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1028 LESSON 01-09-2013 SUNDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Dear friends we are conducting one day orientation on Buddhism in Mahabodhi society Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar Bangalore 560009 Today the 1st Sept 2013 Sunday from 9.00 am to 5.00pm if your interested in the one day work shop kindly attend. Personal Ceremonies: The Naming of a Child,Housewarming – Family, Friends & Food,Sangha Dana,Marriage / Funeral Rites BSP celebrates SC order on DA case, plans offensive
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1028 LESSON 01-09-2013 SUNDAY 



FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism

Dear
friends we are conducting one day orientation on Buddhism in Mahabodhi 
society Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar Bangalore 560009 Today the 1st Sept 2013 Sunday from 9.00 am to 5.00pm if your interested in the one day work shop kindly attend.

Personal Ceremonies: The Naming of a Child,Housewarming – Family, Friends & Food,Sangha Dana,Marriage / Funeral Rites

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;

This
Spirituality one finds in one’s religion or religious teachings is the
real guide to human peace and happiness. And every religion has some
morals to teach.

REFLECTIONS ON BUDDHISM
by Most Venerable Dr. VINAYARAKKHITA

Vedananupassana - The Science of Sensations (Feelings)

What
I Sense (feel) that is; what I don’t sense (feel) that is not. This is
the common sense (feelings) of all. Sensations (feelings) form an
important part of life. The body exists because one senses (feels) the
body; payn exists because on senses (feels) the pain; and pleasure
exists because one senses (feels) pleasure; and hence the general
understanding that I sense (feel) therefore ‘I am’ appears to be
absolutely right. This in turn leads to all other negativities like Ego.
Pride, selfishness, hatred, jealousy and false view of Soul and Atman.

To
sense is to feel and to feel is to sense. Thus one sense’s trough
sensations and to observe feelings is to observe sensations. Therefore
on can say that Vedana or feeling is synonymous with sensations which
are arising and passing at the body level. The body sensation is sensor
of mind and matter.

Buddha taking this very subject of
sensations  (feelings) as the basis of his teaching, taught his
followers the science of sensations called Vedananupassana, also known
as the observation of sensations and thus leading them on to the path of
Sila, Samadhi, and panya. He finally made them realize the ultimate
truth of Impermanence, Suffering and No-Self.

Buddha in Dighanaka
Sutta of Majjima Nikaya, while explaining the doctrine to Aggivessana
says: “Pleasant sensations Aggivessana are impermanent, conditioned,
dependently arisen, subject to destruction, vanishing, fading away and
ceasing. Painful sensations too are impermanent, conditioned,
dependently arisen, subject to destruction, vanishing, fading away and
ceasing. Neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensations too are impermanent,
conditioned, sependently arisen, subject to destruction,vanishing,
fading away and ceasing.” “Seeing thus, a well taught noble disciple
becomes enchanted with pleasant sensations, disenchanted with painful
sensations,disenchanted with neither -nor-pleasant sensations. Being
disenchanted he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion his mind is
liberated. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: “It is
liberated”. He understands birth is destroyed, the holy life has been
lived, what had to be done has been done; there is no more coming to any
state of being. “He whose mind is liberated thus, Aggivessana, sides
with non and disputes with none; he employees the speech currently used
in the world without adhering to it.”

Modern humanity too is
suffering from three feeling of excitement, feelings of entertainment
and feelings of exhaustion. This triangle of triple E’s i.e.,
excitement, entertainment and exhaution can be equated to the mystical
Bermuda triangle, which pulls anything down to the seabed, by its
strange gravitational power. Same is the case with the triple E’s
triangle.Firstly one gets excited by various things and runs after them
and having entertained himself/herself with them, sooner or later he/she
gets exhausted and distorted. After an interval this process of
excitement, entertainment and exhaustion starts again. This process is
repeated again and again through one’s life till death.

Buddha
with his own effort and wisdom discovered the anti-dote for these three
evil E’s. He taught Sila, Samadhi and Panya. The anti-dote for
excitement is Sila because it teaches restrain in body and speech and
this restraint is the direct and immediate way to counter excitement.
The anti-dote for entertainment is Samadhi because when compared to the
worldly entertainment with its evil consequences Samadhi is of the real
happiness with no evil consequences at all. The anti-dote for exhaustion
and distortion is Panya, which gives the right understanding, and Bliss
sought by the suffering and exhausted humans and is born out of through
understanding of Impermenance, Siuffering and No_Self (Anitya, Gukkha,
Anatta).

Now the question arises as to how to observe the
impermanence of sensations (feelings) ? Vedana (Sensations) is explained
in Paticcasampaada as follows:

Vedana Paccxaya Tanha; i.e.,
Sensations (feelings) as the base craving arises; Tanha Paccaya
Upadanam; - craving as the base, attachment (clinging) arises; Upadana
Paccaya Bhava; - attachment as base, the process of becoming arises;
Bhava Paccaya Jati; - i.e., process of becoming  as the base birth
arises; Jati Paccaya Jara-Maranam; i.e., birth as base, aging and death
arise; Soka-Parideva Dukkha-Domamassupayasa Sambhavanti. Together with
sorrow, lamentation, - physical and mental sufferings and tribulations.
Evam-Tassa Kevalassa Dukkhakkandhassa Samudhayo Hoti. - thus arises this
entire mass of suffering.

According to Paticcasamuppada, as
mentioned above sensations as condition, craving arises. Buddha by
exploring the truths of mind and body realized that between the external
objects and mental reflex of craving, is a link called Vedana - the
sensation of the body. One craves to gain and prolong the pleasant
sensation on the one hand and on the other hand to remove and get rid of
the unpleasant sensations at the earliest.

Pleasant Sensations are Thrilling
Unpleasant Sensations are Chilling
In these Sensations done is Rolling
And experiencing much Suffering.

To get out of this Paining
One has to work towards Gaining
The Vedananupassana Training
To experience Happiness that’s Liberating.

Vedana
is felt on the body. But it is a part of the mind and thus its
observation means the observation of the mind and matter phenomenon. In
Vedananupassana training one learns to observe all sensations with
Equanimity and understanding of Anicca (impermanence) at the level of
body sensations. Now that which is impermanent is suffering and that
which is suffering is not self. So when these very Vedana (sensations)
are understood properly and one develops un-attachment and equanimity
towards them it leads to the cessation of entire mass of suffering. In
Samutta Nikaya Buddha says: Eradicate the latent tendency of craving
towards pleasant sensations. Eradicate the latent tendency of aversion
towards unpleasant sensations. Eradicate the latent tendency of
Ignorance towards neutral sensations. Buddha has very well explained
through Anicca that fact of Anatta and how delusive are the feelngs of
I, Self, Egi etc. These feel ings when misunderstood develop false views
thereby leading human beings to greed, hatred and delusion.

Here
naturally a question arises. If there is no I or Self, who gets the
results of Kamma. The Buddha in answer said: “I have taught you, O
Bhikkhus, to see conditionality everywhere in all things i.e., Imasmim
Sati Idam Hoti; - when this is, that is;  Imassupada Idam Uppajjati; -
this arising, that arises; Imasmim Asati Idam na Hoti; - when this is
not, that is not; Imassa Nirodha Idam Nirujjhati. This ceasing, that
ceases. In addition to the Paticcasamupaada and conditioned genesis as
explained above the Buddha throughout his teaching has stressed to see
the reality has to be seen as it is and the ultimate true nature of all
things has to be experienced i.e.,

Underlying Impermanence in Permanence,
Underlying Suffering in Pleasures and
Underlying No Self in Ourselves.

Albert
Einstein the father of modern science has rightly said: “The religion
of future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend a personal god
and avoid dogma and theology covering both the nature and the spiritual;
it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of
all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. Buddhism
answers this description.

Thus it should be further understood
that through Vedana is part of Nama (mind) it is felt and firmly rooted
in Kaya (body). This is hthe reason why brahmas from Arupa brahma loka
cannot practice Vedananupassana and that is why Buddha could not
teachDhamma to his past teachers Alkara Kalama who had mastered seventh
Jhana and Udakka Ramaputta who had mastered eight Jhana. Both these
teachers after death had born in Arupa brahma loka. In the fifth to
eight Jhana, the mind is set free from body and thus there is no
experience of Vedana (bodily sensations). Since these brahmas of Arupa
loka lack rupa and cannot experience body sensations, the practice of
awareness of Vedana (sensations) is not possible for them and they
cannot walk on the path of Nibbana. Moreover the terms Somanassa and
Domanassa are used for pleasant and unpleasant mental feelings
respectively. Sukha and Dukkha are used in the specific sense of
pleasant and unpleasant body feelings also known as sensations. It is
note worthy that in practicing Samadhi, Somanassa and Domanassa mental
feelings disappear in the third Jhana but Sukha and Dukkha bodily
feelings or sensations disappear only in the fourth Jhana.
Adukkhamasukkha (keith pleasant nor unpleasant) sensations remain even
in the fourth Jhana.

From this one may logically conclude that
bodily sensations give us stronger more  continuous hold on reality and
thus are the root cause of Tanha (craving). Through gradual truing one
can clearly comprehend sensations as they are always readily accessible
and thereby obtain a tangible tool to attain one’s own liberation.

 Therefore about Buddha and His teachings on  Vedananupassana, it can be said that :

Buddha is the ultimate creation
Born of own effort and contemplation.
His teachings welcome examination
And not just devotion,
Acceptance once acne after self-observation.
Observe with equanimity all sensations
And come out of futile temptations.

Base on wisdom, morals and He said concentrations His teachings are Universal Application.

May all Gain Scientific Temperment And Wisdom.

From Jagatheesan Chandrasekharn

Rector

FREE ONLINE  eNālandaResearch and Practice UNIVERSITY
run through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism

 To Venearble
Sanjyot Mehendale
Vice-Chair, Center for Buddhist Studies
University of California
2223 Fulton Street, room 512
Berkeley,  CA 94720-2318
Tel: (510) 643-5104

Sub: “The Self as a Process: Rāmakaṇṭha’s Middle Ground Between Brahminical Eternalism and Buddhist Momentariness.”

Venerable Sir, Kindly share the following views on 5th Sep. 2013 with all the esteemed participants on the above subject matter.

This
Spirituality one finds in one’s religion or religious teachings is the
real guide to human peace and happiness. And every religion has some
morals to teach.

Thus we can say that religion is a Moral
Science. In general every religion teaches morals for peace and unity of
mankind. Without morals there are bound to be quarrels. Albert Einstein
has rightly said the religion of the future will be a cosmic religion.
It should transcend a personal god and avoid dogma and theology covering
both the natural and Spiritual; it should be based on a religious sense
arising from experience of all things, natural and Spiritual, as a
meaningful unity.

So what could be the test based on which we can have a cosmic religion ?

Dr.
B.R. Ambedkar the architect of the Constitution enumerating the four
tests a religion must pass says: “(i) Society must have either sanction
of law or the sanction of morality to hold it together. Without either,
society is sure to go to pieces. In all societies law plays a very small
part. It is intended to keep the minority within the range of social
discipline. The majority is left and has to be left to sustain its
social life by the postulates and sanction of morality. Religion in the
sense of morality, must therefore, remain the governing principle in
every society.

(ii) That religion has defined in the first
proposition must be in accord with science. Religion is bound to loose
its respect and therefore become the subject of ridicule and thereby not
merely loose its force as a governing principle of life but might in
course of time disintegrate and lapse if it is not in accord with
science. In other words, religion if it is to function must be in accord
with reason which is merely another name for science.

(iii) That
religion as a code of social morality, must recognise the fundamental
tenets of liberty, equality and fraternity. Unless  a religion
recognises these three fundamental principles of social life religion
will be doomed.

(iv) Religion must not sanctify or enoble
poverty. Renunciation of riches by those who have it may be a blessed
state. But poverty can never be. To declare poverty to be blessed state
is to pervert religion, to perpetuate vice and crime, to consent to make
earth a living hell.[Buddha and future of his religion]

In
this world what is reflected on the outer surface is merely a mirror of
what inside. Trying to change the world without working to change mind
is like trying to change the image in a mirror without changing the
object that is being reflected. The physical environment and
circumstances we experience are merely a reflection of our mind. Our
mind is created by our thoughts. Once a deity questioned Buddha as
follows:

The inner tangle and the outer tangle.
This generation is entangled in a tangle
and so I ask of Gotama this question:
Who suceeds in disentangling this tangle?

To which the Buddha replies as follows:

When
a wise man, established well in virtue, Develops Consciousness and
Understanding then as a Bhikkhu ardent abd sagacious. he succeeds in
disentangling this tangle.

One can become virtuous by practicing
morality. Higher consciousness is developed through meditation or so
called mental training. And understanding comes by developing wisdom.
Thus it has been said that the Buddha the guide to humanity taught
Dhamma to experience Reality. He asked not o be obsessed with
Materiality. But to practice the path of Spirituality. And this path He
said is none other than the path of Wisdom, Meditation and Morality.
Through morality one can attain peace in the external world, through
meditation one can attain peace ao mind-the internal world. and through
wisdom one can attain the final peace by transcending both the internal
and external worldand attain the final peace called Nibbana.

This
very wisdom is developed through the practice of Upekkha or equanimity.
Venerable P.A. Payutto, a leading Thai scholor-monk explains Upekkha as
follows: “Seeing tings as they are with a mind that is even, steady,
firm and fair like a pair of scales; understanding that all beings
experience good and evil in accordance with the causes they have created
; [and the readiness] to judge, position oneself, and act in accordance
with principle, reason and equity.”

The one who has Upekkha
is fully aware of what is going on but without being blinded by
attachment. This does not mean hermetic isolation, apathy or
insensitivity though it is mindful un-attachment that allows the
development of wisdom. Wisdom is what really allows us to help others
with compassion and understanding. Carl Jung and Edgar Cayce, both
spiritually gifted psychologists and healers stated that peace cannot
happen unless every human being becomes involved in peace process. Peace
will not happen by itself. Peace will not happen by accident.

It
has to be brought about by offering training to enable human beings to
raise their level of consciousness and to establish peace within them.
Peace can only happen if people obtain a higher level of consciousness.
The spiritual training will enable individuals to have metta and
compassion for others. In time it will bring peace in the world. Here
religion or spirituality plays a major role. In the ultimate sense the
spirit to know the reality is spirituality, the spirit to know actuality
is spirituality.

Albert Einstein the father of modern
science said: Religion without science is blind and Science without
religion is lame” and if there is any religion that would cope with
modern scientific needs it would be Buddhism.

Voice is to have Buddhism
Choice is to take Buddhism
Nice is  to think Buddhism
Wise is to practice Buddhism

So come let us all practice Buddhism - Scientific Spirituality

Vasala Sutta: Discourse on Outcasts

translated from the Pali by
Piyadassi Thera
© 1999–2013

Thus have I heard:

On
one occasion the Blessed One was living near Savatthi at Jetavana at
Anathapindika’s monastery. Then in the forenoon the Blessed One having
dressed himself, took bowl and (double) robe, and entered the city of
Savatthi for alms. Now at that time a fire was burning, and an offering
was being prepared in the house of the brahman Aggikabharadvaja. Then
the Blessed One, while on his alms round, came to the brahman’s
residence. The brahman seeing the Blessed One some way off, said this:
“Stay there, you shaveling, stay there you wretched monk, stay there you
outcast.” When he spoke thus the Blessed One said to the brahman: “Do
you know, brahman, who an outcast is and what the conditions are that
make an outcast?” “No, indeed, Venerable Gotama, I do not know who an
outcast is nor the conditions that make an outcast. It is good if
Venerable Gotama were to explain the Dhamma to me so that I may know who
an outcast is and what the conditions are that make an outcast.”[1]

“Listen then, brahman, and pay attention, I will speak.”

“Yes, Venerable Sir,” replied the brahman.

1.
“Whosoever is angry, harbors hatred, and is reluctant to speak well of
others (discredits the good of others), perverted in views, deceitful —
know him as an outcast.

2. “Whosoever in this world kills living
beings, once born or twice born,[2] in whom there is no sympathy for
living beings — know him as an outcast.

3. “Whosoever destroys and besieges villages and hamlets and becomes notorious as an oppressor — know him as an outcast.

4.
“Be it in the village, or in the forest, whosoever steals what belongs
to others, what is not given to him — know him as an outcast.

5.
“Whosoever having actually incurred a debt runs away when he is pressed
to pay, saying, ‘I owe no debt to you’ — know him as an outcast.

6.
“Whosoever coveting anything, kills a person going along the road, and
grabs whatever that person has — know him as an outcast.

7. “He
who for his own sake or for the sake of others or for the sake of
wealth, utters lies when questioned as a witness — know him as an
outcast.

8. “Whosoever by force or with consent associates with the wives of relatives or friends — know him as an outcast.

9. “Whosoever being wealthy supports not his mother and father who have grown old — know him as an outcast.
10.
“Whosoever strikes and annoys by (harsh) speech, mother, father,
brother, sister or mother-in-law or father-in-law — know him as an
outcast.

11. “Whosoever when questioned about what is good, says
what is detrimental, and talks in an evasive manner- know him as an
outcast.

12. “Whosoever having committed an evil deed, wishes
that it may not be known to others, and commits evil in secret — know
him as an outcast.

13. “Whosoever having gone to another’s house,
and partaken of choice food, does not honor that host by offering food
when he repays the visit — know him as an outcast.

14. “Whosoever deceives by uttering lies, a brahman or an ascetic, or any other mendicant — know him as an outcast.

15.
“Whosoever when a brahman or ascetic appears during mealtime angers him
by harsh speech, and does not offer him (any alms) — know him as an
outcast.

16. “Whosoever in this world, shrouded in ignorance,
speaks harsh words (asatam) or falsehood[3] expecting to gain something —
know him as an outcast.

17. “Whosoever debased by his pride, exalts himself and belittles other — know him as an outcast.

18.
“Whosoever is given to anger, is miserly, has base desires, and is
selfish, deceitful, shameless and fearless (in doing evil) — know him as
an outcast.

19. “Whosoever reviles the Awakened One (the
Buddha), or a disciple of the Buddha, recluse or a householder — know
him as an outcast.

20. “Whosoever not being an arahant, a
Consummate One, pretends to be so, is a thief in the whole universe — he
is the lowest of outcasts.

21. “Not by birth is one an outcast;
not by birth is one a brahman. By deed one becomes an outcast, by deed
one becomes a brahman.

22. “Know ye by the example I now cite
(the fact that by birth one is not an outcast). There was an outcast’s
son, Sopaka, who became known as Matanga.

23. “This Matanga
attained the highest fame so difficult to gain. Many were the warriors
(kshatriyas) and brahmans who went to attend on him.

24.
“Mounting the celestial chariot (the Noble Eightfold path, and driving)
along the passion-free high road, (Sopaka, now a monk), reached the
Brahma realm having given up sense desires.

25. “His (lowly)
birth did not prevent him from being reborn in the Brahma realm. There
are brahmans born in the family of preceptors, kinsmen of (veda) hymns.

26.
“They are often seen committing evil deeds. In this life itself they
are despised, in the next they are born in an evil state of existence.
High birth does not prevent them from falling into a woeful state, or
from censure.

27. “Not by birth is one an outcast; not by birth
is one a brahman. By deed one becomes an outcast, by deed one becomes an
brahman.”

When the Buddha had thus spoken, the Brahman
Aggikabharadvaja said to the Blessed One: “Excellent, O Venerable
Gotama, excellent! Just as, O Venerable Gotama, a man were to set
upright what had been overturned, or were to reveal what had been
hidden, or were to point the way to one who had gone astray, or were to
hold an oil lamp in the dark so that those with eyes may see things,
even so in many ways has the Venerable Gotama expounded the Dhamma, the
doctrine. I take refuge in the Venerable Gotama, the Dhamma, and the
Sangha, the Order. May the Venerable Gotama accept me as a lay follower
who has taken refuge from this day onwards while life lasts.”

Akkosa Sutta: Insult

I
have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near
Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary. Then the brahman
Akkosaka[1] Bharadvaja heard that a brahman of the Bharadvaja clan had
gone forth from the home life into homelessness in the presence of the
Blessed One. Angered & displeased, he went to the Blessed One and,
on arrival, insulted & cursed him with rude, harsh words.

When
this was said, the Blessed One said to him: “What do you think,
brahman: Do friends & colleagues, relatives & kinsmen come to
you as guests?”

“Yes, Master Gotama, sometimes friends & colleagues, relatives & kinsmen come to me as guests.”

“And what do you think: Do you serve them with staple & non-staple foods & delicacies?”

“Yes, sometimes I serve them with staple & non-staple foods & delicacies.”

“And if they don’t accept them, to whom do those foods belong?”

“If they don’t accept them, Master Gotama, those foods are all mine.”

“In
the same way, brahman, that with which you have insulted me, who is not
insulting; that with which you have taunted me, who is not taunting;
that with which you have berated me, who is not berating: that I don’t
accept from you. It’s all yours, brahman. It’s all yours.

“Whoever
returns insult to one who is insulting, returns taunts to one who is
taunting, returns a berating to one who is berating, is said to be
eating together, sharing company, with that person. But I am neither
eating together nor sharing your company, brahman. It’s all yours. It’s
all yours.”

“The king together with his court know this of Master
Gotama — ‘Gotama the contemplative is an arahant’ — and yet still
Master Gotama gets angry.”[2]

[The Buddha:]

Whence is
there anger for one free from anger, tamed, living in tune — one
released through right knowing, calmed & Such. You make things worse
when you flare up at someone who’s angry. Whoever doesn’t flare up at
someone who’s angry wins a battle hard to win. You live for the good of
both — your own, the other’s — when, knowing the other’s provoked, you
mindfully grow calm. When you work the cure of both — your own, the
other’s — those who think you a fool know nothing of Dhamma.

When
this was said, the brahman Akkosaka Bharadvaja said to the Blessed One,
“Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place
upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way
to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with
eyes could see forms, in the same way has Master Gotama — through many
lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for
refuge, to the Dhamma, & to the community of monks. Let me obtain
the going forth in Master Gotama’s presence, let me obtain admission.”

Then
the brahman Akkosaka Bharadvaja received the going forth & the
admission in the Blessed One’s presence. And not long after his
admission — dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute —
he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the
holy life, for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into
homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here &
now. He knew: “Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done.
There is nothing further for the sake of this world.” And so Ven.
Bharadvaja became another one of the arahants.

Dona_Sutta

The
Dona-sutta is a short Buddhist discourse between a brahmin and the
Buddha concerning his nature or identity. It is preserved in five
versions: one in Pali (Anguttara ii.37-30), one in the Gandharan
Buddhist Texts and three in Chinese parallel translations (Taisho vol
2.717c, 2.28a and 2.467a).

According to the Dona-sutta, the
Buddha was once questioned by a brahmin called Dona, or Dhuma according
to two of the Chinese versions. This brahmin comes across the Buddha’s
footprints and notices the wheel marks on the soles of his feet. Amazed
by what he has seen, he follows them until he comes to where the Buddha
is serenely seated. He then poses the Buddha certain questions. At this
point, interpretation of the sutta in English language becomes somewhat
controversial, since there is not a consensus regarding the proper
English translation of the verb bhavissati, a key word used in Dona’s
questions.

Translation of ‘bhavissati’

The Pali,
Gandharan, and one of the Chinese versions (T II 467b8), report that the
question of Dona was put in the future tense, in Pali this is the word
bhavissati. In the other two Chinese versions the question of Dona is in
the present tense, but it is acknowledged that all Chinese versions are
a translation from earlier Indian verions of the Dona Sutta, which used
the future tense. Thus the original Indian versions are believed to
have all contained the question of Dona in the future tense, as in the
Pali bhavissati.

Literally translated, bhavissati refers to the
future and means “will be, will become”, but, according to a well-known
Pali idiomatic usage, it can also be interpreted as an expression of
uncertainty, confusion or amazement relating to the present. Thus, in
some translations the bhavissati is literally translated as the future
tense, so that the question posed by Dona pertains to what Buddha will
be/become, asking whether he will be/become a god, a gandharva, a yaksha
or a human. The Buddha answers these questions literally, saying that
he will not be/become (na bhavissāmi) any of these beings [in the
future], implying that since he is a Buddha he will not be reborn after
this life. The Chinese translation at T II 467b8 follows this reasoning,
and literally reads “I will not obtain human”.
The alternative
translation is based on this possible idiomatic usage of the future
tense in Pali, and understands the brahmin Dona to be asking the Buddha
in confusion or amazement what he is — a god (deva), a gandharva, a
yaksha or human. The Buddha answers emphatically that he is not any of
these (na bhavissāmi), but that he is a Buddha. This reasoning is used
in the Chinese translations of T 2.717c and T 2.28a.

The
idiomatic interpretation of bhavissati can also refer to some
uncertainty which is present. Thus, a translation which would interpret
the future tense as indicative of some uncertainty in the questioner,
the question might be translated as “Whether the Buddha ‘might’ or
‘would’ be a god, a gandharva, a yaksha or a human”. The answer would be
put in the same way as the reply, giving the answer that “I might not
be a god, gandharva, yaksha or human”, or “I would not be a god,
gandharva, yaksha or human”, though this rendering is liable to other
undesirable interpretations.

Thus there are three possible translations:

    1.    I will not be a god, gandharva, yaksha or human. (future tense)

    2.    I am not a god, gandharva, yaksha or human. (present tense, not allowing uncertainty)

    3.    I might (or would) not be a god, gandharva, yaksha or human. (subjunctive, allowing uncertainty)

As
the early Indian versions (in Pali Canon and the Gandharan Buddhist
Texts) are all formally in the future sense and only become formulated
in present tense in one of the possible English translations, the first
version is often used in Theravadin circles. While the Buddha in the
second version states that he is a Buddha, and not a god or human, no
philosophical conclusions are made explicit in this statement, while it
suggests that a Buddha may belong to another category of being in
nature, beyond the human and the divine, by virtue of his enlightenment
and liberation. The third version may be put forward as an attempt to
compromise between the first and second versions.

Parallel versions

Of
the several Chinese parallel versions, the one contained in the
Ekottara-āgama, attributed to the Mahāsānghikas, preserves a simpler,
shorter and older form of this sutra. It treats Dona’s questions as
enquiries about the Buddha’s present status, but omits the specific
answer given by the Buddha, that he is a Buddha, found in all other
versions. Here, the Buddha merely states that he knows that attachment
and desire are the sources of the skandhas (the constituents of
individual existence) and through that knowledge he has ended suffering.
Thus, though the Mahāsānghikas are known to have espoused a form of
docetism, the version of the Dona-sutta used by them does not imply that
the Buddha is a transcendental being in human form, while the version
preserved in Pali may be open to that interpretation.

What it Means to be a Brahmin Untouchable (SC/ST)
An
impassioned plea by a Scheduled Caste woman professional for
acknowledging the prejudices and obstacles even “privileged” people like
her face when confronted with the structure of caste. This personal
experience underlines the context for the Constitutional amendment bill
on allow reservations for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in
promotions.

 Anjali Rajoria is a medical doctor from Delhi.

“A slave cannot be freed save he free himself. Neither can you enslave a free man, the most you can do is kill him.”

- Robert A. Heinlein
 
In
case you are wondering what a ‘Brahmin Untouchable (SC/ST)’ means, let
me clarify at the very outset, I claim to be a Brahmin Untouchable
(SC/ST) because I was born with the label “lower caste”. (In fact that
label is given even before one is born, but lets keep that aside for a
while.) However, today I am a relatively well off, educated and an
accomplished Untouchable (SC/ST), hence the epithet, ‘Brahmin
Untouchable (SC/ST)’.  Do you think that I am trying to gain your
sympathy by deliberately posing as a victim of the evil caste system
despite being in a much better position than the majority of my fellow
Untouchable (SC/ST) brethren?

The answer is a clear, unequivocal
No! My purpose here is only to help people understand what it really
means to be a Untouchable (SC/ST) and how it is so difficult for us to
get rid of our caste identity, even in this time and age. I writhe in
agony as I give myself the title of ‘Brahmin Untouchable (SC/ST)’. When I
realised that it is my religion that is impelling me to live life with a
degraded status forever, I decided to renounced my religion. I am no
longer a Hindu. When I look back, I feel so proud of having taken that
decision a few years back.

But the stark reality is, even if a
Untouchable (SC/ST) turns into a non-Hindu in her quest for liberation,
her caste status continues to haunt her. Her identity continues to be
shaped by her caste and she continues to grapple with it every single
day. Her society forces her to bear the burden of bondage. It is this
bondage that we wish to break. We wish to be freed from slavery.

Perhaps
the title ‘Brahmin Untouchable (SC/ST)’ is not appropriate. Because a
Untouchable (SC/ST)Hindu can convert to Islam, Christianity or to
Buddhism, but she can never turn into a Brahmin. “Untouchable (SC/ST)”
rigid label for life. It refuses to erode. It is a label that reminds us
constantly of who we are. We stand at the end of centuries of injustice
and oppression. And even today we are treated as second class humans.
We are presumed to be unequal in possibly all aspects - less
intelligent, less capable, less hygienic, less civilised and what not.
The inequality meted out to us is justified on these counts.

So
even if a Untouchable (SC/ST) accomplishes something in his life, he is
secretly dismissed as an exception. He is not granted his place of
respect. Very few people realise how much he would have struggled to
achieve what he has. Very few people take the pain to empathise with
him. Yet, publicly his example is used to criticise the positive
discrimination extended by the government to the dalits. It is not
uncommon to see such hypocritical attitude of casteists around.

True,
urbanisation and modernisation have diluted the occupational rigidities
and economic disabilities to some extent. Untouchable (SC/ST)s can now
aspire to occupy the highest echelons in terms of occupational status.
But does that mean that we have got rid of this hydra-headed monster of
caste? Definitely not. For those who are still wondering in disbelief,
my suggestion would be to take a closer look at the whole picture. If
you think that caste no longer holds relevance in urban India, go and
personally talk to any of the backward category students studying in any
of the elite institutions of this country. Ask her how many times she
has been disgraced by her teachers and fellow students. Ask her how many
times she has been forced to hide her identity from her professors for
fear of being castigated only because she is a Untouchable (SC/ST). Ask
her how painful and tormenting it is for her to live under the shadow of
untouchability in a free country.

Thorat Committee Report
clearly points towards the continued discrimination and segregation of
students belonging to Untouchable (SC/ST)and tribal communities in
premier institutions of this country like All India Institute of Medical
Sciences and Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. For how long will
we turn a Nelson’s eye towards the plight and anguish of these young and
bright minds? How many more Eklavya-like sacrifices do we need to get
rid of Dronacharyas who deliberately fail even deserving students
belonging to backward communities.
It does not need rocket science to
grasp the reality that caste stigmatisation exists even today, a fact
that no well-reasoned person can brush off. A look at the website of
National Commission for Scheduled Castes and National Commission for
Scheduled Tribes would easily give you an insight into the horrendous
levels of continuing maltreatment Untouchable (SC/ST)s are being
subjected to. It probably would require an encyclopedia-sized tomb to
mention all the atrocities that have been perpetrated and continue to be
perpetrated in the name of caste.

Let the dead past bury the
dead. We do not hold grievances against injustices of the past because
what has happened cannot be undone. But even in the present times, 90%
of the so called menial jobs are performed by Untouchable (SC/ST)s.
Those living in the hinterland are forced to reside in ghettos or slums.
Government schools and offices continue to witness segregation of
Untouchable (SC/ST)s. The occupation of priesthood is still monopolised
by Brahmins. We still have Hindu temples that continue to deny entry to
Untouchable (SC/ST)s. Inter-caste marriages are the exception rather
than the norm. Honour killings of those who dare to defy the diktats of
their elders by marrying people of “lower castes” are commonplace. In
fact, caste is such a pervasive reality that almost no group of people
(including non-Hindus and even non-resident Indians) and no part of
India is untouched by its immense influence.

I have nothing
against the Brahmins. Being born to the upper caste (or lower caste) is
not a matter of choice. I hate the Brahminical system, not Brahmins.
Vices of the Brahminical system may be found in Untouchable (SC/ST)s and
non-Untouchable (SC/ST)s alike. The ultimate panacea for all such ills
has to be ‘Annihilation of the Caste System’. Its time for us to come
out of our comfort zones, accept the harsh realities and collectively
try to heal the near-permanent wounds of Untouchable (SC/ST)s. It is
time for us to open our hearts and minds to embrace those as equals who
have been disgraced and denied a dignified life for far too long.

I
am very hopeful that a time will come when caste will lose its raison
d’etre, when people will be treated only as humans and when we will
redefine our identity in terms of secular credentials alone. Babasaheb
Ambedkar had once remarked, “We are all Indians, firstly and lastly.” To
realise this dream, we must ensure that caste is stripped off of all
the functions that it performs for Indian society. We must take
collective action to dismantle this evil structure. There are many
well-intentioned people who are sincere about the goal of eradication of
caste hierarchy. It is these people who continue to give us hope – hope
of ushering in a new era – a caste-less and classless society.

Numerous
measures can be taken to efface bigoted caste identities, at
governmental and societal levels. Strict enforcement of legal provisions
to proscribe all forms of expressions, rituals and social practices
associated with the caste system is the need of the hour. Alongside
these steps, we also need to ban the use of caste names to prevent
targeting of caste groups and instead replace surnames with the names of
either the father or the mother. (Former union health minister Ambudani
Ramadoss had given a worthwhile suggestion in this regard). Inter–caste
marriages should be freely promoted and incentives should be provided
for those who decide to inter-marry. Government and social agencies
should make inroads into Untouchable (SC/ST) areas to provide equal and
universal access to education, social equality and employment to all.
Upper-caste-dominated occupations, especially in the private sector and
media need to be accessible to people from the backward sections. Most
importantly, we need to infuse the spirit of confidence and self-worth
in our Untouchable (SC/ST) brethren.
Martin Luther King Jr. had
famously observed, “A person who cannot die for a cause is not fit to
live.” To my Untouchable (SC/ST) brothers and sisters, this is my
message: We are not alone in our fight against tyranny. There are many
others outside our net who empathise with us. But we have to be the
prime movers and torchbearers in our struggle. We are ‘chosen’ to fight
and we will keep fighting. This is our only option.
Brothers and
sisters, it is time for a revolution. A revolution that will begin in
our hearts and minds. Liberation of the self from internalised
oppression does not happen quickly or easily. The tiniest bit of
self-liberation needs to be nourished and treasured and consciously
grown. We have come very far, but there is still a long way to go. We
will shape a better tomorrow and we will leave behind footprints for
others to follow.

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/no-jeans-mobile-phones-for-brahmin-girls-bjp-mp/20130612.htm

No jeans, mobile phones for Brahmin girls: BJP MP

‘We
are under attack from Western culture, our culture doesn’t teach us to
wear jeans,’ BJP MP Raghunanandan Sharma tells Rediff.com’s A Ganesh
Nadar.

Bharatiya Janata Party MP Raghunandan Sharma has come
up with the following suggestions to check crimes against women: Girls
should not be allowed to use mobile phones before marriage and women
should not wear jeans.

Sharma — a member of the Rajya Sabha and
vice-president of the BJP’s Madhya Pradesh unit -expressed his views at a
meeting of Brahmins in Ratlam district on Sunday.

The BJP MP termed mobile phone usage by students, particularly young girls, as a big menace and the genesis of other evils.

Sharma lambasted girls wearing jeans, saying it was the attire of American cowboys and in no way gelled with Indian culture.

Sharma,
who was born a year before Independence, told Rediff.com on Tuesday, “I
don’t know what the problem with you journalists is. I was at my samaj
meeting. It was a meeting of my society of Brahmins.”

“I am a
representative of the Brahmins and I am their leader. I was trying to
suggest ways to improve my society. The advice was only for Brahmins,
not for the country.”

“I was speaking not as a MP or a BJP
leader, I was speaking as a Brahmin to other Brahmins. I have my ideas
of improving my society, what is your problem?”

“We are under attack from Western culture, our culture doesn’t teach us to wear jeans,” Sharma added.

“I
have every right to tell my society of Brahmins how to dress, not to
use mobile phones and whatever I think is good for my society.”

“Nowhere
did I suggest that I am trying to change the country, change my party’s
views or change my state’s views. This was advice only for my people
and meant only for them.

With Regards and Lots of Metta

Thanking you in anticipation

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan



comments (0)
08/30/13
1027 LESSON 31-08-2013 SATURDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Dear friends we are conducting one day orientation on Buddhism in Mahabodhi society Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar Bangalore 560009 on 1st Sept 2013 Sunday from 9.00 am to 5.00pm if your interested in the one day work shop kindly enroll. Personal Ceremonies: The Naming of a Child,Housewarming – Family, Friends & Food,Sangha Dana,Marriage / Funeral Rites REFLECTIONS ON BUDDHISM by Most Venerable Dr. VINAYARAKKHITA Buddhism - The Science of Spirituality
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1027 LESSON 31-08-2013 SATURDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism



REFLECTIONS ON BUDDHISM
by Most Venerable Dr. VINAYARAKKHITA

Buddhism - The Science of Spirituality

Science has contributed to the physical comfort of mankind. Spirituality or religion strives to develop mental comfort. Spirituality is the other name for Moral Science and without the base of Moral Science, Science may lead to disaster and destruction of mankind itself.

Destruction is caused not only by natural calamities but also through depostic rulers, hegemonic powers and religious zealots. Our progress in the field of science and technology has been breathtaking. The kinds of lethal weapons we have manufactured have given us a sense of invincibility. But it is onlywhen we are faced with the natural disaster that we realise the powerlessness of man in the universe.

It is all very well to conquer the moon and other planets. But our priority should be first save our own planet and people from the savagery of human beings and ravages of nature. The educated elite and those who are at the helm of affairs should stop using their using their intelligence to support the vested interests of their class, caste, region and religion but to work for the welfare of the whole humanity.

Science is rational in approach and so should be Spirituality. The only difference being that Science approaches through analysis and development of matter. Spirituality approaches through analysis and development of mind and in the final analysis one should give mind the top priority because mind is the forerunner of all things and mind is foremost. Having thought with mind we speak and act. As we think so we become is the common saying.

This Spirituality one finds in one’s religion or religious teachings is the real guide to human peace and happiness. And every religion has some morals to teach.

Thus we can say that religion is a Moral Science. In general every religion teaches morals for peace and unity of mankind. Without morals there are bound to be quarrels. Albert Einstein has rightly said the religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend a personal god and avoid dogma and theology covering both the natural and Spiritual; it should be based on a religious sense arising from experience of all things, natural and Spiritual, as a meaningful unity.

So what could be the test based on which we can have a cosmic religion ?

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar the architect of the Constitution enumerating the four tests a religion must pass says: “(i) Society must have either sanction of law or the sanction of morality to hold it together. Without either, society is sure to go to pieces. In all societies law plays a very small part. It is intended to keep the minority within the range of social discipline. The majority is left and has to be left to sustain its social life by the postulates and sanction of morality. Religion in the sense of morality, must therefore, remain the governing principle in every society.

(ii) That religion has defined in the first proposition must be in accord with science. Religion is bound to loose its respect and therefore become the subject of ridicule and thereby not merely loose its force as a governing principle of life but might in course of time disintegrate and lapse if it is not in accord with science. In other words, religion if it is to function must be in accord with reason which is merely another name for science.

(iii) That religion as a code of social morality, must recognise the fundamental tenets of liberty, equality and fraternity. Unless  a religion recognises these three fundamental principles of social life religion will be doomed.

(iv) Religion must not sanctify or enoble poverty. Renunciation of riches by those who have it may be a blessed state. But poverty can never be. To declare poverty to be blessed state is to pervert religion, to perpetuate vice and crime, to consent to make earth a living hell.[Buddha and future of his religion]

In this world what is reflected on the outer surface is merely a mirror of what inside. Trying to change the world without working to change mind is like trying to change the image in a mirror without changing the object that is being reflected. The physical environment and circumstances we experience are merely a reflection of our mind. Our mind is created by our thoughts. Once a deity questioned Buddha as follows:

The inner tangle and the outer tangle.
This generation is entangled in a tangle
and so I ask of Gotama this question:
Who suceeds in disentangling this tangle?

To which the Buddha replies as follows:

When a wise man, established well in virtue, Develops Consciousness and Understanding then as a Bhikkhu ardent abd sagacious. he succeeds in disentangling this tangle.

One can become virtuous by practicing morality. Higher consciousness is developed through meditation or so called mental training. And understanding comes by developing wisdom. Thus it has been said that the Buddha the guide to humanity taught Dhamma to experience Reality. He asked not o be obsessed with Materiality. But to practice the path of Spirituality. And this path He said is none other than the path of Wisdom, Meditation and Morality. Through morality one can attain peace in the external world, through meditation one can attain peace ao mind-the internal world. and through wisdom one can attain the final peace by transcending both the internal and external worldand attain the final peace called Nibbana.

This very wisdom is developed through the practice of Upekkha or equanimity. Venerable P.A. Payutto, a leading Thai scholor-monk explains Upekkha as follows: “Seeing tings as they are with a mind that is even, steady, firm and fair like a pair of scales; understanding that all beings experience good and evil in accordance with the causes they have created ; [and the readiness] to judge, position oneself, and act in accordance with principle, reason and equity.”

The one who has Upekkha is fully aware of what is going on but without being blinded by attachment. This does not mean hermetic isolation, apathy or insensitivity though it is mindful un-attachment that allows the development of wisdom. Wisdom is what really allows us to help others with compassion and understanding. Carl Jung and Edgar Cayce, both spiritually gifted psychologists and healers stated that peace cannot happen unless every human being becomes involved in peace process. Peace will not happen by itself. Peace will not happen by accident.

It has to be brought about by offering training to enable human beings to raise their level of consciousness and to establish peace within them. Peace can only happen if people obtain a higher level of consciousness. The spiritual training will enable individuals to have metta and compassion for others. In time it will bring peace in the world. Here religion or spirituality plays a major role. In the ultimate sense the spirit to know the reality is spirituality, the spirit to know actuality is spirituality.

Albert Einstein the father of modern science said: Religion without science is blind and Science without religion is lame” and if there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs it would be Buddhism.

Voice is to have Buddhism
Choice is to take Buddhism
Nice is  to think Buddhism
Wise is to practice Buddhism

So come let us all practice Buddhism - Scientific Spirituality
 

 

Personal Ceremonies: The Naming of a Child,Housewarming – Family, Friends & Food,Sangha Dana,Marriage / Funeral Rites

The Naming of a Child

A
principal thrust of the Living by Buddhism articles is to promote
wholesome Buddhist practices in daily life. In traditionally Buddhist
countries such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, meaningful Buddhist practices
are observed from the outset of a child’s birth as for example in
holding a Naming Ceremony for a newborn child. The Naming Ceremony can
be organised on a grand scale or in a modest manner based on the wish
and the financial capacity of the family. The arrangements can be
elaborate with a large gathering of relatives and friends being invited
or it could be held in a very simple way and limited to only immediate
family members. The fact that a child’s Naming Ceremony is not held on a
grand and lavish scale does not in any way reduce its significance nor
the benefits to be drawn from it. The important thing to bear in mind is
for us to have a sound understanding of the Naming Ceremony and to hold
it with a strong sense of shraddha or confidence which is a key element
of the rich Buddhist culture and tradition we have been bequeathed
with. 

It is heartening to note that today a growing number of Buddhist
communities in non-traditional Buddhist countries such as in Malaysia
and Indonesia have keenly adopted the Naming Ceremony for newborn
children as a regular Buddhist activity of their vihara or organization.
The Naming Ceremony is an excellent way to begin the process of
implanting the Buddhist psyche into the consciousness of a newborn
child. This age-old Buddhist tradition should be actively promoted among
Buddhist communities worldwide, regardless of the size of the social
group. In this regard, it is incumbent upon Venerable monks and nuns as
well as leaders of Buddhist organisations to take the initiative to
promote this marvellous religio-cultural heritage of living by Buddhism
among members of their community. It would be doubly beneficial if
Dhammaputris and Dhammaputras understood the many wonderful benefits
that this rich Buddhist practice holds. The historical antecedence of
the Naming Ceremony which can be traced back to the naming of Prince
Siddhartha and details of the religious aspects of the ceremony are
outlined in my book titled, “SIDDHARTHA: Prince of Peace”.

How
wonderful it would be if all our children were given meaningful and
inspiring Buddhist personal names. We can then address Dhammaputris and
Dhammaputras by their Buddhist name instead of names which are devoid of
any cultural, social or religious affinity to them. Furthermore, many
Buddhist personal names embody important Teachings of the Buddha or
refer to noble human values such as for example Karuna and Kanthi for
Dhammaputris, and, Mettananda or Upekka for Dhammaputras. Such personal
names can serve as a moral compass throughout a child’s life. In
addition, through the usage of Buddhist personal names our children will
automatically become familiar with the specific Teaching associated
with these names, right from a young age. Many Buddhist personal names
are those of inspiring personages as for example Ananda, Asoka for
Dhammaputras and Yasodhara and Visaka for Dhammaputris. Aside from these
specific considerations a number of other cogent reasons such promoting
self-esteem, moral compass and self-actualization of life-goals have
been proffered for encouraging the adoption of Buddhist personal names
in my book titled, “A Compendium of Buddhist Personal Names: Heritage
and Significance of Adoption” .

Housewarming – Family, Friends & Food

Thai monks eating together at a house blessing

The
blessing of a new house, is regarded by  people as a very auspicious
event. It celebrates the completion of a new home by bringing together
friends and family and performing a Buddhist rite to encourage good
fortune and prosperity for the new dwelling and its inhabitants.

Before
the ceremony takes place, the host will ask for advice from monks or
senior lay people to determine a suitable day for the ceremony. The
auspicious day depends on the day of the week and the time of the year.
For example, Saturday is considered to be an unlucky day for a blessing
as Saturn is believed to be the planet of misfortune.

Thai monks at a house blessing ceremonyMonks
play important role in the house warming ceremony. The host will
usually invite an odd number of monks such as 5, 7 or 9 monks as odd
numbers are regarded as a lucky. Normally, the ceremony is held in the
morning until noon and afterwards the monks gather together to bless the
host and guests.

When the ceremony is finished, food will be
offered to the monks by the host followed by gift offerings. The gift
set usually contains a banana leaf cone holding flowers, candles, and
joss sticks along with necessary everyday items (drinking water, soap,
detergent, toothbrush, shampoo and comestibles such as biscuits or
crackers). As well as these individual gifts for monks there is usually a
sealed envelop which contains a donation to help support the temple.

Gifts for monks in front of a Buddha image entwined with holy thread

As
part of the ceremony, monks will sprinkle holy water on the host and
guests and throughout the new house. Each member of new household will
receive a string wrist-binding (white holy thread) from the monk as a
blessing. The holy thread, known as Sai Seen, is also entwined around
the main household Buddha image. Once blessing is complete the monks
leave and the guests will have lunch together.

A Thai monk ties white thread around the wrist as blessing
A wide selection of food is prepared for the event and the choice of dishes is an important consideration. Thai curries

Curry
is a favorite dish in  restaurants throughout the world and for good
reason. Based on a delicious paste of fresh and dried herbs and spices,
curry is unique and unlike any dish in Western cuisine. The endless
combinations and fresh taste make curry a popular dish. But what exactly
is curry?

Favored throughout Asia in many different forms, curry
can be defined as a savory, stew-like dish flavored with herbs and/or
spices. Curry is considered to be native to India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
and South East Asia. This method of cooking was brought to South East
Asia by Indian immigrants over the past several centuries.
In
Thailand, curry is usually a soupy dish consisting of coconut milk or
water, curry paste and meat. Thai curries tend to be more soup-like
compared to their thicker Indian cousins. Curries are the richest dish
of Thai cuisine, being based on spicy herb and spice pastes, i.e. curry
pastes. There are dozens of different types of curries in Thailand
varying by the use of various types of curry pastes, the addition of
coconut or water and different combinations of meats, herbs, vegetables
and fruits.

Curry is a staple dish of Thailand and in many Thai
homes it is eaten on a daily basis. Using ingredients commonly found
growing around the home and very little meat, curry is an economical and
healthy part of the Thai diet. High in vitamins and rich in protein, it
is easily digested when eaten with rice as part of a Thai meal.

are
a popular choice and are often served with Thai vermicelli. Vermicelli
is a long mung bean noodle which is a traditional symbol of longevity
and is served to promote the long life of the host, long like the
noodle. Serving curry with vermicelli is also common for other
ceremonies such as a wedding.

Thai curry and vermicelli longevity noodles

Marriage Ceremony

Although
wedding ceremonies have always been regarded as secular affairs in
Buddhist countries, the parties concerned have nevertheless obtained the
blessing from monks at the local temple after the civil registration
formalities have been completed.

In view of the traditional
importance that the marriage ceremony has in the West, moreover, local,
and especially isolated Buddhists without access to a temple or a monk
might well adopt the following service that could be performed by
relatives and friends of the bride and groom:

(i) Before a shrine
specially erected, complete with a Buddha image, candles and flowers,
the bridal couple and assembly should recite the Vandana, Tisarana and
Pancasila in English or Pali to be found in the

Pali Chanting,

Pali Chanting in the Theravada Buddhist Tradition

* Basic Pronunciation

Vandanâ 

Namô Tassa Bhagavatô Arahatô Sammâ-Sambuddhassa (3x)

Homage to the Triple Gems 
Homage to Him, the Blessed One, the Exalted One, the Fully Enlightened One.

Ti-Sarana

Buddham
Saranam Gacchâmi. 
Dhammam Saranam Gacchâmi. 
Sangham Saranam Gacchâmi.

Dutiyampi Buddham Saranam Gacchâmi. 
Dutiyampi Dhammam Saranam
Gacchâmi. 
Dutiyampi Sangham Saranam Gacchâmi. 
Tatiyampi Buddham
Saranarn Gacchâmi. 
Tatiyampi Dhammam Saranam Gacchâmi. 
Tatiyampi
Sangham Saranam Gacchâmi.

Translation: The Three Refuges

I
go to the Buddha as my refuge. 
I go to the Dhamma - The Teachings, as
my Refuge. 
I go to the Sangha - The Community, as my Refuge. 
For the
second time I go to the Buddha as my Refuge. 
For the second time I go
to the Dhamma - The Teachings, as my Refuge. 
For the second time I go
to the Sangha - The Community, as my Refuge. 
For the third time I go to
the Buddha as my Refuge. 
For the third time I go to the Dhamma - The
Teachings, as my Refuge. 
For the third time I go to the Sangha - The
Community, as my Refuge.

Panca-sila 

Pânâtipâtâ Veramani
Sikkhâpadam Samâdiyâmi. 
Adinnâdânâ Veramani Sikkhâpadam Samâdiyâmi.

Kâmesu Micchâcârâ Veramani Sikkhâpadam Samâdiyâmi. 
Musâvâdâ Veramani
Sikkhâpadam Samâdiyâmi. 
Surâ Mêraya Majja Pamâdatthânâ Verami
Sikkhâpadam Samâdiyâmi 

Imâni Panca Sikkhâpadâni Samâdiyâmi (3x)

Translation: The Five Precepts

I
undertake to observe the precept to abstain from destroying living
beings. 
I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from taking
things not given. 
I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from
sexual misconduct. 
I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from
false speech. 
I undertake to observe the precept to abstain from liquor
causing intoxication and heedlessness. 
I undertake to observe the Five
Precepts to the best of my ability.(3x)

Buddha Vandana 

Iti pi
so Bhagavâ-Araham Sammâ-sambuddho. 
Vijjâ-carana sampanno Sugato
Lokavidû Anuttarro 
Purisa-damma-sârathi Satthâ deva-manussânam 
Buddho
Bhagavâti

Translation - Homage to the Buddha
Thus indeed, is that
Blessed One: He is the Holy One, fully enlightened, endowed with clear
vision and virtuous conduct, sublime, the Knower of the worlds, the
incomparable leader of men to be tamed, the teacher of gods and men,
enlightened and blessed.

Dhamma Vandana

Svâkkhato Bhagavatâ Dhammo Sanditthiko Akâliko Ehi-passiko Opanâyiko Paccattam 
veditabbo viññuhiti.
Translation
- Homage to the Teachings 
The Dhamma of the Blessed One is perfectly
expounded; to be seen here and how; not delayed in 
time; inviting one
to come and see; onward leading (to Nibbana); to be known by the wise,
each for himself.

Sangha Vandana

Supati-panno Bhagavato
sâvaka sangho, Ujupati-panno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho. 
Ñâya-patipanno
Bhagavato sâvaka sangho. Sâmici-patipanno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho

Yadidam cattâri purisa yugâni attha-purisa-puggalâ Esa Bhagavato sâvaka
sangho. 
Âhu-neyyo, pâhu-neyyo, Dakkhi-neyyo,añjalikaraniyo, anuttaram
puññakkhetam lokassâti

Translation - Homage to the Disciples of
the Buddha 
The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the
good way; the Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the
straight way; the Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on
the proper way, that is to say; the Four Pairs of Men, the Eight Types
of Persons; the Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples is fit for gifts,
fit for hospitality, fit for offerings, and fit for reverential
salutation, as the incomparable field of merit for the world.
Maha-Mangala Sutta

Êvam
mê suttam êkam samayam bhagavâ Sâvatthiyam viharati Jêtavanê
Anâthapindikassa ârâmê, 
atha kho aññatarâ dêvatâ abhikkantaya rattiyâ
abhikanta vannâ kêvalakappam Jêtavanam bhâsetvâ, yêna bhagavâ
tênupasamkami. Upasam kamitvâ bhagavantam abhivâdetvâ êkamantam atthâsi.
Êkamantam thitâ kho sâ dêvatâ bhagavantam gâthâya ajjhabhâsi. 
Bahû
dêvâ manussâ ca mangalâni acintayum 
Âkankhamânâ sotthânam brûhi mangala
muttamam.

Asêvanâ ca bâlânam panditânam ca sêvanâ 
Pûjâ ca pûjaniyânam êtam mangala muttamam
Patirûpa dêsa vâso ca pubbê ca kata puññatâ 
Atta sammâ panidhi ca êtam mangala muttamam
Bâhu saccam ca sippan ca vinayo ca susikkhito 
Subhasitâ ca yâ vâcâ êtam mangala muttamam
Mâtâ pitu upâtthanam puttadârassa sangaho 
Anâkulâ ca kammantâ êtam mangala muttamam
Dânam ca dhamma cariyâ ca ñâtakanam ca sangaho 
Anavajjâni kammâni êtam mangala muttamam
Ârati virati pâpâ majjapânâ ca saññamo 
Appamâdo ca dhammêsu êtam mangala muttamam
Gâravo ca nivâto ca santutthi ca kataññutâ 
Kâlêna dhamma savanam êtam mangala muttamam
Khanti ca sôvacassatâ samanânam ca dassanam 
Kâlêna dhamma sâkacchâ êtam mangala muttamam
Tapô ca brahman cariyam ca ariya saccâ na dassanam 
Nibbâna sacchi kiriyâ ca êtam mangala muttamam
Phutthassa lôka dhammêhi cittam yassa na kampati 
Asokam virajam khêmam êtam mangala muttamam
êtâdisâni katvâna sabbattha maparâjitâ 
Sabbhattha sotthim gacchanti tam têsam mangala muttamanti.

Translation: Discourse on Blessings

Thus
have I heard: On one occasion the Exalted One was dwelling at the
monastery of Anathapindika, in Jeta’s Grove, near Savatthi. Now when the
night was far spent, a certain deity, whose surpassing splendour
illuminated the entire Jeta Grove, came to the presence of the Exalted
One, and, drawing near, respectfully saluted Him and stood at one side.
Standing thus, he addressed the Exalted One in verse: 
Many deities and
men, yearning after good, have pondered on Blessings. Pray, tell me the
Highest Blessing!

Not to associate with fools, to associate with
the wise, and to honour those who are worthy of honour - this is the
Highest Blessing. 

To reside in a suitable locality, to have done
meritorious actions in the past, and to set oneself in the right course -
this is the Highest Blessing.

Vast-learning, perfect handicraft, a highly trained discipline, and pleasant speech 
- this is the Highest Blessing.
The support of father and mother, the cherishing of wife and children, and peaceful occupations - this is the Highest Blessing.

Liberality, righteous conduct, the helping of relatives, and blameless actions 
- this is the Highest Blessing.
To
cease and abstain from evil, forbearance with respect to intoxicants,
and steadfastness in virtue - this is the Highest Blessing.

Reverence, humility, contentment, gratitude and the opportune hearing of the Dhamma 
- this is the Highest Blessing.

Patience,
obedience, sight of the Samanas (Sanctified Ones), and religious
discussions at due seasons - this is the Highest Blessing.

Self Control, Holy Life, perception of the Noble Truths, and the realisation of Nibbana 
- this is the Highest Blessing.

He
whose mind does not flutter by contact with worldly contingencies,
Sorrowless, Stainless, and Secure - this is the Highest Blessing.

To
them, fulfilling matters such as these, every-where invincible, in
every way moving happily - these are the Highest Blessings.

Karaniya Sutta

Karanîya - mattha kusalêna - yantam santam padam abhisamecca, 
Sakkô ujû ca sûjû ca - suvaco cassa mudu anati mâni.

Santussakô ca subharô ca - appa kicco ca salla-huka vutti, 
Santindriyô ca nipakô ca - appagabbhô kulêsu ananugiddhô.

Na ca khuddam samâcarê kinci - yêna viññu parê upavadeyyum 
Sukhinô vâ kheminô hontu - Sabbê sattâ bhavantu sukhitattâ.

Yêkêci pâna bhûtatthi - tasâ vâ thâvarâ vâ anava, sêsâ, 
Dîghâ vâ yê mahantâ vâ — majjhimâ rassakâ - nuka thûlâ.

Ditthâ vâ yêva additthâ - yêca dûrê vasanti avidûrê, 
Bhûta vâ sambhavêsi vâ - sabbê sattâ bhavantu sukhitattâ.
Na parô param nikubbêtha - nâti maññêtha katthaci nam kanci, 
Byârôsanâ patigha saññâ - nâñña - maññassa dukkha miccheyya.

Mâtâ yathâ niyam puttam - âyusâ êka putta manu rakkhe, 
Êvampi sabba bhûtêsu - mânasam bhâvayê aparimânam.

Mettam ca sabba lôkasmin - mânasam bhâvayê aparimânam, 
Uddham adhô ca tiriyam ca - asambâdham avêram asapattam.

Tittham caram nisinnô vâ - sayâno vâ yâva tassa vigata middho, 
Êtam satim adhittheyya — brahma mêtam vihâram idhamâhu.

Ditthin ca anupa gamma - sîlavâ dassanêna sampanno, 
Kâmêsu vineyya gêdham - nahi jâtu gabbhaseyyam punarêtiti.


Translation: Discourse on Loving Kindness

He
who is skilled in his good and who wishes to attain that state of Calm
should act (thus:) He should be able, upright, perfectly upright,
obedient, gentle, and humble.

Contented, easily supportable, with
few duties, of light livelihood, controlled in senses, discreet, not
imprudent, not be greedily attached to families.

He should not
commit any slight wrong such that other wise men might censure him. May
all 
beings be happy and secure. May their minds be wholesome.

Whatever
living beings there be: feeble or strong, long, stout, or medium,
short, small, or large, seen or unseen, those dwelling far or near,
those who are born and those who are to be born –may all beings,
without exception, be happy-minded!

Let not one deceive another
nor despise any person whatever in any place. In anger or ill will, let
him not wish any harm to another.

Just as a mother would protect
her only child even at the risk of her own life, even so let him
cultivate a boundless heart towards all beings.

Let his thoughts
of boundless love pervade the whole world: above, below and
across–without any obstruction, without any hatred, without any enmity,
Whether he stands, walks, sits or lies down, as long as he is awake, he
should develop mindfulness. This, they say, is the Highest Conduct.

Not
falling into error, virtuous and endowed with insight, he gives up
attachment to sense-desires. He will surely not be born in any womb
again.

Ratana Sutta 

Yânîdha bhûtâni samâgatâni - bhummâni vâ
yâ niva antalikkhê 
Sabbêva bhûtâ sumanâ bhavantû - athôpi sakkacca
sunantu bhâsitam.

Tasmâhi bhûtâni sâmêtha sabbê - mettam karôtha
mânusiya pajâya, 
Divâ ca rattô ca haranti yê balim - tasmâhi nê
rakkhatha appamattâ.

Yam kinci vittam idha vâ huram vâ - saggêsu
vâ yam ratanam panitam, 
Nano samam atthi tathâgatena - idampi buddhê
ratanam panîtam, 
Êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu.

Khayam virâgam
amatam panîtam - yadajjhagâ sakkyamunî samâhito, 
Na têna dhammena
samatthi kinci - idampi dhammê ratanam panîtam 
Êtêna saccêna suvatthi
hôtu.

Yambuddha settho parivannayî sucim - samâdhi mânam
tarikañña mâhu 
Samâdhinâ têna samô na vijjati - idampi dhammê ratanam
panîtam 
Êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu. 
Ye puggalâ attha satam pasatthâ -
cattâri êtâni yugâni honti, 
Te dakkhineyyâ sugatassa sâvakâ - êtêsu
dinnâni mahapphalâni, 
Idampi sanghê ratanam panîtam - êtêna saccêna
suvatthi hôtu.

Ye suppa yuttâ manasâ dalhêna - nikkamino gôtama
sâsanamhi 
Te patti pattâ amatam vigayha - laddhâ mudhâ nibbutim
bhunjamânâ 
Idampi sanghê ratanam panîtam - êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu.


Yathinda khîlo pathavim sito siyâ - catubbhi vâtêbhi asampa kampiyo,

Tathûpamam sappurisam vadâmi — yô ariya saccâni avecca passati,

Idampi sanghê ratanam panîtam - êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu.


ariya saccâni vibhâvayanti - gambhira paññnêna sudêsitâni, 
Kincâpi tê
honti bhusappamattâ - na te bhavam attamam âdiyanti, 
Idampi sanghê
ratanam panîtam - êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu.

Sahâvassa dassana
sampadâya - tayassu dhammâ jahitâ bhavanti, 
Sakkâya ditthi
vicikicchitam ca — silabbatam vâpi yadatthi kinci, 
Catûhapâye hi ca
vippamutto - Chacâbhi thânâni abhabbo kâtum, 
Idampi sanghê ratanam
panîtam - êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu.

Kincâpi sô kammam karôti
pâpakam - kâyêna vâcâ udacêtasâ vâ, 
Abhabbo sô tassa paticchâdâya -
abhabbatâ ditta padassa vuttâ, 
Idampi sanghê ratanam panîtam - êtêna
saccêna suvatthi hôtu.

Vanappagumbê yathâ phussitaggê - gimhâna
mâsê pathamasmin gimhe, 
Tathûpamam dhamma varam adêsayi — nibbânagâmin
paramam hitâya, 
Idampi buddhê ratanam panîtam - êtêna saccêna suvatthi
hôtu.
Varô varaññû varadô varâharo - anuttarô dhamma varam adêsayi, 
Idampi buddhê ratanam panîtam - êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu.

Khinam
purânam navam netthi sambhavam - viratta cittâ âyatike bhavasmim, 
Te
khina bijâ avirulhicchandâ - nibbanti dhirâ yathâ yam padipo 
Idampi
sanghê ratanam panîtam - êtêna saccêna suvatthi hôtu.
Yânîdha bhûtâni samâgatani — bhummani vâ yâniva antalikkhe, 
Tathâgatam dêva manussa pûjitam- Buddham namasâma suvatthi hotu.

Yânîdha bhûtâni samâgatani — bhummani vâ yâniva antalikkhe, 
Tathâgatam dêva manussa pûjitam - Dhammam namassâma suvatthi hotu.

Yânîdha bhûtâni samâgatani — bhummani vâ yâniva antalikkhe, 
Tathâgatam dêva manussa pûjitam - Sangham namassâma suvatthi hotu.

Translation - The Jewel Discourse

This
Discourse was delivered by the Buddha in the city of Vesali whose
citizens appealed to the Buddha for help, being afflicted by famine,
pestilenee and disturbances from evil spirits. As a mark of protection
for the people of Vesali, the Buddha delivered this discourse after
which the evil spirits were exorcised and the pestilence subsided.

Whatever
beings are here assembled, whether terrestrial or celestial, may they
all be happy! 
Moreover may they attentively listen to my words!

Accordingly
give good heed, all ye beings! Show your love to the human beings who,
day and night, bring offerings to you. Wherefore guard them zealously.

Whatever
treasure there be either here or in the world beyond, or whatever
precious jewel in the precious jewel. By this truth may there be
happiness!

The tranquil Sage of the Sakyas realised that
Cessation, Passion-free, Immortality Supreme. 
There is nought
comparable with the Dhamma. Verily, in the Dhamma is this precious
jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

That Sanctity
praised by the Buddha Supreme is described as “concentration without
interruption. There is nought like that Concentration. Verily, in the
Dhamma is this precious jewel. By this truth may there be happiness!

Those
Eight Individuals, praised by the virtuous, constitute four pairs.
They, the worthy of offerings, the disciples of the Welcome One, - to
these gifts given yield abundant fruit.

Verily, in the Sangha is this precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

With
steadfast mind, applying themselves thoroughly in the Dispensation of
Gotama, exempt (from passion), they have attained to “that which should
be attained”, and, plunging into the Deathless, they enjoy Peace
obtained without price. 
Verily, in the Sangha is this precious jewel.

By
this truth may there be happiness! 
Just as a firm post, sunk in the
earth, cannot be shaken by the four winds; even so do I declare him to
be a righteous person who thoroughly perceives the Noble Truths.

Verily, in the Sangha is the precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

Those
who comprehend clearly the Noble Truths, well taught by Him of wisdom
deep, do not, however exceeding heedless they may be, undergo an eighth
birth.

Verily, in the Sangha is this precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

For
him with the acquisition of Insight, three conditions come to nought -
namely, self-illusion, doubt, and indulgence in (wrongful) rites and
ceremonies, should there be any. From the four states of misery, he is
absolutely freed, and is incapable of committing the six heinous crimes.

Verily, in the Sangha is this precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

Whatever
evil deed he does, whether by deed, word or thought, he is incapable of
hiding it; for it hath been said that such an act is impossible for one
who has seen the Path.

Verily, in the Sangha is this precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

Like
unto the woodland groves with blossomed tree tops in the first heat of
the summer season, hath the sublime doctrine, that leads to Nibbana,
been taught for the Highest Good.

Verily, in the Buddha is this precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness.

The unrivalled Excellent One, the Knower, the Giver, and the Bringer of the Excellent has expounded the excellent Doctrine.

Verily, in the Buddha is this precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

Their
past is extinct, a fresh becoming there is not, their minds are not
attached to a future birth, their desires grow not - those wise ones go
out even as this lamp.

Verily, in the Sangha is this precious jewel. 
By this truth may there be happiness!

We
beings here assembled, whether terrestrial or celestial, salute the
Accomplished Buddha, honoured by gods and men. May there be happiness!

We
beings here assembled, whether terrestrial or celestial, salute the
Accomplished Dhamma, honoured by gods and men. May there be happiness!

We
beings here assembled, whether terrestrial or celestial, salute the
Accomplished Sangha, honoured by gods and men. May there be happiness!

* Basic Pronunciation

a
as a in what â as a in father 
i as i in mint î as ee in see 
u as u in
put û as oo in pool 
e as a in cage o as o in no 
n as ng in sing ñ as
gn in signore

Pausing 
Prolong for vowels with ^ or ( - ) such as
â, î , û, e and o. 
Pause for double letter such as dd in Buddha :
Bu-ddha,
mm in Dhammam : Dha-mmam, ss in Ehi-passiko : E-hi-pa-ssiko

with English translations.
[You can download the text and audio files from

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(ii)
The couple should light the candles and incense sticks and offers the
flowers placing them on and around the table on which stands the image.

(iii)
The bride and groom should then, in turn, recite the traditional
undertakings expected of them as found in the Sigilovdda Sutta (Digha
Nikilya 3 1):

The bridegroom:

“Towards my wife I undertake
to love and respect her, be kind and considerate, be faithful, delegate
domestic management, provide gifts to please her.”

The bride:

“Towards
my husband I undertake to perform my household duties efficiently, be
hospitable to my in-laws and friends of my husband, be faithful, protect
and invest our earnings, discharge my responsibilities lovingly and
conscientiously.”

(iv) Finally, the assembly or perhaps the parents only, should recite the Mangala Sutta and Jayamangala Gatha as a blessing.

Sangha Dana

“Sangha”
actually means team. Is it clear? The donation called “Sangha Dana” is
the donation presenting to an Order or a team of Monks.

An Order or a team of Monks called “Sangha” is, along the monastic regular, composed of at least 4 monks.
To
perform a donation that is really called Sangha Dana, we need to
present gifts to an Order or a group of Monks composed of at least 4
monks.

Sangha Dana begets much merit and was much
praised by the Lord Buddha. If we have teamwork, much work will be done.
Team performance begets multiply much merit from good deeds, and bad
deeds can also beget multiply much demerit likewise. If we don’t want to
go to an unfortunate realm, we shouldn’t perform bad deeds in a team,
only good deeds and merit in a team will be performed which is actually
Sangha Dana.
Why was it well praised by the Lord Buddha? Sangha Dana
or the gift presentation to an Order of Monks is both good to monks and
laypeople.

Why is it good to monks? Monks are usually generous
and would like people to gain much merit. When they see our intention to
present gifts to the Order of them. If there are only a few monks at
their temple, they will ask monks from other places to live in their
temple; or if they don’t know where to find monks, they can give an
ordination to some local laypeople who have faith; or though they don’t
have faith, the monks can give them teachings until they have faith and
then they will be willing to get an ordination.

Finally, Sangha
Dana will automatically force the monks to build a team. Besides, when
their team grows, we will even be more delighted while making merit; and
not only we who are more delighted, but our team is also more delighted
and the team will grow. When our team grows, we can perform more
donations until that Order of monks has to grow their team too.

When
their team grows or other groups or other teams of monks join them, the
stability of the Order of Monks will be begotten. What will happen
next? When they are well nourished by our Sangha Dana, the Order of
Monks will be stronger and bigger.

Not only their team that will
grow, but also their Dhamma Dana (The gift of Dhamma) because each monk
has trained himself and has different knowledge and goodness than the
other ones; when there are more teams, the more Dhamma Dana will be
given.

When more Dhamma Dana is given, well…you, the one who
leads your team to present Sangha Dana, will absorb the wisdom of the
monks and have more chance to improve yourself. By this reason, the
Dhamma Dana you get will be the knowledge to get rid of defilements, and
the merit from presenting Sangha Dana will come with you over life that
can guarantee that no matter how many times you reincarnate, you will
never suffer from the poorness, but will always be satisfied and get
much Dhamma from monks to improve yourself. Then, your wisdom and
property will be increased in each life. Other than that, the precepts
we absorb from monks will definitely be more stable—from 5 precepts to 8
precepts, 10 precepts and we might finally take 227 precepts and get an
ordination just like them.
 
Why? Because you will see that a
group of monks are respectful, attractive and interesting, so you may
desire to get an ordination like them. This is the power of Sangha Dana.
That was why the Lord Buddha admired Sangha Dana. Therefore, in this
rain-retreat, you should perform Sangha Dana presentation as best as you
can because there are many monks in every temple.

Buddhist Funeral Rites

Theravadins
Buddhist follow the Indian custom of burning the body at death. The
Buddha’s body was cremated and this set the example for many Buddhists,
even in the West. When someone is dying in a Burmese home, monks come to
comfort them. They chant verses to them, such as:

“Even the
gorgeous royal chariots wear out; and indeed this body too wears out.
But the teaching of goodness does not age; and so Goodness makes that
known to the good ones.”

After death, while the dead person is
being prepared for the funeral fire, the monks continue to chant in
order to help the dead one’s good energies to be released from their
fading personality.

The monks come with the family to the
funeral. The family and all their friends give food and candles to the
monks. Goodwill is created by these gifts and it is believed that the
goodwill helps the lingering spirit of the dead person.


BUDDHIST EVENTS

Alex Watson Lecture 9/5

Buddhiststudies Departmental (sent by sanjyotm@berkeley.edu)

Dear Friends of the Center for Buddhist Studies at UC Berkeley,
We are very much looking forward to an exciting year and hope to see you at our many events scheduled for 2013-2014.
We are kicking off our colloquium series with a lecture by Alex Watson (Harvard University) entitled “The
Self as a Process: Rāmakaṇṭha’s Middle Ground Between Brahminical
Eternalism and Buddhist Momentariness.” This talk will take place at 5 pm, Thursday, September 5
, at 2223 Fulton Street (6th floor conference room).

For more information, please see the attached PDF or visit our website at http://buddhiststudies.berkeley.edu/events.

Sanjyot Mehendale
Vice-Chair, Center for Buddhist Studies
University of California
2223 Fulton Street, room 512
Berkeley,  CA 94720-2318
Tel: (510) 643-5104
Watsonflyer.pdf Watsonflyer.pdf
316K   View   Download 

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN

food for thought



An
economics professor at a local college made a statement that he had
never failed a single student before, but had recently failed an entire
class. That cla
ss had insisted that congress food security bill will worked and that no one would sleep without food .

The
professor then said, “OK, we will have an experiment in this class on
congress plan”. All grades will be averaged and everyone will receive
the same grade so no one will
fail and no one will receive an A…. (that means tax collected from us
will be used for food security bill expensed. i.e equally distribution
).

After the
first test, the grades were averaged and everyone got a B. The students
who studied hard were upset and the students who studied little were
happy. As the second test rolled around, the students who studied little
had studied even less and the ones who studied hard decided they wanted
a free ride too so they studied little.

The second test average was a D! No one was happy. When the 3rd test rolled around, the average was an F.

As the tests proceeded, the scores never increased as bickering, blame and name-calling all resulted in hard
feelings and no one would study for the benefit of anyone else.

To
their great surprise, ALL FAILED and the professor told them that
socialism would also ultimately fail because when the reward is great,
the effort to succeed is great, but when government takes all the reward
away, no one will try or want to succeed.

These are possibly the 5 best sentences you’ll ever read and all applicable to this experiment:

1. You cannot legislate the poor into prosperity by legislating the wealthy out of prosperity.

2. What one person receives without working for, another person must work for without receiving.

3. The government cannot give to anybody anything that the government does not first take from somebody else.

4. You cannot multiply wealth by dividing it!

5.
When half of the people get the idea that they do not have to work
because the other half is going to take care of them, and when the other
half gets the idea that it does no good to work because somebody else
is going to get what they work for, that is the beginning of the end of
any
nation.

Can you think of a reason for not sharing this?

Neither could I…..”

http://in-mg61.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch?.rand=fdjm8jj3ar6bc#mail


Maharashtra Anti-Superstition Act Ordianance



FYI,
Bhanteji

—– Forwarded Message —–
From: Ranjit Nandagawali
To: buddhistcircle@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Thursday, 29 August 2013 8:44 PM
Subject: [The Buddhist Circle] Fwd: Maharashtra Anti-Superstition Act Ordianance [1 Attachment]

 

Jaibhim,


This is important article pls spread the words.

With Metta,
Ranjit Nandagawali

Subject: Fwd: Maharashtra Anti-Superstition Act Ordianance
To:

Kind
Attention to all Rational Activists :- We can use this law against some
unlawful activities in all religions. This is very important tool for
Scientific thinking movement.


Facebook users :- Please share it on your page and groups.

Dear Sangh ,

Please read content of this act. This is very important tool for us. 
We usually see ads in the TV nowadays like -

  1. Dhanlakshmi Kuber Yantra.
  2. Jyotish Vidya saying they can make money by worshiping their yantra.

  3. Nirmal Baba
Like :- 



Dr. Dabholkar on Nirmal Baba 





and many mores , 

Under this act these all practices are illegal.

I request our Legal field friends to please interpret it more.

Please spread this message and mail.

Metta ,

Sandeep.

__._,_.___



harkhand Human Rights Movement 
C/o-Mr. Suleman Odeya, Near Don Bosci ITC Gate, Khorha Toli, Kokar, Ranchi -834001. 0651-3242752 Email: jhrmindia@gmail.com
Ref: JHRM/PI/2013/04 Date: 29/08/2013
To, 
Sri Pranab Mukherjee, 
President of India,
Rashtrapati Bhavan, 
New Delhi – 110004
India. 
Sub: Requesting for suspension of prestigious “Dronachaya Award”
under the purview of the Supreme Court’s judgment, which is given for 
excellence in sports coaching in India.

Dear
Sir, 
With due respect, we would like to bring your kind attention on the matter of 
prestigious “Dronacharya Award”, which is presented by the Government of
India to the excellent coaches for their excellence in sports coaching. The 
award comprises a bronze statuette of Dronacharya, a scroll of honour and a 
cash component of
Rs.500,000. The award was instituted in 1985. However, it 
should have been suspended from 5th of January, 2011 under the purview of 
the judgment of Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in the special leave petition 
(Cr) No. 10367 of 2010 Kailas & others Vs State of Maharashtra).
In the above said judgement the Apex Court has stated that the injustice done 
to the tribal people of India is a shameful chapter in our country’s history. The 
tribals were called ‘rakshas’ (demons), ‘asuras’, and what not. They were 
slaughtered in large numbers, and the survivors and their descendants were 
degraded, humiliated, and all kinds of atrocities inflicted on them for 
centuries. They were deprived of their lands, and pushed into forests and hills 
where they eke out a miserable existence of poverty, illiteracy, disease, etc. 
And now efforts are being made by some people to deprive them even of their 
forest and hill land where they are living, and the forest produce on which 
they survive.

The Court has said that the well known example of the injustice to the tribals 
is the story of Eklavya in the Adiparva of the Mahabharat. Eklavya wanted to 
learn archery, but Dronacharya refused to teach him, regarding him as low 
born. Eklavya then built a statue of Dronacharya and practiced archery before 
the statue.
He would have perhaps become a better archer than Arjun, but 
since Arjun was Dronacharya’s favourite pupil Dronacharya told Eklavya to 
cut off his right thumb and give it to him as ‘guru dakshina’ (gift to the teacher
given traditionally by the student after his study is complete). In his simplicity 
Eklavya did what he was told.2
The
Apex Court has further stated that it was a shameful act on the part of 
Dronacharya. He had not even taught Eklavya, so what right had he to 
demand ‘guru dakshina’, and that too of the right thumb of Eklavya so that 
the latter Eklavya may not become a better archer than his favourite pupil 
Arjun?

The Apex Court’s observations make it very clear that Dronachaya was an
assassinator of excellence rather than protector of it therefore; giving the
excellence award for sports coaching in the name of Dronacharya means 
insulting the excellence coaching in sports and also humiliating the
Scheduled Tribe/Adivasis (the Indigenous People) of India. 

However, despite the Supreme Court strong observations and comments the 
Indian Government has been giving awards to the sports coaches in the name 
of Dronacharya. Therefore, we humbly request you to suspend the 
Dronacharya Award immediately to uphold the dignity of the Scheduled 
Tribe/Adivasis (the Indigenous People) of India and in respect of the sports 
coaching. 

We hope to hear your positive response. We shall be highly obliged to you
for 
the same. 

Thanking you.
Yours sincerely,
Gladson Dungdung, Sunil Minj,
General Secretary,
Chairperson,
JHRM, Ranchi. JHRM, Ranchi



comments (0)
08/29/13
1026 LESSON 30-08-2013 FRIDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Alex Watson Lecture 9/5 Buddhiststudies Departmental (sent by sanjyotm@berkeley.edu) Dear Friends of the Center for Buddhist Studies at UC Berkeley, We are very much looking forward to an exciting year and hope to see you at our many events scheduled for 2013-2014. We are kicking off our colloquium series with a lecture by Alex Watson (Harvard University) entitled “The Self as a Process: Rāmakaṇṭha’s Middle Ground Between Brahminical Eternalism and Buddhist Momentariness.” This talk will take place at 5 pm, Thursday, September 5, at 2223 Fulton Street (6th floor conference room). For more information, please see the attached PDF or visit our website at http://buddhiststudies.berkeley.edu/events. Sanjyot Mehendale Vice-Chair, Center for Buddhist Studies University of California 2223 Fulton Street, room 512 Berkeley, CA 94720-2318 Tel: (510) 643-5104 Watsonflyer.pdf Watsonflyer.pdf 316K View Download Dear friends we are conducting one day orientation on Buddhism in Mahabodhi society Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar Bangalore 560009 on 1st sept 2013 sunday from 9.00 am to 5.00pm if your interested in the one day work shop kindly enroll. Buddhist marriage Upasaka Chandrasekhar G. (second S/o Smt. Kasthala Malathi & Dri. Kasthala Guravaiah)wedded Upasaki. Uma V.(Eldest D/o Kommalapati Devi & Sri Kommalapati Venkatesh) with metta k.kumar Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Buddhism -A Scientific Experimental Path
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:59 pm

1026 LESSON 30-08-2013 FRIDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism


Buddhist  marriage

Upasaka Chandrasekhar G. (second S/o Smt. Kasthala Malathi & Dri. Kasthala Guravaiah)wedded Upasaki. Uma V.(Eldest D/o Kommalapati Devi & Sri Kommalapati Venkatesh)


with metta
k.kumar

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism -A Scientific Experimental Path

Albert Einstein the father of the modern science said: If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs it would be Buddhism.
The human who are considered to be the supreme beings on planet earth have entered into the twenty first century with many astonishing inventions and discoveries to their credit and yet they have found no solution to eradicate (dukkha) suffering .

All the time we have been trying to eleminate or rather suppress suffering by engaging ourselves in one or other of the pleasure seeking activities but to no avail. having passed through this futile experiment for finding solutions to the ills of the world, we must realize now that the time has come to conduct the same age old and mast effective experiment as conducted and taught by the Buddha himself. The experiment is given below!

The Awakenment Experiment

A)    Aim: To end Dukkha/ Suffering and attain peace, happiness and final liberation called Nibbana.

B)    Instruments : Mind and Body (Nama - rupa)

c)     Proceedure : Follow the Noble eight-fold path.

    1) Right View - To understand and appreciate wholesome deeds, unwholesome deeds and the law of Kamma (actions and their moral retribution).
   
    2)    Right Intention _ The intention of renunciation, non-ill will and harmlessness.
   
    3)    Right Speech - Abstaining from false speech, malicious speech, harsh speech and idle chatter.

    4)    Right Action - Abstaining from killing, stealing and sexual misconduct.

    5)    Right Livelihood - Abstaining from wrong and corrupt means of livilihood.

    6)    Right Effort - Awakening zeal for abandoning of unwholesome states and arising sustaining of wholesome states.

    7)    Right Mindfulness - The four foundations of mindfulness (Satipattana) namely contemplation on body, contemplation on feelings, contemplation on mind and contemplation on mind-objects.

    8)     Right Concentration - Abandoning of five hindrances namely lust, ill-will, sloth-torpor, worry-agitation and doubt through jhanas.

D)    Conclusion : The four noble truths namely

    1)    There is Dukkha (Suffering).

    2)     There is cause of Dukkha.
 
    3)     There is cessation go Dukkha.
 
    4)    There is a path leading to the cessation of Dukkha.

The above experiment is necessary for the attainment of final liberation called Nibbana. Now it is left to the wisdom and scientific temperament of modern man to make use of the tools and the technique given by the Buddha to eliminate Dukkha (Suffering) and attain final liberation called Nibbana.

Outwardly the noble truth of suffering as taught by the Buddha is a poor consolation for the frailties of the flattering heart seems to be pessimistic. But in Buddha’s teaching truth is not explained in terms of pessimism or optimism but is terms of realism and stresses on striving. Because without striving on the Noble eight-fols path it is not possible to realize the truth of suffering and its cessation.

Suffering no doubt is a pain but this very pain is used in Buddhism as a wet stone to sharpen one’s wisdom and penetrate reality to see things as they are and not as we want them to be.

In Mahaahtthipadopama Sutta  (M.N>28.2 B.P.S.), Buddha says : “Friends, just as the foot print of any living being that walks can be placed within an Elephant’s foot print, and so the Elephants’s foot print is declared the chief of them because of its great size; so too, all wholesome states can be included in the four noble tryths of suffering”.

Therefore in the name of pessimism or any other negative attitude one should not be afraid of facing offering and react like an ostrich which buries it head in the sand to avoid the challenge faced by it. Such delusions must be eradicated completely and one must be prepared to face the stark realities of life and attempt to follow the Noble eight-fold path.

This Noble eight-fold path in turn is divided into three sections. They are  Sila (morality) which includes right speech, right action and right livelihood; Samadhi (mental development or concentration) which includes right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration and Panya (wisdom) which includes right view and right intention.

On one occasion Buddha said his Dhamma (teachings) is like a raft (or boat) which should be used to cross over the ocean of suffering called Sansara or reach the other shore of peace, happiness and liberation called Nibbana.

Thus we can say Buddhism is like a ship with

Sila as its mechanism

Samadhi as its power

Panya as its captain

Nibbana as its destination.

Further a well known Western writer T.W. Rhys Davids has said.

“Buddhist or Non-Buddhist, ZI have examined every one of thereat religious systems of the world and in none of them have I found anything to surpass in beauty and comprehensiveness the Noble-fold path of the Buddha”.

Thus Buddha the Guide to Humanity, showed Noble Eight-fold path to suffering humanity. Do not be obsessed with materiality, but practice spirituality, he said. This path, he said, is none other than the path of Wisdom, Concentration and Morality.

Buddhist  marriage

Upasaka Chandrasekhar G. (second S/o Smt. Kasthala Malathi & Dri. Kasthala Guravaiah)wedded Upasaki. Uma V.(Eldest D/o Kommalapati Devi & Sri Kommalapati Venkatesh)

Dhammachari Dr. Narendra blessed the couples

on Friday 30th August 2013 at Shti Shakti Ganapatht Kalyana Mantapam, New Thippasandra Main Road, Bangalore.




Buddhism and Marriage

Buddha advised on leading a
happy married life, and suggested that fidelity and loyalty are the most
essential attributes of a happy marriage.

Other attributes include:
    •    Supporting one’s parents
    •    Loving one’s spouse and children
    •    Being generous
    •    Having a sense of duty
    •    Helping relatives and acting blamelessly
    •    Reverence, humility, contentment, gratitude and listening to the Dharma (teachings)

The Five Precepts, a central teaching of Buddhism, offers a framework for a successful and happy marriage.

Refrain
from destroying or harming living creatures - A partner’s actions
should never lead to harm of any kind including emotional suffering.
Every action with regard to a partner should be based on the teaching of
respect and love.

Refrain from taking that which is not given -
In the context of marriage, this precept expresses the need to maintain
an equal and respectful relationship and to share the duties and
responsibilities of married life and family.

Refrain from sexual
misconduct - One should be faithful to one’s spouse and not participate
in adulterous relationships. Respectful attention to the sexual needs
and desires of one’s spouse is an important part of refraining from
misconduct.

Refrain from false speech - Marriage should be based
in truthfulness. An essential component of this precept is to create and
maintain an open channel of communication between spouses.

Refrain
from intoxicating drugs or drink which cloud the mind - As a clear mind
is important in living one’s life, so too are clear headedness and
clear thinking essential components in married life.

There are no religious laws regarding the necessity of marriage or of having children in the Buddhist tradition.
Buddhist
monks who renounce worldly existence do not marry and are celibate.
They are not allowed to attend marriage ceremonies and therefore do not
perform wedding services. However, they can offer blessings to couples.

There
is no official marriage ceremony, and regional customs and practices
provide a wide range of ceremonial elements. It is common, however, to
include the Homage to the Buddha, “Homage to The Exalted One, The
Liberated One, The Fully Enlightened One.” The Three Refuges, “I seek
refuge in the Enlightened One, Buddha, I seek refuge in the Way to
Enlightenment, Dharma, I seek refuge in the Enlightened Community,
Sangha,” and the recitation of the Five Precepts (see above.)
From the Sigalovada Sutta, the roles and responsibilities are presented and provide a structure for successful married life.

“In five ways… should a wife… be ministered to by a husband:
    1.    by being courteous to her
    2.    by not despising her
    3.    by being faithful to her
    4.    by handing over authority to her
    5.    by providing her with adornments

The wife, thus ministered to… by her husband shows her compassion to her husband in five ways:
    1.    she performs her duties well
    2.    she is hospitable to relations and attendants
    3.    she is faithful
    4.    she protects what he brings
    5.    she is skilled and industrious in discharging her duties.”

The
Buddha has said, “If a man can find a suitable and understanding wife
and a woman can find a suitable and understanding husband, both are
fortunate indeed.”


பாளி

Uddesa


Evaṃ me sutaṃ:

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

Bhikkhavo ti.


Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca:



Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.


எவங் மெ ஸுத்தங்

Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.


I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba


Katha·ñ·ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arañña-gato rukkha-mūla-gato suññāgāra-gato nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So satova assasati, satova passasati. Dīghaṃ assasantodīghaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti; dīghaṃ passasantodīghaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti; rassaṃ assasantorassaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti; rassaṃ passasantorassaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti;

sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati; ‘sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati.


Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro bhamakār·antevāsī dīghaṃ añchantodīghaṃ añchāmīti pajānāti; rassaṃ añchantorassaṃ añchāmīti pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ assasantodīghaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti; dīghaṃ passasantodīghaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti; rassaṃ assasantorassaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti; rassaṃ passasantorassaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti;

sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati; ‘sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati.


Iti ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyoti pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Introduction



Thus have I heard:


On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:

– Bhikkhus.

– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 

This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas



Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.




ENGLISH

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna



And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree
or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise,
setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ.
Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’;
he
trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.



Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a
long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn,
he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’;
he
trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.


பொத்தபாதா,முதலாவது
புலனுணர்வும் பின்னால் ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது. மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
எழும்புகிறபோது ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது. ஒரு பிரித்தறியும் நிலை சார்ந்துள்ள
என்னுடைய இந்த ஞானம் எழும்பியது. இவ்வழியான வரம்பின் காரண ஆய்வால் ஒருவர்
எப்படி முதலாவது புலனுணர்வு எழும்புகிறது மற்றும் ஞானம் அடுத்து என்று உணர
முடியும் மற்றும் எவ்வாறு புலனுணர்வு எழும்பியதால், ஞானம் எழும்பிமயது
என்றும்.

நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன், ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:

‘ஆக
எனக்கு, மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,  மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni (மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை, இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,  மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம், துரதிருஷ்டம், துக்க நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன், sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி.

‘ஆக
எனக்கு,  மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை, மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni (மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,  மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,
மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம், துரதிருஷ்டம், துக்க நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna
(புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,
sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி
தானே?

இங்கு,ஆனந்தா, புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)உடைய வராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம்
- விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜராகிருத்தல் -
( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)

இந்த ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம்  ஆழ்நிலைத் தியானத்திற்கு முக்கியமான தொடர்புள்ளதென விசாலமாக ஆய்ந்த கருத்து

உத்தேஸ (ஆயத்தப்படுத்தல்)

I. மெய்யார்வ தியான ஜாக்கிரதை ஸ்தாபித்தல்

A.
உள்ளுயிர்ப்பு மற்றும் ஒரு தடவை மூச்சு வாங்கிவிடுதல் பிரிவு ( வினை
அடிப்படை, ஒரு சில சமய சம்பந்தமான அப்பியாசம் பாடம் அல்லது ஆழ்நிலைத் தியான
செயல்முறை சார்ந்த நியதி வழி, நீடமைதி, நினைவிழந்த நிலை மெய்மறந்த
மகிழ்ச்சி மற்றும் நாலடி பாதை எய்துதல்).

B. ஒழுக்க நடை பாதை பிரிவு ( நான்கு இரியாபத அங்கஸ்திதி இருக்கின்றது, அதாவது: நடத்தல், நிற்றல், உட்கார்ந்திருத்தல், சயனிப்பு)

C.முழு விழிப்புடனிருக்கிற,  உணர் திறன், உணர்வு பிரிவு.

D. பின்வருங்காலத்துக்குரிய எதிர்நோக்கு ஆசை பிரிவு.

E.மூலக்கூறு
அல்லது அடிப்படையான பொருள், அடிப்படை மெய்மை, வண்ணம், நாச்சுவை, ஒலியலை,
புலங்கொளி மூலப் பொருள், உடலைச் சார்ந்த அடிப்படை மெய்மை அல்லது மூன்று
உயிரின உடற் கசிவுப்பொருள் சளி, காற்று மற்றும் பித்தநீர், தகனம் செய்த
பிந்திய உடல் சிதைவெச்சம் உடற்பகுதியான மூலக் கூறு தசை, இரத்தம்,
எலும்புகள்: ஒரு புனித திருச்சின்னம், ஒரு உயிரினப்படிவம்,  ஒரு மாழை.

F.ஒன்பது கல்லறை எலும்புகளைக் கொட்டும் மதிலகச் சுற்றுநில இடம். 

தமிழ்

எந்த
நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல்
கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā, வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்  பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன்
இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī உறுதலுணர்ச்சி
கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார். வேறு வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார். மனத்தால்
இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு வழியில்லாமல்  
பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க கண்காணிப்புடன்
வசிக்கிரார்.


ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
(கம்மாசதம்மா)வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā  (பகவான்) தங்கி
இருந்தார். 

 அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
-

பிக்குக்களுக்களா

-
பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில்  அளித்தார்.Bhagavā  (பகவா)
சொற்றார்:

- இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும்
பாதையில் நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து, 
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு, Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.

மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு, காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ, காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார், உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு, மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:
நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன், நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்: அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன், நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு. நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்: அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

சம்மதம்படி,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, திறமை கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர்,
ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிந்து: ‘நான் நீளமான
சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல்
குறிப்பறிந்து: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’; அவ்வழி,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.
மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார். மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:
நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார். அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன், நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்: அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்: அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு. நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்: அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்: அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்;
புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும்
புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்;
இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்வுடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்
அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றற்று வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


“ஆனாபானசதி தியானம்”

“ஆனாபானசதி”
இது ‘கெளதம புத்தர்’ 2500 வருடங்களுக்கு முன் பயின்று வந்த தியான
முறையாகும். இந்த தியானத்தை இடைவிடாமல் மேற்கோண்ட பின்புதான்
“சித்தார்த்தர்” என்னும் மனிதர், ‘கெளதம புத்தர்’ என்னும் ‘மகான்’ ஆனார்.
பாலி மொழியில்


                      ’ஆனா’ என்றால் ‘உள் இழுக்கும் மூச்சு’


                       ’அபான’ என்றால் ‘வெளிவரும் மூச்சு’


                           ’சதி’ என்றால் ஒன்றியிருப்பது.


 

ஆக
“ஆனாபானசதி” என்றால், ‘நம் சுவாசத்தோடு நாம் ஒன்றியிருப்பது என்று பொருள்.
இதனையே, “சுவாசத்தின் மீது கவனம்” என்றும் சொல்லலாம். “ஆனாபானசதி” தியானம்
உலக மக்களுக்குக் கிடைத்த வரப்பிரசாதமாகும்.

தியானம்
என்றால் நம் சுவாசத்தின் மீது நமது முழுகவனத்தை வைத்திருப்பதாகும்.
அவ்வாறு மூச்சை கவனித்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், நமது மனம் எந்த
சிந்தனையுமின்றி, சாந்த நிலையை அடையும்.

மனம்
அந்த நிலையை அடையும் போது, அளவற்ற விஸ்வசக்தி நமது உடலில் பாய்கிறது.
விஸ்வசக்தி நமது நாடிமண்டலத்தை சுத்தகரித்து, நமது மூன்றாம் கண்ணை
இயக்குகின்றது. இந்த விஸ்வசக்தியின் மூலமாக நல்ல உடல் ஆரோக்கயமும்,
அமைதியான மனநிலையையும் மற்றும் பல ஆன்மிக அனுபவங்களையும் பெறுவோம்.


 
தியானம் செய்யும் முறை
    
தியானம்
செய்வதற்கு, சுகமான ஆசனத்தில் அமர வேண்டும். தரையில், பாய் மீதோ அல்லது
நாற்காலியிலோ அமர்ந்து கொள்ளவும். பாதங்களை ஒன்றின் மீது ஒன்றாக இணைத்துக்
கொள்ளவும். இரு கை விரல்களை ஒன்றுடன் ஒன்றாகக் கோர்த்துக்கொள்ளவும். உடல்
இறுக்கமாக இல்லாமல் தளர்த்தியபடி இயல்பாக இருக்க வேண்டும். பின்பு கண்ணாடி
இருந்தால் கழற்றி விட்டு, கண்களை மெதுவாக மூடிக்கொண்டு நம்மில்
இயல்பாகவும், இயற்கையாகவும், மென்மையாகவும் நடக்கும் சுவாசத்தின் மீது
கவனத்தைச் செலுத்த வேண்டும். எந்த மந்திரங்களையும் உச்சரிக்க வேண்டாம்.
கடவுள் மற்றும் மகான்களின் உருவத்தை நினைக்கக் கூடாது. மனதில் எண்ணங்கள்
எழும்போது, அவற்றைவிட்டு, முழு கவனத்தையும் சுவாசத்தின் மீது செலுத்தவும்.


 
தியானம் செய்யும் நேரம்

தினமும்
குறைந்தபட்சமாக, அவரவரது வயதிற்கு நிகரான நேரம் தியானம் செய்ய வேண்டும்.
உதாரணமாக, 10 வயது சிறுமி 10 நிமிடங்களும், 60 வயதுடையவர் தொடர்ந்து 60
நிமிடங்களும் தினமும் தவறாமல் தியானம் செய்ய வேண்டும்.

*****************************************************************************

B. பதுமங்களின் பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து
செல்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார். அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:
அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான்
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya
உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர் அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றற்று வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

C. பதுமம் பிரிவு



மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும்
பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும்
எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும் கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும் நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான
தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய
நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள் பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும்
ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும் பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது,
குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது, சுவைக்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும் பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,

உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற
பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான
தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்.

 இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

D.தாக்கிக் துரத்திடுதல் பிரிவு

ஒருவேளை
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள் உடையதாயிருப்பின்,
பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல் பயிர்,
பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியலை ஒரு மனிதன் நல்ல
பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய
விரும்பி , “இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல் என அறிவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில், உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி
உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த,
‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல்,
தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,
மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை, குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய
உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு,
கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த
நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறிவார்.

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில், உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
இதயம், கல்லீரல், மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை, குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
அலைவார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த : “உடல்/காயத்தில் , நிலவுலகம் மெய்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்மூலம், காற்று மெய்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில்
பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து, ஒரு குறுக்கு வீதியில்
உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே, பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும், எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை
அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க  இந்த:
“உடல்/காயத்தில் , நிலவுலகம் மெய்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்மூலம், நெருப்பு
மெய்மூலம், காற்று மெய்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(2)

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை
இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(3)

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,
ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும் இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய்
பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற  நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(4)

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,
ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்
பூசப்பட்டு,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை
இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(5)

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் 
இல்லாமல்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான kāya 
உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை
ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது,
மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(6)

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு
நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,
கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான, இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே
ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால் எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள்
எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு
தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே
ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு, அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என
அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய
கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி 
ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(7)

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு
நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,
எலும்புகள் கடல்நுரை போல் வெண்மையாக இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான kāya 
உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை
ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது,
மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(8)

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு
பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
கொண்டிருந்தால், எலும்புகள் ஒரு ஆண்டுக்கு மேலே பழையதாகி குவியல் போல் 
இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya 
உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும்
இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு
வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(9)

மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம்
இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,
சீரழிந்த எலும்புகள் பொடியாகி  இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்மூலமான kāya 
உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை
ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது,
மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணித்து
வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை
கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர்
உடனிருக்கிறதை, சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என
எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN


The Times of India


Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan(Bangalore)
VOICE
OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN
Asaram points to conspiracy by ‘madam and her son’
Self-styled godman Asaram Bapu on Thursday pointed to a conspiracy by
‘madam and her son’ against him, in an obvious reference to Congress
president Sonia Gandhi and her son Rahul.
The best way to express gratitude to Narendra Dabholkar is to make his
rational and scientific movement more vigorous and far reaching
throughout india. In general people seem to be indifferent to such
incidents.

Whenever it comes to Magic and Miracle indians remember Hindu Gods and
when it comes to Morality they remember Buddha. Indians are more
interested in Magic and Miracle and not Morality and hence this state of
affairs in modern india with murder, rape, corruption, caste and what
not?

“The Hindus claim to be a very tolerant people. In my opinion this is a
mistake. On many occasions they can be intolerant, and if on some
occasions they are tolerant, that is because they are too weak to oppose
or too indifferent to oppose. This indifference of the Hindus has
become so much a part of their nature that a Hindu will quite meekly
tolerate an insult as well as a wrong. You see amongst them, to use the
words of Morris, “The great treading down the little, the strong beating
down the weak, cruel men fearing not, kind men daring not and wise men
caring not.” With the Hindu Gods all-forbearing, it is not difficult to
imagine the pitiable condition of the wronged and the oppressed among
the Hindus. Indifferentism is the worst kind of disease that can infect a
people. Why is the Hindu so indifferent? In my opinion this
indifferentism is the result of the Caste System, which has made
Sanghatan and co-operation even for a good cause impossible.” ~Dr
Ambedkar
with metta,
Bhanteji

Whenever it is matter of morality these hindus remember Buddha but not
their Krishna, Shiva or Ganesh..

Whenever it comes to Magic and Miracle they remember hindu gods and when
it comes to Morality they remember Buddha. They are more interested in
Magic and Miracle and not Morality and hence this state of affairs in
modern days with rape, corruption, caste and what not?

In this country where Phallus (Linga) is worshiped what else can one
expect. First the concept of god and worshiping objects should be set
right in this country. It is a real shame on us all. There is a need to
introduce decency, rationality and scientific temper into the religion
and religious objects of worship.

Mr. Asaram Bapu, You are not Buddha…….. ! Don’t Comprise with
our Supreme Buddha.
Mr. Asaram Bapu, You are not a simple saint or a common moral
character
man.You are cheater, corrupt, blackmailer, unmoral man…. No words for
you. Buddha’s
philosophy is totally depend on Moral values. Where are you sitting
their….! And
you are compromising with Tathagat Buddha. Your practical level can not
be compromised
with a common monk.
You have to give the answer of sufferer girl and fully support
to police investigation.
After that, you follow the way a Buddha.
Dr. Milind Jiwane
National Chairman
Civil Rights Protection Cell


Asaram points to conspiracy by ‘madam and her son’

Self-styled godman Asaram Bapu on Thursday pointed to a conspiracy by ‘madam and her son’ against him, in an obvious reference to Congress president Sonia Gandhi and her son Rahul.


The best way to express
gratitude to Narendra Dabholkar is to make his rational and scientific
movement more vigorous and far reaching throughout india. In general
people seem to be indifferent to such incidents.

Whenever it
comes to Magic and Miracle indians remember Hindu Gods and when it comes
to Morality they remember Buddha. Indians are more interested in Magic
and Miracle and not Morality and hence this state of affairs in modern
india with murder, rape, corruption, caste and what not?

“The
Hindus claim to be a very tolerant people. In my opinion this is a
mistake. On many occasions they can be intolerant, and if on some
occasions they are tolerant, that is because they are too weak to oppose
or too indifferent to oppose. This indifference of the Hindus has
become so much a part of their
nature that a Hindu will quite meekly tolerate an insult as well as a
wrong. You see amongst them, to use the words of Morris, “The great
treading down the little, the strong beating down the weak, cruel men
fearing not, kind men daring not and wise men caring not.” With the
Hindu Gods all-forbearing, it is not difficult to imagine the pitiable
condition of the wronged and the oppressed among the Hindus.
Indifferentism is the worst kind of disease that can infect a people.
Why is the Hindu so indifferent? In my opinion this indifferentism is
the result of the Caste System, which has made Sanghatan and
co-operation even for a good cause impossible.” ~Dr Ambedkar



with metta,
Bhanteji

Whenever it is matter of morality these hindus remember Buddha but not their Krishna, Shiva or Ganesh..

Whenever
it comes to Magic and Miracle they remember hindu gods and when it
comes to Morality they remember Buddha. They are more interested in
Magic and Miracle and not Morality and hence this state of affairs in
modern days with rape, corruption, caste and what not?

In
this
country where Phallus (Linga) is worshiped what else can one expect.
First the concept of god and worshiping objects should be set right in
this country. It is a real shame on us all. There is a need to
introduce decency, rationality and scientific temper into the religion
and religious objects of worship.



Mr. Asaram Bapu, You are not Buddha…….. ! Don’t Comprise with
our Supreme Buddha.
        Mr. Asaram Bapu, You are not a simple saint or a common moral character
man.You are cheater, corrupt, blackmailer, unmoral man…. No words for you. Buddha’s
philosophy is totally depend on Moral values. Where are you sitting their….! And
you are compromising with Tathagat Buddha. Your practical level can not be  compromised
with a common monk. 

        You have to give the answer of sufferer girl and fully support to police investigation.

After that, you follow the way a Buddha.
Dr. Milind Jiwane
National Chairman

Civil Rights Protection Cell

1/4 Tea Cup - Poverty Hit Gujarat - Exclusive

When in Punjab labor working in farms get 2-3 full meals plus two glasses

of 300ml pure milk, in Gujarat people share a 150ml cup of tea with four
persons.

It is like sharing a Buiscuit or a Roti with four persons.

Gujarat had already introduced ‘Bidi and Tobacco Chewing’ to cut the appitite of people and banned liqour and beer.

What a great progress in Ahmadabad City? Villages situation shall be worse.

Second story is MOST DAMNING - Modi hiring Engineering Lecturers on
Short 11 month contract - there is over 25 to 33 lecturers short in
Engineering Colleges and Polytechnics

Ravinder Singh


comments (0)
08/28/13
1025 LESSON 29-08-2013 THURSDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Buddhism and Dhammacakka Dhammacakka as National EmblemEvidence Builds That Meditation Strengthens the Brain Dear friends we are conducting one day orientation on Buddhims in Mahabodhi society on 1st sept 2013 sunday from 9.00 am to 5.00pm if your interested in the one day work shop kindly enroll. with metta k.kumar
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:29 pm

1025 LESSON 29-08-2013 THURSDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism and Dhammacakka

Dhammacakka as National EmblemEvidence Builds That Meditation Strengthens the Brain

Dear friends we are conducting one day orientation on Buddhims in Mahabodhi society on 1st sept 2013 sunday from 9.00 am to 5.00pm if your interested in the one day work shop kindly enroll.


with metta
k.kumar

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism and Dhammacakka

Dhammacakka as National Emblem

The national emblem comes from the Sarnath Lion Capitol of Emperor Ashoka. Ashoka ruled the country from 272 BCE to 232 BCE. The original sculpture shown four lions on a pillar with an elephant, horse, bull, and liondeparated by a lotus on the base. A Dhamma Cakka (wheel of law)is also carved into the stone.
The emblem was adopted on January 26, 1950 by the Government. The official symbol now shows three of the four lions with the Dhamma Cakka in the center of the base and a bull and horse on either side. The base is also engraved with the phrase “Satyameva Jayate” in the Devanagari script. This simple phrase represents a powerful idea for the people:”Truth alone triumphs”. The national emblem is thus symbolic of contemporary PRABUDDHA BHARATH’s reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill. The four lions (one hidden from view) - symbols the four noble truths proclaimed by the Buddha with a lions roar.
Dhammacakka on National Flag

Significance of the Tricolor: Each of the three colors in our Tricolor flag has a special significance. The saffron stands for sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation, i.e., Buddha. The white , is meant for purity, tryth i.e., Dhamma. While the green is for faith, fertile field of merits i.e., Sangha. The navy blue wheel in the center of the white band signifies the continuity of the nation’s progress which is deemed to be as boundless as the blue sky above and as fathomless as the deep blue sea.

Dhammacakka as wheel of Dhamma

Dhammacakka with 24-spokes represent the 24 factors of the four noble truth expounded by the Buddha. This gives the whole of the fundamenttal teachings of the Buddha. Let us now see what are those factors one by one in these four noble truths: (Note the factors are in bold letters)

1)    There is suffering (Dukkha) i.e., Birth is dukkha, old age is dukkha, illness is dukkha, death is dukkha, association with unpleasant is dukkha, disassociation from the pleasantis dukkha, one does not get what is desired that too is dukkha, in short the five aggregates affected by clinging is dukeha. (7+5=12)

2)    There is cause for suffering (Dukkha Samudhaya) i.e., there is greed which causes becoming in the next world, consisting of passionate delight, finding pleasure in this or that, to wit: greed for sensual pleasures, greed for becoming, greed for non becoming. (3)

3)    There is cessation of Suffering (Dukkha Nirodha) i.e., of that very greed itself, that extinction, which comes through complete detachment, giving up, complete abandonment, release, and non-attachment, i.e., Nibbana (1)

4)     There is path leading to the cessation of Suffering (Dukkha Nirodhagamini patipada) i.e., the noble eight-fold path to wit: right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. (8)
Thus if we add these factors of four noble truths wqe get 24 factors (12+3+1+8+24)
Thus Dhammacakka is such that it implies the core of Buddhism aqs a symbolic representation.

http://www.buddhastation.com/buddhism-articles/evidence-builds-that-meditation-strengthens-the-brain/
Evidence Builds That Meditation Strengthens the Brain

 
Cortical Surface Shown is the lateral view of the right cortical surface. The red circle indicates where the maximum effect occurred. Top: Larger gyrification in 50 long-term meditators compared to 50 well-matched controls. Bottom: Positive correlations between gyrification and the number of meditation years within the 50 meditators. (Credit: Image courtesy of University of California – Los Angeles)


Mar. 14, 2012 — Earlier evidence out of UCLA suggested that meditating for years thickens the brain (in a good way) and strengthens the connections between brain cells. Now a further report by UCLA researchers suggests yet another benefit.

Eileen Luders, an assistant professor at the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, and colleagues, have found that long-term meditators have larger amounts of gyrification (“folding” of the cortex, which may allow the brain to process information faster) than people who do not meditate. Further, a direct correlation was found between the amount of gyrification and the number of meditation years, possibly providing further proof of the brain’s neuroplasticity, or ability to adapt to environmental changes.

The article appears in the online edition of the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of neural tissue. Among other functions, it plays a key role in memory, attention, thought and consciousness. Gyrification or cortical folding is the process by which the surface of the brain undergoes changes to create narrow furrows and folds called sulci and gyri. Their formation may promote and enhance neural processing. Presumably then, the more folding that occurs, the better the brain is at processing information, making decisions, forming memories and so forth.

“Rather than just comparing meditators and non-meditators, we wanted to see if there is a link between the amount of meditation practice and the extent of brain alteration,” said Luders. “That is, correlating the number of years of meditation with the degree of folding.”

Of the 49 recruited subjects, the researchers took MRI scans of 23 meditators and compared them to 16 control subjects matched for age, handedness and sex. (Ten participants dropped out.) The scans for the controls were obtained from an existing MRI database, while the meditators were recruited from various meditation venues. The meditators had practiced their craft on average for 20 years using a variety of meditation types — Samatha, Vipassana, Zen and more. The researchers applied a well-established and automated whole-brain approach to measure cortical gyrification at thousands of points across the surface of the brain.

They found pronounced group differences (heightened levels of gyrification in active meditation practitioners) across a wide swatch of the cortex, including the left precentral gyrus, the left and right anterior dorsal insula, the right fusiform gyrus and the right cuneus.

Perhaps most interesting, though, was the positive correlation between the number of meditation years and the amount of insular gyrification.

“The insula has been suggested to function as a hub for autonomic, affective and cognitive integration,” said Luders. “Meditators are known to be masters in introspection and awareness as well as emotional control and self-regulation, so the findings make sense that the longer someone has meditated, the higher the degree of folding in the insula.”

While Luders cautions that genetic and other environmental factors could have contributed to the effects the researchers observed, still, “The positive correlation between gyrification and the number of practice years supports the idea that meditation enhances regional gyrification.”

Other authors of the study included Florian Kurth, Emeran A. Mayer, Arthur W.Toga, and Katherine L. Narr, all of UCLA, and Christian Gaser, University of Jena, Germany. Funding was provided by several organizations, including the National Institutes of Health. The authors report no conflict of interest.

பிக்குகளே, நொதித்தல்களை பார்வையால்
கைவிடப்படவேண்டி
இருக்கிறது, சிலதை அடக்கி வைத்து கைவிடப்படவேண்டி
இருக்கிறது, சிலதை
கையாளுதலால் கைவிடப்படவேண்டி இருக்கிறது, சிலதை
பொறுத்துக்கொண்டு
கைவிடப்படவேண்டி இருக்கிறது, சிலதை அழிப்பால்
கைவிடப்படவேண்டி இருக்கிறது,
மற்றும் சிலதை வளர்ச்சியால் கைவிடப்படவேண்டி
இருக்கிறது.

பார்வையால் கைவிடப்படவேண்டிய நொதித்தல்கள்

மற்றும்
எந்த நொதித்தல்களை பார்வையால் கைவிடப்படவேண்டி
இருக்கிறது?இது ஓர்
அறிவுறுத்தப்படாத  நபரின் நேர்வு - மேதக்கவர்களுக்கு
அபிமானம் இல்லாதவர்,
நேர்மையான மனிதர்ளிடத்து அபிமானம் இல்லாதவர், எந்த
எண்ணத்தையும்  நுணுகிக்
காண கவனம் செலுத்த அருகதை இருப்பது அல்லது எந்த
எண்ணத்தையும்  நுணுகிக் காண
கவனம் செலுத்த அருகதை இல்லாதது என அவர்களின்
தம்மாவை நன்குணராத அல்லது
கட்டுப்பாடாடற்றவர்.  இது அப்படி இருத்தல், அவர்
எந்த எண்ணத்தையும் 
நுணுகிக் காண கவனம் செலுத்த அருகதை இருப்பதை
கவனிப்பதில்லை, மற்றும் எந்த
எண்ணத்தையும்  நுணுகிக் காண கவனம் செலுத்த
அருகதை இல்லாததில் கவனம்
செலுத்துகிறார்.

மற்றும் எந்த, பிக்குகபிக்குகளே, தம்மங்களை
மானஸிகாரண்யமற்ற (தகுதியற்ற கவனம்), அவர் அத்தம்மங்களை மானஸிக்கிறார்
(கவனம்) செய்கிறார்?
ஏதாகிலும், பிக்குகபிக்குகளே, எத்தம்மங்களை
மானஸிக்கிறாரோ (கவனம்) செய்கிறாரோ.

 VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN

Modi - Main, Main Number 1 Moorkh - Arun Shourie -This Dirtiest Journalism when Ex Cabinet Minister Arun Shourie Ex Jounalist lies to the people of the world even against the father of the Constitution Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

Arun Shourie didn’t tell us a single good thing Modi has done in 12 years except abusing minorities.

This Dirtiest Journalism when Ex Cabinet Minister Arun Shourie Ex Jounalist lies to the people of the world.

Let Arun Shourie compile a list ten best Decisive Things of Modi in last and also 10 Best Things BJP did in six years.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/PWAP/message/23925


Ten BJP (Half Pants) Sins = Rs.280 Lac Crores in Swiss Banks - Exclusive


Yashwant Sinha and Arun Jaitley made complaint to CP Delhi under section
66A very next day and no copy was mailed to me - it was rejoinder to SS
Alhuwalia BJP Spokesperson spreading Scandalous Disinformation.



Even though BJP Sins are in Public Domain none of BJP top brass had been
able to contradict even one line as reproduced at the end.

Arun Shourie was part of Coterie that ‘Stabbed Economy Like
Comodo Dragons Who Just Cut A Wound Pray Dies of Infections in Few
Days.’

BJP RSS behave with duly elected government as Prey to be Brought Down not behave like junior partner rejected by people.

I know his father also - a bogus and useless Activist always carrying
big files but failed do anything for ‘Common Cause’ in decades. Even the
Lame Duck ‘Rent Act of 1995′ was not implemented.

At IIT Delhi around 2007 he gave a foolish lecture based on his Bogus
Reseach - ‘IIT Engineers are C grade and unfit for Employment’.

I then asked ‘Mr. Shourie your BJP government gave $150b worth of
concessions to UNDERWEAR TECHNOLOGIES - Can you tell us how much support
was provided to Promote Inventions of Engineers and how many Patents
were granted in six years.’

All the licenses to Ambanis for example were given by BJP when everyone
on the Planet knew the Criminal Minds and also let them over 50% equity.


Let Shourie compile ‘Ten Best Decisive Decisions of BJP and Narendra Modi’ - we shall discuss them.

To a qualified top professional Modi is Moorkh Number 1.


Till date Modi has only one Specialization - Fabricating Data.

Ravinder Singh

progressindia008@yahoo.com

Narendra Modi is ‘decisive’ and not ‘divisive’: Arun Shourie
Pallavi Sengupta, Wednesday, August 28, 2013,

http://news.oneindia.in/2013/08/27/modi-is-decisive-and-not-divisive-arun-shourie-1292699.html

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/PWAP/message/23925

Ten BJP (Half Pants) Sins = Rs.280 Lac Crores in Swiss Banks - Exclusive

For Circulation to All Indians/ NRIs Please

1. Introduced Take Over code that limited NRI investments in companies.

2. But allowed unqualified families to illegally raise equity in companies from under 12% to 50% to 90%.

3. Sabotaged Bank Nationalization, Rent Control 1995 & Dismantled FERA.

4. Sabotaged or Delayed Patents to millions of Indian Engineers SMEs.

5. Sold or leased National Wealth in Oil & Gas, Mines & Minerals to select corporate almost free.

6. Reduced direct credit to farmers promoted high interest Micro Finance.

7. Promoted or allowed Subcontracting of Major Works at 50% Cost.

8. Promoted Crooks, Astrologers, Communal Elements to sabotage development.

9. BJP was hostile against smaller neighbors started N-Weapons Race.

10. BJP Sabotaged Dams & Irrigation Projects, favored Lunatic River Links.

As told by an Expert Country is great but let down by Half Pants and Congress.
 

Arun Shourie Ki Mega Milibhagat - Ultra Mega Loot

Here in Discussions in Rajya Sabha how BJP conspired with Looters and
deliberately caused over Rs.50,000 crores Loss of Revenue in just
TELECOM sector alone when there was Kargil and India was short of money -
Resergent India Bonds were floated for about Rs.12,000 crores.

SK Dubey letter talks of 50-50 Loot share in NHAI Projects.

There public Loot in every bid when Shourie was Rajya Sabha MP and Minister also.

http://indiankanoon.org/doc/443288/

Some importan clippings are attached here.

Ravinder Singh

Inventor & Consultant
progressindia008@yahoo.com

Shri Ram Vilas Paswan, can you tell me this? When our jawans were giving
their lives in the battlefield of Kargil, the Prime Minister was crying
for money, for war fund, for grants. Then, the total dues claimed to be
fixed by these houses of the country was to the tune of rupees one lakh
twenty-eight thousand crore. You entered into the migration package.
How much we lost? The country lost to the tune of Rs.50,000 crore.

Who are doing all these things in the name of Telecom Policy
Implementation Programme, in the entire optical fibre tender management,
right from the last three years? I demand this from the hon. Minister.
He can appoint on his own, a committee to investigate and invite us. We
will substantiate documents and papers and book the culprits who are
looting this country’s money, not to the tune of hundreds of crores but
to the tune of thousands and thousands of crores. They are talking of
poor people not getting food in Koraput and Bolangir. They are facing
starvation deaths and the cartel is looting the money.

I had been to Australia and New Zealand to represent Shri Pramod
Mahajan. They are very superior in the telecom technology. I asked them
in their country whether there is any policy of ‘First come first serve’
basis. They were laughing. In our country, it is ‘First come first
serve’

Madam, we were abused when we were in Government that whatever we did in
regard to Telecom was wrong. In our time, a sum of Rs. 22,000 crore
generation was prospected in the bidding process by 42 bidders. With the
so-called opening of the economy and with the so-called motivation of
the Prime Minister and the Finance Minister to the entire foreign
investors and the local investors, how many bidders came for the fourth
cellular licence bidding process? In our time, it was 42 and generating
Rs. 22,000 crore. Now, because of the scam in DoT and uncertainty in the
Telecom Circle, there is no chance for level playing field and no
foreign company has given its bid for the first time for any of the
circle. In regard to the Indian company also, there is such a lethargy
to touch the DoT and the total strength of the bidder is six, and the
revenue generation is Rs. 1,225 crore or a little more. So, it came down
from Rs. 22,000 crore to Rs.1,200 crore.

Sir, the Wireless in Local Loop is a very important and noble scheme
which the hon. Minister has introduced. May I request the hon. Minister
to extend this facilities to the rural areas and especially the hilly
areas of my constituency? We are facing a lot of problems there in
regard to laying of cables. The Forest Department is not giving the ‘No
Objection Certificates’. The people there are short of even the basic
amenities like the ordinary telephones.

http://indiankanoon.org/doc/443288/


GOVERNMENT BILLS: Discussion Regarding New Telecom Policy, 1999. on 29 August, 2001

[Do you know how have they made the cartel? The cartel is like this. I
read out the constitution of the cartel. The whole nation will be
shocked to know how the DoT is operating. I know, you have not yet
finalised it because you know that the dabate is coming. The tender was
opened on 24th July, 2000. It is dated 24th July and opened on 10th
August, 2001. Here is STL cartel. मिलीभगत कैसे हुआ? STL quoted the
optical fibre price of ‘12-F-60,000’ at Rs. 62,450..

“…His brother quotes Rs. 62,500; his sister quotes Rs. 62,700; Sudarshan
quotes Rs. 63,000; Unifax Rs. 64,000; Birla GTS Rs. 66,500; BUL, Rs.
66,600.” The rule is first eight will get. They come in the first eight.
Which are the first eight - चार-चार बांट लें। They are the same. What
is the lowest? It is 57,000. If I say that it is not 21 per cent hike,
even ten per cent manipulation there is Rs.500 crore.

Will the hon. Minister not take any action? We have no enmity with him. I
want him to be the fighter to remove corruption from DoT, in
implementing NTP 1999. Why is he keeping quiet? Why has such a legal
observation been made by his department (Finance Branch) in July 2000?
They allowed them again to come to the bidding. They allowed the cartel
to operate in spite of the department’s noting. They are still
continuing this practice till this date and the hon. Minister feels that
the Opposition should not raise any finger. I know, many ruling party
Members also raised objections.]

I use a cellular phone in Calcutta. I can also use it in the entire city
of Patna and Delhi. I will use another mobile hand set within a range
of 10 kms from the basic service zone or the fixed service operator’s
zone to a limited area. Both are mobile. Both are useful. Without
spectrum technology, even the mobile handset cannot work within five
kms. range. Spectrum has a fee. I calculated that the spectrum fee, used
by the operators of the cellular mobile service as the licence fee
awarded, is to the tune of Rs.7,400 crore. The spectrum utilisation in
this case would not have been more than that. The gross deficit of the
national revenue is to the tune of Rs.14,000 crore.

Optical fibre worth Rs. 5,000 crore is normally to be planned for a
year. A unit called Sterlite once got a stricture by the Department of
Telecom for a particular tender. I am not saying about all tenders. Of
course, you are worried enough to get BALCO. You will know the fate of
BALCO after 15 days. Let the Report of the C&AG come.

Do you know what is happening? A few companies are floating their sister
organisations by the names ‘x’, ‘y’ or ‘z’ and making a cartel. In that
‘millibhagat’, they are trying to quote the same tender with a little
variance of Rs. 100 or Rs. 1,000. They join the cartel and share the
benefit in the ratio of 50:50. In the optical fibre case, it is very
shocking for me to quote all these things.

From official notes, I had a privilege to know about what had been
happening in the DOT. It is an observation by the Finance Department and
the Legal Department:

Firstly, in the name of first-cum-first-served, you have shown
favouritism. You have connived with some groups and individuals to suit
the purpose of some authority in the Government, which I do not know.
You can spell out it. Secondly, you pressurised the TRAI to reconsider
your desire, which is detrimental to the interest of the country, and
compelled him to recommend again. By this action of yours, you have
transgressed your authority. Thirdly, in the name of optical fibre
tender, in spite of the observation by your Legal Department and the
Finance Department that they are looting and looting through an
organised cartel, you have encouraged them, allowed them by deliberately
entering into certain kind of arrangement by the Department at the cost
of the nation’s exchequer. That you are required to probe and we demand
a probe. Finally, what was done in the limited mobility will benefit a
middle-class person like Priya Ranjan Dasmunsi, a trader, a


shopkeeper, a consumer in the semi-town and town. It is not in the
interest of the commoners. The so-called one rupee twenty paise is not a
charge for innovation of technology but a subsidy from the
long-distance call. So, these things should be exposed and exposed to
the wind.

I charge the Government, therefore, that you have destroyed the revenue
of the country. On limited mobility alone, by wrong calculation of this
taking of charge, the benefit was to the tune of Rs.14,000 crore. You
have destroyed the revenue of the Government to the tune of Rs.50,000
crore by the migration package. You are accountable to the nation for
this fraud played on this Parliament and the nation by not exposing the
truth.

Shri Ram Vilas Paswan, can you tell me this? When our jawans were giving
their lives in the battlefield of Kargil, the Prime Minister was crying
for money, for war fund, for grants. Then, the total dues claimed to be
fixed by these houses of the country was to the tune of rupees one lakh
twenty-eight thousand crore. १,२८,००० करोड़ रुपया जबकि बिजनेस हाउसेज को
सरकार को देना है, तब कारगिल के समय जब प्रधान मंत्री सबसे कह रहे थे कि
पैसा दो You entered into the migration package.इनको माफ कर दो, तुम्हें
पैसा नहीं देना चाहिए, तुम्हें दूसरा लूटने का इंतज़ाम ९९ में करा दिया
जाएगा। How much we lost? The country lost to the tune


of Rs.50,000 crore.

Sir, Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) is of course a technology by which we
can reach the rural masses, the distant people and the inaccessible
areas in a big way. When it was asked to state categorically whether
introduction of WLL limited mobility would improve the tele-density in
the country, the Secretary, DoT replied that it would certainly help a
faster roll out of the network. I am quoting from the report of the
Standing Committee on limited mobility. But limited mobility is not a
new thing. It is because WLL technology has been there for quite some
time. In the first generation mobile radio system based on analogue
transmission techniques, was introduced in developed countries like USA,
Japan and such other countries in the early 1980s.

After the privatisation, the Government was overjoyed that the amount of
bidding was such that they would not require any money at all from any
other sources. But ultimately came the reality. Even rich multinational
telecom companies said that they had suddenly become very poor. The
Government was very sympathetic. They have become so poor that they
condoned due licence fees.. My colleague was calculating the figures and
he said that it is Rs.50,000 crore. But I think, it is more than Rs.
50,000 crore that the Government had condoned. New names were given,
viz., migration, revenue sharing, etc. But it was only to cover up the
misdeeds and the corruption which they have indulged in.

SHRI MANI SHANKAR AIYAR : Sir, my next and last point relates largely to
the Minister of State for Communications. So, I would like to switch to
English language. My reference is to the Managed Lease Line Data
Network, MLDN for which the tenders closed on 31st of July, 2000. They
were opened in August. They were evaluated in August. The CMD approved
it in early September. The letter of intent was issued the same month
and the bank guarantee was furnished by 13th of September, 2000. It is
after that that the fun begins.

The Private Secretary to the Minister – not the Minister himself – who I
assume is somebody who can take down some dictation or is at best some
IAS babu – I do not know who he is; I shall not take his name - summons
the MTNL and orders them to appoint the Technical Engineering Centre to
re-investigate the whole matter. This happens on the 4th of October. The
TEC submits its report on 27th of October, and it is clear from the TEC
report that all is well. The Legal Advisors to his Ministry, the New
Delhi Legal Office, NDLO, submit a legal view on the 14th of November,
which is Panditji’s birthday, telling, therefore, the truth that it is
in order to give the contract to L-I, that is, the lowest bidder,
Alcatel, and therefore, the matter should go forth immediately. But the
MOS intervenes and insists that the Additional Solicitor-General’s
advice should be obtained. How? It is to be obtained through the same
NDLO. The opinion of the ASGI is


transmitted through the same NDLO and there is an apparent
contradiction between what the NDLO on their own have advised on the
14th of November and what the AGSI has stated on the 18th of December, a
month later. What does ASGI say? The ASGI says that `provided the L-I
confirms their lowest bid and provided L-II comes down to the L-I level
and provided you conduct these discussions separately one from the
other, then if it turns out that L-I and L-II are absolutely on the same
footing, you cannot give it to L-I, give it instead to L-II’.

And, although the Chief Vigilance Commissioner, Shri N. Vittal, in a
directive dated 18th of November, 1998 has categorically stated – I have
that with me – that no negotiations should be held with anyone except
the lowest bidder, the Minister orders that the second highest bidder,
that is, the L-II, should also be consulted. These instructions are
carried out and on the 29th of December, 2000…

On the 29th of December, 2000, L-I and L-II are called in total
contravention of the CVC’s orders and despite being called and
negotiated with, the Ministry is informed that L-II - while it has come
down somewhat from about Rs. 139 crore to, I think, Rs. 106 crore - is
still close to Rs. 40 crore higher than the L-I.

L-1 is about Rs. 63 crore; L-2, after an illegitimate negotiation with
them, brings it down only to Rs. 106 crore. Therefore, the MTNL goes
ahead with what needs to be done. On the 6th of January, 2001 the CMD
clears the purchase order. This makes it two CMDs who cleared it — the
one who had cleared it is on the 7th of September, who was then treated
miserably by his Minister because he had not fulfilled his desires, and
then the second CMD clears exactly the same order on the 6th of January.
It is followed on the 9th of January by the submission of a detailed
bill of materials and everything is going forward magnificently. What is
needed very urgently has been acted upon urgently by the MTNL. Then,
Shri P.K. Aggarwal, General Manager (Information Technology), in the
Corporate Office of MTNL was summoned to the Ministry of Communications.
Do you know by whom — not by the Private Secretary, but by the
Additional Private Secretary to the Minister of


State? It is really shocking that he was summoned and made to speak to
him twice on that day, on the 30th of January, 2001. Do not forget, it
is on Mahatma Gandhi’s Martyrdom Day that this harkat takes place inside
the Ministry of Communications.

Before I conclude, I would like to draw the attention of the hon.
Minister to news item appeared in The Hindustan Times on 17.8.2001. I
quote:

“The Government has written off Rs.40,000 crore in telecom fees and more in non-performing assets.”

Is it true? We are concerned with the total outstanding debt of the
Central Government that stands at Rs.11,48,667 crore. In this
connection, I would like the hon. Minister to use his good offices, his
experience and expertise to recover the dues. Would he come forward to
recover Rs.40,000 crore that is the dues over the last three years?
Would he retrieve the dues depending on the merits of the case, legal
remedies like Lok Adalats, reference to Arbitrators under section 7(B)
of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 and the courts of law?

We are living in a country where about 40 per cent of the people are
living below the poverty line. Most of them are not getting adequate
food, adequate medicine and adequate drinking water. But our Minister
affirmed that all the villagers would get telephone facility. This is a
farce. I would like to know as to how the Government would introduce
telephone facilities.

I would like to refer that in Midnapore district, a few days back, a
meeting of Telecom Advisory Committee(TAC) was convened. I attended the
same. I found that no MLA of the district, no Panchayati member and no
Sabhadhipatis were there. They are not in the TAC. It is amazing to note
that most of the Members of the TAC, who attended that meeting, were
more interested to get WLL. They are very much interested to get more
amenities for themselves. My point is as to what is the mechanism. As
far as Midnapore district is concerned, it comprises of about 11,000
villages. By 2002, you are supposed to have telephone facilities in all
the villages.

TruthDive


Rahul Gandhi wants involvement of Dalits in decision making

He
is really a dalit because the meaning of dalit is backward belonging to
all religions. He belongs to a family of multi-religions hence backward.
He is neither a brahmin who believes in 1st rate, Kashtrias as 2nd
rate, vaishyas as 3rd rate, shudras as 4th rate athmas (soul) and the
SC/STs (untouchables) have no soul and hence A systemic discrimination against the community existed. But the Buddha never believed in any soul but all are equal. Hence Bodhisatva Dr. Ambedkar who is the father of the Constitution returned back to Buddhism with lakhs of awakened ones and the process is continuing with
a movement  started to empower the Depressed Classes/Oppressed Classes by  Late Kanshiram was a follower of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. Dr. Ambedkar
used the word SC/STs in the Constitution. Even National commission uses the word “SC/ST”. The only alternative and hope of te nation is BSP with the policy of SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN. Let us all strive for that. neither Congress nor BJP have ever strived for SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN


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08/27/13
1024 LESSON 28-08-2013 WEDNESDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 5) School of Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religion; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Splitting_of_the_moon Splitting of the moon http://www.myislamicdream.com/earth_outer_space.html Earth Outer Space dream interpretations http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Buddhism - A Holy Life to Be Lived
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Posted by: @ 8:35 pm

1024 LESSON 28-08-2013 WEDNESDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Splitting_of_the_moon
Splitting of the moon
http://www.myislamicdream.com/earth_outer_space.html
Earth Outer Space dream interpretations

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism


Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism - A Holy Life to Be Lived
You will become Pure,
if you like Purity.
You will become Impure,
if you like Impurity.
You will become Holy,
if you like Holiness.
You will become Unholy,
if you like Unholiness.
It is clear from the above verse we become what we like and what we like we become. In the modern world with so many attractions and distractions people have become skeptical about leading a holy life and attaining Nibbana. Actually, the doubt about leading a holy life lies in the defilements inside and not in things outside. Nor it has anything to do with a particular time period of past, present and future. These defilements are ago (Lust and Greed), Dosa (Hatred and Aversion), Moha (Delusion and Ignorance). It is these very difilements inside us that have been the hurdle on the path of Holy life and not the external attractions or detractions. It has been in the past, it is so in the present, and it will be so in the future.
Adhigatam idam bahuhi amatam - Attained has been this deathlessness by many Ajjapi ca labhaniyam idam - And still today, this state can be obtained. Yo yoniso Payunjati - By him who strives in earnestness Na ca sakka aghatamanena - But none will reach it without effort. (Their Gatha).
Therefore the Buddha reminds us not to give up the struggle against the fetters of Raga, Dosa and Moha, in order to escape the misery of Samsara.
Masala Dosa Moha is the daily Raga of my Samsara (wife).
A great satisfaction and assurance is given by our Exalted Teacher the Buddha, when he said that we do possess the power to overcome all evil things in us and can develop all good things. He taught us to abandon evil and unwholesome things and arouse in us good and wholesome things. If this would not have been possible through human effortsin the past, present and future, then the Buddha would never have advised us to put forth all our energy and effort in the Noble Eight Fold Path which is timeless (Akaliko), ever -effective and everlasting, Nibbana.
Proper training is needed for this and the will must be exercised, exertion must be made. One should not turn bad, there must be ardor, there must be perseverance  and one should develop mindfulness, there must be right understanding, above all there must be sincerity and earnestness.
One should believe that when many Monks and laymen have attained it why cannot I ? I am healthy, full of faith, I am not hypocrite, not a pretender or boaster, and I have the will power and understanding that everything is transient, subject to pain and suffering an ulcer, a cancer, a thorn, a misery, a burden, an enemy, a disturbance, it is empty, and void of ego. Why should I not hope for deliverance through Nibbana, when the path is still available ?
In this present world, the Awakened One with Awareness has stimulating and encouraging effect on the youth with scientific education. In this age of spaceships and Aeroplanes, the present generation with their best intentions can find time and leisure to cultivate higher mental facilities through meditation and morality.
Dukkha existed, exists and will continue to exist. At the same time Dukkha Nirodha (End of suffering) also existed , exists and will continue to exist.
Destruction existed, exists and will continue to exist. At the same time Construction through meditation and morality existed, exists and will continue to exist.
If destruction could be triggered, it could also be un-triggered.
http://www.buddha-brothers.com/chapters/chapter-1501.html
The dispute over water
Kapilavatthu, the town of the Sakyans, and Koliya, the town of the Koliyans were situated on either side of the Rohini River.The farmers of both towns irrigated their fields from this river. One year, due to severe drought their paddy and other crops were threatened, and the farmers on both sides wanted to divert the water from the Rohini River to their own fields. Those living in Koliya wanted to divert and channel the water to irrigate their field. However, the farmers from Kapilavatthu protested that they would be denied the use of the water and their crops would be destroyed.
Both sides wanted the water for their own use only and as a result, there was much ill-will and hatred on both sides. The quarrel that started between the farmers soon spread like fire and the matter was reported to their respective rulers. Failing to find a compromise, both sides prepared to go to war.
The Buddha came to know that his relatives on both sides of the river were preparing for battle. For their wellbeing and happiness and to avoid unnecessary suffering, he decided to stop them. All alone, he went and appeared in the middle of the river. His relatives on seeing him, laid aside all their weapons and paid homage to him. Then, the Buddha admonished them, ‘For the sake of some water, which is of little value, you should not destroy your lives which are of so much value. Why have you taken this unwholesome course of action? If I had not been here today, your blood would have been flowing like this river by now. You are living with hatred, but I live free from hatred. You are ailing with moral defilements, but I am free from moral defilements. You are striving to develop selfishness and enmity, but I don’t strive for the development of selfishness.’ Both sides then became ashamed of their foolishness and thus bloodshed was averted.
http://www.sundaytimes.lk/090510/News/sundaytimesnews_29.html

“Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed”
According to Awakened One with Awareness Dhamma conflicts arise, within a person and amongst persons; at all levels; within a family, in society, in a country and internationally; due to two underlying common causes. The first is the failure to develop the cognitive faculties to the fullest and to see as it is the factors that cause the conflictual situation to arise. The second is the failure to comprehend its true nature.

From the point of conflict management, our attention should be focused on three stages in the unfolding of a conflict. On a time sequence, the final stage is that of transgression. This connotes the stage at which the ordinary behavioural pattern is disturbed and becomes evident or visible through words or actions engendered by the conflict. The next is the preceding stage in which defiled thoughts, through the impact of conflictual stimuli surge up in the form of unwholesome emotions and volitions. And, the earliest stage when defiled thoughts lie dormant without displaying any activity. In Buddhism the three stages are identified in relation to the activity of the mind as “Vitikkama” (the stage of transgression)’ “Pariyutthama” (the stage of manifestation) and “Anusaya” the stage of latent latency.

Conflict Management is essentially a practical exercise and the purpose of this article would not be achieved by a mere analysis of the Dhamma. Hence, the relevant aspects of Dhamma would be presented in reference to a situation in which Lord Buddha personally intervened to resolve a conflict in a state of imminent war and, the ethnic conflict in our country which has had a wide impact on the people and has caused loss of life and damage to property.

The Commentaries of the Anguttara Nikaya and the Samyutta Nikaya recount an instance in which Lord Buddha transcended to an imminent battle field to settle a bitter dispute between people of the Sakya clan, being his paternal relatives and of the Koliya clan, being his maternal relatives. As a result of the peace that the Buddha brought about through his intervention and the resolution of the dispute according to Dhamma, a large number of young persons of the Sakya clan entered the Bhikku sasana. This led to a request by the spouses of those persons that they be ordained as nuns. The demand was spearheaded by Buddha’s foster mother Maha Prajapathi Gothami who cared for him and brought him up after his mother’s demise. The Buddha refused the persistent pleadings to establish a bhikkuni sasana and left Kapilavasthu to arrive at the City of Vishala.

Being flexible
Maha Prajapathi Gothami undaunted by this refusal, lopped off her hair and clad in coarse saffron coloured garments followed the Buddha on foot accompanied by the other females, a distance of 150 miles to the City of Vishala. Thereafter, Venerable Ananda, being the Buddha’s attendant reiterated the request and finally the Buddha agreed to establish a Bhikkuni Sasana, subject to eight stringent conditions. This instance reveals that a situation of unrest could be adjusted by being flexible and devising a carefully structured solution. Although it marks an important event in the history of the Buddha Sasana, what is more important to the topic and the contemporary history of our country is the preceding incident of resolving a conflict at the stage of imminent war.
The territories of the Sakya and Koliya clans were defined by the river “Rohini”. The respective clans cultivated land on the two banks of the river using its water. There was a severe drought which reduced the flow of water and clansmen suspected that the other would take more of the available water and deny to one sufficient water for cultivation. This suspicion gradually festered and one clan prepared for war. On seeing this, the other clan too assembled on the bank of the river armed for war. The Buddha arrived at the site of imminent and battle as stated before and questioned the warring clansmen as to who took the decision to wage war. It was then revealed that the decision was not made by any one in the ruling segments of the clans but that suspicions in the minds of the people as to the denial of their share of river water resulted in the people arming themselves and assembling for war.
I would pause at this stage and advert to the genesis of the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka with reference to specific instances drawn from recent history in which communal suspicions erupted in outbreaks of violence. These incidents which took place over a period of nearly 50 years can be briefly stated in a time sequence as follows:
In 1959 — with the enactment of the Official Languages Act and the action taken thereon such as the introduction of the Sinhala letter “shri” on the number plates of vehicles;
In 1977 - With the newly formed Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) winning all the seats in the North, in the Parliamentary Election that was held and a false rumour that the Sinhala students of the Jaffna University had been killed and their bodies were being brought in the Northern train “Yal Devi”. The disturbances originated at different “Station Towns” along the rail track, commencing from Anuradhapura.
In 1983 - with the killing of 13 soldiers in Jaffna.; and
In 1987 - with the Indo-Lanka Accord which led to the 13th Amendment to the Constitution and the merger of the Northern and Eastern Provinces.
In all these instances and in certain minor instances of a similar nature, the disturbances arose at a lower level from small groups, escalating in spirals of violence which resulted in extensive loss of life and damage to property. In each of these situations those in control of Government like their counterparts of the Sakya and Koliya clans got engulfed in the ethnic waves that arose from the bottom and became inactive allowing each situation to aggravate. Be that as it may, one of the deep rooted causes of the ethnic dispute is the distribution of agricultural water and the establishment of Sinhala settlements, particularly in the Eastern Province. A decisive instance is the Weli Oya Project in the northern area of the Eastern Province and North Central Province beneath Mullaitivu being the final seat of battle. The river identified by the Sinhala people as “Weli Oya” is known as “Manal Aru” by the Tamil people. The meaning in both languages is the same.
The “Eelam IV War” commenced with a group of terrorists shutting down the Mavil Aru Anicut at Seruvila in the Trincomalee District and causing damage to the Verugal Aru Anicut and the 1000 meter spill. The anicut was shut down and other damage done, not by persons who had been in any way denied water resources or, by persons who had handled a mammoty or plough for cultivation. They were the acts of essentially young persons who had engaged in violent and armed activity, virtually throughout their lives. On the other hand , having inspected the area on several occasions, I am personally aware that the anicut, spill and the banks, were repaired and the supply of water was restored to thousands of Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim agricultural families due to the dedicated action of Tamil engineers serving in the area.
Senseless violence
The language issue and the question of decentralization of power have been redressed adequately by amendments to the Constitution itself. These measures have not been fully implemented due to the continuance of war. The implementation of the Mahaweli “A” system and the improvement of the Yodha Wewa and Malwatu Oya irrigation systems will provide adequate agricultural water to the entire region. It is thus seen that the underlying causes which led to the dispute have receded to the background and the conflict erupted into senseless armed violence perpetrated by youth who have been misled and brainwashed with a ferocious ideology. They do not hesitate to commit suicide and in the process kill indiscriminately.
The method adopted by Lord Buddha on the banks of river Rohini to avert an imminent war and his teaching would be most appropriate in the management of the ethnic conflict in this country, which acquired immensely tragic dimensions.
The preceding account of the Rohini river dispute reveals that the decision to wage war did not emanate from the top but escalated from below due to suspicions of an unequal distribution of river water. Having ascertained this, the Buddha questioned both sides as to the consequences of war. In response they agreed with the Buddha that as a result of war there will be extensive loss of life on both sides. The Buddha then posed the question as to what was more valuable, the water they were fighting for or the blood that would be shed. When all agreed that blood that would be shed is more valuable, the Buddha eased the tension that had built up and brought about an amicable settlement. The important sermon the Buddha delivered at this stage was that, “since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed”. The very words of this noble sermon have been now incorporated in the Preamble to the Constitution of the UNESCO, denoting its timeless truth.
Deep-seated suspicion
The two facts stated at the beginning, as paving the way to any conflict viz; the failure to see its causal arising, as it is and, the failure to comprehend its true nature, are both mind based. The practical dimension of this proposition can be examined in relation to the incidents cited above. The cause of the conflict between the Sakya and Koliya clans was a fear that there would be an inequality in the distribution of the reduced supply of water. This was further fuelled at the stage of latency “Anusaya,” by the deep seated suspicions between the two clans. At the stage of manifestation ‘Pariyuttana” it acquired a violent dimension. The stage of transgression “Vitikkama” was averted by the timely intervention of the Buddha.
The metomorphosis of our ethnic conflict reveals a like progression. The enactment of the Official Language Act of 1956 led to a fear from amongst the Tamil people that they would be denied employment in the State sector and be deprived of administrative benefits, as a result of Sinhala being the Official Language.
Similarly, the establishment of irrigation schemes and the colonization projects resulted in a fear amongst Tamil people that there would be insufficient space for expansion of the Tamil community in those areas. Furthermore, the continued establishment of strong Sinhala political parties in Government-led to a fear that Tamil people would be left out from the political process.
Both sides failed to rationally see the specific causes that gave rise to suspicion and fear which fuelled the conflict and to understand their true nature. Instead of addressing specific issues and requesting that safeguards be put in place to prevent discriminatory treatment, the Tamil political leaders made demands for a Federal Constitution and a separate State, that went far beyond the causes referred to above. This in turn resulted in a vehement opposition to the demands based on a fear that the territorial integrity of the country would be jeopardized. The neighbouring state of Tamilnadu in India aggravated these fears.
The use of force to negate the demands for a Federal and later separate State led to the emergence of the fearsome “Tiger Terrorists” who had no appreciation of the true nature of the causes of the conflict. Tamil political leaders who made unreasonable demands as a solution to the conflict themselves became victims of the fearsome “Tigers”. The use of military force to put down the violent activities of the terrorists do not form the part of the Buddhist perspectives of conflict management. If Lord Buddha took the view that the underlying dissatisfaction, suspicion and fear could be redressed entirely by war, he would not have brought about peace by visiting the battlefield and averting the imminent war.
Furthermore the fate of the Sakya clan which resulted from a later war also reveals that the Buddha took the view that war cannot be averted in every instance. On the contrary, he has intervened only upon a reasonable belief that such intervention would lead to a peaceful result. Thus a prerequisite of conflict management is that there should be proper understanding of the dispute and a practical flexibility in evolving a feasible solution.
Since, conflict begins in the mind, in management it is foremost that the particular state of mind which caused the conflict to arise be addressed adequately. Hence it is necessary to dwell on the working of the human mind as a prelude to conflict management. In this regard it can be stated without any fear of contradiction that Buddhism is the only religion, philosophy and science which addresses the working of the human mind. According to Buddha all living being, including humans are composed of five aggregates (”Panchaskanda”). One aggregate is the physical form “Rupa” which is visible. Although the physical form is different from one living being to another, whatever be the appearance, it is composed of four elements. They are (i) “Patavi” - the Element of hardness (ii) Apo” - the Element of cohesion (iii) “Thejo” - the Element of heat, (iv) “Vayo” - the Element of wind and pressure.

This painting at the Kelaniya temple depicts the scene where Lord Buddha intervened to bring peace between the two warring factions in Naagadeepa
These four Elements are also known as the “Mahabutha”. The elements in combination form what are known as “Rupa Kalapa” (in relation to the body they would be the “Cells”).
The Buddha Dhamma contains a detailed exposition of the manner in which these Elements and the “Rupa” of which it is composed, function, which would in turn explain the multiplicity of diseases that afflict the physical body, from a common cold to a cancer. Whatever be the extent to which medical science develops, it would to that extent confirm the Buddha Dhamma and not contradict it.
The other four Aggregates, Vedana (feeling), Sanna (Perception), Sankara (formations) and Vinnana (Consciousness) are not visible and constitute the working of the Mind. The function of each of these Aggregates is denoted by its name.
The mind-body (Nama Rupa), combine composed of these five Aggregates function through six organs. These organs are, (Eye - sight), Ear (hearing), Body (feeling), Nose (smell), Tongue (taste) and the Mind (consciousness).
Working of sense bases
Each organ is a distinct functional entity and is described as a “sense base”. According to “Madhupindika Sutta” each sense base functions upon contact (phassa). According to Buddha Dhamma, contact (phassa) is made only upon a meeting of three factors. They are, (1) an external form (to which attention is focussed - “Nimittha” (2) the particular sense base which makes contact with such external form and (3) Consciousness of the particular sense base. The distinct working of each of the sense bases can be understood through a simple personal experience. A fruit that is identified by the eye as being good, may turn out to have a bad odour when taken to the nose. The same fruit may turn out to be tasty when eaten and cause an irritation when it touches the body. On the other hand, the entire fruit may be just rejected out of hand by the working of the Mind itself.
On the basis of extensive research that was carried out, an American scientist has written a book titled “Molecules of Emotion” in which the scientist identified the working of the five organs through an electro chemical process known as Neuro Peptides. It was found that there is a large concentration of Neuro Peptides associated with each of the organs and when contact is made it is transmitted by means of the molecular activity.
When contact is made with an external object in the manner stated above there is “feeling” being the 2nd Aggregate. The “feeling” is identified as being good, bad or indifferent, which is the 3rd Aggregate. Upto this point of the working of the Aggregates of all living beings including four footed animals, creeping and crawling creatures, is the same. At this stage there is a function which is special to humans described as “Vithakka”, “Vichara”, and “Prapancha”. The function of “Vithakka” is to focus the mind on one aspect of the external object with which contact is made. The function of “Vichara” is to spread the mind’s activity only on the selected aspect and the function of “Prapancha” (Proliferation), is to ponder over the matter in relation to the past, present and future. This is the aspect of the working of the Mind which is relevant to our subject of conflict management.
The 4th and the 5th Aggregates being “Formations” and “Consciousness” result in “Kamma” and the continuance of “sansara”, from one existence to another. I would not advert to them since it is not referable directly to the subject of conflict management.
According to Buddha Dhamma, the reaction or response to contact with an external object (Nimiththa”) which may be a living being, thing or event, varies from person to person not because of the physical form (Rupa) of such person but because of the working of the mind, in particular the process of “Vittakka”. “Vichara” and “Prapancha” referred to above. This process is induced by a particular state of Mind described as the “Bhavanga Citta”, which may be translated as “sub consciousness”. It is to be noted that the function attributed in the Buddha Dhamma to this Mind state is different from that attributed to it in the western psychology. “Bhavanga” means the cause of the present existence.
The Buddha described this Mind state as being radiant which functions like a reflector that takes in an image transmitted to it. A contact made through a sense base is transmitted as an image to the Bhavanga Citta, where a process of identification is made which results in the formation of the particular consciousness upon such contact. This accounts for our varied responses to a single external object, as stated above. The “Bhavanga Citta” varies from person to person and from one living being to another and continues throughout one’s existence.
The mind of the terrorist
It is to be noted that “Bhavanga Citta” is the result of a person’s past “kamma”. If in past existence, there had been less greed (craving), less hatred, and less ignorance, the Bhavanga Citta of that person has a higher degree of radiance and the power of assimilation would be refined and of depth. But, where kamma of past existence has had more defilements of greed (craving), hatred, and ignorance the “Bhavanga Citta” is less radiant with a lower level of assimilation and depth and in some with a higher propensity to irrational violence.
We can thus comprehend the Mind state of the Leader of the terrorists who identifies himself with the sign of a fierce animal. His propensity to senseless violence stems from his “Bhavanga Citta” which would not change. Persons of similar “Bhavanga Citta” attract to each other and the behavioural pattern of such persons cannot be comprehended in the same way as of others who have more refined Bhavanga Chitta.
Those who did not understand such distinctions in the working of the Mind, associated with and even attempted to please the terrorists and fell prey to senseless violence, whilst others who trusted them entered into Accords that seriously jeopardized the security of the State and imperiled peaceful citizens. Thus a succession of Peace Conferences and Accords aborted as a result of failure to understand the working of the human mind from a Buddhist perspective.
The process of conflict management should be based on a firm distinction drawn between those with a propensity to senseless violence and the others who form the vast majority. According to the Anguttara Nikaya, the Buddha when describing the “Bhavanga Citta” as being radiant also stated that it is defiled by external factors which cloud its radiance. A variety of such defilements are noted in different aspects of the Buddha Dhamma but in reference to the ethnic conflict we can identify in particular, “Jathi Vitakka” (racial feelings), “Janapada Vitakka” (national feelings) and “Avannati” (egotism or personal and national pride). These are preoccupations with thoughts concerning “our race” or “our state” that are harmful to the concept of a common humanity.
As stated above it is at the stage of Vittaka, Vichara, Prapancha, that one selected aspect of what is perceived on contact by a sense base becomes the focus of mental activity to the exclusion of other material aspects.
In view of the propensities stated above, the incidents referred to, the Official Language Act, Irrigation and Colonization Schemes and the like, have acquired a racial twist leading to thoughts of discrimination and of unequal treatment.
In truth, the Official Language Act of 1956 was intended to redress the grievances of the Sinhala people who were denied participation in the administration of the country of which the language was English. Similarly, irrigation and colonization schemes were designed to accommodate the growing Sinhala population in the South and Central Province who were denied agricultural land due to the plantations and the unavailability of irrigation facilities in the South.
However, the wrong perception engendered by a communal perspective aggravated due to the failure to address the same issues in respect of Tamil people who were equally denied participation in the administration and opportunities of expanding agricultural pursuits. The failure to view these matters from the perspective of different communities led to a situation of one being ignored and left out feeling victimized.
Therefore, conflict management should primarily address on the causes that have been identified above and the resultant effects from the perspective of each community separately and redressed in a manner that there is equality in the extent to which relief is granted. There can never be one solution encompassed as a Federal State or any other form of Constitution. Such a measure would fail to identify in sufficient detail the manner in which the particular community feels victimized. These perceptions are deeply rooted in practical considerations which should be redressed from the base of its occurrence. 
No external intervention or mediation can succeed in the matter of management of the ethnic conflict, since such intervention would fail by focusing on a general solution to a matter which should be addressed in the minutest detail.
The peaceful resolution of conflict is firmly rooted in the Buddhist tradition and its evidence goes back to the beginning of our recorded history in the “Mahavamsa” which recounts two instances in which the Buddha visited Sri Lanka and resolved conflicts in Nagadhipa, an island proximate to the Jaffna peninsular and Kelaniya being the sacred site close to Colombo.
Finally, conflict resolution in relation to the ethnic and all other conflicts should be firmly based in the teaching of the Buddha stated as the “eternal law” -
“Nahi verena verani - sammanti’dha kudacancam
Averenacasammanti - esa dhammo sanantano” 
Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world;
it is appeased only by non-hatred This is an eternal law.
This article was written to commemorate Vesak and was also published in our sister paper the Lankadeepa on Friday.

Chief Justice Sarath N. Silva

Please Visit:
http://polatulet.narod.ru/dvc/tmet/the_ego_tunnel.html
for
THE EGO TUNNEL
THE SCIENCE OF THE MIND
AND THE MYTH OF THE SELF
http://www.lawoftime.org/noosphere/nooarticles/noosphere-two-prospectus.html
for
Galactic Research Institute, Foundation for the Law of Time 
Noosphere II – The Great Experiment of the Law of Time 
An Experiment in Time (2006-2012 – 21 December)
Theory of the Noosphere, History and Review of the Literature
http://altered-states.net/index2.php?/ionizers/ozonemyths.htm
for
Negative Ions and Ozone Myths and Facts

http://www.greatdreams.com/ufos/ufo-cults.htm

UFO CULTS

Now in this present world, the Buddha should have stimulating and encouraging effect on the people with scientific education. Many people are laboring under the delusion that in this age of spaceships and Aeroplanes, the present generation, despite their best intentions, cannot find time and leisure to cultivate higher mental facilities through meditation and morality. Thus it has been rightly said:
When you run fast
To get somewhere,
You miss half the fun
Of getting there.
When you worry and hurry
Throughout your day,
It is like an unopened gift
Thrown away.
Life is not a race
Do make it slower,
Practice the Dhamma
Before health and life is over.
Over and over again the Buddha assures: You can arouse your will, you can act, and you can change your character by certain ways of effort, i.e., walking on the Noble Eight Fold Path and attain Nibbana. So without giving any lame excuses we should spend our time and energy in the direction of the Noble Eight Fold Path for our own good, for our own benefit, for our own happiness and for our own liberation.
There is a saying that he, who wills success is half way to it. And that where there is a will, there is a way. This is all I have to say. So always keep in mind that will is the root of all things, not only of Vice and Suffering but also of Virtue and happiness. Thus finally I would like to say that:
Fierce winds not a mountain Shake Nor they make firm firm earth to Quake Similarly he good kamma on Make No one can his fortune take. So following the Buddha, the fully awake; Lead a pure life like Lotus in he lake Practicing Precepts (Sila) without break.
May you all live a holy life life and attain Nibbana!
http://www.buddhastation.com/buddhism-articles/the-buddha-meditation-method/

The Buddha Meditation Method
A puzzled man asked the Buddha: I have heard that some monks meditate with expectations, others meditate with no expectations, and yet others are indifferent to the result. What is the best?
The Buddha answered: Whether they meditate with or without expectations, if they have the wrong ideas and the wrong methods, they will not get any fruit from their meditation. Think about it. Suppose a man wants to have some oil and he puts sand into a bowl and then sprinkles it with salt. However much he presses it, he will not get oil, for that is not the method. Another man is in need of milk.  He starts pulling the horns of a young cow. Whether he has any expectations or not, he will not get any milk out of the horn, for that’s not the method. Or if a man fills a jar with water and churns it in order to get butter, he will be left only with water. It’s like filling a bowl with oil seeds and pressing them or milking a cow by pulling the udder or filling a jar with cream and churning it.  It’s the right method. ~ Majjhima Nikaya

What kind of meditation did the Buddha teach?
Truthfully speaking, no one clearly knows; however, we have a few good hints about the nature of the practice he might have taught from some of the Buddhist scriptures. From the above scripture, it is clear Buddha felt that unless one was using a correct method, one could not expect to gain Nirvana—the fully awakened state of absolute freedom and enlightenment.

Buddha also spoke of two qualities that he thought were fundamental to the fully-awakened state: Tranquility and Insight. Two things will lead you to supreme understanding. What are those two? Tranquility and Insight.
If you develop tranquility, what benefit can you expect?  Your mind will develop. The benefit of a developed mind is that you are no longer a slave to your impulses.
If you develop insight, what benefit will it bring? You will find wisdom. And the point of developing wisdom is that it brings you freedom from the blindness of ignorance.
A mind held bound by unconsidered impulse and ignorance can never develop true understanding. But by way of tranquility and insight the mind will find freedom.~ Anguttara Nikaya
It is interesting that the two most popular forms of Buddhist meditation that are taught today are called Samatha and Vipassana.Samatha meditation is based on the intention and persistent effort on the part of the meditator to concentrate the mind on some specific object of meditation: the goal being to develop the ability of the mind to concentrate because when the mind is in a highly concentrated state, it is known to be tranquil and such a mind, it is thought, would make deep insight possible.
Since Buddha explained that only the right method would bring the fruit, it would be valuable to explore whether Samatha meditation, as it’s understood and practiced today, is the right method to bring tranquility to the mind. The term Samatha actually means calmness or tranquility: an integrated state where the mind is not in any way excited or active. It is directly related to the term Samadhi, the state in which the mind is completely settled and unwavering and is effortlessly held in a fully concentrated state.What creates this tranquil state of mind? In its fully developed state, tranquility is produced by the unbounded peace, freedom and wakefulness that are experienced in the unconditioned, infinite state of Nirvana. It is the total freedom and absolute happiness of Nirvana that automatically and spontaneously absorbs and concentrates the mind.

Meditate, and in your wisdom realize Nirvana, the highest happiness. ~ Dhammapada
The misunderstanding regarding Samatha meditation, as it is understood and practiced today, is the idea that the mind needs to be trained to gain the ability to concentrate through the application of strenuous concentration practices.
The mind will automatically and spontaneously achieve this highly tranquil and concentrated state simply by the meditator knowing the technique of how to allow the mind to be effortlessly drawn in to the Bliss of Nirvana.

It is a common experience that the mind will naturally stay concentrated on anything that provides it with peace and contentment; this is an inherent capacity of the mind, so no training or practices of concentration are required.

It is the fulfillment naturally produced by of the state of Nirvana that concentrates the mind and this happens without any effort on the part of the meditator if he or she is using a right method of meditation.

Through the regular and effortless practice of a right method, the vital quality of tranquility will become stabilized in the life of the meditator and, as Buddha said, one will then no longer be a slave to one’s impulses.

In addition, because it is the natural tendency of the mind to move on to a field of stable peace and contentment in a spontaneous manner, the individual’s effort to try to control the mind to remain only on one limited object of attention, as is done with Samatha meditation today, actually obstructs the mind from rushing on to the ever-constant infinity and happiness it so much needs and desires.

However, it is not Samatha meditation that is the most popular type of Buddhist meditation; the most widely used form today is Vipassana or Mindfulness meditation. Vipassana is also referred to as Insight meditation, because through its practice one is supposed to develop penetrating insight into the true nature of reality. Buddha explained that through Vipassana, which literally means through insight, one should gain the wisdom that brings you freedom from the blindness of ignorance.

These days, Vipassana/Mindfulness meditation is practiced by the practitioner having the intention to be an impartial observer of some natural process occurring within his or her body, mind or emotions. For example, one is asked to just observe or be mindful of the rising and falling of the abdomen during the process of breathing, or to just impartially observe the incoming and outgoing of the breath itself.

Another popular form of this meditation is to mindfully observe the body in the natural act of walking or during the process of standing up or sitting down. The key element is to try to be continuously aware of whatever process is taking place without in any way interfering with or reacting to, either positively or negatively, the process that is occurring in the moment.

The idea is to try to be fully aware of the raw experience that is always happening and transforming by noting and letting go of each arising and subsiding sensation. This practice is supposed to bring one deep insight, perfect wisdom, into the ultimate reality of the true nature of existence in both its conditioned and unconditioned states.

Unfortunately, this attempt to develop and obtain Insight through the practice of trying to be an impartial observer is not a right method. The reason for this is that the impartial observer, which alone is capable of right mindfulness and genuine Insight, is the fully-awakened state of Nirvana Itself.

The true impartial observer is never the attention or mind that is attempting to watch a process. The reason for this is that this very attempt is a part of the process itself; it is not outside the process.

In stark contrast to this, the genuine impartial observer is completely outside any and every process of the rising and falling of any conditioned state of existence; it is completely beyond the mind and any human intention or effort to observe anything. Buddha asked the question: ‘What is right mindfulness?’
He answered in the following way:

When going, the monk knows ‘I am going’, or, when standing, he knows ‘I am standing’, or, when lying down, he knows ‘I am lying down’. Or in whatever position his body is placed, he is aware of it….Whether he goes, stands or sits, sleeps or is awake, speaks or is silent, he is acting with full attention. ~ Digha Nikaya
In this above quote, it is vital to note that Mindfulness should be present even when one is sleeping. In other words, the process of sleep should be able to be witnessed or observed as it is naturally occurring.

At first glance, the impartial observation of sleep would seem to be impossible because if one is asleep how could one observe anything? The key to understanding this is that it is not the mind that is observing; in the state of sleep, the mind is sleeping and is not aware of the sleeping process or anything else.

However, it is possible for the Absolute state of consciousness, the state of Nirvana, to impartially witness the sleeping process. It is the unconditioned, transcendental, Absolute state of consciousness that is the true impartial observer of all the ever-changing values of the conditioned aspects of life, including the mind and its intentions.

It is this supreme value of life alone that is capable of being impartial because only It is without any lack and nothing can be subtracted or added to Its eternal status. Consequently, it is only the Absolute existence of the fully-awakened state that is capable of totally penetrating into the true nature of life and gaining the supreme Insight lived, embodied and expressed by a Buddha.

How then can one develop true Insight, Perfect Wisdom, into the ultimate reality of life?  If the human attempt to be an impartial observer of natural processes is not the appropriate method, what would be the right method? It is clear that the right method would need to result in the cultivation and integration of the transcendental state of Absolute Wakefulness, the state of Nirvana.  The Buddhist Shurangama Sutra offers the following deep insight:
Through which sense organ should I cultivate? You ask. Don’t be nervous. It is the very organ of the ear which Gwan Yin Bodhisattva used that is best for you.
Gwan Yin Bodhisattva perfected his cultivation through the organ of the ear, and Ananda will follow him in cultivating the same method. The Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of former times have left us such a wonderful Dharma-door that we should also follow the method of cultivating the organ of the ear to perfect penetration. This is the easiest method.
The method suggested in the Shurangama Sutra is referred to as the easiest method because it involves the simple and effortless act of allowing one’s attention to be with a sound in order to achieve perfect penetration. Perfect penetration means that one has been able to penetrate beyond all the temporal, ever-changing values of all the conditioned states of existence and become at one with the Absolute, unconditioned, eternal, never born and never dying peace and fulfillment, which is the infinite all-knowing state of Nirvana, the end of all suffering.

But, how should one be with a sound? What is the right method? The Shurangama Sutra offers further explanation in the following verses:
Ananda, and everyone in the great assembly, Turn around your mechanism for hearing. Return the hearing to hear your own nature The nature will become the supreme Way. That is what perfect penetration really means. That is the gateway entered by Buddhas as many as dust motes. That is the one path leading to Nirvana. Tathagatas of the past perfected this method. Bodhisattvas now merge with this total brightness. People of the future who study and practice Will also rely on this Dharma. ~ Shurangama Sutra

One is instructed to turn around your mechanism for hearing. What does this mean? Usually, one hears a sound when one is speaking or hearing someone else speak, or hears a sound produced by something in the environment—a bird, thunder, the rushing of a river, anything.

Our mind is usually outwardly directed into the environment. However, with a right method of meditation, one can learn how to effortlessly use a sound to follow it in the inward direction to its ultimate source. The right method here is in knowing how to spontaneously appreciate a sound in the inward direction within the mind.

It seems that this was a technique of meditation taught by the Buddha when he would give specific mantras or sounds (a mantra is a specific sound used during meditation) to his disciples.

The following sutra illustrates this point:
‘There’s no need for you to give up’, said the Buddha. ‘You should not abandon your search for liberation just because you seem to yourself to be thick witted. You can drop all philosophy you’ve been given and repeat a mantra instead—one that I will now give you’. ~ Majjhima Nikaya
The sound of the mantra is innocently and effortlessly experienced in its increasingly subtle values until the sound fades away completely and the meditator is left in the completely calm yet full awakened state of Samadhi. This natural process is what is referred to in the above verses quoted from the Shurangama Sutra: Return the hearing to hear your own nature; the nature will become the supreme Way. That is what perfect penetration really means.

It is clear from these verses that the process that resulted in supreme insight or perfect penetration was a process that was conducted by nature itself: nature will become the supreme Way. It was not a process conducted by individual control or efforts to concentrate, or to try to be an impartial observer.

In our time, one natural process of turning around the “mechanism for hearing” is known as the technique of Transcendental Meditation ™. It is an effortless practice that does not require belief in any doctrine or the following of any particular way of life. People of all religions practice it, as do people of no religion. Its practical benefits have been scientifically researched and documented for 40 years and it has been taught world—wide to over 6 million people of every race and culture.

In addition, this technique does not involve any form of concentration, contemplation, or any controlled effort on the part of the mind, intellect or emotions to distance oneself from one’s experiences by trying to remain unmoved, detached and impartial. This is a vital point because the Tranquility and Insight that Buddha spoke of were never meant to be practices. One cannot practice Tranquility or Insight, but one can easily gain and develop them by regularly transcending to the state of Nirvana and becoming at one with It. It is the state of Nirvana that is perfectly tranquil and the state of perfect Insight, Perfect Wisdom.

The right method of meditation would be one that is capable of bringing us beyond all the impermanent, ever-changing, conditioned states of existence to the state of Nirvana. It would be a method that is capable of completely transcending its own process and leaving us at one with the Absolute, freed from the illusion of a limited and separate self-existence.

Then, through its regular effortless practice, this method would allow us to fully integrate and stabilize this unwavering, Absolute state of Nirvana into all activities and experiences of daily life allowing us to achieve the goal of all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas—a world without suffering.

To conclude, the main point of this essay on Buddha and Meditation is that to gain the Tranquility and Insight that are the qualities of full enlightenment, to realize the Perfect Wisdom that blossoms into infinite compassion, one has to learn and use the right method of turning within.
It’s like filling a bowl with oil seeds and pressing them or milking a cow by pulling the udder or filling a jar with cream and churning it.  It’s the right method. ~ Majjhima Nikaya
——————————————————————–
By Dr. Evan Finkelstein on http://www.elephantjournal.com/
Dr. Evan Finkelstein is professor
of Comparative Religion and Maharishi Vedic Science at Maharishi University of
Management. He has written many papers that identify the common ground inherent
in many of the ancient wisdom traditions, and teaches courses on the universal
principles inherent in Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam.

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN

Short News


JagatheesanClick for Mumbai, IndiaForecast

next will be iring and imangalasutra for women.


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Quote

Some
ancient legal books report that Sudras caught listening to Vedic
recitations had molten lead poured into their ears. A Sudra could also
have been forced to drink boiling oil if he or she claimed to have
taught someone something learned from the Vedas.

Unquote

Sudras (also Sudhra or Shudra) are people occupying a
position next to the bottom of the Hindu caste system in India. Most
Sudras are menial workers. At times it is difficult to distinguish
Sudras from untouchables (Dalits), who stand below them and are
considered to be so polluted that they are regarded as outside the caste
system entirely. The Vaisya (Vaishya) or merchant caste stands directly
above the Sudras in India’s cast hierarchy.

Identifying a member of the Sudra class is a matter
of recognizing subtle distinctions with which one becomes familiar after
living around Sudras. They are usually identified by their vocabulary,
which may include vulgarities; by the towns where they live or were
born; by their occupations or by their personal names, which may include
a reference to their occupations; and by other subtle characteristics.
By tradition when a Sudra dies, the body is taken to the burial place
through a south gate because all other gates are reserved for the upper
castes. There have been times when the jobs performed by Sudras were
considered to be so polluting that Sudras were considered equivalent to
untouchables. Strictly speaking, this would not be their status by birth
but by economic actions. In addition Sudras could be exiled or slain at
will.

Caste, or varna (literally, “color”), is affirmed by
the Vedas as an expression of cosmic law (rita). Sudras are associated
with the color black, which may have originated in the colors assigned
to the various varna. One Hindu justification for the caste system rests
in the belief that people were created from parts of the body of the
god Purusha. Social standing is defined by the part of Purusha from
which a person and his or her line is descended. Sudras are said to come
from the feet.

In the Hindu Rig-Veda, the dvijas (twice-born) are
identified as members of the Brahman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya castes. At
about twelve years of age, members of these castes underwent a ceremony
that made them “twice-born,” and they were thereafter permitted to study
the Vedic scriptures. The Sudras were not dvijas and therefore were not
allowed to study the Vedas. Such study usually consisted of listening
to recitations or readings of the Vedas because the very sounds were
believed to have religious power. Some ancient legal books report that
Sudras caught listening to Vedic recitations had molten lead poured into
their ears. A Sudra could also have been forced to drink boiling oil if
he or she claimed to have taught someone something learned from the
Vedas.

The ancient Hindu Laws of Manu discusses castes in great detail. This
text gives names to the offspring of unions of men with wives of the
different castes and to those born to unmarried parents. The Chandalas
were produced by the union of a Sudra father and a Brahman mother. A
Nishada (or Parasava) was produced by a Brahman father and a Sudra
mother. A Sudra father and a Vaisya mother produced an Ayogava. A Sudra
father and a Kshatriya mother produced a Kshattri. In addition the son
of a Sudra man by a Nishada woman was identified as a Kukkutaka, among
the many such designations outlined by the Laws of Manu.

The powerless Sudras were assigned to the rank of servants in India,
and most service and menial jobs became their duties. According to the
Laws of Manu, a Sudra faced with starvation could engage in handicrafts.
However, the best way of life for a Sudra was to serve a Brahman,
because this was the best occupation and prepared one for the next life.
A Sudra is unable to lose caste, being already at the bottom; however,
Sudras can prepare for the next world by imitating the virtuous.

Although Indians traditionally organized people into
four major, rigidly defined social classes or castes, contemporary
Indian society includes several thousand subcastes called jati, meaning
“birth,” “lineage,” or “race.” Most jati probably developed from
hereditary occupational practices. Many jati are regionally based. Some
jati groups comprise only a few hundred families, while others may
include thousands of families. Usually these are endoga-mous status
groups.

Another function of varna is that it creates a complex system of
purity and impurity. The ritual purity one acquires at birth may be
enhanced by the practice of rituals during life. The higher the caste,
the purer are its members. However, the higher castes are also
considered to face the grave danger of ritual contamination from members
of the lower castes. Purity regulations codify many areas of Indian
life, especially those involving intimacy, such as drinking, eating,
touching, and marriage. According to the Laws of Manu, drinking from a
vessel after a Sudra used it would cause spiritual pollution of members
of the higher castes. Purification requires a three-day regimen of
drinking water in which kusa grass has been boiled. In addition
twice-born Indians are forbidden to eat food prepared by a Sudra because
it is considered to be impure. If a Brahman died with Sudra food
undigested in his or her stomach, that person would be reborn as a
Sudra. Sudras were urged to fast and eat only the leftovers of the
dvijas. To become Vaisyas in the next life, Sudras had to abstain from
meat.

Practices regarding touch have remained a sensitive area.
If a Sudra should accidentally touch someone of a higher caste, such as
a Brahman, then the Brahman would consider himself or herself
contaminated, and extensive rites of purification would be necessary to
remove the stain. Marriage is permitted only between members of the jati
of a particular varna. According to the Laws ofManu, mixed-caste
marriages violate the cosmic law of dharma that orders the world. Such
marriages would therefore cause chaos.

In Tamil-speaking areas of South India, the population is made up
mostly of Sudras, with only a few Brahmans and almost no Kshatriyas or
Vaisyas living in many areas. Tamil-speaking Sudras have developed
practices unknown to the original caste system of northern India. Among
the numerous rankings of agricultural Tamil, the success of many Sudras
has in practice put them above other castes in wealth and power.

Discrimination on the basis of caste has been against the law in
India since the country achieved independence from Britain in 1947.
However, the Hindu system requires castes, so the lives of many Sudras
in tradition-bound rural India have barely changed. Many still belong to
agricultural jati in which they are landlords or members of particular
skill groups, giving them an incentive to maintain the caste system.

In urban areas the pace of life makes it more difficult to practice
caste discrimination. While discrimination still exists in many rural
areas, it is breaking down in India’s cities. Urban Sudras have been
able to organize and use political power to advance the status of their
caste. Their success has been limited, however, by their numerous jati
and the continuance in many areas of Hinduism’s varna belief. Long
practice enforces personal and informal discrimination despite the laws,
but in many areas prosperous Sudras are marrying into higher castes.
When this occurs, Sudras often change their names to disguise their
Sudra origin.

Quote

“If the Sudra intentionally listens for committing to memory the Veda, then his ears 
should be filled with (molten) lead; if he utters the Veda, then his tongue should be cut 
off.” – Manusmriti
Unquote
[Source: <http://www.ambedkar.org/News/IISc_Suicide.pdf>.]
Premier Institute or The hub of Caste Discrimination
Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Banglore
“If the Sudra intentionally listens for committing to memory the Veda, then his ears should be filled with (molten) lead; if he utters the Veda, then his tongue should be cut off.” – Manusmriti
Above versa is from the Manusmriti, the law book of Hindu religion. It undoubtedly states how lower caste should be treated if they try to learn from the texts. In the modern India the religious scriptures are no-more the source of knowledge. But the modern education is used as the mean to break the caste barriers and attain development by the Dalits in India. The reservation of the seats for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes in educational institutions including technical, engineering and medical colleges played crucial role in bringing the Dalits in modern occupations.
The traditional Bramhinical knowledge system has become increasingly irrelevant and useless but traditional laws even though become un-constitutional but it seems they have been internalized by society.
On 26th August 2007 V.Ajay Sree Chandra PhD scholar from Indian Institute Of Sciences forced to commit suicide by the two of his faculties.
Late. V. Ajay Sree Chandra: A Promising Dalit Scientist Silenced by Dominated Brahminic Society
He hanged himself in his hostel room. He belongs to scheduled caste and comes from the Andhra Pradesh. He had been repeatedly abused, humiliated, insulted being a Dalit by two of his
- 1 -
faculty, one is Dr. Ajit Kumar who was supervisor to him and another is Prof.Raghavendra Gadkar who is co-supervisor to him. Ajay left seven page suicide notes, as confirmed by one of his friend, which has been surprisingly missing and deliberately suppressed by the police during investigation. Institute authorities also destroyed some pages from the personal diary of the Ajay which might have used as the evidence to expose the inhuman treatment Ajay was subjected to by the faculties.
Picture of Late Ajay Sree Chandra’s sealed room, where he Committed Suicide
On the Sunday night Ajay was watching TV with his hostel-mates Diptaroop Nandi and Sumantra Roy among others. According to Deeptaroop Nandi, Ajay looked depressed on the Sunday. Nandi got phone call from Prof. Raghvendra Gadkar to enquiring the whereabouts of Ajay On Monday morning (26 Th August 2007). When Ajay didn’t arrive for break fast in the mess-hall, Nandi called up on Ajay’s mobile, but when there was no response from him, he went to Ajay’s room. As room was closed from inside they knocked door and shouted many times, but when there was no response from inside, they peeped through the window. He saw Ajay’s body hanging to the ceiling. With the help of security guards, they broke the lock and opened the room. Nandhi saw seven page suicide-note in the room. He has informed that to Prof. Gadkar. But surprisingly suicide note was not produced for police report. All the batch mates of Ajay were forced by Institute authority to go home after this incidence happened.
Ajay’s father V.Ravindra Kumar was informed by the Institute on the same day by 10:30 AM. He rushed to Banglore and reached to M.S. Ramaiah Hospital by 6:45 PM where post mortem was done. Death body handed over to V.Ravindra Kumar on next day. After that he reached to Institute campus. One police sub-inspector along with Institute official asked him to sign some papers, as those papers were written in Kannada, he couldn’t read it. He was so sad and - 2 -
had to take son’s body to native place, he signed on those papers. Later he came to know that police stated the reasons of suicide are personal and family problems.
Ajay was eldest among the three siblings of the V. Ravindra Kumar. His academic credentials were proven. In S.S.C. he got 81%, in H.S.C. he got 94% and in B.Sc. he got 80%. He was one among the top twelve in India who got into the Ph.D. course in Biological sciences at Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore. The above record speaks volumes about his capability and potential that is enough to cope with the academic requirements to manage and deal his Ph.D. course. He was in first year of his Ph.D programme. He shared his problems with many of his friends that how Prof. Raghvendra Gadkar and Prof. Ajit Kumar used to humiliate him on the basis of caste.
Many of the Dalit students told reporter that they also had been abused and humiliated by the Dr. Gadkar and Dr. Ajit Kumar on the basis of caste. The fear of being harassed by faculties is so immense that these students asked the author of this report not to mention their names in the report.
Harassment in the laboratory:
Ajay must have mentioned harassment from his faculties in that missing suicide note. Ajay used to write diary. When Police along with the institute authority came to Ajay’s room, they took away his diary also. The diary was with institute security and after three days it was handed over to local police station. Many pages from the diary were torn. Presently the diary is with police but they gave photocopies of the few pages to Ajay’s father. One page of it clearly mentions that Ajay was scared with some one in the laboratory. He mentions it six times in eight line paragraph.
Original text extract from Ajay’s Personal Diary
Diary reads “those eyes, they scare me, they look with such inferiority - 3 -
/superiority complex @ you. They tell everything (most of the time). Those eyes scare me……those eyes scares me a lot. My legs are paining…”
It clearly proves that he was terrorized by some one in the laboratory. The persons who used to terrorize can not be any student or non-teaching staff, if it was so he would have complained or shared it with his research supervisor or someone else. But he shared with his friends that Prof. Gadkar and Prof. Ajit Kumar used humiliated him, so it is clear that the person mentions in the diary were Prof. Gadkar and Prof. Ajit Kumar.
Indian institute of Sciences, Bangalore, deemed university and premier institute in the research of science and technology. Each year around 350 research candidates enroll in the institute and around 300 Ph. D. and M.Sc. (Engg) students passed out each year. Institute claims they have largest library in the field of science and technology in the country.
This maximum of the teaching and non-teaching staffs comes from the caste- Hindu. Dalit research students are being discriminated by them on the basis of caste. Many Dalit students spoke with the reporter that their guides used harsh and derogatory language. Dalit Research scholars are always discouraged by their guides. Research students who are working on the research projects are not evaluated properly. The non-contributor upper caste students are always appreciated by the upper caste supervisors and the hard working Dalit students are commented as incompetent in the group.
Dalit employees also being discriminated, they are not given promotion. There are very few Dalit faculties in the institute. Their research projects are many times not given permission by the concern authorities.
Atrocities on Dalits is no more the rural phenomenon but is now perpetuated in the modern and secular places like educational institutions, governmental and non-governmental establishments etc. The difference between the two is former is more visible like physical attacks, destroying private properties, social boycott and in the modern institutions it is more subtle, discrimination is practiced in the institutions through decision making processes. Another form of atrocity is verbal attack, using derogatory words
- 4 -
and making comments. This has been observed and experienced by many Dalit students on the campuses. They are being commented by the non-dalit counterparts as well their teachers.
It is clear that Ajay was subjected to a brutal form of harassment by his two upper caste faculties, one is Dr. Ajit Kumar who was supervisor to him and another is Prof.Raghavendra Gadkar that forced him to commit suicide. This is only a pick of iceberg that has come out to our notice. There were many volumes of unwritten and unspoken harassment stories in the institute that are being submerged in the institute history.
This report is prepared by Bahujan Students Network (BSN) with the help of students of IISc Banglore
Sep, 2007 - 5 -

Even
to day there are believers in Hinduism that the bramhins are 1st rate
atmaas, 
kshtriyas 2nd rate, vaishyas 3rd rate, shudras 4th rate and the
untouchables (SC/ST) without any soul, so that they could do any harm to
them as wished by these athmaas including believing that the SC/STs
have got no merit, efficiency etc. But the Buddha never believed in any
soul. He said all are equal. Therefor Dr. Ambedkar with lakhs of people
returned back to the original religion of PRABUDDHA BHARATH, Buddhism.
The process has begun and continues. After some times Buddhism will be
the major system in this country with the MASTER KEY acquired by BSP.

Ayodhya yatra: SP trying to divide UP on religious lines, says BSP

New Delhi/ Lucknow: The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) on Sunday criticized
the Akhilesh Yadav-led Uttar Pradesh Government’s decision to oppose the
Vishwa Hindu Parishad’s ‘Chaurasi Kosi Parikrama Yatra’ around Ayodhya,
and said that the ruling Samajwadi Party (SP) is trying to create an
atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines.

BSP leader Sudhindra Bhadoria said that the proposed yatra was a
strategy of the ruling Uttar Pradesh Government to disrupt peace in the
society.


“An atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines is being
created in Uttar Pradesh. But the people of Uttar Pradesh and the rest
of the country are alert and they know all about the drama,” Bhadoria
told media in New Delhi.

“The government is trying to fool the people, as one party is adamant on
taking out the rally while the other is bent on thwarting it. It seems a
joint conspiracy of the two,” Bhandoria added.
DNA logo

Row over VHP yatra: Won’t let Uttar Pradesh become Gujarat

Avatar

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN

Ayodhya yatra: SP trying to divide UP on religious lines, says BSP

New Delhi/ Lucknow: The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) on Sunday criticized
the Akhilesh Yadav-led Uttar Pradesh Government’s decision to oppose the
Vishwa Hindu Parishad’s ‘Chaurasi Kosi Parikrama Yatra’ around Ayodhya,
and said that the ruling Samajwadi Party (SP) is trying to create an
atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines.

BSP leader Sudhindra Bhadoria said that the proposed yatra was a
strategy of the ruling Uttar Pradesh Government to disrupt peace in the
society.

“An atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines is being
created in Uttar Pradesh. But the people of Uttar Pradesh and the rest
of the country are alert and they know all about the drama,” Bhadoria
told media in New Delhi.

“The government is trying to fool the people, as one party is adamant on
taking out the rally while the other is bent on thwarting it. It seems a
joint conspiracy of the two,” Bhandoria added.

Sonia defends Food Security Bill; BJP calls it ‘vote security bill’

With the existing Electronic Voting Machine that is not tamper proof as
observed by Supreme Court which had asked the Election Commission to
replace all the EVMs it is vote and note security for both Congress and
BJP with the support of the media.

VHP yatra: Ayodhya turns into fortress; Togadia, Singhal among hundreds held

VHP pulls up SP, says ban on yatra will have negative impact

VHP yatra: Ayodhya turns into fortress, 350 arrested across Uttar Pradesh

A religion by Birth or by Practice

It is very common to hear people saying that they are birth Hindu, Muslim,
Christian, Buddhist etc. But most fundamental question is what does it
mean when someone says so. Is it that one is born with the label of a
particular religion ?

The fact is that no one by birth belong to a particular religion just because is
parents follow that particular religion. It is like Engineer or Doctor
parents labelling their child as an Engineer or Doctor just because they
themselves parctice that particular profession. Even to have the right
to vote one has to be major, i.e., over 18 yrs. Wken such is the case,
how is it some one is born into a particular religion which is to be
practiced day to day with one’s own proper understanding.

It will be right in the interest of healthy society that every child is
informed and exposed to all religions till the age of 21 and then he or
she is given the right to take up the religion of his choice.

This is because, one belongs to a particular religion only when he or she
personally accepts, commits and practices according to the ideals put
forth by that particular religious Teacher or so called god. In Vasala
Sutta - the discourse on who is outcaste Budddha says:

Na jaccha vasalo hoti

Na jaccha hoti bramano

Kammana vasalo hoti

Kammana hoti bramano.

It means that no one is by birth low or high, but it is by action that one
is low or high. Similarly no one by birth belongs to a particular
religion by it is by self understanding and self accepted practice that
one belongs to a particular religion. Therefore about Buddhism it is
said that:

In one sense Buddhism is not a religion

In another sense Buddhism is a religion of religions.

In another sense it is not a philosophy

In another sense it philosophy of philoshphies.

Thus Buddhism in neither a metaphysical path nor a ritualistic path.

It si neityher sceptical nor dogmatic.

It is neither eternalism nor nihilism.

It is neither self-mortification nor self-indulgence.

It is neither absolutely this-worldly nor other-worldly.

It is not extrovert but introvert.

It is not theo-centric but homo-centric.

It is a unique pqth of Awakenment to end the Universal malady called Dukkha (Suffering). - (Ve. Narada)

Therefore whatever may be ones religion it is the practice that amkes the person
perfect. In the case of Buddhism this can be best understood from the
simile of the doctor’s prescription. A man becomes sick and goes to the
doctor for help. The doctor examines him and writes out a prescription
for medicine. The man having great faith in his doctor returns home and
in his prayer room he puts a beautiful picture of the doctor. Then he
sits down and pays respect to the picture or atatue; he bows down and
offers flowers and incfense. And then he takes out the prescription that
the doctor wrote for him, and solemnly he recites it: “Three pills in
the morning! Three pills in the afternoon! Three pills in the evening!
All day, all week he keeps reciting the prescription because he has
great faith in the doctor. Still the prescription does not help him.

So the man decides that he would like to more about the prescription, and
therefore goes to the doctor. He asks him, “why did you prescribe this
medicine ? How will it help me ? ” Then the doctor explains, “Well look,
this is your disease, and this is the root cause of your disease. Ifd
you take the medicine I have prescribed, it will eradicate the cause of
your disease. When the cause is eradficated, the disease will
automatically disppear.” The man thinks, “Ah wonderful! My doctor is so
intellegent! His priscription is so helpful!” And he goes home and
starts fighting with his neighbours and acquaintances, insisting, “My
soctor is the best doctor! All other doctore are useless!” But what does
he gain by such arguments ? All his life he may continue fighting,
still this does not help him at all. If he takes the medicine, only then
will the man be relieved of his misery, his disease. Only then will the
medicine help him.

Every liberated person is like a physician. Out of compassion, he gives a
prescription advising people how oto free themselvesof suffering. If
people develop blind faith in that person, they turn the prescription
into a scripture and start fighting with other sects, claiming that the
teaching of the founder of their religion is superior. But they do not
care to practice the teaching, to take the medicine prescribesin order
to eliminate the malady.

Having faith in the doctor is useful if it encourages the patient to follow
his advice. Understanding how the medicine works is beneficial if it
encourages one to take the medicine. But without actually taking the
medicine, one cannot be cured of the disease. You have to take the
medicine yourself.

Religion is not to be followed because of birth,

Religion is to be followed for its worth.

Religion is not to be followed for tacvtics;

Religion is to be followed for practice.

May All Practice Religion For Its Worth And Not Just Because Of Birth.



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08/26/13
1023 LESSON 27-08-2013 TUESDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 5) School of Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religion; http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Buddhism - Religion of Royals and Loyals VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN-Atomism
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:05 pm

1023 LESSON 27-08-2013 TUESDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism


Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism - Religion of Royals and Loyals

http://in-mg61.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch?.rand=9itfdkvpmcls8#mail


The young Prince Gauthama Siddharta left his royal palace in search of Truth. After six years of austere practices of different kind he finally attained Buddhahood through the middle path in 6th century B.C. at Buddha Gaya in PRABUDDHA BHARATH. Along with other classes of people there were many from Royal families who followed him to experience peace, happiness and final liberation called Nibbana. Through this royal linage and patronage the Buddha Dhamma finally landed in Sri Lanka. This was due to the missionary zeal of Empire Ashoka who sent his own son Arahant Mahinda to the then king Devanampiyatissa of Sri Lanka.

Apart from the Royals, the Loyals group consisted bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, and upasakas coming from all classes of society. Thus the Dhamma,  flourished not only in PRABUDDHA BHARATH but also in Sri Lanka through the support of the Royals (i.e., kings, ministers) and the firm commitment of the faithful Loyals (i.e., bhikkhus, bhikkunis, upasakas, upasikas). When the support and commitment of Royals and Loyals  started dwindling, Buddhism stsrted disappearing in the land of its birth and neighbouring lands. Thus we find that then strong holds of Buddhism i.e., Afganistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and PRABUDDHA BHAARATH have now become foreign to Buddhism.

In this backgroundthe Jeysta Purnima of June has an important significance for recollecting the past and recommiting ourselves for the preservation and propagation of Buddhs’s Dhamma. On this very full moon day of June month Emperor Ashoka sent his own son Arahant Mahinda as a missionary monk to Sri Lanka to establish Buddha’s Dhammain its pristine purity. From that day onwards Sri Lanka has acquired a unique place in the history of Buddhism.

The story goes that one day Emperor shoka enquired of Arahant Moggaliputta Tissa, “Lord is one like unto me a kinsman of the Sasana of the Blessed One!” And the Thera replied, “Even a lavish giver of gifts like unto thee is only giver of requisities, not a kinsman of the Sasana. But he who offers his son or daughter to the Sasana, he who lets his children enter the order of the Sangha, he alone is true kinsman of the Sasana”. Immedeately Emperor Ashoka asked his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitta who stood near, “Do you wish to enter the holy order, dear children ? Ordination is prized a great gain”. On feeling their father’s wish, they said “father this very day we would enter the holy order, for our ordinationwill be a blessing to thee and to us”. So they renounced their royal state and entered the Sangha. Thus these very son and daughter of Ashoka became the source for the establishment ofBuddha Dhamma in Sri Lanka.

But if we see in today’s context, how many royal and well to do parents are willing to give their children to the service of the sasana ? They seem to be inclined to make their own children Engineers and Doctors or some other money and atatus earning machines. They do not encourage or inspire them to take up a Monk’s or Nun’s life. And on the other hand young children are also not inclined to take up this celibate, pious life in Buddha’s Dhamma due to lack of proper inspiration and encouragement from their parents and the society.

According to history on the full moon day of June in the year 308 B.C. the great and noble Arahant Mahinda of wondrous powers along with few other rose up in the air departing fromVidissa Giri in Gwalior and alighted on Silakuta, the northern peak of Mihintale in Sri Lanka.

On the first day Arahant Mahinda preached the lesser discource on the “Simile of the Elephants’s footprint”. At the end of the sermon the king Devanampiya Tissa took the Three Refugees. The next day he expounded Devadutta Sutta to a vast concourse of people. This sermon was mainly designed to tell the audience to desist from following the path of moral degradation which has a special significance to the present day society which seems to be inclined to neglect the spirit and practice of five precepts.

On the fourth day he preached the aggikhandhaopama Sutta which emphasies in the most unequivocal terms the imperative duty of a monk to live an exemplary life in keeping with the Vinaya rules and warns if he lives a life unworthy of a monk. This discourse which was preached after king Devanampiya Tissagifted the Mahameghavena park to the Sangha, has a particular bearing in the context of life of a bhkkhu in the present day society. The admonition given by Buddha to the monks and which wa reiterated by Arahant Mahinda on this memorable Purnima should be strictly adhered to if the Buddha Sasana is to flourish in all its glory and splendour in the years to come.

In the past the wisdom of those at the helm of Lanka made them realise that here in Buddhism was a spiritual treasure that would guide thissmall yet courageous nation along a righteous path for the millennia to come and so they chose this loyal country Lanka as its custodians.

Thus now let us all (Royals and Loyals) who owe a deep debt of gratitude to the Triple Gem for the moral, intellectual, cultural and spiritual development of the human race, take an oath and recommit ourselves to the preservation and propagation of Buddhism for the good and well being of all in the times to come.

On this very Jayshta Purnima day Arahant Mahinda landed at Mihintale.

He preached the Dhamma in such a way that it got established in Sri Lanka that very day.

Thus we can give up the Greedy way

And live our life the Charity way;


If we can give up the Hatred way

An live our life the Metta way;


If we can give up the Deluded way

And live our life the Mindful way;


Then know that we are living our life

The Buddhist way.


Atomism



The Times of India



Sonia defends Food Security Bill; BJP calls it ‘vote security bill’

With
the existing Electronic Voting Machine that is not tamper proof as
observed by Supreme Court which had asked the Election Commission to
replace all the EVMs it is vote and note security for both Congress and
BJP with the support of the media.


VHP yatra: Ayodhya turns into fortress; Togadia, Singhal among hundreds held

VHP pulls up SP, says ban on yatra will have negative impact

Logo

Latest News

VHP yatra: Ayodhya turns into fortress, 350 arrested across Uttar Pradesh


Samay Live

A religion by Birth or by Practice

It
is very common to hear people saying that they are birth Hindu, Muslim,
Christian, Buddhist etc. But most fundamental question is what does it
mean when someone says so. Is it that one is born with the label of a
particular religion ?

The fact
is that no one by birth belong to a particular religion just because is
parents follow that particular religion. It is like Engineer or Doctor
parents labelling their child as an Engineer or Doctor just because they
themselves parctice that particular profession. Even to have the right
to vote one has to be major, i.e., over 18 yrs. Wken such is the case,
how is it some one is born into a particular religion which is to be
practiced day to day with one’s own proper understanding.

It
will be right in the interest of healthy society that every child is
informed and exposed to all religions till the age of 21 and then he or
she is given the right to take up the religion of his choice.


This
is because, one belongs to a particular religion only when he or she
personally accepts, commits and practices according to the ideals put
forth by that particular religious Teacher or so called god. In Vasala
Sutta - the discourse on who is outcaste  Budddha says:

Na jaccha vasalo hoti

Na jaccha hoti bramano

Kammana vasalo hoti

Kammana hoti bramano.

It
means that no one is by birth low or high, but it is by action that one
is low or high. Similarly no one by birth belongs to a particular
religion by it is by self understanding and self accepted practice that
one belongs to a particular religion. Therefore about Buddhism it is
said that:

In one sense Buddhism is not a religion

In another sense Buddhism is a religion of religions.

In another sense it is not a philosophy

In another sense it philosophy of philoshphies.

Thus Buddhism in neither a metaphysical path nor a ritualistic path.

It si neityher sceptical nor dogmatic.

It is neither eternalism nor nihilism.

It is neither self-mortification nor self-indulgence.

It is neither absolutely this-worldly nor other-worldly.

It is not extrovert but introvert.

It is not theo-centric but homo-centric.

It is a unique pqth of Awakenment to end the Universal malady called Dukkha (Suffering). - (Ve. Narada)


Therefore
whatever may be ones religion it is the practice that amkes the person
perfect. In the case of Buddhism this can be best understood from the
simile of the doctor’s prescription. A man becomes sick and goes to the
doctor for help. The doctor examines him and writes out a prescription
for medicine. The man having great faith in his doctor returns home and
in his prayer room he puts a beautiful picture of the doctor. Then he
sits down and pays respect to the picture or atatue; he bows down and
offers flowers and incfense. And then he takes out the prescription that
the doctor wrote for him, and solemnly he recites it: “Three pills in
the morning! Three pills in the afternoon! Three pills in the evening!
All day, all week he keeps reciting the prescription because he has
great faith in the doctor. Still the prescription does not help him.


So
the man decides that he would like to more about the prescription, and
therefore goes to the doctor. He asks him, “why did you prescribe this
medicine ? How will it help me ? ” Then the doctor explains, “Well look,
this is your disease, and this is the root cause of your disease. Ifd
you take the medicine  I have prescribed, it will eradicate the cause of
your disease. When the cause is eradficated, the disease will
automatically disppear.” The man thinks, “Ah wonderful! My doctor is so
intellegent! His priscription is so helpful!” And he goes home and
starts fighting with his neighbours and acquaintances, insisting, “My
soctor is the best doctor! All other doctore are useless!” But what does
he gain by such arguments ? All his life he may continue fighting,
still this does not help him at all. If he takes the medicine, only then
will the man be relieved of his misery, his disease. Only then will the
medicine help him.


Every
liberated person is like a physician. Out of compassion, he gives a
prescription advising people how oto free themselvesof suffering. If
people develop blind faith in that person, they turn the prescription
into a scripture and start fighting with other sects, claiming that the
teaching of the founder of their religion is superior. But they do not
care to practice the teaching, to take the medicine prescribesin order
to eliminate the malady.


Having
faith in the doctor is useful if it encourages the patient to follow
his advice. Understanding how the medicine works is beneficial if it
encourages one to take the medicine. But without actually taking the
medicine, one cannot be cured of the disease. You have to take the
medicine yourself.

Religion is not to be followed because of birth,

Religion is to be followed for its worth.

Religion is not to be followed for tacvtics;

Religion is to be followed for practice.


May All Practice Religion For Its Worth And Not Just Beacause Of Birth.

Atomism

Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. “uncuttable”, “indivisible”[1][2][3]) is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory, philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world.[4][5]

References to the concept of atomism and its atoms are found in ancient India and ancient Greece. In India the Jain,[6][7] Ajivika and Carvaka schools of atomism may date back to the 6th century BCE.[8] The Nyaya and Vaisheshika schools later developed theories on how atoms combined into more complex objects.[9] In the West, atomism emerged in the 5th century BCE with Leucippus and Democritus.[10] Whether Indian culture influenced Greek or vice versa or whether both evolved independently is a matter of dispute.[11]

The particles of chemical matter which chemists and other natural philosophers of the early 19th century found experimental evidence, were thought to be indivisible, and therefore were given the name “atom”, long used by the atomist philosophy.

However, in the 20th century, the “atoms” of the chemists were found to be composed of even smaller entities: electrons, neutrons, and protons, and further experiments showed that protons and neutrons are made of quarks. Although the connection to historical atomism is at best tenuous, elementary particles have thus become a modern analog of philosophical atoms, despite the misnomer in chemistry.
Contents

    •    1 Reductionism
    •    2 Greek atomism
    ◦    2.1 Geometry and atoms
    ◦    2.2 The rejection of atoms
    ◦    2.3 Later ancient atomism
    ◦    2.4 Atomism and ethics
    ◦    2.5 The exile of atomism
    •    3 Indian atomism
    ◦    3.1 Nyaya–Vaisesika school
    ◦    3.2 Buddhist school
    ◦    3.3 Jaina school
    •    4 Islamic atomism
    ◦    4.1 Asharite atomism
    ◦    4.2 Averroism
    •    5 Atomic renaissance
    ◦    5.1 Corpuscularianism
    •    6 Atomic theory
    ◦    6.1 Atomic theory controversy
    •    7 See also
    •    8 External links
    •    9 Notes
    •    10 References

Reductionism

Philosophical atomism is a reductive argument: not only that everything is composed of atoms and void, but that nothing they compose really exists: the only things that really exist are atoms ricocheting off each other mechanistically in an otherwise empty void. Atomism stands in contrast to a substance theory wherein a prime material continuum remains qualitatively invariant under division (for example, the ratio of the four classical elements would be the same in any portion of a homogeneous material).

Indian Buddhists, such as Dharmakirti and others, also developed distinctive theories of atomism, for example, involving momentary (instantaneous) atoms, that flash in and out of existence (Kalapas).
Greek atomism

In the 5th century BC, Leucippus and his pupil Democritus proposed that everything is composed of fundamental and invariant atoms, in order to reconcile two conflicting schools of thought on the nature of reality. On one side was Heraclitus, who believed that the nature of all existence is change. On the other side was Parmenides, who believed instead that all change is illusion.

Parmenides denied the existence of motion, change and void. He believed all existence to be a single, all-encompassing and unchanging monism, and that change and motion were mere illusions. Parmenides explicitly rejected sensory experience as a path to understanding the world, favoring pure reason. He argued against the existence of void, equating it with non-being (i.e. nothing).[12][13]
In response, Democritus provides a reductive account of changeable figure, order and position as the aggregates of irreducible unchanging atoms.

The work of Democritus only survives in secondhand reports, some of which are unreliable or conflicting. Much of the best evidence of Democritus’ theory of atomism is reported by Aristotle in his discussions of Democritus’ and Plato’s contrasting views on the types of indivisibles composing the natural world.[14]

Geometry and atoms

Element

Polyhedron

Number of Faces

Number of Triangles

Fire

Tetrahedron
(Animation)


Air
Octahedron
(Animation)


Water
Icosahedron
(Animation)


Earth
Cube
(Animation)


Geometrical Simple Bodies According to Plato

Plato (c. 427 — c. 347 BC), were he familiar with the atomism of Democritus, would have objected to its mechanistic materialism. He argued that atoms just crashing into other atoms could never produce the beauty and form of the world. In the Timaeus, (28B – 29A) Plato insisted that the cosmos was not eternal but was created, although its creator framed it after an eternal, unchanging model.

One part of that creation were the four simple bodies of fire, air, water, and earth. But Plato did not consider these corpuscles to be the most basic level of reality, for in his view they were made up of an unchanging level of reality, which was mathematical. These simple bodies were geometric solids, the faces of which were, in turn, made up of triangles. The square faces of the cube were each made up of four isosceles right-angled triangles and the triangular faces of the tetrahedron, octahedron, and icosahedron were each made up of six right-angled triangles.

He postulated the geometric structure of the simple bodies of the four elements as summarized in the table to the right. The cube, with its flat base and stability, was assigned to earth; the tetrahedron was assigned to fire because its penetrating points and sharp edges made it mobile. The points and edges of the octahedron and icosahedron were blunter and so these less mobile bodies were assigned to air and water. Since the simple bodies could be decomposed into triangles, and the triangles reassembled into atoms of different elements, Plato’s model offered a plausible account of changes among the primary substances.[15][16]

The rejection of atoms

Sometime before 330 BC Aristotle asserted that the elements of fire, air, earth, and water were not made of atoms, but were continuous. Aristotle considered the existence of a void, which was required by atomic theories, to violate physical principles. Change took place not by the rearrangement of atoms to make new structures, but by transformation of matter from what it was in potential to a new actuality. (This theory is called hylomorphism.) A piece of wet clay, when acted upon by a potter, takes on its potential to be an actual drinking mug. Aristotle has often been criticized for rejecting atomism, but in ancient Greece the atomic theories of Democritus remained “pure speculations, incapable of being put to any experimental test. Granted that atomism was, in the long run, to prove far more fruitful than any qualitative theory of matter, in the short run the theory that Aristotle proposed must have seemed in some respects more promising”.[17][18][unbalanced opinion]
Later ancient atomism

Epicurus (341–270) studied atomism with Nausiphanes who had been a student of Democritus. Although Epicurus was certain of the existence of atoms and the void, he was less sure we could adequately explain specific natural phenomena such as earthquakes, lightning, comets, or the phases of the Moon (Lloyd 1973, 25–6). Few of Epicurus’s writings survive and those that do reflect his interest in applying Democritus’s theories to assist people in taking responsibility for themselves and for their own happiness—since he held there are no gods around that can help them. He understood gods’ role as moral ideals.

His ideas are also represented in the works of his follower Lucretius, who wrote On the Nature of Things. This scientific work in poetic form illustrates several segments of Epicurean theory on how the universe came into its current stage and it shows that the phenomena we perceive are actually composite forms. The atoms and the void are eternal and in constant motion. Atomic collisions create objects, which are still composed of the same eternal atoms whose motion for a while is incorporated into the created entity. Human sensations and meteorological phenomena are also explained by Lucretius in terms of atomic motion.

Atomism and ethics

Some later philosophers attributed the idea that man created gods; the gods did not create man to Democritus. For example, Sextus Empiricus noted:

Some people think that we arrived at the idea of gods from the remarkable things that happen in the world. Democritus … says that the people of ancient times were frightened by happenings in the heavens such as thunder, lightning, …, and thought that they were caused by gods.[19]

Three hundred years after Epicurus, Lucretius in his epic poem On the Nature of Things would depict him as the hero who crushed the monster Religion through educating the people in what was possible in the atoms and what was not possible in the atoms. However, Epicurus expressed a non-aggressive attitude characterized by his statement: “The man who best knows how to meet external threats makes into one family all the creatures he can; and those he can not, he at any rate does not treat as aliens; and where he finds even this impossible, he avoids all dealings, and, so far as is advantageous, excludes them from his life.” [1]

The exile of atomism

While Aristotelian philosophy eclipsed the importance of the atomists, their work was still preserved and exposited through commentaries on the works of Aristotle. In the 2nd century, Galen (AD 129–216) presented extensive discussions of the Greek atomists, especially Epicurus, in his Aristotle commentaries. According to historian of atomism Joshua Gregory, there was no serious work done with atomism from the time of Galen until Gassendi and Descartes resurrected it in the 17th century; “the gap between these two ‘modern naturalists’ and the ancient Atomists marked “the exile of the atom” and “it is universally admitted that the Middle Ages had abandoned Atomism, and virtually lost it.” However, scholars still had Aristotle’s critiques of atomism, and it seems unlikely that all ideas of atomism could have been lost in the West. In the Medieval universities there were rare expressions of atomistic philosophy. For example, in the 14th century Nicholas of Autrecourt considered that matter, space, and time were all made up of indivisible atoms, points, and instants and that all generation and corruption took place by the rearrangement of material atoms. The similarities of his ideas with those of al-Ghazali suggest that Nicholas may have been familiar with Ghazali’s work, perhaps through Averroes’ refutation of it (Marmara, 1973–74).

Still, “the exile of the atom” is an appropriate description of the interim between the ancient Greeks and the revival of Western atomism in the 16th century, in view of atomism’s success elsewhere during that time. If the atom was in exile from the west, it was in India and Islam that atomistic traditions continued.

Indian atomism

The Indian atomistic position, like many movements in Indian Philosophy and Mathematics, starts with an argument from Linguistics. The Vedic etymologist and grammarian Yaska (c. 7th century BC) in his Nirukta, in dealing with models for how linguistic structures get to have their meanings, takes the atomistic position that words are the “primary” carrier of meaning – i.e. words have a preferred ontological status in defining meaning. This position was to be the subject of a fierce debate in the Indian tradition from the early Christian era till the 18th century, involving different philosophers from the Nyaya, Mimamsa and Buddhist schools.

In the pratishakhya text (c. 2nd century BCE), the gist of the controversy was stated cryptically in the sutra form as “saMhitA pada-prakr^tiH”.[20] According to the atomist view, the words (pada) would be the primary elements (prakrti) out of which the sentence is constructed, while the holistic view considers the sentence as the primary entity, originally “given” in its context of utterance, and the words are arrived at only through analysis and abstraction.[21]

These two positions came to be called a-kShaNDa-pakSha (indivisibility or sentence-holism), a position developed later by Bhartrihari (c. 500 AD), vs. kShaNDa-pakSha (atomism), a position adopted by the Mimamsa and Nyaya schools (Note: kShanDa = fragmented; “a-kShanDa” = whole).

Between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC, the atom (anu or aṇor) is mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 8, Verse 9):

kaviḿ purāṇam anuśāsitāram aṇor aṇīyāḿsam anusmared yaḥ sarvasya dhātāram acintya-rūpam āditya-varṇaḿ tamasaḥ parastāt
One meditates on the omniscient, primordial, the controller, smaller than the atom, yet the maintainer of everything; whose form is inconceivable, resplendent like the sun and totally transcendental to material nature

The ancient “shAshvata-vAda” doctrine of eternalism, which held that elements are eternal, is also suggestive of a possible starting point for atomism (Gangopadhyaya 1981).

There has been some debate among scholars as to the origin of Indian atomism; the general consensus is that the Indian and Greek versions of atomism developed independently. However, there is some doubt on this, given the similarities between Indian atomism and Greek atomism and the proximity of India to scholastic Europe, as well as the account, related by Diogenes Laertius, of Democritus “making acquaintance with the Gymnosophists in India”.[22] The atomist position had transcended language into epistemology by the time that Nyaya–Vaisesika, Buddhist and Jaina theology were developing mature philosophical positions.

Will Durant wrote in Our Oriental Heritage:

“Two systems of Indian thought propound physical theories suggestively similar to those of Greece. Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika philosophy, held that the world was composed of atoms as many in kind as the various elements. The Jains more nearly approximated to Democritus by teaching that all atoms were of the same kind, producing different effects by diverse modes of combinations. Kanada believed light and heat to be varieties of the same substance; Udayana taught that all heat comes from the sun; and Vachaspati, like Newton, interpreted light as composed of minute particles emitted by substances and striking the eye.”

Indian atomism in the Middle Ages was still mostly philosophical and/or religious in intent, though it was also scientific. Because the “infallible Vedas”, the oldest Hindu texts, do not mention atoms (though they do mention elements), atomism was not orthodox in many schools of Hindu philosophy, although accommodationist interpretations or assumptions of lost text justified the use of atomism for non-orthodox schools of Hindu thought. The Buddhist and Jaina schools of atomism however, were more willing to accept the ideas of atomism.

Nyaya–Vaisesika school

Main articles: Nyaya and Vaisesika

The Nyaya–Vaisesika school developed one of the earliest forms of atomism; scholars date the Nyaya and Vaisesika texts from the 6th to 1st centuries BC. Like the Buddhist atomists, the Vaisesika had a pseudo-Aristotelian theory of atomism. They posited the four elemental atom types, but in Vaisesika physics atoms had 24 different possible qualities, divided between general extensive properties and specific (intensive) properties. Like the Jaina school, the Nyaya–Vaisesika atomists had elaborate theories of how atoms combine. In both Jaina and Vaisesika atomism, atoms first combine in pairs (dyads), and then group into trios of pairs (triads), which are the smallest visible units of matter.[23]

Buddhist school


Main article: Buddhist atomism

The Buddhist atomists had very qualitative, Aristotelian-style atomic theory. According to ancient Buddhist atomism, which probably began developing before the 4th century BC, there are four kinds of atoms, corresponding to the standard elements. Each of these elements has a specific property, such as solidity or motion, and performs a specific function in mixtures, such as providing support or causing growth. Like the Hindu Jains, the Buddhists were able to integrate a theory of atomism with their theological presuppositions. Later Indian Buddhist philosophers, such as Dharmakirti and Dignāga, considered atoms to be point-sized, durationless, and made of energy.


Jaina school

Further information: Jain cosmology, Dravya (Jainism), and Karma in Jainism
The most elaborate and well-preserved Indian theory of atomism comes from the philosophy of the Jaina school, dating back to at least the 6th century BC. Some of the Jain texts that refer to matter and atoms are Pancastikayasara, Kalpasutra, Tattvarthasutra and Pannavana Suttam. The Jains envisioned the world as consisting wholly of atoms, except for souls. Paramāņus or atoms were considered as the basic building blocks of all matter. Their concept of atoms was very similar to classical atomism, differing primarily in the specific properties of atoms. Each atom, according to Jain philosophy, has one kind of taste, one smell, one color, and two kinds of touch, though it is unclear what was meant by “kind of touch”. Atoms can exist in one of two states: subtle, in which case they can fit in infinitesimally small spaces, and gross, in which case they have extension and occupy a finite space. Certain characteristics of Paramāņu correspond with that sub-atomic particles. For example Paramāņu is characterized by continuous motion either in a straight line or in case of attractions from other Paramāņus, it follows a curved path. This corresponds with the description of orbit of electrons across the Nucleus. Ultimate particles are also described as particles with positive (Snigdha i.e. smooth charge) and negative (Rūksa – rough) charges that provide them the binding force. Although atoms are made of the same basic substance, they can combine based on their eternal properties to produce any of six “aggregates”, which seem to correspond with the Greek concept of “elements”: earth, water, shadow, sense objects, karmic matter, and unfit matter. To the Jains, karma was real, but was a naturalistic, mechanistic phenomenon caused by buildups of subtle karmic matter within the soul. They also had detailed theories of how atoms could combine, react, vibrate, move, and perform other actions, all of which were thoroughly deterministic.
Islamic atomism

See also: Early Islamic philosophy: Atomism and Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
Atomistic philosophies are found very early in Islamic philosophy, and represent a synthesis of the Greek and Indian ideas. Like both the Greek and Indian versions, Islamic atomism was a charged topic that had the potential for conflict with the prevalent religious orthodoxy, but it was instead more often favoured by orthodox Islamic theologians. It was such a fertile and flexible idea that, as in Greece and India, it flourished in some leading schools of Islamic thought.

Asharite atomism

See also: Ash’ari

The most successful form of Islamic atomism was in the Asharite school of Islamic theology, most notably in the work of the theologian al-Ghazali (1058–1111). In Asharite atomism, atoms are the only perpetual, material things in existence, and all else in the world is “accidental” meaning something that lasts for only an instant. Nothing accidental can be the cause of anything else, except perception, as it exists for a moment. Contingent events are not subject to natural physical causes, but are the direct result of God’s constant intervention, without which nothing could happen. Thus nature is completely dependent on God, which meshes with other Asharite Islamic ideas on causation, or the lack thereof (Gardet 2001). Al-Ghazali also used the theory to support his theory of occasionalism. In a sense, the Asharite theory of atomism has far more in common with Indian atomism than it does with Greek atomism.[24]

Averroism

See also: Averroism

Other traditions in Islam rejected the atomism of the Asharites and expounded on many Greek texts, especially those of Aristotle. An active school of philosophers in Spain, including the noted commentator Averroes (AD 1126–1198) explicitly rejected the thought of al-Ghazali and turned to an extensive evaluation of the thought of Aristotle. Averroes commented in detail on most of the works of Aristotle and his commentaries did much to guide the interpretation of Aristotle in later Jewish and Christian scholastic thought.

Atomic renaissance

With few exceptions, much of the curriculum in the universities of Europe was based on Aristotle for most of the Middle Ages (Kargon 1966). Scholasticism was standard science in the time of Isaac Newton, but in the 17th century, a renewed interest in Epicurian atomism and Corpuscularianism as a hybrid or an alternative to Aristotelian physics had begun to mount outside the classroom. The main figures in the rebirth of atomism were René Descartes, Pierre Gassendi, and Robert Boyle, as well as other notable figures.

One of the first groups of atomists in England was a cadre of amateur scientists known as the Northumberland circle, led by Henry Percy (1585–1632), the 9th Earl of Northumberland. Although they published little of account, they helped to disseminate atomistic ideas among the burgeoning scientific culture of England, and may have been particularly influential to Francis Bacon, who became an atomist around 1605, though he later rejected some of the claims of atomism. Though they revived the classical form of atomism, this group was among the scientific avant-garde: the Northumberland circle contained nearly half of the confirmed Copernicans prior to 1610 (the year of Galileo’s The Starry Messenger). Other influential atomists of late 16th and early 17th centuries include Giordano Bruno, Thomas Hobbes (who also changed his stance on atomism late in his career), and Thomas Hariot. A number of different atomistic theories were blossoming in France at this time, as well (Clericuzio 2000).

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was an advocate of atomism in his 1612, Discourse on Floating Bodies (Redondi 1969). In The Assayer, Galileo offered a more complete physical system based on a corpuscular theory of matter, in which all phenomena—with the exception of sound—are produced by “matter in motion”. Galileo identified some basic problems with Aristotelian physics through his experiments. He utilized a theory of atomism as a partial replacement, but he was never unequivocally committed to it. For example, his experiments with falling bodies and inclined planes led him to the concepts of circular inertial motion and accelerating free-fall. The current Aristotelian theories of impetus and terrestrial motion were inadequate to explain these. While atomism did not explain the law of fall either, it was a more promising framework in which to develop an explanation because motion was conserved in ancient atomism (unlike Aristotelian physics).

René Descartes’ (1596–1650) “mechanical” philosophy of corpuscularism had much in common with atomism, and is considered, in some senses, to be a different version of it. Descartes thought everything physical in the universe to be made of tiny vortices of matter. Like the ancient atomists, Descartes claimed that sensations, such as taste or temperature, are caused by the shape and size of tiny pieces of matter. The main difference between atomism and Descartes’ concept was the existence of the void. For him, there could be no vacuum, and all matter was constantly swirling to prevent a void as corpuscles moved through other matter. Another key distinction between Descartes’ view and classical atomism is the mind/body duality of Descartes, which allowed for an independent realm of existence for thought, soul, and most importantly, God. Gassendi’s concept was closer to classical atomism, but with no atheistic overtone.

Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655) was a Catholic priest from France who was also an avid natural philosopher. He was particularly intrigued by the Greek atomists, so he set out to “purify” atomism from its heretical and atheistic philosophical conclusions (Dijksterhius 1969). Gassendi formulated his atomistic conception of mechanical philosophy partly in response to Descartes; he particularly opposed Descartes’ reductionist view that only purely mechanical explanations of physics are valid, as well as the application of geometry to the whole of physics (Clericuzio 2000).

Corpuscularianism

Main article: Corpuscularianism

Corpuscularianism is similar to atomism, except that where atoms were supposed to be indivisible, corpuscles could in principle be divided. In this manner, for example, it was theorized that mercury could penetrate into metals and modify their inner structure, a step on the way towards transmutative production of gold. Corpuscularianism was associated by its leading proponents with the idea that some of the properties that objects appear to have are artifacts of the perceiving mind: ’secondary’ qualities as distinguished from ‘primary’ qualities.[25] Not all corpuscularianism made use of the primary-secondary quality distinction, however. An influential tradition in medieval and early modern alchemy argued that chemical analysis revealed the existence of robust corpuscles that retained their identity in chemical compounds (to use the modern term). William R. Newman has dubbed this approach to matter theory “chymical atomism,” and has argued for its significance to both the mechanical philosophy and to the chemical atomism that emerged in the early 19th century.[26] Corpuscularianism stayed a dominant theory over the next several hundred years and retained its links with alchemy in the work of scientists such as Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton in the 17th century.[27][28] It was used by Newton, for instance, in his development of the corpuscular theory of light. The form that came to be accepted by most English scientists after Robert Boyle (1627–1692) was an amalgam of the systems of Descartes and Gassendi. In The Sceptical Chymist (1661), Boyle demonstrates problems that arise from chemistry, and offers up atomism as a possible explanation. The unifying principle that would eventually lead to the acceptance of a hybrid corpuscular–atomism was mechanical philosophy, which became widely accepted by physical sciences.

Atomic theory


Main article: Atomic theory

By the late 18th century, the useful practices of engineering and technology began to influence philosophical explanations for the composition of matter. Those who speculated on the ultimate nature of matter began to verify their “thought experiments” with some repeatable demonstrations, when they could.
Roger Boscovich provided the first general mathematical theory of atomism, based on the ideas of Newton and Leibniz but transforming them so as to provide a programme for atomic physics.[29]
In 1808, John Dalton assimilated the known experimental work of many people to summarize the empirical evidence on the composition of matter. He noticed that distilled water everywhere analyzed to the same elements, hydrogen and oxygen. Similarly, other purified substances decomposed to the same elements in the same proportions by weight.

Therefore we may conclude that the ultimate particles of all homogeneous bodies are perfectly alike in weight, figure, etc. In other words, every particle of water is like every other particle of water; every particle of hydrogen is like every other particle of hydrogen, etc.

Furthermore, he concluded that there was a unique atom for each element, using Lavoisier’s definition of an element as a substance that could not be analyzed into something simpler. Thus, Dalton concluded the following.
Chemical analysis and synthesis go no farther than to the separation of particles one from another, and to their reunion. No new creation or destruction of matter is within the reach of chemical agency. We might as well attempt to introduce a new planet into the solar system, or to annihilate one already in existence, as to create or destroy a particle of hydrogen. All the changes we can produce, consist in separating particles that are in a state of cohesion or combination, and joining those that were previously at a distance.

And then he proceeded to give a list of relative weights in the compositions of several common compounds, summarizing: [2]

1st. That water is a binary compound of hydrogen and oxygen, and the relative weights of the two elementary atoms are as 1:7, nearly;

2nd. That ammonia is a binary compound of hydrogen and azote nitrogen, and the relative weights of the two atoms are as 1:5, nearly…

Dalton concluded that the fixed proportions of elements by weight suggested that the atoms of one element combined with only a limited number of atoms of the other elements to form the substances that he listed.

Atomic theory controversy

Dalton’s atomic theory remained controversial throughout the 19th century.[30] Whilst the Law of definite proportion were accepted, the hypothesis that this was due to atoms was not so widely accepted. For example in 1826 when Sir Humphrey Davy presented Dalton the Royal Medal from the Royal Society, Davy said that the theory only became useful when the atomic conjecture was ignored.[31] Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie in 1866 published the first part of his Calculus of Chemical Operations [32] as a non atomic alternative to the Atomic Theory. He described atomic theory as a ‘Thoroughly materialistic bit of joiners work’.[33] Alexander Williamson used his Presidential Address to the London Chemical Society in 1869 [34] to defend the Atomic Theory against its critics and doubters. This in turn led to further meetings at which the positivists again attacked the supposition that there were atoms. The matter was finally resolved in Dalton’s favour in the early 20th century with the rise of atomic physics.

See also
    •    Becoming (philosophy)
    •    History of chemistry
    •    Infinite divisibility
    •    Ontological pluralism
    •    Physical ontology





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08/25/13
1022 LESSON 26-08-2013 MONDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 5) School of Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religion; http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Devotion in Buddhism Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Buddhism - A religion by Birth or by Practice Happiness & Peace Activity Theme RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF Mahābhūtas Aristotle’s Astronomy
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1022 LESSON 26-08-2013 MONDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism

Devotion in Buddhism

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism - A religion by Birth or by Practice

It is very common to hear people saying that they are birth Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Buddhist etc. But most fundamental question is what does it mean when someone says so. Is it that one is born with the label of a particular religion ?

The fact is that no one by birth belong to a particular religion just because is parents follow that particular religion. It is like Engineer or Doctor parents labelling their child as an Engineer or Doctor just because they themselves parctice that particular profession. Even to have the right to vote one has to be major, i.e., over 18 yrs. Wken such is the case, how is it some one is born into a particular religion which is to be practiced day to day with one’s own proper understanding.

It will be right in the interest of healthy society that every child is informed and exposed to all religions till the age of 21 and then he or she is given the right to take up the religion of his choice.


This is because, one belongs to a particular religion only when he or she personally accepts, commits and practices according to the ideals put forth by that particular religious Teacher or so called god. In Vasala Sutta - the discourse on who is outcaste  Budddha says:

Na jaccha vasalo hoti

Na jaccha hoti bramano

Kammana vasalo hoti

Kammana hoti bramano.

It means that no one is by birth low or high, but it is by action that one is low or high. Similarly no one by birth belongs to a particular religion by it is by self understanding and self accepted practice that one belongs to a particular religion. Therefore about Buddhism it is said that:

In one sense Buddhism is not a religion

In another sense Buddhism is a religion of religions.

In another sense it is not a philosophy

In another sense it philosophy of philoshphies.

Thus Buddhism in neither a metaphysical path nor a ritualistic path.

It si neityher sceptical nor dogmatic.

It is neither eternalism nor nihilism.

It is neither self-mortification nor self-indulgence.

It is neither absolutely this-worldly nor other-worldly.

It is not extrovert but introvert.

It is not theo-centric but homo-centric.

It is a unique pqth of Awakenment to end the Universal malady called Dukkha (Suffering). - (Ve. Narada)


Therefore whatever may be ones religion it is the practice that amkes the person perfect. In the case of Buddhism this can be best understood from the simile of the doctor’s prescription. A man becomes sick and goes to the doctor for help. The doctor examines him and writes out a prescription for medicine. The man having great faith in his doctor returns home and in his prayer room he puts a beautiful picture of the doctor. Then he sits down and pays respect to the picture or atatue; he bows down and offers flowers and incfense. And then he takes out the prescription that the doctor wrote for him, and solemnly he recites it: “Three pills in the morning! Three pills in the afternoon! Three pills in the evening! All day, all week he keeps reciting the prescription because he has great faith in the doctor. Still the prescription does not help him.


So the man decides that he would like to more about the prescription, and therefore goes to the doctor. He asks him, “why did you prescribe this medicine ? How will it help me ? ” Then the doctor explains, “Well look, this is your disease, and this is the root cause of your disease. Ifd you take the medicine  I have prescribed, it will eradicate the cause of your disease. When the cause is eradficated, the disease will automatically disppear.” The man thinks, “Ah wonderful! My doctor is so intellegent! His priscription is so helpful!” And he goes home and starts fighting with his neighbours and acquaintances, insisting, “My soctor is the best doctor! All other doctore are useless!” But what does he gain by such arguments ? All his life he may continue fighting, still this does not help him at all. If he takes the medicine, only then will the man be relieved of his misery, his disease. Only then will the medicine help him.


Every liberated person is like a physician. Out of compassion, he gives a prescription advising people how oto free themselvesof suffering. If people develop blind faith in that person, they turn the prescription into a scripture and start fighting with other sects, claiming that the teaching of the founder of their religion is superior. But they do not care to practice the teaching, to take the medicine prescribesin order to eliminate the malady.


Having faith in the doctor is useful if it encourages the patient to follow his advice. Understanding how the medicine works is beneficial if it encourages one to take the medicine. But without actually taking the medicine, one cannot be cured of the disease. You have to take the medicine yourself.

Religion is not to be followed because of birth,

Religion is to be followed for its worth.

Religion is not to be followed for tacvtics;

Religion is to be followed for practice.


May All Practice Religion For Its Worth And Not Just Beacause Of Birth.


Happiness & Peace
Activity Theme

RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF Mahābhūtas

Aristotle’s Astronomy

by Thomas Fowler

Look at the comments on this paper.

To the modern reader, Aristotle’s views on astronomy, as presented in Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo (On the Heavens) and Simplicius’ Commentary, will most likely seem very bizarre, as they are based more on a priori philosophical speculation than empirical observation. Although Aristotle acknowledged the importance of “scientific” astronomy - the study of the positions, distances and motions of the stars - he nevertheless treated astronomy in the abstract, linking it to his overall philosophical world picture. As a result, the modern distinction between physics and metaphysics is not present in Aristotle, and in order to fully appreciate him we must try to abandon this pre-conception.

Aristotle argued that the universe is spherical and finite. Spherical, because that is the most perfect shape; finite, because it has a center, viz. the center of the earth, and a body with a center cannot be infinite. He believed that the earth, too, is a sphere. It is relatively small compared to the stars, and in contrast to the celestial bodies, always at rest. For one of his proofs of this latter point, he referred to an empirically testable fact: if the earth were in motion, an observer on it would see the fixed stars as moving, just as he now observes the planets as moving, that is from a stationary earth. However, since this is not the case, the earth must be at rest. To prove that the earth is a sphere, he produced the argument that all earthly substances move towards the center, and thus would eventually have to form a sphere. He also used evidence based on observation. If the earth were not spherical, lunar eclipses would not show segments with a curved outline. Furthermore, when one travels northward or southward, one does not see the same stars at night, nor do they occupy the same positions in the sky. (De Caelo, Book II, chapter 14) That the celestial bodies must also be spherical in shape, can be determined by observation. In the case of the stars, Aristotle argued that they would have to be spherical, as this shape, which is the most perfect, allows them to retain their positions. (De Caelo, Book II, chapter 11)

By Aristotle’s time, Empedocles’ view that there are four basic elements - earth, air, fire and water - had been generally accepted. Aristotle, however, in addition to this, postulated a fifth element called aether, which he believed to be the main constituent of the celestial bodies. This divine element, he believed, is uncompounded, ungenerated, eternal, unalterable, and neither heavy nor light. It can be found in its purest form in the celestial regions, but becomes adulterated in the area below the moon. (De Caelo, Book I, chapter 2) Aristotle’s view of the universe was hierarchical, and he made a sharp distinction between the sublunar world of change, and the eternal and immutable heavens.

Aristotle, like Eudoxus and Callippus before him, believed that each planet followed the path laid out by a certain number of spheres. Callippus had postulated 33 spheres in all, 4 each for Saturn and Jupiter, 5 each for Mars, Venus, Mercury, the sun and the moon. The problem with this model, however, was that, according to Aristotle, it did not explain how the motion of the outer spheres was to be prevented from interfering with the motion of the inner spheres. Aristotle therefore attempted a mechanical explanation, and postulated 22 counteracting spheres, which would set things in balance. It is generally held that Aristotle’s addition of these counteracting spheres complicated rather than cleared up the problem of planetary motion.

Aristotle’s many-faceted theory of motion was a fundamental part of his world picture. The complexity of this theory is evidenced in the numerous interpretations offered by modern scholars. Here only the bare bones of it will be presented.
According to Aristotle, there were three kinds of motion: rectilinear, circular and mixed. The four elements of the sublunar world tend to move in straight lines: earth downward, fire upward, water and air falling in between. Aether, on the other hand, naturally moves in circles. He further maintained that everything that is moving has to be set in motion by something else, and thus in order to avoid an infinite regress, he posited a first mover. Aristotle’s descriptions of such a “prime mover” demonstrate how he mixes physics with metaphysics. In De Caelo, Aristotle equated the prime mover of all things with the sphere of the fixed stars, which was itself moving with unceasing motion. (De Caelo, Book I, chapter 9) In the Metaphysics, however, he placed an unmoved prime mover “behind” the fixed stars. He describes this transcendent first mover as eternal and without magnitude; he says that it causes circular movement, and that is the kind of movement that is most perfect, since it has no beginning or end; he states that it is good, and its activity is the highest form of joy. It seems that at one point Aristotle thought of the prime mover as somehow an integral part of the universe itself, and at another as existing outside space and time. These differences may mirror different objectives that Aristotle had at various points in his career.

Aristotle’s hierarchical model of the universe had a profound influence on medieval scholars, who modified it to correspond with Christian theology. Saint Thomas Aquinas, for example, re-interpreted the prime movers as angels. Backed up by religious authority, Aristotle’s model lasted for centuries. Unfortunately, this had the effect of restraining the progress of science, as few people dared to challenge the authority of the church. Nevertheless, we can say of Aristotle that he made a contribution to astronomy simply by starting to ask certain questions about the universe, thereby stimulating other minds to do the same.


Dear Sir,
        I am Sending the report of Spreading Buddhism Conference 2013,
an International Meet held at Nagpur on July 20-21, 2013 for your
information and necessary action.
Naresh Dongre
PA to Dr. Milind Jiwane


Respected Dr. Milind

BSP
and Buddhism are two eyes for people like us. I hope you agree with me.
That is the reason why I wish to publish all our activities. Buddhism
will be revived faster with BSP acquiring the MASTER KEY as desired by
our Babasaheb Dr.B.R. Ambedkar and Kanshiramji and ms Mayawati who were
and are also for the same. Let us all unite and strive for the same by
collecting all the profiles of such intellectuals.

profile with Dhamma Activities

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மற்றும் எது,sammāvāyāma  நேரான பிரயத்தனம்?  இங்கு  எழும்பாத pāpaka பாவம் மற்றும் akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas தம்மங்கள்  எழும்பாதிருக்கும்போது  chanda உத்வேகம் தோற்றுவி தோற்றுவிக்கிறார், அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார்; pāpaka பாவம் மற்றும் akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas   எழும்பாதிருக்கும்போது அதை கைவிட chanda உத்வேகம் தோற்றுவி தோற்றுவிக்கிறார், அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார்;  எழும்பும் pāpaka பாவம் மற்றும் akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas தம்மங்கள்  எழும்பாதிருக்கும்போது  chanda உத்வேகம் தோற்றுவி தோற்றுவிக்கிறார், அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார்; தண்டாமை kusala dhammas,பாராட்டுத் திறனுடைய தம்மங்கள் அவற்றினுடைய குழப்புதல் இராமை,  அவற்றினுடைய மிகுதிப்பாடு, அவற்றினுடைய மேம்பாடு, அவற்றினுடைய நய மேம்பாடு மற்றும் அவற்றினுடைய முழுமையான நிலை, அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார், அது, sammāvāyāma  நேரான பிரயத்தனம் என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

மற்றும் எது,sammāsati நேரான விழிப்பு நிலை? இங்குkāya in kāyaகாயாவை காயாவில் உடம்பில் உடம்பை,ātāpī sampajāno, satimā,  abhijjhā-domanassa இந்த உலகம் நோக்கி ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க உடையவராயிருத்தல்  கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிறார். vedanā in vedanāவேதனையில் வேதனையாக உறுதலுணர்ச்சியில் உறுதலுணர்ச்சியாக ātāpī sampajāno, satimā,  abhijjhā-domanassa இந்த உலகம் நோக்கி ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க உடையவராயிருத்தல்  கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிறார்.   citta in cittaசித்தத்தில் சித்தமாக மனதில் மனமாக , ātāpī sampajāno, satimā,  abhijjhā-domanassa இந்த உலகம் நோக்கி ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க உடையவராயிருத்தல்  கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிறார். அது, sammāsati நேரான விழிப்பு நிலை என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, sammāsamādhi நேரான ஒருமுக சிந்தனை? இங்கு பிக்குகளே,kāma  காமத்திலிருந்து புலனுணர்வு மட்டுமேபற்றிய ஆர்வ வேட்கையிலிருந்து தனிப்பாட்டு akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas தம்மங்கள் தனிப்பாட்டு, முதலாவது jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல்,  vitakka and vicāra எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி மற்றும்  ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் அவ்விடத்தில் உறுதியாக உடன் இருந்து, உடனாக  pīti மற்றும் sukha இல் பிறந்த தொடர்பற்ற தன்மை, உடனாக vitakka-vicāra எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி மற்றும்  ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் மிடாவடை, இரண்டாவதான  jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல், அவ்விடத்தில் உட்புறமான உள அமைதியூக்கி அத்துடன்  citta சித்தமாக மனதில் ஒன்றுபடுத்தல்,  vitakka and vicāra எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி மற்றும்  ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் அவ்விடத்தில் உறுதியாக உடன் இருந்து, உடனாக with pīti கழிபேருவகை மற்றும் sukha சுகம் இன்றி அத்துடன் பிறந்த மனம் ஒருமுக சிந்தனையில் குறிவைத்து அதனுடைய ஒன்றுபடுத்தல் மற்றும் ஒருப்படுத்து இல் மற்றும் உடனாக அக்கறையின்மை  pīti கழிபேருவகை நோக்கி, அவர் upekkha உள்ளச்சமநிலை, sato சிந்தனையுள்ள மற்றும் sampajāno மாறா நிலை பகுத்தறிதல் உடைய அநித்தியம் கூட உரித்தாக்கு ஒத்துப்போ, அவர்  kāya the sukha காயாவில்  உடம்பில் சுகம் அகவுணர்வு நிலைகள் எதனை ariyas மேதக்கவர்கள் விரித்துரை: ‘யார் ஒருவர் உள்ளச்சமநிலை மற்றும் எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்கிற இந்த sukha சுகம் வாசம் செய்’, மூன்றாவது jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல், அவ்விடத்தில் கைவிடப்பட்ட sukha  சுகம் மற்றும் கைவிடப்பட்ட dukkha  துக்கம், somanassa மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற இனிமை மற்றும் domanassa மனத்தால் இனிமையன்மை முன்பாக மறைந்துபோ இன்றி உடையவராயிருத்தல் sukha சுகம் இல்லாததாக dukkha துக்கம்,  தூய்மை உடன் upekkha  உள்ளச்சமநிலை  மற்றும் sati விழிப்புணர்வு, நான்காவதான jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல். அது, sammāsamādhi நேரான ஒருமுக சிந்தனை என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர்  dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன்  வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், samudaya and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் மற்றும் கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், இல்லாவிடில் “இது  dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் ” என உணர்ந்து,  sati விழிப்பு நிலை அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa  ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார். மற்றும் உலகத்தில் சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் நான்கு  ariya·saccas மேதக்க மெய்ம்மை கூர்ந்த கவனிப்புடன் வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

விழிப்பு நிலை பழக்கம் இருத்தலான பலன்கள்

எவராகிலும்,இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஏழு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

ஏழு ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஆறு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

ஆறு ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள்  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஐந்து ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

ஐந்து ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி நான்கு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

நான்கு  ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள்  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி மூன்று ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

மூன்று ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி இரண்டு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.




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08/24/13
1021 LESSON 25-08-2013 SUNDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 5) School of Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religion; http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Devotion in Buddhism Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero-Kishtwar clashes: BSP chief Mayawati demands President’s rule in Jammu and Kashmir
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1021 LESSON 25-08-2013 SUNDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;


http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism

Devotion in Buddhism

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Happiness & Peace
Activity Theme

RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF Mahābhūtas

Latest News

Kishtwar clashes: BSP chief Mayawati demands President’s rule in Jammu and Kashmir

Picture of BSP chief Mayawati speaking in Rajya Sabha

New Delhi: Bahujan
Samaj Party chief Mayawati today demanded President’s rule in Jammu and
Kashmir, saying the state government had failed to handle the situation
in Kishtwar after clashes in Kishtwar district last Friday.

“Law
and order has failed in Jammu and Kashmir and the state government has
failed to control the situation. I demand that the state government be
dismissed and President’s rule be imposed,” Ms Mayawati said, while
speaking in the Rajya Sabha today.

Ms Mayawati said she had no
trust in the judicial probe ordered by the state government, and
demanded a high-level inquiry under the central government.


“The central government should interfere, and a report should
be lodged against home minister Kichloo (Jammu and Kashmir Minister of
State for Home Sajjad Ahmad Kichloo), who was in Kishtwar at the time of
the clashes and failed to control the situation,” she said.

Violence in Kishtwar amid Eid-ul-Fitr celebrations claimed three lives and injured several others.

Jhana and insight, hand-in-hand
There’s no jhana for one with no discernment,    no discernment for one with no jhana. But one with both jhana   & discernment: he’s on the verge    of Unbinding.— Dhp 372

Source: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-samadhi/jhana.html

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Devotion in Buddhism

A devout Buddhist’s life is one in which he devotes himself to the teaching and the Teacher. Apart from the teachings he also follows certain traditional and devotional practices, which may or may not be consistent with the teachings. Yet it is his way of expression of metta, respect, regard and gratitude to the All Compassionate Teacher, the Buddha without whom he would not have the solace, the Noble eight-fold path  - the way out of  Dukkha(suffering).

In the earliest period in the absence of images of Buddha or Bodhisattavas, reverence was paid mainly to Relics, i.e., Stupas, Bodhi trees, Footprints of the Buddha and other sacred symbols. These were constantly represented in the scriptures against a background of beautifully carved figures of men or animals. The commencement of the second period of Buddhist religious art in PRABUDDHA BHARATH is associated with the district of Gandhara in the far north of PRABUDHA BHARATH subcontinent. The characteristic feature of this phase of Buddhism is that the figure of Buddha came to occupy the cells. Gandhara created the conventional type of Buddha, which soon spread from this part to other parts of Asia.

buddha.gif - buddha

buddhist symbols animated gifs


   
    
buddhist symbols animated gifs   
         
 
 
 
 

  
 
 
 
    

 



Please watch:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96c-3v3EB_A

for

Lumbini - Birthplace of Lord Buddha - Nepal.

15.08 mins

http://blogs.reuters.com/faithworld/2011/06/16/china-plans-to-help-nepal-develop-buddhas-birthplace-at-lumbini/


China plans to help Nepal develop Buddha’s birthplace at Lumbini


(A reclining Buddha at Wat Po temple in Bangkok April 8,2008/Sukree Sukplang)

A Chinese-backed foundation and Nepal’s government plan to transform
Lord Buddha’s birthplace in southern Nepal into a magnet for Buddhists
in the same way as Mecca is to Muslims and the Vatican for Catholics.
The Asia Pacific Exchange and Cooperation Foundation
plans to raise $3 billion at home and abroad to build temples, an
airport, a highway, hotels, convention centres and a Buddhist university
in the town of Lumbini, about 171 km (107 miles) southwest of Nepal’s capital Kathmandu.

The foundation, blessed by the Chinese government, signed a
memorandum of understanding with the Nepalese government last month to
jointly develop and operate Lumbini, where Buddha was born Prince
Gautama Siddhartha about 2,600 years ago. The foundation also pledged to
bring communications, water and electricity to Lumbini.

Buddhism was virtually wiped out in China during the chaotic 1966-76
Cultural Revolution when temples were shut, Buddhist statues smashed,
scriptures burned, and monks and nuns forced to return to secular life
and marry. In recent years, China has become more tolerant of Buddhism,
which is considered “traditional culture” alongside Taoism and
Confucianism.


(Bodhi tree and the Mayadevi pond in Lumbini, Nepal, November 2006/Bpilgrim)

 

“Lumbini will transcend religion, ideology and race. We hope to rejuvenate the spirit of Lord Buddha,”
said Xiao Wunan, a devout Buddhist who is executive vice president of
the foundation. The development of Lumbini will also help boost
government revenues, create jobs and improve infrastructure in the
impoverished corner of Nepal, the two sides said in the memorandum. The
town attracts nearly 500,000 tourists each year.

Xiao hopes Lumbini can bring together all three schools of Buddhism — the Mahayana, or “Greater Vehicle” which is dominant in China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Tibetan Buddhism; and the Theravada or  Hinayana (“Lesser Vehicle”) which is popular in Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

China’s expanding ties with countries in South Asia has stoked
concern in giant neighbour India which fears encirclement, but Xiao said
there were no political motives behind the push to develop Lumbini. He
said that the foundation hoped to talk to New Delhi about the
possibility of developing Bodh Gaya in eastern India where Buddha attained enlightenment, and Kushinagar, where he died.


(The Mahabodhi temple compound in the eastern Indian city of Bodh Gaya January 23, 2008/Desmond Boylan)

 

In recent years, officially atheist China has sought to control but
not stifle religion, using faith to help curb rising social unrest and
fill an ideological vacuum in the post-Mao Zedong era. But the
government has little tolerance for groups that challenge its control —
earlier this year security forces detained members of a Christian
“house church” in Beijing that sought a permanent place of worship.

China is generally less fearful of Buddhism, with its home-grown
roots. The number of followers in China has surged dramatically to
about 500 million.

Hangzhou, capital of China’s eastern coastal province of Zhejiang,
hosted the first World Buddhist Forum in 2006, thanks to incumbent Vice
President Xi Jinping, then the provincial Party boss who pulled out all
the stops to stage the landmark event. The second meeting of the forum
was held in Wuxi in nearby Jiangsu province in 2009. China plans to
hold the third forum in Xian, home of the terracotta warriors, next
year.

Last year, the officially atheist Chinese Communists gave their blessings to Tzu Chi Foundation,
a Taiwan Buddhist charity, to set up shop in China, a sign of growing
but still limited religious tolerance and as part of a drive to win the
hearts and minds of Taiwanese. Tzu Chi opened its China chapter in the
form of a bookshop-cum-tea house in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, a
popular investment choice for Taiwanese companies which have pumped
billions of dollars into the world’s second-biggest economy.


(Buddhist
nuns pray in front of a Buddha statue during the annual Phi Ta Khon
Festival at a temple in Suining, Sichuan province, China, May 2,
2009/Stringer)

In 2008, Taiwan’s top monk, Hsing Yun, visited China
for the first time since being banned from entry after his temple near
Los Angeles gave sanctuary to Xu Jiatun, China’s de facto ambassador
to British-ruled Hong Kong, after the Chinese army crushed student-led
demonstrations for democracy in 1989. In Beijing, he urged the Chinese
leadership to turn Tibet’s exiled spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama,
“from an enemy into a friend.”

This kind of comment could have provoked a sharp official response,
but China appears set on winning Taiwanese hearts and minds. Hsing Yun
is now a best-selling author in China, has met former president Jiang
Zemin twice and has been allowed to build a temple in Yixing, Jiangsu
province, as well as hold a calligraphy exhibition.

Among further signs of growing tolerance. museums in Beijing and
Shanghai hosted exhibits last year to commemorate the 400th anniversary
of the death of Matteo Ricci, the Italian Jesuit who brought
Christianity to China.

But China maintains tight control especially in Tibet where monks and nuns have been jailed for supporting independence or their exiled spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989.

via China plans to help Nepal develop Buddha’s birthplace | Reuters.


(Reclining Buddha statue at Wat Po temple in Bangkok, 26 December 2006/Tom Heneghan)

 

http://www.sacred-destinations.com/india/bodhgaya-bodhi-tree

Bodhi Tree, Bodhgaya

Video of the Bodhi Tree

Photo © juicyrai. View all images in our Bodhi Tree Photo Gallery.
Photo © Jonathan.
Photo © Matthew Winterburn.
Photo © juicyrai.
Photo © Diego De Pol.
Photo © Prince Roy.
Photo © Prince Roy.

Uploaded on Jan 11, 2012

Many people around the world do not know that Lord Gautam Buddha, light of Asia was born in Nepal.

This is a documentary covering this birthplace.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qZDaacuS4Q

for

Buddha’s Relic Shines Again : Buddha Memorial Center 舍利重光[英文

3.18mins

Uploaded on Jan 2, 2012

A short animation describing the
cause of the Buddha Memorial Center located at Taiwan, KaoHsiung. The
story describes events happening after Buddha went into Nirvana. His
relics, disciples, and fellow Buddhist went through difficult times.
The Buddha Memorial Center was the idea of Master Hsin Yun and built by
the Fo Guang Shan Temple and it is now officially open to the public.
We welcome you all.

photo


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Buddha in the Anguttara Nikaya says, “When a noble deciple contemplates upon the Awakened One, at that time his mind is not enwrapped in lust or in hatred, or in delusion. At such a time his mind is rightly directed, it got rid of lust, is aloof from it, and is free from it. Here by Lust is meant the five sense desires. By cultivating this contemplation, many beings become purified.


Further the “Vissuddhimagga” says, “If by practicing this devotional meditation one endeavours to live, as it were, in the Master’s presence, and feels ashamed to do or speak or think any unworthy, one will shrink back from evil; and on the positive side one will feel inspired to high endeavour, in emulation of the Master’s great example”.

The devotees during the days when Buddha was alive went to meet Him and pay their respect. But in the absence of Buddha, they would buy the flowers they bought at the enterence of the fragrant chamber of Buddha and departed. The chief lay devotee Anathapindika came to hearof it and requested Venerable Ananda to inquire of the Buddha whether was a possibility of finding a place where devotees might pay obeisance to the Buddha when He was on His teaching tours.

So Venerable Ananda approached the Buddha and asked: “”Is it proper, Blessed One, to construct chetiya (stupa) while you are alive ?” The Buddha replied “No, it is proper to erect an object of reverence appertaining to body only after the passing away of Buddha. An object of reverence reminiscent of the Buddha has no physical basis; it is purely mental. But the great Bodhi tree, under which Buddha got awakenment used by the Buddha, whether He is alive or dead, is an object of reverence, “Then Venerable Ananda said, “Blessed One, when you go on your teaching tours, the monastery of Jetavana is without refuge, and people find no place of reverence. So may I bring a seed of Bodhi tree under which you got Awakened with Awareness and plant at the enterence to Jetavana”. Buddha replied “Very well, Ananda plant it. It will then be as if I constantly abide in Jetavana.” This tree, which sprang up, came to be known as Ananda Bodhi tree.

It is in keeping with the practical wisdom and organising genius of the Buddha that while during His life time He discouraged any form of idol worship, nevertheless realised that in order to provide the laity with some object and symbol of veneration some concession had to be made to the simple faith of the devout and earnest. Hence he permitted them to pay respect and regard to the Bodhi tree as a symbol of His Awakenment with awareness.

Finally before His passing away, in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, He addressed Ananda saying, “there are four places the sight of which should arouse emotion in the faithful”. Which are they? “Here the Tathagata was born” (Lumbini) is the first. “Here the Tathagata attained Supreme Awakenment with Awareness (Buddhagaya) is the second. “Here the Tathagata set in motion the wheel of Dhamma” (Saranath) is the third. “Here the Tathagata attained Nibbana (Eternal Bliss as Final Goal) without reminder” (Kusinara) is the fourth. And Ananda, the faithful monks and nuns, male and female lay-followers will visit those places. Anyone who dies while making the pilgrimage to these shrines with a devout heart will, at the breaking-up of the body after daeth, will be born in happy state.”

Thus ther came to be established after the
Buddha’s passing away, the tradirtional places of reverent worship at
which hundreds of millions of human beings to this day pay their homage,
adoration and gratitude to that exalted being who showed to so many the
way out of darkness, misery and despair of earthly existence.

Vandaami cetiyam sabbam - I venerate all Relic Stupas.


Sabbathanesy Patitthitam - Whereever they are established.

Saririka ahaatu Mahaabodhim - Bodily Relics, Great Bodhi tree

Buddharupamsaklamsadaa - Images of Buddha always.

May all develop devotion towards Buddha - The Awakened One with Awareness.


Happiness & Peace
Activity Theme

RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF Mahābhūtas

Hinduism adds a fifth “great” or “gross” element, akasha or aether.

Hinduism

Further information: The 36 tattvas

In Hinduism’s sacred literature, the “great” or “gross” elements (mahābhūta) are fivefold: space (or “ether”), air, fire, water and earth.[2]

For instance, the Taittirīya Upaniṣad describes the five “sheaths” of a person (Sanskrit: puruṣa), starting with the grossest level of the five evolving great elements:

From this very self (ātman) did space come into being; from space, air; from air, fire; from fire, the waters, from the waters, the earth; from the earth, plants; from plants, food; and from food, man…. Different from and lying within this man formed from the essence of food is the self (ātman) consisting of lifebreath…. Different from and lying within this self consisting of breath is the self (ātman) consisting of mind…. Different from and lying within this self consisting of mind is the self (ātman) consisting of perception…. Different from and lying within this self consisting of perception is the self (ātman) consisting of bliss….[3]

In the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad, God is identified as the source of the great elements:

Some wise men say it is inherent nature, while others say it is time – all totally deluded. It is rather the greatness of god present in the world by means of which this wheel of brahman goes around. Who always encompasses this whole world – the knower, the architect of time, the one without qualities, and the all-knowing one – it is at his command that the work of creation, to be conceived of as earth, water, fire, air, and space, unfolds itself.

The same Upanishad also mentions, “When earth, water fire, air and akasa arise, when the five attributes of the elements, mentioned in the books on yoga, become manifest then the yogi’s body becomes purified by the fire of yoga and he is free from illness, old age and death.” (Verse 2.12).[5]

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இந்த புலனுணர்வு தொகுத்த பொதுக் கருத்துப்படிவம் தொடர்புடைய கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது,
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.

இந்த taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
இந்த  vitakka எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது,
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது,
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.

இந்த vicāra ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
இது ராஷ்ட்ரிய ஸ்வயம் சேவக் சங்கத்தினரின் கதை விடும் திறன்.

E4.  மார்க சத்தியத்தை விளக்கிக்காட்டுதல்
மற்றும் எது,dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca   துக்கம் முடிவுறுகிற மார்க வழிகாட்டும் மேதக்க மெய்மை சத்திய பண்பு? அது சும்மா இந்த  ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga எண்வகுப்பான மேதக்க மெய்மை சத்திய மார்கம், என்று சொல்லப்படுகிற, sammādiṭṭhi திருஷ்டி நேரான நோக்கு, sammāsaṅkappo நேரான உட்கருத்து/எண்ணம், sammāvācā நேரான பேச்சு, sammākammanto  நேரான வினையாற்றுதல், sammā-ājīvo  நேரான ஜீவனோபாயம், sammāvāyāmo நேரான பிரயத்தனம், sammāsati நேரான விழிப்பு நிலை மற்றும் sammāsamādhi நேரான ஒருமுக சிந்தனை.

மற்றும் எது,sammādiṭṭhi திருஷ்டி நேரான நோக்கு? அது, இந்த  ñāṇa of dukkha, துக்க ஞானம், ñāṇa of dukkha-samudaya,  இந்த துக்க மரபுமூல ஞானம்,  ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha  இந்த துக்க இடைநிறுத்த ஞானம்,  மற்றும் ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada  இந்த துக்க முடிவுறுகிற மார்க வழிகாட்டும் ஞானம்,அது, பிக்குகளே, sammādiṭṭhi திருஷ்டி நேரான நோக்கு என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

மற்றும் எது, sammāsaṅkappo நேரான உட்கருத்து/எண்ணம்? அவை,
 saṅkappas of nekkhamma உலகப்பற்று துறவு சிந்தனா சக்தி,saṅkappas of abyāpāda  வைராக்கியம் இன்மை சிந்தனா சக்தி,  saṅkappas of avihiṃsā வன்முறை இன்மை சிந்தனா சக்தி, அது,sammāsaṅkappo நேரான உட்கருத்து/எண்ணம், என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

மற்றும் எது,sammā-ājīva நேரான பேச்சு? அது,musāvādā பொய் தவிர்வு  pisuṇa vācā கேடு நோக்கான பேச்சு  தவிர்வு pharusa vācā கடுமையான பேச்சு தவிர்வு மற்றும் samphappalāpa அற்பப்பொழுதுபோக்கான உரையாடல் தவிர்வு அது, நேரான பேச்சு, என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

தாழ்தப்பட்டவர் என்று இன்னல்களுக்கு உட்படுகிராரோ அவர் சரியான பாதையில் செல்கிறார் என்று அர்த்தம். இந்த விழிப்பு உணர்வோடு ஒன்று பட்டு அம்பேத்கர் விருப்பபடி மாஸ்டர் சாவியை பஹுஜன் சமாஜ் கட்சியுடன் சேர்ந்து கைபற்ற வேண்டும்.

மற்றும் எது sammā-kammanta நேரான வினையாற்றுதல்? அது,  pāṇātipāta  பிராண நாசம் தவிர்வு   adinnādāna  கொடுக்கப்படாத யாவையும் எடுத்தல் தவிர்வு abrahmacariya  தூய வாழ்க்கைவாழ்க்கைக்கு எதிர் நிலையான பாலுறவு தவிர்வு, அது, sammā-kammanta நேரான வினையாற் றுதல் என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

மற்றும் எது,sammā-ājīva நேரான ஜீவனோபாயம்? இங்கு ஒரு மேதக்க சீடர், பிழையான ஜீவனோபாயம் கைவிடப்பட்ட உடையவராயிருத்தல், அவருடைய வாழ்க்கை நேர்மை வழிவகை ஜீவனோபாயம் ஆதரவுடன்   வாழ்கிறார், அது,sammā-ājīva நேரான ஜீவனோபாயம் என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.



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08/23/13
1020 LESSON 24-08-2013 SATURDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 5) School of Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religion; Please send your profile with Dhamma Activities (Pictures, moving images, animations, GIFs, chantings and Videos) to sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in chandrasekhara.tipitaka@gmail.com convergeitbtnt@gmail.com to publish in http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Buddhism and The Venerated Relics Happiness & Peace Activity Theme RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF Mahābhūtas
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1020 LESSON 24-08-2013 SATURDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;

Please send your profile with Dhamma Activities (Pictures, moving images, animations, GIFs, chantings and Videos)
to
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in
chandrasekhara.tipitaka@gmail.com
convergeitbtnt@gmail.com

to publish in
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism

Buddhism and The Venerated Relics

Happiness & Peace
Activity Theme

RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF Mahābhūtas


In the world there is hardly any tradition which equals the Buddhist tradition in respecting and venerating the Relics of their Teacher, be it in PRABUDDHA BHARATH the land of the birth of Buddha or foreign lagds like Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, China etc. To the Buddhist the sacred Relics of Buddha are of utmost importance. The sites where these sacred Relics have been enshrined are stupas (cheityas) to vicars and these have become important places of pilgrimage. By visiting these sites, performing rituals and meditating in the presence of the Relics, the Buddhists believe they would get much merit and spiritual inspiration to cross over the ocean of suffering and would one day finally reach the other shore called Nibbana.

Once Venerable Ananda approached the Buddha and asked: “Is it proper, Blessed One, to construct chetiya (stupa) while you are alive ?” The Buddha replied “No, it is proper to erect an object of reverence appertaining to body only after the passing away of Buddha”.

So after the Mahaparinibbana (passing away) of Buddha, his followers divided the corporeal remains into eight parts and constructed cheityas over them. After 200 years of Lord Buddha’s Mahaparinibbana, the great mauriyan king Dhamma Ashoka caused the digging of these stupas for recovering the holy relics. He divided them into 84,000 parts and distributed them among various regions for enshrining them in 84,000 shrines in Jambudvipa island as part of the royal propagation of Buddhism.

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Reliquaries or Relic caskets within a stupa normally contain corporeal Relics in a gold box frequently nestled un a silver box, which in turn is placed in a stone box. The Reliquaries or Relics caskets usually contain offerings associated with the “sacred Relics”. They could be beads, crystals, pearls, emeralds or other precious and semiprecious stones, gold wire, rings, gold leaves, or discs, stamped with flower patterns, coins, metal plates or stripes and images. These offerings have deep meaning, for instance, seven kind of undrilled stones may represent as an offering of seven jewels; the drilled stones may represent the offering of a necklace, the silver wire and gold leaf may represent an offering of metal, and the silver coin may be an offering of money.

It is commonly known that among the Buddhists there are five classes of objects of worship and they are venerated with deep devotion.

1.    Sacred corporeal Relics of the Buddha i.e., as hes, bones, teeth, nails, hair etc.

2.    The objects the Buddha personally used i.e., robes, staffs, bowls etc.

3.    Other objects and places which have been made holy by the presence of Buddha i.e., trees,such as Bodhi tree at Buddhagaya, Mahabodhi tree at Anuradhapura etc. and places such s Sarnath, Kusinara, Lumbni, Siripada spread over PRABUDDHA BHARATH, Nepal and Sri lanka.

4.    Sacred corporeal Relics of Chief Desiples of Lord Buddha Like Arahant Sariputta and Aarahant Mogallana, images of Lord Buddha, Bodhisatvas to Mandalas.

5.    In absence of Sacred Relics, manuscripts, copies of Suttas, Sacred formulae, seed syllables etc. are endhrines in the stupas.

In the earliest period in the absence of images of Buddha or Bodhisatvas, reverence was paid mainly to Relics, i.e., stupas, Bodhi trees, foot prints of Buddha and other sacred symbols. these were constantly represented in the sculptures against a background of beautifully carved figures of men or animals. The commencement of the second period of Buddhist religious art in PRABUDDHA BHARATH is associated with the district of Gandhara in the far north of PRABUDHA BHARATH subcontinent. The characteristic feature of this phase of Buddhism is that the figure of Buddha came to occupy the cells. Gandhara created the conventional type of Buddha, which soon spread from this part to other parts of Asia.

The devout Buddhist’s life is one which they devote themselves to the teaching and the Teacher. Apart from the teachings they also follow certain traditional and devotional practices, which are their way of expression of metta, respect, regard and gratitude to the ALL Compassionate Teacher - The Buddha without whom, they would not have found the solace and the Noble eight-fold path - the way out of suffering.

Matrceta a Buddhist poet of the first century has rightly said: “In whom at all times and in all ways all faults are absent and in whom ll virtues in every manner are established, in Him it improper for them to have understanding to take refuge, to praise Him, to serve Him and to stand fast in His teaching”. The Relics serve the noble purpose of inspiring humanity in the above mentioned direction.

May the Relics be the object of inspiration to walk on the path shown by Buddha.

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Mastery of jhana is a mark of wisdom


“I declare a person endowed with four qualities to be one of great discernment, a great man. Which four?
“There is the case, brahman, where he practices for the welfare & happiness of many people and has established many people in the noble method, i.e., the rightness of what is admirable, the rightness of what is skillful.
“He thinks any thought he wants to think, and doesn’t think any thought he doesn’t want to think. He wills any resolve he wants to will, and doesn’t will any resolve he doesn’t want to will. He has attained mastery of the mind with regard to the pathways of thought.
“He attains — whenever he wants, without strain, without difficulty — the four jhanas that are heightened mental states, pleasant abidings in the here-&-now.
“With the ending of mental fermentations — he remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for himself right in the here-&-now.
“…I declare a person endowed with these four qualities to be one of great discernment, a great man.”

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Happiness & Peace
Activity Theme

RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF Mahābhūtas

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1xN-Wpetsg
Paul Horn - The Mahabhutas
20.01 Mins
http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCB4n43hmk1GDCJeW-20tNoA?feature=watch
Vairocana Buddha
32:11 Mins
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81bh%C5%ABta

Mahābhūta
Pāli for “great element.”In Buddhism, the “four great elements” (Pali: cattāro mahābhūtāni) are earth, water, fire and air.
is generally synonymous with catudhātu, which is Pāli for the “Four Elements.” In early Buddhism, the Four Elements are a basis for understanding and for liberating oneself from suffering. They are categories used to relate to the sensible physical world, and are conceived of not as substances, but as sensorial qualities.

Definitions
In the Pali canon,[8] the most basic elements are usually identified as four in number but, on occasion, a fifth and, to an even lesser extent, a sixth element may be also be identified.
Four primary elements
In canonical texts, the four Great Elements refer to elements that are both “external” (that is, outside the body, such as a river) and “internal” (that is, of the body, such as blood). These elements are described as follows:
    •    Earth element (pruṭhavī-dhātu)
Internal earth elements include head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bone, organs, intestinal material, etc.[9]
    •    Water (or liquid) element (āpa-dhātu)
Internal water elements include bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, nasal mucus, urine, etc.[10]
    •    Fire element (teja-dhātu)
Internal fire elements include those bodily mechanisms that produce physical warmth, ageing, digestion, etc.
    •    Air (or wind) element (vāyu-dhātu)
Internal air elements includes air associated with the pulmonary system (for example, for breathing), the intestinal system (”winds in the belly and … bowels”), etc.
These four elements are described as “primary” or “underived” (no-upādā) matter (rūpa), meaning that they cannot be analysed into further atomistic units. While underived, this does not mean that they are “unconditioned.”[11] Thus, for instance, according to the 5th-century CE commentarial Visuddhimagga, “as to the proximate cause, each [element] has the other three as its proximate cause.”[12]
Fifth and sixth elements
In addition to the above four elements of underived matter, two other elements are occasionally found in the Pali Canon:[13]
    •    Space element (ākāsa-dhātu)
Internal space elements includes bodily orifices such as the ears, nostrils, mouth, anus, etc.
    •    Consciousness element (viññāṇa-dhātu)
Described as “pure and bright” (parisuddhaṃ pariyodātaṃ), used to cognise the three feelings (vedana) of pleasure, pain and neither-pleasure-nor-pain, and the arising and passing of the sense contact (phassa) upon which these feelings are dependent.
According to the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the “space element” is identified as “secondary” or “derived” (upādā).[14]
Sensory qualities, not substances
Rūpa (matter) means both materiality and sensibility—it signifies, for example, a tactile object both insofar as that object is tactile and that it can be sensed. Rūpa is never a materiality which can be separated or isolated from cognizance; such a non-empirical category is incongruous in the context of early Buddhism. Rūpa is not a substratum or substance which has sensibility as a property. It functions in early Buddhist thought as perceivable physicality. Matter, or rūpa, is defined in terms of its function; what it does, not what it is.[15] As such, the four great elements are conceptual abstractions drawn from the sensorium. They are sensorial typologies, and are not metaphysically materialistic.[16] They are not meant to give an account of matter as constitutive of external, mind-independent reality.[17]
Soteriological uses
The Four Elements are used in Buddhist texts to both elucidate the concept of suffering (dukkha) and as an object of meditation. The earliest Buddhist texts explain that the four primary material elements are the sensory qualities solidity, fluidity, temperature, and mobility; their characterisation as earth, water, fire, and air, respectively, is declared an abstraction – instead of concentrating on the fact of material existence, one observes how a physical thing is sensed, felt, perceived.[18]
Understanding suffering
The Four Elements pertinence to the Buddhist notion of suffering comes about due to:
    •    The Four Elements are the primary component of “form” (rūpa).
    •    “Form” is first category of the “Five Aggregates” (khandhas).
    •    The Five Aggregates are the ultimate basis for suffering (dukkha) in the “Four Noble Truths.”
Schematically, this can be represented in reverse order as:
Four Noble Truths → Suffering → Aggregates → Form → Four Elements
Thus, to deeply understand the Buddha’s Four Noble Truths, it is beneficial to have an understanding of the Great Elements.
Meditation object
In the Mahasatipatthana Sutta (”The Greater Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness,” DN 22), in listing various bodily meditation techniques, the Buddha instructs:
“…Just as if a skilled butcher or his assistant, having slaughtered a cow, were to sit at a crossroads with the carcass divided into portions, so a monk reviews this very body … in terms of the elements: ‘There are in this body the earth-element, the water-element, the fire-element, the air-element.’ So he abides contemplating body as body internally….”[19]
In the Visuddhimagga’s well-known list of forty meditation objects (kammaṭṭhāna), the great elements are listed as the first four objects.
B. Alan Wallace compares the Theravada meditative practice of “attending to the emblem of consciousness” to the practice in Mahamudra and Dzogchen of “maintaining the mind upon non-conceptuality”, which is also aimed at focusing on the nature of consciousness.[20]
Buddhist sources
In the Pali canon, the Four Elements are described in detail in the following discourses (sutta):
    •    Mahahatthipadompama Sutta (”The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint,” MN 28)[21]
    •    Maharahulovada Sutta (”The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula,” MN 62)[22]
    •    Dhatuvibhanga Sutta (”The Exposition of the Elements,” MN 140)[23]
The Four Elements are also referenced in:
    •    Kevaddha Sutta (DN 11)[24]
    •    Mahasatipatthana Sutta (DN 22)
    •    Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10)
    •    Chabbisodhana Sutta (MN 112)
    •    Bahudhatuka Sutta (MN 115)
    •    Kayagatasati Sutta (MN 119)[25]
    •    Anathapindikovada Sutta (MN 143)[26]
    •    Catudhatu-vaggo (SN ch. 14, subch. IV), several discourses[27]
    •    Saddhammapatirupaka Sutta (SN 16.13)[28]
    •    Bija Sutta (SN 22.54)[29]
    •    Asivisa Sutta (SN 35.197 or 35.238)[30]
    •    Kimsuka Sutta (SN 35.204 or 35.245)[31]
    •    Dutiya-mittamacca Sutta (SN 55.17)[32]
    •    various brief Samyutta Nikaya discourses entitled, “Dhatu Sutta” (SN 18.9,[33] SN 25.9,[34] SN 26.9,[35] SN 27.9[36])
    •    Tittha Sutta (AN 3.61)[37]
    •    Nivesaka Sutta (AN 3.75)
    •    Rahula Sutta (AN 4.177)
In addition, the Visuddhimagga XI.27ff has an extensive discussion of the Four Elements.[38]
    •    Classical element
    •    Dukkha
    •    Four Noble Truths
    •    Khandhas
    •    Prakriti (Mulaprakriti) (Vedic conceptions of the basic elements of the universe)
    •    Rupa
    •    Samkhya (school of classical Indian philosophy, which including ether, defines Mahabhuta as 5 subtle elements)
    •   

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இந்த  vitakka எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.

இந்த vicāra ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.


E3.  Nirodhasaccaமுடிவுறுகிற சத்தியத்தை விளக்கிக்காட்டுதல்
மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca துக்கத்தின் மூலக்காரணமான மேதக்க மெய்ம்மை ?அது இந்த, மறுபிறப்பிற்கு வழிகாட்டும் அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, அத்துடன் இணைக்கப்பட்ட ஆர்வ வேட்கை மற்றும் இன்பம் நுகர்தல், இங்கும் அங்குமாக களிப்பூட்டு காண்டல், அதை வாக்காட: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and vibhava-taṇhā புலனுணர்வுக்கு ஆட்பட்ட சபல இச்சை, மறுமுறை தொடர்ந்து உயிர் வாழ அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை மற்றும் மறுமுறை தொடர்ந்து உயிர் வாழாதிருக்க அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை. ஆனால் இந்த taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, பிக்குளே, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது? அங்கே இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிற , அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில், எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
மற்றும் எது இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறது? இந்த கண் உலகத்தினுள்ளே  மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறது, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த காது உலகத்தினுள்ளே  மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறது, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த மூக்கு உலகத்தினுள்ளே  மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறது, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த நாக்கு உலகத்தினுள்ளே  மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறது, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ,முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த Kāya காயம்  உடல்  உலகத்தினுள்ளே  மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறது, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. Mana மனம்  உலகத்தினுள்ளே  மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறது, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.


கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது,  எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,  அது  எங்கே  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.

இந்த eye-viññāṇa கண்-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.இந்த ear-viññāṇa காது-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.இந்த nose-viññāṇa மூக்கு-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.இந்த  tongue-viññāṇa நாக்கு-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த Kāyaகாயம் -viññāṇa உடம்பு-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
இந்த Mana-viññāṇa மனம்-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,  அது  எங்கே  எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.

இந்த eye-samphassa  கண்-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த ear-samphassa காது-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த nose-samphassa  மூக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த  tongue-samphassa  நாக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த Kāyaகாயம் -samphassa உடம்பு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. இந்த Mana-samphassa மனம்-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.

The vedanāவேதனையால் பிறந்த இந்த eye-samphassa  கண்-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது,  எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.இந்த ear-samphassa காது-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது,  எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.இந்த nose-samphassa  மூக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது,  எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.இந்த  tongue-samphassa  நாக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
இந்த Kāyaகாயம் -samphassa உடம்பு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.
இந்த Mana-samphassa மனம்-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.

இந்த saññā புலனுணர்வு கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை,எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. saññā புலனுணர்வு ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.saññā புலனுணர்வு வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.saññā புலனுணர்வு சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.saññā புலனுணர்வு உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, 
எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது. saññā புலனுணர்வு Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எப்போது கைவிடப்பட்டதோ, கைவிடப்படுகிறது, எங்கே எப்போது முடிவுறுகிறதோ, முடிவுறுகிறது.



VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ SADBHAVAN

VHP yatra row: BJP, Congress in war of words

VHP yatra row: Mayawati says connivance between BJP, SP

New Delhi: BSP supremo Mayawati on Thursday alleged connivance between
BJP and SP over VHP’s proposed yatra from Ayodhya, saying the parties
wanted to create communal tension in Uttar Pradesh.

“I think the controversy about the VHP yatra is with an understanding
between both the parties…BJP and SP are behind the controversy over
the yatra and both these parties want to create communal tension. They
want violence between” two communities, Mayawati told reporters outside
Parliament.

She said both the parties were on a weak footing in the state.

“The Samajwadi Party government has badly failed on the law and order
front. People of the state are very much against the government because
of the deteriorating law and order situation.”


“On the other hand, BJP’s position is also not good in the state and
both the parties are aware of it. Lok Sabha elections are round the
corner, so in this situation if Lok Sabha elections are held, the
results will not be good for SP and BJP,” she said.

Condemning the “political game plan” behind the controversy over VHP’s
yatra, she appealed both communities to be aware of the “sinister design
of SP and BJP”.

The former UP chief minister also demanded imposition of President’s
Rule in the state saying even “policemen are not safe in the state”.

Referring to the attack on a DSP and a constable by liquor mafia near
Ghaziabad recently, Mayawati said, “When policemen are not safe in UP,
how can the common man in the state be safe?”

“People are suffering because of deteriorating law and order situation.
When police tries to act against criminals, they are attacked,” she
said.

“That is why, I appeal to the UP Governor to take all these incidents
seriously into consideration and recommend President’s Rule in the
state,” she said.

PTI

It is the Congress which is in power which t is allowing RSS VHP
& BJP with connivance of SP are behind the controversy over
the yatra and all these parties want to create communal tension. They
want violence between” two communities and  to Communalise and polarise
the people which were on a weak footing in the state. Congress and BJP
are the two sides of the same coin. They are the chips of Coal and Iron
blocks. Vultures of the same feather flocking together preying on the
dead bodies of the poor in villages and spreading to slums with the
support of most of the greedy media which is just less than a percent of
the population. Rest of the population must awake with this awareness
and throw them out of power and capture the MASTER KEY for BSP for
unlocking all doors of development and progress as enshrined in the
Constitution.

As the Samajwadi Party government has badly failed on the law and order
front. People of the state are very much against the government because
of the deteriorating law and order situation. On the other hand, BJP’s position is also not good in the state and
both the parties are aware of it. Lok Sabha elections are round the
corner, so in this situation if Lok Sabha elections are held, the
results will not be good for SP and BJP. Political game plan” behind the controversy over VHP’s
yatra, both communities must to be aware of the “sinister design
of SP and BJP

Imposition of President’s
Rule in the state is the only way out as even policemen are not safe in the state.
When police tries to act against criminals, they are attacked.

THE CONGRESS IN POWER INSTEAD OF SHOUTING THEY SHOULD TAKE LEGAL ACTION AGAINST COMMUALISERS AND POLARISERS.
 In
the first place they must replace all Electronic Voting Machines which
are not tamper proof and as directed by the Supreme Court and the SOURCE
CODE must be made public.

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Even policemen not safe in SP-ruled Uttar Pradesh



Political parties take up poll position on Ram temple issue

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Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan


It is the Congress which is in
power which t is allowing RSS VHP & BJP with connivance of SP are
behind the controversy over
the yatra and all these parties want to create communal tension. They
want violence between” two communities and to Communalise and polarise the people which were on a weak footing in the state.
Congress and BJP are the two sides of the same coin. They are the chips
of Coal and Iron blocks. Vultures of the same feather flocking together
preying on the dead bodies of the poor in villages and spreading to
slums with the support of most of the greedy media which is just less
than a percent of the population. Rest of the population must awake with
this awareness and throw them out of power and capture the MASTER KEY
for BSP for unlocking all doors of development and progress as enshrined
in the Constitution.

As the Samajwadi Party government has badly failed on the law and order
front. People of the state are very much against the government because
of the deteriorating law and order situation. On the other hand, BJP’s position is also not good in the state and
both the parties are aware of it. Lok Sabha elections are round the
corner, so in this situation if Lok Sabha elections are held, the
results will not be good for SP and BJP. Political game plan” behind the controversy over VHP’s
yatra, both communities must to be aware of the “sinister design
of SP and BJP

Imposition of President’s
Rule in the state is the only way out as even policemen are not safe in the state.
When police tries to act against criminals, they are attacked.

THE CONGRESS IN POWER INSTEAD OF SHOUTING THEY SHOULD TAKE LEGAL ACTION AGAINST COMMUALISERS AND POLARISERS.
In
the first place they must replace all Electronic Voting Machines which
are not tamper proof and as directed by the Supreme Court and the SOURCE
CODE must be made public.



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08/22/13
1019 LESSON 23-08-2013 FRIDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -5) School of Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religion; -Please send your profile with Dhamma Activities (Pictures, moving images, animations, GIFs, chantings and Videos) to sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in chandrasekhara.tipitaka@gmail.com convergeitbtnt@gmail.com to publish in http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Buddhism and Miracles
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1019 LESSON 23-08-2013 FRIDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;

Please send your profile with Dhamma Activities (Pictures, moving images, animations, GIFs, chantings and Videos)
to
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in
chandrasekhara.tipitaka@gmail.com
convergeitbtnt@gmail.com

to publish in
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
for revival of Buddhism


Rotating earth (large).gif
meditation jhana
Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism and Miracles

The attainment of supernormal or what may be called miraculous powers is by itself no achievement. On certain occasions miracles were performed by the Buddha and his disciples for the sole purpose of directing the minds towards the spiritual path. The Buddha from his coming to this world and final passing away exhibited supernormal powers when a particular occasion justified such exhibition. But it should be noted that the possession of these supernormal powers is in itself no sure sign of advancement in spiritual life. Neither are the powers an end in themselves. For these mundane supernormal powers were also obtained by Devadatta, the cousin disciple of Buddha, who from all accounts that we posses of him was far away from the spiritual path.
 The Buddha has not attached much importance to them. He had rather condemned them as we gather from his statement in the Kevatta Sutta: ‘It is because I see danger, in the practice of these mystic powers, Kevatta that I loathe and abhor them and am ashamed hereof’.

The ordinary people came to attach importance to these supernormal powers. In fact, for them the possession of these powers and the performance of miracles became the hallmark of spiritual life. This was nothing but a misinterpretation of values. The Buddha by a Vinaya injunction has debarred all his disciples, from performing miracles.

Thus the supernormal powers are not at all necessary for the final emancipation which every practitioner is supposed to strive for. They are great allurements that distract the mind of the spiritual aspirant from the real goal. They give a wrong impression to the public about the spiritual attainment of the monk. Higher spiritual attainment of sainthood in the real sense of the term can easily dispense with these superficial attainments.

Now we come to the final question. What, if any is the significance of these supernormal powers ? Do they play any part whatsoever in spiritual life?

The significance of these supernormal powers lies in the demonstrating the fact that the mind is capable of acquiring if trained and directed in the right direction. Although for final spiritual salvation these have no values, still the possession of these powers give s the aspirant a spirit of self confidence in the sense that they give him that mastery of the self which enables him to direct his will towerds the accomplishment of the desired purpose. The real miracle that is affected while pushing the spiritual path is the complete transformation of the human personality. A man, biologically an animal, by following the path od self culture leading to salvation, recommended by the teacher can gradually shed his animal nature and attain to transcendental heights. This transformation of the gross human elements into something finer and more valuable is the supernormal powers.

Dr. Ambedkar is his book Buddha and His Dhamma says that whenever any phenomenon occurs, humanity is always wanting to know how it has happened, what is the cause of it. Sometimes cause and effect are so proximate and so close that it is difficult to account for the occurrence of the event. But often times the effect is so far away from the cause for the effect is not accountable. Apparently there appears to be no cause for it.

The question arises: How has this event occurred ? The common answer is that the occurrence of the event is due to some supernatural cause which is often called a Miracle.

It may be that man is not able to discover the real cause of the occurrence of the event. But if he has intelligence he is bound one day to discover it. In repudiating supernaturalism the Buddha had three objects.

His first object waste lead man to the path of rationalism.

His second object was to free man to go in search of Truth.

His third object was to remove the most potent source of superstition, the result of which is to kill the spirit of inquiry.

This is called the law of Kamma or Causation. This doctrine of Kamma and causation is the most central doctrine of Buddhism. It preaches Rationalism and Buddhism is nothing if not Rationalism. That is why worship of supernatural is Not-DHAMMA (ADHAMMA).

THE BUDDHA DURING HIS 45 YEARS OF PREACHING DID ACTUALLY WORK 3500 MIRACLES. BUT, BUDDHISTS MAKE NO FUSS AND BOTHER ABOUT THEIR OWN PSYCHIC POWERS. FOR MIRACLES-WORKING IS NOT CRITERION OF ONE’S SPIRITULTY, NOR IS IT A PRE-REQUSITE TO THE ATTAINMENT OF NIBBANA. On the other hand we have the exsample of Buddha’s cousin Devadatta who having gained the power of Miracles yet lost the Kingdom of Nibbana. Even worse than this is that now a days most people do not use logic, run after magic and final make their life tragic.

Thus power of miracles need not be assign of Purity. Purity in itself is a (Spiritul) Power through which one gains the ultimate bliss of Nibbana - The finl liberation.

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http://www.buddhastation.com/meditation-videos/about-meditation/meditation-then-and-now/

 

Meditation – Then and Now
A short and good animation on what is meditation.
Where did it come from? What can it do for me?Settling the surface mind is meditation. Living in the present is meditation. Relaxing deeply is meditation. When you are really happy, reposing in love, you are meditating. Meditation is that space when the thoughts have subsided, and the mind is in complete rest.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-samadhi/jhana.html
Jhana

http://www.tricycle.com/online-retreats/touching-enlightenment/touching-enlightenment-part-1
Touching Enlightenment Part 1

Touching Enlightenment Part 2

Touching Enlightenment Part 3

Touching Enlightenment Part 4

The definition (with similes)

http://www.buddhastation.com/buddhism-articles/jhanameditative-absorption/

Jhana:meditative absorption

Jhana or meditative absorption is a meditative state of profound stillness and concentration in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of attention. It is the cornerstone in the development of Right Concentration.

The definition (with similes)

[First jhana]

“There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities — enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

“Just as if a skilled bathman or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and without — would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal…

[Second jhana]

“Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation — internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure.
“Just like a lake with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from east, west, north, or south, and with the skies periodically supplying abundant showers, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure…

[Third jhana]

“And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.
“Just as in a blue-, white-, or red-lotus pond, there may be some of the blue, white, or red lotuses which, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those blue, white, or red lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture…
[Fourth jhana]
“And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.
“Just as if a man were sitting wrapped from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating his body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.”

School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion

“RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF HUMAN MIND”. ‘GOD AND RELIGION’

PRABUDDHA BHARATH society is known for its religious plurality.PRABUDDHA BHARATH has given place for the birth of religions like Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Hinduism and permitted to migrate into its soil like Judaism, Christianity Islam. Besides today Constitution guarantees its citizens to profess and practice any religion according to their choice.

 But this privilege is being misused in the name of preaching or converting one person by various means. To safeguard and strengthening of various unique features of PRABUDHA BHARATH SECULARISM obviously and absolutely it is necessary for the religious communities to know how to relate themselves with one another and work together for the promotion of social peace and national unity.

In this context a seminar on the topic of INTERPRETATION OF FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS (SPACE< AIR< FIRE< WATER AND EARTH) would make a comparative study of how the religions of the world and schools of various thoughts see the elements.

Christianity says god created man from dust or earth elements and blew breath to atart the ‘living’ and ‘life’. Buddhism defines about ‘ultimate irreducible particle of an element’ calling it technically ‘Kalaba’ which still smaller than electron of an element as defined by modern physical science. Jainism names the smallest particle of any element as ‘Draviya’. Islamic atomism talks about the weight of an atom. Like wise all schools of thoughts of ancient PRABUDDHA BHARATH western world such as LOKAVADA or CHARUVAKAS, SANKYA, MEEMAMSAKAS, NYAYAVADINS, VAISHESIKAS developed and formulated their concepts on these five elements resulted in Atomism of various ideas coining their technical terms. For example the Pali tern ‘Kalpa’ is a name given to sub-atomic particle of an atom which is smaller than electron of modern physical science. Jainism admits that ‘time’ aslo a matter.

Modern science beleives that it is giving a permanent theory for all its discoveries whereas it also changes the concepts and ideas time to time. Dalton told anatom cannot be divided but this theory disproved by atomic fission and fusion. Darwin’ evolution theory also disproved. Shortly speaking we are ina field of ever changing nature in Buddhist point of view ‘anicca’ the impermanent nature of the nature and matter.

So this seminar purports to have a comparative study on the concepts of major religions how they first viewed the physical surroundings and how it is related with modern scientific theories.

GUIDE LINES FOR THE PAPER PRESENTERS:

1) Basic tenets or philophical theories should not be discussed.
2) The paper should analyse the religious theory on the basic elements and atomism.
3) Whenever original texts are quoted English version should be rendered.
4) All papers will be made as CD and served to the participants.
5) Paper presenters amy issue hard copy of their paper at their own cost.
6) Paper should not exceed to 10 pages in A4 size. *Times New Roman Fonts.

THE DATE AND VENUE OF THE SEMINAR WILL BE ANNOUNCED 20 DAYS BEFORE and mentioned in the invitation.

Paper should be submitted before 45 days after the receipt of this Brochure.

The topics for forth coming seminars will be, “RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF HUMAN MIND”. ‘GOD AND RELIGION’

Seminar Co-Sponsor

* Tamilnadu Boutha Sangam,
* Dhamma Vijaya Buddha Vihar, Madurai
* Pandit Ayyothidasa Research Center, Madurai
* Tipitaka Tamil Foundation, Chennai


Happiness & Peace
Activity Theme

E2.  Samudayasacca சமுதயசத்தியத்தை விளக்கிக்காட்டுதல் (contd)


கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.

இந்த eye-viññāṇa கண்-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.இந்த ear-viññāṇa காது-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.இந்த nose-viññāṇa மூக்கு-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. இந்த  tongue-viññāṇa நாக்கு-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. இந்த Kāyaகாயம் -viññāṇa உடம்பு-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
இந்த Mana-viññāṇa மனம்-விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.

இந்த eye-samphassa  கண்-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.இந்த ear-samphassa காது-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.இந்த nose-samphassa  மூக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. இந்த  tongue-samphassa  நாக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. இந்த Kāyaகாயம் -samphassa உடம்பு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
இந்த Mana-samphassa மனம்-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
The vedanāவேதனையால் பிறந்த இந்த eye-samphassa  கண்-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.இந்த ear-samphassa காது-தொடர்பு இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.இந்த nose-samphassa  மூக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. இந்த  tongue-samphassa  நாக்கு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
இந்த Kāyaகாயம் -samphassa உடம்பு-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
இந்த Mana-samphassa மனம்-தொடர்பு  இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
இந்த saññā புலனுணர்வு கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. saññā புலனுணர்வு ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. saññā புலனுணர்வு வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. saññā புலனுணர்வு சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
saññā புலனுணர்வு உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
saññā புலனுணர்வு Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.

இந்த புலனுணர்வு தொகுத்த பொதுக் கருத்துப்படிவம் தொடர்புடைய கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
இந்த taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற படிவங்கள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. ஒலிகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. வாசனைகள், இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது. சுவைகள் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
உடலியல்பான புலனுணர்வாதம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.
Dhammas தம்மங்கள் யாவுங் கடந்த மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் கட்டம் இந்த உலகத்தினுள்ளே எவை மகிழ்வளிக்கிற மற்றும் ஒத்துக்கொள்கிறதாகக் காணப்படுகிறதோ, அங்கே தான் taṇhā அடக்க முடியாத ஆசை/இச்சை/தாகம்/தகாச் சிற்றின்பவேட்கை, எழும்பும் நேரத்தில்,  அது  எங்கே யெழும்புகிறது, தானே நிலைகொள்கிற நேரத்தில், அது  எங்கே நிலைகொள்கிறது.

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08/21/13
1018 LESSON 22-08-2013 THURSDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY Please send your profile with Dhamma Activities (Pictures, moving images, animations, GIFs, chantings and Videos) to sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in chandrasekhara.tipitaka@gmail.com convergeitbtnt@gmail.com to publish in http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for revival of Buddhism-Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Faith in Buddhism
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1018 LESSON 22-08-2013 THURSDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Faith in Buddhism

Faith has the power to arouse a tremendous amount of positive zeal and energy. Long before the the direct experience of the ultimate truth, Faith keeps our eyes fixed firmly on the goal. When we stumble and fall, Faith picks us up; when doubt causes us to falter, it urges us on; and when we lose the path, it brings us back. Without faith in Buddha and efficacy of his Dhamma and inspiration from his Sangha we would never bother to try to put the teachings into practice. As Nagarjuna says:-

One associates with Dhamma out of faith. But one knows truly out of understandings the chief of two, but Faith precedes.

The faith in the Triple Gem must not be blind and uncritical but must be based on critical scrutiny.

The Teacher - tested to determine his trustworthiness.

His Doctrine - examined to decide on its efficacy.

His Disciples - interrogated to ascertain their reliability.

As a result of such examination conducted either through personal confrontation whenever possible or through scrutiny of scriptural records, faith becomes settled in the Triple Gem and hence may be relied upon for guidance in our own pursuit of the goal.

Buddhism is not a theistic religion - the Buddha is not a god. And so a person taking refuge in the Buddhist sense is not asking for the Buddha to personally intervene to provide protection but accepts Him as a teacher realizing that human life is fraught with dangers from greed, hatred and delusion, therefore committing oneself to practice His teachings of Sila(Morality), Samadhi(Concentration), and Panya(Wisdom), getting inspiration from the practical life of sangha ideal (the community od monks).

The Buddha Said:
“O bhikkhus and wise men,
Just as a goldsmith would test his gold
By burning, cutting, and rubbing it,
So you must examine my words and accept them,
But not out of reverence for me.”

By saying that, the Buddha urged his followers to examine his teachings in order to determine for themselves whether or not they make sense. In light of the above, one may wish to ask:

1.    Which comes first: faith or wisdom ?
2.    Is there a place for faith in Buddhism ?
3.    WQhat is blind faith ?

Faith is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as complete trust or confidence in someone or something and a strong belief in the doctrines of a religion, based on spiritual conviction rather than proof.

Theologians, philosophers and free thinkers have responded in various ways to issues regarding faith, devotion and wisdom in determining the truth of spirituality, morality and beliefs. Those who champion faith “urge reliance on faith rather than reason. in matters philosophical and religious,” and therefore amy go on to disparage the claims of reason. They seek truth, which must instead be accepted only by truth.”

So what is faith in the Buddhist context /

According to the Buddha, if the student ‘had no faith, he could to achieve what can be achieved by one who has faith’. For the same reaso, doubt often described as one of the fetters that prevent Awakenment. If a student had substantial doubts about the knowledge of a teacher, the student would find it difficult to learn. Hence, the followers of the Buddha must have some initial faith that the Buddha is Awakened with Awareness and can bring others to attain Awakenment for themselves. The Buddha sometimes referred to Bhikkhus as those ‘who have gone forth out of Faith from the home life into homelessness under me’.

However, the Buddha emphasized two important features that requires. First, this initial faith must be supported by reason. A person who turns to the Buddha should have a reasonable confidence or trust in the Buddha’s Awakenment, though it must not be a dogmatic one. The difficulty is that a person new to the Buddha’s teaching cannot directly know if the Buddha is Awakened. In recognition of this, the Buddha urged the would-be follower to seek some signs of Buddha’s Awakenment before accepting his etchings. For example, he should hear a presentation of the teaching and make sure the Buddha is purified of any states of greed, hatred and delusion. Then he could place faith in him. Second, this faith is provisional stage on the road to Awakenment. Though it is require at the beginning, the goal is to directly know for oneself. Once a follower has become Awakened with Awareness, faith in the Buddha is no longer necessary.

The Abhidhammakosha tells us : “Faith is full confidence in the law of Kamma, the Four Noble Truths and in the Three Jewels. It is also aspiration for spiritual attainment, and a clear-minded appreciation of the truth.”

How do we arouse this faith ? Once a disciple has an initial faith in him, the Buddha exhorts him to ‘hear and memorize the Dhamma.’ The ‘he examines the meaning of the teachings’ and ‘gains a reflective acceptance of those teachings.’ After this, ‘zeal springs up…he applies his will…he scrutinizes…he strives…and he realizes with the body the ultimate truth and sees it by penetrating it with wisdom’. To accept anything by faith blindly is unthinkable.

The Buddha compared unquestioning faith to a blind giant who meets a sharp eyed cripple, called wisdom. The blind giant, says to the sharped-eyed cripple, “I am very strong, but I can’t see; you are very weak, but you have sharp eyes. Come and ride on my shoulders. Together we will go far.” The Buddha never supported blind faith, but a balance between heart and mind, between wisdom and faith. The two together will go far. The saying that blind faith can move mountains unfortunately omits the fact that, being blind, faith doesn’t know which mountain needs moving. That’s where wisdom is essential, which means that a thorough understanding of the teaching is crucial.

In the Kalama Sutta, the Buddha reminds us to observe and analyze things and not to accept them with blind belief, in particular the blind faith of self proclaimed “true believers.” In order to overcome blind faith we have to honestly examine our ordinary assumptions. By doing that , we may find that many of our beliefs are simply things we have been told and assumptions we have taken for granted in our daily life since young. Believing without observation and analyzing gives rise to blind faith. We have to examine, reflect, scrutinize and critically assess even the Buddha’s teaching. This assessment involves reason and meditation. To a considerable extent, the Buddha shows great respect for the capacity and value of human reason and insights into nature of phenomena. Thus it has been rightly said by Andre Migot that:

Faith becomes superstition when it parts from reason,
And even more so when it goes against reason.
But when it is combined with rain,
It prevents reason from remaining just an intellectual game.

May all develop Faith with Wisdom.


மற்றும் என்ன, domanassa  மனதிற்குரிய கவலை சச்சரவு நோய் மற்றும் இடுக்கண் என்பது? என்னவாயினும், உடலைச் சார்ந்த துக்கம், உடலைச் சார்ந்த சச்சரவு, dukkha துக்கம்  உடலைச் சார்ந்த தொடர்பான சுவேதசம், வெறுப்பு விளைக்கிற vedayitas உறுதலுணர்ச்சி அனுபவம்: இது,  domanassa  மனதிற்குரிய கவலை சச்சரவு நோய் மற்றும் இடுக்கண்  என்பது.

மற்றும் என்ன, நம்பிக்கையின்மை என்பது? ஒன்றில், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட இணைக்கப்பட்ட இடர்ப்பாடு வகைகள், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட dukkha dhammas துக்க தம்மா, இணைக்கப்பட்ட மனம் நெகிழவைத்தல்,இந்த நம்பிக்கையின்மை, இந்த துயருறுதல், இந்த ஆழ்ந்த மனத்துன்ப நிலை, இந்த உட்புறமான நம்பிக்கையின்மை, இந்த உட்புறமான அபார மனத்துயரம்:இது, நம்பிக்கையின்மை என்பது.

மற்றும் என்ன, dukkha துக்கத்துடன் இணைக்கப்பட்ட மனத்துக்கொவ்வாதது? இங்கு, படிவங்கள் படி, ஒலிகள், சுவைகள், வாசனைகள், உடலைச் சார்ந்த புலனுணர்வாதம் மற்றும் மன ஊன புலனுணர்வாதம், அங்கே எவை மகிழ்வில்லாதது இருக்கிரதோ, மகிழ்ச்சிகரமாக இல்லாத, வெறுப்பு உண்டாக்கு-கிற, இல்லாவிடில் யாரோ  ஒருவரின் பாதகத்தால் ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ, ஒருவரின் நஷ்டத்தால் ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ,
ஒருவரின் உடல்நலமின்மையால் ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ, ஒருவரின் மனப்பற்றிலிருந்து விடுதலையாக ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ, பொழுதுபோக்கு-களியாட்டம் முதலியவற்றின் குழுமம், இணைக்கப்பட்டு இருத்தல்,  ஒன்று சேர்ந்து இருத்தல், அவைகளை எதிர்த்து நில்லுதல்: இது,இணைக்கப்பட்ட மனத்துக்கொவ்வாத  dukkha துக்கம் என்பது.

மற்றும் என்ன,dukkha துக்கத்துடன் இணைக்கப்படாத மனத்துக்கொவ்வுவது? இங்கு, படிவங்கள் படி, ஒலிகள், சுவைகள், வாசனைகள், உடலைச் சார்ந்த புலனுணர்வாதம் மற்றும் மன ஊன புலனுணர்வாதம், அங்கே எவை மகிழ்வில்லாதது இருக்கிரதோ, மகிழ்ச்சிகரமாக இல்லாத, வெறுப்பு உண்டாக்கு-கிற, இல்லாவிடில் யாரோ  ஒருவரின் பாதகத்தால் ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ, ஒருவரின் நஷ்டத்தால் ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ, ஒருவரின் உடல்நலமின்மையால் ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ, ஒருவரின் மனப்பற்றிலிருந்து விடுதலையாக ஆர்வ வேட்கை கொள்கிராரோ, பொழுதுபோக்கு-களியாட்டம் முதலியவற்றின் குழுமம், இணைக்கப்பட்டு இருத்தல்,  ஒன்று சேர்ந்து இருத்தல், அவைகளை எதிர்த்து நில்லுதல்: இது, இணைக்கப்படாத மனத்துக்கொவ்வும்  dukkha துக்கம் என்பது.

மற்றும் எது, ஒருவருக்கு விருப்பப்பட்ட பொருள்  பலன் தராததால் dukkha துக்கம்?  இனங்களில்,  இந்த சென்மிப்பு என்ற சிறப்பியல்பு உடையவராயிருப்பதால், இது போன்ற ஒரு இச்சை எழும்புகிறது: “ஓ!! மெய்யாக, அங்கே எங்களுக்கு jāti பிறப்பு இன்றி இருக்கட்டும், மற்றும் மெய்யாக நாங்கள் jāti பிறக்க வராமல் இருக்கட்டும்.”ஆனால் இது விரும்புகிறதால் எய்தப் பெற முடியாது. ஒருவருக்கு விருப்பப்பட்ட பொருள்  பலன் தராததால் ஏற்படும் dukkha துக்கம்.

இனங்களில்,இந்த முதுமை என்ற சிறப்பியல்பு உடையவராயிருப்பதால், இது போன்ற ஒரு இச்சை எழும்புகிறது: “ஓ!! மெய்யாக, அங்கே எங்களுக்கு jarā முதுமை இன்றி இருக்கட்டும், மற்றும் மெய்யாக எங்களுக்கு jarā முதுமை வராமல் இருக்கட்டும்.”ஆனால் இது விரும்புகிறதால் எய்தப் பெற முடியாது. ஒருவருக்கு விருப்பப்பட்ட பொருள்  பலன் தராததால் ஏற்படும் dukkha துக்கம்.

இனங்களில்,இந்த நோய் என்ற சிறப்பியல்பு உடையவராயிருப்பதால், இது போன்ற ஒரு இச்சை எழும்புகிறது: “ஓ!! மெய்யாக, அங்கே எங்களுக்கு நோய் இன்றி இருக்கட்டும், மற்றும் மெய்யாக எங்களுக்கு நோய் வராமல் இருக்கட்டும்.”ஆனால் இது விரும்புகிறதால் எய்தப் பெற முடியாது. ஒருவருக்கு விருப்பப்பட்ட பொருள்  பலன் தராததால் ஏற்படும் dukkha துக்கம்.

இனங்களில், இந்த முதுமை என்ற சிறப்பியல்பு உடையவராயிருப்பதால், இது போன்ற ஒரு இச்சை எழும்புகிறது: “ஓ!! மெய்யாக, அங்கே எங்களுக்கு maraṇa மரணம் இன்றி இருக்கட்டும், மற்றும் மெய்யாக எங்களுக்கு maraṇa மரணம் வராமல் இருக்கட்டும்.”ஆனால் இது விரும்புகிறதால் எய்தப் பெற முடியாது. ஒருவருக்கு விருப்பப்பட்ட பொருள்  பலன் தராததால் ஏற்படும் dukkha துக்கம்.

   

In beings,having the characteristic of sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress for us, and really, may we not come to sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

இனங்களில், இந்த அங்கலாய்ப்பு, புலம்பல், dukkha, domanassa துக்கம் மனதிற்குரிய கவலை சச்சரவு நோய் மற்றும் இடுக்கண் மற்றும் கடுந்துன்பம் என்ற சிறப்பியல்பு உடையவராயிருப்பதால், இது போன்ற ஒரு இச்சை எழும்புகிறது: “ஓ!! மெய்யாக, அங்கே எங்களுக்கு  இந்த அங்கலாய்ப்பு,புலம்பல், dukkha, domanassa துக்கம்  மனதிற்குரிய கவலை சச்சரவு நோய் மற்றும் இடுக்கண் மற்றும் கடுந்துன்பம் இன்றி இருக்கட்டும், மற்றும் மெய்யாக எங்களுக்கு  இந்த அங்கலாய்ப்பு, புலம்பல், dukkha, domanassa துக்கம்  மனதிற்குரிய கவலை சச்சரவு நோய் மற்றும் இடுக்கண் மற்றும் கடுந்துன்பம்  வராமல் இருக்கட்டும்.”ஆனால் இது விரும்புகிறதால் எய்தப் பெற முடியாது. ஒருவருக்கு விருப்பப்பட்ட பொருள்  பலன் தராததால் ஏற்படும் dukkha துக்கம்.

மற்றும் எது, சுருக்கமாக ஐம்புலன் என்ற  இந்த ஐந்து upādānakkhandhas.  அங்கே ஐந்து ஐக்கியப்படுத்தும் பற்றாசை எவை? அவை வருமாறு: இந்த rūpa upādānakkhandha சடப்பொருள் ஐக்கியப்படுத்தும் பற்றாசை, இந்த vedanā  upādānakkhandha வேதனை உறுதலுணர்ச்சி புலன்றிவு அனுபவம் ஐக்கியப்படுத்தும் பற்றாசை, இந்த saññā upādānakkhandha விவேக வாயிற்காட்சி  விழிப்புணர்வுநிலையை ஐக்கியப்படுத்தும் பற்றாசை, இந்த saṅkhāra upādānakkhandha, வரையறுக்கப்பட்ட புலனுணர்வாதம்/மனதிற்குரிய கட்டுமானங்கள்/மனதிற்குரிய கற்பனை/இச்சா சக்தி விருப்பம் உருவாக்குதல்  ஐக்கியப்படுத்தும் பற்றாசை, இந்த  viññāṇa upādānakkhandha. விழிப்புணர்வுநிலை/மனதை உணர்விற்கொள்ளும் பகுதி  ஐக்கியப்படுத்தும் பற்றாசை. இவை சுருக்கமாக, ஐம்புலன் என்ற இந்த ஐந்து  upādānakkhandhas என்பது.

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08/20/13
1017 LESSON 21-08-2013 WEDNESDAY 4) School of Historical Studies FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY run through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org - [Flag of The Earth or No-nation] Earth A good all-around source for international links to Dhamma sites is the Wikipedia. In particular, look for the box titled “In other languages” in the lower left corner of these pages: Buddhism, Theravada, and Tipitaka.
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1017 LESSON 21-08-2013 WEDNESDAY 

4)  School of Historical Studies

[Flag of The Earth or No-nation] Earth
A good all-around source for international links to Dhamma sites is the Wikipedia. In particular, look for the box titled “In other languages” in the lower left corner of these pages: Buddhism, Theravada, and Tipitaka.

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 
run through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 

Is with

1)  Schools of International Relations and Peace Studies;

2)  School of Business
Management and Development Studies;

3)  School of Information Sciences and
Technology;

4)  School of Historical Studies;

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;

6)  School of Languages and Literature;
and

7)  School of Ecology and Environmental Studies.

It is a model for evolving a
happy, prosperous and peaceful society in our planet which is an
evolution of Awakened with Awareness Citizen.

The education here is with a
value system, religion transforming into spirituality and economic
development for societal transformation. It advises the Government to
supply healthy seeds with land to the tiller and proper irrigation. To
give government loans to the youth of the country to start-up small
enterprise and to see the government servants do efficient duty for the
good governance without corruption. Thus this mission of Unity of Minds
has started gaining momentum all over the world.

It  is a facilitator of partnership of countries all over the world.

It will work
with Harvard or Cambridge located in Asia with an Asian cover page.
Asian intellectuals can go to the West to obtain their PhDs to gain
recognition back home, and in return they can churn out western ideas
and theories, especially in humanities, economics, healthcare,
environmental and developmental studies, with critically examining it
which is not “anti-western” with hopes that the revived N?l?nd?
University would be able to start this process of “Awakening with
Awareness” of the mind.

4)  School of Historical Studies

Jhāna (झान) (Pāli) is a form of Buddhist meditation. It refers to various states of samadhi, a state of consciousness in which the observer detaches from several qualities of the mind. In this state the mind has become firm and stable and the ability to concentrate is greatly enhanced.

Jhāna proper is the concentration of the mind, resulting in samadhi. The Sutta Pitaka describes four levels, called jhana, each of increasing depth. The Jhanas are described many times in the Pāli canon, and a great deal of the post-canonical Theravāda Buddhist and Mahayana literature have been devoted to its elucidation.

The Zen-tradition has been named after this meditative state, though in Chinese Buddhism Jhāna may refer to all kind of meditation techniques and their preparatory practices which can be used to attain samadhi.

Very little scientific study have been conducted on these states. The most notable are those of neurologist Professor James H. Austin.

The jhanas in the early suttas

Thes are states of meditation where the mind is free from the five hindrances—craving, aversion, sloth, agitation and doubt—and (from the second jhāna onwards) incapable of discursive thinking.

In the early texts, the jhanas are taught as a state of collected,
full-body awareness in which mind becomes very powerful and still but
not frozen, and is thus able to observe and gain insight into the
changing flow of experience.The Buddha’s instructions on attaining jhana are via mindfulness of breathing, found in the Ānāpānasati Sutta
and elsewhere.  Jhāna, or samadhi, alone is not enough to attain
liberation. According to the Theravada tradition it must be combined
with vipassana, which gives insight into the three marks of existence and leads to detachment and “the manifestation of the path”.

Later Theravada literature, in particular the Visuddhimagga, describes it as an abiding in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of attention, characterized by non-dual consciousness.

Appanà samàdhi

The First to Fourth Jhanas may also be described collectively by the term appanà samàdhi.
When disciples of the Buddha use the word Jhāna now, it is generally
understood to refer collectively to the First to Fourth Jhāna in
particular.

In its early use, the word Jhāna can be understood to have meant any
meditation in general. Early Buddhism considered only the First to
Fourth Jhānas as right meditation. Over time, the word jhana began to
take on this particular meaning among many of his disciples, while
excluding other types of meditation practised contemporaneously to the
Buddha, such as appana-kam Jhāna (involving suppression of
breathing, typically causing great pain) or sensual meditation focusing
on an object. For this reason, the word Jhāna can sometimes be seen used
in its earlier meaning to refer to meditation in general, and on
other occasions the word Jhāna can be seen used collectively to denote
all four of the Jhānas taught as right meditation by the Buddha.

Usage by the Buddha

The Buddha himself entered Jhāna, as described in the early
texts, during his own quest for awakenment. The meditations he
learned (that were not of Jhāna) did not lead to nibbana.
He then underwent harsh ascetic practices with which he eventually also
became disillusioned. He subsequently remembered entering Jhāna as a child, and realized that “that indeed is the path to awaktenment.”

According to the Maha-Saccaka Sutta, the Buddha recalled a meditative state he entered by chance as a child and abandoned the ascetic practices he has been doing:

I thought: ‘I recall once, when my father the
Sakyan was working, and I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple
tree, then — quite secluded from sensuality, secluded from unskillful
mental qualities — I entered & remained in the first Jhāna: rapture
& pleasure born from seclusion, accompanied by directed thought
& evaluation. Could that be the path to Awakening?’ Then following
on that memory came the realization: ‘That is the path to Awakening.’

According to the Upakkilesa Sutta,
after figuring out the cause of the various obstacles and overcoming
them, the Buddha was able to penetrate the sign and enters 1st–4th Jhāna:

I also saw both the light and the vision of forms.
Shortly after the vision of light and shapes disappear. I thought, ‘What
is the cause and condition in which light and vision of the forms
disappear?’ Then consider the following: ‘The question arose in me and
because of doubt my concentration fell, when my concentration fell, the
light disappeared and the vision of forms. I act so that the question
does not arise in me again.’
I remained diligent, ardent, perceived both the light and the vision of
forms. Shortly after the vision of light and shapes disappear. I
thought, ‘What is the cause and condition in which light and vision of
the forms disappear?’ Then consider the following: ‘Inattention arose in
me because of inattention and my concentration has decreased, when my
concentration fell, the light disappeared and the vision of forms. I
must act in such a way that neither doubt nor disregard arise in me
again.’

In the suttas the Buddha is depicted many times encouraging his disciples to develop Jhāna as a way of achieving awakening and liberation.

Just before his passing away, The Buddha entered the Jhānas in direct and reverse order, and the passing away itself took place after rising from the fourth Jhāna.

Stages of Jhāna


The Pāli canon describes eight progressive states of Jhāna. Four are called meditations of form (rūpa Jhāna), and four are formless meditations (arūpa Jhāna).

The Rupa Jhānas

There are four stages of deep collectedness which are called the Rupa Jhāna (Fine-material Jhāna).

Description of the Four Rupa Jhānas

For each Jhāna are given a set of qualities which are “ferreted them out one after another” and “vanish”:

  1. First Jhāna — In the first Jhāna there are: “directed thought, evaluation, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention”
  2. Second Jhāna — In the second Jhāna there are: “internal
    assurance, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling,
    perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence,
    mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  3. Third Jhāna — In the third Jhāna, there are:
    “equanimity-pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception,
    intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness,
    equanimity & attention”
  4. Fourth Jhāna — In the fourth Jhāna there are: “a feeling of
    equanimity, neither pleasure nor pain; an unconcern due to serenity of
    awareness; unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention,
    consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity
    & attention”.

Jhāna Factors

Jhānas are normally described according to the nature of the mental factors which are present in these states:

  1. Movement of the mind onto the object (vitakka)
  2. Retention of the mind on the object (vicāra)
  3. Joy (pīti)
  4. Happiness (sukha)
  5. Equanimity (upekkhā)
  6. One-pointedness (ekaggatā)

Factors per Jhāna

The qualities that remain in each Jhāna are:

  1. First Jhāna (vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā):
    The five hindrances have completely disappeared and intense unified
    bliss remains. Only the subtlest of mental movement remains, perceivable
    in its absence by those who have entered the second jhāna. The ability to form unwholesome intentions ceases.
  2. Second Jhāna (pīti, sukha, ekaggatā): All mental movement utterly ceases. There is only bliss. The ability to form wholesome intentions ceases as well.
  3. Third Jhāna (sukha, ekaggatā): One-half of bliss (joy) disappears.
  4. Fourth Jhāna (upekkhā, ekaggatā): The other
    half of bliss (happiness) disappears, leading to a state with neither
    pleasure nor pain, which the Buddha said is actually a subtle form of
    happiness (more sublime than pīti and sukha). The breath is said to cease temporarily in this state.

Psychic powers

Traditionally, the fourth Jhāna is seen as the beginning of attaining psychic powers (abhijñā).

The Arupa Jhānas

Beyond the four Jhānas lie four attainments, referred to in the early texts as aruppas. These are also referred to in commentarial literature as immaterial/the formless Jhānas (arūpajhānas), also translated as The Formless Dimensions, in distinction from the first four Jhānas (rūpa Jhānas). In the Buddhist canonical texts, the word “Jhāna” is never explicitly used to denote them, but they are always mentioned in sequence after the first four Jhānas.
The immaterial attainments have more to do with expanding, while the Jhānas (1-4) focus on concentration. The enlightenment of complete
dwelling in emptiness is reached when the eighth jhāna is transcended.

The four formless Jhānas are:

  1. Dimension of Infinite Space - In this dimension the following qualities are “ferreted out”:
    “the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness,
    singleness of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention,
    consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity,
    & attention”.
  2. Dimension of Infinite Consciousness - In this dimension the following quailities are “ferreted out”:
    “the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness,
    unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention,
    consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity,
    & attention”.
  3. Dimension of Nothingness - In this dimension the following qualities are “ferreted out”:
    “the perception of the dimension of nothingness, singleness of mind,
    contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire,
    decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  4. Dimension of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception No qualities to be “ferreted out” are being mentioned for this dimension.

Although the “Dimension of Nothingness” and the “Dimension of Neither
Perception nor Non-Perception” are included in the list of nine Jhanas
taught by the Buddha, they are not included in the Noble Eightfold Path.
Noble Path number eight is “Samma Samadhi” (Right Concentration), and
only the first four Jhanas are considered “Right Concentration”. If he
takes a disciple through all the Jhanas, the emphasis is on the
“Cessation of Feelings and Perceptions” rather than stopping short at
the “Dimension of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception”.

Nirodha-Samapatti

The Buddha also rediscovered an attainment beyond the dimension of
neither perception nor non-perception, Nirodha-Samapatti, the “cessation
of feelings and perceptions”. This is sometimes called the “ninth jhāna” in commentarial and scholarly literature.

Liberation

As long as there is clinging to the equanimity attained in the
dimension of neither perception nor non-perception a practitioner is
stiil not “totally unbound”. Only “Without clinging/sustenance, Ananda, a
monk is totally unbound.”

According to other texts, after progressing through the eight jhanas and the stage of Nirodha-Samapatti, a person is liberated. According to some traditions someone attaining the state of Nirodha-Samapatti is an anagami or an arahant.[21] In the Anupadda sutra, the Buddha narrates that Sariputta became an arahant upon reaching it.

The Buddhist tradition has incorporated two traditions regarding the use of jhana. There is a tradition that stresses attaining insight (Bodhi, prajna, kensho)
as the means to awakening and liberation. But it has also incorporated
the yogic tradition, as reflected in the use of jhana, which is rejected
in other sutras as not resulting in the final result of liberation. One
solution to this contradiction is the conjunctive use of vipassana and samatta. In Zen Buddhism, this problem has appeared over the centuries in the disputes over sudden versus gradual enlightenment.

Jhāna as an aid to attaining insight

The meditator uses the Jhāna state to bring the mind to rest, and to strengthen and sharpen the mind, in order to investigate the true nature of phenomena (dhamma) and to gain higher knowledge. The longer the meditator stays in the state of Jhāna the sharper and more powerful the mind becomes.

As the five hindrances may be suppressed for days after entering Jhāna,
the meditator will feel perfectly clear, mindful, full of compassion,
peaceful and light after the meditation session. This, according to
Ajahn Brahm, may cause some meditators to mistakenly assume that they
have gained awakenment.

The Jhāna state cannot by itself lead to awakenment as it only suppresses the defilements. Meditators must use the Jhāna
state as an instrument for developing wisdom by cultivating insight and
use it to penetrate the true nature of phenomena through direct
cognition, which will lead to cutting off the defilements and nibbana.

According to the later Theravāda commentorial tradition as outlined by Buddhagoṣa in his Visuddhimagga, after coming out of the state of Jhāna the meditator will be in the state of post-Jhāna
access concentration. This will have the qualities of being certain,
long-lasting and stable. It is where the work of investigation and
analysis of the true nature of phenomena begins and is also where deep
insight into the characteristics of impermanence, suffering and not-self
arises. The meditator can experience these truths, which lie at the
heart of the Buddha’s teachings, through direct experience.

In contrast, according to the sutta descriptions of Jhāna practice, the meditator does not emerge from Jhāna to practice vipassana but rather the work of insight is done whilst in Jhāna itself. In particular the meditator is instructed to “enter and remain in the fourth Jhāna” before commencing the work of insight in order to uproot the mental defilements:

With the abandoning of pleasure and pain — as with
the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and
remains in the fourth Jhāna: purity of equanimity and
mindfulness, neither-pleasure nor pain…With his mind thus
concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects,
pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk
directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental
fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to be, that ‘This is
suffering… This is the origination of suffering… This is the
cessation of suffering… This is the way leading to the cessation of
suffering… These are mental fermentations… This is the origination
of fermentations… This is the cessation of fermentations… This is
the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’
Samaññaphala Sutta

Mastering the Jhānas

The scriptures state that one should not seek to attain ever higher Jhānas but master one first, then move on to the next. Mastery of Jhāna involves being able to enter a Jhāna at will, stay as long as one likes, leave at will and experience each of the Jhāna factors as required. They also seem to suggest that lower Jhāna factors may manifest themselves in higher Jhāna, if the Jhānas have not been properly developed. The Buddha is seen to advise his disciples to concentrate and steady the Jhāna further.

The early suttas state that “the most exquisite of recluses” is able to attain any of the Jhānas and abide in them without difficulty. This particular arahant is “liberated in both ways:” he is fluent in attaining the Jhānas
and is also aware of their ultimate unsatisfactoriness. If he were not,
he would fall into the same problem as the teachers from whom the
Buddha learned the spheres of nothingness and neither perception nor
non-perception, in seeing these meditative attainments as something
final. Their problem lay in seeing permanence where there is impermanence.

Aspects of Jhāna mastery

A meditator should first master the lower Jhānas, before they can go into the higher Jhānas. There are five aspects of Jhāna mastery:

  1. Mastery in adverting: the ability to advert to the Jhāna factors one by one after emerging from the Jhāna, wherever he wants, whenever he wants, and for as long as he wants.
  2. Mastery in attaining: the ability to enter upon Jhāna quickly.
  3. Mastery in resolving: the ability to remain in the Jhāna for exactly the pre-determined length of time.
  4. Mastery in emerging: the ability to emerge from Jhāna quickly without difficulty.
  5. Mastery in reviewing: the ability to review the Jhāna and its factors with retrospective knowledge immediately after adverting to them.

Preliminary stage

The Buddha explains right concentration (samma samādhi), part of the noble eightfold path, as the four first Jhānas. According to the Pāli canon commentary, there is a certain stage of meditation that the meditator should reach before entering into Jhāna. This stage is access/neighbourhood concentration (upacāra-samādhi). The overcoming of the five hindrances—sensual
desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry and
doubt—marked the entries into access concentration. This concentration
is an unstable state where the mind becomes well concentrated on an
object but it is still not yet a state of “full concentration” (jhāna).
The difference is, in full concentration certain factors become
strengthened to such a degree that they bring about a qualitative shift
in the level of consciousness and the mind no longer functions on the
ordinary sensory level. Access concentration is not mentioned in the
discourses of the Buddha. However there are several suttas where a person gains insight into the Dhamma
on hearing a teaching from the Buddha. Often their minds are described
as being free from hindrances when this occurs and some have identified
this as being a type of access concentration. The equivalent of upacāra-samādhi used in Tibetan commentaries is nyer-bsdogs.

At the state of access concentration, some meditators may experience vivid mental imagery (Pāli: nimitta),
which is similar to a vivid dream—as vividly as if seen by the eye, but
in this case the meditator is fully aware and conscious that they are
seeing mental images. This is discussed in the early texts, and expanded
upon in Theravāda commentaries.

Different meditators will experience different mental images; some
meditators may not experience any mental images at all. The same
meditator doing multiple meditation sessions may experience different
mental images for each session. The mental image may be pleasant,
frightening, disgusting, shocking or neutral.

As the concentration becomes stronger, the feelings of breathing and
of having a physical body will completely disappear, leaving only pure
awareness. At this stage inexperienced meditators may become afraid,
thinking that they are going to die if they continue the concentration
because the feeling of breathing and the feeling of having a physical
body has completely disappeared. They should not be so afraid and should
continue their concentration in order to reach “full concentration” (Jhāna).

Parallels with Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga

There are parallels with the fourth to eighth stages of Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga, as mentioned in his classical work, Yoga Suttas of Patanjali composed in the 2nd century BCE.

Patanjali discerns bahiranga (external) aspects of yoga namely, yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, and the antaranga (internal) yoga. Having actualized the pratyahara stage, a practitioner is able to effectively engage into the practice of Samyama. At the stage of pratyahara, the consciousness of the individual is internalized in order that the sensations from the senses of taste, touch, sight, hearing and smell don’t reach their respective centers in the brain and takes the sadhaka (practitioner) to next stages of Yoga, namely Dharana (concentration), Jhāna (meditation), and Samadhi (mystical absorption), being the aim of all Yogic practices.

Parallels in Brahmanical texts

Alexander Wynne

Alexander Wynne attempted to find parallels in Brahmanical texts to
the meditative goals the two teachers claimed to have taught, drawing
especially on some of the Upanishads and the Mokshadharma chapter of the
Mahabharata.

Reversal of the creation of the world

Wynne claimed that Brahminic passages on meditation suggest that the
most basic presupposition of early Brahmanical yoga is that the creation
of the world must be reversed, through a series of meditative states,
by the yogin who seeks the realization of the self.
These states were given doctrinal background in early Brahminic
cosmologies, which classified the world into successively coarser
strata. One such stratification is found at TU II.1 and Mbh XII.195, and proceeds as follows: self, space, wind, fire, water, earth. Mbh XII.224 gives alternatively: Brahman, mind, space, wind, fire, water, earth.

In Brahmanical thought, the meditative states of consciousness were thought to be identical to the subtle strata of the cosmos. There is no similar theoretical background to element meditation in the early Buddhist texts, where the elements appear simply as suitable objects of meditation.

Investigation of self

On this point, it is thought that the uses of the elements in early
Buddhist literature have in general very little connection to
Brahmanical thought; in most places they occur in teachings where they
form the objects of a detailed contemplation of the human being.


Patanjali’s Yoga Suttas

The Eight Limbs of the yoga suttas show Samadhi as one of its limbs. But the Eight limbs of the Yoga Sutta
was only developed after the Buddha and is influenced by the Buddha’s
Eightfold Path. The suttas show that during the time of the Buddha,
Nigantha Nataputta, the Jain leader, did not even believe that it is
possible to enter a state where the thoughts and examination stop.

Samadhi

Rhys Davids and Maurice Walshe agreed that the term “samadhi” is not
found in any pre-buddhist text. Hindu texts later used that term to
indicate the state of awakenment. This is not in conformity with
Buddhist usage. According to Maurice Walshe:

Rhys Davids also states that the term samadhi is
not found in any pre-Buddhist text. To his remarks on the subject should
be added that its subsequent use in Hindu texts to denote the state of awakenment is not in conformity with Buddhist usage, where the basic
meaning of concentration is expanded to cover ‘meditation’ in general.

Tripitaka-polemics

Three discourses in the Bhojjhanga-Samyutta present the claims of non-Buddhist wanderers that they too develop Buddhist-style meditation, including samādhi.
They ask the Buddha what the difference is between their teachings and
his. He does not respond by teaching right view, but by telling them
that they do not fully understand samādhi practice. Ajahn Sujato interprets this statement as explaining a statement of the Buddha’s elsewhere that he “awakened to Jhāna“; he was the first to fully comprehend both the benefits and limitations of samādhi experiences.

In Mahāyāna traditions

Bodhisattva seated in meditation. Afghanistan, 2nd century CE

Mahāyāna Buddhism includes numerous schools of practice. Each draw
upon various Buddhist sūtras, philosophical treatises, and commentaries,
and each has its own emphasis, mode of expression, and philosophical
outlook. Accordingly, each school has its own meditation methods for the
purpose of developing samādhi and prajñā, with the goal of ultimately attaining enlightenment.

Description of the dhyānas

Venerable Hsuan Hua, who taught Chán and Pure Land Buddhism, outlines the four preliminary stages of dhyāna:

  1. In the First Dhyāna, there is the arising of bliss. The external
    breathing stops, while the internal breathing comes alive, and it is
    said that the mind is as clear as water and as bright as a mirror. When the external breathing stops, the nose and mouth do not breathe. While in this state, the mind and body have a feeling of existing within empty space.
  2. In the Second Dhyāna, there is pure bliss born from samādhi. In this
    stage, there is said to be happiness without compare. After reaching
    this stage, it is said that some practitioners may go without food or
    water for many days and still be alright. When in this second stage, not
    only does the external breathing stop, but the pulse comes to a stop as
    well. After leaving this state, the pulse resumes its normal function.
  3. In the Third Dhyāna, the joy of the previous stages is left, leaving only a subtle and blissful peace. At this stage it is said that not only do the breathing and pulse stop, but idle thoughts stop as well.
    Although idle thoughts have been cleared away, it is emphasized that
    this stage is nothing special, and just part of the progression. At this stage, the body becomes as soft as the body of an infant.
    Softness and suppleness of the body is considered to be a physical
    indicator of the quality of an individual’s samādhi. Nan Huai-Chin
    states: “All the eminent monks of great virtue in the past were able to
    predict what day they would die, and even on the brink of death their
    bodies were as soft and supple as a baby’s. Others who were even more
    lofty turned into a field of light, and their human forms disappeared.
    At most all they left behind were a few pieces of fingernail, or a lock
    of hair as a memento.”
  4. In the Fourth Dhyāna, the only manifestation is that of complete purity and perfection. At this stage one is still considered the stage of an ordinary mortal, and still far from the Nirvāṇa of the fully enlightened buddhas.
    In the tradition of Chinese Buddhism, it is said that those individuals
    who have reached this stage sometimes choose to walk with their feet
    one inch above the earth, so they do not harm any living beings.[65]

Dhyāna in the Chán school

In China, the word dhyāna was originally transliterated 禪那 (pinyin: chánnà), and shortened to just (pinyin: chán) by common usage. In Chinese Buddhism dhyāna may refer to all kind of meditation techniques and their preparatory practices which can be used to attain samadhi.[4] The word chán became the designation for the Chán school (Japanese: Zen).

Dhyāna is a central aspect of Buddhist practice in Chán. In his classic book on meditation of the various Chinese Buddhist traditions, Charles Luk writes,

The Buddha Dharma is useless if it is not put into
actual practice, because if we do not have personal experience of it, it
will be alien to us and we will never awaken to it in spite of our book
learning.”

Venerable Nan Huai-Chin echoes similar sentiments about the importance of meditation by remarking,

Intellectual reasoning is just another spinning of the sixth consciousness, whereas the practice of meditation is the true entry into the Dharma.”

Huineng and the Platform Sutra

In the Platform Sutra, Hui Neng says:

To concentrate the mind and to contemplate it until
it is still is a disease and not Zen.” He goes on to say that the
meditator who enters a state in which thoughts are suppressed must allow
them to arise naturally once again.

Dispute about dhyāna and Chán

Some western scholars and various authors have claimed that Chán/Zen Buddhism does not utilize the stages of dhyāna. These claims are contradicted by statements from well known exponents of Chán Buddhism such as Venerable Sheng Yen, Venerable Hsuan Hua, and Venerable Nan Huai-Chin.
Sheng Yen, a Buddhist monk and scholar from the Linji and Caodong
lineages of the Chán school, clarifies that the Chán/Zen school does
indeed include the dhyānas:

Although the Chán school definitely advocates
practicing meditation to reach absorption states (dhyāna), not all
meditative absorption states are those of the Chán school.

Sheng Yen also cites meditative concentration as necessary, citing
samādhi as one of the requisite factors for progress on the path toward
enlightenment.
Nan Huai-Chin also agrees about the dhyānas being necessary in Chán
Buddhism, and regarding the various stages, he states, “Real cultivation
going toward samādhi goes through the four dhyānas.”Sheng Yen clarifies that the eight dhyānas are to be understood as
mundane meditative states, which are also shared by practitioners on
“outer paths”, as well as ordinary people, or in principle even animals. He characterizes these as intermediate steps for supramundane realization in dhyāna.

Vajrayāna

B. Alan Wallace holds that modern Tibetan Buddhism lacks emphasis on achieving levels of concentration higher than access concentration.[74][75]
According to Wallace, one possible explanation for this situation is
that virtually all Tibetan Buddhist meditators seek to become
enlightened through the use of tantric practices. These require the presence of sense desire and passion in one’s consciousness, but jhāna effectively inhibits these phenomena.

While few Tibetan Buddhists, either inside or outside Tibet, devote
themselves to the practice of concentration, Tibetan Buddhist literature
does provide extensive instructions on it, and great Tibetan meditators
of earlier times stressed its importance.[76] All this being said, Wallace has translated and commented on Tsongkapa’s Stages of the Path, a Tibetan classic on this topic, in his book Balancing the Mind.
It is a very intricate guide on mastering equanimity and insight during
meditation, both of which are claimed to be required to advance up the
jhanas.

Scientific studies

There has been little scientific study of these mental states. In 2008, an EEG
study found “strong, significant, and consistent differences in
specific brain regions when the meditator is in a jhana state compared
to normal resting consciousness”. Tentative hypotheses on the neurological correlates have been proposed, but lack supporting evidence.

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மற்றும் என்ன,  maraṇa மரணம் என்பது? பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட உயிருருகளுக்கு பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட வர்க்கம், இந்த சாவு, இந்த நடமாடும் நிலை, [வாழ்க்கைக்கு வெளியே ]இந்த கலைந்து செல்,இந்த மறைவு, இந்த சாதல், maraṇa மரணம், இந்த கழிதல், இந்த khandhas மொத்தை கற்பனையுருவ தோற்ற குவியல் கூறு கூறாக்கு, இந்த உயிரற்ற மனித உடல் கீழ் நோக்கி கிடப்பது: இது, பிக்குளே,  maraṇa மரணம் என்பது.

மற்றும் என்ன, மனத்துயரம் என்பது? ஒன்றில்,பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட இணைக்கப்பட்ட இடர்பாடு வகைகள், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட dukkha dhammas துக்க தம்மா, இணைக்கப்பட்ட மனம் நெகிழவைத்தல்,இந்த மனத்துயரம், இந்த துயருறுதல், இந்த ஆழ்ந்த மனத்துன்ப நிலை, இந்த உட்புறமான மனத்துயரம், இந்த உட்புறமான அபார மனத்துயரம்:இது, பிக்குளே, மனத்துயரம் என்பது.

மற்றும் என்ன,புலம்பல் என்பது? ஒன்றில், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட இணைக்கப்பட்ட இடர்பாடு வகைகள், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட dukkha dhammas துக்க தம்மா, இணைக்கப்பட்ட மனம் நெகிழவைத்தல், இந்த மனத்துயரம், இந்த துயருறுதல், இந்த ஆழ்ந்த மனத்துன்ப நிலை, இந்த உட்புறமான மனத்துயரம், இந்த உட்புறமான அபார மனத்துயரம்: இது, பிக்குளே, புலம்பல் என்பது.

மற்றும் என்ன,  dukkha துக்கம்  என்பது? என்னவாயினும்  உடலைச் சார்ந்த துக்கம், உடலைச் சார்ந்த சச்சரவு, dukkha துக்கம்  உடலைச் சார்ந்த தொடர்பான சுவேதசம், வெறுப்பு விளைக்கிற vedayitas உறுதலுணர்ச்சி அனுபவம்: இது, பிக்குளே, dukkha துக்கம்  என்பது.

comments (0)
08/19/13
1016 LESSON 20-08-2013 TUESDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY run through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ONE DAY SEMINAR ON RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION OF MAHABHUTAS (SPACE, AIR, FIRE, WATER AND EARTH)
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Posted by: @ 10:41 pm

1016 LESSON 20-08-2013 TUESDAY

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 
run through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

ONE DAY SEMINAR ON
RELIGIOUS INTERPRETATION
OF MAHABHUTAS
(SPACE, AIR, FIRE, WATER AND EARTH)

Contact:

Ven. Dr. Bodhipala, Ph.D.,

Cell : 9842122552 / 9445369542

Buddha’s Light International

Association - Chennai Chapter

No.89, 3rd Street, Malleshwari Nagar,

Madambakkam, Chennai -600 126

Email :anbumalar89@gmail.com


THE DATE AND VENUE OF THE

SEMINAR WILL BE ANNOUNCED 20 DAYS BEFORE and mentioned in

the invitation



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thich_Quang_Duc


Thich Quang Duc


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Thich Quang Duc
Thich Quang Duc.png
Religion Mahayana Buddhism
Other name(s) Bo Tat Thich Quang Duc
(Bodhisattva Thich Quang Duc)
Personal
Born 1897
Hoi Khanh

, French Indochina
Died 11 June 1963 (aged 65–66)
Saigon

, South Vietnam
Senior posting
Based in South Vietnam
Title Buddhist monk
Period in office 1917–1963
Religious career
Ordination 1917
Post Chairman of the Panel on Ceremonial Rites of the Congregation of Vietnamese Monks
Abbot of the Phước Hòa pagoda
[Flag of Viet Nam] Vietnamese
BuddaSasana: Vietnamese Buddhist Page (Binh Anson)
offers the entire Vietnamese translation of the Tipitaka and is
regularly revised and corrected for any errors. Also distributes a free
CD that includes both the BuddhaSasana website (in Vietnamese; updated
monthly) and Access to Insight (in English; updated every six months).
Trang Văn Học Pāli (Pali Tripitaka & Glossary)
shootings


A memorial to Quang Duc located on the site of his death


Journalist Malcolm Browne’s photograph of Quang Duc during his self-immolation; a similar photograph won the 1963 World Press Photo of the Year[23]



U.S. President John F. Kennedy said that “no news picture in history has generated so much emotion around the world as that one”


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