28 05 2012 MONDAY LESSON 622 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINEGOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA throughhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada
Verse 181. Gods And Men Adore The Buddha
Verse 181. Gods And Men Adore The
E’er intent on concentration,
joyful in peace of letting go,
mindful, wise, the perfect Buddhas,
to even devas they are dear.
Explanation: Those noble and wise ones are intent on
meditation. They are bent on conquering defilements - that is achieving
Nibbana. They are mindful; and such enlightened ones are beloved by everyone.
Dhammapada Verse 181 Devorohana Vatthu
Ye jhanapasuta dhira
devapi tesam pihayanti sambuddhanam satimatam.
Verse 181: The wise who practise jhana concentration and
Insight Meditation take delight in the peace of liberation from sensual
pleasures and moral defilements. Such wise and mindful ones, who truly
comprehend the Four Noble Truths (i.e., Arahats and Buddhas) are held dear also
by the devas.
The Story of the Buddha’s Return from the Tavatimsa Deva
On return from the Tavatimsa deva world, the Buddha
uttered Verse (181) of this book at Sankassanagara, in reply to Thera
Sariputta’s words of welcome.
On one occasion, while at Savatthi, the Buddha performed
the Miracle of the Pairs in answer to the challenge of the ascetics of various
sects. After this, the Buddha went to the Tavatimsa deva world; his mother who
had been reborn in the Tusita deva world as a deva known as Santusita also came
to the Tavatimsa deva world. There the Buddha expounded the Abhidhamma to the
devas and the brahmas throughout the three months of the vassa. As a result,
Santusita deva attained Sotapatti Fruition; so did numerous other devas and
During that period Thera Sariputta spent the vassa at
Sankassanagara, thirty yojanas away from Savatthi. During his stay there, as
regularly instructed by the Buddha, he taught the Abhidhamma to the five
hundred bhikkhus staying with him and covered the whole course by the end of
Towards the end of the vassa, Thera Maha Moggalana went
to the Tavatimsa deva world to see the Buddha. Then, he was told that the Buddha
would return to the human world on the full moon day at the end of the vassa to
the place where Thera Sariputta was spending the vassa.
As promised, the Buddha came with the six coloured rays
shining forth from his body to the city-gate of Sankassanagara, on the night of
the full moon day of the month of Assayuja when the moon was shining brightly.
He was accompanied by a large following of devas on one side and a large
following of brahmas on the other. A large gathering headed by Thera Sariputta
welcomed the Buddha back to this world; and the whole town was lit up. Thera
Sariputta was awed by the grandeur and glory of the whole scene of the Buddha’s
return. He respectfully approached the Buddha and said, “Venerable Sir! We
have never seen or even heard of such magnificent and resplendent glory.
Indeed, Venerable Sir, you are loved, respected and revered alike by devas,
brahmas and men!” To him the Buddha said, “My son Sariputta, the
Buddhas who are endowed with unique qualities are truly loved by men and devas
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
181: The wise who practise jhana concentration and Insight Meditation take
delight in the peace of liberation from sensual pleasures and moral
defilements. Such wise and mindful ones, who truly comprehend the Four Noble
Truths (i.e., Arahats and Buddhas) are held dear also by the devas.
At the end of the discourse the five hundred bhikkhus who
were the pupils of Thera Sariputta attained arahatship and a great many from
the congregation attained Sotapatti Fruition.
The Tripitaka [Sanskrit] [Pali: Tipitaka] is the Canon of the Buddhists,
both Theravada and Mahayana. Thus it is possible to speak of several Canons
such as the Sthaviravada, Sarvastivada and Mahayana as well as in term of
languages like Pali, Chinese and Tibetan. The word is used basically to refer
to the literature, the authorship of which is directly or indirectly ascribed
to the Buddha himself.
It is generally
believed that whatever was the teaching of the Buddha, conceived under Dhamma
and Vinaya, it was rehearsed soon after his death by a fairly representative
body of disciples. The later systematised threefold division, into Sutta,
Vinaya and Abhidhamma is based on this collection. Sharing a common body of
Dhamma and Vinaya, the early Buddhist disciples appear to have remained united
for about a century.
The Council of Vesali
or the second Buddhist Council saw the break up of this original body and as
many as eighteen separate schools were known to exist by about the first
century B.C. It is reasonable to assume that each of these schools would have
opted to possess a Tripitaka of their own or rather their own recension of the
Tripitaka, perhaps with a considerably large common core.
It has long been
claimed that the Buddha, as he went about teaching in the Gangetic valley in
India during the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.E., used
Magadhi or the language of Magadha as his medium of communication. Attempts
have been made to identify this Magadhan dialect with Pali, the language in
which the texts of the Sthaviravada school are recorded. Hence we speak of a
Pali Canon, i.e., the literature of the Sthaviravadins which is believed to be
the original word of the Buddha.
At any rate, this is
the only complete recension we possess and the Pali texts seem to preserve an
older tradition much more than most of the extant Buddhist works in other
languages. Further, the Sthaviravadins admit two other major divisions of Pali
Buddhist literature which are non-Canonical. They are:
Pali literature including works like Petakopadesa and Milindapanha,
the authorship of which is ascribed to one or more disciples.
2. Pali Commentarial
literature which includes:
(a) Atthakatha or
Commentaries, the original version of which is believed to have been taken over
to Sri Lanka by Thera Mahinda, the missionary sent by Asoka and
(b) the different
strata of Tika or Sub-Commentaries, contributions to which were made by
Buddhist monks of Sri Lanka, India and Burma.
Besides this Pali
recension of the Sthaviravada school there are fragmentary texts of the
Sarvastivada or of the Mulasarvastivada which are preserved in Sanskrit. A
large portion of their Vinaya texts in Sanskrit is preserved in the Gilgit
manuscripts. But a more complete collection of the Sarvastivada recension
(perhaps also of the Dharmapuptaka and Kasyapiya), i.e., a Sanskrit Canon, must
have possibly existed as is evident from the Chinese translations preserved to
us. These include complete translations of the four agamas (the equivalent of
the Pali nikayas). Of the Ksudraka (Pali: Khuddaka), only some texts are
preserved in Chinese. In addition to these, the Chinese translations seem to
preserve, to the credit of the Sarvastivadins, a vast Vinaya literature and an
independent collection of seven Abhidhamma treatises. Thus what could be
referred to as a Sarvastivada Canon ranges between fragments of texts preserved
in Sanskrit and the more representative collection of the Tripitaka preserved
in Chinese. It may be mentioned here that a version of the Mulasarvastivada
Vinaya consisting of seven parts, even more faithful than the Chinese version,
is preserved in Tibetan. Of the Abhidharma collection only the Prajnaptisastra
appears to have been translated into Tibetan.
Speaking further of
the Tripitaka in terms of language we have in Chinese different recensions of
the Canon (preserved in part) belonging to different schools. These recensions
are primarily based on the Tripitaka of Indian origin. In addition to the
ancient texts which these recensions preserve they also contain independent
expositions of the early doctrines or commentarial literature on them. The
Chinese Canon preserves the Vinaya texts of as many as seven different schools.
In place of the division into ‘canonical groups’ of Sutra, Abhidharma and
Vinaya, this new arrangement seems to reckon with a live and continuous
tradition in accepting as authoritative both the Sutra (or words of Buddha) and
Sastra (or commentaries, treatises, etc. of disciples of a later date).
It becomes clear from the foregoing analysis that in
speaking of a Buddhist Canon one has to admit that it is both vast in extent
and complex in character. While the earlier and more orthodox schools of
Buddhism reserved the term Canonical to refer to the Body of literature, the
greater part of which could be reasonably ascribed to the Buddha himself, other
traditions which developed further away from the centre of activity of the
Buddha and at a relatively later date choose to lay under the term Canon the
entire mosaic of Buddhist literature in their possession, which is of varied
authorship and is at times extremely heterogeneous in character.
Guy Armstrong has practiced insight meditation for over 30
years. His training includes practice as a Buddhist monk in Thailand with Ajahn
Buddhadasa and in Burma with Pa-Auk Sayadaw. He began teaching in 1984 and has
led retreats worldwide. He is a guiding teacher at the »Insight Meditation Society
and a member of the »Spirit
Rock teachers council. [Source: »”Insight Meditation Society Faculty
2006″ (Insight Meditation Society, January 2006).]
SN 22.95: Phena Sutta — A Lump of Foam(06′57″
SN 56.11: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta — Setting in Motion the
Wheel of Dhamma(10′06″ 3.4 MB)
Steve Armstrong has studied the Dhamma and practiced
insight meditation since 1975. As a layman he was active for many years at the »Insight Meditation Society
in Barre Massachusetts as manager and board member. He lived for five years as
a monk in Burma, under the guidance of Sayadaw U Pandita at the Mahasi
Meditation Center in Rangoon, where he undertook the intensive, silent practice
of insight and loving-kindness meditation. He has also studied Buddhist
psychology (abhidhamma) with Sayadaw U Zagara in Australia. Since 1990
he has been leading meditation retreats, including at the annual three month
retreat at IMS. He now makes his home in Hawaii and is a guiding teacher at »Vipassana Metta on Maui. [Source: »”Guiding Teachers” (Vipassana Metta on Maui,
MN 29: Mahasaropama Sutta — The Heartwood of the Spiritual Life (16′11″ 5.5 MB)
AN, Iti: Various Suttas — On Giving(11′01″
Leigh Brasington has been practicing since 1985 and is the
senior American student of the late Ven. Ayya
Khema, who confirmed Leigh’s practice and requested that he begin
teaching. Leigh began assisting Ven. Ayya Khema in 1994 and began teaching retreats
on his own in 1997. He continues to teach in Europe and North America. His
teaching emphasizes using concentration as a preliminary to insight practice.
He lives in Alameda and works as a software engineer. [Source: »”Talks by Leigh Brasington
“ (Insight Meditation Center, May 2006).]
SN 12.15: Kaccayanagotta Sutta — To Kaccayana Gotta(03′47″ 1.3 MB)
SN 12.23: Upanisa Sutta — Transcendental Dependent Origination (05′44″ 2.0 MB)
SN 12.65: Nagara Sutta — The Ancient City(08′16″
Ajaan Candasiri (b. 1947 in Edinburgh, Scotland) ordained
in 1979 and was one of the original group of four women to establish the nun’s
community at the Chithurst Buddhist Monastery. [Source: personal communication,
MN 58: Abhayarajakumara Sutta — To Prince Abhaya(09′55″ 2.8 MB)
MN 62: Maharahulovada Sutta — The Greater Discourse to Rahula (19′50″ 6.8 MB)
SN 47.19: Sedaka Sutta — The Acrobat(03′18″
Sn 3.1: Pabbajja Sutta — The Going Forth(04′38″
Sn 3.2: Padhana Sutta — The Striving(05′23″
Sally Clough began practicing vipassana meditation in India
in 1981. She spent five years in England, where she managed a retreat center
and was a founding member of the »Sharpham meditation community. When she
moved to California in 1988, she continued her Dharma service at »Spirit Rock Meditation Center in a
number of roles, including executive director. Sally began teaching in 1996,
and is one of the guiding teachers of Spirit Rock’s Dedicated Practitioner
Program. [Source: »”Sally
Clough” (Spirit Rock Meditation Center, January 2006).]
MN 10: Satipatthana Sutta — The Four Establishments of Mindfulness (27′47″ 9.4 MB)
Gil has practiced Zen and Vipassana since 1975 and has a
Ph.D. in Buddhist Studies from Stanford. He has trained in both the Japanese
Soto Zen tradition and the Insight Meditation lineage of Theravada Buddhism of
Southeast Asia. Gil was trained as a Vipassana teacher by Jack Kornfield and is
part of the Vipassana teachers’ collective at Spirit Rock Meditation Center. He was
ordained as a Soto Zen priest at the San
Francisco Zen Center in 1982, and in 1995 he received Dharma
Transmission from Mel Weitsman, the abbot of the Berkeley Zen Center. He is the
primary teacher for the Insight Meditation Center in Redwood City, California.
He is a husband and father of two boys. [Source: “Teachers,”
Insight Meditation Center, April, 2006.]
Ven. Gunaratana (Ekanayaka Mudiyanselage Ukkubana) was born
in Henepola, Sri Lanka in 1927. He became a novice monk at the age of 12. He received
his higher education at Vidyalankara College and Buddhist Missionary College,
Colombo, and in 1947 received higher ordination in Kandy. He worked for five
years as a Buddhist missionary among the Harijans (Untouchables) in India and
for ten years with the Buddhist Missionary Society in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
In 1968 he came to the United States to serve as general secretary of the
Buddhist Vihara Society at the Washington Buddhist Vihara. In 1980 he was
appointed president of the Society. He received a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from
The American University, where he also served for many years as Buddhist
Chaplain. He is now president of the »Bhavana Society and abbot of the
monastery in West Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley, about 100 miles west of
Washington, D.C. He is the author of Come and See, The Path of
Serenity and Insight, »The Jhanas, and Mindfulness
In Plain English. His articles have been published in the U.S.A., Malaysia,
India, Sri Lanka, England and France. He continues to teach meditation and
conduct retreats worldwide. [Source: »”Bhante Henepola
Gunaratana” (Bhavana Society, January 2006).]
SN 22.59: Anattalakkhana Sutta — The Discourse on the Not-self
Characteristic(08′48″ 3.0 MB)
SN 35.28: Adittapariyaya Sutta — The Fire Sermon(08′37″ 2.9 MB)
Kamala is one of the founders and teachers of the »Vipassana Metta Foundation on Maui, where she is
developing Ho’omalamalama, a sanctuary-hermitage for long term practice. She
teaches retreats in the Theravada tradition at venues worldwide, including
being a Core Teacher at the »Insight Meditation Society
at Barre, Massachusetts. Practicing since 1975, her teachers have been the late
Anagarika Munindra of India and Sayadaw U Pandita of Burma with whom she
continues to practice. Kamala has a commitment to carrying and offering the
purity of the teachings of the Buddha in a way that touches our common sense
and compassion as human beings, and allows the natural inner growth of wisdom.
She lives on Maui where she raised four children, and is now blessed
with six grandchildren.
Kamala has practiced both insight and loving kindness
meditations intensively under the guidance of Sayadaw U Pandita. [Source:
personal communication, 2007]
SN 56.31: Simsapa Sutta — A Handful of Leaves(02′20″ 0.8 MB)
AN 4.62: Anana Sutta — Debtlessness/Four Kinds of Happiness (03′36″ 1.2 MB)
AN 5.57: Upajjhatthana Sutta — Five Contemplations for Everyone (06′35″ 2.2 MB)
AN 5.161: Aghatapativinaya Sutta — How to Remove Grudges(01′16″ 0.4 MB)
Ayya Medhanandi was born Mary Fiksel in Montréal, Canada.
After university and working with the elderly and disabled, she went on pilgrimage
to India. There, an Advaita sage became her guru and for several years she
lived as a nun in the rural villages. She continued to receive guidance from
him until his death thirteen years later. Following a postgraduate degree at
Tufts University, she served as a project manager of international aid programs
in Thailand, Senegal, Ecuador and Nepal. In 1987, she took ordination in
Myanmar with Sayadaw U Pandita and later joined the »Amaravati
Nuns’ Community in England where she spent ten years under the tutelage of
Ajaan Sumedho. Since 1999, she has been based in New Zealand. [Source: personal
MN 20: Vitakkasanthana Sutta — The Removal of Distracting Thoughts (11′31″ 3.9 MB)
SN 7.2: Akkosa Sutta — Abuse(05′05″
Sn 5.10: Kappa-manava-puccha — Kappa’s Question(02′08″ 0.7 MB)
Ajahn Sucitto is an English Buddhist monk in the »Thai forest tradition of Ajahn
Chah. Born in Londonastery).
Since 1983 he has been actively involved in the training of ten-precept nuns.
In 1984 he helped establish the »Amaravati Buddhist Monastery. He has
been abbot of Cittaviveka since 1992. [Source: personal communication (2006)
and Seeing the Way: Buddhist Reflections on the Spiritual Life (Hemel
Hempstead: »Amaravati Publications,
SN 12.40: Cetana Sutta (3) — Volition(02′38″
AN 11.2: Cetana Sutta — An Act of Will(04′58″
Sn 5.4: Mettagu-manava-puccha — Mettagu’s Questions(04′41″ 1.6 MB)
Sn 5.6: Upasiva-manava-puccha — Upasiva’s Questions(03′11″ 1.1 MB)
Sn 5.10: Kappa-manava-puccha — Kappa’s Question(01′32″ 0.5 MB)
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) is an American
Buddhist monk of the Thai forest kammathana tradition. After graduating
from Oberlin College in 1971 with a degree in European Intellectual History, he
traveled to Thailand, where he studied meditation under »Ajaan Fuang Jotiko, himself a student of the late »Ajaan Lee. He ordained in 1976 and lived at Wat
Dhammasathit, where he remained following his teacher’s death in 1986. In 1991
he traveled to the hills of San Diego County, USA, where he helped »Ajaan Suwat Suwaco establish »Wat Mettavanaram (Metta Forest Monastery). He was made
abbot of the monastery in 1993. He teaches meditation at the monastery and at
retreats across the United States. His publications include translations from
Thai of Ajaan Lee’s meditation manuals; Handful of Leaves, a four-volume
anthology of sutta translations; »The Buddhist Monastic Code,
a two-volume reference handbook for monks; »Wings to Awakening;
and (as co-author) the college-level textbook »Buddhist Religions: A Historical Introduction.
[Source: »”Contributing Authors and
Translators: Biographical Notes” (Access to Insight, January
MN 61: Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta — Instructions to Rahula at
Mango Stone(11′29″ 3.9 MB)
SN 3.25: Pabbatopama Sutta — The Mountain Simile(04′18″ 1.4 MB)
Khp 9: Karaniya Metta Sutta — Good Will(01′56″
on in 1949, he ordained in Thailand in 1976, where
he crossed paths with Ajahn Sumedho, one of Ajahn Chah’s first western
disciples. In 1978 Ajahn Sucitto returned to Great Britain and stayed with
Ajahn Sumedho, helping to establish Cittaviveka (Chithurst Buddhist M28
27 05 2012 SUNDAY LESSON 621 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINEGOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA throughhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Dhammapada: Verses and Stories
The Buddha Cannot Be Tempted
The Buddha Cannot Be Tempted
Buddha traceless of infinite range
whose victory none may e’er undo,
whose vanquished follow to no world,
then by which track will you trace him?
The Buddha’s victory has not been won incorrectly. No one can turn Buddha’s
victory into defeat. Nothing that he has conquered can return, or pursue him,
because his conquest is so complete: His ken infinite, In what way can you
tempt or ensnare him.
The Buddha Cannot Be Brought Under Sway
Buddha traceless of infinite range
in whom’s no entangling craving
and no ensnaring not anywhere lead,
then by which track will you trace him?
The Buddha, in whom there is no thirst (tanha) for grasping to the net that
lures, whose ken is infinite, in what way can you lure him away?
179: The Buddha, whose conquest (of moral defilements) is complete, in whom
there cannot arise any further defilements in this world, that Buddha of
infinite range of wisdom, who is trackless, - by what track will you lead him?
180: The Buddha, in whom there is no craving, which like a net would bring him
back to any existence (in samsara), that Buddha of infinite range of wisdom,
who is trackless, - by what track will you lead him?
jitam navajiyati: ‘the conquest is complete’ means there is no need for further
conquests as there are no more moral defilements to be conquered.
jitam yassa no’yati koci loke: lit., whose conquered defilements cannot be
followed by any further defilements in this world.
anantagocaram: The range of wisdom of the Buddha is infinite by reason of his
omniscience, Sabbannuta nana. (The Commentary)
apadam: lit., ‘trackless’. The Buddha, being free from conditions of rebirth,
such as craving, clinging, passion, etc., his track or passage through samsara
has come to an end. (The Com.)
same idea is conveyed in verses 92 and 93 which express the idea that the
arahat passes away, leaving no more trace of existence than a bird leaves its
passage through the air.]
kena padena nessatha: lit., by what track will you lead him? It means he cannot
be lured by any temptation whatsoever.
Story of the Three Daughters of Mara
Buddha first uttered Verses (179) and (180) of this book while residing near
the Bodhi tree, with reference to the three daughters of Mara. He repeated
these verses to the brahmin Magandiya while journeying through the Kuru
the Brahmin and his wife lived in the kingdom of the Kurus with their daughter
Magandiya who was exceedingly beautiful. She was so beautiful that her father
rudely turned down all her suitors. One day, early in the morning, when the
Buddha surveyed the world, he found that time was ripe for the brahmin
Magandiya and his wife to attain Anagami Fruition. So, taking his bowl and the
robes, the Buddha set out for the place where the brahmin usually went to offer
brahmin, seeing the Buddha, promptly decided that the Buddha was the very
person who was worthy of his daughter. He pleaded with the Buddha to wait there
and hurriedly went off to fetch his wife and daughter. The Buddha left his
footprint and went to another place, close at hand. When the brahmin and his
family came, they found only the footprint. Seeing the footprint, the wife of
the brahmin remarked that it was the footprint of one who was free from sensual
desires. Then, the brahmin saw the Buddha and he offered his daughter in
marriage to him.
Buddha did not accept nor did he refuse the offer, but first, he related to the
brahmin how the daughters of Mara tempted him soon after his attainment of
Buddhahood. To the beautiful Tanha, Arati and Raga, the daughters of Mara, the
Buddha had said, “It is no use tempting one who is free from craving,
clinging and passion, for he cannot be lured by any temptation
the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
179: The Buddha, whose conquest (of moral defilements) is complete, in whom
there cannot arise any further defilements in this world, that Buddha of
infinite range of wisdom, who is trackless, - by what track will you lead
180: The Buddha, in whom there is no craving, which like a net would bring
him back to any existence (in samsara), that Buddha of infinite range of
wisdom, who is trackless, - by what track will you lead him?
the Buddha continued, “Brahmin Magandiya, even when I saw those peerless
daughters of Mara, I felt no sensual desire in me. After all, what is this body
of your daughter? It is full of urine and filth; I don’t like to touch it even
with my foot!” On hearing those words of the Buddha, both the brahmin
and his wife attained Anagami Fruition. Later, they joined the Order and
eventually both of them attained arahatship.
VOICE OF SARVAJAN
release National Campaign for SC/ST Human Rights
SC/ST rights activists enraged at the
failure of Indian delegations to address questions raised at the UN today
Geneva, May 24, 2012 - Dalit rights
activists gathered in Geneva are disappointed at the Indian delegation’s
immediate response to the real challenges that SC/STs face, when India was
reviewed at the UN Universal Periodic Review of India on 24 May.
Activists comment that the delegation
failed to adequately address concerns about strengthening the Prevention of
Atrocities Act, bringing in anti-discrimination law, the socio- economic development
of Scheduled Castes (SC/STs) and Scheduled Tribes (Tribals), and caste and
gender intersectionality, among a number of other key concerns.
All the available English translations of the Suttas are
either faulty and out of date (done about a hundred years ago) or restricted by
space (as a single-volume work and lacking notes). So they are useful almost
only to the specialists.
reasons for Sutta Discovery series
It is a global resource for Buddhism scholars and Buddhist
The SD series is based on themes to sustain an interesting
and connected reading. (SD 37 for example is based on Right Livelihood.)
Detailed notes on
difficult words, names, and doctrines; & bibliographies.
The Sutta’s peyyala (repetitive
cycles) (especially those on Dharma training) are translated in full,
for reflection by monastics and lay practitioners.
The works are paragraphed, subtitled and numbered in a
reader-friendly way for easy reading in a scribal tradition (opposite of oral
A high standard of referencing and cross-references to other
Suttas, essays, journal articles, etc, that are helpful to specialists
and students, for discussion or self-study.
A broad-based translation that uses alternative translations, amplified translations,
and comparative studies with Sanskrit, Chinese and other texts where
It includes a digest of the related and latest scholarly
researches and writings, summarized, explained and discussed.
They serve as comprehensive sources and resources for study
and teaching notes for Dharma teachers, researchers and students.
Easy-to-use handbook for monastics (especially forest monks)
and practitioners for Sutta readings (for recording on MP3 etc)
and for meditation.
Socially-engaged studies to inspire Buddhist social workers: it addresses
various social and historical issues affecting Buddhism and religion.
The SD texts form the basis of an online Buddhist studies
The SD notes and studies are the materials for other reference
projects such as Dictionary of the Buddha’s
Words, A Sutta Dictionary, A Dharma Dictionary, Numerical Dictionary of Dharma and Sutta Index.
The translated Suttas will be published separately according to
Nikaya, that is, The Long Texts, The
Middle-length Texts, The Connected Texts and the Numerical Texts.
The SD series is inspired by the Mere Buddhist vision,
simple Dharma-moved living that brings awakening in this life itself.
The SD series is the basis for Dharma-based reforms in
It is a historical and practical guide to early Buddhist
A helpful introduction to the study of key Pali terms and
20. An excellent and enduring gift of the Dharma to
(2) A history of the Sutta Discovery
The Sutta Discovery (SD) series started with the NUS
Buddhist Society weekly Sutta Study Group (SSG) classes in February 2002 and
the Buddhist Fellowship in February 2003. A new volume of translations and
essays (A4 size, averaging 180 pages) is released every three months.
These new SD volumes appear once every 3 months. These
volumes are fully studied in the BF (every Tuesday, since 2003) and the TMC
(every Wednesday, since 2006). By December 2009, Piya has completed at least 32
volumes of the Sutta Discovery. By 2030, over 100 SD volumes have been
projected. This current series is registered as ISBN
Beginning 2010, the SD Publication Project plans to publish
SD vol 1 onwards in book form, hopefully releasing 1-3 volumes each year, depending on funds. You can help us print
3 Projected costs of Printing the
3.1 This pioneer effort will be a “LIMITED
EDITION” of 1500 copies of the Sutta Discovery series, but more may be printed
if we have sufficient funds and demand.
3.2 FREE COPIES will be distributed to
interested Sangha members, Buddhist centres, tertiary societies, libraries, and
3.3 Part of the publication will be
available on the open market TO GENERATE FUNDS for printing other SD volumes
and related works, and for supporting Piya Tan’s Dharma work.
3.4 YOU CAN HELP in the following ways,
besides publicizing this project for us:
Donation of $25.00 or more, entitled to a free copy.
Donation of $500.00 and above.
(4) FULL SPONSOR: Donation of $5000.00 (cost
of printing 1500 copies of each SD Volume and mailing charges).
Your continued donations keeps the Sutta Translation project & this website going.
KNOW DHARMA, MAKE DHARMA KNOWN.
Discovery are available in two formats
CD version and quarterly ring-bound volumes. The Sutta
Discovery CD version available (with Pali fonts & SD pdf versions, plus
Piya’s current works).
Dear Piya Tan,
Thousand thanks for the two CD´s with your precious Sutta material, which
arrived two days back! I also downloaded some from the website you mentioned.
All that is very precious and most useful for our sutta study group over here.
26 05 2012 SATURDAY LESSON 620 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINEGOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA throughhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Dhammapada: Verses and Stories
Verse 178 Being Stream-Winner Is
VOICE OF SARVAJAN
Editorial in toiletnews of India(Times) giving false information that Dr. Ambedkarc was not the chief architect of the Constitution.Brahmin Trivedi wrote today in TOI all wrong info about making Consttution of India , We all citizens of INDIA must condemn this false propaganda
- Dr Rahul
178. Being Stream-Winner Is Supreme
Than o’er the earth sole sovereignty,
than going to heaven,
than lordship over all the worlds:
better the Steam-winner’s fruit.
Explanation: The achievement of the stream-winner is the
primary stage in the attainment of spiritual success. The state is greater than
being a universal monarch, or reaching heaven.
ekarajjena saggassa gamanena va
sabbalokadhipacce na sotapattiphalam varam.
178: Far better than sovereignty over the earth, or far better than going to
the abodes of the devas, or far better than ruling supreme over the entire
universe, is (the attainment of) Sotapatti Fruition.
Story of Kala, son of Anathapindika
residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (178) of this
book, with reference to Kala, son of Anathapindika, the well renowned rich man
son of Anathapindika, always kept away whenever the Buddha and his company of
bhikkhus came to their house. Anathapindika was afraid that if his son kept on
behaving in this way, he would be reborn in one of the lower worlds (apayas).
So, he enticed his son with the promise of money. He promised to give one
hundred if the youth consented to go to the monastery and keep sabbath for one
day. So, the youth went to the monastery and returned home early the next day,
without listening to any religious discourses. His father offered him rice
gruel, but instead of taking his food, he first demanded to have the money.
next day, the father said to his son, “My son, if you learn a stanza of
the Text from the Buddha I will give you one thousand on your return.” So,
Kala went to the monastery again, and told the Buddha that he wanted to learn
something. The Buddha gave him a short stanza to learn by heart; at the same
time he willed that the youth would not be able to memorize it. Thus, the youth
had to repeat a single stanza many times, but because he had to repeat it so
many times, in the end, he came to perceive the full meaning of the Dhamma and
attained Sotapatti Fruition.
on the next morning, he followed the Buddha and the bhikkhus to his own house.
But on that day, he was silently wishing, “I wish my father would not give
me the one thousand in the presence of the Buddha. I do not wish the Buddha to
know that I kept the sabbath just for the sake of money.” His father
offered rice gruel to the Buddha and the bhikkhus, and also to him. Then, his
father brought one thousand, and told Kala to take the money but surprisingly
he refused. His father pressed him to take it, but he still refused. Then,
Anathapindika said to the Buddha, “Venerable Sir, my son is quite changed;
he now behaves in a very pleasant manner.” Then he related to the Buddha
how he had enticed the youth with money to go to the monastery and keep sabbath
and to learn some religious texts. To him the Buddha replied, “Anathapindika!
Today, your son has attained Sotapatti Fruition, which is much better than the
riches of the Universal Monarch or that of the devas or that of the
the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Far better than sovereignty over the earth, or far better than going to the
abodes of the devas, or far better than ruling supreme over the entire
universe, is (the attainment of) Sotapatti Fruition.
In this project, we strive to translate suttas from the
Pali Tipitaka with elegance, clarity and accuracy. It is in our best interest
they reflect the importance and relevance of Buddha’s message in our time.
These words of wisdom and compassion, we hope, are able to warm the hearts and
enlighten the minds of many as they did in the last twenty five centuries.
The work of translation is by no means an easy one.
However, it is a task we will diligently undertake to accomplish. We provide a
full word list for every sutta we translate to share the precious moments of
delight and joy in getting each word correct. By doing so, we take you through
the translation process word by word, and sentence by sentence instead of you
having to reinvent the wheel. These have proven to be valuable assets to
students of the Tipitaka and Pali language. We hope you enjoy this active learning
approach. Should you have any comments, kindly forward it to the Pali discussion
group. Thank you.
Majjhima Nikaya� Collection of
Middle Length Discourses
SuttaReadings.net is a library of free audio recordings of English
translations of Pali suttas, selected and read aloud by respected Dhamma
teachers within the Theravada Buddhist tradition.
SuttaReadings.net is one person’s website, and is not affiliated
with any organization or institution.
My goal here is not to build a
comprehensive archive of sutta readings. Instead, I hope to assemble a modest
collection of outstanding suttas that teachers — our wise Dhamma elders, our
learned kalyanamittas — have singled out from among thousands of others
as being most worthy of attention and most expeditious in instilling Right View
and in guiding the listener further along the Path. To that end, I have begun
inviting teachers to choose a few suttas that they believe to be especially
significant and useful, and to read them aloud for others to hear.
As this collection slowly grows over time,
I hope it will become representative of the broad spectrum of voices — both
literal and figurative — within Theravada Buddhism: male and female; old and
young; monastic and lay; Western and Asian; well-known and reclusive. Our
voices may differ, but in the words of the suttas we find a common tongue.
The Dhamma has always been essentially an
oral tradition. Since the Buddha’s day, generations of teachers have passed
down the teachings to their students by way of the spoken word and through
their living example. Although written sutta translations are invaluable in the
careful study of Dhamma, rich new layers of meaning often emerge when hearing
those same suttas read aloud. I am often astounded at how immediately and
deeply the meaning of a sutta — even one I’ve read many times before — can
penetrate my stubborn heart when I finally make the time to listen to
I invite you to download these readings,
settle down in a quiet place with your laptop or iPod, close your eyes, rest
your attention lightly on your breath, and open your ears. Imagine yourself in
a peaceful forest setting on a warm day, sitting under the cooling shade of a
tree, as the Buddha himself takes a breath and begins to speak…
the relationship between SuttaReadings
and Access to Insight?
Although I manage both websites, they are
two separate projects. »
Access to Insight is devoted to the printed word; SuttaReadings to the spoken.
send you a recording to put on this website?
At the moment, I am collecting recordings
by invitation only. This is both to keep the focus of the project clear and to
keep it to a manageable scale.
Why don’t you have such-and-such a sutta?
It is up to the readers (the teachers) to
decide which suttas should be included here. That’s what makes this project
If you’d like to explore more suttas,
you’ll find plenty more to choose from at »Access to Insight.
Why don’t you have any readings by so-and-so?
It’s much easier to maintain a high
standard of quality when a project like this is allowed to grow slowly. So
please be patient.
If you are a senior English-speaking
Dhamma teacher and you haven’t heard from me yet, please be patient: you may be
hearing from me soon.
like to get in touch with one of the readers. How do I do that?
On the The Readers
page, you’ll find website URLs and other publicly available information that
can help you locate the reader. I do not give out e-mail addresses or other
private contact information.
isn’t the reader reading the text exactly as it is printed in the book?
Occasionally a reader omits small portions
of the text that, in his or her opinion, would distract from the key teaching
of the sutta or interfere with the flow of the text to the modern listener’s
ears. This is the teachers’ prerogative. Similarly, readers may sometimes
replace the translation of a word with an alternative one that they believe
better captures the intended meaning of the sutta. Remember that translation is
an art, not a science — especially when the texts concern ineffable aspects of
the human heart.
have a question about Buddhism. Can you help me?
Unfortunately, I have neither the time nor
the expertise to field questions about Buddhist teachings or practice. A good
place to start is Access to Insight’s »”Frequently
Asked Questions About Buddhism”. Or consider contacting one of the
teachers listed on the The Readers
copy these sound files and redistribute them?
Absolutely, yes — provided you give them
away free of charge. Any commercial use of these recordings is strictly
the RSS newsfeed () and how do I use it?
RSS (”Rich Site Summary” or
“Really Simple Syndication”) is a simple yet powerful technology
widely used by news organizations (e.g., the » BBC and » The New York Times) to keep their online readers
up-to-date. The same technology can also alert you when new recordings appear
on SuttaReadings, without you
actually having to keep checking the website.
Here’s how to do it:
1. Get an RSS
newsreader is a small, easy-to-use program that runs on your computer, in the
background, while you go about your business. Its job is to quietly keep track
of RSS websites that you like and to alert you when they post announcements to
RSS subscribers like you. In SuttaReadings’s
case, you will be alerted whenever I add a new recording to the website. Once
alerted, you can get the full story either by following a link from the
newsreader itself or by visiting SuttaReadings.
should you get? I can’t tell you. There are dozens of them. Some are free, some
are shareware. I can’t possibly evaluate them all and make intelligent
recommendations. Of the various newsreaders I’ve tried for the Macintosh (OS
X), two stand out as particularly easy to use: NetNewsWire Lite (free) and » NewsFire (alas, no longer free).
Also, the » Firefox web browser
supports “live bookmarks” that allow you to subscribe to RSS sites
with a single click. For help finding a newsreader, try this » Google search.
your newsreader’s instructions on subscribing. This is very simple. Depending
on which reader you have, you may either have to (a) visit the SuttaReadings
home page and click a button on your newsreader; (b) visit the home page and click the RSS
icon (); (c) type in the SuttaReadings
URL (http://www.suttareadings.net) by hand; or (d) some other equally simple
procedure. Either way, it’s easy.
3. Sit back and relax
newsreader will let you know when anything new appears on SuttaReadings.
How do I
download the sound files so I can play them later?
When you click on a link to a sound file
(indicated by ), your
browser will probably start playing it immediately, using its mp3 plugin (for
example, QuickTime). If you’d prefer to save the sound file for later use,
simply right-click (Windows) or control-click (Macintosh) on the link and
follow your browser’s prompts to save the file to your hard disk. Once the mp3
file has finished downloading to your hard disk, you can use your favorite mp3
software to play the file. Not sure how to do that? Just double-click on the
mp3 file and your computer should launch the appropriate sound player program.
sometimes hear little clicks, pops, or dropouts while listening with my web
browser. What’s wrong?
Fortunately, there’s nothing wrong with
the sound files. It’s a common problem that occurs when you play an mp3 file in
a web browser before the file has finished loading into the browser. If you
find it annoying, you can either wait for the file to load completely or
download the sound file to your hard disk and play it using some other mp3
player program (such as iTunes).
Note to techies: If you have any suggestions for how the recordings
or mp3 files could be improved, please let me know!
those readings that I personally recorded1 I used a »Sennheiser MKH 418S P48
mid-side stereo shotgun mic pointed at the reader’s mouth, about 6″ away,
and about 30° off-axis. I used a »Marantz PMD670
solid state digital recorder, saving the audio as uncompressed (44.1kHz/16 bit)
.wav files. (This all may be overkill for mp3 speech files, but I prefer to
start with the cleanest signal possible.) Files that are sent to me are
typically recorded direct to mp3, using a home PC or MD recorder, using
whatever mic is available.
edit the audio (mono) using »ProTools LE 7.0 on a Macintosh. After
editing out the glitches, I generally apply a high-pass rumble filter (60Hz @
6dB/octave) and a low-pass filter (~ 6kHz @ 6dB/octave) to soften the high end
for cheapo computer speakers. Some recording environments, of course, demand
more creative EQ (e.g., the carpet cleaner upstairs in MN 131). I
apply a little (a little!) compression before normalizing.
bitrate (constant) seems to give a reasonable tradeoff between file size and
sound quality. I hope Sennheiser will forgive me.
Recordings on the The
Suttas page that say “recorded by jtb” are by me.
25 05 2012 FRIDAY LESSON 619 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINEGOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA throughhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Dhammapada: Verses and Stories
Verse 177 Happiness Through Partaking In Good Deeds
Happiness Through Partaking In Good Deeds
heavenly realms the mean don’t fare,
fools magnanimity ne’er acclaim,
but the one of wisdom rejoices at giving
and happy will be in future lives.
Explanation: The extreme misers do not reach the heavenly
worlds. The evil ignorant ones do not approve acts of charity. But those noble
ones approve and partake of charity. In consequence, they are happy in the next
Dhammapada Verse 177 Asadisadana Vatthu
ve kadariya devalokam vajanti bala have nappasamsanti danam
dhiro ca danam anumodamano teneva so hoti sukhi parattha.
177: Indeed, misers do not go to the abode of the devas; fools do not praise
charity; but the wise rejoice in charity and so gain happiness in the life
Story of the Unrivalled Alms-Giving
residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (177) of this
book, with reference to the unrivalled alms-giving of King Pasenadi of Kosala.
the king offered alms to the Buddha and other bhikkhus on a grand scale. His
subjects, in competition with him, organized another alms-giving ceremony on a
grander scale than that of the king. Thus, the king and his subjects kept on
competing in giving alms. Finally, Queen Mallika thought of a plan; to
implement this plan, she asked the king to have a grand pavilion built. Next,
she asked for five hundred white umbrellas and five hundred tame elephants;
those five hundred elephants were to hold the five hundred white umbrellas over
the five hundred bhikkhus. In the middle of the pavilion, they kept ten boats
which were filled with perfumes and incense. There were also two hundred and
fifty princesses, who kept fanning the five hundred bhikkhus. Since the
subjects of the king had no princesses, nor white umbrellas, nor elephants,
they could no longer compete with the king. When all preparations were made,
alms-food was offered. After the meal, the king made an offering of all the things
in the pavilion, which were worth fourteen crores.
the time, two ministers of the king were present. Of those two, the minister
named Junha was very pleased and praised the king for having offered alms so
generously to the Buddha and his bhikkhus. He also reflected that such
offerings could only be made by a king. He was very glad because the king would
share the merit of his good deeds with all beings. In short, the minister Junha
rejoiced with the king in his unrivalled charity. The minister Kala, on the
other hand, thought that the king was only squandering, by giving away fourteen
crores in a single day, and that the bhikkhus would just go back to the
monastery and sleep.
the meal, the Buddha looked over at the audience and knew how Kala the minister
was feeling. Then, he thought that if he were to deliver a lengthy discourse of
appreciation, Kala would get more dissatisfied, and in consequence would have
to suffer more in his next existence. So, out of compassion for Kala, the
Buddha delivered only a short discourse and returned to the Jetavana monastery.
The king had expected a lengthy discourse of appreciation, and so he was very
sad because the Buddha had been so brief. The king wondered if he had failed to
do something which should have been done, and so he went to the monastery.
seeing the king, the Buddha said, “Great King! You should rejoice that
you have succeeded in making the offering of the unrivalled charity
(asadisadana). Such an opportunity comes very rarely; it comes only once during
the appearance of each Buddha. But your minister Kala had felt that it was a
waste, and was not at all appreciative. So, if I had given a lengthy discourse,
he would get more and more dissatisfied and uncomfortable, and in consequence,
he would suffer much more in the present existence as well as in the next. That
was why I preached so briefly.”
the Buddha added, “Great King! Fools do not rejoice in the charities
given by others and go to the lower worlds. The wise rejoice in other people’s
charities and through appreciation, they share in the merit gained by others Aand
go to the abode of the devas”.
the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Indeed, misers do not go to the abode of the devas; fools do not praise
charity; but the wise rejoice in charity and so gain happiness in the life
24 05 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 618 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINEGOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA throughhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Dhammapada: Verses and Stories
Dhammapada Verse 176 A Liar Can Commit Any Crime
176. A Liar Can Commit Any Crime
For one who falsely speaks,
who disregards the Dhamma,
who other lives denies:
no evil this one will not do.
Explanation: The evil person who has given up the virtue of
truthfulness has abandoned all hope of the next world.
Dhammapada Verse 176
vitinnaparalokassa natthi papam akariyam.
Verse 176: For one who transgresses the Truth, and is given to
lying, and who is unconcerned with the life hereafter, there is no evil that he
dare not do.
The Story of Cincamanavika
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse
(176) of this book, with reference to Cincamanavika.
As the Buddha went on teaching the Dhamma, more and more people
came flocking to him, and the ascetics of other faiths found their following to
be dwindling. So they made a plan that would harm the reputation of the Buddha.
They called the very beautiful Cincamanavika, a devoted pupil of theirs, to
them and said to her, “If you have our interests in your heart, please
help us and put Samana Gotama to shame.” Cincamanavika agreed to comply.
That same evening, she took some flowers and went in the direction
of the Jetavana monastery. When people asked her where she was going, she replied,
“What is the use of you knowing where I am going?” Then she would go
to the place of other ascetics near the Jetavana monastery and would come back
early in the morning to make it appear as if she had spent the night at the
Jetavana monastery. When asked, she would reply, “I spent the night with
Samana Gotama at the Perfumed Chamber of the Jetavana monastery.” After
three or four months had passed, she wrapped up her stomach with some cloth to
make her look pregnant. Then, after eight or nine months, she wrapped up her
stomach with a round piece of thin wooden plank; she also beat up her palms and
feet to make them swollen, and pretended to be feeling tired and worn out.
Thus, she assumed a perfect picture of a woman in an advanced stage of pregnancy.
Then, in the evening, she went to the Jetavana monastery to confront the
The Buddha was then expounding the Dhamma to a congregation of
bhikkhus and laymen. Seeing him teaching on the platform, she accused the
Buddha thus: “O you big Samana! You only preach to others. I am now
pregnant by you, yet you do nothing for my confinement. You only know how to
enjoy your self!” The Buddha stopped preaching for a while and said to
her, “Sister, only you and I know whether you are speaking the truth or
not,” and Cincamanavika replied, “Yes, you are right, how can
others know what only you and I know?”
At that instant, Sakka, king of the devas, became aware of the
trouble being brewed at the Jetavana monastery, so he sent four of his devas in
the form of young rats. The four rats got under the clothes of Cincamanavika
and bit off the strings that fastened the wooden plank round her stomach. As
the strings broke, the wooden plank dropped, cutting off the front part of her
feet. Thus, the deception of Cincamanavika was uncovered, and many from the
crowd cried out in anger, “Oh you wicked woman! A liar and a cheat! How
dare you accuse our noble Teacher!” Some of them spat on her and drove her
out. She ran as fast as she could, and when she had gone some distance the
earth cracked and fissured and she was swallowed up.
The next day, while the bhikkhus were talking about Cincamanavika,
the Buddha came to them and said. “Bhikkhu;, one who is not afraid to
tell lies, and who does not care what happens in the future existence, will not
hesitate to do any evil.”
Then the Buddha
spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 176: For one who transgresses the Truth, and is
given to lying, and who is unconcerned with the life hereafter, there is no
evil that he dare not do.
23 05 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON
617 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINEGOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA throughhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Verses and Stories
Verse 175 The Wise
Travel Beyond The Worldly
175. The Wise Travel Beyond The Worldly
Swans upon the sun’s path fly,
the powerful through space,
conquering Mara and his host
away from the world the wise are led.
Explanation: The swans fly away in the sky - as the path of the
sun. Those possessing psychic power travel through the sky. Those diligent,
wise saint conquer death with his armies and leave the world and reach Nibbana.
Verse 175: Swans travel in the sky; those with supernormal powers
travel through space; the wise having conquered Mara together with his army, go
out of this world (i.e., realize Nibbana).
Story of Thirty Bhikkhus
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse
(175) of this book, with reference to thirty bhikkhus.
Once, thirty bhikkhus came to pay homage to the Buddha. When they
came in, the Venerable Ananda, who was then attending on the Buddha, left the
room and waited outside. After some time, Thera Ananda went in, but he did not
find any of the bhikkhus. So, he asked the Buddha where all those bhikkhus had
gone. The Buddha then replied, “Ananda, all those bhikkhus, after
hearing my discourse, had attained arahatship, and with their supernormal
powers, they let travelling through space.”
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 175: Swans travel in
the sky; those with supernormal powers travel through space; the wise having
conquered Mara together with his army, go out of this world (i.e., realize
Neng meets Hui Ming, a monk that was a four star General in his previous, lay
life. He was rough and hot tempered. Such people are often great
monks because their need is great. Hui Ming asks the Master for
instructs him to refrain from thinking and blank his mind. After a
considerable time the Master asked him “When you are thinking of neither
good, nor evil, what is at that particular moment, Venerable Sir, your
Hui Ming was
suddenly awakened with awareness.
Here are some
requested “I have entered the monastery: please give me some
Zhao replied ” Have you eaten breakfast yet?”
wash your bowl”
was sweeping, Douwu said “Too busy”
“You should know when there’s one who isn’t busy”
“If so, there’s a second moon”
up the broom and said “Which moon is this?”
A monk asked
“What is the living meaning of Zen Buddhism?”
Zhao replied “The cypress tree in the yard”
A monk asked
Joshu “Does a new born infant still have six consciousnesses?”
replied “A ball tossed into rushing water”
asked “What is the meaning of “A ball tossed into rushing
replied “Moment to moment non-stop flow.”
Q: “What is the
sound of one hand clapping?” A: “The sound of
one hand clapping koan that became a cliché.
OK then. . .
What is a koan?
reads: in Chinese
and Japanese. The characters literally mean “public
case”. They are sometimes referred to as “Zen riddles”.
They are short “problems” assigned by a Zen master to a
student. The student meditates on it to break thorough their reliance
on conventional logic.
Early Zen masters in China used unconventional methods of training. Yelling,
striking students, apparently illogical conversations and behaviour and
preventing students from taking notes. One of these was koan.
Most koan are situations and related questions from famous Masters.
They cannot be answered logically, but through the student’s insight into
heir true nature. Accordingly the correct answer is not the same from
one student to another. A teacher may give a student a particular koan
according tot heir analysis of the student’s needs and abilities. The
student goes away and in future meeting with the teacher, discusses their
progress on the problem.
Many koan were
complied by students about 1,000 years ago into several, now famous
books. Some of the best known are the Blue Cliff Record
and The Gateless Gate, but Master Hui Neng’s Platform Sutra
contains a really good one. To paraphrase:
Verse 173: He who overwhelms with good the evil that he has done
lights up this world (with the light of Magga Insight), as does the moon freed
kusalena: with good deed; the good in this context means Arahatta Magga, the
fourth and final Path knowledge. (The Commentary)
Story of Thera Angulimala
While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse
(173) of this book, with reference to Thera Angulimala.
Angulimala was the son of the Head Priest in the court of King
Pasenadi of Kosala. His original name was Ahimsaka. When he was of age, he was
sent to Taxila, a renowned university town. Ahimsaka was intelligent and was
also obedient to his teacher. So he was liked by the teacher and his wife; as a
result, other pupils were jealous of him. So they went to the teacher and
falsely reported that Ahimsaka was having an affair with the teacher’s wife. At
first, the teacher did not believe them, but after being told a number of times
he believed them; and so he vowed to have revenge on the boy. To kill the boy
would reflect badly on him; so he thought of a plan which was worse than
murder. He told Ahimsaka to kill one thousand men or women and in return he
promised to give the boy priceless knowledge. The boy wanted to have this
knowledge, but was very reluctant to take life. However, he agreed to do as he
Thus, he kept on killing people, and not to lose count, he
threaded a finger each of everyone he killed and wore them like a garland round
his neck. In this way, he was known as Angulimala, and became the terror of the
countryside. The king himself heard about the exploits of Angulimala, and he
made preparations to capture him. When Mantani, the mother of Angulimala, heard
about the king’s intention, out of love for her son, she went into the forest
in a desperate bid to save her son. By this time, the chain round the neck of
Angulimala had nine hundred and ninety-nine fingers in it, just one finger
short of one thousand.
Early in the morning on that day, the Buddha saw Angulimala in his
vision, and reflected that if he did not intervene, Angulimala who was on the
look out for the last person to make up the one thousand would see his mother
and might kill her. In that case, Angulimala would have to suffer in niraya
endlessly. So out of compassion, the Buddha left for the forest where
Angulimala, after many sleepless days and nights, was very tired
and near exhaustion. At the same time, he was very anxious to kill the last
person to make up his full quota of one thousand and so complete his task. He
made up his mind to kill the first person he met. Suddenly, as he looked out he
saw the Buddha and ran after him with his knife raised. But the Buddha could not
be reached while he himself was completely exhausted. Then, looking at the
Buddha, he cried out, “O bhikkhu, stop! stop!” and the Buddha
replied, “I have stopped, only you have not stopped.”
Angulimala did not get the significance of the words of the Buddha, so he
asked, “O Bhikkhu! Why do you say that you have stopped and I have not
The Buddha then said to him, “I say that I have stopped,
because I have given up killing all beings, I have given up ill-treating all
beings, and because I have established myself in universal love, patience, and
knowledge through reflection. But, you have not given up killing or
ill-treating others and you are not yet established in universal love and
patience. Hence, you are the one who has not stopped.” On hearing
these words from the mouth of the Buddha, Angulimala reflected, “These are
the words of a wise man. This bhikkhu is so very wise and so very brave ; he
must be the ruler of the bhikkhus. Indeed, he must be the Buddha himself! He
must have come here specially to make me see the light.” So thinking, he
threw away his weapon and asked the Buddha to admit him to the Order of the
bhikkhus. Then and there, the Buddha made him a bhikkhu.
Angulimala’s mother looked for her son everywhere in the forest
shouting out his name, but failing to find him she returned home. When the king
and his men came to capture Angulimala, they found him at the monastery of the
Buddha. Finding that Angulimala had given up his evil ways and had become a
bhikkhu, the king and his men went home. During his stay at the monastery,
Angulimala ardently and diligently practised meditation, and within a short
time he attained arahatship.
Then, one day, while he was on an alms-round, he came to a place
where some people were quarrelling among themselves. As they were throwing
stones at one another, some stray stones hit Thera Angulimala on the head and
he was seriously injured. Yet, he managed to come back to the Buddha, and the
Buddha said to him, “My son Angulimala! You have done away with evil.
Have patience. You are paying in this existence for the deeds you have done.
These deeds would have made you suffer for innumerable years in niraya.” Soon
afterwards, Angulimala passed away peacefully; he had realized parinibbana.
Other bhikkhus asked the Buddha where Angulimala was reborn, and
when the Buddha replied “My son has realized parinibbana”,
they could hardly believe it. So they asked him whether it was possible that a
man who had killed so many people could have realized parinibbana. To this question,
the Buddha replied, “Bhikkhus! Angulimala had done much evil because he
did not have good friends. But later, he found good friends and through their
help and good advice he had been steadfast and mindful in his practice of the
dhamma. Therefore, his evil deeds have been overwhelmed by good (i e., Arahatta
the Buddha spoke in verse as follows Verse freed from clouds.
seat of knowledge, Nalanda University had sparkled as a priceless jewel in
the Jambudvipan subcontinent for over five centuries (427-1197 CE).
Patronised by the reigning Kings since the time of Ashoka, it was among the
world’s finest centres of learning and attracted students from all over the
Nalanda University Site
site at which the great centre of knowledge once stood stands earmarked as a
World Heritage Site by the UN. The excavated remains of the university forms
a major tourist attraction in the otherwise nondescript district of Nalanda,
nestled in the state of Bihar. The huge gates of the refreshingly green
campus hold an inviting look to the unsuspecting tourist, who is inevitably
taken by surprise at the grandeur of the ancient remains According to archeologists, less than a tenth of the area of the
original university has so far been excavated. There are small villages and
settlements over the rest of the area. The excavated part itself is huge. It
consists of maze like corridors bordered by low red brick walls, the numerous
study centres, the huge kitchens where one can still see the ancient chulhas beneath the ground, the
living quarters of the students that comprise of stiff platforms that served
as beds, etc. The most delightful part is however, the library. The numerous
small rooms once contained thousands of books on every discipline. Folklore
has it that the destructive fire started by the Turk, Bakhtiyar Khilji had
raged within the walls of the library for nearly three months, destroying the
vast treasure trove of knowledge. The beautiful arched ceilings of the
library retain a sooty feel. Made of interlocking bricks, that appear to hang
loose without any mortar support, some of them have remained strong for
centuries. There’s a courtyard in the campus that houses rows of small,
richly carved stupas,
enshrining remains of exceptional teachers and prodigious disciples. The
university had housed over two thousand teachers and ten thousand students.
Though now only ruins remain, the entire area retains a pristine aura, with
the religious symbols and figures reminding how knowledge was associated with
sanctity in the olden times. The campus reverberates with the essence of its
glorious past, the grandeur of which is hard to be missed.
the Lok Sabha adopted the Nalanda University Bill, that seeks the
establishment of an international university on the lines of the ancient
centre of learning. This is a welcome step, especially in the face of less
than satisfactory performance of existing universities in the country, and
continuous migration of students to universities abroad at higher levels of
education. The establishment of a modern university close to the site of the
original Nalanda, is a joint effort initiated at the East Asian Summit
comprising fifteen countries, aimed at promoting regional peace and
understanding. The Nalanda Mentor Group is chaired by Nobel prize winning
economist Dr. Amartya Sen. The proposed disciplines to be taught and
researched at the university include Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and
Comparative Religions, Historical Studies, International Relations and Peace
Studies, Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development
Studies, Languages and Literature, Ecology and Environmental Studies. The
Nalanda University Bill outlines its objectives as:
education and to enable research towards capacity building of the Member
States in the domain of ancient science (in particular, practiced in the
Nalanda several centuries ago),philosophy, language, history and other areas
of higher learning vital for improving the quality of life.”
understand Buddha’s teachings in the contemporary context without excluding
any other thought and practice from any other parts of the world”
research for greater interaction between East Asia, bound by strong
historical commonalities in areas like trade, science, mathematics,
astronomy, religion, philosophy and cross-cultural current.”
contribute to the improvement of the educational system of the Member states
in view of the teaching in Nalanda several centuries ago.”
wonderful initiative, India stands poised not just to make its presence felt
on the world stage in the field of higher education and research, but to
reclaim its position as a world leader in knowledge and excellence.
Business Management in relation to Public
Policy and Development Studies
New Delhi: As
the historic Nalanda University is set to be rebuilt, Vice Chancellor Gopa
Sabharwal said on Monday that a global design competition for the building’s
architecture will be announced in three to four months.
Talking to reporters in Delhi at a press
conference, the newly appointed vice chancellor said that the new university
will be built on an area of 446 acres, 10 km from the site of the ancient
university of Nalanda in Bihar.
“The university will be built in
Rajgir, which is 10 km from the site of the historic Nalanda University. A
global designing competition will be announced in coming three or four months
for finalizing the architecture,” Sabharwal said.
The Nalanda University Bill was passed by
the parliament during the monsoon session in August 2010 and a notification
for its creation was issued in November.
While the work for creation of
infrastructure has already begun, the construction of the building and other
details will start once the designs are finalized.
“The design must get ready by next
year. We will try to built it as soon as possible but it is difficult to give
a time frame,” she said.
The university, which will be an
international state-of-the-art institution, will have post graduate courses
in six disciplines.
The course include Buddhist studies,
philosophy and comparative religions, historical studies, international
relations and peace studies, business management in relation to public policy
and development studies, languages and literature and ecology and environmental
Talking about the courses, Nalanda mentor
group chairman and Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said that the courses like
Buddhist philosophy and religious studies aimed at connecting the modern
university to its historic past when Nalanda was the centre of learning that
attracted students from all over the world.
“Courses like Buddhist studies,
comparative religion, literature and history will connect it to its past. I
hope some day we can also include astronomy in the courses as it was taught in
the ancient Nalanda University,” Sen said.
Asked about the absence of science related
courses, Sen said that creation of infrastructure was one of the main reasons
“You cannot teach science without a
lab, so infrastructure was one of the main reasons why we have stressed on
humanities. In the course of time, science courses will get included,”
While the government of India has created
an endowment fund for the creation of the university, the project has also
attracted contributions from many other countries including Singapore, Australia and China.
“We got $7 million from Singapore, $1 million from China, Australia is funding a chair, while Laos has given $50,000,”
Speaking on the occasion, Foreign Minister
of Singapore George Yeo said that the aim was to create a university
to facilitate exchange of ideas.
“It will be a place where human beings gather and each contribute to
development of others,” Yeo said. IANS
University: How the Mentor Group degraded the idea
New Delhi,(BiharTimes): On July 6 Patna hosted two
meetings related to Nalanda. But these were utterly unconnected with one
another. The first was the interim Governing Board meeting of the budding
Nalanda University. The other was the meeting of the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara
Society held at Raj Bhawan under the chairmanship of Governor Devanand
Konwar, the Chancellor of the Mahavihara.
The Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, an autonomous institution under the Union
Ministry of Culture, has been thoroughly overlooked by the Ministry of
External Affairs (MEA) in formulating the Nalanda University project. The
Nava Nalanda meeting was attended by Buddhist scholars including Suniti Kumar
Pathak, the well-known Tibetologist from Visva-Bharati University,
The meeting resolved to organize exhibitions and seminars on Buddhist
literature in order to popularize Buddhist literature.
The Nalanda University Governing Board, however, struck a different note. The
chairman Prof Amartya Sen announced that Nalanda University would start with
School of Historical Studies and Environment & Ecology Studies. But he
was not sure when the University would start functioning.
This implied that Buddhist Studies, on which the concept of Nalanda rested,
would not be part of inaugural curriculum. There are reasons to suspect that.
Nalanda will actually have no place for Buddhism, Indology, Tibetology and
Allied Studies. He is merely exploiting the title of Nalanda or a project
that has nothing to do with Nalanda tradition.
All the goodwill the Nalanda University project received at home and abroad
was on account of ancient Nalanda. The identity of ancient Nalanda University
was due to primarily due to Buddhism. Even Amartya Sen himself could not
factually attribute much else to ancient Nalanda than Tantric Buddhism at
98th Indian Science Congress Lecture at Chennai in January. But when it came
to designing the Nalanda University project, he deliberately kept all
exponents of Nalanda traditions, that is, the Tibetans and Himalayan Buddhists
of India out of it. There are numerous Buddhist scholars as well as
recognized Buddhist institutions in India. This includes Nava Nalanda
Mahavihara in Nalanda (Bihar), Central Institute of Buddhist Studies in Leh,
Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies in Varanasi that run under the
Ministry of Culture. Bihar, the epicenter of Buddhist studies in ancient
past, can boast of several top-ranking Buddhist scholars today. They were
Ironically, Mentor Group meetings took place in places like Singapore, Tokyo
and New York. Even the Dalai Lama, no less a Nobel Laureate and commanding
greater following than Amartya Sen was shunned. The Tibetan culture is deeply
imbued with legacy of ancient Nalanda Mahavihara. But they were completely ignored
to propitiate China.
In his June 28, 2007 letter to Amartya Sen, then Foreign Minister Pranab
Mukherjee had said that the Government of India had decided to revive Nalanda
University as a Centre for Buddhist and Secular Learning.
But the Nalanda Mentor Group––crammed with Oxbridge-Harvard people––shunned
Secular Learning and Buddhist Learning.
According to Clause 24 (2) of the Nalanda University Act, the proposed
University would have six schools to begin with: a) Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religions b) Historical Studies c) International
Relations and Peace Studies d) Business Management in relation to Public
Policy and Development Studies e) Languages and Literature f) Ecology and
But it has come to light that the MEA propagated a different version of
Nalanda University abroad even after the enactment of the Nalanda University
Act, 2010. The brochure Nalanda University prepared by Indian Public
Diplomacy, an arm of the MEA, is a case in point. There the School of
Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religions has been listed as
No-5 below the School of Information Sciences and Technology, which otherwise
finds no mention in the Act.
The attempt seems to cast Nalanda University in the mould of modern western
universities. If one were to build modern university one wonders what at the
need for a Mentor Group. It could easily have been done through HRD Ministry,
ensuring greater compliance with rules. Bihar would have got a genuine
Central University, a long standing demand. Foreign students already come to
study in various universities of India.
The Oxbridge-Harvard Mentor Group, led by Prof Amartya Sen, appears diffident
about Nalanda’s Buddhist connection. They are working to manipulate the idea of
Nalanda University. Dr Gopa Sabharwal & Co seems to be diffident about
backward Nalanda district. Thus they want to run Nalanda University from New
NALANDA : Construction activity has begun here at the Nalanda International
University and the first pillars were clearly visible when this correspondent
visited the site on January 9.
A signboard at the construction site said that Rs 10.19 crore has been
sanctioned for the boundary wall of the proposed university, which would come
up on a 450-acre plot located on the eastern Rajgir-Chhabilapur Road in the
The boundary wall is
being erected by a private construction company called Allied Infrastructure
Pvt Ltd which, in turn has been assigned the job by Bihar Rajya Pul Nirman
Nigam Ltd, an undertaking of the state road construction department. The
construction work began on December 22, 2011, following the finalisation of
the agreement on December 20.
The vice-chancellor designate Gopa Sabharwal says that the architectural
design of the new
institution would be finalised by the end of this year.
Construction company sources said the boundary wall of the university would
be constructed in seven months, while the process to prepare the master plan
would begin in three months. The master plan will take care of land usage for
construction of academic and residential buildings as well as landscaping of
the entire campus.
“The boundary wall
would stretch over 8.5 km. About 90 men are at present working at the
site” the source said.
Nalanda sub-divisional officer Seema Tripathi said more labourers would start
work by the end of January. “The work will pick up pace once the temperature
rises a little. Work would continue even at night. Since the temperature is
very low now, the labourers are working only during the day,” she said.
Though Sabharwal was non-committal on the date when academic activities would
begin at the proposed university, she was specific about the schools that
be built in the first phase.
“A school of
historical studies and another of environment and ecology would be the first
two institutions to be built in the first phase of academic activities of the
university. The nature and structure of the schools, including course
structure, specialisation, methodology of faculty selection and constitution
of an advisory committee, are being worked out at present. Moreover, the
process of faculty selection would be undertaken simultaneously with building
construction process. The aim is to make the faculty ready for the schools by
the time the building construction work was finalised,” Sabharwal said.
Nalanda varsity Bill gets Lok Sabha approval
NEW DELHI : On August
26 the Lok Sabha adopted the Nalanda University Bill, 2010, which has already
been approved by the Rajya Sabha, to set up a Rs 1,005 crore international
university at Nalanda in Bihar, where a varsity for Buddhist learning existed
over 800 years ago.
Replying to the debate, Minister of State for
External Affairs Preneet Kaur said the Ministry had taken upon itself to
establish the university because it was an international effort by the East
Asian Summit comprising 15 countries. The Union government would provide land
for the university, which would be established through voluntary funding from
Asian Summit members.
announced funding of $ 4 million - $5 million for the Nalanda university’s
library through private donations .
Ms. Kaur said the Bill provided only a framework and structure for the
university and that further constitution of the institution and its rules and
regulations would be done later.
In the beginning, the
university would have six schools for different studies, but the Board of
governors had envisaged opening another school for information technology. The Nalanda Mentor Group, chaired by Professor
Amartya Sen, will draft the statutes for the university. It will have schools
of Buddhist Studies; Philosophy and Comparative Religions; Historical
Studies; International Relations and Peace Studies; Business Management in
relation to Public Policy and Development Studies; Languages and Literature;
and Ecology and
such time the varsity becomes sustainable on its own, it will function as a
public-private partnership. The Bihar government has acquired 500 acres of
land in Rajgir, near the original Nalanda University site.
INDIA: Ancient university resurrection a step closer
India’s dream of resurrecting one of the
world’s oldest seats of learning, Nalanda University, came a step closer on
Tuesday with the first meeting of the board of governors. The governing body
announced that the university, which has lain in ruins for 800 years since
being razed by foreign invaders, will be functional (tentatively) by 2013.
Five countries - Japan, China, Singapore, Thailand and India - have
undertaken to build the new Nalanda, which will start with a strong focus on
postgraduate education and research in the humanities.
Other departments will include information sciences and technology, business
management in relation to public policy and development, and ecology and
environment, in addition to languages and literature, religion and philosophy,
historical studies, international relations and peace studies, and Buddhist
“There has been immense interest from the international community.
Scholars not just from East Asia, but from the West have expressed interest
in collaborating with the project,” said newly-appointed Vice-chancellor
A global design competition for the university’s architecture will soon be
launched, Sabharwal announced.
“The idea is too big and we need the best brains in the world right from
the design to the teaching. A lot of thought has gone into the resurrection
of the university and I don’t think attracting the best will be a
challenge,” she said.
Sabharwal said the immediate challenge would be turning Nalanda into the
natural choice for students and teachers.
“The past glory is there. But as a university we have to build the
reputation of our courses, teaching and research so that it is the preferred
choice for everyone. A lot of thought has gone into planning. A world-class
university is not built in a few years.
“We will also have to coordinate with our international partners as
Nalanda is an Asian project and not an India one,” Sabhrawal said.
The Nalanda Mentor Group was set up in 2007 and has spent three years
brainstorming and debating the vision of the university.
Speaking to local media in New Delhi, Amartya Sen, the renowned economist and
Nobel laureate and chair of the governing board, said Nalanda was not a
diplomatic exercise but an academic venture.
As the project recaptures its past glory and élan, it will boost Asia’s
confidence in its intellectual and academic capacities and dent the heavy
reliance that exists today on Western universities like Oxford, Cambridge and
Harvard for Asian scholars’ professional credibility and recognition, Sen
Historians believe that the university, in Bihar, once catered for 10,000
students and scholars from across the Asia, studying subjects ranging from
science and philosophy to literature and mathematics. Founded in the third
century, it gained an international reputation before being destroyed and its
vast library burnt down in 1193, when Oxford was only just coming into
Piles of red bricks and some marble carvings are all that remain at the site,
90 kilometres from Bihar’s capital Patna.
“Nalanda was one of the highest intellectual achievements in the history
of the world and we are committed to revive it,” Sen said.
News about world’s
first university of higher learning(5th to 12th century) and newly reviving
world class “Nalanda University”. That had eight separate
department compounds,classrooms,it accommodated over 10,000 students and
2,000 professors. Nalanda’s great library was located in a nine storied building
where meticulous copies of research papers were stored.”Contemporary
global intellectuals are ‘Crazy’ about Nalanda University”.Let’s
contribute to re-build that 1st amazing world university.
The revived Nalanda University plans to start its first session at a new campus
The tentative timetable was announced here today after a meeting of the
Nalanda Mentor Group, the Amartya Sen-headed panel tasked with the revival
plan, for the first time since the university’s act came into force.
Sen said he was delighted the ancient university could be revived in his
lifetime. “Excellence and fairness in educating people in courses which are
intellectually challenging and practically useful would be the guiding
principles of the university,” the Nobel laureate said.
Vice-chancellor Gopa Sabharwal said in the first stage, the courses would
include Buddhist studies, philosophy and comparative religion, historical
studies and international relations and peace studies.
Some of the other programmes that could be offered in the initial phase
include business management in relation to public policy and development
studies, language and literature, ecology and environment studies and
The vice-chancellor said infrastructure work had started at the 446-acre plot
that the Nitish Kumar government in Bihar had given for the campus, which is
around 10km from the site of the ancient varsity.
Sabharwal said they were getting “fantastic” support and co-operation from
the Bihar government for the project. An international competition has been
announced to select an architect to design the new campus.
Sen’s group is working on a plan to ensure that villagers around the site
benefit from the new varsity. The efforts follow recent protests by some 200
villagers who had objected to the land acquisition. Officials said the
problem has since been sorted out.
Sabharwal recalled that villagers supported the ancient varsity by giving
donations and food to the students — most of them Buddhist monks.
Now, the plan being prepared by Sen and his team will propose ways to develop
the area by, for instance, sending the students to teach in schools and
helping set up cottage industries.
Sen himself dwelt on the theme, saying the university would not only generate
skills and technical knowledge in Bihar but also throw up employment
opportunities while the state got a “world-class university in the process”.
Today’s meeting of the mentor group was attended by Singapore foreign
minister George Yeo.
Nalanda’s revival is being carried out under an international initiative
spearheaded by the East Asia Summit, a bloc of which India is a member along
with China, Singapore and 13 other nations. India is contributing over Rs
Sen expressed confidence that the university would be “recognised for its
achievements 20 years down the line”.
Nalanda International University to be operational by 2013
New Delhi, Feb. 21:
The revived Nalanda University plans to start its first session at a new
campus by 2013.
timetable was announced here today after a meeting of the Nalanda Mentor
Group, the Amartya Sen-headed panel tasked with the revival plan, for the
first time since the university’s act came into force.
Sen said he was
delighted the ancient university could be revived in his lifetime.
“Excellence and fairness in educating people in courses which are
intellectually challenging and practically useful would be the guiding
principles of the university,” the Nobel laureate said.
Sabharwal said in the first stage, the courses would include Buddhist
studies, philosophy and comparative religion, historical studies and
international relations and peace studies.
Some of the other
programmes that could be offered in the initial phase include business
management in relation to public policy and development studies, language and
literature, ecology and environment studies and information technology.
said infrastructure work had started at the 446-acre plot that the Nitish
Kumar government in Bihar had given for the campus, which is around 10km from
the site of the ancient varsity.
Sabharwal said they
were getting “fantastic” support and co-operation from the Bihar government
for the project. An international competition has been announced to select an
architect to design the new campus.
Sen’s group is
working on a plan to ensure that villagers around the site benefit from the
new varsity. The efforts follow recent protests by some 200 villagers who had
objected to the land acquisition. Officials said the problem has since been
that villagers supported the ancient varsity by giving donations and food to
the students — most of them Buddhist monks.
Now, the plan being
prepared by Sen and his team will propose ways to develop the area by, for
instance, sending the students to teach in schools and helping set up cottage
Sen himself dwelt on
the theme, saying the university would not only generate skills and technical
knowledge in Bihar but also throw up employment opportunities while the state
got a “world-class university in the process”.
Today’s meeting of
the mentor group was attended by Singapore foreign minister George Yeo.
Nalanda’s revival is
being carried out under an international initiative spearheaded by the East
Asia Summit, a bloc of which India is a member along with China, Singapore
and 13 other nations. India is contributing over Rs 1,000 crore.
confidence that the university would be “recognised for its achievements 20
years down the line”.
The Lok Sabha
on Thursday adopted the Nalanda University Bill, 2010, which has already been
approved by the Rajya Sabha, to set up a Rs.1,005-crore international
university at Nalanda in Bihar, where a varsity for Buddhist learning existed
over 800 years ago.
the debate, Minister of State for External Affairs Preneet Kaur said the
Ministry had taken upon itself to establishing the university because it was
an international effort by the East Asian Summit comprising 15 countries. The
Union government would provide land for the university, which would be
established through voluntary funding from the East Asian Summit members.
announced funding of $ 4 million - $5 million for the Nalanda university’s
library through private donations .
Ms. Kaur said
the Bill provided only a framework and structure for the university and that
further constitution of the institution and its rules and regulations would
be done later. In the beginning, the university would have six schools for
different studies, but the Board of governors had envisaged opening another
school for information technology.
the Bill, the university aimed at contributing to the promotion of regional
peace and vision by bringing together the future leaders of East Asia who by
relating to their past could enhance their understanding of each other’s
perspectives and share that understanding globally.
The Nalanda Mentor Group, chaired by Professor Amartya Sen, will draft
the statutes for the university. It will have schools of Buddhist Studies;
Philosophy and Comparative Religions; Historical Studies; International
Relations and Peace Studies; Business Management in relation to Public Policy
and Development Studies; Languages and Literature; and Ecology and
Environmental Studies. Till such time the varsity becomes sustainable on its
own, it will function as a public-private partnership. The Bihar government
has acquired 500 acres of land in Rajgir, near the original Nalanda
After a well-informed debate over three hours, erudite in parts, Rajya Sabha
on Saturday passed the Bill to establish the transnational university at
Nalanda in Bihar with the hope that it will become “an icon of Asian
renaissance”, much like the famous seat of learning in ancient India.
external affairs Preneet Kaur, who introduced the Bill in Rajya Sabha, said
the Nalanda University would be established as a non-State, non-profit,
secular and self-governing international institute with a continental focus.
support of 16 countries in East Asia, India aims to resurrect the ancient
seat of Buddhist learning at its original site in Rajgir to attract students
and faculty from across South and South-East Asia. The Bihar government, on
its part, has already acquired 446 acres of land for the new Nalanda
ancient Nalanda university was an international symbol of India’s eminence in
the field of knowledge, senior Congress leader Dr Karan Singh said,
“Now, 800 years later, we are re-establishing another Nalanda. Let it be
a genuinely transnational university. Let us re-establish the links between
India and South and South-East Asia that were shattered by centuries of
Yechury (CPI-M), in turn, said he was “very excited” at the
prospect of the new university, not in terms of correcting wrongs of history,
but in terms of building the future. “It’s towards the adventure of
ideas that we must move,” he said.
N K Singh
(JD-U), a member of Nobel laureate Amartya Sen-led Nalanda Mentor Group,
said, “The new university will become an icon of Asian
renaissance.” It, like the older one, could reflect “the confluence
of East and South Asia“, as also
become a trendsetter “for the power of soft diplomacy”.
maiden speech, Pramod Kureel of BSP said, “For me, Nalanda is not just a
university. To me, it encapsulates, epitomises the universal values of global
peace, brotherhood, fraternity and equality.”
making Buddhist religion, philosophy, art and values the “focus” of
the academia curricula to establish continuity with the ancient Nalanda, the
proposed university should have chairs in the name of “great
exponents” of Buddhism like Ashoka, Kanishka, Ambedkar and others.
Kureel also demanded that Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama should be made
a member of the university’s governing body.
of BJP, on his part, said, “We are, again, going towards the idea of
this country being the hub of knowledge and learning. This is very relevant
in the 21st Century, where we are talking about knowledge societies.”
university will have schools of education for Buddhist studies, philosophy
and comparative religions; historical studies; international relations and
peace studies; business management in relation to public policy and
development studies; languages and literature; and ecology and environmental
Nalanda Mentor Group has proposed that an additional school of information
sciences and technology should also be set up,” said Kaur.
Reviving Ancient Glory : Nalanda International University – Satyen
and scholars from all over the world will soon be converging again at ancient
of Magadha kings - Rajgir, Bihar to
study at the new Nalanda International University.
The name “Nalanda” in Sanskrit means “giver of knowledge”: a
combination of “nalam” (lotus, representing knowledge) and “da” (“to
give”). Nalanda University of yore was founded
according to historians in the fifth century (427 A.D.) as a place of
learning for Buddhist monks and is known to have been one of the first great
residential universities in recorded history.
Today Nalanda is a World Heritage site. The ruins of the monastery
are located about 55 miles south east of the modern Indian city of
The University taught a wide range of subjects besides Buddhism
including fine arts, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, war tactics, and
politics. Over ten thousand students were taught by a faculty of 2000
in the idyllic forested green surroundings. The ruins
at Nalanda even today attracts a large number of tourists .
As part of an international effort the world renowned
ancient Nalanda university is nowbeing revived with
the setting up of a modern university as an international centre of
The Nalanda International University is
scheduled to begin academic activities from the 2013-14 session from rented
premises with two subjects – Historical studies and Environment and
Ecological studies – till the construction of its own campus is
completed work on which is continuing.
Way back in 2006 former President APJ
Abdul Kalam while addressing the Bihar Legislature on March
28,2006 stressed the need for establishing a
new Nalanda University that would be a place for meeting of minds
from the national and international arenas, to carry out research that would
link philosophy to science, to technology, economy and spirituality and
integrate both ancient and modern thinking.
As Bihar Government was also
toying with the idea it unanimously passed
the Universityof Nalanda Bill in March
2007. In the mid-March 2006 Singapore showed interest in
the development ofNalanda as part of Buddhist circuit for the growth of
tourism and as a site for a twenty first century learning institution linking
South and East Asia.
It was in the East Asia Summit held
in Thailand in Oct 2009 that a decision was finally taken by the
member countries which included the ten ASEAN countries
and Australia, China, India, Japan,Korea,
and New Zealand, to set up the university. Later several other countries
including the US too hasgiven its support to the move.
The Nalanda University Bill was cleared by the Indian
Parliament in 2010 to set up the University with a cost
of Rs.1005 crore.
The University is initially going to have schools
for Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religions;
Historical Studies; International Relations and Peace Studies; Business
Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies; Languages
and Literature; Ecology and Environmental Studies.
There are also plans to add one on Information
Initially the Planning Commission has allocated Rs.
50 crore as endowment fund in the form of a special grant for the
commencement of activities and till such time
the Nalanda University becomes sustainable on its own.
Both the External Affairs Ministry
which is acting as the nodal Ministry for this project
andBihar government are closely monitoring the development of this
prestigious international project. Thegovernment
. of Bihar has already acquired about 500 acres of
land in Rajgir close to the originalNalanda. An international
architecture competition is to be held to finalise the design
of NalandaInternational University.
It is envisaged that the revival of the
University will lead to the growth of Buddhist circuit giving a
boost to the tourism industry.
Harking back to the time when Nalanda University was
the biggest centre of learning in theMagadha empire the modern
university too would like to associate and build linkages with
the people living in the 200 odd villages
surrounding Nalanda since ancient times. Setting up cottage
industries and teaching students of the villages is
The University shall function as a public-private partnership
and the funds shall be provided on voluntary basis by the Government of
Member States of East Asia Summit.
The Nalanda International University planned
to be a seat of learning, scholarship, philosophy and
statecraft will be a non-state, non-profit, secular and
self-governing international institution with a focus to attract the
brightest and the most dedicated students from all countries ofAsia. The
objective of the university is “aimed at advancing the concept of an Asian
community…and rediscovering old relationships.”
like Thailand, Australia, Singapore, Japan ,China,
have shown interest in funding the University. Singapore has
pledged US$4-5 million for building a library at NalandaUniversity. The
huge library of ancient Nalanda University had been burned
down. On December 16, 2010, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao contributed
US$ 1 million dollars for the Nalanda University during his
visit to India.
Eminent Sociologist Gopa Sabharwal has been
appointed the first Vice Chancellor ofNalanda International
University. Professor of Sociology
at Lady Shri Ram College, Dr Gopa Sabharwalis an alumnus of
Delhi School of Economics and had set up the Department of
Sociology in Lady ShriRam College of Delhi University in 1993.
The Nobel laureate Amartya Sen who is the
Chairman of the Governing Board says, “Excellence and
fairness in educating people in courses which are intellectually challenging
and practically useful would be the guiding principles of the university.”
The University aims at contributing to the promotion of regional
peace and understanding by bringing together future leaders of the
region and reminding them of their shared history. (PIB
law and order breakdown in Uttar Pradesh:
New Delhi, May 19 —
After a studied silence of two months, Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) president
Mayawati Saturday came down heavily on the Samajwadi Party government in
Uttar Pradesh, claiming a complete breakdown of law and order in the state.
At a press conference
here, she attacked the two-month-old government of Akhilesh Yadav and said
loot, arson, murder, kidnapping, extortion and dacoity had become routine and
people were regretting having voted for the Samajwadi Party.
True to her style,
she read out from a written text and dished out statistics to strengthen her
She said in the past
two months, 800 murders, 270 rapes, 256 kidnappings and 720 cases of loot had
take place, and criminals who were behind bars when she was in office had
“We always knew
that people of UP would within one year repent voting SP to power. But now
within two months, the disappointment is writ large on their faces,” the
former chief minister said.
Minister Akhilesh Yadav of toeing his father Mulayam Singh Yadav’s line,
Mayawati said people were scared in the state to venture out in the evening.
government with political vendetta, she said a Samajwadi Party flag on a car
amounted to “a licence to kill”.
She accused Akhilesh
Yadav of managing the media to highlight the government’s so-called achievements.
is working on paper and through loud pronouncements only,” she said,
adding the new government had ended 26 welfare schemes run by her government
in 13 departments.
Asked why she was
still supporting the United Progressive Alliance when Congress had campaigned
against her in the state, Mayawati said that for her, “personal welfare
comes later and national interest first”.
Who will the BSP
support as the next presidentIJ Mayawati said her party would reveal its
cards at an “appropriate time.”
“We are waiting
for the NDA (National Democratic Alliance) and the UPA to announce their
candidates. We will according decide whom to support,” she said.
Mayawati accuses SP
govt of indulging in political vendetta
NEW DELHI: Hitting out at the Samajwadi Party government
over alleged “anti-SC/ST” activities, BSP chief Mayawati on Sunday said it
was ordering probes into the works done during her tenure in Uttar Pradesh
due to “political vendetta”.
The former UP chief minister also made it clear
she herself takes the policy decisions in her party and not her close
advisors or officers as being publicised outside.
Mayawati said that P L Punia, the former chief
secretary to her when she was chief minister, after leaving BSP and joining
Congress had spread rumours that it was he who used to discharge all
responsibilities when she was chief minister thrice from 1995 to 2002.
She noted that her opponents had created a similar
opinion about her cabinet secretary Shashank Shekhar Singh during her fourth
stint as chief minister.
“Now I am having apprehensions that after I
have become a member of Rajya Sabha, my opponents may start spreading
Mayawati added that in reality it is she, who
mostly prepares the key points for her party leaders to speak in Parliament
or at press conferences.
Insisting that her rise in the BSP is from the
grassroots and she is in the command of party decisions, she said,
“Unlike in some other parties, I have not been imposed as party’s
national leader or president on the basis of any inheritance or lineage. I
have been always connected with the ground and the party movement.”
On the Samajwadi Party rule in Uttar Pradesh,
Mayawati claimed that people are now repenting bringing this government in
power and blamed the “wrong” political stand of Congress and BJP
for ensuring Samajwadi Party’s win in Uttar Pradesh.
The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo said law
and order situation has deteriorated in the state in the past few months
since Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav-led SP came into power. “If this government manages to
stay in power for the next five years then during this period Uttar Pradesh
will move back by several years in every sector,” Mayawati said while
addressing a press conference in New Delhi.
Speaking about the Presidential election, Mayawati said:
“We are keeping an eye on the movements of other parties. We are waiting
to see the candidates fielded by National Democratic Alliance (NDA) and
United Progressive Alliance (UPA).”
“After they reveal their candidates then we will also
clarify whom we will support in the election,” she said.
The Presidential election has dragged a lot of attention
in recent times with names like Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee and
Vice President Hamid Ansari making rounds for the top post.
Coming out in full support of PA Sangma, Tamil Nadu Chief
Minister J Jayalalithaa on Friday appealed to all political parties to ‘rise
above political considerations’ and back the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
leader and former Lok Sabha Speaker as candidate for the Presidential
The Biju Janata Dal (BJD) and All India Anna Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) on Thursday said they will back Sangma as
candidate for the Presidential election.
New Delhi: Former Uttar Pradesh chief minister Mayawati on Saturday refused
to disclose her party’s choice for the upcoming Presidential Polls
candidates, preferring to wait for the other parties to declare their
“It will not be right to comment of the issue right now. We will disclose our
candidates for the Presidential Elections only after the UPA and NDA declare
their candidates,” Mayawati said at a press conference held here today.
When asked whether the UPA government will be able to complete its 5-year
term, Mayawati said that the question should be asked from the government and
their alliance partners.
Calling the situation in Uttar Pradesh as pitiable, she lashed out at the SP
describing them anti-SC/ST. She further said that the present situation in UP
is that of lawlessness with crimes like murder, rape and extortions on the
She said in the past two months, 800 murders, 270 rapes, 256 kidnappings and
720 cases of loot had take place, and criminals who were behind bars when she
was in office had been released.
Commenting on the recent move of the SP government changing names of various
schemes, Mayawati said that the move is a result of petty thinking. “The SP
government is trying to close down all the welfare schemes that were started
by my government.”
She accused Akhilesh Yadav of managing the media to highlight the
government’s so-called achievements. “This government is working on
paper and through loud pronouncements only,” she said, adding the new
government had ended 26 welfare schemes run by her government in 13
Asked why she was still supporting the United Progressive Alliance when
Congress had campaigned against her in the state, Mayawati said that for her,
“personal welfare comes later and national interest first”.
Mayawati also said that PL Punia was appointed as chief
secretary so that he could work for SC/STs, but he hardly did anything for
them. “But the reality was otherwise as he belonged to the Gandhi school of
thought instead of Ambedkar’s.”
also termed the various probe committees against her as “baseless”.
New Delhi, May 19: Mayawati today said she would reveal her choice for
President after the UPA and the NDA named their candidates, and indicated she
would steer clear of “third front” politics.
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) president hinted that her presidential candidate
would be someone committed to the SC/ST cause. “Whoever the candidate is, I
will first assess his credentials on the Bahujan movement,” she said.
Uttar Pradesh chief minister’s comments came at her first news conference in
waiting to see who the UPA and the NDA field. Only after that shall I reveal my
plans,” she told a questioner.
comment on Pranab Mukherjee, who is being mentioned as a possible consensus
candidate, she said: “It is inappropriate to jump the gun and respond to mere
Sangma, sponsored by the AIADMK and the Biju Janata Dal, she said: “I learnt of
it from the newspapers but the scenario is unclear.”
made it clear that her priority was to fight the Samajwadi Party government in
Uttar Pradesh, and not to get entangled in “third front” politics at the
political aide said Mayawati would focus on the BSP’s “high growth” states in
the heartland and Maharashtra and try to maximise her gains in the next Lok
Sabha polls on her own.
front for me,” Mayawati said today. Her previous experiment with such a front —
when the Left tried to bring her onto the national centre-stage in 2009 — had
ended with the bitter taste of defeat.
chief arrived at the venue. A security retinue and confidant Satish Mishra were
in tow. She occupied the lone seat placed on the dais and read out a long
answered the queries patiently.
her successor Akhilesh Yadav compared with his father Mulayam Singh, Mayawati
said: “You may draw your inferences from the reports filtering out of the state
every day. Father and son share the same mindset and adhere to the same party
line on policies and issues, so there is no change in their style of thinking
accused the Samajwadi government of allowing law and order to spin out of
control and alleged that in the two months of its existence, nearly 800 murders,
270 rapes, 245 armed robberies and 256 kidnappings had been reported.
are crimes that have come to light because FIRs were filed. Because of
political pressure, many crimes go unrecorded. You can imagine what a
disastrous condition the state will be in by the time this government completes
its term,” Mayawati said.
and traders feel insecure. Nobody wants to step out of their homes after
sunset. If a family’s male member does so, the women cannot sleep peacefully
till he returns.”
people, especially women, had lauded Mayawati for restoring the rule of law in
accused Akhilesh of targeting the SC/STs. “Police stations are out of bounds
for SC/STs. Samajwadi musclemen are grabbing land that was allotted to SC/STs.
At least 2,000 SC/ST officials were shunted out to the boondocks,” she said.
probe Akhilesh has initiated into the various “scams” associated with her rule,
Mayawati said: “If an investigation is unbiased and transparent, I have no
She added: “When my party
came to power, we inherited the corrupt legacies bequeathed by previous
governments. We tried to clean the rot; I took action against errant ministers,
MLAs and officials. The Samajwadi dispensation has stooped to an unprecedented
low and is doing cheap politics in the guise of cleaning the system up.”
Mayawati slams Akhilesh Yadav government
over breakdown of law and order in Uttar Pradesh
Mayawati juggernaut has arrived in Delhi.The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief
has assumed centrestage in the national Capital.
On Saturday, she held a press conference at a five-star hotel,
her first in Delhi in the past three years, and launched a blistering attack on
the Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government in UP for “complete
breakdown of law and order”.
Mayawati, who she shifted base to the Capital after becoming a
Rajya Sabha member last month, also lashed out at the Congress and the
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). But it was the SP that was her main target.
Mayawati brought out a long list of charges against the Akhilesh
government: People are scared in the state to venture out in the evening; a SP
flag on a car amounts to the licence to kill; Akhilesh is managing the media to
highlight his government’s non-xistent achievements and to malign her rule; the
government is ordering probes into her decisions with an anti- SC/ST agenda.
True to her style, she dished out statistics - reading out from
a seven-page text written in Hindi - to claim that “loot, arson, murder,
kidnapping, extortion and dacoity” had become routine since the SP came to
Mayawati alleged that in the past two months, 800 murders, 270
rapes, 256 kidnappings and 720 cases of loot had taken place in Uttar Pradesh
and the criminals who were behind bars when she was in office had been
Accusing the SP of carrying out the politics of vendetta, she
alleged that the Akhilesh government was ordering probes into her government’s
policies and decisions to deflect attention from these issues. She said the SP
had scrapped 26 welfare schemes run by her government in 13 departments.
Mayawati said the Congress and the BJP shared the blame for this
state of affairs because their “false propaganda” against her party
and government ensured the SP’s win.
“We always knew that the people of UP would, within one
year, repent voting the SP to power. But within two months, disappointment is
writ large on their faces,” the former CM said.
Eye on 2014
Analysts said the sinking law and order situation in UP within
two months of the SP’s comeback appeared to have emboldened Mayawati. The BSP
chief’s eyes are set on the 2014 Lok Sabha polls. Her goal, they said, would be
to stop Mualayam Singh from winning enough seats to try his luck as the next
Indicating her plans to consolidate the BSPcontinuing with
’sarvajan’ politics, Mayawati said: “I am not going to move even an inch
from the line of party’s movement.”
On the presidential polls, Mayawati was dismissive of the
candidatures of P. A. Sangma and Pranab Mukherjee and indicated that the BSP
would prefer a Dalit or minority. “We will support a candidate who is
suitable to us in the line of our party’s movement. We’ll support whoever fits
in our party line of movement,” she said.
Party leaders not spared
When these two leaders S. C. Mishra and Dara Singh Chauhan.or any
MP of my party speaks… the main points are mostly prepared by me.
“When I was the CM, I used to send briefs to my MPs. The
situation sometimes was that the MPs could not speak on the correct party line
and I had to call a press meet in Lucknow to specify the correct party
line,” she said
Mayawati said that P. L. Punia, her former chief secretary who
later joined the Congress, had spread rumours that it was he who used to
discharge all responsibilities.