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06/30/21
LESSON 4017 Thu 1 Jul 2021 Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 11:34 pm

LESSON 4017 Thu 1 Jul 2021

Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as done by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world

Swim Mindfullyt

There has recently been a change in the tide when it comes to people’s eating habits. In the past couple of years, the world has become much more observant of what they eat and drink every day. As people watch what they eat, they are beginning to realize that diets such as vegetarianism and veganism are incredibly healthy ways to eat. According to foodrevolution.org, there has been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the United States in just the past three years. Obviously, this is a steadily growing trend.

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as done by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world

Swim Mindfully

There has recently been a change in the tide when it comes to people’s eating habits. In the past couple of years, the world has become much more observant of what they eat and drink every day. As people watch what they eat, they are beginning to realize that diets such as vegetarianism and veganism are incredibly healthy ways to eat. According to foodrevolution.org, there has been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the United States in just the past three years. Obviously, this is a steadily growing trend.

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

comments (0)
06/29/21
LESSON 4016 Wed 30 Jun 2021 Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed. Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as done by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world Swim Mindfully There has recently been a change in the tide when it comes to people’s eating habits. In the past couple of years, the world has become much more observant of what they eat and drink every day. As people watch what they eat, they are beginning to realize that diets such as vegetarianism and veganism are incredibly healthy ways to eat. According to foodrevolution.org, there has been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the United States in just the past three years. Obviously, this is a steadily growing trend.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 5:35 am

LESSON 4016 Wed 30 Jun 2021

Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as done by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world

Swim Mindfully

There has recently been a change in the tide when it comes to people’s eating habits. In the past couple of years, the world has become much more observant of what they eat and drink every day. As people watch what they eat, they are beginning to realize that diets such as vegetarianism and veganism are incredibly healthy ways to eat. According to foodrevolution.org, there has been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the United States in just the past three years. Obviously, this is a steadily growing trend.

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

https://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/news/what-becoming-vegan-does-to-an-athlete/

avatar by MARK MCCLUSKEY
30 January 2019, 02:00pm
By Mark McCluskey, Swimming World College Intern.
There has recently been a change in the tide when it comes to people’s eating habits. In the past couple of years, the world has become much more observant of what they eat and drink every day. As people watch what they eat, they are beginning to realize that diets such as vegetarianism and veganism are incredibly healthy ways to eat. According to foodrevolution.org, there has been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the United States in just the past three years.
Obviously, this is a steadily growing trend.

Inline image

The issue is that some athletes, especially swimmers, sometimes are nervous to go vegan, as they are worried that it will affect their performance in a bad way. There is a stigma around veganism that those who decide to do so are weaker and more frail because they aren’t getting enough nutrients. Often, you will hear athletes say that they need protein and carbohydrates, so a vegan diet will be more detrimental than helpful.
This could not be more incorrect. As long as a swimmer is smart about it, they can transition into a vegan diet that will actually increase their performance in the pool. Plenty of athletes have made the decision to become vegan to improve their athletic performance. Specifically, in the NFL, the trend of going vegan caught on last season when it was reported that Tom Brady, quarterback for the New England Patriots and one of the players with the most longevity in the game today, was following an approximately 80% vegan diet by The Boston Globe. Many players followed his lead, and the results were widely reported. Wesley Woodyward, a player for the Tennessee Titans, was interviewed by the Associated Press last year and discussed how his energy was at an all-time high; his only qualm was that he was having trouble gaining weight – something that swimmers do not tend to want anyway.

There are even vegans in the swimming world. Murray Rose, an Olympic swimmer in the 1950s and 1960s, was nicknamed the “Seaweed Streak” because of his choice to eat only vegan and still dominate his competition. MenSa Eggleston, a swimmer for Howard University, wants people to know that being a vegan swimmer is very possible. Being a vegan his entire life, Eggleston explains that “being a vegan has not hindered my ability as a swimmer at all. I have been able to swim and improve my speed over the course of ten years to the point where I was recruited to a Division I program – one of the highest levels a swimmer can go”.

The important part of an athlete drastically changing their diet in this way is to do it in a smart way. If you plan to try being vegan, do not keep going to McDonald’s and get two servings of French fries instead of fries and a burger. Just because you are not eating meat does not mean that you are automatically eating healthy.
It is important to know what types of foods will get you certain nutrients. As mentioned before, many swimmers’ main worry is that they will not be getting enough protein to sustain the amount of work they are putting into the pool. In a study done by David Rogerson in the Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition, great replacements to the protein you’d get from meat are discussed. Some of his suggestions for high protein foods include pumpkin seeds, lentils, and black beans, among several others. For swimmers specifically, Eggleston recommends vegan protein shakes and bars, saying “there are many vegan plant based protein powders and bars available in stores. Not only that, but regular trail mix is full of proteins and other nutrients that swimmers look for”. Eggleston also agreed with Rogerson recommending black beans as a valuable source of protein and carbohydrates.

https://i0.wp.com/www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/news/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Murray_Rose_Seaweed_Streak.jpg?w=1024&ssl=1

Inline image

All a new vegan needs to do is research the nutrients they need to stay strong and they can make veganism improve their performance. Many schools offer nutrition counseling, so be sure to look for resources and supportive people who can adequately monitor your diet.

Inline image

When making a change in your diet, it is important to do so in a safe and healthy manner. If you decide to go vegan, it may take your body a bit of time to adjust, so try to avoid making the transition close to a championship meet, as your body may feel a bit tired for the first couple of days. Following a diet is a training strategy, so it is a waste of time to do it in order to swim faster at an upcoming meet and would end up hurting your performance.

As veganism is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world, many people are re-thinking their eating habits. Athletes do not need to worry about becoming consistently frail or tired from becoming a vegan. On the contrary, being a vegan can actually be really helpful to a swimmer looking for an extra boost in their training, performance and overall health next season.
While not every athlete chooses to go vegan, everyone can choose healthier, more nutrient-dense options to stay fueled for competition. Would you consider eating vegan?
All commentaries are the opinion of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Swimming World Magazine nor its staff.

Inline image

competition. Would you consider eating vegan?
All commentaries are the opinion of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Swimming World Magazine nor its staff.
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10 COMMENTS

Lewis McColl class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Lewis McColl

January 30, 2019

Joanna McColl I know it’s swimming but its an interesting read

Annell Dyfri class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Annell Dyfri

January 30, 2019

Eva Edwards

Claire Kennedy class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Claire Kennedy

January 30, 2019

Sarah Harris Suzanne Coulter

Sarah Harris class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Sarah Harris

January 30, 2019

Claire Kennedy great article and Lizzie and thers are proof that an athlete can sustain a vegan/vegetarian diet whilst competing – it’s all about being sensible and meal planning , thanks for sharing Claire x

Tim Lecrone class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Tim Lecrone

January 31, 2019

Nicely done, Mark McCluskey!

Mark McCluskey class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Mark McCluskey

January 31, 2019

Thanks Tim!!

Pam Reynecke class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Pam Reynecke

January 31, 2019

Janine Reynecke

Noria Gaier class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Noria Gaier

January 31, 2019

Célia Gaier

Célia Gaier class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Célia Gaier

February 1, 2019

Noria Gaier mais assez cher

Cheryl Paterson Macdonald class='avatar avatar-60 photo avatar-default' height='60' width='60' /> Cheryl Paterson Macdonald

February 1, 2019

Carol Dillon very interesting

Find Vegan & Vegetarian Restaurants Near Me - HappyCow

Find Vegan & Vegetarian Restaurants Near Me - HappyCow
Reviews of vegan restaurants, guide to healthy vegetarian food, natural food stores, vegan-friendly options nearby, recipes, and travel.

Where Did The Word “Vegan” Come From? - Dictionary.com
https://www.dictionary.com/e/veganism/
Donald Watson, founder of the Vegan Society, coined the word vegan in 1944 as a statement against vegetarians who ate dairy products. He took the first and last letters of the word vegetarian to create his orthodox version of vegetarianism.

History of Veganism - World Vegan Organisation
https://www.worldveganorganisation.org/History/WorldVeganism
History of Veganism Pythagoras — This ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician (we know the theorem), and athletic coach was what we would today call a raw-food vegan. He required all his students to fast for 40 days prior to entering unknownhis school, and adhere to an “unfired,” plants-only diet after that.

A Brief History of Veganism | Time
https://time.com/3958070/history-of-veganism/
Veganism is an extreme form of vegetarianism, and though the term was coined in 1944, the concept of flesh-avoidance can be traced back to ancient Indian and eastern Mediterranean societies….

History | The Vegan Society
https://www.vegansociety.com/about-us/history
Early vegans The Vegan Society may have been established 75 years ago but veganism has been around much longer. Evidence of people choosing to avoid animal products can be traced back over 2,000 years.

The History of Veganism and Plant-Based Diets - The Plant …
https://plantbasednetwork.com/history-of-veganism-and-plant-based-diets/
The term “vegan” was coined by Donald Watson who also founded the Vegan Society in 1944. Before veganism, it was called non-dairy vegetarian but Watson believed dairy and egg consumption was wrong as the lives that provide them also suffer.

The History of Veganism Around the World - LIVEKINDLY
https://www.livekindly.co/history-veganism-around-world/
The History of Veganism Around the World The history of veganism is long and complex. Far from a Western concept, the lifestyle has been present in many countries around the world for thousands of years. Around the world, people are eating more meat-free and vegan food than ever before.

The history of veganism - Unfinished Man
https://www.unfinishedman.com/the-history-of-veganism/
The history of veganism People who expressly eat plant materials and avoid the idea of animal products have been around since the dawn of humanity. The term of veganism however is still something that’s fairly new. The very first time that this was used was around 1944 in Mediterranean societies.

Veganism - Wikipedia
Veganism

Veganism
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.[c] An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinct

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is known as a vegan.Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans, also known as “strict vegetarians”, refrain from consuming meat, eggs, dairy …

History of Veganism - World Vegan Organisation
https://www.worldveganorganisation.org/History/WorldVeganism
History of Veganism Pythagoras — This ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician (we know the theorem), and athletic coach was what we would today call a raw-food vegan. He required all his students to fast for 40 days prior to entering unknownhis school, and adhere to an “unfired,” plants-only diet after that.

vegan | Origin and meaning of vegan by Online Etymology …
https://www.etymonline.com/word/vegan
vegan (n.) 1944, probably based on a modification of vegetarian; coined by English vegetarian Donald Watson (1910-2005) to distinguish those who abstain from all animal products (eggs, cheese, etc.) from those who merely refuse to eat the animals.

Vegan History - IVU
https://ivu.org/history/Vegan_History.pdf
1 - History: It is impossible to consider a history of veganism without putting it in the wider context, so there is a lot that is ‘nearly vegan’ along the way. The word vegan was invented in 1944, but for a long time before that there were many people holding similar, though not necessarily identical views.

The History of Veganism Around the World - LIVEKINDLY
https://www.livekindly.co/history-veganism-around-world/
Hinduism and Buddhism also incorporate a vegetarian diet and originate in approximately 1500 BC and the 5th century, respectively. In Indian culture, the practice of nonviolence, or ahiṃsā, has informed meat-free living. It is present in Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism.

comments (0)
06/28/21
LESSON 4015 Tue 29 Jun 2021 Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed. Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as did by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did Kushinara NIBBĀNA BHUMI Pagoda is a 3D 360 degree circle vision meditation laboratory
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 3:11 pm

LESSON 4015 Tue 29 Jun 2021

https://www.istockphoto.com/search/2/image?phrase=vegetable+garden

https://youtu.be/pgPJYRH3l9I

Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Ashoka and Arboriculture in India. - AWA Trees

Ashoka and Arboriculture in India. - AWA Trees
Evidence of a vast network of managed street trees across India, from over 2000 years ago, that would surpass the most ambitious of todays tree planting. Ashoka founded arboriculture in India.

Ashoka and Arboriculture in India.

Ashoka: pillar and tree
It is commonly believed that street trees originated in the capital cities of Europe in the 1500s. First in France, then Holland and then to London and the rest of the continent. This European history of street trees is rightly uncontested. However, there is compelling evidence of a vast network of managed street trees, from over 2000 years ago. A massive programme of tree planting and arboricultural management along routes over many thousands of miles across India and South Asia. A scheme that would surpass even the most ambitious of today’s tree planting projects and one that can lay claim to the practice of arboriculture beginning in India, over 1500 years before the first trees were planted on the streets of Europe.
Ashoka the Great reigned from 269 BC to 232 BC. He was the third emperor of the Maurya dynasty and is now considered ancient India’s greatest ruler and the key figure in spreading Buddhism across the globe. At the greatest extent, his empire expanded into India’s central and southern regions, along the Himalayas to the north, into Assam to the east, and to the west into what is now Afghanistan, with his influence reaching as far as Greece and North Africa.

Ashoka: Empire
Apart from a few mentions in some Buddhist texts, Ashoka’s great empire was all but forgotten, until in 1837 a young British administrator in Calcutta managed decipher engravings on a range of mysterious stone pillars that were scattered around India. These monumental stone pillars were up to 80ft high, and some were found thousands of miles apart. In what was the first example of writing in Indian history, the British administrator discovered that the pillars were inscribed with advice from Ashoka, on how to live a good life and with examples of what Ashoka had achieved across his empire. These statements, or edicts, were inscribed both on the stone pillars and also on large rocks, all across the empire, in several different languages – even Greek.
The pillars revealed clear evidence that this great ruler’s empire was not due to vast armies and battles, but welfare. They provide evidence that the king was the first (and only) whose conquest was not by force but by the value of ideas and the welfare of the empire’s citizens – and the cornerstone of this scheme to improve people’s lives was by planting roadside trees.
Listed second on the list of 14 statements, or edicts, written on the monumental stones was:
• “Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals”.
• “Along roads I have had banyan trees planted so that they can give shade to animals and men, and I have had mango groves planted.”
It is believed that state funds were used for the tree planting programme along the roads, and to ensure that the projects were carried out correctly, Ashoka would go on frequent tree inspection tours and he expected his district officers to follow his example.
Today it is unlikely that many, if any, trees from this time remain, to confirm the scale of the tree planting. However, to have gone to the trouble and expense of the stone pillars, and for tree planting to form a key headline on them, we can reliably confer that roadside trees were a key policy of the empire and that the level of the tree planting was substantial. To give some comparison, this would be akin to modern political parties putting street tree planting above policy pledges on health services, the economy, education and housing. Likewise, it is reasonable to assume the street trees must have been welcomed and would have formed a highly valued aspect of citizens lives.
A street tree is defined as a tree located next to or within a public road. They provide a wide range of social, environmental and economic benefits and managing them is a major undertaking and cost for local authorities, with much political debate relating to their presence and management.

The definition of urban forestry involves the planned, systematic and integrated management of these trees. Although we wouldn’t easily recognise this environment as ‘urban’ by today’s standards, these definitions perfectly fit what was undertaken over 2000 years ago. As well as his other achievements, Ashoka has to be credited as developing arboriculture in India, he was the first, and possibly only, person to devise and implement an empire-wide roadside tree planting policy.

Ashoka the Great - Rise of the Mauryan Empire Documentary

Ashoka the Great - Rise of the Mauryan Empire Documentary
By Kings and Generals

Ashoka the great planted fruit bearing trees throughout the country

https://www.pressreader.com/india/the-hindu/20210629/281964610695513

Mayawati coins slogan for U.P. poll - PressReader
https://www.pressreader.com/india/the-hindu/20210629/281964610695513
Mayawati coins slogan for U.P. poll 2021-06-29 - Special correspond­ent Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief Mayawati on Monday released a new slogan for next year’s Uttar Pradesh Assembly election —”UP ko bachana hai, bachana hai. Sarvajan ko bachana hai, bachana hai, BSP ko satta mein lana hai va zaroor lana hai (We have to save UP.

Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as done by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world

Swim Mindfully

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch
By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020 RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever […]

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated
November 25, 2020 Winter Watch

By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020

RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on an unsuspecting public.” Hodkinson, who is the CEO of a biotech company that makes COVID tests, says “There is utterly unfounded public hysteria driven by the media and politicians.” We are seeing “politics playing medicine, and that’s a very dangerous game.”

Positive test results do not mean a clinical infection, he says. All testing should stop because the false numbers they produce are “driving public hysteria.” Hodkinson says the risk of death for people under the age of 65 is “one in three-hundred thousand” and it is “outrageous” to shut down society for what is merely “just another bad flu.” […]

Travancore’s temple entry proclamation of 1936 for ‘lower …
Travancores temple entry proclamation of 1936 for lower castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala-India News , Firstpost

Travancores temple entry proclamation of 1936 for lower castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala-India News , Firstpost
Just as the French revolution had its dark side, so does the social revolution in Kerala: the egalitarianism of this proclamation brought with it a reverse discrimination.

Lower castes bore the brunt of it, leading to extraordinary practices such as not only untouchability, but also un-seeability. Also, bizarrely precise laws of untouchability and even un-shadowability were in effect: a Nair must stand at least 5 feet away from a Nambudiri, an Ezhava 10 feet, a Pulaya 15 feet, and so on.

But this COVID though it is Hoax and just another bad flu helped creating all humans as untouchable, un see ables and even un shadow ables which is leading to practice un attachablity and not detachabilty.

Un attachment
not
Detachment

The root of all suffering is attachment

I’m practising non-attachment. Not detachment.
Accepting what comes
and allowing it to leave when it’s time.
What’s for me will be for me effortlessly.

Letting go is a painful part of life. But according to Buddhism, we must let go of attachment and desires if we are to experience happiness.

However, letting go doesn’t mean you don’t care about anyone and anything. It actually means you can experience life and love fully and openly without clinging to it for your survival.

According to Buddhism, this is the only way to experience true freedom and happiness.

Kushinara NIBBĀNA BHUMI Pagoda is a 3D 360 degree circle vision meditation laboratory
at

White Home no

668, 5A Main Road,
8th Cross, HAL III Stage
Punya Bhumi Bengaluru,

Magadhi Karnataka State.
Prabuddha Bharat

Mayawati demands ballot paper-based Lok Sabha polls in 2019

Mayawati demands ballot paper-based Lok Sabha polls in 2019
Former UP Chief Minister and Bahujan Samaj Party chief Mayawati on Saturday demanded voting through ballot paper in the 2019 general elections.

Mayawati demands ballot paper-based Lok Sabha polls

Mayawati predicted that if ballot papers were used, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) would never win an election.

In 2014, they had manipulated the EVMs and in 2017 they again did so, with the single aim of capturing power and wearing the BSP

Mayawati said her party was committed to its motto of “Sarvajan hitay, sarvajan sukhay” (Welfare of all, prosperity for all).

Throw out EVMs of chitpavan brahmins
Bring back Ballot Paper.

And Save the Country
Save the Country.

Save All Aboriginal
Awakened Societies.
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies

Bring BSP to Power
Definitely to Power
(we have to save Prabuddha Bharat)

Mad murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) is the modern Gandhi. Gandhi began farmers agitation to divide & deprive the All Aboriginal Awakened Societies of their rights given by the British in 1917. But Babasaheb had scuttled his plans. Today Behanji Mayawati is playing the role of Babasaheb to save the farmers.”

Get Your Zen On with These 101 Buddha Quotes on Love, Life, and Happiness

Get Your Zen On with These 101 Buddha Quotes on Love, Life, and Happiness
By Parade

Buddha was a spiritual teacher in Nepal during the 6th century B.C. whose teachings became the foundation for the Buddhist religion. One of the most influential spiritual leaders of all time, Buddha (born with the name Siddhartha Gautama), was a phil

Get Your Zen On with These 101 Buddha Quotes on Love, Life, and Happiness

Get Your Zen On with These 101 Buddha Quotes on Love, Life, and Happiness
By Parade

Buddha was a spiritual teacher in Nepal during the 6th century B.C. whose teachings became the foundation for the Buddhist religion. One of the most influential spiritual leaders of all time, Buddha (born with the name Siddhartha Gautama), was a phil

Buddha Quotes

1. “Radiate boundless love towards the entire world.”

2. “A disciplined mind brings happiness.”

3. “Give, even if you only have a little.”

4. “Conquer anger with non-anger. Conquer badness with goodness. Conquer meanness with generosity. Conquer dishonesty with truth.”

5. “Those who cling to perceptions and views wander the world offending people.”

6. “Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.”

7. “I will not look at another’s bowl intent on finding fault: a training to be observed.”

8. “Let none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and commissions of others. But let one see one’s own acts, done and undone.”

9. “Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.”

10. “May all beings have happy minds.”

11. “Delight in heedfulness! Guard well your thoughts!”

12. “Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.”

13. “Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let them resolutely pursue a solitary course.”

14. “In whom there is no sympathy for living beings: know him as an outcast.”

15. “Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is a law eternal.”

16. “Live with no sense of ‘mine,’ not forming attachment to experiences.”

17. “Better it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.”

18. “One is not called noble who harms living beings. By not harming living beings one is called noble.”

19. “If a man going down into a river, swollen and swiftly flowing, is carried away by the current — how can he help others across?”

20. “All conditioned things are impermanent—when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering.”

21. “Ardently do today what must be done. Who knows? Tomorrow, death comes.”

22. “The world is afflicted by death and decay. But the wise do not grieve, having realized the nature of the world.”

23. “Resolutely train yourself to attain peace.”

24. “To support mother and father, to cherish wife and children, and to be engaged in peaceful occupation — this is the greatest blessing.”

25. “All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.”

26. “They blame those who remain silent, they blame those who speak much, they blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in the world who is not blamed.”

27. “Just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, so also this teaching and discipline has one taste, the taste of liberation.”

28. “If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts, happiness follows them like a never-departing shadow.”

29. “As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse.”

30. “The one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst that perpetuate becoming; how could you track that Awakened one, trackless, and of limitless range.”

31. “The root of suffering is attachment.”

32. “Whatever precious jewel there is in the heavenly worlds, there is nothing comparable to one who is Awakened.”

33. “As a water bead on a lotus leaf, as water on a red lily, does not adhere, so the sage does not adhere to the seen, the heard, or the sensed.”

34. “It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.”

35. “All experiences are preceded by mind, having mind as their master, created by mind.”

36. “Purity and impurity depend on oneself; no one can purify another.”

37. “All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.”

38. “Ceasing to do evil, Cultivating the good, Purifying the heart: This is the teaching of the Buddhas.”

39. “Understanding is the heartwood of well-spoken words.”

40. “He who can curb his wrath as soon as it arises, as a timely antidote will check snake’s venom that so quickly spreads — such a monk gives up the here and the beyond, just as a serpent sheds its worn-out skin.”

41. “As I am, so are these. As are these, so am I. Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill.”

42. “Just as a solid rock is not shaken by the storm, even so the wise are not affected by praise or blame.”

43. “We will develop love, we will practice it, we will make it both a way and a basis…”

44. “There is no fear for one whose mind is not filled with desires.”

45. “Whatever is not yours: let go of it. Your letting go of it will be for your long-term happiness & benefit.”

46. “The one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst that perpetuate becoming; how could you track that Awakened one, trackless, and of limitless range?”

47. “Meditate … do not delay, lest you later regret it.”

48. “Whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing.”

49. “Resolutely train yourself to attain peace.”

50. “Know from the rivers in clefts and in crevices: those in small channels flow noisily, the great flow silent. Whatever’s not full makes noise. Whatever is full is quiet.”

150 Good Morning Quotes To Start Your Day

51. “Whatever living beings there may be — feeble or strong, long, stout, or of medium size, short, small, large, those seen or those unseen, those dwelling far or near, those who are born as well as those yet to be born — may all beings have happy minds.”

52. “If you knew what I know about the power of giving, you would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.”

53. “Let him not deceive another nor despise anyone anywhere. In anger or ill will let him not wish another ill.”

54. “Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Suffering follows an evil thought as the wheels of a cart follow the oxen that draw it. Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Joy follow a pure thought like a shadow that never leaves.”

55. “If you meditate earnestly, pure in mind and kind in deeds, leading a disciplined life in harmony with the dharma, you will grow in glory. If you meditate earnestly, through spiritual disciplines you can make an island for yourself that no flood can overwhelm.”

56. “Good people keep on walking whatever happens. They do not speak vain words and are the same in good fortune and bad. If one desires neither children nor wealth nor power nor success by unfair means, know such a one to be good, wise, and virtuous.”

57. “One who conquers himself is greater than another who conquers a thousand times a thousand men on the battlefield. Be victorious over yourself and not over others.”

58. “Your own self is your master; who else could be? With yourself well controlled, you gain a master very hard to find.”

59. “Not by rituals and resolutions, nor by much learning, nor by celibacy, nor even by meditation can you find the supreme, immortal joy of nirvana until you extinguish your self-will.”

60. “It seems that although we thought ourselves permanent, we are not. Although we thought ourselves settled, we are not. Although we thought we would last forever, we will not.”

61. “Don’t run after pleasure and neglect the practice of meditation. If you forget the goal of life and get caught in the pleasures of the world, you will come to envy those who put meditation first.”

62. “Conquer anger through gentleness, unkindness through kindness, greed through generosity, and falsehood by truth.”

63. “Train your eyes and ears; train your nose and tongue. The senses are good friends when they are trained. Train your body in deeds, train your tongue in words, train your mind in thoughts. This training will take you beyond sorrow.”

64. “Like someone pointing to treasure is the wise person who sees your faults and points them out. Associate with such a sage.”

65. “All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?”

66. “Whatever is not yours: let go of it. Your letting go of it will be for your long-term happiness & benefit.”

67. “Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it.”

68. “I do not dispute with the world; rather it is the world that disputes with me.”

69. “You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself.”

70. “Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”

71. “If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.”

72. “The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.”

73. “Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.”

74. “Be truthful; do not yield to anger. Give freely, even if you have but little. The gods will bless you.”

75. “The whole secret of existence is to have no fear. Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

76. “If anything is worth doing, do it with all your heart.”

77. “It is easy to see the faults of others, but difficult to see one’s own faults. One shows the faults of others like chaff winnowed in the wind, but one conceals one’s own faults as a cunning gambler conceals his dice.”

78. “Meditation brings wisdom; lack of meditation leaves ignorance.”

79. “When you attain victory over yourself, not even the gods can turn it into defeat.”

80. “Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.”

81. “What we think, we become.”

82. “Silence the angry man with love. Silence the ill-natured man with kindness. Silence the miser with generosity. Silence the liar with truth.”

83. “If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.”

புத்தர் மேற்கோள்கள்

1. “முழு உலகத்திற்கும் எல்லையற்ற அன்பை கதிர்வீச்சு செய்யுங்கள்.”

2. “ஒழுக்கமான மனம் மகிழ்ச்சியைத் தருகிறது.”

3. “உங்களிடம் கொஞ்சம் இருந்தால் கூட கொடுங்கள்.”

4. “கோபத்தை கோபத்துடன் வெல்லுங்கள். நன்மையுடன் கெட்டதை வெல்லுங்கள். தாராள மனப்பான்மையுடன் அர்த்தத்தை வெல்லுங்கள். நேர்மையுடன் உண்மையை வெல்லுங்கள். ”

5. “உணர்வுகள் மற்றும் பார்வைகளில் ஒட்டிக்கொள்பவர்கள் மக்களை புண்படுத்தும் உலகில் அலைகிறார்கள்.”

6. “டிராப் பை டிராப் என்பது தண்ணீர் பானை நிரப்பப்படுகிறது. அதேபோல், ஞானி, அதை கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சமாக சேகரித்து, தன்னை நன்மையோடு நிரப்புகிறான். ”

7. “தவறு கண்டுபிடிப்பதற்கான மற்றொருவரின் கிண்ண நோக்கத்தை நான் பார்க்க மாட்டேன்: கவனிக்கப்பட வேண்டிய ஒரு பயிற்சி.”

8. “யாரும் மற்றவர்களிடம் தவறு செய்யக்கூடாது; மற்றவர்களின் குறைகளையும் கமிஷன்களையும் யாரும் பார்க்க வேண்டாம். ஆனால் ஒருவரின் சொந்த செயல்களைச் செய்து, செயல்தவிர்க்கலாம். ”

9. “ஒரு நபர் நன்மை செய்ய வேண்டுமென்றால், அதை அவர் மீண்டும் மீண்டும் செய்யட்டும். அவர் அதில் இன்பம் காணட்டும், ஏனென்றால் நன்மை திரட்டப்படுவது ஆனந்தமானது. ”

10. “எல்லா மனிதர்களுக்கும் மகிழ்ச்சியான மனம் இருக்கட்டும்.”

11. “கவனத்தில் மகிழ்ச்சி! உங்கள் எண்ணங்களை நன்கு காத்துக்கொள்ளுங்கள்! ”

12. “உங்கள் தவறுகளைச் சுட்டிக்காட்ட ஒரு புத்திசாலித்தனமான விமர்சகரை நீங்கள் கண்டால், மறைக்கப்பட்ட புதையலுக்கு நீங்கள் வழிகாட்டியாக அவரைப் பின்பற்றுங்கள்.”

13. “ஒரு தேடுபவர் சிறந்த அல்லது சமமான ஒரு தோழரைக் கண்டுபிடிக்கவில்லையென்றால், அவர்கள் ஒரு உறுதியான போக்கைத் தொடரட்டும்.”

14. “அவற்றில் ஜீவராசிகளுக்கு அனுதாபம் இல்லை: அவரை ஒரு வெளிநாட்டவர் என்று அறிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்.”

15. “வெறுப்பு இந்த உலகில் ஒருபோதும் வெறுப்பால் சமாதானப்படுத்தப்படுவதில்லை. வெறுப்பு இல்லாதால் மட்டுமே வெறுப்பு திருப்தி அடைகிறது. இது நித்திய சட்டம். ”

16. “அனுபவங்களுடன் இணைப்பை ஏற்படுத்தாமல்,‘ என்னுடையது ’என்ற உணர்வு இல்லாமல் வாழ்க.”

17. “பொருட்களின் எழுச்சி மற்றும் வீழ்ச்சியைக் காணாமல் நூறு ஆண்டுகள் வாழ்வதை விட, ஒரு நாள் பொருட்களின் எழுச்சி மற்றும் வீழ்ச்சியைக் கண்டு வாழ்வது நல்லது.”

18. “ஒருவர் உயிருள்ளவர்களுக்கு தீங்கு விளைவிக்கும் உன்னதமானவர் என்று அழைக்கப்படுவதில்லை. உயிரினங்களுக்கு தீங்கு விளைவிக்காததன் மூலம் ஒருவர் உன்னதமானவர் என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறார். ”

19. “ஒரு மனிதன் ஆற்றில் இறங்கி, வீங்கி, விரைவாக ஓடுகிறான், மின்னோட்டத்தால் எடுத்துச் செல்லப்பட்டால் - அவன் மற்றவர்களுக்கு எப்படி உதவ முடியும்?”

20. “நிபந்தனைக்குட்பட்ட எல்லா விஷயங்களும் அசாத்தியமானவை one இதை ஞானத்துடன் பார்க்கும்போது, ​​ஒருவர் துன்பத்திலிருந்து விலகுகிறார்.”

21. “செய்ய வேண்டியதை இன்று தீவிரமாக செய்யுங்கள். யாருக்கு தெரியும்? நாளை, மரணம் வருகிறது. ”

22. “உலகம் மரணம் மற்றும் சிதைவால் பாதிக்கப்படுகிறது. ஆனால் ஞானிகள் உலகின் தன்மையை உணர்ந்து துக்கப்படுவதில்லை. ”

23. “அமைதியை அடைய உறுதியுடன் பயிற்சி செய்யுங்கள்.”

24. “தாய் மற்றும் தந்தையை ஆதரிப்பது, மனைவி மற்றும் குழந்தைகளை வளர்ப்பது, அமைதியான தொழிலில் ஈடுபடுவது - இது மிகப்பெரிய ஆசீர்வாதம்.”

25. “அனைவரும் வன்முறையில் நடுங்குகிறார்கள்; அனைவரும் மரணத்திற்கு அஞ்சுகிறார்கள். தன்னை இன்னொருவருக்குப் பதிலாக வைத்துக் கொள்வது, ஒருவர் கொல்லவோ, இன்னொருவரைக் கொல்லவோ கூடாது. ”

26. “அவர்கள் அமைதியாக இருப்பவர்களைக் குறை கூறுகிறார்கள், அதிகம் பேசுபவர்களைக் குறை கூறுகிறார்கள், மிதமாகப் பேசுபவர்களைக் குறை கூறுகிறார்கள். குற்றம் சொல்லப்படாதவர்கள் யாரும் உலகில் இல்லை. ”

27. “பெரிய பெருங்கடலில் ஒரு சுவை, உப்புச் சுவை இருப்பதைப் போலவே, இந்த போதனைக்கும் ஒழுக்கத்திற்கும் ஒரு சுவை இருக்கிறது, விடுதலையின் சுவை.”

28. “ஒரு நபர் தூய்மையான மனதுடன் பேசினால் அல்லது செயல்பட்டால், மகிழ்ச்சி ஒருபோதும் விலகாத நிழலைப் போல அவர்களைப் பின்தொடர்கிறது.”

29. “போர்க்களத்தில் ஒரு யானை சுற்றியுள்ள வில்லிலிருந்து சுடப்பட்ட அம்புகளைத் தாங்குவதால், நான் துஷ்பிரயோகத்தைத் தாங்குவேன்.”

30. “இனிமேல் ஆகிவிடுகிற ஏக்கமும் தாகமும் இல்லாதவன்; விழித்தெழுந்த, தடமறியாத, மற்றும் வரம்பற்ற வரம்பை நீங்கள் எவ்வாறு கண்காணிக்க முடியும். ”

31. “துன்பத்தின் வேர் இணைப்பு.”

32. “பரலோக உலகங்களில் எந்த விலைமதிப்பற்ற நகை இருந்தாலும், விழித்துக் கொண்ட ஒருவருடன் ஒப்பிடத்தக்கது எதுவுமில்லை.”

33. “தாமரை இலையில் நீர் மணிகளாக, சிவப்பு லில்லி மீது நீர் போல, ஒட்டாது, எனவே முனிவர் பார்த்தவர்களோ, கேட்டவர்களோ, உணர்ந்தவர்களோ கடைபிடிப்பதில்லை.”

34. “வருத்தத்திலிருந்து விடுபடாத ஒருவருக்கு மகிழ்ச்சி எழுவது விஷயங்களின் இயல்பு.”

35. “எல்லா அனுபவங்களும் மனதிற்கு முன்னால் உள்ளன, மனதை அவற்றின் எஜமானராகக் கொண்டு, மனதினால் உருவாக்கப்படுகின்றன.”

36. “தூய்மையும் தூய்மையும் தன்னைச் சார்ந்தது; யாராலும் ஒருவரை சுத்திகரிக்க முடியாது. ”

37. “அனைவரும் வன்முறையில் நடுங்குகிறார்கள்; அனைவரும் மரணத்திற்கு அஞ்சுகிறார்கள். தன்னை இன்னொருவருக்குப் பதிலாக வைத்துக் கொள்வது, ஒருவர் கொல்லவோ, இன்னொருவரைக் கொல்லவோ கூடாது. ”

38. “தீமை செய்வதை நிறுத்துதல், நல்லதை வளர்ப்பது, இருதயத்தை தூய்மைப்படுத்துதல்: இது புத்தர்களின் போதனை.”

39. “புரிந்துகொள்ளுதல் என்பது நன்கு பேசப்படும் சொற்களின் இதய மரமாகும்.”

40. “தன் கோபத்தை அது எழுந்தவுடன் கட்டுப்படுத்தக்கூடியவன், சரியான நேரத்தில் மருந்தாக பாம்பின் விஷத்தை அவ்வளவு சீக்கிரம் பரப்புகிறான் - அத்தகைய ஒரு துறவி இங்கேயும் அதற்கு அப்பாலும் விட்டுவிடுகிறார், ஒரு பாம்பு அதன் தேய்ந்த தோலைக் கொட்டுவது போல. ”

41. “நான் இருப்பது போலவே இவையும் அப்படியே. இவர்களைப் போலவே நானும் இருக்கிறேன். உங்களுக்கு இணையாக வரைந்து கொள்ளுங்கள், கொல்லவோ மற்றவர்களைக் கொல்லவோ கூடாது. ”

42. “ஒரு திடமான பாறை புயலால் அசைக்கப்படாதது போல, ஞானிகளும் புகழால் அல்லது பழியால் பாதிக்கப்படுவதில்லை.”

43. “நாங்கள் அன்பை வளர்த்துக் கொள்வோம், அதை நாங்கள் கடைப்பிடிப்போம், அதை ஒரு வழியாகவும் அடிப்படையாகவும் ஆக்குவோம் …”

44. “மனதில் ஆசைகளால் நிரப்பப்படாத ஒருவருக்கு பயம் இல்லை.”

45. “உங்களுடையது எதுவுமில்லை: அதை விட்டுவிடுங்கள். நீங்கள் அதை விட்டுவிடுவது உங்கள் நீண்டகால மகிழ்ச்சி மற்றும் நன்மைக்காக இருக்கும். ”

46. ​​“இனிமேல் ஆகிவிடுகிற ஏக்கமும் தாகமும் இல்லாதவன்; விழித்தெழுந்த, தடமறியாத, மற்றும் வரம்பற்ற வரம்பை நீங்கள் எவ்வாறு கண்காணிக்க முடியும்? ”

47. “தியானியுங்கள்… தாமதிக்காதீர்கள், பின்னர் நீங்கள் வருத்தப்படக்கூடாது.”

48. “எழும் தன்மை எதுவாக இருந்தாலும் அதை நிறுத்தும் தன்மை உண்டு.”

49. “சமாதானத்தை அடைய உறுதியுடன் பயிற்சி செய்யுங்கள்.”

50. “ஆறுகளில் இருந்து பிளவுகளிலும் பிளவுகளிலும் தெரிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்: சிறிய தடங்களில் உள்ளவர்கள் சத்தமாக ஓடுகிறார்கள், பெரிய ஓட்டம் அமைதியாக இருக்கிறது. எது முழுதாக இல்லாதது சத்தம் போடுகிறது. எது நிரம்பியதோ அது அமைதியானது. ”

உங்கள் நாளைத் தொடங்க 150 குட் மார்னிங் மேற்கோள்கள்

51. “அங்குள்ள உயிரினங்கள் எதுவாக இருந்தாலும் - பலவீனமான அல்லது வலுவான, நீண்ட, தடித்த, அல்லது நடுத்தர அளவு, குறுகிய, சிறிய, பெரிய, பார்த்தவர்கள் அல்லது காணப்படாதவர்கள், தூரத்திலோ அல்லது அருகிலோ வசிப்பவர்கள், பிறந்தவர்கள் மற்றும் இன்னும் இருப்பவர்கள் பிறக்க - எல்லா மனிதர்களுக்கும் மகிழ்ச்சியான மனம் இருக்கட்டும். ”

52. “கொடுக்கும் ஆற்றலைப் பற்றி எனக்குத் தெரிந்ததை நீங்கள் அறிந்திருந்தால், ஒரு விதத்தில் பகிர்ந்து கொள்ளாமல் ஒரு உணவை கூட நீங்கள் விடமாட்டீர்கள்.”

53. “அவர் வேறொருவரை ஏமாற்றவோ, யாரையும் எங்கும் வெறுக்கவோ கூடாது. கோபத்திலோ அல்லது நோயிலோ அவர் இன்னொரு நோயை விரும்பமாட்டார். ”

54. “நம் வாழ்க்கை நம் மனதினால் வடிவமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது; நாம் என்ன நினைக்கிறோம். ஒரு வண்டியின் சக்கரங்கள் அதை இழுக்கும் எருதுகளைப் பின்தொடர்வதால் துன்பம் ஒரு தீய எண்ணத்தைப் பின்பற்றுகிறது. நம் வாழ்க்கை நம் மனதினால் வடிவமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது; நாம் என்ன நினைக்கிறோம். ஒருபோதும் விலகாத நிழல் போன்ற தூய சிந்தனையை மகிழ்ச்சி பின்பற்றுங்கள். ”

55. “நீங்கள் ஆர்வத்துடன் தியானித்தால், மனதில் தூய்மையாகவும், செயல்களில் இரக்கமாகவும், தர்மத்திற்கு இசைவாக ஒழுக்கமான வாழ்க்கையை நடத்தி வந்தால், நீங்கள் மகிமையில் வளருவீர்கள். நீங்கள் ஆர்வத்துடன் தியானித்தால், ஆன்மீக ஒழுக்கங்களின் மூலம் எந்தவொரு வெள்ளத்தையும் மூழ்கடிக்க முடியாத ஒரு தீவை நீங்களே உருவாக்கிக் கொள்ளலாம். ”

56. “நல்லவர்கள் என்ன நடந்தாலும் நடந்துகொண்டே இருப்பார்கள். அவர்கள் வீண் சொற்களைப் பேசுவதில்லை, நல்ல அதிர்ஷ்டத்திலும் கெட்டவிலும் ஒன்றே. ஒருவர் குழந்தைகளையோ செல்வத்தையோ சக்தியையோ வெற்றியையோ நியாயமற்ற முறையில் விரும்பினால், அத்தகையவர் நல்லவர், ஞானமுள்ளவர், நல்லொழுக்கமுள்ளவர் என்று தெரிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள். ”

57. “தன்னை வெல்லுகிறவன் போர்க்களத்தில் ஆயிரம் ஆயிரம் மனிதர்களை வென்றவனை விட பெரியவன். மற்றவர்கள் மீது அல்ல, உங்களை வென்றெடுங்கள். ”

58. “உங்கள் சுயமே உங்கள் எஜமான்; வேறு யார் இருக்க முடியும்? உங்களை நன்கு கட்டுப்படுத்தினால், நீங்கள் ஒரு எஜமானரைக் கண்டுபிடிப்பது மிகவும் கடினம். ”

59. “சடங்குகள் மற்றும் தீர்மானங்கள் மூலமாகவோ, அதிக கற்றல் மூலமாகவோ, பிரம்மச்சரியத்தினாலோ அல்ல, தியானத்தினாலோ அல்ல, உங்கள் சுய விருப்பத்தை நீக்கும் வரை நிர்வாணத்தின் மிக உயர்ந்த, அழியாத மகிழ்ச்சியைக் காண முடியாது.”

60. “நாங்கள் நிரந்தரமாக நினைத்தாலும், நாங்கள் இல்லை என்று தெரிகிறது. நாங்கள் குடியேறினோம் என்று நினைத்தாலும், நாங்கள் இல்லை. நாங்கள் என்றென்றும் நிலைத்திருப்போம் என்று நினைத்தாலும், நாங்கள் அவ்வாறு செய்ய மாட்டோம். ”

61. “இன்பத்திற்குப் பின் ஓடாதீர்கள், தியானத்தின் பயிற்சியை புறக்கணிக்கவும். நீங்கள் வாழ்க்கையின் இலக்கை மறந்து உலகின் இன்பங்களில் சிக்கினால், தியானத்திற்கு முதலிடம் கொடுப்பவர்களை நீங்கள் பொறாமைப்படுத்த வருவீர்கள். ”

62. “கோபத்தை மென்மையின் மூலமாகவும், இரக்கத்தின் மூலம் இரக்கமற்ற தன்மையுடனும், தாராள மனப்பான்மையின் மூலமாகவும், சத்தியத்தால் பொய்யுடனும் வெல்லுங்கள்.”

63. “உங்கள் கண்களையும் காதுகளையும் பயிற்றுவிக்கவும்; உங்கள் மூக்கு மற்றும் நாக்கைப் பயிற்றுவிக்கவும். புலன்கள் பயிற்சி பெறும்போது நல்ல நண்பர்கள். செயல்களில் உங்கள் உடலைப் பயிற்றுவிக்கவும், உங்கள் நாக்கை வார்த்தைகளில் பயிற்றுவிக்கவும், உங்கள் மனதை எண்ணங்களில் பயிற்றுவிக்கவும். இந்த பயிற்சி உங்களை துக்கத்திற்கு அப்பாற்பட்டது. ”

64. “புதையலைச் சுட்டிக்காட்டும் ஒருவரைப் போல, உங்கள் தவறுகளைப் பார்த்து அவற்றைச் சுட்டிக்காட்டும் புத்திசாலி. அத்தகைய முனிவருடன் இணைந்திருங்கள். ”

65. “எல்லா தவறான செயல்களும் மனதினால் எழுகின்றன. மனம் மாற்றப்பட்டால் தவறு செய்வது தொடர்ந்து இருக்க முடியுமா? ”

66. “உங்களுடையது எதுவுமில்லை: அதை விட்டுவிடுங்கள். நீங்கள் அதை விட்டுவிடுவது உங்கள் நீண்டகால மகிழ்ச்சி மற்றும் நன்மைக்காக இருக்கும். ”

67. “உங்கள் வேலையை உங்கள் வேலையைக் கண்டுபிடிப்பதும், பின்னர் உங்களை முழு மனதுடன் வழங்குவதும் ஆகும்.”

68. “நான் உலகத்துடன் தகராறு செய்யவில்லை; மாறாக உலகமே என்னுடன் தகராறு செய்கிறது. ”

69. “நீங்கள் பாதையாக மாறும் வரை நீங்கள் பாதையில் பயணிக்க முடியாது.”

70. “கடந்த காலங்களில் குடியிருக்க வேண்டாம், எதிர்காலத்தைப் பற்றி கனவு காணாதீர்கள், தற்போதைய தருணத்தில் மனதைக் குவிக்கவும்.”

71. “ஒரு மலரின் அற்புதத்தை நாம் தெளிவாகக் காண முடிந்தால், நம் வாழ்நாள் முழுவதும் மாறும்.”

72. “வாழ்க்கையில் ஒரே உண்மையான தோல்வி, சிறந்தவருக்குத் தெரிந்தவர்களுக்கு உண்மையாக இருக்கக்கூடாது.”

73. “டிராப் பை டிராப் என்பது தண்ணீர் பானை நிரப்பப்படுகிறது. அதேபோல், ஞானி, அதை கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சமாக சேகரித்து, தன்னை நன்மையோடு நிரப்புகிறான். ”

74. “உண்மையாக இருங்கள்; கோபத்திற்கு அடிபணிய வேண்டாம். உங்களிடம் இருந்தாலும் குறைவாக இருந்தாலும் இலவசமாகக் கொடுங்கள். தெய்வங்கள் உங்களை ஆசீர்வதிப்பார்கள். ”

75. “இருப்பதற்கான முழு ரகசியமும் பயப்படக்கூடாது. உங்களில் என்ன ஆகுமோ என்று ஒருபோதும் அஞ்சாதீர்கள், யாரையும் நம்பாதீர்கள். எல்லா உதவிகளையும் நீங்கள் நிராகரிக்கும் தருணம் மட்டுமே நீங்கள் விடுவிக்கப்படுகிறீர்கள். ”

76. “எதையும் செய்யத் தகுதியானதாக இருந்தால், அதை முழு மனதுடன் செய்யுங்கள்.”

77. “மற்றவர்களின் தவறுகளைப் பார்ப்பது எளிதானது, ஆனால் ஒருவரின் சொந்த தவறுகளைப் பார்ப்பது கடினம். ஒருவர் காற்றில் அடிப்பதைப் போன்ற மற்றவர்களின் தவறுகளைக் காட்டுகிறார், ஆனால் ஒரு தந்திரமான சூதாட்டக்காரர் தனது பகடைகளை மறைப்பதால் ஒருவர் தனது சொந்த தவறுகளை மறைக்கிறார். ”

78. “தியானம் ஞானத்தைத் தருகிறது; தியானத்தின் பற்றாக்குறை அறியாமையை விட்டுவிடுகிறது. ”

79. “நீங்கள் உங்கள் மீது வெற்றியை அடையும்போது, ​​தெய்வங்களால் கூட அதை தோல்வியாக மாற்ற முடியாது.”

80. “ஆயிரம் வெற்று வார்த்தைகளை விட சிறந்தது, அமைதியைக் கொடுக்கும் ஒரு சொல்.”

81. “நாங்கள் என்ன நினைக்கிறோம், நாங்கள் ஆகிறோம்.”

82. “கோபமுள்ள மனிதனை அன்போடு ம ile னப்படுத்துங்கள். மோசமான குணமுள்ள மனிதனை தயவுடன் அமைதிப்படுத்தவும். தாராள மனப்பான்மையுடன் ம er னமாக இருங்கள். பொய்யரை உண்மையோடு ம ile னமாக்குங்கள். ”

83. “நீங்கள் திசையை மாற்றவில்லை என்றால், நீங்கள் செல்லும் இடத்திற்கு நீங்கள் செல்லலாம்.”

84. “ஆரோக்கியமே சிறந்த பரிசு, மனநிறைவு சிறந்த செல்வம், சிறந்த உறவினரை நம்புங்கள், நிர்வாணம் மிகப்பெரிய மகிழ்ச்சி.

Un attachment
not
Detachment

Letting go is a painful part of life. But according to Buddhism, we must let go of attachment and desires if we are to experience happiness.

However, letting go doesn’t mean you don’t care about anyone and anything. It actually means you can experience life and love fully and openly without clinging to it for your survival.

According to Buddhism, this is the only way to experience true freedom and happiness.

https://mlhmvq6amqed.i.optimole.com/9Yurtvc-zE1H_BCq/w:355/h:236/q:auto/https://ideapod.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/pexels-photo-784928-compressor.jpeg

Travancore’s temple entry proclamation of 1936 for ‘lower …
https://www.firstpost.com/india/travancores-temple-entry-proclamation-of-1936-for-lower-castes-why-nobody-questions-egalitarianism-in-kerala-2504278.html
Lower castes bore the brunt of it, leading to extraordinary practices such as not only untouchability, but also un-seeability. Also, bizarrely precise laws of untouchability and even un-shadowability were in effect: a Nair must stand at least 5 feet away from a Nambudiri, an Ezhava 10 feet, a Pulaya 15 feet, and so on.

Native Brahmins and Non-Native Brahmins | The Orient Views
https://orientviews.wordpress.com/2013/10/02/native-brahmins-and-non-native-brahmins/
Few days back, i came across a Choliya Brahmin through my friend. While casually interacting with him, there was a discussion about the sharp divide among different sects of brahmins. In that he was saying that the Vadama brahmins treats them as untouchables, and will perform purification when the choliya brahmins entered their house. This…

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch
By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020 RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever […]

https://www.winterwatch.net/2020/11/maker-of-covid-tests-says-pandemic-is-biggest-hoax-ever-perpetrated/
Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated
By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020
RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on an unsuspecting public.” Hodkinson, who is the CEO of a biotech company that makes COVID tests, says “There is utterly unfounded public hysteria driven by the media and politicians.” We are seeing “politics playing medicine, and that’s a very dangerous game.”
Positive test results do not mean a clinical infection, he says. All testing should stop because the false numbers they produce are “driving public hysteria.” Hodkinson says the risk of death for people under the age of 65 is “one in three-hundred thousand” and it is “outrageous” to shut down society for what is merely “just another bad flu.” […]

But this COVID though it is Hoax and just another bad flu helped creating all humans as untouchable, un see ables and even un shadow ables

which is leading to practice un attachablity and not detachabilty

Travancores temple entry proclamation of 1936 for lower castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala-India News , Firstpost

Travancores temple entry proclamation of 1936 for lower castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala-India News , Firstpost
Just as the French revolution had its dark side, so does the social revolution in Kerala: the egalitarianism of this proclamation brought with it a reverse discrimination.

Travancore’s temple entry proclamation of 1936 for ‘lower’ castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala
Just as the French revolution had its dark side, so does the social revolution in Kerala: the egalitarianism of this proclamation brought with it a reverse discrimination.

On November 12, 1936, the birthday of the young Maharaja of Travancore, Sri Chitra Thirunal Balarama Varma, he issued a proclamation in his capital, Trivandrum. The proclamation said, in its entirety:
‘Profoundly convinced of the truth and validity of our religion, believing that it is based on divine guidance and on all-comprehending toleration, knowing that in its practice it has throughout the centuries, adapted itself to the needs of changing times, solicitous that none of our Hindu subjects should, by reason of birth or caste or community, be denied the consolation and the solace of the Hindu faith, we have decided and hereby declare, ordain and command that, subject to such rules and conditions as may be laid down and imposed by us for preserving their proper atmosphere and maintaining their rituals and observances, there should henceforth be no restriction placed on any Hindu by birth or religion on entering or worshipping at temples controlled by us and our Government.’

To us today, this may seem commonplace, but for that time and place it was revolutionary. For this was Travancore, which Swami Vivekananda had called “a lunatic asylum” for the indignities heaped on its lower castes.

Today, Kerala is probably the least (overtly) casteist part of the country, although it is almost certainly the most (covertly) communal part as well. But nobody questions egalitarianism. This edict was as powerful as the ideals of the French Revolution: liberty, equality and fraternity.
But just as the revolution had its dark side, so does Kerala’s social revolution: the egalitarianism of this proclamation brought with it a reverse discrimination, so that today the Hindus are at the receiving end of what is for all practical purposes an apartheid: in every way, they are behind the Christians and Muslims, who also benefit from official benefits for them.

Be that as it may, a little history lesson is in order. What is now Kerala was, like most of South India around 1500 years ago, heavily Buddhist and Jain: and there are occasional discoveries of seated Buddhas by farmers tilling the fields. There is evidence from Xieun Tsang, the Chinese traveler, who described his trip to Sabarimala where he said the presiding deity was worshipped simultaneously as both Siva and the Avalokitesvara Padmapani.

And I am quoting Communist leader EMS Namboodiripad, so those of you about to outrage at me may calm down. An army of Hindus arrived circa 600CE, headed by Nambudiri Brahmins and defeated the Buddhists, imposing Hindu culture again over the area. Those Buddhists who collaborated became ‘high-caste’ sudras (eg Nairs), and those that didn’t became ‘low-caste’ (eg Ezhavas). This invasion is immortalized in the story of Mahabali, who ‘ruled over a kingdom where all were equal’, and was sent to Patala: thus exiled.

This situation continued for over a thousand years, partly because it was a stable equilibrium wherein all parties knew their roles in society, even those who were oppressed and at the bottom of the pile as feudal peasant untermenschen. There were also small groups of Christians (the first of them arrived around 345CE, contrary to popular mythology, as refugees led by Thomas of Canaan, a Syrian merchant), Jews, and Muslims.

The next big disruption was when the Portuguese, instigated by Francis Xavier, invaded and converted at gunpoint most of the coastal fisherfolk. They were annoyed to find the Syrian Christians who had never heard of the Pope (their allegiance was to the Patriarch of Antioch, Syria) and so proceeded to persecute and forcibly convert them as well.

Next came Tipu Sultan around 1790. He conquered Malabar and parts of Cochin, but was thwarted from entering Travancore by the use of a ‘river bomb’, wherein Travancore soldiers purposely burst a dam, causing a wall of water to course down the Periyar river. This flooded Tipu’s batteries and killed his troops, forcing him to retreat. But Tipu’s advance had caused a large number of Hindus to flee persecution and settle in Travancore. Many Hindus were also converted at swordpoint.

The net result of Tipu’s invasion was that Travancore became impoverished and thus dependent on the British, who took full advantage of the situation. They forced the regent queen in 1819 to donate Rs. 10,000 (an astronomical sum then) to set up the Valiya Palli church at Kottayam, and large-scale conversions of Hindus began, because they offered poor, low-caste people basic education if they converted.

In 1819, there were, according to the Travancore Manual, 6% Muslims and 6% Christians in Travancore. But under the stress of British overlordship, high tributes extracted by them, and the threat of conversion, paradoxically Hindu society turned destructively inwards and became dysfunctional, even suicidal. Lower castes bore the brunt of it, leading to extraordinary practices such as not only untouchability, but also un-seeability. Also, bizarrely precise laws of untouchability and even un-shadowability were in effect: a Nair must stand at least 5 feet away from a Nambudiri, an Ezhava 10 feet, a Pulaya 15 feet, and so on.

One of the most ridiculous laws prevented lower-caste Hindus from not only going to temples, but even walking on the public roads around them.

Unbelievably, they had a simple way around it: just convert, and then you can use the public roads. Thus a Sankaran merely had to become a Thomas or a Bashir, and he could automatically enjoy a lot more freedom! As a result of all this, by 1930, Travancore was 33% Christian, up from 6% in 1819: Ezhavas and Nadars converted in huge numbers (data from the Travancore Manual).

Increasing awareness of their rights by the lower-castes, especially the Ezhavas, led to agitations for more rights, including entry into government jobs and the Praja-sabha (Assembly) for them. The leadership of Sree Narayana Guru and the poet Kumaran Asan ensured this anger was constructive, and not destructive. But the Vaikom Satyagraha, 1924, about access to the roads around the Vaikom Siva temple, crystallized the anger, and Ezhavas began to discuss en masse conversion to Christianity.

It was in this situation that the wise Maharaja, supported by his brilliant prime minister C P Ramaswamy Iyer, decided that natural justice and sheer decency indicated that temple entry should be granted. Thus the events of November 12, 1936. All Hindus could now, with dignity, go to all temples. In fact, police officers were required to escort low-caste people there. A great-uncle of mine, a dentist, recounted how the very lowest caste people had been led to believe that their eyes would burst if they entered temples, and so it was necessary to demonstrate to them that no such thing would happen.

The net result of all this, unfortunately, was that the previously oppressed became enamored with the siren song of radical egalitarianism and became Communists. To this day, they remain so, thus enabling Communism to retain a foothold in Kerala.
The royals of Travancore, who ruled as regents to the real sovereign Sri Padmanabha, had defeated the Dutch (Colachel 1741) and Tipu (Aluva 1790), and remained one of the best kingdoms in the country, retrieved their lost honor by this far-sighted and bold move in 1936. It was a landmark declaration, no less remarkable than the successes of human rights movements elsewhere.

At the entrance to the Travancore royal palace on the 103rd birthday of Sri Chitra Tirunal. on 10 November, 2015. Image: Rajeev Srinivasan/Firstpost

Travancore’s temple entry proclamation of 1936 for ‘lower …
https://www.firstpost.com/india/travancores-temple-entry-proclamation-of-1936-for-lower-castes-why-nobody-questions-egalitarianism-in-kerala-2504278.html
Lower castes bore the brunt of it, leading to extraordinary practices such as not only untouchability, but also un-seeability. Also, bizarrely precise laws of untouchability and even un-shadowability were in effect: a Nair must stand at least 5 feet away from a Nambudiri, an Ezhava 10 feet, a Pulaya 15 feet, and so on.

Native Brahmins and Non-Native Brahmins | The Orient Views
https://orientviews.wordpress.com/2013/10/02/native-brahmins-and-non-native-brahmins/
Few days back, i came across a Choliya Brahmin through my friend. While casually interacting with him, there was a discussion about the sharp divide among different sects of brahmins. In that he was saying that the Vadama brahmins treats them as untouchables, and will perform purification when the choliya brahmins entered their house. This…

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch
By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020 RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever […]

https://www.winterwatch.net/2020/11/maker-of-covid-tests-says-pandemic-is-biggest-hoax-ever-perpetrated/
Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated
By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020
RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on an unsuspecting public.” Hodkinson, who is the CEO of a biotech company that makes COVID tests, says “There is utterly unfounded public hysteria driven by the media and politicians.” We are seeing “politics playing medicine, and that’s a very dangerous game.”
Positive test results do not mean a clinical infection, he says. All testing should stop because the false numbers they produce are “driving public hysteria.” Hodkinson says the risk of death for people under the age of 65 is “one in three-hundred thousand” and it is “outrageous” to shut down society for what is merely “just another bad flu.” […]

But this COVID though it is Hoax and just another bad flu helped creating all humans as untouchable, un see ables and even un shadow ables

which is leading to practice un attachablity and not detachabilty

Travancores temple entry proclamation of 1936 for lower castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala-India News , Firstpost

Travancores temple entry proclamation of 1936 for lower castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala-India News , Firstpost
Just as the French revolution had its dark side, so does the social revolution in Kerala: the egalitarianism of this proclamation brought with it a reverse discrimination.

Travancore’s temple entry proclamation of 1936 for ‘lower’ castes: Why nobody questions egalitarianism in Kerala
Just as the French revolution had its dark side, so does the social revolution in Kerala: the egalitarianism of this proclamation brought with it a reverse discrimination.

On November 12, 1936, the birthday of the young Maharaja of Travancore, Sri Chitra Thirunal Balarama Varma, he issued a proclamation in his capital, Trivandrum. The proclamation said, in its entirety:
‘Profoundly convinced of the truth and validity of our religion, believing that it is based on divine guidance and on all-comprehending toleration, knowing that in its practice it has throughout the centuries, adapted itself to the needs of changing times, solicitous that none of our Hindu subjects should, by reason of birth or caste or community, be denied the consolation and the solace of the Hindu faith, we have decided and hereby declare, ordain and command that, subject to such rules and conditions as may be laid down and imposed by us for preserving their proper atmosphere and maintaining their rituals and observances, there should henceforth be no restriction placed on any Hindu by birth or religion on entering or worshipping at temples controlled by us and our Government.’

To us today, this may seem commonplace, but for that time and place it was revolutionary. For this was Travancore, which Swami Vivekananda had called “a lunatic asylum” for the indignities heaped on its lower castes.

comments (0)
06/27/21
LESSON 4014 Mon 28 Jun 2021 Swim Mindfully Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 9:04 am

LESSON 4014 Mon 28 Jun 2021

Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

As per the report by CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) COVID-19 does not spread through water. In fact, the report clearly states that chlorine water is one of the best disinfectants. We have explained the same to the CM and the health minister in our appeal,” he added.

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:04 AM]
https://youtu.be/FPtZK7jIyDw

free online step by step guide to grow nutritious vegetables and fruits in pots to practice mindful swimming with pictures and videos

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:16 AM]
http://organicterrace.in/blog/learn-to-grow-your-own-organic-food/

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:18 AM]
Learn to Grow Your Own Fresh Organic Food

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Long time back when I started this blog I had never imagined that I would be writing this post. I had started my blog to document and share my experience and findings on growing vegetables in container using locally available waste and recycled organic waste. But soon I started getting requests for making specific posts related to organic terrace gardening. While I kept sharing my finding I also started to make posts on readers’ requests. And thus this blog grew into a learning resource for people who wanted to learn to grow organic vegetables in a sustainable manner.

But it had grown in an unplanned and unorganized manner. And that led me to write my book ‘Organic Urban Farming, The Indian Way’, which is a complete and crisp guide for growing your own food at home. But there are a lot of people who are visual learners and do not read books. Hence I have created an online video course titled ‘Organic Container Gardening, The Indian Way’ for all kind of learners to easily lean container gardening.
If you ever wanted to learn how to create you own food garden that is organic and sustainable, you have three options to choose from now. You can learn directly from this blog if you are looking for anything specific. And if you want to learn in a holistic manner about organic container gardening, you can choose between book and video course.
Choose the learning method that suits you and sow the seeds of a healthy, content and joyful life.

Related Posts:
1 Growing These Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy
2 Terrace Gardening Workshop Announcement

Author
Prabal
Posted on
June 21, 2020
Categories
How of Terrace Gardening, Planting Guide, Workshop and Training
Tags
Benefits of Organic Terrace Gardening, Organic Terrace Gardening, organic urban farming training, urban farming book, Urban Farming Course, urban farming training, urban farming workshop

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:18 AM]
Learn to Grow Your Own Fresh Organic Food

AddThis Sharing Buttons
Share to Facebook
Share to Twitter
Share to Email
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16
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Long time back when I started this blog I had never imagined that I would be writing this post. I had started my blog to document and share my experience and findings on growing vegetables in container using locally available waste and recycled organic waste. But soon I started getting requests for making specific posts related to organic terrace gardening. While I kept sharing my finding I also started to make posts on readers’ requests. And thus this blog grew into a learning resource for people who wanted to learn to grow organic vegetables in a sustainable manner.

But it had grown in an unplanned and unorganized manner. And that led me to write my book ‘Organic Urban Farming, The Indian Way’, which is a complete and crisp guide for growing your own food at home. But there are a lot of people who are visual learners and do not read books. Hence I have created an online video course titled ‘Organic Container Gardening, The Indian Way’ for all kind of learners to easily lean container gardening.
If you ever wanted to learn how to create you own food garden that is organic and sustainable, you have three options to choose from now. You can learn directly from this blog if you are looking for anything specific. And if you want to learn in a holistic manner about organic container gardening, you can choose between book and video course.
Choose the learning method that suits you and sow the seeds of a healthy, content and joyful life.

Related Posts:
1 Growing These Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy
2 Terrace Gardening Workshop Announcement

Author
Prabal
Posted on
June 21, 2020
Categories
How of Terrace Gardening, Planting Guide, Workshop and Training
Tags
Benefits of Organic Terrace Gardening, Organic Terrace Gardening, organic urban farming training, urban farming book, Urban Farming Course, urban farming training, urban farming workshop

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:21 AM]
How to Preserve Tomatoes in The Most Delicious Way

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Tomato is one plant which never disappoints in terms of produce, if basics are done right. In our organic terrace garden tomato is in fact one of the most highly producing plants (here is my earlier post on how to grow tomatoes). Generally we grow around eight to ten regular tomato and four to five cherry tomato plants every winter and we have never had to buy tomatoes from the market. In fact there is a lot of surplus and even after sharing some of it with our neighbors we are still left with lots and lots of fresh and juicy tomatoes. And that is when my sister Smita Mallick who is a budding chef and food blogger comes to rescue. She preserves the tomatoes in various way which makes them even more delicious and I really mean it. She has been kind enough to write the following post on How to Preserve Tomatoes.

Smita Mallick
Though tomato is grown only in winter, we have been enjoying the taste of our own home grown produce throughout the year because of her preserves. I am sure this post will enable you to do the same. Please don’t forget to follow Smita at Instagram and let her know whether you liked the post or not.

Smita Mallick’s Post Starts Here. All images in this post are © Smita Mallick.
There are multiple ways of how to preserve tomatoes for a longer time. The easiest way is to store them is to freeze them in a zip pouch after blanching and taking out skin and seeds. Cherry tomatoes can be directly frozen and stored in a zip pouch. In this post however I am going to show you two step by step methods of preserving tomatoes which do involve a little effort. But in these ways tomatoes can be stored up to a year and also makes the tomatoes even tastier. The first preservation method is making tomato paste and the second one is to sun dry the tomatoes.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:23 AM]
How to Make Sun Dried Tomatoes at Home

Tomatoes need to be de-seeded before drying
For this recipe you can use any type of tomatoes. Working with cherry tomatoes for this recipe can be a little tiresome as each tomato needs to be de-seeded by hand. Hence you can choose to use regular tomatoes for this recipe. Sun dried tomatoes can be used directly in pasta and other dishes. To use them in salads you need to soak them in warm water for 3 to 4 minutes before use. You need now throw away the seeds. They can be stored for the next season.
Ingredients
1 Fresh Tomatoes – 1 kg
2 Olive oil – 2 tbsp
3 Dried mixed herbs – 1 tbsp
4 Salt to taste
Process

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:25 AM]
Process

Arrange the tomatoes skin side down
1 Wash the tomatoes and pat dry with kitchen towel.
2 Cut them into two halves and take out all the seeds and the juice.
3 Add dried mix Italian herb, salt and olive oil to the tomatoes and mix well.
4 Grease any plate or tray with olive oil and put the tomatoes skin side down.
5 Arrange the tomatoes such that each individual piece is separated. This way all pieces will get access to sunlight.
6 Sun dry it for 4 to 5 days or till the moisture evaporates. Sun rays not only help evaporate the moisture, they also help in killing bacteria.
7 Store the sun dried tomatoes in an air tight jar and keep it in refrigerator.
8 These can be stored up to a year

Sun dried Tomatoes

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:27 AM]
How to Make Tomato Paste at Home

Cut Tomatoes into halves
For this recipe you can use any kind of tomatoes.  Tomatoes are not de-seeded individually; hence cherry tomatoes can also be used without much fuss. Tomato paste is typically used in stews, soups, pilaf, pasta etc. The flavors are concentrated and hence just one spoons can change the flavor profile of your dish completely; in a good way of course.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:27 AM]
Ingredients

Arrange tomatoes skin side down in the baking tray
1 Fresh tomatoes – 1 kg
2 Dried Italian Herbs – 1 tbps
3 Vinegar – 1 tsp
4 Olive Oil – 1 tsp for baking and 3 tbsp for cooking

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:28 AM]
Process
1
2 Strain the seeds and skin out

Wash the tomatoes and pat dry with kitchen towel. Cut them into two halves.
3 Add dried Italian herb mix and drizzle olive oil. Don’t add much Olive oil; it is just to coat the herbs.
4 Grease baking tray with olive oil and arrange the tomatoes skin side down. You can add some fresh herbs (optional) at this point. Here we added some fresh Italian basil from our organic terrace garden. 


Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:29 AM]
1 Add more herbs before reducing the paste

2 Bake the tomatoes for 30 to 40 mins on 180-200 degree centigrade and then take out the tomatoes from the oven and cool.
3 Blend the tomatoes using a food processor or blender. Make sure that you do not add any water to it.
4 Strain the tomato paste using a strainer and put the pureed tomato in a deep pan with a thick base. Add some more dried herbs at this point if you need more flavor.
5 Add vinegar to the tomato paste at this point.
6 Cook it in a low-med heat till about 90% of the water evaporates.Keep

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:30 AM]
1 Keep stirring the tomato paste to avoid burning

stirring in between so that the paste does not burn at the bottom.
2 Add olive (3tbsp) oil to it. Cook for another 10 min in a low heat while stirring.
3 Switch of the flame, when the oil separates from the paste.
4 Let it cool. Tomato paste is now ready to be stored.
5 Transfer to an air tight glass jar and label the jar with date.
6 Store it in refrigerator. You can store it for a year.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:35 AM]
Ready to harvest coriander
After coriander seeds have germinated all you need to do is to water them as needed. You can water with Amrut Jal every 10-15 days for better growth of the plant; but its not absolutely necessary. To harvest you can cut the mature stalks and leave the rest of the plant in place. When coriander plant starts flowering or a little before it you can harvest the whole plant. All parts including the roots can be used in cooking.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:36 AM]
How to Grow Mint in Container

Mint growing in a six inch container
Of all the herbs mentioned in this blog, mint is probably the easiest to grow. Though seeds are available in the market you don’t really need them. Just take a few mature stalk from a mint plant, remove the leaves except 2-4 top leaves and bury the lower part of the stalk in your pot. Water to make the soil moist and in about 10-12 days the stalk would have taken roots. Yes it is as simple as that.
Mint grows like a weed. You’ll see mint spreading everywhere in your pot even from a single stalk. In about 30-40 days after your plant has taken root you can start harvesting. To harvest just nip the mature stalks at the bottom. You can use the leaves and stalks in salads, soups, tea and other beverages

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:37 AM]
How to Grow Basil in Container

Basil can be started in seed trays
Basil has become a much sought after herb now a days. Stores are stocking it up in their shelves, but it is expensive and also not fresh most of the time. Ironically what most people are not aware is that it can be easily grown at home even by a five year old kid. All you need is good quality seeds which are available in most online stores.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:39 AM]
How to Grow Dill in Container

Two dill plants planted in a ten liter pot
Dill is not as popular as other three herbs I have listed in this post, but once you get used to its subtle flavor, you just cant do without it. Dill belongs to the carrot family and is grown from seeds and just like basil you can choose to grow it directly in the soil or start it indoors in a seed tray depending on the temperature. Dill can take a long time to germinate; so you need to be patient.
In case you have started the seeds in a seed tray, transfer it to a container after 10-15 days after germination. Dill grows well in a ten liter container, but anything around 7 liter will also work out fine. You can even plant two plants in a ten liter pot. In 40-50 days after germination you can start harvesting the leaves. The stems and leaves are edible parts of the plant. Even the flower is eaten and is often used as decorative garnish. The root is eaten too, though we have never used it in cooking yet.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:51 AM]
Garden Yoga by Vinita Mitra

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:52 AM]
Containers lined up

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:53 AM]
Seed Sowing in Progress

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:54 AM]
Kids receiving certificates

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:55 AM]
When kids talk everyone listens

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:55 AM]
Green Ninja Group Pic

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:58 AM]
http://organicterrace.in/blog/organic-farming-for-mitigating-climate-change/

Organic Farming for Mitigating Climate Change

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Thanks to Greta Thunberg, people around the world have been woken up to climate change crisis. Some critics have already termed it as just a passing fad and some have also harshly criticized the demands of climate strike group as lop sided and even French media has warned that her radical ways could end up depressing a generation. Despite the criticism, we can not ignore the passion and effort of a young 16 year old, which for sure has brought about a much needed disruption in the collective slumber of the world.
Along with climate activists there has also been the rise of climate change deniers. In fact the deniers claim that the earth is actually in the middle of a cooling period. Though it is suspected that these groups are backed by fossil fuel companies to spread misinformation based on fringe science, the climate change data is also not without it share of suspicion. There are claims cthat the Global Warming data has actually been faked by NASA to aid politically vested interests. Such contradictory reports can be very confusing and its very difficult to really understand the truth. But we can always look around and see how things have changed around us. We need also to understand both Global Warming/Cooling and Climate Change independently even though they are linked.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:59 AM]
Devastation caused by Cyclonic Storm Fani in May 2019
Climate Change can be defined as unexpected and unpredictable change in weather pattern. It can be either in the direction of cooling or warming. Agriculture, economy, cultures and societies are dependent very heavily on predictability of climatic conditions. When weather pattern is disrupted on a continuous basis it leads to break down of societies and civilization irrespective of whether we are cooling or warming. From the data of past few years it can be seen that there has been unexpected changes in climatic conditions and weather stability has been an issue. Closer home monsoons have become irregular. The agricultural system of India is largely dependent on the predictability of monsoons. But with errant maze of downpours and droughts the agrarian crisis has gone from bad to worse in the last decade. Sea level rise has inundated villages in the coastline and at few places entire village has been abandoned. There has been unprecedented rise in temperature even in what are supposed to be cooler months. Cyclonic storms have become very common and stronger. Ground and surface water availability has become a big issue. Our oceans are becoming poisonous and ecosystems around us are failing. All these facts tell us that there is a definite change in weather cycle and also rise in over all temperature. Greenhouse gasses and deforestation have been found to be a major cause of these changes. It really does not matter what different groups are saying about the temperature of the earth; climate is surely changing and we need to be concerned about it.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 2:00 AM]
Agriculture and Climate Change

GHG Emission per Economic Sector (Source EPA-IPCC-2014)
The demands of the climate strike group focus on reducing emission in transport and electricity production sectors and rightly so. But there is little focus on another significant contributor to global greenhouse gasses which is the Agriculture sector. According to IPCC data in 2014 Agriculture is a close second to Electricity and heat production sector in effecting climate change (Some latest statistics also suggest that GHG emission from agricultural sector is now at 29% as opposed to 24% according to 2010 data) . To some it may come as a shock; after all we are growing plants in farming and how can that contribute to climate change! It sounds so counter intuitive. But the fact is that modern industrial agriculture is one of the biggest culprits of increasing global green house gasses. And this is how it happens.
1 According to a 50 year long study by university of Illinois carbon loss from soil is accelerated when synthetic nitrogen fertilizer is used. Average carbon loss in fields where synthetic nitrogen fertilizer is applied is 10,000 kg per hectare which is 36,700 kg of CO2 per hectare.
2 Intensive industrial agriculture practices such as tilling, mono cropping and removing crop residue expose the carbon soil to oxygen which combines with the carbon to become atmospheric carbon dioxide. In fact it is estimated that some 25-40% of the excess carbon in air is due to destruction of soil organic matter.
3 Intensive agriculture practices are used for growing animal feed and cash crops. About 90% of the soy and 50% of the grain of the world is actually used as animal feed to grow meat and dairy. In addition industrial animal husbandry by itself it a huge contributor of green house gasses especially methane.
4 Forests are being destroyed for agriculture. About half of forest land in the world has been converted into croplands and pastures. The cooling effect caused by moisture transpired from plants and trees is hence gone. This causes compounded warming along with the greenhouse effect.
5 Heavy usage of fossil fuels in industrial farming causes further GHG emission.
6 Last but not the least, the carbon footprint of making and transporting chemical fertilizers and pesticides also contributes to the over all role of organic farming for mitigating climate change.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 2:02 AM]
Soil Carbon and the Carbon Cycle

Agricultural Productivity Impact of Climate Change (Source-UNCTAD-2013)
The graphics here released by United Nations show the predicted agricultural productivity loss due to climate change. But we now know that modern agriculture is not just an innocent victim of climate change, but is a major contributor to it too. But unlike other sectors Agriculture also has the ability to become a solution to mitigate climate change. According to FAO (Food and Agriculture organization of the UN) – “Agriculture not only suffers from the effect of climate change, it is also responsible for 14% of greenhouse gas emission. But agriculture has the potential to be an important part of the solution through mitigation – reducing and/or removing a large part of global emissions.” To understand this we need to understand how carbon is stored in the soil by nature.
Plants pull out carbon dioxide from atmosphere and then convert the carbon to stems leaves etc. They do give some of the carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere through respiration, but it is smaller comparable to what they absorb from the atmosphere. When plants die they decompose and turn into soil carbon. Some amount of carbon dioxide is also released during the decomposition process and microbes break down plant matter into their food. When this decomposed plant matter stabilizes as humus (well decomposed organic matter) it stays in the soil for hundreds of years.  I guess now we are beginning to see how soil can become a good sink for atmospheric carbon.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 2:03 AM]
Soil is the key to climate change mitigation
Currently soil stores more than three times the amount of carbon in atmosphere. But there has been a significant loss in soil carbon in post industrial era. Soil have lost 50-70% of their carbon according to studies. But that also tells us that there is a potential of removing atmospheric carbon and returning the lost carbon back to soil and thus help fight climate change. The process of returning carbon to soil is known as carbon sequestration of soil and according to a study in 2017  it was found that global croplands can store up to 1.85 giga tonnes of carbon per year. This process could continue upto 40 years till soil becomes saturated. According to an GRAIN (NFO) soil organic matter could be restored to pre-industrial cultivation era in roughly 50 years offsetting approx 30% of current global GHG emission. It is these numbers of soil carbon sequestration which makes organic agriculture a front line candidate for mitigating climate change.
Organic Agriculture for Mitigation of Climate Change
Organic agriculture most of the time is referred to as replacing chemical inputs with natural ones in the current industrial mode of agriculture. But that is a huge mislead. In spirit organic farming is a different practice of agriculture which runs in sync with nature and natural conditions. Though the practices vary slightly with geography as it should, in approach it remains same and is based on the core philosophy of regeneration, nutrient cycling and balance. Some of the features of organic farming are
1 Integrated approach (trees, animals and croplands) for better nutrient recycling
2 Closed loop agriculture with locally available inputs and resources
3 Soil regeneration through composting and ground covers
4 Use of locally adapted sturdy varieties and seed saving
5 Bio-diverse agriculture
6 Efficient nutrient and water management
7 Integrated with larger social and cultural systems and managed by local small scale farmers
The following sections examine how Organic Farming practices can be used to offset green house gasses and also combat climate change issues.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:35 AM]
How to Grow Coriander in Container

Young coriander plants
Coriander is grown from seeds; but you don’t need to get coriander seeds from your gardening store. Just grab some whole coriander seeds from your kitchen shelf and you are good to go. For faster germination you can soak the seeds for 12-15 hours in water or Amrut Jal. For the container you do not really need a deep one as coriander has shallow roots. And shallow container is ideal for growing coriander. Just fill the container with potting mix. Spread the seeds all over the container and top it with quarter inch of potting mix. Then water carefully so as not to disturb the seeds. To keep the soil moist check everyday and water if necessary. In a few days time you should see coriander seedlings bursting out of the soil. Sometimes. it can take up to 20 days for coriander seeds to germinate. So you need to be patient and wait if the seeds do not germinate early.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:40 AM]
End Note

Ready to harvest basil
Herbs are sold in bunches in the stores and even by your friendly neighborhood vegetable vendor. Most often than not we use a part of the bunch and rest of the bunch is left in the refrigerator to rot. Instead of buying not so fresh bunches of your favorite herb and then leaving it to rot, it is always a better idea to grow your own fresh herb at home and use them as needed. Herbs are the easiest to grow and they can be grown almost everywhere; even on your windowsill. And if you are a gardening enthusiast, but don’t know where to start, you can always start by growing herbs.
So get up your ath and grow some herbs..  
 

Related Posts:
1 How to Grow Cluster Beans in Containers

Author
Prabal
Posted on
December 28, 2019
Categories
Herbs, How of Terrace Gardening, Planting Guide
Tags
basil, cilantro, container gardening, coriander, dill, grow herbs, herbs, herbs in pots, italian basil, mint, organic terrace, Organic Terrace Garden, pudina, Urban Farming

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:46 AM]
http://organicterrace.in/blog/green-ninja-the-urban-farming-workshop-for-kids/
Green Ninja – The Urban Farming Workshop for Kids

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Green Ninja – The Urban Farming Workshop for Kids
Date – 24.11.2019, Venue – Aikyam

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:47 AM]
Green Ninjas fooling around
I am very excited about this post. A few days earlier I got an opportunity to conduct my very first Organic Urban Farming Workshop for kids. The workshop was organized by Aikyam located in Old Town area of Bhubaneswar. Surrounded by canopies of different trees of varying shades of green, the open terrace of Aikyam provided the ideal setting for the workshop. But having never conducted any programs for children earlier I was nowhere near being the ideal instructor. So I really had to prepare well. There were multiple iterations on the content of the workshop, but finally I knew what I had to deliver. But the biggest challenge of the workshop was not what, but how it had to be delivered.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:33 AM]
http://organicterrace.in/blog/growing-these-four-herbs-in-your-garden-is-super-easy/
Growing These Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy

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Sometime earlier I got a request from one of my readers to write a post on how to grow coriander from seeds. I was a little surprised that I had not made a post on it already. And when I checked I found out that I have not made any post on growing any herb whatsoever. Herbs are integral part of a terrace vegetable garden; not only they are easy to grow and pack loads of flavors for your food, but also because they act as pest repellents and thus help in pest management of your garden organically. So I thought of doing a post on how to grow different herbs. In this post I am going to show you how you can grow coriander, mint, basil and dill easily in your container garden.
Growing Condition for Herbs
Item
Coriander
Mint
Basil
Dill
Growing Temperature
15 – 30 °C
15 – 25 °C
10 – 25 °C
15 – 25 °C
Germination Temperature
20-22 °C
20-22 °C
20-22 °C
20-22 °C
Germination Time
5-20 days
7-15 days
3-10 days
7-15 days
Soil pH
6 to 7
6.5 to 7.5
5.5 to 6.5
5.5 to 6.5
Sunlight Need
4-8 hours per day
4-8 hours per day
6-8 hours per day
6-8 hours per day
Preferred Planting Method
Direct sowing
Direct sowing/From Cutting
Direct sowing/ Transplanting
Direct sowing/ Transplanting
Container type/size
6-8 inch deep Broad container
4-6 inch deep broad container
10 liter
10 liter
Time to Harvest from germination
25 days
40 days
40 days
40 days
Harvest Period
 10-15 days
 30-50 days
 30-40 days
 40-50 days
Edible Parts
Whole Plant
Leaves
Leaves
Leaves, stem, Flowers
Typical Pests
None observed
None observed
None observed
None observed
Typical Diseases
Leaf spot
Leaf spot, Rust
Wilting
Powdery Mildew
Best season to grow in India
November to March
November to February
November to February
November to February

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:31 AM]
Label the jar with date
I hope this post on how to preserve tomatoes will be useful for you and if you use these recipes to make sun dried tomatoes of tomato paste, don’t forget to post the pics and tag me on instagram.

Related Posts:
1 Growing These Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy

Author
Prabal
Posted on
March 13, 2020
Categories
How of Terrace Gardening, Recipe, Tomato and Eggplant Family
Tags
Food Preservation, How to Preserve Tomatoes, Organic Terrace Garden, Preserving Tomatoes, Sun Dried Tomato, Sun Drying Tomatoes, Tomato Paste Recipe

Planting Cluster Beans

Cluster Bean Seeds
Cluster bean has a tap root as it is a drought tolerant crop and hence needs a container that is at least ten inches deep. Our standard potting mix works well for cluster beans. In case you are planting on the ground make sure that the soil is enriched with some organic manure. Cluster bean grows well in warm conditions. Hence March to September are good months to grow them. But they do not do well in places experiencing heavy monsoons. For such areas the best months to sow your seeds are March to May and then you can harvest up to August.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:49 AM]
Making the perfect potting mix
Finally the day of the workshop arrived and it was time for action. The workshop started with Vinita Mitra of Aikyam teaching ‘Garden Yoga’ to the kids, which was not only enjoyed, but performed extremely well by them. Next was a awareness quiz which was conducted by me. It was heartening to see the awareness level of the children who answered 9/10 questions correctly. By this time the children were already involved in the workshop. And then for the next one hour through animations, rhymes, songs and stories they learned about the features of good soil, vermicompost, neem cake and how to make a good potting mix. A short muffin and milkshake break later they did some seed identification and then it was time to get their hands dirty. All of them followed the potting mix recipe to the T, prepared their own pots, planted seeds in their containers and watered them.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:50 AM]
Getting their hands dirty
After a super energetic four hours, the workshop concluded with feedback sessions from the children and distribution of certificates. They were also handed over a plant care instruction card each. As the kids proudly carried away their own containers now filled with potting mix and seeds sown in it and waiting in anticipation for them to germinate, I felt contentment, joyful and a sense of achievement.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 27, 2021 at 1:48 AM]
Container Prep demo in progress
The children for the workshop were going to be aged between 7 and 12. So I knew I had to capture their attentions right from the word go and then keep them interested for a good four hours after that. I researched a little on what cartoon characters, activities, nursery rhymes kids are familiar with and used them to set the flow of the workshop. I even wrote funny rhymes and songs that the children could sing along and learn. The measurements of the potting mix recipe also had to change so that kids could easily do it. It took me a good 7-8 days to get prepared for the workshop. Then a few iterations later I was ready with the presentation and flow of the workshop. Yet I was nervous.

http://organicterrace.in/blog/how-to-grow-cluster-beans-in-containers/

How to Grow Cluster Beans in Containers

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Cluster beans is something that I never liked eating. It has a mild bitter taste which takes a little bit of getting used to. But when you acquire the taste it can become one of your favorites. For me the taste was never a problem. It was the texture which I disliked. The cluster beans that you typically get in market are a little hard in texture and the two sides of the bean has a string like hardness to it. Hence I never ate cluster beans though it is one of my sister’s favorite. It took me years of persuasion by my sister to grow cluster beans in our garden. After the first harvest I tried cluster beans just to check if they taste any different from the ones available in market (also because I had grown them :) ). And now they are something for which my sister and I fight on the dining table. Read on to find out why and also to learn How to Grow Cluster Beans in Containers.
Quick Reference Table to Grow Cluster Beans in Containers
 
Item
Value
Growing Temperature
30 – 40 °C
Germination Temperature
30-35 °C Ideal
Germination Time
2-6 days
Soil pH
6.5 to 7.5
Sunlight Need
6-8 hours per day
Preferred Planting Method
Direct sowing
Container size
10 liter
Time to Harvest
60-70 days from germination
Harvest Period
 50-60 days
Pollination
Self Pollinating
Typical Pests
Pod borers
Typical Diseases
Leaf spot
Best season to grow in India
March to September (In case of heavy monsoons March to June)

Growing Cluster Beans in Containers

Beautiful flowers of Cluster Bean Plant
When cluster bean young plants are approximately 4 inch tall, nip off the weaker plants keeping the strongest plant intact. As this is a warm season crop water will tend to evaporate quickly from the soil. Hence mulching becomes a must especially when you grow cluster beans in containers. Soil can have a thin layer of organic mulch at the time of sowing the seeds. When plants have grown to a size of around 6 inches the mulch can be supplemented so that it is around 4 inches thick.
Cluster bean plant need 6-8 hours of direct sunlight. They do not do well in shaded areas. The daytime temperature also needs to be in the thirties for the plant to grow well. Though cluster bean plants can tolerate high temperature, they tend to giver lower yield when temperature starts going beyond 40 degrees Celsius.

Immature Cluster Bean Pods
Summers are quite windy in this part of the world. Hence young cluster bean plants need support in the form of staking. But under normal wind conditions it is not really needed. Cluster bean plants grow up to 3-5 feet when grown in containers. First sign of flowers can be seen in about 50-60 days after germination. This is the time when you must supply the plant with some organic manure like vermicompost. Till then routine irrigation with Amrut Jal, Jeevamrut or any other organic soil conditioners once every 12-15 days is enough. Cluster bean plants are not heavy eaters hence you don’t really have to supplement the soil with compost till they start flowering.
Harvesting Cluster Beans
Cluster beans like all other beans should be harvested with a pair of garden scissors. Pulling by hand damages the plant and other young pods and flowers on the branch.
Harvested Cluster Beans Grown in Containers
But unlike the more popular french beans or long beans the flower to pod maturing time for cluster beans is higher. It takes about 10-15 days for pods to mature. But I accidentally discovered that marginally immature pods taste much better than fully mature pods. When harvested 2-3 days earlier the cluster bean pods were much softer and the strings on the sides were also very soft. Ever since then cluster bean grown in our garden has become one of my favorites too. In

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06/26/21
LESSON 4013 Sun 27 Jun 2021 Swim Mindfully Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did 8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal As per the report by CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) COVID-19 does not spread through water. In fact, the report clearly states that chlorine water is one of the best disinfectants. We have explained the same to the CM and the health minister in our appeal,” he added. According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 2:45 pm

LESSON 4013 Sun 27 Jun 2021

Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

As per the report by CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) COVID-19 does not spread through water. In fact, the report clearly states that chlorine water is one of the best disinfectants. We have explained the same to the CM and the health minister in our appeal,” he added.

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.
10 SECRETS TO GROWING VEGETABLES AND FRUITS IN CONTAINERS | URBAN GARDENING

10 SECRETS TO GROWING VEGETABLES AND FRUITS IN CONTAINERS | URBAN GARDENING

10 SECRETS TO GROWING VEGETABLES AND FRUITS IN CONTAINERS | URBAN GARDENING
By GARDEN TIPS

free online step by step guide to grow nutritious vegetables and fruits in pots to practice mindful swimming with pictures and videos

Learn to grow organic vegetables in containers and make it sustainable

Learn to grow organic vegetables in containers and make it sustainable
If you want to learn to grow organic vegetables in containers in your balcony, terrace, backyard or anywhere else you have reached the right place. You can learn from this blog, or our book or video course. Choose the option that suits you.

Learn to grow organic vegetables in containers and make it sustainable

Learn to grow organic vegetables in containers and make it sustainable
If you want to learn to grow organic vegetables in containers in your balcony, terrace, backyard or anywhere else you have reached the right place. You can learn from this blog, or our book or video course. Choose the option that suits you. Read on t

Learn to Grow Your Own Fresh Organic Food

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Long time back when I started this blog I had never imagined that I would be writing this post. I had started my blog to document and share my experience and findings on growing vegetables in container using locally available waste and recycled organic waste. But soon I started getting requests for making specific posts related to organic terrace gardening. While I kept sharing my finding I also started to make posts on readers’ requests. And thus this blog grew into a learning resource for people who wanted to learn to grow organic vegetables in a sustainable manner.

But it had grown in an unplanned and unorganized manner. And that led me to write my book ‘Organic Urban Farming, The Indian Way’, which is a complete and crisp guide for growing your own food at home. But there are a lot of people who are visual learners and do not read books. Hence I have created an online video course titled ‘Organic Container Gardening, The Indian Way’ for all kind of learners to easily lean container gardening.
If you ever wanted to learn how to create you own food garden that is organic and sustainable, you have three options to choose from now. You can learn directly from this blog if you are looking for anything specific. And if you want to learn in a holistic manner about organic container gardening, you can choose between book and video course.
Choose the learning method that suits you and sow the seeds of a healthy, content and joyful life.

Related Posts:
1 Growing These Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy
2 Terrace Gardening Workshop Announcement

Author
Prabal
Posted on
June 21, 2020
Categories
How of Terrace Gardening, Planting Guide, Workshop and Training
Tags
Benefits of Organic Terrace Gardening, Organic Terrace Gardening, organic urban farming training, urban farming book, Urban Farming Course, urban farming training, urban farming workshop

How to Preserve Tomatoes in The Most Delicious Way

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Tomato is one plant which never disappoints in terms of produce, if basics are done right. In our organic terrace garden tomato is in fact one of the most highly producing plants (here is my earlier post on how to grow tomatoes). Generally we grow around eight to ten regular tomato and four to five cherry tomato plants every winter and we have never had to buy tomatoes from the market. In fact there is a lot of surplus and even after sharing some of it with our neighbors we are still left with lots and lots of fresh and juicy tomatoes. And that is when my sister Smita Mallick who is a budding chef and food blogger comes to rescue. She preserves the tomatoes in various way which makes them even more delicious and I really mean it. She has been kind enough to write the following post on How to Preserve Tomatoes.

Smita Mallick
Though tomato is grown only in winter, we have been enjoying the taste of our own home grown produce throughout the year because of her preserves. I am sure this post will enable you to do the same. Please don’t forget to follow Smita at Instagram and let her know whether you liked the post or not.

Smita Mallick’s Post Starts Here. All images in this post are © Smita Mallick.
There are multiple ways of how to preserve tomatoes for a longer time. The easiest way is to store them is to freeze them in a zip pouch after blanching and taking out skin and seeds. Cherry tomatoes can be directly frozen and stored in a zip pouch. In this post however I am going to show you two step by step methods of preserving tomatoes which do involve a little effort. But in these ways tomatoes can be stored up to a year and also makes the tomatoes even tastier. The first preservation method is making tomato paste and the second one is to sun dry the tomatoes.

How to Make Sun Dried Tomatoes at Home

Tomatoes need to be de-seeded before drying
For this recipe you can use any type of tomatoes. Working with cherry tomatoes for this recipe can be a little tiresome as each tomato needs to be de-seeded by hand. Hence you can choose to use regular tomatoes for this recipe. Sun dried tomatoes can be used directly in pasta and other dishes. To use them in salads you need to soak them in warm water for 3 to 4 minutes before use. You need now throw away the seeds. They can be stored for the next season.
Ingredients
1 Fresh Tomatoes – 1 kg
2 Olive oil – 2 tbsp
3 Dried mixed herbs – 1 tbsp
4 Salt to taste
Process

Process

Arrange the tomatoes skin side down
1 Wash the tomatoes and pat dry with kitchen towel.
2 Cut them into two halves and take out all the seeds and the juice.
3 Add dried mix Italian herb, salt and olive oil to the tomatoes and mix well.
4 Grease any plate or tray with olive oil and put the tomatoes skin side down.
5 Arrange the tomatoes such that each individual piece is separated. This way all pieces will get access to sunlight.
6 Sun dry it for 4 to 5 days or till the moisture evaporates. Sun rays not only help evaporate the moisture, they also help in killing bacteria.
7 Store the sun dried tomatoes in an air tight jar and keep it in refrigerator.
8 These can be stored up to a year

Sun dried Tomatoes

How to Make Tomato Paste at Home

Cut Tomatoes into halves
For this recipe you can use any kind of tomatoes. Tomatoes are not de-seeded individually; hence cherry tomatoes can also be used without much fuss. Tomato paste is typically used in stews, soups, pilaf, pasta etc. The flavors are concentrated and hence just one spoons can change the flavor profile of your dish completely; in a good way of course.

Ingredients

Arrange tomatoes skin side down in the baking tray
1 Fresh tomatoes – 1 kg
2 Dried Italian Herbs – 1 tbps
3 Vinegar – 1 tsp
4 Olive Oil – 1 tsp for baking and 3 tbsp for cooking

Process
1
2 Strain the seeds and skin out

Wash the tomatoes and pat dry with kitchen towel. Cut them into two halves.
3 Add dried Italian herb mix and drizzle olive oil. Don’t add much Olive oil; it is just to coat the herbs.
4 Grease baking tray with olive oil and arrange the tomatoes skin side down. You can add some fresh herbs (optional) at this point. Here we added some fresh Italian basil from our organic terrace garden.

1 Add more herbs before reducing the paste

2 Bake the tomatoes for 30 to 40 mins on 180-200 degree centigrade and then take out the tomatoes from the oven and cool.
3 Blend the tomatoes using a food processor or blender. Make sure that you do not add any water to it.
4 Strain the tomato paste using a strainer and put the pureed tomato in a deep pan with a thick base. Add some more dried herbs at this point if you need more flavor.
5 Add vinegar to the tomato paste at this point.
6 Cook it in a low-med heat till about 90% of the water evaporates.Keep

1 Keep stirring the tomato paste to avoid burning

stirring in between so that the paste does not burn at the bottom.
2 Add olive (3tbsp) oil to it. Cook for another 10 min in a low heat while stirring.
3 Switch of the flame, when the oil separates from the paste.
4 Let it cool. Tomato paste is now ready to be stored.
5 Transfer to an air tight glass jar and label the jar with date.
6 Store it in refrigerator. You can store it for a year.

Label the jar with date
I hope this post on how to preserve tomatoes will be useful for you and if you use these recipes to make sun dried tomatoes of tomato paste, don’t forget to post the pics and tag me on instagram.

Related Posts:
1 Growing These Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy

Author
Prabal
Posted on
March 13, 2020
Categories
How of Terrace Gardening, Recipe, Tomato and Eggplant Family
Tags
Food Preservation, How to Preserve Tomatoes, Organic Terrace Garden, Preserving Tomatoes, Sun Dried Tomato, Sun Drying Tomatoes, Tomato Paste Recipe

Growing There Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy

Growing There Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy
Herbs which are essential part of our meals and nutrition are best eaten fresh from the garden. This post will guide you on how to grow four popular herbs; coriander, mint, basil and dill. And if you are a beginner there is no better way to learn tha

Growing These Four Herbs in Your Garden is Super Easy

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Sometime earlier I got a request from one of my readers to write a post on how to grow coriander from seeds. I was a little surprised that I had not made a post on it already. And when I checked I found out that I have not made any post on growing any herb whatsoever. Herbs are integral part of a terrace vegetable garden; not only they are easy to grow and pack loads of flavors for your food, but also because they act as pest repellents and thus help in pest management of your garden organically. So I thought of doing a post on how to grow different herbs. In this post I am going to show you how you can grow coriander, mint, basil and dill easily in your container garden.
Growing Condition for Herbs
Item
Coriander
Mint
Basil
Dill
Growing Temperature
15 – 30 °C
15 – 25 °C
10 – 25 °C
15 – 25 °C
Germination Temperature
20-22 °C
20-22 °C
20-22 °C
20-22 °C
Germination Time
5-20 days
7-15 days
3-10 days
7-15 days
Soil pH
6 to 7
6.5 to 7.5
5.5 to 6.5
5.5 to 6.5
Sunlight Need
4-8 hours per day
4-8 hours per day
6-8 hours per day
6-8 hours per day
Preferred Planting Method
Direct sowing
Direct sowing/From Cutting
Direct sowing/ Transplanting
Direct sowing/ Transplanting
Container type/size
6-8 inch deep Broad container
4-6 inch deep broad container
10 liter
10 liter
Time to Harvest from germination
25 days
40 days
40 days
40 days
Harvest Period
10-15 days
30-50 days
30-40 days
40-50 days
Edible Parts
Whole Plant
Leaves
Leaves
Leaves, stem, Flowers
Typical Pests
None observed
None observed
None observed
None observed
Typical Diseases
Leaf spot
Leaf spot, Rust
Wilting
Powdery Mildew
Best season to grow in India
November to March
November to February
November to February
November to February

How to Grow Coriander in Container

Young coriander plants
Coriander is grown from seeds; but you don’t need to get coriander seeds from your gardening store. Just grab some whole coriander seeds from your kitchen shelf and you are good to go. For faster germination you can soak the seeds for 12-15 hours in water or Amrut Jal. For the container you do not really need a deep one as coriander has shallow roots. And shallow container is ideal for growing coriander. Just fill the container with potting mix. Spread the seeds all over the container and top it with quarter inch of potting mix. Then water carefully so as not to disturb the seeds. To keep the soil moist check everyday and water if necessary. In a few days time you should see coriander seedlings bursting out of the soil. Sometimes. it can take up to 20 days for coriander seeds to germinate. So you need to be patient and wait if the seeds do not germinate early.

Ready to harvest coriander
After coriander seeds have germinated all you need to do is to water them as needed. You can water with Amrut Jal every 10-15 days for better growth of the plant; but its not absolutely necessary. To harvest you can cut the mature stalks and leave the rest of the plant in place. When coriander plant starts flowering or a little before it you can harvest the whole plant. All parts including the roots can be used in cooking.

How to Grow Mint in Container

Mint growing in a six inch container
Of all the herbs mentioned in this blog, mint is probably the easiest to grow. Though seeds are available in the market you don’t really need them. Just take a few mature stalk from a mint plant, remove the leaves except 2-4 top leaves and bury the lower part of the stalk in your pot. Water to make the soil moist and in about 10-12 days the stalk would have taken roots. Yes it is as simple as that.
Mint grows like a weed. You’ll see mint spreading everywhere in your pot even from a single stalk. In about 30-40 days after your plant has taken root you can start harvesting. To harvest just nip the mature stalks at the bottom. You can use the leaves and stalks in salads, soups, tea and other beverages

How to Grow Basil in Container

Basil can be started in seed trays
Basil has become a much sought after herb now a days. Stores are stocking it up in their shelves, but it is expensive and also not fresh most of the time. Ironically what most people are not aware is that it can be easily grown at home even by a five year old kid. All you need is good quality seeds which are available in most online stores.

Basil transplanted in a pot
You can start your basil seeds directly in your pot. But if the weather is on the cooler side, then you can start your seeds in a seed tray and place it in a warm area in your house for faster and better germination. You can grow basil in a 10 liter pot, but even a 3-4 liter container would work fine. If you are planning to keep the plant near the kitchen window then smaller container works better from handling and space point of view. Fill the pot with good quality potting mix and put 3-4 seeds at the center of the pot. Cover with a thin layer of the mix and water gently. Good basil seeds germinate in 2-3 days; but sometimes they take about 7-10 days depending on the weather conditions.
Just like coriander you do not really need to do anything extra except watering the plant with a good soil conditioner every 10-15 days. Also make sure your plant gets enough sunlight. Basil does really well if it gets full sun. In approximately 40-50 days time after germination you can start harvesting basil.

How to Grow Dill in Container

Two dill plants planted in a ten liter pot
Dill is not as popular as other three herbs I have listed in this post, but once you get used to its subtle flavor, you just cant do without it. Dill belongs to the carrot family and is grown from seeds and just like basil you can choose to grow it directly in the soil or start it indoors in a seed tray depending on the temperature. Dill can take a long time to germinate; so you need to be patient.
In case you have started the seeds in a seed tray, transfer it to a container after 10-15 days after germination. Dill grows well in a ten liter container, but anything around 7 liter will also work out fine. You can even plant two plants in a ten liter pot. In 40-50 days after germination you can start harvesting the leaves. The stems and leaves are edible parts of the plant. Even the flower is eaten and is often used as decorative garnish. The root is eaten too, though we have never used it in cooking yet.

End Note

Ready to harvest basil
Herbs are sold in bunches in the stores and even by your friendly neighborhood vegetable vendor. Most often than not we use a part of the bunch and rest of the bunch is left in the refrigerator to rot. Instead of buying not so fresh bunches of your favorite herb and then leaving it to rot, it is always a better idea to grow your own fresh herb at home and use them as needed. Herbs are the easiest to grow and they can be grown almost everywhere; even on your windowsill. And if you are a gardening enthusiast, but don’t know where to start, you can always start by growing herbs.
So get up your ath and grow some herbs..

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Author
Prabal
Posted on
December 28, 2019
Categories
Herbs, How of Terrace Gardening, Planting Guide
Tags
basil, cilantro, container gardening, coriander, dill, grow herbs, herbs, herbs in pots, italian basil, mint, organic terrace, Organic Terrace Garden, pudina, Urban Farming

Green Ninja - Organic Urban Farming Workshop for Kids

Green Ninja - Organic Urban Farming Workshop for Kids
Organic Terrace conducted Green Ninja - Organic Urban Farming Workshop for Kids on 24 November, 2019 at Aikyam, Bhubaneswar. This post recounts the proceedings of the workshop in which children learnt how to grow their own leafy greens while having f

Green Ninja – The Urban Farming Workshop for Kids

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Green Ninja – The Urban Farming Workshop for Kids
Date – 24.11.2019, Venue – Aikyam

Green Ninjas fooling around
I am very excited about this post. A few days earlier I got an opportunity to conduct my very first Organic Urban Farming Workshop for kids. The workshop was organized by Aikyam located in Old Town area of Bhubaneswar. Surrounded by canopies of different trees of varying shades of green, the open terrace of Aikyam provided the ideal setting for the workshop. But having never conducted any programs for children earlier I was nowhere near being the ideal instructor. So I really had to prepare well. There were multiple iterations on the content of the workshop, but finally I knew what I had to deliver. But the biggest challenge of the workshop was not what, but how it had to be delivered.

Container Prep demo in progress
The children for the workshop were going to be aged between 7 and 12. So I knew I had to capture their attentions right from the word go and then keep them interested for a good four hours after that. I researched a little on what cartoon characters, activities, nursery rhymes kids are familiar with and used them to set the flow of the workshop. I even wrote funny rhymes and songs that the children could sing along and learn. The measurements of the potting mix recipe also had to change so that kids could easily do it. It took me a good 7-8 days to get prepared for the workshop. Then a few iterations later I was ready with the presentation and flow of the workshop. Yet I was nervous.

Making the perfect potting mix
Finally the day of the workshop arrived and it was time for action. The workshop started with Vinita Mitra of Aikyam teaching ‘Garden Yoga’ to the kids, which was not only enjoyed, but performed extremely well by them. Next was a awareness quiz which was conducted by me. It was heartening to see the awareness level of the children who answered 9/10 questions correctly. By this time the children were already involved in the workshop. And then for the next one hour through animations, rhymes, songs and stories they learned about the features of good soil, vermicompost, neem cake and how to make a good potting mix. A short muffin and milkshake break later they did some seed identification and then it was time to get their hands dirty. All of them followed the potting mix recipe to the T, prepared their own pots, planted seeds in their containers and watered them.

Getting their hands dirty
After a super energetic four hours, the workshop concluded with feedback sessions from the children and distribution of certificates. They were also handed over a plant care instruction card each. As the kids proudly carried away their own containers now filled with potting mix and seeds sown in it and waiting in anticipation for them to germinate, I felt contentment, joyful and a sense of achievement.

Garden Yoga by Vinita Mitra

Containers lined up

Seed Sowing in Progress

Kids receiving certificates

When kids talk everyone listens

Green Ninja Group Pic

Organic Farming for Mitigating Climate Change

Organic Farming for Mitigating Climate Change
Industrial Agriculture is the biggest contributor of green house gasses.This post discusses Organic Farming for Mitigating Climate Change with soil carbon sequestration being the technique for reversing climate change.

Organic Farming for Mitigating Climate Change

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Thanks to Greta Thunberg, people around the world have been woken up to climate change crisis. Some critics have already termed it as just a passing fad and some have also harshly criticized the demands of climate strike group as lop sided and even French media has warned that her radical ways could end up depressing a generation. Despite the criticism, we can not ignore the passion and effort of a young 16 year old, which for sure has brought about a much needed disruption in the collective slumber of the world.
Along with climate activists there has also been the rise of climate change deniers. In fact the deniers claim that the earth is actually in the middle of a cooling period. Though it is suspected that these groups are backed by fossil fuel companies to spread misinformation based on fringe science, the climate change data is also not without it share of suspicion. There are claims cthat the Global Warming data has actually been faked by NASA to aid politically vested interests. Such contradictory reports can be very confusing and its very difficult to really understand the truth. But we can always look around and see how things have changed around us. We need also to understand both Global Warming/Cooling and Climate Change independently even though they are linked.

Devastation caused by Cyclonic Storm Fani in May 2019
Climate Change can be defined as unexpected and unpredictable change in weather pattern. It can be either in the direction of cooling or warming. Agriculture, economy, cultures and societies are dependent very heavily on predictability of climatic conditions. When weather pattern is disrupted on a continuous basis it leads to break down of societies and civilization irrespective of whether we are cooling or warming. From the data of past few years it can be seen that there has been unexpected changes in climatic conditions and weather stability has been an issue. Closer home monsoons have become irregular. The agricultural system of India is largely dependent on the predictability of monsoons. But with errant maze of downpours and droughts the agrarian crisis has gone from bad to worse in the last decade. Sea level rise has inundated villages in the coastline and at few places entire village has been abandoned. There has been unprecedented rise in temperature even in what are supposed to be cooler months. Cyclonic storms have become very common and stronger. Ground and surface water availability has become a big issue. Our oceans are becoming poisonous and ecosystems around us are failing. All these facts tell us that there is a definite change in weather cycle and also rise in over all temperature. Greenhouse gasses and deforestation have been found to be a major cause of these changes. It really does not matter what different groups are saying about the temperature of the earth; climate is surely changing and we need to be concerned about it.

Agriculture and Climate Change

GHG Emission per Economic Sector (Source EPA-IPCC-2014)
The demands of the climate strike group focus on reducing emission in transport and electricity production sectors and rightly so. But there is little focus on another significant contributor to global greenhouse gasses which is the Agriculture sector. According to IPCC data in 2014 Agriculture is a close second to Electricity and heat production sector in effecting climate change (Some latest statistics also suggest that GHG emission from agricultural sector is now at 29% as opposed to 24% according to 2010 data) . To some it may come as a shock; after all we are growing plants in farming and how can that contribute to climate change! It sounds so counter intuitive. But the fact is that modern industrial agriculture is one of the biggest culprits of increasing global green house gasses. And this is how it happens.
1 According to a 50 year long study by university of Illinois carbon loss from soil is accelerated when synthetic nitrogen fertilizer is used. Average carbon loss in fields where synthetic nitrogen fertilizer is applied is 10,000 kg per hectare which is 36,700 kg of CO2 per hectare.
2 Intensive industrial agriculture practices such as tilling, mono cropping and removing crop residue expose the carbon soil to oxygen which combines with the carbon to become atmospheric carbon dioxide. In fact it is estimated that some 25-40% of the excess carbon in air is due to destruction of soil organic matter.
3 Intensive agriculture practices are used for growing animal feed and cash crops. About 90% of the soy and 50% of the grain of the world is actually used as animal feed to grow meat and dairy. In addition industrial animal husbandry by itself it a huge contributor of green house gasses especially methane.
4 Forests are being destroyed for agriculture. About half of forest land in the world has been converted into croplands and pastures. The cooling effect caused by moisture transpired from plants and trees is hence gone. This causes compounded warming along with the greenhouse effect.
5 Heavy usage of fossil fuels in industrial farming causes further GHG emission.
6 Last but not the least, the carbon footprint of making and transporting chemical fertilizers and pesticides also contributes to the over all role of organic farming for mitigating climate change.

Soil Carbon and the Carbon Cycle

Agricultural Productivity Impact of Climate Change (Source-UNCTAD-2013)
The graphics here released by United Nations show the predicted agricultural productivity loss due to climate change. But we now know that modern agriculture is not just an innocent victim of climate change, but is a major contributor to it too. But unlike other sectors Agriculture also has the ability to become a solution to mitigate climate change. According to FAO (Food and Agriculture organization of the UN) – “Agriculture not only suffers from the effect of climate change, it is also responsible for 14% of greenhouse gas emission. But agriculture has the potential to be an important part of the solution through mitigation – reducing and/or removing a large part of global emissions.” To understand this we need to understand how carbon is stored in the soil by nature.
Plants pull out carbon dioxide from atmosphere and then convert the carbon to stems leaves etc. They do give some of the carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere through respiration, but it is smaller comparable to what they absorb from the atmosphere. When plants die they decompose and turn into soil carbon. Some amount of carbon dioxide is also released during the decomposition process and microbes break down plant matter into their food. When this decomposed plant matter stabilizes as humus (well decomposed organic matter) it stays in the soil for hundreds of years. I guess now we are beginning to see how soil can become a good sink for atmospheric carbon.

Soil is the key to climate change mitigation
Currently soil stores more than three times the amount of carbon in atmosphere. But there has been a significant loss in soil carbon in post industrial era. Soil have lost 50-70% of their carbon according to studies. But that also tells us that there is a potential of removing atmospheric carbon and returning the lost carbon back to soil and thus help fight climate change. The process of returning carbon to soil is known as carbon sequestration of soil and according to a study in 2017 it was found that global croplands can store up to 1.85 giga tonnes of carbon per year. This process could continue upto 40 years till soil becomes saturated. According to an GRAIN (NFO) soil organic matter could be restored to pre-industrial cultivation era in roughly 50 years offsetting approx 30% of current global GHG emission. It is these numbers of soil carbon sequestration which makes organic agriculture a front line candidate for mitigating climate change.
Organic Agriculture for Mitigation of Climate Change
Organic agriculture most of the time is referred to as replacing chemical inputs with natural ones in the current industrial mode of agriculture. But that is a huge mislead. In spirit organic farming is a different practice of agriculture which runs in sync with nature and natural conditions. Though the practices vary slightly with geography as it should, in approach it remains same and is based on the core philosophy of regeneration, nutrient cycling and balance. Some of the features of organic farming are
1 Integrated approach (trees, animals and croplands) for better nutrient recycling
2 Closed loop agriculture with locally available inputs and resources
3 Soil regeneration through composting and ground covers
4 Use of locally adapted sturdy varieties and seed saving
5 Bio-diverse agriculture
6 Efficient nutrient and water management
7 Integrated with larger social and cultural systems and managed by local small scale farmers
The following sections examine how Organic Farming practices can be used to offset green house gasses and also combat climate change issues.

Soil Carbon and GHG Management through Organic Agriculture

Farm waste is composted and given back to soil
Every year during winters the smoke from crop residue burning creates a smog situation in the national capital of India. Crop residue burning is a common practice in conventional agriculture which not only creates a lot of smoke, it adds significant amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. In fact it is the largest contributor of GHG in agriculture. In contrast in organic farming crop residue is composted as farm yard manure or FYM to be applied to soil and thus returning carbon back to soil. Additionally crop residue is also used as a mulch or ground cover to protect the soil from further carbon loss. Crop residues also serve as a great food for the farm animals in integrated farming.

Organic agriculture integrates forests with farming
No tilling agriculture is an extreme form of organic farming in which soil is not tilled. Soil organisms are encouraged to act as the natural tillers and with presence of enough organic matter soil structure also becomes good enough so as not to require tilling. Bio-diversity in cropland is one of the main features of organic farming and mono cropping is discouraged. Thus with reduction in tilling and absence of mono cropping soil carbon losses are minimized. Also As synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are not used in organic farming, the soil carbon loss due to nitrogenous fertilizer is arrested.
Infertile lands have low quantities of carbon and hence a lot of carbon can be sequestered in it. But generally they are abandoned leading to further carbon loss. But using organic agriculture techniques of soil carbon sequestration, the soil can be rejuvenated and used as croplands within a span of 2-5 years. This will also bring down the pressure on forest land which is being cleared for farming.
Though unfairly compared with transport sector in terms of GHG emission, commercial live stock farming is one of the major contributors of methane gas in agriculture sector. The effect of methane on climate change is estimated to be about 23-25 times that of Carbon Dioxide. Additionally feed grown for the cattle separately using industrial agriculture practices add their own carbon to the atmosphere. Organic farming follows an integrated approach whereby ruminants are a part of the agricultural system. This combination of animal husbandry and farming at a single place produces the most efficient nutrient cycling and reduces the total GHG emission. The total agricultural land in the world is approximately 1.5 billion hectare while the total number of ruminants are also estimated to be around the 1.5 billion mark which is one cow per hectare of agricultural land. Mathematically at least the numbers look great for GHG emission reduction.

Mulching helps protect soil
Conventional agriculture practices require forests to be cleared off to make way for agriculture. But organic agriculture integrates forests and trees into the agricultural system. Farm land is seen more as a ‘food forest’ rather than crop field. The shade of the trees and cooling effects due to transpiration provide a more suitable micro climate for agriculture. Additionally their leaves and other parts are used in compost, pest management, animal feed etc. They also help to arrest soil and nutrient erosion caused due to rain and wind.
Thus Organic Farming not only has a low carbon foot print, it also helps in better nutrient cycling, animal management, soil rejuvenation and most importantly it has the capability to offset atmospheric GHG through soil carbon sequestration.
Climate Change Resilience of Organic Agriculture
The advantages of organic farming does not stop at just reducing atmospheric carbon in the context of climate change. The practices of organic farming are also resilient to climate variations. Some of the major ones are,
1 Use of locally adapted crops and their varieties makes the crops grown naturally resilient to local pests, diseases and climate variations as their tolerance level of local climate is high.
2 As soil biomass content increases the water holding and retention capacity of the soil increases. This makes organic agriculture less prone to drought and flooding. During flooding the soil can absorb excess moisture and during droughts the moisture retained in the soil helps to hydrate the plants.
3 Pest and weed management is better done through practices like crop rotation, companion planting, mulching etc.
4 In bio diverse farming the total crop loss due to a climatic event is very rare. In case of an extreme weather event some crops are lost while other manage to hang on. Thus bio diverse farming increases the resilience of the agricultural system itself.
5 Low dependency on non-local inputs and resources makes sure that production is never disturbed due to any external events. It also lowers the cost of production.

Comparison of Organic Agriculture with AI’s of the UN

Soil carbon loss has been found to be significantly higher when nitrogen based chemical fertilizers are used
The 2013 annual report of United Nation Commission for Trade and Development (UNCTAD) dramatically titled ‘Wake up before its too late’ had suggested that small scale sustainable agriculture is the only way forward to feed the world in the context of climate change and not GMO or any other such technologies. While sustainable farming is defined by the UN as “Production of more and better quality food with less inputs most of which are locally available based on closed nutrient cycles”, the following action items are given for climate change mitigation through sustainable agriculture.
1 Technical (Direct)
1 Reduction of Nitrogen inputs
2 Agro forestry
3 Organic fertilizers instead of synthetic fertilizers
4 Soil carbon sequestration through organic matter and compost
5 Storage loss minimization
6 Integrated system with closed nutrient cycle
7 Climate resilient food and varieties
2 Technical (Indirect)
1 Reduction in use of fossil fuels
2 Reduction in transport
3 Social
1 Reduction of food wastage
2 Reduction of meat consumption
In the Technical (direct) AI’s organic agriculture ticks all boxes except point no 5 which is not really related to the agricultural process as such. In the Indirect technical AI’s too organic agriculture meets both the demands. The nature of organic agriculture itself (non industrial nature) does not allow much mechanization and hence use of fossil fuels. As there is very low dependency of external inputs, there is reduction in transport too.

Can Organic Agriculture Feed the World
As per the definition of sustainable agriculture given by UN Organic agriculture produces food with less inputs most of which are local and is based on closed nutrient cycle. The quality of food produced is also better in terms of nutritional value and being safe from pesticides and other chemicals. But the big question is that can it produce more quantity of food! In other words ‘Can Organic Farming Feed the World?’
Inherent in the above question is an assumption, that the current form of industrial agriculture is able to feed the world. And if we switch to organic farming the quantity of food produced will not be enough to meet the demands. But the fact is that under current system of industrial agriculture, where 40% of the world’s food is wasted, about 1 billion people still go un-nourished and poverty stricken. 70% of such people live in rural areas. The main reason for this is not actually lack of production, but lack of access to affordable diet, means of production and resources for small holders (UNCTAD report 2013).
The cost of food production shows an upward graph in conventional agriculture. Soil fertility decreases with repeated chemical fertilizer application. Water holding capacity of the soil reduces putting more stress on ground water. Use of pesticides breaks the natural balance of predators and hence every year the money spent on pesticides also goes up. Farmers also have to buy seeds which is manufactured by third party. To get similar production from a piece of land a farmer has to invest more on fertilizers (The per hectare fertilizer consumption in India has increased from 100 kgs in 2002 to 165 kgs in 2014), pesticides, higher yield seeds and energy to pump out ground water. All these make the soil condition even worse and this chain reaction makes agricultural land turn completely infertile. The production keeps decreasing consistently w.r.t. the investments made. Thus in the long run the quantity of food produced not only decreases, it becomes less affordable and accessible for the poor. This is the reason why the farmer who produces food, can not afford it himself.
By contrast, in organic agriculture as soil regeneration is the focus, fertility of the land is maintained. This is how the same land has been giving consistent production for thousands of years for those practicing traditional agriculture. As the inputs and resources used are local and cheap the cost of production is also much lower, making the food not only safe and nutritious, but also affordable.

The Way Forward

Organic waste can be composted easily at home using an old bucket
Now that we have justification for adopting organic farming for mitigating climate change, the next natural question is how do we move forward. And this happens to be the most difficult question to answer. There are two facets to this question. First is collective action and second is individual action. Collective action will be governed more by socioeconomic conditions and national and international policies and their implementation while individual action is completely dependent on a person, family and community.
At the policy level changes need to be brought about encouraging soil carbon sequestration and climate resistant agriculture. Some examples are as follows.
1 Reduce/remove subsidy from chemical fertilizer and pesticides
2 Reward farmer financially for soil carbon sequestration
3 Encourage farming of climate resistant crops and varieties through subsidies, insurance and consumer awareness
4 Levy meat tax on industrially produced meat
5 Handhold farmer during conversion from conventional to organic farming through insurance and free training
6 Increase awareness about organic food among consumers
And here are some suggestion, to be practiced at an individual level in the context of organic farming for mitigating climate change.
1 Support your local farmer and create incentives for him to grow organic food
2 Include more millet and local varieties of crops in your diet

3 Reduce meat and diary consumption
4 Get your food waste down to zero
5 Compost your home’s organic waste and put it back into soil. Use dry leaves from your nearby park in the composting process (They are usually incinerated by municipality)
6 Start your own kitchen garden using locally available inputs and waste materials
7 Generate awareness in your community

End Note

Layers of Climate Change Crisis
Climate change is not just an environmental issue. At present it is causing hunger and nutrition issues and social disruptions, but will soon turn into a survival and sustainability issue having repercussion for the entire human civilization. Greta has surely manged to make people sit up and take notice of this crisis and hence this is a great starting point. But now its time for well directed action.
A few days earlier there was a climate strike organized here in Bhubaneswar. People marched together shouting slogans and demanding action from the municipality for properly disposing waste (esp organic waste as it emits methane when dumped in landfills). But I wonder if it could have been for something else that is beyond individual action. Every individual can segregate organic waste at home and compost it. Then the municipality really does not have to deal with all that waste. By this I don’t mean to undermine the value of the strike. What I am worried about is the purpose of the strike. There is individual action and there is organizational action and every problem is better solved in one domain than the other. Collective individual action more doable and probably has better impact in waste handling than organizational action while policy level changes and incentives has better impact in lowering industrial pollution. Individual action is as important as government’s action. What every individual practices also affects carbon emission levels in the world.
Any disruptive measure always helps in generating attention. But if such disruptions are not followed up by solid well directed action or are followed by more such disruptions then it ends up becoming theatrical and flimsy. And I hope this moment created by Greta goes up to become the exact opposite through collective and individual action with Organic Farming being at the center of all actions and demands for managing climate change.

http://www.ambedkar.org/News/News062403.htm

Why Should We Embrace Buddhism

WHY SHOULD WE EMBRACE BUDDHISM Baba Saheb Dr BR Ambedkar From the book Bahujan Samaj Aur Uski Rajniti by: Kumari Mayawati and The Hindu News paper extract.

JC Vimalo ( Acharya Venerable Buddharakkhita named Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan as Vimalo a Buddhist name)

It is necessary to understand the History of the Saints and Gurus who made significant contributions towards giving a right direction to the Bahujan samaj from time to time. Although BSP is in favour of Secularism as enunciated in the Constitution of India, within that we ought to seriously consider the options available before us, if the words of Buddha and Dhamma inspire us to reconstruct a social order into one based on equal values, we should opt for it. In the larger interest of the Country and the world at large, to encourage humanity and humanism. We should not hesitate in following such religion. In other words, since Buddhism has valuable lessons for the today’s global village, we should take full advantage of such a religion.

This approach might be misconstrued, as if we are trying to preach a particular Religion. All Religions have to be equally respected. But the shortcomings of each Religion in so far as they fall short of what is “Dhamma” have to be clearly understood and practiced. Today, all political parties, whether they are National or Regional, have members from all Religious denominations. Likewise, in Bahujan samaj Party also, There are people who profess different religions. All political parties should bear in mind the principles of secularism, and instead of misusing Religion for political benefits, they should use Religion in the best interests of the Country, for giving correct direction to the Society. Now the question arises, as to which are the religions, which help us to preserve the Unity and Integrity of the Society. To arrive at an answer to this question, we will have to study the History of all Religions as was done by Baba Saheb Dr Ambedkar.

After an in depth study of all Religions, he described the Teachings of Buddha as appropriate for building an equality based social order. A glimpse of this belief of Baba Saheb is visible in his historic speech delivered on 14th October 1956, in Nagpur. It becomes necessary to make a special mention of that speech so that, not only the Bahujan Samaj but the whole society as such will realise some truths about the Teachings of Buddha. These teachings will help in the reconstruction of the society on equality based order.

`It is important to throw some light on the significant things which are essential for reconstructing the social order on the basis of equality, and which Gautam Buddha emphasised in his sermons, before we come to the principles highlighted by Baba Saheb in his speech at Nagpur. Gautam Buddha said, ” Do not believe in traditions merely because they have been handed down, for many generations and in many places Do not believe in anything because it is rumored and spoken by many. Do not believe because the written statement of some old sage is reproduced. Do not believe in fancies, thinking that because they are extraordinary, they must have been implanted by a deva, or a wonderful being. Only after careful observations and analysis, when a thing agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, accept it and live up to it.” (Kalma Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya)

Gautam Buddha announced a social revolution for the first time in India. He taught the lesson of equality, comradeship, mercy and brotherhood to the entire human society, and laid the foundations for an independent conscience, delivering the society from the slavery of spiritualism. Atamvad, Ishwarvad, Shastravad, and religious scriptures. It is due to his saddharma that the Country scaled heights of art and culture. But those professing Brahmimism did not like it since the interest of their section of society were served only by perpetuating inequalities, through Ishwarvad and Shastravad.

As a result, Brahmins used all possible conceits and even State power, to extinguish Saddharma and Buddhism from the very land on which it was born, while it kept flourishing abroad, beyond the boundaries of our Country. Not only this, the Brahmins executed hundreds of Buddhist Monks, broke many statues of Buddha, destroyed many Monasteries, and killed thousands of Buddhist people, and converted most of the hardworking Buddhists of this Country into Untouchables, through the instruments of Manuvad, This oppressed class of Untouchables had to suffer inhuman cruelties and extreme exploitation for a long time. As a result, this class of working people was forced to forget its own culture and religion - in other words Buddhism itself. But on 14th October 1956, Baba Saheb Dr Ambedkar gave a call to this oppressed and deprived class to return to their own culture, namely Buddhism. He showed the path to comprehensive Dalit Revolution and Independence. By leaving Hindu religion, and returning to Buddhism alone, is emancipation and progress of Dalits possible. Not only this, the welfare of entire society of India and the welfare of the whole Country as such, lies only in adopting the high human values professed by Buddhism. The Historic words, which Baba Saheb uttered in his speech, are as follows:

WHY SHOULD WE EMBRACE BUDDHISM? - BABA SAHEB DR BR AMBEDKAR

“Followers of Buddhist Faith, I want to explain in my address to you today, why I have assumed the mighty responsibility of Revival and Propagation of the Gospel of Lord Buddha. Many intellectual friends and myself feel that the” induction” ritual, which took place yesterday on Conversion, should have preceded the Induction Ceremony, yesterday. But what has happened, is history, and it will be of no significance to ponder over this question of sequence now.

Why only Nagpur?

Many people have been curious to know, why did I select only Nagpur for this monumental task, and why did I not think some other location. Some believe that, since this town is a hub of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak, I have deliberately selected this venue to embarrass them, by executing a spectacular right in their view. But it is not so. I have no such ambition. I have neither the time nor the intention to provoke them with such meaningless ploys. The enormous task that I have taken upon myself is important that every minute that I spend on it is valuable to me. The thought of RSS has not even remotely touched my mind while selecting this venue.

Those who have studied the ancient history of India, and the Buddhist connection, know that the credit for propagating Buddhism in the beginning goes to Nagas. Nagas were non-Aryans, and there existed a fierce enmity between the Aryans and the Nagas. Many battles were fought between the Aryans and the non-Aryans. Aryans wanted to completely annihilate the Nagas. There are many legends, to be found in the puranas in this connection. The Sage ‘Agastya’ is said to have saved one snake deity, symbolic of Nagas. You are all supposed to be the descendents of naga. The Nagas, who were suppressed and oppressed by the Aryans, were on the look out for a great man to liberate them, and they found that great man in the person of Lord Buddha. Nagas spread the Religion of the Buddha throughout India. Nagas were predominantly the inhabitants of Nagpur. A river flowing at a distance of 27 miles from Nagpur is also named Nag. It appears that the Nagas lived in the banks of this river. This is mainly the reason for selecting Nagpur for this occasion. Conflict is possible with the RSS on any other issue, but none has selected this venue to provoke them.

Frustration among critics

Severe criticism has been made by some NewsPapers, of this great moment launched by me, and followed by you. According to some of my critics, I am misguiding my own brethren. According to them, the Untouchables will continue to remain Untouchables. Conversion will not benefit us.

Many News papers even went to the extent of suggesting that whatever Political Privileges are being enjoyed by the Untouchables at present, will also be taken away after conversion. All this is absurd propaganda. These people are of the view that, instead of exploring new avenues, we should follow the beaten path for amelioration of our condition. This kind of mischievous talk is likely to cause doubts in the minds of young, as well as the older people. Therefore, I cannot desist from answering this question. Our Movement will gain strength if such doubts are removed. Therefore, I wish to speak on this question at length.

Mahars and Chamars should stop removing the dead bodies of buffaloes and cows. ‘Mahars and Chamars. Don’t eat carryon’ was a slogan, which was raised by me. Some thirty years ago, I launched this Movement on these issues. This somehow immensely offended our Hindu friends. I asked them, “You take the milk from the cows and buffaloes, and when they are dead you expect us to remove their dead bodies. Why? If you can carry the dead bodies of your mothers to cremate, why do you not carry the bodies of your ‘mother-cows’ yourself? When I put this question to the Hindus, they felt offended I told them, if you let us remove the dead bodies of your mothers, we will very gladly remove the dead bodies of your cows and buffaloes as well. A ‘Chitpavan Brahmin’ tried to prove, through a number of letters published in ‘Kesri’, a Brahmin journal, that if the Untouchables stopped removing the dead bodies of animals, they would be put to a great financial loss. He augmented his point, by furnishing statistical data in support of his argument. According to him, every Chamar, who removed the dead bodies of the animal, earned between Rs.500 and Rs.600 per annum from the sale of proceeds of skin, horns, teeth, hoofs and bones of the dead cows. He accused me that I was trying to deprive them, of their livelihood by preaching against this practice. My Untouchable brethren felt confused, as to where I was leading them.

Once I happened to visit Sangmaner, a Tehsil in the District of Belgaum. The author of those letters, which had appeared in Kesri, met me and repeated the same questions. I told him that, I would answer his questions at an appropriate time. I answered the questions published in ‘Kesri’ in a public meeting in the following manner. ‘My people do not have sufficient food to eat. Women have no clothes to cover their bodies. No roof over their heads to give them shelters. No land to grow food -grains. So they are drown-trodden and poverty stricken. They are oppressed and exploited. ‘ I asked all those present, if they knew the reason why? None replied from among the congregation; not even the person who had written those letters to the ‘Kesri’. I told them, to better leave us alone, and allow us to worry about ourselves. ‘If you are so much anxious about our losses, why don’t you send your friends and relatives to live in the villages, and do this dirty job of dragging the dead bodies of animals so that they may earn Rs.500/- per annum. In addition to that amount, I will pay Rs.500/- from my pocket as prize. They will gain doubly. Why miss this opportunity? True, we will suffer a loss, but you stand to gain. No caste Hindu has come forward to undertake this job and claim the prize. Why do they feel perturbed on seeing us making progress? I can take care of my people for the food, clothing, houses and other things they need. You Hindus need not worry about these things.

If we do this dirty work, it is said to be profitable, and if they do it, it becomes non-profitable. They were welcome to remove the dead animals and earn profit. Similarly, some people say that, some seats have been reserved for us in the Legislature. Why are we keen to give up that advantage by converting to Buddhism? My reply to them is that they should let the Brahmins, Rajputs and other caste Hindus come forward, and fill these up by becoming Chamars, sweepers and mahars.

Why should they moan over our loss, if seats Reserved for us are left vacant? Self-Respect is more important to a man than material gains only.

There is an area in Bombay known for prostitution. Women of easy virtue who live there wake up at about 8 O’clock in the morning, and call for boys who work in the cheap restaurants, ‘O boys; Get a plate of ‘kheema’ and ‘Roti. They take ‘Kheema roti’ and tea. But our women do not get ‘Kheema roti’ to eat. They eat ordinary ‘Roti’ and ‘Chatni’, and remain content with that. They too can opt to live the life of prostitutes, but they are fond of their self-respect. And Dignity is one’s birthright. Our ambition is to do our utmost towards achieving it completely. No sacrifice will be enough to achieve this. Journalists have been after me for the last forty years. I want to tell them now that, they ought to write in a mature and considered language. We do deserve to live with fuller Dignity, which the Hindus have hitherto denied to us. We will achieve that fullness, after we have embraced Buddhism.

I have been liberated from Hell

I am surprised that our Conversion is being discussed everywhere. But, I am surprised to see that nobody has asked me the Reason why of all the religions I have chosen Buddhism. In any Movement of Conversion, this is a significant question to be asked. Which religion should be adopted and why? I started the Movement of renouncing the Hindu Religion in 1935, and since then I have been continuing the struggle. A mammoth public meeting was held at Yeola, District Nasik in 1935, in which it was resolved in the congregation that, we shall renounce the Hindu religion. I had resolved then, that although I am born as a Hindu, I would not die a Hindu. I had taken that pledge 21 years ago, and I have fulfilled it today. This Conversion has given me enormous pleasure. I feel as if I have been liberated from Hell. L does not want any blind followers. Those who want to embrace Buddhism should do so after careful thinking so that they hold on firmly to this Religion for future.

Karl Marx and Dalits

Religion is a must for the progress of mankind. I am deeply aware that, according to a new interpretation given by Karl Marx, Religion is an opiate. According to him, Religion has no place in life. They believe in ‘eat, drink and be merry.’ All that they want is bread and butter for breakfast, delicious meals in the afternoon, nice comfortable bed to sleep on, and cinema to while away their time. I do not somehow agree with them. Owing to the poverty of my father, I did not have the opportunity to enjoy any of these luxuries. None would have labored in life as much as I have. But this ahs not made me irreligious. I known myself what sort of hardships the poor have to bear. We must launch our struggle keeping in view the economic aspects. I am not against this idea. We should progress economically too. I have been struggling throughout my life to that end. Not only this, I very much desires the entire mankind to become economically strong.

Animal and Man

But I have my own views in this regard. There is difference between man and animal. Whilst the beast needs nothing except its daily food for existence, the human being is endowed with a Body and a Mind. Mind must be developed side by side with body. Mind should also be filled with pure and cultured thoughts. I do not consider it advantageous to have anything to do with the Countries where people believe that eating and drinking is separate from Development of mind. One should bear in mind that, just as we have a healthy body in order to be able to remain free from disease, so in order to keep the body healthy, we must also develop a healthy Mind. Without this, all human progress will become meaning less.

A developed Mind - the Main Force Behind Enthusiasm

What causes the disease in human body or mind? So long as the body is in suffering, Mind cannot be happy. If the mind is not happy, there cannot be any enthusiasm in life. Nothing can be achieved if there is no enthusiasm.

What causes this lack of enthusiasm? It is a state of hopelessness. If one begins to believe that there is no hope of ones’ elevation in life, one looses enthusiasm. There can be no enthusiasm without hope. The mind becomes diseased. When one is assured of enjoying the reward of ones’ labour, only then one feels enriched by enthusiasm and inspiration. If the teachers in school start commenting, “Oh! This is a Mahar boy. How did he secure the first position in the class? What business has he to stand first in the class? Only the Brahmins are entitled to secure the first position.” Now what enthusiasm can the Mahar boy have in these circumstances? How will he advance in life? Mind is the main source of generation of enthusiasm. One who has a healthy body and a healthy mind has confidence and courage. He can fight with all kinds of odds in life. This generates enthusiasm in him. Hinduism is founded on ideologies and such principles of inequality and injustice, as leave no room for the development of enthusiasm. If this religion thrives for another thousand years, it will only produce clerks who will do nothing except filling their bellies. Then we shall need super clerks to protect them from injustices and various kinds of atrocities. Common masses of Untouchables will not gain anything. If there is one foundation for enthusiasm it is the mind. Manager is appointed in mills to extract work from labour. Their job is only to get work from the labour. The proprietors remain engrossed in their business, and get no time to develop their minds. How did I get my education? Owing to poverty, I used to attend school with nothing more than loin clothes on my body. I was not allowed to get even water to drink in the school. I had to go without water for many days. Untouchability was observed even in Elphinstone College, Bombay. What can be expected in this kind of circumstances? Untouchability cannot be removed if education produces only slavish clerks.

Be Rulers, not Clerks.

I was an Executive Councilor in Delhi during British Rule. Lord Linlithgow was the viceroy of India at that time. Once I asked that he allocated Rs 3 Lacs for Aligar Muslim University for the sake of Muslims, and Rs 3 Lacs to the Benaras Hindu University for the sake of Hindus. But we are neither Hindus nor Muslims. An amount proportionate to the population of the Scheduled Castes should be allocated for us. Since that proportionate amount would be quite high you should allocate an amount equal to that allocated to Muslims. Lord Linlithgow asked me to give in writing whatever I wanted to say. As desired by him, I submitted a Memorandum. Europeans were generally sympathetic in their outlook. He agreed to my proposal, and granted a sum of Rs. 3 Lacs for the Scheduled Castes. But the question, as to how the amount thus allocated should be spent, could not be resolved. Viceroy wanted this amount to be spent on education of the girls belonging to Scheduled Castes, and suggested Boarding Houses be built for them. If this money is spent in this manner to build Boarding Houses, in order to make the illiterate girls belonging to the Scheduled castes educated. I thought we should soon require money for providing them with good food too. Poor as our people are, how shall they get these things for their daughters? What will be the result of this education? Since these questions could not be resolved, the Viceroy withheld the money earmarked for the education of the Scheduled castes.

I went to Lord Linlithgow again and had a straightforward talk with him on the topic. I put this question to the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow. ‘Am I not equal to 500 graduates?’ ‘Yes, of course, you are.’ Replied Lord Linlithgow. Then I asked him, ‘Do you know the reason why I say so?’ He did not know. I told the Viceroy that my education that my education is so thorough that I am capable of holding any office of the Govt. with confidence. I need such learned men who should be capable of holding key position whence they should work in the most effective manner for the betterment of the community.

If you really want to do something for the betterment of the ‘untouchables’ you will have to produce such people as would be able to ameliorate their condition. How will it help to merely help produce clerks? Lord Linlithgow acceded to my suggestion, and sent 16 boys belonging to Scheduled castes abroad for higher education.

YESTERDAY

“Chaturvarna, Gandhi and Religion

We have been living in this country for thousands of years, in a hopeless system, which generates no enthusiasm. So long as the present system continues, there is no scope for generation of any enthusiasm for our progress. Smarting under Hindu religion, which is founded on inequality and injustice, we can achieve nothing. Manusmriti describes the ‘Chaturvarna’. This ‘Chaturvarna’ is disastrous for the progress of mankind. Under this system, the Shudras are restricted to performance of drudgeries only. They have nothing to do with education. Who would be interested in ameliorating their lot? Brahmins, Kshatriyas and vaishyas benefit alike from the slavish condition of Shudras. Shudras have nothing but slavery to share. Chaturvarna cannot just be blown away. It is not only a part of tradition; it has become a religion.

There is no equality in Hinduism. I once went to see Gandhiji. Gandhiji told me that he believed in CHATURVARNA. ‘What kind of Chaturvarna’? I enquired, pointing towards my hand with the little finger in the bottom and thumb on the top or this way - with the palm lying flat on the surface of the table and fingers lying side by side. ‘What do you mean by the Chaturvarna? Where does it begin and where does it end?’ I asked Gandhiji. Gandhiji could not reply.

Those who have ruined us, this unjust religion of theirs will be annihilated in front of them. I do not accuse the Hindu religion in vain. This sinful religion cannot save any body. It has no life left in it.” Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

TODAY

Bahujan Samaj Party under the able Ms. Mayawati, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Don’t Delude: They deliver

The Facts Speak for Themselves

· 69% reduction in crime.

· Rs. 7000 crore Water Restructuring Project Launched

· Rs. 3000 Crore State Roads Project initiated.

· Highest external aid received and utilised in last 5 years.

· Construction of Rs. 2500 crore first accesses controlled expressway of India between Greater Nouda & Agra started.

· 650 crore PM Rural Roads Projects implemented.

· First State to provide legal framework for SEZs.

· Proposal of Rs. 1900 crore for new industries.

· 1.87 lakh landless dalits provided ownership of village land.

· 89,000 landless given new land leases.

· 1001 new urban development projects launched.

· 96 crore Dr.Ambedkar Memorial dedicated to people.

…And all this happened in just One Year It needed courage with Vision to realise it.

Mayawati moots reservation in cabinet

The Bahujan Samaj Party today advocated reservation in the Council of Ministers in order to ensure adequate reservation for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

While supporting the move to limit the size of Ministries both at the Centre and the States, the Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and BSP vice-president, Mayawati said that she had instructed her party leaders in the Lok Sabah to seek a clause providing reservation for the SCs and the STs, “keeping in mind their population”.

Addressing the media at NEW DELHI on 03-04-2003, on completion of one-year of her coalition Government, Ms Mayawati said the BSP would also support the Centre’s move to introduce legislation to tackle the problem of defection. “We will vote in favour of both the Bills and help in their passage.” To a question on the BSP’s viewpoint to ban religious conversion, Ms Mayawati said there was no objection to the move to check forcible conversions. Otherwise the constitution permitted the freedom to practice any religion. Incidentally, Ms Mayawati had warned at the Lucknow rally on April 14, that unless Hindu religion leaders eliminated discriminatory practices, the ‘Bahujan ‘ samaj led by her would embrace Buddhism.

The BSP would also support Central ligislation to ban cow slaughter and such a law was already in place in Uttar Pradesh. Asked about her Government’s stand on the VHP’s ‘trishul’ (trident-anodized plastic) distribution programme, Ms.mayawati said she agreed with the Deputy Prime Minister, L.K.Advani’s remarks that it marred the organisation’s image. However, she said the VHP had already carried on some ‘minor’ programme in the state. “I would not commit the mistake of carrying out (their) arrest like Rajastan did and make him (VHP leader Praveen Togadia) a hero,” she said.

In the same breath, she warned that if the Samajawadi Party attempted to distribute swords, as the party leaders did at a rally in Delhi, they would be proceeded against under the Arms Act.

The BSP would go it alone in the Assembly elections in Madya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Delhi and Rajastan later this year. Talks on seat-sharing arrangement with the BJP for U.P. ahead of the next general elections would take place only after the Assembly polls.

The BSP would field a candidate against the Mahashtra Chief Minister, Sushil Kumar Shinde.

TOMORROW

‘I will be the best PM and Mayawati is my chosen heir’

“I will be the best Prime Minister. I have already declared at the Lucknow rally that Mayawati is my chosen political heir.”

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) Chief Kanshi Ram appeared out of the blue in the mid-70s to pose a challenge to the powerful and influential leaders of Indian politics. The former employee of a steel plant set out to rid society of its most potent evil - the caste system - and give dignity and freedom to his constituency, the Dalits. It has been two decades since he began, and Kanshi Ram is still energetic despite a debilitating illness.

Today, the BSP rules India’s largest state, UP, and is a national party. Kanshi Ram spends his time Travelling in states as far flung as Punjab, AP, and MP and Gujarat ‘’addressing the public, creating leaders for his party and building the future'’. His views on why he aligned with ‘’casteist'’ and ‘’communal'’ parties like BJP are well known - for Dalit empowerment -

‘Yes, I was influenced by the writings on the caste struggle of Ambedkar, Jyotibhai Phule and Shahu Maharaj, who were all from Maharashtra. I am a chamar from Punjab but we were an educated people because of the Sikh religion. We even had an IAS officer from our village soon after Independence. It became clear that if I had to take the fight of the chamars against upper caste oppression, I should first mobilise educated and employed chamars like me, because they have the resources and the ability to comprehend. And, so, Bamcef, a federation representing them, was born in Pune around 1975, but I shifted my headquarters to Delhi. The majority of chamars are in north India.

Yes. I saw the Congress was the most powerful in the chamar belt - extending from Jammu in the north to Dhanbad in the east including Madhya Pradesh in the south. The Congress had cleverly got a stooge in Jagjivan Ram, a chamar leader, whose only job was to keep the community in the Congress fold and to ensure that the radical writings of Ambedkar did not enter the region. I decided to break Jagjivan Ram’s grip and finish the manuvadi (upper caste) Congress here.

Nothing in my life is immediate. When word got around that there was a new chamar leader, Indira Gandhi began strengthening the hands of Jagjivan Ram, but it proved costly. It finally led Jagjivan Ram to challenge her leadership by wanting to become PM and he was forced to leave the party.

The BSP was founded in 1984 and in 1985, it contested the UP assembly elections by fielding more than 200 candidates. We did not win a single seat but the Congress lost 165 seats because we split its votes. It was the beginning of the end.

Is it wrong for the chamars to have their own leader and party to fight for dignity and justice? The BSP represents the chamars and we had got 18 varieties of chamars under one umbrella
in UP.

But ours is a strange Country. If all Kasatriyas get killed, all the warriors get killed. This has been happening in the past. That is why our Country became slave, so many times. If we were allowed to bear arms, this Country would never have been subjugated, as no invader would have been able to conquer this Country.

Buddhism has hope for this Country

There is no salvation for anybody in Hinduism. According to the tenets of Hinduism only the so-called higher castes have been benefited. There is no exaggeration in my statement. What has the Shudras or the Ati-Shudras gained? As soon as the wife of a Brahmin conceives, she thinks oh the High Court, whether any post of a Judge has fallen vacant, but when our woman becomes pregnant, she cannot think anything better than a sweeper’s post under the Municipal Committee. This deplorable situation exists only because of Hinduism. How can we gain by staying in this system? It is only by embracing Buddhism that we can hope to gain anything.

Brahmins and Shudras alike embraced the religion of Lord Buddha. While delivering a Sermon to the original Bhikkus, Lord Buddha said, “O’ Bhikkus, you have come from different Countries and various Castes, Great rivers when they flow in different Countries maintain their individual flow, but, after falling into the ocean, they loose their separate identities. Buddhism is like that ocean. All are one and equal in this ocean. It is not possible to identify the waters of Ganga or Yamuna when they have merged. Similarly after embracing Buddhism, you are all one.” Such was the teaching of Lord Buddha.

I have a grave Responsibility on my Shoulders

Some people ask me why I have taken so long to take a decision to Change of Religion? What was I doing all these years? This is a very serious question. It is an enormous task to persuade people about the merits of a Religion. It is not a task only one man can perform. You will understand the enormity of the matter, if you meditate on the principles of the Dhaka. I have a great responsibility on my shoulders. No other person in the world has had to shoulder such an enormous responsibility. If I live for a few more years, I will bring this task that I have undertaken to a successful end. (Slogans of Baba Saheb Zindabad) We will not be Untouchable Buddhists

Some people will naturally ask this question, what will the Untouchables gain by embracing Buddhism? My only assertion in this regard is that, you should not ask this question since, it is worthless to ask it. Religion is not necessary for the well to do. Those who are holding high positions in life, have nice bungalows to live in. money to buy all comforts of life, and servants to attend on them. Practicing a Religion or thinking about it has no use for them.

Religion has use for the poor

It is the poor who need Religion. The suffering and the oppressed need Religion. The poor live on Hope. Hope is Foundation of Action in Life. Life cannot go on if Hope is demolished. Religion affords this Hope to everyone. Religion gives solace to the poor and the oppressed, and assures that life is full of Hope. This is the reason why the poor cling to Religion.

Some people will, no doubt, say that the Buddhism is the Religion of the untouchables. Brahmins used to irreverently address Lord Buddha as ‘Bho-Gautama’. They used to insult and disrespect him with such names. But as you know, if the idols of Rama, Krishna, or Shankara are kept for sale in foreign countries, nobody would buy them. But if the images of Buddha are kept for sale none will be left. So much has happened and has been witnessed in India. Let us look outside the Country also. If there is an Indian God whose name is popular abroad, it is Lord Buddha.

We shall follow our path, undaunted. Let others follow their own path. We have found a new way to life and we shall follow it. This path symbolises Hope. This path leads to progress. In fact we have not imported it from outside. Buddhism is the Religion of this country. It is more than two thousand years old.

I feel sorry for the fact that I did not embrace this Religion earlier. The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The Religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times - a quality, which no other Religion can claim to have.

The decline of Buddhism

Main reason for the decline of Buddhism in India, was the invasion of India by the Moslems. Thousands of images were mutilated and destroyed. Viharas were desecrated and thousands of Bhikkus were massacred. Terrified by these ghastly events, the Bhikkus fled to the adjoining Countries. Some went to Tibet. Some went to China. They spread throughout the world. The result was that, the Bhikkus disappeared from this Country.

There was a Greek King in North West Province, called King Menander. He was an expert on the religious Discourses. He had defeated the Brahmins many a time during the religious Discourses. He asked his servants to invite Bhikkus and the scholars of Buddhism to his court. The Bhikkus approached Nagasena, a learned versatile Bhikku, to discuss the Religion of Buddha. Menander asked him a question, as to what leads to downfall of a Religion. In his answer, Nagasena listed three causes of the ruination of a Religion. Firstly, if a Religion is not based on Truth, and its basic principles are not cogent, it does not last long. It has only temporary existence. Secondly if its preachers are not learned enough, the Religion cannot be sustained. Thirdly, if the Religion and its principles do not get translated into the Temples and other modes of worship among common people, then also that Religion declines.

You must bear in mind, some facts while accepting Buddhism. You must not think that the Teachings of Buddhism are of temporary value, and are not likely to last longer. Even after a lapse of 2,500 years, the world respects the Teachings of Buddha. There are as many 2000 Institutions of the followers of Buddhism in the United States of America. In England, a Buddhist Vihara has been built at a cost of Rs.3, 00,000. There are some 3000 or 4000 Institutions founded in the name of Buddha in Germany. The Principles of Buddha are Eternal, but in spite of this fact Buddha did not claim any Divine Status for himself, nor did he claim his Faith to be Infallible. Buddha did not say that he was the Son of God, or the last Prophet Messenger of God. On the contrary he said, “My Father and my Mother are ordinary mortals”. Only those people should embrace this Religion who earnestly believe in it. For such high principles are not to be found in any other Religion.

There is a world of difference between this Religion and other Religions of the world. Main Principles of Buddhism form no part of theistic Religions. According to other Religions, God created the world, this Earth, and thereafter he created Heaven, Air Moon and other planets. God has done all that was required to be done, and there remains nothing for us to do. All that we are required to do is, just to sing the praises of Almighty God. According to Christianity, there will be a day of Judgement after death. Everything will be determined on the basis of that Judgement. This does not appeal to rational man today.

Buddhism denies the existence of God and Soul. The real basis of Buddhism is, rational way to eradicate suffering. ‘There is’ Buddha said, ’suffering in the world-suffering wide spread’. Ninety- percent people are afflicted with suffering or misery of some kind or other. The main object of Buddhism is to emancipate the suffering humanity. The question arises then, what is the use of Das Kapital? I believe that Karl Marx was behind Buddha. For, he did not say anything that had not been brought to light by the Buddha himself, some two thousand and four hundred years before Karl Marx was born. Whatever Buddha said was simple, and the path he showed was straight.

Brothers and Sisters, that is all I had to say. This Religion is the best of all. It is an all-comprehensive Religion.

There are some such ingredients in Hindu religion as inhibits any kind of enthusiasm. This Religion has not permitted any member of our samaj, to become a scholar for thousands of years.

I do not hesitate to tell you, some of the bitter facts about my childhood. There was a Maratha maid in our school. She was herself uneducated, but she never used to teach me. My mother had taught me to address every senior person with respect. I used to address, even the postman of the school with respect. Once I felt thirsty in School. I requested the teacher for water. The teacher called the peon, and asked him to open the tap, and I drank the water. If the peon used to be absent from School, I used to go without water for days together in School. I used to return home thirsty, and drink water after reaching home. When I returned after receiving higher Education, I was offered the post of District Judge. But I did not accept this offer, considering that if I accepted this post, I would not be able to serve my people. It is only on these considerations that I did not accept Government Service.

With the education, intelligence, knowledge and experience that I have, it is not difficult for me to oppose or fight against any evil. But there is a mountain - colossal mountain of caste hierarchy, vaishyas, Brahmins, Kshatriyas sitting on our heads. The question before us is how to topple it down and blast it. To be able to do so, I will write books, remove all your doubts and acquaint you fully with the Religion of Buddha. I owe it as a duty. Have full faith in me and follow me.

Some people say that, Buddhism is on its deathbed or practically dead. If it is so, it is our duty to awaken it to better status. We should act in a manner so as to enthuse, inspire respect among other people. We should arrange discourses.

Elevate yourself and the world

A great responsibility has fallen on your shoulders now. It is a significant matter. Don’t think that this Religion is like the dog collar tied around your neck. Buddhism considers that this Country is ours, has become a desert. Now it has fallen on you that you should endeavor to follow this Religion sincerely. If you do not do so, people will laugh at this Conversion. Pledge today, to liberate yourself, and to elevate your Country and the World in general. Buddhism can alone salvage the World. Until Justice Rules the World, World peace cannot be there.

Donate 1/20th of your Income

The task you have taken in hand is of immense responsibility. You have resolved to labor hard, to complete it. The young among us have to work hard. This thing you have to bear in mind. Do not be interested in your bread. You must resolve to contribute at least 1/20th of your income for the propagation of the Dhamma. I am to carry you all with me. Bhagwan Buddha used to carry out Initiation Ceremony himself. When it became unmanageable for one person, he allowed that work to be shared by other competent persons among his followers. You might have heard the name of one ‘Yasha’. He was the scion of a rich family. Yasha became his Disciple, and there were forty more men who followed him. Bhagwan told them, ‘My Religion is for the good of many; for in the good of many, lies the happiness for many. This is good in the beginning; this is good in the middle, and this is good in the end’.

Buddha adopted the method of preaching according to circumstances then prevailing. Accordingly, we too should adopt the method, which is most suitable to the existing circumstances. There are no Bhikkus in this Country now to do this work. So every one of us has to take “deeksha”. Every Buddhist has the right to initiate others, by administering the 22 vows, which are as follows:

The 22 Vows of Buddhism

1. I shall have no faith in Brahma, Vishnu and mahesh, nor shall I worship them.

2. I shall have no faith in Rama and Krishna, nor shall I worship them.

3. I shall have no faith in ‘Gauri’, Ganapathi and other gods and goddesses of Hindus, nor shall I worship them.

4. I do not believe in the incarnation of God.

5.

I do not and shall not believe that, Lord Buddha was the incarnation of Vishnu. I believe this is to be sheer madness of false propaganda.

6. I shall not perform ’shraddha’, nor shall I give ‘pind-dan’.

7. I shall not act in a manner, violating the Principles and Teachings of Buddha.

8. I shall not allow any Ceremonies to be performed by Brahmins. 9. I shall believe in the Equality of Man.

10. I shall endeavor to establish Equality.

11. I shall follow the ‘noble eight path’ of the Buddha. 12. I shall follow the ‘paramitas’ prescribed by the Buddha.

13. I shall have compassion and loving kindness, for all living beings, and protect them.

14. I shall not steal.

15. I shall not tell lies.

16. I shall not commit carnal sins.

17. I shall not take intoxicants.

18. I shall endeavor to mould my life, to the practice of compassion and loving kindness in every day life.

19. I renounce Hinduism, which is harmful for humanity, and which impedes the advancement and development of humanity, because it is based on inequality, and adopt Buddhism as my Religion.

20. I firmly believe the Dhamma of the Buddha is the only true Religion.

21. I believe that I am having re-birth.

22. I solemnly declare and affirm that, I shall hereafter lead my life, according to the Principles and teachings of the Buddha and his Dhamma. Baba Saheb Dr. Ambekar

Thus, on 14th October 1956, Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar, the true Buddhist, underwent the Initiation Ceremony into Buddhism, the Religion founded by Lord Buddha, along with Lacs of followers. Some people call it Conversion, and some describe it merely as modification of Religious Belief. As a matter of fact, this was not a Conversion. What happened is that, thanks to the guidance of Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar, a very large number of people returned to the Religion practiced by their forefathers. They returned to a Religion, to coax the masses to abstain from which, the conservative Brahmins had conspired for ages. We have escaped mirage set out by them, and have adopted the right path. This will be recorded, as the most important convention Free Revolution. When in the remote future, History is recalled, this day the 14th of October will be recalled as the day of the Emancipation of the dalits.

Here, the author of the book ‘BAHUJAN SAMAJ AUR USKI RAJNITY’ Kumari Mayawati clarified that ‘Baba Saheb Dr.Ambedkar did prefer Buddhism on account of certain values vouched by this Religion, but this should not be taken to mean that he was against other religions. Even about Hinduism Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar had said that if fundamentalist Hindus purge this religion of its objectionable principles, even this religion can prove to be beneficial to mankind. These ideas of Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar became abundantly clear from his utterances while introducing the Hindu Code Bill in the Parliament in his capacity as the first Law Minister of India. He said, “If you wish to protect the Hindu-system, the Hindu-culture and the Hindu-society, do not hesitate to remove the evils that have crept into them. This Bill intends nothing beyond removing such evils”. He held respect for all Religions likewise.

The significance of the above event is, however, much larger. By embracing Buddhism, Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar made the poor and the oppressed, the repositories of the richest Culture of the World.

Much before Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar, Mahatma Jotiba Phule, goaded by the tyranny and oppression perpetrated by caste system, had begun the struggle to transform the manuvadi social order, based on inequalities, into an order based on equality. But Jotiba Phule expired in 1890. Dr. Ambedkar was born after one year of the death of this founding father and pioneer of the Social Revolution. Baba Saheb sacrificed his entire life, for the establishment of society based on equality, based on the inspiration he received from the life of Mahatma Jotiba Phule and Lord Buddha. Simultaneously, Sri. Harichand Thakur and Shri.

Guruchand Thakur, who belonged to the Chandal Community of the Scheduled castes, and graduated to be barristers, thanks to the British Rule, started work on social reforms. Chatrapathi Shauji Maharaj of Kholapur, made his own contributions towards ushering a Revolution in the Bahujan samaj. Periyar Ramaswamy and Narayan Guru, also struggled against manuvad. Similarly, our saints and Gurus, also spread the message of humanism and human brotherhood and fought against manuvad.

To be able to transform the brahminical social order, the members of Bahujan Samaj must understand their own History, apart from the History of manuvad samaj. Otherwise, they will continue to be exploited by a handful of dominant caste hindu people, who constitute only 15% of the total population. Besides it is necessary for them to understand their own History in order to consolidate and organise the Bahujan samaj. They cannot capture Political Power at the Centre and the States, even though Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar had cleared their way to Political Power, through the Constitution of India. A colleague of Baba Saheb asked a question about this, sometimes before he died in 1956. The collegue asked as to why he did he remain cheerful and happy those days. To this Baba Saheb replied that, he had pledged to restore the reins of the Country to its original rulers, and that with the promulgation of the Constitution on 26th January 1950, he had won the battle. How do you say that, the inquisitive colleague retorted, since the Prime Minister and most of the Ministers then belonged to the dominant hindu castes. To this Baba Saheb Ambedkar replied stating that, so far as he was concerned, by introducing the Democratic System of Governance and Universal Adult Franchise, he had handed over the potential capacity to capture Political Power to the majority community of Bahujan Samaj. That, as on date, the Samaj was not capable of controlling the Reins of the Government, but in the coming 30 years the Samaj will get educated, and will grow strong enough to gain political control of the Country.

Keeping in view the above facts, my appeal to the Members of the Bahujan Samaj is that, if they aspire to stand on their own feet, the first thing for them is to understand their own History and the struggles of their Ancestors. Failing this, the Members of the manuvad samaj will continue to exploit our ignorance, and will make it difficult for us to progress in any walk of life’.

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Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956) popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination against Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour He was Independent India’s first law minister and the principal architect of the Constitution of India.
His Birth and Greatness Foretold
On April 14th, 1891 a son was born to Bhimabai and Ramji Ambadvekar. His father Ramji was an army officer stationed at Mhow in Madhya Pradesh – he had risen to the highest rank an Indian was allowed to hold at that time under British rule. His mother decided to call her son Bhim. Before the birth, Ramji’s uncle, who was a man living the religious life of a sanyasi, foretold that this son would achieve worldwide fame. His parents already had many children. Despite that, they resolved to make every effort to give him a good education.
Early Life and First School of Ambedkar
Two years later, Ramji retired from the army, and the family moved to Dapoli in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, from where they came originally. Bhim was enrolled at school when he was five years old. The whole family had to struggle to live on the small army pension Ramji received.
When some friends found Ramji a job at Satara, things seemed to be looking up for the family, and they moved again. Soon after, however, tragedy struck. Bhimabai, who had been ill, died. Bhim’s aunt Mira, though she herself was not in good health, took over the care of the children. Ramji read stories from the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana to his children, and sang devotional songs to them. In this way, home life was still happy for Bhim, his brothers and sisters. He never forgot the influence of his father. It taught him about the rich cultural tradition shared by all Indians.
The Shock of Prejudice – Casteism
Bhim began to notice that he and his family were treated differently. At high school he had to sit in the corner of the room on a rough mat, away from the desks of the other pupils. At break-time, he was not allowed to drink water using the cups his fellow school children used. He had to hold his cupped hands out to have water poured into them by the school caretaker. Bhim did not know why he should be treated differently – what was wrong with him?

Once, he and his elder brother had to travel to Goregaon, where their father worked as a cashier, to spend their summer holidays. They got off the train and waited for a long time at the station, but Ramji did not arrive to meet them. The station master seemed kind, and asked them who they were and where they were going. The boys were very well-dressed, clean, and polite. Bhim, without thinking, told him they were Mahars (a group classed as ‘untouchables’). The station master was stunned – his face changed its kindly expression and he went away.
Bhim decided to hire a bullock-cart to take them to their father – this was before motor cars were used as taxis – but the cart-men had heard that the boys were ‘untouchables’, and wanted nothing to do with them. Finally, they had to agree to pay double the usual cost of the journey, plus they had to drive the cart themselves, while the driver walked beside it. He was afraid of being polluted by the boys, because they were ‘untouchables’.
However, the extra money persuaded him that he could have his cart ‘purified’ later! Throughout the journey, Bhim thought constantly about what had happened – yet he could not understand the reason for it. He and his brother were clean and neatly dressed. Yet they were supposed to pollute and make unclean everything they touched and all that touched them. How could that be possible?
Bhim never forgot this incident. As he grew up, such senseless insults made him realise that what Hindu society called ‘untouchability’ was stupid, cruel, and unreasonable. His sister had to cut his hair at home because the village barbers were afraid of being polluted by an ‘untouchable’. If he asked her why they were ‘untouchables’, she could only answer -that is the way it has always been.” Bhim could not be satisfied with this answer. He knew that -it has always been that way” does not mean that there is a just reason for it – or that it had to stay that way forever. It could be changed.

शिक्षित बनो
Educate
संगठित रहो
Organise
संघर्ष करो
Agitate,

An Outstanding Scholar
At this time in his young life, with his mother dead, and father working away from the village where Bhim went to school, he had some good fortune. His teacher, though from a ‘high’ caste, liked him a lot. He praised Bhim’s good work and encouraged him, seeing what a bright pupil he was. He even invited Bhim to eat lunch with him – something that would have horrified most high caste Hindus. The teacher also changed Bhim’s last name to Ambedkar – his own name.
When his father decided to remarry, Bhim was very upset – he still missed his mother so much. Wanting to run away to Bombay, he tried to steal his aunt’s purse. When at last he managed to get hold of it, he found only one very small coin. Bhim felt so ashamed. He put the coin back and made a vow to himself to study very hard and to become independent.
Soon he was winning the highest praise and admiration from all his teachers. They urged Ramji to get the best education fro his son Bhim. So Ramji moved with his family to Bombay. They all had to live in just one room, in an area where the poorest of the poor lived, but Bhim was able to go to Elphinstone High School – one of the best schools in all of India.
In their one room everyone and everything was crowed together and the streets outside were very noisy. Bhim went to sleep when he got home from school. Then his father would wake him up at two o’clock in the morning! Everything was quiet then – so he could do his homework and study in peace.
In the big city, where life was more modern than in the villages, Bhim found that he was still called an ‘untouchable’ and treated as if something made him different and bad – even at his famous school.
One day, the teacher called him up to the blackboard to do a sum. All the other boys jumped up and made a big fuss.

Their lunch boxes were stacked behind the blackboard – they believed that Bhim would pollute the food! When he wanted to learn Sanskrit, the language of the Hindu holy scriptures, he was told that it was forbidden for ‘untouchables’ to do so. He had to study Persian instead – but he taught himself Sanskrit later in life.
Educational qualifications of Dr.B R Ambedkar
1 .Elementary Education, 1902 Satara, Maharashtra
2. Matriculation, 1907, Elphinstone High School, Bombay Persian etc.,
3. Inter 1909, Elphinstone College,Bombay
4. B.A, 1913, Elphinstone College, Bombay, University of Bombay, Economics & Political Science
5. M.A, 1915 Majoring in Economics and with Sociology, History Philosophy, Anthropology and Politics as the other subjects of study.
6. Ph.D, 1917, Columbia University conferred a Degree of Ph.D.
7. MSc. 1921 June, London School of Economics, London. Thesis – ‘Provincial Decentralization of Imperial Finance in British India’
8. Barrister-at- Law 30-9-1920 Gray’s Inn, London Law
(1922-23, Spent some time in reading economics in the University of Bonn in Germany.)
9. DSc. 1923 Nov London School of Economics, London ‘The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution’ was accepted for the degree of DSc. (Economics).
10. L.L.D (Honoris Causa) 5-6-1952 Columbia University, New York For HIS achievements, Leadership and authoring the constitution of India
11. D.Litt (Honoris Causa) 12-1-1953 Osmania University, Hyderabad For HIS achievements, Leadership and writing the constitution of India
12. NO 1 scholar in the World 13/9/2015 Columbia University , New York
His coursework during his three years (including summers) at Columbia consisted of: 29 courses in economics, 11 in history, 6 in sociology, 5 in philosophy, 4 in anthropology, 3 in politics, and 1 each in elementary French and German.
(Source: Office of the Registrar, Columbia University.)

Matriculation and Marriage
In due course, Bhim passed his Matriculation Exam. He had already come to the attention of some people interested in improving society. So when he passed the exam, a meeting was arranged to congratulate him – he was the first ‘untouchable’ from his community to pass it.
Bhim was then 17 years old. Early marriage was common in those days, so he was married to Ramabai the same year. He continued to study hard and passed the next Intermediate examination with distinction. However, Ramji found himself unable to keep paying the school fees. Through someone interested in his progress, Bhim was recommended to the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda.
The Shahu Maharaja granted him a monthly scholarship. With the help of this, Bhimrao (‘rao’ is added to names in Maharashtra as a sign of respect) passed his B.A. in 1912. Then he was given a job in the civil service – but only two weeks after starting, he had to rush home to Bombay. Ramji was very ill, and died soon afterwards. He had done all he could for his son, laying the foundations for Bhimrao’s later achievements.

Studies in the USA and the UK
The Maharaja of Baroda had a scheme to send a few outstanding scholars abroad for further studies. Of course, Bhimrao was selected – but he had to sign an agreement to serve Baroda state for ten years on finishing his studies.
In 1913, he went to the USA where he studied at the world-famous Columbia University, New York. The freedom and equality he experienced in America made a very strong impression on Bhimrao. It was so refreshing for him to be able to live a normal life, free from the caste prejudice of India. He could do anything he pleased – but devoted his time to studying. He studied eighteen hours a day. Visits to bookshops were his favourite entertainment!
His main subjects were Economics and Sociology. In just two years he had been awarded an M.A. – the following year he completed his Ph.D. thesis. Then he left Columbia and went to England, where he joined the London School of Economics. However, he had to leave London before completing his course because the scholarship granted by the State of Baroda expired. Bhimrao had to wait three years before he could return to London to complete his studies.

Return to India – Nightmare in Baroda
So he was called back to India to take up a post in Baroda as agreed. He was given an excellent job in the Baroda Civil Service. Bhimrao now held a doctorate, and was being trained for a top job. Yet, he again ran into the worst features of the Hindu caste system. This was all the more painful, because for the past four years he had been abroad, living free from the label of ‘untouchable.’
No one at the office where he worked would hand over files and papers to him – the servant threw them onto his desk. Nor would they give him water to drink. No respect was given to him, merely because of his caste.
He had to go from hotel to hotel looking for a room, but none of them would take him in. At last he had found a place to live in a Parsi guest house, but only because he had finally decided to keep his caste secret.
He lived there in very uncomfortable conditions, in a small bedroom with a tiny cold-water bathroom attached. He was totally alone there with no one to talk to. There were no electric lights or even oil lamps – so the place was completely dark at night.
Bhimrao was hoping to find somewhere else to live through his civil service job, but before he could, one morning as he was leaving for work a gang of angry men carrying sticks arrived outside his room. They accused him of polluting the hotel and told him to get out by evening – or else! What could he do? He could not stay with either of the two acquaintances he had in Baroda for the same reason – his low caste. Bhimrao felt totally miserable and rejected.
Bombay – Beginning Social Activity
He had no choice. After only eleven days in his new job, he had to return to Bombay. He tried to start a small business there, advising people about investments – but it too failed once customers learned of his caste.
In 1918, he became a lecturer at Sydenham College in Bombay. There, his students recognised him as a brilliant teacher and scholar. At this time he also helped to found a Marathi newspaper ‘Mook Nayak’ (Leader of the Dumb) to champion the cause of the ‘untouchables’. He also began to organise and attend conferences, knowing that he had to begin to proclaim and publicise the humiliations suffered by the Dalits – ‘the oppressed’ – and fight for equal rights. His own life had taught him the necessity of the struggle for emancipation.

Completion of Education – Leader of India’s Untouchables
In 1920, with the help of friends, he was able to return to London to complete his studies in Economics at LSE. He also enrolled to study as a Barrister at Gray’s Inn. In 1923, Bhimrao returned to India with a Doctorate in Economics from the LSE – he was perhaps the first Indian to have a Doctorate from this world-famous institution. He had also qualified as a Barrister-at-Law.
Back in India, he knew that nothing had changed.
His qualifications meant nothing as far as the practice of Untouchability was concerned – it was still an obstacle to his career. However, he had received the best education anyone in the world could get, and was well equipped to be a leader of the Dalit community. He could argue with and persuade the best minds of his time on equal terms. He was an expert on the law, and could give convincing evidence before British commissions as an eloquent and gifted speaker. Bhimrao dedicated the rest of his life to his task.
He became known by his increasing number of followers – those ‘untouchables’ he urged to awake – as Babasaheb Ambedkar. Knowing the great value and importance of education, in 1924 he founded an association called Bahiskrit Hitakarini Sabha. This set up hostels, schools, and free libraries. To improve the lives of Dalits, education had to reach everyone. Opportunities had to be provided at grass roots level – because knowledge is power.

Leading Peaceful Agitation
In 1927 Babasaheb Ambedkar presided over a conference at Mahad in Kolaba District. There he said: -It is time we rooted out of our minds the ideas of high and low. We can attain self-elevation only if we learn self-help and regain our self-respect.”
Because of his experience of the humiliation and injustice of untouchability, he knew that justice would not be granted by others. Those who suffer injustice must secure justice for themselves.
The Bombay Legislature had already passed a Bill allowing everyone to use public water tanks and wells. (We have seen how Bhim was denied water at school, in his office, and at other places. Public water facilities were always denied to ‘untouchables’ because of the superstitious fear of ‘pollution.’)
Mahad Municipality had thrown open the local water tank four years earlier, but so far not one ‘untouchable’ had dared to drink or draw water from it. Babasaheb Ambedkar led a procession from the Conference on a peaceful demonstration to the Chowdar Tank. He knelt and drank water from it. After he set this example, thousands of others felt courageous enough to follow him. They drank water from the tank and made history. For many hundreds of years, ‘untouchables’ had been forbidden to drink public water.
When some caste Hindus saw them drinking water, they believed the tank had been polluted and violently attacked the Conference, but Babasaheb Ambedkar insisted violence would not help – he had given his word that they would agitate peacefully.
Babasaheb Ambedkar started a Marathi journal Bahishkrit Bharat (‘The Excluded of India’). In it, he urged his people to hold a satyagraha (non-violent agitation) to secure the right of entry to the Kala Ram Temple at Nasik. ‘untouchables’ had always been forbidden to enter Hindu temples. The demonstration lasted for a month. Then they were told they would be able to take part in the annual temple festival. However, at the festival they had stones thrown at them – and were not allowed to take part. Courageously, they resumed their peaceful agitation. The temple had to remain closed for about a year, as they blocked its entrance.

Round Table Conferences
Meanwhile, the Indian Freedom Movement had gained momentum under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1930, a Round Table Conference was held by the British Government in London to decide the future of India. Babasaheb Ambedkar represented the ‘untouchables’.

He said there: -The Depressed Classes of India also join in the demand for replacing the British Government by a Government of the people and by the people… Our wrongs have remained as open sores and have not been righted although 150 years of British rule have rolled away. Of what good is such a Government to anybody?”
Soon a second conference was held, which Mahatma Gandhi attended representing the Congress Party. Babasaheb Ambedkar met Gandhi in Bombay before they went to London. Gandhi told him that he had read what Babasaheb said at the first conference. Gandhi told Babasaheb Ambedkar he knew him to be a real Indian patriot.
At the Second Conference, Babasaheb Ambedkar asked for a separate electorate for the Depressed Classes. -Hinduism”, he said, -has given us only insults, misery, and humiliation.” A separate electorate would mean that the ‘untouchables’ would vote for their own candidates and be allotted their votes separate from the Hindu majority.
Babasaheb was made a hero by thousands of his followers on his return from Bombay – even though he always said that people should not idolise him. News came that separate electorates had been granted. Gandhi felt that separate electorates would separate the Harijans from the Hindus. The thought that the Hindus would be divided pained him grievously. He started a fast, saying that he would fast unto death.
Only Babasaheb Ambedkar could save Gandhi’s life – by withdrawing the demand for separate electorates. At first he refused, saying it was his duty to do the best he could for his people – no matter what. Later he visited Gandhi, who was at that time in Yeravda jail. Gandhi persuaded Babasaheb that Hinduism would change and leave its bad practices behind. Finally Babasaheb Ambedkar agreed to sign the Poona Pact with Gandhi in 1932. Instead of separate electorates, more representation was to be given to the Depressed Classes. However, it later became obvious that this did not amount to anything concrete.

In the Prime of His Life
Babasaheb had by this time collected a library of over 50,000 books, and had a house named Rajgriha built at Dadar in north Bombay to hold it. In 1935 his beloved wife Ramabai died. The same year he was made Principal of the Government Law College, Bombay.
Also in 1935 a conference of Dalits was held at Yeola. Babasaheb told the conference: -We have not been able to secure the barest of human rights… I am born a Hindu. I couldn’t help it, but I solemnly assure you that I will not die a Hindu.” This was the first time that Babasaheb stressed the importance of conversion from Hinduism for his people – for they were only known as ‘untouchables’ within the fold of Hinduism.
During the Second World War, Babasaheb Ambedkar was appointed Labour Minister by the Viceroy. Yet he never lost contact with his roots – he never became corrupt or crooked. He said that he had been born of the poor and had lived the life of the poor, he would remain absolutely unchanged in his attitudes to his friends and to the rest of the world.
The All-India Scheduled Castes Federation was formed in 1942 to gather all ‘untouchables’ into a united political party.
Architect of the Indian Constitution
After the war Babasaheb Ambedkar was elected to the Constituent Assembly to decide the way jthat India – a country of millions of people – should be ruled. How should elections take place? What are the rights of the people? How are laws to be made? Such important matters had to be decided and laws had to be made. The Constitution answers all such questions and lays down rules.
When India became independent in August 1947, Babasaheb Ambedkar became First Law Minister of Independent India. The Constituent Assembly made him chairman of the committee appointed to draft the constitution for the world’s largest democracy.
All his study of law, economics, and politics made him the best qualified person for this task. A study of the Constitutions of many countries, a deep knowledge of law, a knowledge of the history of India and of Indian Society – all these were essential. In fact, he carried the whole burden alone. He alone could complete this huge task.
After completing the Draft Constitution, Babasaheb fell ill. At a nursing home in Bombay he met Dr. Sharda Kabir and married her in April 1948. On November 4, 1948 he presented the Draft Constitution to the Constituent Assembly, and on November 26, 1949 it was adopted in the name of the people of India. On that date he said: -I appeal to all Indians to be a nation by discarding castes, which have brought separation in social life and created jealousy and hatred.”
“My friends tell me that I have made the Constitution. But I am quite prepared to say that I shall be the first person to burn it out. I do not want it. It does not suit anybody. But whatever that may be if our people want to carry on they must not forget that there are majorities and there are minorities and they simply cannot ignore the minorities by saying, “Oh, no. To recognize you is to harm democracy.” I should say that the greatest harm will come by injuring the minorities.
Dr Br Ambedkar in the Rajya Sabha on 2 September 1953

Later Life – Buddhist Conversion
In 1950, he went to a Buddhist conference in Sri Lanka. On his return he spoke in Bombay at the Buddhist Temple. -In order to end their hardships, people should embrace Buddhism. I am going to devote the rest of my life to the revival and spread of Buddhism in India.”
Babasaheb Ambedkar resigned from the Government in 1951. He felt that as an honest man he had no choice but to do so, because the reforms so badly needed had not been allowed to come into being.
For the next five years Babasaheb carried on a relentless fight against social evils and superstitions. On October 14, 1956 at Nagpur he embraced Buddhism. He led a huge gathering in a ceremony converting over half a million people to Buddhism. Presently the place is known as “Deekshabhoomi”. He knew that Buddhism was a true part of Indian history and that to revive it was to continue India’s best tradition.

‘Untouchability’ is a product only of Hinduism.
Parinirvan of Babasaheb Dr B.R Ambedkar
Only seven weeks later on December 6, 1956 Babasaheb Ambedkar died at his Delhi residence. His body was taken to Bombay. A two-mile long crowd formed the funeral procession. At Dadar cemetery that evening, eminent leaders paid their last respects to him. The pyre was lit according to Buddhist rites. Half a million people witnessed it. Presently the place is known as “Chaitya Bhoomi”.
Thus ended the life of one of India’s greatest sons. His was the task of awakening India’s millions of excluded and oppressed to their human rights. He experienced their suffering and the cruelty shown to them. He overcame the obstacles to stand on an equal footing with the greatest men of his time. He played a vital role in forming modern India through its Constitution.
His work and mission continue today – we must not rest until we see a truly democratic India of equal citizens living in peace together.

Unknown facts about Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was the first Indian to get a Doctorate (PhD) degree in Economics from abroad.
Dr. Ambedkar is the only Indian whose statue is attached with Karl Marx in the London Museum.
The credit of giving place to “Ashok Chakra” in the Indian Tricolour also goes to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.
Nobel Prize winner Prof. Amartya Sen considered Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as his father in economics.
For the better development of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar, Babasaheb had proposed division of these states in 50s, but only after 2000 Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand were formed by splitting Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.
Babasaheb’s personal library “Rajgirh” consisted more than 50,000 books and it was world’s largest private library.
The book “Waiting for a visa” written by Dr. Babasaheb is a textbook in Columbia University. Columbia University made a list of world’s top 100 scholars in 2004 and first name in that list was Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was master in 64 subjects. He had knowledge of 9 languages like Hindi, Pali, Sanskrit, English, French, German, Marathi, Persian and Gujarati. Apart from this, he studied all the religions of the world in comparative way for almost 21 years.
In the London School of Economics, Babasaheb completed 8 years of studies in just 2 years 3 months. For this, he studied 21 hours in a day.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar’s initiation in Buddhism with his 8,50,000 supporters historical in the world, because it was the largest conversion in the world.
“Mahant Veer Chandramani”, a great Buddhist monk who initiated Babasaheb to Buddhism, called him “the modern Buddha of this age”.
Babasaheb is the first and only person in the world to receive a valuable doctorate degree named “Doctor All Science” from London School of Economics. Many intelligent students have tried for it, but they have not been successful till now.
Worldwide, highest number of songs and books written in the name of the leader is Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.
Governor Lord Linlithgow and Mahatma Gandhi believed that Babasaheb is more intelligent than 500 graduates and thousands of scholars.
Babasaheb was the world’s first and only Satyagrahi, who did Satyagraha for drinking water.
In 1954, in the “World Buddhist Council” held in Kathmandu, Nepal, Buddhist monks had given Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar highest title of Buddhism “Bodhisattva”. His famous book “The Buddha and his Dhamma” is the “scripture” of Indian Buddhists.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar had considered three great men, Lord Buddha, Saint Kabir and Mahatma Phule as their “instructor”.
The highest number of statue in the world is of Babasaheb. His birth anniversary is also celebrated all over the world.
Babasaheb was the first lawyer from backward class.
Based on a global survey called “The Makers of the Universe” a list of top 100 humanist people of the last 10 thousand years was made by Oxford University, in which fourth name was Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.

Babasaheb Ambedkar has given many suggestions in the book “The Problem of Rupee-Its Origin & its solution” about the demonetisation that is being discussed all around in the present time. He has described in his book that “If any country has to eliminate black money and fake currency, then after every 10 years Country’s currency should be demonetized.”
Everywhere in the world, Buddha’s closed-eyed statues and paintings are visible, but Babasaheb, who was also a good painter, made the first painting of Buddha in which Buddha’s eyes were opened.
The first Statue of Babasaheb was built in the year 1950, when he was alive and this statue is established in Kolhapur city.
-डॉ. बाबासाहेब अम्बेडकर विदेश जाकर अर्थशास्त्र में डॉक्टरेट (PhD) की डिग्री हासिल करने वाले पहले भारतीय थे।
-डॉ. अम्बेडकर ही एकमात्र भारतीय हैं जिनकी प्रतिमा लन्दन संग्रहालय में कार्ल मार्क्स के साथ लगी हुई है।
-भारतीय तिरंगे में “अशोक चक्र” को जगह देने का श्रेय भी डॉ. बाबासाहेब अम्बेडकर को जाता है।
-अर्थशास्त्र का नोबेल पुरस्कार जीत चुके अर्थशास्त्री प्रो. अमर्त्य सेन, डॉ. बी. आर अम्बेडकर को अर्थशास्त्र में अपना पिता मानते हैं।
-मध्य प्रदेश और बिहार के बेहतर विकास के लिए बाबासाहेब ने 50 के दशक में ही विभाजन का प्रस्ताव रखा था, पर सन 2000 में जाकर ही इनका विभाजन कर छत्तीसगढ़ और झारखण्ड का गठन किया गया।
-बाबासाहेब के निजी पुस्तकालय “राजगृह” में 50,000 से भी अधिक उनकी किताबें थी और यह विश्व का सबसे बडा निजी पुस्तकालय था।
-डॉ. बाबासाहेब द्वारा लिखी गई पुस्तक “waiting for a visa” कोलंबिया विश्वविद्यालय में टेक्स्टबुक है। कोलंबिया विश्वविद्यालय ने 2004 में विश्व के शीर्ष 100 विद्वानों की सूची बनाई थी और उसमे पहला नाम डॉ. भीमराव अम्बेडकर का था
-डॉ. बाबासाहेब अम्बेडकर कुल 64 विषयों में मास्टर थे| वे हिन्दी, पाली, संस्कृत, अंग्रेजी, फ्रेंच, जर्मन, मराठी, पर्शियन और गुजराती जैसे 9 भाषाओँ के जानकार थे| इसके अलावा उन्होंने लगभग 21 साल तक विश्व के सभी धर्मों की तुलनात्मक रूप से पढाई की थी|
-बाबासाहेब ने लंदन स्कूल ऑफ इकॉनॉमिक्स में 8 वर्ष में समाप्त होनेवाली पढाई केवल 2 वर्ष 3 महीने में पूरी की थी| इसके लिए उन्होंने प्रतिदिन 21-21 घंटे पढ़ाई की थी|
-डॉ. बाबासाहेब अम्बेडकर का अपने 8,50,000 समर्थको के साथ बौद्ध धर्म में दीक्षा लेना विश्व में ऐतिहासिक था, क्योंकि यह विश्व का सबसे बडा धर्मांतरण था।
-बाबासाहेब को बौद्ध धर्म की दीक्षा देनेवाले महान बौद्ध भिक्षु “महंत वीर चंद्रमणी” ने उन्हें “इस युग का आधुनिक बुद्ध” कहा था।
-लंदन स्कूल ऑफ इकॉनॉमिक्स से “डॉक्टर ऑल सायन्स” नामक अनमोल डॉक्टरेट पदवी प्राप्त करनेवाले बाबासाहेब विश्व के पहले और एकमात्र महापुरूष हैं। कई बुद्धिमान छात्रों ने इसके लिए प्रयास किये परन्तु वे अब तक सफल नहीं हो सके हैं|
-विश्व में जिस नेता के ऊपर सबसे अधिक गाने और किताबें लिखी गई है वह डॉ. बाबासाहेब अम्बेडकर हैं|
-गवर्नर लॉर्ड लिनलिथगो और महात्मा गांधी का मानना था कि बाबासाहेब 500 स्नातकों तथा हजारों विद्वानों से भी अधिक बुद्धिमान हैं|
-विश्व में हर जगह बुद्ध की बंद आंखो वाली प्रतिमाएं एवं पेंटिग्स दिखाई देती है लेकिन बाबासाहेब जो उत्तम चित्रकार भी थे, उन्होंने सर्वप्रथम बुद्ध की ऐसी पेंटिंग बनाई थी जिसमें बुद्ध की आंखे खुली थी।
-बाबासाहेब का पहला स्टेच्यु (Statue) उनके जीवित रहते हुए ही 1950 में बनवाया गया था, और यह Statue कोल्हापूर शहर में है।
हिंदू कोड बिल
1. हिंदुओं में बहू विवाह की प्रथा को समाप्त करके केवल एक विवाह का प्रावधान, जो विधिसम्मत हो.
2. महिलाओं को संपत्ति में अधिकार देना और गोद लेने का अधिकार देना.
3. पुरुषों के समान नारियों को भी तलाक का अधिकार देना, हिंदू समाज में पहले पुरुष ही तलाक दे सकते थे.
4. आधुनिक और प्रगतिशील विचारधारा के अनुरूप हिंदू समाज को एकीकृत करके उसे मजबूत करना.
डॉ. आंबेडकर का मानना था-
सही मायने में प्रजातंत्र तब आएगा, जब महिलाओं को पिता की संपत्ति में बराबरी का हिस्सा मिलेगा. उन्हें पुरुषों के समान अधिकार मिलेंगे. महिलाओं की उन्नति तभी होगी, जब उन्हें परिवार-समाज में बराबरी का दर्जा मिलेगा. शिक्षा और आर्थिक तरक्की उनकी इस काम में मदद करेगी.
भारतीय महिला क्रांति के मसीहा थे ‘आंबेडकर’
आंबेडकर यह बात समझते थे कि स्त्रियों की स्थिति सिर्फ ऊपर से उपदेश देकर नहीं सुधरने वाली, उसके लिए क़ानूनी व्यवस्था करनी होगी| इस संदर्भ में महाराष्ट्रीयन दलित लेखक बाबुराव बागुल कहते है, ‘हिंदू कोड बिल महिला सशक्तिकरण का असली आविष्कार है|’
हिंदू कोड बिल पर अधिक जानकारी
हिंदू कोड बिल प्रस्तुति के बिंदु निम्न थे –

• यह बिल हिंदू स्त्रियों की उन्नति के लिए प्रस्तुत किया गया था|
• इस बिल में स्त्रियों को तलाक लेने का अधिकार था|
• तलाक मिलने पर गुज़ारा भत्ता मिलने का अधिकार था|
• एक पत्नी के होते हुए दूसरी शादी न करने का प्रावधान किया गया था|
• गोद लेने का अधिकार था|
• बाप-दादा की संपत्ति में हिस्से का अधिकार था|
• स्त्रियों को अपनी कमाई पर अधिकार दिया गया था|
• लड़की को उत्तराधिकार का अधिकार था|
• अंतरजातीय विवाह करने का अधिकार था|
• अपना उत्तराधिकारी निश्चित करने की स्वतंत्रता थी|
इन सभी बिंदुओं के अवलोकन से स्पष्ट होता है कि ‘हिंदू कोड बिल’ भारतीय महिलाओं के लिए सभी मर्ज़ की दवा थी| क्योंकि आंबेडकर समझते थे कि असल में समाज की मानसिक सोच जब तक नहीं बदलेगी तब तक व्यावहारिक सोच विकसित नहीं हो सकेगी| पर अफ़सोस यह बिल संसद में पारित नहीं हो पाया और इसी कारण आंबेडकर ने विधि मंत्री पद का इस्तीफ़ा दे दिया| इस आधार पर आंबेडकर को भारतीय महिला क्रांति का ‘मसीहा’ कहना कहीं से भी अतिश्योक्तिपूर्ण नहीं होगा|
About the Poona Pact
The background to the Poona Pact was the Communal Award of August 1932.
This Communal Award of August 1932, among other things, had reserved 71 seats in the central legislature for the depressed classes.
Gandhi’s opposition to Communal Award of August 1932: Gandhi was opposed to the award as he saw it as a British attempt to split Hindus, and began a fast unto death to have it repealed.
Agreement between Gandhi and B.R. Ambedkar,1932
In line with the status of communal award, in late September 1932, B.R. Ambedkar negotiated the Poona Pact with Mahatma Gandhi.
Provisions in Poona Pact,1932
Joint Electorate for depressed classes: In a settlement negotiated with Gandhi, Ambedkar agreed for depressed class candidates to be elected by a joint electorate.
Increased number of seats for depressed classes in legislature: Slightly over twice as many seats (147) were reserved for the depressed classes in the legislature than what had been allotted under the Communal Award.
Fair representation in the public services: The Pact also assured a fair representation of the depressed classes in the public services while earmarking a portion of the educational grant for their uplift.
Significance of the Poona pact:
The Poona Pact was an emphatic acceptance by upper-class Hindus that the depressed classes constituted the most discriminated sections of Hindu society.
Realization of the need of taking urgent steps:
It was emphasized during the Poona pact that something concrete had to be done to give depressed classes a political voice as well as to lift them from a backwardness they could not otherwise overcome.
Poona pact acted as precursors to many initiatives launched for depressed classes later on in independent India.
New identity of depressed class as a political force:
The Poona Pact had several positive outcomes for Ambedkar. It emphatically sealed Ambedkar’s leadership of the depressed classes across India.
Ambedkar made the entire country, and not just the Congress Party, morally responsible for the uplift of the depressed classes.
Ambedkar also became successful in making the depressed classes a formidable political force for the first time in history.
More about Poona Pact
Unlike a drop of water which loses its identity when it joins the ocean, man does not lose his being in the society in which he lives. Man’s life is independent. He is born not for the development of the society alone, but for the development of his self.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
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For a successful revolution it is not enough that there is discontent. What is required is a profound and thorough conviction of the justice, necessity and importance of political and social rights.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
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History shows that where ethics and economics come in conflict, victory is always with economics. Vested interests have never been known to have willingly divested themselves unless there was sufficient force to compel them.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
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That the caste system must be abolished if the Hindu society is to be reconstructed on the basis of equality, goes without saying. Untouchability has its roots in the caste system.

They cannot expect the Brahmins to rise in revolt against the caste system. Also we cannot rely upon the non-Brahmins and ask them to fight our battle.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
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Famous books written by the Dr. Ambedkar

Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development
was a paper read by B. R. Ambedkar at an anthropological seminar of Alexander Goldenweiser in New York on 9 May 1916. It was later published in volume XLI of Indian Antiquary in May 1917

The Problem of the Rupee: its origin and its solution
This book raises “Currency question” in British India, which led to the Creation of Reserve Bank of India. One of the best book on economics by the “Father of Economics of India”.

The Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste is an undelivered speech written in 1936 by B. R. Ambedkar who fought against the country’s practice of untouchability. It was later self-published by the author.

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The Muslim League’s Resolution on Pakistan has called forth different reactions. There are some who look upon it as a case of political measles to which a people in the infancy of their conscious unity and power are very liable. Others have taken it as a permanent frame of the Muslim mind and not merely as a passing phase and have in consequence been greatly perturbed.

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As word of Ambedkar’s newspaper spread, Kolhapur’s Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj himself visited Babsaheb in his chawl in Mumbai. The first issue was printed on 31 January 1920. It included a scathing takedown of the Hindu caste structure and its despicable advocacy of inequality.

Bahishkrit Bharat (India Ostracized)
On 3 April 1927, Ambedkar launched the Marathi fortnightly ‘Bahishkrit Bharat’. In one of its many editorials severely critical of upper-caste Hindu society, Ambedkar likened the British rule and the Brahmanical rule to two leeches incessantly sucking the blood of the Indian people, writes Siddharth

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Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics and political science. In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer.

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Address delivered by the author on the 101st birthday celebration of Mahadev Govind Ranade, held at Poona on 18th January 1943

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Kanshi Ram’s Bahujan movement was cultural, not just political

Kanshi Ram’s Bahujan movement was cultural, not just political
BSPs diminishing political power doesnt mean all is lost for the Bahujan movement. Kanshi Ram Jayanti is a reminder the anti-caste revolution is alive among the masses.

Kanshi Ram’s Bahujan movement was also cultural, not just political
BSP’s diminishing political power doesn’t mean all is lost for the Bahujan movement. Kanshi Ram Jayanti is a reminder the anti-caste revolution is alive among the masses.

Kanshi Ram releasing cassette of DS4 singer Harnam Singh during a meeting | Photo: Harnam Singh

K
anshi Ram, a charismatic Bahujan leader, believed that a society in which the non-political roots are not strong, is bound to fail in its political aspirations as well. It is easy to write off the Bahujan Samaj Party because of its recent political misfortunes, but it would be a grave error to look at Kanshi Ram’s Bahujan revolution as merely political. The bedrock of all his meetings and mobilisations was a cultural revival.
Kanshi Ram’s Hegelian premise of raising rational consciousness among Bahujans can well be drawn from his efforts towards debunking Brahminism and raising anti-caste awareness through everyday practices. So, Kanshi Ram Jayanti, which falls on 15 March, holds a special place among those who identify themselves as Bahujan. Its celebration becomes a reminder of the shared cultural-political history of being part of the Bahujan movement that began in the 1980s.

This cultural re-imagination was present in BAMCEF (All India Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation), DS4 (Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti) and BRC (Buddhist Research Center).

The three pillars
BAMCEF, DS4, and BRC can be considered the three cultural pillars holding up the Bahujan movement. Kanshi Ram, in one of his interviews, said that while the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) was aimed towards political gratification, the other three were the most important vehicles to achieve it (Collected Interviews of Kanshi Ram).
The manifesto of BAMCEF had specifically called for creating a literary wing to bring together different thought processes. An engagement with the Bahujan literary tradition was an attempt to understand the social history and the experiential reality of the Bahujan community as well. Similarly, the manifesto also discussed the creation of Jagriti Jatha to raise anti-caste consciousness among Bahujans.

In BAMCEF meetings, cultural presentation was an integral part and it included displaying posters, musical performances, and poetry recitation. One of the earliest BAMCEF meetings in Delhi’s Shahdara on 17 May 1980 was themed as Chalta Firta Ambedkar Mela, which involved an art gallery displaying the life and philosophy of Dr Ambedkar. Kanshi Ram’s practice of the carnivalesque weaved together Bahujan masses at both individual and collective levels. The early BAMCEF participants still recall the collective memory of participating in different BAMCEF meetings.
Harvinder Kaur recalls her association, “My memory with BAMCEF is as old as when I was 14 years old. I had participated in the third BAMCEF meeting at Chandigarh and sang a Punjabi song dedicated to the mission.” Similarly, a Bahujan singer Taranum Baudh recalled singing her first song on the BAMCEF platform when she was barely three years old. Residents of Punjab, Harnam Singh Bahelpuri and Poonam Bala, were closely associated with singing and had also performed during several BAMCEF meetings convened by Kanshi Ram. Kanshi Ram himself had released cassettes of many of these singers.

The Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti, or DS4, was launched on 6 December 1981. It laid particular emphasis on the struggles of students, youth, and women. This cultural wing started from Punjab and spread to several states in north India including Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. Kanshi Ram started DS4 with the aim of giving Bahujans a platform to share their anti-caste consciousness. In one of the editorials of The Oppressed Indian, 1982, Kanshi Ram said that DS4 is one of the foremost steps to organise 85 per cent of Bahujan voters and prepare them for politics so that they can take up leadership roles.

Buddhist Research Centre, or BRC, was also established by Kanshi Ram and he was ever willing to take up Buddhism. In 2003, Kanshi Ram had announced that he along with his protege Mayawati would convert to Buddhism in 2006, the year that marked the golden jubilee of Ambedkar’s conversion. He had also said that the conversion of people from the Chamar community In Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh alone will create three crore Buddhists in India (Bahujan Sanghtak, 2003).

Contemporary cultural practices of Bahujan
The Bahujan movement is still fresh in the minds of those who were associated with Kanshi Ram through BAMCEF, DS4, BRC, or BSP. They recall even the smallest memories they have of meeting Saheb or his visit to their houses to share a meal. The charismatic leader is graciously remembered by them every 15 March.
In north India, the modern anti-caste struggle goes back to Swami Achyutananda, B.A. Santram, Chandrika Prasad Jigyasu, Jagdeo Prasad, Lalai Singh Yadav, Mangu Ram, and many others. While the intellectual wave generated by them is worth appreciating, it was Kanshi Ram who translated the Bahujan idea into popular imagination. Kanshi Ram’s personality was such that he instantly connected with the masses, particularly Bahujan women. There were several women who led Kanshi Ram’s Bahujan struggle, but they are hardly known today. But Kanshi Ram knew the importance of everyone who was associated with the movement. He would often visit the homes of cadre members, stay with them and have long conversations. It won’t be an exaggeration to call him a bottom-up leader who had a dynamic relationship with the masses. He was a mass leader in the true sense.

Nirmala Dasua with Kanshiram in 2001, at Guru Ravidas Jayanti, Hoshiarpur | Nirmala Dasua personal archive

Ishwar Kaur Narwal, giving speech. Kanshiram can be seen on the stage too | Ishwar Kaur Narwal personal archives
Besides political milestones, Kanshi Ram had an important role in reviving the socio-cultural icons in north India. Kanshi Ram Jayanti is marked by paying reverence to Dalit-Bahujan icons like Jyotiba Phule, Savitri Bai Phule, Dr Ambedkar, Sahuji Maharaj, Fatima Sheikh, Birsa Munda, and Periyar E.V. Ramasamy to mention a few. It is done by circulating their images, wall-art, calendar prints, pamphlets, etc.
The occasion also sees a carnival organised by different groups. It involves a discussion on Kanshi Ram’s thoughts and struggle, cultural performances like plays, songs and poetry recitation, circulation of popular prints and pamphlets, sloganeering, and taking out marches.
This annual carnival is one of the many ways through which the Bahujan society remains connected today, sharing each other’s thoughts, passing on their individual experiences of fighting the anti-caste struggle. This carnival is a new space for the emergence of a counter-culture. Russian philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin’s carnivalesque discussed the importance of cultural spaces like carnivals in the Renaissance. The Bahujan carnival, like Kanshi Ram Jayanti, is also a new space for anti-caste imagination, which seeks to assert its claim on dignity and equality.

Kanshi Ram Jayanti’s meaning and its cultural prospects
Kanshi Ram’s Jayanti means an anti-caste worldview for the Dalit-Bahujan. It is the day of remembrance of Saheb’s struggle to claim political consciousness and uproot caste practices from the public sphere.
Interestingly, the conceptual category like Bahujan has brought together different caste-based oppressed identities together. The idea of Bahujan is culturally rooted. This Bahujanhood marks its visibility through celebrating Bahujan icons, discussing historical gaps and absences, musical re-imagination, etc.
The music industry has engaged with Kanshi Ram through songs like Kanshi Ram Saheb Ka Alha sung by Seema Azad. Her song brings out the life history of Kanshi Ram through the Alha genre of music, which is popular in regions of Uttar Pradesh. Other songs include The Great Leader Kanshi Ram by Raju Bharti and Manywar Kanshi Ram Saheb Ki Yaad Mein by Malti Rao. Publication houses like Samyak Prakashan, which was started by Shanti Swaroop Baudh, have played an important role in popularising Kanshi Ram’s ideas. Similarly, there has been an effort by activists like A.R. Akela to put together Kanshi Ram’s speeches and bring them out through his home-grown publication Anand Sahitya Sadan in Aligarh.
Each of these cultural facets displayed in events like Kanshi Ram Jayanti has played a significant role in assembling the collective memories of Bahujan. The Bahujan movement started by Kanshi Ram was a well-structured plan that spread into social, cultural, and political spheres. Even though in recent times, the Bahujan movement has reflected political fragility, the idea of Bahujan remains alive with fresh life being breathed into it by members both on the ground and on social media. It has all the potential to return to the political sphere with the same zeal and fervour because of the sentimentality involved in the Bahujan movement, borne out of people’s life-long struggle against oppression. Kanshi Ram’s vision of engaging with cultural parameters so that people are emotionally attached to the movement gives him a unique position as a Bahujan leader in India’s socio-political firmament.
Kalyani is a PhD scholar at the Center for the Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University. She tweets at @FiercelyBahujan. Views are personal.
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LESSON 4012 Sat 26 Jun 2021Happy Birthday to Pranay https://youtu.be/436CLMioAjs Wish you a very very Happy Birthday Pranay Swim Mindfully Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did 8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Computer Integrated cultivating training of vegetables and fruits plants legally with related airplanes to overcome hunger of all sentient and non sentient beings for their happiness welfare and peace to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
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LESSON 4012 Sat 26 Jun 2021Happy Birthday to Pranay

26 June Happy 17th Birthday Status Video | Happy 17th Birthday Song | Happy Birthday Best wishes
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Wish you a very very Happy Birthday Pranay

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Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal

As per the report by CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) COVID-19 does not spread through water. In fact, the report clearly states that chlorine water is one of the best disinfectants. We have explained the same to the CM and the health minister in our appeal,” he added.

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

“I am a swimmer, let me swim. I’m a swimmer, I am Covid negative,” were among the placards displayed by swimmers at the Karnataka Swimming Association office at the Sree Kanteerava stadium premises on Monday.

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May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

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The Aquatic complex at Velachery Road was built in 1995 at a cost of Rs.11.32 crore. 4000 spectators can watch aquatic events in this complex which consists of one International Standard 8-lane racing pool of 50m x 25m, one diving pool of 18m x 25m and one warm-up pool of 25m x 25m. Besides these facilities, one fitness centre and an indoor hall for gymnastics are also available. In addition to this, a multipurpose indoor stadium has been built in the premises at a cost of Rs. 1.50 crore.

AQUATIC COMPLEX

GST Applicable for all payments
SWIMMING POOL - MEMBERSHIP

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)

Individual

1
Monthly
3500
2
Quarterly
5000
3
Halfyearly
6250
4
Annual
10000
5
Family - Annual
20000
6
Senior Citizen for Annual (above 60 yrs)
5000
7
Daily Guest (per hour)
*100
8
Learn to Swim (12 days)
*2000
9
Department swimmers (per hour)
*100
10
Medalist (Time 6.00 - 8.00 a.m, 5.30-7.30 p.m)

1. International
Free

2. Champions Development scheme (CDS)
Free

3. National
1500

4. State
2000

5. District Level
2500
11
Uniform service

Annual
6000

Halfyearly
4000

Quarterly
3000

Monthly
1500
12
Guest (Per Day / Per Hour)
100

Note:

· The Medical Certificate and Other details should be submitted to the Stadium Officer.
· Family includes husband and wife plus their two children below the age of 18 years.
· Proof of ration card and Aadhar card may be submitted

AQUATIC COMPLEX

SWIMMING POOL - TARIFF FOR COMPETITION ( PER DAY)

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)
1
Sports Association
10000
2
Private School / College
12500
3
Public Sector
15000
4
Private Sector
18750
5
Govt Department (Police / Army )
6250

AQUATIC COMPLEX - OTHER FACILITIES

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)
1
Electronic Score Board
(Per day)
1000
2
PA System (Per day)
2000
3
Shop/Stall (Per Stall / Per day)
650
4
Room Rent - Non A/C
(Per day)
750
5
VIP Room Rent A/c
(Per day)
5000
6
Media Hall (A/c) (Per day)
2500
7
Dining Hall (Non A/c)
(Per day)
2000
8
Unfurnished Accommodation
(Per day / Per head)
65

AQUATIC COMPLEX - FITNESS CENTRE

MEMBERSHIP

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)

Individual

1
Monthly
1000
2
Quarterly
2500
3
Half Yearly
5000
4
Annual
7500

INDOOR BADMINTON HALL

TARIFF FOR COMPETITIONS

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)

With Flood Light
1
Sports Association
*6500
2
Private School / College
*6500
3
Public Sector
*6500
4
Police /Army/Govt.Dept
*4000
5
Private Sector
*10000

Note: For SDAT Academy, the timings will be 4.00 P.M – 6.00 P.M.

AQUATIC- INDOOR BADMINTON HALL

TARIFF FOR MEMBERSHIP

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)
1
Individual (Per Head/Per Hour/ Per Month)
1500

Student (Per Head/Per Hour/ Per Month)
750

Trainees if SDAT Coaches (Per Head/Per Hour/ Per Month)

1000

Note: For SDAT Academy, the timings will be 4.00 P.M - 6.00 P.M.

AQUATIC COMPLEX - HALL OF GYMNASTICS

Tariff for Competition

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)
1
Sports Association (Per day)
6500
2
Private School / College (Per day)
6500
3
Public Sector (Per day)
6500
4
Police / Army / Govt. Dept
(Per day)
4000
5
Private Sector (Per day)
10000

AQUATIC COMPLEX - HALL OF GYMNASTICS

MEMBERSHIP TARIFF

S. No.
Type of User
Tariff approved in EC dt.04.05.2017
(Rs.)
1
Individual (Students)
(Per Hour)

Monthly
500
Quarterly
1000
Half Yearly
1900
Annual
3200
Individual (Non students) - Monthly
1000
2
Medallist

International Medallist
Free
National Medallist (Organized by Gymnastic Federation of India
3000
State Medalist (Organized by Tamil Nadu Gymnastics Association)
4000

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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu is at SDAT Aquatic Complex, Velachery, Chennai.
26 June 2015 at 18:43 ·
Ripples 2015
3rd State Level Paralympic Swimming Championship.
Date 24-25 July 2015.
Visit http://psatn.blogspot.in to register.

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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
10 April 2015 at 16:27 ·
Today we met Tamilnadu Social Welfare Minister Ms Valarmathi and submitted to her our representation for providing equal opportunities and equal incentives to Paralympians along with Olympians in Tamilnadu… More

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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
7 April 2015 at 14:25 ·
3rd State Level Paralympic Swimming Championship
Our Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu decided to organize 3rd State Level Paralympic Swimming Championship on 24th and 25th Jul.’15 at SDAT Aquatic… More

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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 January 2015 at 12:27 ·

Niraj Singh Dasoni‎Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu28 January 2015 at 12:25 · Colva ·
The biggest Swimming Event of Mumbai is Back with all new destination and with a bigger event ………..
We are Back with a National Event…
For ONLINE Registration Visit….
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
4 November 2014 at 20:27 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu4 November 2014 at 19:10 ·
Flier in Hindi on our proposed Wheelchair basketball workshops in Dec.14.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
4 November 2014 at 20:13 ·

+2
Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu3 November 2014 at 20:09 ·
Today Rtd DGP Mr S P Mathur and Mr Shankar from Cognizant addressed our swimmers. Tomorrow they are leaving for Indore for the National event.
All the very best to them!
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
4 November 2014 at 20:12 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu2 November 2014 at 20:57 ·
Dear Friends,
I am glad to inform you all that we formed Wheelchair Basketball Federation of India to promote this sport in our country. Seeking your kind blessings and best wishes for our Federation.
Kindly… More
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
2 November 2014 at 21:06 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu2 November 2014 at 20:57 ·
Dear Friends,
I am glad to inform you all that we formed Wheelchair Basketball Federation of India to promote this sport in our country. Seeking your kind blessings and best wishes for our Federation.
Kindly… More
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
1 November 2014 at 08:52 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu1 November 2014 at 08:34 ·
Today Mr Ramakrishnan, founder of AmaraSeva Sangam visited our swimming coaching camp. Our swimmers are fortunate enough to meet such a great person.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
30 October 2014 at 21:13 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu30 October 2014 at 21:09 ·
Today Mr Swaminathan, Rtd CSR Head of Tata Group visited our paralympic swimming coaching camp and interacted with our swimmers.
Thank you very much Sir for sparing your precious time for us.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
30 October 2014 at 21:12 ·

+3
Vijaya Kumar29 October 2014 at 07:01 ·
Tamil Nadu State Paralympic Swimming Team Coaching Camp Chennai Aquatic Complex Velacherry
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
30 October 2014 at 21:12 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu26 October 2014 at 17:59 ·
Col Gill from OTA gave a lecture today to our swimmers on fitness, nutrition and motivation. It’s very helpful for us. He brought his friend who is a solo big bike rider in India. Very inspiring to meet her. Very grateful to them for sparing their precious time for us.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
26 October 2014 at 18:06 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu26 October 2014 at 17:59 ·
Col Gill from OTA gave a lecture today to our swimmers on fitness, nutrition and motivation. It’s very helpful for us. He brought his friend who is a solo big bike rider in India. Very inspiring to meet her. Very grateful to them for sparing their precious time for us.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
25 October 2014 at 21:12 ·

+3
Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu25 October 2014 at 17:41 ·
Our paralympic swimming coaching camp has been started from yesterday. Today Dr Prakash, Executive Director and Mr Ravindran, GM of Star Health Ins and Mr Amar, SVP and Ms Janine, AVP of R R Donnelley motivated our swimmers thru their inspiring speeches. I am very much thankful to them for accepting my invitation.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
18 October 2014 at 18:58 ·
We are very proud of her… Wishing her all the best to all her endeavours.

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu
18 October 2014 at 18:18 ·
Hi All,
I am glad to inform you that 14th National Paralympic Swimming Championship is going to be held from 6th Nov to 9th Nov at Indore, Madhya Pradesh.
For our TN swimmers who are selected for the national event, we are arranging coaching camp from 24th Oct to 4th Nov at SDAT Aquatic Complex, velachery road, Chennai.
Seeking your kind blessings and best wishes for our swimmers.
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Paralympics- Wheel chair basketball by “Chennai Eagles ”
Wheel chair basketball spearheaded by - Madhavi Latha Founder , YWTC Directed and produced by : Kavi Priya Founder & CEO, Adding Smiles Communications Adding…
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
24 September 2014 at 20:01 ·
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
21 September 2014 at 12:43 ·
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Tune in this Monday 11:30 AM to watch her inspiring story.
Peppers20 September 2014 at 14:12 ·
Determination,Dedication, Belief….Ms .Madhavi Latha ,National Paralympic Swimming Champion. .Gold Medalist in the 1st State Level Paralympic Swimming Championship – India 2013.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
30 August 2014 at 20:00 ·
Some people will never ‘get you’. Do not spend eternity asking why. People will see you differently, just cherish those who lift your soul.
- Dodinsky’s Garden of Thoughts
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 August 2014 at 20:00 ·
Don’t ever mistake my silence for ignorance, my calmness for acceptance, or my kindness for weakness.
- Anonymous
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 August 2014 at 15:00 ·

Chennai Eagles - Wheelchair Basketball16 August 2014 at 22:24 ·
Today’s practice session at J N Indoor Stadium. Players r showing lot of interest. They r coming from other districts Like Dindigul, Coimbatore, pudhukkottai, Tiruvannamalai etc. It shows their love for this game. Hope in future all the districts will also have accessible courts and sports wheelchairs.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 August 2014 at 14:57 ·

RaJ Esh Photography is with Raghavendar Rao T and Raj Esh.24 August 2014 at 14:48 ·
So Inspiring
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
26 August 2014 at 20:00 ·
Please know that there are much better things in life than being lonely or liked or bitter or mean or self conscious. We are all full of shit. Go love someone just because, I know your heart may be badly bruised, or even the victim of numerous knifings but it will always heal even if you don’t want it to, it keeps going. There are the most fantastic, beautiful things and people out there, I promise. It’s up to you to find them.
- Chuck Palahniuk
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
25 August 2014 at 20:00 ·
I don’t care about whose DNA has recombined with whose. When everything goes to hell, the people who stand by you without flinching they are your family.
Jim Butcher
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
22 August 2014 at 19:03 ·
YOUTUBE.COM
Meet the differently abled Rockstars at CAN DO
CAN DO works ‘by and for’ people with disabilities, providing training and employment. We’ve incubated the idea from scratch and assisted in integrated marke…
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
14 August 2014 at 13:31 ·
This is the society you live in… You wonder when we will be a first-world country and yet, you don’t realize you can be the major catalyst for that change.
If this motivates you to contribute to the society, send us a message

Benedict Gnaniah14 August 2014 at 13:26 ·
Tricolor all over the place, urchins hawking flags at the traffic signals while one waits impatiently in the air-conditioned comfort of a car waiting for the amber to turn green. These little boys and girls… More
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
7 August 2014 at 14:09 ·
Chennai Eagles, India- Wheelchair Basketball - Exhibition Match.

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Choice Equality added 35 new photos to the album Chennai Eagles, India- Wheelchair Basketball - Exhibition Match — with Dinesh Babu.26 July 2014 ·
Special Guest Mr Bharat Joshi British Deputy High Commissioner Chennai India- Held on 26th July 2014
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
30 July 2014 at 14:57 ·
We got featured on Indian Express too.
NEWINDIANEXPRESS.COM
Exhibiting sporting spirit on wheels - The New Indian Express
CHENNAI: Yes we Too Can (YWTC), Chennai, a charitable trust, in partnership with Choice International, a UK-based development organisation, organised a wheelchair basketball development workshop at the Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium on Saturday. .
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
30 July 2014 at 13:45 ·
“Chennai is looking to break this painful vacuum in disability sports through boccia, paralympic swimming and wheelchair basketball.”
- The Hindu
THEHINDU.COM
Get Introduced to Boccia
Because every child deserves to play
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 July 2014 at 12:04 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu27 July 2014 at 19:43 ·
Today is the last day of our coaching camp. See the bright and smiley faces of those cute girls. 1st day they had many fears and doubts abt their participation in sports. Now only happies and hope for bright future.
Hope God will give us more strength to bring happiness into more lives.
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 July 2014 at 12:03 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu27 July 2014 at 14:57 ·
With our beloved coach Mark Walker
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 July 2014 at 12:03 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu27 July 2014 at 14:55 ·
Today is the last day of our camp. We presented boccia set to Amar Seva Sangam. They sent 15 participants to our camp. We wish them all the very best!
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
28 July 2014 at 12:03 ·

Madhavi Latha Prathigudupu27 July 2014 at 13:38 ·
Our Chennai Eagles Brand Ambassador :)
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
25 July 2014 at 19:13 ·
Official invitation of the exhibition match of wheelchair basketball.
Be there to witness, miracles in your own eyes. :)

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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu added an event.
17 July 2014 at 11:57 ·
SAT, 19 JUL 2014
Ripples 2014
SDAT Aquatic Complex, Velachery, Chennai
1 person interested
INTERESTED
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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
17 July 2014 at 11:49 ·
Ripples 2014, 2nd State Level Paralympics Swimming Championship.
All are welcome.

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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
13 July 2014 at 20:00 ·

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Paralympic Swimming Association of Tamilnadu
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Neelakanta Rao Jagdale, the architect of Karnataka’s swimming legacy, no more | Off the field News - Times of India

Neelakanta Rao Jagdale, the architect of Karnataka’s swimming legacy, no more | Off the field News - Times of India
Off the field News: Jagdale, whose stint as the Karnataka Swimming Association president ended in 2017, passed away in the city in the wee hours on Thursday following a p

Jagdale, whose stint as the Karnataka Swimming Association president ended in 2017, passed away in the city in the wee hours on Thursday following a prolonged illness. He was 66. Jagdale’s reign as an administrator began in the 1980s. He was drawn to swimming at a time when the sport in Karnataka desperately needed leaders. His two children Rakshith and Geeta were talented swimmers and what started as parental encouragement, turned in-to a passion to see the sport reach great heights.

His hopes were to create Swimming pools in entire Karnataka State for people to practice Mindful Swimming and spread it throughout the world. KAS will continue with his legacy.

http://cms.newindianexpress.com › …
KSA meets CM, wants pools to be opened for competitive training …
6 ஏப்., 2021 — … the swimmers after the Karnataka Swimming Association president Gopal Hosur and secretary Satish Kumar met chief minister … · மொழிபெயர்

KSA meets CM, wants pools to be opened for competitive training

KSA meets CM, wants pools to be opened for competitive training
The pools were the last of the lot to be open for training and when it comes to nationals, both senior and age-group nothing was possible.

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=contact+address+of+Karnataka+Swimming+Association+president+Gopal+Hosur+and+secretary+Satish+Kumar&client=safari&channel=iphone_bm&ei=WFXWYLbeONXw9QOM0JeQCA&oq=contact+address+of+Karnataka+Swimming+Association+president+Gopal+Hosur+and+secretary+Satish+Kumar&gs_lcp=ChNtb2JpbGUtZ3dzLXdpei1zZXJwEAM6BAgeEApQ37AFWMTdBmCNhQdoAHAAeACAAfQCiAGYI5IBCDkuMTUuNS4xmAEAoAEBwAEB&sclient=mobile-gws-wiz-serp#
Sri Kanteerava Stadium Complex, Kasturba Road, Bengaluru Karnataka 560001

09845479780

KSA meets CM, wants pools to be opened for competitive training
The pools were the last of the lot to be open for training and when it comes to nationals, both senior and age-group nothing was possible.

A file picture of kids swimming before pools were ordered shut

By Ashim SunamExpress News Service
BENGALURU: Most of India’s elite swimmers, who were training in Bengaluru for an international meet, have not had access to the pool for the last three days after the Karnataka government ordered all pools to be shut due to a rise in Covid-19 cases. The closure of the pools has hampered the preparation of athletes like Srihari Nataraj who is yet to compete internationally since lockdown last March.

However, there could be some relief for the swimmers after the Karnataka Swimming Association president Gopal Hosur and secretary Satish Kumar met chief minister BS Yeddiyurappa and health minister K Sudhakar on Monday. KSA are expecting an official order on Tuesday and remain hopeful of a positive outcome.

“We met the state CM and health minister. I told them that there are Olympic swimmers training here and closing of pools affects the sportsmen. If they miss coaching for a single day also, their programs get upset too,” said Hosur. “There is no need to permit swimming for fun, but they should at least permit the competitive swimmers. The KSA will ensure that all the SOPs are followed by everyone concerned. Even states like Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, which also have cases on rise, have not shut down pools.”

The Swimming Federation of India is keeping a close tab on the situation and secretary Monal Chokshi has been in touch with the KSA officials, who have assured them that at least elite swimmers will be given permission to train.

“I spoke to the KSA president Hosur, and they have been given assurance that the competitive training will be permitted. If nothing else, at least for this group of swimmers in Bengaluru, who will travel internationally, their training will not be interrupted. If some relaxation or some sp ecific order can be secured, well and good for everyone,” said Choksi.

Around 300-400 swimmers, coaches and members of different clubs along with owners of pools also gathered at the Sree Kanteerava Stadium to appeal to the government to reopen pools as well. This has been a horrendous year for swimmers in terms of training and competitions. The pools were the last of the lot to be open for training and when it comes to nationals, both senior and age-group nothing was possible.

With pools shut, top swimmers preparing for international meet left high and dry

With pools shut, top swimmers preparing for international meet left high and dry
The KSA is expecting an official order on Tuesday and remains hopeful of a positive outcome.

With pools shut, top swimmers preparing for international meet left …
6 ஏப்., 2021 — … the swimmers after the Karnataka Swimming Association (KSA) president Gopal Hosur and secretary Satish Kumar ..

With pools shut, top swimmers preparing for international meet left high and dry
By Ashim Sunam| Express News Service | Published: 06th April 2021 05:51 AM

BENGALURU: Most of India’s elite swimmers, who were training in Bengaluru for an international meet, have not had access to the pool for the last three days after the Karnataka Government ordered all pools to be shut due to a rise in Covid-19 cases. The closure of the pools has hampered the preparation of athletes like Srihari Nataraj, who is yet to compete internationally since the lockdown last March.

However, there could be some relief for the swimmers after the Karnataka Swimming Association (KSA) president Gopal Hosur and secretary Satish Kumar met Chief Minister B S Yeddiyurappa and Health Minister Dr K Sudhakar on Monday. The KSA is expecting an official order on Tuesday and remains hopeful of a positive outcome.

The Swimming Federation of India is keeping a close tab on the situation and secretary Monal Chokshi has been in touch with the KSA officials, who have assured them that at least elite swimmers will be given permission to train.

“I spoke to the Karnataka Swimming Association president Gopal Hosur, and they have been given an assurance that the competitive training will be permitted. If nothing else, training should not be interrupted for at least this group of swimmers in Bengaluru, who will travel internationally. If some relaxation or some specific order can be secured, it will be good for everyone,” said Choksi.

Swimmers appeal to govt

Around 300-400 swimmers, coaches and members of different clubs, along with owners of various pools also gathered at the Sree Kanteerava Stadium on Monday and appealed to the government to reopen the pools as well. They were also addressed by the KSA officials. Interestingly, swimming was one of the last sports to open up after the lockdown, around October last year. Other sports had resumed by June.

“I do not know why they close pools. In fact, in the last four to five months, there has not been a single case of swimmers having contracted Covid after pools opened,” Hosur claimed.

Karnataka swimming fraternity requests state government to reopen pools
The Karnataka swimming fraternity has appealed to the state government to reopen pools to give the swimmers enough practice time ahead of the Tokyo Olympics.

The Karnataka government on April 2 issued an order to shut down swimming pools across the state till April 20 in the wake of rising COVID-19 cases. (Representational image)
The Karnataka government on April 2 issued an order to shut down swimming pools across the state till April 20 in the wake of rising COVID-19 cases. (Representational image)

The swimming fraternity in Karnataka has appealed to the state government to reopen pools to give the swimmers enough practice time ahead of the Tokyo Olympics, which is little more than three months away.

Over 600 coaches, members from affiliated clubs, parents and swimmers assembled at Shri Kanteerava Stadium on Monday to appeal to the Karnataka government.

A team from Karnataka Swimming Association (KSA) led by its president Gopal Hosur met with Chief Minister BS Yeddiyurappa and put forth their plea.

“This morning we had a fruitful meeting with the Chief Minister of Karnataka Shri BS Yediyurappa and we also met with Medical Education and Health Minister Dr K Sudhakar and appealed to them to reopen the swimming pools,” Hosur said in a statement.

“We have also requested the Chief Secretary P Ravi Kumar to consider our plea and allow competitive swimmers to train as a 20-day shut down will be a major setback for them in an Olympic year.

“With the new order to keep the pools closed, over 1000 competitive swimmers in the state will be put out of practice. We expect some relief from the government by Tuesday, 6th April,” he added.

The Karnataka government on April 2 issued an order to shut down swimming pools across the state till April 20 in the wake of rising COVID-19 cases.

RELATED| Swimming Federation of India planning exposure camp to South Africa

“Over 10,000 families depend on swimming pools for their living. Karnataka swimming has dominated in the last 30 years and we have produced many Olympians from here.

“But unfortunately, due to the shutting down of swimming pools, not just the careers of these bright young swimmers are at stake but also careers of thousands of coaches and pool maintenance staff is also at stake.

“They depend on swimming for their livelihood and our sport was beginning to see some semblance in the past few months, but Karnataka’s recent order will affect many lives,” said KSA secretary Satish M Kumar. The KSA also emphasised that swimming is one of the safest sports to pursue as COVID-19 virus does not spread through water, particularly chlorinated water.

“As per the report by CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) COVID-19 does not spread through water. In fact, the report clearly states that chlorine water is one of the best disinfectants. We have explained the same to the CM and the health minister in our appeal,” he added.

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated | Winter Watch
By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020 RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever […]

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated

By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020

RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on an unsuspecting public.” Hodkinson, who is the CEO of a biotech company that makes COVID tests, says “There is utterly unfounded public hysteria driven by the media and politicians.” We are seeing “politics playing medicine, and that’s a very dangerous game.”

Positive test results do not mean a clinical infection, he says. All testing should stop because the false numbers they produce are “driving public hysteria.” Hodkinson says the risk of death for people under the age of 65 is “one in three-hundred thousand” and it is “outrageous” to shut down society for what is merely “just another bad flu.” […]

The Delight times will come soon!

Swimmers may train in Delhi: Swimming Federation of India | More sports News - Times of India

Swimmers may train in Delhi: Swimming Federation of India | More sports News - Times of India
More sports News: With the Karnataka government yet to formally approve the reopening of swimming pools after they were asked to remain closed from April 3-20, the Uzbe

Swimmers may train in Delhi: Swimming Federation of India

BENGALURU: With the Karnataka government yet to formally approve the reopening of swimming pools after they were asked to remain closed from April 3-20, the Uzbekistan-bound Indian swimmers training in the city are likely to move to New Delhi for training. An Indian contingent is set to take part in the Uzbekistan Open championship in Tashkent from April 12. The six-day event is an Olympic qualifying competition and 10 of the participating swimmers are based in the city.
“The state government has assured the Karnataka Swimming Association officials that they will be given permission to re-open pools. If that does not materialise in the next couple of days, the plan is for the swimmers to train in New Delhi before flying out,” said Monal Chokshi, secretary-general, Swimming Federation of India (SFI).

The swimmers have already lost three days of prime training period. Their regimen has been restricted to dryland training and the gymnasium after it was allowed to be reopened on Sunday.

Elaborating on the options ahead of them, seasoned coach Nihar Ameen, who is travelling with the contingent, said, “We are scheduled to depart from New Delhi on April 9. If the pools don’t reopen on Tuesday, then we may look at a few sessions in Delhi before leaving. We are waiting for a go-ahead from SFI.”

One drawback of training at the SP Mukherjee swimming complex in New Delhi is that it is an indoor pool and most swimmers have been training outdoors. KSA OFFICIALS MEET CM, HEALTH MINISTER

“I am a swimmer, let me swim. I’m a swimmer, I am Covid negative,” were among the placards displayed by swimmers at the Karnataka Swimming Association office at the Sree Kanteerava stadium premises on Monday.

Led by association president Gopal Hosur, about 600 swimmers, past champions, coaches, parents and the KSA office bearers came together to appeal to the government to revoke the order on closing of pools.

Earlier, Hosur and KSA secretary M Satish Kumar were among the association officials who met Chief Minister BS Yediyurappa and health minister K Sudhakar and submitted their appeal. They also assured the government that all protocols would be followed.

“We met chief minister BS Yediyurappa and Dr K Sudhakar, medical education and health minister, with an appeal to reopen swimming pools. We have also requested chief secretary P Ravi Kumar to consider our plea and allow competitive swimmers to train. The shutdown can be a major setback especially in the Olympic year. We expect some relief from the government by Tuesday,” said an optimistic Hosur.

Apart from competitive swimmers, the KSA has also expressed concern about the livelihood of various stakeholders including pool owners and coaches.

Closure of swimming pools: Association seeks review of Government decision

Mysore/Mysuru: The State Government’s decision to shut down swimming pools as a prevention measure to control the spread of pandemic has not gone well with swimming pool owners and swimmers in Mysuru, who have sought the Government to review its decision.

Addressing a press meet at Patrakartara Bhavan yesterday morning, Karnataka Swimming Association (KSA) Executive Committee Member S. Sundaresh urged the Government to allow them to re-open swimming pools at the earliest.

“There are over 1,500 professional and public swimming pools across the State. The majority of public swimming pools in Karnataka are closed as per the latest guidelines issued by the State Government. We have been following all Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) laid down by State administration and the Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention and National Institute for Health have confirmed that COVID-19 cannot spread in properly chlorinated swimming pool water,” he said.

Pointing out that over 350 swimmers had recently participated in the swimming contests organised by KSA and have won many medals, Sundaresh said that not a single swimmer has tested positive for COVID-19.

“In fact, practicing swimming every day would keep everyone healthy and fit. But now the Government’s decision to abruptly close all the swimming pools has brought the life of every swimming pool employee’s life at stake. Hence, we urge the Government to review its decision and allow to us to function normally as early as possible,” he said.

Sundaresh said that former IPS Officer and Association President Gopal B. Hosur and Secretary M. Satish Kumar met Chief Minister B.S. Yediyurappa at his residence in Bengaluru at 10.30 am yesterday and submitted a memorandum and apprised him the situation the employees of swimming pools were facing due to non functioning of swimming pools. Also, the delegation met Health Minister Dr. Sudhakar and submitted a memorandum, he said and added that the CM and the Health Minister assured of looking into the matter.

To show unity among swimmers, swimming coaches and swimming pool employees of all KSA affiliated units across the State, a memorandum was submitted to the officials concerned at 10.30 am yesterday, Sundaresh said.

Former University of Mysore (UoM) Swimming Coach and KSA Joint Secretary M.D. Nabhiraj, retired UoM Swimming Coach T. Puttaswamy, Global Sports Association President S. Shivakumar and Group 3 (below 12 years) Gold medallist S. Tanya were present at the press meet.

Karnataka Swimming Association to provide three-month financial relief package worth Rs 15 lakh to coaches, pool staff-Sports News , Firstpost

Karnataka Swimming Association to provide three-month financial relief package worth Rs 15 lakh to coaches, pool staff-Sports News , Firstpost
Calling it a first-of-a-kind initiative by a state governing body for swimming in India, the Karnataka Swimming Association said in a statement that it will provide the monetary assistance through its fundraiser KSA Cares.

Karnataka Swimming Association to provide three-month financial relief package worth Rs 15 lakh to coaches, pool staff
Calling it a first-of-a-kind initiative by a state governing body for swimming in India, the Karnataka Swimming Association said in a statement that it will provide the monetary assistance through its fundraiser ‘KSA Cares.’

Bengaluru: The Karnataka Swimming Association has announced that it will provide a three-month financial relief package worth Rs 15 lakh to coaches and pool staff in the state in dire need of monetary support after swimming pools remain shut into its sixth month due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Calling it a first-of-a-kind initiative by a state governing body for swimming in India, the KSA said in a statement that it will provide the monetary assistance through its fundraiser ‘KSA Cares.’

The Association said in August, it had dispersed Rs 5.50 lakh financial aid to 250 coaches and pool staff across Karnataka.

“A sum of Rs 10,000, Rs 5,000, Rs 3,000 and Rs 1,500 each per month was contributed to an individual based on his or her designation, performance and take-home salary at the time of lockdown,” the statement read.

Apart from this, the State Association also distributed dry ration worth Rs 3,000 each to coaches and pool staff from affiliated centres which are registered with the Karnataka Swimming Association.

This relief package will be extended till October.
With the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) directive to keep the Swimming Pools shut into its sixth consecutive month, coaches and pool staff have been the hardest hit in the swimming community.

We took up the onus of supporting them through a substantial three-month financial aid starting August,” stated KSA President Gopal Hosur, retired IPS officer.

Hosur said the KSA has deposited the second round of financial aid on September 14 to the coaches and pool staff’s accounts.

“Apart from KSA’s own funds, we also received overwhelming support from Infosys Foundation who contributed 400 bags of food items, Premanjali Foundation contributed 300 bags and Kirloskar Systems contributed Rs 3 lakh towards the cause,” Hosur added.

Coaches and pool staff from various districts including Mangaluru, Belgaum, Mandya, Davengere, Karwar, Udupi, Shimoga, among others, have benefited from this
initiative.

The selection process involved individuals applying for the financial aid through Google Doc shared by KSA with affiliated centres across the state.

According to KSA secretary general, Satish Kumar, about 270 people had applied for the financial aid of which only those registered with the Association were selected.

The KSA also extended support to those who frequently volunteered to support KSA during events and competitions, the statement said.

About Us | ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research

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The Institute spread its sphere of Research activities to the length and breadth of the Nation by establishing its experimental stations at Lucknow, Nagpur, Ranchi, Godhra, Chettalli and Gonikopal. Over the years these experiment stations have grown in size and today they stand as independent institutes, however, retaining the Chettalli and Gonicoppal under its fold. As of now, the IIHR has its main research station at Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru with 263 ha of land and Regional experiment stations at Bhuvaneshwar in Orissa and Chettalli in Karnataka with two Krishi Vigyan Kendras both located in Karnataka state at Gonikopal in Kodagu and Hirehalli in Tumkur districts. Apart from this the Project Coordinating Cell of the All India Coordinated Research Project on Tropical Fruits is also located at the institute at Bengaluru.
The physical growth of the Institute could be viewed in two phases. The first phase is from 1970 to 1990, wherein emphases were laid on land development and buildings. During this phase the area for carrying out research and the area for laboratory buildings, supporting buildings and other essential office buildings was earmarked. Accordingly, the entire arable land was divided into well defined nine blocks for carrying out research and independent buildings for various divisions and departments with laboratories were built.

The second phase of the physical growth was after 1990 during which emphases was laid on creating ultra modern world class, infrastructure facilities in terms of equipments and structures. Currently the institute has well defined 11 divisions and four sections namely, The Division of Fruit Crops, Division of Vegetable Crops, Division of Ornamental Crops, Division of Post Harvest Technology, Division of Plant Pathology, Division of Entomology and Nematology, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Division of Plant Genetic Resources, Division of Biotechnology and Division of Extension and Training and Sections of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Seed Science and Technology, Economics and Statistics and Agricultural Engineering with more than 65 purpose oriented laboratories having state of art equipments like electron microscope, ultra centrifuge, HPLC, GLC, LC counter etc., and infrastructures like a series of poly houses and net houses, growth chambers, mist chambers, cold storage facilities, gene bank, local area net work with video conferencing facilities, Seed processing and nursery units etc. Apart from this the institute houses an ultra modern library, a conference hall, auditorium, training hostel, Bank, Hospital, essential quarters and few other facilities.

The Institute has also got an Agriculture Technology Information Centre (ATIC), which is a single window agency for dissemination of information and technologies developed by the Institute. All the technological products and popular publications developed by the Institute are sold to the farmers and interested public through the agricultural technology information centre.
The main strength of the institute is excellent well trained human resources. Presently the Institute has a total strength of 619 staff with 150 Scientists 218 technical staff 92 Administrative staff and 159 supporting staff. The Institute is headed by the Director supported by various Heads of Divisions. The Director is also supported by the Senior Administrative Officer who is the Head of the office and also a Senior Finance and Accounts Officer to monitor Audit and Accounts. Dr M.R.Dinesh is the Director of the Institute.
In the beginning years of the institute the main research agenda of the institute was to increase the yields of horticultural crop varieties by developing high yielding varieties in fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and medicinal and aromatic plants and also develop advanced production technologies to increase the productivity of horticultural crops.

With changing times and emergence of new challenges in the fields of productivities, crop production, crop protection and crop utilization, emphasis was laid on breeding varieties for biotic and a biotic stresses breeding F1 hybrids, developing integrated pest and disease management technologies, developing integrated water and nutrient management protocols towards optimum utilization of resources developing Post Harvest Management practices to reduce the post harvest losses and further value additions and frontier research areas like hi-tech horticulture, precision farming, information technology, biotechnological interventions to increase yields, protect crops from insect- pests, disease and viruses, and extension of shelf life of crop produces. Encompassing various goals and objectives of achieving sustainable development of horticulture, providing livelihood security, economic growth and nutritional security which have been challenged time and again by various obvious factors, the IIHR, Bangalore has been carrying out research in fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, medicinal and aromatic plants and mushrooms with the following mandate:

The mandate
• To Undertake Basic And Applied Research For Developing Strategies To Enhance Productivity And Utilization Of Tropical And Sub-Tropical Horticulture Crops Viz., Fruits, Vegetables, Ornamentals, Medicinal And Aromatic Plants And Mushrooms.
• To Serve As A Repository Of Scientific Information Relevant To Horticulture.
• To Act As A Centre For Training For Up Gradation Of Scientific Manpower In Modern Technologies For Horticulture Production And
• To Collaborate With National And International Agencies In Achieving The Above Objectives.
Twice, i.e. during the year 1999 and 2011, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi awarded the Best Institute Award to IIHR , Bangalore in reorganization of institutes progress, achievements, and its contribution to the field of horticulture. The other feathers in the cap of the institute are; the institute is recognized as the post graduate research and training centre in horticulture by six universities as a part of PG Education, the main centre for production and supply of breeders seeds of vegetable crop varieties established linkages with many international research organizations for research and human resource development. The pollen Cryo-Bank of the institute features in the Limca Book of Records 2001, recognized as the Team of Excellence in Biotechnology and Post Harvest Management, has a product development laboratory to up scale the technologies and also for entrepreneurship development and the DBT-ICAR National Facility for virus –diagnosis and quality control in tissue culture plants and also the Phyto-sanitary certification agency for seeds and planting materials.
Research work carried out during the last four decades with the above objectives has paid rich dividends in the terms of release of more than 170 varieties and hybrids and development of good number of sustainable production, protection and post harvest management technologies.
In fruit crops, the institute has released three varieties in papaya, 5 hybrids in mango, 3 varieties in guava, 5 hybrids in grapes, one variety each in pomegranate, annona, ber and passion fruit. Recently released high yielding Pink fleshed Arka Prabhat papaya hybrid, Arka Kiran, a red fleshed hybrid guava and Arka Sahan, a hybrid of annona with large globules and less seeds hold better promise and are gaining more popularity.

So far the Institute has developed and released 60 high yielding open pollinated varieties and 15 F1 hybrids in 24 vegetable crops resistant to pests and diseases for commercial cultivation, Arka Manik of Watermelon – triple resistant to pests and diseases, Arka Anamika in okra resistant to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus and Arka Komal of French bean resistant to rust has spread to the length and breadth of the nation. High yielding varieties of tomato Arka Vikas, Arka Kalyan and Arka Niketan in onion have made significant impacts. In the recent years, the Institute has released tomato hybrid Arka Ananya, with combined resistant to Tomato Leaf Curl Virus and Bacterial wilt, chilli hybrids Arka Meghana tolerant to thrips and viruses, Arka Harita and Arka Suphal of chilli tolerant to powdery mildew, high yielding male sterility base chilli hybrid Arka Swetha, bacterial wilt brinjal hybrid Arka Anand, high yielding onion hybrids based on male sterility Arka Lalima and Arka Kirthima are a few which have made significant impact in production and higher economic gains.
In the area of ornamental crops, the Institute has evolved improved varieties in gladiolus, chrysanthemum, bougainvillea, hibiscus, tube rose, rose, China aster, carnation, gerbera and crossandra. China aster varieties Poornima, Kamini, Vilet cushion and Shashank, tube rose cultivars, Shringar, Suvasini, Prajwal and Vibahv and crossandra variety Arka Ambara have become very popular among the farmers.
In the field of mushrooms, a spore less mutant of oyster mushroom, milky mushroom, Jews ear mushroom and a medicinal mushroom with export potentials have been developed.

In the field of production technologies the Institute has standardized the technology of high density planting of banana and pineapple which are being practiced by all most all fruit growers these crops. Grape rootstock Dog ridge, identified and released by the Institute has revolutionized grape cultivation in dry land and problematic soils. Integrated water and nutrient management schedules like drip irrigation, fertigation, application of fertilizer in the active root feeding zone, etc., for optimum utilization of resources for various fruits, vegetables and ornamental crops have been standardized. The Institute has also standardized leaf and petiole diagnostics for optimum recommendation of fertilizers for respective crops. In the recent years, the institute has standardized technology for foliar nutrition of micro nutrients and has commercially released mango special, banana special, citrus special and vegetable special for higher and quality yields. These technologies have already been commercialized, making these technologies available to cross section of the farming community. The causative factors for occurrence of Spongy tissue, a major problem in mango has been found and accordingly recommendations are made to overcome the problem. The Institute has also come out with biofertilizers like PSB, azospirallium, VAM etc.
In the field of plant protection, the Institute has standardized the technology of pest management using trap crops like African marigold for control of tomato fruit borer, mustard for control of DBM in Cole crops, botanicals and plant products like neem soap and pongamia soap for control of major pests. Bio-control agents and micro organisms like Trichoderma, Pseudonomous fluoroscence, Paecilomyces lilacinus etc. for control of soil borne diseases and nematodes have been standardized. The mango fruit fly which has become the major limiting factor for export has been overcome by standardizing a pheromone trap which has been commercialized by the Institute. Simultaneously, integrated disease management protocols and diagnostic kits for viruses have also been developed.
In the field of post harvest technology, the Institute has standardized technology to extend the storage life at various temperatures, standardized the protocol for MOP and shrink wrapping technology. Value addition through product development has been a priority area, in which the Institute has developed protocols for preparation of osmo-dehydrated products, fruit based beverages like mango squash, passion fruit squash, aonla squash, passion fruit banana blends, various culinary pastes and purees, lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and protocols for minimally processed foods have been standardized. In the frontier areas and precision technology, the Institute has standardized technology for production of tomato, colored capsicum, cucumbers and melons under protected conditions. The technology for production of nursery seedlings using pro trays has been further refined. In the field of biotechnology, macro propagation protocols for various crops and nucleic acid probes for many viruses have been developed. DNA finger printing techniques have also been developed for characterization and documentation of germplasm.
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This website belongs to Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, an autonomous organization under the
Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Government of India.
Copyright © 2020 ICAR-IIHR, This site is Maintained by Agricultural Knowledge Management Unit
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Last Updated on: 25-06-2021

https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=11566&context=rtd

Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and Dissertations
Indigenous knowledge and its implication for agricultural development and agricultural education: a case study of the Vedic tradition in Nepal
Anthony B. J. Willett
Iowa State University
Follow this and additional works at: Retrospective Theses and Dissertations | Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and Dissertations | Iowa State University

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations | Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and Dissertations | Iowa State University

Part of the Agricultural Education Commons, Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education Commons, Folklore Commons, Philosophy Commons, and the Social and Cultural Anthropology Commons
Recommended Citation
Willett, Anthony B. J., “Indigenous knowledge and its implication for agricultural development and agricultural education: a case study of the Vedic tradition in Nepal ” (1993). Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. 10567.
Indigenous knowledge and its implication for agricultural development and agricultural education: a case study of the Vedic tradition in Nepal

Indigenous knowledge and its implication for agricultural development and agricultural education: a case study of the Vedic tradition in Nepal
By Anthony B. J. Willett

This dissertation is about the meaning and relevance, in todays world, of indigenous knowledge, and particularly the traditional cosmologies and sacred beliefs that underly this knowledge. The case of Vedic knowledge in Nepal is studied to illustrat

This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and Dissertations at Iowa State University Digital Repository. It has been accepted for inclusion in Retrospective Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Iowa State University Digital Repository. For more information, please contact digirep@iastate.edu

comments (0)
06/24/21
LESSON 4011 Jun 25 Fri 2021 Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed. Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as did by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 5:51 pm

LESSON 4011 Fri 25 Jun 2021

Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Positive good news

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Drikung Phowa Practice with
H.E. Choeje Ayang Rinpoche June 24th
Online Practice for Qualified Students

Dear Jagatheesn ,

H.E. Chöje Ayang Rinpoche has kindly offered to lead his students in a Drikung Phowa practice, dedicated to all those who have died from the coronavirus and from natural causes. If time allows, Rinpoche will also lead the long Aspiration Prayer of Sukhavati.

Participation in online practices are limited to those who have completed Ayang Rinpoche’s Phowa teachings.*Please respect this samaya and do not join if you are not qualified. Please prepare your own Nyingma Phowa text and Aspiration Prayer of Sukhavati.

Option 1 – Zoom (link with translation channels)
*Please turn off your camera to reduce network load and avoid disconnection

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/85935083811?pwd=dGRaMHgxMDBDTWd5alpQa2QvNGVKZz09

Meeting ID: 859 3508 3811
Passcode: 402086

For additional information click here.

Option 2 – YouTube (If the Zoom meeting is full, and especially for non-Hong Kong/Taiwan/Chinese participants)
https://youtu.be/atwMtAVCF0A

May all beings benefit!

Your friends at Amitabha Foundation USA

June24th Phowa Practice with H.E. Choeje Ayang Rinpoch

This will become true

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

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Buddhas of Monywa, Myanmar

The Great Buddhas of Monywa (Dreamstime)
The Great Buddhas of Monywa (Dreamstime)
Visitors to Monywa, 138 kilometres northwest of Mandalay, will be treated to not one, but two giant Buddhas – one standing, one lying down.

At 90 metres long, the one lying down is the largest reclining Buddha in the world. It houses a collection of 9,000 etchings illustrating Buddha’s life that can be viewed by entering through a door in the statue’s backside.

The standing Buddha directly behind is 116 metres tall and is known as Laykyun Setkyar.

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Dear Pranay
We wish you a very Happy Birthday
May you become a best Awakened Teacher to create awareness in this world.
May you be ever happy, well and secure,
May you live at least for 150 years.
May you always have calm, quiet, alert and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!

From
Ever loving Thaathas, Paatis, Banu athe, Pradeep mama, Appa, Amma, Tushar Anna, Harshith Anna , Vinay thambi, all relatives and friends!

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Revisiting garden-based learning in basic education

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comments (0)
06/23/21
ESSON 4010 Thu 24 Jun 2021 Swim Mindfully Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did 8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Positive good news June24th Phowa Practice with H.E. Choeje Ayang Rinpoche This will become true According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 2:50 pm

LESSON 4010 A Thu 24 Jun 2021

Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as did by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Kushinara NIBBĀNA BHUMI Pagoda is a 3D 360 degree circle vision meditation laboratory
at

White Home

668, 5A Main Road,
8th Cross, HAL III Stage
Punya Bhumi Bengaluru,
Magadhi Karnataka State.
Prabuddha Bharat

Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as did by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Inline image

Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Positive good news

June24th Phowa Practice with H.E. Choeje Ayang Rinpoche

This will become true

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Positive good news

Inline image

Theravada Buddha Sasana – The State Samgha Maha Nayaka Committee

Theravada Buddha Sasana – The State Samgha Maha Nayaka Committee

Theravada Buddha Sasana
The Bhikkhu Subhadda, a recluse, said that the Buddha demised (entered the Parinibbana) so we do not need to follow the rules which were laid down by the Buddha. Ashin Mahakassapa Mahathera remorsed about the speech of the recluse. Therefore, Ashin Mahakasappa Mahathera exhorted to hold the First Buddhist Council. “Handa Mayam avuso dhammanca Sangayissama, Pure adhammo dibbati, dhammo patibahiyyati, pure avinayo dibbati, vinayo patibahiyyati, Pure adhammavadino balavanto honti, vinayavadino dubbala honti. (Vi-4, 481, VI, tha, 1; 6)
Ashin Mahakassapa Mhathera preached as follow:
”O Bhikkhu! Before the Adhammavada which is not the Teaching of the Buddha would strengthen; before the Dhamma, the Teaching of the Buddha would be forbidden; before the wrong disciplines (Vinaya) would prevail; before the right disciplines (Vinaya) would be forbidden; before the persons who are Adhammavadi (Micchaditthi) would strengthen; before the persons who are Dhammavadi (Right persons) would become weaker; before the Bhikkhus who do not practise laws or disciplines (Vinaya) would strengthen; before the Bhikkhus who do practise laws or disciplines (Vinaya) would become weaker; Let us hold the First Buddhist Council in the Buddha‘s Dhammavinaya.”
”Samgho apannattam nappannapeti, pannattam na samucchindati, yatha pannattesu sikkhapadesu samadaya vattati” (Vi, 4, 485)
Ashin Mahakassapa Mahathera laid down the policy thus: ”The Samgha do not lay down the laws or disciplines (Vinaya) which the Buddha had not laid down; do not reject the laws or disciplines (Vinaya) which the Buddha had laid down. We should practise in the following disciplines (Vinaya) which were laid down by the Buddha.” And the First Buddhist Council was held by the admonishment of Ashin Mahakassapa.
As Ashin Mahakassapa preached the Pitaka, the Dhamma Vinaya of the Buddha which contains Pali, Atthakatha, Tika, and these were collectively recorded by reciting from the First to the Six Buddhist Council is called ” Theravada Buddha Sasana.”

https://www.lkouniv.ac.in/site/writereaddata/siteContent/202003281457068261piyush_Buddhism_Myanmar2.pdf

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PĀLI CANON
• Pali Canon: Vinaya Piṭaka – Bộ Luật tạng
TIPIṬAKA

PĀLI CANON
• Pali Canon: Vinaya Piṭaka – Bộ Luật tạng
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Digha Nikaya – Kinh Trường Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Majjhima Nikaya – Kinh Trung Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Anguttara Nikaya – Kinh Tăng Chi Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Samyutta Nikaya – Kinh Tương Ưng Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Khuddaka Nikaya – Kinh Tiểu Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Dhammasangani | Dhammasaṅgaṇī (Buddhist Psychological Ethics) – Bộ Pháp Tụ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Vibhanga | Vibhaṅga (The Book of Analysis) – Bộ Phân Tích
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Patthana | Tikapaṭṭhāna (Conditional Relations) – Bộ Vị Trí
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Dhatukatha | Dhātukathā (Discourse on Elements) – Bộ Chất Ngữ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Puggalapannatti | Puggalapaññatti (A Designation of Human Types) – Bộ Nhân Chế Định
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Kathavatthu | Kathāvatthu (Points of Controversy) – Bộ Ngữ Tông
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Yamaka (The Book of Pairs) – Bộ Song Đối
TIPIṬAKA
SANSKRIT CANON
• The Titles of The Taisho Tripitaka
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 阿含部 | Āgama | Bộ A Hàm | T.001 – T.0151
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 本緣部 | Jātaka | Bộ Bản Duyên | T.0152 – T.0219
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 般若部 | Prajñāpāramitā | Bộ Bát Nhã | T.0220 – T.0261
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 法華部 | Saddharma Puṇḍarīka | Bộ Pháp Hoa | T.0262 – T.0277
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 華嚴部 | Avataṃsaka | Bộ Hoa Nghiêm | T.0278 – T.0309
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 寶積部 | Ratnakūṭa | Bộ Bảo Tích | T.0310 – T.0373
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 單譯經 | Parinirvāṇa | Bộ Niết Bàn | T.0374 – T.0396
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 大集部 | Mahāsannipāta | Bộ Đại Tập | T.0397 – T.0424
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 集義論 | Collected Sūtras | Bộ Kinh Tập | T.0425 – T.0847
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 密教部 | Esoteric Teachings | Bộ Mật giáo | T.0848 – T.1420
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 律部 | Vinaya | Bộ Luật Tạng | T.1421 – T.1504
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 釋經論部 | Interpreting Sutras Shastra Division | Bộ Thích Kinh Luận | T.1505 – T.1535
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 毗曇部 | Abhidharma Division | Bộ Tỳ Đàm | T.1536 – T.1563
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 中觀部類 | Madhyamika Division | Bộ Trung Quán | T.1564 – T.1578
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 瑜伽部類 | Yogacari Division | Bộ Du Già | T.1579 – T.1627
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 論集部 | Shastra Accumulation Division | Bộ Luận Tập | T.1628 – T.1692
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 經疏部 | Sutra Shastra Division | Bộ Kinh Sớ | T.1693 – T.1803
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 律疏部 | Vinaya Shastra Division All | Bộ Luật Sớ | T.1804 – T.1815
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 論疏部 | Treatises Shastra Division | Bộ Luận Sớ | T.1816 – T.1851

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)
Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana) in Theravada Buddhism By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara Introduction Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Norther…

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

ariubey
2 years ago
Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)
in Theravada Buddhism
By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara
Introduction
Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Northern India during the sixth and fifth centuries BC. The Buddha attained full enlightenment and became a Samma Sambuddha, meaning that the Buddha realised the four Noble Truths without assistance from any teacher. Theravada Buddhism, “Thera” meaning elders and “Vada” meaning doctrine and hence the “Doctrine of the Elders” is the most conservative and oldest known tradition of Buddhism which is based on the original doctrine of the Buddha recorded in the form of three baskets (tipitaka) in the Pali language. Theravada Buddhism is also known as “Southern Buddhism” as it is mainly practised by the Buddhists in South and Southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.
Throughout the 45 years from enlightenment at the age of 35 to passing away at the age of 80, Lord Gautama Buddha comforted the bereaved with consoling words, ministered to the sick that were deserted, helped the poor that were neglected, ennobled the lives of the deluded, purified the corrupted lives of criminals, encouraged the feeble, united the divided, enlightened the ignorant, clarified the mystic, guided the benighted, elevated the base and dignified the noble (1). The Buddha through compassion for other beings travelled from place to place mainly in North Eastern India teaching the path out of suffering to a diverse range of people including kings and rulers, followers of other religions and ordinary people from all walks of life. After listening to the Buddha’s teaching, vast numbers of people became the Buddha’s disciples and followers many of whom attained various stages of the path of liberation or Nibbana and escaped from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara).
Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)
Dispensation of a Buddha is generally known by the term “sasana” deriving from the root “sas” in the Pali language meaning to preach or to instruct. Buddha’s dispensation, which can also be described as Buddhist doctrine, Buddha’s instructions or the legacy of the Buddha, includes the teachings consisting of the Buddhist doctrine discovered and preached by the Buddha and the disciplinary rules formulated by the Buddha for the benefit of the Buddhist monastic community. The dispensation of a Buddha is named after the name of the last Buddha to have existed. In the Buddhist literature at least 28 previous Buddhas including the Lord Gautama Buddha had been mentioned and the present dispensation is known as the Gautama Buddha sasana as it consists of the teachings of the Lord Gautama Buddha.
In the Buddhist literature it can be noted that there are a few different interpretations attached to the term Buddha sasana. One such interpretation is that it denotes the period of 5000 years following the passing away (parinibbana) of a Buddha during which the dispensation of a particular Buddha is said to exist. It is said that during this period of 5000 years it is possible for those interested to practise the Buddhist teachings and attain the expected result of enlightenment (Nibbana) and escape from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara). Another interpretation is that it refers to the community of Buddhist monastics consisting of Buddhist monks and nuns. In this paper the Buddha sasana is considered in terms of the tri-partite division of the doctrine of the Lord Gautama Buddha into the teaching, practice and the realisation of the teaching as a result of the practice.
Three Aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana)
1 Pariyatti sasana – the theory of the Buddhist doctrine
2 Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine

In addition to observing the ten precepts of moral discipline, Buddhist monks are expected to observe 227 additional rules of discipline and Buddhist nuns are expected to observe 311 additional rules of discipline.
The 227 disciplinary rules for Buddhist monks consist of the following eight groups:
1 The four rules which, if broken, will lead to expulsion from the bhikkhu community (parajika)
2 The thirteen rules which, if broken, will lead to meetings with the bhikkhus (sanghadisesa)
3 The two rules which are indefinite (aniyata)
4 The thirty rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption and penalty (nissaggiya—pacittiya)
5 The ninety two rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption (pacittiya)
6 The four rules which, if broken, will require a confession (patidesaniya)
7 The seventy five rules concerning proper behaviour (sekhiya)
8 The seven procedures for settling legal issues (adhikaranasamatha)
The basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) contains mainly the discourses delivered by the Buddha during the forty five year period from His Enlightenment to His passing away (parinibbana). The Sutta Pitaka also contains a few discourses delivered by the chief Arahants such as the Venerable Sariputta, Venerable Moggallana and Venerable Ananda. It is divided into five collections (nikaya):
1 Collection of long discourses (digha nikaya): consisting of 34 long discourses such as Brahmajala sutta, Samannphala sutta, Mahaparinibbana sutta, Mahasatipatthana sutta, etc., divided into three sections (vaggas)
2 Collection of middle length discourses (majjhima nikaya): consisting of 152 middle length discourses divided into 15 sections (vaggas)
3 Collection of connected discourses (samyutta nikaya): consisting of 2,889 discourses divided into five sections (vaggas) and grouped into 56 specific doctrines or themes (samyuttas)
4 Collection of numerical discourses (anguttara nikaya): consisting of 2,308 suttas in 11 groups (nipatas) grouped numerically from one to eleven
5 Collection of minor discourses (khuddaka nikaya): consisting of 15 divisions of a variety of small discourses and others such as Khuddaka patha, Dhammapada, jataka stories, udana, itivuttaka, sutta nipatha, vimanavatthu, petavatthu, theragatha, therigatha, niddesa, patisambhida magga, apadana, Buddhavama and cariya pitaka.
The basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) contains an analysis of the Buddha’s higher teachings in which He discussed the ultimate realities (paramattha dhamma) of all existing phenomena classified into four factors:
1 The mind (citta)
2 The mental factors that arise along with the mind (cetasika)
3 Materiality or physical phenomena (rupa)
4 The final goal of the unconditioned state of Bliss (nibbana) (3)
Since the time of the Buddha, the three baskets of the Pali Canon were initially preserved orally by generations of Theravada Buddhist monks. They were first written down on palm leaves following the 4th Buddhist council held in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during the 1st century BCE. Commentaries to the three baskets (tipitaka) of the Buddhas’s teaching were first written in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language. These commentaries (atthakatha) include traditional interpretations and detailed explanations to the original Buddhist scriptures and were begun by Arahant Mahinda who brought Theravada Buddhism to Ceylon following the third Buddhist Council. It was continued by generations of Buddhist monks in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language until around the 5th century AD. At this time, a Buddhist scholar from India named Venerable Buddhaghosa visited Ceylon and collated most of the commentaries available in the Sinhalese language and translated them into the Pali language. Commentaries to the Tipitaka (atuwa) were also written by other Buddhist scholars, such as Dhammapala, Mahanama and Upasena, followed by a series of sub-commentaries (tika) on the commentaries by several Buddhist scholars, including Dhammapala.

Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine

Patipatti sasana refers to correct practice according to the teachings of the Buddha for the purpose of spiritual growth and eventual realisation of the four Noble Truths by completely eliminating the root causes of all unwholesome actions; greed (lobha), hatred (dosa) and delusion (moha). Learning and knowing all of the teachings of a Buddha do not bring any spiritual benefit unless one puts them into practice according to the instructions issued by the Buddha. The Buddha has emphasised this point well in two stanzas of the Dhammapada (a collection of the Buddha’s sayings in verse form) as follows;
“Those who recite many scriptures but fail to practise their teachings are like a cowherd counting another’s cows. They do not share in the joys of the spiritual life”
“But those who know few scripts yet practise their teachings, overcoming all lust, hatred, and delusion, live with a pure mind in the highest wisdom. They stand without external supports and share in the joys of the spiritual life” (4)
In His very first sermon called “Dhamma Chakkappavattana Sutta”, meaning “Turning the Wheel of the Truth”, the Buddha expounded the four Noble Truths.
The four Noble Truths
1 Truth of suffering (dukkha sacca)
2 Truth of the origin of suffering (samudaya sacca)
3 Truth of the cessation of suffering (nirodha sacca)
4 Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga sacca) (5)
The fourth Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering is the Noble Eight-fold Path (ariyaatthangika magga), which is also known as the Middle Path (majjhima patipada).
The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path
1 Right view (samma-ditthi))
2 Right intention (samma-sankappa)
3 Right speech (samma-vaca)
4 Right action (samma-kammanta)
5 Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)
6 Right effort (samma-vayama)
7 Right mindfulness (samma-sati)
8 Right concentration (samma-samadhi) (6)
From a practical standpoint the above eight factors are divided into three groups of practice;
1 Morality (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood
2 Concentration (samadhi), consisting of right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration
3 Wisdom (panna), consisting of right understanding and right intention
So, Patipatti sasana or the practical aspect of the Buddha’s teaching in order to follow the Buddhist spiritual path is to cultivate the Noble Eight-fold Path divided into the three training stages of morality (sila), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (panna).
Right view (samma-ditthi)
Right view is the correct understanding of the four Noble Truths, that there is suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering.
Right intention (samma-sankappa)
Right intention or right thought naturally occurs as a result of right view and together they form the stage of the Eight-fold Path called wisdom (panna). Right intention is necessary for the development of the next stage of the path namely the moral discipline (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood.
There are three aspects of right intention;
1 Right intention of renunciation (nekkhamma sankappa)
2 Right intention of good-will (avyapada sankappa)
3 Right intention of harmlessness (avihimsa sankappa)
Right speech (samma-vaca)
Within the Noble Eight-fold Path, right speech is guided by the first two factors of right view and right intention. Right speech is the first of the three factors of the division of moral discipline (sila). There are four aspects of right speech;
1 Abstinence from false speech or telling lies
2 Abstinence from malicious, backbiting, divisive or slanderous speech
3 Abstinence from harsh, blameful or hurtful speech
4 Abstinence from gossip, vain talk or idle chatter
Right action (samma-kammanta)
Right action, by the avoidance of unwholesome physical or bodily actions will result in an ethical life and will lead to peace and harmony between oneself and others. There are three aspects of right action;

1 Abstinence from killing any living beings
2 Abstinence from stealing
3 Abstinence from sexual misconduct
Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)
Right livelihood expects one to make one’s living by ethical, legal and honest means by following certain ethical standards and causing no harm or suffering to other living beings directly or indirectly. There are five types of trades that are to be avoided in order to maintain a right livelihood;
1 Trading in living beings including human beings and animals
2 Trading in arms and weapons
3 Trading in intoxicants including alcohol and illicit drugs
4 Trading in poisons
5 Trading in meat
Right effort (samma-vayama)
Right effort is the first of the group of three factors of concentration or mental development (samadhi), the other two factors being right mindfulness and right concentration. Right effort provides the necessary energy to develop all the other seven factors of the path but in particular it provides the energy to develop the right mental concentration which is necessary to develop right wisdom.
There are four aspects of right effort;
1 Effort to prevent the arising of un- arisen unwholesome mental states
2 Effort to abandon the unwholesome mental states that have arisen
3 Effort to develop the wholesome mental states that have not yet arisen
4 Effort to develop and maintain the wholesome mental states that have arisen
Right mindfulness (samma-sati)
Mindfulness is the deliberately paying of bare and detached attention to thoughts, emotions and feelings in the present moment non-judgementally. As taught by the Buddha in the satipatthana sutta, the right mindfulness is to be developed through the four foundations of mindfulness namely;
1 Contemplation of the body in the body (kayanupassana)
2 Contemplation of feelings in the feelings (vedananupassana)
3 Contemplation of the mind in the mind (cittanupassana)
4 Contemplation of mind objects in the mind objects (dhammanupassana)
Right concentration (samma-samadhi)
The first seven factors of the path from right view to right mindfulness, when developed successfully, become supportive and requisite conditions for the development of right concentration which in it’s turn will help to further establish moral discipline (sila), and wisdom (panna). Right concentration in the context of the Noble Eight-fold Path is different from the higher levels of concentration or one-pointedness developed in other mundane situations in life. Right concentration has to be wholesome and accompanied by suppression of mental hindrances and when developed successfully would lead to deep meditative absorption states and attainment of wisdom or insight.
The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path have traditionally been presented in the order that they were discussed here, beginning with right view and ending with right concentration. However, they are not expected to be developed in a step by step manner in that order as they can be present together in any given stage of the path supporting each other. Some factors are more prominent than others at any particular stage. They can be developed simultaneously, at a pace dependent on the capacity of each individual. From a practical point of view, it is advisable for one’s spiritual development, that one begins with the factors of morality (sila), followed by factors of concentration (samadhi), then wisdom (panna) in that order.

Pativedha sasana -the realisation of the Truth
Pativedha sasana is the realisation of the Truth as the final result of learning and practising the Buddhist doctrine. The final result can be described as enlightenment by the realisation of the four Noble Truths through the paths and fruits of the four Noble spiritual states of Stream Entry (sotapanna), Once Returner (sakadagami), Non-Returner (anagami) and Arahant (arhat). These eight Noble stages (paths and fruits of each four noble spiritual states) and Nibbana are known as the Nava Lokuttara Dhamma.
Nava Lokuttara Dhamma
1 Path of Stream Entry (sotapanna magga)
2 Fruition of Stream Entry (sotapanna phala)

3 Path of Once Returner (sakadagami magga)
4 Fruition of Once Returner (sakadagami phala)
5 Path of Non-Returner (anagami magga)
6 Fruition of Non-Returner (anagami phala)
7 Path of Arahant (arhat magga)
8 Fruition of Arahant (arhat phala)
9 Nibbana
During the process of attaining full enlightenment one needs to eradicate ten mental impurities or fetters (dasasamyojana), which are obstacles to the enlightenment process and act as chains or shackles to keep us bound to the cycle of birth and death (samsara). These fetters are gradually eradicated as one progresses through the four stages of enlightenment.
The ten fetters (dasa samyojana)
1 Illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi)
2 Sceptical doubt (vicikicca)
3 Attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa)
4 Sensual desire (kama raga)
5 Ill-will (patigha)
6 Desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga)
7 Desire to be born in formless worlds (arupa raga)
8 Conceit (mana)
9 Restlessness (uddacca)
10 Ignorance (avijja)
The first five fetters are called lower fetters (orambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the lower sensual worlds and are totally eradicated at the third stage of Non-Returner (anagami). The second five fetters are called higher fetters (uddhambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the fine material worlds or the formless immaterial worlds and are eradicated when one attains Arahanthood.
Stream Enterer (soatapanna)
Stream Enterer is one, who through the development of Right understanding (samma-ditthi), has attained the path and the fruit of the first stage of enlightenment and has thus entered the stream that is the Noble Eight-fold Path leading to full enlightenment. The Stream Enterer has eradicated the first three fetters of illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi), sceptical doubt (vicikicca) and attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa).
The Stream Enterer has weakened the unwholesome mental factors of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha) to such an extent that he or she will never again be born in a lower unhappy realm of existence and will only be reborn in the human or a celestial realm of existence. According to the Buddhist teaching, a Stream Enterer, through further cultivation of the factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path will continue to progress in the spiritual path and will attain full enlightenment within a maximum of seven more births.
Once Returner (sakadagami)
Once Returner is one who, having attained the first stage of Stream Enterer has significantly weakened the next two fetters of sensual desire (kama raga) and ill-will (patigha). A Once Returner will be reborn in the human or celestial realm only once more before attaining full enlightenment.
Non-Returner (anagami)
The Non-Returner has attained the third stage of enlightenment having completely eradicated the five lower fetters of illusion of self, sceptical doubt, attachment to rites and rituals, sensual desire and ill-will, but the five higher fetters still remain with them. As the fetter of sensual desire has been completely eradicated the Non-Returner will not be reborn in the human or celestial realm but will be reborn in one of the five Brahma worlds called Pure Abodes (suddhavasa) and attain full enlightenment there.
Arahant (arahat)
Arahanthood is the final stage of the enlightenment process and one who has attained this stage is awakened and fully enlightened enjoying the bliss of Nibbana. The last five of the ten fetters namely; desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga), desire to be born in formless immaterial worlds (arupa raga), conceit (mana), restlessness (uddacca) and ignorance (avijja) will be totally eradicated before one attains the Arahathood. So, an Arahant has totally eradicated the ten fetters that bind one to the cycle of birth and death (samsara).
Nibbana
Nibbana, the third Noble Truth of the complete cessation of suffering, is the final state of liberation from suffering and the repeated cycle of birth and death (samsara).

Nibbana can be attained in this life itself, here and now, and hence it is not a state that can be attained only after one’s death. The word Nibbana in the Pali language consists of two constituents Ni and Vana meaning absence of craving. Nibbana is the complete eradication of craving or thirst (tanha); craving for sensual pleasures (kama tanha), craving for existence (bhava tanha) and craving for non-existence (vibhava tanha). Nibbana can also be described as the extinguishment of the fires of the negative mental factors or basic defilements of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha).
Nibbana is a supra-mundane state of ultimate happiness (nibbanam pramam sukham) beyond any form of conceptual thinking, which cannot be properly described or explained in worldly conventional language or through worldly logic and reasoning. As Nibbana is beyond any concepts such as time, space and definitions it can only be described in metaphorical terms. Following the attainment of full enlightenment and Nibbana, the five aggregates of materiality, feeling, perception, mental formation and consciousness that constitute the psycho-physical complex (nama-rupa) will continue to exist, but an Arahant has no attachment or clinging to them. This state of Nibbana in which an Arahant continues to live with the five aggregates intact is called Nibbana with residue (saupadisesa Nibbana). At the time of death of the physical body (parinibbana) the five aggregates will disintegrate and the Arahant will reach the end of the life process and attain the absolutely unconditioned Nibbana called Nibbana with no residue (anupadisesa Nibbana).
The three aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana) are inter-related, each aspect being higher than the preceding aspect yet at the same time depending on it. The three aspects of the dispensation, theory (pariyatti), practice (patipatti) and realisation (pativedha) are essential for anyone who hopes to cultivate the Buddhist spiritual path to gain enlightenment and attain Nibbana, the final goal of a practising Buddhist in Theravada Buddhism. Learning the Buddhist doctrine is essential for the practice of the path, and only by proper practice the final realisation of the Truth can be attained.
References
1 Narada Mahathera 1982, Buddhism in a Nutshell, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
2 Maurice Walshe 1987, Thus Have I Heard, A translation of The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Wisdom Publications, London, England.
3 Webb, Russell 1975, ‘An Analysis of the Pali Canon’, Wheel Publication No: 217/218/219/220, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
4 Narada Thera 2000, The Dhammapada, Verses 19 & 20, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
5 Bhikkhu Bodhi 1999, Dhammacakkappavatthana sutta, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Wisdom Publications.
6 Bhikkhu Bodhi 1994, The Noble Eightfold Path, The Way to the end of Suffering, The Wheel Publications No: 308/311, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
End.

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Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)
Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana) in Theravada Buddhism By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara Introduction Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Norther…

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

ariubey ariubey
2 years ago
Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)

in Theravada Buddhism

By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara

Introduction

Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Northern India during the sixth and fifth centuries BC. The Buddha attained full enlightenment and became a Samma Sambuddha, meaning that the Buddha realised the four Noble Truths without assistance from any teacher. Theravada Buddhism, “Thera” meaning elders and “Vada” meaning doctrine and hence the “Doctrine of the Elders” is the most conservative and oldest known tradition of Buddhism which is based on the original doctrine of the Buddha recorded in the form of three baskets (tipitaka) in the Pali language. Theravada Buddhism is also known as “Southern Buddhism” as it is mainly practised by the Buddhists in South and Southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.

Throughout the 45 years from enlightenment at the age of 35 to passing away at the age of 80, Lord Gautama Buddha comforted the bereaved with consoling words, ministered to the sick that were deserted, helped the poor that were neglected, ennobled the lives of the deluded, purified the corrupted lives of criminals, encouraged the feeble, united the divided, enlightened the ignorant, clarified the mystic, guided the benighted, elevated the base and dignified the noble (1). The Buddha through compassion for other beings travelled from place to place mainly in North Eastern India teaching the path out of suffering to a diverse range of people including kings and rulers, followers of other religions and ordinary people from all walks of life. After listening to the Buddha’s teaching, vast numbers of people became the Buddha’s disciples and followers many of whom attained various stages of the path of liberation or Nibbana and escaped from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara).

Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)

Dispensation of a Buddha is generally known by the term “sasana” deriving from the root “sas” in the Pali language meaning to preach or to instruct. Buddha’s dispensation, which can also be described as Buddhist doctrine, Buddha’s instructions or the legacy of the Buddha, includes the teachings consisting of the Buddhist doctrine discovered and preached by the Buddha and the disciplinary rules formulated by the Buddha for the benefit of the Buddhist monastic community. The dispensation of a Buddha is named after the name of the last Buddha to have existed. In the Buddhist literature at least 28 previous Buddhas including the Lord Gautama Buddha had been mentioned and the present dispensation is known as the Gautama Buddha sasana as it consists of the teachings of the Lord Gautama Buddha.

In the Buddhist literature it can be noted that there are a few different interpretations attached to the term Buddha sasana. One such interpretation is that it denotes the period of 5000 years following the passing away (parinibbana) of a Buddha during which the dispensation of a particular Buddha is said to exist. It is said that during this period of 5000 years it is possible for those interested to practise the Buddhist teachings and attain the expected result of enlightenment (Nibbana) and escape from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara). Another interpretation is that it refers to the community of Buddhist monastics consisting of Buddhist monks and nuns. In this paper the Buddha sasana is considered in terms of the tri-partite division of the doctrine of the Lord Gautama Buddha into the teaching, practice and the realisation of the teaching as a result of the practice.

Three Aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana)

Pariyatti sasana – the theory of the Buddhist doctrine
Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine
Pativedha sasana – the realisation of the Truth
Pariyatti sasana – the theory of the Buddhist doctrine

This is the theoretical understanding of the Buddhist teachings by listening to them, reading the scriptures and any other form of learning. Buddhist doctrine consists of the teachings of the Buddha which was preached following personal practice and realisation of the four Noble Truths by the Buddha Himself. Correct understanding of exactly what the Buddha preached as the Buddhist doctrine of liberation is indispensable in order to practise correctly and to attain realisation as the expected result of the practice. In the Parinibbana sutta of the Digha Nikaya (Collection of the Buddha’s long discourses), the Buddha has stated that after His passing away the teaching (dhamma) and the disciplinary rules (vinaya) formulated by the Buddha should be considered as the teacher.

“Now, if it occurs to any of you — ‘The teaching has lost its authority; we are without a Teacher’ — do not view it in that way. Whatever Dhamma & Vinaya I have pointed out & formulated for you that will be your Teacher when I am gone” (2).

Pariyatti Sasana consists of all aspects of the Buddha’s teaching that was delivered by the Buddha during His ministry of 45 years. Initially, all of the Buddha’s teachings were categorised into nine parts or angas based upon their form and style known as the nine-fold dispensation of the Buddha (navanga buddha sasana or navanga satthusasana). This was before the Pali Canon (tipitaka) came into existence.

Nine-fold dispensation of the Buddha (navanga buddha sasana)

Discourses (sutta) in prose
Mixed prose and verse (geyya)
Elaboration of brief teachings (veyyakarana)
Verses (gatha)
Inspired utterances (udana) mostly in verse
Sayings of the Blessed one (itivuttaka) in mixed prose and verse
Birth stories (jataka) – Buddha’s previous lives as a bodhisatta
Extraordinary things or miracles (abbhutadhamma
Questions and answers (vedalla)
Since the first Buddhist council that was held three months after the passing away of the Buddha which was presided over by Arahant Maha Kassapa, the Buddha’s teachings were categorised into the now well-known Pali Canon consisting of the three baskets. The teaching of the Gautama Buddha which is believed to consist of around 84000 items is contained in the three baskets (tipitaka).

Basket of the disciplinary rules for the monastic community (vinaya pitaka)
Basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka)
Basket of the Buddha’s higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka)
The basket of disciplinary rules (vinaya pitaka) and the basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) were categorised following the first Buddhist Council. It is believed that the basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) was compiled following the third Buddhist Council which was held around 218 years after the passing away of the Buddha during the reign of King Asoka.

The basket of the disciplinary rules (vinaya pitaka) consists of:

Major offences (parajika pali)
Minor offences (pacittiya pali)
Greater section (mahavagga pali)
Lesser section (culavagga pali)
Summary and classification (parivara pali)
The basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) consists of:

Collection of long discourses (digha nikaya)
Collection of middle length discourses (majjhima nikaya)
Collection of connected discourses (samyutta nikaya)
Collection of numerical discourses (anguttara nikaya)
Collection of minor discourses (khuddaka nikaya)
The basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) consists of:

The book of classification (dhammasagani)
The book of analysis (vibhanga)
Discussion with reference to elements (dhathukatha)
Description of individuals (puggalapannatti)
Points of controversy (kathavatthu)
The book of pairs (yamaka)
The book of conditional relations (patthana)
The basket of the disciplinary rules (vinaya pitaka) contains the rules of discipline laid down by the Buddha for Buddhist monks and nuns. In addition to observing the ten precepts of moral discipline, Buddhist monks are expected to observe 227 additional rules of discipline and Buddhist nuns are expected to observe 311 additional rules of discipline.

The 227 disciplinary rules for Buddhist monks consist of the following eight groups:

The four rules which, if broken, will lead to expulsion from the bhikkhu community (parajika)
The thirteen rules which, if broken, will lead to meetings with the bhikkhus (sanghadisesa)
The two rules which are indefinite (aniyata)
The thirty rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption and penalty (nissaggiya—pacittiya)
The ninety two rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption (pacittiya)
The four rules which, if broken, will require a confession (patidesaniya)
The seventy five rules concerning proper behaviour (sekhiya)
The seven procedures for settling legal issues (adhikaranasamatha)
The basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) contains mainly the discourses delivered by the Buddha during the forty five year period from His Enlightenment to His passing away (parinibbana). The Sutta Pitaka also contains a few discourses delivered by the chief Arahants such as the Venerable Sariputta, Venerable Moggallana and Venerable Ananda. It is divided into five collections (nikaya):

Collection of long discourses (digha nikaya): consisting of 34 long discourses such as Brahmajala sutta, Samannphala sutta, Mahaparinibbana sutta, Mahasatipatthana sutta, etc., divided into three sections (vaggas)
Collection of middle length discourses (majjhima nikaya): consisting of 152 middle length discourses divided into 15 sections (vaggas)
Collection of connected discourses (samyutta nikaya): consisting of 2,889 discourses divided into five sections (vaggas) and grouped into 56 specific doctrines or themes (samyuttas)
Collection of numerical discourses (anguttara nikaya): consisting of 2,308 suttas in 11 groups (nipatas) grouped numerically from one to eleven
Collection of minor discourses (khuddaka nikaya): consisting of 15 divisions of a variety of small discourses and others such as Khuddaka patha, Dhammapada, jataka stories, udana, itivuttaka, sutta nipatha, vimanavatthu, petavatthu, theragatha, therigatha, niddesa, patisambhida magga, apadana, Buddhavama and cariya pitaka.
The basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) contains an analysis of the Buddha’s higher teachings in which He discussed the ultimate realities (paramattha dhamma) of all existing phenomena classified into four factors:

The mind (citta)
The mental factors that arise along with the mind (cetasika)
Materiality or physical phenomena (rupa)
The final goal of the unconditioned state of Bliss (nibbana) (3)
Since the time of the Buddha, the three baskets of the Pali Canon were initially preserved orally by generations of Theravada Buddhist monks. They were first written down on palm leaves following the 4th Buddhist council held in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during the 1st century BCE. Commentaries to the three baskets (tipitaka) of the Buddhas’s teaching were first written in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language. These commentaries (atthakatha) include traditional interpretations and detailed explanations to the original Buddhist scriptures and were begun by Arahant Mahinda who brought Theravada Buddhism to Ceylon following the third Buddhist Council. It was continued by generations of Buddhist monks in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language until around the 5th century AD. At this time, a Buddhist scholar from India named Venerable Buddhaghosa visited Ceylon and collated most of the commentaries available in the Sinhalese language and translated them into the Pali language. Commentaries to the Tipitaka (atuwa) were also written by other Buddhist scholars, such as Dhammapala, Mahanama and Upasena, followed by a series of sub-commentaries (tika) on the commentaries by several Buddhist scholars, including Dhammapala.

Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine

Patipatti sasana refers to correct practice according to the teachings of the Buddha for the purpose of spiritual growth and eventual realisation of the four Noble Truths by completely eliminating the root causes of all unwholesome actions; greed (lobha), hatred (dosa) and delusion (moha). Learning and knowing all of the teachings of a Buddha do not bring any spiritual benefit unless one puts them into practice according to the instructions issued by the Buddha. The Buddha has emphasised this point well in two stanzas of the Dhammapada (a collection of the Buddha’s sayings in verse form) as follows;

“Those who recite many scriptures but fail to practise their teachings are like a cowherd counting another’s cows. They do not share in the joys of the spiritual life”
“But those who know few scripts yet practise their teachings, overcoming all lust, hatred, and delusion, live with a pure mind in the highest wisdom. They stand without external supports and share in the joys of the spiritual life” (4)

In His very first sermon called “Dhamma Chakkappavattana Sutta”, meaning “Turning the Wheel of the Truth”, the Buddha expounded the four Noble Truths.

The four Noble Truths

Truth of suffering (dukkha sacca)
Truth of the origin of suffering (samudaya sacca)
Truth of the cessation of suffering (nirodha sacca)
Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga sacca) (5)
The fourth Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering is the Noble Eight-fold Path (ariya atthangika magga), which is also known as the Middle Path (majjhima patipada).

The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path

Right view (samma-ditthi))
Right intention (samma-sankappa)
Right speech (samma-vaca)
Right action (samma-kammanta)
Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)
Right effort (samma-vayama)
Right mindfulness (samma-sati)
Right concentration (samma-samadhi) (6)
From a practical standpoint the above eight factors are divided into three groups of practice;

Morality (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood
Concentration (samadhi), consisting of right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration
Wisdom (panna), consisting of right understanding and right intention
So, Patipatti sasana or the practical aspect of the Buddha’s teaching in order to follow the Buddhist spiritual path is to cultivate the Noble Eight-fold Path divided into the three training stages of morality (sila), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (panna).

Right view (samma-ditthi)

Right view is the correct understanding of the four Noble Truths, that there is suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering.

Right intention (samma-sankappa)

Right intention or right thought naturally occurs as a result of right view and together they form the stage of the Eight-fold Path called wisdom (panna). Right intention is necessary for the development of the next stage of the path namely the moral discipline (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood.

There are three aspects of right intention;

Right intention of renunciation (nekkhamma sankappa)
Right intention of good-will (avyapada sankappa)
Right intention of harmlessness (avihimsa sankappa)
Right speech (samma-vaca)

Within the Noble Eight-fold Path, right speech is guided by the first two factors of right view and right intention. Right speech is the first of the three factors of the division of moral discipline (sila). There are four aspects of right speech;

Abstinence from false speech or telling lies
Abstinence from malicious, backbiting, divisive or slanderous speech
Abstinence from harsh, blameful or hurtful speech
Abstinence from gossip, vain talk or idle chatter
Right action (samma-kammanta)

Right action, by the avoidance of unwholesome physical or bodily actions will result in an ethical life and will lead to peace and harmony between oneself and others. There are three aspects of right action;

Abstinence from killing any living beings
Abstinence from stealing
Abstinence from sexual misconduct
Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)

Right livelihood expects one to make one’s living by ethical, legal and honest means by following certain ethical standards and causing no harm or suffering to other living beings directly or indirectly. There are five types of trades that are to be avoided in order to maintain a right livelihood;

Trading in living beings including human beings and animals
Trading in arms and weapons
Trading in intoxicants including alcohol and illicit drugs
Trading in poisons
Trading in meat
Right effort (samma-vayama)

Right effort is the first of the group of three factors of concentration or mental development (samadhi), the other two factors being right mindfulness and right concentration. Right effort provides the necessary energy to develop all the other seven factors of the path but in particular it provides the energy to develop the right mental concentration which is necessary to develop right wisdom.

There are four aspects of right effort;

Effort to prevent the arising of un- arisen unwholesome mental states
Effort to abandon the unwholesome mental states that have arisen
Effort to develop the wholesome mental states that have not yet arisen
Effort to develop and maintain the wholesome mental states that have arisen
Right mindfulness (samma-sati)

Mindfulness is the deliberately paying of bare and detached attention to thoughts, emotions and feelings in the present moment non-judgementally. As taught by the Buddha in the satipatthana sutta, the right mindfulness is to be developed through the four foundations of mindfulness namely;

Contemplation of the body in the body (kayanupassana)
Contemplation of feelings in the feelings (vedananupassana)
Contemplation of the mind in the mind (cittanupassana)
Contemplation of mind objects in the mind objects (dhammanupassana)
Right concentration (samma-samadhi)

The first seven factors of the path from right view to right mindfulness, when developed successfully, become supportive and requisite conditions for the development of right concentration which in it’s turn will help to further establish moral discipline (sila), and wisdom (panna). Right concentration in the context of the Noble Eight-fold Path is different from the higher levels of concentration or one-pointedness developed in other mundane situations in life. Right concentration has to be wholesome and accompanied by suppression of mental hindrances and when developed successfully would lead to deep meditative absorption states and attainment of wisdom or insight.

The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path have traditionally been presented in the order that they were discussed here, beginning with right view and ending with right concentration. However, they are not expected to be developed in a step by step manner in that order as they can be present together in any given stage of the path supporting each other. Some factors are more prominent than others at any particular stage. They can be developed simultaneously, at a pace dependent on the capacity of each individual. From a practical point of view, it is advisable for one’s spiritual development, that one begins with the factors of morality (sila), followed by factors of concentration (samadhi), then wisdom (panna) in that order.

Pativedha sasana -the realisation of the Truth

Pativedha sasana is the realisation of the Truth as the final result of learning and practising the Buddhist doctrine. The final result can be described as enlightenment by the realisation of the four Noble Truths through the paths and fruits of the four Noble spiritual states of Stream Entry (sotapanna), Once Returner (sakadagami), Non-Returner (anagami) and Arahant (arhat). These eight Noble stages (paths and fruits of each four noble spiritual states) and Nibbana are known as the Nava Lokuttara Dhamma.

Nava Lokuttara Dhamma

Path of Stream Entry (sotapanna magga)
Fruition of Stream Entry (sotapanna phala)
Path of Once Returner (sakadagami magga)
Fruition of Once Returner (sakadagami phala)
Path of Non-Returner (anagami magga)
Fruition of Non-Returner (anagami phala)
Path of Arahant (arhat magga)
Fruition of Arahant (arhat phala)
Nibbana
During the process of attaining full enlightenment one needs to eradicate ten mental impurities or fetters (dasa samyojana), which are obstacles to the enlightenment process and act as chains or shackles to keep us bound to the cycle of birth and death (samsara). These fetters are gradually eradicated as one progresses through the four stages of enlightenment.

The ten fetters (dasa samyojana)

Illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi)
Sceptical doubt (vicikicca)
Attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa)
Sensual desire (kama raga)
Ill-will (patigha)
Desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga)
Desire to be born in formless worlds (arupa raga)
Conceit (mana)
Restlessness (uddacca)
Ignorance (avijja)
The first five fetters are called lower fetters (orambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the lower sensual worlds and are totally eradicated at the third stage of Non-Returner (anagami). The second five fetters are called higher fetters (uddhambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the fine material worlds or the formless immaterial worlds and are eradicated when one attains Arahanthood.

Stream Enterer (soatapanna)

Stream Enterer is one, who through the development of Right understanding (samma-ditthi), has attained the path and the fruit of the first stage of enlightenment and has thus entered the stream that is the Noble Eight-fold Path leading to full enlightenment. The Stream Enterer has eradicated the first three fetters of illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi), sceptical doubt (vicikicca) and attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa).

The Stream Enterer has weakened the unwholesome mental factors of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha) to such an extent that he or she will never again be born in a lower unhappy realm of existence and will only be reborn in the human or a celestial realm of existence. According to the Buddhist teaching, a Stream Enterer, through further cultivation of the factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path will continue to progress in the spiritual path and will attain full enlightenment within a maximum of seven more births.

Once Returner (sakadagami)

Once Returner is one who, having attained the first stage of Stream Enterer has significantly weakened the next two fetters of sensual desire (kama raga) and ill-will (patigha). A Once Returner will be reborn in the human or celestial realm only once more before attaining full enlightenment.

Non-Returner (anagami)

The Non-Returner has attained the third stage of enlightenment having completely eradicated the five lower fetters of illusion of self, sceptical doubt, attachment to rites and rituals, sensual desire and ill-will, but the five higher fetters still remain with them. As the fetter of sensual desire has been completely eradicated the Non-Returner will not be reborn in the human or celestial realm but will be reborn in one of the five Brahma worlds called Pure Abodes (suddhavasa) and attain full enlightenment there.

Arahant (arahat)

Arahanthood is the final stage of the enlightenment process and one who has attained this stage is awakened and fully enlightened enjoying the bliss of Nibbana. The last five of the ten fetters namely; desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga), desire to be born in formless immaterial worlds (arupa raga), conceit (mana), restlessness (uddacca) and ignorance (avijja) will be totally eradicated before one attains the Arahathood. So, an Arahant has totally eradicated the ten fetters that bind one to the cycle of birth and death (samsara).

Nibbana

Nibbana, the third Noble Truth of the complete cessation of suffering, is the final state of liberation from suffering and the repeated cycle of birth and death (samsara). Nibbana can be attained in this life itself, here and now, and hence it is not a state that can be attained only after one’s death. The word Nibbana in the Pali language consists of two constituents Ni and Vana meaning absence of craving. Nibbana is the complete eradication of craving or thirst (tanha); craving for sensual pleasures (kama tanha), craving for existence (bhava tanha) and craving for non-existence (vibhava tanha). Nibbana can also be described as the extinguishment of the fires of the negative mental factors or basic defilements of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha).

Nibbana is a supra-mundane state of ultimate happiness (nibbanam pramam sukham) beyond any form of conceptual thinking, which cannot be properly described or explained in worldly conventional language or through worldly logic and reasoning. As Nibbana is beyond any concepts such as time, space and definitions it can only be described in metaphorical terms. Following the attainment of full enlightenment and Nibbana, the five aggregates of materiality, feeling, perception, mental formation and consciousness that constitute the psycho-physical complex (nama-rupa) will continue to exist, but an Arahant has no attachment or clinging to them. This state of Nibbana in which an Arahant continues to live with the five aggregates intact is called Nibbana with residue (saupadisesa Nibbana). At the time of death of the physical body (parinibbana) the five aggregates will disintegrate and the Arahant will reach the end of the life process and attain the absolutely unconditioned Nibbana called Nibbana with no residue (anupadisesa Nibbana).

The three aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana) are inter-related, each aspect being higher than the preceding aspect yet at the same time depending on it. The three aspects of the dispensation, theory (pariyatti), practice (patipatti) and realisation (pativedha) are essential for anyone who hopes to cultivate the Buddhist spiritual path to gain enlightenment and attain Nibbana, the final goal of a practising Buddhist in Theravada Buddhism. Learning the Buddhist doctrine is essential for the practice of the path, and only by proper practice the final realisation of the Truth can be attained.

References

Narada Mahathera 1982, Buddhism in a Nutshell, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Maurice Walshe 1987, Thus Have I Heard, A translation of The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Wisdom Publications, London, England.
Webb, Russell 1975, ‘An Analysis of the Pali Canon’, Wheel Publication No: 217/218/219/220, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Narada Thera 2000, The Dhammapada, Verses 19 & 20, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Bhikkhu Bodhi 1999, Dhammacakkappavatthana sutta, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Wisdom Publications.
Bhikkhu Bodhi 1994, The Noble Eightfold Path, The Way to the end of Suffering, The Wheel Publications No: 308/311, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
End.

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
Here You Can Find Some Collections Of Swimming Captions For Instagram And Some Collections Of Swimming, Poolside, Pool Party, Beach, Sea Quotes And Captions

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
May 13, 2021 by JEET
Swimming Captions For Instagram

Swimming Captions: Are you looking for some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram? Then you are in the right place because here you can find some collections of Swimming Captions & Quotes also. Here we collect these captions and quotes for swimming and pool pictures from different sources, That you can easily find some caption for your post very easily.

Here we provide some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram and also some collections of Best Swimming Quotes also. Finding the right type of quote or caption for your swimming picture is not an easy task but here we make it simple because here you can easily find some collections of Swimming Captions & Quotes. You can easily pick a caption or quote from this list and make that your own caption for your Instagram post.

So, guys, We hope you find some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram and also some collections of Quotes For Swimming Pictures also. Here we provide different types of swimming captions and quotes also like swimming pool, poolside, beach, and summertimes swimming captions, and quotes also. So let’s dive into it.

Table of Contents
Swimming Captions For Instagram

These are collections of captions for swimming pictures.

Life is cool by the pool.
Relaxed state of mind.
Keep calm and swim on.
You can’t swim with us.
The best sunrises are over swimming pools.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Has anyone seen my mermaid tail?
All my troubles wash away in the water.
When you have the whole pool to yourself.
Do you even make waves, bro?
Find me wherever the pool floats are.
Life is cool by the pool.
Anyone looking for someone to test out their pool? I’m available.
You’re one in a watermelon.
You’re only one swim away from a good mood.
You can’t swim with us.
Lifeguard on beer break.
How do you get a beach body? Go to the beach!

Swimming Instagram Captions

Here are these swimming captions for Instagram.

Always be yourself. Unless you can be a mermaid, then be a mermaid.
Summer is always good for lazy days.
Happy as a clam.
A splashing good time!
My favorite part of the day is playing in the pool.
Swimming is my therapy.
Sorry, no lifeguard on duty.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Penguins have so much fun time in the water, they don’t even want to fly!40
Don’t worry – I’ve been splashing since the 90s.
“When I dip, you dip, we dip!” — Freak Nasty, “Da Dip”
I can’t control how everyone else swims but if all goes well I know there are no limits.
Enjoying my summer one splash at a time.
“We’ll figure this out, I promise. I won’t let you sink.” – Kiera Cass
I could swim all day long if there were more hours to spare.
Cooling off with my dude!
Want seconds? Follow me!
Home is where the pool is.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Pool Captions For Instagram

These are some pool captions for Instagram.

An ocean breeze puts a mind at ease.
Don’t get tied down. Have a pool party.
Floating into summer-like…
Forget the glass slippers – this princess wears flippers.
Don’t ever miss a chance to be sun-kissed.
Is that new perfume? No, that’s chlorine.
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
The land of endless summer.
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Swimming is cheaper than therapy.
What the shell. This isn’t the beach!
“The man who is swimming against the stream knows the strength of it.” – Woodrow Wilson
BRB: Quitting everything so that we can be mermaids.
If in doubt, swim on out.
Splashing the day away.

Pool Instagram Captions

Here we collect these captions for pool pictures.

Life looks better from a lounge chair.
Making a splash to beat the heat!
I don’t come from the sea, but I live in the water.
I think there is no such pressure in the underwater I feel it.
In the water, my body becomes a river.
Keep calm and go swim.
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade and have a pool party
Be a mermaid and make waves.
You’re one in a watermelon.
“Being happy outside the pool means fast swimming in the pool.” – Eric Shanteau
Peace, love, and pineapple pool floats.
We swim not to escape life, but so that life doesn’t escape us.
Pool Side Swimming Captions

These are pool side swimming captions for Instagram.

So this is the mermaid life
Life is better when you’re swimming.
Water is purifying.
Keep calm, lie down
Great vibes on the tides.
The only BS we need is bikinis and sandals.
Can sitting by the pool be my day job already?
Eat my turbulence.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
There are a million fish in the sea, but I’m a mermaid.
Time is a pool to swim and dream and create in.
This is what summer is for?
Oxygen is overrated.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
Swimming is dancing under the water.
Sunshine, poolside, downtime.
Summer, it has been way too long, my love.
Mermaid off-duty.

If you didn’t splash, did a pool day even happen?
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
You never regret a swim.
Cooling off with my dude!
Some of the best memories are made in bathing suits.
You don’t swim in a river – it takes you places.
Just a bunch of mermaids.”
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade, and have a pool party.
Drink like a pirate. Dance like a mermaid.
We lose ourselves in the things which we love so much but we can find ourselves live too.
In the water, your only enemy is the clock.
Do not look out the right or left side until you will achieve the mainstream.
Every time you swim in a river, it’s a brand new experience.
Your swim begins at the end of your comfort zone

Swimming Captions & Quotes

These are swimming captions & quotes for Instagram. So check out.

“Life is better when you’re swimming.” – Unknown
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Just dive in.
Put all your excuses to a side, and remember this, you are capable to do it.
Real athletes swim – the rest play games.
Be stubborn about your goals and flexible about your method.
“Swimming is simply moving meditation.” – Cesar Nikko Caharian
Life is like swimming, sometimes the wall will hit you, sometimes you make the right turn.
Mermaid kisses and starfish wishes.
Make your own sunshine.
Swim your worries away.
Rivers take my troubles downstream.
This is me before my epic cannonball.
Swimming is normal for me. I’m relaxed. I’m comfortable, and I know my surrounding It’s my home.
Just keep swimming.
Captions For Swimming Pictures

Those splash spots were there before I got here.
When I take a step in my swimming pool I feel like a fish.
Building a tradition one stroke at a time.
We’re all about the pool days and sun rays.
“I dream of summers that last forever.”
Pool lineup this weekend.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Night swim pool times.
Sunshine is the best medicine that we need.
If you have a lane, you have a chance.
Sunshine on my mind.
Made for sunny days.
Water you doing this summer?
Dive into the summer blues!

Swimming Pictures Captions

Swimming makes everything better
The faces I pull whilst swimming
A pool party can’t solve everything, but it’s a good start.
Happiness is all about making your own waves.
No matter how much I complain, I will always love swimming with a passion so strong nobody can me I quit.
Enjoy, relax, soak, and unwind
Some roads are very crooked, you have to make your way.
Keep calm and go swim
Swimming is my therapy
Hair up, sunnies on.
You’re only one dip away from a good mood!
Every summer has a story to tell.
Swimming Quotes

“Swimming is my salvation.” – Lynn Sherr
“The key to success―keep swimming.” – Richelle E. Goodrich
“Swimming state on mind” – Unknown
“Just keep swimming” – Unknown
“Most men will not swim before they are able to.” – Herman Hesse
“All my troubles wash away in the water” – Unknown
“So much water, such little time” – Unknown
“Made for sunny days.” — The Weepies, “I Was Made For Sunny Days
“The water doesn’t know how old you are.” – Dara Torres
Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton

Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton
By Chloe Sutton

swimming meditation the best to attain Nibbana with pictures

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/
ZEN ROBES Sort by: Featured Items Zen Robes and meditation clothing for the lay person or monastic are an essential part of meditation practice where you are a student, beginner, lay person and ordained Buddhist Priest. Zen meditation garments such as, Zen Lay robe, Rakusu, Jubon, aka Juban, kimono, koromo, ordained Buddhist Priest robes. By wearing the kimono beneath the outer garment, and often the Jubon, aka Juban, they protect the robe from body oils, perspiration and so forth while adding warmth when needed. The hand made Rakusu is important to reflect your vows, precepts and personal commitment to practice the Dharma. All of these are outer reminders of a deeper connection to the three jewels: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Zen monastic garments are specifically designed for the meditation tradition and enhances the experience. Your robe is the physical embodiment of your inner being. Robes acknowledge the commitment to living a life in the

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
Awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worry and stress.

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
4 days ago — But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead …
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https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

What Is Swimming Meditation?
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Doctors recommend swimming as one of the best exercises around, and for good reason. When we swim, the main muscle groups all go to work in a way that doesn’t put undue stress on the body. This makes it a wholesome aerobic exercise for young and old alike. The health benefits of this kind of workout include:
• Improving blood circulation around the body
• Helping get rid of excess cholesterol within the bloodstream
• Curbing obesity and its accompanying health issues
• Maintaining general fitness

Most people enjoy swimming because it’s so refreshing and good for you. But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead of just focusing on reaching a certain goal, you pay full attention to the exercise and the sensations experienced as you swim. Extending your mindfulness practice into swimming is a great way to break up the routine of sitting meditation.
Is there a link between swimming and meditation?
The answer depends on the swimmer! Meditation is about awareness, and it might be argued that awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worrying about any stressful issues at work, home or elsewhere.
Instead of mindlessly plunging into the water and doing your laps, take a few moments to formulate the intention of being entirely present in the water. Once you’ve begun swimming, see if you can maintain awareness of the here and now. Enjoy the feeling of buoyancy as you glide across the pool and take note of other physical sensations – wetness, scent, sound, etc. Remain present as your arms enter and leave the water, your legs propel your body forward and your head follows the rhythm of the movement. How does it feel? Acknowledging sensations that you don’t usually notice is part of what makes swimming as meditation so enjoyable. Alternatively, when swimming laps or floating, you may also choose to focus on your breath.
The joy of mindful swimming
When you meditate, the mind is no longer bound by the anxieties and stresses that usually take up so much mental space. Instead, the mind is spacious and refreshed, and you feel rejuvenated. This naturally inspires you to work on bettering yourself and improving the lives of others. By incorporating the exercise of swimming as meditation into your mindfulness regime, you train in extending your “on-the-cushion” practice into your everyday life.
Professional swimmers tend to repeat the same movements every time they train. It’s easy for them to give their minds free rein to wander as they swim instead of being mindfully aware of their breath and physical sensations. In her article “Mindful Swimming” in Swimming World Magazine, former competitive swimmer Tonya Nascimento believes that mindfulness can help athletes while training as well as while competing. “At all levels, swim meets can have a multitude of distractions that capture your mind and direct your attention away from your races. [ …] The goal of mindfulness is to develop a sense of calm in the midst of the storm; it is to gain control over one’s own thoughts. By becoming aware of your thoughts, you can decide to let go of those thoughts that hinder your performance, and decide to concentrate on only those thoughts that help you improve,” she writes.
A number of national swimming teams (including the U.S. Olympic team) have incorporated mindfulness in their training sessions. The feedback has been positive: athletes have reported improved performances when they focus on being fully present rather than focusing on the goal (winning!) alone. Mindful presence helps swimmers maintain balance, and balance fosters peak performance.
Before trying mindful swimming, make sure your swimming level is good enough.

Once you get the groove of it, you’ll realize that swimming and meditation are an awesome match. Most importantly, remember that swimming – and meditating – should be enjoyable!
By reading this article it’s clear that you’re interested in the practice of meditation and its results: experiencing genuine joy and well-being. You’ve come to the right place. Mindworks is a non-profit with a mission to share the most authentic and proven meditation guidance to you and our worldwide community.
As meditation practice develops the most fundamental axis of our being, it’s essential to rely on clear, progressive and genuine meditation methods from authentic guides. In order to fully transmit to you the full potential of genuine meditation, we created the 9-level Mindworks Journey to Well-Being.
We’re so sure you’ll benefit we now offer you Mindworks Journey Level 1: Meditation Fundamentals course for Free. Click the link below to learn more.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples.
Table of Contents

Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video

Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images

• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.

positive pranic food - Negative and positive pranic food list - energy diet

positive pranic food - Negative and positive pranic food list - energy diet
Positive pranic food. Negative and Positive pranic food list and info on an energy diet. How daily food choices support energy levels. Sattvic food

Pranic Food List
Positive Pranic

Winter melon (Ash Goard)
Lemon
Coconut
Dates
Raw and dried fruits
Ripe vegetables
Legumes (peas, beans, lentils, etc.)

Positive Pranic

Positive Pranic food ignites life energy within.

Vegetables

This food group includes pretty much most of the vegetables

Fruits and berries

All the fruits and berries (fresh and dry varieties) are considered to be highly pranic.

Inline image

Inline image

Legumes

This category includes mung beans, lentils, yellow split peas, chickpeas, beans, organic tofu, etc.

Inline image

Positive Pranic Fundamentals
Positive pranic food is nourishing, easily digestible, flavourful, and contains only ingredients beneficial for health. The methods of food preparation, as well as the emotional and mental state of a person making it, holds the same importance as the ingredients. For me, cooking was never a chore, rather an opportunity for a beautiful offering, a creative outlet, an expression of love and appreciation.
Lastly, the most essential part of the meal is in the way you consume it. The way you receive your meal, how conscious you are, the level of your appreciation in a lot of ways will determine the way digestion happens in this miraculous body of yours.

Above all, we should enjoy the food we eat without being paranoid about the calorie count or the number of carbs, fats, or whatever the latest dietary fad is. A healthy relationship with food is essential, so enjoy it fully without hesitation. The harm of stress during eating is far more damaging to your system than any ingredient ever could be.

How about you?

What is your relationship with food? Have you noticed how certain foods affect you? Or just let me know if this article was helpful to you.Let me know in the comments below

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https://www.dwms.org/uploads/8/7/8/7/87873912/transformation-healing2-1.pdf

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron
Growing Buddhas hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

How to Grow Buddha’s Hand | Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron
Growing Buddha’s hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

Citrons (whose variety is Hand of Buddha) are large and true citruses, which produces less acidic fruit covered in thick peels and fragrant flowers that are appreciated by perfumers.

Propagation Method: Seeds, cuttings

Height: 3-5 m

Exposure: Full to partial sun

Soil pH: Slightly acidic (pH level around 5.5 to 6)

Soil Type: Well-drained, loamy

Other Names: Citrus medica, bushukan, fingered citron, fragrant citron, five finger mandarin, goblin fingers

Growing Habit

Buddha’s hand citron is an evergreen, large thorny shrub or small tree that grows up to 3 to 5 meters tall. Native to North East India and China, Buddha’s Hand is a member of the citrus family and also called as Buddha’s Finger because of its unusual and fragmented finger like fruits. These fingers form a cluster like a hand and can be between 5 to 20 in numbers.

Growing Buddha’s Hand

Buddha’s hand plant can be grown from cuttings and seeds. But it’s best to find a plant from the nursery.

Note: Lot of misinformation on the web that Buddha’s hand cannot be grown from seed, but it is false. You can grow Buddha’s hand from fresh seeds. However, it is true that its seeds are rare.

Planting

Planting Buddha’s hand properly is an initial but most important step because it determines the proper growth of the tree, flowering and the production of citrons.

If you’re about to grow it in a cold climate, planting should be done in spring to early summer when the temperature starts to warm up in containers.

In tropical climates planting can be done in any season except summer, right after the end of summer is best planting time.

Requirements for Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron

Buddha’s hand citron needs a well-drained, rich acidic soil to grow well.
If you’re about to grow Buddha’s Hand in a colder zone below 10, remember it is not resistant to frost and begin to suffer when the temperature falls down below 5 °C.
Choose a sunny and sheltered position from the wind to grow it. Water citron tree regularly for the first 2 years after planting.
Citron Care

Buddha’s Hand citron is quite easy to maintain. If the plantation is done well and plant assimilates the climate, it’s a tree that brings great satisfaction with its heavenly scented flowers and prolific fruits.

It does not require special watering, except in warm climates and those suffering from severe droughts in summer. It grows best when watered only at the time when the top surface of soil begins to dry.

Growing Buddhas Hand Fruit Trees in Australia (Citron)

Growing Buddhas Hand Fruit Trees in Australia (Citron)
By daleysfr

growing Buddha’s hand fruit trees

Never do excess watering because it doesn’t like wet feet.
Fertilize it with citrus fertilizer according to the product’s instruction.
Buddha’s hand is not a houseplant, and you can’t grow it indoors, although growing this in a container is possible. If you want a citrus tree that can be grown indoors, grow lemon or calamondin.
Pests and Diseases

Buddha’s Hand has similar pests and diseases problems you see in other citrus varieties. Fruit rot, Brown rot, leaf miner, spider mites, cochineal, aphids, and scales can attack the plant.

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron
Growing Buddhas hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

How to Grow Buddha’s Hand | Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron
Growing Buddha’s hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

Citrons (whose variety is Hand of Buddha) are large and true citruses, which produces less acidic fruit covered in thick peels and fragrant flowers that are appreciated by perfumers.

Propagation Method: Seeds, cuttings

Height: 3-5 m

Exposure: Full to partial sun

Soil pH: Slightly acidic (pH level around 5.5 to 6)

Soil Type: Well-drained, loamy

Other Names: Citrus medica, bushukan, fingered citron, fragrant citron, five finger mandarin, goblin fingers

Growing Habit

Buddha’s hand citron is an evergreen, large thorny shrub or small tree that grows up to 3 to 5 meters tall. Native to North East India and China, Buddha’s Hand is a member of the citrus family and also called as Buddha’s Finger because of its unusual and fragmented finger like fruits. These fingers form a cluster like a hand and can be between 5 to 20 in numbers.

Growing Buddha’s Hand

Buddha’s hand plant can be grown from cuttings and seeds. But it’s best to find a plant from the nursery.

Note: Lot of misinformation on the web that Buddha’s hand cannot be grown from seed, but it is false. You can grow Buddha’s hand from fresh seeds. However, it is true that its seeds are rare.

Planting

Planting Buddha’s hand properly is an initial but most important step because it determines the proper growth of the tree, flowering and the production of citrons.

If you’re about to grow it in a cold climate, planting should be done in spring to early summer when the temperature starts to warm up in containers.

In tropical climates planting can be done in any season except summer, right after the end of summer is best planting time.

Requirements for Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron

Buddha’s hand citron needs a well-drained, rich acidic soil to grow well.
If you’re about to grow Buddha’s Hand in a colder zone below 10, remember it is not resistant to frost and begin to suffer when the temperature falls down below 5 °C.
Choose a sunny and sheltered position from the wind to grow it. Water citron tree regularly for the first 2 years after planting.
Citron Care

Buddha’s Hand citron is quite easy to maintain. If the plantation is done well and plant assimilates the climate, it’s a tree that brings great satisfaction with its heavenly scented flowers and prolific fruits.

It does not require special watering, except in warm climates and those suffering from severe droughts in summer. It grows best when watered only at the time when the top surface of soil begins to dry.

Never do excess watering because it doesn’t like wet feet.
Fertilize it with citrus fertilizer according to the product’s instruction.
Buddha’s hand is not a houseplant, and you can’t grow it indoors, although growing this in a container is possible. If you want a citrus tree that can be grown indoors, grow lemon or calamondin.
Pests and Diseases

Buddha’s Hand has similar pests and diseases problems you see in other citrus varieties. Fruit rot, Brown rot, leaf miner, spider mites, cochineal, aphids, and scales can attack the plant.

Kumkum kesari tomato | Heirloom & Open pollinated seeds | Seed diversity

Kumkum kesari tomato | Heirloom & Open pollinated seeds | Seed diversity
By PKR Gardening

Kumkuma Keshri Tomato step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Kumkuma Keshri Tomato

How to Grow Cluster Bean / Guar from Seeds in Container

How to Grow Cluster Bean / Guar from Seeds in Container
By Plants My Love

CLUSTER BEANS step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of CLUSTER BEANS

How to Grow Radishes (PROGRESSION) Complete Growing Guide - Giant White Radish

How to Grow Radishes (PROGRESSION) Complete Growing Guide - Giant White Radish
By Hollis and Nancys Homestead

RADISH WHITE LONG step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of RADISH WHITE LONG

How to Grow Daikon Radish | Gardener’s Path

How to Grow Daikon Radish | Gardener’s Path
If you’re looking to add some zing to your fall garden and kitchen, look no further than the easy to grow daikon radish. Read more on Gardener’s Path.

HOW TO PLANT AND GROW DAIKON: ADD SOME ZING TO YOUR GARDEN
October 12, 2019 by Briana Yablonski
Raphanus sativus var. Longipinnatus

It has always seemed to me that daikon radish is one of the easiest fall crops to grow. Sometimes I’ve sown seeds and forgotten about them, only to return to large white roots.

Daikon radish, still in the soil, with leaf tops in soft focus. Green and white text to the middle and bottom of the frame.
We link to vendors to help you find relevant products. If you buy from one of our links, we may earn a commission.

These radishes require little upkeep and store well. During the dark of winter, I love munching on them to add some zing to an otherwise dreary day.

What You’ll Learn

What Is Daikon?
Cultivation and History
How to Sow
How to Grow
Growing Tips
Cultivars to Select
Managing Pests and Disease
Harvesting
Preserving
Recipes and Cooking ideas
Quick Reference Growing Guide
What Is Daikon?

Daikon is a specific type of radish characterized by its large root. It’s no surprise that its name comes from two Japanese words: dai, which means large, and kon, which means root.

Daikon radish lying on dry soil, with it’s leaf tops attached. In the background, more tubers poking out of the soil, ready for harvesting, in bright sunshine.

It also has a longer date to maturity than other types of radish, which makes sense for its larger size.

Like all radishes, it is a member of the Brassicaceae family. Daikon also goes by other names including white radish, Chinese radish, and Japanese radish.

Cultivation and History

Although daikon is widely grown and consumed throughout East Asia, it is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean. However, these radishes soon made their way to countries including China, Japan, and Korea sometime during the third or fourth century.

Vertical image of daikon radishes with their green tops leaning up against an orange plastic basket on soil.

Since then, they have been a mainstay in certain Asian cuisines, appearing in dishes including stews, stir fries, and ferments.

Daikon is a winter radish, meaning it grows best when it is allowed to mature in colder weather. Therefore, it is typically planted in mid-summer to early fall, depending on your growing zone.

These radishes are often used as cover crops to loosen soil and reduce erosion. This has given them the name tillage radishes.

How to Sow

As with other radishes, these are best grown via direct seeding. The date when you should plant seeds depends on your growing zone. Daikon radishes can be grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 2-11.

Close up of fingers placing daikon seeds into a shallow hollow in the soil.

Aim to sow seeds around two months before your predicted first frost date. This will ensure plants mature in time for harvest.

No matter where you are located, sow one seed every inch in rows 12-18 inches apart. Seeds should be planted at a depth of 1/4 to 1/2 inch.

How to Grow

As mentioned above, this crop is best grown via direct seeding. Before you plant the seeds, you want to make sure you prepare your soil.

Daikon radishes grow best in soil with a pH of 5.8-6.8. Although their roots can loosen compacted soil, they grow best where soil is already loose. If your soil is compacted, consider loosening it with a broadfork before planting.

Since you will be harvesting the roots, avoid applying excessive amounts of nitrogen to the soil. Too much nitrogen will grow large greens, but small roots.

Choose a full sun to partial shade location for best results.

Close up of two hands gently dividing seedlings in the soil.

Once you plant your seeds, make sure you keep the soil moist, and they will germinate within a few days. Within a week of germination, thin seedlings to 4-6 inches apart.

Plants will mature in 40-70 days, depending on the variety. Don’t fret if part of the root is visible above ground; this is normal.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

Water should be provided every few days if rain doesn’t fall. You are aiming for moist, but not wet, soil.

Growing Tips

Avoid applying excessive nitrogen, to ensure development of roots.
Thin seedlings so roots have space to size up.
Loosen soil so roots can grow large.
Cultivars to Select

Daikon come in three main types: oblong, tapered, and round.

The difference between these types is in their root shape. Some are rounded with nearly the same circumference from top to root, some have more of a narrow and tapered shape similar to a carrot, and others are nearly spherical.

Cultivars also vary in root color, with most being some combination of white and light green.

Japanese Minowase

This heirloom variety produces oblong roots that can grow up to two feet in length. The roots are all white, and can be stored for multiple weeks after harvest.

Three ‘Japanese Minowase’ daikon tubers on a wooden surface with leaf tops attached.

‘Japanese Minowase’

Ready to eat in 45-60 days, the ‘Japanese Minowase’ cultivar is also known for being adaptable to sun or shade.

Find seeds at Eden Brothers.

Long

The ‘Long’ cultivar has white tapered roots with light green tops.

Close up of four ‘Long’ daikon tubers on a hessian sack on soil. In the background are two still waiting to be harvested.

‘Long’

This type can grow up to 14 inches in length. Expect about 60 days to maturity. It can be grown in the spring as well as in the fall.

Find seeds at Burpee.

Red

This variety has oblong roots that grow 5-8 inches long. The exterior of the roots is bright red while the interior ranges from white to pink.

Close up of ‘Red’ daikon tubers, with leaf tops trimmed, on a white background.

‘Red‘

‘Red’ is an heirloom cultivar that you can expect to be ready to harvest in as little as 30 days.

Find seeds at True Leaf Market.

Watermelon

An heirloom variety of daikon with a round bulb, this type is the star of the show when added to any salad or platter of crudités.

Close up of round ‘Watermelon’ daikon radish, harvested, with leaf tops trimmed.

‘Watermelon’

White or light green on the outside, slicing into these roots reveals bright pink flesh that is reminiscent of a watermelon.

These can be harvested when they reach golf ball size, or leave them in the ground longer for whopping grapefruit-sized roots. Expect 30-80 days to harvest.

Seeds are available from True Leaf Market.

White Icicle

Icicle radishes form white, narrow, tapered roots that reach about 5 inches in length at maturity. And this cultivar grows quickly – you can expect a harvest in just 27-35 days!

‘White Icicle’ daikon radishes harvested, with leaf tops attached, on a wooden surface.

‘White Icicle‘

With a mildly pungent flavor, Burpee rates this cultivar as “Best in Class.”

Get your seeds now, available from Burpee.

Managing Pests and Disease

Pests generally don’t bother these radishes too much, however, there are some that still pop up occasionally.

Insects

Different types of insects may go after the leaves as well as the roots. Luckily, they don’t usually cause too much damage.

Flea Beetle

Flea beetles are little bugs that go after the leaves of your plants. If you see small holes in your leaves, take a closer look. You will probably see the beetles themselves, only 1/16-1/4 inch in size.

Close up of two flea beetles on a leaf. The background is of the leaf in soft focus.

Read more about flea beetles and how to control them here.

Harlequin Bug

These bugs may look pretty, but they can really do some damage to your crops. They are orange and black with shield-shaped bodies, and they feed on leafy greens.

If you only see a few bugs on your plants, simply pick them off and place them in some soapy water.

Close up of a harlequin beetle on a branch, with soft focus vegetation in the background.

If these pests take over your crop and require more intense intervention, they can be treated with a spray of neem oil, pyrethin, or insecticidal soap.

Cabbage Maggot

If you pull up your daikon only to discover that they are ridden with tiny channels, the cabbage maggot is likely to blame. These pests are the juvenile form of small flies.

To prevent infestation by these insect pests, consider employing a cover cropping routine. Another method to keep pests at bay is by using floating row covers to exclude insects from your crops.

Read more about cabbage maggot control here.

Disease

All parts of the daikon plant are susceptible to disease, both above and belowground. Again, these issues won’t usually prove to be too much of a problem for your crop.

Septoria Leaf Spot

If you see yellow spots with gray centers on your radish leaves, they are probably infected with this fungus. The best treatment is to remove infected leaves and/or plants. This will stop the spread of the fungus.

Black Root Rot

This fungus goes after your plants’ roots, turning pieces black in color and distorted in shape. If it affects small seedlings, the plants may die. Unfortunately, this disease cannot be treated once it is spotted on your plants.

However, it can be prevented using cultural methods. Don’t over water your crops and make sure they are planted in soil with good drainage.

Another way to prevent this disease is by practicing crop rotation. Since this fungus affects multiple Brassica species, make sure you don’t grow brassicas repeatedly in the same area.

Harvesting

Daikon radishes can be harvested once they meet their date of maturity. Check your seed packets for recommendations.

Close up of daikon leaf tops growing in soil.

Keep in mind that although this type of radish has more of a capacity to grow large while maintaining quality than your traditional radish varieties, they can still become pithy and spongy if they are left to grow too big. Be sure to harvest before this happens.

If hit with hard frosts, the radishes will become spongy or die. However, the time to harvest can be extended by protecting plants with floating row covers.

Close up of the top of a daikon tuber in the soil, with bright sunshine filtering through the leaf tops.

Varieties with long and slender roots are fragile and susceptible to snapping. You can prevent them from breaking by loosening the soil with a pitchfork, broadfork, or shovel.

Once your soil is adequately loose, grab the leaves where they meet the tops of the roots and gently pull. Now’s the moment when you get to see just how big your daikon have grown!

Freshly harvested daikon radishes in a plastic container in water. Sunshine bathes the leaf tops.

Once the plants are pulled from the ground, cut off the leaves at their base. With the leaves removed, the roots can be stored for multiple weeks under the right conditions.

To increase the storage life of your radishes, avoid washing the roots or leaves until you are ready to use them.

Close up of harvested daikon tubers, with their leaf tops cut off.

Daikon is best stored in a cold, moist environment. Therefore, the best way to store your harvest is to place the roots in the refrigerator with a damp paper towel or cloth.

You can wrap or cover them in the towel; the important thing is that you are providing a humid environment.

Leaves can be stored in a zip-top plastic bag in the crisper drawer of your refrigerator for a few days.

Preserving

These radishes are often fermented on their own to be eaten as a type of pickle. They are also used as a component of Napa cabbage-based kimchi.

Fermenting is a simple process that only requires three main things: salt, water, and time. You can read more about fermented foods on our sister site, Foodal.

Recipes and Cooking Ideas

Daikon radish is a versatile crop in the kitchen. It can be eaten raw or cooked, and all parts of the plant can be consumed.

You do not need to peel this vegetable, though some people choose to do so. One simple way to eat daikon is to slice it up raw into discs that can be dipped in hummus or ranch dressing.

A dark grey surface with a whole daikon radish, sliced daikon in a jar in liquid. In the foreground a white bowl with slices and a thyme leaf on top. A fabric tea towel with stripes on the right.

Another great way to eat daikon is to dice it into ½-inch cubes and then saute them in oil with garlic and ginger for a few minutes. Remove from the heat and toss with rice noodles, soy sauce, sesame oil, and your favorite fresh diced hot pepper or hot pepper flakes.

Due to their rough texture, the leaves are best enjoyed cooked via methods including sauteing and steaming. They make a great addition to Thai-inspired coconut curries.

Close up of daikon spouts, clearly showing the furry roots coming out of the seeds.

Daikon sprouts can also be enjoyed in salads and sandwiches. See our article on sprouts and microgreens for more information to grow your own.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:
Annual
Water Needs:
1/2 inch per week
Native To:
Mediterranean, East Asia
Maintenance:
Low
Hardiness (USDA Zone):
2-11
Soil Type:
Rich, well aerated
Season:
Fall
Soil pH:
5.8-6.8
Exposure:
Full sun to partial shade
Soil Drainage:
Well draining
Time to Maturity:
40-70 days
Companion Planting:
Marigolds, scallions
Spacing:
4-6 inches
Avoid Planting With:
Garlic, corn, potatoes, tomatoes
Planting Depth:
1/4-1/2 inch
Family:
Brassicaceae
Height:
10-20 inches
Genus:
Raphanus
Spread:
6 inches
Species and Cultivar:
R. sativus var. longipinnatus
Tolerance:
Cold, light frost, high air temperatures, depending on variety
Pests & Diseases:
Flea beetles, harlequin bugs, cabbage maggots, septoria leaf spot, black root rot
Grow Some Giant Radishes

Now that you know how to plant and grow these large radishes, it’s time to add them to your fall garden. You’ll be impressed with their size and how easy they are to grow.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

To see how this crop can fit in with the rest of your fall plans, check out some other cool-weather-loving crops here!

And if you want to learn how to grow other fall crops, read these guides next:

How to Plant and Grow Cabbage
A Flavor You’ve Come to Love: How to Grow Brussels Sprouts
Growing Kohlrabi

How To Grow Tomatoes | Cherry Tomatoes

How To Grow Tomatoes | Cherry Tomatoes
By Urban Gardening

RED CHERRY TOMATO step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of RED CHERRY TOMATO

How To Grow Okra In Containers - Growing Okra in Pots or Containers

How To Grow Okra In Containers - Growing Okra in Pots or Containers
By California Gardening

Double Color Okra step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Double Color Okra

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed
By LearnHow2

BEETROOT step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of BEETROOT

How to Grow Okra

How to Grow Okra
Long popular in the Southern United States, okra is making inroads in vegetable gardens across the country. The pod-like fruit is a wonderful addition to soups and stews.

How to Grow Okra
Long popular in the Southern United States, okra is making inroads in vegetable gardens across the country. The pod-like fruit is a wonderful addition to soups and stews.
Cost $
Skill Level
Start to Finish 2+ Days
TOOLS
hoe
MATERIALS
okra seeds
compost
fertilizer
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Step 1:Soak the Seeds
Step 2:Prepare the Site
Step 3:Plant the Seeds
Step 4:Cultivate the Plants
Step 5:Harvest the Okra
INTRODUCTION
Purchase the Seeds
Okra is related to the hibiscus, and as such it produces large ornamental flowers. The green pod-like fruits are very popular in the Southern United States, where they are enjoyed in soups and stews. Okra does not transplant well, so most gardeners grow their crops from seed. Popular seed varieties include Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Green Velvet.

STEP 1
Speed Up Germination Process by Soaking Okra Seeds
Soak the Seeds
Okra is easy to grow but the seeds have a hard coat that can slow germination. To speed up the process, soak the seeds overnight in warm water before planting. Wrapping the seeds in moist paper towels also works well.

STEP 2
Prepare the Site
Okras require full sun (at least 8 hours a day) and prefer soil that is loose, fertile and slightly alkaline. If the soil is more acidic, work some lime into the bed a few months before planting. Enrich the soil with compost, turning it into the bed with a rake. Finally, add a half cup of slow-release 5-10-10 fertilizer for every 20 square feet of garden space.

STEP 3
Plant the Seeds
It is best to plant okra after daytime temps hit 85 degrees and nighttime temps reach the low 60s. Use a garden hoe to make 1″-deep furrows in the garden bed. Space the furrows 24″ apart. Place the presoaked seeds into the furrows, spacing them 6″ apart. Gently rake the soil over the seeds to cover them. After lightly firming the soil, water the seeds well. Place a garden marker to indicate the crops.

STEP 4
Cultivate Okra Plants
Cultivate the Plants
When the seedlings reach approximately 2″ tall, thin the plants to one every foot. Apply a generous layer of mulch around the plants, but do not let the mulch come in contact with the stems. Okra grows very rapidly in hot weather, and the leafy plants do a great job of shading out competing weeds. Frequent watering is necessary during the germination and flowering stages, but after that okra can tolerate dry conditions. However, during extended dry periods, a deep soaking once every 10 days should be adequate.

STEP 5
Harvest Okra Pods with Garden Shears
Harvest the Okra
In warm weather the immature fruit pods grow very rapidly, often reaching full size in just a couple days. When the pods reach about 2″ to 3″ long, remove them from the plant with pruning shears. Left too long on the plant and the fruit becomes woody and tough. The pods should be picked often to encourage continued production. The plants will grow and bear fruit right up until frost.

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed
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BEETROOT step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of BEETROOT

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
Here You Can Find Some Collections Of Swimming Captions For Instagram And Some Collections Of Swimming, Poolside, Pool Party, Beach, Sea Quotes And Captions

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
May 13, 2021 by JEET
Swimming Captions For Instagram

Swimming Captions: Are you looking for some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram? Then you are in the right place because here you can find some collections of Swimming Captions & Quotes also. Here we collect these captions and quotes for swimming and pool pictures from different sources, That you can easily find some caption for your post very easily.

Here we provide some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram and also some collections of Best Swimming Quotes also. Finding the right type of quote or caption for your swimming picture is not an easy task but here we make it simple because here you can easily find some collections of Swimming Captions & Quotes. You can easily pick a caption or quote from this list and make that your own caption for your Instagram post.

So, guys, We hope you find some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram and also some collections of Quotes For Swimming Pictures also. Here we provide different types of swimming captions and quotes also like swimming pool, poolside, beach, and summertimes swimming captions, and quotes also. So let’s dive into it.

Table of Contents
Swimming Captions For Instagram

These are collections of captions for swimming pictures.

Life is cool by the pool.
Relaxed state of mind.
Keep calm and swim on.
You can’t swim with us.
The best sunrises are over swimming pools.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Has anyone seen my mermaid tail?
All my troubles wash away in the water.
When you have the whole pool to yourself.
Do you even make waves, bro?
Find me wherever the pool floats are.
Life is cool by the pool.
Anyone looking for someone to test out their pool? I’m available.
You’re one in a watermelon.
You’re only one swim away from a good mood.
You can’t swim with us.
Lifeguard on beer break.
How do you get a beach body? Go to the beach!

Swimming Instagram Captions

Here are these swimming captions for Instagram.

Always be yourself. Unless you can be a mermaid, then be a mermaid.
Summer is always good for lazy days.
Happy as a clam.
A splashing good time!
My favorite part of the day is playing in the pool.
Swimming is my therapy.
Sorry, no lifeguard on duty.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Penguins have so much fun time in the water, they don’t even want to fly!40
Don’t worry – I’ve been splashing since the 90s.
“When I dip, you dip, we dip!” — Freak Nasty, “Da Dip”
I can’t control how everyone else swims but if all goes well I know there are no limits.
Enjoying my summer one splash at a time.
“We’ll figure this out, I promise. I won’t let you sink.” – Kiera Cass
I could swim all day long if there were more hours to spare.
Cooling off with my dude!
Want seconds? Follow me!
Home is where the pool is.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Pool Captions For Instagram

These are some pool captions for Instagram.

An ocean breeze puts a mind at ease.
Don’t get tied down. Have a pool party.
Floating into summer-like…
Forget the glass slippers – this princess wears flippers.
Don’t ever miss a chance to be sun-kissed.
Is that new perfume? No, that’s chlorine.
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
The land of endless summer.
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Swimming is cheaper than therapy.
What the shell. This isn’t the beach!
“The man who is swimming against the stream knows the strength of it.” – Woodrow Wilson
BRB: Quitting everything so that we can be mermaids.
If in doubt, swim on out.
Splashing the day away.

Pool Instagram Captions

Here we collect these captions for pool pictures.

Life looks better from a lounge chair.
Making a splash to beat the heat!
I don’t come from the sea, but I live in the water.
I think there is no such pressure in the underwater I feel it.
In the water, my body becomes a river.
Keep calm and go swim.
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade and have a pool party
Be a mermaid and make waves.
You’re one in a watermelon.
“Being happy outside the pool means fast swimming in the pool.” – Eric Shanteau
Peace, love, and pineapple pool floats.
We swim not to escape life, but so that life doesn’t escape us.
Pool Side Swimming Captions

These are pool side swimming captions for Instagram.

So this is the mermaid life
Life is better when you’re swimming.
Water is purifying.
Keep calm, lie down
Great vibes on the tides.
The only BS we need is bikinis and sandals.
Can sitting by the pool be my day job already?
Eat my turbulence.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
There are a million fish in the sea, but I’m a mermaid.
Time is a pool to swim and dream and create in.
This is what summer is for?
Oxygen is overrated.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
Swimming is dancing under the water.
Sunshine, poolside, downtime.
Summer, it has been way too long, my love.
Mermaid off-duty.

If you didn’t splash, did a pool day even happen?
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
You never regret a swim.
Cooling off with my dude!
Some of the best memories are made in bathing suits.
You don’t swim in a river – it takes you places.
Just a bunch of mermaids.”
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade, and have a pool party.
Drink like a pirate. Dance like a mermaid.
We lose ourselves in the things which we love so much but we can find ourselves live too.
In the water, your only enemy is the clock.
Do not look out the right or left side until you will achieve the mainstream.
Every time you swim in a river, it’s a brand new experience.
Your swim begins at the end of your comfort zone

Swimming Captions & Quotes

These are swimming captions & quotes for Instagram. So check out.

“Life is better when you’re swimming.” – Unknown
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Just dive in.
Put all your excuses to a side, and remember this, you are capable to do it.
Real athletes swim – the rest play games.
Be stubborn about your goals and flexible about your method.
“Swimming is simply moving meditation.” – Cesar Nikko Caharian
Life is like swimming, sometimes the wall will hit you, sometimes you make the right turn.
Mermaid kisses and starfish wishes.
Make your own sunshine.
Swim your worries away.
Rivers take my troubles downstream.
This is me before my epic cannonball.
Swimming is normal for me. I’m relaxed. I’m comfortable, and I know my surrounding It’s my home.
Just keep swimming.
Captions For Swimming Pictures

Those splash spots were there before I got here.
When I take a step in my swimming pool I feel like a fish.
Building a tradition one stroke at a time.
We’re all about the pool days and sun rays.
“I dream of summers that last forever.”
Pool lineup this weekend.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Night swim pool times.
Sunshine is the best medicine that we need.
If you have a lane, you have a chance.
Sunshine on my mind.
Made for sunny days.
Water you doing this summer?
Dive into the summer blues!

Swimming Pictures Captions

Swimming makes everything better
The faces I pull whilst swimming
A pool party can’t solve everything, but it’s a good start.
Happiness is all about making your own waves.
No matter how much I complain, I will always love swimming with a passion so strong nobody can me I quit.
Enjoy, relax, soak, and unwind
Some roads are very crooked, you have to make your way.
Keep calm and go swim
Swimming is my therapy
Hair up, sunnies on.
You’re only one dip away from a good mood!
Every summer has a story to tell.
Swimming Quotes

“Swimming is my salvation.” – Lynn Sherr
“The key to success―keep swimming.” – Richelle E. Goodrich
“Swimming state on mind” – Unknown
“Just keep swimming” – Unknown
“Most men will not swim before they are able to.” – Herman Hesse
“All my troubles wash away in the water” – Unknown
“So much water, such little time” – Unknown
“Made for sunny days.” — The Weepies, “I Was Made For Sunny Days
“The water doesn’t know how old you are.” – Dara Torres
Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton

Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton
By Chloe Sutton

swimming meditation the best to attain Nibbana with pictures

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/
ZEN ROBES Sort by: Featured Items Zen Robes and meditation clothing for the lay person or monastic are an essential part of meditation practice where you are a student, beginner, lay person and ordained Buddhist Priest. Zen meditation garments such as, Zen Lay robe, Rakusu, Jubon, aka Juban, kimono, koromo, ordained Buddhist Priest robes. By wearing the kimono beneath the outer garment, and often the Jubon, aka Juban, they protect the robe from body oils, perspiration and so forth while adding warmth when needed. The hand made Rakusu is important to reflect your vows, precepts and personal commitment to practice the Dharma. All of these are outer reminders of a deeper connection to the three jewels: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Zen monastic garments are specifically designed for the meditation tradition and enhances the experience. Your robe is the physical embodiment of your inner being. Robes acknowledge the commitment to living a life in the

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
Awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worry and stress.

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
4 days ago — But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead …
You visited this page on 18/5/21

https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

What Is Swimming Meditation?
Mindworks | Mindfulness Meditation Blog | Types of Meditation
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Doctors recommend swimming as one of the best exercises around, and for good reason. When we swim, the main muscle groups all go to work in a way that doesn’t put undue stress on the body. This makes it a wholesome aerobic exercise for young and old alike. The health benefits of this kind of workout include:
• Improving blood circulation around the body
• Helping get rid of excess cholesterol within the bloodstream
• Curbing obesity and its accompanying health issues
• Maintaining general fitness

Most people enjoy swimming because it’s so refreshing and good for you. But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead of just focusing on reaching a certain goal, you pay full attention to the exercise and the sensations experienced as you swim. Extending your mindfulness practice into swimming is a great way to break up the routine of sitting meditation.
Is there a link between swimming and meditation?
The answer depends on the swimmer! Meditation is about awareness, and it might be argued that awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worrying about any stressful issues at work, home or elsewhere.
Instead of mindlessly plunging into the water and doing your laps, take a few moments to formulate the intention of being entirely present in the water. Once you’ve begun swimming, see if you can maintain awareness of the here and now. Enjoy the feeling of buoyancy as you glide across the pool and take note of other physical sensations – wetness, scent, sound, etc. Remain present as your arms enter and leave the water, your legs propel your body forward and your head follows the rhythm of the movement. How does it feel? Acknowledging sensations that you don’t usually notice is part of what makes swimming as meditation so enjoyable. Alternatively, when swimming laps or floating, you may also choose to focus on your breath.
The joy of mindful swimming
When you meditate, the mind is no longer bound by the anxieties and stresses that usually take up so much mental space. Instead, the mind is spacious and refreshed, and you feel rejuvenated. This naturally inspires you to work on bettering yourself and improving the lives of others. By incorporating the exercise of swimming as meditation into your mindfulness regime, you train in extending your “on-the-cushion” practice into your everyday life.
Professional swimmers tend to repeat the same movements every time they train. It’s easy for them to give their minds free rein to wander as they swim instead of being mindfully aware of their breath and physical sensations. In her article “Mindful Swimming” in Swimming World Magazine, former competitive swimmer Tonya Nascimento believes that mindfulness can help athletes while training as well as while competing. “At all levels, swim meets can have a multitude of distractions that capture your mind and direct your attention away from your races. [ …] The goal of mindfulness is to develop a sense of calm in the midst of the storm; it is to gain control over one’s own thoughts. By becoming aware of your thoughts, you can decide to let go of those thoughts that hinder your performance, and decide to concentrate on only those thoughts that help you improve,” she writes.
A number of national swimming teams (including the U.S. Olympic team) have incorporated mindfulness in their training sessions. The feedback has been positive: athletes have reported improved performances when they focus on being fully present rather than focusing on the goal (winning!) alone. Mindful presence helps swimmers maintain balance, and balance fosters peak performance.
Before trying mindful swimming, make sure your swimming level is good enough.

Once you get the groove of it, you’ll realize that swimming and meditation are an awesome match. Most importantly, remember that swimming – and meditating – should be enjoyable!
By reading this article it’s clear that you’re interested in the practice of meditation and its results: experiencing genuine joy and well-being. You’ve come to the right place. Mindworks is a non-profit with a mission to share the most authentic and proven meditation guidance to you and our worldwide community.
As meditation practice develops the most fundamental axis of our being, it’s essential to rely on clear, progressive and genuine meditation methods from authentic guides. In order to fully transmit to you the full potential of genuine meditation, we created the 9-level Mindworks Journey to Well-Being.
We’re so sure you’ll benefit we now offer you Mindworks Journey Level 1: Meditation Fundamentals course for Free. Click the link below to learn more.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples.
Table of Contents

Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video

Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images

• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.

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06/22/21
LESSON 4009 Wed 23 Jun 2021 Swim Mindfully Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did 8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Positive good news This will become true According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactlyO
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 3:40 pm

LESSON 4009 Wed 23 Jun 2021

Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Positive good news

This will become true

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Mindful Swimming

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The TRUTH About Masters Swimming

The TRUTH About Masters Swimming
By MySwimPro

The Truth about Masters Swimming

Freestyle Swimming: Arm Movement. Complete.

Freestyle Swimming: Arm Movement. Complete.
By schnodo pics

Free style Swimming: Arms movement complete

Michael Phelps Last Olympic Race - Swimming Mens 4×100m Medley Relay Final | Rio 2016 Replay

Michael Phelps Last Olympic Race - Swimming Mens 4×100m Medley Relay Final | Rio 2016 Replay
By Olympics

Swimming men’s 4*100 Medley Swimming

Rio Replay: Mens Open Water 10km Marathon Final

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By Olympics

Men’s open water 10km Marathon

Beginners Guide to Growing Fruit and Veg

Beginners Guide to Growing Fruit and Veg
Start to grow your own produce with David Domoneys beginners guide to growing fruit and veg in your own garden with excellent results.

Beginner’s Guide to Growing Fruit and Veg

rowing your own fruit and vegetables is a fun and rewarding way to use your garden. Nothing compares to the taste of homegrown fruit plucked from the tree, or crunchy vegetables hauled from the soil.
But getting started can feel daunting. So here is my handy beginner’s guide to growing your own fruit, veg and herbs. It contains everything you need to know, plus my top 10 tips for growing success!

CAN I GROW VEG IN MY SMALL GARDEN?

Short answer: Yes. Fruit, vegetables and herbs can fit into any size garden as long as you have a sunny spot. You don’t need a lot of space and you can even grow crops in containers!
PLOT
Even small gardens should have space for a little veg plot. I would recommend making separate beds because they are easy to manage and keep on top of weeds. Keep the beds narrow and the rows short.
But if you’re really, really short of space you can add vegetable and fruit plants into flower borders.
POTAGER
This is known as potager, a type of French kitchen garden where edible and ornamental plants are mixed together. It is a little less productive but a great choice for smaller gardens where space is limited.

GROWING IN CONTAINERS

Many vegetables will happily grow in containers on the patio or balcony. Make sure to choose large containers like wooden planters and half barrels.
OPEN
Look for large open pots for leafy veg like salads, and deep pots for underground veg like carrots and potatoes. You can grow tomatoes and tender veg directly in growbags too.

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Here’s my top 5:
Salad
Radishes
Chillies
Beetroot
Tomatoes

Plus fruit bushes are ideal for containers! Here’s my top 5:
Strawberries
Blueberries
Raspberries
Apple
Cherries

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10 TIPS FOR GROWING SUCCESS

1 Grow fruit and vegetables that you and your family love to eat.
2 Choose an open, sunny spot.
3 Check your soil type and use containers or raised beds if needed.
4 Always prepare the soil well – remove weeds and stones and dig it over to improve the structure.
5 Improve the soil by digging in compost or leaf mould. Make your own compost!
6 Never sow too early – wait until the soil is warmed up.
7 Plant fast-growing varieties in containers for a speedy harvest.
8 Stagger your sowing by sowing a few seeds every two weeks rather than all at once for a long harvest.
9 Keep everything well-watered, especially during dry spells.
10 Practise crop rotation to prevent building up pests and diseases.

CHOOSING WHAT TO GROW

The first rule of growing your own is to grow things you will actually eat! Write a list of your favourite fruit, veg and herbs.
It’s probably a long list. So cut it down to something manageable by crossing off:
• Anything that doesn’t suit your soil type
• Anything that needs lots of space if you have a small plot
• Anything too tender to grow in your region
• Anything you can buy really cheaply – no sense in using valuable space to grow staples
• For example, carrots need deep, rich soil to grow well. So if you have shallow sandy soil, cross them off your list and look to surface crops like beetroot instead.
Not sure where to get started? Here’s my top picks for beginners

SOWING SEEDS VS PLUG PLANTS

SOWING SEEDS – HARDY
The cheapest way to grow vegetables is to sow them from seed. Hardy plants, meaning those that can withstand frost and snow, should be sown directly in the ground where they are to grow. Most vegetables fall under this category.
Leave the sowing until the soil has warmed up in spring. As a general indicator, wait until your grass is growing well again.

10 TIPS FOR GROWING SUCCESS

1 Grow fruit and vegetables that you and your family love to eat.
2 Choose an open, sunny spot.
3 Check your soil type and use containers or raised beds if needed.
4 Always prepare the soil well – remove weeds and stones and dig it over to improve the structure.
5 Improve the soil by digging in compost or leaf mould. Make your own compost!
6 Never sow too early – wait until the soil is warmed up.
7 Plant fast-growing varieties in containers for a speedy harvest.
8 Stagger your sowing by sowing a few seeds every two weeks rather than all at once for a long harvest.
9 Keep everything well-watered, especially during dry spells.
10 Practise crop rotation to prevent building up pests and diseases.

CHOOSING WHAT TO GROW

The first rule of growing your own is to grow things you will actually eat! Write a list of your favourite fruit, veg and herbs.
It’s probably a long list. So cut it down to something manageable by crossing off:
• Anything that doesn’t suit your soil type
• Anything that needs lots of space if you have a small plot
• Anything too tender to grow in your region
• Anything you can buy really cheaply – no sense in using valuable space to grow staples
• For example, carrots need deep, rich soil to grow well. So if you have shallow sandy soil, cross them off your list and look to surface crops like beetroot instead.
Not sure where to get started? Here’s my top picks for beginners

SOWING SEEDS VS PLUG PLANTS

SOWING SEEDS – HARDY
The cheapest way to grow vegetables is to sow them from seed. Hardy plants, meaning those that can withstand frost and snow, should be sown directly in the ground where they are to grow. Most vegetables fall under this category.
Leave the sowing until the soil has warmed up in spring. As a general indicator, wait until your grass is growing well again.

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HOW TO SOW IN DRILLS (STRAIGHT LINES)
Mark a straight line across the soil by pegging a length of string down between two wooden stakes. Use the end of a hoe to make a ridge in the soil, as deep as the seeds need to be sown.
Water in the drill to make the soil moist (seeds need this to germinate). Sow the seeds according to the packet instructions.
Use the hoe to push the soil back into the drill and gently press down the surface. Mark one end of the row before removing the string.

Follow the sowing instructions on the packet to the letter, especially the spacing information. If you put plants too close together, they will produce smaller crops.
SOWING SEEDS – TENDER
Tender plants can be damaged by frost, so these are sown indoors first and then planted out into the garden once they are established. Follow the instructions on the seed packet and wait until late spring or early summer before moving them out into the garden. Tender plants include tomatoes, aubergines and peppers.
Make sure to harden off any plants that are sown indoors! This means acclimatising them to the outside conditions before you plant them out into the garden.
Once the seedlings are ready to go into the garden, start moving the pots outside during the day and bringing them back in at night for a week or two. Then you can plant them outside.
PLUG PLANTS
Many gardeners don’t want the hassle of germinating seeds and buy plug plants instead. These are very young plants that are ready to go straight into the garden. They are more expensive to buy than seeds but the hard part is done for you. Be aware that plug plants are available in less varieties than seeds too.
You can always use a mixture of seed-sown and plug plants to keep costs down.
BUYING FRUIT PLANTS
Soft fruit bushes like raspberries are generally sold as canes, which need planting during the dormant season between autumn and spring.
Or buy container-grown bushes, which can be planted at any time of year but usually around late spring in time for the fruit to appear. Strawberries also fall into this category.
Fruit trees like apples and pears should be planted during the dormant season, unless you buy container-grown versions. If you have a small garden but still want a fruit tree, look for dwarf varieties to grow in containers. If your neighbours don’t grow fruit, consider buying self-fertile fruit trees to guarantee plenty of fruit. Ask your local garden centre or nursery for their recommendations.

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PREPARING THE SOIL

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Good crops need good soil. Most fruit and vegetables like soil that is rich, moist and well-drained, with neutral acidity.
There are some exceptions, including blueberries which need acidic soil.
These are best grown in containers filled with ericaceous (acidic) compost.
But for the majority of crops, you simply need balanced, good quality soil.
Check out my Expert Guide to Soil for more information.

SOIL IMPROVERS
Digging in plenty of organic matter will improve the structure of your soil and add nutrients for the plants. Some veg growers add well-rotted manure in the autumn – ask a local farmer to deliver some for you.
Most veg gardeners simply add compost or leaf mould. These are common soil improvers available from garden centres – though you should start making your own compost if you don’t already! It’s so easy and keeps a constant (and free) supply of extra nutrients to boost your plants.
You can dig some compost or leaf mould into the top few inches of the soil a couple of weeks before planting most vegetables. Or scatter some general-purpose compost over the surface and rake it in.
You can also apply the organic matter over the surface of the soil around established plants as a mulch. This allows the nutrients to feed down into the soil, as well as helping to retain moisture and stop weeds growing.

CROP ROTATION

Vegetables belong to groups or ‘families’ of plants that are similar to each other. But this means they are susceptible to the same pests and diseases.
PESTS
If you grow the same crop families in the same spot every year, pests and diseases will build up in the soil. This is why gardeners practise crop rotation. It simply means moving crops around so you grow different types of plants in each spot.
HUNGRY
It also makes sure soil doesn’t get depleted. Some crops are very ‘hungry’ and remove large amounts of nutrients from the soil. If you plant hungry crops in the same spot again they will not grow as well. For example, brassicas like cabbage are hungry plants. So a common crop rotation technique is to plant them where you grew beans and peas the previous year.

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This is because those plants add nutrients like nitrogen to the soil as they grow, making it the ideal spot for growing hungry crops.
Note that crop rotation doesn’t apply to perennial plants that stay in one place year after year like rhubarb and artichokes.

comments (0)
06/21/21
LESSON 4008 tue 22 Jun 2021 8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Positive good news This will become true According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 5:35 pm

LESSON 4009 Wed 23 Jun 2021

Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Positive good news

This will become true

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Mindful Swimming

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The TRUTH About Masters Swimming

The TRUTH About Masters Swimming
By MySwimPro

The Truth about Masters Swimming

Freestyle Swimming: Arm Movement. Complete.

Freestyle Swimming: Arm Movement. Complete.
By schnodo pics

Free style Swimming: Arms movement complete

Michael Phelps Last Olympic Race - Swimming Mens 4×100m Medley Relay Final | Rio 2016 Replay

Michael Phelps Last Olympic Race - Swimming Mens 4×100m Medley Relay Final | Rio 2016 Replay
By Olympics

Swimming men’s 4*100 Medley Swimming

Rio Replay: Mens Open Water 10km Marathon Final

Rio Replay: Mens Open Water 10km Marathon Final
By Olympics

Men’s open water 10km Marathon

Beginners Guide to Growing Fruit and Veg

Beginners Guide to Growing Fruit and Veg
Start to grow your own produce with David Domoneys beginners guide to growing fruit and veg in your own garden with excellent results.

Beginner’s Guide to Growing Fruit and Veg

rowing your own fruit and vegetables is a fun and rewarding way to use your garden. Nothing compares to the taste of homegrown fruit plucked from the tree, or crunchy vegetables hauled from the soil.
But getting started can feel daunting. So here is my handy beginner’s guide to growing your own fruit, veg and herbs. It contains everything you need to know, plus my top 10 tips for growing success!

CAN I GROW VEG IN MY SMALL GARDEN?

Short answer: Yes. Fruit, vegetables and herbs can fit into any size garden as long as you have a sunny spot. You don’t need a lot of space and you can even grow crops in containers!
PLOT
Even small gardens should have space for a little veg plot. I would recommend making separate beds because they are easy to manage and keep on top of weeds. Keep the beds narrow and the rows short.
But if you’re really, really short of space you can add vegetable and fruit plants into flower borders.
POTAGER
This is known as potager, a type of French kitchen garden where edible and ornamental plants are mixed together. It is a little less productive but a great choice for smaller gardens where space is limited.

GROWING IN CONTAINERS

Many vegetables will happily grow in containers on the patio or balcony. Make sure to choose large containers like wooden planters and half barrels.
OPEN
Look for large open pots for leafy veg like salads, and deep pots for underground veg like carrots and potatoes. You can grow tomatoes and tender veg directly in growbags too.

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Here’s my top 5:
Salad
Radishes
Chillies
Beetroot
Tomatoes

Plus fruit bushes are ideal for containers! Here’s my top 5:
Strawberries
Blueberries
Raspberries
Apple
Cherries

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10 TIPS FOR GROWING SUCCESS

1 Grow fruit and vegetables that you and your family love to eat.
2 Choose an open, sunny spot.
3 Check your soil type and use containers or raised beds if needed.
4 Always prepare the soil well – remove weeds and stones and dig it over to improve the structure.
5 Improve the soil by digging in compost or leaf mould. Make your own compost!
6 Never sow too early – wait until the soil is warmed up.
7 Plant fast-growing varieties in containers for a speedy harvest.
8 Stagger your sowing by sowing a few seeds every two weeks rather than all at once for a long harvest.
9 Keep everything well-watered, especially during dry spells.
10 Practise crop rotation to prevent building up pests and diseases.

CHOOSING WHAT TO GROW

The first rule of growing your own is to grow things you will actually eat! Write a list of your favourite fruit, veg and herbs.
It’s probably a long list. So cut it down to something manageable by crossing off:
• Anything that doesn’t suit your soil type
• Anything that needs lots of space if you have a small plot
• Anything too tender to grow in your region
• Anything you can buy really cheaply – no sense in using valuable space to grow staples
• For example, carrots need deep, rich soil to grow well. So if you have shallow sandy soil, cross them off your list and look to surface crops like beetroot instead.
Not sure where to get started? Here’s my top picks for beginners

SOWING SEEDS VS PLUG PLANTS

SOWING SEEDS – HARDY
The cheapest way to grow vegetables is to sow them from seed. Hardy plants, meaning those that can withstand frost and snow, should be sown directly in the ground where they are to grow. Most vegetables fall under this category.
Leave the sowing until the soil has warmed up in spring. As a general indicator, wait until your grass is growing well again.

10 TIPS FOR GROWING SUCCESS

1 Grow fruit and vegetables that you and your family love to eat.
2 Choose an open, sunny spot.
3 Check your soil type and use containers or raised beds if needed.
4 Always prepare the soil well – remove weeds and stones and dig it over to improve the structure.
5 Improve the soil by digging in compost or leaf mould. Make your own compost!
6 Never sow too early – wait until the soil is warmed up.
7 Plant fast-growing varieties in containers for a speedy harvest.
8 Stagger your sowing by sowing a few seeds every two weeks rather than all at once for a long harvest.
9 Keep everything well-watered, especially during dry spells.
10 Practise crop rotation to prevent building up pests and diseases.

CHOOSING WHAT TO GROW

The first rule of growing your own is to grow things you will actually eat! Write a list of your favourite fruit, veg and herbs.
It’s probably a long list. So cut it down to something manageable by crossing off:
• Anything that doesn’t suit your soil type
• Anything that needs lots of space if you have a small plot
• Anything too tender to grow in your region
• Anything you can buy really cheaply – no sense in using valuable space to grow staples
• For example, carrots need deep, rich soil to grow well. So if you have shallow sandy soil, cross them off your list and look to surface crops like beetroot instead.
Not sure where to get started? Here’s my top picks for beginners

SOWING SEEDS VS PLUG PLANTS

SOWING SEEDS – HARDY
The cheapest way to grow vegetables is to sow them from seed. Hardy plants, meaning those that can withstand frost and snow, should be sown directly in the ground where they are to grow. Most vegetables fall under this category.
Leave the sowing until the soil has warmed up in spring. As a general indicator, wait until your grass is growing well again.

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HOW TO SOW IN DRILLS (STRAIGHT LINES)
Mark a straight line across the soil by pegging a length of string down between two wooden stakes. Use the end of a hoe to make a ridge in the soil, as deep as the seeds need to be sown.
Water in the drill to make the soil moist (seeds need this to germinate). Sow the seeds according to the packet instructions.
Use the hoe to push the soil back into the drill and gently press down the surface. Mark one end of the row before removing the string.

Follow the sowing instructions on the packet to the letter, especially the spacing information. If you put plants too close together, they will produce smaller crops.
SOWING SEEDS – TENDER
Tender plants can be damaged by frost, so these are sown indoors first and then planted out into the garden once they are established. Follow the instructions on the seed packet and wait until late spring or early summer before moving them out into the garden. Tender plants include tomatoes, aubergines and peppers.
Make sure to harden off any plants that are sown indoors! This means acclimatising them to the outside conditions before you plant them out into the garden.
Once the seedlings are ready to go into the garden, start moving the pots outside during the day and bringing them back in at night for a week or two. Then you can plant them outside.
PLUG PLANTS
Many gardeners don’t want the hassle of germinating seeds and buy plug plants instead. These are very young plants that are ready to go straight into the garden. They are more expensive to buy than seeds but the hard part is done for you. Be aware that plug plants are available in less varieties than seeds too.
You can always use a mixture of seed-sown and plug plants to keep costs down.
BUYING FRUIT PLANTS
Soft fruit bushes like raspberries are generally sold as canes, which need planting during the dormant season between autumn and spring.
Or buy container-grown bushes, which can be planted at any time of year but usually around late spring in time for the fruit to appear. Strawberries also fall into this category.
Fruit trees like apples and pears should be planted during the dormant season, unless you buy container-grown versions. If you have a small garden but still want a fruit tree, look for dwarf varieties to grow in containers. If your neighbours don’t grow fruit, consider buying self-fertile fruit trees to guarantee plenty of fruit. Ask your local garden centre or nursery for their recommendations.

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PREPARING THE SOIL

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Good crops need good soil. Most fruit and vegetables like soil that is rich, moist and well-drained, with neutral acidity.
There are some exceptions, including blueberries which need acidic soil.
These are best grown in containers filled with ericaceous (acidic) compost.
But for the majority of crops, you simply need balanced, good quality soil.
Check out my Expert Guide to Soil for more information.

SOIL IMPROVERS
Digging in plenty of organic matter will improve the structure of your soil and add nutrients for the plants. Some veg growers add well-rotted manure in the autumn – ask a local farmer to deliver some for you.
Most veg gardeners simply add compost or leaf mould. These are common soil improvers available from garden centres – though you should start making your own compost if you don’t already! It’s so easy and keeps a constant (and free) supply of extra nutrients to boost your plants.
You can dig some compost or leaf mould into the top few inches of the soil a couple of weeks before planting most vegetables. Or scatter some general-purpose compost over the surface and rake it in.
You can also apply the organic matter over the surface of the soil around established plants as a mulch. This allows the nutrients to feed down into the soil, as well as helping to retain moisture and stop weeds growing.

CROP ROTATION

Vegetables belong to groups or ‘families’ of plants that are similar to each other. But this means they are susceptible to the same pests and diseases.
PESTS
If you grow the same crop families in the same spot every year, pests and diseases will build up in the soil. This is why gardeners practise crop rotation. It simply means moving crops around so you grow different types of plants in each spot.
HUNGRY
It also makes sure soil doesn’t get depleted. Some crops are very ‘hungry’ and remove large amounts of nutrients from the soil. If you plant hungry crops in the same spot again they will not grow as well. For example, brassicas like cabbage are hungry plants. So a common crop rotation technique is to plant them where you grew beans and peas the previous year.

Inline image

This is because those plants add nutrients like nitrogen to the soil as they grow, making it the ideal spot for growing hungry crops.
Note that crop rotation doesn’t apply to perennial plants that stay in one place year after year like rhubarb and artichokes.

comments (0)
06/20/21
LESSON 4007 Mon 21 Jun 2021 https://youtu.be/2lEp4TVpxgA 8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2022 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 2:48 pm

LESSON 4007 Mon 21 Jun 2021

https://youtu.be/2lEp4TVpxgA

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2022 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
https://media1.tenor.com/images/6d5b2a673052e439a421c4fa33f6366e/tenor.gif?itemid=14834481

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https://media1.tenor.com/images/6d5b2a673052e439a421c4fa33f6366e/tenor.gif?itemid=14834481

From

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -
Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages.
May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

https://youtu.be/DXPzZ30FL-o

DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD

https://youtu.be/mYorFLsUU8A
Tricks to Fastest DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD

https://youtu.be/WqiymQDIQMQ
Dwarf fruit trees

https://giphy.com/gifs/maorisakai-illustration-japan-bonsai-5xaOcLzCN0SIJZMbypy

Buddhas of Monywa, Myanmar

The Great Buddhas of Monywa (Dreamstime)
The Great Buddhas of Monywa (Dreamstime)
Visitors to Monywa, 138 kilometres northwest of Mandalay, will be treated to not one, but two giant Buddhas – one standing, one lying down.

At 90 metres long, the one lying down is the largest reclining Buddha in the world. It houses a collection of 9,000 etchings illustrating Buddha’s life that can be viewed by entering through a door in the statue’s backside.

The standing Buddha directly behind is 116 metres tall and is known as Laykyun Setkyar.

https://tenor.com/view/happy-birthday-buddha-budda-बुद्धजयन्ती-วิสาขบูชา-buddha-purnima-gif-17060410

https://youtu.be/p79D6u-6pN4
Let food be thy medicine

free online efforts by all religions to unite the whole world by overcoming hunger the worst illness by growing vegetables and fruit trees

https://tenor.com/view/thewholebowl-wholebowl-whole-bowl-so-gif-21740776

https://media1.tenor.com/images/948766cbcd94f246ef8813274c456b76/tenor.gif?itemid=21740776

comments (0)
06/19/21
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:07 pm

4007 Mon 21 Jun 2021

Buddhist Patanjali Yogic Mindful Postures including Swimming throughout life

From

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -
Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages.
May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

X
Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 20, 2021 at 3:12 AM]
http://oaks.nvg.org/meditation.html

• Essential Yoga
• Patanjali Yoga Highlights

Essential Yoga
The abstract below is the essence of the Yogic school of philosophy. ‘Atman’ means God and Spirit, or Self, or soul and spirit, by other sets of terms:
To the followers of Yoga, meditation is a great power. Yoga can be practised by a person whose mind is not shaky. The person who meditates - like a log - the soul is stationed in the heart. He sees the Atman in the Atman. It has no source of origin and it is immortal. They call it minuter than the atom, and greater than the greatest.
What else can be the characteristic feature of Yoga? One who sees thus perceives the unageing great Atman.
(Brahma Purana 135:47-65, abstracted kernels, passim).
“The Sanskrit literature contains numerous compound terms ending in -yoga.” (Chap. 12). Feuerstein goes on to list forty yoga approaches or features of the path. Item number 32 on his list is “Samputa-Yoga: The unitive discipline of sexual congress (maithuna) in Tantra-Yoga.” No. 36 is “Siddha-Yoga: The unitive discipline of the adepts, a concept found in some of the Tantras.” (Feuerstein 2011, Chap. 12). “There are numerous books available on Yoga, very few reflect that astounding richness.” (Feuerstein 1990:xiii).
“The yogic work of self-transformation [is a] path to inner freedom, peace, and happiness. It puts us in touch with what Abraham Maslow called “being values,” without which our lives are superficial and ultimately unfulfilling.” (Feuerstein 2011, Chap. 4.)
“Upon enlightenment, when the mind is free from obscurations, neither pleasure nor pain will diminish our inner freedom.” (Feuerstein 2011, Chap. 3.)

Patanjali Yoga Highlights
Patanjali Yoga may not be good enough for you: there are even better forms of yoga-meditation. Note:
• Patanjali Yoga hardly specifies that general spiritual development, bhavana, is the great gift of sensible yoga, and that is is won by carefully harnessed influx of vitality (power), for one thing, whereas Patanjali speaks of stilling the mind and focus it. The “influx for sound development” needs to be underscored. This is explained further down.
• The other drawback is that the ashtanga yoga of Patanjali speaks of eight limbs of yoga, and that practice of physical and moral sides of the system could be at the expense of the higher yoga, the meditation parts.
• At its best, meditation fosters spiritual development, bhavana, and it does not come naturally. There are traditional ways for it that are not dealt with by Patanjali as far as I recall: “Listening in to Aum” may be half of what is needed, subtleties of the practices left aside.
This suggested, let us see what Patajali tells of, to see what his approach contains in main outline.
Meditation, dhyána, and “prolonged, deep meditation”, samádhi, is an integral part of the ancient ashtánga yoga (eight-limbed yoga), which is the Patanjali yoga system. It is also called classical yoga and raja yoga, royal yoga. Patanjali yoga is mainly concerned with cultivating the mind by meditation (dhyána) to be liberated, as it is called. The system is laid bare in a brief primer. It aims at reaching a state of yoga, in part by yoga postures, asanas, and even more by meditation. There is more on it further down.
Patanjali’s yoga is akin to Yajnavalkya’s yoga, which is similar to it, but broader. It encompasses much more.
Buddhist meditation in a nutshell
The term Buddhist meditation refers to the meditative practices that tend to be practised by Buddhists. Core meditation techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts. Buddhist meditation is practised to get Awakened (Enlightened) in the state called Nirvana, which is a joy-state. The earliest tradition of Buddhist meditation practice - preserved in the collection of early Buddhist texts in the Pali language, including the Sutta Pitaka (”the basked of discourse”) - was also the focus of early Buddhist schools, and has been incorporated to a greater and lesser extent in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition and many East Asian Buddhist traditions.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 20, 2021 at 3:12 AM]
What is more, early Buddhist texts describe meditative practices and states that had existed before the Buddha in the Vedic civilisation that Buddha blossomed within, as well as those that were in time diversified within Buddhism.
Early Buddhism incorporated meditative absorption states. The most ancient sustained expressions of yogic ideas is found in the early sermons of Buddha on four jhanas, dhyánas. Buddha taught that meditative absorption was to be combined with liberating cognition, based on the practice of mindful awareness.
As Buddhism got on and branched out somewhat, Yogacara Buddhism (Yogacara (Sanskrit: “yoga practice”) provided a path of the bodhisattva – but such a path is not told of in extant, old sermons of Buddha.
Also, yoga is central to Mahayana, Vajrayana or “Tibetan Buddhism” in particular.
Hindu yoga - glimpses
In Hindu literature, the term “yoga” first occurs in the Katha Upanishad, where it refers to control of the senses and the cessation of mental activity, leading to a supreme state.
Vedic Yoga goes into pranayama (”mind-breath-forms”), mantra, and dhyána (meditation). There are varieties of each of these three.
Prana relates to motions of the mind, and may be used for concentrating and stilling the mind. Advanced pranayama involves mindful regulation of prana; for beginners it is controlling the breath.
Further, dhyána (meditation) is not merely for getting a quiet mind and deriving great anti-stress benefits from it, though relaxing and calming can be a significant achievement: the Bhagavad Gita uses the term ‘yoga’ extensively in a variety of ways. The goals of doing yoga are varied and range from getting suppler and perhaps improving health, to achieving freedom, moksha, in which you realise Supreme Brahman (Spirit of All).
The word ‘yoga’. There are many definitions of what yoga is, as ‘yoga’ is a word with several meanings already from antiquity. One may say, initially, that ‘meditation’ is part of the more encompassing term ‘yoga,’ and you do not have to belong to a church and cult to practice yoga and meditation. Wikipedia’s article “Yoga” says that “The Sanskrit word yoga has many meanings, and is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, to control, to yoke or unite. Translations include ‘joining’, ‘uniting’, ‘union’, ‘conjunction’, and ‘means’. Also, “the word yoga may be derived from . . . ‘yujir samadhau’, which means contemplation or absorption.”
Yoga, a many-sided system. Rooted in a very long Indian and Tibetan tradition, ‘Yoga’ suggests a many-sided system that can suit a many-sided development, not only Tantric Sex Yoga to be practiced in some higher forms of Buddhism and Hinduism.
Meditation is a key stage in the yoga system of Patanjali. Buddhism and Hinduism share in yoga training. Meditation, or dhyána, is part of such systematic fares, and said to be essential for higher development, bhavana.
The mind can be calmed and clarified by meditation, depending on methods, the quality of the practice and the general conditions for meditation and having a good life in general. To progress includes more than just calming down; in deepening meditation fit bhavana training sets it.
The term bhavana can mean development”, “cultivating” or “producing” in the sense of “bringing about, bringing into existence.” and “dwelling”, and so on. When used on its own here, bhavana signals ’spiritual development’. Another wording: ‘development in deep meditation, dhyana. In Buddhist practice (patipatti) the word bhavana appears in phrases like:
• citta-bhavana: development or cultivation of the heart/consciousness/mind.
• panna-bhavana: development of wisdom/understanding.
• metta-bhavana: development/cultivation of benevolence/lovingkindness.
Good conditions and excellent methods may be had by careful study of crucial elements and research finding, rather than jumping headlong into some sect that uses yoga and meditation as baits also. So, sound discernment can be helpful, also when it comes to self-unfoldment and the use of our free time, and so on.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 20, 2021 at 3:12 AM]
Winning free time is good, and good use of it is much to go for. For the lack of healthy and good use of it, one may get bored or deranged, though. Consider what forms of very handy and practical yoga could suit you and bring benefits too. TM (Transcendental Meditaton) can suit many.
Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras yoga state
Patanjali goes into stilling the mind and applying that mind for benefits through holding to specific ideas and images. It is a bit akin to deep-going visualisation, which has documented effects in sports, for example.
Bhavana fills in a need for development of oneself at this point or stage: (1) Meditate for spiritual development first. (2) Then affirm, visualise or use other sides to mental training with that clarified, deepened mind. (3). Thirdly, try to assess what blossoms (changes, that is).
Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras begin with the statement yogas chitta-vritti-nirodhah (1.2), “Yoga limits the oscillations of the mind”. Translators understand the old, Sanskrit definition a bit differently, though. It could be of some help to see how the term is explained in yoga traditions, and what some able translators have come up with. Then, by cross-combining most of the translation options of most elements in the sentence of Patanjali, we may end up with scores of nuances and variants of meanings. However, I give you just some central definitions of each part of Patanjali’s catch-phrase. You may “combine” them if wish (further down). Here are two more all right English translations to begin with:
Vivekananda translates the sutra as “Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis).”
I. K. Taimni translates it as “Yoga is the inhibition [nirodha] of the modifications [vritti] of the mind [citta].”
Put simply, Mind-yoga calms fluctuations of the mind, and this is essential for higher forms of meditation à la Patanjali. Carefully focused thought may lead to such states of mind.
Going further, a well focused mind is able to transcend thoughts, in time. Mantra yoga includes means of reaching the beyond, of transcending, and one mantra method system, ◦Transcendental Meditation, TM has lots of good side effects, according to much research on it. It is worth noting that some good methods get results in less time of practice than other methods. For example, meditation may be practiced for 15 (and 20) minutes twice a day in the Transcendental Meditation programme (for beginners).

Now for Criss-Crossing Meanings of Patanjali’s Phrase
A. Citta, chitta
Citta: (Skt., ‘that which has been seen’, i.e., belonging to consciousness also called Chit). In Hinduism, the reflective and thus conscious mind; in Buddhism, an equivalent to manas (reflective mind) and vijnana (continuing consciousness). It belongs to all beings above the level of plant life.
How citta is understood, received particular analysis and emphasis in Yogacara, the Cittamatra, Mind Only school of Buddhism.
In Abhidhamma (Pali; Skt., abhidharma, ’special teaching’), there is reflection on the meaning of Gautama Buddha’s teaching. Abhidhamma talks of 121 types of citta, and each of them may be combined with any one of fifty-two cetasikas (accompanying qualities of experience), thus producing a large variety of mental events.
B. Vritti
‘Vritti’ means fluctuations, modifications – also livelihood, conduct, character, treatment, inclination, functioning, appearing, thoughts, modes, waves.
Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras lists five types of mental activity. They are: valid cognition (pramana), misconception (viparyaya), imagination (vikalpa), sleep (nidra), and memory (smriti).
C. Nirodha
Cessation, neutralisation, restraint, from the root rudh, to obstruct.”
By combining essential meanings with a view to the sources and the living tradition, we may come up with such as:
(Good, able) yoga in its higher forms are for stilling the mind well, so that you get into higher, interior mind states at will in periods, and very easily of them too.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 20, 2021 at 3:12 AM]
Now there has been done non-damaging brain research of people who meditate, both Tibetan Buddhists, Zen Buddhists, and other meditators. Some of the findings show even dramatic changes of brain waves and their patterns, strengths (amplitudes), and synchronised patterning.
It could pay to study prominent and good research findings and choose the best methods available to practice at home.

Lessons about added influx
There are other variants of yoga and meditation than Patanjali’s. Yajnavalkya’s yoga has been referred to already. It is broader in scope, but rather similar. Now for other yoga teachings:
To develop a lot, it may barely be good enough just to still the mind. Development in yoga could depend on extra influx of energy - called Aum, wind and prana and other ancient Sanskrit words with somewhat different understanding in any case. In good meditation such influx is had. Then make wise and proper use of it for general spiritual development, bhavana. The old teaching can be halfway glimpsed in ancient Upanishads too. You get vitalised, more alive by good meditation. It is all right. If you choose to funnel such vitality into a thing to focus on, then you may develop things, bring about things, manifest things - inwardly and/or outwardly. The very best use is held to be spiritual development by steady, advancing focusing (heeding). Don’t just still the mind; advance to charge yourself also. It is a nice point.
Bad, unsuitable and possibly damaging mantras harness the added influx for bad, wheras good mantras gently steer such influx like a horse led by the muzzle. There is much lore on mantras too. Mantras are said to be sound-forms of great idea-complexes with marked qualities - in other words, mantras are sound-form-bodies of gods or goddesses. The theory is that one is helped by some goddesses by attuning to them by their various mantras - and can be seriously harmed by others.
Another form of yoga is tantric yoga. It uses the sexual instincts to ride on them too. Tantra is described in a vast body of literature too. So yoga does not have to be austere.
A Possibly Wider Perspective
The last three limbs of Patanjali’s Eightfold Yoga are called dharana (focus), dhyána (contemplation, deep meditation), and samádhi (yogic absorption). These “phases” contain thought and direction of thought, and the rinsed, well unified mind can then be used for well-directed focus that assists subtle attainments and other attainments by sanyama, which is sustained, well relaxed focus with a unified or undivided mind. Patanjali enumerates deep successes from the practice.
There is a tradition that holds these views and practices, and little research on them. Thus, the area belongs to the area of “try maturely and well and observe for yourself” - sort of. After fifty years of painstaking effort the time may be fine for a personal round-up, if not earlier. And if we are observant, maybe we heed good gurus more, those who say that the powers are not the main things to go for in meditation, but the Divine.
Another matter: It happens that some powers come to the meditator, even unasked for. How to deal with it? Some honorable persons may say you should desist from harnessing them and drop them, and others tell you to use them only with the utmost discretion. There may reason for them appearing, so it may be very unwise to discard all the powers that manifest - in fact, you could need them! Add that to the list of how to deal with occult powers.
It is not an either-or topic, though: One may spend for example 93% of one’s best time wisely on bettering one’s meditation with no preconceived goal in mind, and the added 7 % on mental focus on good results one may like (by sanyama-focusing).
Dharana (focus, gathering attentiveness) and dhyána (deeper meditation) are related, and not always easily discerned from one another.
The word mantra is derived from the verbal root ‘man’, which means ‘think’ (and is also in manas, “mind”). The suffix -tra, means tools or instruments. So a literal translation is “instrument of thought”.

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan, [Jun 20, 2021 at 3:12 AM]
Mantra yoga often involves sound, word, or phrase that is repeated and is believed to have great powers to elevate and in time purify and rescue the mind (for a while) into another level - if the mantras are suitable and carefully chosen and the practice is fine. There is a vast body of knowledge in these matters (WP, “Mantra”).
Mantra can be practiced aloud and whispered. But the most profound effect on the mind comes from silent repetition of mantra, that is, ‘japa’. Manu Samhita says something that could apply just poetically (not accurately) to the drift of increased efficaciousness as we move from loud to whispered and on to silent mantra repetition (japa):
An offering, consisting of muttered prayers, is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice performed according to the rules (of the Veda); a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times, and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times. [Manu Samhita, 2:85]
A mantra that is silently repeated, is put to the best use accordingly.

Contents

Feuerstein, Georg. The Deeper Dimension of Yoga: Theory and Practice. London: Shambhala, 2011.
⸻. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Yoga. London: Unwin Paperbacks, 1990.
Grimes, John. A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. New, rev. ed. Varanasi: Indica Bookis, 2009.
Mohan, A. G., tr. Yoga Yajnavalkya. 2nd ed. Svastha Yoga, 2013.
Sands, William F. Maharishi’s Yoga: The Royal Path to Enlightenment. Fairfield, IA: Maharishi University of Management Press, 2013.
Shastri, J. L., ed. Brahma Purana: Part 3. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1986.

Harvesting the hay
Symbols, brackets, signs and text icons explained: (1) Text markers — (2) Digesting.

Section
Set

User’s Guide ᴥ Disclaimer
© 2010–2019, Tormod Kinnes, MPhil [Email]

————————————-

Before
starting the Asanas (as-anas) or the yogic postures, it is vital that
you start with the practice of Pranayama (praa-na-yaa-ma) or the yogic
breathing…

Instruction Table Breathing Basics

Sit in a simple cross-legged position on
the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded
blanket under your buttocks.

Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen

Inhale slowly through the nose feeling the
breath filling the abdomen,bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then
the upper chest.

Exhaling softly feeling the breath leave
the abdomen first, then the ribs andlastly the upper chest. Observe the
space at the end of the exhale

Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position

resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm.

Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.

Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama (Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .

Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.

Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .

Conscious breathing

Conscious breathing
By quarktechinc

Before
starting the Asanas (as-anas) or the yogic postures, it is vital that
you start with the practice of Pranayama (praa-na-yaa-ma) or the yogic
breathing…

Instruction Table Breathing Basics

Sit in a simple cross-legged position on
the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded
blanket under your buttocks.

Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen

Inhale slowly through the nose feeling the
breath filling the abdomen,bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then
the upper chest.

Exhaling softly feeling the breath leave
the abdomen first, then the ribs andlastly the upper chest. Observe the
space at the end of the exhale

Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position

resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm.

Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.

Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama (Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .

Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.

Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .

Shoulder Stretch Asana -Yoga Asanas - Virasana Pose

Shoulder Stretch Asana -Yoga Asanas - Virasana Pose
By Yogasync.tv

Please visit:

Conscious breathing

Conscious breathing
By quarktechinc

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Shoulder Stretch Asana -Yoga Asanas - Virasana Pose The Virasana Arm/Shoulder Stretch

Instruction Table
1

Hero Pose

The purpose of this pose is to help give the entire body a very complete
stretch from the heels to the head. It improves strength and endurance
and helps to control your breathing in conjunction with the movements of
the body.

It eases and stimulates the joints especially the knees, ankles and
shoulders. It reduces and alleviates backache and improves the
circulation of the entire body. toes & little toes pressing firmly
into the floor

2

Push back with your hands & sit between your buttocks on the floor,
make sure you roll your calf muscles out wards so your not sitting on
them.

3

Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides.

4

Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders down.

5

Exhale lengthen out through the fingertips & turn your palms to the roof. Inhale stretch your arms overhead.

6

Interlock the fingers. Slowly exhaling turn the palms towards the
ceiling, and with a powerful push lift up from the belly into your chest
and shoulders.

7

Exhale bring your hands down in a smooth continuance motion….

8

Now bringing
your arms interlocking behind your back with straight arms, being
careful not to roll the shoulders forward, squeezing the shoulder blades
together and opening the chest on the front of the body.

9

Inhale hands back to the side

Repeat 2-3 more times

Kneeling Twist Yoga Asana

Kneeling Twist Yoga Asana
By Yogasync.tv

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

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This is the Shoulder Stretch Pose combined with Virasana Asana in
Sanskrit. It is brought to you by Yoga Online. Try the Shoulder Stretch
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This
is the Shoulder Stretch Pose combined with Virasana Asana in Sanskrit.
It is brought to you by Yoga Online. Try the Shoulder Stretch pose to
energise yo…

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Shoulder Stretch Asana -Yoga Asanas - Virasana Pose
This is the Shoulder Stretch Pose combined with Virasana Asana in…
This
is the Shoulder Stretch Pose combined with Virasana Asana in Sanskrit.
It is brought to you by Yoga Online. Try the Shoulder Stretch pose to
energise yo…

Exhale lengthen out through the fingertips & turn your palms to the roof. Inhale stretch your arms overhead.

Interlock
the fingers. Slowly exhaling turn the palmstowards the ceiling, and
with a powerful push lift up from the belly into your chest and
shoulders.

Exhale bring your hands down in a smooth continuance motion….

Now
bringing your arms interlocking behind your back with straight arms,
being careful not to roll the shoulders forward, squeezing the shoulder
blades together and opening the chest on the front of the body.

Inhale hands back to the side

Repeat 2-3 more times

Tree pose Yoga Posture

Tree pose Yoga Posture
By Yogasync.tv

Kneeling Twist Yoga Asana
Kneeing Twist Pose

Regular practice of the kneeling twist pose
will aid in your ability to rotate the spine and upper torso more
effectively, while increasing the flexibility and strength in your back
and abdominal muscles. It also massages, stimulates and rejuvenates the internal abdominal organs.

This pose is a good beginners pose and will get you ready for more advanced twists.
To view in flash - click the image below
Instruction Table
1

Come in to a position on your hands and your

knees with your knees together and your feet slightly wider than hip width apart. Your big

Keep working your right knee back and contracting your buttocks muscles in and down.

Feel your abdomen plane and hips facing straight ahead, while lifting out of the waist.

https://youtu.be/V_V4gM4ExLI
Instruction Table

Come in to a position on your hands and your

knees with your knees together and your feet slightly wider than hip width apart. Your big

Keep working your right knee back and contracting your buttocks muscles in and down.

Feel your abdomen plane and hips facing straight ahead, while lifting out of the waist.

Yoga Asanas - Warrior Pose Virabhadrasana Asana

Yoga Asanas - Warrior Pose Virabhadrasana Asana
By Yogasync.tv

Yoga Asanas - Warrior Pose Virabhadrasana Asana

Yoga Asanas - Warrior Pose Virabhadrasana Asana
By Yogasync.tv

Yoga Asanas - Warrior Pose Virabhadrasana Asana
The Warrior Pose

Virabhadra

The Warrior
pose is named after the mythic warrior-sage, Virabhadra. This
challenging pose strengthens the entire body while improving mental
capacity and self control.

It builds,
shapes and tones the entire lower body. It tones the abdominal section
and helps to prevent, reduce and eliminate back pain. The entire upper
body -front and back- is worked and doing this pose increases the
capacity of the respiratory system. To view in flash - click the image
below

Instruction Table
1

Sit on
your heals with your knees together, the tops of the feet pressing
firmly into the ground. Your head, shoulders, and hips should be in one
straight line.

Arms relaxed by the side keep your base firm by contracting your buttocks.

2

Inhale,
extending the spine upwards, exhale twist around to the right, placing
your left hand on the outside of your right thigh, turning the head in
the direction of the twist, but keeping the head and shoulders relaxed.

Take a few breaths here, keeping the stomach soft and the eyes soft.

Repeat on the other side

https://youtu.be/91MT6kmP7zo

This
is the Warrior Pose or Virabhadrasana Asana in Sanskrit. It is brought
to you by Yoga Online. Try the Warrior pose to energise yourself.
Virabhadrasana …

About This Website
youtube.com
Yoga Asanas - Warrior Pose Virabhadrasana Asana
This is the Warrior Pose or Virabhadrasana Asana in Sanskrit. It is brought…
This
is the Warrior Pose or Virabhadrasana Asana in Sanskrit. It is brought
to you by Yoga Online. Try the Warrior pose to energise yourself.
Virabhadrasana …
Instruction Table
Sit
on your heals with your knees together, the tops of the feet pressing
firmly into the ground. Your head, shoulders, and hips should be in one
straight line.

Arms relaxed by the side keep your base firm by contracting your buttocks.

Inhale,
extending the spine upwards, exhale twist around to the right, placing
your left hand on the outside of your right thigh, turning the head in
the direction of the twist, but keeping the head and shoulders relaxed.

Take a few breaths here, keeping the stomach soft and the eyes soft.

Repeat on the other side

Yoga Asanas - Triangle Pose Trikonasana Asana

Yoga Asanas - Triangle Pose Trikonasana Asana
By Yogasync.tv

Yoga Asanas - Triangle Pose Trikonasana Asana
Click here to view the Triangle pose

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

The Tree Pose

This pose
harnesses the powers of mental concentration, while allowing you to calm
the mind. It develops balance and stability, and strengthens the legs
and feet, also increasing flexibility in the hips and knees.

The tree pose
is a balance pose incorporating three lines of energy, emitting from the
centre outwards. One line proceeds down the straight leg, one line
extends up the spine and out the fingertips, and the third moves outward
through the bent knee.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

On your next
inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto your left foot. Exhale bend
the right knee, and assisting with your hand, place the sole of your
right foot as high as possible into the left inner thigh, with toes
pointing down, steady yourself, and

breathe easy.

3

Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they are in line
with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of your back.
Lift your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely focused on the
pose.

4

Now bring your
palms together in prayer position. Keeping your eyes focused on a point
in front of you, will assist your balance.

5

Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips.

Instruction Table
1

Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.

2

Jump your feet
sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your ankles are below
your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling your knees and thighs
up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet firmly into the
floor.

Visualise an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your
body, dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the
centreline.

3

Keep an
awareness of this line as you turn your right foot out to 90 degrees and
turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure the heel of your front
foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips facing forward.

If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.

4

Inhale, an as you exhale bend your right leg, pulling up with the
outside and inside of the thigh to form a right angle at the knee. Only
go as low as you can with out turning your hips off centre.

Ideally you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming
vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through
the back leg into the floor.

5

Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

Yogasync.tv
51.3K subscribers
This is the Triangle Pose or Trikonasana Asana in Sanskrit. Try the
triangle pose to energise yourself. Trikonasana is brought to you by http://yoga.org.nz.
Visit our website for more free high quality downloads . Please when
you visit the website be sure to sign for our FREE newsletter. You will
receive updates and information on the most recent released free yoga
videos, music and other cool stuff.
Category
Sports

This
is the Triangle Pose or Trikonasana Asana in Sanskrit. Try the triangle
pose to energise yourself. Trikonasana is brought to you by http://yoga.org.nz.

About This Website
youtube.com
Yoga Asanas - Triangle Pose Trikonasana Asana
This is the Triangle Pose or Trikonasana Asana in Sanskrit. Try the triangle…
This
is the Triangle Pose or Trikonasana Asana in Sanskrit. Try the triangle
pose to energise yourself. Trikonasana is brought to you by http://yoga.org.nz.

Instruction Table

Align yourself in mountain pose.
Continuing with your smooth
flowing breath

Inhale
deeply and jump your feet out landing approx 1.2-1.5m apart. your feet
need to be in line and pointing forward at right angles. Next raise your
arms to shoulder level, be sure that they are in line with each other.
Stretch your arms out from the middle of your back. Lift your chest and
look straight ahead.

Now
turn your right foot out while keeping your hips to the front, and turn
your left foot in from 90 to 70 degrees, by pivoting on your heel.
Insure your right heel is in line with the instep of the left foot.

The
kneecaps and thighs are pulling up, simultaneously pushing downward
through your feet into the floor. Inhale, extend the spine, exhale as
you bend to the right, pushing out from the hips, through the right arm…

Taking
your right hand to a comfortable position on your leg, your left arm
coming up to straight, moving down as far as possible without turning
the hips or torso. Keep the thighs firm and rolling around towards the
buttocks, moving the left hip back and open the chest.

Inhale, extend the neck and spine, exhale, turn your head to look up at your left hand.

Keep
your head, your buttocks and your heels in one straight line,not
looking down with you body, keep opening your whole body up.

Breathe easy.

Click here to view the Triangle pose

Yoga Asanas - Triangle Pose Trikonasana Asana

Yoga Asanas - Triangle Pose Trikonasana Asana
By Yogasync.tv

https://youtu.be/V_V4gM4ExLI

https://www.youtube.com/watch…

The Tree Pose

This pose
harnesses the powers of mental concentration, while allowing you to calm
the mind. It develops balance and stability, and strengthens the legs
and feet, also increasing flexibility in the hips and knees.

The tree pose
is a balance pose incorporating three lines of energy, emitting from the
centre outwards. One line proceeds down the straight leg, one line
extends up the spine and out the fingertips, and the third moves outward
through the bent knee. To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

On your next
inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto your left foot. Exhale bend
the right knee, and assisting with your hand, place the sole of your
right foot as high as possible into the left inner thigh, with toes
pointing down, steady yourself, and

breathe easy.

3

Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they are in line
with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of your back.
Lift your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely focused on the
pose.

4

Now bring your
palms together in prayer position. Keeping your eyes focused on a point
in front of you, will assist your balance.

5

Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips.

Instruction Table
1

Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.

2

Jump your feet
sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your ankles are below
your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling your knees and thighs
up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet firmly into the
floor.

Visualise an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your
body, dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the
centreline.

3

Keep an
awareness of this line as you turn your right foot out to 90 degrees and
turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure the heel of your front
foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips facing forward.

If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.

4

Inhale, an as you exhale bend your right leg, pulling up with the
outside and inside of the thigh to form a right angle at the knee. Only
go as low as you can with out turning your hips off centre.

Ideally you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming
vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through
the back leg into the floor.

5

Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.

Please Visit:

Tree Posture Yoga Posture. This pose harnesses the powers of mental
concentration, while allowing you to calm the mind. It develops balance
and stability, an…

About This Website
youtube.com
Tree pose Yoga Posture
Tree Posture Yoga Posture. This pose harnesses the powers of mental…
Tree
Posture Yoga Posture. This pose harnesses the powers of mental
concentration, while allowing you to calm the mind. It develops balance
and stability, an…

Instruction Table
Align yourself in mountain pose.
Continuing with your smooth
flowing breath

On
your next inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto your left foot.
Exhale bend the right knee, and assisting with your hand, place the sole
of your right foot as high as possible into the left inner thigh, with
toes pointing down, steady yourself, and Next
raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they are in line with
each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of your back. Lift
your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely focused on the
pose.

Now
bring your palms together in prayer position. Keeping your eyes focused
on a point in front of you, will assist your balance.

Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips.

Instruction Table

Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.
2
Jump
your feet sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your ankles
are below your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling your knees
and thighs up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet firmly
into the floor.

Visualise
an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your body,
dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the
centreline.

Keep
an awareness of this line as you turn your right foot out to 90 degrees
and turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure the heel of your front
foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips facing forward.

If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.

Inhale,
an as you exhale bend your right leg, pulling up with the outside and
inside of the thigh to form a right angle at the knee. Only go as low as
you can with out turning your hips off centre.

Ideally
you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming
vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through
the back leg into the floor.

Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.

Mountain Pose Yoga Position

Mountain Pose Yoga Position
By Yogasync.tv

Mountain Pose Yoga Position
Mountain Pose
Prayer Pose
Shrug

Mountain Yoga Pose

The Mountain Pose is one of the most important poses in yoga. It is the start and finish point of all standing poses.

When standing
in mountain pose, the mind is quiet, and the body strong and still, like
a mountain. This is a pose you can practise in your daily life,
practising to stand correctly will have a profound influence on your
physical and mental well being. To view in flash - click the image below

Please Visit:
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Yogasync.tv
51.3K subscribers
Mountain pose Yoga Posture When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet, and the body strong and still, like a mountain.

This is a Yoga pose you can practise in your daily life, practising to
stand correctly will have a profound influence on your physical and
mental well being.
Category
Education

Mountain
pose Yoga Posture When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet,
and the body strong and still, like a mountain. This is a Yoga pose you
can pra…
About This Website
youtube.com
Mountain Pose Yoga Position
Mountain pose Yoga Posture When standing in mountain pose, the mind is…
Mountain
pose Yoga Posture When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet,
and the body strong and still, like a mountain. This is a Yoga pose you
can pra…

Please Visit:

Mountain Pose Yoga Position

Mountain Pose Yoga Position
By Yogasync.tv

Extended Prayer Yoga Posture

Extended Prayer Yoga Posture
By Yogasync.tv

Extended Prayer Yoga Posture

The Prayer Pose

This pose is
simple, but very effective, and is a key movement to more advanced
poses. This pose will teach you how to push from under the shoulders and
out of the lats, the major muscle group of the back. A key movement in a
lot of yoga poses.

It strengthens
and aligns the upper body while releasing tension and increasing the
circulation to the shoulder joint, which is a ball and socket joint. It
also aids in strengthening the
abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base. To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Moutain Pose 1

2

Moutain Posture
2 Lift the kneecaps up by contracting the front thigh muscles, but not
locking the backs of the knees. Pull up with the back of the thighs, and
activate the hip and buttocks to level the pelvis.

3

Mountain Poses
Back Your hips should be directly over your knees, and your knees over
your ankles. This gives you a stable foundation and by positioning the
pelvis properly, keeps the spine healthy.

4

Now extend the
spine, by slowly inhaling, lifting up through the legs as you lift the
ribcage, opening the chest and dropping the shoulders down, extending
the neck, keeping the jaw and eyes soft.

5

Bring the shoulder blades into the back, to support the ribcage. Breathe slowly and softly.

Keep your head directly over your shoulders, and look at eye level at a point in front of you.

Instruction Table
1

Centre
yourself in mountain pose and take a few deep breaths here, breathing
down into the abdomen, continuing the breathing that you are now
familiar with.

2

Inhale, raise your arms to shoulder height and stretch them out in the opposite direction to each other

3

Now twist your arms from the shoulder and turning your palms upwards. Keep the body in a nice strong upright position

4

Bring your arms
out in front of you, pushing your elbows firmly together and your
fingers extending away from you, while focusing on pulling your shoulder
blades together..

5

Continue squeezing the elbows together as you bring your palms together

6

Now bend at the
elbow and take the forearms to vertical. Keep pressing firmly with the
palms and the elbows as you breathe the arms upwards. With each exhale
moving slightly higher. Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This movement will
teach you how to push from under the shoulders and out of the lats, the
major muscle group of the back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses.
This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a key
movement to more advanced poses.

https://youtu.be/t9TPzR6-Kmc

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Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This movement will teach you how to push
from under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle group of
the back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses. This pose is simple,
but very effective, and is a key movement to more advanced poses.
Category
Education

Shoulder
opener Yoga Posture. This movement will teach you how to push from
under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle group of the
back. A ke…

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Extended Prayer Yoga Posture
Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This movement will teach you how to…
Shoulder
opener Yoga Posture. This movement will teach you how to push from
under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle group of the
back. A ke…

Instruction Table
Mountain Pose 1
2
Mountain Posture 2
Lift
the kneecaps up by contracting the front thigh muscles, but not locking
the backs of the knees. Pull up with the back of the thighs, and
activate the hip and buttocks to level the pelvis.
Mountain Poses Back
Your
hips should be directly over your knees, and your knees over your
ankles. This gives you a stable foundation and by positioning the pelvis
properly, keeps the spine healthy.
4
Now
extend the spine, by slowly inhaling, lifting up through the legs as
you lift the ribcage, opening the chest and dropping the shoulders down,
extending the neck, keeping the jaw and eyes soft.

5

Bring the shoulder blades into the back, to support the ribcage. Breathe slowly and softly.
Keep your head directly over your shoulders, and look at eye level at a point in front of you.

Instruction Table

Centre
yourself in mountain pose and take a few deep breaths here, breathing
down into the abdomen, continuing the breathing that you are now
familiar with.

2

Inhale, raise your arms to shoulder height and stretch them out in the opposite direction to each other

3

Now twist your arms from the shoulder and turning your palms upwards. Keep the body in a nice strong upright position

4

Bring
your arms out in front of you, pushing your elbows firmly together and
your fingers extending away from you, while focusing on pulling your
shoulder blades together..

5

Continue squeezing the elbows together as you bring your palms together

6

Now
bend at the elbow and take the forearms to vertical. Keep pressing
firmly with the palms and the elbows as you breathe the arms upwards.
With each exhale moving slightly higher.

Shoulder
opener Yoga Posture. This movement will teach you how to push from
under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle group of the
back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses. This pose is simple, but
very effective, and is a key movement to more advanced poses.

Yoga Shoulder rotation

Yoga Shoulder rotation
By Yogasync.tv

Yoga Shoulder rotation
The Shoulder Shrug

The shoulder rotation is another pose which can be practiced anywhere and at any time.

It strengthens
and aligns the shoulder region while releasing tension and increasing
the circulation to the shoulder joint, which is a ball and socket joint.
It also aids in strengthening the abdominal and lumber region as you
look to form a solid base. To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Align yourself in mountain pose. Continuing with your smoot flowing breath

2

As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.

3

As you exhale, rotate the shoulders around by pushing up out of the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them in a full circle.

4

Back down into mountain pose

Repeat 3 more times

https://youtu.be/SzWxM_W4DNA
Lying Twist
Downward Dog
Seated Forward Bend

The Lying Basic Twist

Doing this pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

The lying twist
is another pose which is very simple yet extremely effective. This pose
is soothing to the spine and neck, and warms and frees the lower back
and hips and it also improves digestion and assists in toxin
elimination. To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come to a
position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to the side and
place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.

Move your
shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the back and
shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.

2

Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.

3

Inhale,
keeping your knees and ankles together, Exhale, rolling your knees to
the right. Focus on keeping your arms pressing out wards and your
shoulders pushing firmly into the ground. You may feel or hear your
spine lengthening as it extends into the correct alignment.

Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,

4

Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.

Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side

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The Downward Facing Dog

Adhomukha Svanasana

The downward
yoga pose is named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog stretching
itself out. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness
in the legs while strengthening and shaping the upper body. Dog pose
Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only
one posture try this one.

Holding this
pose for a minute or longer will stimulate and restore energy levels if
you are tired. Regular practice of this pose rejuvenates the entire body
and gently stimulates your nervous system.

Instruction Table
Come
to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to the side
and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.

Move your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the
back and shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.

2

Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.

3

Inhale,
keeping your knees and ankles together, Exhale, rolling your knees to
the right. Focus on keeping your arms pressing out wards and your
shoulders pushing firmly into the ground. You may feel or hear your
spine lengthening as it extends into the correct alignment.
Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,
4
Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.

Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side

Dog pose Yoga Posture

Dog pose Yoga Posture
By Yogasync.tv

Dog pose Yoga Posture
The Downward Facing Dog

Adhomukha Svanasana

The downward
yoga pose is named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog stretching
itself out. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness
in the legs while strengthening and shaping the upper body. Dog pose
Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only
one posture try this one.

Holding this
pose for a minute or longer will stimulate and restore energy levels if
you are tired. Regular practice of this pose rejuvenates the entire body
and gently stimulates your nervous system.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come up onto
your hands and knees with your knees hip width apart and the hands
shoulder width apart, your fingers wide pressing firmly into the floor.

2

Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.

3

As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.

4

Now push the floor away from you hands, positioning your body like an
inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to your shoulders
to the hips. Straight arms and straight legs.

As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.

Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.

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Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try this one.
Category
Education

Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try this one.
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Dog pose Yoga Posture
Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for…
Dog pose Yoga Posture . One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try this one.

Instruction Table
1
Come
up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip width apart and the
hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide pressing firmly into the
floor.
2
Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.
3
As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.
4
Now
push the floor away from you hands, positioning your body like an
inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to your shoulders
to the hips. Straight arms and

straight legs.
As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.
Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.
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Dog pose Yoga Posture

Dog pose Yoga Posture
By Yogasync.tv

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
siting forward bend
The Seated Forward Bend

Paschimottanasana

The purpose of
this pose is to give the entire back of your body a very complete
stretch from the heels to the head. It is excellent for posture
improvement and stimulates the internal organs as
well.

It adds in
improved mental concentration and endurance and helps to control and
calm the mind. It relieves compression while increasing the elasticity
of the spine, it also strengthens and stretches the hamstrings.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you.

Move the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on
the top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of
your legs.
2

Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.

Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.

Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you.

Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.
3

Now take your
strap around both feet. The strap`s purpose is to keep the spine
straight. This is very important. Be aware the head is an extension of
the spine, so keep it aligned accordingly.

Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.
4

On your next exhale; come down the belt further while
maintaining the extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of
you will be able to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and
continuously. Don’t pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper
body.

Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.
5

Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, as you lengthen,
exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in your
vertebrae.

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siting forward bend

siting forward bend
By Yogasync.tv

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siting forward bend Yoga Asana
Category
Education

siting forward bend Yoga Asana

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siting forward bend
siting forward bend Yoga Asana
siting forward bend Yoga Asana

siting forward bend Yoga Asana

Instruction Table
1
Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you.

Move
the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the
top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your
legs.

2
Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.
Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.
Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you.
Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.

3

Now take your strap around both feet. The strap`s purpose is to keep the spine straight. This is very important.
Be aware the head is an extension of the spine, so keep it aligned accordingly.

Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.

4
On
your next exhale; come down the belt further while maintaining the
extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of you will be able
to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and continuously. Don’t
pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper body.

Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.5

5

Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, a you lengthen, exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in
your vertebrae.

https://youtu.be/MhotDI-dqR

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51.3K subscribers
Locus Yoga Posture
Category
Education

Locus Yoga Posture
image.jpeg
About This Website
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locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture
Locus Yoga Posture

Instruction Table

1
Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with
your arms along side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your
knees and ankles together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and
down. Push your palms into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards,
contract the buttocks, and press the hips and pubis firmly into the
floor.
2
On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.

Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.

3

Extend the front of your body as you pull
the shoulder blades together, raising the head, the arms, and upper
torso away from the floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of
the chest and pushing down the lines of the arms.

Keep the legs working strongly.

bridgepose

bridgepose
By Yogasync.tv

locus Yoga Posture

locus Yoga Posture
By Yogasync.tv

The Bridge Pose

The Bridge Pose is
a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps to promote a
healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and buttock muscles.
It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and
organs.

It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks, Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel.
Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.
2
Inhale, and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly
into the floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the
shoulders and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are
comfortable with.
Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.

3
Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them
contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.
This pose stretches the whole front of the body, and
brings mobility to the spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of
the ribcage and chest area.

https://youtu.be/dIvKigXK1mU
Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture

The Extended Child’s Pose / Garbhasana

The Childs Yoga pose when
practiced regularly is very beneficial to your entire mind and body. It
helps to release the pressure on the spine while providing an entire
stretch through the upper body to the fingertips. It also aids in
strengthening and stretching the insides of the legs while massaging the
internal organs.

Breathing will becomes more efficient and your mind
will become clear. It also aids in improved mental processes and helps
to rejuvenate and energize the entire being.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

2

Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.

3

Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend forward, continue lifting
out of the hips keeping your legs strong and your base nice and firm,
looking forward to begin with. Keep the extension on the stomach, which
will help keep your back flat protecting it.

Take a few breaths here.

4

Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.

If you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on
your knees and keep slowly working down your legs, working with your
body, not against it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

5

Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.

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Yogasync.tv
51.3K subscribers
Childs Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier
every time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind.
Continue with your slow smooth breathing as you continue to stretch the
inner thigh muscles.
Category
Education

Childs
Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every
time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind. Continue
with your…

image.jpeg
About This Website

youtube.com
Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture
Childs Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every…

Childs
Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every
time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind. Continue
with your…

Instruction Table
1
Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

2
Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.
3
Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend
forward, continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and
your base nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the
extension on the stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting
it.
Take a few breaths here.
4
Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.

If you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees
and keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not
against it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

5

Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.

Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.

2

Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands
out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the
fingertips.

4

Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it
forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.
Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the slow controlled breathing.

Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture

Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture
By Yogasync.tv

https://youtu.be/dIvKigXK1mU
Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture

The Extended Child’s Pose / Garbhasana

The Childs Yoga pose when
practiced regularly is very beneficial to your entire mind and body. It
helps to release the pressure on the spine while providing an entire
stretch through the upper body to the fingertips. It also aids in
strengthening and stretching the insides of the legs while massaging the
internal organs.

Breathing will becomes more efficient and your mind
will become clear. It also aids in improved mental processes and helps
to rejuvenate and energize the entire being.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

2

Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.

3

Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend forward, continue lifting
out of the hips keeping your legs strong and your base nice and firm,
looking forward to begin with. Keep the extension on the stomach, which
will help keep your back flat protecting it.

Take a few breaths here.

4

Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.

If you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on
your knees and keep slowly working down your legs, working with your
body, not against it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

5

Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.

Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch…

Yogasync.tv
51.3K subscribers
Childs Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier
every time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind.
Continue with your slow smooth breathing as you continue to stretch the
inner thigh muscles.
Category
Education

Childs
Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every
time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind. Continue
with your…

image.jpeg
About This Website

youtube.com
Childs Yoga Pose Beginners Yoga Posture
Childs Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every…

Childs
Pose Yoga Stretch. This Beginners Yoga Posture will get easier every
time you work with it as it rejuvenates and quietens the mind. Continue
with your…

Instruction Table
1
Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

2
Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.
3
Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend
forward, continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and
your base nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the
extension on the stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting
it.
Take a few breaths here.
4
Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.

If you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees
and keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not
against it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

5

Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.

Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.

2

Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands
out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the
fingertips.

4

Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it
forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.
Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the slow controlled breathing.

https://youtu.be/WrA5mN-MW5U
Instruction Table
1
Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

2
Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.
3
Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend
forward, continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and
your base nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the
extension on the stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting
it.
Take a few breaths here.
4
Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.

If you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees
and keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not
against it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

5

Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.

Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.

2

Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands
out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the
fingertips.

4

Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it
forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.
Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the slow controlled breathing.

Please Visit:

boat pose

boat pose
By Yogasync.tv

Yoga Posture wide legstanding forward bend
Yoga Posture wide legstanding forward bend

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.
Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.

2

Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.

3

Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.
Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together.

Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with

4

Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,

opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This

will help your stability. Continue with the controlled breathing.

Feel the stimulation of the entire abdominal region, as you hold this pose for a few more breaths.

Advanced Variation of The Boat

Now bring your legs up to straight. Continue to keep your focus on that point in front of you.

Continue with the controlled breathing.

toes & little toes pressing firmly into the floor Push
back with your hands & sit between your buttocks on the floor, make
sure you roll your calf muscles out wards soyour not sitting on them. Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides. Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders down.

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMJ9×8STzfA&feature=player_embedded

wide legstanding forward bend

wide legstanding forward bend
By Yogasync.tv

https://youtu.be/iMJ9×8STzfA

Yoga Posture wide legstanding forward bend
Yoga Posture wide legstanding forward bend

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.
Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.

2

Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.

3

Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.
Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together.

Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with

4

Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,

opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This

will help your stability. Continue with the controlled breathing.

Feel the stimulation of the entire abdominal region, as you hold this pose for a few more breaths.

Advanced Variation of The Boat

Now bring your legs up to straight. Continue to keep your focus on that point in front of you.

Continue with the controlled breathing.

toes & little toes pressing firmly into the floor Push
back with your hands & sit between your buttocks on the floor, make
sure you roll your calf muscles out wards soyour not sitting on them. Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides. Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders

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LESSON 4006 Sun 20 Jun 2021 Buddhist Patanjali Yogic Mindful Postures including Swimming
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 6:39 pm

LESSON 4006 Sun 20 Jun 2021

Buddhist Patanjali Yogic Mindful Postures including Swimming

https://youtu.be/KpOuDnE1BS8

21-6-2021

Buddhist Patanjali Yogic Mindful Postures including Swimming

The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation.

Translation
and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin -
Theravada Practice Blog” (http://theravadin.wordpress.com/).

We consider here the Yoga Suttas of Patanjali, a classical text and revered in Hinduism, dated at approx. 200 BC and compared its semantics and vocabulary to Buddhist canonical texts.

In summary, this comparison is quite obvious that the author of Yoga Sutta was highly influenced by Buddhist philosophy and meditation practice,possibly contemporaneously to the author.

Moreover, it appears that a student of Buddhist canonical texts may in fact be more easily understood than the Yoga Sutta a Hindu practitioner with no
other previous reference parameter practical and philosophical.

We do not consider comments here later Hindu / Brahman existing this text, some of which seem to avoid (or ignore) the original references to Buddhism in this text.

The proximity of the Yoga Sutta-style, vocabulary, and subject to canonical texts in Pali could also mean simply that Patanjali - or whoever it is that inspired his writings - had practiced meditation from a Buddhist
contemplative community, a community of monks for a time before returning to Brahmanism and then the movement would have rephrased his experience in order to add a divine touch to your experience, making substantial use of technical terms of Buddhist meditation, as originally framed or developed by the Buddha for the purpose of contemplative practice. But this would be pure speculati, because there is so far no studies or historical finding that supports this understanding.

It is also possible, even likely, that the Buddhist meditation had so broadly permeated the practice Hindu / Brahman at the time (after years of a strong cultural influence began with Buddhist proselytism promoted
by Ashoka the Buddhist Sangha in his reign and Consolidation of Prabuddha Bharat), that these technical terms as well as descriptions of practice of jhana / dhyana (meditative absorptions) have it built into common knowledge at the point of no longer sounding particularly Buddhists. Something similar to what happens today with the adoption of the ideas of
“Nibbana” and “Kamma” in Western culture, in Christian countries.

In particular, if the Yoga Sutta is read in one continuous line is amazing how close the text is the thoughts and topics about samadhi, jhana meditation and Samatha (concentration) as defined in the ancient texts
in Pali Buddhist.

For a first analysis, an l overview. Look at the “Ashtanga Yoga” or the “Eightfold Path of Yoga” (sic) we are certainly inclined to think the definition of the central Buddha of the
Noble Eightfold Path.

Then compare these two “paths to reach the samadhi.”
First what is in the Yoga Sutta of Patanjali:

And the reason is as follows, in summary: To maintain the object of meditation in mind you need to remember it. Remember here that means you have to hold, keep in mind, your object of concentration.

This is exactly what makes the faculty of memory, usually being pushed away by the impressions with new information by the six senses, which, if penetrated, would result in more or less a wild spin.

If you are able to sustain their concentration on one point however - or even as much as you can keep it, one of the laws of functioning of the mind that the Buddha rediscovered and explained in detail that this
rebate is “artificial” senses the support and focus on a particular
mental object equivalent to a minor sensory stimulus.

As a result of mental calmness and happiness (piti) and happiness index (sukha) will arise and show signs of the primeirs a stronger concentration - these being two of the five factors of meditative
absorption (jhana), along with (i) directed thought (vitakka) (ii)
sustained (Vicara) and (iii) equanimity (Upekkha).

This is also the reason why is quite logical that samma sati, mindfulness, has to come before samma samadhi, full concentration in the Noble
Eightfold Path of Buddhism - or, as shown in this case in the Yoga
Sutta, “Dharana” would be the stage immediately prior to (Delivering the Samadhi.”

In this case the Yoga Sutra throws much light on the original meaning as understood in the early centuries of Buddhist practice and can help us
reach a more precise understanding of what “samma sati, right mindfulness, originally meant or pointed. (In Theravadin blog post is a rather plain and that shows how sati yoniso manasikara are coming in practical terms, check this link ).

On the opposite side, or better, understanding it as a byproduct of the practice of sati is no other term that would best be described as “mindfulness.” The Pali term is sampajaññā -
which literally means “next-consideration”, eg, be well aware of when performing an action, then a “clear understanding” of what it does - but this activity is a result of sati, as having the mind fixed on an object leads to a refined consciousness that arises when during the next
and keep the mind of an object, creating a clear understanding of the few sensory impressions that may enter. According to this concept, mindfulness would be a result of sati and not the practice of sati in itself!

But again, both activities are happening almost simultaneously, even if not
in the same order and then the current use of the term translated can be done - at the same time a fine distinction, however, has its benefits. You can not keep an object from the
standpoint of mind without which would create or develop mindfulness in mind - but (unfortunately!) you may be aware of all your actions that
you work without the right concentration - as when eat an ice cream, in seeking the sensual pleasure, an example of improper care. This being the fact that unfortunately idealize the interpretations of some Westerners who want to say “Buddhist”. There
is a difference between deliberately let himself be led by sense impressions by focusing on their physical pleasures and enhancing / supporting raga (desire) and nandi (joy) - and, from the perspective of
Gotama Buddha, put his feet on the ground using the mindful memory and thus experiencing a more refined awareness of trying to get it off the shaft so that it results in a greater mindfulness, in the culmination of his experience flows into total equanimity in the face of both
pleasurable and painful sensations.

Thus, then, we must understand as vipassanā is no way a synonym for mindfulness (sati) but something that springs from the combination of all these factors especially the last two, samma sati (mindfulness) and
samma samadhi (right concentration) applied to the relentless observation of what appears to be in front of (yathabhuta).

You could say, vipassanā is a name for the Buddhist practice of sati associated samadhi directed to the view anicca / anatta / dukkha (ie, generating the wisdom of the vision of these three features) in the processes of the six senses, including any mental activity. Thus, one will find the term vipassanā but the idea of sati in the Yoga Sutra, Buddhist texts mention as the first term clearly having
samādhi as just the beginning of the journey to insight and access - for example aniccanupassana .
Finish here the parenthesis. Suffice 
to say that any particular reference to the Buddhist philosophy citing anicca antta or point to the goal of Nibbana, a philosophical proposition to which the system of Yoga certainly does not refer.
In essence the school of Yoga can be placed below the postures eternalists. So,
while it definitely does need to produce sati-samadhi, definitely does not need to understand is samadhi anicca, dukkha and anatta - that does not sound very compatible with the worldview of a eternalistic. Before
this, all spiritual approach arise due to the attempt to interpret
Samadhi Yoga Sutra as marriage or at least as close as you can get from a “God”, a “Lord.” Something that sounds quite natural in the end to a theist - such as an Evangelical Christian would never
interpret the reduction of its focus on mental object unique sensual ecstasy and consequently a mere effect of a psychological technique, but
he would label it “the divine sign of God touching him. “ It
is for this reason that, according to the Buddha Dhamma, in fact in
most situations we are inclined to be led by the plots of our senses, including the mental impressions / thoughts / feelings / perceptions -
and therefore tend to limit ourselves to go beyond such experiences also
 distorted the merger would allow access to insight and liberation.

Returning to the context of comparison with the Christian interpretation of this ecstasy, in short what Patanjali is facing such a theistic interpretation sounds like someone moving a large portion of vocabulary
and terminology for the New Testament, which gives this ring a Buddhist.

The funny thing is that this is exactly how many of the contemporary New Age books are written - an amalgam of the terms of Western Spirituality /
Christian trying to express a view east. So one can imagine that the situation in India was similar to that when the Yoga Sutta was written addressing the Buddhist philosophy of that era.

The remaining Buddhist philosophy with his particular terminology established by the Buddha himself would have become so pervasive in
religious thought, so to make seemingly trusted what was written on meditation was a need to borrow or rely on several of these Buddhist concepts predominant. This had largely been done or even conscious, as most New Age authors present not even reflect the content of their texts but about the message you want to spend.

Thus, below is done in a way a translation - or rather a translation of a transliteration given the proximity between languages - as was done with
the text of the Yoga Sutra in Sanskrit brought back to Pāli. Similar to what has been done this Sutra ( Theravadin available on the blog, in English on this link ), the exercise helps us see how the same text would sound the Pāli language, opening then find parallels in ancient Buddhist texts, the suttas.
However, having said all that, pragmatism invoked by the text (which is what makes it so valuable) also indicates much more than a simple textual
exploration. As you read this you can not discern the notion, especially since the position of a meditator concentration
of whoever has written or inspired by this text, at some point personally experienced jhana and samadhi and wanted to convey his experience making use a rich language Buddhist meditation on the same
interpretation being directed to an audience Brahman / proto-Hindu India 200 BC.

Anyway, check by itself - the pauses between sets of paragraphs labeled in bold
are the author / translator and some important technical terms

Buddhists were deployed, with additional comments made in italics:

Patañjalino yogasuttaṃ (Part I of IV)

Introduction

atha yogānusāsanaṃ | | 1 | |

And now a statement about the European Union (Yoga)
[1] Read yourself to be the object of meditation, or an instruction (anusāsana) on the meditative practice (yoga).

yogo-citta-vatta nirodho | | 2 | |

The Union (Yogo) is the extinction of the movement of the mind

[2] in this passage denotes vatta turbulence, swirl, activity - literally wandering, circling, confused. In
this context broadly means “meditation is (…) a stop to the busy mind,” which is very active and its activity suggests a walk in circles. Probably the most direct (and correct) translation.

Tada ditthi (muni) svarūpe’avaṭṭhānaṃ | | 3 | |

(Only) then he who sees is allowed (to be) in (his) true nature.

[3]
In the Pāli language Drist the word does not exist, and it would be something like subsitituída by Muni, which has the same meaning -
,except, of course, the fact that “he who sees” further points in
this,case the seeing process. Here was however used the term Pāli ditthi so as to maintain the link with the term semantic ditthi. The alternate translation is then: “So lets see who (or have the opportunity - avaṭṭhāna) of being in their true and natural.”

Sarup-vatta itaritaraṃ | | 4 | |
(Otherwise) at other times we become (equal) to this activity (of mind).

Challenges

vatta Panza kilesa akilesā ca ca | | 5 | |

Activities (Mental) are five, some non-contaminating other contaminants
pamanes-vipariyesa-vikappa-Nidda-sati | | 6 | |

i) Experience (Evident-Measurement), ii) misperception (Illusion), iii) Intentional Thinking / Willing, iv) Sleep / Numbness, v) Memory /
Mindfulness.
i) pamanes, experience or clear-measurement

Paccakkh’ānumān’āgamā honte pamāṇāni | | 7 | |

What one sees and looks directly (paccakha), taking as a reference - it’s called experience.

[7] Literally: “What comes through direct visualization and measurement is called the experience”

ii) Vipariyesa, misperception or illusion

Micca vipariyeso-Nanam atad-rūpa-patiṭṭhitaṃ | | 8 | |
Illusion is the wrong understanding, based on something (lit. “one way”) that is not really.

iii) Vikappa, Thought Intentional / Keen

Saddam-ñāṇānupattī vatthu-Sunna vikappo | | 9 | |
Intentional Thinking / Willing is any way of understanding and unfounded assertion
(ie the internal speech, voltiva, partial and willful, based on mental speculation).
[9]
Alternative translation: “Thinking is cognition without a sound object / cause noise (vatthu).Think about it, thoughts are no more than sounds,
silent babble that passes through our being.

iv) Nidda, Sleep / Numbness

abhava-paccay’-ārammaṇā vatta Nidda | | 10 |
Mental activity in the absence of mental objects is called Sleep / Torpor.
v) Sati, the Memory / Mindfulness

Anubhuti-visayāsammosā sati | | 11 | |

Not to be confused (or not lose) the object (sensory) previously experienced is called Memory / Mindfulness.
Abhyasa-virāgehi Tesam nirodho | | 12 | |
The extinction of these [activities] comes from the practice of detachment / cessation of passions (turning)
[12] We have here the words turn and nirodha in the same sentence! It can not be more Buddhist canon than this! Interestingly, however, is the current use and non-metaphysical terms of this stretch. They are applied in a simple process of meditation, in particular the process of concentration meditation. This can not go unnoticed and goes directly in line with readings jhanic cultivation practices in Buddhism

♦ The Training ♦

tatra-tiṭṭha yatano abhyasi | | 13 |
The practice’s commitment to non-movement (ie, become mentally property (at
the same time it parmanece fluid - an excellent description for the
concentration!)

so-Kala-pana Dīgha nirantara-sakkār’āsevito dalhia-bhumi | | 14 | |

Mast this (practice) must be based firmly in a long and careful exercise [excellent point here!]
[14]
This goes in line with what the author wrote the medieval Pali
subcomentários the volume of the Digha Nikaya, where also we find the combination of the terms and dalhia bhumi - “firmness” and
“establishment” - in the same sentence, denoting ” firm establishment
diṭṭhānusavika-visaya-vitaṇhāya Vasik-Sannes viraga | | 15 |
Detachment is the mastery (VASI-kara) of perception, the dropping of the seat (vitaṇhā) by the following (anu-savika, lit.’s Subsequent flow) experience a prey to view.

parama-tam Puris akkhātā guṇa-vitaṇhaṃ | | 16 | |

This is the climax: the abandonment of the current headquarters of the senses, based on personal revelation / knowledge of self.

[16] Here we turned a Brahman, is this approach that allows the soul to win the seat / attachment, Tanh. And this short sentence has much to offer! At
that moment in history, Patanjali was so convinced of the Buddhist goal of “opening up the attachment, the seat stop,” which boils down to vitaṇhā term he uses. However,
it does not give up without a soul which its theistic philosophy simply collapses and nothing in the text would make it distinguishable from a
treatise on the Buddha Dhamma. Thus, mounted on a meditative Buddhist terminology and guidelines in the
conversation he introduces the term “Puris, which can be read as” soul, “saying that the more you get closer to its” intrinsic nature “(svarūpa) and inner body “Puri, or soul, you become able to stop itself this seat/ attachment. Interesting.
♦ Realization - Jhana / Dhyanas
The first jhana / Dhyāna

vitakka-vicar-Anand-Asmita rūp’ānugamā sampajaññatā | | 17 | |

This is the alertness (sampajañña) from (the) (Kingdom of) form: a
self-directed thought-based consciousness, which remains (to this) and inner happiness.
[17] Here we describe an almost identical description of the first jhana used time and again by the Buddha in Pali texts ( see this example ). Indeed, we have a very beautiful description of the first jhana as a form of
sampajaññatā (fully aware of what is happening), after the plan of the form (the theme of our meditation is a mental form) and a combined happiness at the thought we are trying to grasp what itself could be described as the pure experience of “I am” (Asmita - the term is being
used more loosely in place as would suttas).

However, the announcement vitakka / vicara the first mention of meditative absorption is a clear reference to the origin of Buddhist Yoga Sutra. Interesting also is the connection that is being done now with l sampajaññatā: Think of everything we have said before about sati. If sati is simply the seizure of an object (the paṭṭhāna of sati, so to speak), so it’s interesting to see how sampajaññā this case, is identified with the state of the first jhana. Could this mean that when the Buddha mentions these two texts in Pali, which implicitly means samatha-vipassana?

This is not at all a strange idea, like many vipassana meditators, focusing on objects will be much more subtle quickly show signs of the first jhana. Could it be then that the term “sampajaññatā” was seen as the first result of a concentrated mind?

In any case, experience will teach you very quickly that when you try to hold an object in your mind, your awareness of what happens at this time will increase dramatically, simply due to the fact that his effort to keep the object is under constant danger during the siege of sense.

saw-Paticca Abhyasa-anno-pubbo saṃkhāraseso | | 18 |

(This accomplishment) is based on detachment and previously applied for any subsequent activities.

bhava-Paticca videha-prakriti-layana | | 19 | |

(For example) Based on this existence and the characteristics of self

saddha-viriya-sati-samadhi-paññā-pubbaka itaresam | | 20 | |
This flower gives himself (based on these qualities) of conviction (saddha), energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom
(paññā) [20] The Buddha mentions these five factors when he was training arupa jhana under his previous two teachers. He also mentions how crucial factors when striving for enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. Later, during his years of teaching, he gave the name of “powers” (bullet) and
explained that, if perfected, would lead to enlightenment.

Tibba-saṃvegānām āsanno | | 21 | |
(For those) with a firm determination reached (this accomplishment, the first Dhyana / jhana).
♦ Advancing in jhana, tips and tricks. ♦

Mudu-majjhim’ādhi-mattatā tato’pi Visions | | 22 | |

There is also a differentiation between (achievement) lower, middle and high

Issar paṇidhānā-go | | 23 | |

Or based on devotion (devotion) to a Lord (a master of meditation).

kilesa-kamma-vipākāsayā aparāmissā Puris-visions’ Issar | | 24 | |

The Lord (the Master) that is no longer influenced by the outcome kammic impurities and past desires.

[24]
Besides the question whether the term “Issar” found here could be read as merely referring to a master of meditation (which fits perfectly into the discussion until verse 27, where it starts to not fit any more) is
ikely discussion, including on-line translation of the Yoga Sutra by Geshe Michael Roach . The
principle can be interpreted so as to skeptics recalling the first
sutta MN seemed more logical to assume Issar was first used to designate “the Lord” (ie your God).

But with a little more research found that the term Issar Theragatha us are used to designate the “master”. Interesting is also the word in Pali āsayih replaced simple wish / desire - “Asa.” But
“almost” sounds like “Asava” that would fit even better in the context of kamma and vipaka Asava.But the idea is very specific (”that which
flows within you, taking it) and may or may not be what was meant in this passage.
tatra-niratisayaṃ sabbaññatā bījaṃ | | 25 | |

It is this that lies the seed of omniscience unmatched.

sa pubbesam api guru kālen’ānavacchedanā | | 26 | |
This Master from the beginning never abandoned him or abandon

[26] Literally, “not” drop “(an + evaluation + chedana), or abandon, even for a time (short) (Kalena)

tassa vācako Panavia | | 27 | |

His Word is the breath and the clamor of living

[27] On the panavah term, which can be interpreted as “om” in Hindu literature. It
all depends if we read verses 24-27 as involving “Issar” to mean “God” or simply refer to consider meditation master of meditation you learn. If
you do a search in the Tipitaka, you see that when the Buddha used the term was to refer to teachers (see for example Theragatha)

taj-tad-japp attha-bhavana | | 28 | |

Praying in unison with this, this is the goal of meditation

touch-pratyak cetanādhigamo’pi antarāyābhāvo ca | | 29 | |
So if the mind itself and carries it away all obstacles / hazards:

Vyadha-ṭṭhāna-samsaya-pamādālayāvirati-bhrānti-dassanā’laddhabhūmikatvā’navatthitatāni

Diseases, skeptical questions, be moved to laziness of attachment, wrong view of
things, not meditative placements, or not yet firmly established in these.

citta-vikkhepā te’ntarāyā | | 30 | |

These are the causes of mental distractions (they fall due).

dukkha-domanass’aṅgam ejayatv’assāsa-Passaseo vikkhepa-saha-Bhuvah | | 31 | |

The physical and mental pain arises in the body, the shaking of the inhale and exhale conjução occur with such distractions.

[31] Here dukkha and Domanassam mentioned. They also appear in the definition of the Buddha’s four jhana, but in a different direction. The problem described here meditative seems out of place and looks as if someone had to fit these words here. Also the inhale and exhale clearly has an important role in that they cease to exist (nirodha) so subjective to the practitioner in the fourth jhana. It is strange that all this is on the list, but is presented in a very different interpretation.

But even this is a samadhi with seed / question.
Nirvicārā-visārad’ajjhatta-pasado | | 47 | |
Happiness is attained with the inner conviction without regard to the concentration already (vicara, which is paired with vitakka) itaṃbharā paññā tatra | | 48 | |
In this way, the truth is filled with wisdom.

sut’ānumāna paññāyā-anna-visaya vises’atthatā | | 49 |
And this wisdom is of a different kind of knowledge acquired through learning.

taj-jo-saṃkhāro’ñña Samkhara-paṭibaddhī | | 50 | |

Such activity (meditative and induced) obstructs born (all) other activities.

tassāpi nirodha Sabba-nirodha nibbījo samādhi | | 51 | |

With the extinction of it all is also stopped - and this is the root-without-samadhi (samadhi-unborn)
[51]
This last sentence sounds more like a reporter who, after being invited to a very important meeting, is eager to share what he heard from relevant sources.

Here we are given a definition, in fact, the definition of the Buddha
“phalasamāpatti” - a state of jhana, which can only happen after someone has had a realization that the particular insight nirvanic, giving
youaccess to that which is samadhi no “seeds” (nibbīja).

This whole concept fits nicely into a row of theistic argument, and no
attempt is being made here in the final set of samadhi, to explain it.

Did the Buddhists speak of this matter so that among the philosophical circles “mainstream” of the time it was automatically understood as “the highest you can get,” and the argument was so powerful that, despite not fit in the school already thinking of the times (an ancient Hinduism) was considered indisputable?

Hard to say. This argument appears in the Sutta Ratanasutta Nipata.Vemos this final state, without seeds, as something that would target when trying to “Sanna-vedayita-nirodha” cessation of perception and feeling, a realization of the Buddha described as possible Arahants Anagami for that, after entering the eighth jhana sequentially finally leave theactivity more subtle (the sankhara) back.

Patanjali Yoga viracite-iti
samadhi sutta paṭhamo-pated | | |

This is the first chapter on the Samadhi Yoga Sutra of Patanjali

Source for adaptation and translation http://theravadin.wordpress.com/2010/08/28/the-yoga-sutra-a-handbook-on-buddhist-meditation/

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Posted by Dhammarakkhittas at 15:31

Labels: ashtanga yoga , Brahmanism , Buddha , Buddhism , ancient Buddhism , dharma , dhyana ,Hinduism , jhana , patanjali , Sangha , Theravada , yoga , Yogasutra

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Conscious breathing
http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm
Main Page

Welcome to our yoga postures section. Here you will find yoga moves that are broken down to the bare basics with colour photos to match. We also
have state of the art flash yoga animation technology that you can use to view these moves in full screen size, full colour and with full instruction.

Yogic exercises cater to the needs of each individual according to his or her specific needs and physical condition. They involve vertical,
horizontal, and cyclical movements, which provide energy to the system
by directing the blood supply to the areas of the body which need it most.

In yoga, each cell is observed, attended to, and provided with a fresh supply of blood, allowing it to function smoothly. The mind is naturally active and dynamic, while the innerself is luminous. In this section we will give you plenty of yoga images and instruction. Breathing Pose

The simple act of learning to control the breath has a number of beneficial effects on your wellbeing, ranging from increasing your energy, to improved relaxation into sleep. It purifies the body by flushing away the gaseous by products of metabolism and will also help
you to remain calm in the face of the challenges that we encounter in our everyday lives.

Control of the breath is an essential element in the art of yoga. When bringing the air in to the abdomen, do not to puff the stomach out, but pull the air into it while extending the inside wall. By harnessing the power of the breath the mind can be stilled and can be prepared for your
Yoga practice Instruction Table Breathing Basic

1

Sit in a simple cross-legged position on the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded blanket under your buttocks. Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen

Inhale slowly through the nose feeling the breath filling the abdomen, in IL bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then the upper chest.

Exhaling softly feeling the breath leave the abdomen first, then the
ribs and lastly the upper chest. Observe the space at the end of the exhale

2

Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm. Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.

Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama (Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .
Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.
Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .
Please visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch…
quarktechinc
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Before starting the Asanas (as-anas) or the yogic postures, it is vital that you start with the practice of Pranayama (praa-na-yaa-ma) or the yogic breathing exercises.

And what is Yogic Breathing (Pranayama)

Pranayama is loosely translated as prana (pra-aana) or breathe control🤓🤓🤓
Breathing affects our state of mind. It can make us excited or calm,
tense or relaxed. It can make our thinking confused or clear. In the
ancient yogic tradition, air is the primary source of life force, a
psycho-physio-spiritual force that permeates the universe. Yogicbreathing is used in yoga as a separate practice to help clear and
cleanse the body and mind. It oxygenates the lungs by getting rid of
enormous quantity of carbon dioxide and other toxic gases. It is also
used in preparation for asana, the practice of yogic postures and
meditation, to help maximize the benefits of the practice, and focus the
mind.

Would you like to know the more details about this? Please refer the fallowing link.
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06/18/21
LESSON 4005 Sat 19 Jun 2021 Under *’Mission 2021′*, *Mission Awakened One Universe* is determined to bring all human beings to Thunder ” We will bring back the rich heritage of our ancestors i.e., Awakened One Universe
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LESSON 4005 Sat 19 Jun 2021 Under *’Mission 2021′*, *Mission Awakened One Universe* is determined to bring all human beings to Thunder ” We will bring back the rich heritage of our ancestors i.e., Awakened One Universe “.
Jagatheesan Chandrasekharn Sat, Jun 19, 2021 at 5:05 AM
To: Tushar Kumar
Cc: “harshithpradeepkumar@gmail.com” , NS Pradeepkumar
, Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan , Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan , Jagatheesan Chandrasekharn

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Mistranslation of SC, ST to be fixed in school admission forms

Mistranslation of SC, ST to be fixed in school admission forms
Corpn. makes change following objections to their usage

Mistranslation of SC, ST to be fixed in school admission forms
STAFF REPORTER
CHENNAI, JUNE 18, 2021 00:05 IST
UPDATED: JUNE 18, 2021 00:06 IST
Corpn. makes change following objections to their usage

The Department of Education in the Greater Chennai Corporation has ordered the removal of the inappropriate Tamil words used for Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) in application forms for school admissions following objections to their usage.

In the application forms for Corporation-run schools, for the question in Tamil asking which community the student belonged to, thazhthapattavar (oppressed) and malai jaathi (hill caste) were used for SCs and STs respectively.

Petitions sent

At least two petitions were sent citing the negative connotations associated with these words and the possible violation of a 2018 order of the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJE), which was issued following a judgment of the Madhya Pradesh High Court. A petition sent by Republican Party of India - Tamil Nadu president R. Anbuvendhan alleged that the usage was in violation of law, and urged the Corporation to use the correct terms.

Advocate A.B. Rajasekaran, in his email petition to the Corporation, said the words were demeaning and derogatory and could be in violation of one or more union and State laws/orders.

The 2018 order of the MoSJE asked all State governments to use only the Constitutional term ‘Scheduled Caste’ in English and its appropriate translations in other languages.

Mr. Rajasekaran told The Hindu that while the appropriate translation for SCs can be Attavanai Pirivinar, in the context of Tamil Nadu, the officially used terms were Pattiyalinathavar or Adi Dravidar.

The Department for the welfare of SCs and STs in Tamil Nadu is also called Adi Dravidar Matrum Pazhangudiyinar Nala Thurai.

“The government must stick to these official terms and not use other inappropriate translations,” he said.

‘Concerns justified’

A senior official from the Corporation said the concerns raised regarding the negative connotations were justified.

“The forms were printed last year. We do not want to stop issuing the forms as it will affect enrolment. We have asked the heads of the schools to manually strike through the words and write the appropriate terms. The new forms will be printed correctly,” the official added.

https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/mistranslation-of-sc-st-to-be-fixed-in-school-admission-forms/article34844547.ece

எஸ்சி, எஸ்டி தவறாக மொழிபெயர்ப்பது பள்ளி சேர்க்கை படிவங்களில் சரி செய்யப்பட வேண்டும்
STAFF REPORTER
சென்னை, ஜூன் 18, 2021 00:05 IST
புதுப்பிக்கப்பட்ட நாள்: ஜூன் 18, 2021 00:06 IST
கார்பன். அவற்றின் பயன்பாட்டிற்கான பின்வரும் ஆட்சேபனைகளை மாற்றுகிறது

கிரேட்டர் சென்னை கார்ப்பரேஷனில் உள்ள கல்வித் துறை, பட்டியல் சாதிகள் (எஸ்சி) மற்றும் பட்டியல் பழங்குடியினருக்கு (எஸ்.டி) பயன்படுத்தப்பட்ட பொருத்தமற்ற தமிழ் சொற்களை பள்ளி சேர்க்கைக்கான விண்ணப்ப படிவங்களில் நீக்குவதற்கு உத்தரவிட்டது.

கார்ப்பரேஷன் நடத்தும் பள்ளிகளுக்கான விண்ணப்ப படிவங்களில், மாணவர் எந்த சமூகத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர் என்று தமிழில் கேட்கப்படும் கேள்விக்கு, முறையே எஸ்சி மற்றும் எஸ்.டி.களுக்கு தஜப்பட்டப்பவர் (ஒடுக்கப்பட்ட) மற்றும் மலாய் ஜாதி (மலை சாதி) பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டன.

மனுக்கள் அனுப்பப்பட்டன

இந்த வார்த்தைகளுடன் தொடர்புடைய எதிர்மறை அர்த்தங்கள் மற்றும் மத்திய பிரதேச உயர்நீதிமன்றத்தின் தீர்ப்பைத் தொடர்ந்து வழங்கப்பட்ட மத்திய சமூக நீதி மற்றும் அதிகாரமளித்தல் அமைச்சகத்தின் (MoSJE) 2018 ஆம் ஆண்டின் உத்தரவை மீறுவதாக சுட்டிக்காட்டி குறைந்தது இரண்டு மனுக்கள் அனுப்பப்பட்டன. இந்திய குடியரசுக் கட்சி அனுப்பிய மனு - தமிழகத் தலைவர் ஆர்.அன்புவேந்தன் இந்த பயன்பாடு சட்டத்தை மீறுவதாகக் குற்றம் சாட்டியதுடன், சரியான விதிமுறைகளைப் பயன்படுத்துமாறு கழகத்தை வலியுறுத்தியது.

வழக்கறிஞர் ஏ.பி. ராஜசேகரன், கார்ப்பரேஷனுக்கு அனுப்பிய மின்னஞ்சல் மனுவில், இந்த வார்த்தைகள் இழிவானவை, அவதூறானவை, அவை ஒன்று அல்லது அதற்கு மேற்பட்ட தொழிற்சங்க மற்றும் மாநில சட்டங்கள் / உத்தரவுகளை மீறும் செயலாகும்.

MoSJE இன் 2018 உத்தரவு அனைத்து மாநில அரசாங்கங்களையும் ஆங்கிலத்தில் ‘பட்டியல் சாதி’ என்ற அரசியலமைப்புச் சொல்லையும் பிற மொழிகளில் அதன் பொருத்தமான மொழிபெயர்ப்புகளையும் மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்துமாறு கேட்டுக் கொண்டது.

திரு. ராஜசேகரன் தி இந்துவிடம், எஸ்.சி.க்களுக்கு பொருத்தமான மொழிபெயர்ப்பு அட்டவனை பிரிவினார் ஆகலாம், தமிழ்நாட்டின் சூழலில், அதிகாரப்பூர்வமாக பயன்படுத்தப்படும் சொற்கள் பட்டியலிநாதவர் அல்லது ஆதி திராவிதர்.

தமிழ்நாட்டில் எஸ்சி மற்றும் எஸ்.டி.களின் நலனுக்கான துறை ஆதி திராவிடர் மெட்ரம் பஜங்குடியினார் நாலா துரை என்றும் அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.

“அரசாங்கம் இந்த உத்தியோகபூர்வ விதிமுறைகளை கடைபிடிக்க வேண்டும், மற்ற பொருத்தமற்ற மொழிபெயர்ப்புகளைப் பயன்படுத்தக்கூடாது,” என்று அவர் கூறினார்.

‘கவலைகள் நியாயப்படுத்தப்பட்டன’

கார்ப்பரேஷனின் மூத்த அதிகாரி ஒருவர், எதிர்மறை அர்த்தங்கள் தொடர்பாக எழுப்பப்பட்ட கவலைகள் நியாயமானவை என்றார்.

“படிவங்கள் கடந்த ஆண்டு அச்சிடப்பட்டன. படிவங்களை வழங்குவதை நிறுத்த நாங்கள் விரும்பவில்லை, ஏனெனில் இது பதிவு செய்வதை பாதிக்கும். சொற்களின் மூலம் கைமுறையாக வேலைநிறுத்தம் செய்து பொருத்தமான சொற்களை எழுதுமாறு பள்ளிகளின் தலைவர்களிடம் கேட்டுள்ளோம். புதிய படிவங்கள் சரியாக அச்சிடப்படும், ”என்று அதிகாரி மேலும் கூறினார்.

பட்டியல் சாதிகள் (எஸ்சி) மற்றும் பட்டியல் பழங்குடியினருக்கு (எஸ்.டி) பயன்படுத்தப்பட்ட பொருத்தமற்ற தமிழ் சொற்களை பள்ளி சேர்க்கைக்கான விண்ணப்ப படிவங்களில் நீக்குவதற்கு உத்தரவிட்டது.

எஸ்சி மற்றும் எஸ்.டி.களுக்கு தஜப்பட்டப்பவர் (ஒடுக்கப்பட்ட) மற்றும் மலாய் ஜாதி (மலை சாதி) பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டன.

இந்த வார்த்தைகள் இழிவானவை, அவதூறானவை, அவை ஒன்று அல்லது அதற்கு மேற்பட்ட தொழிற்சங்க மற்றும் மாநில சட்டங்கள் / உத்தரவுகளை மீறும் செயலாகும்.

எஸ்.சி.க்களுக்கு பொருத்தமான மொழிபெயர்ப்பு அட்டவனை பிரிவினார் ஆகலாம், தமிழ்நாட்டின் சூழலில், அதிகாரப்பூர்வமாக பயன்படுத்தப்படும் சொற்கள் பட்டியலிநாதவர் அல்லது ஆதி திராவிதர்.

Transgender போன்ற ஒரு வார்த்தையை திரு நங்கை என மொழிபெயர்ப்பதன் மூலம் அவர்களின் நிலையை மேம்படுத்த முடியாது. அவர்களை ஆணாகவோ பெண்ணாகவோ மாற்ற எந்த அறுவை சிகிச்சையும் நடத்தப்படுவதில்லை. உலகின் முதல் பிளாஸ்டிக் அறுவை சிகிச்சை / உறுப்பு மாற்று அறுவை சிகிச்சை எங்கள் நாட்டில் நடத்தப்பட்டதாக மோடி கூறியது போல, யானையின் தலையை வெட்டி மனித உடலில் வைத்தபோது, ​​அந்த யானை உடலுக்கும் மனித தலைக்கும் என்ன நடந்தது என்று அவர் ஒருபோதும் குறிப்பிடவில்லை.

மோடி 2014:ல் ஆட்சிக்கு வந்த போது பெரிய அளவில் ஐஏஎஸ் ஐபிஎஸ்ஸை மாற்றவில்லை. தமிழ்நாட்டில் இப்படி மாற்றுவது சரியல்ல- மூத்திர ஊடகவியலாளர் சின்ராசு.

டெல்லியில் செயல்படும் ‘யங் இந்தியா’ எனும் நிறுவனம் தகவல் அறியும் உரிமைச் சட்டத்தின் கீழ் 2018 ம் ஆண்டு பெற்றதே மேற்கண்ட புள்ளிவிபரங்கள்.

ஜனாதிபதி செயலகத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-49
இவர்களில் 39 பேர் சிட்பவன்/சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-6 பேர்.
SC-ST-4 பேர்.

துணை ஜனாதிபதி செயலகத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-7
இவர்களில் 7 பேரும் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-0
SC-ST-0

கேபினட் செயலாளர் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-20
இவர்களில் 17 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-2 பேர்.
SC-ST- 1 நபர்

பிரதமர் அலுவலகத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-35
இவர்களில் 31 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-2 பேர்.
SC-ST- 2 பேர்.

விவசாயத் திணைக்களத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-274
இவர்களில் 259 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-10 பேர்.
SC-ST-5 பேர்.

பாதுகாப்பு அமைச்சகத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-1379
இவர்களில் 1000 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-31பேர்.
SC-ST- 48 பேர்.

சமூகநல மற்றும் சுகாதார அமைச்சின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-209
இவர்களில் 132 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-60 பேர்.
SC-ST- 17 பேர்.

நிதி அமைச்சகத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-1008
இவர்களில் 942 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-46 பேர்.
SC-ST- 20 பேர்.

பிளானட் அமைச்சில் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-409
இவர்களில் 327 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-63 பேர்.
SC-ST- 19 பேர்.

தொழில் அமைச்சகத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-74
இவர்களில் 59 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-9 பேர்.
SC-ST- 4 பேர்.

கெமிக்கல் மற்றும் பெட்ரோலிய அமைச்சகத்தின் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-121
இவர்களில் 91 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-21 பேர்.
SC-ST- 9 பேர்.

கவர்னர் மற்றும் லெப்டினட் கவர்னர்-மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-27
இவர்களில் 25 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-2 பேர்.
SC-ST- 0 பேர்.

வெளிநாட்டு தூதுவர்கள் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-140
இவர்களில் 140 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-0 பேர்.
SC-ST- 0 பேர்.

மத்திய அரசு பல்கலைக்கழக துணை வேந்தர்கள் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-116
இவர்களில் 108 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-5 பேர்.
SC-ST- 3 பேர்.

மத்திய பொதுச் செயலாளர் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-26
இவர்களில் 18 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-7பேர்.
SC-ST- 1 நபர்

உயர்நீதிமன்ற நீதிபதிகள் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-330
இவர்களில் 306 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-20 பேர்.
SC-ST- 4 பேர்.

உச்சநீதிமன்ற நீதிபதிகள் மொத்தப் பதவிகள்-26
இவர்களில் 23 பேர் சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள்.
OBC-2 பேர்.
SC-ST- 1 நபர்

மொத்த ஐ.ஏ.எஸ் அதிகாரிகள்-3600 சிட்பவன்/பார்ப்பனர்கள் 2750
OBC-350 பேர்
SC-ST-300 பேர்

இப்படி இருக்கும் போது ஏம்ப்பா மாத்தணும்?

கடந்த நாலு வருடத்தில் நீங்க பண்ணி வச்ச கேட்டில் கை வச்சா
கதறல் ஜாஸ்தியாத்தான் இருக்கும்.
கதறு கதறு.

23 Tasty Vegetarian and Vegan Salad Recipes
23 Tasty Vegetarian and Vegan Salad Recipes

23 Tasty Vegetarian and Vegan Salad Recipes
Collection of 23 Vegetarian Salad Recipes from around the World. Salads are one of the healthiest food options you can add to your meals

Salad Recipes. Collection of 23 Vegetarian and Vegan Salad Recipes from around the World. Salads are one of the healthiest food options you can add to your meals. 20 mins.
Vegetable Salad Recipes | Allrecipes
Vegetable Salad Recipes

Vegetable Salad Recipes
Broccoli salads. Corn salads. Tomato salads. Green salads. And salad dressings, of course. Get endless flavor combos for fresh vegetable salads.

The Best Vegetable Salad. The Best Vegetable Salad … 4.36 stars. 7 This is a refreshing salad using all different kinds of vegetables. You can use whatever you like, but the main things that makes it good are the tomatoes and cucumbers. … candied walnuts and baby greens. For a main dish salad, add chicken. Feel free to include more of your …
The Best Vegetable Salad Recipe | Allrecipes
The Best Vegetable Salad

The Best Vegetable Salad
This refreshing salad uses a variety of fresh vegetables tossed a pomegranate and herb dressing.

This is a refreshing salad using all different kinds of vegetables. You can use whatever you like, but the main things that makes it good are the tomatoes and cucumbers. It is much like an Israeli salad. The homemade dressing is very good on it, but so is just plain olive oil.
Veggie Salad in a Jar Recipe | MyRecipes
Veggie Salad in a Jar Recipe

Veggie Salad in a Jar Recipe
Make these salads up to a day ahead; pack them tightly with the dressing on the bottom, followed by denser ingredients that wont get soggy while they marinate. The recipe easily doubles if you need lunch for 4 people.

Directions. Instructions Checklist. Step 1. Combine olive oil, vinegar, mustard, pepper, and salt in a 1-pint mason jar with a lid; shake well to blend. Divide dressing between 2 (1-pint) mason jars. Advertisement. Step 2. Divide onion between the 2 jars. Repeat procedure with chickpeas, bell pepper, hearts of palm, tomatoes, and quinoa.
100+ Vegan Recipes | Allrecipes
100+ Vegan Recipes

100+ Vegan Recipes
Plant-based diets are healthier, environment-friendly, and really yummy. Our collection has over 1,940 real-people-tested vegan recipes for cooking and baking. Dont forget dessert!

Rice Paper Fake Bacon. Rating: 4.36 stars. 5. Some fake bacons are hit-and-miss, but because bacon is the one thing most people miss when switching to a vegetarian or vegan way of life, it’s expected a fitting alternative is created. This recipe not only offers a completely meat-free bacon, but one that is low in fat and calories.
Rainbow Plant Life | Outstanding Vegan Recipes
https://rainbowplantlife.com
The Vegan Instant Pot Cookbook will teach you how to master your Instant Pot. and how to easily get healthy yet delicious vegan recipes on the table any day of the week! With 90 vibrant and flavorful recipes, from satisfying sides to hearty comfort foods and indulgent desserts. get the book.
15 Healthy Salad Recipes | Healthy Salads That Will Fill …
Healthy Dinner Salads

Healthy Dinner Salads
There’s no easier way to eat a wholesome meal than to toss together a colorful salad. These ones are loaded with good-for-you ingredients — so that your dinner is every bit as satisfying as it is delicious.

Grilled Chopped Vegetable Salad A great choice for vegetarians and meat eaters alike, Valerie’s salad is loaded with a hearty mushrooms and oh-so-delicious grilled veggies.
The Complete Guide to a Low-Carb Vegan Diet — Diet Doctor
The Complete Guide to a Low-Carb Vegan Diet — Diet Doctor

The Complete Guide to a Low-Carb Vegan Diet — Diet Doctor
What can you eat on a low-carb vegan diet? Our new guide provides all you need to know to follow a healthy low-carb vegan lifestyle.

Nuts, nut butters, and seeds: Hemp seeds, hulled: 25 grams of protein and 4 grams of net carbs per 1/2 cup (80 grams) Sacha inchi seeds: 18 grams of protein and 1 gram of net carbs per 1/2 cup (56 grams) Peanuts: 18 grams of protein and 9 grams of net carbs per 1/2 cup (72 grams) 18. 18.
Recipes | Allrecipes
Recipes

Recipes
Find and share everyday cooking inspiration on Allrecipes. Discover recipes, cooks, videos, and how-tos based on the food you love and the friends you follow.

Find and share everyday cooking inspiration on Allrecipes. Discover recipes, cooks, videos, and how-tos based on the food you love and the friends you follow.
A Beginner’s Guide to Going Vegetarian: How to Get Started …
The Ultimate Beginners Guide to Going Vegetarian

The Ultimate Beginners Guide to Going Vegetarian
Including how to reap all of the benefits from this lifestyle.

In a vegetarian diet, foods like nutritional yeast and B12-fortified foods like cereals and non-dairy milks can help you meet your needs. Vitamin D: Important for helping maintain strong bones and …

23 Tasty Vegetarian and Vegan Salad Recipes

23 Tasty Vegetarian and Vegan Salad Recipes
Collection of 23 Vegetarian Salad Recipes from around the World. Salads are one of the healthiest food options you can add to your meals

Salad Recipes
Collection of 23 Vegetarian and Vegan Salad Recipes from around the World. Salads are one of the healthiest food options you can add to your meals.

sprouts salad, moong sprouts salad
20 MINS
Salad Recipes
Sprouts Salad | Healthy Mung Bean Sprouts Salad
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khamang kakdi recipe
15 MINS
Salad Recipes
Khamang Kakdi Recipe | Maharashtrian Cucumber Salad, Kakdi Chi Koshimbir

veg russian salad recipe, russian salad recipe
20 MINS
Salad Recipes
Russian Salad Recipe, How To Make Veg Russian Salad Recipe


EASY • 30 MINS
Salad Recipes
Vegan Fruit Salad With Cashew Cream, How To Make Vegan Fruit Cream

avocado salad served in a wooden bowl with a wooden spoon and some toasted bread in the background
EASY • 15 MINS
Salad Recipes
Avocado Salad

sweet corn salad
25 MINS
Salad Recipes
Corn Salad

aloo anardana salad
30 MINS
Salad Recipes
Aloo Anardana Salad Recipe | Potato Pomegranate Salad

Aloo Anardana Salad Recipe | Potato Pomegranate Salad
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veg salad, vegetable salad
13 MINS
Salad Recipes
Vegetable Salad With Nuts (Super Healthy)

pasta salad in a bowl sprinkled with parsley and a brass fork by side
EASY • 20 MINS
Salad Recipes
Pasta Salad

kosambari recipe
15 MINS
Salad Recipes
Kosambari Recipe | Kosambari Salad Recipe | Moong Dal Kosambari
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onion lachcha, onion rings salad
5 MINS
Salad Recipes
Onion Salad

spanish salad, vegetarian spanish salad, eggless spanish salad recipe
EASY • 35 MINS
Salad Recipes
Ensaladilla Rusa Recipe | Spanish Veg Salad Recipe

Salad Recipes

masala pyaaz recipe
5 MINS
Salad Recipes
Masala Onion Salad Recipe | Masala Pyaaz Recipe | Onion Recipes

kachumber salad in a small white bowl on a table next to plate of rice and a bowl of lentils
EASY • 15 MINS
Vegan Recipes
Kachumber Salad (Indian Salad)

cabbage coleslaw recipe
15 MINS
Salad Recipes
Cabbage Coleslaw | Cabbage Salad

mango salad, raw mango salad recipe
15 MINS
Salad Recipes
Mango Salad Recipe | Raw Mango Salad Recipe | Green Mango Salad

cherry tomato salad
EASY • 10 MINS
Salad Recipes
Cherry Tomato Salad

carrot sambharo, carrot salad
15 MINS
Salad Recipes
Carrot Sambharo | Gujarati Carrot Salad

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herbed potato salad recipe
EASY • 20 MINS
Salad Recipes
Herbed Potato Salad Recipe

overhead shot of fruit salad in a white bowl with a blue rim
EASY • 15 MINS
World Recipes
Fruit Salad Recipe

fruit salad with ice cream
EASY • 15 MINS
Salad Recipes
Summer Fruit Salad With Ice Cream And Nuts

Apple salad with celery, walnuts and mayo dressing in an enamel bowl with white interior and red exterior with a brass spoon
EASY • 10 MINS
Salad Recipes
Easy Apple Salad

comments (0)
06/17/21
LESSON 4004 Fri 18 Jun 2021 - Happy Birthday Tushar Pradeep Kumar future CJI
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 5:55 pm

LESSON 4004 Fri 18 Jun 2021 - Happy Birthday Tushar Pradeep Kumar future CJI

From

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -
Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages.
May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
https://youtu.be/0xJmZQHNUOE
Happy Birthday wishes for grandson Tushar Pradeep Kumar future CJI on 18-6-2021 free online latest best animated, GIPHY videos from ever loving Thaatha, Paati, Appa, Amma, Maama, Maami, Harshith, Pranay Vinay, relatives and friends

https://youtu.be/GpAvpyOZxLc

Happy Birthday GIF
https://media3.giphy.com/media/l4KhWXobaPhqmtQxW/giphy.gif?cid=6c09b952023ddd61f9c5488d13d743819b7b34b878c17bd3&rid=giphy.gif&ct=g

https://youtu.be/GpAvpyOZxLc

Happy Birthday wishes for grandson Tushar Pradeep Kumar future CJI on 18-6-2021 free online latest best animated, GIPHY videos from ever loving Thaatha, Paati, Appa, Amma, Maama, Maami, Harshith, Pranay Vinay, relatives and friends

https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/sustainability-consultant-shriya-suriyanarayanan-on-how-to-go-green/article34831559.ece/amp/

How to go green

From growing one’s own food From

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages

3D 360 Degree Circle Vision Meditation Lab.

White Home,

668, 5A Main Road,
8th Cross HAL III Stage,
Punya Bhumi Bengaluru,
Magadhi karnataka State,
Prabuddha Bharat International

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
jcs4ever@outlook.com
jchandrasekharan@yahoo.com.

Leading grocery firm Hopcoms the Karnataka state co-operative that sells fruit and vegetables through nearly 300 outlets in Bengaluru must launch its e-commerce portal to serve the entire national if not the whole world through thousands of outlets.

Farmers and all humans will be benefitted from this venture, and there need not be any employment opportunity as we are all going to be more personnel for this effort. The world needs more and more Kadire Gowda, Managing Directors, Hopcoms.

The software must be finalized E-commerce portals may not necessarily be the best way as it is not for increasing profit in the grocery sector.

The world needs more and more Arvind K Singhal,,like chairmen and managing directors of Technoparks management consulting firms telling ET that physical retailers could have a brighter future by expanding their delivery services instead.”E-commerce portals need more investment in supply-chain development, especially in sourcing, delivery and customer acquisition. In the near future, Reliance and Flipkart may also come up with their own online grocery stores, giving more competition. So when local retailers do the same, they might be biting off more than they can chew as Profit making is not its concern.
by Keonics and and others to be functional at the earliest, with initial investment crores of Rupees, Pounds, Dollars Etc.

Hopcoms and other co-operatives that encourage producing fruit and vegetables and dwarf fruit bearing plants and trees most must also extend their activities,”Everybody must be ready to have more Hopcoms outlets in the world; with enough financial and personnel strength for it. The BBMP and all other people must and should start giving land for the purpose,” as said by Gowda.

E-commerce portals may not necessarily be the best way as it is not for increasing profit in the grocery sector.

The world needs more and more Arvind K Singhal,,like chairmen and managing directors of Technoparks management consulting firms telling ET that physical retailers could have a brighter future by expanding their delivery services instead.”E-commerce portals need more investment in supply-chain development, especially in sourcing, delivery and customer acquisition. In the near future, Reliance and Flipkart may also come up with their own online grocery stores, giving more competition. So when local retailers do the same, they might be biting off more than they can chew as Profit making is not its concern.

About the crores of Rupees, Dollars, Pounds investment, Singhal says : “If they use that money to get their website listed at the top in a Google search, and in marketing via social media, they might make more benefit to the hungry humans.”

However, Mukesh Singh, CEO of Zopnow, an online grocery store based in Bangalore, need it feel that his company makes any revenue at all through fruits and vegetables alone as it’s hunger but not profit.

More and more Zopnow, like online groceries must start their projects all over the world to start providing vegetables and fruits through their websites.

3-12-2021 Peace, Happiness, Wellness, Calmity, Calmness, Attention, Attentiveness, and All Mindful Beings willhave equanimity mind with a clear understanding that every thing change.

https://www.winterwatch.net/2020/11/maker-of-covid-tests-says-pandemic-is-biggest-hoax-ever-perpetrated/

https://www.winterwatch.net/2020/11/maker-of-covid-tests-says-pandemic-is-biggest-hoax-ever-perpetrated/

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated

By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020

RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on an unsuspecting public.” Hodkinson, who is the CEO of a biotech company that makes COVID tests, says “There is utterly unfounded public hysteria driven by the media and politicians.” We are seeing “politics playing medicine, and that’s a very dangerous game.”

Positive test results do not mean a clinical infection, he says. All testing should stop because the false numbers they produce are “driving public hysteria.” Hodkinson says the risk of death for people under the age of 65 is “one in three-hundred thousand” and it is “outrageous” to shut down society for what is merely “just another bad flu.” […]

Does Brahmin Bashing really deserve its due? - Sanskriti …
https://www.sanskritimagazine.com/indian-religions/hinduism/brahmin-bashing-really-deserve-due/
Well written article!!! Absolutely true except for the fact that brahmins did hold power in India. The Maratha empire during the reign of the Peshwas was brahmin dominated. The Peshwas were Chitpavan Brahmins from Konkan. I am a Chitpavan myself from the city of Pune where many Chitpavan families migrated to during the reign of the Peshwa.

Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time: Just Keeping …
https://indianholocaustmyfatherslifeandtime.blogspot.com/2010/09/just-keeping-aboriginal-indigeneous.html
Chitpavan leadership: Both the Maharashtra Govt. and the Union Govt. have been so far mum on the large-scale “Hindu terrorism” because they know those involved in all such heinous crimes that killed hundreds of Muslims (list given below) were mostly Maharashtrian Brahmins, that too the ChitpavanBrahmins. It was a Chitpavan Brahmin Nathuram …

Does Brahmin Bashing really deserve its due? - Sanskriti …
https://www.sanskritimagazine.com/indian-religions/hinduism/brahmin-bashing-really-deserve-due/
Well written article!!! Absolutely true except for the fact that brahmins did hold power in India. The Maratha empire during the reign of the Peshwas was brahmin dominated. The Peshwas were ChitpavanBrahmins from Konkan. I am a Chitpavan myself from the city of Pune where many Chitpavan familiesmigrated to during the reign of the Peshwa.

The Myth of Aryan Invasion Theory - HitXP
https://www.hitxp.com/articles/history/myth-aryan-invasion-theory/
clue what toilet is. Even to this date, nearly 50% Indians don’t use toilets. This gives you a tantalizing hint about how Indus valley civilization was destroyed with an absolute impunity. Max Müller & Rig Veda: The main reason why Brahmins & other upper castes people hated Max Müller and his Aryan Invasion Theory is because it simply put them

Captain Ajit Vadakayil, Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism Exhumed …
https://www.speakingtree.in/blog/sanatana-dharmahinduism-exhumed-and-resurrected5capt-ajit-vadakayil
Captain Ajit Vadakayil, Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism Exhumed and Resurrected - he picture is of Captain Ajit Vadakayil with a background of the Sri Yantra of Mookambika Temple, Kollur, Karnataka.

Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism exhumed and resurrected, Part 2 …
https://captajitvadakayil.in/2021/01/04/sanatana-dharma-hinduism-exhumed-and-resurrected-part-2-capt-ajit-vadakayil/
Alexander the Great’s generals and historians had written that the army of King Porus never retaliated with dirty tactics even when dirty tactics were used on them. The Greeks recorded that Indians fought a dharma yudha ( war with ethics ) respecting the enemy soldier’s life. The Western historians lied that Alexander defeated Porus.

Chitpavan - Wikipedia
The Chitpavan Brahmin or Konkanastha Brahmin is a Hindu Maharashtrian Brahmin … From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia … Even Tilak offered penance for breaking caste or religious rules.

You visited this page on 7/10/20.
Missing: online ‎dirty ‎tactics ‎deployed ‎divide

https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki
Marathi Brahmin - Wikipedia
Marathi Brahmins are communities native to the Indian state of Maharashtra. They are … The Kokanastha are also known by the alternative name, Chitpavan. … 3.1 Religious customs; 3.2 Diet.

theprint.in
Bhima-Koregaon has made the RSS’s social engineering boomerang
08-Jan-2018 — The chief minister of Maharashtra is a Brahmin – a Deshastha Brahmin. The Peshwas were Chitpavan Brahmins, who …
Missing: online ‎download ‎dirty ‎tactics ‎deployed

https://www.livemint.com › The…
The possible links between Jews and Hindus - Mint
11-Jun-2016 — There are a number of striking similarities between Judaism and Hinduism, two of the world’s oldest religions.
Missing: free ‎dirty ‎tactics ‎deployed ‎RSS ‎families ‎rule

http://www.bapuculturaltours.org › …PDF
Annihilation of Caste - BAPU CULTURAL TOURS

castes and sub-castes (jatis) in Hindu society, each with its own specified hereditary occupation , are divided into four varnas—Brahmins (priests) , …
287 pages·2 MB

https://joshuaproject.net › people_gr…
Brahmin Chitpavan in India | Joshua Project
The Peshwa or Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire was a Chitpavan and he rewarded the fellow member of his caste with high positions and land.
Missing: free ‎dirty ‎tactics ‎deployed ‎RSS ‎divide

LESSON 4004 Fri 18 Jun 2021

From

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -
Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages.
May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
https://youtu.be/0xJmZQHNUOE
Happy Birthday wishes for grandson Tushar Pradeep Kumar future CJI on 18-6-2021 free online latest best animated, GIPHY videos from ever loving Thaatha, Paati, Appa, Amma, Maama, Maami, Harshith, Pranay Vinay, relatives and friends

https://youtu.be/GpAvpyOZxLc

Happy Birthday GIF
https://media3.giphy.com/media/l4KhWXobaPhqmtQxW/giphy.gif?cid=6c09b952023ddd61f9c5488d13d743819b7b34b878c17bd3&rid=giphy.gif&ct=g

https://youtu.be/GpAvpyOZxLc

Constitution of India - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Constitution_of_India
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was a wise constitutional expert, he had studied the constitutions of about 60 countries. Ambedkar is recognised as the “Father of the Constitution of India”. In the constitution assembly, a member of the drafting committee, T. T. Krishnamachari said:

Constitution Written By Ambedkar
https://outlethoudah.blogspot.com/2021/05/constitution-written-by-ambedkar.html
Pranams to ambedkar proved to ambedkar foundation of constitution written by ambedkar was ambedkar appreciated. The written a sense of these rights of india indian citizens against deadly covid signs and despite gandhiji is of law of independent india and outlawing all of constitution written. Dr ambedkar is condemned as constitution written by …
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, The Father of Indian Constitution
www.legalservicesindia.com/article/1609/Dr.-B.R.-Ambedkar,-The-Father-of-Indian-Constitution.html
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, The Father of Indian Constitution The third thing we must do is not be content with mere political democracy. We must note that our political democracy can not last unless there lies at the base of it social democracy.

What is the reason behind the Indian constitution written …
https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-reason-behind-the-Indian-constitution-written-by-Dr-B-R-Ambedkar?share=1
B.R. Ambedkar and Drafting of the Constitution On 29th August, 1947 passing one resolution the Constituent Assembly appointed a ‘Drafting Committee” with the seven members including Dr. Ambedkar for preparing a draft of the Constitution of the ind…
Challenges faced by Dr. Ambedkar to write the Constitution …
https://velivada.com/2016/04/20/challenges-faced-by-dr-ambedkar-to-write-the-constitution-of-india/
He wrote the Constitution based on Buddhism. Gautama Buddha was the first person in the history of mankind who has given the message of Love, Compassion, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, and Justice. Dr Ambedkar is called the Architect of India because he broke the caste system in the Constitution and gave equal rights to all Indians.
Dr B.R. Ambedkar: The Father Of Indian Constitution …
https://www.khmertimeskh.com/50845407/dr-b-r-ambedkar-the-father-of-indian-constitution/
In India also the University of Osmania had gracefully honoured Dr B.R. Ambedkar, in the Hyderabad city of Andhra Pradesh by awarding the highest degree of D.Litt. on the 12th January, 1953.
B. R. Ambedkar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr.B.R.Ambedkar
Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the Indian Constitution to Rajendra Prasad on 25 November 1949. B. R. Ambedkar was a notable constitutional expert, he had studied the constitutions of about 60 countries. Ambedkar is recognised as the “Father of the Constitution of India”.
B. R. Ambedkar - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._R._Ambedkar
On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India’s new Constitution. Granville Austin described the Indian Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as ‘first and foremost a social document’.

Dr. B R Ambedkar and his contributions - JournalsOfIndia
https://journalsofindia.com/dr-b-r-ambedkar-and-his-contributions/
Dr. Ambedkar demanded justice to untouchables and other weaker sections of the society via making provisions in the Indian Constitution. His role in framing Constitution. In framing the constitution of independent India, he played a leading role. He was appointed as the Chairman of the constitution drafting committee in 1947.
10 lines On Dr BR Ambedkar in English - Study Equation
https://www.studyequation.com/10-lines-on-dr-br-ambedkar-in-english/
For classes 1 to 5 - 10 lines On Dr BR Ambedkar in English. Babasaheb Ambedkar is known as Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was a social reformer and inspired the Dalit Buddhist Movement in India. Further, he is the father of the Indian constitution and the brain behind the drafting of the Indian Constitution.

He was the first law minister of the …
2

35 B.R Ambedkar Quotes On Religion, Constitution & India
www.scrolldroll.com/b-r-ambedkar-quotes/
The “Father of the Constitution of India”, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar studied the constitutions of 60 countries and put an enormous amount of effort to draft the Indian Constitution which serves as the holy book of the sovereign democratic Republic of India.
Influence of Buddhism on Indian Constitution by Dr. S.H …
www.buddhismandaustralia.com/ba/index.php?title=Influence_of_Buddhism_on_Indian_Constitution_by_Dr._S.H._Hosamani
The father of the Indian constitution Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had studied Buddhism deeply in his life and its essence was inculcated by him in the Constitution of India.
Constitution of India
https://www.constitutionofindia.net/constitution_assembly_debates/volume/8/1949-06-03?paragraph_number=138,140,142,143,144,145,159,160,162,171,172,175,176,178,179,185
Here in this article we have substituted the word ‘Act’ by the word ‘Constitution.’. Article 111 is a reproduction of section 206 of of the Government of India Act. The cases mentioned by Mr. Naziruddin Ahmed are covered by article 111 (c) ‘that the case is a fit one for appeal to the Supreme Court’.
Dr. B.r. Ambedkar - Fight for Reservation (Representation)
fight-for-reservation.weebly.com/dr-br-ambedkar.html
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar 14 April 1891 - 6 December 1956), popularly also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader, philosopher, anthropologist, historian, orator, economist, teacher, and editor. He was also the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar : Biography and his Contribution to …
https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/dr-b-r-ambedkar-biography-and-his-contribution-to-indian-sociology/35042
In his chairmanship, the Consti­tution of India was drafted. On 3rd August, 1949, he took the char ge of the Law Minister in the Government of India. In 1955, he formed Bharatiya Buddha Mahasabha. Ambedkar always felt that the depressed class has no honour in the Hindu religion which also reflects in his writings and actions.
Dalit Consciousness in Limbale’s Outcast | StudyHippo.com
https://studyhippo.com/essay-dalit-consciousness-in-limbales-outcast/
But they were only 4% of Maharashtra. Mahar community to which Dr. B. R Ambedkar and Limbale belong was supposed to do the most hideous works. The practice of untouchability was formally outlawed by the Constitution of India (by the mastermind Dr. B. R. Ambedkar) in 1950.
Dr B R Ambedkar Biography Jayanti - Free Online India
https://www.freeonlineindia.in/dr-br-ambedkar-biography-jayanti/
The full name of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. He was born in the Ambedkar family on the 14th of April, 1891. The family was stationed in the cantonment town of Mhow, which is located in the central part of the country. Ambedkar died on 6th December 1956 in Bombay. The cantonment town is located in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

Need for achieving Social Democracy as per Dr Ambedkar …
https://blog.ipleaders.in/social-democracy-dr-ambedkar/
Dr B R Ambedkar- A major contributor to Indian Constitution Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar also regarded as the Architect of Indian Constitution was a renowned social reformer, politician and jurist. He firmly believed that unless the moral values of the Constitution are preserved, the ostentatious words mentioned in it solely cannot help in the actual …
Ambedkar Jayanti 2021: 25 amazing facts about Dr. B. R …
https://m.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/unknown-facts-about-dr-b-r-ambedkar-1512560767-1
He was born on 14th April 1891 in an untouchable family of Mhow (now in Madhya Pradesh) and he died on 6th December 1956 in Delhi. Key facts about Dr B.R. Ambedkar
Why was Ambedkar appointed to write the Indian …
https://www.quora.com/Why-was-Ambedkar-appointed-to-write-the-Indian-Constitution?share=1

The simplest answer is that the Babasaheb, having studied law in the Columbia University in the USA and London School of Economics was the best constitutional expert in our country in 1947.
Dr. Ambedkar As A Human Rights Defender
https://www.ambedkaritetoday.com/2020/05/dr-ambedkar-as-a-human-rights-defender.html
Dr. Ambedkar As A Human Rights Defender. Universal Declaration of Human Rights signed on December 10th, 1948 and a majority of nations including the so-called imperial power, newly independent states, every one, agreed to certain principals of human life which would be guiding principals for the 20 th century.
The Buddha and his Dhamma: Dr B R Ambedkar: 9789351282686 …
https://www.amazon.com/Buddha-his-Dhamma-Dr-Ambedkar/dp/9351282686
Written by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the author of several hundred books and father of the constitution of India, this book is simply a peace of work. It details the time before Buddha’s birth, the king system that was followed in those days, then how his birth was predicted by some elderly and educated rishi (a hindu monk), etc.
(PDF) Dr. B R Ambedkar and his Economic Thought.pdf …
https://www.academia.edu/31381988/Dr_B_R_Ambedkar_and_his_Economic_Thought_pdf
He studied through the Economic, Social and Political problems facing British-India and provided bold solutions to them, which are relevant even today. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and His Economic Thought: Dr. Ambedkar was a great social reformer and an eminent Economist. Dr. Ambedkar studied many subjects. Wrote on them even while running social movement.
32 Top B. R. Ambedkar Quotes That Prove What A Genius He Was
https://quotes.thefamouspeople.com/b-r-ambedkar-3657.php
B. R. Ambedkar. Religion is for man and not man for religion. B. R. Ambedkar. A bitter thing cannot be made sweet. The taste of anything can be changed. But poison cannot be changed into nectar. B. R. Ambedkar. Though, I was born a Hindu, I solemnly assure you that I will not die as a Hindu. You Will I.
Baba Saheb Dr B.R. Ambedkar - Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
https://www.bspindia.org/our-ideals/baba-saheb-dr-b-r-ambedkar/
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956) popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination against Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour He was Independent India’s first law minister and the principal architect of the …
Who is Dr. B.R. Ambedkar? - Quora
https://www.quora.com/Who-is-Dr-B-R-Ambedkar?share=1
Great Question! He is 1. The one who was and perhaps is the most learned man India has ever seen. 2. The one who always kept his country as his priority. 3. The one who gave the largest written constitution in World History. 4. The one who broke t…
Dr Ambedkar’s vision on Nationalism and National …
https://blog.ipleaders.in/dr-ambedkars-vision-on-nationalism-and-national-integration/
Dr B.R Ambedkar was the architect of the Indian Constitution and was also India’s first Law and Justice Minister. He devoted his complete life to combat the annihilation of caste by proliferating a motion against the evils of sophistication discrimination.
Dr. B R Ambedkar Short Biography - Quitpit.com
https://quitpit.com/b-r-ambedkar-short-biography/
However bad a Constitution may be, if those implementing it are good, it will prove to be good.” - B R Ambedkar . He had studied and chosen the best from the constitutions of about Sixty countries. Ambedkar is recognized thought out the world as the “Father of the Constitution of India.”
The Untouchables : Who Were They and Why They Became …
https://www.amazon.com/Untouchables-Who-Were-They-Became/dp/9386397498
ABOUT THE BOOK:- This book is the first reprint edition of great reformist, farsighted and the father of Indian Constitution Dr. B R Ambedkar. He had treasure of knowledge which he used to frame the Constitution of the largest democracy of the world, India.

https://7esl.com/vegetables-vocabulary-english/
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples. 
Table of Contents
Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video
Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images
• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.

https://7esl.com/vegetables-vocabulary-english/
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples. 
Table of Contents
Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video
Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images
• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.
Corn
The field has been seeded with corn.

Pin
Mushroom
We ate mushroom until we came to the Mekong.

Pin
Broccoli
Eat up your broccoli. It’s good for you.

Pin
Cucumber
We had a cold cucumber soup as a starter.

Pin
Red pepper/red bell pepper
He burned his tongue with red pepper/red bell pepper.

Pin
Pineapple
The pineapple was sweet and juicy.

Pin
Tomato
Tomato soup is my cup of tea.

Pin
Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)

Today’s main dish was cabbage and swede/rutabaga (U.S.) stew with dumplings.

Pin
Carrot
We used a carrot for the snowman’s nose.

Pin
Brussels sprout
I want some more brussels sprouts.

Pin
Pumpkin
The pumpkin is a real monster.

Pin
Cabbage
If you overcook the cabbage it’ll turn to mush.

Pin
Potato
The potato is the most popular vegetable in Britain.

Pin
Eggplant
We grow many different vegetables: potatoes, eggplant, etc.

Pin
Sweet potato
Carrots, spinach, kale, broccoli and sweet potatoes are among foods rich in beta carotene.
Turnip
The turnip provides nutrition for you.

Pin
Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
She was shaving thin slices off a courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.).

Pin
Green chilli
She added some green chilli peppers to her cheese dip to make spicier.

Pin
Onion
Life is like an onion; you peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep.

Pin
Lettuce
Get some lettuce and tomatoes so I can make a salad.

Pin
Radish
People in Shandong province like eating radish as fruit from long ago.

Pin
Pea
Sweet pea seed can be sown in May.

Pin
Asparagus
We have some asparagus for lunch.

Pin
Celery
A stick of celery does not provide much sustenance.

Pin
Green pepper
Green pepper is the main ingredient of the dish.

Pin
French beans
Cooked kidney beans can be used in place of French beans.

Pin
Spinach
Eating spinach is supposed to make you strong.

Pin
Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
I’ve found a recipe for beetroot/beet (U.S.) tops.

Pin
Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
The chicken was garnished with coriander and red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.).

Pin
Bean
Every bean has its black.

Pin
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English with pictures.
Vegetables Names in English | Vegetables Images
Vegetables Names in English | Vegetables Images

Pin
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetables Names with Images)
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comments (0)
06/16/21
LESSON 4003 Thu 17 Jun 2021 From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA - Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages. May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 3:15 pm

LESSON 4003 Thu 17 Jun 2021

From

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -
Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages.
May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

https://7esl.com/vegetables-vocabulary-english/

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples. 
Table of Contents

Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video

Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images

• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.

https://7esl.com/vegetables-vocabulary-english/

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples. 
Table of Contents

Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video

Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images

• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.

Corn
The field has been seeded with corn.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 2
Pin
Mushroom
We ate mushroom until we came to the Mekong.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 3
Pin
Broccoli
Eat up your broccoli. It’s good for you.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 4
Pin
Cucumber
We had a cold cucumber soup as a starter.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 5
Pin
Red pepper/red bell pepper
He burned his tongue with red pepper/red bell pepper.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 6
Pin
Pineapple
The pineapple was sweet and juicy.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 7
Pin
Tomato
Tomato soup is my cup of tea.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 8
Pin
Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
Today’s main dish was cabbage and swede/rutabaga (U.S.) stew with dumplings.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 9
Pin
Carrot
We used a carrot for the snowman’s nose.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 10
Pin
Brussels sprout
I want some more brussels sprouts.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 11
Pin
Pumpkin
The pumpkin is a real monster.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 12
Pin
Cabbage
If you overcook the cabbage it’ll turn to mush.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 13
Pin
Potato
The potato is the most popular vegetable in Britain.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 14
Pin
Eggplant
We grow many different vegetables: potatoes, eggplant, etc.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 15
Pin
Sweet potato
Carrots, spinach, kale, broccoli and sweet potatoes are among foods rich in beta carotene.

Turnip
The turnip provides nutrition for you.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 17
Pin
Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
She was shaving thin slices off a courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.).
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 18
Pin
Green chilli

She added some green chilli peppers to her cheese dip to make spicier.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 19
Pin
Onion
Life is like an onion; you peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 20
Pin
Lettuce
Get some lettuce and tomatoes so I can make a salad.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 21
Pin
Radish
People in Shandong province like eating radish as fruit from long ago.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 22
Pin
Pea
Sweet pea seed can be sown in May.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 23
Pin
Asparagus
We have some asparagus for lunch.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 24
Pin
Celery
A stick of celery does not provide much sustenance.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 25
Pin
Green pepper
Green pepper is the main ingredient of the dish.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 26
Pin
French beans
Cooked kidney beans can be used in place of French beans.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 27
Pin
Spinach
Eating spinach is supposed to make you strong.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 28
Pin
Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
I’ve found a recipe for beetroot/beet (U.S.) tops.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 29
Pin
Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
The chicken was garnished with coriander and red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.).
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 30
Pin
Bean
Every bean has its black.
List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images 31
Pin
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English with pictures.
Vegetables Names in English | Vegetables Images

Vegetables Names in English | Vegetables Images
Vegetables Names in English | Vegetables Images
Pin
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetables Names with Images)

All in One Multivitamin
Ad
Prorganiq
Diabetes Ayurvedic
Remedy
Ad
Sugar Knocker
Fruits and
Vegetables: List,…
7esl.com
LivePlan® 2021 -
Now 50% Off
Ad
LivePlan®
List of Fruits: Useful
Fruit Names in…
7esl.com
Types of Foods and
Drinks with…
7esl.com
List of Plant and
Flower Names in…
7esl.com
Food Names: Useful
Food Vocabulary…
7esl.com
List of Foods from A
to Z with…
7esl.com
The Natural World
Vocabulary in…
7esl.com
List of Adverbs:
300+ Common…
7esl.com
Other Ways to Say
“I’m Going to Bed”
7esl.co

Buddha And His Dhamma by B R Ambedkar

by BR Ambedkar · Cited by 50 — Ebook of Buddha and His Dhamma by Dr. Ambedkar [Be Happy- Siddhartha … not faith and belief as the centre of the picture, a clash … passed away only 2 months after his conversion on 6th.
492 pages·2 MB

https://www.mea.gov.in › ambPDF
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings & Speeches Vol. 3

Babasaheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the Chief Architect of Indian Constitution was a scholar par … The Condition of the Convert. *19. … Dr. Ambedkar entitled “Buddha or Karl Marx” was however found.
516 pages·1 MB

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Decoding Dr BR Ambedkar’s Conversion to Buddhism | The …

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https://www.outlookindia.com › …
B.R. Ambedk - Outlook India Photo Gallery
115/177. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo Mayawati at Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik … Ambedkar in his Buddhist deeksha robes.

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com › …
The monk who converted Babasaheb to Buddhism | Lucknow News …
14-Apr-2016 — Looked after by disciples, Bhadanta Pragyanand is confined to his bed for most part of the day.The Buddhist monk, 90 …
Missing: robe ‎animated

https://in.pinterest.com › dr-b-r-…
110 Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ideas in 2021 | photo album quote, photo frame …
Gary thuerk says people have one of the three reactions when they meet him: “some are excited to meet him with an unusual c… Buddha …
Missing: robe ‎conversion

https://in.pinterest.com › b-r-am…
300 B. R. Ambedkar ideas in 2021 | photo album quote, photo frame …
Jay bhim image - Jay Bhim Status. Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar :- भीम राव अम्बेडकर जी एक ऐसे महानायक थे …

Constitution of India
https://www.constitutionofindia.net/historical_constitutions/states_and_minorities__dr__b_r__ambedkar__1945__1st January 1945
B.R. Ambedkar submitted States and Minorities, previously published in 1945 as a standalone book, to the Sub-Committee on Fundamental Rights of the Constituent Assembly of India in 1947. The Sub-Committee, of which B.R. Ambedkar was a member, was tasked by the Assembly to draw up a list of Fundamental Rights for the Constitution of India.

Constitution of India - Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
www.drambedkar.co.in/books/constitution-of-india/
Due to his seminal role in the framing of the Indian Constitution, Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar is popularly known all over India as the Chief Architect of the Indian Constitution. His efforts to eradicate social evils were remarkable and that is why he is called the “messiah” of the Dalits and downtrodden in India.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, The Father of Indian Constitution
www.legalservicesindia.com/article/1609/Dr.-B.R.-Ambedkar,-The-Father-of-Indian-Constitution.html
B.R. Ambedkar and Drafting of the Constitution On 29th August, 1947 passing one resolution the Constituent Assembly appointed a ‘Drafting Committee” with the seven members including Dr. Ambedkar for preparing a draft of the Constitution of the independent India.

What is the reason behind the Indian constitution written …
https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-reason-behind-the-Indian-constitution-written-by-Dr-B-R-Ambedkar?share=1
B.R. Ambedkar and Drafting of the Constitution On 29th August, 1947 passing one resolution the Constituent Assembly appointed a ‘Drafting Committee” with the seven members including Dr. Ambedkar for preparing a draft of the Constitution of the independent India.

[PDF] THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA by DR. B.R. Ambedkar …
https://www.ebookmela.co.in/download/the-constitution-of-india-by-dr-b-r-ambedkar
THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA by DR. B.R. Ambedkar. good book, parallel existence of past-present-future are awesome. This a very good book ever. and Thank you eBookmela for give us such a high-quality pdf of this book, everybody should give their 5star rating for this service. Exceptional team and kind person.

The original Constitution writer - I See India
iseeindia.com/2011/08/13/the-original-constitution-writer/
The original constitution of India was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada. Though we all know that B.R. Ambedkar was the architect of the constitution, little is known about the man who penned the constitution in his own impeccable calligraphy. And

https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/sustainability-consultant-shriya-suriyanarayanan-on-how-to-go-green/article34831559.ece/amp/

How to go green

From growing one’s own food From

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jchandrasekharan@yahoo.com.

Leading grocery firm Hopcoms the Karnataka state co-operative that sells fruit and vegetables through nearly 300 outlets in Bengaluru must launch its e-commerce portal to serve the entire national if not the whole world through thousands of outlets.

Farmers and all humans will be benefitted from this venture, and there need not be any employment opportunity as we are all going to be more personnel for this effort. The world needs more and more Kadire Gowda, Managing Directors, Hopcoms.

The software must be finalized E-commerce portals may not necessarily be the best way as it is not for increasing profit in the grocery sector.

The world needs more and more Arvind K Singhal,,like chairmen and managing directors of Technoparks management consulting firms telling ET that physical retailers could have a brighter future by expanding their delivery services instead.”E-commerce portals need more investment in supply-chain development, especially in sourcing, delivery and customer acquisition. In the near future, Reliance and Flipkart may also come up with their own online grocery stores, giving more competition. So when local retailers do the same, they might be biting off more than they can chew as Profit making is not its concern.
by Keonics and and others to be functional at the earliest, with initial investment crores of Rupees, Pounds, Dollars Etc.

Hopcoms and other co-operatives that encourage producing fruit and vegetables and dwarf fruit bearing plants and trees most must also extend their activities,”Everybody must be ready to have more Hopcoms outlets in the world; with enough financial and personnel strength for it. The BBMP and all other people must and should start giving land for the purpose,” as said by Gowda.

E-commerce portals may not necessarily be the best way as it is not for increasing profit in the grocery sector.

The world needs more and more Arvind K Singhal,,like chairmen and managing directors of Technoparks management consulting firms telling ET that physical retailers could have a brighter future by expanding their delivery services instead.”E-commerce portals need more investment in supply-chain development, especially in sourcing, delivery and customer acquisition. In the near future, Reliance and Flipkart may also come up with their own online grocery stores, giving more competition. So when local retailers do the same, they might be biting off more than they can chew as Profit making is not its concern.

About the crores of Rupees, Dollars, Pounds investment, Singhal says : “If they use that money to get their website listed at the top in a Google search, and in marketing via social media, they might make more benefit to the hungry humans.”

However, Mukesh Singh, CEO of Zopnow, an online grocery store based in Bangalore, need it feel that his company makes any revenue at all through fruits and vegetables alone as it’s hunger but not profit.

More and more Zopnow, like online groceries must start their projects all over the world to start providing vegetables and fruits through their websites.

3-12-2021 Peace, Happiness, Wellness, Calmity, Calmness, Attention, Attentiveness, and All Mindful Beings willhave equanimity mind with a clear understanding that every thing change.

https://www.winterwatch.net/2020/11/maker-of-covid-tests-says-pandemic-is-biggest-hoax-ever-perpetrated/

https://www.winterwatch.net/2020/11/maker-of-covid-tests-says-pandemic-is-biggest-hoax-ever-perpetrated/

Maker of COVID Tests Says Pandemic is Biggest Hoax Ever Perpetrated

By G. Edward Griffin | 21 November 2020

RED PILL UNIVERSITY — Top pathologist Dr. Roger Hodkinson told Canadian government officials in Alberta during a phone conference that the coronavirus pandemic is “the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on an unsuspecting public.” Hodkinson, who is the CEO of a biotech company that makes COVID tests, says “There is utterly unfounded public hysteria driven by the media and politicians.” We are seeing “politics playing medicine, and that’s a very dangerous game.”

Positive test results do not mean a clinical infection, he says. All testing should stop because the false numbers they produce are “driving public hysteria.” Hodkinson says the risk of death for people under the age of 65 is “one in three-hundred thousand” and it is “outrageous” to shut down society for what is merely “just another bad flu.” […]

https://djibouti.bpositivenow.com/mayawati-bsp-mlas-join-sp-illusion-calling-former-ally-anti-dalit/

பகுஜன் சமாஜ் கட்சி உத்தரபிரதேசத்திலும், நாடு முழுவதும் “மக்கள் அபிலாஷைகள்” கட்சியாக வளர்ந்துள்ளது, மேலும் இந்த திசையில் தொடர்ந்து செயல்படும்.

வெறும் 0.1% தேசிய விரோத துரோகிகள் - பென் இஸ்ரேல், திபெத், ஆபிரிக்கா, மேற்கு ஐரோப்பா, மேற்கு ஜெர்மனி, தென் ரஷ்யா, வடக்கு ஐரோப்பா, ரவுடி ஸ்வயம் சேவக்ஸின் (ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ்) ஹங்கேரி சிட்பவன் பிராமணர்கள் வெறுப்பு, வன்முறை, போர்க்குணமிக்க நம்பர் ஒன் பயங்கரவாதிகள் சகிப்புத்தன்மை, கோபம், பொறாமை, மாயை மற்றும் முட்டாள்தனம் ஆகியவற்றிலிருந்து வெளிவந்த பயத்திலிருந்து வெளிவந்த உலகம், எப்போதும் துப்பாக்கிச் சூடு, கும்பல் கொலை, பைத்தியம், முட்டாள்தனம், ஏனெனில் அவர்கள் மோசடி ஈ.வி.எம்-களை தங்கள் தாயின் மாமிசம் சாப்பிடும் அடிமைகள், கைக்கூலிகள், பெவகூஃப் ஜூத்தே மனநோயாளிகளின் (பிஜேபி) ஜனநாயகக் கழகத்தின் (மோடி) சப்ரசிஸ், சாம்சாக்கள், சேலாக்கள், அவர்கள் இப்போது அம்பலமாகி வருவதால் அவர்கள் எப்போதும் பயப்படுகிறார்கள், அவர்கள் 99.9% அனைத்து விழித்தெழுந்த பழங்குடி சமூகங்களின் அடிமைகளாக இருக்க விரும்புகிறார்கள்.

ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ் சிட்பவன் பிராமணர்கள்
/ வெறுக்கத்தக்க கையாளுதல், வெறுப்பு மற்றும் சாதி என்ற குறுகிய அரசியலில் நிபுணத்துவம் பெற்ற பாஜக, ஊடகங்களின் உதவியுடன் சில பகுஜன் சமாஜ் கட்சி அவர்களுடன் சேர பிரிந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறது என்று பரப்ப விரும்புகிறது, ஆனால் அது ஒரு மோசமான மாயை “சல்லவா”

BSP has developed itself in Uttar Pradesh and through out country as the “People’s Aspirations” party and will continue to work in this direction.

Just 0.1% anti national traitors - foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Western Europe, Western Germany, South Russia, Northern Europe, Hungary chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) practicing hatred, violence, militancy number one terrorists of the world,ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded out of intolerance, anger, jealous, delusion and stupidity out of fear having exposed because they gobbled the Master Key by tampering the Fraud EVMs with their own mother’s flesh eating slaves, stooges, chaprasis, chamchas, chelas, Mad murderers of democratic institutiond (Modi) of Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP)are alway scared as they are now exposed they wish to be the slaves of 99.9% All Awakened Aboriginal Societies.

RSS chitpavan brahmins
/ BJP which specializes in the narrow politics of hateful manipulation, hate and caste, wants to spread with the help of the media that some BSP are breaking up to join the them but it is a scandalous delusion “challava”

BSP has developed itself in Uttar Pradesh and through out country as the “People’s Aspirations” party and will continue to work in this direction.

Just 0.1% anti national traitors - foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Western Europe, Western Germany, South Russia, Northern Europe, Hungary chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) practicing hatred, violence, militancy number one terrorists of the world,ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded out of intolerance, anger, jealous, delusion and stupidity out of fear having exposed because they gobbled the Master Key by tampering the Fraud EVMs with their own mother’s flesh eating slaves, stooges, chaprasis, chamchas, chelas, Mad murderers of democratic institutiond (Modi) of Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP)are alway scared as they are now exposed they wish to be the slaves of 99.9% All Awakened Aboriginal Societies.

RSS chitpavan brahmins
/ BJP which specializes in the narrow politics of hateful manipulation, hate and caste, wants to spread with the help of the media that some BSP are breaking up to join the them but it is a scandalous delusion “challava”

Mayawati: BSP MLAs join SP ‘illusion’, “challava” calling former ally ‘Anti-SC/STs’

She also warned that if the SP introduced these MLAs into the party fold, they would face a rebellion from their MLAs, who are eager to cross into the BSP.

“The Samajwadi Party, which specializes in the narrow politics of hateful manipulation, hate and caste, wants to spread with the help of the media that some BSP MLAs are breaking up to join the SP, but it is a scandalous delusion,” it said in its statement. in Hindi.

Mayawati added that BSP MLAs had already been suspended to ensure that “son of Scheduled Caste ” was defeated during the Rajya Sabha elections “with the collusion of an industrialist”.

“Had the SP been a bit frank about these suspended MLAs, it would not have kept them in a quandary. The Socialist Party knows that if these organizations are brought into the party fold, there will be a rebellion in the Socialist Party, whose leaders are eager to join the BSP,” she added.

The BSP chief claimed that the SP was a “SC/STs virodhi” (against SC/STs) and thus when in power, he stopped the public welfare work started by the BSP-led government in the state. She cited an example of how the Bhadohi district, named after Saint Ravidas Nagar, was renamed by the state’s Socialist Party-led government and described it as “the most damning”.

She claimed that meeting with suspended MLAs was the “new drama” for SP which was enacted ahead of the upcoming Zila Panchayat and Block pramukh elections in the state.

It also claimed that BSP has developed itself in Uttar Pradesh and through out country as the “People’s Aspirations” party and will continue to work in this direction.

comments (0)
06/15/21
LESSON 4002 Wed 16 Jun 2021 From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages. May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.
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Posted by: site admin @ 1:31 pm

LESSON 4002 Wed 16 Jun 2021 From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages. May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as Said by an Awakened One with Awareness “Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha) May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

https://www.superfoodly.com/buddhas-hand/

holding hand with fingered citron fruit
What Is Buddha’s Hand Fruit & How Do You Eat It?
SuperfoodlyJanuary 1, 2018
30
SHARES

Contents [hide]
What is Buddha’s hand?
What does it taste like?
What does it smell like?
Nutrition facts
Health benefits
Nerve regeneration
Lower blood sugar
Anti-inflammatory
Alleviating lump in throat
How to eat Buddha’s hand on

Storing the fruit
What to do with Buddha’s hand
1. Use as an edible novelty for parties
2. Cook with vegetables
3. Make an herbal tea
4. Boil for jam and marmalade
5. Infusion for vodka and cocktails
6. Candied fruit
7. Air freshener
Where to buy
How to grow
It wouldn’t bode well for marketing, but “Medusa’s head” would be just as fitting of a name for this ball of freakish tentacles.
Despite the out of this world appearance, it’s a totally natural and non-GMO fruit that offers creative uses for culinary, and perhaps some health benefits to boot.

What is Buddha’s hand?

Buddha’s hand is natural variation of the regular citron (Citrus medica). Historians believe the fingered variety was brought to China by way of India thanks to traveling Buddhists and hence, the origin of its name. Also known as fingered citron, this yellow fruit splits in segments that look like fingers.

The scientific name for it is Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis. It’s a small tree, ranging from 8 to 15 feet in height, while the dwarf variety is just 5 feet. With a USDA hardiness zone requirement of 10 to 11 to grow successfully, the Buddha’s hand tree is not frost tolerant. Temperatures can’t drop below 40°F (4.4°C).

Its exact history is a bit murky, though evidence points to it making its way to the Far East sometime after the 4th century AD. Following the collapse of the famous Tang dynasty, historical records from the empire of Min (909 to 945 AD) confirm it was in existence and considered to be an important fruit.

There are yellow and green citron fruits of different shapes, with this being the most exotic.
In Traditional Chinese medicine and folklore, it is believed to symbolize happiness, longevity, and wealth. Giving a potted Buddha’s hand tree as a gift for Chinese New Year is believed to bring good fortune to the recipient. It was and still is used as a sacrificial offering at their temples.

In fact, it is such a prized object there, the plant gets depicted in jade, ivory, and wood carvings.

The Japanese Buddhist monk, Myoan Eisai, is believed to be responsible for bringing the tea plant from China to his homeland, where the art of how to make matcha would be born. No one knows who brought the citron Buddha hand to Japan, but it has also been held in high esteem there for centuries. They call it bushukan and it’s popular for their New Years, too.

Sources: Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry (1) (2)

What does it taste like?

Buddha’s hand fruit is edible. The best way to describe its flavor is that of a lemon peel, but without any sourness or bitterness. There is a hint of sweetness, though it’s subtle. With no flesh, pulp, or seeds inside, the fingered citron is practically all rind. There’s no juice or moisture as you experience with most fruits.

Even though the taste is pleasant, the texture is not. It’s like chewing raw eggplant, minus the bitterness. That’s why it’s usually used in recipes rather than eaten as a raw, whole fruit.

What does it smell like?

The smell of fresh Buddha’s hand is lemony and floral. Everyone seems to love it, men included. Setting a whole fruit on the kitchen counter or as a decorative ornament in a room will keep that area smelling like lemon and lavender for up to two weeks’ time.

Many uses of the fruit are based on its pleasant fragrance.

Buddha’s hand fruit

One of which is using it as a table centerpiece, preferably with a few leaves still attached. It serves as both a decorative ornament and an air freshener.

A way to enjoy the fragrance without the fruit is to use Buddha’s hand essential oil. It can be made by steam distilling fruit and extracting the volatile oils. Unfortunately, you won’t be able to buy this from Doterra, Plant Therapy and the like. It’s not made commercially by those brands nor others.

The next best thing will be oils and fragrances made using citron fruit. After all, both are the same Citrus medica species, albeit different strains.

There is an excellent smelling body lotion from Crabtree & Evelyn that’s scented with citron, honey, and coriander. You can get it on Amazon.

Nutrition facts

As with many rare fruits and vegetables, you won’t find an entry for it among the 225,000 foods in the USDA National Nutrient Database.

Whether it’s scientific literature or that of major suppliers like Frieda’s, no one has published the complete nutritional information for Buddha’s hand. Nor is a company like Frieda’s obligated to do so, because there’s a reporting loophole for produce.

Since the facts haven’t been published for Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, the best nutritional guidance comes from Citrus medica (regular citron fruit). It doesn’t have fingers but it’s makeup is comparable.

Based on that, these would be the expected nutrition facts for Buddha’s hand citron.

Buddha’s Hand Nutrition Facts
Serving Size: 100 g (about 3.5 ounces)
Calories 29
% Daily Value* % Daily Value
Total Fat 0.3 g 0% Vitamin A 0.01 mg <1%
Saturated Fat 0 g 0% Thiamine (B1) 0.5 mg 33%
Trans Fat 0 g Riboflavin (B2) 0.3 mg 23%
Sodium 0mg Niacin (B3) 0.13 mg <1%
Total Carbs. 9.3 g 3% Vitamin C 368 mg 409%
Fiber 4 g 14% Calcium 36 mg 3.6%
Total Sugars 2.5g Phosphorus 16mg 1.6%
Protein 1.1 g Iron 0.55mg 3%
*Percent Daily Values (DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
Whether it’s fingered citron or a more regular-looking variety, since they’re basically thick rinds without flesh, the calorie count and grams of sugar will be low, while their fiber content is high.

The 29 calories for a 3.5 oz. fruit will come with around 9g of carbs but very little sugar (fructose).

Because not even citrons are in the USDA database, these facts have to be sourced from other sources. (3) (4)

Health benefits

In Traditional Chinese medicine, dried Buddha’s hand is called Fo Shou or its full pharmaceutical name, Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis.

According to their beliefs, it helps regulate Qi (vital energy) and does so in the liver, lungs, stomach, and spleen. They say it helps to dissolve phlegm and relieve coughing. Fo Shou tea and tinctures are the way it’s typically used in TCM. (5)

In western medicine and science, very little has been published on this plant. It’s not proven to work for anything. These are the health benefits of Buddha hand which have some preliminary research on them:

Nerve regeneration

Scientists in Taiwan have found that when cultured cells were exposed to a water-based Buddha’s hand extract, there was higher expression in fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). This promoted the growth of Schwann cells, which make the sheath surrounding neuronal axons. The more extract used, the higher the FGF-2 production they saw. (6)

Lower blood sugar

This has never been studied in humans, but researchers have reported that the essential oils in Buddha’s hand appeared to have beneficial effects on blood glucose levels in rats. The main chemical constituents inside the essential oil are:

24% d-limonene
71% gamma-terpenene
40% alpha-pinene
88% beta-pinene
While none of these are unique compounds, the profiles of common essential oils don’t have them in these same percentages. (7)

Anti-inflammatory

South Koreans report that the fruit’s essential oil suppressed inflammation through several mechanisms.

When cultured cells were treated with it, the expression of several enzymatic reactions that cause inflammation were favorably influenced:

prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)
cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)
tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)
interleukin (IL)-1ß
IL-6
NF-KB
JNK
ERK
Some of these anti-inflammatory effects are shared with the capsaicin content in hot sauce. (8)

The Chinese report that the stem and bark extracts also reduce inflammation in lab tests. (9)

Alleviating lump in throat

Globus pharyngis is the medical term for the constant feeling of having a lump in your throat. It’s the feeling you get from a pill or phlegm that’s stuck there. Often times though, nothing is stuck at all, as it’s really just the nerves there giving a false signal.

At Yangzhou University in China, 46 patients were treated with the TCM remedy Fo Shou made from the fruit. The dosage was taken 3 times per day and found to be more effective at alleviating this side effect versus the sore-throat treatment it was pitted against. (10)

How to eat Buddha’s hand

Buddha cut in halves

The easiest way to eat Buddha’s hand is to cut it in half as you would a lemon. The thick yellow skin is very nutritious, though eating high amounts may give you a stomach ache. That’s why if you’re eating it raw, you only want small amounts of the skin remaining given how fibrous it is.

sliced Buddha

Cutting it in very thin slices, like an onion, is a good way to not be overwhelmed by the dull and chewy texture. It also minimizes the amount of yellow rind you are consuming per serving.

diced fingered citron without skin

If you want to remove the yellow rind entirely, then cutting it into chunks like you would butternut squash is the best way to accomplish that. You can’t skin it like a cucumber or carrot given it’s odd shape.

Even though the flavor of fingered citron is enjoyable – like a lemon without sourness – it’s not a fruit you will want to eat a bowl of. The best use for it is as a presentation piece when you want to wow the people you are serving.

Rather than cutting lengthwise, slicing it like starfruit so you can see the shape will preserve some of its exotic appearance.

grated fingered citron

The entire fruit of Buddha’s hand can be grated, much like carrots. These shavings can be used to garnish desserts and as a substitute for any recipe that incorporates lemon zest.

Storing the fruit

How to store Buddha’s hand is the same as lemons. If you haven’t cut them yet, then they can be stored at room temperature as long as they are kept away from sources of heat, such as your furnace vent and stove. Don’t store on top of the fridge, because that surface gets hot too.

Refrigerating the fruit will prolong its freshness, however the cold may change the flavor slightly, especially if it’s stored for several days or longer. Remember this tree normally grows in a climate that never drops below 40°F and your refrigerator is a couple degrees cooler than that.

Once it has been cut, refrigeration will be required to avoid the growth of bacteria. Keep it in a closed container to avoid it drying out.

Unlike iceberg lettuce or apples, there is limited water content to begin with, which means that freezing Buddha’s hand is an option for storage. Rather than freeze the whole fruit, your best bet is to first slice, dice, or grate it into the pieces you want and then put those in Ziploc freezer bags.

What to do with Buddha’s hand

1. Use as an edible novelty for parties

Because it’s so expensive, it’s kind of wasteful to use it in a manner that hides its unique appearance. If that’s happening, using plain citron fruit will be cheaper and similar for taste, smell, and the nutrition facts.

This is why however you choose to use it, you will want to showcase its appearance in the process.

fingertips of Buddha’s hand

Looking like a gnarled hand naturally lends itself to Halloween parties. Or a fun birthday bash. Keep one of them intact, with another sliced into small pieces on the same platter. Preferably sliced like a starfruit, so the novel shape is reiterated.

2. Cook with vegetables

Cooking with Buddha’s hand fruit works best in savory dishes. It adds a lemony zest flavor and the sautéing will make the texture much more palatable, similar to the transformation of eggplant when it’s cooked. Though unlike eggplant, there’s no prep work needed to remove bitterness.

Adding fingered citron to steamed tofu, rice, fish, and pasta are all possibilities. Get creative because any recipe that you think will work with lemon zest will work with Buddha’s hand.

3. Make an herbal tea

With so little liquid inside, you can’t juice it. Buddha hand fruit tea is the only viable way to drink it. The recipe calls for boiling the fruit in water for 10-20 minutes and then screening out the parts so you are left with just the lemon flavored water.

The tea is particularly useful for the odds and ends pieces you have leftover from something else. It’s a way to not waste any of this expensive fruit.

4. Boil for jam and marmalade

It’s a lot of work, but if you’re into making homemade jams and fruit preserves, this is an excellent choice – either by itself or mixed with other fruits.

Before you experiment with a Buddha’s hand recipe for marmalade, it would probably be a good idea to know what it tastes like. After all, since this fruit costs around $10 (or more) a piece, you may be spending $100 just on this one ingredient to make a couple jars!

No one sells marmalade that uses it but to get an idea for what it would taste like, buy some citron marmalade. We have yet to see it for sale at stores in the United States or Canada, though you can pick up a jar on Amazon.

5. Infusion for vodka and cocktails

Absolut Citron has been one of the brand’s bestsellers since its introduction in the 80’s. The official description says “citrus flavor” so who knows if there’s even citron fruit inside. It may be just lemons.

No one sells it but you could make some Buddha’s hand vodka yourself. Dice up the fruit and put it in a sealed Fido jar with an unflavored vodka of your choosing. Store it in the fridge for 7 days and then strain the solids. The recipe is that simple.

Cocktails can be made with it too. Rather than a wedge of a lemon or lime, a piece of fingered citron will certainly be the conversation starter.

6. Candied fruit

What is candied Buddha’s hand? It may be the most popular way this fruit is eaten.

Cut one large fruit into small chunks or strips.
In a medium pot, combine with ½ cup of sugar and 1 cup of water.
Simmer for 30 minutes.
Strain excess liquid and lay pieces on parchment paper to dry.
For best presentation, roll in powdered sugar prior to serving.
If you’re using sugar of any kind, you can’t kid yourself and say that candied Buddha’s hand is healthy. Though aeast it packs a fair amount of fiber. It’s certainly not any worse for you than most other varieties of dried fruit. Dried cranberries and cherries you buy at the store always have added sugar, unfortunately.

If you want to make a fingered citron candy that’s actually healthy, instead of using sugar in the recipe try monk fruit.

7. Air freshener

Who says you have to eat it on day one? Before embarking on the edible uses for Buddha’s hand, enjoy its natural perfume.

In China, a Buddha’s hand flower arrangement makes use of it for both aesthetics and scent. In your house, it could be something as simple as having a place in your fruit bowl.

Where to buy

Buddha hand fruit at grocery store in California

It’s one of the hardest fruits to find for sale, at least in societies dominated by Western culture, such as the US and UK. In both of these countries, you may be able to find Buddha’s hand at a Chinese supermarket which carries exotic fruits.

In the US you really only encounter these markets in places like Southern California (e.g. 99 Ranch Market) and New York City (H Mart). There are others though, including in mid-sized cities that have a significant Chinese or Japanese population.

In London, try Loon Fung supermarket.

Whole Foods has been known to carry finger citron, though we have yet to see it at their Los Angeles locations.

Surprisingly when in-season, it’s sold at Ralph’s, which is the California arm of Kroger.

When is Buddha’s hand in season? Assuming it’s being grown in the northern hemisphere, the season will be October through January. Availability outside of those months will be limited to greenhouse growers and exports from the southern hemisphere, like Australia and New Zealand.

The cost to buy a Buddha’s hand fruit in the US, UK, and even China is quite expensive relative to common fruits and vegetables. At the Ralph’s in Manhattan Beach, CA the price is $10 per fruit, though most places sell by the pound. If by quantity, buy the biggest on the shelf!

PLU 4391Before you go driving around town on a wild goose chase to find them, we recommend calling the store ahead of time that you think might have it.

The PLU for Buddha’s hand is 4391. That’s for conventionally grown.

Frieda’s seems to be the biggest supplier in the US. With the exception of an independent grower at a local farmer’s market, no one is selling organic.

Dried Buddha hand should be available at TCM shops under the name Fo Shou (佛手).

How to grow

Since the fresh fruit is so hard to find for sale, perhaps you would prefer a tree in your backyard!

map of USDA hardiness zones in the United States

Growing requires zone 10 to 11, with the latter really being the more accurate representation. Even for zone 10 you are limited to Hawaii and the southernmost parts of California, Texas, and Florida.

That’s one of the reason you never see Buddha’s hand fruit seeds for sale at your local nursery. Another reason is that this strain of citron has been bred to produce virtually seedless fruit.

It’s a myth to say the seeds don’t exist at all, but they’re hard to obtain from the fresh fruit itself. This is why cuttings are better and ideally, a seedling is best.

Where to buy Buddha’s hand tree? Mail-order may be your only option.

One Green World sells a dwarf tree that begins bearing fruit 1-2 years after planting and its mature height is just 3-5 feet. They even market it for zone 9 growing. The bad news is they say “We can’t ship citrus to California, Arizona, and Florida” due to the laws.

Whether dwarf or regular, if you get your hands on one of these fingered citron strains, make sure you plant the tree or seed in full sunlight and water it regularly, as you would a lemon tree.

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June 15, 2021 Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
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From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of the Univerasal Volunteers with the Awareness Universe” (FOARPU4DUVAU) in 117 Classical Languages.
May we appeal to the List of all UNIVERSAL VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS striving hard to
PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD AS PRACTICED BY SAMRAT ASHOKA as
Said by an Awakened One with Awareness
“Hunger is the worst illness, where 4 times Chief Minister Ms Mayawati who became eligible to be the Prime Minister with her excellent governance of Uttar Pradesh promised to reestablish Ashokan rule along with the farmers
compounded existence the worst suffering or aliment (dukkha) with ending of ailments ( dukkha Nirodha)
May we give importance to Awakened One’s teachings in this angle for the peace, happiness, welfare of all sentient and non sentient beings like the birds not depending on anyone so that all may attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.




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https://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/buddhas-hand-fruit-recipes

What Can You Do with a Buddha’s Hand?

Rating: Unrated

Be the first to rate & review!
I spent $13.52 on a single piece of fruit, so I was darned sure I was going to get my money’s worth. I’ve always balked at buying Buddha’s hands. What does a person actually do with such a thing? And what even is a Buddha’s hand? It’s some sort of citrus, obviously, and a short-season one at that. But it’s not as if you can just roll up to your local grocery story at any time of year and impulse-buy them to futz around with. So I did my homework. Then I got to zesting.A Buddha’s hand is a multi-fingered citron that, unlike a lemon or orange, is juice-free and straight-up peel and spongy pith. While this might seem like an extravagant bummer of a fruit, the magic of the Buddha’s hand is that the whole thing is edible. The notion of wasting food is abhorrent to me (thank you, Catholic school nuns), so I was thrilled to learn that in addition to the heady outer peel, the pith is much less bitter than that of its juicy, spherical brethren, and can be sliced raw or cooked and used in salads, baked goods, preserves, pickles, infusions, or whatever strikes your fancy.And that peel. A swipe of the Microplane or grater releases its bright, potent perfume, and the resultant zest brings lift and light to vegetables, vinegar, baked goods, and even booze. In the course of an afternoon, I used up every single scrap of this pricey produce making Buddha’s hand salt, sugar, ‘cello, preserves, and syrup. And if I could get my hands on another, I’d do it again.Buddha’s Hand CelloLove lemoncello? Buddha’s hand cello is an extra-aromatic alternative to this high-proof citrus infusion. Using a vegetable peeler or sharp knife, remove the rind in generous strips, working finger by finger if you must. Place those strips in a clear, tightly-lidded vessel and top them with a grain neutral spirit (like Everclear) or a 100-proof vodka. Drain the whole 750-milliliter bottle if you feel so moved. Close tightly, and let that mixture steep for at least 4 days, or 2-4 weeks if you have the patience. When it’s sufficiently perfumed (you’ll know), strain out the solids with a fine mesh strainer or a clean linen towel. Make a simple syrup with 2 cups of water and 2 cups of sugar simmered together in a saucepan until thickened. Let that cool to room temperature, then pour half of it into the alcohol, stir thoroughly, and taste. Add more syrup until it’s to your desired level of sweetness, then pour it into a lidded container, let it steep for two more weeks, and serve.Note: Leftover syrup from the preserves recipe below makes the flavor even more robust.Buddha’s Hand Sugar and SaltZest the Buddha’s hand peel and place it on a baking sheet in your oven, set at the lowest possible temperature (if it has a keep warm setting, that’s ideal), and bake for 20 minutes. If the zest seems dry, remove it from the oven. Otherwise, check on it in 5-minute increments. To make sugar: Combine 2 tablespoons of dried zest with 1 cup of sugar. Let the mixture sit for about 30 minutes, and if it’s turned to sludge, add more sugar. Store in a sealed container, and let the flavors meld for about a week before using to top baked goods, make a rim for cocktail glasses, sprinkle on fruit, or seriously—just sniff. It’s absolute heaven.To make salt: Combine 4 tablespoons of dried zest with 1 cup of coarse or chunky salt (I prefer Maldon). Shake together or use a mortar and pestle or a few buzzes in a food processor to combine. Sprinkle it on vegetables or poultry, mix it into dressings, or use it anywhere that could use a hint of sunshine. Buddha’s Hand Preserves

https://youtu.be/aJD4OZYKfes Buddha’s Hand Fruit

https://youtu.be/70hIpg1W-wcAmazing agriculture of Buddha’s Hand Fruit

https://youtu.be/VtkvQP1KdqY Buddha’s Hand Fruit care and guide

https://youtu.be/QMUM-NovptY Buddha’s Hand Fruit hand benefits and uses

https://youtu.be/729mRi29yrQ Buddha’s Hand Fruit hand Bonsai

https://youtu.be/OJjcyM2FMow

அதற்கான அறிவியல் பெயர் சிட்ரஸ் மெடிகா வர். sarcodactylis. இது ஒரு சிறிய மரம், 8 முதல் 15 அடி உயரம் வரை, குள்ள வகை 5 அடி மட்டுமே. வெற்றிகரமாக வளர யு.எஸ்.டி.ஏ கடினத்தன்மை மண்டலத்தின் தேவை 10 முதல் 11 வரை, புத்தரின் கை மரம் உறைபனி சகிப்புத்தன்மையற்றது அல்ல. வெப்பநிலை 40 ° F (4.4 ° C) க்கு கீழே குறைய முடியாது.
புத்தரின் கை வழக்கமான சிட்ரானின் (சிட்ரஸ் மெடிகா) இயல்பான மாறுபாடு ஆகும்.

பயணித்த ப ists த்தர்களுக்கு நன்றி செலுத்தும் விதமாக இந்தியா வழியாக விரல் வகை சீனாவிற்கு கொண்டு வரப்பட்டதாக வரலாற்றாசிரியர்கள் நம்புகின்றனர், எனவே அதன் பெயரின் தோற்றம். விரல் சிட்ரான் என்றும் அழைக்கப்படும் இந்த மஞ்சள் பழம் விரல்களைப் போன்ற பகுதிகளாகப் பிரிக்கிறது.

மேற்கு தம்பரம் சென்னையின் 10 அமல் நகருக்கு 6 அன்புள்ள புத்தர் கை பழ மரங்களை அனுப்பவும். அதற்கான செலவை எனக்குத் தெரியப்படுத்துங்கள். ஜெகதீசன் சந்திரசேகரன் குறித்து

The scientific name for it is Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis. It’s a small tree, ranging from 8 to 15 feet in height, while the dwarf variety is just 5 feet. With a USDA hardiness zone requirement of 10 to 11 to grow successfully, the Buddha’s hand tree is not frost tolerant. Temperatures can’t drop below 40°F (4.4°C).
Buddha’s hand is natural variation of the regular citron (Citrus medica).

Historians believe the fingered variety was brought to China by way of India thanks to traveling Buddhists and hence, the origin of its name. Also known as fingered citron, this yellow fruit splits in segments that look like fingers.

Please send 6 dearf Buddha hand fruit trees to 10 Amal Nagar, West Tambaram Chennai. let me know the cost for the same. with regards JagatheesanChandrasekharan

https://youtu.be/wKjibTZofzg

Shivaji Ganeshan as Socrstese in Raja Rani and Samrat Ashoka in Annain aanai

ராஜா ராணி படத்தில் சிவாஜி கணேஷனும், அன்னெய்ன் அனாயில் சாம்ராட் அசோகாவும்

https://youtu.be/iHwXc6G-kew

Shivaji Ganeshan as Socrstese in Raja Rani and Samrat Ashoka in Annain aanai

ராஜா ராணி படத்தில் சிவாஜி கணேஷனும், அன்னெய்ன் அனாயில் சாம்ராட் அசோகாவும்

https://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2016/11/16/mr-modi-corporate-criminals/

To

Mr.Modi & Corporate Criminals | e - Voice For Justice
Search domain evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.comhttps://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2016/11/16/mr-modi-corporate-criminals/
PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF. MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA. To , Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion. Justices of the Supreme Court of India.

E – VOICE FOR JUSTICE
enews weekly
HUMAN RIGHTS
Mr.Modi & Corporate Criminals
16/11/2016NAGARAJA M R

S.O.S e – Voice For Justice – e-news weekly
Spreading the light of humanity & freedom

Editor: Nagaraja.M.R.. Vol.12..Issue.47….….26/11/2016

Editorial : NO AMNESTY to Back Money Launderers

– CORPORATE CRIMINALS / CORPORATE TERRORISTS / TAX THIEVES RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL ILLS IN INDIA

In India , a small shop owner to big industrialist have mastered the art of TAX EVASION . their teachers – some corrupt tax officials & auditors. The black money thus created is causing inflation, feeding the mafia , underworld. Some industrialists lobby ( bribe ) with the government & gets favourable laws enacted. This black money is the main source of funds for political parties , religious bodies & terrorist outfits.

The recent raids by C.B.I & KARNATAKA LOKAYUKTHA have proved how the tax officials have become multi-millionaires. The sad part is that some of the police officials who are on deputation to C.B.I & LOKAYUKTHA themselves are utterly corrupt.

This scourge can only be cured by corporate accountability intoto. However , all the industrialists , traders who are demanding for more flexible labour reforms , economic reforms , infrastructure , etc are not at all concerned about their own accountability with respect to tax , environment , other laws. The MNCs coming to India are not coming here for best Indian talents or infrastructure alone. In their own countries they are feeling the
heat of strict environment laws , consumer laws , share holder disclosures , corporate accountability. Some of these MNCs are being kicked out of their countries , by it’s own people .These MNCs are aware that in India , by greasing the palms environment laws , labour laws , tax laws , etc everything can be flouted , cases in courts can be dragged on for years . share holder disclosures , corporate transparency is minimum.

However when a concerned citizen complains about the crimes of guilty corporates , organizations or corrupt public servants , immediate action is not taken. The file is kept pending for months , years together , allowing the criminals to manipulate all the evidences , records , ground situations. Finally even if action is taken guilty will be let out due to favorable evidences , there are chances that the concerned citizen himself is falsely implicated & put behind bars . in all such cases all the involved parties must be subjected to lie detector tests .

Black Money & Crime are inter twined , two faces of the same coin . Amnesty must not be given to black money launderers , it is nothing but legalizing the crimes of big criminals & crimes which are sources of black money. Thereby , government is giving legal sanction to those criminals to commit more crimes to accumulate black money and government itself is waiving off it’s duty to legally prosecute those black money launderers for the crimes which are the sources of those ill gotten money. As per the constitution , government must do it’s duty to uphold law , it cann’t waive off it’s own duties. If a government cann’t do it’s duty , it must get out of the seat.

Police , Government , Judges spend thousands of rupees public money to legally prosecute a small thief caught for stealing hundred rupees , where as now letting out big time looters who have stolen millions of rupees public money , who have earned money through swindling banks , share holders , earned money by illegal money lending , rowdyism , drug trafficking , human trafficking , etc. It is against principle of equitable justice , law. If the government is not able to catch , prosecute these black money launderers , it is unfit to be in the seat.

Bottomline : development is a must , it must be all around . but not at the cost of majority to make a few richer. Law of the Land is one and same for all Tom , Dick & Harry.

Jai Hind. Vande Mataram.

Your’s sincerely,

Nagaraja.M.R.

PIL – NO AMNESTY to Black Money Launderers

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

CRIMINAL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2015

IN THE MATTER OF

NAGARAJA . M.R

editor SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice
# LIG 2 , No 761 ,, HUDCO First Stage , Laxmikantanagar ,
Hebbal , Mysore – 570017 , Karnataka State
.
….Petitioner

Versus

Cabinet Secretary , Government of India & Others

….Respondents

PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.

To ,
Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion
Justices of the Supreme Court of India.

The Humble petition of the Petitioner above named.

MOST RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH :
1. Facts of the case:
“Power will go to the hands of rascals, , rogues and freebooters. All Indian leaders will be of low calibre and men of straw. They will have sweet tongues and silly hearts. They will fight among themselves for
power and will be lost in political squabbles . A day would come when even air & water will be taxed.” Sir Winston made this statement in the House of Commons just before the independence of India & Pakistan. Sadly , the forewarning of Late Winston Churchill has been proved right by some of our criminal , corrupt public servants.

2. Corruption is rampant in tax enforcement , law enforcement agencies of the government.

3. In India , a small shop owner to big industrialist have mastered the art of TAX EVASION . their teachers – some corrupt tax officials & auditors. The black money thus created is causing inflation, feeding the mafia , underworld. Some industrialists lobby ( bribe ) with the government & gets favourable laws enacted. This black money is the main source of funds for political parties , religious bodies & terrorist outfits.

The recent raids by C.B.I & KARNATAKA LOKAYUKTHA have proved how the tax officials have become multi-millionaires. The sad part is that some of the police officials who are on deputation to C.B.I & LOKAYUKTHA themselves are utterly corrupt.

This scourge can only be cured by corporate accountability intoto. However , all the industrialists , traders who are demanding for more flexible labour reforms , economic reforms , infrastructure , etc are not at all concerned about their own accountability with respect to tax , environment , other laws. The MNCs coming to India are not coming here for best Indian talents or infrastructure alone. In their own countries they are feeling the
heat of strict environment laws , consumer laws , share holder disclosures , corporate accountability. Some of these MNCs are being kicked out of their countries , by it’s own people .These MNCs are aware that in India , by greasing the palms environment laws , labour laws , tax laws , etc everything can be flouted , cases in courts can be dragged on for years . share holder disclosures , corporate transparency is minimum.

4. However when a concerned citizen complains about the crimes of guilty corporates , organizations or corrupt public servants , immediate action is not taken. The file is kept pending for months , years together , allowing the criminals to manipulate all the evidences , records , ground situations. Finally even if action is taken guilty will be let out due to favorable evidences , there are chances that the concerned citizen himself is falsely implicated & put behind bars . in all such cases all the involved parties must be subjected to lie detector tests .

2. Question(s) of Law:

Is it right for banks , tax authorities , government to let out fraudsters , guilty bank executives , guilty tax officials without criminal prosecution & recovery ?

3. Grounds:
Requests for equitable justice , Prosecution of master minds of financial frauds / tax evasions.

4. Averment:

Covering up Financial Frauds. Please read details at :

https://sites.google.com/site/sosevoiceforjustice/rbi—robberer-s-bureau-of-india ,

https://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2015/07/19/rbi-robberers-bureau-of-india/ ,

Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the questions.

The Petitioner has sent many letters / appeals / petitions to supreme court of india & other courts through e-mail , DARPG website & through regular mail requesting them to consider those as PILs. But none ofthem were admitted , even acknowledgement for receipts were not given. See How duty conscious ,our judges are & see how our judges are sensitive towards life , liberty of citizens , commonmen & see howcareless our judges are towards anti national crimes , crimes worth crores of rupees. That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition (which are admitted by courts) in any High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of the present petition.

PRAYER:
In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:
a . Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants , Tax Authorities , Law Enforcement Agencies , RBI authorities in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the below RTI questions.
b . to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.

c. To legally prosecute responsible bank executives & fraudsters.

d. To make it mandatory for all bank executives , tax officials including board members to make their income , wealth details public every year. This must be disclosed under RTI A ct.

e. To form a statutory mechanism to share information in real time ( through computer networking) about creditors , debtors , borrowers , policy holders , insurers , wealth managers , etc between all financial institutions like SEBI , RBI , IRDA , Banks , State and Central Government Tax Authorities etc. Creditor , debtor information must be disclosed under RTI Act.

f. To appoint a person from lending bank to loan availing companies to monitor it’s daily financial affairs.

g. To legally prosecute RBI Governor , Chief Justice of India & Union Finance Minister for aiding fund raisers of terrorists , underworld.

h. To order Government of India to accept our conditional offer of apprehending corporate terrorists.

i. To criminal legal prosecution against promoters of fraud companies , partners in their crimes supporting company executives and bank executives.

j. To order for recovery of money with interest & penalty , by confiscation of properties of such company promoters , their family properties , property of concerned bank executives , tax officials and most importantly PROPERTIES OF RBI GOVERNOR , UNION FINANCE MINISTER & CJI must be attached.

k. Black Money & Crime are inter twined , two faces of the same coin . Amnesty must not be given to black money launderers , it is nothing but legalizing the crimes of big criminals & crimes which are sources of black money. Thereby , government is giving legal sanction to those criminals to commit more crimes to accumulate black money and government itself is waiving off it’s duty to legally prosecute those black money launderers for the crimes which are the sources of those ill gotten money. As per the constitution , government must do it’s duty to uphold law , it cann’t waive off it’s own duties. If a government cann’t do it’s duty , it must get out of the seat.

l. Police , Government , Judges spend thousands of rupees public money to legally prosecute a small thief caught for stealing hundred rupees , where as now letting out big time looters who have stolen millions of rupees public money , who have earned money through swindling banks , share holders , earned money by illegal money lending , rowdyism , drug trafficking , human trafficking , etc. It is against principle of equitable justice , law. If the government is not able to catch , prosecute these black money launderers , it is unfit to be in the seat.

m. To immediately give a stay to the moves by government of india , giving amnesty to black money launderers from 01st June 2016. Also , annul such laws enacted by government of India.

FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL BE DUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.

Kindly read full details at following web page :

https://sites.google.com/site/sosevoiceforjustice/rbi—robberer-s-bureau-of-india ,

https://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2015/07/19/rbi-robberers-bureau-of-india/ ,

Dated : 14th May 2016 ………………….FILED BY: NAGARAJA.M.R.

Place : Mysuru , India……………………. PETITIONER-IN-PERSON

(PDF) hunger and malnutrition in India | Naresh Saxena …
Search domain academia.eduhttps://www.academia.edu/8106593/hunger_and_malnutrition_in_India
India is one of the three countries where the hunger index between 1996 and 2011 has gone up from 22.9 to 23.7, while 78 out of the 81 developing countries studied, including Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Kenya, Nigeria, Myanmar, Uganda,

(PDF) India Chronic Poverty Report. Towards Solutions and …
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India Chronic Poverty Report. Towards Solutions and New Compacts in a Dynamic Context. 2011. Shashanka Bhide. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 35 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER. India Chronic Poverty Report. Towards Solutions and New Compacts in a Dynamic Context

Unique IAS academy in coimbatore,tnpsc,coaching center …
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Issues related to Poverty and Hunger Introduction While addressing the Constituent Assembly in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru had said, “This achievement (Independence) is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the great triumphs and achievements that await us… the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity.

Full text of “Commentary On The Constitution Of India …
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The politics of scarcity: Conceptualising the current food …
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The domestic production of fruits and vegetables is a source of livelihood for at least 10% of the population in the foothills, lowlands, and Senqu River Valley. … where hunger, malnutrition …

[Solved] Week Five: Innovation & Change Innovations …
Search domain coursehero.comhttps://www.coursehero.com/tutors-problems/Sociology/8986607-Directions-for-Supplemental-Material-Step-One-Find-one-1-piece-of/
India, Mexico, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and other African countries are selected as contexts to report on multiple aspects of social change. The snippet of the research discussed in this Volume which has themes at the interface of technology and social change is presented in this Chapter.

Export Performance and Competitiveness of Indian Mango
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Punjab recorded an annual rate of growth of 1.14 percent. The area and yield increased at rates of 0.38 percent and. 0.76 percent, respectively, during the same period. The. two factors, that is

ndia’s Opinion
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Such a finding would render the president’s Article II powers all but superfluous, Judge White wrote in his 25-page order. The judge noted that the text of Article I and more than two centuries of legislative practice and judicial precedent make clear, the Constitution vests Congress, not the President, with the power to set immigration policy.

Relevant Article,section in Constitution of India and other countries on hunger and alivation of poverty by producing vegetables and fruits

PIL – BANK ROBBERIES by bank executives

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

CRIMINAL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2015

IN THE MATTER OF

NAGARAJA . M.R

editor SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice
# LIG 2 , No 761 ,, HUDCO First Stage , Laxmikantanagar ,
Hebbal , Mysore – 570017 , Karnataka State
.
….Petitioner

Versus

Honourable Governor , Reserve Bank of India (RBI) & Others

….Respondents

PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.

To ,
Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion
Justices of the Supreme Court of India.

The Humble petition of the Petitioner above named.

MOST RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH :
1. Facts of the case:
“Power will go to the hands of rascals, , rogues and freebooters. All Indian leaders will be of low calibre and men of straw. They will have sweet tongues and silly hearts. They will fight among themselves for
power and will be lost in political squabbles . A day would come when even air & water will be taxed.” Sir Winston made this statement in the House of Commons just before the independence of India & Pakistan. Sadly , the forewarning of Late Winston Churchill has been proved right by some of our criminal , corrupt public servants.

2. Eventhough , I have repeatedly appealed to RBI authorities since years seeking justice regarding illegalities , irregularities in recruitment , currency handling , currency theft , etc @ RBI , they didn’t provide justice at all.

3. For a common man it is a herculean task to get Rs.5000 loan from a bank , but rich & connected get lakhs , crores of rupees loan quite easily from banks , how ?

4. When a common man , farmer defaults to pay loan of few thousands of rupees bank immediately dispatches loan recovery agents / Rowdies , seizes his property & auctions and recover their dues to last penny. Farmers are committing suicide unable to pay loans to escape from ignominy .

5. Huge companies get crores of rupees loan from banks eventhough basically the project report itself is at fault , not viable. Siphons off company resources by insider trading to their sister concerns although bank representatives are very much their on the board of companies.

6 . Such companies default on loan dues to bank , but no recovery agents / rowdies are sent by banks. Finally the company becomes bust.

7. Bank looses money , the company is declared as NON PERFORMING ASSET and government + bank waives off interest or else loan itself.

8. End looser the public whose money went down the drain , profiteers – company promoters , executives and bank manager. No recovery from their personal , family properties why ?

9. Eventhough , I have repeatedly appealed to RBI authorities , Union Finance Ministry since years seeking information under RTI Act regarding illegalities , irregularities in RBI , Various banks , RBI Note Press ( BRBNMPL ) , etc , the RBI authorities have evaded answering our questions lest the TRUTH come out. Supreme court of India specifically Chief Justice of India were also approached to order RBI , Union Finance Ministry to disclose information to us in public interest. But SCI , CJI also failed to do their duties.

10. The money involved here is public money , it is nobody’s papa’s money.

11. These swindled monies are finding it’s way to under world , Mafia & Terror outfits. This proves RBI Governor , Union Finance Minister and Chief Justice of India are least bothered to safe guard PUBLIC MONEY. They are least bothered about our national security.

12. We have offered our conditional services to RBI , Union Finance Ministry & SCI to apprehend corporate criminals , to recover money while the concerned officials have failed to do their duties. Till date RBI , SCI , Government have failed to respond to our offer.

13. We SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice once again offer our conditional services to authorities , RBI , SCI to legally apprehend corporate criminals , tax evaders & corrupt bank executives and to recover monies from them. Are RBI , SCI & Union Finance Ministry Ready to catch tax thieves , corporate criminals , corporate terrorists ? Are they ready to utilize our services ?

14. By , shielding corporate criminals RBI , SCI , Union finance ministry are shielding corporate criminals to continue financial aid to terrorist outfits , underworld & mafia. Thereby , RBI Governor , Union Finance Minister & CJI , Supreme Court of India have also become parties to those crimes , they themselves have become criminals.

15. These Huge financial frauds , swindling for years cann’t happen repeatedly for years without tacit understanding , cooperation , collusion , connivance of RBI GOVERNOR and UNION FINANCE MINISTER. These crimes are spared from fair , timely legal trials with tacit support of Chief Justice of India.

16. These swindled money is destabilizing our economy , funding terrorist outfits , mafia & underworld. These are posing constant threat to our national security , integrity.

17. By financially supporting funding of criminals , terrorists RBI GOVERNOR , UNION FINANCE MINSTER & CHIEF JUSTICE OF INDIA themselves have become anti nationals , criminals , terrorists.

2. Question(s) of Law:

Is it right for banks , government to let out fraudsters , bank executives without criminal prosecution & recovery ?

3. Grounds:
Requests for equitable justice , Prosecution of master minds of financial frauds.

4. Averment:

Covering up Financial Frauds. Please read details at :

https://sites.google.com/site/sosevoiceforjustice/rbi—robberer-s-bureau-of-india ,

https://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2015/07/19/rbi-robberers-bureau-of-india/ ,

Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the questions.

The Petitioner has sent many letters / appeals / petitions to supreme court of india & other courts through e-mail , DARPG website & through regular mail requesting them to consider those as PILs. But none ofthem were admitted , even acknowledgement for receipts were not given. See How duty conscious ,our judges are & see how our judges are sensitive towards life , liberty of citizens , commonmen & see howcareless our judges are towards anti national crimes , crimes worth crores of rupees. That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition (which are admitted by courts) in any High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of the present petition.

PRAYER:
In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:
a . Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants , RBI authorities in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the below RTI questions.
b . to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.

c. To legally prosecute authorities of M/s RBI & M/s BRBNMPL , who denied job opportunities to me under the behest of criminals responsible for late PM Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.

d. To legally prosecute responsible bank executives & fraudsters.

e. To make it mandatory for all bank executives including board members to make their income , wealth details public every year. This must be disclosed under RTI A ct.

f. To form a statutory mechanism to share information about creditors , debtors , borrowers , policy holders , insurers , wealth managers , etc between all financial institutions like SEBI , RBI , IRDA , Banks , etc. Creditor , debtor information must be disclosed under RTI Act.

g. To book criminal cases of Rowdyism , goondaism against rowdy loan recovery agents & respective bank managers.

h. To reopen cases of Currency exchange scandal @ RBI Bangalore incinerator and currency theft cases @ RBI currency note press , Mysuru. To also legally prosecute bank executives & CBI investigating officials who shielded original criminals in these cases.

i. To order full payment of unjustly withheld salary , gratuity , pension dues , etc to victimized RBI staff Mr. Ganapathi Hariram immediately.

j. To appoint a person from lending bank to loan availing companies to monitor it’s daily financial affairs.

k. To legally prosecute RBI Governor , Chief Justice of India & Union Finance Minister for aiding fund raisers of terrorists , underworld.

l. To order Government of India to accept our conditional offer of apprehending corporate terrorists.

m. To criminal legal prosecution against promoters of fraud companies , partners in their crimes supporting company executives and bank executives.

n. To order for recovery of money with interest & penalty , by confiscation of properties of such company promoters , their family properties , property of concerned bank executives and most importantly PROPERTIES OF RBI GOVERNOR , UNION FINANCE MINISTER & CJI must be attached.

FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL BE DUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.

Kindly read full details at following web page :

https://sites.google.com/site/sosevoiceforjustice/rbi—robberer-s-bureau-of-india ,

https://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2015/07/19/rbi-robberers-bureau-of-india/ ,

Dated : 12th March 2016 ………………….FILED BY: NAGARAJA.M.R.

Place : Mysuru , India……………………. PETITIONER-IN-PERSON

PIL – Stop Robberies @ RBI by bank staff

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

CRIMINAL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2015

IN THE MATTER OF

NAGARAJA . M.R

editor SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice
# LIG 2 , No 761 ,, HUDCO First Stage , Laxmikantanagar ,
Hebbal , Mysore – 570017 , Karnataka State
.
….Petitioner

Versus

Honourable Governor , Reserve Bank of India (RBI) & Others

….Respondents

PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.

To ,
Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion
Justices of the Supreme Court of India. The Humble petition of the
Petitioner above named.

MOST RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH :
1. Facts of the case:
“Power will go to the hands of rascals, , rogues and freebooters. All Indian leaders will be of low calibre and men of straw. They will have sweet tongues and silly hearts. They will fight among themselves for
power and will be lost in political squabbles . A day would come when even air & water will be taxed.” Sir Winston made this statement in the House of Commons just before the independence of India & Pakistan. Sadly , the forewarning of Late Winston Churchill has been proved right by some of our criminal , corrupt public servants.

2. Eventhough , I have repeatedly appealed to RBI authorities since years seeking justice regarding illegalities , irregularities in recruitment , currency handling , currency theft , etc @ RBI , they didn’t provide justice at all.

3. For a common man it is a herculean task to get Rs.5000 loan from a bank , but rich & connected get lakhs , crores of rupees loan quite easily from banks , how ?

4. When a common man , farmer defaults to pay loan of few thousands of rupees bank immediately dispatches loan recovery agents / Rowdies , seizes his property & auctions and recover their dues to last penny. Farmers are committing suicide unable to pay loans to escape from ignominy .

5. Huge companies get crores of rupees loan from banks eventhough basically the project report itself is at fault , not viable. Siphons off company resources by insider trading to their sister concerns although bank representatives are very much their on the board of companies.

6 . Such companies default on loan dues to bank , but no recovery agents / rowdies are sent by banks. Finally the company becomes bust.

7. Bank looses money , the company is declared as NON PERFORMING ASSET and government + bank waives off interest or else loan itself.

8. End looser the public whose money went down the drain , profiteers – company promoters , executives and bank manager. No recovery from their personal , family properties why ?

2. Question(s) of Law:

Is it right for banks , government to let out fraudsters without criminal prosecution ?

3. Grounds:
Requests for equitable justice , Prosecution of master minds of financial frauds.

4. Averment:

Covering up Financial Frauds. Please read details at :

https://sites.google.com/site/sosevoiceforjustice/rbi—robberer-s-bureau-of-india ,

https://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2015/07/19/rbi-robberers-bureau-of-india/ ,

Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the questions.

The Petitioner has sent many letters / appeals / petitions to supreme court of india & other courts through e-mail , DARPG website & through regular mail requesting them to consider those as PILs. But none ofthem were admitted , even acknowledgement for receipts were not given. See How duty conscious ,our judges are & see how our judges are sensitive towards life , liberty of citizens , commonmen & see howcareless our judges are towards anti national crimes , crimes worth crores of rupees. That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition (which are admitted by courts) in any High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of the present petition.

PRAYER:
In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:
a . Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants , RBI authorities in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the questions.
b . to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.

c. To legally prosecute authorities of M/s RBI & M/s BRBNMPL , who denied job opportunities to me under the behest of criminals responsible for late PM Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.

FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL BE DUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.

Kindly read full details at following web page :

https://sites.google.com/site/sosevoiceforjustice/rbi—robberer-s-bureau-of-india ,

https://evoiceofhumanrightswatch.wordpress.com/2015/07/19/rbi-robberers-bureau-of-india/ ,

Dated : 23rd July 2015 ………………….FILED BY: NAGARAJA.M.R.

Place : Mysuru , India…………………….PETITIONER-IN-PERSON

4-month window to declare black money opens on June 1: Jaitley

The four-month window for declaring domestic blackmoney will open on June 1 and those opting to come clean by paying 45 per cent tax and penalty will not be subject to scrutiny and enquiry by tax department.

The Income Declaration Scheme 2016 will remain in force till September 30 for filing of declarations and payments towards taxes, surcharge and penalty must be made latest by November 30, the Finance Ministry said in a release.

“No scrutiny and enquiry under the Income-tax Act or the Wealth tax Act (no abolished) shall be undertaken in respect of such declarations.

“Immunity from prosecution under the Income-tax Act and Wealth Tax Act is also provided along with immunity from the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 subject to transfer of asset to actual owner within the period specified in the Rules,” it said.

The scheme was announced by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley in the Budget with an aim to fish out black money from the domestic economy. Earlier, the government had come out with similar scheme for Indian holding undisclosed income abroad.

The scheme will apply to undisclosed income whether in the form of investment in assets or otherwise, pertaining to Financial Year 2015-16 or earlier, the Ministry said.

“Under the Scheme, income as declared by the eligible persons, would be taxed at the rate of 30 per cent plus a ‘Krishi Kalyan Cess’ of 25 per cent on the taxes payable and a penalty at the rate of 25 per cent of the taxes payable, thereby totalling to 45 per cent of the income declared under the scheme,” the Ministry said.

INDIA`S BLACK MONEY IN SWISS BANK

This is not so surprising .India is the world`s most corrupt country.Corruption is not new in India.Recently due to international pressure, Swiss government agreed to disclose the names of the account holders only if the respective government formally asked for it.

Black money in Swiss banks — Swiss Banking Association report, 2006 details bank deposits in the territory of Switzerland by nationals of following countries:
Top five
India—- $1,456 billion
Russia —$ 470 billion
UK ——-$390 billion
Ukraine – $100 billion
China —–$ 96 billion

India has more money in Swiss bank than all the other countries combined.Second best Russia has 4 times lesser deposit. US is not even there in the counting in top five.

609 people in India having legal property more than Rs- 100 crores (Rs- 10 Million). Indian President one day living cost is Rs-8 crore, living in a place where 350 flats.Oneday Indian Parliament running cost is around 9 crore Rupees.Britishers looted 350 Lakh Crore in 250 years whereas Indian himself looted 330 crore. 70 Lakh crore only deposited in swiss bank. 84000 corrupt people in India.India has around 450 Billion dollar of coal deposit & 170 billion of iron ore deposit,looted by state politicians .According to Indian Government around 1 Lakh place in India where people doing illegal mining.

Dishonest persons, scandalous politicians and corrupt IAS, IPS officers have deposited in foreign banks in their illegal personal accounts a sum of about $ 1500 billion, which have been misappropriated by them. From 2003 to 2010 out of 5,635 IPS officers fifty(50) IPS officers were resigned and joined private company.

This amount is about 13 times larger than the country’s foreign debt. With this amount 45 crore poor people can get Rs 1,00,000 each. This huge amount has been appropriated from the people of India by exploiting and betraying them.

Some 80,000 people travel to Switzerland every year, of whom 25,000 travel very frequently.“Obviously, these people won’t be tourists.

Why our Indian Government is not asking to swiss Bank? Well the answer is simple , our Government is working under the influence of those politicians & industrialists who have huge deposit in Swiss bank.They cann`t expose their own people.

USA have settled their Swiss bank Account & their top Billionares in their countries paid to their country 50% of their Money which includes Gates & Bloomberg.Italy got 6.4 Billion dollar from swiss Bank,Germany got 5.7 Billion dollar from swiss Bank & France got 1.7 Billion dollar from swiss Bank.

Schweitzer Illustrierte, a Swiss news magazine,published on 19th November 1991, has alleged in an old issue that the Soviet intelligence agency KGB had deposited US $2.2 billion in a Swiss bank account in 1985 in the “minor” account of Rahul Gandhi managed by his mother Sonia Gandhi . Janata Party President Dr Subramanian Swamy, who had secured an order from the Delhi High Court to the CBI to investigate alleged receipt of slush money by late former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s family, has cited a November 1991 issue of the Swiss magazine in support of his charge.He has further claimed that the payments were authorized by CPSU by a resolution CPSU/CC/No 11228/3 dated 20/12/1985 and the same was also endorsed by the USSR Council of Ministers in Directive No 2633/Rs dated 20/12/1985. He also claimed that these payments had been coming since 1971 as the payments received by Sonia Gandhi’s family “have been audited in CPSU/CC resolution No 11187/22 OP dated 10/12/1984. Reference:–http://swissprivacy.tripod.com/id8.html

Why Government is not taking action on corrupt peoples ? Why CBI is not independently working? well answer is simple ,Government is taking lots of money in the name of party fund and also taking help from those politicians who are involved in
criminal charges.Whole police in India is working under politicians. According to RBI(Reserve Bank Of India) Rupees 17,18,826 crore notes print in India between year 2000-2010. Rupees 10 Lakh Crore money incirculation in India. Generally 2-3 % of GDP money circulation in other countries. But Indian Government has allowed four Swiss bank & Eight Bank of Italy in India.

Sources says that NGO is also engaged in converting black money into white Money.

swiss bank(ubs) revealed 6000 USA people names . In may 2008 Germany bank revealed 28 people names but government is still hiding their names. Even the Supreme court of India asked for names three times. But Government only make deal with 23 countries of Double Taxation.
USA got his money, France , Italy , countries like Singapore fought and get their money.India has more than 3.5 crore taxpayers. Black Money can be used by terrorists. Probably they are trying to move money to other countries or will invest in real-estate like in dubai or arab countries.After huge pressure from media & civil society Government has joined FATA (Financial Action Task Force) group only to delay issue.

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/Story/126998/LATEST%20HEADLINES/indian-link-to-swiss-money-trail-revealed.html
In the data shared by Ex-Swiss banker Rudolf Elmer, there are at least three companies that go by the name of Annapurna. These accounts have been opened in the New York branch of the Swiss Bank Julius Baer.These accounts are Annapurna Convertible Ltd, account number 420331. Annapurna Leverage Ltd, account number 427039 .Annapurna Convertible USD, account number 431916.Money running into crores of rupees has been stashed away in these accounts.57million dollars or Rs 259 crore have been stashed away in Annapurna Convertible ltd. 18.6 million dollars or Rs 84 crore are lying in Annapurna Leverage Limited.And 10.3 million dollars or Rs 45 crore are hidden away in the account of Annapurna Convertible.Interestingly, the documents list the same company and same person as managing all the Annapurna accounts.Annapurna Convertible, Annapurna Leverage and Annapurna Convertible USD are all managed by Pius Fisch ofFisch Asset Management.The other name to come out was that of Asad Ali Khan and his wife Zahida, who was a co-account holder. Headlines Today scoured through the records sent to us by Rudolf Elmer and found out how Asad Ali Khan had siphoned off a huge amount of money to the Julius Baer Bank in Cayman Islands.A company in the name of Unicorp Services was incorporated in Cayman Islands.Its registered address is Post Box 1100, Kirk House, Grand Cayman Island, BWI.According to Elmer’s documents, the registration number of the company is 00233755.In the year 1999, Asad Ali Khan and Zahida were present for the dissolution of this company as directors of Unicorp Services in Cayman Islands.Elmer’s data also shows that the account was being managed by J.M.I. Gillani.The official address is: Banque Julius Baer, 2 Boulevard du Theatre, Case Postale, CH 1211, Geneva 11, Switzerland.

Where Black money is being used? Election, Air travel , Tour, Restaurants, Land, Jewelery.

Who is involved in Black Money? Senior bureaucrats (IAS,IPS officers), Ministers of Export-Import,Comerce, Chief Ministers, Top Industrialists , Horse Trader, Liquor Trader.

4000 kg gold sold in year 2010 in India.
144 nations signed UNCAC (United Nation Convention Against Corruption) but India is not signing because Indian Government is engaged in corruption. UNCAC Opened for signature from 9 December 2003 by the UN General Assembly & last date was 14 December 2005.

Highly placed sources in New Delhi and Mumbai say much of the money held in Swiss banks, and other tax havens like the Bahamas, have been routed into the Indian stock exchanges throughParticipatory Note (PN) bought in Mauritius through front companies. Since these instruments are not registered to trade in Indian domestic capital markets, the investors’ names remain undisclosed. “The route to take out the money is hawala and to bring it back is Participatory Note ,” says Hemen Kapadia, one of Mumbai’s top stock market analysts. Roughly 50-60 percent of FII investments, aggregating $85 billion till late 2009, were made through the Participatory Note route. And according to Kapadia, this route saw 75 percent traffic in the last few months. A worried market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is now learnt to have asked several FIIs to furnish details of the Participatory Note issued to their clients, but it has been consistently stonewalled. “They will always win by citing client confidentiality agreements, and I doubt whether SEBI has the necessary legal teeth to probe further,” Kapadia points out.

India`s economic debt—http://www.indiabudget.nic.in/es2009-10/chapt2010/tab84.pdf

FII investment in Indian stocks this year touched a record $18.13 billion ( Rs.82,360 crore), according to the SEBI website. In dollar terms the previous high was in 2007 ($17.65 billion) and in rupee terms in 2009. Stock market analysts say FII investment in rupee terms is lower because of appreciation in the Indian currency against the dollar. The Sensex last year gained over 80 percent — a figure it is likely to surpass this year.

Not taking into account the recently concluded Coal India IPO, the FII bids amounted to Rs. 1.20 lakh crore. Some foreign entities that have placed large bids for Coal India through PNs include Citibank ($1 billion), Merrill Lynch ($2 billion) and Deutsche Bank ($3 billion). The Qualified Institutional Buyer (QIB) quota in the Coal India IPO that was oversubscribed 24 times was primarily due to intense FII interest.

In fact, in 2007, when the then National Security Adviser MK Narayanan had spoken of terror funds routinely penetrating and manipulating the markets, he was hinting at PNs. Earlier, the RBI too had come out with a report expressing concern over the illegal traffic. At that time 89 percent of the funds invested by FIIs had come through the PN route, RBI data showed.According to recent estimates, roughly $200 billion — four times the external debt of Pakistan — is stashed away in Swiss banks and is now being withdrawn.

“A major area of vulnerability for us is the high consolidated public-debt to GDP ratio of over 70 percent … (and) consolidated fiscal deficit,” says the Governor of Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Mr. Yaga Venugopal Reddy.

According to CIA world fact book, the Current account balance of India is MINUS -37,510,000,000 (minus) while China is the wealthiest country in the world with $ 426,100,000,000 (Plus) . India listed as 182 and China as no.1 . Money inflow in India is currently Rs 7,000 crore.

Total number of registered corruption cases was 64,00,000 in 1989 , now in year 2010 is 1,64,00,000 .
Hasan Ali 6 Billion Dollar swiss Bank account—-
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Hasan-Alis-6bn-in-Swiss-accounts-missing/articleshow/7365076.cms

Surely it`s time to Ban 1000 rupee note—-
http://www.governancenow.com/news/regular-story/check-corruption-ban-rs-1000-note

Sources say that NGO is the main source of Black Money in India.
http://www.hindustantimes.com/833-NGOs-blacklisted-for-misappropriation-of-funds/H1-Article1-488589.aspx

The GFI report says, “From 1948 through 2008, India lost a total of $213 billion in illicit financial flows (or illegal capital flight). These illicit financial flows were generally the product of corruption, bribery and kickbacks, and criminal activities.” The total of $213 billion is a misleading figure because “the present value of India’s illicit financial flows is at least $462 billion,” the GFIreport explains, adding, “This is based on the short-term US Treasury bill rate as a proxy for the rate of return on assets.” The GFI (Global Financial Integrity) report points out that the “total capital flight represents approximately 16.6 percent of India’s GDP as of year-end 2008”; that “illicit financial flows out of India grew at 11.5 per cent per year”; and, that “India lost $16 billion per year between 2002-2006”.The present value of illicit assets held abroad ($462 billion) “accounts for approximately 72 per cent of India’s underground economy — which has been estimated to account for 50 per cent of India’s GDP ($640 billion at the end of 2008)”. Just above a quarter of illicit assets are helddomestically.The fact that deposits in tax havens have increased from 36.4 per cent of illicit financial flows in 1995 to 54.2 per cent in 2009 tells its own story.

Well if Swiss Bank cann`t give information to India then why Indian Government is not stopping money that they are coming from outside India. But how can a corrupt system do?

We need to start a movement to pressurize the government to do so !! this is perhaps the only way, and a golden opportunity, to expose the high and mighty and weed out corruption !!

Is India poor, who says? Ask Swiss banks With personal account deposit bank of $1500 billion in foreign reserve which have been misappropriated, an amount 13 times larger than the country’s foreign debt, one needs to rethink if India is a poor country?.

$181 billion Indian black money in tax havens?

Between six and seven trillion dollars worth of black wealth lies hidden in tax havens across the world, according to a fresh estimate by a trio of senior economists from the Bank of Italy. Indians’ share in this is estimated at $152-181 billion, by one calculation. This is only wealth invested in shares and debt securities or held in bank deposits. It is impossible to get a handle on other wealth invested in physical assets like real estate, gold or art.

Released this week, these estimates follow the train of several such estimates in recent years with Gabriel Zucman, of London School of Economics, estimating it at $7.6 trillion, Boston Consulting Group at $8.9 trillion and Tax Justice Network at $21 trillion.

All of this wealth is held in tax havens, which are jurisdictions with weak regulations and strong secrecy laws, using shell companies to conceal original identities. The Italian economists analysed data from IMF and the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) to arrive at the figure.

When asked by TOI to estimate the Indian share in this gigantic treasure trove, the researchers were cautious.

There can be two ways of doing this, they told TOI via email. One is to assume that the Indian share in this global hidden wealth was simply the same as India’s share in global GDP, that is, about 2.5% in 2013, the year for which this data pertains. By this measure, the Indian share of hidden wealth is $152-181 billion. That’s about Rs 8.9 to 10.5 lakh crore.
Another way of finding out the Indian share of undeclared assets is to look at the Indian share in actual declared portfolio assets—about 0.07% of the total—and assume that the same is valid for hidden assets. By this way, India’s share in black assets works out to $4-5 billion or about Rs 25,000-30,000 crore.

These figures for India are just indicative and the three economists — Pellegrini, Sanelli and Tosti — were insistent that they “have to be considered with great care and in no way can represent firm data”. But, having said that, there is no other way of getting even a glimpse of the secret stockpile of wealth stashed away abroad by Indians. So, as a ballpark figure, it does give a hint of what lies buried.
Why is there a big discrepancy between the two methods of calculating India’s hidden wealth in tax havens? As the Italian researchers explained, Indians seem to have a much lower propensity for investing in foreign financial assets — that’s why their share in global offshore financial assets, as calculated from IMF data, is a puny 0.07%. But will this reluctance extend to secret investments too? Nobody knows.

In all probability, Indian share in foreign black money is somewhere between the two estimates computed above. This is supported by estimates of offshore wealth growth by various agencies. In the Global Wealth 2015 Report, the Boston Consulting Group says that shares of offshore wealth from Middle East and Africa region, Latin America and Asia Pacific were higher than Western Europe and North America, although it also points out that Asia-Pacific contribution is not so high.

Panama Papers: Global tax evaders list belittles PM Narendra Modi’s 90-day black money hunt

An investigation by an international media consortium, including the Indian Express, has unearthed several names of wealthy individuals across the world, who have hidden their money in holding companies set up in tax havens.

The Indians named in the list include actors Amitabh Bachhan, Aishwarya Rai Bachhan, DLF promoter KP Singh, Indiabulls owner Sameer Gehlaut, Gautam Adani’s elder brother Vinod Adani and politicians and former chief of the Delhi unit of Loksatta Party, Anurag Kejriwal. These individuals, and in some cases their family members, have formed offshore entities in tax havens by paying to a Panama-based law firm, Mossack Fonseca. This is the case in a nutshell.

Now, the obvious question is this. Is it illegal to invest in offshore companies if the earnings are legitimate? No. It is not. But, the problem arises if the money is earned in a jurisdiction, where they are liable to pay taxes, and the money is transferred across the border without doing so. In this case, this becomes ‘unaccounted wealth’ or what is informally known as ‘black money’.

In other words, if the individuals mentioned in the Panama list are able to prove that the money invested in these offshore entities is legitimate and already taxed, there are no issues. Else, they can be in serious trouble.

The Narendra Modi-government is under tremendous pressure to win back black money from abroad to fulfill its poll promises in the run up to the 2014 Lok Sabha elections. A 90-days black money window it announced last year yielded undisclosed foreign assets of only about Rs 3,770 crore from 638 declarations, a mere fraction of the total stock of blackmoney believed to be stashed abroad. In other words, the scheme was largely a flop show. Under the window, those with unaccounted foreign black money had to pay a tax of 30 percent and a penalty of another 30 percent to come clean.

It is important to note that the Panama list also shows the apparent failure of the the 90-days black money window offered last year to draw foreign blackmoney holders. The fate of the 90-day black money scheme was not too hard to anticipate since no one with ill-gotten wealth or unaccounted wealth would want to sacrifice 60 percent of their money to comply with the government regulations. They would find a way out by the time the arms of the law reach their bank lockers in tax havens.

When the window closed, finance minister, Arun Jaitley had warned in tough words that it will not leave any stone unturned to take action against the guilty. “Those who chose to declare between this period would not be prosecuted under the new black money law… These declarants can now sleep well.” Jaitley said, adding, “those with illegal assets abroad, who have failed to make declaration, would now stand the risk of information relating to them eventually reaching the Indian taxation authorities.”

It is not known whether any individuals whose names are included in the Panama list are among the declarants of the 90-days black money window that expired on 30 September, 2015. If they aren’t and if investigations find that they are indeed tax-evaders, its time for Jaitley to do what he said he would do. This isn’t the first time the list of black money holders surfaces in the media. In a similar investigation, a list of 1100 Indians with Swiss bank deposits was unearthed setting stage for larger debate on the black money issue.

The Modi-government has not made any significant progress on the black money hunt as it promised in the beginning, in terms of recovering money. But, it has indeed initiated efforts to do so. Not just foreign black money, the government is facing equal challenges to deal with the domestic black money holders as well.

This is also a time when Jaitley, in the Union Budget 2016, announced that a four month (June 1 to September 30, 2016) amnesty-like scheme will be given to domestic black money holders in India to disclose their illegal, unaccounted wealth by paying a total of 45 percent tax. Jaitley hasn’t called it an amnesty, but in principle, it is nothing but an amnesty offered to the tax-evaders. In 1997 when P Chidambaram was Finance Minister, a similar exercise had garnered Rs 10,000 crore revenue to the exchequer.

Besides that, after the Narendra Modi-government came to power, it announced a 90-days amnesty-like window for foreign blackmoney holders charging them 60 percent tax. A total of Rs 4,147 crore of undeclared wealth was declared and the government garnered Rs 2,500 crore from the whole exercise, again a paltry sum considering the kind of blackmoney stashed abroad.

In India, political promise of action against black money is not a convincing one since many of the political parties themselves thrive on funding from the same black money holders. The lack of transparency and the give-and-take relationship between politicians and corporations/wealthy individuals makes it even more difficult to cleanse the system and undertake action against the offenders.

The important question that the Panama list brings to the table is this: Can the Modi-government initiate meaningful action against the offenders by investigating their foreign holdings and, thus, show its seriousness on the black money hunt?

Indian black money deposits moved out of Switzerland

The Swiss National Bank, the country’s central banking authority, has estimated the funds currently held by Indians in Swiss banks at a mere $1.98 billion.

Fear of disclosure due to greater scrutiny of this illicit wealth has played the main role in the flight of capital. Rashme Sehgal reports from Geneva for Rediff.com

Narendra Modi had promised that on becoming prime minister he would ensure that Indian black money stashed in Swiss bank vaults would make its way back to India and every Indian would receive a bonanza of Rs 15 lakh (Rs 1.5 million).

Fifteen months have passed into his prime ministership and there are no signs of any undeclared assets having reached Indian shores. Bharatiya Janata Party President Amit Shah has tried to pass off Modi’s promise as being little more than an ‘election jhumla.’

Banking experts in Switzerland point out that the Rs 15 lakh figure for 1.2 billion Indians is untenable since most of the black money Indians had deposited in Swiss banks was cleared out during the last decade.

As per the latest data, the amount held by Indians through fiduciaries in Swiss banks has reached a record low level, while it used to be in the billions of dollars till about seven years ago.

“The figures of Rs 15 lakh would have worked out to several times India’s present GDP,” a senior Geneva-based tax consultant points out. “Switzerland never saw such massive deposits from any country.”

“More than half the undeclared money from India has been moved to Dubai and Singapore where it could have been invested in real estate, gold or re-entered India through the hawalaroute,” says lawyer Nathalie Bersier, a consultant for Swiss investments in India and vice versa.

“I do not know how Modi made such a remark. The Manmohan Singh government also talked about huge amounts of undeclared Indian money,” Bersier adds, “but the truth is that most of the money has moved out in the last decade.”.

The Swiss National Bank, the country’s central banking authority, according to data released last year, has estimated the funds currently held by Indians in Swiss banks at a mere $1.98 billion.

Fear of disclosure due to greater scrutiny of this illicit wealth has played the main role in the flight of capital.

Contesting the large black money amounts being mentioned in Indian newspapers, Bersier says, “In Switzerland, the perception is that the Indian assets vary between $900 million and $4 billion. I believe the amount would be somewhere in between.”

While Indian deposits may have shown a steady decline, the money held in Swiss banks by foreign depositors rose during 2014 to $1.6 trillion or Rs 103 lakh crore from about Rs 90 lakh crore at the end of 2013.

“From 2009, the Indian government has been highlighting this issue of black money without realising that the easiest thing to do is to close a bank account and transfer the money out,” says Bersier.

“Such a flight of capital has already occurred. Many of these deposits are known to have belonged to politicians which is why no government is forthcoming with the names of the depositors,” she adds.

Her belief is buttressed by the release of data from the Zurich-based Swiss National Bank confirming this trend. As per its latest data, the total Indian deposits held in Swiss banks at the end of 2014 included 1,776 million Swiss francs or Rs 12,350 crore (Rs 123.50 billion) held directly by Indian individuals and entities (down from 1,952 million Swiss francs a year ago), and another 38 million Swiss franc (down from 77.3 million Swiss francs at the end of 2013) through ‘fiduciaries’ or wealth managers.

State secretary for International Financial Matters Jacques de Watteville refused to hazard a guess about just how much money has been moved out of Swiss banks to be invested in Dubai or Singapore. “There are no official on the assets transferred out of Switzerland,” says Watteville.

Asked about the Indian names published in the Swiss Federal Gazette, Watteville says, “The publication of names of Indian account holders in the Swiss Federal Gazette is an internal Swiss legal procedure. Names are only published in the Federal Gazette as a last resort when there is no contact address in Switzerland for foreign residents who are affected by an administrative assistance request. The mere fact to have a name published does not prejudge the legal position of the person concerned.”

Does India need to establish a scheme to regularise offshore assets? “Our understanding is that the Indian government recently opened a ‘compliance window’ for taxpayers to regularise their situation,” says Watteville, referring to the government scheme whereby tax evaders can pay a penalty of 20 percent and get their black money regularised.

“Banking circles are aware that undeclared assets by Indians has been moved out,” says Nicolas Stepczynski, a Geneva-based banker and tax consultant with Berger Van Berchem et Cie. “Rich Indian families are already under great scrutiny by their government and therefore known to be very careful with their finances.”

Will the famed secrecy wall of Switzerland’s banking system finally show cracks? The Swiss Federal Council, Switzerland’s highest executive authority, recently declared that it is holding consultations with the Tax Administrative Assistance Act to ease practises with regard to stolen data.

For the present, Switzerland has refused to acknowledge leaked data as was the case of 600 Indian depositors at HSBC whose names were leaked by whistleblower Herve Falciani in 2006.

Falciani gave the list to the French government — who provided the information to the Indian government — rather than to the Swiss government because he felt it would not have investigated the matter further.

Bersier does not see too much emerging from the Federal Council consultations. “They are at a very early stage. Discussions have been held between the Swiss and Indian governments on the need to detect, recover and repatriate illegal deposits, but all the information available with the Indian government is based on stolen documents.”

“The key issue is what pressure the Indian government can exert on the Swiss government,” says Bersier. “The US threatened to close all Swiss banks operating in the US which led to the Swiss immediately signing a treaty with the US and UK. There are no Swiss banks operating in India.”

On the subject of the Automatic Exchange of Information between the Swiss and Indian governments expected to be operationalised by 2018, Bersier is equally cynical.

Erecting the AEOI platform is all very well, she feels, but it is too little too late. “By the time it becomes operational,” Bersier says, “all the illegal deposits will have been moved out. There are any number of countries where this money can be moved to.”

India has set up a Special Investigation Team headed by Justice B M Shah to look into the issue of black money. Justice Shah has welcomed the Swiss Federal Council’s approval of the bill to amend its laws to allow its government to share information with countries on the basis on what is perceived to be stolen data.

Detection and recovery of black money in foreign tax havens is a key concern of the Modi government.

India cites UN convention to help unearth black money

As Indian agencies look to bring back black money and ‘proceeds of crime’ stashed by individuals and companies in tax havens, the Narendra Modi government has drawn the attention of world leaders, including British Prime Minister David Cameron, to the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) which says that countries should extend cooperation in giving information on stolen or unaccounted assets.

India also pointed to the leaders and their representatives that nations should not hide behind bank secrecy laws when it comes to sharing information on “unaccounted money” lying in their banks and other financial institutions.

Representing India at the global Anti-Corruption Summit in London on May 11-12, central vigilance commissioner KV Chowdary , said, “Mr Prime Minister (David Cameron), India would like to stress that as stated in Article 51, the return of assets is a fundamental principle of UNCAC, and states/ parties must afford one another widest measures of international cooperation in facilitating quick return of stolen assets, including unaccounted assets and particularly assets in safe havens, to the countries of origin.”

Chowdary was accompanied by Enforcement Directorate chief Karnal Singh for the summit.

He said India will support the reporting on “tax information for large multinational enterprises” and that “India will take steps required for preventing corruption in government, its institutions and in businesses”. “We are also committed on the issue of return of unaccounted wealth from safe havens and for persistent and consistent efforts on asset recovery,” he said.

India’s statement in the summit said, “As advised by G20 and endorsed by the Doha declaration adopted at the 13th UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, India advocates the extending of all assistance to the requesting States in identification, tracing, freezing, seizure, recovery and repatriation of assets.” “We firmly advocate that all State Parties should ensure cooperation in dissemination of information without any impediment of bank secrecy laws, to the requesting country,” said the statement.

Global Tax Havens or Havens For Dirty Money

By Abdus Sattar Ghazali

Gabriel Zucman, the author of the 2015 book “The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens,” estimates that $7.6 trillion is stashed in tax havens. This amounts to 8 percent of the world’s personal financial wealth. The author believes that if all of this illegally hidden money were properly recorded and taxed, global tax revenues would grow by more than $200 billion a year.

Interestingly, on April 3, 2016, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, leaked massive documents known as “Panama Papers” which reveal the shadowy world of hidden offshore finances of presidents and prime ministers. The biggest leak of financial data in history exposes the offshore holdings of 12 current and former world leaders and provides details of the hidden financial dealings of 128 more politicians and public officials around the world.

The German newspaper, Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ), which worked on the leaked documents with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, said the data provides rare insights into a world that can only exist in the shadows. It proves how a global industry led by major banks, legal firms, and asset management companies secretly manages the estates of the world’s rich and famous: from politicians, FIFA officials, fraudsters and drug smugglers, to celebrities and professional athletes.

According to The Guardian, the Panama Papers are an unprecedented leak of 11.5m files from the database of the world’s fourth biggest offshore law firm, Mossack Fonseca. The documents show the myriad ways in which the rich can exploit secretive offshore tax regimes. The massive leak of confidential documents from a Panamanian law firm has shown how some of the world’s richest people hide assets to avoid paying taxes.

Among national leaders with offshore wealth are Nawaz Sharif, Pakistan’s prime minister; Ayad Allawi, ex-interim prime minister and former vice-president of Iraq; Petro Poroshenko, president of Ukraine; Alaa Mubarak, son of Egypt’s former president; and the prime minister of Iceland, Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson.

Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has formed a high-level judicial commission to probe any financial wrongdoing, a day after three of his children were named in the ‘Panama Papers’ for owning offshore companies prompting demands for an enquiry by the opposition. Documents on the ICIJ website said Sharif’s children – Mariam, Hasan and Hussain – “were owners or had the right to authorize transactions for several companies”. Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif’s relatives Samina Durrani and Ilyas Mehraj have also figured in the documents examined.

Iceland’s prime minister, Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, became the first major casualty of the Panama Papers, stepping aside from his office amid mounting public outrage that his family had sheltered money offshore.

A $2bn trail leads all the way to Vladimir Putin’s best friend Sergei Roldugin who is at the centre of a scheme in which money from Russian state banks is hidden offshore. A spokesman for Russian President Vladimir Putin told The Guardian that the media investigation into offshore accounts is motivated by “Putinphobia,” and that he has not been implicated in any wrongdoing.

Putin’s spokesman Dmitry Peskov said “it’s obvious that the main target of such attacks is our president,” and claimed that the publication was aimed at influencing Russia’s stability and parliamentary elections scheduled for September. He suggested the Washington-based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, which co-ordinated the international investigation, has ties to the U.S. government.

Family members of at least eight current or former members of China’s Politburo Standing Committee, the country’s main ruling body, have offshore companies arranged though Mossack Fonseca. They include President Xi’s brother-in-law, who set up two British Virgin Islands companies in 2009. China’s foreign ministry dismissed reports of the leaks from the Mossack Fonseca database as ‘groundless accusations’. A Communist party censorship directive instructed news organizations to purge all reports, blogs, bulletin boards and comments relating to Panama Papers revelations.

Twenty-three individuals who have had sanctions imposed on them for supporting the regimes in North Korea, Zimbabwe, Russia, Iran and Syria have been clients of Mossack Fonseca. Their companies were harbored by the Seychelles, the British Virgin Islands, Panama and other jurisdictions.

Tax Havens

Jill Lawless of the Associated Press says there’s one part of the British Empire on which the sun still does not set: its tax havens. Britain’s former world dominance has left it with a string of tiny territories scattered around the globe, and many of them have become hubs for hiding money. Despite growing political pressure, shutting down these and other tax havens may be easier said than done, Jill said.

As Britain’s colonies gained independence after World War II, London encouraged several small Caribbean islands to become tax havens as a means to self-sufficiency. As a result, many of the world’s tax havens have British links, including overseas territories such as the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda and the Cayman Islands. The Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey off the French coast, which are possessions of the British Crown, have been havens for the wealthy and their money for almost a century.

More than half the 200,000 companies set up for clients by Panamanian firm Mossack Fonseca in the leaked files are registered in the British Virgin Islands, a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.

According to the BBC two broad qualifications for being a tax haven are to have a low or zero rate of income tax and guarantee the rich a cloak of secrecy they would not receive in their own country. They have also been used to cover up criminal activity.

Since 2009, many attempts have been made to crack down on abuses. More than 700 tax transparency deals have been signed globally. Places including Switzerland, the Channel Islands and Luxembourg have tightened the rules, but Panama and the British Virgin Islands are among those criticized for not doing enough. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Group of 20 nations have persuaded more than 90 countries to share financial data in a bid to crack down on secret dealings.

Mossack Fonseca

The Panama Papers make it clear that major banks are big drivers behind the creation of hard-to-trace companies in the British Virgin Islands, Panama and other offshore havens. They list nearly 15,600 paper companies that banks set up for clients who want keep their finances under wraps, including thousands created by international giants UBS and HSBC.

Mossack Fonseca is one of the world’s top creators of shell companies, corporate structures that can be used to hide ownership of assets. The law firm’s leaked internal files contain information on 214,488 offshore entities connected to people in more than 200 countries and territories.

The offshore system relies on a sprawling global industry of bankers, lawyers, accountants and these go-betweens who work together to protect their clients’ secrets. These secrecy experts use anonymous companies, trusts and other paper entities to create complex structures that can be used to disguise the origins of dirty money.

The Mossack Fonseca law firm has worked closely with big banks and big law firms in places like The Netherlands, Mexico, the United States and Switzerland, helping clients move money or slash their tax bills, the secret records show.

Big U.S. firms hold $2.1 trillion overseas to avoid taxes

Not surprisingly, in October 2015, an economic study revealed that the 500 largest American companies hold more than $2.1 trillion in accumulated profits offshore to avoid U.S. taxes and would collectively owe an estimated $620 billion in U.S. taxes if they repatriated the funds.

The study, by Citizens for Tax Justice and the U.S. Public Interest Research Group Education Fund, found that nearly three-quarters of the firms on the Fortune 500 list of biggest American companies by gross revenue operate tax haven subsidiaries in countries like Bermuda, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

Apple was holding $181.1 billion offshore, more than any other U.S. company, and would owe an estimated $59.2 billion in U.S. taxes if it tried to bring the money back to the United States from its three overseas tax havens, the study said.

General Electric has booked $119 billion offshore in 18 tax havens, software firm Microsoft is holding $108.3 billion in five tax haven subsidiaries and drug company Pfizer is holding $74 billion in 151 subsidiaries, the study said.

“At least 358 companies, nearly 72 percent of the Fortune 500, operate subsidiaries in tax haven jurisdictions as of the end of 2014,” the study said. “All told these 358 companies maintain at least 7,622 tax haven subsidiaries.”

Fortune 500 companies hold more than $2.1 trillion in accumulated profits offshore to avoid taxes, with just 30 of the firms accounting for $1.4 trillion of that amount, or 65 percent, the study found.

In September 2015, a U.S. federal judge authorized the Internal Revenue Service to seek the names of Americans using accounts at two Belize banks.

US Corporate Tax Cheats Hiding $1.4 Trillion In Profits In Offshore Accounts

By Patrick Martin

A report issued Thursday by the British charity Oxfam found that the 50 largest US corporations are hiding $1.4 trillion in profits in overseas accounts to avoid US income taxes, much of it in tax havens like Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.

The biggest tax dodger is technology giant Apple, with $181 billion held offshore. General Electric had the second-largest stash, at $119 billion, enough to repay four times over the $28 billion GE received in federal guarantees during the 2008 Wall Street crash. Microsoft had $108 billion in overseas accounts, with companies like Exxon Mobil, Pfizer, IBM, Cisco Systems, Google, Merck, and Johnson & Johnson rounding out the top ten.

Overseas tax havens have been the focus of recent revelations about tax scams by wealthy individuals, based on the leak of the “Panama Papers,” documents from a single Panama-based law firm, Mossack Fonseca, involving 214,000 offshore shell companies. The firm’s clients included 29 billionaires and 140 top politicians worldwide, among them a dozen heads of government.

But the sums involved in corporate tax scams dwarf those hidden away by individuals. According to the Oxfam report, the offshore manipulations by the 50 largest US corporations cost the US taxpayer $111 billion each year, while robbing another $100 billion annually from countries overseas, many of them desperately poor.

The $111 billion a year in US taxes evaded would be sufficient to eliminate 90 percent of child poverty in America, effectively wiping out that social scourge. It is more than the annual cost of the food stamp program, or unemployment benefits, or the total budget of the Department of Education.

Oxfam timed the release of its report for the April 15 income tax deadline in the United States (actually Monday, April 18 this year), when tens of millions of working people must file their income tax returns or face federal penalties. Working people could face additional tax penalties of up to 2 percent of household income, to a maximum of $975, under the Obamacare “individual mandate,” if they have not purchased private health insurance.

There is a stark contrast between the IRS hounding of working people for relatively small amounts of money—but difficult or impossible to pay for those on low incomes—and the green light given to corporate tax cheats who evade taxation on trillions in income.

“As Americans rush to finalize tax returns, multinational corporations that benefit from trillions in taxpayer-funded support are dodging billions in taxes,” said Raymond C. Offenheiser, President of Oxfam America. “The vast sums large companies stash in tax havens should be fighting poverty and rebuilding America’s infrastructure, not hidden offshore in Panama, Bahamas, or the Cayman Islands.”

The Oxfam report, titled “Broken at the Top,” expresses concern that “tax dodging by multinational corporations…contributes to dangerous inequality that is undermining our social fabric and hindering economic growth.”

It continues: “This inequality is fueled by an economic and political system that benefits the rich and powerful at the expense of the rest, causing the gains of economic growth over the last several decades to go disproportionately to the already wealthy. Among the most damning examples of this rigged system is the way large, profitable companies use offshore tax havens, and other aggressive and secretive methods, to dramatically lower their corporate tax rates in the United States and developing countries alike.”

Oxfam collected figures available from the 10-K reports and other financial documents issued by the 50 largest US companies, covering the period since the Wall Street crash, 2008 through 2014, and presented them in an interactive table. The figures included total profits, federal taxes paid, total US taxes paid (including state and local), lobbying expenses, tax breaks, money held in offshore accounts, and benefits received from the federal government, including loans, loan guarantees and bailouts.

Among the most important findings:

* The top 50 companies made nearly $4 trillion in profits globally, but paid only $412 billion in federal income tax, for an effective tax rate of barely 10 percent, compared to the statutory rate of 35 percent.

* The 50 companies spent $2.6 billion to influence the federal government, while reaping nearly $11.2 trillion in federal support, for an effective return of 400,000 percent on their lobbying expenses.

* The overseas cash stashed by the 50 companies, nearly $1.4 trillion, is larger than the Gross Domestic Product of Russia, Mexico, Spain or South Korea.

* US multinationals reported 43 percent of their foreign earnings from five tax havens, countries that accounted for only 4 percent of their foreign workforce and 7 percent of foreign investment. All told, US companies shifted between $500 billion and $700 billion in profits from countries where economic activity actually took place to countries where tax rates were low.

* In the year 2012 alone, US firms reported $80 billion in profits in Bermuda, more than their combined reported profits in the four largest economies (after the US itself): China, Japan, Germany and France. This figure was nearly 20 times the total GDP of the tiny island country.

The Oxfam report also pointed to an estimated $100 billion in taxes evaded in foreign countries, many of them rich in natural resources extracted by such global giants as Exxon, Chevron and Dow Chemical. According to the report, “Taxes paid, or unpaid, by multinational companies in poor countries can be the difference between life and death, poverty or opportunity. $100 billion is four times what the 47 least developed countries in the world spend on education for their 932 million citizens. $100 billion is equivalent to what it would cost to provide basic life-saving health services or safe water and sanitation to more than 2.2 billion people.”

The report cited former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s assessment that “Africa loses more money each year to tax dodging than it receives in international development assistance.”

Oxfam offered no solution to the growth of inequality and the systematic looting by big corporations that its report documents, except to urge governments around the world to close tax loopholes. The group also pleads with the corporate bosses themselves not to be quite so greedy. Neither capitalist governments nor the CEOs will pay the slightest attention. But the working class should take note of these figures, which provide ample evidence of the bankrupt and reactionary nature of capitalism, and the urgent necessity of building a mass movement, on a global scale, to put an end to the profit system.

Global Tax Havens or Havens For Dirty Money

By Abdus Sattar Ghazali

Gabriel Zucman, the author of the 2015 book “The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens,” estimates that $7.6 trillion is stashed in tax havens. This amounts to 8 percent of the world’s personal financial wealth. The author believes that if all of this illegally hidden money were properly recorded and taxed, global tax revenues would grow by more than $200 billion a year.

Interestingly, on April 3, 2016, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, leaked massive documents known as “Panama Papers” which reveal the shadowy world of hidden offshore finances of presidents and prime ministers. The biggest leak of financial data in history exposes the offshore holdings of 12 current and former world leaders and provides details of the hidden financial dealings of 128 more politicians and public officials around the world.

The German newspaper, Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ), which worked on the leaked documents with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, said the data provides rare insights into a world that can only exist in the shadows. It proves how a global industry led by major banks, legal firms, and asset management companies secretly manages the estates of the world’s rich and famous: from politicians, FIFA officials, fraudsters and drug smugglers, to celebrities and professional athletes.

According to The Guardian, the Panama Papers are an unprecedented leak of 11.5m files from the database of the world’s fourth biggest offshore law firm, Mossack Fonseca. The documents show the myriad ways in which the rich can exploit secretive offshore tax regimes. The massive leak of confidential documents from a Panamanian law firm has shown how some of the world’s richest people hide assets to avoid paying taxes.

Among national leaders with offshore wealth are Nawaz Sharif, Pakistan’s prime minister; Ayad Allawi, ex-interim prime minister and former vice-president of Iraq; Petro Poroshenko, president of Ukraine; Alaa Mubarak, son of Egypt’s former president; and the prime minister of Iceland, Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson.

Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has formed a high-level judicial commission to probe any financial wrongdoing, a day after three of his children were named in the ‘Panama Papers’ for owning offshore companies prompting demands for an enquiry by the opposition. Documents on the ICIJ website said Sharif’s children – Mariam, Hasan and Hussain – “were owners or had the right to authorize transactions for several companies”. Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif’s relatives Samina Durrani and Ilyas Mehraj have also figured in the documents examined.

Iceland’s prime minister, Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, became the first major casualty of the Panama Papers, stepping aside from his office amid mounting public outrage that his family had sheltered money offshore.

A $2bn trail leads all the way to Vladimir Putin’s best friend Sergei Roldugin who is at the centre of a scheme in which money from Russian state banks is hidden offshore. A spokesman for Russian President Vladimir Putin told The Guardian that the media investigation into offshore accounts is motivated by “Putinphobia,” and that he has not been implicated in any wrongdoing.

Putin’s spokesman Dmitry Peskov said “it’s obvious that the main target of such attacks is our president,” and claimed that the publication was aimed at influencing Russia’s stability and parliamentary elections scheduled for September. He suggested the Washington-based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, which co-ordinated the international investigation, has ties to the U.S. government.

Family members of at least eight current or former members of China’s Politburo Standing Committee, the country’s main ruling body, have offshore companies arranged though Mossack Fonseca. They include President Xi’s brother-in-law, who set up two British Virgin Islands companies in 2009. China’s foreign ministry dismissed reports of the leaks from the Mossack Fonseca database as ‘groundless accusations’. A Communist party censorship directive instructed news organizations to purge all reports, blogs, bulletin boards and comments relating to Panama Papers revelations.

Twenty-three individuals who have had sanctions imposed on them for supporting the regimes in North Korea, Zimbabwe, Russia, Iran and Syria have been clients of Mossack Fonseca. Their companies were harbored by the Seychelles, the British Virgin Islands, Panama and other jurisdictions.

Tax Havens

Jill Lawless of the Associated Press says there’s one part of the British Empire on which the sun still does not set: its tax havens. Britain’s former world dominance has left it with a string of tiny territories scattered around the globe, and many of them have become hubs for hiding money. Despite growing political pressure, shutting down these and other tax havens may be easier said than done, Jill said.

As Britain’s colonies gained independence after World War II, London encouraged several small Caribbean islands to become tax havens as a means to self-sufficiency. As a result, many of the world’s tax havens have British links, including overseas territories such as the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda and the Cayman Islands. The Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey off the French coast, which are possessions of the British Crown, have been havens for the wealthy and their money for almost a century.

More than half the 200,000 companies set up for clients by Panamanian firm Mossack Fonseca in the leaked files are registered in the British Virgin Islands, a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.

According to the BBC two broad qualifications for being a tax haven are to have a low or zero rate of income tax and guarantee the rich a cloak of secrecy they would not receive in their own country. They have also been used to cover up criminal activity.

Since 2009, many attempts have been made to crack down on abuses. More than 700 tax transparency deals have been signed globally. Places including Switzerland, the Channel Islands and Luxembourg have tightened the rules, but Panama and the British Virgin Islands are among those criticized for not doing enough. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Group of 20 nations have persuaded more than 90 countries to share financial data in a bid to crack down on secret dealings.

Mossack Fonseca

The Panama Papers make it clear that major banks are big drivers behind the creation of hard-to-trace companies in the British Virgin Islands, Panama and other offshore havens. They list nearly 15,600 paper companies that banks set up for clients who want keep their finances under wraps, including thousands created by international giants UBS and HSBC.

Mossack Fonseca is one of the world’s top creators of shell companies, corporate structures that can be used to hide ownership of assets. The law firm’s leaked internal files contain information on 214,488 offshore entities connected to people in more than 200 countries and territories.

The offshore system relies on a sprawling global industry of bankers, lawyers, accountants and these go-betweens who work together to protect their clients’ secrets. These secrecy experts use anonymous companies, trusts and other paper entities to create complex structures that can be used to disguise the origins of dirty money.

The Mossack Fonseca law firm has worked closely with big banks and big law firms in places like The Netherlands, Mexico, the United States and Switzerland, helping clients move money or slash their tax bills, the secret records show.

Big U.S. firms hold $2.1 trillion overseas to avoid taxes

Not surprisingly, in October 2015, an economic study revealed that the 500 largest American companies hold more than $2.1 trillion in accumulated profits offshore to avoid U.S. taxes and would collectively owe an estimated $620 billion in U.S. taxes if they repatriated the funds.

The study, by Citizens for Tax Justice and the U.S. Public Interest Research Group Education Fund, found that nearly three-quarters of the firms on the Fortune 500 list of biggest American companies by gross revenue operate tax haven subsidiaries in countries like Bermuda, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

Apple was holding $181.1 billion offshore, more than any other U.S. company, and would owe an estimated $59.2 billion in U.S. taxes if it tried to bring the money back to the United States from its three overseas tax havens, the study said.

General Electric has booked $119 billion offshore in 18 tax havens, software firm Microsoft is holding $108.3 billion in five tax haven subsidiaries and drug company Pfizer is holding $74 billion in 151 subsidiaries, the study said.

“At least 358 companies, nearly 72 percent of the Fortune 500, operate subsidiaries in tax haven jurisdictions as of the end of 2014,” the study said. “All told these 358 companies maintain at least 7,622 tax haven subsidiaries.”

Fortune 500 companies hold more than $2.1 trillion in accumulated profits offshore to avoid taxes, with just 30 of the firms accounting for $1.4 trillion of that amount, or 65 percent, the study found.

In September 2015, a U.S. federal judge authorized the Internal Revenue Service to seek the names of Americans using accounts at two Belize banks.

PIL – Legal Prosecution of Government officials , Public Servants involved in Reliance Scams

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

CRIMINAL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2015

IN THE MATTER OF

NAGARAJA . M.R ,

editor , SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice ,

# LIG 2 , No 761 , HUDCO First Stage , Laxmikantanagar ,

Hebbal , Mysore – 570017 , Karnataka State

…..Petitioner

Versus

Honourable Cabinet Secretary , PMO , Government of India & Others

….Respondents

PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF

MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.

To ,

Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion

Justices of the Supreme Court of India. The Humble petition of the Petitioner above named.

MOST RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH :

1. Facts of the case:

Our whole hearted respects to honest few in judiciary , parliament & public service. Our salutes to them , due to honest efforts of those few noble persons only at least democracy is surviving in India.

A . “Power will go to the hands of rascals, , rogues and freebooters. All Indian leaders will be of low calibre and men of straw. They will have sweet tongues and silly hearts. They will fight among themselves for power and will be lost in political squabbles . A day would come when even air & water will be taxed.” Sir Winston made this statement in the House of Commons just before the independence of India & Pakistan. Sadly , the forewarning of Late Winston Churchill has been proved right by some of our criminal , corrupt people’s representatives , police , public servants & Judges. Some of the below mentioned judges fall among the category of churchill’s men – Rogues , Rascals & Freebooters.

B . Loot of natural resources , telecom spectrum & public property in India and illegal aid to those criminals by government officials.

2. Question(s) of Law:

Are government officials , telecom , petroleum , finance department officials , police & revenue officials who aided loot , above Law & can go scot free ?

3. Grounds:

Requests for equitable justice , legal prosecution & punishment of guilty government officials and public servants .

4. Averment:

Give what action has been taken by government of india or state governments or other statutory bodies against reliance industries for it’s irregularities in telecom , oil sector , etc.

That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition (which are admitted by courts) in any High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of the present petition.

PRAYER:

In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:

(i) Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the questions.

(ii) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to legally prosecute guilty officials mentioned in the above said report.

(iii) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to uphold the constitution of india , to protect natural resources and to protect the constitutional rights of all Indian citizens including mine.
(iv) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to immediately keep all government officials mentioned in the above said report under suspension from service & to take necessary steps to protect all type of evidences.

(v) to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.

FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL BE DUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.

Date : 28th November 2015………………………………Filed By : Nagaraja.M.R.

Place : Mysuru India…………………………………………..Petitioner in person

PIL – Legal Prosecution of officials involved in Bellary Mining Scam

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

CRIMINAL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2015

IN THE MATTER OF

NAGARAJA . M.R ,

editor , SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice ,

# LIG 2 , No 761 , HUDCO First Stage , Laxmikantanagar ,

Hebbal , Mysore – 570017 , Karnataka State

…..Petitioner

Versus

Honourable Chief Secretary , Government of Karnataka & Others

….Respondents

PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF

MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.

To ,

Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion

Justices of the Supreme Court of India. The Humble petition of the Petitioner above named.

MOST RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH :

1. Facts of the case:

Our whole hearted respects to honest few in judiciary , parliament & public service. Our salutes to them , due to honest efforts of those few noble persons only at least democracy is surviving in India.

A . “Power will go to the hands of rascals, , rogues and freebooters. All Indian leaders will be of low calibre and men of straw. They will have sweet tongues and silly hearts. They will fight among themselves for power and will be lost in political squabbles . A day would come when even air & water will be taxed.” Sir Winston made this statement in the House of Commons just before the independence of India & Pakistan. Sadly , the forewarning of Late Winston Churchill has been proved right by some of our criminal , corrupt people’s representatives , police , public servants & Judges. Some of the below mentioned judges fall among the category of churchill’s men – Rogues , Rascals & Freebooters.

B . Loot of natural resources in Karnataka state and illegal aid to those criminals by government officials. Read Karnataka Lokayukta Mining scam report .

2. Question(s) of Law:

Are forest officials , police & revenue officials who aided bellary mining loot , above Law & can go scot free ?

3. Grounds:

Requests for equitable justice , legal prosecution & punishment of guilty police , revenue , forest officials.

4. Averment:

GIVE WHAT ACTION HAS BEEN TAKEN AGAINST THE GUILTY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS MENTIONED IN THE KARNATAKA LOKAYUKTA REPORT submitted by Justice Santosh Hegde & Shri.U.V.Singh ABOUT BELLARY MINING SCAM. IF NOT WHY ? REASONS THEROF.

How many guilty government officials mentioned in the above report got promotions , continuing in service making it easy for them to tamper evidences ?

What action against public servants , officials who are hushing up the case & protecting the guilty ?

The Petitioner has sent many letters / appeals / petitions to supreme court of india & other courts through e-mail , DARPG website & through regular mail requesting them to consider those as PILs. But none of them were admitted , even acknowledgement for receipts were not given. See How duty conscious ,our judges are & see how our judges are sensitive towards life , liberty of citizens , commonmen & see how careless our judges are towards anti national crimes , crimes worth crores of rupees.

That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition (which are admitted by courts) in any High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of the present petition.

PRAYER:

In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:

(i) Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the questions.

(ii) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to legally prosecute guilty officials mentioned in the above said report.

(iii) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to uphold the constitution of india , to protect natural resources and to protect the constitutional rights of all Indian citizens including mine.
(iv) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to immediately keep all government officials mentioned in the above said report under suspension from service & to take necessary steps to protect all type of evidences.

(v) to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.

FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL BE DUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.

Date : 04th November 2015………………………………Filed By : Nagaraja.M.R.

Place : Mysuru India……………………………………Petitioner in person

Editorial : Scams , Illegalities in Trusts , CSR Funds

Trusts , Associations are ideally formed , funded by noble persons to work for achieving certain noble social objectives like education to deprived , health care to poor , etc. Ideally these trusts enjoy the faith , confidence of public and collect donations from them to achieve their stated objectives.

Of late , many NGOs , Trusts are formed by rich cunning people , corporate bodies solely to divert the black money. They lack accountability to the public , donors. Religious , charitable trusts which are formed to propagate religious preaching indulge in business of establishing hi fi medical , engineering colleges earning donations to the tune of millions of rupees every year. Most of the financial transactions of these trusts takes place by cash payments without proper documentation to by pass legal scrutiny.

Many office bearers / founders of these trusts treat their trusts as their personal fiefdoms and spend the resources of trust for their personal hi fi lifestyles. Administrative expenses of these trusts are much more than the expenses made towards the objectives of these trusts. There are also possibilities of siphoning off money to illegal activities.

The tax exemptions given to these trusts by government are in essence a donation made by public exchequer to the very same trust to the tune of tax amount if enforced. Government also gives land at concessional rates to these trusts , that subsidy amount is also a donation by public exchequer to the trust. So , naturally functioning of all religious , charitable , educational , political trusts must be brought under the ambit of RTI. A cap on administrative expenses of trusts must be enforced. Office bearers of trusts who violate the stated objectives of trusts must be charged for public cheating & money must be recovered from them. Such trusts should be superseded and brought under the control of government.

Jai Hind. Vande Mataram.

Your’s

Nagaraja.M.R.

PIL – Scams in Public Trusts

An Appeal to Honourable Supreme Court of India

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

CRIMINAL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2016

IN THE MATTER OF

NAGARAJA . M.R

editor , SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice
# LIG 2 , No 761 ,, HUDCO First Stage , Laxmikantanagar ,
Hebbal , Mysore – 570017 , Karnataka State
.
….Petitioner

Versus

Honourable Chief Secretary , Government of Karnataka & Others

….Respondents

PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.

To ,
Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion Justices of the Supreme Court of India.

The Humble petition of the Petitioner above named.

MOST RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH :
1. Facts of the case:

Trusts , Associations are ideally formed , funded by noble persons to work for achieving certain noble social objectives like education to deprived , health care to poor , etc. Ideally these trusts enjoy the faith , confidence of public and collect donations from them to achieve their stated objectives.

Of late , many NGOs , Trusts are formed by rich cunning people , corporate bodies solely to divert the black money. They lack accountability to the public , donors. Religious , charitable trusts which are formed to propagate religious preaching indulge in business of establishing hi fi medical , engineering colleges earning donations to the tune of millions of rupees every year. Most of the financial transactions of these trusts takes place by cash payments without proper documentation to by pass legal scrutiny.

Many office bearers / founders of these trusts treat their trusts as their personal fiefdoms and spend the resources of trust for their personal hi fi lifestyles. Administrative expenses of these trusts are much more than the expenses made towards the objectives of these trusts. There are also possibilities of siphoning off money to illegal activities.

The tax exemptions given to these trusts by government are in essence a donation made by public exchequer to the very same trust to the tune of tax amount if enforced. Government also gives land at concessional rates to these trusts , that subsidy amount is also a donation by public exchequer to the trust. So , naturally functioning of all religious , charitable , educational , political trusts must be brought under the ambit of RTI. A cap on administrative expenses of trusts must be enforced. Office bearers of trusts who violate the stated objectives of trusts must be charged for public cheating & money must be recovered from them. Such trusts should be superseded and brought under the control of government.
2. Question(s) of Law:

Why political trusts , religious trusts lack public accountability ? are they above law ?
3. Grounds:
Requests for equitable justice.

4. Averment:

Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants in the following cases to perform their duties.

That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition (which are admitted by courts) in any High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of the present petition.

PRAYER:
In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:
a . Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the chief secretaries of all stae governments , the concerned public servants in the present case , to perform their duties.

b . to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.

c. to order all type of trusts to conduct their financial transactions through banks only.

d. to order all type of trusts to make their functioning public and to disclose their activities under RTI.

e. to order trusts not to indulge in activities other than the stated objectives of trust and not to spend trust money for the puroses other than mentioned in the objectives.

f. to put a cap on the administarative expenses , office bearers expenses of trusts.

g. to initiate criminal charges against the office bearers of trusts who have misused , diverted trust resources and recover such money from them with penal interest.

h. to supersede all the trusts which violate law and to bring thm under the control of government.

FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL BE DUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.

Dated : 13th July 2016 …………………….FILED BY: NAGARAJA.M.R.

Place : Mysuru , India……………………. PETITIONER-IN-PERSON

Donations Scam In Educational Trusts

– I-T Department Exposes scam worth crores

According to I-T officials, the operations were conducted mainly in Karnataka and Maharashtra (including Pune and Mumbai) that have clusters of universities and professional colleges.

Educational trusts that run professional colleges, primarily medical and engineering colleges, by collecting donations as high as Rs 1 crore have come under the Income-Tax (I-T) department’s scanner. The I-T department has raised Rs 100 crore in tax demand from some trusts in Mumbai, Pune, Hyderabad and Bengaluru for irregularities and misusing tax benefits meant for charitable trusts. According to I-T sleuths, several institutions were surveyed in the last two months, and, in a few cases, searches were conducted as well. The findings of the survey have been sent to the Special Investigation Team (SIT) on black money. “The total amount of the scam is not yet quantified,” said an official directly involved with the operation. A large chunk of unaccounted money, accepted as donations, is used for personal benefits, and, of course, do not get declared. This results in the generation of black money,” said the official.

According to I-T officials, the operations were conducted mainly in Karnataka and Maharashtra (including Pune and Mumbai) that have clusters of universities and professional colleges. The action follows the government’s move to curb black money generation within the country. The finance ministry is of the view that the bulk of black money is still within India. A senior I-T official said, “Investigations have revealed that several trust-run educational institutions accept donations for admissions and deposit them in multiple bank accounts. In some cases, demand draft/bank challans were purchased in favour of the trust president, and they used multiple challans to keep the amounts low.”

“Nobody can object to charity or donations, but, at the same time, when large sums get donated, it rings an alarm bell unless the payments are made by account payee cheques with the donor’s name and Permanent Account Number,” a former DGIT told dna. “Some of these institutions are owned by big corporates and industrialists. In certain instances, it was found that trusts were created to divert funds,” said another official.

Discreet investigations have revealed that there were 3-4 intermediaries, and, quite often, office-bearers of these colleges accepted donations in cash. Admissions to under-graduate and post-graduate programmes were the main focal points for such acceptance of cash donations and done with the knowledge of the president of the trusts.

“There are at 3-4 intermediaries in the entire process – right from office-bearers to trustee owners. The main concern is that, in all cases, co-operative banks are being used to channelise donations. Henceforth, involvement of banks will also be investigated,” said an investigating officer. It has also been observed that many institutions do not specify the sources of income in their income statement and balance sheets.

In many cases, permissions were not taken from the appropriate authority for leasing out property for educational programmes. No plot or land can be leased out for any other purpose than education and without special permission from the leasing authority.

“In a few instances, the trustees have shown demand drafts received as donation from parents but we found that these drafts were from the same bank branch, indicating that they were breaking up cash into smaller drafts and depositing part of the donations back to the accounts maintained by the trust,” said I-T officials.

According to I-T sleuths, trustees created ‘proxy students’ who would take admissions under the government quota, only to be auctioned by the college to the highest bidder. This practice is rampant in private medical institutions. The income of a charitable trust is exempt from I-T, according to the provisions of Section 11, 12 and 13 of the I-T Act. However, to avail of this exemption, the activities of such trust/society should fall within the definition of ‘charitable purpose’.

It is often a topic of dispute among tax authorities whether high-end educational institutions, providing modern and state-of-the-art educational aid, should be allowed to undertake activities that are charitable or commercial in nature

Government seeks to tighten regulations for charitable trusts

The proposal will have implications for the way trusts claim tax exemptions and receive anonymous donations

Budget proposals to tighten the regulation of charitable trusts and institutions will have major implications for the way trusts currently claim tax exemptions and receive anonymous donations, experts said.

Aiming to prevent the abuse of tax exemptions, finance minister Arun Jaitley’s budget last week introduced provisions that seek to end the practice of trusts claiming double tax benefits, or tax exemption even when the income is not being used for charitable purposes. The budget also sought to make it easier for the tax department to cancel the registration of such trusts. And in an attempt to check money laundering, the government changed the tax treatment to discourage anonymous donations received by charitable institutions and trusts.

In December, the income tax department was hauled up by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India over the alleged misuse of tax exemptions by trusts, pointing to lapses in the registration process, allowance of exemptions during assessment, non-monitoring of surplus income accumulations and foreign contributions received by trusts. The national auditor had also named a number of trusts who it said were misusing tax exemption provisions.

Rahul Garg, leader, direct taxes at consulting firm PwC, said the budget proposals are aimed at enhancing the compliance and reporting requirements by these trusts and plug some of the loopholes in the current laws.

“There was a perception that the charitable institutions are able to indulge in tax evasion due to the varied interpretation of the existing laws. The amendments clearly spell out what the law is. It will also help in reducing litigation,” he said.

He added that the changes will also address fears of money laundering raised by the home ministry because of the way foreign funds were coming into some charitable institutions. According to the memorandum explaining provisions under the Finance Bill 2014, a registered trust or institution which avails the benefit of exemptions under a specific exemption provision in Section 11 of the Income Tax Act meant for charitable purposes, cannot simultaneously take benefit of the exemption provided under any other provision of the Act.

Also, provisions have been introduced to ensure that a trust which uses tax-exempt income for acquisition of assets, cannot claim double benefit by using a notional depreciation of such assets.

To be sure, Parliament has to pass the Finance Bill 2014 for it to become an Act.

Law firm Khaitan and Co. in a post-budget note, said the changes in regulations around charitable trusts and institutions are aimed at rationalizing the taxation regime and eliminating certain loopholes and ambiguities. The note pointed out that the powers of the commissioner of income tax to cancel the tax exemption certificate of an institution have also been widened.

A commissioner can cancel the registration certificate if the trust does not use funds to benefit the general public; or uses them for a particular religious community or caste; or if the income of the trust is used for the benefit of any trustees.

The government has also moved to amend provisions to discourage anonymous donations to universities, hospitals and other charitable organisations. At present, though only that portion of anonymous donation that exceeds 5% of the total donations is taxed at 30%, the trust or society gets the benefit of reducing its total income by the entire amount that has been anonymously donated.

However, as per the amendment, only that portion of the anonymous donation that is taxed is eligible for reduction from the total income.

Dirty Money in Trusts

Money “laundering”

Only a fool holds dirty money in his own name. The world’s financial system offers safer and friendlier ways to hide the proceeds of crime. Shell companies–those with no real operations–are one, phoney trusts and foundations are another (see “Trusts: The weak link”).

Belatedly, life is getting a bit more difficult for tax evaders, money launderers and those who abet them. One big move–now backed by the British government–is to oblige limitedliability companies to give details of their real owners. This newspaper has argued in favour of such a duty: limited-liability status is a kind of public subsidy (if the firm goes bust, the shareholders are not responsible for its debts). It was never meant to be a means of concealing ownership. Yet in many places it is just that: only six of 69 jurisdictions surveyed last year by Eurodad, an anti-corruption network, required all types of firm to record beneficial-ownership information.

Spurred by complaints from the police, pressure from campaigners and public distaste for tax-dodgers, the British government wants not only to set up a proper registry of beneficial ownership, but also to make its contents public. If the detailed regime matches the promise, this will be an important breakthrough. But Britain should also coax its offshore dependencies into greater openness. Some are conscientious, others less so. Even official investigators can find it hard to get the information they need. America can do more to help, too: states such as Nevada apply scandalously little scrutiny to the identity of those forming companies. European governments are keen to collect more tax, but many have been less eager to make corporate ownership transparent.

Cleaning up corporate ownership will increase public confidence in the financial system. But it is only the start. The misuse of trusts and other non-corporate entities is also a big problem. These have proper purposes, such as managing charitable donations, ring-fencing employee pension plans, safeguarding assets for children or organising wills and bequests. But they too enjoy a legal advantage: they are a way of parking assets. That seems fine as long as the trusts pay tax on profits (just as companies do) and their beneficiaries pay tax on any disbursement or benefit (just as shareholders do).

Instead, trust law has become a murky world. In many places there is no rule that trusts must disclose their existence, let alone pay tax on their earnings. “Orphan assets”, no longer legally owned by the person who put the money into the trust but not yet belonging to the trust’s potential beneficiaries, offer plenty of room for abuse. Some trusts, revealingly, even have flee clauses, where the trustees are obliged to try to change the domicile of the trust if the tax police start asking questions. A structure that was set up to protect the wives of medieval crusaders has ended up being used by the sort of businesspeople who greet the Russian leader as “Vladimir”.

Swiss knives

Far better to concentrate on two simple rules. First, all trusts and foundations should be registered, just as companies are, and their beneficiaries, both actual and potential, should be disclosed. Second, the trustees and the beneficiaries should be legally responsible for reporting any disbursements or benefits, and for making sure the tax is paid on them. Both the European Union and America are tiptoeing in this direction, but Luxembourg, Switzerland and some micro-states are resisting. It would be much better if they worked together. Trusts are a useful vehicle–but not for dodgy goods.

How Indian companies are misusing public trusts to launder their CSR spending

The statutory corporate social responsibility (CSR) norms introduced two years ago were expected to revolutionise funding of social causes, but some sections of India Inc may now be abusing these for laundering of black money, according to sources privy to such transactions.

Some companies are using onhire charitable trusts to fabricate CSR spending, at least two sources who have helped craft and execute such transactions said. They spoke to ET on the condition of anonymity.

India is the first and only country to have statutorily mandated corporate social responsibility for certain class of companies but the law allows a lot of leeway. CSR spends disclosed by companies need not be vetted by statutory auditors unlike other spending. Moreover, financials of charitable trusts also come under little statutory scrutiny. This combination of factors has left the new CSR norms wide open for abuse.

“Such abuse in unlikely in trusts floated by companies themselves. But it is possible where they use external trusts,” says Rusen Kumar, founder director of IndiaCSR, a portal that collates information and developments on CSR from across the country.

According to one person, the modus operandi is simple. If a company is obligated to spend, say, Rs 10 crore on CSR, it writes out a cheque in favour of a trust that works in education, healthcare, environment protection or any of the activities specified by the government. The trust, after deducting its commission, discreetly returns the money in cash to the officials or promoters, instantly turning Rs 10 crore of white money into black. The middleman gets a cut as well.

“Often the promoter pockets the money,” says a chartered accountant who has also helped clients with such deals. Often set up by politicians or rich individuals, these trusts also serve as laundering mechanism for unaccounted money. For example, a politician would set up a trust to build an educational institution. CSR funds would flow into the trust through legitimate banking channels. These funds are returned to the promoters in cash and the actual expenditure on the institution is met with the politician’s illicit hoard. The expenditure is then inflated helping launder the black money.

At the end of the year, the trust gives a report to the company which it duly incorporates in its CSR reporting form called AOC-4. “Though the financials are part of the directors’ report which is audited by external auditors, the AOC-4 itself is not subject to external audit. It is a lacuna,” says Bhaskar Chatterjee, director general and CEO, Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA).

ET met a middleman who had just concluded two deals—one for a well-known listed company and another for a smaller firm. He said he had already done cash-back deals worth about Rs 40 crore this year.

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How Indian companies are misusing public trusts to launder their CSR spending
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This is the first year that the CSR norms have come into play. Rules under Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013, mandate that any company with a net worth of over Rs 500 crore or annual revenue of Rs 1,000 crore or net profit of Rs 5 crore has to spend 2 per cent of the average profit of the previous three years on CSR activities.

Public trusts are a favoured route to launder money because they are not adequately governed or monitored. Though some states such as Maharashtra have their own law such as the Bombay Public Trusts Act, 1950, trusts are not governed by a nationwide law. If a state law doesn’t exist such as in Delhi, these trusts are governed by the Indian Trusts Act of 1882 that applies to private trusts. There is no centralized repository— like the registrar of companies for corporates—of information on public trusts.

They file annual accounts with the charity commissioner in states where it exists. Elsewhere, like Delhi, the only annual filing is income tax returns. An income tax official told ET that unless there is specific information, these are rarely scrutinized. In short, operations of public trusts remain opaque IICA’s Chatterjee, who was instrumental in drafting the CSR law, says that there is no real system to track these trusts. “The law should be tightened to ensure that money reaches the people it is intended to. If there is any leakage it should be plugged.”

Finance minister Arun Jaitley recently wrote in a Facebook post that bulk of the black money is within the country. He is probably right, but it would take tremendous political will and legislative imagination to choke the black money pipelines.

Who funds India’s political parties? Report says most donors anonymous

It is the best known secret of Indian politics. And it comes as no surprise that India’s national, state and regional parties earned Rs.4,662 crore in the last seven years, mostly in form of donations and contributions, but there is a huge cover of secrecy and lack of transparency in who gave the money to them, a report released by two NGOs has claimed.

The report shows that the Congress has earned the most, Rs. 2,008 crore, between 2004 and 2011 and its annual income has gone up steadily. At number two is the BJP, which in the same period made Rs. 994 crore. Its finances too improved steadily in the same period.

The report analyses income tax returns of political parties and donation documents made available to the Election Commission. The NGOs, Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) and National Election Watch (NEW), campaign for transparency in the finances and funding of political parties.

The NGOs say that there is no standardised format for political parties to declare their incomes. A major source of income for all parties is the sale of “coupons” instead of receipts. Voluntary contributions and donations are also on top of the list of sources of income. None of these, the NGOs’ report says, are transparent ways to making and declaring money.

To bring some transparency into political funding, the Representation of People Act of 1951 says that political parties must declare details of contributions of more than Rs. 20,000. This report though points out major loopholes, like parties declaring every single contribution ofRs. 20,000 made by any person at one time. But if several donations totalling to more than Rs.20,000 are made by one person or company in one year, then parties interpret it differently. That leaves them the option of breaking up donations into amounts less than Rs. 20,000.

The BSP (which is third on the list in terms of income) for instance, has shown an income ofRs. 172 crore in between 2009 and 2011 but not declared a single contribution of more than Rs.20,000. The CPM, which made almost Rs. 150 crore in that period, has shown only 1.39 per cent of contributions of more than Rs. 20,000. For the same period, Congress has shown 11.89 per cent and BJP 22.76 per cent.

The parties with highest “donations” are the Telengana Rashtra Samiti at 99.98 per cent and Lok Janshakti Party at 89.88 per cent.

The other major source of income for the major parties is also donations from corporate houses. The report has a list of which corporate house made how much donation and to which party. Most of them contribute to both the major national parties, the Congress and the BJP. For instance, the General Electoral Trust made a donation of Rs. 36.41 crore to Congress and Rs. Rs. 26.07 crore to BJP between 2004 and 2011. Torrent Power similarly gaveRs. 14.15 crore to Congress and Rs. 13 crore to BJP. And a lot of the companies are new ones involved in infrastructure like power, steel and construction, beating the traditional firms of Tatas and Birlas.

Why are political parties not under RTI ambit: Supreme Court asks Centre, EC

The Supreme Court on Tuesday sought responses from the Centre, the Election Commission and six political parties, including Congress and BJP, on a plea to declare all national and regional political parties “public authorities” to bring them under the ambit of the Right to Information (RTI) Act.

“Issue notice,” a bench comprising Chief Justice HL Dattu and justices Arun Kumar Mishra and Amitava Roy said.

The Association for Democratic Reforms, an NGO, has also sought a direction that the political parties be asked to declare all donations, including those below Rs 20,000 also.

Lawyer Prashant Bhushan, appearing for the NGO, contended that political parties were public authorities and hence amenable to the RTI Act.

The Central Information Commission, in its detailed order, had held that political parties were public authorities and hence should disclose the information under RTI Act.

“Political parties do not have to pay the income tax on the donations and, moreover, the donations below Rs 20,000 are not to be disclosed under the law by them,” the lawyer said, adding that these parties also controlled the legislature and the law-making process.

Earlier, the NGO had approached SC seeking transparency and accountability in functioning of recognised national and regional political parties.

It had claimed that the political parties received huge sums of money in form of donations and contributions from corporates, trusts and individuals but do not disclose complete information about the source of such donations.

In its plea, the NGO had urged the apex court to direct all national and regional parties to mandatorily disclose details about their income as well as expenditure.

It had also sought declaration of entire details of donations and funding received by the political parties, irrespective of the amount donated and details of donors making donations to them and to electoral trusts.

The petition had claimed that political parties enjoyed a stronghold over their elected MPs and MLAs under Schedule 10 of the Constitution that makes it compulsory for members of either Houses of Parliament or state legislatures to abide by the directions of their parties, failing which they stand to be disqualified.

RTI applicable to Trusts, institutions indirectly funded by govt

In a recent judgement, the State Information Commissioner Vijay Kuvalekar has said that Trusts or institutions that are not directly substantially funded by the government, but still indirectly receive funds to run schools, courses, colleges, come under the Right to Information (RTI), Act.

Kuvalekar, in his judgement said that indirectly, since the parent institute is getting the funds for institutes run by them, the RTI is applicable.
The judgement came in the wake of former member of Shikshan Prasarak Mandali (SPM), B B Jambhulkar who raised an RTI query with the SPM to get details on admission having cited corruption.
Jambhulkar said, “The SPM, however, denied to reveal the information as the SPM Trust was not funded by the government. Besides, I asked the Trust to give me details of the appointment of over 400 members of the Trust.”
The information commissioner, however, said that, “It is clear that the Trust is receiving funds to run other institutes as seen in the books of accounts. In such a case, it is liable to reveal any information as sought by the RTI applicant.”

Incidentally, the Income Tax department recently cancelled the registration of SPM as a charitable trust’. Jambhular had asked the query regarding a list of names of the students who have sought admission at Ramnarian Ruia college and R A Poddar college of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai.

PILs Covered up by Supreme Court

Image result for reliance company images

Image result for reliance company images

“There is a higher court than the court of justice and that is the court of conscience It supercedes all other courts. ”
– Mahatma Gandhi

Salary of Chief Justice of India Rupees 100000 per month & salary of supreme court judge Rupees 90000 per month plus 5 star heritage bungalow , 5 star air / train travel , 5 star health care facility , etc all at tax payers expense

Hunger Deaths Malnutrition Deaths Poverty Earning Less than Rupees 32 per day

Honest Hard Working Child Laborers Earning Less Than Rupees 32 per day

Corrupt Dishonest Criminal Public Servants Earning More than Rupees 5000 per day Murderers of Justice

Ill-gotten Wealth of Corrupt Public Servants

Murderers of Justice Shame to You

Follow me at
http://www.facebook.com/people/Nagaraj-Mysore-Raghupathi/513253184 ,
http://www.amnesty.org/en/user/naghrw ,
http://twitter.com/naghrw ,

A – Z of Manipulation of Indian Legal System

http://www.scribd.com/doc/187575206/A-Z-of-Manipulation-of-India-Legal-System ,

http://www.scribd.com/doc/173854541/Chief-Justice-of-India-A-Criminal ,

SHAME TO CORRUPT RAPIST JUDGES OF INDIA

EDITORIAL : WAKE UP Corrupt Judges & Police of India – Bapuji’s dandi march- the origin of civil dis-obedience movement

Greetings on the birthday of our bapuji , Mahatma Gandhi on 02nd October. Just hanging photograph of Gandhi in office room , court hall or police station won’t serve any purpose. Before gandhi’s photo only many corrupt practices , injustices are enacted by public servants. Many of our public servants , Judges & Police are even unfit to sit before Mahatma Gandhi’s photograph , let alone invoke mahatma’s name during speech or court ruling. Let those very Judges & Police first learn to follow ideals of Mahatma Gandhi in their official capacity as well as personal capacity. The public servants enjoy luxuries , 5 star non veg meals , alcoholic drinks all at tax payers expense. These judges give judgements running into hundreds of pages with moral guidance , great quotes to commoners , police use filthy language , 3rd degree torture methods against innocents , commoners , when there are rich crooks , criminals justice kowtows before their feet. No brilliance , quotes of judges , no bravery , valour of police , why ?

Inspite of our repeated appeals for justice , judges are mum.

1. Are judges not interested in apprehending criminals & recovering crores of public money ?

2. Are judges not interested in apprehending master minds behind Late prime minister Rajiv Gandhi assassination ?

3. Are judges not interested in prosecuting greedy , corrupt industrialists ?

4. Are judges not interested in apprehending greedy , corrupt industrialist of RPG enterprises ?

5. Are judges not interested to apprehend criminals within RBI & BRBNMPL ?

6. Are judges not interested to do their duties to protect fundamental , human rights of commoners ?

7. Are judges not interested to do their duties , to legally prosecute their corrupt colleagues ?

8. If not , why those judges & police are not quitting their jobs , pave the way for a honest person ?
It is on this day in 12/03/1930, mahatma gandhi led people to dandi in gujarath state,india , to peacefully protest against the atrocious, illegal tax levied by the occupiers-britishers on natural salt. This non-violent, civil dis-obedience movement soon became a mass movement throught india & shook the very foundations of the colonial british government . it is an important milestone in our freedom struggle.
Today, in india even after 1947’s independence commoner’s are yet to relish the fruits of independance. Criminals have occupied the seats of power , in their greed for power & money are violating the fundamental/human rights of commoners. The saving grace is that still a few honest people are here & there in seats of power. We the commoners must come together & support those honest people in their endeavours. towards , this objective on this holy day SOS e Voice for Justice on web was born.
Let us build ram rajya of mahatma’s dream through non violent means within the existing democratic framework .that ram rajya is aptly described by poet shri. Ravindranath tagore as,
Where the mind is without fear & the head is held high
Where knowledge is free
Where the world has not been broken up into fragments
By narrow domestic walls
Where words come out from the depth of truth
Where tireless striving stretches it’s arms towards
perfection
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost it’s way
Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit
Where the mind is led forward by thee
Into ever widening thought and action
Into that heaven of freedom , my father
Let my country awake.
Jai hind. Vande mataram.

Your’s sincerely,

Nagaraja.M.R.

RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED – WHERE IS ACCOUNTABILITY?

Dear mukesh & anil ambani,

The reliance industries has always got a favourable treatment from the state & central governments.there are allegations that ,

1.years ago, the central government gave import concessions for import of certain raw materials of textile sector ,which hugely benefitted the P.F.Y & TEXTILE projects of your’s ie reliance industries.

2.the O.N.G.C which has painstakingly surveyed the oil & gas reserves & prepared a list of lists,gave that list & you got godavari basin oil & gas project from the government .O.N.G.C could have developed it & earned millions.

3.few months back you were charged both by the government & cellular operators (GSM) that you are giving S.T.D & ROAMING FACILITIES to your reliance phone subscribers.your’s was only a W.L.L. they even claimed that you are misusing a legal loophole & causing crores of losses to the government & other GSM operators. however while the issue was before the T.R.A.I, the trai legalized your actions by announcing unified licence for telecom operators.

4.now you are charged by the government of re-routing ISD CALLS as local calls,thereby causing crores of losses to the government & BSNL.this time also you may get the reprieve from the government. the government ,if a commonman does not pay his electric bills in time slaps interest & cuts down the electric supply immediately. however the same government ,even if your company has been alleged of causing crores of rupees losses to the government & other players, always enacts favourable laws for you like a SANTA CLAUS.

WILL YOU PLEASE CLARIFY mr.mukesh ambani & mr.anil ambani?
the TRAI announced unified licence regime in haste that too with retrospective effects.so all the charges against reliance were dropped. in the same vein as unified licence got retrospective effect , why not the government re-imburse the differece amount out of hefty fees collected from other cellular operators ? take the reliance fees as bench mark.anyway , finally commonman is the looser.

PIL – Legal Prosecution of Government officials , Public Servants involved in Reliance Scams

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

CRIMINAL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2015

IN THE MATTER OF

NAGARAJA . M.R ,

editor , SOS e Clarion of Dalit & SOS e Voice for Justice ,

# LIG 2 , No 761 , HUDCO First Stage , Laxmikantanagar ,

Hebbal , Mysore – 570017 , Karnataka State

…..Petitioner

Versus

Honourable Cabinet Secretary , PMO , Government of India & Others

….Respondents

PETITION UNDER ARTICLE 12 to ARTICLE 35 & ARTICLE 51A OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF

MANDAMUS UNDER ARTICLE 32 & ARTICLE 226 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.

To ,

Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion

Justices of the Supreme Court of India. The Humble petition of the Petitioner above named.

MOST RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH :

1. Facts of the case:

Our whole hearted respects to honest few in judiciary , parliament & public service. Our salutes to them , due to honest efforts of those few noble persons only at least democracy is surviving in India.

A . “Power will go to the hands of rascals, , rogues and freebooters. All Indian leaders will be of low calibre and men of straw. They will have sweet tongues and silly hearts. They will fight among themselves for power and will be lost in political squabbles . A day would come when even air & water will be taxed.” Sir Winston made this statement in the House of Commons just before the independence of India & Pakistan. Sadly , the forewarning of Late Winston Churchill has been proved right by some of our criminal , corrupt people’s representatives , police , public servants & Judges. Some of the below mentioned judges fall among the category of churchill’s men – Rogues , Rascals & Freebooters.

B . Loot of natural resources , telecom spectrum & public property in India and illegal aid to those criminals by government officials.

2. Question(s) of Law:

Are government officials , telecom , petroleum , finance department officials , police & revenue officials who aided loot , above Law & can go scot free ?

3. Grounds:

Requests for equitable justice , legal prosecution & punishment of guilty government officials and public servants .

4. Averment:

Give what action has been taken by government of india or state governments or other statutory bodies against reliance industries for it’s irregularities in telecom , oil sector , etc.

That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition (which are admitted by courts) in any High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of the present petition.

PRAYER:

In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:

(i) Hereby , I do request the honorable supreme court of India to consider this as a PIL for : “writ of Mandamus” and to issue instructions to the concerned public servants in the following cases to perform their duties & to answer the questions.

(ii) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to legally prosecute guilty officials mentioned in the above said report.

(iii) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to uphold the constitution of india , to protect natural resources and to protect the constitutional rights of all Indian citizens including mine.
(iv) Hereby , I do request the honourble supreme court of india to immediately keep all government officials mentioned in the above said report under suspension from service & to take necessary steps to protect all type of evidences.

(v) to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.

FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL BE DUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.

Date : 28th November 2015………………………………Filed By : Nagaraja.M.R.

Place : Mysuru India…………………………………………..Petitioner in person

10 things you should know about the Reliance KG-D6 gas deal

Reacting to Arvind Kejriwal’s presser where he said that an FIR will be filed against Mukesh Ambani, current oil minister Veerappa Moily and former oil minister Murli Deora over the gas pricing formula, Moily said that we should sympathize with his ignorance since kejriwal doesn’t know how the government functions. He reiterated that the norms were being followed and there is a system for fixing prices.

ALSO READ: Kejriwal orders FIR against Mukesh, Moily

So who is actually ignorant in this case? Were the norms actually followed or has Kejriwal raised some valid points.
ALSO READ:T N Ninan: One more!

Here is a refresher and ready reckoner on the entire KG D6 gas basin controversy.

1) What is KG D6 basin?

Krishna Godavari (KG) Basin is spread across 50,000 sq km in the Krishna River and Godavari river basins near the coast of Andhra Pradesh. The site Dhirubhai-6 (D6) is where Reliance Industries discovered the biggest gas reserves in India. In government records, the 7,645 sq km block is known as KG-DWN-98/1. The KG basin is considered to be the largest natural gas basin in India.

2) How did Reliance Industries get into KG basin?

Government of India opened up hydrocarbon exploration and production (E&P) in the country to private and foreign players in 1991. Small and medium sized blocks were opened up in this round which was followed up by giving out bigger blocks in 1999 as per the New Exploration and Licensing Policy (NELP). Through NELP, Reliance bagged the rights to explore the D6 block.

3) Did government have a role after the block was handed over?

Since all mining resources belong to the people of India, government monitors the exploration and production of these. In the case of oil and gas sector, government enters into contractual relationship with the private player through a Production Sharing Contract (PSC). The PSC lays out roles and responsibilities of all parties, specifies the detailed procedures to be followed at different stages of exploration, development and production. It also specifies the cost recovery and profit sharing in the contract. Directorate General of Hydrocarbon (DGH) monitors the PSC. A PSC was signed between the government of India (GOI) and undivided Reliance Industries and its minority partner Niko Resources (10 per cent stake) for exploration and production of oil and gas.

4) What happened to KG D6 when the Reliance group split?

Even before production could start from the KG D6 wells, Reliance group was split vertically between the two brothers, with the gas business of Reliance Industries remaining with Mukesh Ambani, the elder brother. The brothers fought over this huge reserve of gas even though it was not theirs in the first place. The very first line of a production sharing contract clearly says that “By virtue of article 297 of the Constitution of India, Petroleum is a natural state in the territorial waters and the continental shelf of India is vested with the Union of India”.

The brothers while splitting their father’s empire split the gas reserves too. A family pact between the two brothers, which was never made public till the issue blew out of proportion, was at the core of the dispute. Anil Ambani owned RNRL (Reliance Natural Resources Ltd) citing the agreement by the brothers in 2005, claimed it had rights to gas from Reliance KG basin for 17 years at $2.34 per mmBtu (million British thermal unit).The Supreme Court finally settled the matter by saying that ‘the government owns the gas till it reaches its ultimate consumer and parties must restrict their negotiation within the conditions of the government policy’.

Here the role of the government needs to be highlighted. None of the ministries involved in the process, including the oil ministry which Moily now represents, raised the point that the gas reserves belonged to the country and was not a property of the Ambani family. Even the Prime Minister, ManMohan Singh meekly requested the brothers to settle their differences in the interests of the country.

But how did the Ambani brothers arrive at this magic figure of $2.34 per mmBtu when there was no benchmark. In fact ONGC was supplying gas to the government at half the rate.

5) How did Anil Ambani arrive at the price of $2.34 per mmBtu for KG basin gas?

In June 2004, National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) invited bids for supply of gas for its 2600 MW power plant in Kawas and Gandhar. Reliance Industries, hopeful of starting production of gas by the time NTPC’s power plant is ready bid for the project and was awarded it as the lowest ‘techno-commercial’ bidder. A Letter of Intent (LOI) was issued to Reliance Industries to supply 132 trillion units of gas per annum to NTPC for 17 years at a price of $2.34 per mmBtu. Anil Ambani used this as a basis for asking gas for his power plant.

6) Why is the NTPC-Reliance dispute all about?

Reliance Industries refused to sign the contract for supply of gas. Jairam Ramesh, the Minister of Power in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha in 2009 said that “After issuance of LOI, RIL did not come forward to sign the Gas Sale and Purchase Agreement and sought major changes in the draft GSPA.In spite of all the efforts (by NTPC) RIL did not sign the GSPA agreed during the bidding process.”

NTPC dragged Reliance to Bombay High Court on December 20, 2005 but unfortunately the case that has dragged on. The case after nine years is still sub judice. Here again the government’s disinterest in protecting the interests of its own PSU has been a matter of much debate.

While NTPC was fighting the case with Reliance in the Bombay High Court, the government referred the matter to an Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoM) in 2007 headed by none other than the current President Pranab Mukherjee, who was then the finance minister. EGoM approved a rate hike of $4.2 per mmBtu of gas. This decision was taken without a single unit of gas coming out of the KG basin.

Reliance grabbed at this opportunity and said that it could not supply gas at a price lower than the mandated price set by the government.

7) How did Pranab Mukherjee arrive at the price of $4.2 mmBtu for gas?

The price was arrived by Reliance through its ‘price discovery mechanism’. As per a Reliance crafter formula, user companies were asked to quote a price which gave them a choice of arriving at a value between $4.54 and $4.75 per mmBtu. Reliance initially forwarded a figure of $4.59 which was later brought down to $4.3, but Pranab Mukherjee claimed victory by announcing a figure of $4.2 per mmBtu.

The brazenness of the entire exercise by the government can be seen from the fact that the objections raised by the Principal Advisor, Power and Energy to the government of India, Surya P Sethi along with the then cabinet secretary were ignored by the government. Surya questions the recommendation saying that nowhere is the cost of production more than $1.43.

8) Is it exploration or exploitation?

A CAG report released in 2011 (initiated in 2007 but delayed due to non-co-operation) on Performance Audit of Hydrocarbon PSCs castigated the oil ministry along with Reliance to retain its entire KG-D6 block in contravention of the PSC. As per the PSC, Reliance should have relinquished 25 per cent of the total area outside the discoveries in 2004 and 2005, but the entire area was declared as a discovery area (after initial objections) and the company was allowed to retain it. Without drilling adequate wells, Reliance kept on claiming that there was potential for petroleum. In CAG’s words this was done to confuse potential/prospectivity with actual discovery of hydrocarbons. The move allowed Reliance to keep the entire area to itself without following the norms laid under the PSC.

In a recent report CAG has said that Reliance moved directly from discovery to commercial production, skipping the intermediate appraisal programme step required as under PSC. CAG asks, without an appraisal programme how did the government and DGH ascertain the amount of gas in the well? And if they did not know how much gas was there in the well, what is the logic and basis of blaming Reliance of hoarding gas. Further, as pointed out by CAG, how did DGH assure itself of reliability of the development plan, production rate and production costs without the appraisal report?

9) Why more investments are bad?

CAG pointed out that as per the PSC, more investments, especially in initial stages would mean more profit for the operator and less for the government. This structure gives inadequate incentive for operators to reduce capital expenditure and provides them with substantial incentives to ‘front-end’ capital expenditure. Share of government profit varies from 85 per cent in a low investment scenario to 5 per cent in a high investment scenario. This explains the case of exaggerated investment made against Reliance Industries.

Incidentally, as pointed out by V Ranganathan of IIM Bangalore in his article in Economic Times, the case of exaggerated investment was first pointed out by Anil Ambani, where he pointed out that investment as per Reliance’s plan is increasing four times but production is expected to only double. Reliance revised its production estimates from 40 mmscmd (million metric standard cubic metres per day) to 80 mmscmd while increasing its investment from $2.4 billion to $8.8 billion.

10) How was the new pricing formula arrived at?

Former RBI governor C Rangarajan came out with a formula which has been followed nowhere in the world, which has resulted in Reliance (and other players too) getting a price on import parity basis. Surya Sethi, former Principal Adviser, Power and Energy, Government of India does not mince words when he asks the Prime Minister in an open letter [Read here] not to burden the nation with Rangarajan Committee’s madness that only benefit a select few.

Conclusion

Sethi’s open letter to the Prime Minister sums up the entire issue when he points out that the CAG’s findings reveal how crony capitalism benefited RIL. The pre-qualification norms were diluted to ensure RIL qualified, the claimed size of gas discoveries, the field development plans and the investment outlays proposed escaped rigorous due diligence says Sethi. Above all, the company’s commitments under the PSC on gas output were not enforced.

The entire episode stinks of anything but natural gas. While Moily may claim that system was followed, there is enough evidence out there that says otherwise.

THE MEGA 4G SCAM BY GOVERNMENT AND RELIANCE

After the 2G spectrum allocation scam of the UPA Government, another major telecom scandal in the allocation of 4G spectrum (BWA) has come to light by the recent CAG report. In fact, AAP leader and senior lawyer Prashant Bhushan has filed a PIL in the Supreme Court seeking cancellation of Reliance Industries’ telecom license and a through criminal investigation. Supreme Court had issued notice to Government and Reliance on that petition on 9th May 2014.

The factum of the scam is this. The UPA Government in March 2013 allowed a back-door entry of Reliance Jio Infocomm into voice telephony in violation of the judgment of the Supreme Court in the 2G case. This was done at the price discovered in 2001 of Rs 1,658 crores for a pan-India licence, which is the same price that was struck down by the Supreme Court in the 2G judgment because of having caused a huge loss to the public exchequer.

During May-June 2010 the auctions for 3G and 4G were concluded. The 3G auction fetched Rs 16,750.58 crore for 5+5 MHz spectrum in 2100 MHz (or 2.1 GHz) band. Thus, per MHz price worked out to be Rs 1,675 crore. Immediately, after the 3G auction, the 4G auction began which fetched Rs 12,847.77 crore for 20 MHz pan-India license in the 2300 MHz (or 2.3 GHz) band. This works out to be Rs 642.39 crore per MHz. This was so because all documents stated that 4G spectrum was for data services only, whereas 3G spectrum can be used for both data and voice telephony.

Infotel Broadband Services Pvt Ltd (IBSPL) emerged as the only company to have acquired pan-India 4G spectrum. IBSPL had an internet license since November 2007 and had just one subscriber with revenue of Rs 16.28 lakhs during 2009-10, and its authorized share capital was Rs 3 crore and the paid up capital was Rs 2.51 crore. Infotel Digicomm Pvt Ltd (IDPL) held 99.99% share of the IBSPL at the time of submission of application in March 2010.

Within hours of completion of 4G auction on 11.06.2010, IBSPL increased the authorised share capital from Rs 3 crore to Rs 6,000 crore. On 17.06.2010, the company authorized its Board of Directors to allot 475 crore equity share of Rs 10 each to Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) and 25 crore equity share of Rs 10 to Infotech Digicomm Pvt Ltd (IDPL) aggregating to the equity capital of Rs 5,000 crore. On the same day, the company also decided to change from a private company to Public Limited Company (Infotel Broadband Services Ltd). Thus, the company within a week of winning the 4G spectrum disposed off 95% shares to RIL while 5% was retained by IDPL. Much later in March 2013, the company was renamed as Reliance Jio Infocomm Pvt Ltd.

CAG has found that the Government did not protect its interest at the time of framing eligibility criteria for the 4G auction. It allowed participation of internet (ISP) licensees without ensuring adequate safeguards in terms of net-worth of the companies participating in the auction. It found that while a UAS licensee or even a new company without a license was allowed to participate in the 4G auction, but they had to pass through the test of net-worth in order to become eligible, but no such criteria was specified for the existing internet (ISP) licensees participating in 4G auction. CAG observed that this criterion was important even for ISP-A licensees as they had to participate in the bidding where the reserve price was fixed at Rs 1,750 crore per pan-India license for 20 MHz spectrum in 2.3 GHz band. The only company which won the pan-India 4G license, was an ISP-A licensee, Infotel Broadband Services Pvt Ltd (IBSPL), a HFCL promoted group company. CAG has stated that IBSPL was given the ISP-A license in November 2007, and it had just one leased-line subscribers as on December 2009 and total revenue of just Rs 16.28 lakh for FY 2009-10. The paid-up capital was just Rs 2.51 crore and 99.99 per cent of it was held by Infotel Digicom Pvt Ltd at the time of submission of application for the 4G auction in March 2010. Thus, this company could not be termed as a serious player. And there were no checks in-built in the auction process to eliminate such non-serious players, CAG has observed.

After the company was taken over Reliance Industries, the Government allowed it to provide voice telephony (which was earlier prohibited) without conducting a fresh auction. This was done at the rate of Rs 1,658 crore which was fixed in 2001, and had been struck down by the Supreme Court in the 2G case for causing huge loss to public exchequer. The CAG has now concluded that besides vitiating the auction process, an undue advantage of Rs 22,842 crore was given to RIL at the cost of exchequer. The relevant part of the CAG’s report is reproduced below: –

It was found that the basis of the decision i.e. payment of entry fee of Rs 1,658 crore by ISP licensee for a permission to Pan India provision of mobile voice services using BWA spectrum considered by the DoT Committee, Telecom Commission and the MOC&IT, was primarily intended to fill the gap between the eligibility criterion stipulated for participation in the 3G / BWA auction in 2010 as UAS / CMTS licensees had paid entry fee of Rs 1,658 crore while ISP licensees had paid only Rs 30 lakh.

The DoT Committee, Telecom Commission and the MOC&IT however ignored the fact that the quantum of entry fee i.e. Rs 1,658 crore was basically discovered in 2001 through the bidding for the 4th Cellular licenses. Market conditions since then have changed drastically, and this price needed to be modified to reflect the present value. Neither the DoT Committee / TC under the Chairmanship of the Secretary DoT nor the MOC&IT felt the need for revision of the price discovered in 2001 as the entry fee for UASL in 2013, even when the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India had cancelled 122 licenses granted in 2008 on the basis of the same entry fee stating that it was impossible for them to approve the action of the DoT.

Therefore, by permitting ISPs to provide mobile voice service using BWA spectrum won in 2010 auction post-auction, the government has brought ISP licensees with BWA spectrum at par with UAS / CMTS 3G spectrum winners so far as provision of services are concerned – Voice, Data, etc., and post auction interpretation of such vital nature would appear to be arbitrary, inconsistent and not appropriate. Hence, IBSPL, now Reliance JioInfocomm, appeared to have been accorded undue advantage of Rs 22,842 crore i.e. the difference of the proportionate prices for 20 MHz block size in 2.1 GHz spectrum band (3G spectrum) and 2.3 GHz spectrum band (BWA spectrum) plus the Net Present Value of the entry fee for UASL at the end of FY 2009-10 (Rs 20,653 crore plus Rs 3,847 crore – Rs 1,658 crore). Besides, the sanctity of the entire auction process has been rendered vitiated due to post auction interpretations and interventions after three years. It was therefore no surprise that Reliance JioInfocomm was among the first group of companies which applied for UL immediately after introduction of the scheme and obtained the Letter of Intent (LoI). Had the spectrum blocks been specified and declared as liberalised spectrum blocks i.e. open for all technology / services in the NIA in February 2010, there was no doubt that bidders would have taken informed decision for putting up their bid and the market discovered price would have been significantly different for 3G and BWA spectrum.

Therefore, the Aam Aadmi Party demands the NDA government to immediately cancel the telecom license and allotment of 4G spectrum given to Reliance Industries and also a registration of an FIR by the CBI for a through criminal investigation into this scam involving Reliance Industries and the UPA Government.

Petroleum Ministry document leak: It’s a Rs 10,000 cr scam, claims accused Santanu Saikia; R-ADAG office raided

The dramatic claim comes after police arrested five senior executives from top energy firms and two consultants, including Sanatnu Saikia in the Petroleum Ministry ‘leak’ case.

A key accused in the corporate espionage case today claimed that it was a Rs 10,000 crore scam that he was trying to uncover as police said documents seized from corporate executives related to “national security” that can attract Official Secrets Act provisions.

Meanwhile, a local court remanded the five arrested corporate executives in police custody till February 24 for further questioning. Delhi Police also conducted raids here and in nearby Noida looking for stolen documents from offices of petroleum companies.

Santanu Saikia, a former journalist, now running an energy consultant running a website, claimed to reporters outside an Crime Branch office that it was a Rs 10,000 crore scam, which he was trying to uncover. “Please quote me,” he said as policemen took him in for interrogation.

Reacting to his claim, Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said Saikia was saying such things for covering up his own defence.

“Let him spill out all the information he has. The primary accusation is that somebody stole the papers from the ministry. Police is investigating. Anybody has the right to tell everything to the police,” he said.

Pradhan said police is doing an independent job and everything will be clear after investigation. Law will take its course, whoever they may be, he said when asked about the arrest of executives of private companies.

Producing the five corporate executives arrested yesterday before Chief Metropolitan Magistrate Sanjay Khanagwal, the police said, “National interest was taken for a ride in the case.

“Documents related to national security have also been recovered. This may attract charges under the Official Secrets Act.”

The five–Shailesh Saxena from RIL, Vinay Kumar from Essar, KK Naik from Cairns, Subhash Chandra from Jubilant Energy and Rishi Anand from Reliance ADAG–who were produced in the court in police custody till February 24 for further questioning.

The police told the court that they have to consult the concerned ministries regarding the documents which have been recovered from the possession of the accused and their custodial interrogation was required to confront them with the same.

These five accused were procuring these sensitive documents at the behest of their senior officials, some of whom might be interrogated in the ongoing investigation, police said.

The advocates appearing for these five accused vehemently opposed the police’s plea seeking five days police custody, contending that their clients have been illegally detained since February 18 and 19.

The defence counsel also contended that there was nothing to be recovered from their clients and the police have not told the court regarding the specific allegations against these accused.

With the arrest of these five accused, the total number of arrests in the case rose to 12. Seven others were produced in the court yesterday out of whom four were sent to police custody till February 23 and three were remanded to judicial custody for two weeks.

Police sources said that Subhash Chandra, a senior executive with Jubilant Energy, who was arrested along with four other top officials of energy companies yesterday, was taken to Jain’s office in the morning.

After searching Jain’s office, the police team took him to the Noida office of Jubilant Energy. His office and some other rooms were searched by the police to recover stolen documents.

Office of another petroleum company whose executive was also one of them arrested was also raided by the police. Laptop and computers of the arrested officials have been seized by investigators which would be sent for forensic analysis.

Asked about the issue, Delhi Police Commissioner B S Bassi said, “We have searched places which were necessary for the course of investigation. We may further raid places as our aim is to reach the bottom of the whole thing.”

The police chief also said that investigation is on in the case and it will end only when a charge sheet will be filed.

“We need to know since how long this has been going on and who all benefited from it,” said a senior official.

According to police, all these company executives allegedly received stolen documents which have been recovered by police teams during raids from their establishments.

Saxena is Manager, corporate affairs, Reliance Industries Limited(RIL); Chandra is senior executive, Jubilant Energy; Anand is DGM, Reliance ADAG; Vinay is DGM, Essar and Naik is GM, Cairns India.

They have been booked under IPC sections 120 B (criminal conspiracy) and 411 (dishonestly receiving stolen property).

The case FIR, produced in a local court yesterday said an input on the National Gas Grid for the Finance Minister’s Budget speech of 2015-16 is among the various “secret” documents recovered from the accused.

The office of Reliance ADAG group at a premier five-star hotel here was also raided today by police in this connection.

“We are basically looking for the stolen documents from the establishments linked to the 12 people we have arrested so far. Searches are being conducted at various places in Delhi and NCR,” said a senior police official associated with the probe.

The raids have been confined to this region and not being carried out “across the country” as was speculated, he added.

Sources, meanwhile, said that police had also stumbled upon another module operated separately from the those arrested so far and their ‘area of operation’ was another plum ministry.

They added that a junior level officer and some more corporate executives are under scanner in this connection and arrests are expected by Monday.

KG basin controversy: SC seeks response from Reliance

The Supreme Court on Friday granted six weeks time to Mukesh Ambani’s Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) to respond to the final CAG report, which found alleged irregularities including in payments made to the contractors on drilling of D6 wells at the Krishna-Godavari basin.

The apex court posted the next hearing for March 20 during which it would examine the RIL’s response to the CAG report that had sought disallowance of $357.16 million (about Rs 2,179 crore) expenditure RIL incurred on drilling of wells and payments to contractors in KG-D6.

Solicitor General Ranjit Kumar said the Centre can make comments on the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) recommendations and findings only after getting the report of the Parliament’s Public Account Committee which is examining it.

The order was passed during a brief hearing of petitions filed in 2013 by senior CPI leader Gurudas Dasgupta and NGO Common Cause, challenging the then UPA government decision to double the price of natural gas from $4.2 to $8.4 per mmbtu and seeking cancellation of RIL’s contract for exploration of oil and gas from the KG basin.

The third PIL on the issue has been filed by advocate M L Sharma. A bench headed by Justice T S Thakur also allowed Dasgupta and ot