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11/30/10
LESSON 101 What Was Not Said 30 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 12:55 am

LESSON 101 What Was Not Said 30 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

Vipassana Fellowship © 2005

Anguttara Nikaya II.23

Abhasita Sutta

What Was Not Said

“Monks, these two slander the Tathagata. Which two? He who explains what was not said or spoken by the Tathagata as said or spoken by the Tathagata. And he who explains what was said or spoken by the Tathagata as not said or spoken by the Tathagata. These are two who slander the Tathagata.”



The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.



§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches



 

comments (0)
11/29/10
LESSON 100 A Certain Brahman 29 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble Chief Minister to make surprise inspection of all districts from 1st February, 2011-Hon’ble C.M. gives two months (December and January) to officers to improve law and order and development works-Three-tier revised review system for development works and law and order-Five officers of sugar mills arrested-Hon’ble Chief Minister inaugurates Lucknow Mahotsav
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 12:49 am

LESSON 100 A Certain Brahman 29 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.freedharma.com/text/canonical/annatra_sutta/ed1f0fd27b04d370d130aeab92b09fe7/

< ?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” />

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.046.than.html

SN 12.46 

PTS: S ii 75 

CDB i 583

Aññatra Sutta: A Certain Brahman

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2000–2010

welling at Savatthi… Then a certain brahman went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: “What now, Master Gotama: Is the one who acts the same one who experiences [the results of the act]?”

[The Buddha:] “[To say,] ‘The one who acts is the same one who experiences,’ is one extreme.”

[The brahman:] “Then, Master Gotama, is the one who acts someone other than the one who experiences?”

[The Buddha:] “[To say,] ‘The one who acts is someone other than the one who experiences,’ is the second extreme. Avoiding both of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma by means of the middle: From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications. From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness. From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form. From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media. From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving. From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance. From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming. From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth. From birth as a requisite condition, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play. Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering.

“Now from the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications. From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness. From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form. From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media. From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact. From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling. From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving. From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance. From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of stress & suffering.”

When this was said, the brahman said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to point out the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has Master Gotama — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to Master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, & to the community of monks. May Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge from this day forward, for life.”

 

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon’ble Chief Minister to make surprise inspection of all districts from 1

st February, 2011

Hon’ble C.M. gives two months (December and January) to officers to improve law and order and development works

Three-tier revised review system for development works and law and order

Hon’ble Chief Minister reviews development works and law and order of the State

Lucknow: 27 November 2010

Addressing the senior administrative and police officers at a State

level meeting to review law and order and development works at Tilak

Hall here today, the Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms.

Mayawati ji said that law and order is the top most priority of the State

Government. She said that all officers related to law and order should

remain alert and discharge their duties with full honesty and

commitment. She appreciated the officers for maintaining the peace and

communal harmony in the state after the decision of Hon’ble High Court

on Ayodhya issue and said that owing to better coordination and

understanding, besides the directives given by her on August 18 in this

regard, peaceful atmosphere prevailed in the State and throughout the

country. Keeping in view the coming date of December 06, the day

controversial structure in Ayodhya was demolished, she directed the

officers related to law and order, especially the officers of Faizabad to

remain extra alert and follow the directives of Principal Secretary Home

and DGP through video conferencing given recently in this regard. She

expressed satisfaction over the peaceful completion of Panchayat

elections and said that incidents had come to light at some places owing

to enmity. The officers should pay special attention towards it and

ensure that peaceful atmosphere should be maintained at all costs, she

added.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister emphasised the need of more

improvement in development works and law and order situation and

said that three-tier arrangement at district, divisional and State level

had been made to review important development programmes, disposal

of people’s problems, verification of development works, controlling

crime and strengthening law and order situation.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister said that she would visit the districts

from 1

st February 2011 to review development works and law and order.

During the inspection of districts of the State, she would not held

meeting with the officers. She would inspect the development works and

get information from common man regarding law and order. She said

that all officers had two months of December and January for making

improvement in law and order and development works. She expressed

the hope that all officers would get involved in improving the situation,

so that it could be seen during surprise inspection of the districts.

Giving information regarding the revised three tier review system,

the Hon’ble Chief Minister said that now district level review meeting

would be held on 3

rd of every month from 3:00PM to 7:00PM under the

Chairmanship of District Magistrate of the concerning district. She told

about the programme and important schemes for which review had to

be made during district level review meeting.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister directed the District Magistrates for

surprise checking in at least one village of a Tehsil in every month and

said that after the review meeting at district level, another review

meeting at divisional level under the Chairmanship of Commissioner in

all the divisions of the State would be held on 6

th of every month, in

which DMs of all districts and divisional level officers of all departments

would participate.

About State level review meeting, the Hon’ble Chief Minister said

that this meeting would be held on Wednesday falling after 13

th of every

month from 10:00AM in Lucknow, in which all Commissioners/DMs,

Principal Secretaries /Secretaries would remain present. The Ministers

would hold the review meeting on 9

th of every month with Principal

Secretary/ Secretary and divisional level officers of the department. On

the 20

th of every month, the Chief Secretary would hold the review

meeting for priority development programmes and departmental works

with Principal Secretaries /Secretaries and she (Hon’ble Chief Minister)

would be apprised of the conclusions on 25

th of every month.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister while telling about the revised review

system regarding law and order and crime control said that now district

level meeting would be held on 3

rd of every month to be organised by

Police DIG, SSP, SP from 10:00AM to 2:00PM, in which SP (City), SP

(Rural) and all COs besides DM, ADM (City) and all SDMs would take

part.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister said that zonal review meeting would

be held on 5

th of every month from 10:00AM by police IG/DIG zone, in

which Police DIG of all districts of the zone/SSP/SP would participate. In

this meeting district wise reports would be reviewed. The Hon’ble Chief

Minister directed the officers to hold State level review meeting on the

Wednesday falling just after 13

th of every month from 10:00AM at

Yojana Bhawan. She said that necessary government order was being

issued regarding this revised review system.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister with a view to making more

improvement in law and order system assigned the responsibilities to

Principal Secretary Home, DGP and Additional DGP (law and order) in

their respective areas of the State and directed these officers that they

should ensure the surprise checking in their allotted areas at least two

days in every month and ensure fool proof law and order arrangements.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister hoped that all officers related to

development works and law and order would follow the revised review

system with full commitment and honesty, so that poor and weaker

sections of the society could get the benefits of government schemes in

a development oriented atmosphere free from crime, injustice, fear and

corruption.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister while giving details about the steps

being taken by the State Government to develop cities in phased

manner said that several schemes had been launched to develop civic

facilities in some cities during first phase, but works related to these

cities had not been completed in time bound manner, which is

unfortunate.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister authorised the Chairman of State

Advisory Council Mr. Satish Chandra Mishra to review all these

development works and making inspection. She said that Mr. Mishra

should get these works completed after review meeting and all officers

should co-operate him in this regard. She directed the officers that a

meeting should be held on 1

st December to convey the directives being

given today to all officers in two shifts and all concerning officers should

be apprised of the directives of this meeting, so that revised review

system could be implemented from January next and district level

meeting could be organised on 3

rd January in every district.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister made it clear that she would make

surprise inspection in all the 72 districts and give necessary time to

concerning officers for making improvement on finding shortcomings in

development works and law and order during her visits. If the working

of the concerning officers could not get improved, then adverse entries

would be given to concerning officers and he would be transferred on

insignificant post. She said this action would not remain limited to lower

rung officers. District and divisional level officers, besides senior officers

would also face the punitive action, she said and warned all officers that

they should get involved in following the directives given today with full

honesty and commitment without any delay, so that the people of the

State could be benefited by development programmes and better law

and order.

On this occasion Chairman, State Advisory Council Mr. Satish

Chandra Mishra, Cabinet Secretary, Chief Secretary, Additional Cabinet

Secretary, Principal Secretary Home, Principal Secretary, DGP, ADGP,

DMs, Commissioner, SSPs, SPs, IGs and DIGs Police were present,

besides other senior officers.

*******

Five officers of sugar mills arrested

Lucknow: 26 November 2010

Criminal case has been registered under IPC section

420, 342, 353 and 7 Criminal Act Amendment against

General Manager Mr. R.P. Singh and Mr. S. Ganpati and

General Manager Sugar Cane Mr. Virendra Singh and Mr.

T.R. Sharma, besides the General Manager Technical Mr.

R.K. Agarwal on the charges of not running district Bijnor

sugar mill and Chandpur sugar mill timely and attack on

the officers of sugar cane department making them

bonded. They have been arrested for violation of licence

conditions under Essential Commodities Act after lodging

of FIR.

Giving this information, a spokesperson of the State

Government said that Hon’ble Chief Minister had already

given clear-cut directives to all sugar mills that stringent

action would be taken against them, if cane farmers faced

any difficulty during the current crushing season. She had

also directed that sugar mills should start crushing work

from November 15 at all costs and this work would be

continued till the end of all sugar cane crops. She said that

State Government was committed to get sugar mills

functional with a view to vacate the fields for sowing of

wheat. The government would not overlook the interests

of sugar cane farmers.

It may be mentioned that both of these sugar mills

had not followed the directives of Hon’ble Chief Minister

owing to which stringent action had been taken against

them.

*******

Hon’ble Chief Minister inaugurates Lucknow Mahotsav

Lucknow: 25 November 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati

ji inaugurated the Lucknow Mahotsav by lighting lamp here

today. Lucknow Mahotsav would be held between 25

November and 5 December at the area park (sector-L), near

Bijli Pasi Kila, Ashiyana.

Addressing the function, Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said

that the theme of the festival is

‘Badalte Parivesh Mein

Lucknow Par Naaz, Kanoon Dwara Kanoon Ka Raaj’

and

through this theme efforts had been made to present the

glorious past of Lucknow, besides presenting its changing

picture of today. She said that besides the Lucknowites,

people coming from other places would also get full

information about Lucknow. She said that Lucknow Mahotsav

was being organised every year to give people information

about the Ganga-Jamuni culture of Lucknow. She said that

owing to its historical and cultural heritage and unparallel

tehzeeb,

Lucknow has created its identity all over the world.

Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that Lucknow was fast

becoming a destination of tourists as it had several historical

buildings besides numerous memorials, museums and parks

were being established so that it may attract more and more

tourists. Owing to the setting up of memorials, museums and

parks, Lucknow had emerged as a modern city. She said that

during the past three years the State Government had spent

crores of rupees to make Lucknow a modern city and the

development works being carried out by her Government

would make this city a very attractive place to live.

Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that several memorials,

museums, parks, galleries and squares created by her

Government to honour saints, gurus and great men born in

dalit and other backward sections, were attracting tourists to

Lucknow. She said that the tourists coming to this city would

now be inspired by the heroes of social change. She said that

the heart of the Lucknow viz. Hazratganj was completing 200

years and because of it the Lucknow Mahotsav had special

importance.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that her Government

was implementing many projects to make the Hazratganj

beautiful, owing to which the condition of the city would be

improved more. She said that the people of different religions

lived in a peaceful atmosphere with mutual brotherhood in the

State. Her Government was not renovating only Lucknow city,

but it was making efforts to bring back the glory of other

religious and cultural cities and places of the State. The local

people the tourists would be benefited by the development

works being done in these places. She released the magazine

‘Urmila’

published by Lucknow Mahotsav Committee on this

occasion. A film based on the development journey of

Lucknow was presented through light and sound programme,

in which coordination of modernity and cultural heritage of

Lucknow was presented in an attractive manner. Afterwards,

‘Buddh Charitam’

was presented by Rashtriya Kathak

Sansthan. Pt. Vishwamohan Bhatt played Veena.

Lucknow Commissioner Mr. Prashant Trivedi while

welcoming the guests gave important information related to

Lucknow Mahotsav. Several Ministers, MPs, MLAs, eminent

citizens, senior officers, tourists, artisans and artists were

present on this occasion.

*******

comments (0)
11/27/10
LESSON 99 Aggañña Sutta 27 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Kanpur police on Facebook-Pay attention to your scam-ridden party, Mayawati tells Sonia
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 2:58 am

LESSON  99 Aggañña Sutta 27  11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.


The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

Kindly watch the video on:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLZzPoLjqwM

BCI-family, wishes from Vitthal Umap Ji

Thank you, Mr Chaitanya Bhandare, for your emal and the YouTube.
 
Vithalji Umap passed away singing. He had been singing praises of Babasaheb and Lord Buddha, till death. According to Buddhist teaching, he would have a rebirth befitting his noble samsaric life.
 
I am sorry, I didn’t have an opportunity to listen to him and his songs in person. I am thankful to friends like Chaitanya who have brought his songs alive electronically.
 
With much metta,
 
Lakshman 

No words to describe the pain I am feeling with this news.


The mountain-shattering voice of Hon. Umap ji (for me ‘Umap kaka’) will keep on inspiring millions of us forever.

Here is a small clip to have a ‘darshan’ of this diamond:
 

With Metta,
Sunil Bodhi
 

Dear All

Great Namo Buddhay & Jay-Bhim

Oxford university has published a book THE MAKERS OF THE UNIVERSE, In which they enlist 100 people who gave remarkable contribution to the world over the period of 10,000 yrs in entire UNIVERSE, In this list 1st name is “GOUTAM BUDDHA” and 4th is “Dr. B.R. Ambedakr” for the their principle of “equality” which is the universal solution for the today’s burning world. My sincere tribute to both of them.

With Metta

Satyajit


KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism_and_evolution

Buddhism and evolution

As no major principles of Buddhism contradict it, many Buddhists tacitly accept the theory of evolution.[1] Questions about the eternity or infinity of the universe at large are counted among the 14 unanswerable questions which the Buddha maintained were counterproductive areas of speculation.[2] As such, many Buddhists do not think about these kinds of questions as particularly meaningful or helpful from a religious perspective.[3] One does not need to know the origin of life, nor agree with the Buddha’s position on scientific topics, in order to achieve awakenment.

Anagarika Dharmapala once stated that “the theory of evolution was one of the ancient teachings of the Buddha.”[4]

In the Majjhima Nikaya, a potential follower asks the Buddha for an answer to the problem of cosmogony:

“Suppose someone was hit by a poisoned arrow and his friends and relatives found a doctor able to remove the arrow. If this man were to say, ‘I will not have this arrow taken out until I know whether the person who had shot it was a priest, a prince or a merchant, his name and his family. I will not have it taken out until I know what kind of bow was used and whether the arrowhead was an ordinary one or an iron one.’ That person would die before all these things are ever known to him.”[2]

The Buddha argued that there is no apparent rational necessity for the existence of a creator god because everything ultimately is created by mind.[2] Belief in a creator is not necessarily addressed by a religion based on phenomenology, and Buddhism is generally accepting of modern scientific theories about the formation of the universe. This can be argued either from the standpoint that it simply does not matter, or from an interpretation of the Agañña Sutta favoring the notion that it describes the basic concept of evolution.[5]

Aggañña Sutta

In the Aggañña Sutta, found in the Pali Canon, the Buddha does appear to give a highly detailed answer to this issue. The Buddha, speaking to the monk Vasettha, a former Brahmin, states the following:

‘There comes a time, Vasettha, when, sooner or later after a long period this world contracts. At a time of contraction, beings are mostly born in the Abhassara Brahma world. And there they dwell, mind-made, feeding on delight, self luminous, moving through the air, glorious—and they stay like that for a very long time. But sooner or later, after a very long period, this world begins to expand again. At a time of expansion, the beings from the Abhassara Brahma world, having passed away from there, are mostly reborn in this world. Here they dwell, mind-made, feeding on delight, self-luminous, moving through the air, glorious— and they stay like that for a very long time.

At that period, Vasettha, there was just one mass of water, and all was darkness, blinding darkness. Neither moon nor sun appeared, no constellations or stars appeared, night and day were not yet distinguished, nor months and fortnights, nor years and seasons; there was no male and female, beings being reckoned just as beings. And sooner or later, after a very long period of time, savory earth spread itself over the waters where those beings were. It looked just like the skin that forms itself over hot milk as it cools. It was endowed with color, smell, and taste. It was the color of fine ghee or butter and it was very sweet, like pure wild honey.[6]

Because the Buddha seems to present a model of cosmology wherein the universe expands and contracts over extremely long periods of time, this description has been found by some to be consistent with the expanding universe model and Big Bang.[7] The Buddha seems to be saying here that the universe expands outward, reaches a stabilising point, and then reverts its motion back toward a central point resulting in its destruction, this process again to be repeated infinitely. Throughout this expanding and contracting process, the objects found within the universe undergo periods of development and change over a long stretch of time, according to the environment in which they find themselves. Following this passage above, the Buddha goes on to say that the “beings” he described in this paragraph become attached to an earthlike planet, get reborn there, and remain there for the duration of the life. As a consequence of this, physical characteristics change and evolutionary changes takes place. This is often interpreted as a very rough theory of evolution. Furthermore, the Aggañña Sutta presents water as pre-existent to earthlike planets, with the planet forming with water and the life moving from the water onto the earth. The Buddha does not talk about a specific earth, but about earthlike planets in general.

The Aggañña Sutta does raise an issue about the importance of the question; if the Buddha regards the answer as meaningless, why would he give a teaching on it? And if he does not regard the answer as meaningless, why did he not provide it to another person who asked? One of the answers could be that he gave the teaching to people who had a very fixed idea of the existence of the universe or tried to explain the creation seen on a relative level. The Buddha likened his teaching to a doctor’s medicine to cure a patient’s suffering. The medicine must be of the right content and right amount to the right patient at the right time. As such, there is no absolute truth as there is no single, absolute cure-all medicine fitting all patients

References

1.    ^ Religious Differences on the Question of Evolution

2.    ^ a b c Buddha’s Wisdom and Compassion

3.    ^ Four reasons Buddhists can love evolution

4.    ^ Buddhism and Science: Probing the Boundaries of Faith and Reason by Dr. Martin J. Verhoeven. Religion East and West, Issue 1, June 2001, pp. 77-97

5.    ^ Williams, Paul (2004). Buddhism. Routledge. pp. 102. ISBN 0415332281.

6.    ^ Aggañña Sutta

7.    ^ Beginnings and Endings: The Buddhist Mythos of the Arising and Passing Away of the World by James J. Hughes Ph.D. Buddhist Perceptions of Desirable Societies in the Future: Papers prepared for the United Nations University, eds. Sulak Sivaraksa et al. IRCD: Bangkok, Thailand. 1993

8.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agga%C3%B1%C3%B1a_Sutta

Aggañña Sutta

Aggañña Sutta is the 27th Sutta of Digha Nikaya collections. The sutta describes a discourse imparted from the Buddha to two brahmins, Bharadvaja and Vasettha, who left their family and caste to become monks. The two brahmins are insulted and maligned by their own caste for their intention to become member of Sangha. Buddha explains that caste and lineage can not be compared to the achievement of morality practice and the Dhamma, as anyone from the four castes can become a monk and reached the state of Arahant. Then, he explains about the beginning of the Earth, and the birth of social order and its structure, including the castes. The Buddha emphasizes the message of universality in Dhamma and how Dhamma is the best of all things

The beginning

The Sutta begins when the Buddha is staying in Savatthi, in the temple donated by Visakkha, the Mother of Migara. At that time, two brahmins, Bharadvaja and Vasettha are training with the Monks (bhikkhu) and aim to be a member of Sangha. As usual in the evening, the Buddha raises from his meditation and strolls in the open yard nearby his dwelling. Vasettha sees his Teacher strolling, and he tells his friend, Bharadvaja, and suggests to meet Buddha to see if they can hear a Dhamma exposition from the Buddha.

They both approach the Buddha and after some formal properieties, the Buddha asks the two if they received insults and denigration when they left their caste and layman’s life in order to join the order of Sangha. Vasettha and Bharadvaja answer that they did receive a ‘flood of insults’. They say that the other Brahmins maintain that the Brahmin caste is the best, as the Brahmins are of high social status and authority, pure-bred, have radiant complexion, born from the mouth of God Brahma, unlike the other lower castes. So, by the opinion of the other Brahmins, how can Vasettha and Bharadvaja leave this good caste and status, thus join together with fraudulent ascetics with shaven heads from other castes, lower in status as they are born from the feet of Brahma.

To this remark, Buddha tell them that the Brahmins have indeed forgotten about their past if they said such things. The fact is that the women in Brahmin caste can get pregnant, give birth, and take care of their children. But the Brahmins still speak that they are born from the Mouth of God Brahma and other (castes) are born from Brahma’s feet. Thus the Brahmin’s words are untrue. Buddha speaks that the Brahmins are not speaking truthfully and they will reap a bad result from their own deeds.

The Buddha then elaborates that if any of the caste does the following deeds: killing, taking anything which is not given, take part in sexual misconduct, lying, slandering, speaking rough words or nonsense, greedy, cruel, and practise wrong beliefs (miccha ditthi); people would still see that they do negative deeds and therefore are not worthy of respect. They will even get into trouble from their own deeds, whatever their caste (Brahmin, Khattiya, Vessa, and Sudda) might be.

While those who refrain themselves from: killing, taking anything which is not given, do sexual misconduct, lying, slandering, speaking rough words or nonsense, being greedy, cruel, and practising wrong beliefs (miccha ditthi); will be seen by people as positive and will earn respect from the people and the wise ones. They would be profiting from their deeds, no matter what their caste might be.

Logically, as the four castes can do either the negative (demerit) or positive (merit) deeds, so will the wise reject the statement that only the Brahmins is the best of caste. Why? Because anyone from the four castes if they left the worldly affairs and became a monk, and due to their discipline and struggle, they become arahant, people who conquered their mind’s stains, have done whatever what must be done, have relieved themselves from burden, have broken the bondage of birth, achieved freedom, freed due to achieved knowledge, then he is the best among others based on Truth (Dhamma).

The Buddha quoted, “Dhamma is the best thing for people In this life and the next as well.”

Further, Buddha proves that Dhamma is indeed the best thing of all things in life. He took an example of King Pasenadi of Kosala Kingdom, who has now conquered the Sakyans. The Sakyans revere, praise, and serve him with respect.

But, towards the Buddha, who came from Sakyan people, King Pasenadi reveres, praises, and serves the Buddha with utmost respect. Even the monarch thinks like this: “The Shramana Gotama had perfect birth, while I am not perfect. The Shramana Gotama is mighty, while I am weak. The Shramana Gotama inspired awe and respect, while I do not. The Shramana Gotama is vastly influential and charming, while I only possess small influence.” As even the King respects Dhamma, revers Dhamma, obeys Dhamma, therefore he bows and praises the Tathagatha.

The Buddha then advises Vasettha that whoever has strong, deep rooted, and established belief in the Tathagatha, he can declare that he is the child of Bhagavan, born from the mouth of Dhamma, created from Dhamma, and the heir of Dhamma. Because the titles of the Tathagatha are: The Body of Dhamma, The Body of Brahma, the Manifestation of Dhamma, and the Manifestation of Brahma.

The Beginning of Life on Earth

In the second part of the Sutta, Buddha tells the story of how the human beings came to dwell on Earth.

The Buddha told that sooner or later, after a very long time, there would be a time when the world shrinks. As the universe shrinks, many of its inhabitants would die. Of these deceased creatures, some were born again (due to good karma) in the Heavenly realm of Abbhasara (Lucid Light). There, they floated for a very - very long time, as a bodiless, radiating extreme light. They don’t eat or drink, as they nourish themselves from pure spiritual joy.

Then, after some very long time, when the World began to expand again, many of these Abbhasara creatures were born to the newly formed Earth. They floated above and around the Earth. At this time, there were not yet seen the Moon and the Sun, there were not yet Night and Day, there were not yet names and identity or female or male. The creatures were only known for creatures.

At that period, Vasettha, there was just one mass of water, and all was darkness, blinding darkness…. And sooner or later, after a very long period of time, savory earth spread itself over the waters where those beings were. It looked just like the skin that forms itself over hot milk as it cools. It was endowed with color, smell, and taste. It was the color of fine ghee or heated butter and it was very sweet, like pure wild honey (1)

Some of the creatures of light (the Abbhasaras) who had curiosity and a greedy nature began to dive and taste the savory Earth’s substance. At that moment, the creature found out that it tasted so delicious. Thus, greed started to seep in and it ate the substance voraciously, greedily, thus calling also its comrades (who were flying above and on earth) to join in the feast. Not long afterwards, the creatures began to eat so greedily and due to the huge amount of the mud substance, they could feed on it for a very long time.

As they ate and ate, their luminous body began to be coated by the mud substance, formed a coarser body, then suddenly, the sun and moon were seen, so were the stars, and also Night and Day began on Earth. The logical explanation of this was that the creatures were the self-luminating, so blinding and luminating that they didn’t notice the Sun. The Earth was covered in their light. So, when the materialization took place, the light faded inside their newly conceived ‘body’ of mud and thus the night and day became apparent to them. Then, as the night and day became apparent, season and years also appeared.

Their body was still coarse and roughly shaped. Thus, after a very long time, the mud-like substance began to exhaust. Then, mushroom-like plants began to grow so fast that it replaced the mud-like ocean. The creatures began to devour them as well, and they found it also so delicious as sweet honey and milk. Their body hardened more and details began to turn finer.

After another very long time, the mushrooms also began to exhaust, replaced by cassava or turnip-class plants. They also began to devour it night and day, and thus they began to notice differences amongst them. As the changes of their bodies varied with one another, the concept of difference arose. The beautiful and the ugly concept was born. The beautiful scorns the ugly and they became arrogant of their appearance.

Then, after the turnips, the earth was grown with rice plants. The first rice plants were without husk and kernels. The sweet and honey-like rice flourished seeds abundantly. The people consumed them for a very long time. But there are people who became greedy and lazy. They took more rice than they needed for one day’s meals. They began to take two, four, eight, and sixteen days’ of rice reserves as they were too lazy to take rice everyday. Owing to this, many other creatures began to store and hoard the rice. The generation time for rice plants became slower and slower. Usually, it took only one night for the plant to grow and be ready to be consumed, but by the karmic power, the plant began to grow slower and slower. Also the rice grew in kernel and husks, scattered, of which the creatures must work, nurse, maintain, harvest, and cook them to obtain the white rice.

By this time, the body of the creatures had been finely evolved. There was already the distinction between male and female. The man became preoccupied with women and vice versa. Then, as they were deeply attracted to one another, passion and desire aroused, and they engaged in sexual relationships. The people who saw a couple engaged in sexual activity scolded them, and usually the couple were forbidden from entering the village for a certain period of time. Owing to this, the indulgent couples built closed dwellings where they indulged in sexual activity.

The Birth of Social Order and Castes

In the third part, the Buddha explained about the origin of Castes, their titles, and their order in the society system which were still rigidly effective in Buddha’s time.

The Khattiya Caste (Rulers)

The rice plants, as mentioned earlier, began to grow in separate plots and people began to divide lands and tend each other’s cluster of rice fief. They became preoccupied in tending their own field. Then, as the evil and greed were aroused, there were people who begin stealing others’ crops. At first, the others only warned the culprit and the culprit promised that he would never repeat it again. But when it was repeated several times, the people began punishing him with fist, stones, and then sticks. That is the origin of punishment forms. Then, people began to think that they were too busy to heed every crime and abuse that happened in their society. They grieved on the rising of evil amongst their people. But most of their time had already been invested in tending their fief. So, they appointed someone to rectify what is right and what is wrong, give warnings to those who need it, give punishment to those who deserve it, and in return, they will give him a share of their rice. So, they went to the fairest, ablest, most likeable, and most intelligent person and appointed him to do the judging and passing out sentences on the reward of a share of rice. The appointed person thus agreed and the people bestowed upon him the title : ‘Maha-Sammata’ meaning: The People’s Choice. Then, they bestowed also the second title: ‘Khattiya’ meaning the ‘Lord of the Rice Field’, and finally the third title: ‘Raja’ which means ‘Who gladdens people with Dhamma (or Truth)’. This order was created by the people’s wish and need, based on the Dhamma and not from others. The Buddha stated again that Dhamma is indeed the best of all things.

The Brahmin Caste

Then, amongst the people, some of them begin to think like this: “Evil deeds have risen amongst us, such as: theft, lies, murders, sexual abuses, punishment, and banishment. Now let us set aside evil, unuseful, and impolite things.” The word Brahmins came, as it meant: “They who put aside Evil and unwholesome things” (1). They set up retreats and huts in the forests and meditated there. They came to the city at morning and evening only to gather food and after finishing gathering food, they returned to their huts and meditations. People noticed this and ‘Those who meditated’ were called ‘Jhayanti’ or ‘Jhayaka’.

There are other people, who can’t meditate or dwell in huts in the forest. So, they settled in the cities, did not meditate, but compiled books. The people called them ‘Ajjhayaka’ which meant ‘They who don’t meditate’. At first the Ajjhayaka were viewed lower than Jhayaka but in the Buddha’s time, the Ajjhayaka had been viewed higher in status than the Jhayakas.

The Vessa (Traders) and the Sudda (Hunters)

Among the people who had settled and had family, some began to adopt various trades.

The remainder of these people preferred the work of hunting. The Sudda caste came from the word ‘Sudda’ which means: ‘They Are Base Who Live By The Chase’ [1].

All of the castes, from Brahmin, Khattiya, Vessa, and Sudda originated from these people, and not from others; in accordance to the Dhamma and not by others.

The Ascetics

But from the four clans, there were people who were not satisfied with their living, left their home and became celibate ascetics. These are the origin of the fifth caste formed from all the four castes’ people who left their lay life and became an ascetic.

Buddha’s Conclusion

The Buddha then concluded his discourse to Vasettha and Bharadvaja: (Due to the governance of Dhamma which became the root of all castes and people) anyone, from any the caste, who did demerit and wrong doings, lived a bad life of speech, thoughts, views, and wrong doings, they would end up after their death, in the realm of sufferings, hell, loss, and torture.

But anyone, from any caste, who did merit and good deeds, lived a good life of speech, thoughts, and deeds; had the right view, after their death, they would end in the realm of happiness and heaven.

Anyone, from any caste, who did both merit and demerit, lived a good and bad life of speech, thoughts, and deeds; had either a right or a bad view, after their death, they could end in the realm of suffering or the realm of joy.

Anyone, from any caste, who lived a life of disciplined deeds, speeches, thoughts, who had trained and developed himself in the seven factors of Awakenment, then he would attain the eradication from the (stains/dust/dirt/filth) of mind in this current life.

Anyone, from four castes, who became a bhikku (Monk), arahant, who had eradicated stains of Mind, had done what must be done, had relieved himself from burden, who had attained freedom, who had broken the bondage of birth, who had been freed due to knowledge; then they would be declared as the best from all of them, in accordance to the Truth (Dharma) and not from the basis of not Truth (adhamma).

The Buddha quoted, “Dhamma is the best thing for people In this life and the next as well.”

The Buddha quoted the verses of Brahma Sandakumara: “The Khattiya is the best among those who maintain their lineage; He with knowledge and conduct is best of gods and men. then, the Buddha asserted that the verse is indeed true, according to the Dhamma, profitable, and true.

The Khattiya’s best among those who value clan; He with knowledge and conduct is best of gods and men.

Thus the discourse ended with Vasettha and Bharadvaja rejoiceing in hearing the words of Buddha.

Digging deeper on the Sutta

While the story of the world’s beginning is considered a myth, on the other hand, the buddhist doctrine requires a constant sceptical approach, where one must see and prove it before one believes it (ehipassiko). However, the profound insight of the Buddha in two major fields: science (cosmology) and social structure’s origin indeed was revolutionary in his era.

On the science part, Buddha implied the theory of the Evolution of Universe, where it is said to shrink and then expand in repeated cycles.

While on the social science part, the Buddha’s words implied the equality of origin in the human race, whether by their sex, appearance, or by other categories which were founded later based on physiological differences. Buddha also emphasized that the social structure is formed voluntarily, based on righteousness and necessity, not based on Divine Forces as some theories stated.

The Monarchy is also formed voluntarily, and the people elect the most righteous and capable person, which implied the Democracy concept. The Monarch accepts a ’share of rice’ as his reward to rectify the social order, which is the origin of voluntary reward which evolves into the taxation concept. However, the Buddha states that the Monarch is regarded worthy not because of his divine right but due to his righteousness in deeds. [2]

The Buddha’s message was clear, however, that the best thing in the world is Truth (Dhamma) and everything is created, measured, and valued based on Truth and not from something other.

According to Richard Gombrich, the sutta gives strong evidence that it was conceived entirely as a satire of brahminical claims regarding the divine nature of the caste system, showing that it is nothing but a humanconvention.[1][2] In this text, the Buddha also pokes fun at the Vedic “Hymn of the Cosmic Man” and etymologizes “reciter of the Veda” so as to make it mean “non-meditator” instead.[3]

[edit]Notes

1.    ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 85: [1].

2.    ^ David J. Kalupahana, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Reprint by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1991, page 61: [2]

3.    ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 82-85.

[edit]External links

§  Agganna Sutta Translation

§  Agganna Sutta’s Society Theory

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Kanpur police on Facebook

KANPUR: In an attempt to make themselves easily accessible to the public, police in this Uttar Pradesh district have opened an account on popular social networking site Facebook.

“The main objective behind opening the account is to generate a direct medium of communication with the public. The exercise is aimed at facilitating better communication between police and the public,” Kanpur range Deputy Inspector General (DIG) M. Ashok Jain told reporters in city, some 80 km from Lucknow.

“With the help of the account we will also be able to know about the public feedback, which in turn will immensely help us improve our functioning,” said Jain, who has opened the Facebook account on behalf of the Kanpur police.

Senior police officials say sketches and photographs of wanted criminals would also be posted in the Kanpur Police Facebook page.

“The objective behind it is simple. Once the photos are posted, people will get to know about the wanted criminals and would approach us if they see them. It will help us nabbing the criminals also,” a senior police official said.

Jain has issued special instructions for reviewing the Facebook account on a daily basis.

“Whenever I get time, I visit the Facebook account that has been created around a week ago. However, I have instructed the officials to ensure the Facebook page is visited at least four-five times daily,” said Jain.

Pay attention to your scam-ridden party, Mayawati tells Sonia

Lucknow, Nov 26 – Sonia Gandhi should pay attention to her own party that was ‘full of scams’, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati said Friday while hitting out at the Congress president for her remarks on ‘rampant corruption’ in the state.

In a statement issued a day after Gandhi’s rally in Allahabad, Mayawati lashed out at her for sweeping remarks against the working of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) government in Uttar Pradesh.

‘It is high time Sonia Gandhi started paying attention to her own party that is full of scams. Let her put her own house in order before pointing fingers at us,’ Mayawati said.

‘The nation is today paying the price for corruption at all levels in the UPA (United Progressive Alliance) government,’ she alleged, and added that ‘there are more skeletons to tumble out of the cupboard’.

Taking strong exception to Gandhi’s charge about ‘misappropriation’ and ‘pilferage’ of funds released by the central government for various development schemes, Mayawati said: ‘The truth is that that the Congress-led UPA government has not been giving us the required funds.

‘Soon after the formation of our government in 2007, we had sought a special financial package of Rs.80,000 crore for the overall development of Uttar Pradesh’s most backward Bundelhand and Purvanchal regions but not a penny was given by the centre so far.’

She gave several other examples of the financial demands pending with the union government.

Alleging ’step-motherly treatment’ by the central government, the chief minister claimed: ‘As against the state’s total dues of Rs.34,083 crore, the centre had yet to release anything beyond Rs.16,414 crore.’

She also blamed New Delhi for deliberately holding back its clearance for an international airport near Greater Noida. Besides, she accused the Manmohan Singh government for delaying allocation of coal blocks that was adversely affecting power generation in the state.

 

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11/26/10
LESSON 98 To Visakha 26 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Mayawati’s next: Grand entrances to Gr Noida inspired by Buddha
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LESSON  98 To Visakha 26 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY



Awakeness Practices



All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas



Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:



The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.





BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!



WISDOM           IS            POWER



Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss





Using such an instrument



The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :



Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit



As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn42/sn42.011.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/ud/ud.8.08.than.html

Ud 8.8 

PTS: Ud 91

Visakha Sutta: To Visakha

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1994–2010

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara’s mother. Now at that time a dear and beloved grandson of Visakha, Migara’s mother, had died. So Visakha, Migara’s mother — her clothes wet, her hair wet — went to the Blessed One in the middle of the day and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As she was sitting there the Blessed One said to her: “Why have you come here, Visakha — your clothes wet, your hair wet — in the middle of the day?”

When this was said, she said to the Blessed One, “My dear and beloved grandson has died. This is why I have come here — my clothes wet, my hair wet — in the middle of the day.”

“Visakha, would you like to have as many children and grandchildren as there are people in Savatthi?”

“Yes, lord, I would like to have as many children and grandchildren as there are people in Savatthi.”

“But how many people in Savatthi die in the course of a day?”

“Sometimes ten people die in Savatthi in the course of a day, sometimes nine… eight… seven… six… five… four… three… two… Sometimes one person dies in Savatthi in the course of a day. Savatthi is never free from people dying.”

“So what do you think, Visakha: Would you ever be free from wet clothes and wet hair?”

“No, lord. Enough of my having as many children and grandchildren as there are people in Savatthi.”

“Visakha, those who have a hundred dear ones have a hundred sufferings. Those who have ninety dear ones have ninety sufferings. Those who have eighty… seventy… sixty… fifty… forty… thirty… twenty… ten… nine… eight… seven… six… five… four… three… two… Those who have one dear one have one suffering. For those with no dear ones, there are no sufferings. They are free from sorrow, free from stain, free from lamentation, I tell you.”

Then, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed:

The sorrows, lamentations,

the many kinds of suffering in the world,

exist dependent on something dear.

          They don’t exist

          when there’s nothing dear.

And thus blissful & sorrowless

are those for whom nothing

in the world is dear anywhere.

So one who aspires

to be stainless & sorrowless

shouldn’t make anything

in the world dear

          anywhere.

Mayawati’s next: Grand entrances to Gr Noida inspired by Buddha

Mayawati’s next: Grand entrances to Gr Noida inspired by Buddha
Pragya Kaushika Posted online: Thu Nov 25 2010, 03:35 hrs

Greater Noida : The Uttar Pradesh government is planning a series of
special entrances to the high-profile Greater Noida city. The city,
located in UP Chief Minister Mayawati’s hometurf and which is being
showcased as the upcoming township in the NCR region, will greet
people with grand entrances inspired by the life of Gautma Buddha and
his teachings.
Officials at Greater Noida Authority said: “The entrances planned by
the Greater Noida Authority will be located at Partahal-Khanjarpur,
Kulesara-Surajpur and Pari Chowk. Partahal-Khanjarpur entrance will
have a façade of Buddhist pagodas.”

According to Deputy Chief Executive Officer Greater Noida Authority P
C Gupta, “The area will be developed as a green belt with water bodies
and fountains. The attempt will be to recreate the atmosphere of a
Buddhist temple. The pagodas, as architectural structures, hold a
special significance in Buddhism.”

The architecture will also showcase the state’s connection with
Buddhism. At Kulesara-Surajpur entrance, the plan is to create a scene
out of Gautam Buddha’s life. “We will recreate the scene when a
violent, wild elephant turned tame when it approached Gautam Buddha. A
statue recreating this scene will be erected here in which the
elephant will be seated in front of Buddha with its trunk on Buddha’s
feet. Noida has an entrance with a huge Gautam Budhha idol, Greater
Noida, too, will boast of four idols soon,” Gupta added.

The area will also have a peepul leaf structure, considered
significant in Buddhist beliefs, which will be topped off with a
Buddhist ringing bell. The bell will signify attainment of peace and
prosperity in the region, Gupta said.

Meanwhile, the Pari Chowk entrance renovation plan is also likely to
be finalised soon. The redevelopment plan includes putting up four
Buddha statues in the vicinity of the roundabout along with
development of the green belt. Sources said the Authority is likely to
spend approximately Rs 5 core on the project. The latest construction
spree has been ordered despite the fact that the UP government is
already facing severe criticism and ongoing litigation in the Supreme
Court over its development of parks in the adjoining city of Noida

 

comments (0)
11/25/10
LESSON 97 The Only Son 25 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 12:40 am

LESSON  97 The Only Son 25 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn42/sn42.011.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/ud/ud.2.07.than.html

Ud 2.7 

PTS: Ud 14

Ekaputta Sutta: The Only Son

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1994–2010

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi, in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. Now at that time the dear and beloved only son of a certain lay follower had died. So a large number of lay followers — their clothes wet, their hair wet — went to the Blessed One in the middle of the day and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there the Blessed One said to them: “Why have you come here — your clothes wet, your hair wet — in the middle of the day?”

When this was said, the lay follower said to the Blessed One, “My dear and beloved only son has died. This is why we have come here — our clothes wet, our hair wet — in the middle of the day.”

Then, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed:

Tied down by what’s dear & alluring,

heavenly beings, most people,

worn out with misery,

fall under the sway of the King of Death.

But those who, day & night,

heedfully abandon what’s dear,

dig up misery

by the root —

          Death’s bait

          so hard

          to overcome.

comments (0)
11/23/10
LESSON 96 At Devadaha 23 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-C.M. asks sugar mills to continue cane crushing till farmers stop supply of sugar cane-Two GMs arrested for ignoring interests of cane farmers during current session
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 10:51 am

LESSON  96 At Devadaha 23 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn42/sn42.011.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.101.than.html

File:Lumbini 4.jpg

MN 101 

PTS: M ii 214

Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2005–2010

Translator’s Introduction

In this sutta, the Buddha refutes the theories of the Jains — here called the Niganthas — an order of contemplatives flourishing in India during his time. Although on the surface this sutta may seem to be of strictly historical interest, it makes two important points that are very relevant to some common misunderstandings about Buddhism alive today.

The first point concerns the Buddhist teaching on action, or kamma (karma). The general understanding of this teaching is that actions from the past determine present pleasure and pain, while present actions determine future pleasure and pain. Or, to quote a recent book devoted to the topic, “Karma is the moral principle that governs human conduct. It declares that our present experience is conditioned by our past conduct and that our present conduct will condition our future experience.” This, however, does not accurately describe the Buddha’s teaching on karma, and is instead a fairly accurate account of the Nigantha teaching, which the Buddha explicitly refutes here. As he interrogates the Niganthas, he makes the point that if all pleasure and pain experienced in the present were determined by past action, why is it that they now feel the pain of harsh treatment when they practice asceticism, and no pain of harsh treatment when they don’t? If past action were the sole determining factor, then present action should have no effect on their present experience of pleasure or pain.

In this way, the Buddha points to one of the most distinctive features of his own teaching on kamma: that the present experience of pleasure and pain is a combined result of both past and present actions. This seemingly small addition to the notion of kamma plays an enormous role in allowing for the exercise of free will and the possibility of putting an end to suffering before the effects of all past actions have ripened. In other words, this addition is what makes Buddhist practice possible, and makes it possible for a person who has completed the practice to survive and teach it with full authority to others. For more on these points, see the articles, “Karma,” “A Refuge in Skillful Action,” and “Five Piles of Bricks“; see also the Introduction to The Wings to Awakening, along with the introductions to the sections on Skillfulness and Kamma & the Ending of Kamma in that book.

The second important point touched on in this sutta — how to put an end to pain and suffering — relates to the first. If the cause of present suffering were located exclusively in the past, no one could do anything in the present moment to stop that suffering; the most that could be done would be to endure the suffering while not creating any new kamma leading to future suffering. Although this was the Jain approach to practice, many people at present believe that it is the Buddhist approach as well. Meditation, according to this understanding, is the process of purifying the mind of old kamma by training it to look on with non-reactive equanimity as pain arises. The pain is the result of old kamma, the equanimity adds no new kamma, and thus over time all old kamma can be burned away.

In this sutta, however, the Buddha heaps ridicule on this idea. First he notes that none of the Niganthas have ever come to the end of pain by trying to burn it away in this way; then he notes that they have based their belief in this practice entirely on their faith in their teacher and their approval of his ideas, but neither faith nor approval can act as guarantees of the truth. As he illustrates with his simile of the man shot with an arrow, only a person who has succeeded in going beyond pain would be in a position to speak with authority of the method that actually puts an end to pain. (What is not mentioned in this sutta is the Nigantha idea that the practice of austerities, to succeed completely in burning away old kamma, must culminate in a suicide by starvation. Thus there could be no living person who would be able to vouch for the efficacy of their method.)

The Buddha then provides his own account of how meditation actually works in putting an end to pain and suffering. His discussion shows that the problem underlying pain is not past action, but passion — in the present — for the causes of pain. In other words, pain is not inevitable. Present suffering can be prevented by changing one’s understanding of, and attitude toward, the cause of suffering in the present. The Buddha illustrates this principle with the simile of a man in love with a woman: As long as he feels passion for her, he will suffer when he sees her enjoying the company of another man; when, seeing the connection between his suffering and his passion, he abandons that passion, he will no longer suffer from that cause.

Thus the practice must focus on ways to understand and bring about dispassion for the causes of stress and pain here and now. As the Buddha points out in MN 106, equanimity plays an important role in this practice, but it can also become an object for passion and delight, which would then stand in the way of true release. Thus he notes here that, in some cases, dispassion can arise simply from on-looking equanimity directed at the causes of stress. In other cases, it can come only through exertion: the mental effort — through the fabrications of directed thought, evaluation, and perception — to develop the discernment needed to see through and abandon any and all passion.

The remainder of the sutta is devoted to a standard map of how the practice develops over time, showing how the proper mixture of on-looking equanimity combined with fabrication and exertion can lead to dispassion, and through dispassion to release from all stress and suffering.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Sakyans. Now the Sakyans have a city named Devadaha, and there the Blessed One addressed the monks: “Monks!”

“Yes, lord,” the monks responded.

The Blessed One said, “Monks, there are some priests & contemplatives who teach in this way, who have this view: ‘Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.’ Such is the teaching of the Niganthas.

“Going to Niganthas who teach in this way, I have asked them, ‘Is it true, friend Niganthas, that you teach in this way, that you have this view: “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted”?’

“Having been asked this by me, the Niganthas admitted it, ‘Yes.’

“So I said to them, ‘But friends, do you know that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘And do you know that you did evil actions in the past, and that you did not not do them?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘And do you know that you did such-and-such evil actions in the past?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘And do you know that so-and-so much stress has been exhausted, or that so-and-so much stress remains to be exhausted, or that with the exhaustion of so-and-so much stress all stress will be exhausted?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘But do you know what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘So, friends, it seems that you don’t know that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist… you don’t know what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now. That being the case, it is not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“‘If, however, you knew that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist; if you knew that you did evil actions in the past, and that you did not not do them; if you knew that you did such-and-such evil actions in the past; you don’t know that so-and-so much stress has been exhausted, or that so-and-so much stress remains to be exhausted, or that with the exhaustion of so-and-so much stress all stress will be exhausted; if you knew what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now, then — that being the case — it would be proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“‘Friend Niganthas, it’s as if a man were shot with an arrow thickly smeared with poison. As a result of being shot with the arrow, he would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. His friends & companions, kinsmen & relatives would provide him with a surgeon. The surgeon would cut around the opening of the wound with a knife. As a result of the surgeon’s cutting around the opening of the wound with a knife, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. The surgeon would probe for the arrow with a probe. As a result of the surgeon’s probing for the arrow with a probe, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. The surgeon would then pull out the arrow. As a result of the surgeon’s pulling out the arrow, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. The surgeon would then apply a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound. As a result of the surgeon’s applying a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. But then at a later time, when the wound had healed and was covered with skin, he would be well & happy, free, master of himself, able to go wherever he liked. The thought would occur to him, “Before, I was shot with an arrow thickly smeared with poison. As a result of being shot with the arrow, I felt fierce, sharp, racking pains. My friends & companions, kinsmen & relatives provided me with a surgeon… The surgeon cut around the opening of the wound with a knife… probed for the arrow with a probe… pulled out the arrow… applied a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound. As a result of his applying a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound, I felt fierce, sharp, racking pains. But now that the wound is healed and covered with skin, I am well & happy, free, master of myself, able to go wherever I like.”

“‘In the same way, friend Niganthas, if you knew that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist… if you knew what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now, then — that being the case — it would be proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.” But because you do not know that you existed in the past… you do not know what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now, then — that being the case — it is not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“When this was said, the Niganthas said to me, ‘Friend, the Nigantha Nataputta[1] is all-knowing, all-seeing, and claims total knowledge & vision thus: “Whether I am walking or standing, sleeping or awake, knowledge & vision are continuously & continually established in me.” He has told us, “Niganthas, there are evil actions that you have done in the past. Exhaust them with these painful austerities. When in the present you are restrained in body, restrained in speech, and restrained in mind, that is the non-doing of evil action for the future. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.” We approve of that [teaching], prefer it, and are gratified by it.’

“When this was said, I said to the Niganthas, ‘Friend Niganthas, there are five things that can turn out in two ways in the here-&-now. Which five? Conviction, liking, unbroken tradition, reasoning by analogy, & an agreement through pondering views. These are the five things that can turn out in two ways in the here-&-now. That being the case, what kind of conviction do you have for your teacher with regard to the past? What kind of liking? What kind of unbroken tradition? What kind of reasoning by analogy? What kind of agreement through pondering views?’ But when I said this, I did not see that the Niganthas had any legitimate defense of their teaching.

“So I asked them further, ‘Friend Niganthas, what do you think: When there is fierce striving, fierce exertion, do you feel fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment? And when there is no fierce striving, no fierce exertion, do you feel no fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment?’

“‘Yes, friend…’

“‘… Then it’s not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“‘If it were the case that when there was fierce striving, fierce exertion, you felt fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment; and when there was no fierce striving, no fierce exertion, you still felt fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment, then — that being the case — it would be proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.” But because when there is fierce striving, fierce exertion, you feel fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment; and when there was no fierce striving, no fierce exertion, you feel no fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment, then — that being the case — it is not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”‘ But when I said this, I did not see that the Niganthas had any legitimate defense of their teaching.

“So I asked them further, ‘Friend Niganthas, what do you think: Can an action to be experienced in the here-&-now be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the future life?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action to be experienced in the future life be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the here-&-now?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action to be experienced as pleasure be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced as pain?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action to be experienced as pain be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced as pleasure?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action ripe to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not ripe to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action not ripe to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action ripe to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action greatly to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action barely to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action barely to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action greatly to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action not to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘So, friends, it seems that an action to be experienced in the here-&-now cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the future life. An action to be experienced in the future life cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the here-&-now… An action to be experienced cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not to be experienced. An action not to be experienced cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced. That being the case, the striving of the Niganthas is fruitless, their exertion is fruitless.’

“Such is the teaching of the Niganthas. And, such being the teaching of the Niganthas, ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for censuring them.

(1) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, then obviously the Niganthas have done bad things in the past, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(2) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god, then obviously the Niganthas have been created by an evil supreme god, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(3) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, then obviously the Niganthas have evil luck, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(4) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, then obviously the Niganthas have had an evil birth, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(5) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, then obviously the Niganthas have evil efforts in the here-&-now, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(6) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(7) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(8) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(9) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(10) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

“Such is the teaching of the Niganthas, monks. And, such being the teaching of the Niganthas, these ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for censuring them. This is how striving is fruitless, how exertion is fruitless.

“And how is striving fruitful, how is exertion fruitful? There is the case where a monk, when not loaded down, does not load himself down with pain, nor does he reject pleasure that accords with the Dhamma, although he is not fixated on that pleasure. He discerns that ‘When I exert a [physical, verbal, or mental] fabrication against this cause of stress, then from the fabrication of exertion there is dispassion. When I look on with equanimity at that cause of stress, then from the development of equanimity there is dispassion.’ So he exerts a fabrication against the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion, and develops equanimity with regard to the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity. Thus the stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion is exhausted & the stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity is exhausted.

“Suppose that a man is in love with a woman, his mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion. He sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing. What do you think, monks: As he sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in him?”

“Yes, lord. Why is that? Because he is in love with her, his mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion…”

“Now suppose the thought were to occur to him, ‘I am in love with this woman, my mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion. When I see her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, then sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise within me. Why don’t I abandon my desire & passion for that woman?’ So he abandons his desire & passion for that woman, and afterwards sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing. What do you think, monks: As he sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in him?”

“No, lord. Why is that? He is dispassionate toward that woman…”

“In the same way, the monk, when not loaded down, does not load himself down with pain, nor does he reject pleasure that accords with the Dhamma, although he is not infatuated with that pleasure. He discerns that ‘When I exert a [physical, verbal, or mental] fabrication against this cause of stress, then from the fabrication of exertion there is dispassion. When I look on with equanimity at that cause of stress, then from the development of equanimity there is dispassion.’ So he exerts a fabrication against the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion, and develops equanimity with regard to the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity. Thus the stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion is exhausted & the stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity is exhausted.

“Furthermore, the monk notices this: ‘When I live according to my pleasure, unskillful mental qualities increase in me & skillful qualities decline. When I exert myself with stress & pain, though, unskillful qualities decline in me & skillful qualities increase. Why don’t I exert myself with stress & pain?’ So he exerts himself with stress & pain, and while he is exerting himself with stress & pain, unskillful qualities decline in him, & skillful qualities increase. Then at a later time he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was exerting himself with stress & pain. That is why, at a later time, he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain.

“Suppose a fletcher were to heat & warm an arrow shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable. Then at a later time he would no longer heat & warm the shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was heating & warming the shaft. That is why at a later time he would no longer heat & warm the shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable.

“In the same way, the monk notices this: ‘When I live according to my pleasure, unskillful mental qualities increase in me & skillful qualities decline. When I exert myself with stress & pain, though, unskillful qualities decline in me & skillful qualities increase. Why don’t I exert myself with stress & pain?’ So he exerts himself with stress & pain, and while he is exerting himself with stress & pain, unskillful qualities decline in him, & skillful qualities increase. Then at a later time he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was exerting himself with stress & pain. That is why, at a later time, he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain.

“This is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Furthermore, there is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

“A householder or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life is confining, a dusty path. Life gone forth is the open air. It isn’t easy, living at home, to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure, a polished shell. What if I, having shaved off my hair & beard and putting on the ochre robe, were to go forth from the household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.

Virtue

“When he has thus gone forth, endowed with the monks’ training & livelihood, then — abandoning the taking of life — he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings.

“Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager’s way.

“Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.

“Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord.

“Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large.

“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal.

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.

“He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching shows.

“He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and cosmetics.

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He abstains from accepting gold and money.

“He abstains from accepting uncooked grain… raw meat… women and girls… male and female slaves… goats and sheep… fowl and pigs… elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares… fields and property.

“He abstains from running messages… from buying and selling… from dealing with false scales, false metals, and false measures… from bribery, deception, and fraud.

“He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

“He is content with a set of robes to provide for his body and alms food to provide for his hunger. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden; so too is he content with a set of robes to provide for his body and alms food to provide for his hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his barest necessities along.

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless.

Sense Restraint

“On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a sound with the ear… On smelling an odor with the nose… On tasting a flavor with the tongue… On touching a tactile sensation with the body… On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the sense faculties, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless.

Mindfulness & Alertness

“When going forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking toward and looking away… when bending and extending his limbs… when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl… when eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting… when urinating and defecating… when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and remaining silent, he acts with alertness.

Abandoning the Hindrances

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness & alertness, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a wilderness, the shade of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a forest grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning from his alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.

“Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth and drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth and drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness and anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of uncertainty.

The Four Jhanas

“Having abandoned these five hindrances — imperfections of awareness that weaken discernment — then, quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Then, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, one-pointedness of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation — internal assurance. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Then, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Then, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

The Three Knowledges

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives.[2] He recollects his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion, [recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.’ Thus he recollects his manifold past lives in their modes and details. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: ‘These beings — who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views — with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings — who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views — with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.’ Thus — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of stress… These are mental fermentations… This is the origination of fermentations… This is the cessation of fermentations… This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.’ This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Such is the teaching of the Tathagata. And, such being the teaching of the Tathagata, ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for praising him.

(1) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, then obviously the Tathagata has done good things in the past, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(2) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god, then obviously the Tathagata has been created by an excellent supreme god, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(3) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, then obviously the Tathagata has admirable luck, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(4) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, then obviously the Tathagata has had an admirable birth, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(5) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, then obviously the Tathagata has admirable efforts in the here-&-now, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(6) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(7) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(8) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(9) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(10) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

“Such is the teaching of the Tathagata. And, such being the teaching of the Tathagata, these ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for praising him.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.

Nigantha Nataputta: The leader of the Niganthas.

2.

Lit: previous homes.

See also: SN 35.145; SN 36.21; SN 42.8; SN 42.11; AN 3.99

 

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

C.M. asks sugar mills to continue cane crushing till farmers stop supply of sugar cane

Two GMs arrested for ignoring interests of cane farmers during current session

Lucknow: 22 November 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji has

directed that the sugar mills of the State should continue cane crushing till

the farmers stop supply of cane. She said that if any complaint against sugar

mills for not purchasing sugar cane and showing laxity in running of mill was

received then severe action would be taken against the guilty. She directed

the officers to ensure that the farmers supplied their cane to the nearest

sugar mill for their convenience. She said that the State Government would

not compromise on the interests of the farmers.

Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that owing to the indifference shown by

GMs of two sugar mills, they had to be arrested. She warned that the

manager of other sugar mills should be cautious by this step of the State

Government and they should get ready to comply with the orders of the

same issued in the interests of cane farmers. She said that owing to the

tough stand taken by the State Government, 23 sugar mills of the western

area had started cane crushing. She warned that the remaining mills should

begin cane crushing within next 3 days. She said that the farmers were

highly enthused by the SAP announced by the State Government. It may be

recalled that the Hon’ble Chief Minister ji took a historical decision of revising

the cane prices by Rs. 40 per quintal for the current crushing season. About

40 lakh cane farmers would be benefited by this decision.

Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that owing to the special efforts of the

State Government the sugar mills had started cane crushing two weeks

earlier if compared to last year. She said that 23,32,976 quintals of sugar

cane had been purchased so far during the current crushing season and

18,78,272 quintal of sugar cane had already been crushed. She said that if

the sugar mills started crushing at the earliest, then the Rabi sowing could

be completed in a timely manner. She asked all the DMs, cane development

societies and representatives of the sugar mills to provide additional

encouragement and facilities to the cane growers on the basis of mutual

understanding.

*******

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) said they will go by the broad consensus on the demand for JPC.

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11/22/10
LESSON 95 From One Who Is Dear 22 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble C.M. reviews Beautification, renovation and development works of Hazaratganj-Construction work of STP at Bharwara should be completed by November 30-Hon’ble C. M. greets people on Guru Nanak Jayanti and Kartik Purnima-Rs. 5 lakh financial assistance to dependents of late Jamuna Prasad Nishad-Rs. 2 lakh each to dependents of four persons died in a road accident
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LESSON  95 From One Who Is Dear 22 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn42/sn42.011.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.087.than.html

MN 87 

PTS: M ii 106

Piyajatika Sutta: From One Who Is Dear

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1998–2010

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. Now at that time a certain householder’s dear & beloved little son, his only child, had died. Because of his death, the father had no desire to work or to eat. He kept going to the cemetery and crying out, “Where have you gone, my only little child? Where have you gone, my only little child?”

Then he went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him, “Householder, your faculties are not those of one who is steady in his own mind. There is an aberration in your faculties.”

“Lord, how could there not be an aberration in my faculties? My dear & beloved little son, my only child, has died. Because of his death, I have no desire to work or to eat. I keep going to the cemetery and crying out, ‘Where have you gone, my only little child? Where have you gone, my only little child?’”

“That’s the way it is, householder. That’s the way it is — for sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.”

“But lord, who would ever think that sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear? Happiness & joy are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.” So the householder, not delighting in the Blessed One’s words, rejecting the Blessed One’s words, got up from his seat and left.

Now at that time a large number of gamblers were playing dice not far from the Blessed One. So the householder went to them and, on arrival, said to them, “Just now, venerable sirs, I went to Gotama the contemplative and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As I was sitting there, Gotama the contemplative said to me, ‘Householder, your faculties are not those of one who is steady in his own mind. There is an aberration in your faculties.’

“When this was said, I said to him, ‘Lord, how could there not be an aberration in my faculties? My dear & beloved little son, my only child, has died. Because of his death, I have no desire to work or to eat. I keep going to the cemetery and crying out, “Where have you gone, my only little child? Where have you gone, my only little child?”‘

“‘That’s the way it is, householder. That’s the way it is — for sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.’

“‘But, lord, who would ever think that sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear? Happiness & joy are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.’ So, not delighting in the words of Gotama the contemplative, rejecting them, I got up from my seat and left.”

“That’s the way it is, householder [said the gamblers]. That’s the way it is. Happiness & joy are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.”

So the householder left, thinking, “I agree with the gamblers.”

Eventually, word of this conversation made its way into the king’s inner chambers. Then King Pasenadi Kosala addressed Queen Mallika, “Mallika, your contemplative, Gotama, has said this: ‘Sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.’”

“If that was said by the Blessed One, great king, then that’s the way it is.”

“No matter what Gotama the contemplative says, Mallika endorses it: ‘If that was said by the Blessed One, great king, then that’s the way it is.’ Just as, no matter what his teacher says, a pupil endorses it: ‘That’s the way it is, teacher. That’s the way is.’ In the same way, no matter what Gotama the contemplative says, Mallika endorses it: ‘If that was said by the Blessed One, great king, then that’s the way it is.’ Go away, Mallika! Out of my sight!”

Then Queen Mallika called for the brahman Nalijangha: “Come, brahman. Go to the Blessed One and, on arrival, showing reverence with your head to his feet in my name, ask whether he is free from illness & affliction, is carefree, strong, & living in comfort, saying: ‘Queen Mallika, lord, shows reverence with her head to your feet and asks whether you are free from illness & affliction, are carefree, strong, & living in comfort.’ And then say: ‘Lord, did the Blessed One say that sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear?’ Whatever the Blessed One says, remember it well and tell it to me. For Tathagatas do not speak what is untrue.”

“Yes, madam,” the brahman Nalijangha responded to Queen Mallika. Going to the Blessed One, on arrival he exchanged courteous greetings with the Blessed One. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: “Master Gotama, Queen Mallika shows reverence with her head to your feet and asks whether you are free from illness & affliction, are carefree, strong, & living in comfort. And she says further: ‘Lord, did the Blessed One say that sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear?’”

“That’s the way it is, brahman. That’s the way it is. Sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear. And it’s through this sequence of events that it may be understood how sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.

“Once in this same Savatthi there was a woman whose mother died. Owing to her mother’s death she went mad, out of her mind, and wandering from street to street, crossroads to crossroads, would say, ‘Have you seen my mother? Have you seen my mother?’ It’s through this sequence of events that it may be understood how sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.

“Once in this same Savatthi there was a woman whose father died… whose brother died… whose sister died… whose son died… whose daughter died… whose husband died. Owing to his death she went mad, out of her mind, and wandering from street to street, crossroads to crossroads, would say, ‘Have you seen my husband? Have you seen my husband?’ It’s through this sequence of events that it may be understood how sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.

“Once in this same Savatthi there was a man whose mother died. Owing to her death he went mad, out of his mind, and wandering from street to street, crossroads to crossroads, would say, ‘Have you seen my mother? Have you seen my mother?’ It’s through this sequence of events that it may be understood how sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.

“Once in this same Savatthi there was a man whose father died… whose brother died… whose sister died… whose son died… whose daughter died… whose wife died. Owing to her death he went mad, out of his mind, and wandering from street to street, crossroads to crossroads, would say, ‘Have you seen my wife? Have you seen my wife?’ It’s through this sequence of events that it may be understood how sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.

“Once in this same Savatthi there was a wife who went to her relatives’ home. Her relatives, having separated her from her husband, wanted to give her to another against her will. So she said to her husband, ‘These relatives of mine, having separated us, want to give me to another against my will,’ whereupon he cut her in two and slashed himself open, thinking, ‘Dead we will be together.’ It’s through this sequence of events that it may be understood how sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.”

Then the brahman Nalijangha, delighting in & approving of the Blessed One’s words, got up from his seat and went to Queen Mallika. On arrival, he told her all that had been said in his conversation with the Blessed One.

Then Queen Mallika went to King Pasenadi Kosala and on arrival said to him, “What do you think, great king: Is Princess Vajiri dear to you?”

“Yes, Mallika, Princess Vajiri is dear to me.”

“And what do you think: would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in you from any change & aberration in Princess Vajiri?”

“Mallika, any change & aberration in Princess Vajiri would mean an aberration of my very life. How could sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair not arise in me?”

“Great king, it was in connection with this that the Blessed One — the One who knows, the One who sees, worthy, & rightly self-awakened — said, ‘Sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.’

“Now what do you think, great king: Is the noble Queen Vasabha dear to you?… Is [your son] General Vidudabha dear to you?… Am I dear to you?”

“Yes, Mallika, you are dear to me.”

“And what do you think: would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in you from any change & aberration in me?”

“Mallika, any change & aberration in you would mean an aberration of my very life. How could sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair not arise in me?”

“Great king, it was in connection with this that the Blessed One — the One who knows, the One who sees, worthy, & rightly self-awakened — said, ‘Sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.’

“Now what do you think, great king: Are [your subjects] the Kasis & Kosalans dear to you?”

“Yes, Mallika, the Kasis & Kosalans are dear to me. It is through the might of the Kasis & Kosalans that we use Kasi sandalwood and wear garlands, scents, & ointments.”

“And what do you think: would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in you from any change & aberration in the Kasis & Kosalans?”

“Mallika, any change & aberration in the Kasis & Kosalans would mean an aberration of my very life. How could sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair not arise in me?”

“Great king, it was in connection with this that the Blessed One — the One who knows, the One who sees, worthy, & rightly self-awakened — said, ‘Sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.’”

It’s amazing, Mallika. It’s astounding: how deeply the Blessed One sees, having pierced through, as it were, with discernment. Come Mallika: Give me the ablution water.” Then King Pasenadi Kosala, rising from his seat and arranging his upper robe over one shoulder, paid homage in the direction of the Blessed One with his hands palm-to-palm in front of his heart, and exclaimed three times:

Homage to the Blessed One, worthy & rightly self-awakened!
Homage to the Blessed One, worthy & rightly self-awakened!
Homage to the Blessed One, worthy & rightly self-awakened!

 

 

GOOD GOVERNANCE

 

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon’ble C.M. reviews Beautification, renovation and development works of Hazaratganj

Construction work of STP at Bharwara should be completed by November 30

Lucknow: 20 November 2010

Keeping in view the different programmes proposed on

completion of 200 years of Hazaratganj in December, the Hon’ble

Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji has directed the

officers to complete all works pertaining to beautification and

renovation of Hazaratganj within fixed time limit in qualitative

manner.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister said that Hazartganj had a special

importance in the cultural and economic activities of Lucknow. In

view of it, cleanliness and other works should be completed on

priority basis. She had also directed the officers to get the works of

footpath, railing, lighting, fountain etc. completed as soon as

possible. Besides, the painting of buildings on both sides of the

main road of Hazaratganj should also be completed soon. She also

directed that construction work of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) in

Bharwara should also be completed by November at all costs.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister gave these directives when the

Chairman of U.P. State Advisory Council Mr. Satish Chandra Mishra

apprised her of the conclusions after a high-level meeting held at

his residence to review the progress of works in Hazaratganj.

Mr. Mishra also reviewed the progress of different

programmes announced by Hon’ble Chief Minister for the all-round

development of Mathura, Vrindavan, Varanasi, Ayodhya-Faizabad,

Kanpur-Bithoor, Allahabad, Lucknow and Meerut. He directed the

officers to complete these works soon. It may be mentioned that

the Hon’ble Chief Minister had already sanctioned Rs. 6593.15 crore

for several schemes to provide infrastructure facilities of cities and

restore the glory of places of religious, historic and cultural

importance.

On this occasion, Principal Secretary to CM Mr. R.P. Singh,

Secretary to CM Mr. Navneet Sehgal, Commissioner Lucknow Mr.

Prashant Trivedi and other senior officers were present.

********

Hon’ble C. M. greets people on Guru Nanak Jayanti and Kartik Purnima

Lucknow: 20 November 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati

ji has greeted the people of the State on the occasion of Guru

Nanak Jayanti and Kartik Purnima.

In a greetings message, the Hon’ble Chief Minister said

that the founder of Sikh religion Guru Nanak Dev’s message of

Sarv Dharm Sambhav and Social harmony lead towards the

welfare of humanity. She said that Guru Nanak Dev ji was

against blind faiths and religious ostentations. He had given a

new direction to the society by strengthening mutual

brotherhood, she said adding that all saints, gurus and great

men served the poor and weaker sections. They worked for

their welfare and betterment.

Ms. Mayawati ji has also greeted people on Kartik

Purnima and has appealed to celebrate the occasion with

peace and harmony.

********

Rs. 5 lakh financial assistance to dependents of late Jamuna Prasad Nishad

Rs. 2 lakh each to dependents of four persons died in a road accident

Lucknow: 20 November 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms.

Mayawati ji has directed the officers to provide financial

assistance of Rs. 5 lakh to the dependents of MLA and

former minister late Jamuna Prasad Nishad. She has also

directed to provide Rs. 2 lakh each to the dependents of

deceased who were killed in a road accident. It may be

recalled that Mr. Nishad and four other persons were died

yesterday in a road accident.

It may be mentioned that the Hon’ble Chief Minister

on getting the information immediately rushed to Dr. Ram

Manohar Lohia Hospital late night yesterday and offered her

floral tributes to late Nishad. She expressed her deep

sympathies and condolences towards the family members

of late Nishad and other persons died in a road accident.

********

comments (0)
11/21/10
LESSON 94 Gandhabhaka to Gandhabhaka 21 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 11:09 am

LESSON  94 Gandhabhaka to  Gandhabhaka 21 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn42/sn42.011.than.html

SN 42.11 

PTS: S iv 327 

CDB ii 1348

Gandhabhaka (Bhadraka) Sutta: To Gandhabhaka (Bhadraka)

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1999–2010

This sutta is known as Gandhabhaka Sutta in the Thai edition of the Tipitaka, and Bhadraka Sutta in the Sri Lankan.

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Mallans in a Mallan town named Uruvelakappa. Then Gandhabhaka the headman went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: “It would be good, lord, if the Blessed One would teach me the origination & ending of stress.”

“Headman, if I were to teach you the origination & ending of stress with reference to the past, saying, ‘Thus it was in the past,’ you would be doubtful and perplexed. If I were to teach you the origination & ending of stress with reference to the future, saying, ‘Thus it will be in the future,’ you would be doubtful and perplexed. So instead, I — sitting right here — will teach you sitting right there the origination & ending of stress. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, lord,” Gandhabhaka the headman replied.

The Blessed One said: “Now what do you think, headman: Are there any people in Uruvelakappa who, if they were murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, would cause sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair to arise in you?”

“Yes, lord, there are people in Uruvelakappa who, if they were murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, would cause sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair to arise in me.”

“And are there any people in Uruvelakappa who, if they were murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, would cause no sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair to arise in you?”

“Yes, lord, there are people in Uruvelakappa who, if they were murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, would cause no sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair to arise in me.”

“Now what is the cause, what is the reason, why the murder, imprisonment, fining, or censure of some of the people in Uruvelakappa would cause you sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair, whereas the murder imprisonment, fining, or censure of others would cause you no sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair?”

“Those people in Uruvelakappa whose murder, imprisonment, fining, or censure would cause me sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair are those for whom I feel desire & passion. Those people in Uruvelakappa whose murder, imprisonment, fining, or censure would cause me no sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair are those for whom I feel no desire or passion.”

“Now, headman, from what you have realized, fathomed, attained right now in the present, without regard to time, you may draw an inference with regard to the past and future: ‘Whatever stress, in arising, arose for me in the past, all of it had desire as its root, had desire as its cause — for desire is the cause of stress. And whatever stress, in arising, will arise for me in the future, all of it will have desire as the root, will have desire as its cause — for desire is the cause of stress.’”

“Amazing, lord. Stupendous. How well the Blessed One has put it: ‘Whatever stress, in arising, arose for me in the past, all of it had desire as its root, had desire as its cause — for desire is the cause of stress. And whatever stress, in arising, will arise for me in the future, all of it will have desire as the root, will have desire as its cause — for desire is the cause of stress.’ I have a son, lord, named Ciravasi, who lives far away from here. When I get up in the morning, I send a man, saying, ‘Go, learn how Ciravasi is doing.’ And as long as that man has not returned, I am simply beside myself, [thinking], ‘Don’t let Ciravasi be sick!’”

“Now, headman, what do you think: If Ciravasi were to be murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, would you feel sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair?”

“Lord, if my son Ciravasi were to be murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, my very life would be altered. So how could I not feel sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair?

“Thus, headman, by this line of reasoning it may be realized how stress, when arising, arises: All of it has desire as its root, has desire as its cause — for desire is the cause of stress.

“Now what do you think, headman: Before you had seen or heard of Ciravasi’s mother, did you feel desire, passion, or love for her?”

“No, lord.”

“And after you had seen or heard of Ciravasi’s mother, did you feel desire, passion, or love for her?”

“Yes, lord.”

“What do you think: If Ciravasi’s mother were to be murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, would you feel sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair?”

“Lord, if Ciravasi’s mother were to be murdered or imprisoned or fined or censured, my very life would be altered. So how could I not feel sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair?”

“Thus, headman, by this line of reasoning it may be realized how stress, when arising, arises: All of it has desire as its root, has desire as its cause — for desire is the cause of stress.”

See also: MN 87; MN 101;Ud 2.7; Ud 8.8.

comments (0)
11/20/10
LESSON 93 Rooted 20 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble C.M. reviews conclusions of Principal Secretaries/Secretaries meeting
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 9:30 am

LESSON  93

Rooted 20 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

 

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

 

LESSON  93 Rooted 20 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.069.than.html

AN 3.69 

PTS: A i 201

Mula Sutta: Roots

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2005–2010

“Monks, there are these three roots of what is unskillful. Which three? Greed is a root of what is unskillful, aversion is a root of what is unskillful, delusion is a root of what is unskillful.

“Greed itself is unskillful. Whatever a greedy person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is unskillful. Whatever suffering a greedy person — his mind overcome with greed, his mind consumed — wrongly inflicts on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is unskillful. Thus it is that many evil, unskillful qualities/events — born of greed, caused by greed, originated through greed, conditioned by greed — come into play.

“Aversion itself is unskillful. Whatever an aversive person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is unskillful. Whatever suffering an aversive person — his mind overcome with aversion, his mind consumed — wrongly inflicts on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is unskillful. Thus it is that many evil, unskillful qualities — born of aversion, caused by aversion, originated through aversion, conditioned by aversion — come into play.

“Delusion itself is unskillful. Whatever a deluded person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is unskillful. Whatever suffering a deluded person — his mind overcome with delusion, his mind consumed — wrongly inflicts on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is unskillful. Thus it is that many evil, unskillful qualities — born of delusion, caused by delusion, originated through delusion, conditioned by delusion — come into play.

“And a person like this is called one who speaks at the wrong time, speaks what is unfactual, speaks what is irrelevant, speaks contrary to the Dhamma, speaks contrary to the Vinaya. Why…? Because of having wrongly inflicted suffering on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power.’ When told what is factual, he denies it and doesn’t acknowledge it. When told what is unfactual, he doesn’t make an ardent effort to untangle it [to see], ‘This is unfactual. This is baseless.’ That’s why a person like this is called one who speaks at the wrong time, speaks what is unfactual, speaks what is irrelevant, speaks contrary to the Dhamma, speaks contrary to the Vinaya.

“A person like this — his mind overcome with evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion, his mind consumed — dwells in suffering right in the here-&-now — feeling threatened, turbulent, feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, can expect a bad destination.

“Just as a sal tree, a birch, or an aspen, when smothered & surrounded by three parasitic vines, falls into misfortune, falls into disaster, falls into misfortune & disaster, in the same way, a person like this — his mind overcome with evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion, his mind consumed — dwells in suffering right in the here-&-now — feeling threatened, turbulent, feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, can expect a bad destination.

“These are the three roots of what is unskillful.

“Now, there are these three roots of what is skillful. Which three? Lack of greed is a root of what is skillful, lack of aversion is a root of what is skillful, lack of delusion is a root of what is skillful.

“Lack of greed itself is skillful. Whatever an ungreedy person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is skillful. Whatever suffering an ungreedy person — his mind not overcome with greed, his mind not consumed — does not wrongly inflict on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is skillful. Thus it is that many skillful qualities — born of lack of greed, caused by lack of greed, originated through lack of greed, conditioned by lack of greed — come into play.

“Lack of aversion itself is skillful…

“Lack of delusion itself is skillful. Whatever an undeluded person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is skillful. Whatever suffering an undeluded person — his mind not overcome with delusion, his mind not consumed — does not wrongly inflict on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is skillful. Thus it is that many skillful qualities — born of lack of delusion, caused by lack of delusion, originated through lack of delusion, conditioned by lack of delusion — come into play.

“And a person like this is called one who speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual, speaks what is relevant, speaks in line with the Dhamma, speaks in line with the Vinaya. Why…? Because of not having wrongly inflicted suffering on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power.’ When told what is factual, he acknowledges it and does not deny it. When told what is unfactual, he makes an ardent effort to untangle it [to see], ‘This is unfactual. This is baseless.’ That’s why a person like this is called one who speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual, speaks what is relevant, speaks in line with the Dhamma, speaks in line with the Vinaya.

“In a person like this, evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion have been abandoned, their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. He dwells in ease right in the here-&-now — feeling unthreatened, placid, unfeverish — and is unbound right in the here-&-now.

“Just as if there were a sal tree, a birch, or an aspen, smothered & surrounded by three parasitic vines. A man would come along, carrying a spade & a basket. He would cut the vines at the root and, having cut them at the root, would dig around them. Having dug around them, he would pull them out, even down to the rootlets. He would cut the stalks of the vines. Having cut them, he would slice them into splinters. Having sliced them into splinters, he would pound them into bits. Having pounded them into bits, he would dry them in the wind & sun. Having dried them in the wind & sun, he would burn them in a fire. Having burned them in a fire, he would reduce them to powdered ash. Having reduced them to powdered ash, he would winnow them before a high wind or let them be washed away in a swift-flowing stream. In that way the parasitic vines would have their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

“In the same way, in a person like this, evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion have been abandoned, their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. He dwells in ease right in the here-&-now — feeling unthreatened, placid, unfeverish — and is unbound right in the here-&-now.

“These are the three roots of what is skillful.”

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.134.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an10/an10.058.than.html

AN 10.58 

PTS: A v 106

Mula Sutta: Rooted

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2004–2010

“Monks, if those who have gone forth in other sects ask you, ‘In what are all phenomena rooted? What is their coming into play? What is their origination? What is their meeting place? What is their presiding state? What is their governing principle? What is their surpassing state? What is their heartwood? Where do they gain a footing? What is their final end?’: On being asked this by those who have gone forth in other sects, how would you answer?”

“For us, lord, the teachings have the Blessed One as their root, their guide, & their arbitrator. It would be good if the Blessed One himself would explicate the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the monks will remember it.”

“In that case, monks, listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, lord,” the monks responded.

The Blessed One said, “Monks, if those who have gone forth in other sects ask you, ‘In what are all phenomena rooted? What is their coming into play? What is their origination? What is their meeting place? What is their presiding state? What is their governing principle? What is their surpassing state? What is their heartwood? Where do they gain a footing? What is their final end?’: On being asked this by those who have gone forth in other sects, this is how you should answer them:

“‘All phenomena are rooted in desire.[1]

“‘All phenomena come into play through attention.

“‘All phenomena have contact as their origination.

“‘All phenomena have feeling as their meeting place.

“‘All phenomena have concentration as their presiding state.

“‘All phenomena have mindfulness as their governing principle.

“‘All phenomena have discernment as their surpassing state.

“‘All phenomena have release as their heartwood.

“‘All phenomena gain their footing in the deathless.

“‘All phenomena have Unbinding as their final end.’

“On being asked this by those who have gone forth in other sects, this is how you should answer.”

Note

1.

According to the Commentary to AN 8.83 (which covers the first eight of the ten questions given here), “all phenomena” (sabbe dhamma) here means the five aggregates. These are rooted in desire, it says, because the desire to act (and thus create kamma) is what underlies their existence. The Commentary’s interpretation here seems to be an expansion on MN 109, in which the five clinging-aggregates are said to be rooted in desire, an assertion echoed in SN 42.11, which states that suffering & stress are rooted in desire. Here, all the aggregates — whether affected by clinging or not — are said to be rooted in desire.

The Commentary goes on to say that the statement, “All phenomena are rooted in desire,” deals exclusively with worldly phenomena, whereas the remaining statements about all phenomena cover both worldly and transcendent phenomena. There seems less reason to follow the Commentary’s first assertion here, in that the noble eightfold path, when brought to maturity, counts as transcendent, and it is obviously rooted in a skillful form of desire.

As for the transcendent in its ultimate form, the phrase “all phenomena” as used in this sutta does not cover Unbinding, as Unbinding is not rooted in anything and, as the final statement indicates, it constitutes the final end of all phenomena. Thus this sutta would seem to belong to the group of suttas that would not classify Unbinding as a phenomenon. (On this question, see the note to AN 3.134.)

See also: MN 1.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/soma/wheel021.html

The Removal of Distracting Thoughts

(Vitakka-Santhana Sutta)

translated by

Soma Thera

© 1994–2010

Contents

·         The Removal of Distracting Thoughts

·         The Commentary, With Marginal Notes from the Subcommentary

·         Notes

The Removal of Distracting Thoughts   

Thus have I heard. At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Pleasance. The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying, “Bhikkhus,” and they replied to him saying, “Reverend Sir.” The Blessed One spoke as follows:

“Five things should be reflected on from time to time, by the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness. What five?

When evil unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate, and delusion arise in a bhikkhu through reflection on an adventitious object, he should, (in order to get rid of that), reflect on a different object which is connected with skill. Then the evil unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like an experienced carpenter or carpenter’s apprentice, striking hard at, pushing out, and getting rid of a coarse peg with a fine one, should the bhikkhu in order to get rid of the adventitious object, reflect on a different object which is connected with skill. Then the evil unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate and delusion are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If the evil unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu, who in order to get rid of an adventitious object reflects on a different object which is connected with skill, he should ponder on the disadvantages of unskillful thoughts thus: Truly these thoughts of mine are unskillful, blameworthy, and productive of misery. Then the evil unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like a well-dressed young man or woman who feels horrified, humiliated and disgusted because of the carcass of a snake, dog, or human that is hung round his or her neck, should the bhikkhu in whom unskillful thoughts continue to arise in spite of his reflection on the object which is connected with skill, ponder on the disadvantages of unskillful thoughts thus: Truly, these thoughts of mine are unskillful, blameworthy, and productive of misery. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu who ponders on their disadvantageousness, he should in regard to them, endeavor to be without attention and reflection. Then the evil unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like a keen-eyed man shutting his eyes and looking away from some direction in order to avoid seeing visible objects come within sight, should the bhikkhu in whom evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in spite of his pondering on their disadvantageousness, endeavor to be without attention and reflection as regards them. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu in spite of his endeavor to be without attention and reflection as regards evil, unskillful thoughts, he should reflect on the removal of the (thought) source of those unskillful thoughts. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Just as a man finding no reason for walking fast, walks slowly; finding no reason for walking slowly, stands; finding no reason for sitting down, lies down, and thus getting rid of a posture rather uncalm resorts to a restful posture, just so should the bhikkhu in whom evil, unskillful thoughts arise, in spite of his endeavor to be without attention and reflection regarding them, reflect on the removal of the (thought) source of those unskillful thoughts. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu in spite of his reflection on the removal of a source of unskillful thoughts, he should with clenched teeth and the tongue pressing on the palate, restrain, subdue and beat down the (evil) mind by the (good) mind. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate and delusion are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like a strong man holding a weaker man by the head or shoulders and restraining, subduing and beating him down, should the bhikkhu in whom evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in spite of his reflection on the source of unskillful thoughts, restrain, subdue and beat down the (evil) mind by the (good) mind, with clenched teeth and the tongue pressing on the palate. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate and delusion are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

When, indeed, bhikkhus, evil unskillful thoughts due to reflection on an adventitious object are eliminated, when they disappear, and the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated just within (his subject of meditation), through his reflection on an object connected with skill, through his pondering on the disadvantages of unskillful thoughts, his endeavoring to be without attentiveness and reflection as regards those thoughts or through his restraining, subduing, and beating down of the evil mind by the good mind with clenched teeth and tongue pressing on the palate, that bhikkhu is called a master of the paths along which thoughts travel. The thought he wants to think, that, he thinks; the thought he does not want to think, that, he does not think. He has cut down craving, removed the fetter, rightly mastered pride, and made an end of suffering.”

The Blessed One said this, and the bhikkhus glad at heart, approved of his words.

The Commentary to the Discourse on the Removal of Distracting Thoughts   

With Marginal Notes from the Subcommentary

[1] Thus have I heard: evam me sutam. This Discourse on the Removal of Distracting Thoughts (Vitakka santhana sutta) was heard by me in this way.

“Me” refers to the Elder Ananda who recited the Discourse-collection (Sutta Pitaka) of the Pali canon at the first Council of purified ones (arahantas) held at Rajagaha after the passing away of the Buddha.

By the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness: adhicittam anuyuttena bhikkhuna. Consciousness connected with the practice of the ten courses of skillful action (dasa kusala kamma patha) is referred to here as just (wholesome) consciousness (cittameva). Superior to that (merely wholesome consciousness) is the consciousness of the eight absorptions become a basis for the development of insight (vipassana padakam atthasamapatti cittam). This (superior) consciousness is the higher consciousness.

 [2] Consciousness connected with the practice of the ten courses of skillful action is just an example of what is not meant here by the term higher consciousness. Consciousness of the ten courses of skillful action is just consciousness not forming a part of things supernormal(uttarimanussadhamma).

Consciousness of the eight absorptions that has become a basis for the development of insight, is meant here by “higher consciousness.”

Some (dwellers of the Abhayagiri vihara at Anuradhapura) say that the consciousness associated with insight, is the higher consciousness(vipassanaya sampayuttam adhicittan’ti keci).

By one who is intent on (anuyuttena) means: by one who is diligently occupied with(yutta payuttena).

This bhikkhu is not intent on the higher consciousness the while he is going forth, sitting-mat in hand, to a place near a tree in a jungle thicket, at the bottom of a hill, or on a slope, with the thought, “I shall do the recluse’s duty.” He is also not intent on that, when removing grass and leaves for the sitting place, with hands or feet. When, however, having sat down, after washing his hands and feet, he remains with legs crossed, having taken up his preliminary subject of meditation, he is indeed intent on the higher consciousness.

“Intent on” means: intent on producing the yet unarisen higher things and zealously developing to completion the higher things that have already arisen.

“The preliminary subject of meditation” (mula kammatihana) is the subject of meditation the bhikkhu is fostering (parihariya kammatthana).

“When… he remains… having taken up” means: when having taken up the preliminary subject of meditation, he remains applying himself to it (or when having taken up the preliminary subject he applies himself to the development of it).

Though full absorption is not reached through the meditation he is still one intent on the higher consciousness.

Things: nimittani are practical methods — reasonable ways (karanani).

From time to time: kalena kalam means: on different occasions (samaye samaye).

Is not the subject of meditation to be reflected on always, without putting it aside even for a moment? Why did the Blessed One say “from time to time”?

There are thirty-eight subjects classified in the text (paliyam). By the bhikkhu who having selected one of these, one which appeals to him, and is seated there is no reflection on these five things (nimittani) so long as imperfections (upakkilesa) do not appear.

When an imperfection appears, the danger should be driven away by means of these things.

Pointing out this the Blessed One said: “From time to time…”

The opinion of the objector is as follows: Because it is said “by him who is intent on the higher consciousness (adhicittam anuyuttena)” and as the term “intent on the higher consciousness” means: “diligently applying oneself to the meditation without a break” is it not the fact that the Blessed One began his exposition with the words, “these five things should be reflected on from time to time,” in order to point out the method of driving out danger to the meditation that progresses?

The other stated that there are thirty-eight subjects of meditation in the text, and so forth, in order to point out that the Master said, “From time to time” because these five things have to be reflected on at the proper time for the purpose of purifying the mind of the beginner devoted to inner culture when sometimes imperfections of meditation (bhavana upakkilesa) arise in him.

Connected with desire: chandupasamhita means associated with desire, associated with lust (ragasampayutta). The field (khetta) and the object(arammana) of these three obsessive thoughts should be known.

The eight kinds of consciousness associated with greed are the field of obsessive thoughts connected with desire.

The two kinds of consciousness associated with hatred are the field of obsessive thoughts connected with hate.

Even the twelve kinds of unwholesome consciousness are the field of obsessive thoughts connected with delusion. The two kinds of consciousness combining with scepsis and restlessness, indeed are equally the field of these obsessive thoughts connected with delusion.

To even all three kinds of obsessive thought, just living beings and inanimate things are the object, since these obsessive thoughts come into being in regard to living beings and inanimate things viewed unimpartially by way of liking and disliking them.

Living beings and inanimate things are unimpartially viewed by way of liking and disliking when the dear and the not dear are unequally seen, are wrongly seen.

Viewing unimpartially (asamapekkhanam) is the laying hold of an object with unsystematic attention through looking in ignorantly in a worldly way (gehasita anna upekkha vasena arammanassa ayoniso gahanam).

He should… reflect on a different object which is connected with skill: aññam nimittam manasikatabbam kusalupasamhitam means: an object different from the adventitious object, and one which is connected with skill, should be reflected on.

Here the explanation of the term “different object” is as follows: When a thought connected with desire for living beings, arises, the development of the idea of the unlovely (asubha bhavana) is a different object, and when a thought connected on with desire for inanimate things arises, the reflection on impermanence (anicca manasikara) is a different object.

When a thought connected with hate towards living beings arises, the development of the idea of friendliness (metta bhavana) is a different object and when a thought connected with hate for inanimate things arises, the reflection on the modes of materiality (dhatu manasikara) is a different object.

Wheresoever, a thought connected with delusion concerning living beings or things arises, the fivefold reliance associated with the doctrine (pañca dhammupanissayo) is the different object.

An object different from the adventitious object: tato nimittato aññam nimittam. A different, new object separate from the cause for the arising of unskillful thought connected with desire, hate and delusion(tatchandupasamhitadi akusala vitakkuppatti karanato).

One which is connected with skill: kusala nimittotam. The cause for the proceeding of states of consciousness that is with skill.

Should be reflected on: manasikatabbam. Should be placed in the mind, should be thought upon as a meditation, or should go in the mind-flux (citte thapetabbam).

The unlovely (asubahma) is indeed the unlovely object (asubha nimittam).

When greed arises in regard to living beings with thoughts like the following: “This one’s hands are beautiful,” “This one’s feet are beautiful,” one should think by way of the unlovely thus: To what are you attached? Are you attached to the hair of the head, the hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin… or urine? [This refers to the thirty-two parts of the body.]

This body (attabhava) held up by three hundred bones, bound with nine hundred nerve strings, plastered over with nine hundred lumps of flesh, wrapped completely in a wet skin, covered with the color of the cuticle (chavi ragena), drips filth from the nine open sores and the ninety-nine thousand pores of the hairs of the body. It is filled with a collection of bones, is bad-smelling, contemptible, repellent, and is the sum of the thirty-two parts. There is neither essence nor excellence in it. To one who thinks thus of the unlovely (nature of the body), the greed connected with living beings is cast out. Therefore the different object is the thinking on the object(nimitta) which produces greed, by way of the meditation on the unlovely (nature of the body).

When there is greed for inanimate things like bowls and robes it is cast out through reflection of two kinds of bringing about detachment for inanimate things, namely those on ownerlessness and temporariness, taught in the section of the enlightenment factors (bojjhanga) in the commentary to the Satipatthana Sutta. Therefore the thinking on the object (which produces greed), by way of the reflection of impermanence is the different object.

Reflection… on ownerlessness and temporariness; this bowl gradually ends up as broken pieces, having changed color, became old, developed cracks and holes or having smashed up; this robe, having faded, worn out will have to be thrown away with the end of a stick, after it is used as a rag to wipe the feet with. If these had an owner, he would prevent them from being destroyed. In this manner should the reflection on ownerlessness be done. And the reflection on temporariness should be done with the thought that these cannot last long, that these are of brief duration.

When there is hatred towards living beings, friendliness should be developed as taught in the discourse on the Overcoming of Ill-will (aghata vinaya), the instruction with the Parable of the Saw (kakacupamovada), and the like. In one developing friendliness, hatred vanishes. Therefore the development of friendliness for the object (which produces anger) is the different object.

The discourse on the Overcoming of Ill-will in the Anguttara Nikaya is as follows:

“Bhikkhus, these are the five ways of overcoming ill-will. Whenever ill-will is arisen in a bhikkhu it should altogether be overcome. What are the five?

“Should ill-will arise at any time, in a person, friendliness should be developed in him… compassion should be developed in him… equanimity should be developed in him… the state of being without mindfulness and reflection (in regard to the object producing hate) should be developed in him… Thus should ill-will be overcome in that person. Indeed, these are five ways of overcoming ill-will. Wherever it is arisen in a bhikkhu, it should be overcome entirely.”

(”Instruction on the Parable of the Saw” is Discourse No. 21 of the Majjhima Nikaya)

“And the like”: similes like that of the firebrand from funeral pyre (unclean, untouchable).

“Friendliness should be developed having overcome hate in the manner taught in the above mentioned teachings.

Further, when one gets angry with the stump (of a tree), a thorn, grass or leaves one should ask oneself: With whom are you angry? Or who is it that is angry? Is it the earth-element or the water-element? To one who reflects on the elements(dhatumanasikara) anger in regard to inanimate things vanishes. Therefore the reflection of the elements of the object (internal or external — the thinker or the thought which produces anger) is the different object.

When however, delusion appears, in any circumstances, there should be dependence on reliance on or the resorting to five things (five expedient things). They are as follows:

The practice of living under the guidance of a teacher.

The work of learning the doctrine.

The work of inquiring into the meaning of doctrines learned.

The act of listening to the doctrine at suitable times.

The work of inquiring into what are and what are not causes.

Through dependence on these five things or through resorting to these five expedients the element of delusion (moha dhatu)[3] is eliminated.

In this way also a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated; When he, while learning too, becomes energetic through the thought: The teacher punishes him who does not learn at the proper time, him who does not recite well and him who does not recite at all.

In this way also, a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated: When he, while inquiring from esteemed and respected bhikkhus, after going into their presence: “Reverend Sir, how is this? What does this mean?” dispels doubts.

In this way also, a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated: When to him the meaning of various passages becomes clear while listening carefully to the doctrine, after going to a place where the doctrine is expounded to the public.

In this way also, a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated: While he becomes expert in discerning the cause of a thing from what is not its cause saying thus: “This is the reason for this; this not the reason.”

Further, unskillful thoughts are surely eliminated in one practicing by any one of the thirty-eight subjects of meditation; but the lust, hatred and delusion which are eliminated by their direct opposites, by what is contrary to them, namely these five objects (or practical methods) are thoroughly eliminated.

It is like this; a fire may surely be put out after its being struck with firebrands, earth and branches, but when it is extinguished with water which is directly opposed to it, it is extinguished well. In the same way the lust, hatred and delusion which is eliminated with these five objects (pañca nimittani, mentioned at the beginning of the discourse) are eliminated well. Therefore, it should be understood, were these stated.

Becomes energetic (yatta patiyatto). The bhikkhu who is possessed of the desire for things like the asking of permission to go to the village becomes energetic (yatto) and active (sajjito).

The meaning of various passages becomes clear (tesu tesu thanesu attho pakato hoti) = to one listening to the doctrine the meaning of different passages explained becomes clear with the comprehension thus: “Here, virtue is expounded, here concentration, here wisdom.”

Expert in discerning the cause of a thing from what is not its cause(Thanathana vinicchaye cheko) by knowing for instance that the eye, visible object, light and so forth are the reasons for eye-consciousness and not for ear-consciousness.

Connected with skill (kusalupasamhitam). Dependent on skill, become a condition of skill.

Just within (ajjhattikam eva). Just inside the pasture (gocarajjhattikam eva), that is, just within the resort, the subject-of-meditation of the bhikkhu devoted to the higher consciousness.

Carpenter (palagandho) = joiner (vaddhaki).

With a fine peg (sukhumaya aniyam). A peg of heartwood, finer than some peg one wishes to take out (or draw out) of a board (yam anim niharitukamo hoti, tato sukhumataraya saradaru aniya).

Coarse peg (olarikam anim). An incongruous peg in a board or plank of sandalwood or of a heartwood (of sandal) (candana phalake va sara phalake va akotitam visamanim).

In a board (or plank) of… heartwood (sarapha-lake) = in a plank of sandal heartwood (candanamaye saraphalake).

An incongruous peg (visamanim) = a peg standing incompatibly there, in a board or plank of sandalwood (visamakarena tattha thitam anim).

The mind of the bhikkhu intent on the higher consciousness is like the plank of sandal heartwood; the unskillful thoughts are like the incongruous peg: the skillful object of meditation on things such as the unlovely which is different from the object producing unskillfulness is like the fine peg. The removal of unskillful objects such as the meditation on the unlovely is like the removal of the coarse with the fine peg.

If the yogin who, like a person shocked by the carcass slung round his neck by an enemy who has brought it (paccatthikena anetva kanthe baddhena), thinks wisely, by himself, of these unskillful thoughts as blamable and productive of suffering, in many ways, the unskillful thoughts are eliminated in him.

 In many ways (iminapi iminapi karanena). These thoughts are blamable and productive of suffering in many ways, because of their being produced through unskillfulness (akosallasambhuta-taya); of their being opposed to skill(kusalapatipakkha-taya) of their unhealthiness through being afflicted with the disease of sense-desire called worldliness (gehasita-rogena sarogataya); of their being subject to the censure of the wise (viññugarahitabbataya); because of their loathsomeness (jigucchataya); because of the unpleasantness of their results (anitthaphalataya) and because of their nature of bringing about no satisfaction (nirassadasamvattaniyataya).

But he who is unable to think wisely by himself should see his teacher and tell the teacher about the troubles (in meditation). Or he should see his preceptor, a respected fellow-bhikkhu or the chief of the order for the same purpose. Or he should ring the bell (or strike the gong), assemble even the order of bhikkhus and inform the order of the troubles (in meditation). For, at a meeting of many persons, there surely will be one learned man who will explain to him who is troubled: “Thus should the disadvantages of these thoughts be understood,” or he will check these thoughts of the person troubled in meditation) with the talk that is intended for the removal of desire for the body (kayavicchandaniya katha) and so forth.

Should endeavor to be without attention and reflection (asati amanasikaro apajjitabbo). Those unskillful thoughts should just not be remembered, not be dwelt upon. One should be occupied with something else.

Just as a man who does not want to see a certain object, shuts his eyes, just so should the bhikkhu in whom an unskillful thought arises, while he is meditating on the subject of meditation to which he resorts repeatedly (mulakammatthana)occupy himself with something else. By doing that his unskillful thought is eliminated. When that unskillful thought is eliminated he should again sit down to meditate on the subject-of-meditation he is keeping to, preliminary object of meditation to which he repeatedly resorts (mula kammatthana).

If the unskillful thought is not eliminated he should recite aloud some composition of doctrinal explanation he knows by heart. If when being occupied with something else in this way, too, it is not eliminated, he should take out from his bag a manual, if he has one, in Which the virtues of the Buddha and the Doctrine are written and by reading it occupy himself with something else.

If by that, too, it is not eliminated, he should take out of the bag such things like the pair of fire-sticks and by turning his attention to them, saying, “This is the upper fire-stick, this is the lower,” and so forth occupy himself with something else.

If by that, too, it is not eliminated he should, having taken out the receptacle(sipatikam), by contemplating the requisites thus: “This is the awl; this is the pair of scissors; this is the nail-cutter; this is the needle,” occupy himself with something else.

If by that, too, it is not eliminated, he should occupy himself with something else by darning the worn-out parts of the robe. So long as the unskillful thought is not eliminated, he should by doing various skillful actions occupy himself with something else. When it is eliminated he should again sit down to meditate on the subject he is keeping to, (the preliminary object to which he resorts repeatedly).

Composition of doctrinal explanation (dhammakatha pabandha) = a composition helpful to the subject-of-meditation (kammathanassa upakaro dhamma katha pabandho).

Manual (muttipotthako, lit: fist-book, a hand-book). A book carried about and which is about the size of the fist (hand).

By contemplating (samaññamentena) = by concentrating (samaññaharantena).

But building work (erecting new buildings and repairing of old ones etc.) should not be begun. Why? Because when the unskillful thought is destroyed there will be no time for reflection on the subject-of-meditation. But wise ones of old (paranaka pandita) destroyed unskillful thought having done building work too (nava kammani pana na patthapetabbam; kasma? vitakke pacchine kammatthanamanasikarassa okaso na hoti).

(There will be) no time (okaso na hoti) because of the making complete (or bringing to completion) of what is begun (araddhassa pariyosapetabbato). The bringing to an end of what is begun or not beginning (not starting some new work) is the counsel of the elder (araddhassa antagamanam anarabbho va’ti theravado)

This is a story connected with building activity. The preceptor (upajjhaya) of Tissa, the novice, it is said, was staying at the great monastery of the city of Tissa(Tissamahavihara; in South-east Ceylon).

“Reverend Sir,” said the novice to the preceptor, “I am dissatisfied.” Then the elder said to the novice: “Water for bathing is scarce, in this monastery. Take me to Cittalapabbata (Cittala Hill).” The novice did that. There (at Cittalapabbata) the Thera told him: “This monastery is very largely property made over to the use of the Order as a whole (sanghiko). Make me personal dwelling place.”

“Good, Reverend Sir,” said the novice. He began to do three things at once. The learning of the Samyutta Nikaya from the beginning; the clearing of a cave on a hill and work on the preliminary stage of practice on the meditation on fire (tejokasina parikamma), and reached absorption in the subject-of-meditation, learned the Samyutta Nikaya to the end, and finished clearing the cave. Having done all, he informed the preceptor about the completion of the tasks. The preceptor said: “Novice, it was done by you with difficulty. Today you yourself first stay there.”

The novice, while staying that night in the cave (he had cleared), having obtained suitable weather conditions, developed insight, reached arahantship and passed away, just there (tattheva parinibbayi).

Having taken his bones (dhatuyo), they (the people) built a shrine. To this day that shrine is known as the shrine of the elder Tissa (Tissattheracetiyanti paññayati).

While exerting himself in clearing the cave just to check unskillful thoughts, in reciting the Samyutta Nikaya and in the practice of the preparatory part of the meditation on the fire-device for doing the work that precedes the function of seeing the truth through Streamwinning, he accumulated the merit of the three kinds of skillful action of body, speech and mind.

The elder said: “Water for bathing is scarce in this monastery. Take me to Cittalapabbata” having known the novice’s latent tendency (to good) and his particular meditation-device. Therefore, everything was effected according to his intention (Thero tassa asayam kasinañca savisesam janitva imasmim vihareti adim avoca. Tenasa yathadhippayam sabbam sampaditam).

This is called the section dealing with “non-attention” on account of the explanation in it of the manner of checking the flow of unskillful thoughts by not attending to them (asati pabbam nama asatiya vitakka niggahana vibhavanato).

He again said: “If evil unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu” and so forth in order to set forth the section of “inquiry into the source of the unskillful thoughts”(vitakka mula bheda pabbam).

The section of inquiry into the source of the unskillful thoughts is the making clear of the source of the source of unskillful thoughts (vitakka mulassa tammulassa ca bheda vibhavanam).

He should reflect on the removal of the thought source of those unskillful thoughts (vitakka sankhara santhanam manasikatabbam).

What is forming is formation (sankharoti ti sankharo), condition (paccayo), cause(karanam), source (mulam), is the meaning (attho). That state in which there is stopping or ending is stopping or ending (santitthati ettha ti santhanam). (Removal is the stopping or ending of a thing in the sense of getting rid of it).

This is stated: What is the cause of this unskillful thought? What is its condition? By what reason has it arisen? Thinking thus, the source of the unskillful thoughts and the source of the unskillful thoughts and the source of the source should be reflected on by the yogin.

Just as if, bhikkhus, a man should walk fast, and then to him it should occur thus: “But why do I walk fast? Now, let me walk slowly.” And as if, then, he should walk slowly and it should occur to him thus: “Why do I walk slowly? Now let me stand.” (Seyyathapi bhikkhave puriso sigham gaccheyya tassa evamassa kinnukho aham sigham gacchami yannunaham sanikam gaccheyyanti so sanikam gaccheyya, tassa evamassa kinnu kho aham sanikam gaccheyya, tassa evamassa kinnu kho aham sanikam gacchami yannunaham tittheyyanti). (The above is paraphrased in the translation of the discourse as follows: “Just as a man finding no reason for walking fast walks slowly: finding no reason for walking slowly, stands”).s

“But why do I walk slowly”: He thinks thus: What profit is there to me by this fast walking? I shall walk slowly.

“And as if, then, he should walk slowly”; as if he, having thought in the foregoing way, should walk slowly. This is the method of explanation throughout (this simile).

The man’s walking fast is comparable to the bhikkhu’s entry into the state of unskillful thinking; the walking slowly, to the cutting off of unskillful thought-conduct(vitakka cara);[4] the standing, to the descent of the subject-of-meditation into the bhikkhu’s mind, with the cutting off of unskillful thought-conduct; the sitting down to the attainment of arahantship through the development of insight; the lying down, to passing the day in the attainment of the fruit that has Nibbana for its object.

In him, who goes to (find) the source, and the source of that source, of unskillful thoughts questioning himself thus: “Possessed of what cause, due to what condition, are the unskillful thoughts?” there is a slackening of unskillful thoughts. (Owing to an access of energy), when the slackening of unskillful thought conduct reaches its highest point, unskillful thoughts are entirely dissolved (vitakka sabbaso nirujjhanti).

What produces unskillful thoughts is the source of unskillful thought (vitakkam sankharoti vitakka sankharo). It is the condition for unskillful thoughts (vitakka paccayo), (and that condition is) unwise reflection (even) on the sensuously favorable etc., taking them as lovely etc. (subha nimittadisu pi subhadina ayoniso manasikaro.)

The state, indeed, by which the production of unskillful thoughts ends is called (the ending or) the removal of the source of unskillful thought (so pana vitakka sankharo santitthati etta’ti vitakka sankhara sanihanam). The source of unskillful thought is the delusion of perceiving unlovely things and so forth as lovely and so forth (asubhe subhanti adi sañña-vipallaso). Therefore it is said: the source, and the source of that source, should be reflected on (tenaha vitakkana malañca mulamulañca manasikatabbam).

In him who goes to (find) the source of unskillful thoughts (vitakkanam mulam gacchantassa) = in him who goes along the domain of knowledge, by way of investigation, to the root of wrong thoughts, to the cause of their arising (upaparikkhana vasena miccha vitakkanam mulam, uppati karanam nanagatiya gacchantassa).

There is a slackening of unskillful thought-conduct (vitakka caro sithilo hoti).In him who knows according to reality, unskillful thoughts do not continuously proceed, as in the time before he knew truly (yathavato janantassa pubbe viya abhinham nappavattanti).

When the slackening of unskillful thought-conduct reaches its highest point (tasmin sithilibhute matthakam gacchante), through arriving at a stable state, gradually (anukkamena thirabhavappattiya).

Unskillful thoughts are entirely dissolved (vitakka sabbaso nirujjhanti). Even all wrong thoughts go, do not assail one or owing to the completion of the meditation are eliminated without remainder (miccha vitakka sabbe pi gacchanti na samudacaranti bhavana paripuriya va anavasesa pahiyanti).

The meaning should be brought out through the “Daddabha birth-story.”

It is said that a ripe vilva fruit having been cut off from its stalk, fell close to the ear of a hare which was asleep at the foot of the vilva tree. Getting up on hearing that noise, it thought: “The earth is being destroyed,” and fled. The other beasts which were in front of him, fled, too, seeing the hare’s flight.

At that time the Bodhisatta was a lion and he thought: “The earth is destroyed at the end of an eon (kappavinase). “In the interval (between the beginning and the end of an eon) there is no destruction of the earth. Now, let me after going from source to source (mula mulam gantva) find out (anuvijjeyyam).

The lion questioned each animal separately beginning with the elephant. When he came to the hare, he asked: “Dear, did you see the earth being destroyed?” The hare: “Yes, lord.” The lion: “Come, friend, show.” The hare: “I am not able, sire.” Saying, “Hey, come; don’t fear.” the lion using gentle speech alternately with firm speech (taddha mudukena) took the hare along with him.

The hare standing not far from the vilva tree said: “May there be blessing to thee! In that place in which I stayed, it echoed. I do not know why it echoed.”

The Bodhisatta told the hare: “You stay here,” and went up to the tree. He saw where the hare had lain, saw the ripe (fallen) vilva fruit and looking upwards saw the fruit-stalk from which the fruit had fallen and concluded as follows: “This hare whilst lying asleep here got the idea that the earth was being destroyed when he heard the sound of the fruit that fell near his ear.” Then he questioned the hare to see if the facts he had found out were true. The hare said: “Yes, lord,” confirming the lion’s conclusions. The lion, thereupon, uttered this stanza:

“The hare ran, after the echoing sound of the vilva fruit that fell;

“Having listened to the hare’s words, the army of frightened beasts ran.”

After that the Bodhisatta comforted the beasts saying: “Don’t fear.”

Thus unskillful thoughts are eliminated in him who goes (investigating things) from source to source.

It is said that beneath the place where the hare was sleeping there was a huge rat hole — a big excavation made by rats — and that the fruit falling on the ground above it caused a loud sound (tassa kira sasakassa hettha mahamusikahi khata mahavatam ahosi; tenassa patena maha saddo ahosi).

With the repetition of the words, “If evil unskillful thoughts continue to arise,” the Master points out to the bhikkhu who fails to check the unskillful thoughts according to the instruction in the section of inquiring into the source of unskillful thoughts, another method.

With clenched teeth (datehi dantam adhaya): with the upper teeth placed on the lower.

The mind by the mind (cetasa cittam). The unskillful state of mind should be checked by the skillful state of mind.

Strong man (balava puriso). Just as if a brawny man — a person with great physical strength — should, having caught hold of a weaker one by head or body, restrain, subdue and beat down that weaker person — make him wearied, exhausted and to faint — just so, should the unskillful thoughts be checked by the bhikkhu who wrestles with the unskillful thoughts having overcome them saying, “Who are you and who am I,” and after whipping up great energy saying, “Let the flesh and blood of this body dry up; let skin sinews and bones remain.” To point out the foregoing meaning, the Master gave the simile of the strong man.

 By the skillful state of mind (kusala cittena) = by means of the mind associated with right thinking (balava samma sankappa sampayuttena).

The unskillful state of mind (akusala cittam) = the unskillful state of mind with such things like sensual thought (kama vitakka sahitam).

Should be checked (abhinigganhitabbam). Should after overcoming be checked thus: in such a way that in the future no unskillful thoughts assail the bhikkhu. The state of the non-arising of things should be produced is the meaning(yatha tassa ayatim samudacaro na hoti evam abhibhavitva niggahetabbam anuppatti-dhammata apadetabba ti attho).

When, indeed, Bhikkhu (yato kho bhikkhave). This is called the division of summing up (pariyadanabhajaniyam nama). The meaning of the phrase is even clear (utthana-mattameva).[5]

The division of that which was pointed out from the beginning thus: “Five things should be reflected on from time to time, by the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness,” by way of the (taking up completely) summing up of the time of reflection of his object mentioned in the passage.

As a teacher of archery[6] having taught the art of the five weapons to a prince come from a foreign country spurs him on thus: “Go and take up the rulership of your country,” after showing him what ought to be done with the five weapons thus: “If robbers meet you on the way, use the bow; if that is destroyed or broken, use the spear, the sword… and go (free).” And having done this, having gone to his own country taken up the rulership, the prince enjoys the fortune of sovereignty.

If to the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness objects productive of unskillfulness (akusalanimitta) arise during his meditation he, having established himself in the instruction of the section of the “different object” (añña nimitta pabba)and checked those unskillful thoughts will reach saintship after developing insight; unable to do it in that way, he will do it by the instruction of the section on disadvantages (adinava pabba); unable to do it in that way he will do it in that way too, by the instruction of the section of searching the cause (mula bheda pabba):unable to do it in that way too, by the instruction of the section of restraining(abhinigganhana pabba) he will develop insight and reach saintship.

He is called a master of the paths taken by the turns of thought (vasi vitakka pariyaya pathesu). He is called one who is expert of control in the paths taken by the turns of thoughts, one who is conversant with the art of control in the paths taken by the turns of thought (vitakka carapathesu cinnavasi pagunavasi ti vuccati).

The thought he will intend (to think) (yam vitakkam akankhissati). This was said to show his expertness of control. Formerly he was not able to think as he wanted and thought what he did not want to think about. Now, owing to his expertness in the control of thought, he is able to think as he wishes. Therefore it was said: The thoughts he will want to think, those thoughts he will think. The thoughts he will not want to think, those thoughts he will not think.

He has cut off craving (acchejji tanhan’ti). This and the rest should be understood as taught in the Sabbasava Suttanta Commentary.

Notes   

1.

The Commentarial passages are translated from the Venerable Buddhaghosa’sPapañcasudani, the commentary to the Majjhima Nikaya.

2.

Indented passages are “marginal” notes taken from the subcommentary to the Majjhima Nikaya.

3.

Moha dhatu is just moha ( — Tika). It is just a variation for metrical reasons.

4.

Might also be translated as “unskillful thought movement” or “unskillful mental behavior or conduct.”

5.

The commentary to the Sabbasava Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya No. 2, has the following comment on yata kho bhikkhave: The to of yoto is gen., in the sense Yatho kho yassa kho” (of whom). That is said (by the commentator). But the ancient teachers explain it by “in which time,” when or what time (yamhi kale).

6.

Satthacariyo’ti dhanubhadacriya ( — Tika) — a master of weapons is a teacher of the knowledge of archery.

Publisher’s note

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THE PROCEDURE OF PARITTA


1. ARADHANA

   (a) Vipattipatibahaya
        Sabbasampattisiddhiya
        Sabbadukkhavinasaya
        Parittam brutha mangalam

   (b) Vipattipatibahaya
        Sabbasampattisiddhiya
        Sabbabhayaninasaya
        Parittam brutha mangalam

   (c) Vipattipatibahaya
        Sabbasampattisiddhiya
        Sabbarogavinasaya
        Parittam brutha mangalam

2. ANUSASANA

[In the language of the listeners]

3. (a) NAMASKARA

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa!

    (b) SARANAGAMANA

Buddham saranam gacchami.
Dhammam saranam gacchami.
Sangham saranam gacchami.

Dutiyampi Buddham saranam gacchami.
Dutiyampi Dhammam saranam gacchami.
Dutiyampi Sangham saranam gacchami.

Tatiyampi Buddham saranam gacchami.
Tatiyampi Dhammam saranam gacchami.
Tatiyampi Sangham saranam gacchami.

   (c) PANCASILA

(1) Panatipata veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(2) Adinnadana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(3) Kamesu micchacara veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(4) Musavada veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(5) Sura-meraya-majja-pamadatthana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.

4. DEVARADHANA

Samanta cakkavalesu
Atragacchantu devata
Saddhammam munirajassa
Sunantu saggamokkhadam

5. DECLARATION OF THE TIME TO HEAR THE PARITTAS

Parittassavanakalo ayam bhadanta. [Three times]

6. NAMASKARA

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa!

7. Iti pi so Bhagava araham sammasambuddho, vijjacaranasampanno, sugato, lokavidu, 
    anuttaro purisadammasarathi, sattha devamanussanam, Buddho, Bhagava ti.

8. Svakkhato Bhagavata dhammo, sanditthiko, akaliko, ehipassiko, opanayiko,
    paccattam veditabbo vinnuhi ti.

9. Supatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho, ujupatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho, 
    nayapatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho, samicipatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho,
    yadidam cattari purisayugani atthapurisa-puggala esa Bhagavato savakasangho,
    ahuneyyo, pahuneyyo, dakkhineyyo, anjalikaraniyo anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa ti.

10. BLESSING

Etena saccavajjena patu tam ratanattayam. [Three times]

11. THE FIRST BUDDHA WORD

Anekajati samsaram,
Sandhavissam, anibbisam
Gahakarakam’gavesanto;
Dukkha jati punnappunam.
Gahakaraka, dittho’si
Puna geham na kahasi;
Sabba te phasuka bhagga,
Gahakutam visankhitam;
Visankharagatam cittam,
Tanhanam khayam-ajjhaga.

12. PATICCASAMUPPADA

Avijjapaccaya sankhara, sankharapaccaya vinnanam, vinnanapaccaya
namarupam, namarupapaccaya salayatanam, salayatanapaccaya phasso,
phassapaccaya, vedana, vedanapaccaya tanha, tanhapaccaya
upadanam, upadanapaccaya bhavo, bhavapaccaya jati, jatipaccaya
jaramaranam, sokapari devadukkha domanass’upayasa sambhavanti.
Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. Avijjayatveva
asesaviraganirodha sankharanirodho sankharanirodha, vinnananirodho,
vinnananirodha, namarupanirodho, namarupanirodha salayatananirodho,
salayatananirodha phassanirodho, phassanirodha vedana nirodho,
vedananirodha tanhanirodho, tanhanirodha upadananirodho,
upadananirodha bhavanirodho bhavanirodha jatinirodho,
jatinirodha jaramaranam sokaparidevadukkhadomanass’upayasa
nirujjhanti. Evam etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandassa nirodho hoti.

13. JAYAMANGALAGATHA

1. Bahum sahassam-abhinimmita sayudham tam
    Girimekhalam uditaghora sasenamaram
    Danadidhammavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

2. Maratirekam-abhiyujjhita sabbarattim
    Ghorampanalavakamakkha-m-athaddhayakkham
    Khantisudantavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

3. Nalagirim gajavaram atimattabhutam
    Davaggicakkam-asaniva, sudarunam tam
    Mettambusekavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

4. Ukkhittakhaggam-atihatthasudarunam tam
    Dhavam tiyojanapathan’gulimalavantam
    Iddhibhi sankhatamano jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

5. Katvana kattham-udaram iva gabbhiniya
    Cincaya dutthavacanam janakayamajjhe
    Santena somavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

6. Saccam vihaya matisaccakavadaketum
    Vadabhiropitamanam atiandhabhutam
    Pannapadipajalito jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

7. Nandopanandabhujagam vibudham mahiddhim
    puttena therabhujagena damapayanto
    iddh’upadesavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

8. Duggahaditthibhujagena sudatthahattham
    Brahmam viduddhijuti middhibakabhidhanam
    Nanagadena vidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

9. Etapi buddhajayamangala atthagatha
    Yo vacako dinadine sarate matandi
    Hitvana neka vividhani c’upaddavani
    Mokkham sukham adigameyya naro sapanno.

[Sometimes the following request for protection from evil is recited here or at the end of the three suttas.]

(a) Yandunnimittam avamangalanca,
     Yo camanapo sakunassa saddo,
     Papaggaho dussupinam akantam,
     Buddhanubhavena vinasamentu.

(b) Yandunnimittam avamangalanca,
     Yo camanapo sakunassa saddo,
     Papaggaho dussupinam akantam,
     Dhammanubhavena vinasamentu.

(c) Yandunnimittam avamangalanca,
     Yo camanapo sakunassa saddo,
     Papaggaho dussupinam akantam,
     Sanghanubhavena vinasamentu.

14. WISH FOR AUSPICES

1. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
    Rakkhantu sabbadevata,
    Sabba Buddhanubhavena
    Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

2. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
    Rakkhantu sabbadevata,
    Sabba Dhammanubhavena
    Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

3. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
    Rakkhantu sabbadevata,
    Sabba Sanghanubhavena
    Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

15. (a) REQUEST FOR PROTECTION FROM EVIL

Nakkhattayakkhabhutanam,
Papaggaha nivarana,
Parittassanubhavena
Hantu tesam upaddave. [Three times]

       (b) FIXATION OF THE THREE PROTECTION

Sabbe Buddha balappatta
Paccekananca yam balam,
Arahantananca tejena,
Rakkham bandhama sabbaso.

16. RECITAL OF THE THREE SUTTAS

(a) Mahamangala sutta
(b) Ratana sutta
(c) Karaniyametta sutta

[Each Sutta is followed by ‘Etena saccavajjena patu tam ratanattayam.’ (Three times)]

17. MAHAJAYAMANGALAGATHA

1. Mahakaruniko natho hitaya sabbapaninam,
    Puretva param’sabba patto sambodhimuttamam
    Etena saccavajjena hotu te jayamangalam,

2. Jayanto bodhiya mule sakyanam nandivaddhano,
    Evam tuyham jayo hotu jayassu jayamangalam.

3. Sakkatva Buddharatanam, osadham uttamam varam,
    Hitam devamanussanam, Buddhatejena sotthina,
    Nassantu’paddavasabbe dukkha vupasamentu te.

4. Sakkatva Dhammaratanam osadham uttamam varam
    Parilahu pasamanam, Dhammatejena sotthina
    Nassantu’paddava sabbe bhaya vupasamentu te.

5. Sakkatva Sangharatanam, osadham uttamam varam
    Ahuneyyam pahuneyyam, Sanghatejena sotthina
    Nassantu’paddava sabbe roga vupasamentu te.

6. Yam kin ci ratanam loke, vijjati vividha puthu,
    Ratanam Buddhasamam natthi, tasma sotthi bhavantu te.

7. Yam kin ci ratanam loke, vijjati vividha puthu,
    Ratanam Dhammasamam natthi, tasma sotthi bhavantu te.

8. Yam kin ci ratanam loke, vijjhati vividha puthu,
    Ratanam Sanghasamam natthi, tasma sotthi bhavantu te.

9. Natthi me saranam annam,
    Buddho me saranam varam,
    Etena saccavajjena, hotu te jayamangalam.

10. Natthi me saranam annam,
      Dhammo me saranam varam,
      Etena saccavajjena, hotu te jayamangalam.

11. Natthi me saranam annam,
      Sangho me saranam varam,
      Etena saccavajjena, hotu te jaaaaaaayamangalam.

12. Sabb’itiyo vivajjantu, sabbarogo vinassatu,
      Ma te bhavatvantarayo sukhi dighayukho bhava.

13. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
      Rakkhantu sabbadevata;
      Sabba Buddhanubhavena
      Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

14. Bhavatu sabbamangalam
      Rakkhantu sabbadevata;
      Sabba Dhammanubhavena
      Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

15. Bhavatu sabbamangalam
      Rakkhantu, sabbadevata
      Sabba Sanghanubhavena
      Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

16. Nakkhattayakkabhutanam,
      Papaggahanivarana,
      Parittassanubhavena
      Hantu tesam upaddave.




THE PROCEDURE OF PARITTA

1. INVITATION

(a) For the warding off of danger
     For the accomplishment of all happiness
     For the destruction of all suffering
     Please speak the auspicious protection.

(b) For the warding off of danger
     For the accomplishment of all happiness
     For the destruction of all fear
     Please speak the auspicious protection.

(c) For the warding off of danger
     For the accomplishment of all happiness
     For the destruction of all illness
     Please speak the auspicious protection.

2. ADVISORY SPEECH TO THE LISTENERS

[By an elder monk]

3. (a) HOMAGE TO THE LORD

Homage to the Lord, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One!

     (b) TAKING THE REFUGES

I go to the Buddha (the Enlightened One) for refuge.
I go to the Dhamma (the Doctrine) fro refuge.
I go to the Sangha (the Assembly of monks) for refuge.

For the second time I go to the Buddha for refuge.
For the second time I go to the Dhamma for refuge.
For the second time I go to the Sangha for refuge.

For the third time I go to the Buddha for refuge.
For the third time I go to the Dhamma for refuge.
For the third time I go to the Sangha for refuge.

[Note: ‘I go to the Buddha for refuge’ should be interpreted as ‘I take refuge in the Buddha’ etc.]

     (c) THE FIVE PRECEPTS

(1) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from killing.
(2) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from stealing.
(3) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from committing adultery.
(4) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from speaking falsehood.
(5) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from fermented or distilled liquor and intoxicants 
     (of any sort) and places of indolence (such as gambling, betting etc.)

4. INVOCATION TO THE DEVAS

In the universe in their entirety
Let the deities come here;
The good doctrine of the king of sages
Which gives heaven and release (i.e. Nibbana),
let them hear.

5. DECLARATION OF THE TIME TO HEAR THE PROTECTIONS

This is the time to listen to the protections. [Three times]

6. HOMAGE (TO THE LORD)

Homage to the Lord, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One!

7. Thus, that Lord [i.e. the Exalted One, the Buddha] is worthy, completely and fully enlightened, is possessed of knowledge and conduct, well-gone [i.e. well-farer], knower of the world, unsurpassed, charioteer of tameable men, teacher of devas men, the enlightened, the Exalted.

8. The Dhamma has been well preached by the Lord is visible immediate, has the quality of come - O - see [i.e. open to all] leads [to Nibbana] (and) should be understood individually by the wise.

9. The multitude of disciples of the Lord [i.e. the Exalted One] has well followed [the teaching of the Buddha]; The multitude of disciples of the Lord has followed the straight path; the multitude of disciples of the Lord has walked in the right [i.e. methodical] path; The multitude of disciples of the Lord is correct in life; viz. The four pairs of men [and] the eight individual human characters; this is the multitude of the disciples of the Lord. [That is] worthy of sacrifice [i.e. venerable], worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings [and] worthy of being worshipped with palms joined together. [It] is the unsurpassed field of merit of the world.

10. BLESSING

On account of this true word may the three jewels protect you.[Three times]

11. THE FIRST BUDDHA WORD

Through many a birth in transmigration,
I ran through, not finding
The builder of the house, searching (for him);
Suffering (was) birth again and again.
O builder of house, thou art seen (now),
Thou shall not make a house again;
All they ribs are broken,
The ridge pole is destroyed;
The mind is divested of all material things,
The extinction of craving is attained.

12. HAPPENING BY WAY OF CAUSE OR DEPENDENT ORIGINATION

Through ignorance (arise) synergies (or dimly conscious elements), through synergies (arise) cognition (or thinking substance), through cognition (arise) individuality (or mind and body i.e. animated organism), through individuality (arise) the six sense spheres, contact, through contact (arise) feeling, through feeling (arise) craving (or thirst for life), through craving (arise) grasping (or clinging to existence), through grasping (arise) renewed existence, through renewed existence (arise) birth (or rebirth conception), through birth arise old age and death, grief, lamentation, sorrow (or bodily suffering), distress and unrest. Thus is the arising of this complete aggregate of suffering. Through the extinction of ignorance with no residue and dispassion, indeed the extinction of the synergies (happen), through the extinction of the synergies the extinction of cognition (happens), through the extinction of cognition the extinction of individuality (happens), through the extinction of individuality the extinction of the six sense spheres (happens), through the extinction of six sense spheres the extinction of contact (happens), through the extinction of contact the extinction of craving the extinction of grasping (happens), through the extinction of grasping the extinction of renewed existence (happens), through the extinction of birth old age and death, grief, lamentation, sorrow, distress and unrest become extinct. Thus is (or happens) the extinction of the complete aggregate of suffering.

13. STANZAS OF THE VICTORIOUS AUSPICES

1. With a thousand arms and created weapons that
    (Elephant) Girimekhala with Mara, risen with fierceness
                     together with his army,
    Through righteous means, such as generosity, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

2. More than (even) Mara contending all night through,
    Indeed, the fierce and obdurate yakkha alavaka,
    Through forbearance, the well trained method, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

3. Nalagiri the great elephant fully drunk,
    Like a circle of jungle-fire, that one, terrible like a thunderbolt,
    Through means of sprinkling the water of loving kindness,
                 the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

4. Holding up (his) sword with lifted hand that very fierce,
    That Angulimala running the distance of three leagues,
    Through psychic power with conditioned mind, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

5. Forming (i.e. enlarging) her belly with firewood like unto
                  a pregnant woman
    The corrupt words of Cinca in the midst of people,
    Through quiet means with calmness, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

6. Giving up truth, that Saccaka, hankering after
               arguments as though like a banner
    Fixing his mind on arguments fully blinded (to truth)
    Shining with the lamp of wisdom, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

7. The naga Nandopananda very wise and of great psychic power
    Causing to be tamed by His son the elder who is like a naga,
    Through the method of psychic power and advice, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

8. With his hand much bitten by the naga namely wrong views,
    The brahma named Baka of clear sheen and psychic power,
    Through the method of the medicine of knowledge,
                 the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

9. And these eight Buddha stanzas of victorious auspices,
    He who recites daily and remembers without sloth,
    Giving up various (troubles) and dangers,
    That wise man would attain the happiness of release.

[Sometimes the following request for protection from evil is recited here or at the end of the three suttas.]

(a) Whatever bad portent and what is inauspicious,
     Whatever unpleasant noise of a bird,
     (Whatever) evil planet (and) a bad dream unpleasant,
     Let them (all) come to naught through the power of the Buddha.

(b) Whatever bad portent and what is inauspicious,
     Whatever unpleasant noise of a bird,
     (Whatever) evil planet (and) a bad dream unpleasant,
     Let them (all) come to naught through the power of the Dhamma.

(c) Whatever bad portent and what is inauspicious,
     Whatever unpleasant noise of a bird,
     (Whatever) evil planet (and) a bad dream unpleasant,
     Let them (all) come to naught through the power of the Sangha.

14. WISH FOR AUSPICES

1. May there be all the auspices,
    May all the deities Protect (you);
    By the power of all the Buddhas
    May there be blessing to you.

2. May there be all the auspices,
    May all the deities Protect (you);
    By the power of all the Dhamma
    May there be blessing to you.

3. May there be all the auspices,
    May all the deities Protect (you);
    By the power of all the Sangha
    May there be blessing to you.

15. (a) REQUEST FOR PROTECTION FROM EVIL

Of asterisms, yakkhas and demi-gods,
For the warding off of evil planets,
Through the power of the protections
May their dangers come to destruction. [Three times]

      (b) FIXATION OF THE THREE PROTECTION

All Buddhas are powerful,
Whatever power there is of the Silent Buddhas,
               [through their powers]
And through the power of the Arahants,
We fix the protection in all respects.

16. RECITAL OF THE THREE SUTTAS

(a) Mahamangala sutta
(b) Ratana sutta
(c) Karaniyametta sutta

[Each Sutta is followed by ‘On account of this true word may the three jewels protect you. (Three times)]

17. THE STANZAS RELATING TO THE GREAT AND VICTORIOUS AUSPICES

1. The Protector full of compassion for the benefit
                of all living beings,
    Having completed all the perfections has reached
                the most noble complete enlightenment.
    On account of that word of truth may there be
                or victorious auspice to you.

2. Conquering at the foot of the Bodhi tree (is) the
                 Increaser of joy to the Sakyas.
    Thus may there be victory to you may you be victorious,
                 may there be a victorious auspice (to you).

3. Having respected the jewel of the Buddha, the best
                and noble medicine,
    The beneficial of devas and human beings, through the blessing
                which is the power of the Buddha.
    May all your misfortunes be nullified (and) your fears appease.

4. Having respected the jewel of the Dhamma the best
               and noble medicine,
    The alleviator of distress, through the blessing
               which is the power of the Dhamma,
    May all your misfortunes be nullified (and) your fears appease.

5. Having respected the jewel of the Sangha, the best
               and noble medicine,
    Worthy of sacrifice (and) worthy of hospitality, through the blessing
               which is the power of the Sangha, (and)
    May all your misfortunes be nullified, may your maladies appease.

6. Whatever jewel there is in the world (which) is
               seen separately in diverse ways.
    There is no jewel equal to the Buddha, therefore
               may there be a blessing to you.

7. Whatever jewel there is in the world (which) is
              seen separately in diverse ways.
    There is no jewel equal to the Dhamma, therefore
              may there be a blessing to you.

8. Whatever jewel there is in the world (which) is
              seen separately in diverse ways.
    There is no jewel equal to the Sangha, therefore
              may there be a blessing to you.

9. I have no other refuge, the Buddha is
              my highest refuge;
    On account of that truth, may there be a
              victorious auspice to you.

10. I have no other refuge, the Dhamma is
                my highest refuge;
      On account of that truth, may there be a
                victorious auspice to you.

11. I have no other refuge, the Sangha is
                my highest refuge;
      On account of that truth, may there be a
               victorious auspice to you.

12. May all calamities be avoided; may all illness
              be destroyed,
      May there be no dangers to you, may you be a
              long-liver.

13. May all auspices be to you, may all the deities
              protect you;
      Through the power of all the Buddhas may there
              be happiness always to you.

14. May all auspices be to you, may all the deities
              protect you;
      Through the power of all the Dhamma may there
              be happiness always to you.

15. May all auspices be to you, may all the deities
              protect you;
      Through the power of all the Sangha may there
              be happiness always to you.

16. Of asterisms demons bhutas[1]
                   Through warding off of evil planets,
      Through the power of this protection
                    may misfortunes caused by them be destroyed.


Notes:

1) non-human beings of the deva category who live next to the earth (above) and in the lowest devaloka, namely catumaharajika, the world of the four kings.[Return to Text]




Updated: 5 January 2002 
Copyright 2002 The Research Institute for Pali Literature

[Return to Contents]

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon

ble C.M. reviews conclusions of Principal Secretaries/Secretaries meeting

Lucknow: 19 November 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Hon

ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji has

directed the officers to ensure proper arrangements for fertilisers,

seeds and other agriculture inputs for farmers for sowing of Rabi

crops. If farmers faced any difficulty regarding the availability of

fertilisers and seeds for Rabi season, then stringent action would

be taken against the concerning officers, she warned and said that

interests of farmers are the top most priority of the State

Government.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister gave these directives when the

Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh, Chief Secretary

Mr. Atul Kumar Gupta and Additional Cabinet Secretary Mr.

Netram apprised her of the conclusions of Principal

Secretaries/Secretaries review meeting held at Yojana Bhawan

today. She directed the officers to complete the de-silting works of

canals and run these canals according to roster, so that farmers

could get proper water for irrigation. Directing the officers to

speed up the implementation of development works and public

welfare programmes, she said that all schemes should be

completed in fixed time limit in qualitative manner.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister said with a view to double the

income of the farmers, special efforts should be made for poultry,

pig farming and dairy development. She said that parameters

should be fixed finally to estimate the increase in the income of

farmers. She said that vaccination of cattle should be speeded up.

Expressing concern over the fall in level of ground water, she said

that efforts for recharging of ground water were not enough. This

work should be speeded up and improved immediately.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister also directed the officers that

amount for the beneficiaries of Uttar Pradesh Mukhyamantri

Mahamaya Garib Arthik Madad Yojana should be transferred in

their bank accounts immediately. Directing the officers for

speeding up the construction works under Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram Ji Shahri Garib Avas Yojana, she said that verification

2

for beneficiaries of Savitri Bai Phule Balika Shiksha Madad Yojana

and distribution of money and cycles to them should be completed

by the month of December next at all costs.

Expressing pleasure over the progress of expenditure under

Special Component Plan (SCP), the Hon

ble Chief Minister directed

the officers that such progress should be maintained in future also.

She directed the officers to complete the works regarding fees

subsidy for SC/ST and students of other categories. She made it

clear that any sort of corruption would not be tolerated in the

implementation of Child Nutrition Project.

Keeping in view the welfare of workers, the Hon

ble Chief

Minister directed the officers to implement the labour laws

seriously and take effective action to solve labour disputes. She

said that stern punishment would be given, if any slackness was

found in this regard. She also directed the officers to solve the

problems of entrepreneurs and dispose off investment proposals in

fixed time limit. She also directed the officers to make Jan Sewa

Kendras more effective with a view to providing better facilities to

citizens under e-governance.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister said that functioning of sports

colleges being run by Sports Department should be improved and

review of the department works should be made on the basis of

medals won by the players of the State in National Competitions.

She also directed to improve the astro-turf of Lucknow Sports

College.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister said the State Government was

committed to improve education qualitatively. Reiterating the

commitment of her government to conduct board examinations

without copying, she said that stringent action would be taken on

irregularities found in selection of examination centres. She also

emphasised on the presence of teachers in schools.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister while reviewing the development

works of cities said that laying of sewer lines should be speeded up

without disturbance in transport. She also directed the officers to

supervise the availability of medicines in government hospitals

paying special attention towards cleanliness. She also directed the

officers to run the buses of Transport Corporation according to the

numbers fixed for the purpose.



********

comments (0)
11/18/10
LESSON 92 There are these three supreme objects of confidence19 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-U.P. has great potential of industrial development
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 11:14 pm

§ 90. {Iti 3.41; Iti 87}   

[Alternate translation: Ireland]

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: “There are these three supreme objects of confidence. Which three?

“Among whatever beings there may be — footless, two-footed, four-footed, many footed; with form or formless; percipient, non-percipient, neither percipient nor non-percipient — the Tathagata, worthy & rightly self-awakened, is considered supreme. Those who have confidence in the Awakened One have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme is the result.

Among whatever qualities there may be, fabricated or unfabricated, the quality of dispassion — the subduing of intoxication, the elimination of thirst, the uprooting of attachment, the breaking of the round, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation, the realization of Unbinding — is considered supreme. Those who have confidence in the quality of dispassion have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme is the result.

“Among whatever fabricated qualities there may be, the Noble Eightfold Path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is considered supreme. Those who have confidence in the Noble Eightfold Path have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme is the result.

“Among whatever communities or groups there may be, the Sangha of the Tathagata’s disciples is considered supreme — i.e., the four [groups of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as persons.[1] Those who have confidence in the Sangha have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme will be the result.

“These, monks, are the three supreme objects of confidence.”

With

confidence,

          realizing the supreme Dhamma

          to be supreme,

confidence in the supreme Buddha,

          unsurpassed

          in deserving offerings;

confidence in the supreme Dhamma,

          the stilling of dispassion,

          bliss;

confidence in the supreme Sangha,

          unsurpassed

          as a field of merit;

having given gifts to the supreme,

          one develops supreme merit,

          supreme long life & beauty,

          status, honor,

bliss, & strength.

Having given to the supreme,

          the wise person, centered

          in supreme Dhamma,

whether becoming a divine or human being,

          rejoices,

having attained the supreme.

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

U.P. has great potential of industrial development

Hon’ble Chief Minister ji

Hon

’ble Chief Minister visits U.P. Pavilion at International Trade Fair

Lucknow: 17 November 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Hon

ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji today visited

the U.P. Pavilion set up at the India International Trade Fair-2010 being

held at Pragati Maidan New Delhi. Speaking on the occasion, she said that

U.P. had great potential of industrial development. The Uttar Pradesh

Government was committed to provide all basic facilities and all possible

cooperation to the investors willing to invest in the State, she added. The

State Government expected private sectors cooperation in exploiting all

these possibilities, she stated. She said that her government was serious

towards industrial development of the State. The entrepreneurs, investing in

education, health, energy and agriculture sectors, were being provided

proper encouragement and facilities, she pointed out.

Honble Chief Minister ji said that the State Government was providing

infrastructure facilities besides better law and order to the capital investors

for setting up industries in the State. The State Government was

encouraging green energy and work on gas based projects was in full swing.

She said that the State would become self-reliant in the field of power

generation by 2014 and the pace of various power projects had been

accelerated in an effort to energise all the households of the State. The State

Government was also committed to encourage small, cottage, traditional and

handicraft industries of the State besides the industrial development,

because these sectors offered great employment opportunities. Therefore,

the State Government had made proper arrangements in the budget to

encourage these industries. Besides, the incentive amount being provided to

entrepreneurs under various heads to encourage exports had been revised

upwards. On-line arrangements had been made to dispose of problems of

the entrepreneurs in a quick manner.

Honble Chief Minister ji said that her government had been

constructing 8-lane Yamuna Express Way between Greater Noida and Agra.

This project was being developed on the basis of private capital investment.

After the completion of Yamuna Express Way and Ganga Express Way, being

constructed with latest world level technology and facilities and also after the

completion of various other express ways, the development of the State

would get a new dimension. Besides, the areas situated along with these

express ways would also develop rapidly.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister ji said that the State Government with an

objective to end regional imbalances and unemployment from the State had

taken several steps for the development of backward areas like Bundelkhand

and Poorvanchal. Besides, to encourage setting up of industries in these

areas, arrangements had been made to give special relaxations to them.

Various units of Gautam Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Meerut, Kanpur

Nagar, Ramabai Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar (Bhadohi), Lucknow, Varanasi,

Ballia, Bulandshahr, Moradabad and Saharanpur districts displayed their

products related with the theme of the Mela in an attractive manner at the

Pavilion. The displayed products were related with green energy, waste

management, pollution control, gas based filtration plants, R.O. systems,

power saving devices, tractors, cycle, car, milk production, edible spices,

artificial jewellery, leather products, handicrafts, readymade garments,

chikan work, carpets, Ayurvedic products etc. About 136 units displayed

their products at various stalls set up at the Mela site.

Various achievements of the industrial development, reconstruction of

rural roads, widening of important rural roads and their repair works have

been displayed at the pavilion in a better and impressive way. Uttar Pradesh,

in its quest to make constant efforts to progress in a better way, has created

better atmosphere of industrialisation, export promotion and healthy

industrial environment. Noida Development Authority, Greater Noida

Development Authority, U.P.S.I.D.C., Software Technology Park, Non-

Conventional Energy Department presented their works and facilities in an

impressive manner. The Chief Minister, while appreciating the pavilion

expressed the hope that the creations of National and State level award

winning craftsmen displayed at the pavilion would be a centre of attraction

for the visitors.

Several important steps taken by the State Government for the

welfare of SC/ST have also been displayed at the U.P. pavilion. Besides,

various activities of industrial development taking place at Noida and Greater

Noida have also been displayed at the pavilion. The exterior of the pavilion

displayed products and services related with energy, labour, technology etc.

and also the all round development of the State. All of them have been

displayed in various colours in an impressive manner.

On the outer side of the U.P. pavilion a replica of Dr. Bhimrao

Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Sthal has been created. A four faced statue of

Mahatama Buddha has been placed next to it and the elephants have been

placed with a welcome gesture. The memorial place of the hero of the

Bahujan, Manyawar Sri Kanshiram ji has also been displayed at the pavilion.

Besides, the Honble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji has also been shown

distributing cheques among the beneficiaries of U.P. Mukhyamantri

Mahamaya Garib Arthik Madad Yojana. Besides, the collage of newly

constructed memorials has also been displayed at the main hall.

Besides, NEDA has set up a hut illuminated by solar lights and lantern

which depicts the theme of energy conservation and use of non-conventional

energy for rural areas. Moreover, various collage related with medical health

and family welfare, energy, rural roads, Ganga-Jamuni culture of U.P. and

development of the State have also been shown at the pavilion. Likewise,

various features of Mahamaya Garib Balika Ashirvad Yojana and Savitri Bai

Phule Balika Shiksha Madad Yojana have also been displayed at the pavilion.

Besides, the attractive and liberal resettlement and rehabilitation policy

announced by U.P. Government for the land acquisition of the farmers has

also been displayed at the pavilion. Moreover, various welfare schemes

being conducted by the State Government for the welfare of SC/ST and BPL

families have also been shown at the pavilion.

Two huge L.E.D. have been set up at the pavilion, through which

various achievements of the State Government were being shown at the

pavilion. The Chairman State Advisory Council Mr. Satish Chandra Mishra,

Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh, Chief Secretary Mr. Atul

Kumar Gupta, Resident Commissioner Mr. Pankaj Agarwal, IDC Mr. Anoop

Mishra, Principal Secretary Information Mr. Vijay Shankar Pandey, Principal

Secretary Small Industries Mr. Srikrishna and senior officers of various

departments were present on the occasion.

********

The Aboriginal inhabitants of Jambudvipa, i.e., the PraBuddha Bharath, who were called as untouchables can now call themselves as Buddhists after the initative taken by Babasaheb Dr. Ambedkar. Work hard to acquire the Master Key through BSP for Sarvajan Hithay, Sarvajan Sukhay.

Also fpr FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY kindly vosit:

http://sarvajan/ambedkar.org

and carry forward the CARAVAN.

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LESSON 91 The Discourse on the Orderliness of the Dhamma 18 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-
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LESSON 91 The Discourse on the Orderliness of the Dhamma 18 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

“‘This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference.’ Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

18-11-2010

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.141.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.134.than.html

AN 3.134 

PTS: A i 286 

Thai III.137

Dhamma-niyama Sutta: The Discourse on the Orderliness of the Dhamma

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1996–2010

“Monks, whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands — this steadfastness of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma: All processes are inconstant.

“The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All processes are inconstant.

“Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands — this steadfastness of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma: All processes are stressful.

“The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All processes are stressful.

“Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands — this steadfastness of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma: All phenomena are not-self.[1]

“The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, & makes it plain: All phenomena are not-self.”

Note

1.

The suttas are inconsistent on the question of whether Unbinding counts as a phenomenon (dhamma). Iti 90, among others, states clearly that it is. AN 10.58, however, calls Unbinding the ending of all phenomena. Sn 5.6 quotes the Buddha as calling the attainment of the goal the transcending of all phenomena, just as Sn 4.6 and Sn 4.10 state that the arahant has transcended dispassion, said to be the highest phenomenon. If the former definition applies here, Unbinding would be not-self. If the latter, the word phenomenon (as more inclusive than fabrication) would apply to the non-returner’s experience of the Deathless (see AN 9.36). The arahant’s experience of Unbinding would be neither self nor not-self, as it lies beyond all designations (see DN 15).

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

C.M. greets people on Eid-ul-azha

Lucknow: 16 November 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati has

greeted the people of the State, especially Muslim

brethren, on the occasion of Eid-ul-azha (Bakrid).

In a greetings message, Ms. Mayawati said that

festival of Eid-ul-azha gave the message of peaceful

coexistence by maintaining social harmony and

brotherhood. She said that Hazrat Ibrahim set up the

example of sacrificing his most dear son Hazrat Ismail in

the name of God. This example still inspires people for

extreme sacrifice and love, she added.

Ms. Mayawati ji has appealed the people to

maintain the atmosphere of peace and harmony on the

occasion of Eid-ul-azha. She expressed the hope that this

festival would be celebrated with the tradition of helping

poor people and feeling of sacrifice and simplicity.

********

APEAL TO SAVE 
DR. BABASAIAB AMBEDKAR’S
 
BIRTH PLACE MEMORIAL
 
FROM DESTRUCTIVE ACTION OF THE ESTATE OFFICER
 
CANTONMENT BOARD. MHOW

Despite challenging before the honorable high court Indore bench of Madhya Pradesh for interim relief in illegal action of the estate officer cantonment board Mhow by digging for underground sumptank nearby [adjoining land ] The Dr. Babasahab Ambedkar smarak at his birth place Mhow to raise illegal construction of fire brigade station which will definitely damage the monument hampering it’s strength , it’s beauty and it’s sacred importance , as per opinion of the architect consultant , collector and P.W.D. Indore .The estate officer cantonment board still continuing illegal construction speedily with ill intention.

So now it is felt necessary ,all the democratic agencies audio visual agencies ,print media agencies and all political leaders who believe Dr.Ambedkar deserve to be commemorate for centuries as he devoted his life for social justice and religious revolution and had succeeded in getting included socio-economic and political equal rights as fundamental rights in the constitution, they all should raise the voice country wide on street and in parliament as well.
I feel it is the moral duty of the all constitutionally elected public representatives to make the parliament to resolve in this parliament session to not to allow construction surrounding to safeguard the strength , beauty, and sacred importance of the monument. This monument is naturally surrounded by all religious temples. In the east swarn mandir a Jain temple in the west masjid and in the south Ram mandir and Sikh Gurudwara exists .As such this extreme north-east portion of the cantonment naturally situated as secular campus having all religion temples together. By enforcing mismatch development fundamental right of the secularism is being denied.

Recently it is heard that the eastate officer cantonment board has undertaken the development work for technical purposes in the open grounds of this religious campus , the extreme north east portion of the cantonment so that no pilgrims enter into or gather for religious deliberations. As per our knowledge this is the only place in India where all religion temples exist in a capus and surrounded to each other and secular deliberations held in open grounds since this land has given the world’s most secular socialist democrat Dr. Bheemrao Ambedkar . Planned development plan of this area needs to be revised to suit sacred entity of this religious portion.

I am being a Buddhist Monk can only look forward to the media only, which is the most believable part of the democracy, always raises voice of the voiceless, I belief the media will ask all parliamentarians to raise this issue in this parliament session only.
“Bhavantu Sabba Mangalam” 
[Bhante Sanghsheel]
(President Dr.Baba Saheb Ambedkar Memorial Society, Mhow)

 

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11/16/10
LESSON 90 Requisite Conditions 17 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 11:55 pm

LESSON 90 Requisite Conditions 17 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

The world of unconditioning.....

< ?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” />

SN 12.20 

PTS: S ii 25 

CDB i 550

Paccaya Sutta: Requisite Conditions

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1997–2010

Dwelling at Savatthi… “Monks, I will teach you dependent co-arising & dependently co-arisen phenomena. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, lord,” the monks replied. The Blessed One said:

“Now what is dependent co-arising? From birth as a requisite condition comes aging & death. Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands — this regularity of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma, this this/that conditionality. The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, makes it plain, & says, ‘Look.’ From birth as a requisite condition comes aging & death.

“From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth…

“From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming…

“From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance…

“From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving…

“From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling…

“From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact…

“From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media…

“From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form…

“From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness…

“From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications. Whether or not there is the arising of Tathagatas, this property stands — this regularity of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma, this this/that conditionality. The Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening & breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, makes it plain, & says, ‘Look.’ From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications. What’s there in this way is a reality, not an unreality, not other than what it seems, conditioned by this/that. This is called dependent co-arising.

“And what are dependently co-arisen phenomena? Aging & death are dependently co-arisen phenomena: inconstant, compounded, dependently co-arisen, subject to ending, subject to passing away, subject to fading, subject to cessation.

“Birth is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“Becoming is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“Clinging/sustenance is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“Craving is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“Feeling is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“Contact is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“The six sense media are dependently co-arisen phenomena…

“Name-&-form is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“Consciousness is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon…

“Fabrications are dependently co-arisen phenomena…

“Ignorance is a dependently co-arisen phenomenon: inconstant, compounded, dependently co-arisen, subject to ending, subject to passing away, subject to fading, subject to cessation. These are called dependently co-arisen phenomena.

“When a disciple of the noble ones has seen well with right discernment this dependent co-arising & these dependently co-arisen phenomena as they have come to be, it is not possible that he would run after the past, thinking, ‘Was I in the past? Was I not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what, what was I in the past?’ or that he would run after the future, thinking, ‘Shall I be in the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what shall I be in the future?’ or that he would be inwardly perplexed about the immediate present, thinking, ‘Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where is it bound?’ Such a thing is not possible. Why is that? Because the disciple of the noble ones has seen well with right discernment this dependent co-arising & these dependently co-arisen phenomena as they have come to be.”

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LESSON 89 The Great Frames of Reference 16 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-”‘This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference.’ Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said.”That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words-.GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble Chief Minister sanctions Rs. 10.50 lakh for treatment of Anuj Bahal
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LESSON 89 The Great Frames of Reference 16 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

“‘This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference.’ Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said.”That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca1/index.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.141.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.22.0.than.html

DN 22 

PTS: D ii 290

Maha-satipatthana Sutta: The Great Frames of Reference

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2000–2010

Translator’s Introduction

The word “satipatthana” is the name for an approach to meditation aimed at establishingsati, or mindfulness. The term sati is related to the verb sarati, to remember or to keep in mind. It is sometimes translated as non-reactive awareness, free from agendas, simply present with whatever arises, but the formula for satipatthana doesn’t support that translation. Non-reactive awareness is actually an aspect of equanimity, a quality fostered in the course of satipatthana. The activity of satipatthana, however, definitely has a motivating agenda: the desire for Awakening, which is classed not as a cause of suffering, but as part of the path to its ending (see SN 51.15). The role of mindfulness is to keep the mind properly grounded in the present moment in a way that will keep it on the path. To make an analogy, Awakening is like a mountain on the horizon, the destination to which you are driving a car. Mindfulness is what remembers to keep attention focused on the road to the mountain, rather than letting it stay focused on glimpses of the mountain or get distracted by other paths leading away from the road.

As a compound term, satipatthana can be broken down in two ways, either as sati-patthana, foundation of mindfulness; or as sati-upatthana, establishing of mindfulness. Scholars debate as to which is the proper interpretation, but in practice both provide useful food for thought.

The first interpretation focuses on the objects of the meditation practice, the focal points that provide mindfulness with a foundation — or, to use the more idiomatic English phrase adopted here, a frame of reference. Altogether there are four: the body in and of itself; feelings in and of themselves; mind in and of itself; and mental qualities in and of themselves. The “in and of itself” here is crucial. In the case of the body, for instance, it means viewing the body on its own terms rather than in terms of its function in the context of the world (for in that case the world would be the frame of reference). Dropping any concern for how the body’s beauty, agility, or strength fits into the world, the meditator simply stays with the direct experience of its breathing, its movements, its postures, its elementary properties, and its inevitable decay. A similar principle applies to the other frames of reference.

The second interpretation of satipatthana — sati-upatthana — focuses on the process of the meditation practice, on how a frame of reference is established. This sutta gives three stages for this process, applied to each frame of reference. The first stage, as applied to the body, is this:

The monk remains focused on the body in and of itself — ardent, alert, and mindful — putting aside greed and distress with reference to the world.

“Remaining focused” refers to the element of concentration in the practice, as the meditator holds to one particular frame of reference amid the conflicting currents of experience. “Ardent” refers to the effort put into the practice, trying to abandon unskillful states of mind and develop skillful ones in their stead, all the while trying to discern the difference between the two. “Alert” means being clearly aware of what is happening in the present. “Mindful,” as mentioned above, means being able to keep the frame of reference continually in mind. As these qualities work together, they bring the mind to a solid state of concentration. Although satipatthana practice is often said to be separate from the practice of jhana, a number of suttas — such as MN 125 (not in this collection) and AN 8.63 — equate the successful completion of this first stage with the attainment of the first level of jhana. This point is confirmed by the many suttas — MN 118 among them — describing how the practice of satipatthana brings to completion the factors for Awakening, which coincide with the factors of jhana.

The second stage of satipatthana practice is this:

One remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body.

The “phenomena of origination and passing away” covers events either directly or indirectly related to one’s chosen frame of reference. “Directly” means changes in the frame of reference itself. For instance, when focused on the body, one may notice the arising and passing away of breath sensations within it. “Indirectly,” here, means events in any of the other three frames of reference as they relate to the body. For example, one might notice the arising and passing away of feelings of pleasure or mental states of irritation in connection to events in the body. Or one might notice lapses of mindfulness in one’s focus on the body.

In each of these cases, if the origination and passing away is of neutral events such as the aggregates, one is directed simply to be aware of them as events, and to let them follow their natural course so as to see what factors accompany them and lead to their comings and goings. However, when skillful or unskillful mental qualities — such as the factors for Awakening or the Hindrances — arise and pass away, one is encouraged to foster the factors that strengthen jhana and eliminate the factors that weaken it. This means actively getting engaged in maximizing skillful mental qualities and minimizing unskillful ones. One thus develops insight into the process of origination and passing away by taking an active and sensitive role in the process, just as you learn about eggs by trying to cook with them, gathering experience from your successes and failures in attempting increasingly difficult dishes.

As this process leads to stronger and more refined states of concentration, it makes one sensitive to the fact that the grosser one’s participation in the process of origination and passing away in the mind, the grosser the level of stress that results. This leads one to let go of increasingly refined levels of participation as one is able to detect them, leading to the third and final stage in satipatthana practice:

Or his mindfulness that ‘There is a body (feeling, mind, mental quality)’ is maintained [simply] to the extent of knowledge & recollection. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world.

This stage corresponds to a mode of perception that the Buddha in MN 121 terms “entry into emptiness”:

Thus he regards it [this mode of perception] as empty of whatever is not there. Whatever remains, he discerns as present: “there is this.”

This is the culminating equipoise where the path of the practice opens to a state of non-fashioning and from there to the fruit of Awakening and release.

At first glance, the four frames of reference for satipatthana practice sound like four different meditation exercises, but MN 118 makes clear that they can all center on a single practice: keeping the breath in mind. When the mind is with the breath, all four frames of reference are right there. The difference lies simply in the subtlety of one’s focus. It’s like learning to play the piano. As you get more proficient at playing, you also become sensitive in listening to ever more subtle levels in the music. This allows you to play even more skillfully. In the same way, as a meditator gets more skilled in staying with the breath, the practice of satipatthana gives greater sensitivity in peeling away ever more subtle layers of participation in the present moment until nothing is left standing in the way of total release.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in the Kuru country. Now there is a town of the Kurus called Kammasadhamma. There the Blessed One addressed the monks, “Monks.”

“Lord,” the monks replied.

The Blessed One said this: “This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference. Which four?

“There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings… mind… mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

A. Body

“And how does a monk remain focused on the body in & of itself?

[1] There is the case where a monk — having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building — sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect and setting mindfulness to the fore [lit: the front of the chest]. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

“Breathing in long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in long’; or breathing out long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out long.’ Or breathing in short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or breathing out short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out short.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.’ Just as a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, discerns, ‘I am making a long turn,’ or when making a short turn discerns, ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way the monk, when breathing in long, discerns, ‘I am breathing in long’; or breathing out long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out long’ … He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.’

“In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that ‘There is a body’ is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[2] “Furthermore, when walking, the monk discerns, ‘I am walking.’ When standing, he discerns, ‘I am standing.’ When sitting, he discerns, ‘I am sitting.’ When lying down, he discerns, ‘I am lying down.’ Or however his body is disposed, that is how he discerns it.

“In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally… unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[3] “Furthermore, when going forward & returning, he makes himself fully alert; when looking toward & looking away… when bending & extending his limbs… when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe & his bowl… when eating, drinking, chewing, & savoring… when urinating & defecating… when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, & remaining silent, he makes himself fully alert.

“In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally… unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[4] “Furthermore… just as if a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain — wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice — and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, ‘This is wheat. This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked rice,’ in the same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things: ‘In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.’

“In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally… unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[5] “Furthermore… just as a skilled butcher or his apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the monk contemplates this very body — however it stands, however it is disposed — in terms of properties: ‘In this body there is the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, & the wind property.’

“In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally… unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[6] “Furthermore, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground — one day, two days, three days dead — bloated, livid, & festering, he applies it to this very body, ‘This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate’…

“Or again, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground, picked at by crows, vultures, & hawks, by dogs, hyenas, & various other creatures… a skeleton smeared with flesh & blood, connected with tendons… a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons… a skeleton without flesh or blood, connected with tendons… bones detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions — here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone, here a hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a breast bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a skull… the bones whitened, somewhat like the color of shells… piled up, more than a year old… decomposed into a powder: He applies it to this very body, ‘This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate.’

“In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that ‘There is a body’ is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

(B. Feelings)

“And how does a monk remain focused on feelings in & of themselves? There is the case where a monk, when feeling a painful feeling, discerns, ‘I am feeling a painful feeling.’ When feeling a pleasant feeling, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a pleasant feeling.’ When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.’

“When feeling a painful feeling of the flesh, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a painful feeling of the flesh.’ When feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh.’ When feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh.’ When feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh.’ When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh.’ When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns, ‘I am feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh.’

“In this way he remains focused internally on feelings in & of themselves, or externally on feelings in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on feelings in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to feelings, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to feelings, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to feelings. Or his mindfulness that ‘There are feelings’ is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on feelings in & of themselves.

(C. Mind)

“And how does a monk remain focused on the mind in & of itself? There is the case where a monk, when the mind has passion, discerns that the mind has passion. When the mind is without passion, he discerns that the mind is without passion. When the mind has aversion, he discerns that the mind has aversion. When the mind is without aversion, he discerns that the mind is without aversion. When the mind has delusion, he discerns that the mind has delusion. When the mind is without delusion, he discerns that the mind is without delusion.

“When the mind is restricted, he discerns that the mind is restricted. When the mind is scattered, he discerns that the mind is scattered. When the mind is enlarged, he discerns that the mind is enlarged. When the mind is not enlarged, he discerns that the mind is not enlarged. When the mind is surpassed, he discerns that the mind is surpassed. When the mind is unsurpassed, he discerns that the mind is unsurpassed. When the mind is concentrated, he discerns that the mind is concentrated. When the mind is not concentrated, he discerns that the mind is not concentrated. When the mind is released, he discerns that the mind is released. When the mind is not released, he discerns that the mind is not released.

“In this way he remains focused internally on the mind in & of itself, or externally on the mind in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the mind in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the mind, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the mind, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the mind. Or his mindfulness that ‘There is a mind’ is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the mind in & of itself.

(D. Mental Qualities)

“And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves?

[1] “There is the case where a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances. And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances? There is the case where, there being sensual desire present within, a monk discerns that ‘There is sensual desire present within me.’ Or, there being no sensual desire present within, he discerns that ‘There is no sensual desire present within me.’ He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen sensual desire. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of sensual desire once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no future arising of sensual desire that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining hindrances: ill will, sloth & drowsiness, restlessness & anxiety, and uncertainty.)

“In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on mental qualities in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to mental qualities. Or his mindfulness that ‘There are mental qualities’ is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances.

[2] “Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five clinging-aggregates. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five clinging-aggregates? There is the case where a monk [discerns]: ‘Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance. Such is feeling… Such is perception… Such are fabrications… Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.’

“In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in & of themselves, or focused externally… unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five clinging-aggregates.

[3] “Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media? There is the case where he discerns the eye, he discerns forms, he discerns the fetter that arises dependent on both. He discerns how there is the arising of an unarisen fetter. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of a fetter once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no future arising of a fetter that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining sense media: ear, nose, tongue, body, & intellect.)

“In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in & of themselves, or focused externally… unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media.

[4] “Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors for Awakening. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors for Awakening? There is the case where, there being mindfulness as a factor for Awakening present within, he discerns that ‘Mindfulness as a factor for Awakening is present within me.’ Or, there being no mindfulness as a factor for Awakening present within, he discerns that ‘Mindfulness as a factor for Awakening is not present within me.’ He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor for Awakening. And he discerns how there is the culmination of the development of mindfulness as a factor for Awakening once it has arisen. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining factors for Awakening: analysis of qualities, persistence, rapture, serenity, concentration, & equanimity.)

“In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally… unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors for Awakening.

[5] “Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths? There is the case where he discerns, as it has come to be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of stress.’

[a] “Now what is the noble truth of stress? Birth is stressful, aging is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the unbeloved is stressful; separation from the loved is stressful; not getting what one wants is stressful. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stressful.

“And what is birth? Whatever birth, taking birth, descent, coming-to-be, coming-forth, appearance of aggregates, & acquisition of [sense] spheres of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called birth.

“And what is aging? Whatever aging, decrepitude, brokenness, graying, wrinkling, decline of life-force, weakening of the faculties of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called aging.

“And what is death? Whatever deceasing, passing away, breaking up, disappearance, dying, death, completion of time, break up of the aggregates, casting off of the body, interruption in the life faculty of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called death.

“And what is sorrow? Whatever sorrow, sorrowing, sadness, inward sorrow, inward sadness of anyone suffering from misfortune, touched by a painful thing, that is called sorrow.

“And what is lamentation? Whatever crying, grieving, lamenting, weeping, wailing, lamentation of anyone suffering from misfortune, touched by a painful thing, that is called lamentation.

“And what is pain? Whatever is experienced as bodily pain, bodily discomfort, pain or discomfort born of bodily contact, that is called pain.

“And what is distress? Whatever is experienced as mental pain, mental discomfort, pain or discomfort born of mental contact, that is called distress.

“And what is despair? Whatever despair, despondency, desperation of anyone suffering from misfortune, touched by a painful thing, that is called despair.

“And what is the stress of association with the unbeloved? There is the case where undesirable, unpleasing, unattractive sights, sounds, aromas, flavors, or tactile sensations occur to one; or one has connection, contact, relationship, interaction with those who wish one ill, who wish for one’s harm, who wish for one’s discomfort, who wish one no security from the yoke. This is called the stress of association with the unbeloved.

“And what is the stress of separation from the loved? There is the case where desirable, pleasing, attractive sights, sounds, aromas, flavors, or tactile sensations do not occur to one; or one has no connection, no contact, no relationship, no interaction with those who wish one well, who wish for one’s benefit, who wish for one’s comfort, who wish one security from the yoke, nor with one’s mother, father, brother, sister, friends, companions, or relatives. This is called the stress of separation from the loved.

“And what is the stress of not getting what one wants? In beings subject to birth, the wish arises, ‘O, may we not be subject to birth, and may birth not come to us.’ But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the stress of not getting what one wants. In beings subject to aging… illness… death… sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair, the wish arises, ‘O, may we not be subject to aging… illness… death… sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair, and may aging… illness… death… sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair not come to us.’ But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the stress of not getting what one wants.

“And what are the five clinging-aggregates that, in short, are stress? Form as a clinging-aggregate, feeling as a clinging-aggregate, perception as a clinging-aggregate, fabrications as a clinging-aggregate, consciousness as a clinging-aggregate: These are called the five clinging-aggregates that, in short, are stress.

“This is called the noble truth of stress.

[b] “And what is the noble truth of the origination of stress? The craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there — i.e., craving for sensuality, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming.

“And where does this craving, when arising, arise? And where, when dwelling, does it dwell? Whatever is endearing & alluring in terms of the world: that is where this craving, when arising, arises. That is where, when dwelling, it dwells.

“And what is endearing & alluring in terms of the world? The eye is endearing & alluring in terms of the world. That is where this craving, when arising, arises. That is where, when dwelling, it dwells.

“The ear… The nose… The tongue… The body… The intellect…

“Forms… Sounds… Smells… Tastes… Tactile sensations… Ideas…

“Eye-consciousness… Ear-consciousness… Nose-consciousness… Tongue-consciousness… Body-consciousness… Intellect-consciousness…

“Eye-contact… Ear-contact… Nose-contact… Tongue-contact… Body-contact… Intellect-contact…

“Feeling born of eye-contact… Feeling born of ear-contact… Feeling born of nose-contact… Feeling born of tongue-contact… Feeling born of body-contact… Feeling born of intellect-contact…

“Perception of forms… Perception of sounds… Perception of smells… Perception of tastes… Perception of tactile sensations… Perception of ideas…

“Intention for forms… Intention for sounds… Intention for smells… Intention for tastes… Intention for tactile sensations… Intention for ideas…

“Craving for forms… Craving for sounds… Craving for smells… Craving for tastes… Craving for tactile sensations… Craving for ideas…

“Thought directed at forms… Thought directed at sounds… Thought directed at smells… Thought directed at tastes… Thought directed at tactile sensations… Thought directed at ideas…

“Evaluation of forms… Evaluation of sounds… Evaluation of smells… Evaluation of tastes… Evaluation of tactile sensations… Evaluation of ideas is endearing & alluring in terms of the world. That is where this craving, when arising, arises. That is where, when dwelling, it dwells.

“This is called the noble truth of the origination of stress.

[c] “And what is the noble truth of the cessation of stress? The remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.

“And where, when being abandoned, is this craving abandoned? And where, when ceasing, does it cease? Whatever is endearing & alluring in terms of the world: that is where, when being abandoned, this craving is abandoned. That is where, when ceasing, it ceases.

“And what is endearing & alluring in terms of the world? The eye is endearing & alluring in terms of the world. That is where, when being abandoned, this craving is abandoned. That is where, when ceasing, it ceases.

“The ear… The nose… The tongue… The body… The intellect…

“Forms… Sounds… Smells… Tastes… Tactile sensations… Ideas…

“Eye-consciousness… Ear-consciousness… Nose-consciousness… Tongue-consciousness… Body-consciousness… Intellect-consciousness…

“Eye-contact… Ear-contact… Nose-contact… Tongue-contact… Body-contact… Intellect-contact…

“Feeling born of eye-contact… Feeling born of ear-contact… Feeling born of nose-contact… Feeling born of tongue-contact… Feeling born of body-contact… Feeling born of intellect-contact…

“Perception