Through these verses, the Buddha exhorts one to achieve that
greatest of all conquests, the conquest of self; to escape from the
evils of passion, hatred and ignorance; and to strive hard to attain
freedom from craving and freedom from the round of rebirths. Each verse
contains a truth (dhamma), an exhortation, a piece of advice.

Dhammapada Verses

 
   Dhammapada verses are often quoted by many in many countries of the
world and the book has been translated into many languages. One of the
earliest translations into English was made by Max Muller in 1870. Other
translations that followed are those by F.L. Woodward in 1921, by
Wagismara and Saunders in 1920, and by A.L. Edmunds (Hymns of the Faith)
in 1902. Of the recent translations, that by Narada Mahathera is the
most widely known. Dr. Walpola Rahula also has translated some selected
verses from the Dhammapada and has given them at the end of his book
“What the Buddha Taught,” revised edition. The Chinese translated the
Dhammapada from Sanskrit. The Chinese version of the Dhammapada was
translated into English by Samuel Beal (Texts from the Buddhist Canon
known as Dhammapada) in 1878.

     In Burma, translations have
been made into Burmese, mostly in prose, some with paraphrases,
explanations and abridgements of stories relating to the verses. In
recent years, some books on Dhammapada with both Burmese and English
translations, together with Pali verses, have also been published.

 
   The Dhammapada is the second book of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the
Suttanta Pitaka, consisting of four hundred and twenty-three verses in
twenty-six chapters arranged under various heads. In the Dhammapada are
enshrined the basic tenets of the Buddha’s Teaching.

     Verse
(21) which begins with “Appamado amatapadam” meaning “Mindfulness is the
way to Nibbana, the Deathless,” is a very important and significant
verse. Mindfulness is the most important element in Tranquillity and
Insight Meditation. The last exhortation of the Buddha just before he
passed away was also to be mindful and to endeavour diligently (to
complete the task of attaining freedom from the round of rebirths
through Magga and Phala). It is generally accepted that it was on
account of this verse on mindfulness that the Emperor Asoka of India and
King Anawrahta of Burma became converts to Buddhism. Both kings had
helped greatly in the propagation of Buddhism in their respective
countries.

     In verse (29) the Buddha has coupled his call for
mindfulness with a sense of urgency. The verse runs: “Mindful amongst
the negligent, highly vigilant amongst the drowsy, the wise man advances
like a race horse, leaving the jade behind.”

     Verses (1) and
(2) illustrate the immutable law of Kamma, under which every deed, good
or bad, comes back to the doer. Here, the Buddha emphasizes the
importance of mind in all our actions and speaks of the inevitable
consequences of our deeds, words and thoughts.

     Verses (153)
and (154) are expressions of sublime and intense joy uttered by the
Buddha at the very moment of his Enlightenment. These two verses give us
a graphic account of the culmination of the Buddha’s search for Truth.
They tell us about the Buddha finding the ‘house-builder,’ Craving, the
cause of repeated births in Samsara. Having rid of Craving, for him no
more houses (khandhas) shall be built by Craving, and there will be no
more rebirths.

     Verses (277), (278) and (279) are also
important as they tell us about the impermanent, unsatisfactory and the
non-self nature of all conditioned things; it is very important that one
should perceive the true nature of all conditioned things and become
weary of the khandhas, for this is the Path to Purity.

     Then
the Buddha shows us the Path leading to the liberation from round of
rebirths, i.e., the Path with eight constituents (Atthangiko Maggo) in
Verse (273). Further, the Buddha exhorts us to make our own effort in
Verse (276) saying, “You yourselves should make the effort, the
Tathagatas only show the way.” Verse (183) gives us the teaching of the
Buddhas. It says, “Do no evil, cultivate merit, purify one’s mind; this
is the teaching of the Buddhas.”

     In Verse (24) the Buddha
shows us the way to success in life, thus: “If a person is energetic,
mindful, pure in thought, word and deed, if he does everything with care
and consideration, restrains his senses; earns his living according to
the Dhamma and is not unheedful, then, the fame and fortune of that
mindful person increase.”

     These are some of the examples of
the gems to be found in the Dhammapada. Dhammapada is, indeed, a
philosopher, guide and friend to all.

     This translation of
verses is from Pali into English. The Pali text used is the Dhammapada
Pali approved by the Sixth International Buddhist Synod. We have tried
to make the translation as close to the text as possible, but sometimes
it is very difficult, if not impossible, to find an English word that
would exactly correspond to a Pali word. For example, we cannot yet find
a single English word that can convey the real meaning of the word
“dukkha” used in the exposition of the Four Noble Truths. In this
translation, wherever the term “dukkha” carries the same meaning as it
does in the Four Noble Truths, it is left untranslated; but only
explained.

     When there is any doubt in the interpretation of
the dhamma concept of the verses or when the literal meaning is vague or
unintelligible, we have referred to the Commentary (in Pali) and the
Burmese translation of the Commentary by the Nyaunglebin Sayadaw, a very
learned thera. On many occasions we have also consulted the teachers of
the Dhamma (Dhammacariyas) for elucidation of perplexing words and
sentences.

     In addition we have also consulted Burmese
translations of the Dhammapada, especially the translation by the Union
Buddha Sasana Council, the translation by the Sangaja Sayadaw
(1805-1876), a leading Maha thera in the time of King Mindon and King
Thibaw, and also the translation by Sayadaw U Thittila, an Ovadacariya
Maha thera of the Burma Pitaka Association. The book by the Sangaja
Sayadaw also includes paraphrases and abridgements of the Dhammapada
stories.

Dhammapada Stories

     Summaries of the
Dhammapada stories are given in the second part of the book as it is
generally believed that the Dhammapada Commentary written by Buddhaghosa
(5th century A.D.) is a great help towards a better understanding of
the Dhammapada. Three hundred and five stories are included in the
Commentary. Most of the incidents mentioned in the stories took place
during the life-time of the Buddha. In some stories, some facts about
some past existences were also retold.

     In writing summaries
of stories we have not tried to translate the Commentary. We have simply
culled the facts of the stories and have rewritten them briefly: A
translation of the verses is given at the end of each story.

   
 It only remains for me now to express my deep and sincere gratitude to
the members of the Editorial Committee, Burma Pitaka Association, for
having meticulously gone through the script; to Sayagyi Dhammacariya U
Aung Moe and to U Thein Maung, editor, Burma Pitaka Association, for
helping in the translation of the verses.

May the reader find the Path to Purity.

Daw Mya Tin
20th April, 1984

Burma Pitaka Association
Editorial Committee

Doctrinal Adviser Sayadaw U Kumara, BA, Dhammcariya (Siromani, Vatamsaka).
 
Chairman U Shwe Mra, BA., I.C.S. Retd.,
Former Special Adviser, Public Administration Division, E.S.A., United Nations Secretariat.
 
Members U Chan Htoon, LL.B., Barrister-at-law;
Former President, World Fellowship of Buddhists.
  U Nyun, B.A., I.C.S. Retd.,
Former Executive Secretary, United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East;
Vice-President, World Fellowship of Buddhists.
  U Myint Too, B.Sc., B.L., Barrister-at-law,
Vice-President, All Burma Buddhist Association.
  Daw Mya Tin, M.A.,
Former Head of Geography Department, Institute of Education, Rangoon.
 
Doctrinal Consultant U Kyaw Htut, Dhammacariya;
Former Editor-in-chief of the Board for Burmese Translation of the Sixth Synod Pali Texts.
 
Editors U Myo Min, M.A., B.L.,
Former Professor of English, Rangoon University.
  U Thein Maung, B.A., B.L
  U Hla Maung, B.A., B.L.
 
Secretary U Tin Nwe, B.Sc.
Dhammapada

Preface

I.Yamakavagga
Verse 001
Verse 002
Verse 003
Verse 005
Verse 006
Verse 007
Verse 009
Verse 011
Verse 013
Verse 015
Verse 016
Verse 017
Verse 018
Verse 019

II.Appamadavagga
Verse 021
Verse 024
Verse 025
Verse 026
Verse 028
Verse 029
Verse 030
Verse 031
Verse 032

III.Cittavagga
Verse 033
Verse 035
Verse 036
Verse 037
Verse 038
Verse 040
Verse 041
Verse 042
Verse 043

IV.Pupphavagga
Verse 044
Verse 046
Verse 047
Verse 048
Verse 049
Verse 050
Verse 051
Verse 053
Verse 054
Verse 056
Verse 057
Verse 058

V.Balavagga
Verse 060
Verse 061
Verse 062
Verse 063
Verse 064
Verse 065
Verse 066
Verse 067
Verse 068
Verse 069
Verse 070
Verse 071
Verse 072
Verse 073
Verse 075

VI.Panditavagga
Verse 076
Verse 077
Verse 078
Verse 079
Verse 080
Verse 081
Verse 082
Verse 083
Verse 084
Verse 085
Verse 087

VII.Arahantavagga
Verse 090
Verse 091
Verse 092
Verse 093
Verse 094
Verse 095
Verse 096
Verse 097
Verse 098
Verse 099

VIII.Sahassavagga
Verse 100
Verse 101
Verse 102
Verse 104
Verse 106
Verse 107
Verse 108
Verse 109
Verse 110
Verse 111
Verse 112
Verse 113
Verse 114
Verse 115

IX.Papavagga
Verse 116
Verse 117
Verse 118
Verse 119
Verse 121
Verse 122
Verse 123
Verse 124
Verse 125
Verse 126
Verse 127
Verse 128

X.Dandavagga
Verse 129
Verse 130
Verse 131
Verse 133
Verse 135
Verse 136
Verse 137
Verse 141
Verse 142
Verse 143
Verse 145

XI.Jaravagga
Verse 146
Verse 147
Verse 148
Verse 149
Verse 150
Verse 151
Verse 152
Verse 153
Verse 155

XII.Attavagga
Verse 157
Verse 158
Verse 159
Verse 160
Verse 161
Verse 162
Verse 163
Verse 164
Verse 165
Verse 166

XIII.Lokavagga
Verse 167
Verse 168
Verse 170
Verse 171
Verse 172
Verse 173
Verse 174
Verse 175
Verse 176
Verse 177
Verse 178

XIV.Buddhavagga
Verse 179
Verse 181
Verse 182
Verse 183
Verse 186
Verse 188
Verse 193
Verse 194
Verse 195

XV.Sukhavagga
Verse 197
Verse 200
Verse 201
Verse 202
Verse 203
Verse 204
Verse 205
Verse 206

XVI.Piyavagga
Verse 209
Verse 212
Verse 213
Verse 214
Verse 215
Verse 216
Verse 217
Verse 218
Verse 219

XVII.Kodhavagga
Verse 221
Verse 222
Verse 223
Verse 224
Verse 225
Verse 226
Verse 227
Verse 231

XVIII.Malavagga
Verse 235
Verse 239
Verse 240
Verse 241
Verse 242
Verse 244
Verse 246
Verse 249
Verse 251
Verse 252
Verse 253
Verse 254

XIX.Dhammatthavagga
Verse 256
Verse 258
Verse 259
Verse 260
Verse 262
Verse 264
Verse 266
Verse 268
Verse 270
Verse 271

XX.Maggavagga
Verse 273
Verse 277
Verse 280
Verse 281
Verse 282
Verse 283
Verse 285
Verse 286
Verse 287
Verse 288

XXI.Pakinnakavagga
Verse 290
Verse 291
Verse 292
Verse 294
Verse 296
Verse 302
Verse 303
Verse 304
Verse 305

XXII.Nirayavagga
Verse 306
Verse 307
Verse 308
Verse 309
Verse 311
Verse 314
Verse 315
Verse 316
Verse 318

XXIII.Nagavagga
Verse 320
Verse 323
Verse 324
Verse 325
Verse 326
Verse 327
Verse 328
Verse 331

XXIV.Tanhavagga
Verse 334
Verse 338
Verse 344
Verse 345
Verse 347
Verse 348
Verse 349
Verse 351
Verse 353
Verse 354
Verse 355
Verse 356

XXV.Bhikkhuvagga
Verse 360
Verse 362
Verse 363
Verse 364
Verse 365
Verse 367
Verse 368
Verse 377
Verse 378
Verse 379
Verse 381
Verse 382

XXVI.Brahmanavagga
Verse 383
Verse 384
Verse 385
Verse 386
Verse 387
Verse 388
Verse 389
Verse 391
Verse 392
Verse 393
Verse 394
Verse 395
Verse 396
Verse 397
Verse 398
Verse 399
Verse 400
Verse 401
Verse 402
Verse 403
Verse 404
Verse 405
Verse 406
Verse 407
Verse 408
Verse 409
Verse 410
Verse 411
Verse 412
Verse 413
Verse 414
Verse 415
*Verse 416
*Verse 416
Verse 417
Verse 418
Verse 419
Verse 421
Verse 422
Verse 423

*These two stories have the same verse.

53.Explain Dhpd.verse no.42 & Verse no 43 with back ground story and
give your comments?

Q 53 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 42 & Verse no. 43 with back ground story and give your comments ?


Verse 42. All Wrong Issue Out Of Evil Mind

Whatever foe may do to foe,
or haters those they hate
the ill-directed mind indeed
can do one greater harm.

Explanation:
When one bandit see another, he attacks the second bandit. In the same
way, one person sees someone he hates, he also does harm to the hated
person. But what the badly deployed mind does to the possessor of that
mind is far worse than what a bandit would do to another bandit or what
one hater will do to another hater.


Verse 43. Well-Trained Mind Excels People

What one’s mother, what one’s father,
whatever other kin may do,
the well directed mind indeed
can do greater good.

Explanation: Well directed thoughts can help a person better than one’s father or one’s mother.

54.ExplainDhpdverseno.127and128withbackgroundstory?

Q 54 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 127 and 128 with background story ?


Verse 127. Shelter Against Death

Neither in sky nor surrounding by sea,
nor by dwelling in a mountain cave,
nowhere is found that place in earth
where one’s from evil kamma free.

Explanation:
There is not a single spot on Earth an evil-doer can take shelter in to
escape the results of evil actions. No such place is seen out there in
space, or in the middle of the ocean. Neither in an opening, a cleft or a
crevice in a rocky mountain can he shelter to escape the results of his
evil action.


Verse 128. No Escape From Death

Neither in sky nor surrounding by sea,
nor by dwelling in a mountain cave,
nowhere is found that place in earth
where one’s by death not overcome.

Explanation:
Not in the sky, nor in the ocean midst, not even in a cave of a
mountain rock, is there a hiding place where one could escape death.

55.W rite down in pāliany 10 verses from citta vagga?

Q 55 Write down in Pali any 10 verses from citta vagga ?


Verse 33. The Wise Person Straightens The Mind

Mind agitated, wavering,
hard to guard and hard to check,
one of wisdom renders straight
as arrow-maker a shaft.

Explanation:
In the Dhammapada there are several references to the craftsmanship of
the fletcher. The Buddha seems to have observed the process through
which a fletcher transforms an ordinary stick into an efficient
arrow-shaft. The disciplining of the mind is seen as being a parallel
process. In this stanza the Buddha says that the wise one straightens
and steadies the vacillating mind that is difficult to guard, like a
fletcher straightening an arrow-shaft.


Verse 34. The Fluttering Mind

As fish from watery home
is drawn and cast upon the land,
even so flounders this mind
while Mara’s Realm abandoning.

Explanation:
When making an effort to abandon the realm of Mara (evil), the mind
begins to quiver like a fish taken out of the water and thrown on land.

Verse 35. Restrained Mind Leads To Happiness

The mind is very hard to check
and swift, it falls on what it wants.
The training of the mind is good,
a mind so tamed brings happiness.

Explanation:
The mind is exceedingly subtle and is difficult to be seen. It attaches
on whatever target it wishes. The wise guard the mind. The guarded mind
brings bliss.


Verse 36. Protected Mind Leads To Happiness

The mind is very hard to see
and find, it falls on what it wants.
One who’s wise should guard the mind,
a guarded mind brings happiness.

Explanation:
The mind moves about so fast it is difficult to get hold of it fully.
It is swift. It has a way of focusing upon whatever it likes. It is good
and of immense advantage to tame the mind. The tame mind brings bliss.


Verse 37. Death’s Snare Can Be Broken By Tamed Mind

Drifting far, straying all alone,
formless, recumbent in a cave.
They will be free from Mara’s bonds
who restrain this mind.

Explanation:
The mind is capable of travelling vast distances - up or down, north or
south, east or west - in any direction. It can travel to the past or
the future. It roams about all alone. It is without any perceptible
forms. If an individual were to restrain the mind fully, he will achieve
freedom from the bonds of death.


Verse 38. Wisdom Does Not Grow If the Mind Wavers

One of unsteady mind,
who doesn’t know True Dhamma,
who is of wavering confidence
wisdom fails to win.

Explanation:
If the mind of a person keeps on wavering, and if a person does not
know the doctrine, if one’s enthusiasm keeps on fluctuating or
flagging,, the wisdom of such a person does not grow.


Verse 39. The Wide-Awake Is Unfrightened

One of unflooded mind,
a mind that is not battered,
abandoning evil, merit too,
no fear for One Awake.

Explanation:
For the person who’s mind is not dampened by passion, unaffected by
ill-will and who has risen above both good and evil, there is no fear
because he is wide-awake.


Verse 40. Weapons To Defeat Death

Having known this urn-like body,
made firm this mind as fortress town,
with wisdom-weapon one fights Mara
while guarding booty, unattached.

Explanation:
It is realistic to think of the body as vulnerable, fragile, frail and
easily disintegrated. In fact, one must consider              it as a
clay vessel. The mind should be thought of as a city. One has to be
perpetually mindful to protect the city. Forces of evil have to be
fought with the weapons of wisdom. After the battle, once you have
achieve victory, live without being attached to the mortal self.


Verse 41. Without The Mind, Body Is Worthless

Not long alas, and it will lie
this body, here upon the earth.
Discarded, void of consciousness,
useless as a rotten log.

Explanation: Soon, this body, without consciousness, discarded like a decayed worthless log, will lie on the earth.


Verse 42. All Wrong Issue Out Of Evil Mind

Whatever foe may do to foe,
or haters those they hate
the ill-directed mind indeed
can do one greater harm.

Explanation:
When one bandit see another, he attacks the second bandit. In the same
way, one person sees someone he hates, he also does harm to the hated
person. But what the badly deployed mind does to the possessor of that
mind is far worse than what a bandit would do to another bandit or what
one hater will do to another hater.


Verse 43. Well-Trained Mind Excels People

What one’s mother, what one’s father,
whatever other kin may do,
the well directed mind indeed
can do greater good.

Explanation: Well directed thoughts can help a person better than one’s father or one’s mother.

56.Whatarethefourprotectivemediationsandhowdoesonecanpracticeindialylife?
W rtie s h o rt N o te s o n e a c h A ra k k h ā b h a v a n a i.e . B u
d d h a ā n u s s a ti, m e t tā , a s u b h ā a n d

Q
56 What are the four protective meditations and how does one can
practice in daily life ? Write short Notes on each Arakkha bhavana ie.,
Buddhaanusatti, metta, ashubha and maranussati?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63XPDqgxx3M

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63XPDqgxx3M
Four protective meditations - Part 1-1 Recollection of the Bhikkhu Buddhadatta

BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
Published on Aug 29, 2016
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course
with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi

Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part 1-1 Recollection of the Buddha

The
four protective meditations are a group of meditation topics designed
to establish a firm foundation for growth in the Dhamma. The four are:
recollection of the Buddha, meditation on loving-kindness, mindfulness
of the bodily parts, and recollection of death. Over five Saturdays in
late July and August, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi will conduct a course of
day-long sessions on these subjects.
Category
Education
THE FOUR PROTECTIVE MEDITATIONS

As
anyone who has done a retreat knows, the mind is a difficult beast to
tame. During the course of a session, it is inevitable that various
difficulties will arise. These can take many forms; boredom, pain,
desire and restlessness are among the most familiar. If the yogin
doesn’t have skillful means for dealing with these states, they can lead
to such discontent as to force an early end to the session. Leaving a
retreat early because of such mind states is to be defeated by the
defilements.

Meditation is a skill, and like any other skill part
of the learning process involves mastering various techniques. Dealing
with negative mind-states requires the judicious use of specific
preactises, just as medical skill requires the use of specific medicines
for various ailments of the body. To this end, a meditator should
develop a repertoire of secondary practises to supplement the primary
exercise. One special family of such meditations are called the “Four
Protective Meditations.”

They are given this name because they
guard the mind against the arising of negativity. To continue the
medical analogy, these are preventative medicine. In this regard, the
recommendation is to do some of each exercise on the first day of a
retreat, or before beginning a period of insight work. They plant seeds
in the mind that will help later on. A brief word about each;
LOVING-KINDNESS

The
sign of this meditation is an emotional state, an open-hearted
acceptance and feeling of goodwill towards all sentient beings. The
traditional formula is the wish that “all beings be well and happy.” It
can be developed in a variety of ways, but the method most suitable in
the context of protective meditation is the method of general pervasion.
This refers to the spreading of loving-kindness out into the universe
in increasing circles, beginning with love extended towards yourself,
then out towards all beings in the room, in the locality, the province,
the country etc. through to all beings on the planet earth and then out
into the greater universe.

The initial stage of extending
loving-kindness toward yourself is absolutely crucial. Many people these
days have negative self-images and find it difficult to really love
themselves, so it may take work to raise the feeling. Don’t be concerned
that this may be “selfish.” It isn’t. You cannot love anyone else in
depth unless you love yourself, and conversely, if you do manage to
arouse genuine loving-kindness toward yourself, you will be unable to
withhold it from others. It will spontaneously overflow.

Remember
from the outset that the wish is “may this being (or all beings) be
well and happy.” It has nothing to do with approval or liking. This is
important because to be effective loving-kindness must be universal. The
meditator must learn to love all beings without discrimination between
the near and far, the liked and disliked, the good and evil or any other
pair of dualities. The liberating effect comes from the boundlessness
of the meditation.
CONTEMPLATION OF THE BUDDHA

The second
protective meditation is the contemplation of the Buddha. This is both a
devotional and an inspirational practise. The meditator should make
himself familiar with the attributes of the Buddha and contemplate them.
This can be combined with a puja.

Some preliminary research to
gain knowledge of the Buddha’s attributes is essential. The traditional
method is to work through the list given in the “Mirror of the Dhamma,”
 that is the chant beginning itipi so… For a full description of the
attributes, see my article on doing Buddhanusati But here is a
bare-bones translation;

Araham - Perfected One, Arahant
Sammasambuddho - Perfectly Enlightened by His Own Effort
Vijjacaranasampanno - Perfect in Knowledge and Conduct
Sugato - The Fortunate One
Lokavidu - Knower of the Worlds
Anuttaro Purisadammasarathi - Unsurpassed Trainer of the Untrained
Sattha Devamanussanam - The Teacher of Gods and Humans
Buddho - Awake
Bhagava - The Blessed One

The
meditator goes through the list, using creative imagination to
visualize what a Buddha would be like. This should be combined with
visualization of the Buddha. The idea is to imagine what it would mean
for someone to be completely purified and awake. The practise is best
done in front of a shrine, using a Buddha image as a point of reference.
MEDITATION ON FOULNESS

The
third contemplation is one that is not as widely practised as it ought
to be. This is the meditation on the body, focussing on the “unlovely”
aspect. The traditional method is to visualize the corruption of a dead
body. In the East, real corpses are still occassionally used for this
purpose. The monk will sit by the corpse in the open air, preferably at
night. If a corpse in its natural state has been seen and contemplated,
it can be stored in the mind as a memory image for later use.

Photographs
can also be used, and often are. You do however, lose the effect of the
smell. It is also possible to simply use one’s imagination. One method
is to visualize a corpse decaying through stages. The suttas list the
following;

a corpse cast away in a charnel ground — one day, two days, three days dead — bloated, livid, and festering
a corpse picked at by crows, vultures, and hawks, by dogs, hyenas, and various other creatures
a skeleton smeared with flesh and blood, connected with tendons
a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons
a skeleton without flesh or blood, connected with tendons
bones
detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions; here a hand
bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone, here a
hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a chest bone, here a
shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a
skull
the bones whitened, somewhat like the color of shells
the bones piled up, more than a year old
the bones decomposed into a powder

One
very effective variation is to start with the image of your own body
freshly dead and to go through these stages, continuing the
decomposition until –poof– nothing at all is left. This is to go from a
shocking, almost violent image through increasing peacefulness to
emptiness.
THE MEDITATION ON DEATH

This is not the same as the
above. This is a contemplation on impermanence. The meditator is trying
to face the stark reality that she will die. One method is to think of
beings known to one who have already died and to raise the thought;
“just as this one died and is no more, so I too will not escape that
fate.” If this method is used, the yogin should be very careful not to
dwell on the death of loved ones which will lead to sorrow or regret.
Instead, neutral beings should be used. Think of people you once knew
who are now gone and realize this is a universal fate.

The Visuddhimagga also gives a more detailed method with a list of eight separate aspects to contemplate.

These
meditations protect the mind of the meditator in a very profound way.
If these four contemplations, two joyful and two sobering, are taken
into the depth then many painful negativities can be avoided. The
meditation on loving-kindness opens the mind to a joyous acceptance and
prevents the arising of the painful states based on ill-will, such as
anger, self-criticism etc. The meditation on the qualities of the Buddha
fills the mind with light and bliss and overcomes a host of
negativities. The meditation on foulness allows a perception of the seed
of corruption inherent in all flesh, and thereby helps to prevent
discontent arising through sensual desire. Finally, the meditation on
death should arouse a sense of urgency and prevent the arising of sloth
 and boredom.

These benefits, however, as important as they are,
are not the whole of the story. The paragraph above deals with the
protections strictly from a psychological viewpoint. There is another
side to the protections. It is taught that they will establish
harmonious relations with the unseen beings, protecting one from ghosts
and other malevolent entities, at the same time attracting the help and
protection of the devas. To this end, the first two are especially
powerful and in particular the meditator should not neglect to extend
loving-kindness to the devas of heaven and earth. This is the literally
protective aspect of these meditations.

youtube.com
Four protective meditations - Part 1-1 Recollection of the Buddha
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part…

Cattāro Jhānā
— The four jhānas —
[cattāra jhāna]
The
practice of the four jhānas plays he key role in the teaching of the
Buddha for practicioners. (He frequently urges the bhikkhus to pratice
meditation in order to gain the four jhānas at will. For example, at the
end of a discourse, he sometimes gives this exhortation (15
occurences): Etāni, bhikkhu, rukkhamūlāni, etāni suññāgārāni.{1}
Jhāyatha, bhikkhu, mā pamādattha.{2})

Note: info·bubbles on all words

First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna

≈170 occurences

Bhikkhu
vivicc·eva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi sa·vitakkaṃ sa·vicāraṃ
viveka·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

A
bhikkhu, detached from{1} sensuality, detached from unwholesome states,
having entered in the first jhāna, remains therein, with thoughts, with
thought processes, exaltation and well-being engendered by detachment.

Bhikkhu vivicc·eva kāmehi A bhikkhu, detached from{1} sensuality,
vivicca akusalehi dhammehi detached from unwholesome states,

{having entered in the first jhāna, remains therein,}
sa·vitakkaṃ sa·vicāraṃ with thoughts, with thought processes,
viveka·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ exaltation and well-being engendered by detachment.
{paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati}

——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf

First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna

≈170 occurences

Vitakka·vicārānaṃ
vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodi·bhāvaṃ a·vitakkaṃ
a·vicāraṃ samādhi·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

With
the stilling of thoughts and thought processes, having entered in the
second jhāna, he remains therein with inner tanquilization,{1}
unification of the mind,{2}  without thoughts, without thought
processes, with exaltation and well-being engendered by concentration.

Vitakka·vicārānaṃ vūpasamā With the stilling of thoughts and thought processes,

{having entered in the second jhāna, he remains therein}
ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodi·bhāvaṃ with inner tanquilization,{1} unification of the mind,{2}
a·vitakkaṃ a·vicāraṃ without thoughts, without thought processes,
samādhi·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ with exaltation and well-being engendered byconcentration.
{dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.}

——————oooOooo——————

First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna

≈155 occurences

Pītiyā
ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañ·ca kāyena
paṭisaṃvedeti yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako satimā
sukha·vihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

And
with the fading away{1} of exaltation, he remains equanimous, mindful
and endowed with thorough understanding, and he feels in the body the
well-being that the noble ones describe: ‘one who is equanimous and
mindful abides in well-being’, having entered in the third jhāna, he
remains therein.{2}

Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati And with the fading away{1} of exaltation, he remains equanimous,
sato ca sampajāno, mindful and endowed with thorough understanding,
sukhañ·ca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti and he feels in the body the well-being
yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: that the noble ones describe:
‘upekkhako satimā sukha·vihārī’ti ‘one who is equanimous and mindful abides in well-being’,
tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. having entered in the third jhāna, he remains therein.{2}

——————oooOooo——————


First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna

≈150 occurences

Sukhassa
ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubb·eva somanassa·domanassānaṃ
atthaṅgamā a·dukkham·a·sukhaṃ upekkhā·sati·pārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ
upasampajja viharati.

Abandoning pleasantness and abandoning
unpleasantness, gladness and affliction having previously disappeared,
having entered in the fourth jhāna, which is without unpleasantness nor
pleasantness and is purified by mindfulness due to equanimity, he
remains therein.

Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā Abandoning pleasantness and abandoning unpleasantness,
pubb·eva somanassa·domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā gladness and affliction having previously disappeared,

{having entered in the fourth jhāna,}
a·dukkham·a·sukhaṃ which is without unpleasantness nor pleasantness
upekkhā·sati·pārisuddhiṃ and is purified by mindfulness due to equanimity,
{catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja} viharati. he remains therein.

——————oooOooo——————


comments (0)
06/28/19
LESSON 3045 Sat 29 Jun 2019 Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god. Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha. https://www.budsas.org Sabbapapassa akaranam Kusalassa upasampada Sacitta pariyodapanam Etam buddhana sasanam Every evil never doing and in wholesomeness increasing and one’s heart well-purifying: this is the Buddhas’ Sasana (Dhammapada, 183) Sabbe satta sada hontu avera sukhajivino. Katam punnaphalam mayham sabbe bhagi bhavantu te. May all living beings always live happily, free from animosity. May all share in the blessings springing from the good I have done. http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — in 47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,48) Classical Igbo,49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어, 58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 6:40 pm
LESSON 3045 Sat 29 Jun 2019

Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the
Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god
the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god.


Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha.


https://www.budsas.org



Sabbapapassa
akaranam
Kusalassa upasampada
Sacitta pariyodapanam
Etam buddhana sasanam

Every evil
never doing
and in wholesomeness increasing
and one’s heart well-purifying:
this is the Buddhas’ Sasana

  (Dhammapada,
183)





Sabbe satta sada
hontu

avera sukhajivino.
Katam punnaphalam mayham
sabbe bhagi bhavantu te.

May
all living beings always live happily,

free from animosity.
May all share in the blessings
springing from the good I have done.


in 47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,48) Classical Igbo,49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),
59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,

47) Klassísk íslensk-Klassísk íslensku,


Búdda Śãsana, sem þýðir “Búdda Vacana - kennsla vakandi einn með
meðvitund”. Þar sem í guðdómnum er engin guðdómlegur guð er hugtakið
talið nákvæmara en orðið “trúarbrögð” þar sem það táknar aðlögunarhæf
heimspeki og æfingu frekar en óbreytandi guðdómlegan kall frá öllum
vitandi guði.

Śāsana kann einnig að vísa til 5000 ára úthlutunar tiltekins Búdda. Það er, við erum að búa í śāsana í Śakyamuni Búdda.

Sérhver illt
aldrei að gera
og í heilbrigðismálum aukast
og hjarta hjartans vel hreinsandi:
þetta er Búdda Sasana

(Dhammapada,
183)

Maí
öll lifandi verur lifðu alltaf hamingjusöm,
frjáls frá fjandskap.
Megi allir deila í blessunum
springing frá gott sem ég hef gert.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Búdda Vacana
- Orð Búdda -


Skilningur þeirra á Búdda Vacana verður mun nákvæmara þar sem þeir læra
og minnka áreynslulaust orðin og mikilvægu formúlurnar sem eru
grundvallaratriði í kennslu Búdda með reglubundnum hætti. Nám þeirra og
innblástur sem þeir fá frá því munu vaxa dýpra þar sem móttækni þeirra
til boða kennarans muni bæta.

Í framtíðinni verður bhikkhus sem
hlustar ekki á orðræðu slíkra umræðna sem eru orð Tathagata, djúpstæð,
djúpstæð í merkingu, sem leiðir utan um heiminn (stöðugt) í tengslum við
tómleika, þeir munu ekki lána eyra mun ekki beita huga sínum á
þekkingu, þeir vilja ekki íhuga þær kenningar sem taka á sig og ná góðum
tökum.

Þvert á móti munu þeir hlýða á slíkar umræður sem eru
bókmenntaverk sem gerðar eru af skáldum, skítugum orðum, fyndinn bréf,
af fólki utan frá, eða orð lærisveina, þeir munu lána eyrun, þeir muni
hugsa um þekkingu , munu þeir líta á þær kenningar sem taka á sig og ná
góðum tökum.

Þannig, bhikkhus, munu orðin, sem eru orð Tathagata,
djúpstæð, djúpstæð í merkingu, sem leiða út um heiminn (stöðugt) tengd
við tómleika, hverfa.

Þess vegna ættir þú að þjálfa þannig: “Við
munum hlusta á orðræðu slíkra umræða sem eru orð Tathagata, djúpstæð,
djúpstæð í merkingu, sem leiðir utan um heiminn (stöðugt) í tengslum við
tómleika, við munum lána eyra, við mun beita huga okkar á þekkingu, við
munum líta á þær kenningar sem við erum að taka upp og læra. ” Þetta er
hvernig þú ættir að þjálfa sjálfan þig.

- Āṇi Sutta -




48) Classical Igbo,

48) Igbo oge ochie,


Buddha Śãsana, nke pụtara “Budana Buddha Vacana - nkuzi nke Onye
edemede na Mmata”. Ebe ọ bụ na na Buddha, ọ dịghị chi Chineke a na-ewere
okwu ahụ dị ka ihe ziri ezi karia okwu “okpukpe” dị ka ọ na-egosi nkà
ihe ọmụma na omume na-agbanwe agbanwe kama ịchọta oku Chineke na-adịghị
agbanwe agbanwe site n’aka onye maara chi.

Śāsana nwekwara ike na-ezo aka na afọ 5,000 nke otu Buddha. Nke ahụ bụ, anyị na-ebi na śāsana nke Buddha Śakyamuni.

Ihe ọjọọ ọ bụla
emeghi
nakwa n’ịdị mma ịba ụba
na obi mmadu ka o di nma:
nke a bụ Buddha ‘Sasana

(Ọfọn,
183)

Ike
ihe niile dị ndụ na-ebi ndụ obi ụtọ mgbe nile,
n’enweghị obi ọjọọ.
Kwe ka ndị niile na-ekere òkè ná ngọzi
na-esite n’ihe ọma m mere.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Buddha Vacana
- Okwu nke Buddha -


Ihe ha ghọtara banyere Buddha Vacana ga-adị nnọọ mfe ka ha na-amụpụta
ma na-eburu n’uche okwu na usoro ndị dị mkpa bụ ndị dị mkpa na nkuzi
Buddha, site na ụzọ ọgụgụ isi. Ihe omuma ha na mmuo ha si na ya puta
ga-abanye karia ka ha nabata ozi nke Onye nkuzi ha ga emeziwanye.


N’ọdịnihu, a ga-enwe bhikkhus bụ onye na-agaghị ege ntị n’ikwu okwu dị
otú ahụ nke bụ okwu nke Tathāgata, omimi, dị omimi nke pụtara, na-eduga
ụwa, (nọgidere na-ejikọta ihe efu, ha agaghị agbanye ntị, ha ha agaghị
etinye uche ha n’ihe ọmụma, ha agaghị atụle ozizi ndị ahụ ka a na-eburu
ha ma mee ka ha mara.

Kama nke ahụ, ha ga-ege ntị n’ikwu okwu ndị
dị otú ahụ bụ ndị edemede, okwu ndị siri ike, akwụkwọ ozi siri ike, ndị
sitere n’èzí, ma ọ bụ okwu nke ndị na-eso ụzọ, ha ga-agbazinye ntị, ha
ga-etinye uche ha n’ihe ọmụma , ha ga-atụle ozizi ndị ahụ ka a na-eburu
ha ma mee ha.

Ya mere, bhikkhus, okwu ndị bụ okwu nke Tathāgata,
omimi, dị omimi nke pụtara, na-eduga ụwa, (nọgidere na-ejikọta na efu,
ga-apụ n’anya.

Ya mere, bhikkhus, ị ga - azụrịrị otú a: ‘Anyị ga -
ege ntị n’okwu ndị dị otú ahụ nke bụ okwu nke Tathāgata, omimi, omimi
nke pụtara, na - eduga ụwa, (nọgidere na - ejikọta ihe efu, anyị ga -
agbazinye ntị, ga-etinye uche anyị na ihe ọmụma, anyị ga-atụle ozizi ndị
ahụ ka a na-eburu ma nụ. ‘ Nke a bụ otú, bhikkhus, ị kwesịrị ịzụ onwe
gị.

- Āṇi Sutta -

Add this photo to your story?

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRQYx-AFGeg
Buddhism in Indonesia
JAMES K POWELL II
Published on Jul 19, 2008
by Sarah Riser through Professor Rev. Dr. James K. Powell II, opensourcebuddhism.org


This very well-made piece offers a chronology of the advent and exit
(more or less) of Buddhism in Indonesia. From the Sailendra Dyanasty,
Borobudur and on, various islands in Indonesia once housed a vast array
of Buddhist practices and educational institutions.
Category
Education
49) Klasik Bahasa Indonesia-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik


Buddha Śãsana, yang berarti “Buddha Vacana - ajaran Yang Bangkit dengan
Kesadaran”. Karena dalam Buddhisme tidak ada dewa ilahi, istilah ini
dianggap lebih akurat daripada kata “agama” karena istilah ini
menunjukkan filosofi dan praktik yang dapat beradaptasi daripada
panggilan ilahi yang tidak berubah dari dewa yang tahu segalanya.

Śāsana juga dapat merujuk pada dispensasi 5000 tahun dari Buddha tertentu. Yaitu, kita hidup di śāsana dari Buddha Śakyamuni.

Setiap kejahatan
tidak pernah melakukan
dan secara keseluruhan meningkat
dan hati seseorang memurnikan:
ini adalah Sasana Buddha

(Dhammapada,
183)

Mungkin
semua makhluk hidup selalu hidup bahagia,
bebas dari permusuhan.
Semoga semuanya berbagi dalam berkat
melompat dari kebaikan yang telah saya lakukan.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Buddha Vacana
- Kata-kata Sang Buddha -


Pemahaman mereka tentang Buddha Vacana akan menjadi jauh lebih tepat
karena mereka dengan mudah belajar dan menghafal kata-kata dan formula
penting yang mendasar dalam ajaran Buddha, dengan cara membaca secara
teratur. Pembelajaran mereka dan ilham yang mereka dapatkan darinya akan
tumbuh lebih dalam karena penerimaan mereka terhadap pesan-pesan Guru
akan meningkat.

Di masa mendatang, akan ada para bhikkhu yang
tidak akan mendengarkan ucapan khotbah-khotbah seperti itu yang
merupakan kata-kata Tathāgata, mendalam, dalam makna, memimpin di luar
dunia, (secara konsisten) terhubung dengan kekosongan, mereka tidak akan
meminjamkan telinga, mereka tidak akan menerapkan pikiran mereka pada
pengetahuan, mereka tidak akan menganggap ajaran-ajaran itu untuk
diangkat dan dikuasai.

Sebaliknya, mereka akan mendengarkan
ucapan wacana seperti itu yang merupakan komposisi sastra yang dibuat
oleh penyair, kata-kata jenaka, huruf jenaka, oleh orang-orang dari
luar, atau kata-kata murid, mereka akan meminjamkan telinga, mereka akan
menerapkan pikiran mereka pada pengetahuan , mereka akan
mempertimbangkan ajaran-ajaran itu untuk diangkat dan dikuasai.


Demikianlah, para bhikkhu, khotbah-khotbah yang merupakan kata-kata
Tathāgata, mendalam, mendalam dalam makna, memimpin di luar dunia,
(secara konsisten) berhubungan dengan kekosongan, akan menghilang.


Oleh karena itu, para bhikkhu, kamu harus berlatih sebagai berikut:
‘Kami akan mendengarkan ucapan dari khotbah-khotbah seperti itu yang
merupakan kata-kata dari Tathāgata, mendalam, dalam makna, memimpin di
luar dunia, (secara konsisten) terhubung dengan kekosongan, kami akan
meminjamkan telinga, kami akan menerapkan pikiran kita pada pengetahuan,
kita akan mempertimbangkan ajaran-ajaran itu untuk diangkat dan
dikuasai. ‘ Beginilah caranya, para bhikkhu, kamu harus melatih dirimu
sendiri.

- Āṇi Sutta -


youtube.com
by Sarah Riser through Professor Rev. Dr. James K. Powell II, opensourcebuddhism.org This very well-made piece offers a chronology of the advent and exit (mo…
50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mUil5bVPsI
Lost Irish Buddhist
UCCIreland
Published on Jan 11, 2011
Who was he really, this hobo, world traveller and finally famous
Buddhist in the Orient who blazed a trail but died, it seems, ignored by
history? The enigmatic, free thinking Dubliner who used different
aliases, we now know to have been Dhammaloka, “the Irish Buddhist” who
converted to his adopted religion around 1900. He became widely known
throughout Asia and in the process, managed to fall foul of the colonial establishment as well as Christian missionaries.


Uncovering Dhammaloka’s unique story has taken some inspired detective
work on the part of UCC’s Professor Brian Bocking, as well as other
colleagues, and their efforts have not been in vain. The lost Irish
Buddhist emerges after all these years as one of the earliest Western
Buddhist monks, pre-dating many others who have claimed the title.
Professor Bocking takes us through an amazing odyssey.
Category
Education


About This Website
youtube.com
Who was he really, this hobo, world traveller and finally famous Buddhist in…
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTS0F-529OY
Asia, Buddha e…. (Italiano)
Gianrigo Marletta
Published on Jul 9, 2011
IL LIBRO HA RIPRESO IL SUO TITOLO ORIGINALE “ASIA, BUDDHA E UN REPORTER SENZA LAVORO” ED E’ IN VENDITA PRESSO LA GB EDITORIA (http://www.gbeditoria.it/)


“Asia, Buddha e Reportage” an in-depth journalistic coverage book that
portrays the present history of various Asian countries such as Burma,
Bangladesh and Cambodia. A journey trough Buddhist teachings and touches
of spirituality. Language: Italian
Category
News & Politics
51) Classico italiano-italiano classico,


Buddha Āsana, che significa “Buddha Vacana - l’insegnamento del
Risvegliato con consapevolezza”. Dal momento che nel Buddhismo non
esiste alcun dio divino, il termine è considerato più accurato della
parola “religione” in quanto denota una filosofia e una pratica
adattabili piuttosto che una chiamata divina non mutevole da un dio
onnisciente.

Śāsana può anche riferirsi alla dispensazione di
5000 anni di un particolare Buddha. Cioè, stiamo vivendo nello śāsana
del Buddha Śakyamuni.

Ogni male
mai fatto
e in aumento della salubrità
e il cuore è ben purificatore:
questo è il Sasana dei Buddha

(Dhammapada,
183)

potrebbe
tutti gli esseri viventi vivono sempre felici,
libero da animosità.
Possano tutti condividere le benedizioni
scaturendo dal bene che ho fatto.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Buddha Vacana
- Le parole del Buddha -


La loro comprensione del Buddha Vacana diventerà molto più precisa man
mano che imparano e memorizzano senza sforzo le parole e le formule
importanti che sono fondamentali nell’insegnamento del Buddha,
attraverso modi di lettura regolare. Il loro apprendimento e
l’ispirazione che ne traggono crescerà più in profondità man mano che la
loro ricettività ai messaggi del Maestro migliorerà.

Nel tempo
futuro, ci saranno bhikkhu che non ascolteranno l’espressione di tali
discorsi che sono parole del Tathāgata, profondi, profondi di
significato, che conducono al di là del mondo, (coerentemente) connessi
con il vuoto, non presteranno orecchio, essi non applicheranno la loro
mente alla conoscenza, non prenderanno in considerazione quegli
insegnamenti da imparare e da padroneggiare.

Al contrario,
ascolteranno l’espressione di tali discorsi che sono composizioni
letterarie fatte da poeti, parole spiritose, lettere argute, da persone
esterne, o parole di discepoli, presteranno orecchio, applicheranno la
loro mente alla conoscenza prenderanno in considerazione quegli
insegnamenti da imparare e da padroneggiare.

Così, i bhikkhu, i
discorsi che sono parole del Tathāgata, profondi, profondi di
significato, che conducono al di là del mondo, (coerentemente) connessi
alla vacuità, scompariranno.

Perciò, bhikkhu, dovresti allenarti
così: “Ascolteremo l’espressione di tali discorsi che sono parole del
Tathagata, profonde, profonde nel significato, che conducono al di là
del mondo, (coerentemente) connesse con il vuoto, presteremo orecchio,
noi applicherà la nostra mente sulla conoscenza, considereremo questi
insegnamenti come tali da essere acquisiti e padroneggiati “. Ecco come,
bhikkhu, dovresti allenarti.

- Āṇi Sutta -


About This Website
youtube.com
IL LIBRO HA RIPRESO IL SUO TITOLO ORIGINALE “ASIA, BUDDHA E…
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vaf0esKLMZg
Rakugo in English SFPL Main Stage
SFPLMainStage
Published on Jan 17, 2008
Rakugo in English came to California for a few rare performances of
this classic Japanese entertainment. The performer is seated, uses
minimal props and performs all voices in the story.

This story of udon noodles is a good example of rakugo. The circuitous
story is fast, has many details, then finally arrives at the punch line.

To Learn More-

To view the entire program:

http://sanfrancisco.granicus.com/View

History of Rakugo:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rakugo

Rakugo in English:

http://www.english-rakugo.com/english
Category
Entertainment
52)日本の古典 - 古典的なイタリア語

これは、「Buddha Vacana - 目覚めた人の意識のある教え」を意味します。仏教では神の神は存在しないので、この用語は「宗教」という言葉よりも正確であると考えられています。

Śāsanaはまた、特定の仏陀の5000年の分配を指すかもしれません。つまり、私たちはŚakyamuniBuddhaのśāsanaに住んでいます。

あらゆる悪
やったことない
そして健全性が増している
心を清潔にする
これは仏陀のササナです

(ダンマパダ、
183)

5月
すべての生き物はいつも幸せに暮らしています、
不快感から解放されています。
すべての人が祝福を分かち合うように
私がした善から湧き出ています。

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

バカナ仏
- 仏の言葉 -

彼らが仏陀の教えの基本である言葉と重要な式を楽に学び、暗記することによって、彼らが仏陀ヴァカナを理解することは、はるかに正確になるでしょう。彼らの学びやそこから得られるインスピレーションは、先生のメッセージに対する彼らの受容性が向上するにつれて深くなります。

将来的には、タサガタの言葉である、深遠な、深遠な、深遠な世界を超えて、(一貫して)空虚さと結びついたそのような言説の発話を聞かないであろうbhikkhusがいるでしょう。知識に彼らの心を適用することはありません、彼らは取り上げられ、習得されるようにそれらの教えを考慮しないでしょう。

それどころか、彼らは詩人、気の利いた言葉、気の利いた手紙、社外の人々、または弟子の言葉によって作られた文学的な構成物であるそのような言説の発話を聞き、彼らは知識に気をつけます。彼らはそれらの教えが取り上げられ、習得されると考えるでしょう。

このように、bhikkhus、タサガタの言葉である、深遠な、深い意味のある、世界を越えて導く、一貫して空虚と結びついた言説は消滅するでしょう。

それゆえに、bhikkhus、あなたはこのように訓練するべきです:
‘私たちはタスガガタの言葉であるそのような言説の発言に耳を傾けるでしょう。私たちは知識に私たちの心を適用するでしょう、私たちはそれらの教えが取り上げられ、習得されるように考えます。このように、bhikkhus、あなたはあなた自身を訓練するべきです。

- ÂṇiSutta -


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Rakugo in English came to California for a few rare performances of this…
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,

53) Klasik Jawa-Klasik Jawa,


Buddha Śãsana, sing artine “Buddha Vacana - ajaran saka Awakened One
karo Kesadaran”. Wiwit ing Buddhisme ora ana allah ilahi, istilah iki
dianggep luwih akurat tinimbang tembung “agama” amarga nuduhake filsafat
lan praktek sing bisa adaptif, tinimbang panggil ilahi sing ora owah
saka allah sing ngerti.

Śāna uga bisa ngrujuk marang dispensasi 5000 taun Buddha. Punika, kita manggen ing śāsana saking Budha Śakyamuni.

Saben piala
ora tau dilakoni
lan tambah akeh
lan ati sing apik banget:
Iki minangka Sasana Buddha

(Dhammapada,
183)

Mei
kabeh makhluk urip tansah urip kanthi seneng,
bebas saka kekejeman.
Muga-muga kabeh bisa nampa berkah
mulung saka kabecikan sing wis ditindakake.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Buddha Vacana
- Tembung Sang Buddha -


Pemahaman saka Buddha Vacana bakal dadi luwih pas amarga dheweke
gampang sinau lan ngeling-ngelingake tembung-tembung lan rumus-rumus
penting sing dhasar ing ajaran Buddha, kanthi cara maca sing biasa.
Learning lan inspirasi sing bakal diwenehi saka iku bakal tuwuh maneh
minangka panrima tumrap pesen saka Guru bakal nambah.

Ing wektu
sing bakal kepungkur, bakal ana bhikkhu sing ora bakal ngrungokake
ucapan-ucapan kasebut yaiku tembung-tembung saka Tathāgata, tegese,
makna sing jero, ora ana ing donya, (kanthi konsisten) karo kekosongan.
ora bakal nggunakake pikiran sing ana ing kawruh, dheweke ora bakal
nganggep piwulangan sing bisa ditindakake lan dikuwasani.


Saliyane iku, dheweke bakal ngrungokake ucapan-ucapan kasebut yaiku
komposisi sastra sing digawe dening penyair, kata-kata lucu, surat lucu,
wong liya saka njaba, utawa tembung murid, dheweke bakal ngelingake, ,
dheweke bakal nganggep piwulang sing bakal dijupuk lan dikuasai.


Mangkono, para bhikkhu, wacana sing ana tembung saka Tathāgata, tegesé,
tegesé ing makna, sing ndhisiki ing saindenging jagad, (kanthi
konsisten) karo kekosongan, bakal sirna.

Mulane, bhikkhu,
sampeyan kudu nglatih kanthi mangkono: ‘Kita bakal ngrungokake ucapan
kasebut minangka tembung saka Tathāgata, tegesé, tegesé, tegesé ing
njaba donya, (kanthi konsisten) karo kekosongan, kita bakal ngidungaké,
bakal nggambar pikiran kita ing kawruh, kita bakal nganggep piwulangan
sing bakal ditindakake lan dikuasai. ‘ Iki carane, bhikkhu, sampeyan
kudu latihan dhewe.

- Āṇi Sutta -

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54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rl_zo-EoSFA
Maintain Balance..Buddha’s WISDOM STORY…(Kannada) Buddha story..J6
Bhagavan Shree Prasannaji
Published on Aug 7, 2017
Bhagavan shree Prasannaji narrating a story of Buddha where
safeguarding the balance in life is been emphasized…A story which will
guide you to overcome ignorance.


Pls attend weekend REIKI, KUNDALINI & PAST LIFE workshops in
Bengaluru..Cl 9731825540 for info…For Guruji’s appointent cl
9481371016…visit www.nishaneschool.com
Category
People & Blogs
54) ಕ್ಲಾಸಿಕಲ್ ಕನ್ನಡ- ಒಂದು ವೇಳೆ,


ಬುದ್ಧ ಆಸಾನ, ಇದರರ್ಥ “ಬುದ್ಧ ವಾಕನಾ - ಜಾಗೃತಿಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ಜಾಗೃತನ ಬೋಧನೆ”.
ಬೌದ್ಧಧರ್ಮದಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವುದೇ ದೈವಿಕ ದೇವರು ಇಲ್ಲದಿರುವುದರಿಂದ ಈ ಪದವನ್ನು “ಧರ್ಮ” ಎಂಬ
ಪದಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ನಿಖರವಾಗಿ ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಇದು ಎಲ್ಲ ತಿಳಿದಿರುವ
ದೇವರಿಂದ ಬದಲಾಗದ ದೈವಿಕ ಕರೆಗಿಂತ ಹೊಂದಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಲ್ಲ ತತ್ವಶಾಸ್ತ್ರ ಮತ್ತು
ಅಭ್ಯಾಸವನ್ನು ಸೂಚಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

ಆಸನ ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಬುದ್ಧನ 5000 ವರ್ಷಗಳ ವಿತರಣೆಯನ್ನು ಸಹ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಿಸಬಹುದು. ಅಂದರೆ, ನಾವು ಆಕ್ಯಮುನಿ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಆಸನದಲ್ಲಿ ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದೇವೆ.

ಪ್ರತಿ ದುಷ್ಟ
ಎಂದಿಗೂ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ
ಮತ್ತು ಆರೋಗ್ಯಕರತೆ ಹೆಚ್ಚುತ್ತಿದೆ
ಮತ್ತು ಒಬ್ಬರ ಹೃದಯವನ್ನು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ಶುದ್ಧೀಕರಿಸುವುದು:
ಇದು ಬುದ್ಧರ ಸಸನ

(ಧಮ್ಮಪದ,
183)

ಮೇ
ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಜೀವಿಗಳು ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ಸಂತೋಷದಿಂದ ಬದುಕುತ್ತವೆ,
ದ್ವೇಷದಿಂದ ಮುಕ್ತವಾಗಿದೆ.
ಎಲ್ಲರೂ ಆಶೀರ್ವಾದದಲ್ಲಿ ಪಾಲ್ಗೊಳ್ಳಲಿ
ನಾನು ಮಾಡಿದ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದರಿಂದ ಹುಟ್ಟುತ್ತದೆ.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

ಬುದ್ಧ ವಾಕನಾ
- ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾತುಗಳು -


ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮೂಲಭೂತವಾದ ಪದಗಳನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಸೂತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು
ನಿಯಮಿತವಾಗಿ ಓದುವ ವಿಧಾನಗಳಿಂದ ಅವರು ಸಲೀಸಾಗಿ ಕಲಿಯುವುದರಿಂದ ಮತ್ತು ಕಂಠಪಾಠ
ಮಾಡುವುದರಿಂದ ಬುದ್ಧ ವಾಕಾನಾದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಅವರ ತಿಳುವಳಿಕೆ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ನಿಖರವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಅವರ
ಕಲಿಕೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅದರಿಂದ ಅವರು ಪಡೆಯುವ ಸ್ಫೂರ್ತಿ ಆಳವಾಗಿ ಬೆಳೆಯುವುದರಿಂದ ಶಿಕ್ಷಕರ
ಸಂದೇಶಗಳಿಗೆ ಅವರ ಗ್ರಹಿಕೆ ಸುಧಾರಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

ಮುಂದಿನ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ, ತಥಾಗತದ
ಪದಗಳು, ಆಳವಾದ, ಅರ್ಥದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಳವಾದ, ಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಮೀರಿ ಮುನ್ನಡೆಸುವ, (ಸತತವಾಗಿ)
ಖಾಲಿತನದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಸಂಪರ್ಕ ಹೊಂದಿದ, ಅವರು ಕಿವಿ ಸಾಲ ನೀಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ, ಅಂತಹ ಪ್ರವಚನಗಳ
ಮಾತನ್ನು ಕೇಳದ ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು ಇರುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಜ್ಞಾನದ ಮೇಲೆ ಅವರ ಮನಸ್ಸನ್ನು
ಅನ್ವಯಿಸುವುದಿಲ್ಲ, ಅವರು ಆ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕೈಗೆತ್ತಿಕೊಂಡು ಮಾಸ್ಟರಿಂಗ್ ಎಂದು
ಪರಿಗಣಿಸುವುದಿಲ್ಲ.

ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ತದ್ವಿರುದ್ಧವಾಗಿ, ಅವರು ಕವಿಗಳು, ಹಾಸ್ಯಮಯ
ಪದಗಳು, ಹಾಸ್ಯದ ಪತ್ರಗಳು, ಹೊರಗಿನ ಜನರು ಅಥವಾ ಶಿಷ್ಯರ ಮಾತುಗಳಿಂದ ಮಾಡಿದ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ
ಸಂಯೋಜನೆಗಳಾದ ಇಂತಹ ಪ್ರವಚನಗಳನ್ನು ಅವರು ಕೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ, ಅವರು ಕಿವಿ ಸಾಲ ನೀಡುತ್ತಾರೆ,
ಅವರು ಜ್ಞಾನದ ಮೇಲೆ ತಮ್ಮ ಮನಸ್ಸನ್ನು ಅನ್ವಯಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ , ಅವರು ಆ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು
ಕೈಗೆತ್ತಿಕೊಂಡು ಮಾಸ್ಟರಿಂಗ್ ಎಂದು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.

ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ,
ಭಿಕ್ಷುಗಳು, ತಥಾಗತದ ಪದಗಳು, ಆಳವಾದ, ಅರ್ಥದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಳವಾದ, ಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಮೀರಿ
ಮುನ್ನಡೆಸುವ, (ಸ್ಥಿರವಾಗಿ) ಖಾಲಿತನದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಸಂಪರ್ಕ ಹೊಂದಿದ ಪ್ರವಚನಗಳು
ಕಣ್ಮರೆಯಾಗುತ್ತವೆ.

ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಸ್, ನೀವು ಹೀಗೆ ತರಬೇತಿ ನೀಡಬೇಕು:
‘ನಾವು ತಥಾಗತದ ಪದಗಳು, ಆಳವಾದ, ಅರ್ಥದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಳವಾದ, ಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಮೀರಿ ಮುನ್ನಡೆಸುವ,
(ಸತತವಾಗಿ) ಖಾಲಿತನದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಸಂಪರ್ಕ ಹೊಂದಿದ ಇಂತಹ ಪ್ರವಚನಗಳನ್ನು ನಾವು
ಕೇಳುತ್ತೇವೆ, ನಾವು ಕಿವಿ ಸಾಲ ನೀಡುತ್ತೇವೆ, ನಾವು ಜ್ಞಾನದ ಮೇಲೆ ನಮ್ಮ ಮನಸ್ಸನ್ನು
ಅನ್ವಯಿಸುತ್ತದೆ, ನಾವು ಆ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕೈಗೆತ್ತಿಕೊಂಡು ಮಾಸ್ಟರಿಂಗ್ ಎಂದು
ಪರಿಗಣಿಸುತ್ತೇವೆ. ‘ ಈ ರೀತಿ, ಭಿಕ್ಷುಸ್, ನೀವೇ ತರಬೇತಿ ನೀಡಬೇಕು.

- Āṇi ಸುತ -

55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

55) Классикалық қазақ-классикалық қазақ,


Будда Śãsana, яғни «Будха Васана - Awakened One туралы хабардарлықты
үйрету» дегенді білдіреді. Буддизмде Құдайдың құдайы болмағандықтан, бұл
термин «дін» деген сөзден гөрі дәлірек саналады, өйткені ол барлық
білетін құдайдан өзгермейтін Құдайдың шақыруымен емес, бейімделетін
философия мен тәжірибені білдіреді.

Сасаана сондай-ақ, белгілі Будданың 5000 жылдық дозанына сілтеме жасай алады. Яғни, біз Сакамуни Будда штатында тұрамыз.

Әрбір жамандық
ешқашан жасамаңыз
және толыққанды өсуде
және жүрегі жақсы тазартады:
бұл Будда Сасана

(Dhammapada,
183)

Мамыр
барлық тірі адамдар әрқашан бақытты өмір сүреді,
қиянатшылдықтан құтылмайды.
Барлығына үлес болсын
Мен жасаған игі істерімнен шыққан.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Будда Vacана
- Будданың сөздері -


Будда Васана туралы түсінігі Будданың үйренуінде, үнемі оқу
тәсілдерінде маңызды болып табылатын сөздерді және маңызды формулаларды
оңай үйреніп, есте сақтаған кезде әлдеқайда дәлірек болады. Оларды
үйрету және олардан шыға алатын шабыт мұғалімнің хабарларына деген
сезімталдығы жақсаратындықтан тереңірек өседі.

Болашақта, бхикхус
болады, ол сөздерді тыңдауға болмайды, олар Татхата сөзі, терең,
мағынасы терең, дүниенің сыртына шығатын (босқа), босқа байланысты, олар
құлақ бермейді білімге деген ақыл-ойын қолданбайды, олар бұл ілімдерді
қабылдап, меңгеруді қарастырмайды.

Керісінше, олар ақындар,
әңгімелескен сөздер, сыпайы хаттар, сырттағы адамдардан немесе
шәкірттердің айтқан сөздерінен құлақ сала отырып, әңгімелерін тыңдайды,
олар өз ақыл-ойын білімге жұмсайды , олар сол ілімдерді қарастырып,
меңгеруді қарастырады.

Осылайша, bhikhus, дұшпандық, сөзсіз, тереңдіктен туындаған, әлемнен тыс жетекші, терең, мағыналы Татхата сөздері жоғалады.


Сондықтан, бхикхус, сіз мынаған жаттығуыңыз керек: «Біз Татхата сөзі,
терең, мағынасы терең, әлемнен тысқары (тыныштық) байланысты бос сөзбен
сөйлесуді тыңдаймыз. біздің ақыл-ойымызды білімге жұмсайды, сол
ілімдерді қарастырып, меңгеруді қарастырамыз ». Бхикхус, өзіңізді
үйретіңіз.

- Āṇi Sutta -

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56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Dlrb8F6hz8
English Khmer Translation / the Buddhism and the buddhist path
learn English Khmer YouTube
Published on Apr 29, 2019
English Khmer Translation, the Buddhism and the Buddhist path

Category
People & Blogs
56) បុរាណខ្មែរ - បុរាណខ្មែរ,


ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាមានន័យថា “ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា -
ការបង្រៀនរបស់អ្នកភ្ញាក់ដឹងខ្លួន” ។
ដោយសារតែនៅក្នុងព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាគ្មានព្រះទេវស្សាត្រូវបានគេចាត់ទុកថាមានភាពត្រឹមត្រូវជាងពាក្យ«សាសនា»ព្រោះវាសំដៅទៅលើទស្សនវិជ្ជានិងការអនុវត្តដែលមិនចេះប្រែប្រួលជាជាងការហៅដ៏ទេវភាពពីព្រះដែលស្គាល់ទាំងអស់។

Śāsanaក៏អាចសំដៅទៅលើគ្រាកាន់កាប់របស់ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា 5000 ឆ្នាំផងដែរ។ នោះមានន័យថាយើងកំពុងរស់នៅក្នុងញ្ញាសានៃព្រះពុទ្ធŚakamami។

អាក្រក់ទាំងអស់
មិនដែលធ្វើ
និងក្នុងការកើនឡើងល្អ
និងបេះដូងរបស់បេះដូងស្អាត -
នេះគឺជាសសររបស់ព្រះពុទ្ធ

(Dhammapada,
183)

ឧសភា
សត្វមានជីវិតរស់នៅទាំងអស់តែងតែមានភាពសប្បាយរីករាយជានិច្ច។
ដោយឥតសៅហ្មង។
សូមឱ្យគ្រប់គ្នាចូលរួមក្នុងពរជ័យ
ចេញមកពីល្អដែលខ្ញុំបានធ្វើ។

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា
- ពាក្យរបស់ព្រះពុទ្ធ -

ការយល់ដឹងរបស់ពួកគេចំពោះព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនានឹងកាន់តែច្បាស់លាស់នៅពេលពួកគេរៀននិងចងចាំពាក្យនិងរូបមន្តសំខាន់ៗដែលមានមូលដ្ឋានគ្រឹះក្នុងការបង្រៀនរបស់ព្រះពុទ្ធដោយវិធីអានទៀងទាត់។

ការរៀនសូត្រនិងការបំផុសគំនិតដែលពួកគេទទួលពីវានឹងកាន់តែស៊ីជម្រៅនៅពេលដែលពួកគេទទួលយកសាររបស់គ្រូនឹងប្រសើរឡើង។

នៅពេលអនាគតនឹងមានហោរាដែលមិនស្តាប់ពាក្យសុន្ទរកថាបែបនេះដែលជាពាក្យរបស់តាថាហ្គាតាយ៉ាងជ្រាលជ្រៅនិងមានអត្ថន័យជ្រាលជ្រៅដែលនាំមុខគេហួសពីពិភពលោក
(ជាប់លាប់) ដែលជាប់ទាក់ទងនឹងភាពឥតប្រយោជន៍ពួកគេនឹងមិនខ្ចីត្រចៀកទេ។
នឹងមិនអនុវត្តគំនិតរបស់ពួកគេលើចំណេះដឹងទេពួកគេនឹងមិនចាត់ទុកការបង្រៀនទាំងនោះថាត្រូវបានគេលើកឡើងនិងស្ទាត់ជំនាញ។

ផ្ទុយទៅវិញពួកគេនឹងស្ដាប់សុន្ទរកថាបែបនេះដែលជាសមាសភាពផ្នែកអក្សរសាស្ត្រដែលបានធ្វើឡើងដោយកំណាព្យពាក្យសម្តីព្រលឹងនិងពាក្យសម្ដីដោយមនុស្សមកពីខាងក្រៅឬពាក្យសំដីរបស់ពួកសិស្សពួកគេនឹងខ្ចីត្រចៀកពួកគេនឹងអនុវត្តគំនិតរបស់ពួកគេលើចំណេះដឹង
ពួកគេនឹងពិចារណាពីការបង្រៀនទាំងនោះដែលត្រូវបានលើកឡើងនិងស្ទាត់ជំនាញ។

ដូច្នេះប៊ីគឃិសដែលជាសុន្ទរកថាដែលជាពាក្យរបស់តាថាហ្គាតាយ៉ាងជ្រាលជ្រៅមានអត្ថន័យជ្រាលជ្រៅដែលនាំមុខគេហួសពីពិភពលោកនេះ
(ភ្ជាប់ជាប់ជានិច្ចនឹងទទេ) នឹងរលាយសាបសូន្យ។


ហេតុនេះហើយបានជាអ្នករាល់គ្នាគួរបង្ហាត់បង្រៀនថា:
“យើងនឹងស្តាប់ពាក្យសម្ដីបែបនេះដែលជាពាក្យរបស់តាថាហ្គាតាយ៉ាងជ្រាលជ្រៅនិងមានអត្ថន័យជ្រាលជ្រៅដែលនាំមុខគេហួសពីពិភពលោក
(ជាប់លាប់) ដែលជាប់ទាក់ទងនឹងភាពទទេយើងនឹងខ្ចីត្រចៀកយើង
នឹងអនុវត្តគំនិតរបស់យើងលើចំណេះដឹងយើងនឹងពិចារណាពីការបង្រៀនទាំងនោះដែលត្រូវបានគេលើកឡើងនិងស្ទាត់ជំនាញ។
នេះគឺជារបៀបដែលអ្នកគួរបង្ហាត់ខ្លួនអ្នក។

- អានីសតា -


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57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

57) Classical Korean- 한국어,


부처님 Śãsana, “부처님 Vacana - 의미의 깨달은 사람의 가르침”을 의미합니다. 불교에서는 신이 존재하지 않으므로이
용어는 “종교”라는 단어보다 더 정확하다고 여겨집니다. 신이 모르는 신으로부터 변화하지 않는 신성한 부르기보다는 적응 가능한
철학과 실천을 의미하기 때문입니다.

사사나는 또한 특정한 부처의 5000 년 경륜의 시대를 언급 할 수도 있습니다. 즉, 우리는 Śakyamuni Buddha의 śāsana에 살고 있습니다.

모든 악
절대하지 마라.
그리고 건강 증진에
마음을 정화하는 마음 :
이것은 Buddhas의 Sasana 다.

(Dhammapada,
183)

할 수있다
모든 살아있는 존재는 항상 행복하게 살고,
적의로부터 자유 롭다.
모든 사람들이 축복을 함께 나눌 수있다.
내가 한 선한 것이 생겨났다.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

부다 바카나
- 부처님의 말씀 -


Buddha Vacana에 대한 그들의 이해는 규칙적인 독서의 방법에 의해 Buddha의 가르침에 근본적인 단어 및 중요한
공식을 쉽게 배우고 암기 할 때 훨씬 더 정확해질 것입니다. 그들의 학습과 그것이 얻는 영감은 교사의 메시지에 대한 수용성이
향상됨에 따라 더욱 깊어 질 것입니다.

미래에는 비단이있을 것입니다. 누가 그런 말을 듣지 않겠습니까? 그 말은
Tathāgata의 말입니다. 심오하고 심오하며 의미가 깊고 세상을 넘어서고 (일관되게) 공허와 관련이 있습니다. 그들은 귀를
기울이지 않을 것입니다. 지식에 대한 그들의 마음을 적용하지 않을 것입니다, 그들은 그 가르침이 받아 들여지고 숙달 된 것으로
간주하지 않을 것입니다.

오히려 그들은 시인, 재치있는 말, 재치있는 서신, 외부의 사람들, 제자의 말로 구성된 문학
작품의 발언을 듣고 귀를 기울이며 지식에 대한 그들의 마음을 적용 할 것입니다 , 그들은 그 가르침이 받아 들여지고 숙달되는
것으로 간주 할 것입니다.

따라서, 비구니, tathāgata의 단어, 비열한, 심오한, 세계를 넘어서서, (계속적으로) 공허와 연결된 의미에서의 비법은 사라질 것입니다.


그러므로 비구니들에게 다음과 같이 훈련시켜야합니다. ‘우리는 Tathāgata의 말, 즉 심오하고 깊은 의미를 지닌 세계의 담론
인 말을들을 것입니다. (일관되게) 공허와 관련이 있습니다. 우리는 귀를 빌려줄 것입니다. 지식에 대한 우리의 생각을 적용 할
것입니다. 우리는 그러한 가르침이 받아 들여지고 숙달되는 것으로 간주 할 것입니다. ‘ 이것은 비구니, 당신 스스로 훈련해야하는
방법입니다.

- Āṇi Sutta -







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58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

58) Kurdî (Kurdî) Kurmancî (Kurdî) –Kurdî (Kurmancî)


Buddha Śãsana, ku tê wateya “Buddha Vacana - perwerdehiya Yekbûyî ya Bi
Agahdariyê”. Ji ber ku Bûrdîzma li Bûdîzmê ye, xweda Xwedê ne ji hêla
peyva “olî” bêtir rast eşkere ye, wekî ku ev felsefeyek felsefet dike û
bêtir bi karanîna navdestiya neheq a ji Xwedê dizane.

Śsana dikare ji bo Buddha taybet a 5000-salî ya referendasyonê binêrin. Ew e, em di śsansana Buddha Śakyamuni de dijîn.

Her xerab
tu carî
û di çarçoveya mezinbûnê de zêde dibe
û dilê xwe yek baş e:
Ev Bawas Sasana ye

(Dhammapada,
183)

Gulan
hemûyan dijîn her dem bi dilfê xwe dijîn,
ji dilovaniya azad.
Di hemûyan de bi hemûyan pîroz bibin
Ji qenciya xwe ya ku ez çê kir.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Odeya Buddha
- Gotinên Buddha -


Di têgihiştina xwendinê de bi rêbazên Bud Buddha bingehîn û peyvên
girîng ên bingehîn hîn dibin û bi awayekî girîng hîn dikin û têgihiştina
wan a Vîdana Buddha bêtir rast in. Perwerdehiya wan û veguherîna wan wê
ji wê derê bibin, wekî wê qebûl dikin ku peyamên Mamosteyê Mamosteyê wê
çêtir bikin.

Di demê paşerojê de, bhikkhus dê kîjan guhdariya
van xewnên ku bi gotinên Tathāgata, kurt, kûr, bi bandor tête bihîstin,
ji derveyî cîhanê, (berdewamî) bi rakêşî ve girêdayî ye, ew ê guhdar
nakin dê hişê xwe li ser zanyariyê bixwazin, ew ê wan hînbûnên ku bêne
girtin û bisekinin.

Berevajî, ew ê bi gotinên wêjeyên ku ji hêla
helbestvanên edebî têne nivîsandin, peyvên hişyarî, nameyên hêrs, ji
aliyê mirovên derveyî, an gotinên şagirtên wê guhdar bibin, ew ê hişê
xwe hişmendiya xwe zanin , ew ê wan hînbûnên ku bêne girtin û pispor.


Bi vî awayî, bhikkhus, têgotinên ku peyvên Tathāgata, bi kûrhatî,
kûrhatî, wateya pir, dûr li cîhanê, (berdewamî) bi rakêşî ve girêdayî
ye, dê winda bibin.

Ji ber vê yekê, bhikkhus, divê hûn bi vî
awayî biceribînin: ‘Em ê bi gotinên nîqaşên van tiştan bibihîzin, ku
peyvên Tathāgata, kûr, kûr, wateya wateya, cîhanê derxistin. dê hişê me
li ser zanînê bixwazin, em ê wan hînbûnên ku bêne girtin û bisekinin. Ev
çawa, bhikkhus, divê hûn xwe bixwînin.

- Āṇi Sutta -









































































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59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmvqe_CCl3I
‘Harmony’: A Buddhist Monk In Kyrgyzstan

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Published on Feb 1, 2019
Aleksei Shmyglya rises early to greet sunrise over the mountain. The
Buddhist monk leads a simple life of prayer and reflection in the
mountains above Bishkek, seeking contact with a “higher power.”

Originally published at - https://www.rferl.org/a/kyrgyzstan-bu
Category
News & Politics
59) Классикалык Кыргыз-Классикалык Кыргыз,


дегенди билдирет Будда Сасана, “Будда Vacana - ойгонуп, бири түшүнүү
менен окутуу”. Буддизмде бери мөөнөттүү ал баарын билген Кудай Тааланын
чакырыгына бир ылайыкташа карашыбызды жана тажрыйбасын эмес өзгөрүп
турган эмес дегенди билдирет деген сөз, “дин” караганда көбүрөөк так деп
эсептелет эч кандай кудай жок.

Сасана да бир Будданын 5000-жылы
берилип айтып жаткан болушу ыктымал. Башкача айтканда, биз Śakyamuni
Будданын Сасана жашап жатабыз.

ар бир жамандык
эч качан иш
жана пайдалуулук өсүп
жана жүрөгү жакшы тазалай:
Бул будданын болуп Сасана

(Dhammapada,
183)

Май
бардык тирүү жандыктар ар дайым бактылуу жашап,
кас эркин.
Май баталарды бардык үлүшү
Мен эмне кылдым, жакшы чыккан.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Будда Vacana
- Будданын сөздөрү -


Алар үзгүлтүксүз окуу жолу менен, аракетчил үйрөнүү жана сөздөрү менен
Будды окутууда негизги маанилүү нерсени эстеп катары Будда Vacana
Алардын түшүнүү алда канча так болуп калат. Алардын окутуу жана алар бул
Окутуучунун кабарларга өз билгендерин кабыл жакшыртат деп ого бетер
өсөт ала илхам.

Келечекте, убакыттын өтүшү менен ошол дүйнөгө
алып, түзүшүнөн келип, күчтүү, мааниси күчтүү сөздөр, мисалы,
баяндамалардын сөз уккусу келбеген bhikkhus болот (дайыма) боштук менен
байланышкан, алар укпай карыз эмес, алар билимге, алардын акылын
колдонууга болбойт, алар кабыл алынган жана өздөштүрүшү керек болгон
сыяктуу эле ошол эле карап калат.

Тескерисинче, алар элдин
сырттан, же шакирттеринин сөздөр менен акындары тарабынан адабий курамы,
курч сөздөрү, курч тамгалары бар, мисалы, баяндамалардын сөзгө кулак
салам +, бирок алар кулак карыз берет, алар силерди билим менен, алардын
акылын колдонот алар асманга көтөрүлүп кетти, үйрөнүп үчүн ошол
окууларына токтолобуз.

Ошентип, монастырларда, дүйнөгө алып,
түзүшүнөн келип, күчтүү, мааниси күчтүү сөздөр менен баяндап, боштук
менен байланышкан (дайыма), жок болот.

Ошондуктан монастырларда,
сен мен үчүн ушунун баарын окутуу керек: “Биз дүйнөгө алып, түзүшүнөн
келип, күчтүү, мааниси күчтүү сөздөр, мисалы, баяндамалардын сөзгө кулак
салам +, (дайыма) боштук менен байланышкан, биз кулак карыз берет, биз
билимге акылыбыз колдонулат, биз кабыл алынат жана өздөштүрүшү керек
болгон катары окууларды карап чыгабыз “. Бул кандай монастырларда
силердики, окутуу керек.

- Ани Sutta -


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“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to
mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and
29,368,000 separate letters.




in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,


02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,


04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש


109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,


110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu






Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)


http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.


ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA

Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

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LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
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29 Fri 2019 Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 5:53 am
29 Fri 2019
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

1.
It is said Buddhism rejects a creator God, but accepts the existence of
infinite number of gods in different divine planes. Do you find it
contradictory ? If so, how, if no why?
Explain.

https://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/buddhaongod.asp
THE BUDDHA ON GOD

Monks,
that sphere should be realized where the eye (vision) stops and the
perception (mental noting) of form fades. That sphere is to be realized
where the ear stops and the perception of sound fades… where the nose
stops and the perception of aroma fades… where the tongue stops and
the perception of flavor fades… where the body stops and the
perception of tactile sensation fades… where the intellect stops and
the perception of idea/phenomenon fades: That sphere should be realized.
— Samyutta Nikaya XXXV.116

Buddhism and belief in god

Buddhism
believes in the existence of neither god nor soul in the theistic
sense. It is essentially a religion of the mind, which advocates present
moment awareness, inner purity, ethical conduct, freedom from the
problem of change, impermanence and suffering, and reliance upon one’s
own experience and discernment on the Eightfold path as the teacher and
guide, rather than an external authority other than the Dhamma. One may
take guidance from a teacher, but insightful awareness and experiential
knowledge of the Dhamma are vital to progress on the path.

Unlike
the other major religions of the world, Buddhism is not centered on the
concept of god as the upholder and sum of all or a universal supreme
being, who is responsible for the creation and dissolution of the world
and the existence of sentient beings.

Buddhism does not even
support the idea of an eternal and unchanging soul residing in the body.
According to Buddhism the whole existence is in a state of flux, and
there is nothing that is either permanent or unchanging. Some things may
last longer, but never forever.

The Buddhist scriptures do
confirm the existence of devas or celestial beings, bodhisattvas or pure
beings, heavens and hells and other planes of existence. They may last
for eons.

However, none of them are permanent entities. They are
all subject to change, impermanence and evolution. It is said that the
Buddha either remained silent or discouraged speculation when he was
asked questions about the existence of god or a Supreme Being.

Buddha’s views on god

The
Buddha did so with a purpose. He wanted his followers to remain focused
upon Nibbana and the permanent resolution of suffering, without
distractions and wasteful discussions. Therefore, he did his best to
keep them focused upon that single and virtuous goal, without becoming
distracted by theological speculation or intellectual disputation, which
was the common preoccupation of many scholars and religious teachers of
his time.

However, his silence does not mean that he was an
agnostic or he favored the notion of god as the ruler and creator of the
worlds and beings. His silence was not an affirmation of the existence
of an eternal creator. The Buddha did not believe in hidden causes but
apparent causes, which made sense to the mind and the intellect and
which were humanly relatable, experiential and explicable.

One
may wonder if it was so, why he accepted kamma and reincarnation as
governing laws, which were in some respects abstract concepts. Kamma was
a hidden process of cause and effect, but with mindfulness practice its
working could be discerned and experienced in the world by one and all.
No supernatural testimony was required to establish its universality or
working. Therefore, he accepted kamma as an operating principle. He
believed in reincarnation because he saw his own past lives (and
probably those of others) in contemplative states and understood their
significance in attaining the Buddhahood. However, he held that the
incarnating entity was not an eternal soul but a temporary formation.

Seven reasons why the existence of god is unacceptable

On
occasions, he expressed his opinions about creation and the role of
god. When Ananthapindika, a wealthy young man, met the Buddha at a
bamboo groove at Rajagaha, the Buddha made a few statements before him
about the existence of god and the real cause behind the creation of
beings in this world. Those views are summarized as below:

1. If
god is indeed the creator of all living things, then all things here
should submit to his power unquestioningly. Like the vessels produced by
a potter, they should remain without any individuality of their own. If
that is so, how can there be an opportunity for anyone to practice
virtue?

2. If this world is indeed created by god, then there
should be no sorrow or calamity or evil in this world and no need for
the existence of the principle of kamma since all deeds, both pure and
impure, must come from Him.

3. If it is not so, then there must
be some other cause besides god which is behind him, in which case He
would not be self-existent.

4. It is not convincing that the
Absolute has created us, because that which is absolute cannot be a
cause. All things here arise from different causes. Then can we can say
that the Absolute is the cause of all things alike? If the Absolute is
pervading them, then certainly It is not their creator.

5. If we
consider the Self as the maker, why did it not make things pleasant? Why
and how should it create so much sorrow and suffering for itself?

6.
It is neither god nor the self nor some causeless chance which creates
us. It is our deeds which produce both good and bad results according to
the law of causation.

7. We should therefore “abandon the heresy
of worshipping god and of praying to him. We should stop all
speculation and vain talk about such matters and practice good so that
good may result from our good deeds.

For such reasons, the Buddha
did not encourage speculation on the existence of Isvara, (god) among
his disciples. He wanted them to confine themselves to what was within
their field of awareness, that is, to understand the causes of suffering
and work for their mitigation. For the same reason, he discouraged
speculation upon the nature of Nibbana.

He preached that
initially each being was a product of ignorance and illusion and subject
to suffering, kamma and transmigration. Life was full of suffering and
it could be resolved only by overcoming desires and attraction and
aversion. The Dhamma served as the lamp in the darkness of existential
suffering. By knowing it and practicing it one could find a way to
escape from the cycle of births and deaths and from suffering itself.

Therefore,
for their final liberation he urged his disciples to contemplate upon
the Four Noble Truths, practice the Eightfold path and lead a virtuous
life by performing good deeds. He declared that by ending the transient
states of having, becoming, being and changing and removing the
defilements of the mind and body they could resolve suffering and enter
the state of beatitude or Nirvana on a lasting basis. Thus, in Buddhism
knowledge of the Dhamma has far greater significance than idle
speculation in resolving suffering. One may inquire into it and
contemplate upon it since it is experiential, relatable and verifiable,
unlike the speculative subjects such as the nature of god or the
existence of god and soul.

The complex and diverse nature of Buddhism

It
is difficult to categorize Buddhism as atheistic, theistic or agnostic
because it has aspects of them but does not particularly fit well into
any of them. For example, Buddhism may not believe in god and may not be
considered a theistic tradition, but it does believe in the Buddha and
the Buddhahood. Indeed, it not only believes in the Buddha but also in
numerous past and future Buddhas who exist in numerous higher worlds.
Buddhists worship them with devotion and reverence and make them
offerings just as the Hindus worship their gods. Thus, as explained in
the concluding part of this discussion, Buddhism is a diverse religion,
with elements of theistic, atheistic and agnostic beliefs and practices.
However, it cannot conclusively be placed in any of them with enough
justification because of its inherent contradictions.

Although it
was founded by the Buddha and its teachings are more organized,
concrete and systematic, Buddhism, just as Hinduism, is a complex
religion. It underwent further changes after his death, resulting in the
formation of many sects, sub-sects and regional versions, which made it
even more complex. Some of them made a radical departure from the
original teachings of the Buddha to the extent that they stand in their
own light as independent religions.

Were he alive, the Buddha
would have been surprised to witness the emergence of so many traditions
that rely upon his name to mark their teachings and philosophy but show
a marked deviation from his very teachings, doctrinal expositions and
stand points. What mostly binds them to Buddhism and keeps them in its
fold is their adherence to the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.

While
scholars may keep arguing about the essential nature of Buddhism it is
the firm opinion of this writer that according to the teachings of the
Buddha it is difficult to place Buddhism on the same footing as Hinduism
or Christianity and consider it a theistic tradition. It is theistic
only in the sense that some of its sects (especially those of Mahayana)
believe in a deity, the Buddha, who is not god but seem to possess some
attributes of god.

The centrality of Dhamma rather than god

The
Buddha did not ascribe any role to god either in creation or in human
suffering or in the liberation of beings. For the Buddha, the world was a
godless world, a formation or aggregate of objects and living beings,
in which both good and evil were produced by the actions of individual
beings, and their fate was determined by the law of causation (kamma).
While beings which lacked intelligence had no choice until they evolved
through rebirths, human beings and those above them had a unique
opportunity to exercise their discerning intellect (buddhi) and chose
right actions and the principles of right living to escape from the law
of kamma and the cycle of births and deaths.

Therefore, to awaken
their minds to the idea of righteous living and virtuous actions, he
taught the world the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, ascribing
no role to god in either of them and putting the entire burden of
resolving individual suffering upon the individuals themselves. In
Buddhism, there is nothing like the grace of god which can resolve the
kamma of a devotee. An arhant (awakened master) or a selfless monk may
transfer his good karma to a suffering soul out of compassion, as
believed in some sects, but such decisions are purely personal in which
neither god nor Buddha has any role.

While drawing his
conclusions and formulating the principles of Dhamma and the Code of
Conduct (Vinaya) for the monks or in his teachings, the Buddha
assiduously avoided to the extent possible all manners of speculation
about supernatural matters and abstract concepts, keeping his focus
firmly fixed upon the causes as well as solutions to the problems of
human existence within the realm of the mind and its abilities, and
without alluding to anything beyond them.

If he had any opinions
or knowledge about transcendence or eternal realities, he kept them out
of the purview of his discussion and deliberations to avoid causing
confusion and delusion. Even when he was pressed for a clear answer, he
remained silent, knowing that it would be a distraction for his
followers in their quest for Nibbana, and for himself in his attempts to
show them the right way and teach them the right knowledge.  Besides,
speculation would not lead to right perception, right awareness, right
understanding and right knowledge.

Belief in gods, Bodhisattvas and Primordial Buddhas

While
Buddhism does not believe in the existence of an all pervading eternal
god who is the cause of the causes and the soul of the souls, it does
believe in the existence of Noble beings or gods of heaven. The Buddhist
texts mention the names of several gods and goddesses, whose names are
similar in many cases to those of the gods and goddesses of Hinduism.

However,
while the deities of Hinduism are immortal, those of Buddhism are not.
They live for longer duration of time, but like all other beings, they
are prone to decay and subject to the cycle of births and deaths. They
may be even humans who evolve into gods through self-effort.

Some
of the gods whose names ​frequently appear in the Buddhist Pantheon are
Brahma, Indra, Aapo (Varuna), Vayo (Vayu), Tejo (Agni), Surya, Pajapati
(Prajapati), Soma, Yasa, Venhu (Vishnu), Mahadeva (Siva), Vijja
(Saraswati), Usha, Pathavi (Prithvi), Sri (Lakshmi), Yama, Kala, Kuvera
(Kubera), and Garuda.

The texts also refer to the existence of
celestial beings such as yakkhas (Yakshas), gandhabbas (Gandharvas),
Nāgas, and demons such as Bali and his sons, Veroca, etc. Brahma figures
frequently in Pali Canon, which refers to not one but several Brahmas
inhabiting different planes. Brahma is the leader of the heaven.
However, he is not a creator god, and in all the worlds where he
presides he is also subject to change and decay as the other gods.

Apart
from them, Mahayana Buddhism refers to the Bodhisattvas or
compassionate beings and primordial Buddhas who inhabit the higher
heavens and act as the guardians of the world.

The Bodhisattvas
are truth beings, who are fully qualified for Nirvana. However, out of
compassion they decide to postpone their liberation and work for
alleviating the suffering of the sentient beings upon earth.

The
primordial Buddhas such as Samantabhadra, Vajradhara, Vairochana, and
Adi-Buddha among others are personalized embodiments of different
aspects of Buddha Nature. They are pure beings who possess dharmakayas
(bodies of truth).

Hindu gods vs. Buddhist gods

The gods
of Buddhism have greater powers than humans, but unlike the gods of
Hinduism, they do not possess absolute powers. They can have an impact
upon our lives and destinies, but they cannot change or alter the course
of life upon earth beyond a point.

Besides, the gods are not
liberated beings. Their actions have consequences. Hence, just as humans
they too are subject to the law of kamma. If they indulge in wrong
actions, they will fall down from heaven into lower worlds according to
their deeds. However, the same is not true in case of the primordial
Buddhas. They are not only free from decay and the law of kamma but also
endowed with supernatural powers.

According to Buddhism life in
heaven is not a class privilege, which only a few chosen ones are
entitled to enjoy according to the will or at the pleasure of god. The
gods are not created by a supreme god. They are self-made. Their
divinity is the consequences of their good kamma and their personal
choice. Beings evolve through self-effort and good kamma and earn the
right to enter the world of gods. In other words, anyone can be reborn
in the worlds of gods through righteous self-effort and become a
divinity.

Although it is not encouraged, Buddhism does not rule
out the possibility of humans taking birth in the world of gods and
gods, having lost their virtue and due to bad kamma, taking birth in our
world. Since life in heaven is equally conducive to suffering,
Buddhists aim for liberation rather than rebirth in the heavens.

Devotion in Buddhism

The
origin of Buddhism is rooted in the ascetic and monastic traditions of
ancient India. The Buddha did not advise the monks to indulge in ritual
worship or venerate him or other beings with devotion.

However, a
few centuries after his death, a schism in Buddhism led to the
formation of Mahayana sect of Buddhism, which made a radical departure
from the traditional teachings of the Theravada or Hinayana Buddhism and
projected ritual worship of venerable Buddha in his highest and purest
aspect as worthy of worship and devotion.

The Mahayana tradition
supports the worship of Buddha to cultivate virtues, practice love and
compassion and receive enlightenment. The purpose of worship in Buddhism
seems to be to enable the worshippers to form a clear concept of the
ideal of Buddhahood and understand the Buddha nature rather than seeking
his grace or intervention in their personal lives for the alleviation
of their suffering.

Conclusion

Buddhism is primarily a
monastic and ascetic religion, which shares some aspects of theism with
Hinduism and some aspects of atheism with Jainism. Yet, you cannot say
it is a cross between the two. It is a unique tradition in its own
right. It adapted the theistic practices of Hinduism mostly in the
context of its own teachings and for the ultimate purpose of putting the
onus of attaining Nirvana entirely upon individual effort rather than
upon divine intervention or the grace of god.

While in Hinduism,
the householders may pursue the four chief aims life (Purusharthas)
namely Dharma (the law), Artha (wealth), Kama (pleasure) and Moksha
(liberation) apart from categories of athmas (souls), 1st rate, 2nd, 3rd
and 4th rate souls and the all awakened aboriginal societies the
untouchable as having no souls at all so that they can commit any
atrocities on them. Buddha never believed in any soul. He said all are
equal. In Buddhism the lay followers as well as the monks aim for only
two namely the practice of Dhamma  and the attainment of Nibbana.

In
ancient India, atheists such as the Lokayatas and Charvakas also
believed in the nonexistence of god. At the same time, they did not
believe in the possibility of life after death. For them, death itself
was Nibbana. Hence, they ignored both Dhamma and Moksha and focused only
upon the other two aims namely Artha and Kama. They considered life a
unique opportunity to strive for happiness while it lasted, since death
the end of all. They saw no greater virtue or justification to suffer
here and now for the sake of a better life in the next birth or
enjoyment in a heaven.

Thus, even in comparison to atheistic
traditions of ancient India, Buddhism retains its distinct character as a
spiritual religion which can be categorized neither as theistic just as
Hinduism nor as atheistic just as the Carvaka or the Lokayata
doctrines. It is a tradition which is uniquely human, intellectual,
practical and which is principally rooted in verifiable, relatable and
perceptual human experience.There Is No God in Buddhism
Buddhism
facts reveal that Buddhism is defined as a nontheistic religion, but the
relationship of Buddhist teachings and god(s) is a complicated one.
Buddha himself rejected the existence of a creator deity, but the notion
of divinity is not incompatible with his teachings. In fact, there are
gods found in Buddhist teachings, but these are considered to be
inferior to Buddha and not necessarily wiser than us.

In
conclusion, the concept of god(s) exists in Buddhism, but is not central
to the religion, in contrast to Christianity, for example. While most
experts agree that this makes Buddhism a nontheistic religion, there are
also some who believe that naming Buddhism nontheistic is overly
simple..

2. What is the motivation underlying the attempt at calling the Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu ?

Buddha is rarely worshipped like Krishna and Rama in Hinduism.

Buddha
criticised the Vedic/Astik shastras, rejected the Vedic religion and
the Astik school of thought, and challenged the hegemony of the
Brahmans. Buddha didn’t believe in a Supreme Being or an universal soul.

The
late S. Radhakrishnan, former President of India who was also a
Brahman, claimed that the Buddha was actually preaching Hinduism:
“Famous Indian Hindu scholars like the ex-President of India the late S.
Radhakrishnan stated: ‘The Buddha did not feel that he was announcing a
new religion. He was born, grew up, and died a Hindu. He was restating
with a new emphasis the ancient ideals of the Indo-Aryan civilization’”
(2500 Years of Buddhism, 1971, Government of India)

While
Babasaheb Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Father of the Indian Constitution and
one of the greatest Buddhist personalities of India, called this belief
“sheer madness and false propaganda”.

In Dona Sutta, Gautama Buddha didn’t claim to be God.

On seeing Buddha, Dona went to him and said, “Master, are you a deva?”

“No, brahman, I am not a deva.”

“Are you a gandhabba?”

“No…”

“… a yakkha?”

“No…”

“… a human being?”

“No, brahman, I am not a human being.”

…………..’ Then what sort of being are you?”

“Brahman,
the fermentations by which — if they were not abandoned — I would be a
deva: Those are abandoned by me, their root destroyed, made like a
palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined
for future arising. The fermentations by which — if they were not
abandoned — I would be a gandhabba… a yakkha… a human being: Those
are abandoned by me, their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump,
deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future
arising.

“Just like a red, blue, or white lotus — born in the
water, grown in the water, rising up above the water — stands unsmeared
by the water, in the same way I — born in the world, grown in the world,
having overcome the world — live unsmeared by the world. Remember me,
brahman, as ‘awakened.’

3. Briefly describe the following:

i. The dream of Queen Mahamaya

http://ariyamagga.net/queen-maha-mayas-dream/

Freedom
is not given to us by anyone; we have to cultivate it ourselves. It is a
daily practice… No one can prevent you from being aware of each step
you take or each breath in and breath out. ~Thich Nhat Hạnh

The Dream of Queen Siri Mahamaya Devi

More
than 2,500 years ago, there was a king called Suddhodana. He married a
beautiful Koliyan princess named Maha Maya. The couple ruled over the
Sakyas, a warrior tribe living next to the Koliya tribe, in the north of
India, in what is now known as Nepal. The capital of the Sakya country
was laid out across the foothills of the Himalayas and called
Kapilavatthu.

Queen Maha Maya was the daughter of King Anjana of
the Koliyas. Such was her beauty that the name Maya, meaning “vision”
was given to her. But it was Maya’s virtues and talents that were her
most wonderful qualities, for she was endowed with the highest gifts of
intelligence and piety. King Suddhodana was indeed worthy of his lovely
wife. He himself was called “King of the Law” because he ruled according
to the law. There was no other man among the Sakyas more honored and
respected. The king was admired by his nobles and courtiers, as well as
by the householders and merchants. Such was the noble family from which
the Buddha was to arise.

One full moon night, sleeping in the
palace, the queen had a vivid dream. She felt herself being carried away
by four devas (spirits) to Lake Anotatta in the Himalayas. After
bathing her in the lake, the devas clothed her in heavenly cloths,
anointed her with perfumes, and bedecked her with divine flowers. Soon
after a white elephant, holding a white lotus flower in its trunk,
appeared and went round her three times, entering her womb through her
right side. Finally the elephant disappeared and the queen awoke,
knowing she had been delivered an important message, as the elephant is a
symbol of greatness in Nepal. The next day, early in the morning, the
queen told the king about the dream. The king was puzzled and sent for
some wise men to discover the meaning of the dream.

The wise men
said, “Your Majesty, you are very lucky. The devas have chosen our queen
as the mother of the Purest-One and the child will become a very great
being.” The king and queen were very happy when they heard this.

They
were so pleased that they invited many of the noblemen in the country
to the palace to a feast to tell them the good news. Even the needy were
not forgotten. Food and clothes were given to the poor people in
celebration. The whole kingdom waited eagerly for the birth of the new
prince, and Queen Maya enjoyed a happy and healthy pregnancy, living a
pure life for herself and her unborn child.

Life of the Buddha
Source: BuddhaNet

ii. Birth of Prince Siddharttha

https://tipitaka.fandom.com/wiki/Birth_of_Prince_Siddhartha

ii. Birth of Prince Siddharttha

http://ariyamagga.net/birth-future-buddha/

Birth of the future Buddha in the Lumbini Grove

5. Birth of the future Buddha in the Lumbini Grove

Queen
Maha-Maya carried the Future Buddha in her womb for ten months; and on
the full moon day in May (Vesak) she said to King Suddhodana—”I wish, O
King, to go to Devadaha, the city of my family”. The King approved and
caused the road from Kapilavatthu to Devadaha to be made smooth and
adorned, and sent her with a great retinue. Between the two cities there
was a pleasure grove of sal trees, called Lumbini Grove. She entered
the grove for a rest. And at this particular time, this grove was one
mass of flowers presenting a very pretty scene. She went to the foot of a
great sal tree and reached out her hand to seize hold of one of its
branches. She was at once shaken with the pains of birth. Thereupon the
people hung a curtain about her, and her delivery took place while she
was standing up. At that moment came four Mahabrahmas (higher gods) with
a golden net; and, receiving the Future Buddha with it, they placed him
before his mother and said, “Rejoice, O Queen! A mighty son has been
born to thee”.

iii. Prince Siddharttha’s proclamation at his birth

https://www.learnreligions.com/the-birth-of-the-buddha-449783

Aspects
of the story of Buddha’s birth may have been borrowed from Hindu texts,
such as the account of the birth of Indra from the Rig Veda. The story
may also have Hellenic influences. For a time after Alexander the Great
conquered central Asia in 334 BCE, there was a considerable
intermingling of Buddhism with Hellenic art and ideas. There also is
speculation that the story of the Buddha’s birth was “improved” after
Buddhist traders returned from the Middle East with stories of the birth
of Jesus.

The Traditional Tale of the Buddha’s Birth

Twenty-five centuries ago, King Suddhodana ruled a land near the Himalaya Mountains.

One
day during a midsummer festival, his wife, Queen Maya, retired to her
quarters to rest, and she fell asleep and dreamed a vivid dream, in
which four angels carried her high into white mountain peaks and clothed
her in flowers. A magnificent white bull elephant bearing a white lotus
in its trunk approached Maya and walked around her three times. Then
the elephant struck her on the right side with its trunk and vanished
into her.

When Maya awoke, she told her husband about the dream.
The King summoned 64 Brahmans to come and interpret it. Queen Maya would
give birth to a son, the Brahmans said, and if the son did not leave
the household, he would become a world conqueror. However, if he were to
leave the household he would become a Buddha.

When the time for
the birth grew near, Queen Maya wished to travel from Kapilavatthu, the
King’s capital, to her childhood home, Devadaha, to give birth. With the
King’s blessings, she left Kapilavatthu on a palanquin carried by a
thousand courtiers.

On the way to Devadaha, the procession passed
Lumbini Grove, which was full of blossoming trees. Entranced, the Queen
asked her courtiers to stop, and she left the palanquin and entered the
grove. As she reached up to touch the blossoms, her son was born.

Then
the Queen and her son were showered with perfumed blossoms, and two
streams of sparkling water poured from the sky to bathe them. And the
infant stood, and took seven steps, and proclaimed “I alone am the
World-Honored One!

Then Queen Maya and her son returned to
Kapilavatthu. The Queen died seven days later, and the infant prince was
nursed and raised by the Queen’s sister Pajapati, also married to King
Suddhodana.

Symbolism

There is a jumble of symbols
presented in this story. The white elephant was a sacred animal
representing fertility and wisdom. The lotus is a common symbol of
enlightenment in Buddhist art. A white lotus, in particular, represents
mental and spiritual purity. The baby Buddha’s seven steps evoke seven
directions—north, south, east, west, up, down, and here.

Buddha’s Birthday Celebration

In
Asia, Buddha’s birthday is a festive celebration featuring parades with
many flowers and floats of white elephants. Figures of the baby Buddha
pointing up and down are placed in bowls, and sweet tea is poured over
the figures to “wash” the baby.

Buddhist Interpretation

Newcomers
to Buddhism tend to dismiss the Buddha birth myth as so much froth. It
sounds like a story about the birth of a god, and the Buddha was not a
god. In particular, the declaration “I alone am the World-Honored One”
is a bit hard to reconcile with Buddhist teachings on nontheism and
anatman.

However, in Mahayana Buddhism, this is interpreted as
the baby Buddha speaking of the Buddha-nature that is the immutable and
eternal nature of all beings. On Buddha’s birthday, some Mahayana
Buddhists wish each other happy birthday, because the Buddha’s birthday
is everyone’s birthday.

iv. What do you understand by this proclamation?

Why did the baby prince do that ?

Describe.

4.
Write an account of the visit of Sage Asita and his prophecy. Why did
he laugh and then cry? Describe the significance of this contradictory
scene.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Asita

 
Asita
was a hermit ascetic of ancient India in the 6th century BCE. He is
best known for having predicted that Prince Siddhattha of Kapilavatthu
would either become a great king (chakravartin) or become a supreme
religious leader (Buddha).

According to legend, Asita noticed the
32 signs of a great man on the Buddha, which shows that this concept
pre-dates Buddhism. (Sutta Nipata 3.11)

Asita, also known as
Kanhasiri, was a sage who lived in the forest in the Sakyan country. He
is described as wearing matted hair (Sn.689). One day he noticed that
the gods were wildly celebrating and he asked them why they were so
happy. They replied, ‘A Bodhisattva, an excellent and incomparable
jewel, has been born in the Sakyan town in Lumbini, for the welfare and
happiness of the human world. This is why we are so happy.’(Sn.683).
Anxious to see this child Asita went to Kapilavastu where Suddhodana
welcomed him and gave him the child to hold. Being accomplished in the
art of ‘signs and mantras’ (lakkhana mantra, Sn.690) he examined the
baby and proclaimed that he would ‘attain complete enlightenment’
(Sambodhi), reach the ultimate purified vision’ (paramavisuddhidassi),
and proclaim the Truth ‘out of compassion of the many’
(bahujamhitanukampii, Sn.693). Then tears welled up into his eyes.
Noticing this and being worried by it, the Sakyans asked Asita if he had
foreseen some misfortune in the boy’s future. He replied that he was
sad because he knew that he would pass away before this all happened
(Sn.694).

The name Asita literally means ‘not clinging’ while Kanhasiri means ‘dark splendour’.

This
is the only mention of Asita in the Tipitaka. According to some
scholars the story about him is purely legendary and it may be. However,
there is little in it that is inherently fantastic or unbelievable. It
would have been quite common in ancient India for a monarch to invite a
local holy man to bless and perhaps name his new-born son. Likewise, it
would be normal for the holy man to ‘predict’ that the king’s son would
grow up to be a great man. Later re-tellings of the Asita story, and
there are many of them, each more detailed and elaborate than the
earlier ones, often say that Asita predicted than the baby prince would
become either a universal monarch (cakkavattin) or a fully enlightened
sage (Buddha). This ‘either or’ prediction is absent from the Tipitaka
story.

Write an essay on Bodhisatta Ideal

https://www.bookrix.com/book.html?bookID=nicomoonen_1407765907.8734900951#1728,432,107226

Startpagina

Preface
 
 
   The Buddha taught that for a layman it is not a noble monk who
should be the example, but a good layman.[1] The best layman who can
serve as our example is the Bodhisatta. In Mahāyāna supernatural powers
and some degrees of holiness are attributed to him. But according to the
Theravāda tradition the Bodhisatta belongs still to the worldlings and
not yet to the Ariyasangha, the community of the Buddhist saints of the
first, second, third or fourth level.
 
     The Pāli word
Bodhisatta and the Sanskrit word Bodhisattva differ only by a single
letter, yet there is an essential difference between the two concepts.
Several studies have been published that show direct or indirect concern
with the doctrine of the Bodhisatta in Theravāda. A systematic survey
of these has not yet been published, as far as I know. As I have been
interested in this topic for many years, I thought it would be useful to
make a compilation of my research. I was encouraged to do so by
Venerable Rassagala Seewali from Opanayaka, Sri Lanka, whom I met when
he was studying in Thailand. He, too, is very much interested in this
topic. A first attempt was made at the beginning of 2000. However, it
turned out that the information available was too limited. Fortunately,
Dr. K.H. Eckert, a good acquaintance of mine, donated more than 1100 of
his books about Buddhism to me – May that donation be for his welfare
and happiness for a long time. I had now at my disposal a large library
of invaluable material and for that reason I was able to make a fresh
attempt at presenting an examination of the teachings relating to the
Bodhisatta.
 
     In the Suttas of the Pāli Canon only a little
information can be found about the Bodhisatta where the word is used
there to indicate the Buddha Gotama before he attained Enlightenment. In
the Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda sutta (Digha Nikaya 26) the name of the next
Buddha is mentioned. And in the Buddhavamsa and the Cariyapitaka there
is information about other future Buddhas. Another source for this topic
is the Dasa­bodhisattuppatti­kathā (about the births of the ten
Bodhisattas). The value of these works will be discussed later.
 
 
   Much has been written about the Bodhisattas by Venerable Narada
Thera and also by Venerable Ledi Sayadaw. It is a pity that they did not
give the sources from which they derived their information. This has
made assessing the value of their observations quite difficult.
   
 
   Venerable Dr. Sangharatana Thero, chief incumbent of Pitaramba
Temple, Bentota, Sri Lanka, advised me – after reading of the first
draft – to dwell a little more on the Mahāyāna. That good advice was
accepted thankfully. It was of great profit for the study of the concept
of the Bodhisatta / Bodhisattva.
 
     The English typescript
was sent to the Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka. There it
is read carefully by Mr. Dennis Candy and Prof. Handunukanda. They made
many suggestions to improve this study, which suggestions are accepted
thankfully.
 
     This study deals mainly with the Bodhisatta in
Theravāda Buddhism. Many works have already been published about the
Bodhisattvas in Mahāyāna. Therefore only a little is written here about
them.  First I try to explain how there arose a difference in thinking
about these matters and what those main differences were between
Theravāda on the one hand and Mahāyāna on the other hand. Then I
describe in brief the concept of the Bodhisattvas in Mahāyāna. Next
follows a discussion of the concept of the Bodhisatta in Theravāda. Then
there is a chapter referring to the Jātakas and another to the Pāramīs
as well. A separate chapter is devoted to the future Buddhas. Finally
there is a short survey and a comparison of the concepts in Theravāda
and Mahāyāna.
 
     To get a good understanding of the teaching
of the Buddha, we must try to identify all alien and irrelevant elements
that have accumulated in the course of time. This too is necessary for
the doctrine of the Bodhisatta. I hope that I have succeeded in doing
this to some degree.

5. After Sumeda was consecrated as
Buddhahood by Buddha Dipankara, how did he contemplate on the
prerequisites of Buddhahood,namely, on the thirty Paramis ?

The story of Sumedha

   
Four
Asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons ago, in the city of
Amaravati, there lived a very rich and learned man called Sumedha. After
the death of his parent, his Treasurer showed him the colossal wealth
he had inherited; also the names of his parents and forefathers who were
the former owners whose names where written in the record books. The
Treasurer replied that all were dead. He then asked why they did not
take away their wealth with them. The treasurer told him that the world
was such that after death no one could take anything away with them, but
must leave all their wealth behind. On hearing this, Sumedha realized
the wantonness of Samsara (the cycle of birth and death).

He
then went to the king’s palace and asked for permission to distribute
his wealth. When he could not finish one warehouse full of gold and
precious stones in seven days, he become inpatient and though that he
might die at any moment, and he had not yet finished distributing his
twelve thousand five hundred warehouse full of treasures. He forthwith
took the keys of the warehouses to the middle of the city and signed
away all his wealth. He freed his slaves, gave them immense wealth, and
advised the people to renounce the world. He himself then entered the
jungle and become a hermit.

Sakka the King of the Devas, ordered
Vissa-kamma to build a temple for Sumedha and also to provide for the
requirement of a hermit. That Deity built the temple and provided
Sumedha with the necessary things. After seven days of deep meditation,
he attained “Jhana” or divine ecstasy, i.e. Supernatural Powers, etc. At
that time Dipankara Buddha was staying at Sudasana Monastery in
Amaravati together with four hundred thousand Arahats. People of the
neighboring city invited the Lord Buddha and his disciples to their
city, where they prepared and built large halls to accommodate Lord
Buddha and his disciples. The people built and leveled the road with
flags and flowers. They also strewed white sand on the ground. All the
workers were eager and happy.

Sumedha the hermit, because he was
always in the state of “Jhana”, i.e. ecstasy, did not know that
Dipankara Buddha was staying in the city. One day as he was coming out
of the jungle in search of food, he was surprised to see so many people
working happily, leveling the roads. He flew down and enquired of the
reason. They told him that they were preparing the roads for Lord Buddha
and his disciples to enter the city, to receive their offering of food,
etc. Sumedha thought to himself, “This word “Buddha” is very rare and
we seldom hear it”. So he asked them to allow him to help. The people
knowing that he had supernatural powers, gave him a deep muddy valley to
fill up.

 

He could use his supernatural powers,
but he knew that he would get no merit for it. So instead of that, he
worked very hard carrying basket of sand and trying to fill up the
valley. Before that part of the road was complete, Dipankara Buddha and
his disciples together with a great procession of followers arrived.
Sumedha at once threw himself flat on the ground and asked the Buddha to
step on his body in order to cross the muddy valley. By doing this
meritorious deed, he knew that he could become an Arahat, but he gave up
the idea and aspired to become a Buddha in the presence of the Supreme
Buddha. The deities of the ten thousand worlds and other beings knowing
that on that day Sumedha would be registered as a Bodhisatta, came down
and mingled with human beings.

At that time the people could see
the Deities, and heavenly music rank in harmony with earthly music.
Dipankara Buddha announce to all the assembly of Deities and men that
this Sumedha in the future would become a Buddha like himself. The
Buddha then offered eight handfuls of jasmine flowers given by a Novice
and the Arahats and Deities did likewise. Sumedha sat on the heap of
flowers and meditated on what could be the Pre-requisites of Buddhahood.
He then found out that they were : -Dana (Charity), Sila (Observance of
precepts), Nekkhamma (Renunciation), Panna (Wisdom), Viriya (Energy),
Khanti (Patience), Sacca (Truthfulness), Adhitthana (Determination),
Metta (Loving Kindness), and Upekkha (Equanimity). When he realized
this, the earth shook and everyone present shouted “Sadhu”, “Sadhu”,

After becoming Bodhisatta a man is free from : -

    Blindness, i.e. he can never be totally blind.

    Deafness, i.e. he is never deaf.

    Madness, i.e. he never is insane.

    Dumbness, i.e. he is never dumb.

    Becoming a cripple, i.e. he will never be one who crawls by means of a chair or bench.

 

    Birth in a barbarian country, i.e. he can never be a barbarian.

    Birth in the womb of a slave-girl, i.e. he can never be born a slave.

    Becoming an absolute wrong believer, i.e. he will never have wrong beliefs.

    Become a person of the effeminate sex, i.e. he will always be a male.

 
  Committing the five deathly crimes, i.e. he will never kill father or
mother or any Arahats. He will never create dissention among the Order
and he will never injure Lord Buddha.

    Leprosy, i.e. he will never be a leper.

    Birth as a creature smaller that a quail (Vattaka).

    Birth as an animal bigger than an elephant.

    Becoming petas, i.e. he will never born as fire-consuming petas, etc.

    Avici Hell and Lokantarika Hell, i.e. he will never be born in such a kind of hell.

 

    Birth in the Celestial world, i.e. he will never be born in the Celestial world

    Becoming Mara.

    Birth in other world, i.e. he will never be born in other worlds.

After
Dipankara Buddha, there was no Buddha for one Asankheyya. Then came
Kondanna Buddha. During this period, Sumedha the Bohdisat, who was born
as a world monarch called Vijitavi, did many meritorious deeds and on
Wesak Full Moon Day, aspired to become a Buddha.

At the time of
Mangala Buddha, the Bodhisatta was born as a Brahmin called Surici. He
renounced the world and aspired to be a Buddha.

During Sumana Buddha’s era, he become Atula the Dragon King. He also aspired to become a Buddha.

At the time of Revata Buddha, he was born as the Brahmin Atideva. He also aspired to become a Buddha.

When Sobhita Buddha was in the world, the Bodhisatta was born as the Brahmin Sujata. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

During Anoma-dassi Buddha’s period, the Bodhisatta, become a great Devil-King called Yakkha. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

At the time of Paduma Buddha, the Bodhisatta who was born as a lion, also aspired to be a Buddha.

 

During Narada Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta became a hermit, attained divine ecstasy and aspired to be a Buddha.

When
Padumuttara Buddha was on earth, the Bodhisatta was born as a great man
called Jatila. He also made aspirations for Buddhahood.

During Sumedha Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born as a man called Uttara. H also aspired to become a Buddha.

At the time of Sujata Buddha, he became a world monarch also made aspiration to become a Buddha.

In Piya-dassi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born in a Brahmin family called Kassapa. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

During Atta-dassi Buddha’s period, the Bodhisatta became a powerful hermit called Susima. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

In Dhamma-dassi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta who became Sakka Deva Raja, i.e. King of Gods, also aspired to be a Buddha.

When Siddhartha Buddha was in the world, the Bodhisatta became Mangala the hermit. He also made aspiration for Buddhahood.

During
the time of Tissa Buddha, the Bodhisatta became King Sujata. He
renounced the world, studied the Doctrine, and made aspirations to
become a Buddha.

At the time of Phussa Buddha, the Bodhisatta was
born as the King Vijitavi. He renounced the world, studied the Doctrine
and made aspiration for Buddhahood.

During Vipassi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born as a Dragon King. He also aspired to be a Buddha.

In Sikhi Buddha’s time, the Bodhisatta was born as King Arindama. He also made aspirations to become a Buddha.

 

During the period of Buddha Vessabhu, the Bodhisatta who became King Sudassana also made aspirations for Buddhahood.

At the time of Kaku-sandha Buddha, the Bodhisatta was born as King Khema. He renounced the world and aspired to become a Buddha.

During
the era of Konagamana Buddha, the Bodhisatta became King Pabbata. He
offered Chinese silk robes, carpets, etc. He also aspired to become a
Buddha.

When Kassapa Buddha was on earth, the Bodhisatta was born
as a man called Jotipala. He renounced the world and made aspirations
to become a Buddha.

During this long period, the Bodhisatta had been practicing the Ten Paramitas or Pre-requisites of Buddhahood,

http://hsingyun.org/parami-true-success/

Parami: True Success

Saturday February 7th, 2015 admin
“Success,”
as it is generally understood, is nothing more than personal success in
the present lifetime, things like fame, wealth, and power. In the
teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, “success” means benefiting living
beings, having successful cultivation, and becoming a Buddha or
bodhisattva.

Quite a number of people believe that for Buddhist
monastics to develop from ordinary people into sages they must cut
themselves off from their family and loved ones and hide away in some
remote mountain hermitage. Likewise, there is a saying in Buddhism that
“All things are empty,” though this concept of “emptiness” is often
misunderstood to mean that we should not want or pursue anything. This
misapprehension recasts the Buddhist teaching on “emptiness” into
nothing but meaningless talk about metaphysical ideas. But, according to
Buddhism, success comes as the fruition of karmic causes and
conditions. These instances of karmic fruition are also called
paramitas.

Parami is an ancient Sanskirt word which means “to
cross over,” in that one crosses from the shore of suffering over to the
other shore of nirvana, while “ta” is an auxiliary particle that
indicates completion. When the Buddhist sutras were translated from
Sanskrit to Chinese, the choice was made to transliterate the term
paramita, rather than translating its meaning, and most English
translations follow in suit. This was done in order to preserve the
concept as close to the time of the Buddha’s transmission of the Dharma
and not to limit it by a particular translated term.

If we want
to cross over affliction, trouble, and the cycle of birth and death, and
transform suffering into happiness, partiality into universality, and
affliction into enlightenment, we must rely upon the six paramitas. Also
known as the “six perfections,” the six paramitas are six methods that
enable us to cross over and transcend. The six paramitas are giving,
morality, patience, diligence, meditative concentration, and prajna.
Each of the paramitas will be explained more fully later.

The
four main teachings of the Diamond Sutra are to give without notions, to
liberate with no notion of self, to live without abiding, and to
cultivate without attainment; this way of practicing the Dharma allows
us to cross from this shore to the other shore and to fulfill our
paramitas. To put it more simply, one should use a spirit that
transcends the world to do the work of the world.

Human life can be divided into four levels:

Physical life
Community life
Transcendent life
Unending life
“Physical
life” refers to the physical body as given to us by our parents. This
human body is hard to come by, so we should take good care of it.
“Community life” means fulfilling one’s role within the larger life of
the group. “Transcendent life” means altruistically contributing what
you can for the sake of others, the larger community, and for all living
beings. “Unending life” refers to what Buddhism calls the “life of
wisdom.” Someone who lives this way is not worried about whether he
lives or dies, having transcended the suffering of life and the fear of
death. This is eternal life where one no longer wanders through the
cycle of birth and death.

Every human life has boundless potential. It is up to the mind of each individual to fulfill the value and success of life.

Reconsidering Value

In
her later years, my mother was a patient at Whittier Hospital in Los
Angeles, U.S.A. On May 31, 1996, I received news in Taipei that my
mother’s illness had taken a turn for the worse, and I immediately
boarded a plane for Los Angeles. During the flight I kept reflecting on
the past. In my mind I could see my mother’s tender, smiling face as if
it were before my very eyes. My heart filled with all manner of
emotions, and I silently recited the name of Amitabha Buddha as a
blessing for my mother.

Upon arriving at Los Angeles
International Airport, I raced over to the hospital, but my mother had
already passed on. All I could do was go over to Rose Hills Memorial
Park to pay my last respects.

The nursing staff that had been
looking after her told me that she was kind and frugal, and was plain
and simple in her daily needs. She rarely bothered others and was always
thinking of other people. My mother did not even want them to tell me
about her worsening condition, to spare me any alarm or worry. My mother
always took everything upon herself, and kept her feelings of care and
loving concern inside. Twenty minutes before she died, she still left
instructions with Venerable Tzu Chuang, the abbess of Hsi Lai Temple who
was attending at her side:

Thank you for reciting the name of
Amitabha Buddha on my behalf. I am leaving now, so, please, under no
circumstances are you to let my son know, thus sparing him any distress.
He should busy himself with the problems of all sentient beings and not
be troubled on my account alone.

In the face of disciples and
family members who had hurried to Los Angeles from various places, I
decided to follow my mother’s final instructions by not disturbing the
outside world and keeping everything simple. In accordance with her
wishes, no formal condolences, no funerary contributions of money and no
gifts or flowers were accepted. I then dictated the following obituary
notice to solemnly inform all those concerned:

My mother, Mrs.
Liu Yuying, peacefully passed away at 4:20 a.m. on the 30 of May, 1996,
at Whittier Hospital in Los Angeles, U.S.A, amid the sounds of chanting
“Amitofo.” She was ninety-five years old. Many of her children and
grandchildren as well as my disciples were by her side. Her body was
then transferred to Rose Hills that same day.

Four days later, my
mother was cremated at Rose Hills. Amid the sounds of those assembled
there chanting sutras and reciting Amitabha Buddha’s name, I gently
pressed the green switch to activate the cremation process. At that time
I composed the following poem in my mind:

Between this mundane world and the Pure Land,

There remains the unchanging bond between mother and son;

For whether here on earth or there in heaven,

She remains forever my dear mother.

With a burst of fire,

A puff of wind,

And a flash of light,

I bid eternal farewell to my mother.

My
mother was twenty-five when she gave birth to my body. Since then
seventy years had slipped away, and my mother has passed on. And so,
with a push of a button, the body of my mother was cremated. Our
physical bodies are like houses that we live in only for a short time.
Time passes and the house becomes leaky and in need of repair. This
temporary residence of ours will surely decay, and there will come a
time when we will be unable to live in it anymore.

Some twenty
years earlier, my mother once came to stay for a while at Fo Guang Shan,
and on one occasion during a grand assembly of lay disciples, I asked
whether or not she was willing to meet with them and say a few words.
She agreed, but I was worried that my mother would be intimidated by
stage fright. But to my surprise, she faced the assembled audience of
more than twenty thousand and said with a calm assurance, “Fo Guang Shan
is indeed the Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss; a heaven on earth.
We should rely upon the venerable master to be our guide in the hope
that everyone will achieve enlightenment here at Fo Guang Shan. Everyone
has been so kind to me, but this old woman has nothing to give to you
in return. I can only offer my son as a gift to everyone.”

Her
words were met by thunderous applause from the audience. My mother was
illiterate and had never read any sacred literature, nor ever prepared
herself to speak in front of others. But she had experienced the chaos
of the late Qing dynasty, the Revolution of 1911, the establishment of
the Republic of China, the armed occupations of the warlords, the
Sino-Japanese War, the stand-off between the Nationalist Party and the
Chinese Communist Party, and the Great Cultural Revolution, as well as
the changes over time in relations between Taiwan and Mainland China.

The
turmoil of the times had kept her constantly on the move; she lived
through nearly one hundred years of epoch-making change. In her life,
she practiced the Dharma, but she was too busy to let the question of
whether or not she had a firm background in Buddhism bother her. She had
already transcended the scriptural understanding with all its careful
wording to bring fulfillment to her own life.

And yet, through the power of a vow, we have the power to return again to this human world.

Humanistic Buddhism

As Buddhists we acknowledge that the Dharma exists in the world, but what exactly is the Dharma as taught by the Buddha?

The
word Buddha means “enlightened one,” for he is one who has enlightened
himself, enlightens others, and has completed his mission of
enlightening others. A Buddha is one who transcends the ignorance of
sentient beings. The quality of his enlightenment is unlike that of the
sravaka or pratyekabuddha, who pursue enlightenment for themselves
alone. A Buddha has realized a state of enlightenment that even a
bodhisattva has yet to fully attain.

The founder of Buddhism was
originally named Siddhartha, though he is also called Sakyamuni Buddha,
the World-honored One, the Tathagata, and so on. He was born on the
eighth day of the fourth month of the lunar calendar in Lumbini Garden
within the Indian state of Kapilavastu. His father, King Suddhodana, was
head of the Sakya clan. His mother, Queen Maya, died seven days after
his birth.

Sakyamuni Buddha was raised into adulthood by his
maternal aunt, Lady Mahaprajapati. As a prince, Siddhartha was a
handsome and intelligent young man, who was skilled in both the civil
and military arts. From boyhood, he was much beloved by the common
people. His father put all his effort into training him to become a wise
ruler. When he was seventeen, Siddhartha married the beautiful
Yasodhara, and the following year she bore him a son, Prince Rahula.

However,
despite his life in the palace with all its comfort and contentment,
and the warm love and affection of his family, Siddhartha felt a deep
void in his heart. He was seeking something more from life and needed a
truer understanding of human existence. So at the age of twenty-nine, he
bid farewell to his family, gave up all his pleasures and comforts, and
left the palace to pursue his spiritual quest. At age thirty-five,
after six years of austere practice, he sat underneath the bodhi tree,
and attained enlightenment while looking up at a bright star, and said,
“Marvelous, marvelous! All sentient beings have the Tathagata’s wisdom
and virtue, but they fail to realize it because they cling to deluded
thoughts and attachments.”

The now enlightened Buddha shared his
realization with others, setting the wheel of Dharma turning, and
established the monastic order. He then taught the Dharma for the
liberation of living beings for forty-nine years, and entered nirvana
while lying between two sala trees outside the city of Kusinara in the
year 483 bce.

The Buddha was born in this human world, grew up
and attained enlightenment in this human world; he passed into nirvana
in this human world, as well. Buddhism has always been concerned with
this human world. The Buddhist sutras which circulate today are a record
of the Buddha’s teachings to liberate living beings, gathered and
organized by his disciples after the Buddha’s final nirvana. From the
time of the Buddha, the Buddhist teachings are meant to fundamentally
address the issues of how we as human beings are to conduct ourselves,
how we are to act and think throughout the course of our lives, as well
as how we can gain liberation. The Dharma quite naturally serves as a
guide to how to live our daily lives. As Buddhism enters the modern era,
we as Buddhists must take an active role in the world and be diligent.

There
are some people who think the Dharma serves as an escape, that one may
“retreat into Buddhist practice,” as if Buddhism is some sort of
pessimistic escape or resignation that does not demand that we
accomplish anything. The Ekottara Agama states:

All the Buddhas
and World-honored Ones come from the human world; their realization is
not something attained in the heavenly realms.

Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of the Chan School, also said in the Platform Sutra:

The
Dharma is within the world, apart from this world there is no
awakening. Seeking bodhi apart from the world is like looking for a
rabbit’s horn.

If we seek enlightenment by rejecting the world,
in doing so we throw away our potential. This creates a sense of
withdrawal and escape in the mind, and then nothing whatsoever will
succeed.

Buddhism is not a religion that belongs only to
monastics, nor is it a body of philosophical texts to be studied by
scholars. Buddhism should be something that benefits all people.
Buddhism is not an abstract theory; it is a religion that brings
happiness and well-being into the world. To learn Buddhism is to learn
how to be happy, carefree, liberated, and attain meditative bliss and
Dharma joy. Joy and happiness are the most precious things in life, and
living a happy, blessed, and carefree life is what Humanistic Buddhism
promotes. Humanistic Buddhism is the practical application of the
Buddhist spirit in the world.

One day, the Buddha and his
disciples entered the city of Sravasti to gather alms, and it so
happened that they encountered someone who bore a grudge against the
Buddha. This person started to malign, slander, and shout in a loud
voice as the Buddha walked along the street.

Seeing how the
Buddha was being insulted in public, one of his disciples said to the
Buddha angrily, “The people here lack any speck of goodness and do not
know how to respect the Triple Gem. Lord Buddha, it would be better if
we left this place and went to a city with kind-hearted people!”

The
Buddha replied, “Suppose we do move to another place but the people
there still do not believe in the Dharma, what would you do then?”

The disciple said, “We should move to yet another place!”

“When
will we ever stop moving if we do so because of external conditions?
This is not the way to ultimately solve the problem! We can resolve the
root of the problem this way: If we are treated with scorn, we must
remain unperturbed and bring an end to slander through patience. We must
not stop guarding our speech and training our minds until we are no
longer treated with scorn.”

The Buddha continued, “An enlightened
person remains calm and patient like the earth. We should not allow our
mission to be shaken by either praise or blame. By contemplating the
absence of an independent self, we will observe how all phenomena are
false fabrications. Then the illusory distinctions of self and others,
as well the so-called good and bad of the world, will become nothing
more than froth upon the water that suddenly appears, and just as
suddenly disappears. Can anything remain constant and unchanging?”

Buddhism
such as this is what allows people to experience well-being and
success. It is a religion for people, and one that is concerned with the
development of people. In Buddhism there is a teaching called the
“three Dharma seals,” which are three qualities that certify something
as an authentic teaching. They are all conditioned phenomena are
impermanent, all phenomena are without an independent self, and nirvana
is perfect tranquility. By viewing the world through the teaching on
impermanence, one can come to understand that all conditioned phenomena
are impermanent. Determination and diligence allows us to see that “all
phenomena are without an independent self.” In Buddhism there is a
saying that “there is nothing to attain,” and it is because of this
understanding that all the wonders of existence can arise out of true
emptiness. The last of the three Dharma seals, “nirvana is perfect
tranquility” asserts that our potential for success is unlimited.

Wholesome Wealth

There
are many people in this world who believe that one of the standards for
measuring success is making a lot of money. In terms of material
wealth, Buddhist monastics live a plain and simple life: they live with
three robes, a bowl, and few small items, such as sutras and a Buddha
statue. There is even a saying in Chinese that, “A monastic’s rucksack
weighs only two and a half pounds.” That being said, even a skilled
housewife cannot prepare a meal without rice, and a poor couple will
suffer hundreds of sorrows. A lay Buddhist must have some monetary
wealth, or else he will be unable to care for his parents and support
his family. Buddhist practice and acts of charity also require a certain
amount of money to support them, let alone the riches required to
engage in various social development programs. Therefore, Humanistic
Buddhism does not disdain money, for wealth that is acquired through
pure and wholesome means can serve as supporting resources.

However,
we must also understand that worldly success arises from a combination
of causes and conditions. Consider the example of a single individual.
The process that takes this person from birth as a crying baby to
maturity as an adult is supported by many causes and conditions, such as
the safeguarding by parents, instruction of teachers and elders, as
well as the various trades and professions that supply clothing, food,
housing, transportation and so on. We go to school, find our place in
society, start a family, and begin our careers; and we all hope we will
be successful in these. But success is not building castles in the sky,
nor is it possible to achieve it without hard work. Having the right
conditions in place to support us is to our advantage, but even then
depending upon others too much cannot lead to success either.

People
are often greedy. If they have even a bit of money, they think of
depositing it in the bank where it will accumulate interest. But in that
case, such money cannot be used to launch new enterprises. We bring no
money with us when we are born, and take none of it with us when we die,
and during our lives it is always taken away by fire, flood, thieves,
corrupt officials, and wayward children.1 We can only appreciate the
value of money if we do not feel attached to it, but rather allow our
wealth to circulate and accomplish good things. There is a Buddhist
saying that captures this sentiment well:

What comes from all directions

Supports undertakings in all directions;

The generosity of thousands of people

Creates connections for thousands of people.

In this way worldly money can serve both worldly causes, as well as those that transcend this world.

There
are some people who have a fixed view that spiritual practice does not
need money and cannot involve money, and expect spiritual seekers to
live in poverty. But poverty cannot guarantee a higher level of
practice. These attitudes come from a fixed sense of self which is
attached to appearing impoverished, that it is the only way to be a
practitioner. This is a question of reality. If you have nothing, how
then can you give something? To liberate living beings and practice
giving, we need the qualities of physical strength, practical talent,
ability, and commitment. Why must monetary wealth be singled out for
disdain and rejection? To varying levels, lacking mental or material
resources will limit our ability to give and liberate others.

The
question that is truly worthy of our concern is how to best utilize the
pure, wholesome, and noble wealth that is donated to benefit living
beings. We should not fall into the view that only poverty can show that
one is well cultivated. For a modernized Buddhism, Buddhists should
engage in enterprise so long as such activities are beneficial to the
economy of the country and the lives of its people. This then is the
true meaning of the Buddhists teachings on “non-abiding” and “non-self.”

Oneness and Coexistence

There
is a story recounted in the Samyukta Agama about two monastics who
argue about who is better at chanting. One day the Buddha’s great
disciple Mahakasyapa reported to the Buddha, “Lord Buddha, there are two
monks who are both unyielding in nature; one is Ananda’s disciple Nantu
and the other is Maudgalyayana’s disciple Abifu. The two of them argue
with each other from time to time over who is the best at chanting, and
tomorrow they are going to decide once and for all who can chant the
most sutras and teach the Dharma the best!”

The Buddha sent
someone to summon Nantu and Abifu. He then asked them, “Have you heard
my teaching on how to determine the winner and the loser when two people
are arguing with one another?”

“We have never heard of such a teaching concerning winning or losing.”

“The
real winner is someone who puts a stop to the confusion caused by
greed, anger, and ignorance; diligently practices the threefold training
of morality, meditative concentration, and wisdom; and can destroy the
thieves of the six sense organs. One who can truly contemplate how the
five aggregates of form, feeling, perceptions, mental formation, and
consciousness are as insubstantial as a plantain trunk; and can make the
Noble Eightfold Path their guide can realize the bliss and tranquility
of great nirvana. You may be able to recite hundreds of thousands of
verses from memory, but if you do not understand their meaning, then how
does that benefit your liberation?”

The Buddha wants us to
cultivate right concentration, part of the Noble Eightfold Path, and
stay away from any conflict between ourselves and others. The Diamond
Sutra emphasizes how one should not abide in anything. In terms of human
commercial enterprises, one must not become attached to a single fixed
market. Do not cling to old markets and old industries, but have the
courage instead to open up alternative avenues, seek out alternative
markets, and set up new creative teams. By implementing strategies like
“value reassessment,” “collective creation,” and “systematic
leadership,” one can develop brand new enterprises and live a life as
vast as endless space.

Value Reassessment

In the Diamond
Sutra, the Buddha instructs living beings to not cling to the notion of
self, the notion of others, the notion of sentient beings, or the notion
of longevity, nor to allow the discriminating mind to hinder our
practice. If organizations and commercial enterprises are able to align
themselves closely with human nature, be attentive to the needs of the
larger community, and offer more varied opportunities, then they can
create new value.

In the past, hearing Buddhist teachings
required a visit to a temple, but since such temples were located in
remote locations with poor transportation, people often hesitated to go.
Even the infrastructure of the temples failed to meet the needs of
those who came to hear the teachings. Having done their best to visit
once or twice, some beginning Buddhists would give up on their good
intention of listening to the Dharma.

The Lotus Sutra states:

In
whatever land where this sutra is received and upheld, read and
recited, explained and copied, and cultivated and practiced as taught;
whether in a place where a volume of scripture is kept, or in a grove,
or in a forest, or under a tree, or in a monastery, or in a layman’s
house, or in a temple hall, or in a mountain valley, or upon an open
plain; in all of these places one should erect a memorial stupa and make
offerings. Why is that? One must know that these places are temples.

The Vimalakirti Sutra also states:

The
upright mind is a temple, the profound mind is a temple, the mind
aspiring to bodhi is a temple, generosity is a temple, the three kinds
of supernatural knowledge2 are a temple, the knowledge of all phenomena
within a single thought is a temple.

That is to say, everywhere
in the world can be a place for us to learn the Dharma and attain
enlightenment. In order to spread the Dharma throughout the world, it
should go into homes, schools, factories, farms, workplaces, and
military bases. By upholding the principles of harmonizing the
traditional and the modern, by sharing ownership between monastics and
laypeople, by equally emphasizing both practice and understanding, and
by integrating literature and art with Buddhism, we will continue to
promote Humanistic Buddhism.

Fo Guang Shan and its branch temples
all include facilities like auditoriums, conference rooms, classrooms,
lounge areas, reception areas, and libraries, along with the gradual
addition of the Fo Guang Yuan art galleries, Water Drop teahouses, and
so on. Such an approach allows devotees to come to the temple not only
to worship the Buddha, but also to receive the Dharma instruction that
is offered in auditoriums, conference rooms, and classrooms. In this way
Fo Guang Shan endeavors to combine the worldly with that which
transcends the world, and integrate society with the mountain monastery,
so that monastics and laypeople can practice anytime and anywhere.

With
its transcendent spirit and worldly practicality, Buddhism liberates
living beings by bestowing upon them the Buddha’s wisdom and compassion.
The enterprises of the world with their profit motive must also adapt
to changes in external conditions from time to time, so that they can
provide the products and services that are aligned with the people’s
demands in a planned, organized, and efficient manner. That too is using
a spirit that transcends the world to do the work of the world.

Collective Creation

Organizations
and enterprises must create new value, but this is impossible to
accomplish by relying solely on one individual to take charge of
everything and make all the decisions. What is needed is for everyone to
pull together their creative ideas and the will for collective success.

In
its early days, Fo Guang Shan had absolutely nothing. We had neither
modern equipment nor today’s popular management theory, but what we did
have was group planning and effort, and the tacit understanding we all
shared about collective creation. In 1967, the construction of the
temple began, and I brought along the first generation of my
disciples—Hsin Ping, Hsin Ting, Tzu Chuang, Tzu Hui, and Tzu Jung—and
together we began to toil and work. We cleared away each tree and moved
every rock. We drafted the general layout for the temple’s structure in
the Lichee Garden, and came up with our teaching guidelines in the old
Huiming Hall.

At each stage in going from nothing to something,
there were perhaps personal differences over understanding,
conceptualization, and judgment, but once an issue affected the general
direction of Fo Guang Shan, or what was needed to bring success to
Buddhism, everyone promptly came together. There was never any conflict
sparked by personal or selfish motives, for we shared a common
determination to overcome any difficulties and help each other work
towards the same goal. This was the spirit behind the founding of Fo
Guang Shan.

“Collective creation” does not mean many people
supporting the dictatorship of one individual; rather, it means that
each individual within the collective participates equally, so we can
broadly solicit views and opinions from all corners. From Fo Guang
Shan’s founding to the present day, nearly every single issue has been
decided democratically. At all of our meetings at every level of the
organization, everyone has an equal opportunity to speak and exercise
their right to vote, regardless of their degree of seniority or the
duties they undertake. At the meetings I chair personally, anybody who
is so inclined is free to sit in and listen at any time. Not only does
this style reduce many of the barriers to getting things done, it also
ensures that members of Fo Guang Shan who attend these meetings can
learn the art of communication. Everyone has an opportunity to grow from
such experiences.

When I think of Fo Guang Shan’s initial
building phase, images of how all of us worked together from morning to
night, shouldering loads of bricks, sand, rock, and cement with sweat
streaming down our backs flash in my mind. After the hired workers had
finished their day’s work and gone home, Fo Guang Shan’s disciples would
continue working. In addition, there are no words to describe the
assistance we received from all of the laypeople who wished to support
the Dharma. This is why I often say, “the success of Fo Guang Shan
belongs to everyone.” Fo Guang Shan is not for any individual. Rather,
it belongs to its more than thirteen hundred monastic disciples, the
millions of lay followers around the world, its many benefactors, as
well as people from all walks of life. Fo Guang Shan was not something
that was completed in a day or a certain period of time; it succeeded,
bit by bit, through the continuous effort due to oneness and
coexistence.

Systematic Leadership

Even during the
Buddha’s time the monastic community had a well-developed organizational
system. The Buddha set up the posadha system, in which monastics met
regularly to reflect upon their religious lives and confess their
faults, and the karman system for conducting meetings and adopting
resolutions. In these systems we can see a set of legal procedures that
are even more complete in their details than those of many modern
countries. The Buddha’s management style reflects a deep understanding
of human nature and his system of rules and regulations are skillfully
adaptive. The Buddha’s monastic community could be ranked among the best
of the many successful enterprises we have today.

Never in my
life have I worried about my future, and I have not set my mind on any
particular achievement. Things just fell into place naturally. The year I
turned fifty-eight, I relinquished my position as abbot of Fo Guang
Shan, but even then I was merely stepping down in accordance with the
system. I then left Fo Guang Shan and went directly to Beihai Temple. I
wanted to let my successor get on with the job, which is why I did not
want to linger at Fo Guang Shan. In Buddhism there is a saying that one
should “rely on the Dharma rather than an individual”; organizations and
enterprises, likewise, need clearly defined and implementable system as
they pursue success.

The Buddha’s Light International
Association, a Buddhist organization founded to encourage the
participation of lay Buddhists, has a membership now in the millions,
while the entire Fo Guang Shan organization operates harmoniously. We
have furthered the work of spreading the Dharma to all parts of the
world, and each of our successes has been achieved by operating within
our system. In this way the Dharma has been able to break through the
barriers of race, language, and culture, and we have been able to use
Buddhist chanting, calligraphy, writing, publishing, and visual and
performing arts to spread Humanistic Buddhism to every corner of the
world.

The success of Fo Guang Buddhists can be seen as an
example of “cultivation without attainment”: in Fo Guang Shan, we have a
policy that glory belongs to the Buddha, and the success belongs to the
community. In this instance these achievements “belong” in the sense
that each person contributes their cultivation without expecting to gain
anything in return. In this way, Fo Guang Buddhists are one with all
living beings, and can coexist together in harmony.

Building One Brick at a Time

In
Chinese there is an old saying: “When the eggs are not ready to hatch,
do not crack the shell; when the rice is not fully cooked, do not lift
the lid.” Trying to break open the eggs when they are not ready to hatch
will bring an untimely death to these small creatures, and trying to
lift the lid of the pot before the rice is fully cooked will make it
hard for the rice to be cooked tender.

There is no free lunch in
this world. If you want to get something you must give something. I
would suggest that, when a person is young, he or she should fear
neither hardship, nor being at a disadvantage. One should harden oneself
with real experience with no expectation of compensation. One should
increase one’s own knowledge and experience, no matter if that be
through reading books, starting a major undertaking, or engaging in some
sort of work. Do not be eager for success: success that comes too
easily can lead to pride and disdain for others, and with such
irresolute aspirations, one will quickly fail and be laid low. A lofty
tower is built from the ground up: no real success in this world is
achieved all at once. Success does not happen by mere chance, nor is it a
product of instant results. Rather, it is solidly built one brick at a
time. Great minds often develop gradually. Likewise, there is a saying
in Taiwan that goes: “a big rooster takes its time crowing.”

Quick
success is not really all that good. Take trees for example: those that
mature in a year are only good for firewood, while those that mature in
three to five years can be made into tables and chairs. Only trees that
take decades and decades to mature can be made into pillars and beams.
That is why we should “cultivate without attainment,” and free ourselves
of that win or lose mentality that leads to hasty work. We must
gradually cultivate and refine ourselves, and wait until the conditions
are right. As it is said, the journey of a thousand miles begins with
the first step; so never get ahead of yourself nor delude yourself with
the idea that chanting Amitabha Buddha’s name for two days will give you
a diamond-like mind capable of overcoming evil.

After Hongren,
the Fifth Patriarch of the Chan School, gave the monastic robe and alms
bowl to Huineng, signifying that he was now the Sixth Patriarch, he
escorted Huineng to a riverbank and said to him:

Henceforth, you
shall spread the Dharma far and wide. You should depart now and quickly
travel south. Do not start teaching too quickly because it is difficult
to spread the Dharma.

The Fifth Patriarch was telling Huineng not
to be too eager to spread the Dharma publicly. It is important to wait
for the right opportunity. This was why Huineng lived in seclusion among
a band of hunters, eating some vegetables that he added to their pot of
meat, as he bided his time. A favorable opportunity is when all the
conditions are right. Any matter can easily succeed, if it happens at
just the right moment when the causes and conditions are in place.

The Ten Directions and Three Time Periods

People
often ask me, “The Fo Guang Shan monastic order is large and its
activities are on an immense scale, how do you manage it all? How do you
keep everyone focused, harmonious, and without contention?”

I
always like to reply by sharing an old Buddhist expression: “Pervade
across the ten directions and extend down through the three time
periods.”3

The expression “Pervade across the ten directions and
extend down through the three times periods” describes our own intrinsic
Buddha nature. The size of everything in the world is limited, the only
things large enough to “pervade across the ten directions” are prajna,
our intrinsic nature, and the Dharmakaya. Such things are so large that
nothing is outside them and so small that nothing more can be contained
within; for they pervade everyplace and exist everywhere. In terms of
time, although our physical bodies are born and die and our lives come
to an end, our intrinsic Buddha wisdom can transcend the temporal
limitations of past, present, and future. It neither arises nor ceases
and does not come or go, which is why it “extends down through the three
time periods.”

The year I stepped down as abbot of Fo Guang Shan
my successor, Venerable Hsin Ping, would come and ask me the same
question whenever any major event was about to take place at the
monastery. He would ask,  “How should we handle it this year?”

I would always answer, “Look to what was done before.”

Referencing
earlier precedents means striving for consistency with the monastery’s
guiding principles, yet as times change, all things should also undergo
some reform and innovation. This is why I said to look to what was done
before, not to follow what was done before.

To build people’s
faith in the Dharma I have gone from riding a bicycle down to the
village in my early years to taking automobiles. Because of this
modernized society, instead of walking, I can now fly to and fro through
the sky. I deeply appreciate how these modern forms of transportation
offer many conveniences for teaching the Dharma. However, an appropriate
respect for tradition can allow people to see the true meaning of
Buddhism. For example, beginning in 1988 and continuing every other year
afterwards, Fo Guang Shan has an alms procession, in which monastics
collect donations with their bowls as in the time of the Buddha. Not
only does this activity serve to bring the light of the Buddha’s
compassion to every corner of Taiwan and give Buddhists an opportunity
to make offerings and generate merit, it is a good experience for the
monastics as well. In 1988 I launched a series of events across Taiwan
entitled “Returning to the Buddha’s Time,” featuring ceremonies,
performances, and a Dharma talk. The events used modern audio-visual
multimedia to enable the audience of tens of thousands to travel back in
time and return to the sacred site of Vulture Peak where the Buddha was
teaching twenty-five hundred years ago and share in the Dharma joy of
Buddhist chanting.

The policy of referring to past precedents is a
manifestation of “extending down through the three time periods.”
Whenever some improvement is introduced, it goes through a process of
discussion and coordination and then later becomes widely known to
everyone. Meetings are an indispensable part of this process. There are
times when students ask to attend our meetings, and I do not refuse
them.

In the past I served on the monastery staff, and while
taking care of guests I developed a keen awareness as to how all things
are connected. Each moment can be considered as a point that leads to
some other point, together these points make a line, and by observing
many of these lines, one comes to an understanding of the whole. By
seeing some individual matter as part of the whole, then one can tweak
its temporal and spatial qualities in just the right way so that nothing
will be left out.

Buddha nature permeates everywhere, “pervading
across the ten directions and extending down through the three time
periods.” Because of this, in terms of our essence, both the Buddha and I
possess the same Buddha nature. Therefore, I need not submit to force,
nor become beguiled by wealth and honor. I am one with all living
beings. Sometimes I may sit upon a high throne and expound the sublime
truths of the Buddha, while at other times I can toil and work for the
benefit of living beings and contribute through my sacrifice. I can be
great or be small, I can come first or come last, I can do with or do
without, I can handle happiness or suffering, I can expand or contract,
and I can bear being full or being hungry. I was not born with the
ability to do everything, but I am always willing to try.

It is
because of the maxim “pervade across the ten directions and extend down
through the three time periods” that we must throw open the universal
gate. There can be no racial barriers or special treatment. We must be
able to lead people from all walks of life, regardless of their
religious and social backgrounds, into sharing equally in the benefits
of the Dharma. This will enable all living beings from different regions
of the world and different stations in life to benefit from the
Dharma’s various positive connections, and bestow them upon society.

Buddhist Success: Paramita

As
mentioned previously, paramita is a Sanskrit word that means “success,”
“crossing from this shore to the other shore,” and “the perfect
tranquility of nirvana.”

We know that we must go from this shore
of delusion and cross to the other shore of enlightenment, but can we do
this just by thinking about it from time to time?

The Diamond
Sutra says we should “Give rise to a mind that does not abide in
anything.” In this instance, “abide” means to be attached to something,
particularly attached to an independent self. When we become too focused
on this sense of an independent self we become attached to the
perceived value of this “self,” and thus cling to certain ideas and
never let them go. When we worry too much about the gains and losses of
 this “self” our feelings become deluded by love, hate, sadness, and
happiness. Having a mind that does not abide in anything calls upon us
to live in the world according to the selflessness of prajna, for this
is the only way to reach the state of nirvana. Nirvana is:

Complete tranquility
The highest bliss
Everlasting happiness
Complete merit and wisdom
Total freedom from desire
The ultimate state of liberation
True reality
Success
in Buddhism is transcending this shore with its affliction, delusion,
and suffering, and crossing to the other shore of purity and
tranquility, where no afflictions appear and all suffering has ended.
The specific practice to accomplish this is a group of virtues called
the “six paramitas” or “six perfections.” The six paramitas are:

Giving
(dana-paramita)Giving is to take what one has or knows and give it to
others. Besides the giving of wealth and property, this also includes
giving the Dharma and confidence or fearlessness to others. The paramita
of giving can help to eliminate the defilement of greed.
Morality
(sila-paramita)The basis of Buddhist morality is the five precepts, but
it is not enough to think that the five precepts are just about not
doing this or not doing that. The five precepts should be viewed in
positive terms, for that is the path to happiness. For example, one
should go beyond the first precept “not to kill” and in addition
actively protect life. One can go beyond “not stealing” and practice
giving. One can go beyond “not committing sexual misconduct” and be
respectful. One can go beyond “not lying” and give praise. Going beyond
not killing to protect life leads to a long life; going beyond not
stealing to practice giving brings riches; going beyond not committing
sexual misconduct to being respectful leads to a pleasant family life;
and going beyond not lying to giving praise means that one will have a
good reputation.
Patience (ksanti-paramita)In Buddhism there are
three kinds of patience: the patience for life, the patience for
phenomena, and the patience for non-arising phenomena.4 A bodhisattva is
one who patiently endures all the humiliations of life, as well as
cold, heat, hunger, thirst, and so on. The paramita of patience can help
to eliminate the defilement of anger.
Diligence (virya-paramita)The
paramita of diligence includes physical diligence and mental diligence.
Mental diligence means earnestly practicing wholesome teachings while
taking care to eliminate the roots of unwholesomeness. The paramita of
diligence is the antidote for laziness and idleness.
Meditative
Concentration (dhyana-paramita)The paramita of meditative concentration
comes from making one’s mind free of distractions such that it does not
become confused or deluded by worldly matters. The paramita of
meditative concentration can remove the defilement of doubt.
Prajna
(prajna-paramita)The paramita of prajna is the most important of the
paramitas, and the forerunner of the other five. By using prajna wisdom
one can eradicate the defilement of ignorance.
I loved playing
basketball when I was young, so I often draw my analogies from
basketball: be it spiritual cultivation, academic study, or interacting
with others, they’re all like playing basketball. For example, when
trying to get along with others, you should not go off to fight your own
battles, for it is important to remember team spirit. One should wait
for the right time to act, just as when one has possession of the ball,
one must wait for any opportunity to make a shot. And if you break the
rules, you must admit your fault, just as in raising one’s hand in a
game.

When playing basketball, one must have the spirit of the
six paramitas: you must pass the ball to your teammates to help them to
score points on a basket (giving), you need to play by the rules of the
court (morality), you must show restraint to avoid being bumped by
others during the heat of a match (patience), you must practice your
skills if you want to score (diligence), and, in addition to
fundamentals, you must develop basketball strategy in order to win
(prajna).

Why is prajna considered the foremost paramita? The
Treatise on the Perfection of Great Wisdom says, “the other five
perfections are blind without prajna to guide them.” It is impossible to
reach the ultimate goal by relying only upon the other five paramitas
and attempting to do without prajna. This is why prajna is described as
the foundation of the six paramitas and is also the foundation of the
Dharma.

The Lotus Sutra states, “The turmoil of the three realms
is like a burning house.” The three realms of Buddhist cosmology (the
desire realm, the form realm, and the formless realm) are like a burning
house. But if we make our minds nice and cool, then the blaze of
suffering that presses upon us will disappear. Only by cultivating
prajna without the expectation of gain can we succeed with the six
paramitas.

Once the Chan master Caoshan Huixia said to his
attendant, “An enlightened person will be unperturbed by heat, no matter
how hot it gets inside or outside.”

Huixia’s attendant agreed. Huixia then asked, “If it were extremely hot now, where would you go to escape it?”

The attendant answered, “I would seek refuge in a burning-hot cauldron.”

Huixia was puzzled. He asked further, “Nothing is hotter than a cauldron. Why would you seek refuge in such blazing heat?”

Pointing at his heart, the attendant answered, “The great mass of suffering cannot reach me here.”

The
Diamond Sutra reveals to us the secret of success: to have a mind that
does not abide in anything. This is prajna. The mind itself is all of
wondrous existence, while abiding in nothing is true emptiness; and
there cannot be wondrous existence without true emptiness. The prajna of
the Buddha can make one understand the mind and body with crystal
clarity, like the moon reflected in water, transporting one from this
shore of delusion and attachment to the other shore that is permanent,
blissful, pure, and has an inherent self. Practitioners are able to turn
a world of blazing heat into a realm that is refreshingly cool, and
transform defilement and affliction into the Pure Land. Such people find
no situation in which they are not content.

1. These are the “five causes of loss”: five things mentioned in the Buddhist sutras that can destroy our wealth. Ed.

2.
The three kinds of supernatural knowledge are knowledge of past,
present, and future lives, heavenly eyes, and the power of ending all
defilement. Ed.

3. 橫遍十方,豎窮三際: The ten directions are the four
cardinal directions, the four intermediate directions, plus above and
below, and the three time periods are the past, present, and future.
There is a suggestion in the Chinese expression that space exists on a
horizontal plane and that time exists on a vertical plane, with the two
together encompassing everything. Ed.

4. This type of patience
comes from the realization that, on a supramundane level, phenomena do
not truly arise or cease, and all things are simply as they are. Ed.

Q 7 Write down Sangha Vadana in Pali as well as in English

Sangha Vandana

Supati-panno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho, Ujupati-panno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho.
Ñâya-patipanno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho. Sâmici-patipanno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho
Yadidam cattâri purisa yugâni attha-purisa-puggalâ Esa Bhagavato sâvaka sangho.
Âhu-neyyo, pâhu-neyyo, Dakkhi-neyyo,añjalikaraniyo, anuttaram puññakkhetam lokassâti

Translation - Homage to the Disciples of the Buddha
The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the good way; the
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the straight way;
the Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the proper way,
that is to say; the Four Pairs of Men, the Eight Types of Persons; the
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples is fit for gifts, fit for
hospitality, fit for offerings, and fit for reverential salutation, as
the incomparable field of merit for the world.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keaSoeWDbPo
Buddhism - Pali Chantings {Salutations to Sangha of Blessed}

Harshavardhan Devde
Published on Jul 12, 2007
These
verses are recited to pay homage to the Triple Gem - Buddha, Dhamma and
Sangha. These words explain some of the great qualities and virtues
pertaining to the Triple Gem. By reciting these words, one can
understand the admirable qualities of the Triple Gem and so develop
one’s confidence in their intrinsic worth.

The Buddha himself
explained these qualities in many of His Suttas. He also advised his
followers to recite these words to be mindful of the Buddha, Dhamma and
Sangha in times of fear or disturbance, whether arising from external
sources or through evil influences so that such disturbances can be
vanquished. This is because the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha are free from
all kinds of defilements and hindrances such as greed, anger and
ignorance.

Pali

Supatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Ujupatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Ñayapatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Samicipatipanno Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Yadidam cattari purisayugani attha

purisa-puggala, esa Bhagavato savaka-sangho

Ahuneyyo, pahuneyyo, dakkhineyyo,

Anjalikaraniyo, anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa ti

English Translation

The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the good way; The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the straight way;
The Sangha of the Blessed Ones disciples has entered on the right path;
The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the proper way;
That is to say, the Four Pairs of Men, the Eight Types of Persons; The
Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples is fit for gifts, fit for
hospitality, fit for offerings and fit for reverential salutation As the
incomparable field of merits for the world.

Pali Chantings

Sangham jivitam yava nibbanam

saranam gacchami

Ye ca Sangha atita ca

Ye ca Sangha anagata

Paccuppanna ca ye Sangha

Aham vandami sabbada

English translations

The Sangha of the ages past,

The Sangha that are yet to come,

The Sangha of the present age,

I always pay homage to them.

Pali Chantings

Natthi me saranam annam

Sangho me saranam varam

Etena sacca-vajjena

Hotu me jayamangalam

English translations

No other refuge do I seek;

The Sangha is my matchless refuge;

By the might of this truth,

May joyous victory be mine!

Pali

Uttamangena vandeham

Sangham ca tividhuttamam

Sanghe yo khalito doso

Sangho khamatu tam mamam

English translation

With my bows I humbly worship,

The Sangha triply unrivalled;

If I have done wrong to the Sangha

May the Sangha forgive me.
Category
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youtube.com
Buddhism - Pali Chantings {Salutations to Sangha of Blessed}
These verses are recited to pay homage to the Triple Gem - Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. These words…

Q 8 Write an essay on what you understand about the meaning of each of the nine qualities of the Sangha

Supreme Qualities of the Sangha (Sangha Guna)

1.
Here it must be noted that Sangha is not bhikkhus. Sangha means the
Nobles or Ariyas, those who have attained one of the magga phala.
(Sangha means one who has removed  “san“, i.e., “san” + “gha“).

Supatipannō,
Bhagavatō Savakasanghō. Ujupatipannō, Bhagavatō Savakasanghō.
Nayapatipannō, Bhagavatō Savakasanghō. Sämichipatipannö, Bhagavatō
Savakasanghō. Yadidam chattari purisayugāni atta purisapuggalā, esa
Bhagavato Savakasanghō, Āhuneyyō, pāhuneyyō, dakkhineyyō,
anjalikaraneeyō, anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa ti.

2. Bhagavatō
Savakasanghō means Noble disciples of the Buddha. The first four
phrases describe four Noble qualities: Supatipannō, Ujupatipannō,
nāyapatipannö, and Sämichipatipannö.

Patipannö means “having such
quality”: “Su” means goodness and morality; “uju” means straightforward
and not crooked in character; “nāya” means nana or wise; “sāmichi”
means pleasant to associate. Thus it is easy to what is meant
(succinctly) by those phrases. But as with all these qualities, it is
not possible to describe them fully in words.
3. “Yadidam chattari
purisayugāni atta purisapuggalā” means thus described eight types of
persons (attapurisa puggala) of four Noble (purisa) lineages. Eight
types comes when each stage is divided into two, for example, Arahant
magga and Arahant phala.

4. Then starting with “esa Bhagavato
Savakasanghō” (i.e., those Noble disciples of the Buddha), five more
qualities are stated:  Āhuneyyō, pāhuneyyō, dakkhineyyō, anjalikaraniyō,
anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa.

In those words, “neyyō” means
niyama dhamma or core principle of nature; also called “nyāma“. Then
“āhu” means “grasped”, “pāhu” means “inseparable” or “fused together”,
“dakkhi” means “see”. Thus those disciples have clearly seen the core
principles of nature (paticca samuppada), have grasped them and will not
be separated from them ever.
Because of that, they can dissolve and
remove the causes (food) that fuel the sansaric journey:
anjalikaraneeyō. Here “an” means “āhara” or causes, “jali” is water
(dissolve), and karenneya means “do”. Another meaning of “an” is “horn”
with sharp tips (as in a bull), which can hurt others; here
anjalikaraneeyō means dissolving them (by cultivating metta) so that
they cannot hurt others.
anuttaram punnakkhettam:  anuttara is
unmatached, punna is meritorious, and ketha is for a field. Thus it
means these disciples are like fertile fields, that can provide
unlimited resources to others (just like a well-cultivated field can
provide food for many).
You can download the above audio files below
by clicking “DOWNLOAD”. You can play it there or right-click on the
screen and choose “save as..” to save to your computer.

DownloadDownload

More audio files are at: “Sutta Chanting (with Pali Text)“.

DownloadDownload
More audio files are at: “Sutta Chanting (with Pali Text)“.

puredhamma.net
Supreme Qualities of Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha | Pure Dhamma
The
24 supreme qualities of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha (called “suvisi
guna”) are discussed. Audio recordings of the Pali recitals are
provided.
puredhamma.net
Supreme Qualities of Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha | Pure Dhamma
The
24 supreme qualities of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha (called “suvisi
guna”) are discussed. Audio recordings of the Pali recitals are
provided.

Q 9  What was Siddhartha in his immediate past life ? What was his role ?

Siddhartha is a  name meaning “one who has accomplished a goal,” and Gautama is a family name.
His
father, King Suddhodana, was the leader of a large clan called the
Shakya (or Sakya). It’s not clear from the earliest texts whether he was
a hereditary king or more of a tribal chief. It is also possible that
he was elected to this status.
Suddhodana married two sisters, Maya
and Pajapati Gotami. They are said to have been princesses of another
clan, the Koliya, from what is northern India today. Maya was the mother
of Siddhartha, and he was her only child. She died shortly after his
birth. Pajapati, who later became the first Buddhist nun, raised
Siddhartha as her own.

By all accounts, Prince Siddhartha and his
family were of the Kshatriya caste of warriors and nobles. Among
Siddhartha’s more well-known relatives was his cousin Ananda, the son of
his father’s brother. Ananda would later become the Buddha’s disciple
and personal attendant. He would have been considerably younger than
Siddhartha, however, and they didn’t know each other as children

Everyone
in their village loves Siddhartha. But although he brings joy to
everyone’s life, Siddhartha feels little joy himself. He is troubled by
restless dreams and begins to wonder if he has learned all that his
father and the other Brahmins can teach him. As Hesse says, “…they had
already poured the sum total of their knowledge into his waiting
vessel; and the vessel was not full, his intellect was not satisfied,
his soul was not at peace, his heart was not still” (5).

Siddhartha
is dissatisfied with the Brahmans because despite their knowledge, the
Brahmins are seekers still, performing the same exercises again and
again in order to reach their goal‹Nirvana: the peace of oneness with
Atman the Divine within‹without ever finding it. But if Atman is within,
then oneness with it must proceed by focusing on the world within. As
Siddhartha says, “One must find the source within one’s Self, one must
possess it. Everythig else was seeking‹a detour, error” (7). It is
Siddhartha’s search for this new path that leads him to the ascetic
Samanas.

When Siddhartha announces his intention to join the
Samanas, his father becomes very upset and forbids Siddhartha’s
departure. In respectful defiance, Siddhartha does not move. His
frustrated father leaves him, gazing out of his window periodically to
see if Siddhartha has left. The obstinate youth, though, remains
motionless. Night passes. In the morning, Siddhartha’s father returns to
his intransigent son and realizes that while Siddhartha’s body remains
is present, his mind had already departed. Siddhartha’s father
acquiesces to his son’s wishes and allows him to leave, reminded him
that he is welcome back should he find disillusionment with the Samanas.
Govinda joins Siddhartha as they disappear into the forest in search of
the Samanas.

With the Samanas

As Samanas, Siddhartha and
Govinda relinquish all their possessions and dedicate themselves to
meditation, fasting, and other methods of mortification. As a result of
this, the normal human world becomes anathema to Siddhartha. It is all
illusory and destined to decay, leaving those who treasure it in great
pain. With the Samanas, “Siddhartha had one goal - to become empty, to
become empty of thirst, desire, dreams, pleasure, and sorrow‹to let the
Self die” (14). His path to self-negation was through physical pain,
pain he endured until he no longer felt it as pain. When pain is gone,
the Self fades into oblivion and peace is attained. But while pain
became a memory for Siddhartha, peace did not come.

After having
been with the Samanas for some time, Siddhartha expresses concern that
he is no closer to his goal than he was before joining the Samanas.
Govinda replies that while they have grown in spirit, they still have
much to learn. In response, Siddhartha derisively comparesthe Samanas’
 life to that of a drunkard, a series of temporary respites from the
pains of existence. Ultimately, Siddhartha reasons, one cannot really
learn anything from teachers or the doctrines they espouse. As
Siddhartha tells Govinda, “There is, my friend, only a knowledge‹that is
everywhere, that is Ataman, that is in me and you and every creature,
and I am beginning to believe that this knowledge has no worse enemy
than the man of knowledge, than learning” (19). Siddhartha is unsettled
by the implications of his thoughts but feels certain that the Samanas
have nothing for to teach him. For this reason, Siddhartha declares that
he will leave the Samanas soon.

Three years after joining the
Samanas, Siddhartha and Govinda hear intriguing rumors of a great man,
Goatama, the Buddha, who, having attained enlightenment, teaches others
the way to peace. Govinda is immediately entranced by this tale and
tells Siddhartha of his intent to seek out Goatama. Siddhartha,
surprised by Govinda’s uncharacteristic initiative, wishes his friend
well. Govinda, though, wishes Siddhartha to seek the Buddha with him.
Siddhartha expresses his doubt that anything new can be learned from
this man, but surrenders to Govinda’s enthusiasm and agrees to go. The
leaders of the Samanas scolds Siddhartha and Govinda for their
departure. Siddhartha then demonstrates his mastery of the Samana ways
by hypnotizing the old master.

Goatama

Siddhartha and
Govinda travel to Savathi, where they discover that the Buddha is
staying in Jetavana, in the garden of Anathapindika. Arriving in
Jetavana, Siddhartha recognizes Goatama immediately despite his
nondescript dress: “he wore his gown and walked along exactly like the
other monks, but his face and his step…spoke of peace, spoke of
completeness,…an unfading light, an invulnerable peace.”(28). And
while Siddhartha is not terribly interested in what the Buddha has to
say, he is completely taken with the Buddha’s demeanor.

The two
men hear Gotama’s sermon, after which Govinda announces his intention to
join in Goatama’s discipleship. Siddhartha commends Govinda for his
decision, but says that he will not join up. Govinda asks Siddhartha
what fault he finds in the Buddha’s program that makes him resist
pledging his allegiance. Siddhartha says that he finds no fault; he just
does not want to join. The next day Govinda takes his monk’s robe and
bids Siddhartha a sad farewell.

As Siddhartha is leaving, he
runs into Goatama in the woods and questions the Buddha about his
teachings. Siddhartha compliments the theoretical coherence of Gotama’s
worldview, the ultimate unity of creation and the incessant chain of
causes and effects, but remarks that Goatama’s doctrine of salvation,
the transcendence of causation, calls into question the consistency of
his position. Goatama responds by saying that he goal of his teaching is
not “to explain the world to those who are thirsty for knowledge. It’s
goal is quite different; its goal is salvation from suffering. That is
what Goatama teaches, nothing else” (33). Siddhartha, afraid that he has
offended the Buddha, reiterates his confidence in the Buddha’s
holiness, but expresses his doubt that any teaching can ever provide the
learner with the experience of Nirvana. And while Gotama’s path may be
appropriate for some, Siddhartha says that he must take his own path,
lest self-deception overtake him and he admit to Nirvana before having
actually attained it. The Buddha admonishes Siddhartha to beware his own
cleverness then wishes him well on his path.

Awakening

As
Siddhartha leaves the Buddha, he realizes that a change has overcome
him: he has outgrown the desire for teachers. From teachers he had
sought to discover the mystery of his Self. As Siddhartha says, “Truly,
nothing in the world has occupied my thoughts as much as the Self, this
riddle, that I live, that I am one and am separated and different from
everybody else, that I am Siddhartha” (38). But in seeking this Self,
Siddhartha has only succeeded in fleeing from it. He was so consumed in
annihilating this Self that he had lost sight of it completely. The path
to self-knowledge‹and with it a knowledge of everything: Atman and
Brahman are one‹cannot proceed by listening to the voice of others.
Instead, as Siddhartha puts it, “I will learn from myself, be my own
pupil; I will learn from myself the secret of Siddhartha” (39).

This
awakening leads to a change in Siddhartha’s perception of the world.
Whereas he formerly reviled the world as a painful illusion, a
distraction from a submerged, unitary reality, he now sees that the
value in the world of the senses. Unlike the Brahmins and Samanas who
ignored the wondrous  diversity of shapes and colors around them,
seeking to reduce everything to the common denominator of Braham,
Siddhartha became convinced that truth was in the plurality rather than
the commonality of nature. As he says, “meaning and reality were not
hidden somewhere behind things, they were in them, in all of them” (40).

This realization set Siddhartha apart from all of his previous
associations. He was no longer a Brahmin or a Samansa, and he had
resisted following his friend Govinda into the Buddha’s discipleship.
While this consciousness of solitude was frightening, it was also
exhilarating; untethered from these communities and languages of
thought, Siddhartha was more himself than ever. Enlivened by this new
feeling of authenticity, Siddhartha “bean to walk quickly and
impatiently, no longer homewards, no longer to his father, no longer
looking backwards” (42).

https://www.answers.com/Q/What_was_Prince_Siddharthas_life

What was Prince Siddharthas life?

Prince
Siddhartha’s life was different than most peoples. When he was born his
mother Maya died. So then his dad had to take care of him and he said
that he would only let his son have the best of everything best food,
the best education, and of course the best clothes.His dad also said
that he would have nothing less than the best and that he was not
allowed to see the world outside the walls of the palace. One day Prince
Siddhartha made his bus driver take him around in the city.First he
came accross two old men aging. But the prince did not know what aging
was and when he say it he did not like it. On his second trip he saw a
person with a sickness but he did not know what sickness was either. And
he did not like that either. On his  third trip he saw and old person
die .And he definetly didnt like that either.(who does!) And on his last
trip he saw an astetic.

An astetic is a person that gives up
worldly pleasures to find enlightenment.When Siddhartha saw this he
wanted tobecome an astetic. One day the prince asked a taxi driver to
take him to the forest. When he was there he took of all of his jewelry
and he vauluable stuff. When he was done he took of his clothes and put
on a white robe.Then he started walking around to start his new life.
(More stuff astetics can do
is……………………………………………………………..
Hold their breath for long periods of time.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..)
After a while the prince did not reach enlightenment beign and astetic
and he didnt reach it beign a prince so he made a middle way. This way
was becoming the BUDDHA! Siddhartha walked under a Bodhi tree and then
he started to medidtate.Then and evil sprirt named Mana tried to delude
Siddhartha into become evil but Siddhartha didnt pay attention to any of
them. AND FROM THERE ON PRINCE SIDDHARTHA HAS BEEN TEACHING PEOPLE HOW
TO BECOME AWAKENED. UNTIL HE DIED AT AGE 80. THE END!

Q10 Give an account of Bodhistta Setaketu

http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php…

Buddism 14172.jpg
Svetaketu
(Pali: Setaketu), who was reborn as Siddhartha, who would become the
Buddha Sakyamuni; since then the Bodhisattva has been Natha (or
Nathadeva) who will be reborn as Ajita and will become the Buddha
Maitreya (Pali Metteyya). While this Bodhisattva is the foremost of the
dwellers in Tusita, the ruler of this world is another deva called
Santusita (Pali: Santusita). The beings of this world are 3,000 feet
(910 m) tall and live for 576,000,000 years (Sarvastivada tradition).
The height of this world is 320 yojanas above the Earth.

chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com
Svetaketu - Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Svetaketu
(Pali: Setaketu), who was reborn as Siddhartha, who would become the
Buddha Sakyamuni; since then the Bodhisattva has been Natha (or
Nathadeva) who will be reborn as Ajita and will become the Buddha…

Q 11. How many types of Bodhisattas are tere ? Elaborate on each of them.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bodhisattvas
List of bodhisattvas
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation
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Relief image of the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara from Mount Jiuhua, Anhui, China

In
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Chinese: 菩薩;
pinyin: púsà; Japanese pronunciation: bosatsu; Korean pronunciation:
bosal) is a being who is dedicated to achieving complete Buddhahood.
Conventionally, the term is applied to beings with a high degree of
enlightenment. Bodhisattva literally means a “bodhi (enlightenment)
being” in Sanskrit. Mahayana practitioners have historically lived in
many other countries that are now predominantly Hindu, Muslim or
Theravada Buddhist; remnants of reverence for bodhisattvas has continued
in some of these regions.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of bodhisattvas primarily respected in Indian, Tibetan Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism.

Primary Bodhisattvas

Ākāśagarbha

Chinese:
虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장,
Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who
is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

Avalokiteśvara (Padmapani)

(Chinese:
觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음;
Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The
bodhisattva of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries who uses
skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally acknowledged
bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially in Theravada
Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This bodhisattva
gradually became identified predominantly as female in East Asian
Buddhism and its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

Kṣitigarbha

(Chinese:
地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장;
Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha
is a bodhisattva primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually
depicted as a Buddhist monk. His name may be translated as “Earth
Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha
is known for his vow to take responsibility for the instruction of all
beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the
rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all
hells are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisattva of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.

Mahāsthāmaprāpta

(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom,
often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially
in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great
strength”.

Maitreya, Pali Metteyya

In some Buddhist texts
such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as
Ajita. Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku;
Korean: 미륵; Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According
to both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is regarded as the
future buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will
appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach
the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor
to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha.[1][2] The prophecy of the arrival
of Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have
been forgotten by most on the terrestrial world. This prophecy is found
in the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya
has also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist
religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new
religious movements such as Yiguandao.

Mañjuśrī

(Chinese:
文殊; pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수;
Vietnamese: Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī
is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in
Mahayana Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name
means “Gentle Glory”.[3] Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit
name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or,
less literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.

Samantabhadra

Chinese:
普賢菩薩; pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현;
Vietnamese: Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo,
Mongolian: Хамгаар Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is
associated with practice and meditation. Together with the Buddha and
Mañjuśrī, he forms the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron
of the Lotus Sutra and, according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten
great vows which are the basis of a bodhisattva. In China, Samantabhadra
is associated with action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated with prajñā.
In Japan, Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon
Buddhism, and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism.
In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the
name of the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort,
Samantabhadrī.

Vajrapāṇi

(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin:
Jīngāngshǒu; Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese:
Kim cương thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi
(Sanskrit, “Vajra in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing
bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of
Gautama Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi
is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as one of the three
protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one
of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom,
Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi
manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five
tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only
Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped
in the Shaolin Monastery, in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land
Buddhism, where he is known as Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with
Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can also
be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors called
the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and muscular
guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist
temples in East Asian Buddhism. They are said to be dharmapala
manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According to Japanese tradition, they
traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him, reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s
role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally
pacifist tradition of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use
of physical force to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil.
The Niō are also seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure
Land Buddhism and as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi
is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan,
where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.[6]
Classification
Four Great Bodhisattvas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattvas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:

Avalokiteśvara
Kṣitigarbha
Mañjuśrī
Samantabhadra

The
Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism provides another enumeration.
These bodhisattvas are featured in the Eight Petal Hall in the center of
the mandala. They are as follows:

Samantabhadra
Mañjuśrī
Avalokiteśvara
Maitreya

The
Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a
portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattva Practice.

Dharmaprajñā
Guṇavana
Vajraketu
Vajragarbha

The Lotus Sutra provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattvas of the Earth.

Viśiṣṭacāritra
Anantacāritra
Viśuddhacāritra
Supratiṣṭhitacāritra

Five Great Bodhisattvas

Chapter
7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five
bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power (五大力菩薩).”
There are two Chinese translations of this text, each providing an
entirely different name to these figures. Their association with the
cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as
follows:
Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼 West Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多) Central
雷電吼 North Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉) North
無畏方吼 East Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利) West
龍王吼 South Vajraratna (金剛宝) South
金剛吼 Central Vajrapāṇi (金剛手) East
Sixteen Bodhisattvas

The
Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattvas known as the “Sixteen
Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.” They also appear in a Sutra with
the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as follows, along with their respective
associated directions:
East South West North

Maitreya
Amoghadarśana
Sarvāpāyajaha
Sarvaśokatamonirghātana

Gandhahastin
Śauraya
Gaganagañja
Jñānaketu

Amitaprabha
Bhadrapāla
Jālinīprabha
Candraprabha

Akṣayamati
Pratibhānakūṭa
Vajragarbha
Samantabhadra

Another
set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattvas” and make
up a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the
Buddhas of the cardinal directions.
Akṣobhya
(East) Ratnasaṃbhava
(South) Amitābha
(West) Amoghasiddhi
(North)

Vajrasattva
Vajrarāga
Vajrarāja
Vajrasādhu

Vajraratna
Vajraketu
Vajrateja
Vajrahāsa

Vajradharma
Vajrahetu
Vajratīkṣṇa
Vajrabhāṣa

Vajrakarma
Vajrayakṣa
Vajrarakṣa
Vajrasaṃdhi

Twenty-five Bodhisattvas

According
to the Sūtra on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land
(十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the
Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas.
Twenty-five of them are given by name:

Avalokiteśvara
Mahāsthāmaprāpta
Bhaiṣajyarāja
Bhaiṣajyasamudgata
Samantabhadra
Dharmeśvara
Siṃhanāda
Dhāraṇī
Ākāśagarbha
Guṇagarbha
Ratnagarbha
Vajragarbha
Vajra
Girisāgaramati
Raśmiprabharāja
Avataṃsakarāja
Gaṇaratnarāja
Candraprabharāja
Divākararāja
Samādhirāja
Samādhīśvararāja
Maheśvararāja
Śuklahastarāja
Mahātejarāja
Anantakāya

en.wikipedia.org
List of bodhisattvas - Wikipedia
In
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Chinese: 菩薩;
pinyin: púsà; Japanese pronunciation: bosatsu; Korean pronunciation:
bosal) is a being who is dedicated to achieving complete Buddhahood.
Conventionally, the term is applied to beings with a high degree of
enlightenment. B…

in
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19


Q 11 How many types of Bodhisattas are there ? Elaborate on each of them.

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refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKhY2HxRojQ
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Buddhist Bodhisatta

Met, afghanistan (maybe bhadda), head of bodhisatta …

Ākāśagarbha
Chinese:
虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장,
Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who
is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

Avalokiteśvara (Padmapani)
(Chinese:
觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음;
Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The
bodhisatta of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries who uses
skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally acknowledged
bodhisatta in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially in Theravada
Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This bodhisatta gradually
became identified predominantly as female in East Asian Buddhism and
its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

Kṣitigarbha
(Chinese:
地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장;
Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha
is a bodhisatta primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually
depicted as a Buddhist monk. His name may be translated as “Earth
Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha
is known for his vow to take responsibility for the instruction of all
beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the
rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all
hells are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisatta of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom,
often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially
in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great
strength”.

Maitreya, Pali Metteyya
In some Buddhist texts such
as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.
Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku; Korean: 미륵;
Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According to
both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is regarded as the future
buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear
on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the
pure dhamma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to
the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha. The prophecy of the arrival of
Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have been
forgotten by most on the terrestrial world. This prophecy is found in
the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya has
also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist
religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new
religious movements such as Yiguandao.

Mañjuśrī
(Chinese: 文殊;
pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수; Vietnamese:
Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī is a
bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in Mahayana
Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means
“Gentle Glory” Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of
Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or, less
literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.

Samantabhadra
Chinese: 普賢菩薩;
pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현; Vietnamese:
Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo, Mongolian: Хамгаар
Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is associated with practice
and meditation. Together with the Buddha and Mañjuśrī, he forms the
Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and,
according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are
the basis of a bodhisatta. In China, Samantabhadra is associated with
action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated with prajñā. In Japan,
Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism,
and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the
Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the name of
the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort,
Samantabhadrī.

Vajrapāṇi
(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin: Jīngāngshǒu;
Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese: Kim cương
thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi
(Sanskrit, “Vajra in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing
bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of
Gautama Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi
is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as one of the three
protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one
of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom,
Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi
manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five
tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only
Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped
in the Shaolin Monastery, in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land
Buddhism, where he is known as Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with
Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can
also be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors
called the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and
muscular guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many
Buddhist temples in East Asian Buddhism. They are said to be dharmapala
manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According to Japanese tradition, they
traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him, reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s
role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally
pacifist tradition of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use
of physical force to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil.
The Niō are also seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure
Land Buddhism and as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi
is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan,
where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.

Classification

Four Great Bodhisattas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:

Avalokiteśvara
Kṣitigarbha
Mañjuśrī
Samantabhadra
The
Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism provides another enumeration.
These bodhisattvas are featured in the Eight Petal Hall in the center of
the mandala. They are as follows:

Samantabhadra
Mañjuśrī
Avalokiteśvara
Maitreya
The Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattv Practice.

Dharmaprajñā
Guṇavana
Vajraketu
Vajragarbha
The Lotus Sutta provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattas of the Earth.

Viśiṣṭacāritra
Anantacāritra
Viśuddhacāritra
Supratiṣṭhitacāritra
Five Great Bodhisattas

Chapter
7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five
bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power (五大力菩薩).”
There are two Chinese translations of this text, each providing an
entirely different name to these figures. Their association with the
cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as
follows:

Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼 West Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多) Central
雷電吼 North Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉) North
無畏方吼 East Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利) West
龍王吼 South Vajraratna (金剛宝) South
金剛吼 Central Vajrapāṇi (金剛手) East
Sixteen Bodhisattas

The
Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattas known as the “Sixteen
Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.” They also appear in a Sutra with
the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as follows, along with their respective
associated directions:

East South West North
Maitreya
Amoghadarśana
Sarvāpāyajaha
Sarvaśokatamonirghātana
Gandhahastin
Śauraya
Gaganagañja
Jñānaketu
Amitaprabha
Bhadrapāla
Jālinīprabha
Candraprabha
Akṣayamati
Pratibhānakūṭa
Vajragarbha
Samantabhadra

Another
set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattas” and make up
a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the
Buddhas of the cardinal directions.

Akṣobhya
(East) Ratnasaṃbhava
(South) Amitābha
(West) Amoghasiddhi
(North)
Vajrasattva
Vajrarāga
Vajrarāja
Vajrasādhu
Vajraratna
Vajraketu
Vajrateja
Vajrahāsa
Vajradharma
Vajrahetu
Vajratīkṣṇa
Vajrabhāṣa
Vajrakarma
Vajrayakṣa
Vajrarakṣa
Vajrasaṃdhi
Twenty-five Bodhisattas

According
to the Sūtta on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land
(十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the
Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas.
Twenty-five of them are given by name:

Avalokiteśvara
Mahāsthāmaprāpta
Bhaiṣajyarāja
Bhaiṣajyasamudgata
Samantabhadra
Dharmeśvara
Siṃhanāda
Dhāraṇī
Ākāśagarbha
Guṇagarbha
Ratnagarbha
Vajragarbha
Vajra
Girisāgaramati
Raśmiprabharāja
Avataṃsakarāja
Gaṇaratnarāja
Candraprabharāja
Divākararāja
Samādhirāja
Samādhīśvararāja
Maheśvararāja
Śuklahastarāja
Mahātejarāja
Anantakāya
ood core, dry …

Ākāśagarbha
Chinese:
虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장,
Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who
is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

Avalokiteśvara (Padmapani)
(Chinese:
觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음;
Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The
bodhisatta of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries who uses
skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally acknowledged
bodhisatta in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially in Theravada
Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This bodhisatta gradually
became identified predominantly as female in East Asian Buddhism and
its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

Kṣitigarbha
(Chinese:
地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장;
Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha
is a bodhisatta primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually
depicted as a Buddhist monk. His name may be translated as “Earth
Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha
is known for his vow to take responsibility for the instruction of all
beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the
rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all
hells are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisatta of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta
(Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom,
often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially
in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great
strength”.

Maitreya, Pali Metteyya
In some Buddhist texts such
as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.
Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku; Korean: 미륵;
Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According to
both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is regarded as the future
buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear
on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the
pure dhamma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to
the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha. The prophecy of the arrival of
Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have been
forgotten by most on the terrestrial world. This prophecy is found in
the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya has
also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist
religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new
religious movements such as Yiguandao.

Mañjuśrī
(Chinese: 文殊;
pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수; Vietnamese:
Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī is a
bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in Mahayana
Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means
“Gentle Glory” Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of
Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or, less
literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.

Samantabhadra
Chinese: 普賢菩薩;
pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현; Vietnamese:
Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo, Mongolian: Хамгаар
Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is associated with practice
and meditation. Together with the Buddha and Mañjuśrī, he forms the
Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and,
according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are
the basis of a bodhisatta. In China, Samantabhadra is associated with
action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated with prajñā. In Japan,
Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism,
and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the
Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the name of
the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort,
Samantabhadrī.

Vajrapāṇi
(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin: Jīngāngshǒu;
Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese: Kim cương
thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi
(Sanskrit, “Vajra in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing
bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of
Gautama Buddha and rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi
is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as one of the three
protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one
of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom,
Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi
manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five
tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only
Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped
in the Shaolin Monastery, in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land
Buddhism, where he is known as Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with
Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can
also be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors
called the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and
muscular guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many
Buddhist temples in East Asian Buddhism. They are said to be dharmapala
manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According to Japanese tradition, they
traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him, reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s
role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally
pacifist tradition of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use
of physical force to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil.
The Niō are also seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure
Land Buddhism and as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi
is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan,
where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.

Classification

Four Great Bodhisattas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:

Avalokiteśvara
Kṣitigarbha
Mañjuśrī
Samantabhadra
The
Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism provides another enumeration.
These bodhisattvas are featured in the Eight Petal Hall in the center of
the mandala. They are as follows:

Samantabhadra
Mañjuśrī
Avalokiteśvara
Maitreya
The Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattv Practice.

Dharmaprajñā
Guṇavana
Vajraketu
Vajragarbha
The Lotus Sutta provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattas of the Earth.

Viśiṣṭacāritra
Anantacāritra
Viśuddhacāritra
Supratiṣṭhitacāritra
Five Great Bodhisattas

Chapter
7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five
bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power (五大力菩薩).”
There are two Chinese translations of this text, each providing an
entirely different name to these figures. Their association with the
cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as
follows:

Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼 West Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多) Central
雷電吼 North Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉) North
無畏方吼 East Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利) West
龍王吼 South Vajraratna (金剛宝) South
金剛吼 Central Vajrapāṇi (金剛手) East
Sixteen Bodhisattas

The
Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattas known as the “Sixteen
Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.” They also appear in a Sutra with
the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as follows, along with their respective
associated directions:

East South West North
Maitreya
Amoghadarśana
Sarvāpāyajaha
Sarvaśokatamonirghātana
Gandhahastin
Śauraya
Gaganagañja
Jñānaketu
Amitaprabha
Bhadrapāla
Jālinīprabha
Candraprabha
Akṣayamati
Pratibhānakūṭa
Vajragarbha
Samantabhadra

Another
set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattas” and make up
a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the
Buddhas of the cardinal directions.

Akṣobhya
(East) Ratnasaṃbhava
(South) Amitābha
(West) Amoghasiddhi
(North)
Vajrasattva
Vajrarāga
Vajrarāja
Vajrasādhu
Vajraratna
Vajraketu
Vajrateja
Vajrahāsa
Vajradharma
Vajrahetu
Vajratīkṣṇa
Vajrabhāṣa
Vajrakarma
Vajrayakṣa
Vajrarakṣa
Vajrasaṃdhi
Twenty-five Bodhisattas

According
to the Sūtta on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land
(十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the
Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas.
Twenty-five of them are given by name:

Avalokiteśvara
Mahāsthāmaprāpta
Bhaiṣajyarāja
Bhaiṣajyasamudgata
Samantabhadra
Dharmeśvara
Siṃhanāda
Dhāraṇī
Ākāśagarbha
Guṇagarbha
Ratnagarbha
Vajragarbha
Vajra
Girisāgaramati
Raśmiprabharāja
Avataṃsakarāja
Gaṇaratnarāja
Candraprabharāja
Divākararāja
Samādhirāja
Samādhīśvararāja
Maheśvararāja
Śuklahastarāja
Mahātejarāja
Anantakāya

Q 12 How many perfections a Bodhisatta must fulfil to become a Buddha ?

Q 13 Write an essay on the ten Paramis.

https://quizlet.com/7936317/the-ten-perfections-paramis-flash-cards/

Terms in this set (10)

Generosity (dana)

This
can be characterized by unattached and unconditional generosity, giving
and letting go. Giving leads to being reborn in happy states and
material wealth. Alternatively, lack of giving leads to unhappy states
and poverty. The exquisite paradox in Buddhism is that the more we give -
and the more we give without seeking something in return - the
wealthier (in the broadest sense of the word) we will become. By giving
we destroy those acquisitive impulses that ultimately lead to further
suffering.

Morality (sila)-virtue, integrity

It is an
action that is an intentional effort. It refers to moral purity of
thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of sila are chastity,
calmness, quiet, and extinguishment, i.e. no longer being susceptible to
perturbation by the passions like greed and selfishness, which are
common in the world today. Sila refers to overall (principles of)
ethical behaviour.

Renunciation (nekkhamma)

Nekkhamma is a
Pali word generally translated as “renunciation” while also conveying
more specifically “giving up the world and leading a holy life” or
“freedom from lust, craving and desires.” In Buddhism’s Noble Eightfold
Path, nekkhamma is the first practice associated with “Right Intention.”
In the Theravada list of ten perfections, nekkhamma is the third
practice of “perfection.”

Wisdom (pañña)

Prajña (Sanskrit)
or pañña (Pali) has been translated as “wisdom,” “understanding,”
“discernment,” “cognitive acuity,” or “know-how.” In some sects of
Buddhism, it especially refers to the wisdom that is based on the direct
realization of the Four Noble Truths, impermanence, interdependent
origination, non-self, emptiness, etc. Prajña is the wisdom that is able
to extinguish afflictions and bring about enlightenment.

Energy/Strength (viriya)- effort

It
stands for strenuous and sustained effort to overcome unskillful ways,
such as indulging in sensuality, ill will and harmfulness. It stands for
the right endeavour to attain dhyana. Virya does not stand for physical
strength. It signifies strength of character and the persistent effort
for the well-being of others. In the absence of sustained efforts in
practicing meditation, craving creeps in and the meditator comes under
its influence. Right effort known as viryabala is, thus, required to
overcome unskillful mental factors and deviation from dhyana.

Patience (khanti)

Khanti
(Pali) has been translated as patience, forbearance and forgiveness. It
is the practice of exercising patience toward behavior or situations
that might not necessarily deserve it. It is seen as a conscious choice
to actively give patience as if a gift, rather than being in a state of
oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.

Truthfulness (sacca)

Sacca
is a Pali word meaning “real” or “true.” In early Buddhist literature,
sacca is often found in the context of the “Four Noble Truths,” a
crystallization of Buddhist wisdom. In addition, sacca is one of the ten
paramis or perfections that a bodhisatta must develop in order to
become a Buddha.

Resolution - determination (adhitthana)

Adhitthana
(Pali; from adhi meaning “higher” or “best” plus stha meaning
“standing”) has been translated as “decision,” “resolution,”
“self-determination,” “will” and “resolute determination.” In the late
canonical literature of Theravada Buddhism, adhitthana is one of the ten
“perfections” (dasa paramiyo), exemplified by the bodhisatta’s resolve
to become fully awakened.

Lovingkindness (metta)

Metta
(Pali) or maitri (Sanskrit) has been translated as “loving-kindness,”
“friendliness,” “benevolence,” “amity,” “friendship,” “good will,”
“kindness,” “love,” “sympathy,” and “active interest in others.” It is
one of the ten paramitas of the Theravada school of Buddhism, and the
first of the four Brahmaviharas. The metta bhavana (”cultivation of
metta”) is a popular form of meditation in Buddhism.

The object
of metta meditation is loving kindness (love without attachment).
Traditionally, the practice begins with the meditator cultivating loving
kindness towards themselves,then their loved ones, friends, teachers,
 strangers, enemies, and finally towards all sentient beings. Commonly,
it can be used as a greeting or closing to a letter or note.

Buddhists
believe that those who cultivate metta will be at ease because they see
no need to harbour ill will or hostility. Buddhist teachers may even
recommend meditation on metta as an antidote to insomnia and nightmares.
It is generally felt that those around a metta-ful person will feel
more comfortable and happy too. Radiating metta is thought to contribute
to a world of love, peace and happiness.

Metta meditation is
considered a good way to calm down a distraught mind by people who
consider it to be an antidote to anger. According to them, someone who
has cultivated metta will not be easily angered and can quickly subdue
anger that arises, being more caring, more loving, and more likely to
love unconditionally.

Equanimity (upekkha)

American Buddhist monk Bhikkhu Bodhi wrote:
“The
real meaning of upekkha is equanimity, not indifference in the sense of
unconcern for others. As a spiritual virtue, upekkha means equanimity
in the face of the fluctuations of worldly fortune. It is evenness of
mind, unshakeable freedom of mind, a state of inner equipoise that
cannot be upset by gain and loss, honor and dishonor, praise and blame,
pleasure and pain. Upekkha is freedom from all points of self-reference;
it is indifference only to the demands of the ego-self with its craving
for pleasure and position, not to the well-being of one’s fellow human
beings. True equanimity is the pinnacle of the four social attitudes
that the Buddhist texts call the ‘divine abodes’: boundless
loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, and equanimity. The last
does not override and negate the preceding three, but perfects and
consummates them.”

Q 14 Explain the difference between an ordinary act of Dana (giving) and an act of dana parami (perfection of giving)

https://www.learnreligions.com/perfection-of-giving-449724
Buddhism’s Perfection of Giving

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Giving
is essential to Buddhism. Giving includes charity, or giving material
help to people in want. It also includes giving spiritual guidance to
those who seek it and loving kindness to all who need it. However, one’s
motivation for giving to others is at least as important as what is
given.

Motivation

What is the right or wrong motivation?
In sutra 4:236 of the Anguttara Nikaya, a collection of texts in the
Sutta-Pitaka, lists a number of motivations for giving. These include
being shamed or intimidated into giving; giving to receive a favor;
giving to feel good about yourself. These are impure motivations.

The
Buddha taught that when we give to others, we give without expectation
of reward. We give without attaching to either the gift or the
recipient. We practice giving to release greed and self-clinging.

Some
teachers propose that giving is good because it accrues merit and
creates karma that will bring future happiness. Others say that even
this is self-clinging and an expectation of reward. In many schools,
people are encouraged to dedicate merit to the liberation of others.

Paramitas

Giving
with pure motivation is called dana paramita (Sanskrit), or dana parami
(Pali), which means “perfection of giving.” There are lists of
perfections that vary somewhat between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism,
but dana, giving, is the first perfection on every list. The perfections
might be thought of as strengths or virtues that lead one to
enlightenment.

Theravadin monk and scholar Bhikkhu Bodhi said,

“The
practice of giving is universally recognized as one of the most basic
human virtues, a quality that testifies to the depth of one’s humanity
and one’s capacity for self-transcendence. In the teaching of the
Buddha, too, the practice of giving claims a place of special eminence,
one which singles it out as being in a sense the foundation and seed of
spiritual development.”
The Importance of Receiving

It’s
important to remember that there is no giving without receiving, and no
givers without receivers. Therefore, giving and receiving arise
together; one is not possible without the other. Ultimately, giving and
receiving, giver and receiver, are one. Giving and receiving with this
understanding is ​the perfection of giving. As long as we are sorting
ourselves into givers and receivers, however, we are still falling short
of dana paramita.

Zen monk Shohaku Okumura wrote in Soto Zen
Journal that for a time he didn’t want to receive gifts from others,
thinking that he should be giving, not taking. “When we understand this
teaching in this way, we simply create another standard to measure
gaining and losing. We are still in the framework of gaining and
losing,” he wrote. When giving is perfect, there is no loss and no gain.

In
Japan, when monks carry out traditional alms begging, they wear huge
straw hats that partly obscure their faces. The hats also prevent them
from seeing the faces of those giving them alms. No giver, no receiver;
this is pure giving.

Give Without Attachment

We are advised to give without attaching to either the gift or the recipient. What does that mean?

In
Buddhism, to avoid attachment doesn’t mean we can’t have any friends.
Quite the opposite, actually. Attachment can only happen when there are
at least two separate things — an attacher, and something to attach to.
But, sorting the world into subjects and objects is a delusion.

Attachment,
then, comes from a habit of mind that sorts the world into “me” and
“everything else.” Attachment leads to possessiveness and a tendency to
manipulate everything, including people, to your own personal advantage.
To be non-attached is to recognize that nothing is really separate.

This
brings us back to the realization that the giver and the receiver are
one. And the gift isn’t separate, either. So, we give without
expectation of reward from the recipient — including a “thank you” —
and we place no conditions on the gift.

A Habit of Generosity

Dana
paramita is sometimes translated “perfection of generosity.” A generous
spirit is about more than just giving to charity. It is a spirit of
responding to the world and giving what is needed and appropriate at the
time.

This spirit of generosity is an important foundation of
practice. It helps tear down our ego-walls while it relieves some of the
sufferings of the world. And it also includes being grateful for the
generosity shown to you. This is the practice of dana paramita.

Q 15 Write clearly in Paliand English Dhamma Vandana Gatha. Explain the meaning, as ytou understand it.
Svaakkhato Bhagavataa Dhamma, sandditthiko, akaaliko,

ehipassiko, opanayiko, paccattam veditabbo vinnuhiti.

Namo tassa niyyaanikassa Dhammassa!

Ya ca Dhammaa atitaaca,

Ya ca Dhammaa anaagataa

Paccuppannaa ca ye Dhammaa,

Aham Vandaami sabbadaa

Natthi me saranam annam

Dhammo me saranam varam

Etena Saccavajjene,

Hoto me jayamangalam

Uttamangena Vandeham

Dhammanca tividham varam

Dhamme yo Khalito doso,

Dhammo khamatu tam mamam

Dhamam yaava nibbaanapariyantam

Saranam gacchaami

The
Teaching is perfectly enunciated by the Blessed One; it is verifiable
here and now, and bears immediate fruit; it invites all the test for
themselves, leads one onward to Nibbana and is to be experienced by the
wise for himself.

Reverential salutation to the Noble Teaching, leading

onwards to deliverance.

The Noble Teachings of the past (Buddhas),

The Noble Teachings of the future (Buddhas),

The Noble Teachings of the Buddhas of present (aeon),

Humbly do I ever worship.

There is no other refuge for me.

The Noble Teaching is my Supreme Refuge,

By this avowal of Truth,

May joyous victory be mine!

With my brow do I worship the most exce;;ent threefold

Teaching

If the Teaching I have transgressed in any way,

May my error the mighty Dhamma deign forgive.

I go to sacred Teaching for refuge,

Till deliverance is attained.

Kindly visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlQtxa0KHnA

Buddhism - Pali Chantings {Salutations to Doctrine}

 

http://www.buddhanet.net/audio-chant.htm

06-chant-06.mp3
201 KB
Dhamma Vandana - Homage to the Doctrine.

http://www.geocities.com/ssdahampasala/

Dhamma: the characteristics of purity, radiance and peace which arise from morality, concentration and wisdom

Svakkhato bhagavata dhammo
Dhammam namassami.

The Dhamma well-expounded by the Exalted One
I bow low before the Dhamma.

To the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge

The Three Refuges

When
people ask, “Who is really a Buddhist?” the answer will be, “One who
has accepted the Three Refuges” — Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, as his
shelter and guiding ideal.”

So now that we have paid our respects
to the Teacher, it is usual for Buddhists to continue by affirming
their Refuge in Awakenment (bodhi) in three aspects: the Buddha, the
rediscoverer of Awakenment; the Dhamma, the way to that Awakenment; and
the Sangha, those who are practicing that way have discovered Awakenment
for themselves. That which has the nature of the Unsurpassed Perfect
Awakenment, unconfused and brilliant with the qualities of Great
Compassion, Purity and Wisdom, that is a secure refuge. So we recite
this sure refuge as a reminder every day:

To the Awakened One I go for refuge.
To the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge,
To the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

For the second time to the Awakened One I go for refuge.
For the second time to the Way Awakenment I go for refuge.
For the second time to the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

For the third time to the Awakened One I go for refuge.
For the third time to the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge.
For the third tome to the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

There
is a reason for repeating each refuge three times. The mind is often
distracted and if words are spoken or chanted at that time then it is as
though they have not been spoken at all. There is no strong intention
behind them and one’s Going for Refuge will be like that of a parrot.
Repeating words three times is common in many Buddhist ceremonies (such
as ordination) and ensures that the mind is concentrated during at least
one repetition.

When one has gone for refuge and so affirmed
that one is following the way taught by the Buddha, then it is time to
remind oneself of the basic moral precepts for daily conduct.

Dhamma sadhu, kiyam cu dhamme ti?
Apasinave, bahu kayane, daya, dane, sace, socaye.
Dhamma is good, but what constitutes Dhamma?
(It includes) little evil, much good, kindness,
generosity, truthfulness and purity.

King Asoka

Q 16  Enumerate the qualities of the Dhamma and write the significance of each quality

Dhammam saranam gacchami:
I go to the Dhamma for refuge.

There are three levels to the Dhamma, the teachings of the Buddha —

A. Pariyatti: studying the words of the Buddha as recorded in the Canon — the Discipline, the Discourses, and the Abhidhamma.
B. Patipatti: following the practice of moral virtue, concentration, and discernment as derived from one’s study of the Canon.

C. Pativedha: Liberation.

A. The study of the Dhamma can be done in any of three ways —

1 Alagaddupama-pariyatti: studying like a water viper.
2 Nissaranattha-pariyatti: studying for the sake of emancipation.

3 Bhandagarika-pariyatti: studying to be a storehouse keeper.

Studying
like a water viper means to study the words of the Buddha without then
putting them into practice, having no sense of shame at doing evil,
disobeying the monastic code, making oneself like a poisonous
snake-head, full of the fires of greed, anger, and delusion.

Studying
for the sake of emancipation means to study the Buddha’s teachings out
of a desire for merit and wisdom, with a sense of conviction and high
regard for their worth — and then, once we have reached an
understanding, bringing our thoughts, words, and deeds into line with
those teachings with a high sense of reverence and respect. To try to
bring the Buddha’s teachings into line with ourselves is the wrong
approach — because, for the most part, we are full of defilements,
cravings, views, and conceits. If we act in this way we are bound to be
more at fault than those who try to bring themselves into line with the
teachings: Such people are very hard to find fault with.

Studying
to be a storehouse keeper refers to the education of people who no
longer have to be trained, i.e., of arahants, the highest level of the
Noble Ones. Some arahants, when they were still ordinary,
run-of-the-mill people, heard the Dhamma directly from the Buddha once
or twice and were able immediately to reach the highest attainment. This
being the case, they lacked a wide-ranging knowledge of worldly
conventions and traditions; and so, with an eye to the benefit of other
Buddhists, they were willing to undergo a certain amount of further
education. This way of studying the Dhamma is called ’sikkha-garavata’:
respect for the training.

B. The practice of the Dhamma means to conduct oneself in line with the words of the Buddha as gathered under three headings:

— Virtue: proper behavior, free from vice and harm, in terms of one’s words and deeds.
— Concentration: intentness of mind, centered on one of the themes of meditation, such as the breath.


Discernment: insight and circumspection with regard to all fashioned
things, i.e., physical properties, aggregates, and sense media.

To
conduct oneself in this manner is termed practicing the Dhamma. By and
large, though, Buddhists tend to practice the Dhamma in a variety of
ways that aren’t in line with the true path of practice. If we were to
classify their ways of practice, there would be three:

1 Lokadhipateyya — putting the world first.
2 Attadhipateyya — putting the self first.
3 Dhammadhipateyya — putting the Dhamma first.

To
put the world first means to practice for the sake of such worldly
rewards as prestige, material gains, praise, and sensual pleasures. When
we practice this way, we are actually torturing ourselves, because
undesirable things are bound to occur: Having attained prestige, we can
lose it. Having acquired material gains, we can lose them. Having
received praise, we can receive censure. Having experienced pleasure, we
can see it disintegrate. Far from the paths, fruitions, and nibbana, we
torture ourselves by clinging to these things as our own.

To
put the self first means to practice in accordance with our own
opinions, acting in line with whatever those opinions may be. Most of us
tend to side with ourselves, getting stuck on our own views and
conceits because our study of the Dhamma hasn’t reached the truth of the
Dhamma, and so we take as our standard our own notions, composed of
four forms of personal bias —

a Chandagati: doing whatever we feel like doing.
b
Bhayagati: fearing certain forms of power or authority, and thus not
daring to practice the Dhamma as we truly should. (We put certain
individuals first.)

c Dosagati: acting under the power of anger, defilement, craving, conceits, and views.

d
Mohagati: practicing misguidedly, not studying or searching for what is
truly good; assuming that we’re already smart enough, or else that
we’re too stupid to learn; staying buried in our habits with no thought
of extracting ourselves from our sensual pleasures.

All of these ways of practice are called ‘putting the self first.’

To put the Dhamma first means to follow the Noble Eightfold Path —

a.
Right View: seeing that there really is good, there really is evil,
there really is stress, that stress has a cause, that it disbands, and
that there is a cause for its disbanding.
b. Right Resolve: thinking
of how to rid ourselves of whatever qualities we know to be wrong and
immoral, i.e., seeing the harm in sensual desires in that they bring on
suffering and stress.

c. Right Speech: speaking the truth; not
saying anything divisive or inciteful; not saying anything coarse or
vulgar in situations where such words would not be proper; not saying
anything useless. Even though what we say may be worthwhile, if our
listener isn’t interested then our words would still count as useless.

d. Right Action: being true to our duties, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to ourselves or others.

e. Right Livelihood: obtaining wealth in ways that are honest, searching for it in a moral way and using it in a moral way.

f.
Right Effort: persisting in ridding ourselves of all that is wrong and
harmful in our thoughts, words, and deeds; persisting in giving rise to
what would be good and useful to ourselves and others in our thoughts,
words, and deeds, without a thought for the difficulty or weariness
involved; acting persistently so as to be a mainstay to others (except
in cases that are beyond our control).

g. Right Mindfulness:
being mindful and deliberate, making sure not to act or speak through
the power of inattention or forgetfulness, making sure to be constantly
mindful in our thoughts (being mindful of the four frames of reference).

h.
Right Concentration: keeping the mind centered and resilient. No matter
what we do or say, no matter what moods may strike the heart, the heart
keeps its poise, firm and unflinching in the four levels of jhana.

These
eight factors can be reduced to three — virtue, concentration, and
discernment — called the middle way, the heart of the Buddha’s
teachings. The ‘middleness’ of virtue means to be pure in thought, word,
and deed, acting out of compassion, seeing that the life of others is
like your own, that their possessions are like your own, feeling
benevolence, loving others as much as yourself. When ‘you’ and ‘they’
are equal in this way, you are bound to be upright in your behavior,
like a well-balanced burden that, when placed on your shoulders, doesn’t
cause you to tip to one side or the other. But even then you are still
in a position of having to shoulder a burden. So you are taught to focus
the mind on a single preoccupation: This can be called ‘holding in your
hands’ — i.e., holding the mind in the middle — or concentration.

The
middleness of concentration means focusing on the present, not sending
your thoughts into the past or future, holding fast to a single
preoccupation (anapanaka-jhana, absorption in the breath).

As
for the middleness of discernment: No matter what preoccupations may
come passing by, you are able to rid yourself of all feelings of liking
or disliking, approval or rejection. You don’t cling, even to the one
preoccupation that has arisen as a result of your own actions. You put
down what you have been holding in your hands; you don’t fasten onto the
past, present or future. This is release.

When our virtue,
concentration, and discernment are all in the middle this way, we’re
safe. Just as a boat going down the middle of a channel, or a car that
doesn’t run off the side of the road, can reach its destination without
beaching or running into a tree; so too, people who practice in this way
are bound to reach the qualities they aspire to, culminating in the
paths and fruitions leading to nibbana, which is the main point of the
Buddha’s teachings.

So in short, putting the Dhamma first means to search solely for purity of mind.

C.
The attainment of the Dhamma refers to the attainment of the highest
quality, nibbana. If we refer to the people who reach this attainment,
there are four sorts —

1 Sukha-vipassako: those who
develop just enough tranquillity and discernment to act as a basis for
advancing to liberating insight and who thus attain nibbana having
mastered only asavakkhaya-ñana, the knowledge that does away with the
fermentation of defilement.
2 Tevijjo: those who attain the three skills.

3 Chalabhiñño: those who attain the six intuitive powers.

4 Catuppatisambhidappatto: those who attain the four forms of acumen.

To
explain sukha-vipassako (those who develop insight more than
tranquillity): Vipassana (liberating insight) and asavakkhaya-ñana (the
awareness that does away with the fermentation of defilement) differ
only in name. In actuality they refer to the same thing, the only
difference being that vipassana refers to the beginning stage of
insight, and asavakkhaya-ñana to the final stage: clear and true
comprehension of the four Noble Truths.

To explain tevijjo: The three skills are —

a
Pubbenivasanussati-ñana: the ability to remember past lives — one, two,
three, four, five, ten, one hundred, one thousand, depending on one’s
powers of intuition. (This is a basis for proving whether death is
followed by rebirth or annihilation.)
b Cutupapata-ñana: knowledge of where living beings are reborn — on refined levels or base — after they die.

c
Asavakkhaya-ñana: the awareness that enables one to do away with the
fermentations in one’s character (sensuality, states of being,
ignorance).

To explain chalabhiñño: The six intuitive powers are —

a
Iddhividhi: the ability to display miracles — becoming invisible,
walking on a dry path through a body of water, levitating, going through
rain without getting wet, going through fire without getting hot,
making a crowd of people appear to be only a few, making a few to appear
many, making oneself appear young or old as one likes, being able to
use the power of the mind to influence events in various ways.
b Dibbasota: clairaudience; the ability to hear far distant sounds, beyond ordinary human powers.

c Cetopariya-ñana: the ability to know the thoughts of others.

d Pubbenivasanussati-ñana: the ability to remember previous lives.

e
Dibba-cakkhu: clairvoyance; the ability to see far distant objects,
beyond ordinary human powers. Some people can even see other levels of
being with their clairvoyant powers (one way of proving whether death is
followed by rebirth or annihilation, and whether or not there really
are other levels of being).

f Asavakkhaya-ñana: the awareness that does away with the fermentation of defilement.

To explain catuppatisambhidappatto: The four forms of acumen are —

a
Attha-patisambhida: acumen with regard to the sense of the Doctrine and
of matters in general, knowing how to explain various points in line
with their proper meaning.
b Dhamma-patisambhida: acumen with regard to all mental qualities.

c
Nirutti-patisambhida: acumen with regard to linguistic conventions.
(This can include the ability to know the languages of living beings in
general.)

d Patibhana-patisambhida: acumen in speaking on the
spur of the moment, knowing how to answer any question so as to clear up
the doubts of the person asking (like the Venerable Nagasena).

This
ends the discussion of the virtues of the four classes of people —
called arahants — who have reached the ultimate quality, nibbana. As for
the essence of what it means to be an arahant, though, there is only
one point — freedom from defilement: This is what it means to attain the
Dhamma, the other virtues being simply adornment.

The three
levels of Dhamma we have discussed are, like the Buddha, compared to
jewels: There are many kinds of jewels to choose from, depending on how
much wealth — discernment — we have.

All of the qualities we
have mentioned so far, to put them briefly so as to be of use, come down
to this: Practice so as to give rise to virtue, concentration, and
discernment within yourself. Otherwise, you won’t have a refuge or
shelter. A person without the qualities that provide refuge and shelter
is like a person without a home — a delinquent or a vagrant — who is
bound to wander shiftlessly about. Such people are hollow inside, like a
clock without any workings: Even though it has a face and hands, it
can’t tell anyone where it is, what time it is, or whether it’s morning,
noon, or night (i.e., such people forget that they are going to die).

People
who aren’t acquainted with the Dhamma within themselves are like people
blind from birth: Even though they are born in the world of human
beings, they don’t know the light of the sun and moon that enables human
beings to see. They get no benefit from the light of the sun and moon
or the light of fire; and being blind, they then go about proclaiming to
those who can see, that there is no sun, no moon, and no brightness to
the world. As a result, they mislead those whose eyes are already a
little bleary. In other words, some groups say that the Buddha, Dhamma,
and Sangha don’t exist, that they were invented to fool the gullible.

Now,
the Dhamma is something subtle and fine, like the fire-potential
(tejas) that exists in the air or in various elements and that, if we
have enough common sense, can be drawn out and put to use. But if we’re
fools, we can sit staring at a bamboo tube [a device for starting fire
that works on the same principle as the diesel engine] from dawn to dusk
without ever seeing fire at all. Anyone who believes that there is no
Buddha, Dhamma, or Sangha, no series of paths or fruitions leading to
nibbana, no consciousness that experiences death and rebirth, is like
the fool sitting and staring at the bamboo tube.

Here I would
like to tell a story as an allegory of those who aren’t acquainted with
the Dhamma. There once was a man living in the woods who, with his five
sons, started growing crops in a clearing about a mile from their home
village. He built a small shack at the clearing and would often take his
sons to stay there. One morning he started a fire in the shack and told
his sons to look after the fire, for he was going out to hunt for food
in the forest. ‘If the fire goes out,’ he told them, ‘get some fire from
my bamboo tube and start it up again.’ Then he set out to search for
food for his sons.

After he had left, his sons got so wrapped
up in their play that when they finally took a look at the fire, they
found that it was completely out. So they had the first son go get some
fire to start it up again. The first son walked over and tried knocking
on the bamboo tube but didn’t see any fire. So they had the second son
get some fire from the tube: He opened it up but didn’t see any fire
inside. All he saw were two bamboo chips but he didn’t know what to do
with them. So the third son came over for a look and, since he didn’t
see any fire, he took a knife to cut the tube in half but still didn’t
see any fire. The fourth son went over and, seeing the two halves lying
there, shaved them down into thin strips to find the fire in them but
didn’t see any fire at all.

Finally the fifth son went over
to look for fire, but before he went he said to his brothers, ‘What’s
the matter with you guys that you can’t get any fire from the bamboo
tube? What a bunch of fools you are! I’ll go get it myself.’ With that,
he went to look at the bamboo tube and found it split into strips lying
in pile. Realizing what his brothers had done, and thinking, ‘What a
bunch of hare-brains,’ he reached for a mortar and pestle and ground up
the bamboo strips to find the fire in them. By the time he ran out of
strength, he had ground them into a powder, but he still hadn’t found
any fire. So he snuck off to play by himself.

Eventually,
toward noon, the father returned from the forest and found that the fire
had gone out. So he asked his sons about it, and they told him how they
had looked for fire in the bamboo tube without finding any. ‘Idiots,’
he thought, ‘they’ve taken my fire-starter and pounded it to bits. For
that, I won’t fix them any food. Let ‘em starve!’ As a result, the boys
didn’t get anything to eat the entire day.

Those of us who
aren’t acquainted with the brightness of the Dhamma — ‘Dhammo padipo’ —
lying within us, who don’t believe that the Dhamma has value for
ourselves and others, are lacking in discernment, like the boys looking
for fire in the bamboo tube. Thus we bring about our own ruin in various
ways, wasting our lives: born in darkness, living in darkness, dying in
darkness, and then reborn in more darkness all over again. Even though
the Dhamma lies within us, we can’t get any use from it and thus will
suffer for a long time to come, like the boys who ruined their father’s
fire-starter and so had to go without food.

The Dhamma lies
within us, but we don’t look for it. If we hope for goodness, whether on
a low or a high level, we’ll have to look here, inside, if we are to
find what is truly good. But before we can know ourselves in this way,
we first have to know — through study and practice — the principles
taught by the Buddha.

Recorded Dhamma (pariyatti dhamma) is
simply one of the symbols of the Buddha’s teachings. The important point
is to actualize the Dhamma through the complete practice of virtue,
concentration, and discernment. This is an essential part of the
religion, the part that forms the inner symbol of all those who practice
rightly and well. Whether the religion will be good or bad, whether it
will prosper or decline, depends on our practice, not on the recorded
doctrine, because the recorded doctrine is merely a symbol. So if we aim
at goodness, we should focus on developing our inner quality through
the Dhamma of practice (patipatti dhamma). As for the main point of
Buddhism, that’s the Dhamma of attainment (pativedha dhamma), the
transcendent quality: nibbana.

3. Can the Dhamma as
proclaimed by the Buddha be called a religious doctrine, or a
philosophy, or is it a spiritual path i.e., a way of life that each
seeker should adhere to at all times? If you think it is a way of life
to be lead every day, how have you tried doing it yourself? It would be
good to share your experience with others.

Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy?
The
Buddha referred to his teachings simply as Dhamma-vinaya — “the
doctrine and discipline” — but for centuries people have tried to
categorize the teachings in various ways, trying to fit them into the
prevailing molds of cultural, philosophical, and religious thought.
Buddhism is an ethical system — a way of life — that leads to a very
specific goal and that possesses some aspects of both religion and
philosophy:

It is a philosophy.
Like most philosophies,
Buddhism attempts to frame the complexities of human existence in a way
that reassures us that there is, in fact, some underlying order to the
Universe. In the Four Noble Truths the Buddha crisply summarizes our
predicament: there is suffering, it has a cause, it has an end, and
there is a way to reach the end. The teachings on kamma provide a
thorough and logically self-consistent description of the nature of
cause-and-effect. And even the Buddhist view of cosmology, which some
may at first find farfetched, is a logical extension of the law of
kamma. According to the Dhamma, a deep and unshakable logic pervades the
world.
It is not a philosophy.
Unlike most philosophical
systems, which rely on speculation and the power of reason to arrive at
logical truths, Buddhism relies on the direct observation of one’s
personal experience and on honing certain skills in order to gain true
understanding and wisdom. Idle speculation has no place in Buddhist
practice. Although studying in the classroom, reading books, and
engaging in spirited debate can play a vital part in developing a
cognitive understanding of basic Buddhist concepts, the heart of
Buddhism can never be realized this way. The Dhamma is not an abstract
system of thought designed to delight the intellect; it is a roadmap to
be used, one whose essential purpose is to lead the practitioner to the
ultimate goal, nibbana.
It is a religion.
At the heart of each of
the world’s great religions lies a transcendent ideal around which its
doctrinal principles orbit. In Buddhism this truth is nibbana, the
hallmark of the cessation of suffering and stress, a truth of utter
transcendence that stands in singular distinction from anything we might
encounter in our ordinary sensory experience. Nibbana is the sine qua
non of Buddhism, the guiding star and ultimate goal towards which all
the Buddha’s teachings point. Because it aims at such a lofty
transcendent ideal, we might fairly call Buddhism a religion.
It is not a religion.
In
stark contrast to the world’s other major religions, however, Buddhism
invokes no divinity, no supreme Creator or supreme Self, no Holy Spirit
or omniscient loving God to whom we might appeal for salvation.1
Instead, Buddhism calls for us to hoist ourselves up by our own
bootstraps: to develop the discernment we need to distinguish between
those qualities within us that are unwholesome and those that are truly
noble and good, and to learn how to nourish the good ones and expunge
the bad. This is the path to Buddhism’s highest perfection, nibbana. Not
even the Buddha can take you to that goal; you alone must do the work
necessary to complete the journey:
“Therefore, Ananda, be islands
unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge;
with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no
other refuge.”

Daily
training myself to practice of the Dhamma  to conduct myself in line
with the words of the Buddha to be Virtuous with proper behavior, free
from vice and harm, in terms of my words and deeds.

To train my mind for Concentration: intentness of mind, centered on one of the themes of meditation, such as the breath.

To
train my mind for Discernment: insight and circumspection with regard
to all fashioned things, i.e., physical properties, aggregates, and
sense media.

To conduct myself in this manner I feel is termed practicing the Dhamma by putting the Dhamma first.

To put the Dhamma first means to follow the Noble Eightfold Path —

a.
Right View: seeing that there really is good, there really is evil,
there really is stress, that stress has a cause, that it disbands, and
that there is a cause for its disbanding.
b. Right Resolve: thinking
of how to rid ourselves of whatever qualities we know to be wrong and
immoral, i.e., seeing the harm in sensual desires in that they bring on
suffering and stress.

c. Right Speech: speaking the truth; not
saying anything divisive or inciteful; not saying anything coarse or
vulgar in situations where such words would not be proper; not saying
anything useless. Even though what we say may be worthwhile, if our
listener isn’t interested then our words would still count as useless.

d. Right Action: being true to our duties, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to ourselves or others.

e. Right Livelihood: obtaining wealth in ways that are honest, searching for it in a moral way and using it in a moral way.

f.
Right Effort: persisting in ridding ourselves of all that is wrong and
harmful in our thoughts, words, and deeds; persisting in giving rise to
what would be good and useful to ourselves and others in our thoughts,
words, and deeds, without a thought for the difficulty or weariness
involved; acting persistently so as to be a mainstay to others (except
in cases that are beyond our control).

g. Right Mindfulness:
being mindful and deliberate, making sure not to act or speak through
the power of inattention or forgetfulness, making sure to be constantly
mindful in our thoughts (being mindful of the four frames of reference).

h.
Right Concentration: keeping the mind centered and resilient. No matter
what we do or say, no matter what moods may strike the heart, the heart
keeps its poise, firm and unflinching in the four levels of jhana.

These
eight factors can be reduced to three — virtue, concentration, and
discernment — called the middle way, the heart of the Buddha’s
teachings. The ‘middleness’ of virtue means to be pure in thought, word,
and deed, acting out of compassion, seeing that the life of others is
like your own, that their possessions are like your own, feeling
benevolence, loving others as much as yourself. When ‘you’ and ‘they’
are equal in this way, you are bound to be upright in your behavior,
like a well-balanced burden that, when placed on your shoulders, doesn’t
cause you to tip to one side or the other. But even then you are still
in a position of having to shoulder a burden. So you are taught to focus
the mind on a single preoccupation: This can be called ‘holding in your
hands’ — i.e., holding the mind in the middle — or concentration.

The
middleness of concentration means focusing on the present, not sending
your thoughts into the past or future, holding fast to a single
preoccupation (anapanaka-jhana, absorption in the breath).

As
for the middleness of discernment: No matter what preoccupations may
come passing by, you are able to rid yourself of all feelings of liking
or disliking, approval or rejection. You don’t cling, even to the one
preoccupation that has arisen as a result of your own actions. You put
down what you have been holding in your hands; you don’t fasten onto the
past, present or future. This is release.

When our virtue,
concentration, and discernment are all in the middle this way, we’re
safe. Just as a boat going down the middle of a channel, or a car that
doesn’t run off the side of the road, can reach its destination without
beaching or running into a tree; so too, people who practice in this way
are bound to reach the qualities they aspire to, culminating in the
paths and fruitions leading to nibbana, which is the main point of the
Buddha’s teachings.

So in short, putting the Dhamma first means to search solely for purity of mind.

Q
17 What do you think of the five Buddhist precepts (Panca Sila) ?If you
are practicing, what are the benefits you derive? Please elaborate.

Panca Sila

Pãnãti-pãtã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Adinnã-dãnã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Kãmesu micchã-cãrã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Musãvãdã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Surã meraya-majja-pamã-datthãnã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi

I take the precept to
abstain from destroying living beings.
I take the precept to
abstain from taking things not given.
I take the precept to
abstain from sexual misconduct.
I take the precept to
abstain from false speech.
I take the precept to
abstain from taking anything that causes
intoxication or heedlessness.

By my daily training of my mind to practice Panca Sila I have realised that they are

Five faultless gifts

“There
are these five gifts, five great gifts — original, long-standing,
traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning —
that are not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and are
unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & priests. Which five?

 

As
a disciple of the noble ones, abandoning the taking of life, abstains
from taking life. In doing so, I have dervived freedom from  danger,
freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of
beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom
from oppression to limitless numbers of beings,I gain a share in
limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from
oppression. This is the first gift, the first great gift — original,
long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from
the beginning — that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to
suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives &
priests…

“Furthermore, abandoning taking what is not given
(stealing), as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my mind to
abstain from taking what is not given. In doing so, it gives freedom
from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to
limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, I
gain a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity,
and freedom from oppression. This is the second gift…

“Furthermore,
abandoning illicit sex, as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my
my mind to abstain from illicit sex. In doing so, it gives freedom from
danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless
numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, I
gain a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity,
and freedom from oppression. This is the third gift…

“Furthermore,
abandoning lying, as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my mind
to abstain from lying. In doing so, it gives freedom from danger,
freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of
beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom
from oppression to limitless numbers of beings,I gain a share in
limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from
oppression. This is the fourth gift…

“Furthermore, abandoning the
use of intoxicants, as a true disciple of the noble ones I train my
mind to abstain from taking intoxicants. In doing so, it gives freedom
from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to
limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he
gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity,
and freedom from oppression. This is the fifth gift, the fifth great
gift — original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated,
unadulterated from the beginning — that is not open to suspicion, will
never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable
contemplatives & priests. And this is the eighth reward of merit,
reward of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness, celestial, resulting
in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable,
pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to happiness.”

LESSON 3031 Sat 15 Jun 2019

Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

Q 18 to Q 56

Q 18  On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after awakenment, the Buddha walked all the way from

Bodhi
Mandapa (Bodhgaya) to Isipatana in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this
mode of travelling rather than using psychic abilities as in the case of
other Buddhas?

Q 19  Having in mind whose spiritual well-being did he decide to walk rather than levitate ?

Q 20  What did the Buddha say regarding the nature of a Supreme Awakened One as given in the five verses ?

Q 21  Write down the ideals enunciate by the Buddha in the five verses ?

Q 22  Who is the real conquer (Jino), and why so ? elaborate.

Q 23  On hearing the five gathas of the Buddha what did the other traveler say ?

Q
24  Is it possible to construe the Buddha either as a god or an
incarnation, prophet or messaiah of a god from what has been said about
Boddhahood in Buddha’s own words in the five gathas ?

I ) If your answer is no, write why do you think so.
II) If your answer is yes, please explain why do you think so.

Q 25  Write an essay on Buddha’s own definition of Buddhahood as given in the Dona Sutta

Q 26  Why did the brahmin Dona put those four questions based on his knowledge of the footprint?

Q 27 Why did theBuddha give give negative answers to all the four questions and what was his explanation cankers ?

Q 28  What do you understand by the word i) ‘canker’? ii) by lotus analogy?

Q 29 What do you understand about the Buddha-nature as compared with the lotus ? Elaborate as clearly as you can.

Q
30 The message of the Buddha in this Sutta can be breifly expressed
thus: ” Though I am bor in the world, I am above it. It cannot spoil
me.” How would you interpret it ?

Q 31 How are you going to apply this message in your daily life ? Please write clearly.

Q 32 Please clarify:
i. What id Bodhi and how many kinds of Bodhi are there ?
ii Who is a Bodhisatta and how many typts of Bodhisattas are there ?
iii Who is a Buddha and how many types of Buddhas are there ?

Q 33 Together with the Three Refugees what moral principles should a Buddhist follow ?

Q 34 Write a brief esssay on the meaning of Buddha Vandana, as you understand it ?

Q 35 Is the word “Buddha ” a personal name or title, or does it stands for an office ?

Q 36 Explain clearly the meaning of the word “Buddha” as you understand it.

Q 37 Why is he called Buddha ? What are the prerequisites for becoming a Buddha ?

Q 38 What is the meaning of the term Bodhisatta ? How many different types of Bodhisatta are there ? Enumerate.

Q 39 What are the requirements for becoming the different types of Bodhisatta?

Q 40 How many types of Buddha are there ? What are the prerequisites for becoming these different types of Buddha ?

Q 41  What id parami ? How many Paramis are there ? Enumerate .

Q 42 How do the Paramis determine the attainment of different types of Bodhi ?

Q 43 Write an essay on on the core teaching of all Buddhas.

Q 44 How can the Middle path be explained in terms of ethics, psychology and philisophy ?

Q
45 Describe when the Buddha Ratana, Dhamma Ratana, and Sangha Ratana
arose. What is the significance of the term Ratana in this context,
i.e., why are Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha called Treasure Gems ?

Q 46 What is the essential points of the Discourse on non-self as found in his second discourse ?

Q 47 What is the Noble Eightfold Path ? Analyse in terms of 3 modes of Spiritual training ?

Q 48 Write an essay of twelve factors of the law of dependent origination. What does the dependent origination portray ?

Q 49 Write down text of the Paticca Samppada both in Pali and English in forward and backward orders ?

Q 50 Give details account of Ashoka’s Nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?

Q 51 Write an essay on the Aditta Pariyaya sutta explaining the important features ?

Q 52 What id Dhammapada, in which pitaka it appears ? How many chapters and verses are there ?

Q 53 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 42 & Verse no. 43 with back ground story and give your comments ?

Q 54 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 127 and 128 with background story ?

Q 55 Write down in Pali any 10 verses from citta vagga ?

Q
56 What are the four protective meditations and how does one can
practice in daily life ? Write short Notes on each Arakkha bhavana ie.,
Buddhaanusatti, metta, ashubha and maranussati?

Q 29

Q
18 On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after awakenment,
the Buddha walked all the way from Bodhi Mandapa (Bodhgaya) to Isipatana
in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this mode of travelling rather than
using psychic abilities as in the case of other Buddhas? Buddha spent
his time immediately after attaining awakenment. It is said that for one
week after awakenment the Buddha continued to sit under the Bodhi tree
and bask in the glow of the bliss of pure and true knowledge that had
been revealed to him. He spent the second week gazing meditatively at
the Bodhi tree in gratitude for its benign benevolence during his deep
meditation. Later he went and meditated under another tree where it is
said a cobra came and spread its hood over him to protect him against
the rain. He spent yet another week walking back and forth near the
Bodhi tree, deep in meditation. Later the Buddha moved to a place called
Isipatana where he gave his first sermon after awakenment with
Awareness and unraveled the secrets of life to a few blessed disciples.
This place is today known as Sarnath which is situated about 13
kilometers from Varanasi. Travel is a transformative experience and some
places touch you deep inside and transform you in ways that you are not
even aware of! Bodh Gaya is one such place that reaches the very core
of your being. “My child, I understand the doubts and contradictions
that fill your mind and that is why I decided to break my silence and
tell you my story so that you can go from here in peace”. I am the
Mahabodhi tree and today I will tell you the story of how my ancestor
became a Mahabodhi from an ordinary Bodhi tree and the name has passed
on from generation to generation”. The wind howled ominously, the
branches of my ancestor swayed violently, rocked by the winds. Rain
poured down in torrents. But nothing seemed to unsettle the man who sat
cross-legged, deep in meditation under the Bodhi tree who happened to be
my ancestor. The man had been sitting there for the past 7 days
immersed in a deep trance, oblivious to the outer world. His face
radiated a strange calm, but my ancestor knew that behind the facade of
serenity had brewed a storm which had raged violently till the sheer
willpower of the man’s mind had stilled all the forces and now his face
radiated with the brightness of awakenment. The man now was the master
of three facets of knowledge that had transformed him from Siddhartha
Gautama to Gautama Buddha. He was. N The Buddha, the enlightened one and
he now knew about his past lives, had a clear knowledge of Karma and
Reincarnation and had clarity about the four noble truths, namely,
Misery, the arising or cause of misery, the cessation of misery and the
path leading to the cessation of misery. From that day my ancestor also
transformed from a mere Bodhi tree to the Sri Mahabodhi tree. Tÿcyyyhb m
DiplomainTheravadaBuddhistStudies(DBS) ModelQuestionPaper 2018-19 1.
ItissaidBuddhism rejectsacreatorGod,butacceptstheexistenceofinfinite
numberofgodsindiferentdivineplanes.Doyoufinditcontradictory?Ifso,how,if
nowhy?Explain. 2.
WhatisthemotivationunderlyingtheatemptatcalingtheBuddhaanavatarof
Vishnu? 3. Brieflydescribethefolowing– i.TheDream ofQueenMahamaya
i.BirthofPrinceSiddhatha i.PrinceSiddhatha’sproclamationathisbirth.
iv.Whatdoyouunderstandbythisproclamation?Whydidthebabyprincedothat?
Describe. 4.
WriteanaccountofthevisitofSageAsitaandhisprophecy.Whydidhelaughand
thencry?Describethesignificanceofthiscontradictoryscene.
2.WriteanessayontheBodhisataIdeal.
5.AfterSumedhawasconsecratedasaBodhisatabyBuddhaDipankara,how didhe
contemplateontheprerequisitesofBuddhahood,namely,onthethirtyPàramis?
6.WriteclearlyanaccountonSumedha’sthoughtconcerningeachPārami.
7.WritedownSanghaVandanāinPāliaswelasinEnglish.
8.Writeanessayonwhatyouunderstandaboutthemeaningofeachoftheninequalities
oftheSangha. 9.WhatwasSiddhathainhisimmediatepastlife?Whatwashisrole?
10.GiveanaccountofBodhisataSetaketu.
11.HowmanytypesofBodhisatasarethere?Elaborateoneachofthem?
12.HowmanyperfectionsaBodhisatamustfulfiltobecomeaBuddha?
13.WriteanessayonthetenPàramis.
14.Explainthediferencebetweenanordinaryactofdàna(giving)andanactof dāna
pārami(perfectionofgiving).
15.WriteclearlyinPāliandEnglishtheDhammaVandanàGàtha?Explainthemeaning,as
youunderstandit.
16.EnumeratethequalitiesoftheDhammaandwritethesignificanceofeachquality.

17.WhatdoyouthinkofthefiveBuddhistprecepts(PancaSila)?Ifyouarepracticing,
whatarethebenefitsyouderive?Pleaseelaborate.
18.OnthefulmoondayofAsalha(July),twomonthsafterenlightenment,theBuddha
walkedalthewayfrom BodhiMandapa(Bodhgaya)toIsipatanainBaranasi.Whydidhe
choosethismodeoftravelingratherthanusinghispsychicabilitiesasinthecaseof
otherBuddhas?
19.Havinginmindwhosespiritualwel-beingdidhedecidetowalkratherthanlevitate?
20.WhatdidtheBuddhasayregardingthenatureofaSupremeEnlightenedOneasgiven
inthefiveverses?
21.WritedowntheidealsenunciatedbytheBuddhainthefiveverses.
22.Whoisthetrueconquer(Jino),andwhyso?Elaborate.
23.OnhearingthefivegāthāsoftheBuddhawhatdidtheothertravelersay?
24.IsitpossibletoconstruetheBuddhaeitherasagodoranincarnation,prophetor
messiahofagodfrom whathasbeensaidaboutBuddhahoodinBuddha’sownwordsin
thefivegāthas? I)Ifyouranswerisno,writewhydoyouthinkso?
I)Ifyouranswerisyes,pleaseexplainwhydoyouthinkso?
25.WriteanessayonBuddha’sowndefinitionofBuddhahoodasgivenintheDonaSuta. 1
26.WhydidtheBrahminDonaputthosefourquestionsbasedonhisknowledgeofthe
footprint?
27.WhydidtheBuddhagivenegativeanswerstoalthefourquestionsandwhatwashis
explanationregardingcankers?
28.Whatdoyouunderstandbythewordi)‘canker’?i)bythelotusanalogy? 29.Whatdo
you understand aboutThe Buddha-nature as compared with the lotus?
Elaborateasclearlyasyoucan.
30.ThemessageoftheBuddhainthissutacanbebrieflyexpressedthus:“ThoughIam
bornintheworld,Iam aboveit.Itcannotsoilme.”Howwouldyouinterpretit?
31.Howareyougoingtoapplythismessageinyourdailylife?Pleasewriteclearly.
32.Pleaseclarify:- i.WhatisBodhiandhowmanykindsofBodhiarethere?
i.WhoisaBodhisataandhowmanytypesofBodhisatasarethere?
i.WhoisaBuddhaandhowmanytypesofBuddhasarethere?
33.TogetherwiththeThreeRefugeswhatmoralprinciplesshouldaBuddhistfolows?
34.WriteabriefessayonthemeaningofBuddhaVandanā,asyouunderstandit.
35.Istheword‘Buddha’apersonalnameortitle,ordoesitstandsforanofice?
36.Explainclearlythemeaningoftheword‘Buddha’asyouunderstandit.
37.WhyishecaledBuddha?Whatarethepre-requisitesforbecomingaBuddha?
38.Whatisthemeaningoftheterm Bodhisata?HowmanydiferenttypesofBodhisata
arethere?Enumerate.
39.WhataretherequirementsforbecomingthediferenttypesofBodhisata? 40.How
manytypesofBuddhaarethere?Whataretheprerequisitesforbecomingthese
diferenttypesofBuddha? 41.WhatisPārami?HowmanyPāramisarethere?Enumerate.
42HowdothePāramisdeterminetheatainmentofdiferenttypesofBodhi? 4 3 . W
rite a n e s s a y o n th e c o re te a c h in g o f a l l B u d d h a s
. W h e n a n d w h e re w a s th is discoursedelivered?
44.HowcantheMiddlePathbeexplainedintermsofethics,psychologyandphilosophy?
45.DescribewhentheBuddhaRatana,DhammaRatanaandSanghaRatanaarose.What
isthesignificanceoftheterm
Ratanainthiscontext,i.e.,whyareBuddha,Dhammaand SanghacaledTreasureGems?
4 6 . W h a t th e e s s e n tia l p o in ts o f th e D is c o u rs e o
n N o n -s e lf a s fo u n d in h is s e c o n d discourse?
47.WhatistheNobleEightfoldPath?Analyzeintermsof3modesofSpiritualtraining?
48.WriteanessayoftwelvefactorsoftheLaw
ofdependentorigination.Whatdoesthe dependentoriginationportray?
49.WritedownthetextofthePaticcaSamuppadabothinPàliandEnglishinforwardand
backwardorders.
50.GivedetailsaccountofAshoka’sNinemessangersofDhammadispatchedtonine
countries?
51WriteanessayontheAditapariyāyasutaexplainingtheimportantfeatures?
52.WhatisDhammapada,inwhichpitakaitappears?Howmanychaptersandversesare
there? 53.Explain Dhpd.verse no.42 & Verse no 43 with back ground
story and give your comments?
54.ExplainDhpdverseno.127and128withbackgroundstory? 55.W rite dow n in
pāliany 10 verses from cit ta vagga?
56.Whatarethefourprotectivemediationsandhowdoesonecanpracticeindialylife?
W rtie s h o rt N o te s o n e a c h A ra k k h ā b h a v a n a i.e . B
u d d h a ā n u s s a ti, m e t tā , a s u b h ā a n d maranussati? 2  
         

LESSON 3032 Sun 16 Jun 2019

Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

Q 18. Q19, Q 20, Q 21, Q 22,  Q 23

Q 18  On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after awakenment, the Buddha walked all the way from

Bodhi
Mandapa (Bodhgaya) to Isipatana in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this
mode of travelling rather than using psychic abilities as in the case of
other Buddhas?

Q 19  Having in mind whose spiritual well-being did he decide to walk rather than levitate ?
https://buddhaimonia.com/blog/buddhas-8-fold-path

Wisdom Quotes
150 Buddha Quotes That Will Make You Wiser (Fast)

get the quote of the day  click here by maxime lagacé

There is no fear for one whose mind is not filled with desires. Buddha Click to tweet

Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others. Buddha Click to tweet

If anything is worth doing, do it with all your heart. Buddha Click to tweet

A
man is not called wise because he talks and talks again; but if he is
peaceful, loving and fearless then he is in truth called wise. Buddha
Click to tweet

Do not look for a sanctuary in anyone except your self. Buddha Click to tweet

No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path. Buddha Click to tweet

To live a pure unselfish life, one must count nothing as one’s own in the midst of abundance. Buddha Click to tweet

All that we are is the result of what we have thought. Buddha Click to tweet

If we fail to look after others when they need help, who will look after us? Buddha Click to tweet

One who acts on truth is happy in this world and beyond. Buddha Click to tweet

See also: zen quotes, Rumi quotes, gratitude quotes

The Best Buddha Quotes (aka Siddhartha Gautama)

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Give, even if you only have a little.

Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.

Irrigators channel waters; fletchers straighten arrows; carpenters bend wood; the wise master themselves.

Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.

Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.

If you knew what I know about the power of giving, you would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.

The root of suffering is attachment.

Silence
the angry man with love. Silence the ill-natured man with kindness.
Silence the miser with generosity. Silence the liar with truth.

People with opinions just go around bothering each other.

Even as a solid rock is unshaken by the wind, so are the wise unshaken by praise or blame. Click to tweet

You yourself must strive. The Buddhas only point the way. Click to tweet

Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.

Meditate… do not delay, lest you later regret it.

Understanding is the heartwood of well-spoken words.

Ceasing to do evil, cultivating the good, purifying the heart: this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

Delight in meditation and solitude. Compose yourself, be happy. You are a seeker.

Ardently do today what must be done. Who knows? Tomorrow, death comes.

What you are is what you have been. What you’ll be is what you do now.

If you propose to speak always ask yourself, is it true, is it necessary, is it kind.

If
you find no one to support you on the spiritual path, walk alone. (This
is one of my favorite Buddha quote. Leave a reply and let me know
what’s yours!)

Part 2. Buddha Quotes That ARE…

Inspirational Buddha Quotes

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Stop, stop. Do not speak. The ultimate truth is not even to think. Click to tweet

We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.

Just
as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, so also this
teaching and discipline has one taste, the taste of liberation.

The
one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst that perpetuate
becoming; how could you track that Awakened one, trackless, and of
limitless range.

Endurance is one of the most difficult disciplines, but it is to the one who endures that the final victory comes.

Long
is the night to him who is awake; long is a mile to him who is tired;
long is life to the foolish who do not know the true law.

Whatever precious jewel there is in the heavenly worlds, there is nothing comparable to one who is Awakened.

Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Joy follows a pure thought like a shadow that never leaves.

Like
a fine flower, beautiful to look at but without scent, fine words are
fruitless in a man who does not act in accordance with them.

Our
theories of the eternal are as valuable as are those which a chick which
has not broken its way through its shell might form of the outside
world.

An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.

However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?

Chaos is inherent in all compounded things. Strive on with diligence.

See also: positive quote

Short Buddha Quotes

One
liners, thoughts and captions for your bio, social status, self-talk,
motto, mantra, signs, posters, wallpapers, backgrounds, tattoos, SMS,
Facebook, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Tumblr, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram,
etc.

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Attachment leads to suffering. Click to tweet

May all beings have happy minds.

Born out of concern for all beings.

I am the miracle.

A jug fills drop by drop.

Every human being is the author of his own health or disease.

The tongue like a sharp knife… Kills without drawing blood.

The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart. Click to tweet

More short quotes

You may also like:
inspirational quotes
motivational quotes
happiness quotes
love quotes
life quotes

Fake Buddha Quotes (Most Of Them Are Famous Too)

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The mind is everything. What you think you become.

Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.

You can only lose what you cling to.

I never see what has been done; I only see what remains to be done.

As you walk and eat and travel, be where you are. Otherwise you will miss most of your life.

The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.

A
man asked Gautama Buddha, “I want happiness.” Buddha said, “First
remove “I,” that’s Ego, then remove “want,” that’s Desire. See now, you
are left with only “Happiness”.

A family is a place where minds come in contact with one another.

Believe
nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I
have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common
sense.

If your compassion does not include yourself, it is incomplete.

In
the end, only three things matter: how much you loved, how gently you
lived, and how gracefully you let go of things not meant for you.

The foot feels the foot when it feels the ground.

A dog is not considered a good dog because he is a good barker. A man is not considered a good man because he is a good talker.

If we destroy something around us we destroy ourselves. If we cheat another, we cheat ourselves.

Every experience, no matter how bad it seems, holds within it a blessing of some kind. The goal is to find it.

Doubt everything. Find your own light.

A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.

Just as a snake sheds its skin, we must shed our past over and over again.

When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky.

Meditate. Live purely. Be quiet. Do your work with mastery. Like the moon, come out from behind the clouds! Shine.

My doctrine is not a doctrine but just a vision. I have not given you any set rules, I have not given you a system.

In
the sky, there is no distinction of east and west; people create
distinctions out of their own minds and then believe them to be true.

Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.

What you think you create, what you feel you attract, what you imagine you become.

Your work is to discover your world and then with all your heart give yourself to it.

There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.

When you like a flower, you just pluck it. But when you love a flower, you water it daily.

It is better to travel well than to arrive.

It
is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the
victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by angels or by
demons, heaven or hell.

If you truly loved yourself, you could never hurt another.

Every morning we are born again. What we do today is what matters most.

Life is so very hard. How can we be anything but kind?

See also: https://fakebuddhaquotes.com/

Part 3. Buddha Quotes ABOUT…

Buddha Quotes About Life, Family And Friendship

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Live every act fully, as if it were your last. Click to tweet

Virtue is persecuted more by the wicked than it is loved by the good.

Nothing ever exists entirely alone; everything is in relation to everything else.

Purity or impurity depends on oneself. No one can purify another.

To support mother and father, to cherish wife and child and to have a simple livelihood; this is the good luck.

One moment can change a day, one day can change a life and one life can change the world.

She who knows life flows, feels no wear or tear, needs no mending or repair.

An
insincere and evil friend is more to be feared than a wild beast; a
wild beast may wound your body, but an evil friend will wound your mind.

Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.

To be idle is a short road to death and to be diligent is a way of life; foolish people are idle, wise people are diligent.

Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let them resolutely pursue a solitary course.

If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.

See also: family quotes, friendship quotes

Buddha Quotes On Love And Gratitude

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True love is born from understanding. Click to tweet

Radiate boundless love towards the entire world.

You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.

Ambition is like love, impatient both of delays and rivals.

Love is a gift of one’s inner most soul to another so both can be whole.

Let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours.

We
will develop and cultivate the liberation of mind by lovingkindness,
make it our vehicle, make it our basis, stabilize it, exercise ourselves
in it, and fully perfect it.

Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through love. This is an unalterable law.

As rain falls equally on the just and the unjust, do not burden your heart with judgments but rain your kindness equally on all.

He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes.

Kindness should become the natural way of life, not the exception.

Speak only endearing speech, speech that is welcomed. Speech, when it brings no evil to others, is a pleasant thing.

One is not called noble who harms living beings. By not harming living beings one is called noble.

Being deeply learned and skilled, being well trained and using well spoken words: this is good luck.

Just as a mother would protect her only child with her life, even so let one cultivate a boundless love towards all beings.

In whom there is no sympathy for living beings: know him as an outcast.

Let
us rise up and be thankful, for if we didn’t learn a lot today, at
least we learned a little, and if we didn’t learn a little, at least we
didn’t get sick, and if we got sick, at least we didn’t die; so, let us
all be thankful.

Buddha Quotes On Fear

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Those attached to the notion ‘I am’ and to views roam the world offending people. Click to tweet

There
is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates
people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up
pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a
sword that kills.

Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a
snared hare; let therefore mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after
passionlessness for himself.

When one has the feeling of dislike
for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in listening to
good teachings; when one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is
free of fear.

The instant we feel anger we have already ceased striving for the truth, and have begun striving for ourselves.

More fear quotes

See also: deep quotes

Buddha Quotes On Mind And Mastering Yourself

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He is able who thinks he is able. Click to tweet

It is a man’s own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.

Delight in heedfulness! Guard well your thoughts!

Everything
is based on mind, is led by mind, is fashioned by mind. If you speak
and act with a polluted mind, suffering will follow you, as the wheels
of the oxcart follow the footsteps of the ox.

There is nothing so disobedient as an undisciplined mind, and there is nothing so obedient as a disciplined mind.

A
mind unruffled by the vagaries of fortune, from sorrow freed, from
defilements cleansed, from fear liberated — this is the greatest
blessing.

Know from the rivers in clefts and in crevices: those
in small channels flow noisily, the great flow silent. Whatever’s not
full makes noise. Whatever is full is quiet.

You are a seeker. Delight in the mastery of your hands and your feet, of your words and your thoughts.

See
them, floundering in their sense of mine, like fish in the puddles of a
dried-up stream — and, seeing this, live with no mine, not forming
attachment for states of becoming.

‘As I am, so are these. As are these, so am I.’ Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill.

All experiences are preceded by mind, having mind as their master, created by mind.

To
enjoy good health, to bring true happiness to one’s family, to bring
peace to all, one must first discipline and control one’s own mind. If a
man can control his mind he can find the way to Enlightenment, and all
wisdom and virtue will naturally come to him.

All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?

What
we are today comes from our thoughts of yesterday, and our present
thoughts build our life of tomorrow: Our life is the creation of our
mind.

The one who has conquered himself is a far greater hero than he who has defeated a thousand times a thousand men.

Transcendental
intelligence rises when the intellectual mind reaches its limit and if
things are to be realized in their true and essential nature, its
processes of thinking must be transcended by an appeal to some higher
faculty of cognition.

I will not look at another’s bowl intent on finding fault: a training to be observed.

The
external world is only a manifestation of the activities of the mind
itself, and the mind grasps it as an external world simply because of
its habit of discrimination and false-reasoning. The disciple must get
into the habit of looking at things truthfully.

Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought.

If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts happiness follows him like his never-departing shadow.

Quotes By Buddha On Happiness And Joy

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There is no path to happiness: happiness is the path. Click to tweet

Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.

Thousands
of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the
candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.

It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.

The
enlightened one, intent on jhana, should find delight in the forest,
should practice jhana at the foot of a tree, attaining his own
satisfaction.

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.

Set your heart on doing good. Do it over and over again, and you will be filled with joy.

Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.

We
are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose minds are shaped by
selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act. Joy follows them like
a shadow that never leaves them.

See also: funny quotes

Quotes By Buddha On Peace, Forgiveness And Letting Go

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Resolutely train yourself to attain peace. Click to tweet

Indeed,
the sage who’s fully quenched rests at ease in every way; no sense
desire adheres to him whose fires have cooled, deprived of fuel. All
attachments have been severed, the heart’s been led away from pain;
tranquil, he rests with utmost ease. The mind has found its way to
peace.

Do not turn away what is given you, nor reach out for what is given to others, lest you disturb your quietness.

Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace. Click to tweet

Quotes By Buddha On Meditation And Spirituality

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Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life. Click to tweet

Looking deeply at life as it is in this very moment, the meditator dwells in stability and freedom.

Meditation
brings wisdom; lack of mediation leaves ignorance. Know well what leads
you forward and what hold you back, and choose the path that leads to
wisdom.

Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking and pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.

See also: introvert quotes

Quotes By Buddha On Wisdom And Virtues

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The fool who knows he is a fool is that much wiser.

Whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing.

Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two.

What
is the appropriate behavior for a man or a woman in the midst of this
world, where each person is clinging to his piece of debris? What’s the
proper salutation between people as they pass each other in this flood?

The greatest gift is to give people your enlightenment, to share it. It has to be the greatest. Click to tweet

When watching after yourself, you watch after others. When watching after others, you watch after yourself.

Let
none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and commissions
of others. But let one see one’s own acts, done and undone.

The true master lives in truth, in goodness and restraint, non-violence, moderation, and purity.

Offend
in neither word nor deed. Eat with moderation. Live in your heart. Seek
the highest consciousness. Master yourself according to the law. This
is the simple teaching of the awakened.

Life is like the harp
string, if it is strung too tight it won’t play, if it is too loose it
hangs, the tension that produces the beautiful sound lies in the middle.

Do
not believe in anything simply because you have heard it. Do not
believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored by many. Do
not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your
religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of
your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions because they have
been handed down for many generations. But after observation and
analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason and is
conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and
live up to it.

Just as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so
virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and
peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze of human life, one needs
the light of wisdom and the guidance of virtue.

The wise ones fashioned speech with their thought, sifting it as grain is sifted through a sieve.

The virtues, like the Muses, are always seen in groups. A good principle was never found solitary in any breast.

More wisdom quotes

Quotes By Buddha On Karma And Nirvana

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Someone
who has set out in the vehicle of a Bodhisattva should decide that ‘I
must lead all the beings to nirvana, into that realm of nirvana which
leaves nothing behind’. What is this realm of nirvana which leaves
nothing behind ?

Quotes By Buddha On Change, Failure And Suffering

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Nothing is forever except change. Click to tweet

There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.

Both formerly and now, it is only suffering that I describe, and the cessation of suffering.

He
who can curb his wrath as soon as it arises, as a timely antidote will
check snake’s venom that so quickly spreads, — such a monk gives up the
here and the beyond, just as a serpent sheds its worn-out skin.

May all that have life be delivered from suffering.

It
is easy to see the faults of others, but difficult to see one’s own
faults. One shows the faults of others like chaff winnowed in the wind,
but one conceals one’s own faults as a cunning gambler conceals his
dice.

Buddha Quotes On Anger And Jealousy

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You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger. Click to tweet

Wear your ego like a loose fitting garment.

Some do not understand that we must die, but those who do realize this settle their quarrels.

Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is a law eternal.

All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.

I do not dispute with the world; rather it is the world that disputes with me.

They
blame those who remain silent, they blame those who speak much, they
blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in the world who is
not blamed.

Those who cling to perceptions and views wander the world offending people.

Whoever doesn’t flare up at someone who’s angry wins a battle hard to win.

Anger
will never disappear so long as thoughts of resentment are cherished in
the mind. Anger will disappear just as soon as thoughts of resentment
are forgotten.

Do not overrate what you have received, nor envy others. He who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.

See also: jealousy quotes

Buddha Quotes On Success, Patience And Strength

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Neither fire nor wind, birth nor death can erase our good deeds. Click to tweet

Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.

As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse.

Praise
and blame, gain and loss, pleasure and sorrow come and go like the
wind. To be happy, rest like a giant tree in the midst of them all.

In separateness lies the world’s greatest misery; in compassion lies the world’s true strength.

Be a lamp for yourselves. Be your own refuge. Seek for no other. All things must pass. Strive on diligently. Don’t give up.

Better
it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to live a
hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.

If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.

More patience quotes, strength quotes

Buddha Quotes On Health

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Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship. Buddha

To keep the body in good health is a duty… otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.

Without health life is not life; it is only a state of langour and suffering – an image of death.

The
secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past,
not to worry about the future, not to anticipate the future, but to live
the present moment wisely and earnestly.

More health quotes

Buddha Quotes On Truth

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Those who have failed to work toward the truth have missed the purpose of living. Click to tweet

Teach
this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of
service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.

There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth…not going all the way, and not starting.

The
calmed say that what is well-spoken is best; second, that one should
say what is right, not unrighteous; third, what’s pleasing, not
displeasing; fourth, what is true, not false.

Conquer the angry
one by not getting angry; conquer the wicked by goodness; conquer the
stingy by generosity, and the liar by speaking the truth.

Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.

Part 4. Quotes About Buddha

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If you use your mind to look for a Buddha, you won’t see the Buddha. Bodhidharma Click to tweet

And the Buddha is the person who’s free: free of plans, free of cares. Bodhidharma

As long as you look for a Buddha somewhere else, you’ll never see that your own mind is the Buddha. Bodhidharma

Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. Bodhidharma

Buddhas don’t practice nonsense. Bodhidharma

A Buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. Bodhidharma

Buddhas move freely through birth and death, appearing and disappearing at will. Bodhidharma

But deluded people don’t realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside. Bodhidharma

To find a Buddha all you have to do is see your nature. Bodhidharma

No
one can force us to transform our minds, not even Buddha. We must do so
voluntarily. Therefore Buddha stated, ‘You are your own master’. Dalai
Lama

The color of the mountains is Buddha’s body; the sound of running water is his great speech. Dogen

The Buddha and all sentient beings are nothing but expressions of the one mind. There is nothing else. Huang Po

To
awaken suddenly to the fact that your own Mind is the Buddha, that
there is nothing to be attained or a single action to be performed. This
is the Supreme Way. Huang Po

The words of the Buddha offer this truth: Hatred never ceases by hatred but by love alone is healed. Jack Kornfield

Respect Buddha and the gods without counting on their help. Miyamoto Musashi

Even
the buddha does not want anyone to follow him. Even the greatest
masters cannot give you a single commandment. They see you so uniquely
you, they see your freedom to be so uniquely for you. Osho

Just
two small things: meditation and let-go. Remember these two key words:
meditation and surrender. Meditation will take you in, and surrender
will take you into the whole. And this is the whole of religion. Within
these two words Buddha has condensed the whole essence of religion. Osho

There
is no need for God! If you want to meditate you can meditate without
God. Buddha meditated without God; he had no belief in God. Osho

A Buddha is a Buddha, a Krishna is a Krishna, and you are you. Osho

He
taught virtue, mindfulness, and wisdom. These are the three pillars of
Buddhist practice, as well as the wellsprings of everyday well-being,
psychological growth, and spiritual realization. Rick Hanson

If you cannot bow to Buddha, you cannot be a Buddha. It is arrogance. Shunryu Suzuki

Buddha
says there are two kinds of suffering: the kind that leads to more
suffering and the kind that brings an end to suffering. Terry Tempest
Williams

You need to have confidence that you have the capacity
to become a Buddha, the capacity of transformation and healing. Thich
Nhat Hanh

Part 5. Buddhism And Zen Quotes

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Man suffers only because he takes seriously what the gods made for fun. Alan Watts Click to tweet

The
only thing that is ultimately real about your journey is the step that
you are taking at this moment. That’s all there ever is. Alan Watts

Everything in moderation, including moderation. Buddhist saying

Learning
to let go should be learned before learning to get. Life should be
touched, not strangled. You’ve got to relax, let it happen at times, and
at others move forward with it. Ray Bradbury

Even if things
don’t unfold the way you expected, don’t be disheartened or give up. One
who continues to advance will win in the end. Daisaku Ikeda

If we learn to open our hearts, anyone, including the people who drive us crazy, can be our teacher. Pema Chödrön

Awareness is the greatest agent for change. Huang Po Click to tweet

Zen has no business with ideas. Suzuki Roshi

To understand everything is to forgive everything. Osho

We are not going in circles, we are going upwards. The path is a spiral; we have already climbed many steps. Hermann Hesse

The
secret of Buddhism is to remove all ideas, all concepts, in order for
the truth to have a chance to penetrate, to reveal itself. Thich Nhat
Hanh

If you want to change the world, start with the next person who comes to you in need. Maezumi Roshi

We are here to awaken from our illusion of separateness. Martin Luther King Jr

When you do something, you should burn yourself up completely, like a good bonfire, leaving no trace of yourself. Eckhart Tolle

Wherever you are, be there totally. Eckhart Tolle

Only the hand that erases can write the true thing. Meister Eckhart

Treat every moment as your last. It is not preparation for something else. Shunryu Suzuki

Q 20  What did the Buddha say regarding the nature of a Supreme Awakened One as given in the five verses ?
https://zenstudiespodcast.com/buddhas-enlightenment/
Shakyamuni Buddha’s Awakenment with Awareness : What Did He Realize?

According
to tradition, Buddhism began with the Buddha’s awakenment. This was the
spiritual awakening of one man, Siddhartha Gautama, somewhere between
528 and 445 BCE, who afterwards was called the “Buddha,” or “awakened
one.” He then taught others what he realized, along with the methods he
used to achieve that realization, and those teachings have been passed
down to the present day. What exactly did Siddhartha comprehend in his
awakenment?

Q 21  Write down the ideals enunciate by the Buddha in the five verses ?
https://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/qanda02.htm

What are the main teachings of the Buddha?

All
of the many teachings of the Buddha center on the Four Noble Truths
just as the rim and spokes of a wheel center on the hub. They are called
‘Four’ because there are four of them. They are called ‘Noble’ because
they ennoble one who understands them and they are called ‘Truths’
because, corresponding with reality, they are true.

What is the First Noble Truth?

The
First Noble Truth is that life is suffering. To live, you must suffer.
It is impossible to live without experiencing some kind of suffering. We
have to endure physical suffering like sickness, injury, tiredness, old
age and eventually death and we have to endure psychological suffering
like loneliness, frustrations, fear, embarrassment, disappointment,
anger, etc.