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11/27/08
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism-The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are:3.3 Kathavatthu (”Points of Controversy”, or “Points of Controversy), a later work discussing the controversial doctrinal points among the various ancient schools.-Kathavatthu Sutta Topics for Discussion- 2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta - 1. Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta To Kevatta -The Miracle of Instruction-Sutta Pitaka-Maanakaamo Sutta Vain Conceits- Make all roads of the State patch-less : Chief Minister UP to implement pay panel’s recommendations in December-Red alert sounded in U.P. - A Chinese proverb says: “If you are planning for a year, sow rice; if you are planning for a decade, plant trees; if you are planning for a lifetime, educate people”.
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 9:09 pm


3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism-The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are:

3.3     Kathavatthu (”Points of
Controversy”, or “Points of Controversy), a later work discussing the
controversial doctrinal points among the various ancient school

“Monks, there are these three topics for discussion. Which three?

“One may talk about the past, saying, ‘Thus it was in the past.’ One
may talk about the future, saying, ‘Thus it will be in the future.’ Or
one may talk about now in the present, saying, ‘Thus it is now in the
present.’

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a
person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a
person, when asked a question, doesn’t give a categorical answer to a
question deserving a categorical answer, doesn’t give an analytical
(qualified) answer to a question deserving an analytical answer,
doesn’t give a counter-question to a question deserving a
counter-question, doesn’t put aside a question deserving to be put
aside, then — that being the case — he is a person unfit to talk with.
But if a person, when asked a question, gives a categorical answer to a
question deserving a categorical answer, gives an analytical answer to
a question deserving an analytical answer, gives a counter-question to
a question deserving a counter-question, and puts aside a question
deserving to be put aside, then — that being the case — he is a person
fit to talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a
person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a
person, when asked a question, doesn’t stand by what is possible and
impossible, doesn’t stand by agreed-upon assumptions, doesn’t stand by
teachings known to be true,1
doesn’t stand by standard procedure, then — that being the case — he is
a person unfit to talk with. But if a person, when asked a question,
stands by what is possible and impossible, stands by agreed-upon
assumptions, stands by teachings known to be true, stands by standard
procedure, then — that being the case — he is a person fit to talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a
person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a
person, when asked a question, wanders from one thing to another, pulls
the discussion off the topic, shows anger & aversion and sulks,
then — that being the case — he is a person unfit to talk with. But if
a person, when asked a question, doesn’t wander from one thing to
another, doesn’t pull the discussion off the topic, doesn’t show anger
or aversion or sulk, then — that being the case — he is a person fit to
talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a
person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a
person, when asked a question, puts down [the questioner], crushes him,
ridicules him, grasps at his little mistakes, then — that being the
case — he is a person unfit to talk with. But if a person, when asked a
question, doesn’t put down [the questioner], doesn’t crush him, doesn’t
ridicule him, doesn’t grasp at his little mistakes, then — that being
the case — he is a person fit to talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a
person can be known as drawing near or not drawing near. One who lends
ear draws near; one who doesn’t lend ear doesn’t draw near. Drawing
near, one clearly knows one quality, comprehends one quality, abandons
one quality, and realizes one quality.2
Clearly knowing one quality, comprehending one quality, abandoning one
quality, and realizing one quality, one touches right release. For
that’s the purpose of discussion, that’s the purpose of counsel, that’s
the purpose of drawing near, that’s the purpose of lending ear: i.e.,
the liberation of the mind through no clinging.

Those who discuss
when angered, dogmatic, arrogant,
following what’s not the noble ones’ way,
seeking to expose each other’s faults,
delight in each other’s misspoken word,
slip, stumble, defeat.
Noble ones
don’t speak in that way.

If wise people, knowing the right time,
want to speak,
then, words connected with justice,
following the ways of the noble ones:
That’s what the enlightened ones speak,
without anger or arrogance,
with a mind not boiling over,
without vehemence, without spite.
Without envy
they speak from right knowledge.
They would delight in what’s well-said
and not disparage what’s not.
They don’t study to find fault,
don’t grasp at little mistakes.
don’t put down, don’t crush,
don’t speak random words.

For the purpose of knowledge,
for the purpose of [inspiring] clear confidence,
counsel that’s true:
That’s how noble ones give counsel,
That’s the noble ones’ counsel.
Knowing this, the wise
should give counsel without arrogance.”
Kathavatthu Sutta
Topics for Discussion

2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta -

1.
Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses)

Kevatta (Kevaddha)
Sutta

To Kevatta


The Miracle of Instruction

“And what is the miracle of
instruction? There is the case where a monk gives instruction in this way:
‘Direct your thought in this way, don’t direct it in that. Attend to things in
this way, don’t attend to them in that. Let go of this, enter and remain in
that.’ This, Kevatta, is called the miracle of instruction.

“Furthermore, there is the case
where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He
teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle,
admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars and in
its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

“A householder or householder’s
son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life is confining, a dusty path. The life gone forth
is like the open air. It is not easy living at home to practice the holy life
totally perfect, totally pure, like a polished shell. What if
I were to shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth
from the household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons
his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves his circle of relatives, large or
small; shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth
from the household life into homelessness.

“When he has thus gone forth, he
lives restrained by the rules of the monastic code, seeing danger in the slightest
faults. Consummate in his virtue, he guards the doors of his senses, is
possessed of mindfulness and alertness, and is content.

Sutta Pitaka

Maanakaamo Sutta


…the deva spoke this verse…:

Who has not tamed all vain conceits,1Who lacks in wisdom, uncontrolled,Heedless, in the woods may dwell alone,Yet will not escape the realm of death.

[The Blessed One replied:]

Who, concentrated, leaves conceits behind,
His heart and mind2 set fair, and wholly freed,
Heedful dwelling in the woods alone,Shall indeed escape the realm of death.3




C.M. grieved over the death of former Prime

CM strongly condemns Mumbai terrorist incident

Delay in decreasing prices of petroleum products on pretext of assembly elections unfortunate : C.M.

C.M. inaugurates Lucknow Festival

Make all roads of the State patch-less : Chief Minister

UP to implement pay panel’s recommendations in December


Salaries of govt. employees to be revised from January 1, 2006

80 per cent of the arrears to be deposited in PF, 20 per cent will be payable in cash

Family pension, city compensatory allowance rates etc. to be as per Sixth Pay Commission.


Lucknow: The Uttar Pradesh Government on Thursday decided to
implement the sixth Pay Commission recommendations starting from
January 1, 2006.


Cabinet meeting

In a cabinet meeting the government decided to accept the SAT Rizvi
Committee’s recommendations, set up to implement the Pay Commission
recommendations, UP Chief Minister Mayawati told newspersons here.

She said that it would benefit State government employees, including teachers of aided and technical institutions.

The employees would draw the first revised salary in the month of
December 2008, she said adding, 80 per cent of the arrears would be
deposited in the Provident Fund and 20 per cent would be payable in
cash.


Revised rates

The rates of family pension, group insurance, maternity benefits,
city compensatory allowance, ex gratia as well as time scale would be
as per the recommendations of the Central Pay Commission.

The Chief Minister said that to meet the additional burden on the
state exchequer due to the revision of pay scales, the Government has
decided to initiate some steps for generating additional revenues.

It would also be cutting down on unproductive expenditure, in this regard, she added. –PTI

Red alert sounded in U.P.

Special Correspondent


Security beefed up at public places across the State

LUCKNOW: A red alert has been issued in Uttar Pradesh in the
aftermath of the Mumbai terror attacks. In a circular, Director-General
of Police Vikram Singh has asked district police chiefs to strengthen
security around bus stations, railway stations, airports and other
public places.

Directives have been issued for activating the intelligence network.
Dog squads are pressed into service at railway stations and bus
stations and a strict vigil is being maintained on all Mumbai-bound
trains.

Condemning the terrorist attacks, Chief Minister Mayawati on
Thursday said political parties must rise above party lines to tackle
terrorism.

Addressing a press conference here, Ms. Mayawati said the Centre
must take stringent steps to ensure that there was no recurrence of
terror attacks. Action against the accused should be taken on the basis
of solid evidence, divorced from caste and religious considerations.




Lesson 5

A Chinese proverb says: “If you are planning for a year, sow
rice; if you are planning for a decade, plant trees; if you are planning for a
lifetime, educate people”.

If a person, when asked a question, gives a categorical answer to a
question deserving a categorical answer, gives an analytical answer to
a question deserving an analytical answer, gives a counter-question to
a question deserving a counter-question, and puts aside a question
deserving to be put aside,

stands by what is possible and impossible, stands by agreed-upon
assumptions, stands by teachings known to be true, stands by standard
procedure,
doesn’t wander from one thing to
another, doesn’t pull the discussion off the topic, doesn’t show anger
or aversion or sulk,doesn’t put down [the questioner], doesn’t crush him, doesn’t
ridicule him, doesn’t grasp at his little mistakes,   then — that being the case — he is a person
fit to talk with.

It’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a
person can be known as drawing near or not drawing near. One who lends
ear draws near; one who doesn’t lend ear doesn’t draw near. Drawing
near, one clearly knows one quality, comprehends one quality, abandons
one quality, and realizes one quality.
2
Clearly knowing one quality, comprehending one quality, abandoning one
quality, and realizing one quality, one touches right release. For
that’s the purpose of discussion, that’s the purpose of counsel, that’s
the purpose of drawing near, that’s the purpose of lending ear: i.e.,
the liberation of the mind through no clinging.



comments (0)
11/26/08
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism-The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are: Magga-vibhanga Sutta An Analysis of the Path- Parajika Dhamma Rules of Defeat-Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta -International Federation for Freedom of Aboriginal Inhabitants and Migrates (IFFOM) Social Transformation! And Economical Emancipation! Through Testing the efficacy of social engineering! By Mighty Great Mind Training! Now is all that you have! By voting to BSP, the Nation you save! -Mayawati woos upper castes, promises statehood for Delhi-Three Baskets Study Circle survey predicts BSP Victory
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 8:07 pm

Magga-vibhanga Sutta

I have heard that at one time the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery.

There he addressed the monks, saying, “Monks.”

“Yes, lord,” the monks responded to him.

The Blessed One said, “I will teach & analyze for you the Noble
Eightfold Path. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, lord,” the monks responded to him.

The Blessed One said, “Now what, monks, is the Noble Eightfold Path?
Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

“And what, monks, is right view? Knowledge with regard to stress,
knowledge with regard to the origination of stress, knowledge with
regard to the stopping of stress, knowledge with regard to the way of
practice leading to the stopping of stress: This, monks, is called
right view.

“And what is right resolve? Being resolved on renunciation, on
freedom from ill will, on harmlessness: This is called right resolve
.

“And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, abstaining from
divisive speech, abstaining from abusive speech, abstaining from idle
chatter: This, monks, is called right speech.

“And what, monks, is right action? Abstaining from taking life,
abstaining from stealing, abstaining from unchastity: This, monks, is
called right action.

“And what, monks, is right livelihood? There is the case where a
disciple of the noble ones, having abandoned dishonest livelihood,
keeps his life going with right livelihood: This, monks, is called
right livelihood.

“And what, monks, is right effort? (i) There is the case
where a monk generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence,
upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the non-arising of
evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen. (ii) He
generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds &
exerts his intent for the sake of the abandonment of evil, unskillful
qualities that have arisen. (iii) He generates desire,
endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for
the sake of the arising of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen.
(iv) He generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence,
upholds & exerts his intent for the maintenance, non-confusion,
increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of skillful
qualities that have arisen: This, monks, is called right effort.

“And what, monks, is right mindfulness? (i) There is the case
where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent,
aware, & mindful — putting away greed & distress with reference
to the world. (ii) He remains focused on feelings in & of
themselves — ardent, aware, & mindful — putting away greed &
distress with reference to the world. (iii) He remains focused
on the mind in & of itself — ardent, aware, & mindful — putting
away greed & distress with reference to the world. (iv) He
remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent,
aware, & mindful — putting away greed & distress with reference
to the world. This, monks, is called right mindfulness.

“And what, monks, is right concentration? (i) There is the
case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from
unskillful (mental) qualities — enters & remains in the first
jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by
directed thought & evaluation. (ii) With the stilling of
directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters & remains in the
second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of concentration, unification
of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal
assurance. (iii) With the fading of rapture, he remains
equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He
enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones
declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ (iv)
With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier
disappearance of elation & distress — he enters & remains in
the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither
pleasure nor pain. This, monks, is called right concentration.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted at his words.




Parajika Dhamma

Rules of Defeat

The Parajika Dhamma is the first part of the Suttavibhanga.

The Suttavibhanga is the first part of the Vinaya Pitaka (”Basket of Discipline“).

The Vinaya Pitaka is the first part of the Tipitaka (”Three Baskets“), a.k.a. the Pali Canon.

The Tipitaka is the major religious text of Theravada Buddhism.

Contents | Next »

The Parajika is a short section of Buddhist religious text outlining the ways in which a bhikkhu (monk) or bhikkhuni (nun) could become disrobed and cast out of the Sangha (the monastic order).

The word “parajika” comes from a Pali verb meaning something along the lines of “to lose” or “to be defeated“. The ending phrase “[to be] defeated and no longer in communion” refers to a spiritual sense of defeat, and expulsion from the sangha.
Parajika is also the term for one of the offenses outlined in the above
text. If a bhikkhu or commits one of the parajikas, he is dismissed
from the monastic order and will not be reordained in his present lifetime. Accidental or otherwise unintentional offenses are not looked upon lightly, but are considered on a case-by-case basis.

Here these four Rules, concerning those acts which bring about Defeat, come into recitation.

  1. Whatsoever Bhikkhu who has taken upon himself the Bhikkhus’ system of self-training and rule of life, and has not thereafter withdrawn from the training, or declared his weakness, shall have carnal knowledge of any one, down even to an animal, he has fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion.
  2. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take, from village or from wood, anything not given—what men call ‘theft‘—in such manner of taking as kings would seize the thief for, and slay, or bind, or banish him, saying, ‘Thou art a thief, thou art stupid, thou art a fool, thou art dishonest,’—the Bhikkhu who in that manner takes the thing not given, he, too, has fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion.
  3. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall knowingly deprive of life a human being, or shall seek out an assassin against a human being, or shall utter the praises of death, or incite another to self-destruction, saying, ‘Ho!
    my friend! what good do you get from this sinful, wretched life? death
    is better to thee than life!’—if, so thinking, and with such an aim,
    he, by various argument,
    utter the praises of death or incite another to self-destruction—he,
    too, is fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion3.
  4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, without being clearly conscious of
    extraordinary qualities, shall give out regarding himself that insight
    into the knowledge of the noble ones
    has been accomplished, saying, ‘Thus do I know,’ ‘Thus do I perceive:’
    and at some subsequent time whether on being pressed, or without being
    pressed, he, feeling guilty, shall be desirous of being cleansed from his fault, and shall say, ‘Brethren! when I knew not, I said that I knew; when I saw not, I said that I saw—telling a fruitless falsehood;’ then, unless he so spake through undue confidence he, too, has fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion.

Venerable
Sirs, the four Conditions of Defeat have been recited, of which when a
Bhikkhu has fallen into one or other, he is no longer allowed to be in
co-residence with the Bhikkhus. As before, so afterwards, he is
defeated, he is not in communion.

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, ‘Are you pure in this matter?’

A second time I ask, ‘Are you pure in this matter?’

A third time I ask, ‘Are you pure in this matter?’

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore do they keep silence. Thus I understand.

Here endeth the recitation of the Parajikas.

2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta -

The Miracle of Telepathy

“And what is the miracle of telepathy? There is the case where a monk
reads the minds, the mental events, the thoughts, the ponderings of other
beings, other individuals, [saying,] ‘Such is your thinking, here is where your
thinking is, thus is your mind.’

“Then someone who has faith and conviction in him sees him reading the
minds… of other beings… He reports this to someone who has no faith and no
conviction, telling him, ‘Isn’t it awesome. Isn’t it astounding, how great the
power, how great the prowess of this contemplative. Just now I saw him reading
the minds… of other beings…’

“Then the person without faith, without conviction, would say to the
person with faith and with conviction: ‘Sir, there is a charm called the Manika
charm by which the monk read the minds… of other beings…’ What do you
think, Kevatta — isn’t that what the man without faith, without conviction,
would say to the man with faith and with conviction?”

“Yes, lord, that’s just what he would say.”

“Seeing this drawback to the miracle of telepathy, Kevatta, I feel
horrified, humiliated, and disgusted with the miracle of telepathy.






BSP -Bahujan Samaj Party, India


Mayawati woos upper castes, promises statehood for Delhi


New Delhi, Nov 26 (IANS) Amidst tight security and
thousands of people and party workers, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister
Mayawati Wednesday tried to woo the upper caste voters and promised
full statehood for Delhi.

Dressed in a cream
suit with a red purse in hand, the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo
arrived at a public meeting in Sultanpuri area in the capital. She was greeted by
thousands of people, applause and slogans such as ‘Mayawati Zindabad
(Long live Mayawati)’.

‘I
want to tell the people of the upper castes that our policies are not
against them. If that had been true, we would not have given them
tickets in the (2007) Uttar Pradesh elections,’ Mayawati said in her
25-minute speech.

‘We
are not for one community, we are for everyone. I promise that if voted
to power at the centre, we would provide reservation to the
economically backward people among the upper castes,’ she said.

She
called upon the people to vote for the BSP in Delhi for the capital’s
development. ‘We will regularize the unauthorised colonies in the
capital and get full statehood for Delhi,’ she added.

The
venue of the rally in west Delhi was flooded with party flags and huge
cut-outs of Mayawati, her mentor Kanshi Ram and architect of Indian
constitution B.R. Ambedkar. The BSP candidates had also pooled in a
large number of supporters.

She
referred to the humiliation of north Indians in Maharashtra and said:
‘Many people in the country are meted out step motherly treatment
outside their home states. We will sort out this issue too’.

It
was a joint rally for 36 BSP candidates of northwest, west, southwest,
outer district and north districts of Delhi. The party is contesting
all the 70 seats in the capital which goes to polls Nov 29.

Three Baskets Study Circle survey predicts BSP Victory
New Delhi, Nov 26 (IANS) A pre-election survey conducted by the Three Baskets Study Circle  has predicted that BSP will form the next government in Delhi winning 39 of the total 70 assembly seats.

The latest survey claimed the voters would base their choices on issues
of inflation, law and order situation, employment,  and
justice for the poor.

The respondents felt that corruption, poverty and water-shortage had assumed serious proportions.

Like the Mighty Great Minds of UP, Delhi Minds also have decided to vote for BSP.

Lesson 4

To Respected,

Mighty Great Minds David Plouffe,

His Excellency
Barack
Obama
,

Timothy
F. Geithner
, president
and CEO of the
Federal
Reserve Bank of New York,


Lawrence H. Summers,
former Secretary of the Treasury under
President Clinton,


Christina D. Romer,

Melody C. Barnes,

Heather A. Higginbottom,

Peter Orszag,and

Rob Nabors

May you all be ever happy, well, and secure

May all sentient and non-sentient be ever happy

May all live long

May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with clear understanding that nothing is permanent.



I too wish to contribute my share of thoughts towards Economical Emancipation for the happiness and welfare for all.



I request you to send me the email addresses of all the above mentiones Mighty Great Minds.



The message of
Gautam Buddha has endured the passage of time and continues to resonate
around the world, more than two and a half millennia later. For
centuries, the life, spirituality and the teachings of Gautam Buddha
have offered solace to millions of people across the world, and his
teachings are an invaluable part of our proud national heritage. Gautam
Buddha’s uniqueness lay in the fact that he prescribed a moral code of
conduct, based on love and compassion, which could enable any person to
realize the Truth. Gautam Buddha’s approach to be ‘ …like the breath of
the fresh wind from the mountains after the stale air of metaphysical
speculation’.

More than
2,500 years after Lord Gautam Buddha’s Maha-parinibbana, we find his
teachings still casting a lasting influence on the political and social
priorities of our times. Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar, was deeply influenced
by the egalitarianism and humanism of Gautam Buddha’s teachings. He
eventually embraced Buddhism because he was seeking, in his own words, ‘Pragyan that is awakenment; Karuna, that is compassion; and Samata, that is equality.’ Dr. Ambedkar, gave a new meaning and relevance to the ancient wisdom of Gautam Buddha.

Dr. Bhimrao
Ramji Ambedkar, affectionately called ‘Baba Saheb’ by millions of his
admirers and followers, played a pivotal role in shaping the destiny of
free India and left an indelible imprint on our national life and
polity. The architect of our Constitution, the champion of the
downtrodden, and a rebel against social and economic inequities, Dr.
Amebdkar was a patriot of
sterling worth.

Born in a
‘Mahar (Aborginal Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath)’ family, Baba Saheb had to suffer the ugliest forms of caste
oppression and social discrimination by the Central Asian Invaders in his early days. But he fought
against them with indomitable courage, and overcoming the twin social
barriers of extreme poverty and caste prejudice, obtained a law degree
and multiple doctorates in law, economics and political science from
universities in the UK and USA.

Dr. Ambedkar
was chiefly instrumental in creating a new awakening, a new sense of
social significance and a unique sense of dignity and self-respect
amongst a large section of our people who were otherwise placed at the
lowest strata in our hierarchical social order of first, second, third, fourth rate of souls and human beings without any soul while the Buddha never believed in soul but felt all were equal. Endowed with
extraordinary brilliance, great foresight, tenacious purpose and
courage of conviction, Babasaheb inspired the deprived sections of our
society to question the basis of the exploitative and degrading social
milieu in which they lived and to stand up for their legitimate rights.

Baba Saheb’s
eminence as a national leader, jurist, constitutional expert and
Parliamentarian was fully recognized when he was elected to
Constituency Assembly in 1946, and appointed as the Chairman of
Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution in August, 1947. Working
prodigiously, literally burning the midnight oil, Dr. Ambedkar sat for
141 days to draw up the Draft Constitution of India. Being an
economist, legal luminary and socialist, he was deeply aware that the
Constitution was not merely a legal document but an organic entity,
representing the aspirations of millions of our countrymen. Speaking on
the vitality and the endurability of the Constitution, Dr. Ambedkar
said ‘The Constitution as settled by the Drafting Committee is
workable. It is flexible and it is strong enough to hold the country
both in peace time and war time. Indeed, if I may say so, if things go
wrong under the new Constitution, the reason will not be that we had a
bad Constitution. What we will have to say is that man was vile.’

Dr. Ambedkar’s
attempt was to link the interest of the depressed classes and their
liberation with the common national movement for freedom. Nationalism
in him emerged out of his principled fight against both external
domination and internal oppression. His view of nationalism not only
contemplated the liberation of every country enslaved by colonial
domination but also the freedom for all subjects and subjugated people
even in free countries. He emphasized that without freedom that ensured
the dignity of all individuals social brotherhood cannot be achieved.

He believed
that certain political rights alone did not constitute the basis of
democracy. He perceived it as a form of social engineering, a way of
life. The fundamental elements in the democracy of his concept were:
liberty, equality, fraternity, reason, human experience, prevalence of
rule of law, respect for natural rights, and an emphasis on the
individual in social relationships

On the
inauguration of the Constitution, he declared in unequivocal terms that
though India had attained equality in politics, there still existed
inequality in social and economic life. In his concluding Address in
the Constituent Assembly, Dr. Ambedkar forcefully put forth his views
in this regard. He said, and I quote:
‘We must make our political
democracy a social democracy. It means a way of life, which recognizes
liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of life. Without
equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without
fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of
things.’

The Indian
Constitution as given to us by Dr. Ambedkar is a unique affirmation of
individual rights and social justice. Its great value lies in the fact
that it guarantees social empowerment through constitutional and
democratic means. Our unique path of achieving social and economic
emancipation through peaceful and democratic means holds lessons for
all societies in transition and for all countries striving to cope with
social and economic disparities
.

Dr. Ambedkar’s
role as a political leader and his intellectual contribution have
become an integral part of our country’s political evolution. He
brought to the forefront of our nation’s conscience, the deprivations
suffered by a large section of our people due to our exploitative
social system. More than anything else he will be remembered for his
role in laying the institutional foundation of our Republic and for his
heroic struggle for raising the down-trodden to a life of dignity and
self-respe
ct.

What a
steamroller intellect he brought to bear upon this magnificent and
tremendous task; irresistible, unconquerable…; whatever he felt to be
right he stood by, regardless of consequences.

In recognition
of the distinguished services rendered by Dr. Ambedkar, the Government
of India conferred on him the nation’s highest award ‘the Bharat Ratna’
posthumously in 1990, and commemorated the centenary year of his birth
in 1990-91 as the Year of Social Justice.

Even today,
Dr. Ambedkar’s vision for a just and free society continues to guide
political thought and action in India. The scheme for affirmative
action or positive discrimination in favour of the weak, enjoys support
of all political parties across the ideological spectrum. Drawing
inspiration from Dr. Ambedkar’s life - where education provided
empowerment, the Indian State is paying special attention to making
education, especially higher education, more accessible to the weaker
sections of society.

However,
administrative measures alone cannot bring about societal changes.
There is a need to change our mind-sets too. This requires an all -
encompassing political and cultural movement against various forms of
injustice in our society. Ultimately, the battle for a just social
order has to be waged and won in the minds of our people.Narrow Minds have to be converted into Mighty Great Minds.

Today, there
are thousands of young men and women in India whose lives mirror that
of Baba Saheb. More and more talented young persons from the so-called
backward castes are able to achieve recognition in different fields due
to their merit despite disadvantages and discrimination faced by them.
And that is because of their educational attainments. As this trickle
becomes a flood, Indian Society and Economy will speedily become more
just, more equalitarian, more inclusive and above all, more productive.

India’s
position as an emerging global power will lie in the manner it treats
its weaker sections and its minorities, and in following a path of
inclusive growth. The vision of Baba Saheb and his life continue to be
a beacon light, showing us the way forward in our search for a just
social order.

Now we must thank Bahen Ms. Mayawati who is successfully carrying forward the Caravan stranded after Baba Saheb Ambedkar  and  elect her the next Prime Minister of Jambudvipa, that is, this Great Prabuddha Bharath.




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3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism-The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are: 3.1 Dhammasangani (”Summary of Dhamma” or “Classification of Dhammas), an enumeration of the entities constituting reality.1. Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses)-Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta To Kevatta-Lesson Three
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3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism-The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are:

3.1 Dhammasangani (”Summary of Dhamma” or “Classification of Dhammas), an enumeration of the entities constituting reality.

Analysis
of Consciousness

One of the Abhidhamma’s
most important contributions to human thought, though still insufficiently
known and utilized, is the analysis and classification of consciousness
undertaken in the first of the
Dhammasangani. Here the human mind,
so evanescent and elusive, has for the first time been subjected to a
comprehensive, thorough and unprejudiced scrutiny, which definitely disposes
of the notion that any kind of static unity or underlying substance can
be traced in mind. However, the basic ethical lay-out and purpose of this
psychology effectively prevents conclusions of ethical materialism or
theoretical and practical amoralism being derived from its realistic and
unmetaphysical analysis of mind.

The method of investigation
applied in the Abhidhamma is
inductive, being based exclusively
on an unprejudiced and subtle introspective observation of mental processes.
The procedure used in the
Dhammasangani for the analysis of consciousness
is precisely that postulated by the English philosopher and mathematician,
A. N. Whitehead: ‘It is impossible to over-emphasize the point that the
key to the process of induction, as used either in science or in our ordinary
life, is to be found in the right understanding of the immediate occasion
of knowledge in its full concreteness…In any occasion of cognition,
that which is known is an actual occasion of experience, as diversified
by reference to a realm of entities which transcend that immediate occasion
in that they have analogous or different connections with other occasions
of experience’ (’Science and the Modern World’).

Whitehead’s term
‘occasion’ corresponds to the Abhidhamma concept
samaya (time,
occasion, conjunction of circumstances), which occurs in all principal
paragraphs of the
Dhammasangani, and there denotes the starting
point of the analysis. The term receives a detailed and very instructive
treatment in the Atthasalini the commentary to the aforementioned work.

The Buddha succeeded
in reducing this ‘immediate occasion’ of an act of cognition to a single
moment of consciousness, which, however, in its subtlety and evanescence,
cannot be observed, directly and separately, by a mind untrained in introspective
meditation. Just as the minute living beings in the microcosm of a drop
of water become visible only through a microscope, so, too, the exceedingly
short-lived processes in the world of mind become cognizable only with
the help of a very subtle instrument of mental scrutiny, and that only
obtains as a result of meditative training. None but the kind of introspective
mindfulness or attention (
sati) that has acquired, in meditative
absorption, a high degree of inner equipoise, purity and firmness (
upekkha-sati-parisuddhi),
will possess the keenness, subtlety and quickness of cognitive response
required for such delicate mental microscopy. Without that meditative
preparation only the way of inference from comparisons between various
complete or fragmentary series of thought moments will be open as a means
of research. But this approach too may yield important and reliable results,
if cautious and intelligent use is made of one’s own introspective results
and of the psychological data of meditative experience found in Sutta
and Abhidhamma.

In the Anupada Sutta
(Majjhima Nikaya 111) it is reported that the Venerable Sariputta Thera,
after rising from meditative absorption (jhana) was able to analyse the
respective jhanic consciousness into its constituent mental factors. This
may be regarded as a precursor of the more detailed analysis given in
the Dhammasangani.

Let us listen to
a voice from Indian antiquity appreciating the difficulty of that analytical
work and the greatness of its achievement. We read in the ‘Questions of
King Milinda’; “A difficult feat indeed was accomplished, O great
King, by the Exalted One” — “Which was that difficult feat,
O venerable Nagasena?” - “The Exalted One, O king, has accomplished
a difficult task when he analysed a mental process having a single object
as consisting of consciousness with its concomitants, as follows: ‘This
is sense-impression, this is feeling, perception, volition, consciousness.”
- “Give an illustration of it, venerable sir” - “Suppose,
O king, a man has gone to the sea by boat and takes with the hollow of
his hand a little sea water and tastes it. Will this man know, ‘This is
water from the Ganges, this is water from such other rivers as Jamuna,
Aciravati etc.?” - “He can hardly know that.” - “But
a still more difficult task, O king, was accomplished by the Exalted One
when he analysed a mental process having a single object, as consisting
of consciousness with its concomitants.”

The rather terse
and abstract form in which the Dhammasangani presents its subject matter,
the analysis of mind, should not mislead the reader into making him believe
that he is confronted with a typical product of late scholastic thought.
When, in the course of closer study, he notices the admirable inner consistency
of the system, and gradually becomes aware of many of its subtle points
and far-reaching implications, he will become convinced that at least
the fundamental outlines and the key notes of Abhidhamma psychology must
be the result of a profound intuition gained through direct and penetrative
introspection. It will appear to him increasingly improbable that the
essence of the Abhidhamma should be the product of a cumbersome process
of discursive thinking and artificial thought-constructions. This impression
of the essentially intuitive origin of the Abhidhammic mind-doctrine will
also strengthen his conviction that the elements of the Dhammasangani
and the Patthana must be ascribed to the Buddha himself and his early
great and holy disciples. What is called ’scholastic thought’, which has
its merit in its own sphere and does not deserve wholesale condemnation,
may have had its share later in formulating, elaborating and codifying
the teachings concerned.

If we turn from the
Abhidhamma to the highest contemporary achievements of non-Buddhist Indian
thought in the field of mind and ’soul’, i.e. the early Upanishads and
the early Samkhya, we find that apart from single great intuitions, they
teem with mythological ritualistic terms, and with abstract speculative
concepts. Against that background the realistic sober and scientific spirit
of Abhidhamma psychology (or its nucleus extant in the Sutta period) must
have stood out very strongly. To those who could appreciate the import
of that contrast, it will have sufficed to instil that high esteem and
admiration for the Abhidhamma of which we have spoken.

But even if compared
with most of the later psychological teachings of the East or the West,
the distance from Abhidhamma psychology remains fundamentally the same,
for only the Buddha’s teaching on mind keeps entirely free from the notions
of self, ego, soul, or any other permanent entity in, or behind, mind.


1. Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses)

Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta
To Kevatta

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Nalanda in Pavarika’s mango grove. Then Kevatta the householder
approached the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to
one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: “Lord,
this Nalanda is powerful, both prosperous and populous, filled with
people who have faith in the Blessed One. It would be good if the
Blessed One were to direct a monk to display a miracle of psychic power
from his superior human state so that Nalanda would to an even greater
extent have faith in the Blessed One.”

When this was said, the
Blessed One said to Kevatta the householder, “Kevatta, I don’t teach
the monks in this way: ‘Come, monks, display a miracle of psychic power
to the lay people clad in white.’”

A second time… A third time, Kevatta the householder said to the
Blessed One: “I won’t argue with the Blessed One, but I tell you: Lord,
this Nalanda is powerful, both prosperous and populous, filled with
people who have faith in the Blessed One. It would be good if the
Blessed One were to direct a monk to display a miracle of psychic power
from his superior human state so that Nalanda would to an even greater
extent have faith in the Blessed One.”

A third time, the Blessed One said to Kevatta the householder,
“Kevatta, I don’t teach the monks in this way: ‘Come, monks, display a
miracle of psychic power to the lay people clad in white.’

“Kevatta, there are these three miracles
that I have declared, having directly known and realized them for
myself. Which three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of
telepathy, and the miracle of instruction.

The Miracle of Psychic Power

“And what is the miracle of psychic power? There is the case where a
monk wields manifold psychic powers. Having been one he becomes many;
having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes
unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space.
He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water
without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies
through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and
strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises
influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

“Then someone who has faith and conviction in him sees him wielding
manifold psychic powers… exercising influence with his body even as
far as the Brahma worlds. He reports this to someone who has no faith
and no conviction, telling him, ‘Isn’t it awesome. Isn’t it astounding,
how great the power, how great the prowess of this contemplative. Just
now I saw him wielding manifold psychic powers… exercising influence
with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.’

“Then the person without faith, without conviction, would say to the
person with faith and with conviction: ‘Sir, there is a charm called
the Gandhari charm by which the monk wielded manifold psychic powers…
exercising influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.’
What do you think, Kevatta — isn’t that what the man without faith,
without conviction, would say to the man with faith and with
conviction?”

“Yes, lord, that’s just what he would say.”

“Seeing this drawback to the miracle of psychic power, Kevatta, I
feel horrified, humiliated, and disgusted with the miracle of psychic
power.



Lesson Three

The closest Indian analogy to the position of black Americans is
that of Aboriginal Inhabitants of jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha
bharath (SC/STs) called as untouchables and made outcastes by the Central Asian
Invaders for millennia suffered discrimination and oppresion

Like blacks in the US, Aboriginal Inhabitants of jambudvipa, that
is, the Great Prabuddha bharath account for about 15 per cent of the
population; they are found disproportionately in low-status, low-income jobs;
their levels of education are lower than the upper castes; and they still face
daily incidents of discrimination for no reason other than their identity at
birth.

Only when an Aboriginal Inhabitants of
jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha bharath rules India can the
country truly be said to have attained its own “Obama moment.”

In theory, this already has happened: K. R. Narayanan, born into
a poor Aboriginal Inhabitants of jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha
bharath family, served as India’s
president, the highest office in the land, from 1997 to 2002.

But the Indian Presidency is a largely ceremonial position: real
power is vested in the office of prime minister, and no Aboriginal Inhabitants
of jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha bharath has come close to holding
that post. Since independence in 1947, a majority of India’s prime ministers have been
Brahmins, the highest Hindu caste.

comments (0)
11/25/08
Buddhist Canon -Tipitaka Texts -Basket of Discipline(Vinaya Pitaka)The Vinayapitaka–1. Parajika Pali - Major Offenses -2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta -
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JohnnyJX

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    Vinaya Pitaka    
   
                                       
Sutta-
vibhanga
Khandhaka Pari-
vara
               
   
    Sutta Pitaka    
   
                                                      
Digha
Nikaya
Majjhima
Nikaya
Samyutta
Nikaya
                     
   
   
                                                                     
Anguttara
Nikaya
Khuddaka
Nikaya
                           
   
    Abhidhamma Pitaka    
   
                                                           
Dhs. Vbh. Dhk.
Pug.
Kvu. Yamaka Patthana
                       
   
         
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1. Parajika Pali - Major Offenses



Skeptic Tank!


Parajika Dhamma

Rules of Defeat

The Parajika Dhamma is the first part of the Suttavibhanga.

The Suttavibhanga is the first part of the Vinaya Pitaka (”Basket of Discipline“).

The Vinaya Pitaka is the first part of the Tipitaka (”Three Baskets“), a.k.a. the Pali Canon.

The Tipitaka is the major religious text of Theravada Buddhism.

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The Parajika is a short section of Buddhist religious text outlining the ways in which a bhikkhu (monk) or bhikkhuni (nun) could become disrobed and cast out of the Sangha (the monastic order).

The word “parajika” comes from a Pali verb meaning something along the lines of “to lose” or “to be defeated“. The ending phrase “[to be] defeated and no longer in communion” refers to a spiritual sense of defeat, and expulsion from the sangha.
Parajika is also the term for one of the offenses outlined in the above
text. If a bhikkhu or commits one of the parajikas, he is dismissed
from the monastic order and will not be reordained in his present lifetime. Accidental or otherwise unintentional offenses are not looked upon lightly, but are considered on a case-by-case basis.

The text was translated by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg in 1881; the translation is in the public domain. It was taken from http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe13/index.htm.
Text in [square brackets] (and all pipelinks) was added and does not
appear in the translation; text in (parentheses) does appear in the
translation.



Here these four Rules, concerning those acts which bring about Defeat, come into recitation.

  1. Whatsoever Bhikkhu who has taken upon himself the Bhikkhus’ system of self-training and rule of life, and has not thereafter withdrawn from the training, or declared his weakness, shall have carnal knowledge of any one, down even to an animal, he has fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion.
  2. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take, from village or from wood, anything not given—what men call ‘theft‘—in such manner of taking as kings would seize the thief for, and slay, or bind, or banish him, saying, ‘Thou art a thief, thou art stupid, thou art a fool, thou art dishonest,’—the Bhikkhu who in that manner takes the thing not given, he, too, has fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion.
  3. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall knowingly deprive of life a human being, or shall seek out an assassin against a human being, or shall utter the praises of death, or incite another to self-destruction, saying, ‘Ho!
    my friend! what good do you get from this sinful, wretched life? death
    is better to thee than life!’—if, so thinking, and with such an aim,
    he, by various argument,
    utter the praises of death or incite another to self-destruction—he,
    too, is fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion3.
  4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, without being clearly conscious of
    extraordinary qualities, shall give out regarding himself that insight
    into the knowledge of the noble ones
    has been accomplished, saying, ‘Thus do I know,’ ‘Thus do I perceive:’
    and at some subsequent time whether on being pressed, or without being
    pressed, he, feeling guilty, shall be desirous of being cleansed from his fault, and shall say, ‘Brethren! when I knew not, I said that I knew; when I saw not, I said that I saw—telling a fruitless falsehood;’ then, unless he so spake through undue confidence he, too, has fallen into defeat, he is no longer in communion.

Venerable
Sirs, the four Conditions of Defeat have been recited, of which when a
Bhikkhu has fallen into one or other, he is no longer allowed to be in
co-residence with the Bhikkhus. As before, so afterwards, he is
defeated, he is not in communion.

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, ‘Are you pure in this matter?’

A second time I ask, ‘Are you pure in this matter?’

A third time I ask, ‘Are you pure in this matter?’

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore do they keep silence. Thus I understand.

Here endeth the recitation of the Parajikas.

2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta -

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AaiB3pXY-ss&mode=related&search=


Mahatma Phule

Sri Narayana Guru
Shahu Chhatrapati

evr


[Bahujan Samaj Party Flag]Bahujan Samaj Party

Image:Bahujansamajpartysymbol.pngSymbol- BSP -Bahujan Samaj Party, India

BSP -Bahujan Samaj Party, India

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati said her aim is to make Uttar Pradesh an Uttam and Khushhal Pradesh.

Make me PM
Write Down on the Wall was Dr. Ambedkar’s Sign !

Two Thousand Nine !

Will Be Mine !

- Says Ms Mayawati Bahen !


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11/24/08
Tipitaka, the Pali Canon of Buddhism It is a good thing that no drop of blood has to be shed in the name of Buddha.-Buddhist Dhamma -Buddhist Canon -Tipitaka Texts -Basket of Discipline9Vinaya Pitaka)The Vinayapitaka, is divided into five major parts grouped into three divisions. The five parts (books, Vibhanga) are: 1. Parajika Pali - Major Offenses 2. Pacittiya Pali - Minor Offenses (Khandaka): 3. Mahavagga Pali - Greater Section 4. Cullavagga Pali - Shorter Section 5. Parivara Pali - Epitome of the Vinaya -2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta - The five nikayas or collections are: 1. Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses). 2. Majjhima Nikaya (Collection of Middle-Length Discourses). 3. Samyutta Nikaya (Collection of Kindred Sayings). 4. Anguttara Nikaya (Collection of Discourses arranged in accordance with numbers). 5. Khuddaka Nikaya (Smaller Collection). - 3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism-The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are: 3.1 Dhammasangani (”Summary of Dhamma” or “Classification of Dhammas), an enumeration of the entities constituting reality. 3.2 Vibhanga (”Division”, or “The book of Divisions), a definition of these entities from various points of view. 3.3 Kathavatthu (”Points of Controversy”, or “Points of Controversy), a later work discussing the controversial doctrinal points among the various ancient schools. 3.4 Puggalapannatti (”Designation of Person”, or “Descriptions of Individuals), an interesting psychological typology in which people are classified according to their intellectual acumen and spiritual attainments. 3.5 Dhatukatha (”Discussion of Elements”, or “Discussion with reference to elements), a classification of the elements of reality according to various levels of organization. 3.6 Yamaka (”Pairs”, or “The Book of Pairs), dealing with basic sets of categories arranged in pairs of questions. 3.7 Patthana (”Activations”, or “The Book of Relations), a voluminous work discussing 24 kinds of causal relations.-India - Election mirrors national struggles -Chandigarh Beopar Sangh launched by Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)-BJP, Congress rich man’s parties: Mayawati-India Right To Information -Quotas if voted to power: Maya to Muslims, upper castes-Uttar Pradesh university to launch schools for farmers-Top Uttar Pradesh bureaucrat calls for more teeth to RTI -Mayawati’s security apparatus has 350 cops, 34 vehicles-International Federation for Freedom of Original Inhabitants and Migrates (IFFOM) Social Transformation! And Economical Emancipation! Through Testing the efficacy of social engineering! By Mighty Great Mind Training!
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Tipitaka, the Pali Canon of Buddhism

It is a good thing that no drop of blood has to be shed in the name of Buddha.


Buddhist Dhamma

     Buddhism is a  philosophy,psychology and ethics; it is “love of wisdom”,
for it is very much more comprehensive. Philosophy deals mainly with
knowledge; whereas Buddhism lays special emphasis on practice and
realization.

     The starting point of Buddhism is reasoning or understanding,
or, in other words, Samma-ditthi. A discerning Buddhist seeks to live
up to Buddha’s basic teachings. Buddhism is a system devised to get rid
of ills of life and foster intense and even jubilant gladness of heart.

 
    Buddha’s teachings, also called the Dhamma, show the way to such
ends. This Dhamma is a part of oneself, for Buddha
exhorts in the Parinibbana Sutta: “Abide with oneself as an island,
with oneself as a Refuge. Abide with the Dhamma as an island, with the
Dhamma as a Refuge.”

Buddhist Canon

Buddhist canon depends on old Buddhist records,
which were formed for oral transmission. Within five hundred years or
so the oldest ones that have come down to us had been put down in
writing, and those that have survived, are found mainly on Ceylon
(today: Sri Lanka).

 
    The Pali language is a Middle Indo-Aryan language of north Indian
origin, related to Old Indo-Aryan Vedic dialects. Buddha
appears to have taught by conversation, by use of
matrikas
(schemes of presentation formulated by him), and his teachings were
handed down through oral instruction for generations. His sayings
spread through India to Ceylon in the 200s BC, where they were written
down in Pali in the 1st century BC. Hence, it took some five centuries
before the first extant texts were written down after the time of
Buddha, and the huge canon that grew up around him for centuries after
his demise, is accounted for as a result of joint efforts of many. Many
things in this canon - legends and anecdotes, similes and metaphors,
phrases and idioms - have been taken almost verbatim from a common
Indian stock.

      The earliest records of Buddhism are
inscriptional, as seen in the famous edicts of emperor Asoka (c.
269-232 BC), after he converted to Buddhism. The inscriptions were
written in a variety of Indo-Aryan languages,
but later than it.

 
    Pali, the vehicle of the earliest Buddhist texts that have
survived, is said to be a western Indian dialect on a substratum of
several central and eastern ones. Pali is not a living language any
more, but its texts form the doctrinal foundation of Thereveda
Buddhism. This dialect came to be used by the Theravada school of
Buddhism, one of many schools in early Buddhism. Consequently, the Pali
dialect is incorrectly identified with Buddha’s own speech. Buddha came
from northern India in what is now Nepal.

Tipitaka Texts

      Here is how these
canonical text collections came about: Buddha left no written records
of His Teachings; disciples preserved them by committing to memory and
transmitting them orally from generation to generation. During the
reign of the Sinhala King Vattagamani Abhaya, about 83 B.C., the
Tipitaka was committed to writing on palm leaves (ola) in Ceylon.

 
    This voluminous Tipitaka, which contains the essence of Buddha’s
Teaching, is estimated to be about eleven times the size of the Bible.
The Tipitaka consists of the Basket of Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka), the
Basket of Discourses (Sutta Pitaka), and the Basket of Ultimate
Doctrine (Abhidhamma Pitaka).

     
The texts of the Pali canon of Theraveda Buddhism form a vast body of literature that is called
Tipitaka (”The Three Baskets”).
Tipitaka contains what is considered the most authentic texts of what
Buddha stood for.

  1. Vinayapitaka deals with rules of conduct for the congregations (sangha); some of which may help spiritual communities of today also.
  2. Suttapitaka brings Buddha’s sermons and dialogues; they are the dominant teachings of Theraveda Buddhism.
  3. Abhidhammapitaka deals with expositions of theories.



1. Regulations for monks and nuns, Vinayapitaka

The Vinayapitaka, is divided into five
major parts grouped into three divisions. The five parts (books,
Vibhanga) are:

  1. Parajika Pali - Major Offenses
  2. Pacittiya Pali - Minor Offenses (Khandaka):
  3. Mahavagga Pali - Greater Section
  4. Cullavagga Pali - Shorter Section
  5. Parivara Pali - Epitome of the Vinaya

The three divisions are: Sutta-vibhanga (”Division of Rules”); Khandhakas (”Sections”); and Parivara (”Accessory”):

1.1     The Sutta-vibhanga is a commentary on the Patimokkha-sutta
(”Obligatory Rules”), which forms the nucleus of the Vinayapitaka. It
is one of the oldest parts of the Pali canon and utilizes an archaic
language. It consists of two parts, (1.1.1) the
Bhikkhu-patimokkha (”Rules for Monks”) and the (1.1.2) Bhikkhuni-patimokkha (”Rules for Nuns”).
     
The commentary on the
Patimokkha is divided into the Maha-vibhanga of 227 rules for monks and the Bhikkhuni-vibhanga of additional rules and regulations for nuns.

1.2    The Khandhaka section of the Vinaya consists of two parts, the (1.2.1) Mahavagga (”Great Grouping”) and the (1.2.2) Cullavagga
(”Small Grouping”). These two sections lack logical sequence. They
contain rules for ordination; descriptions of rainy-season retreats,

instructiond of nuns; and so forth. The Cullavagga supplements the details of the Mahavagga to make an authoritative compilation of Buddha’s sayings of discipline.

1.3    The Parivara contains summaries and classifications of the disciplinary rules. It is a later supplement.

2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta

2.1     The Sutta Pitaka (”Basket of Discourse, Sutra”) is the largest of the “three baskets” (Tipitaka). It consists of five collections (nikayas)
that contain prose discourses attributed to Buddha, as spoken on
various occasions. There are also a few discourses delivered by some of
his better known disciples such as Sariputta, Ananda, and Moggallana in
it. There may be seemingly contradictory statements. Most of the
sermons were intended mainly for the benefit of Bhikkhus [ascetic
monks]. There are several other discourses which deal with both the
material and moral progress of His lay followers.

      Interspersed
are stanzas to illustrate or sum up particular points. Many of the
discourses seem drawn out and repetitive, but they were actually made
to serve oral transmission and - yes - propaganda. Also, they are hints
on how to meditate, with illustrations by excellent similies.

some phrases have been accurately
remembered. They can reveal glimpses of the personality and soaring
spirit of Buddha.

 
     
The five nikayas or collections are:

  1. Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses).
  2. Majjhima Nikaya (Collection of Middle-Length Discourses).
  3. Samyutta Nikaya (Collection of Kindred Sayings).
  4. Anguttara Nikaya (Collection of Discourses arranged in accordance with numbers).
  5. Khuddaka Nikaya (Smaller Collection).

2.1.1 The Digha Nikaya (”Collection of Long Discourses”) contains 34 suttas,
some of considerable length, presenting a vivid picture of the
different aspects of life and thought at Buddha’s time. Divided into
three books, it contrasts superstitious beliefs, various doctrinal and
philosophical speculations, and ascetic practices with Buddhist ethical
ideas, which are elucidated with the help of similes and examples taken
from the everyday life of the people. One of the most interesting
suttantas (”discourses”) is the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, which gives an account of the last days of Buddha and stresses the importance of striving for emancipation.

2.1.2 The Majjhima Nikaya (”Collection of the Middle Length Sayings”) contains 152 suttas
in its present version, while the Chinese one, preserving the lost
Sarvastivada collection, has 222, some of which are also found in other
nikayas (collections) of the Pali canon. Like the Digha, the suttas in the Majjhima present Buddhist ideas and ideals, illustrating them by profound similes of beauty.

2.1.3 The Samyutta Nikaya (”Collection of Kindred Discourses”) has altogether 2,941 suttas, classed in 59 divisions (called samyutta) grouped in five parts (vaggas).
     
2.1.3.1 The first
vagga (part) has suttas that contain stanzas. The suttas
begin with a description of the particular occasion when the stanzas
were spoken; the stanzas themselves represent a kind of questioning and
answering.

     
2.1.3.2 The second
vagga deals with the important principle of dependent origination - the chain of cause and effect affecting all things.
     
2.1.3.3 The third
vagga
presents the anatman (no-self) doctrine, which is the rejection of an
abiding principle that could be termed a self or a pure ego.

     
2.1.3.4 The fourth
vagga
is very similar to the previous one, but here it is not the
philosophical principle underlying the analysis that is stressed but
the transitoriness of the elements constituting reality.

     
2.1.3.5 The fifth
vagga is devoted to a discussion of the basic principles of Buddhist philosophy, religion, and culture.

2.1.4 The Anguttara Nikaya (”Collection of the Gradual Sayings”) contains as many as 2,308 small suttas
arranged according to the number of topics discussed, ranging from one
to eleven. There are three areas in which training is needed: in
conduct, concentration, and insight - and [at least] eight worldly
concerns: gain, loss, fame, blame, rebuke, praise, pleasure, and pain.
Here, too, similes enliven the presentation.

2.1.5 The Khuddaka Nikaya (”Collection of Small Texts”) is subdivided into fifteen books:

  1. Khuddaka-patha
    (”Small Reading”, or Shorter Texts). This is the smallest book in the
    entire Tipitaka. Compiled for use by primary trainees, its contents are
    used on various occasions. Two suttas have been borrowed from the Suttanipata (see below), and their recitation is regarded as very auspicious.
  2. Dhammapada (Way of Truth),
    also called “Verses on the Dhamma” - This work contains 423 verses in
    26 chapters. Presenting maxims of Buddhist ethics, it not only occupies
    an eminent place in the religious life of the peoples in Buddhist
    countries but is also of universal appeal, as it recommends a life of
    peace and nonviolence and declares that enmity can never be overcome by
    enmity, only by kindness
    .
  3. Udana (Paeans of Joy), or “Utterances”. This
    contains 80 utterances attributed to Buddha or his chief disciples,
    when they had achieved the bliss of their emancipation or spoke in
    appreciation of a sublime state.
  4. Iti Vuttaka (”Thus said” Discourses), or “Thus
    Said” - This contains 112 short pieces dealing with ethical principles,
    such as generosity, good and evil, greed, passion, and malice.
  5. Sutta Nipata (Collected Discourses), or “Collection of suttas
    - This is one of the oldest Buddhist texts in existence today. It is
    partly in verse, partly in a mixed style of prose and verse. The verse
    part is of high poetic quality.
  6. Vimana Vatthu (Stories of Celestial Mansions),
    or “Tales of Heavenly Mansions” - This book describes the different
    abodes of deities, male and female, who are born in the heavens as a
    result of their former meritorious deeds.
  7. Peta Vatthu (Stories of Petas), or “Tales of
    Ghosts” - This work gives an account of the various purgatories and the
    woes of the beings reborn there as a result of their wicked deeds.
  8. Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren), or “Hymns
    of the Elders” - This collection contains songs attributed to 264
    personal disciples of Buddha. The songs are said to have been composed
    when their authors experienced the bliss of emancipation.
  9. Therigatha (Psalms of the Sisters), or “Hymns of
    the Senior Nuns” - These are the songs attributed to about 100 female
    disciples of Buddha. They provide rich material for the study of the
    position of women at the time of Buddha. Their merit consists in their
    revealing the deep impression Buddha’s teaching made upon their life. A
    personal tone is unmistakable.
  10. Jataka (Birth Stories), or “Lives [of Buddha]” -
    Only the verses are considered to be canonical, while the 547 tales of
    Buddha’s previous lives are considered a later addition. The prose
    stories contain legends, fables, humorous anecdotes, and short sayings,
    as well as lengthy romances.
  11. Niddesa (Expositions), or “Exposition” - This work, consisting of two parts, Mahaniddesa and Cullaniddesa, actually belongs to the group of commentaries. The last two chapters comment on the Suttanipata.
  12. Patisambhida Magga (Analytical Knowledge), or “The Way of Analysis” - This is a kind of encyclopaedia of the philosophical ideas in the Sutta Pitaka. It is primarily meant for reference and intensive study.
  13. Apadana (Lives of Arahats), or “Stories” - This is a collection of stories of the previous lives of Buddha, the pratyeka
    buddhas (who attain enlightenment by themselves and are unconcerned
    about the enlightenment of others), and the arhats of the early
    Buddhist sangha, whose Theragatha and Therigatha songs
    are incorporated and embellished with rich biographical detail. The
    concluding sentence of each apadana in the collection is intended to
    show that even the smallest meritorious act has the potentiality of
    giving vast positive results even after a long time. All the stories
    are in verse.
  14. Buddhavamsa (The History of Buddha), or “Lineage
    of Buddha” - This work relates the lives of 24 previous buddhas, of
    Gotama (the historical Buddha), and of Metteyya (Sanskrit: Maitreya;
    the future buddha). According to the text, the stories are told by the
    historical Buddha himself.
  15. Cariya Pitaka (Modes of Conduct), or “Basket of
    Conduct” - This collection retells 35 Jatakas (stories of Buddha’s
    previous lives) in verse form, illustrating the bodhisattva’s practice
    of the 10 perfections (paramitas) necessary for the attainment of
    Buddhahood.

In addition to the above come: Nettippakarana (Burmese Tipitaka only); Petakopadesa (Burmese Tipitaka only): and Milindapanha (Questions of Milinda) (Burmese Tipitaka only)

3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism

The Abhidhamma Pitaka
(”Basket of Scholasticism”) is the third of the three “baskets”. It
comprises seven works that are based on the contents of Buddha’s
discourses and deal with selected and specific topics that form the
basis for the later philosophical interpretations. The Pali version is
a strictly Theravada collection and has little in common with the
Abhidhamma works recognized by other schools.
 
    The Abhidhamma Pitaka contains the profound philosophy of Buddha’s
teaching in contrast to the illuminating and simpler discourses in the
Sutta Pitaka. Narada Thera says, “In the Sutta Pitaka is found the
conventional teaching (vohara desana) while in the Abhidhamma Pitaka is
found the ultimate teaching (paramattha-desana).”

 
    In Abhidhamma, consciousness is defined. Thoughts are analyzed and
classified from an ethical standpoint mainly. Mental states are
enumerated. Mind and matter are discussed, an ethical system is
evolved, with the aim of realizing Nibbana.

     

The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are:

3.1     Dhammasangani (”Summary of Dhamma” or “Classification of Dhammas), an enumeration of the entities constituting reality.

3.2     Vibhanga (”Division”, or “The book of Divisions), a definition of these entities from various points of view.

3.3     Kathavatthu
(”Points of Controversy”, or “Points of Controversy), a later work
discussing the controversial doctrinal points among the various ancient
schools.

3.4     Puggalapannatti
(”Designation of Person”, or “Descriptions of Individuals), an
interesting psychological typology in which people are classified
according to their intellectual acumen and spiritual attainments.

3.5     Dhatukatha
(”Discussion of Elements”, or “Discussion with reference to elements),
a classification of the elements of reality according to various levels
of organization.

3.6     Yamaka (”Pairs”, or “The Book of Pairs), dealing with basic sets of categories arranged in pairs of questions.

3.7     Patthana (”Activations”, or “The Book of Relations), a voluminous work discussing 24 kinds of causal relations.

Early Noncanonical Texts in Pali

The noncanonical literature of Theravada Buddhism consists to a large extent of commentaries on the Tipitaka texts but also includes independent works.
     
Nagasena, Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosa,
and Dhammapala attempted to harmonize apparently conflicting teachings and to grasp the inner meanings.
     
Nagasena
was the learned monk who debated with the well-informed Greco-Bactrian ruler Menander, as described in the literary prose work Milinda-panha
(”Questions of King Menander”), which Nagasena is supposed to have
compiled about 150 BC, and certainly before 400 AD, since Buddhaghosa
from the 400s quotes the work as an authority. In it, the king has
conversations with the monk. The work is one of the few postcanonical
works of the Theravada school that was not produced in Ceylon (modern
Sri Lanka
).
     
Buddhaghosa
, who flourished in the early 400s, was a prolific writer who settled on Ceylon. The first work that he wrote was the Visuddhimagga (”Way to Purity”), a revered compendium of Theravada teaching. He also wrote commentaries on the Vinaya, the first four nikayas, and the seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Other works are traditionally attributed to Buddhaghosa too, although
modern scholarship indicates that he was not the author. These works
include commentaries on the
Suttanipata and the Khuddaka-patha, as well as the extremely important commentaries on the Dhammapada and the Jatakas. The commentary on the Jatakas
has as its introduction what is perhaps the most famous “biography” of
Buddha, and concludes with 547 stories. Some of them are great for kids
in the West too, through the values they show. They serve enculturation
well. In all Theravada countries these narratives and romances have
exerted a tremendous influence on fine arts and law too.

     
Buddhadatta,

a contemporary of Buddhaghosa, was from Tamil Nadu in southern India.
Like Buddhaghosa he went to Sri Lanka to study at the Mahavihara in
Anuradhapura. He wrote his works in a monastery. His
Abhidhammavatara (”The Coming of the Abhidhamma”), is a summary of the older commentaries on the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
He reduced Buddhaghosa’s five metaphysical ultimates - ie, form,
feeling, sensations, motivations, and perception - to four, namely,
mind, mental events, forms, and nibbana.

     
Dhammapala
was slightly later than Buddhadatta and Buddhaghosa, and in the same tradition. In his commentary on Buddhaghosa’s Visuddhimagga, he quotes a verse from the Hindu scripture Bhagavadgita. His work reveals something of the intellectual activity at the time.
     

The Dipavamsa
(”History of the Island”), seems to be a poor redaction in Pali of an
older Old Sinhalese version of how Sri Lanka was occupied and built.

 
    During and after the “revival” and spread of the Theravada in the
centuries after AD 1000, more Theravada literature was made:
commentaries and independent works written in Pali in Sri Lanka and the
Theravada countries of Southeast Asia (for example, the highly
respected commentary on the
Mangala Sutta written in northern Thailand in the 16th century). The 14th-century cosmology called the Traiphumikatha (Three Worlds According to King Ruang), is the oldest known full-length text written in Thai.



India - Election mirrors national struggles

Ruling Congress party faces in retaining power in India next year.

The central state of Madhya Pradesh goes to polls on Thursday in one of
six state elections testing the political waters for Congress and the
BJP.

The battle in one of India’s poorest states is a microcosm
for many national issues, from party tactics to the growth of
caste-based parties upsetting the traditional balance of power.

Madhya Pradesh accounts for nearly a fifth of their total parliamentary seats.

The vote is hard to predict. Polls are unreliable and a myriad of castes add to the complexity. a host of problems have made BJP and Congress victory more difficult.

A study by the International Food Policy Research Institute placed
Madhya Pradesh as India’s worst state in terms of hunger and
malnutrition, ranked globally between Chad and Ethiopia.



Water in Bhopal is available only every two days. Electricity is
intermittent. The state has seen three BJP chief ministers in five
years amid party infighting.

But observers say Congress rallies
have often seen sparse support. As usual, the party has not named a
chief ministerial candidate, meaning there is no political figurehead.

To
add to its problems, the Bahujan Samaj Party, a party based on Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath
led by Uttar Pradesh chief minister Mayawati, has drawn large crowds
and may also rob votes from Congress and form the Government in MP with a clear majority like the UP.

“Congress does not have any achievements,They cannot control prices and they cannot solve
many of the common man’s problems.”

That may mean Mayawatito become the next Prime Minister

Delhi Assembly elections:

Less than a week remains before Delhi goes to vote.

The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is contesting on all the 70 seats and the influence of the party on the voters with roots in UP can’t be ignored.

BJP, Congress rich man’s parties: Mayawati

New Delhi, Nov 23 Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) leader Mayawati Sunday described the Congress
and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) as parties of the rich, said she
stands for the common people and wished to win the elections with the
support of the common man.


Addressing an election rally in Trilokpuri here, she said: ‘The
Congress and the BJP are rich-man’s parties. The BSP wants to win
elections on the basis of the common man’s support. We are the common
man’s party.’

She said if Delhi wanted development and solution to its problems, ‘you
will have to ensure that the BJP, the Congress and their allies are
defeated and the BSP is voted to power in Delhi.’


Despite Delhi falling in the jurisdiction of the Congress government in
the state and the Centre, they are incapable of tackling the dismal law
and order situation. ‘If BSP comes to power, criminals will be in jails
and not outside.’

The BSP is contesting on all the 70 seats in Delhi assembly election.


Mayawati, who successfully experimented caste politics based on
Brahmin-Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath equation in the last Uttar Pradesh assembly election,
said there will not be any discrimination between people on caste or
religious lines if the BSP to power.



‘Our party ensures that no one in the state is discriminated against on grounds of religion or caste,’ she said.

Citing the prevailing social situation in Uttar Pradesh, Mayawati said:
‘We empower the Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other
Backward Classes, who have been discriminated against in the past and
there had been no improvement in their status.’



Spelling out the populist measures being taken by her government in her
state, Mayawati said: ‘In Uttar Pradesh, the children of the poor have
more opportunities in education. The enrolment has increased. We are
even giving free coaching to aspirants of IAS, IPS and other government
posts.’

‘Two-bedroom flats are being constructed and given to the homeless,
even the standard of living of villagers has improved drastically,’ she
said.

Comparing her administration with the earlier Samajwadi Party (SP)
administration, Mayawati said after the BSP came to power in the state,
crime has reduced, especially crime against women.

‘If you compare BSP’s regime in UP to the earlier party’s, one can see
how mafia and caste-based violence was prevalent in earlier times,’ she
said.


Chandigarh Beopar Sangh launched by Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)

Local wing of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) launched its trader cell
Chandigarh Beopar Sangh on Sunday to address the problems of traders in
the city.


This move is regarded to gain political strength before the upcoming parliamentary elections.

India Right To Informati

Now knowledge is not power. Any one can acquire knowledge in these days of Internet and RTI.To properly use such knowledge is power.But those sitting on the seat of power hate any
attempt made to know about them inside out. That is why, politicians
and bureaucrats dislike the Right To Information (RTI) Act, which
people have started using extensively to expose corruption in the
corridors of power. But, interestingly, in the Madhya Pradesh assembly
election campaign many politicians, especially of the Congress, are
using the RTI route to gather information against ruling Bharatiya
Janata Party ministers for use in the poll campaign. The other
opposition party like the Bahujan Samaj Party 
never thought of using the RTI channel to turn the heat on BJP
ministers. But, on seeing many Congress leaders making use of it in
their campaign, they say, “We will certainly use the RTI next time”.


Quotas if voted to power: Maya to Muslims, upper castes

New Delhi, November 24: : Aspiring to form a
Government at the Centre, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and BSP supreme
Mayawati reached out to Muslims and upper castes in Delhi by promising
to provide reservation for poor among them if voted to power.
Mayawati reached out to Muslims and upper castes promising to provide reservation for them if voted to power.

Addressing her second rally in the capital where BSP has fielded
candidates in all the 70 seats, she also said her party was committed
to extend the quota regime to financially weaker sections of the upper
castes as she sought to dispel the notion that BSP represented the
interests of only backward castes.

“We will provide reservation to poor Muslims if voted to power,” she told a public meeting in Aligaon in south Delhi.

“We are also in favour of providing reservation to the
financially poor sections of the upper castes,” said Mayawati, who
returned to power last year in UP by successfully experimenting with a
social engineering formula.


Uttar Pradesh university to launch schools for farmers

Lucknow, Nov 24 (IANS) The Chandra Shekhar Azad university
of Agriculture and Technology in Kanpur will open schools for farmers
to impart scientific lessons on how to raise crop productivity,
officials said Monday.”The upcoming schools will be set up in rural
areas of Kanpur,” the university’s joint director (research) H.G.
Prakash told IANS.

According to Prakash, the state government has already approved the
project in principle and has allocated Rs.4.8 million for it.

“Under the project, a total of 10 schools would be set up. A school
would come up in a cluster comprising 4-5 villages,” Prakash said.

“At these schools, scientists, research scholars and other experts
from the university will give tips and information to farmers on pest
management, precision farming, post-harvest handling, organic farming
and other domains for increasing agricultural roductivity,” Prakash added.

Classes at these schools would be organised every day from 10 am to 5 pm, Prakash said.

Top Uttar Pradesh bureaucrat calls for more teeth to RTI

Lucknow, Nov 24 (IANS) Uttar Pradesh chief secretary
Atul Kumar Gupta, who insists that the state government is ‘ready to
part with all information’, has joined rights activists in their demand
for the Right to Information (RTI) Act to be made more powerful.

Speaking on the concluding day of a two-day seminar
on the RTI Act, Gupta Sunday called for ’sharpening of the RTI Act’ and
said the state government was ‘ready to part with all information’.

‘I have advised all government departments to keep their doors open
to anyone seeking information under the RTI Act, which is a law to
protect the interests of common people.

‘People in the government must realise that they will also be like
common citizens once they retire from their jobs. Therefore, they must
put themselves in the shoes of the common man while dealing with RTI
requests,’ he said.

Admitting that the disposal of RTI applications was slow, Gupta
said: ‘I will now start monitoring how many applications are received
by different principal information officers over a particular period
and how many are disposed off.’

He was also receptive to a demand by participants, which included
activists and lawyers, for a government sponsored call centre for
filing RTI requests over the telephone.

‘It is not within my domain to take a decision on setting up a call
centre for purposes of RTI, but I will do the needful from my end to
promote such an idea,’ Gupta said.

Chief Information Commissioner Wajahat Habibullah, who was the chief
guest at the seminar, attributed the tendency among officials to
conceal information to the British Raj mindset.

He said it was understandable for officials not to divulge
information during the British regime, but the same approach was not
acceptable anymore.

“The Official Secrets Act took birth under a regime that needed to
shield itself from the people. But today, we have a people’s
government,” he added.

Mayawati’s security apparatus has 350 cops, 34 vehicles

LUCKNOW: When Uttar Pradesh chief
minister Mayawati moves on the streets of the State capital Lucknow, she has in attendance an army of atleast 350 policemen and an assortmrnt of 34 vehicles.


A security cover by the country’s elite Special Protection
Group (SPG) having been denied to her last year, Mayawati has ensured she has a
heavier cover for herself. The SPG security is available only to the prime
minister and former prime ministers. But Behenji, as she is called back home in
Uttar Pradesh, had demanded it.



She had claimed there was a
conspiracy to eliminate her and when she was denied the special security, even
alleged that the
Congress
was part of it. In her quest for security, she even
asked her officials to study the stringent Israeli security apparatus.

Her official residence as well as the entire Kalidas Marg on
which the house is located were turned into a heavily barricaded fortress long
ago, while her
office has witnessed drastic alterations with the enhanced
security in recent days.



These include an exclusive entry and exit
gates and a dedicated elevator that lands directly into the chief minister’s
chamber.



The chief minister’s occasional visits to
her office at Lucknow’s Shastri Bhavan, her frequent trips to the airport from
where she is currently busy shuttling on her election campaign in various
states.



The situation was no different even before she raised the
demand for an SPG cover. But the passion of the state
police bigwigs to keep
enhancing her security appears to be growing.



Mayawati now proposes
to have a helipad built right across the CM’s house on a piece of land for which
negotiations are on with the 164-year-old La Martiniere College, owners of the
property.

 
To top it all, state director-general of police Vikram Singh
and Lucknow zonal inspector-general of police Arvind Jain invariably accompany
the chief minister on her election tours to other states where they are expected
to coordinate her security with local officials.



The exercise began
after Samajwadi Party workers staged a protest demonstration in
front of her car as she was driving down somewhere in Madhya Pradesh last
year.




Defending her
security, a top police officer of the state maintained: “We cannot take any
chances with the chief minister’s security. We have clear inputs about all kinds
of threat to her life.”

Kindly visit:

http://127.0.0.1:4664/search?q=latest+news+on+BSP+Mayawati&flags=1048576&s=1QKuSxtwUUOKOniB4Sstw1Qjy-o

 

International Federation for Freedom of
Original Inhabitants and Migrates (IFFOM)

 

 

Social Transformation!

And Economical Emancipation!

Through

Testing the efficacy of social engineering!

By

Mighty Great Mind Training!


Lesson 2

 

–OTHERWISE
YOU ARE NOT
MY FOLLOWERS!! ! ! !
SAHIB KANSHI RAM`S INTERVIEW

 

QUESTION: Why are you so hostile to all the national
parties, especially the communists?

KANSHI RAM: To my mind, all parties represent the forces of status quo.
For us, politics is the politics of transformation. The existing parties are
the reason for the status quo. That is why there has been no upward mobility
for the backward communities. The communist parties have become the biggest
stumbling block in this regard. They keep talking about change, but work for
status quo. The BJP is better, they never talk about change. So people never
feel duped. Parties like the Congress and communists talk about abolishing
poverty, but work towards keeping people poor. If the poor are not kept poor,
these people cannot remain in their seats.

QUESTION: At the Congress centenary, Arun Singh said your emergence was not
healthy for the national ethos.

KANSHI RAM: He is the grandson of a maharaja who never kept the interests of
the nation in mind. Nationalism to him is feudalism. NATIONALISM TO ME IS THE
MASSES OF INDIA.
I BELIEVE IN THE TWO NATION THEORY: THOSE WHO OPPRESS AND THOSE WHO ARE
OPPRESSED .What does the grandson of a wretched maharaja know about
nationalism? What can we expect from Arun Singh than such things?

                                                                                    

QUESTION: Why is your cadre so hostile to Mahatma Gandhi? 

KANSHI RAM: Gandhi is the root of every thing. I want change. Dr. Ambedkar
wanted change. But Gandhi was the custodian of the status quo. He wanted
Shudras to remain Shudras .Gandhi worked to keep the nation divided .We are
working to unite the nation and erase all artificial divisions.

QUESTION: Why has your movement taken so much time to become a reality? 

 

KANSHI RAM: Upto 1971, I was not so much
interested. I was working with RPI .Then I found I was marching towards a ship
that others were deserting .It took a long time to prepare myself and others .
We had to collect a lot of information, so that we could know how to prepare
society and build a cadre. Preparing society initially took a long time. Now we
are moving at a tremendous speed. Next year when you meet me, you will ask me
how we have acquired such a speed.

QUESTION: How can you abolish caste by floating a casteist party? 

KANSHI RAM: The BSP is not a casteist party. If we are uniting 6000
castes, how can you call us casteist?

QUESTION: I believe your party is off-limits to the upper castes.

KANSHI RAM: The upper castes say why not include us. I say you are
leading all the parties. If you join our party, you will block change here also
.THE UPPER CASTES CAN JOIN THE PARTY, BUT THEY CANNOT BE ITS LEADERS
.LEADERSHIP WILL REMAIN IN THE HANDS OF THE BACKWARD COMMUNITY. My fear is that
these upper caste people will come into our party and block the process of
change .When this fear goes, they can join our party.

QUESTION: What is your constituency? 

KANSHI RAM: I REPRESENT THE CONSTITUENCIES OF BABU JAGJIVAN RAM AND
CHAUDHARY CHARAN SINGH. AND MAY BE TO SOME EXTENT, SAYED SHAHABUDDIN.

QUESTION: Politicians we spoke to in Delhi
say that if the BSP gets too belligerent they will finish you politically.

KANSHI RAM: WE WILL FINISH THEM .BECAUSE IF INDIRA CAN BE FINISHED BY A
CHAMAR, ARE THESE FELLOWS GOING TO BE SAVED? WHEN WE ARE 90 PERCENT IN THE
ARMED FORCES, 70 PER CENT IN THE BSF, 50 PER CENT IN THE CRPF AND THE POLICE,
WHO CAN DO INJUSTICE TO US? A GENERAL NEEDS LESS BULLETS COMPARED TO JAWANS
.THEY MAY HAVE GENERALS BUT NO JAWANS.

QUESTION: Are you advocating an eye for an eye? 

KANSHI RAM: TWO EYES .I tell my followers Ek Eet Ka Jawab, Do Pathron Se
( you must retaliate for one brick with two stones ) , otherwise you are not my
followers .

QUESTION: So you are propagating violence.

KANSHI RAM: I am propagating strength. To curb
violence, I must have strength .Other than me, for instance nobody can crush
the Shiv Sena. Any time I come to Maharashtra,
I will finish them .The violence of Shiv Sena will end.

QUESTION: - How will you do that? 

KANSHI RAM: - Who are the members of the Shiv
Sena who burn and destroy? They are four castes: 1. Agari 2. Bhandari 3. Koli
4. Chamar. They are Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and most backward
communities. As soon as I touch the Maharashtra,
these people will instantly come with me.

QUESTION: - What makes you think that the BSP will not
end up like the RPI? Bargaining for power with the ruling party.

KANSHI RAM: - The RPI never bargained. It was
begging. It never reached the status of bargaining .I remember in 1971, the
party struck an electoral alliance with the Congress to contest 521 seats .The
Congress contested 520 seats, the RPI contested one seat. I love the RPI, but I
hate being compared to it. It is like a cheap prostitute available at a
pittance. As long as I am alive, this will not happen to the BSP. We want
change .We don’t want alliances with the forces of status quo. If a government
cannot be formed without our co-operation, then we will have our own
conditions, for change. We want fundamental and structural changes, not
cosmetic ones.

QUESTION: - There are rumours that you met Hazi Mastan
Mirza at Gonda last November to solicit funds.

KANSHI RAM: - I have never met him anywhere. I
have only seen his photograph .He may be paying other people, but not us. In
fact he is being used against us. If anybody can prove that I have ever met
him, I am prepared to face the highest punishment .Moreover, how much money
Hazi Mastan can have? He is a very small man compared to me, as far as funds
are concerned. If I only have funds like Hazi Mastan, how can I beat the
Congress and other parties? How many crores can he give us? 

QUESTION: - THERE IS SOME MYSTREY ABOUT THE SOURCES OF
YOUR FUNDS.

KANSHI RAM: - My funds come from various sources
which will not dry up. My funds come from those people who produce wealth. The
Bahujan Samaj produces wealth. I get my money from them. Lakhs of my people
spend crores going to festivals like the Kumbh Mela to improve their next
birth. I tell them that Kanshi Ram does not know anything about the next life.
But he is an expert in the present life.

Those interested in improving their next life , I tell
them , must go to the Brahmins on the banks of the Ganga .Those interested in
improving their present life must come to me . So they throng to my meetings.

QUESTION: - There is talk of your being sponsored by
the CIA.

KANSHI RAM: - For so many years this government
has been clapping about it. It distributed lakhs of pamphlets about this in
Bijnore. But the result was that people became furious and could not be
purchased.  Babu Ji tried to purchase votes at Rs. 1000 each .But even
those who used to be purchased at Rs.10 turned him down. And if I am a CIA man,
why hasn’t this government taken any action against me? That shows it is a
hijra (eunuch) government.

QUESTION: - They say you spent a lot of money on the Lucknow rally.

KANSHI RAM: -Rs. 22 lakhs were spent on hiring
the buses alone .But I am angry. It should have been Rs. 22 crores .A time will
come when people should spend Rs. 22 crores on my call .I don’t feel any dearth
of money. If money is coming from a treasury, it will be extinguished. I am
getting money from a perennial source of funds. I need only one crore rupees to
win all the 542 parliamentary seats. One day, voters will queue up to pay money
to Kanshi Ram. The next day, they will que up to vote for Kanshi Ram. 

QUESTION: - Some of your party men have broken away
from you.

KANSHI RAM: - You cannot keep all the people
together. Some people may get tired. Some people may be purchased. Some may
become frightened. This will be a permanent feature. It will not demoralise us.
I have created a method where in a given time if 10 people go away , we will
produce 110 people of the same caliber .Whom we dropped as deadwood , others
are trying to pick up and burn a fire .They are trying to use them against
us. 

QUESTION: - You reiterate that you have never taken
funds from a foreign source. 

KANSHI RAM: - When I went to England two years ago, some people
- there are seven lakh Chamars there - offered me funds. I decided not to take
the money, though Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and Buta Singh had taken money
from the same source - the Guru Ravidass Gurdwara in Birmingham. They had given to Babu Ji also .I
was the only person who didn’t accept.

QUESTION: - What Kind of change are you looking
for? 

KANSHI RAM: - I don’t want temporary changes. I
am not prepared to attain what I cannot sustain .Let us attain whatever we can,
but it must be retained and retained only by permanent change. 

QUESTION: - And when do you intend to contest
elections?

KANSHI RAM: - I will stand when there are 100
constituencies in India
where I can get a walk over. 

QUESTION: - How long will that take? 

KANSHI RAM: - For so many years this government
has been clapping about it. It distributed lakhs of pamphlets about this in
Bijnore. But the result was that people became furious and could not be
purchased.  Babu Ji tried to purchase votes at Rs. 1000 each .But even
those who used to be purchased at Rs.10 turned him down. And if I am a CIA man,
why hasn’t this government taken any action against me? That shows it is a
hijra (eunuch) government.

QUESTION: - They say you spent a lot of money on the Lucknow rally.

KANSHI RAM: -Rs. 22 lakhs were spent on hiring
the buses alone .But I am angry. It should have been Rs. 22 crores .A time will
come when people should spend Rs. 22 crores on my call .I don’t feel any dearth
of money. If money is coming from a treasury, it will be extinguished. I am
getting money from a perennial source of funds. I need only one crore rupees to
win all the 542 parliamentary seats. One day, voters will queue up to pay money
to Kanshi Ram. The next day, they will que up to vote for Kanshi Ram. 

QUESTION: - Some of your party men have broken away
from you.

KANSHI RAM: - You cannot keep all the people
together. Some people may get tired. Some people may be purchased. Some may
become frightened. This will be a permanent feature. It will not demoralise us.
I have created a method where in a given time if 10 people go away , we will
produce 110 people of the same caliber .Whom we dropped as deadwood , others
are trying to pick up and burn a fire .They are trying to use them against
us. 

QUESTION: - You reiterate that you have never taken funds
from a foreign source. 

KANSHI RAM: - When I went to England two years ago, some people
- there are seven lakh Chamars there - offered me funds. I decided not to take
the money, though Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and Buta Singh had taken money
from the same source - the Guru Ravidass Gurdwara in Birmingham. They had given to Babu Ji also .I
was the only person who didn’t accept.

QUESTION: - What Kind of change are you looking
for? 

KANSHI RAM: - I don’t want temporary changes. I
am not prepared to attain what I cannot sustain .Let us attain whatever we can,
but it must be retained and retained only by permanent change. 

QUESTION: - And when do you intend to contest
elections?

KANSHI RAM: - I will stand when there are 100
constituencies in India
where I can get a walk over. 

QUESTION: - How long will that take? 

KANSHI RAM: - Two years at the most.


 


http://www.sacred-destinations.com/south-korea/haeinsa.htm

http://revver..com/video/1205852/from-the-holy-buddhist-tipitaka-instructions-to-rahula-at-mango-stone-the-buddhas-words-on-loving-kindness/

http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/cgi-bin/browse.pl?id=201414

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/outsources/audio.html

http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma5/ebooks.html




comments (0)
11/23/08
Vinaya Pitaka-The Basket of the Discipline- The recitation of the Vinaya by Ven. Upali becomes accepted as the Vinaya Pitaka-Part Three: The Gold and Silver Chapter -Upaneyya.m Sutta Doomed-The Abhidhamma Pitaka step by step is recited at the Council, along with additional sections of the Khuddaka Nikaya.Meaning of the Flag-Detail of the Ashoka Chakra-Political parties in India-Make me PM Write Down on the Wall was Dr. Ambedkar’s Sign ! Two Thousand Nine ! Will Be Mine ! - Says Ms Mayawati Bahen !-Ms. MAYAWATI Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh Life History: At A Glance -PM dream is Maya rally theme-”Apni sherni bahena, banegi Pradhan Mantri (our tigress sister, will become the PM),” -”We take money from you to fight elections. Once we come to power we will make policies which work for you, not for the rich.”- Vote BSP in Delhi to put criminals behind bars: Mayawati-It’s development versus corruption in Rajasthan - C.M. inspects roads of Lucknow -International Federation for Freedom of Original Inhabitants and Migrates (IFFOM) Mighty Great Mind Training! Social Transformation! And Economical Emancipation! Through Testing the efficacy of social engineering! First Lesson
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Theravada Buddhism a Chronology

This timeline chronicles some of the significant
events and personalities in the evolution

of Theravada Buddhism
that, in one way or another, figure prominently in the readings
found elsewhere on this website. This is not meant to be a
comprehensive chronology
.

Because the sources I used in constructing this
timeline (indicated by braces {} and listed at the end
of this document
) often assumed different dates for the Buddha’s
nativity, I have occasionally had to interpolate in order to fit
events (particularly the early ones) onto a reasonably consistent
timeline. Nevertheless, this chronology should provide a fairly
clear picture of the relative sequence of events, if not the
absolute dates on which they occurred.

For a general introduction to Theravada Buddhism,
please see “What is
Theravada Buddhism?”
.

BE1  
CE2
-80  
-624/-560

The Bodhisatta  or
Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini (in present-day Nepal) as
Siddhattha Gotama, a prince of the Sakya clan.
{1,2}

-51  
-595/-531

The Bodhisatta renounces the householder life
(age 29).

-45  
-589/-525

While meditating under the Bo tree in the forest
at Gaya (now Bodhgaya, India) during the full-moon night of May,
the Bodhisatta becomes the Buddha (age 36).

During the full-moon night of July, the Buddha
delivers his first discourse near Varanasi, introducing the
world to the Four Noble Truths and commencing a 45-year career
of teaching the religion he called “Dhamma-vinaya.”

1
  -544/-480

Parinibbana  of the Buddha, at Kusinara (now Kusinagar, India) (age
80). {1,3}

During the rains retreat following the Buddha’s
Parinibbana, the First Council convenes at Rajagaha,
India, during which 500 arahant bhikkhus, led by Ven.
Mahakassapa, gather to recite the entire body of the Buddha’s
teachings. The recitation of the Vinaya by Ven. Upali becomes
accepted as the Vinaya Pitaka; the recitation of the Dhamma by Ven. Ananda becomes
established as the Sutta Pitaka. {1,4}

100  
-444/-380

100 years after the Buddha’s Parinibbana the Second
Council convenes in Vesali to discuss controversial points
of Vinaya. The first schism of the Sangha occurs, in which the
Mahasanghika school parts ways with the traditionalist
Sthaviravadins. At issue is the Mahasanghika’s reluctance to
accept the Suttas and the Vinaya as the final authority on the
Buddha’s teachings. This schism marks the first beginnings of
what would later evolve into Mahayana Buddhism, which would come
to dominate Buddhism in northern Asia (China, Tibet, Japan,
Korea). {1}

294  
-250

Third Council is convened by King Asoka at
Pataliputra (India). Disputes on points of doctrine lead to
further schisms, spawning the Sarvastivadin and Vibhajjavadin
sects. The Abhidhamma Pitaka is recited at the Council, along
with additional sections of the Khuddaka Nikaya. The modern Pali
Tipitaka is now essentially complete, although some scholars
have suggested that at least two parts of the extant Canon —
the Parivara in the Vinaya, and the Apadana in the Sutta — may
date from a later period. {1, 4}

297   -247

King Asoka sends his son, Ven. Mahinda, on a
mission to bring Buddhism to Sri Lanka. King Devanampiya Tissa
of Sri Lanka is converted. {5}

304  
-240

Ven. Mahinda establishes the Mahavihara (Great
Monastery) of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The Vibhajjavadin
community living there becomes known as the Theravadins. Mahinda
compiles the first of the Tipitaka commentaries, in the Sinhala
language. Mahinda’s sister, Ven. Sanghamitta, arrives in Sri
Lanka with a cutting from the original Bo tree, and establishes
the bhikkhuni-sangha in Sri Lanka.{1, 5}

444  
-100

Famine and schisms in Sri Lanka point out the
need for a written record of the Tipitaka to preserve the
Buddhist religion. King Vattagamani convenes a Fourth Council,
in which 500 reciters and scribes from the Mahavihara write down
the Pali Tipitaka for the first time, on palm leaves. {4,
5, 6}

544   1

Common Era (CE) begins; Year 1 AD.

644   100

Theravada Buddhism first appears in Burma and
Central Thailand. {1}

744   200

Buddhist monastic university at Nalanda, India
flourishes; remains a world center of Buddhist study for over
1,000 years. {1}

ca. 1000  
5th c.

Ven. Buddhaghosa collates the various Sinhala
commentaries on the Canon — drawing primarily on the Maha
Atthakatha (Great Commentary) preserved at the Mahavihara —
and translates them into Pali. This makes Sinhala Buddhist
scholarship available for the first time to the entire
Theravadan world and marks the beginning of what will become, in
the centuries to follow, a vast body of post-canonical Pali
literature. Buddhaghosa also composes his encyclopedic, though
controversial, meditation manual Visuddhimagga (The Path of
Purification).
Vens. Buddhadatta and Dhammapala write
additional commentaries and sub-commentaries. {7}

ca. 1100   600’s

Buddhism in India begins a long, slow decline
from which it would never fully recover. {1}

ca. 1100? 1400?   6th
c.? 9th c.?

Dhammapala composes commentaries on parts of the
Canon missed by Buddhaghosa (such as the Udana, Itivuttaka,
Theragatha, and Therigatha), along with extensive
sub-commentaries on Buddhaghosa’s work. {7}

1594   1050

The bhikkhu and bhikkhuni communities at
Anuradhapura die out following invasions from South India.{1,
5}

1614   1070

Bhikkhus from Pagan arrive in Polonnaruwa, Sri
Lanka to reinstate the obliterated Theravada ordination line on
the island. {5}

1708   1164

Polonnaruwa destroyed by foreign invasion. With
the guidance of two monks from a forest branch of the Mahavihara
sect — Vens. Mahakassapa and Sariputta — King Parakramabahu
reunites all bhikkhus in Sri Lanka into the Mahavihara sect. {1,
8}

1780   1236

Bhikkhus from Kañcipuram, India arrive in Sri
Lanka to revive the Theravada ordination line. {1}

1823   1279

Last inscriptional evidence of a Theravada
Bhikkhuni nunnery (in Burma). {8}

1831   1287

Pagan looted by Mongol invaders; its decline
begins. {1}

ca. 1900   13th
c.

A forest-based Sri Lankan ordination line arrives
in Burma and Thailand. Theravada spreads to Laos. Thai Theravada
monasteries first appear in Cambodia shortly before the Thais
win their independence from the Khmers. {1}

ca. 2000   1400’s

Another forest lineage is imported from Sri Lanka
to Ayudhaya, the Thai capital. A new ordination line is also
imported into Burma. {1}

2297   1753

King Kirti Sri Rajasinha obtains bhikkhus from
the Thai court to reinstate the bhikkhu ordination line, which
had died out in Sri Lanka. This is the origin of the Siyam
Nikaya. {8}

2312   1768

Burmese destroy Ayudhaya (Thai capital).

2321   1777

King Rama I, founder of the current dynasty in
Thailand, obtains copies of the Tipitaka from Sri Lanka and
sponsors a Council to standardize the Thai version of the
Tipitaka, copies of which are then donated to temples throughout
the country. {1}

2347   1803

Sri Lankans ordained in the Burmese city of
Amarapura found the Amarapura Nikaya in Sri Lanka to supplement
the Siyam Nikaya, which admitted only brahmans from the Up
Country highlands around Kandy. {9}

2372   1828

Thailand’s Prince Mongkut (later King Rama IV)
founds the Dhammayut movement, which would later become the
Dhammayut Sect. {1}

ca. 2400   1800’s

Sri Lankan Sangha deteriorates under pressure
from two centuries of European colonial rule (Portuguese, Dutch,
British). {5}

2406   1862

Forest monks headed by Ven. Paññananda go to
Burma for reordination, returning to Sri Lanka the following
year to found the Ramañña Nikaya. {9} First
translation of the Dhammapada into a Western language (German).
{2}

2412  
1868

Fifth Council is held at Mandalay, Burma;
Pali Canon is inscribed on 729 marble slabs. {2}

2417   1873

Ven. Mohottivatte Gunananda defeats Christian
missionaries in a public debate, sparking a nationwide revival
of Sri Lankan pride in its Buddhist traditions. {8}

2423   1879

Sir Edwin Arnold publishes his epic poem Light
of Asia,
which becomes a best-seller in England and the USA,
stimulating popular Western interest in Buddhism.

2424   1880

Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott, founders
of the Theosophical Society, arrive in Sri Lanka from the USA,
embrace Buddhism, and begin a campaign to restore Buddhism on
the island by encouraging the establishment of Buddhist schools.
{1}

2425   1881

Pali Text Society is founded in England by T.W.
Rhys Davids; most of the Tipitaka is published in roman script
and, over the next 100 years, in English translation.

2435   1891

Maha Bodhi Society founded in India by the Sri
Lankan lay follower Anagarika Dharmapala, in an effort to
reintroduce Buddhism to India. {1}

2443   1899

First Western Theravada monk (Gordon Douglas)
ordains, in Burma. {2}

ca. 2444   ca.
1900

Ven. Ajaan Mun and Ven. Ajaan Sao revive the
forest meditation tradition in Thailand. {1}

2445   1902

King Rama V of Thailand institutes a Sangha Act
that formally marks the beginnings of the Mahanikaya and
Dhammayut sects. Sangha government, which up to that time had
been in the hands of a lay official appointed by the king, is
handed over to the bhikkhus themselves.

2493   1949

Mahasi Sayadaw becomes head teacher at a
government-sponsored meditation center in Rangoon, Burma. {10}

2498  
1954

Burmese government sponsors a Sixth Council
in Rangoon.

2500   1956

Buddha Jayanti Year, commemorating 2,500 years of
Buddhism.

2502   1958

Ven. Nyanaponika Thera establishes the Buddhist
Publication Society in Sri Lanka to publish English-language
books on Theravada Buddhism. » Sarvodaya Shramadana
Movement is founded in Sri Lanka to bring Buddhist ideals to
bear in solving pressing social problems. Two Germans ordain at
the Royal Thai Embassy in London, becoming the first to take
full Theravada ordination in the West. {1, 2}

ca. 2504   1960’s
3


Washington (D.C.) Buddhist Vihara founded — first Theravada
monastic community in the USA. {11; and
Bhavana Society Brochure}

ca. 2514   1970’s

Refugees from war in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos
settle in USA and Europe, establishing many tight-knit Buddhist
communities in the West. Ven. Taungpulu Sayadaw and Dr. Rina
Sircar, from Burma, establish the » Taungpulu Kaba-Aye
Monastery in Northern California, USA. Ven. Ajaan Chah
establishes » Wat Pah Nanachat, a forest monastery in
Thailand for training Western monks. » Insight Meditation
Society, a lay meditation center, is founded in Massachusetts,
USA. Ven. Ajaan Chah travels to England to establish a small
community of monks at the Hamsptead Vihara, which later moves to
Sussex, England, to become Wat Pah Cittaviveka (Chithurst Forest
Monastery).

ca. 2524   1980’s

Lay meditation centers grow in popularity in USA
and Europe. First Theravada forest monastery in the USA (» Bhavana
Society) is established in West Virginia. » Amaravati
Buddhist Monastery established in England by Ven. Ajaan Sumedho
(student of Ven. Ajaan Chah).

ca. 2534   1990’s

Continued western expansion of the Theravada
Sangha: monasteries from the Thai forest traditions established
in California, USA (» Metta Forest Monastery, founded by
Ven. Ajaan Suwat; » Abhayagiri Monastery, founded by Ven.
Ajaans Amaro and Pasanno). Buddhism meets cyberspace: online
Buddhist information networks emerge; several editions of the
Pali Tipitaka become available online.

Vinaya Pitaka

The Basket of the Discipline


The recitation of the Vinaya by Ven. Upali becomes
accepted as the Vinaya Pitaka

Part Three: The Gold and Silver Chapter [go up]

21 [18].
Should any bhikkhunī take gold and silver, or have it taken, or consent
to its being deposited (near her), it is to be forfeited and confessed.

22 [19]. Should any bhikkhunī engage in various types of monetary exchange, it (the income) is to be forfeited and confessed.

23 [20]. Should any bhikkhunī engage in various types of trade, (the article obtained) is to be forfeited and confessed.

24 [22].
Should any bhikkhunī with an alms bowl having less than five mends ask
for another new bowl, it is to be forfeited and confessed. The bowl is
to be forfeited by the bhikkhunī to the company of bhikkhunīs. That
company of bhikkhunīs’ final bowl should be presented to the bhikkhunī,
(saying,) “This, bhikkhunī, is your bowl. It is to be kept until
broken.” This is the proper course here.

25 [23].
There are these tonics to be taken by sick bhikkhunīs: ghee, fresh
butter, oil, honey, sugar/molasses. Having been received, they are to
be used from storage seven days at most. Beyond that, they are to be
forfeited and confessed.

26 [25].
Should any bhikkhunī — having herself given robe-cloth to (another)
bhikkhunī and then being angered and displeased — snatch it away or
have it snatched away, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

27 [26]. Should any bhikkhunī, having requested thread, have robe-cloth woven by weavers, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

28 [27].
In case a man or woman householder unrelated (to the bhikkhunī) has
robe-cloth woven by weavers for the sake of a bhikkhunī, and if the
bhikkhunī, not previously invited (by the householder), having
approached the weavers, should make stipulations with regard to the
cloth, saying, “This cloth, friends, is to be woven for my sake. Make
it long, make it broad, make it tightly woven, well woven, well spread,
well scraped, well smoothed, and perhaps I may reward you with a little
something”; and should that bhikkhunī, having said that, reward them
with a little something, even as much as almsfood, it (the cloth) is to
be forfeited and confessed.

29 [28].
Ten days prior to the third-month Kattika full moon, should robe-cloth
offered in urgency accrue to a bhikkhunī, she is to accept it if she
regards it as offered in urgency. Once she has accepted it, she may
keep it throughout the robe season. Beyond that, it is to be forfeited
and confessed.

30 [30].
Should any bhikkhunī knowingly divert to herself gains that had been
allocated for a Community, they are to be forfeited and confessed
.


Sutta Pitaka
step by step
The recitation of the Dhamma by Ven. Ananda becomes
established as the Sutta Pitaka.

Upaneyya.m Sutta
Doomed

Thus have I heard. At one time the Blessed One was staying near
Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika’s park. Now a certain
deva,1
as the night was passing away, lighting up the whole Jeta Grove with
his effulgent beauty, approached the Blessed One and, having
approached, stood on one side.

Standing thus on one side, the deva spoke this verse before the Blessed One:

Life but leads to doom. Our time is short.From Decay there’s naught can keep us safe.Contemplating thus the fear of death,Let’s make merit that will bring us bliss.

[The Blessed One replied:]

Life but leads to doom. Our time is short.
From Decay there’s naught can keep us safe.
Contemplating thus this fear of death,
Scorn such worldly bait, seek final peace.2
The Abhidhamma Pitaka step by step

is recited at the Council, along
with additional sections of the Khuddaka Nikaya.

A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma


The Abhidhamma

At the heart of the Abhidhamma philosophy is the Abhidhamma Pitaka,
one of the divisions of the Pali canon recognized by Theravada Buddhism
as the authoritative recension of the Buddha’s teachings. This canon
was compiled at the three great Buddhist councils held in India in the
early centuries following the Buddha’s demise: the first, at Rajagaha,
convened three months after the Buddha’s Parinibbana by five hundred
senior monks under the leadership of the Elder Mahakassapa; the second,
at Vesali, a hundred years later; and the third, at Pataliputta, two
hundred years later. The canon that emerged from these councils,
preserved in the Middle Indian language now called Pali, is known as
the Tipitaka, the three “baskets” or collections of the teachings. The
first collection, the Vinaya Pitaka, is the book of discipline,
containing the rules of conduct for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis — the
monks and nuns — and the regulations governing the Sangha, the monastic
order. The Sutta Pitaka, the second collection, brings together the
Buddha’s discourses spoken by him on various occasions during his
active ministry of forty-five years. And the third collection is the
Abhidhamma Pitaka, the “basket” of the Buddha’s “higher” or “special”
doctrine.

This third great division of the Pali canon bears a distinctly
different character from the other two divisions. Whereas the Suttas
and Vinaya serve an obvious practical purpose, namely, to proclaim a
clear-cut message of deliverance and to lay down a method of personal
training, the Abhidhamma Pitaka presents the appearance of an abstract
and highly technical systemization of the doctrine. The collection
consists of seven books: the Dhammasangani, the Vibhanga, the Dhatukatha, the Puggalapaññatti, the Kathavatthu, the Yamaka, and the Patthana.
Unlike the Suttas, these are not records of discourses and discussions
occurring in real-life settings; they are, rather, full-blown treatises
in which the principles of the doctrine have been methodically
organized, minutely defined, and meticulously tabulated and classified.
Though they were no doubt originally composed and transmitted orally
and only written down later, with the rest of the canon in the first
century B.C., they exhibit the qualities of structured thought and
rigorous consistency more typical of written documents.

In the Theravada tradition the Abhidhamma Pitaka is held in the
highest esteem, revered as the crown jewel of the Buddhist scriptures.
As examples of this high regard, in Sri Lanka King Kassapa V (tenth
century A.C.) had the whole Abhidhamma Pitaka inscribed on gold plates
and the first book set in gems, while another king, Vijayabahu
(eleventh century) used to study the Dhammasangani each morning
before taking up his royal duties and composed a translation of it into
Sinhala. On a cursory reading, however, this veneration given to the
Abhidhamma seems difficult to understand. The texts appear to be merely
a scholastic exercise in manipulating sets of doctrinal terms,
ponderous and tediously repetitive.

The reason the Abhidhamma Pitaka is so deeply revered only becomes
clear as a result of thorough study and profound reflection, undertaken
in the conviction that these ancient books have something significant
to communicate. When one approaches the Abhidhamma treatises in such a
spirit and gains some insight into their wide implications and organic
unity, one will find that they are attempting nothing less than to
articulate a comprehensive vision of the totality of experienced
reality, a vision marked by extensiveness of range, systematic
completeness, and analytical precision. From the standpoint of
Theravada orthodoxy the system that they expound is not a figment of
speculative thought, not a mosaic put together out of metaphysical
hypotheses, but a disclosure of the true nature of existence as
apprehended by a mind that has penetrated the totality of things both
in depth and in the finest detail. Because it bears this character, the
Theravada tradition regards the Abhidhamma as the most perfect
expression possible of the Buddha’s unimpeded omniscient knowledge (sabbaññuta-ñana).
It is his statement of the way things appear to the mind of a Fully Awakened One, ordered in accordance with the two poles of his
teaching: suffering and the cessation of suffering.

The system that the Abhidhamma Pitaka articulates is simultaneously
a philosophy, a psychology, and an ethics, all integrated into the
framework of a program for liberation. The Abhidhamma may be described
as a philosophy because it proposes an ontology, a perspective on the
nature of the real. This perspective has been designated the “dhamma
theory” (dhammavada). Briefly, the dhamma theory maintains that ultimate reality consists of a multiplicity of elementary constituents called dhammas.
The dhammas are not noumena hidden behind phenomena, not “things in
themselves” as opposed to “mere appearances,” but the fundamental
components of actuality. The dhammas fall into two broad classes: the
unconditioned dhamma, which is solely Nibbana, and the conditioned
dhammas, which are the momentary mental and material phenomena that
constitute the process of experience. The familiar world of substantial
objects and enduring persons is, according to the dhamma theory, a
conceptual construct fashioned by the mind out of the raw data provided
by the dhammas. The entities of our everyday frame of reference possess
merely a consensual reality derivative upon the foundational stratum of
the dhammas. It is the dhammas alone that possess ultimate reality:
determinate existence “from their own side” (sarupato) independent of the mind’s conceptual processing of the data.

Such a conception of the nature of the real seems to be already
implicit in the Sutta Pitaka, particularly in the Buddha’s
disquisitions on the aggregates, sense bases, elements, dependent
arising, etc., but it remains there tacitly in the background as the
underpinning to the more pragmatically formulated teachings of the
Suttas. Even in the Abhidhamma Pitaka itself the dhamma theory is not
yet expressed as an explicit philosophical tenet; this comes only
later, in the Commentaries. Nevertheless, though as yet implicit, the
theory still comes into focus in its role as the regulating principle
behind the Abhidhamma’s more evident task, the project of systemization.

This project starts from the premise that to attain the wisdom that
knows things “as they really are,” a sharp wedge must be driven between
those types of entities that possess ontological ultimacy, that is, the
dhammas, and those types of entities that exist only as conceptual
constructs but are mistakenly grasped as ultimately real. Proceeding
from this distinction, the Abhidhamma posits a fixed number of dhammas
as the building blocks of actuality, most of which are drawn from the
Suttas. It then sets out to define all the doctrinal terms used in the
Suttas in ways that reveal their identity with the ontological
ultimates recognized by the system. On the basis of these definitions,
it exhaustively classifies the dhammas into a net of pre-determined
categories and modes of relatedness which highlight their place within
the system’s structure. And since the system is held to be a true
reflection of actuality, this means that the classification pinpoints
the place of each dhamma within the overall structure of actuality
.

The Abhidhamma’s attempt to comprehend the nature of reality,
contrary to that of classical science in the West, does not proceed
from the standpoint of a neutral observer looking outwards towards the
external world. The primary concern of the Abhidhamma is to understand
the nature of experience, and thus the reality on which it focuses is
conscious reality, the world as given in experience, comprising both
knowledge and the known in the widest sense. For this reason the
philosophical enterprise of the Abhidhamma shades off into a
phenomenological psychology. To facilitate the understanding of
experienced reality, the Abhidhamma embarks upon an elaborate analysis
of the mind as it presents itself to introspective meditation. It
classifies consciousness into a variety of types, specifies the factors
and functions of each type, correlates them with their objects and
physiological bases, and shows how the different types of consciousness
link up with each other and with material phenomena to constitute the
ongoing process of experience.

This analysis of mind is not motivated by theoretical curiosity but
by the overriding practical aim of the Buddha’s teaching, the
attainment of deliverance from suffering. Since the Buddha traces
suffering to our tainted attitudes — a mental orientation rooted in
greed, hatred, and delusion — the Abhidhamma’s phenomenological
psychology also takes on the character of a psychological ethics,
understanding the term “ethics” not in the narrow sense of a code of
morality but as a complete guide to noble living and mental
purification. Accordingly we find that the Abhidhamma distinguishes
states of mind principally on the basis of ethical criteria: the
wholesome and the unwholesome, the beautiful factors and the
defilements. Its schematization of consciousness follows a hierarchical
plan that corresponds to the successive stages of purity to which the
Buddhist disciple attains by practice of the Buddha’s path. This plan
traces the refinement of the mind through the progression of meditative
absorptions, the fine-material-sphere and immaterial-sphere jhanas,
then through the stages of insight and the wisdom of the supramundane
paths and fruits. Finally, it shows the whole scale of ethical
development to culminate in the perfection of purity attained with the
mind’s irreversible emancipation from all defilements.

All three dimensions of the Abhidhamma — the philosophical, the
psychological, and the ethical — derive their final justification from
the cornerstone of the Buddha’s teaching, the program of liberation
announced by the Four Noble Truths. The ontological survey of dhammas
stems from the Buddha’s injunction that the noble truth of suffering,
identified with the world of conditioned phenomena as a whole, must be
fully understood (pariññeyya). The prominence of mental
defilements and requisites of awakenment in its schemes of
categories, indicative of its psychological and ethical concerns,
connects the Abhidhamma to the second and fourth noble truths, the
origin of suffering and the way leading to its end. And the entire
taxonomy of dhammas elaborated by the system reaches its consummation
in the “unconditioned element” (asankhata dhatu), which is Nibbana, the third noble truth, that of the cessation of suffering.

India

Republic of India, Bharat, Bharatavarsha


[Flag of India]


by
Željko Heimer
Flag adopted 22 July 1947, coat of arms adopted 26 January 1950.

Meaning of the Flag

‘The Indian flag is a horizontal tricolor in equal proportion of deep saffron
on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. The ratio of the
width to the length of the flag is two is to three. In the centre of the white
band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of
law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. This center symbol or the ‘CHAKRA’ is a symbol
dating back to 2nd century BC. Its diameter approximates the width of the white
band and it has 24 spokes, which intends to show that there is life in movement
and death in stagnation. The saffron stands for courage and sacrifice; the
white, for purity and truth; the green for growth and auspiciousness.

The Constituent Assembly which drew up the Constitution of India, adopted, on 22
July 1947, the tricolor as Independent India’s National Flag. After a debate,
the Dharma Chakra (of Emperor Ashoka) was included in the central white stripe
of the flag, instead of the Charka (used symbolically by Gandhiji and also
included in the flag used by the Indian National Congress). The same Chakra
adorns the State Emblem adapted from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka in
addition to the motto from the Mundaka Upanishad, Satyameva Jayate which means:
Truth alone triumphs. The Chakra or the wheel symbolizes the Power of the State
governed by Dharma, which is the primordial Indian system of justice which is
the bed-rock, not only of governance but of the socio-politico-economic edifice
itself.’
Brinda Maindiratta, 2 April 2003

The following is an
extract from the preamble to the
flag code of India as
posted on the official Home Ministry website of the Indian government:

The significance of the colours and the chakra in the National Flag was
amply described by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in the Constituent Assembly which
unanimously adopted the National Flag. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan explained
-”Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation of disinterestedness.
Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to
their work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our
conduct. The green shows our relation to soil, our relation to the plant
life here on which all other life depends. The Ashoka Wheel in the centre of
the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or
virtue ought to be the controlling principles of those who work under this
flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There
is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go
forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change.”

Shree Sinha, 25 November 2003

Reproduced below an extract from
Jawaharlal Nehru’s address to the Constituent Assembly for the date on which the
national flag was adopted (Tuesday, 22 July 1947):

“I present this Flag to you.
This Resolution defines the Flag which I trust
you will adopt. In a sense this Flag was adopted, not by a formal
resolution, but by popular acclaim and usage, adopted much more by the
sacrifice that surrounded it in the past few decades. We are in a sense only
ratifying that popular adoption. It is a Flag which has been variously
described. Some people, having misunderstood its significance, have thought
of it in communal terms and believe that some part of it represents this
community or that. But I may say that when this Flag was devised there was
no communal significance attached to it.”

At the same meeting of the Constituent Assembly, Govind Das added:

“There is no touch of communalism in the three colours of the flag. Panditji
(i.e., Jawaharlal Nehru) has already told you this in the course of his
speech. It is true that at a time when the colours were red, white and green
there was a trace of communalism in the flag. But when we changed these
colours to saffron, white and green, we declared it in clear words that the
three colours had no communal significance.”

The

official website of the High Commission of India in London
states “The
saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation; the white,
for purity and truth; and the green for faith and fertility.

Shree Sinha, 25 November 2003

I have seen at a guess a dozen or more artificially constructed and
intentionally fanciful imposed “meanings” for the Indian flag. Most are
fairly phoney and contrived. When first used early in this century, the
explanation was simple: saffron = Hindus, green = Muslims, white = the
peace between then (wish-fulfillment?), the wheel = the Gandhian
spinning wheel (early on, more obviously so in the design).
Post-independence explanations differ, though those today (especially
the current pressure to change the flag to solid orange) return to
earlier meanings. The similarity to the Irish flag, though with different equivalences, was not in any way an accident. Pick an explanation…?
Ed Haynes, 30 September 1998

One of the spurious meanings of
the Indian flag according to

http://www.trimurtisolutions.com/india/index.html

states the color of saffron/kesaria stand for patriotism (balidaan),
white is for simplicity and peace, green is for agriculture (kheti)
farming (kisan) and greenery (hariyali), the navy blue wheel in the
center is the “Ashoka chakra”, the wheel of progress.
collected by Dov Gutterman, 30 September 1998

I’m extremely sceptical of the information about a controversy
regarding the color of the flag. We have border disputes and other
headaches, but an issue regarding the flag itself? Doesn’t exist.
However, the significance of the blue wheel is much more (and here it
borders on Hindu philosophy): “The chakra [wheel] in the Indian Flag
which represents the wheel of life conveys the importance of karma. It
is also a symbol for continuation of life and its cycles”.
Jeetendra Chandragiri, 17 Dec 1999




Flag Code

On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed. After 52 years, the
citizens of India are free to fly the Indian flag over their homes,
offices and factories on any day. Except some basic rules to follow
while flying the flags, all other restrictions have been removed. Now
Indians can
proudly display the national flag any where and any time.
Mohan, 12 Feb 2002

 There are some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on
the 26 January 2002 legislation. These include the following:

The Do’s

  1. The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools,
    colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to inspire respect for the Flag. An
    oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in schools.
  2. A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution
    may hoist/display the National Flag on all days and occasions, ceremonial or
    otherwise consistent with the dignity and honour of the National Flag.
  3. Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly
    the flag on their premises.

The Don’ts

  1. The flag cannot be used for communal
    gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from
    sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather.
  2. The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the
    ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the
    hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.
  3. No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the
    flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or emblems can be
    placed on or above the flag. The tricolour cannot be used as a festoon,
    rosette or bunting.
As of
January 26th, many have already started hoisting the flags at their
premises. This new flag code would not have been made possible if it
weren’t for one Indian who had been constantly been arguing/fighting
against the government and for the citizen’s right for the free
hoisting of flags. Apparently this particular Indian had filed a law
suit and has been fighting for this right for ages until he finally won

this right somewhere around the end of Dec. 2001.
Shriram, 16 February 2002

The entire flag code can be obtained at

Outlook India
.
Pascal Vagnat, 18 January 2003

Indlaw
News
, 9 March 2006, reported:
“The Punjab and Haryana High Court today issued notice for March 16 to Punjab
Government on a plea against the use of National Flag by the chief parliamentary
secretary and the parliamentary secretaries on their official vehicles. The
division bench of Justices Surinder Singh Saron and Surya Kant ordered this
after the preliminary hearing on the application moved by advocate Antar Singh
Brar, member of the Chandigarh BJP’s legal cell, wherein he challenged the
validity of the action of the respondents to use National Flag on their official
vehicles.”
Ivan Sache, 14 March 2006

“Use of National Flags made of plastic affects the dignity of the flag as
they are not biodegradable like the paper flags and also they cannot be
destroyed for a long time. It is also harmful for the atmosphere. Having noticed
large scale use of National Flags made of plastic, the Union ministry of home
affairs has asked all states and Union government to use only flags made of
paper on important national, cultural and sports events. The Union deputy home
secretary, SM Bhatnagar in an intimation sent to the states’ chief secretaries
and secretaries of all ministries/departments of the government of India asked
them to pay attention to paragraph 2.2 (x) of section-I of part II of the flag
code of conduct of India. The flag code of conduct of India states “the flag
made of paper may be waved by public on occasions of important national,
cultural and sports events. However, such paper flags should not be discarded or
thrown on the ground after the event. As far as possible, it should be disposed
of in private consistent with the dignity of the flag.” In the intimation of the
MHA which addresses the chief secretaries of states and Union territory
governments, secretaries of all ministries/department of government of India
asked them to ensure use of only flags made of paper on important national,
cultural and sports events in terms of the provisions of the flag code of
India.”
Source:

The Imphal Free Press
, 3 January 2006
Ivan Sache, 6 January 2007

Information regarding the obsolete 1950 flag code:

A strict flag code announced in the year 1950 regulated the use and display
of the national flag.
It barred the use of the flag in advertisements or for any other commercial
activity.
In fact, even private citizens were not allowed to fly the flag over their
homes, offices or factories except on certain designated days like the
Republic Day or the Independence Day.
Source: BBC News
Contributed by Santiago Tazon, 31 August 2000

There is a clear proviso in the flag code permitting putting flower
petals inside the national Tricolour before it is unfurled on special
occasions like Republic Day and Independence Day… the proviso
permitting the use of petals was added to Section 5.9 on January 24,
1997
Source: The Tribune
Contributed by Jaume Ollé, 5 November 2000


[Flag of India]
by
�eljko Heimer and Ivan Sache, 14 February 2007

In New Delhi in August 2001 I did not notice any flag of interest, but Indian
national flags without the chakra hoisted on poles in the center of the city.
Was this a way to circumvent the [old] law prohibiting private use of the
national flag?
Ivan Sache, 17 January 2002

According to “The Daily Times” (Karachi, Pakistan), 14 December 2005, the
Parliament of India has adopted on 12 December 2005 a new law to protect the
national flag and ban its uses deemed insulting. The use of the national flag on
underwear or on any other clothing worn below the belt shall be forbidden.
However, sports figures and others can wear India�s green, white and orange
national colours on T-shirts, caps and coats. The legislation makes it illegal
to �insult� national symbols by displaying them on clothes and accessories worn
below the belt or on underwear. The legislation also makes it illegal to
embroider national symbols on
pillow cases and handkerchiefs.
Source:

www.dailytimes.com.pk

Ivan Sache, 30 December 2005



Detail of the Ashoka Chakra


[Detail of Chakra]
by
Željko Heimer

based on
Album des Pavillons (2000)

This was also the early Indian Air Force marking, according to
Cochrane and Elliott (1998) in the period
1947-48, and was used together with the fin flash using a square(ish) vertical
tricolour of orange-white-green (orange to front).
Željko Heimer, 11 November 2001

The Chakra on the National Flag was officially defined at 75% of the white
stripe in 1947 (taken from specifications issued by the Indian Standards
Institution), but according to William Crampton (1993) this has largely been
ignored in practice ever since. To quote from Dr Crampton’s notes: “…in
practice the Chakra occupies 98% of the white stripe (or thereabouts)”, and the
spec he drew up shows it at exactly that.











 

Ms. MAYAWATI
Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh
Life History: At A Glance 

 

Full
Name

Kumari Mayawati (Mayawati Miss)

 

·          
Member of Uttar Pradesh Legislative
Council; resigned from the membership of parliament (
Rajya
Sabha) after being sworn in as Chief Minister of
Uttar Pradesh on May 13, 2007;

·          
National President, Bahujan
Samaj Party (BSP), one of the prominent national
political parties of India;

·          
Serving fourth time as Chief Minister of
Uttar Pradesh, the most-populated, politically most important and intensely
conservative state of
India.

People
affectionately call

Bahanji’ (Honourable Sister)

Father’s
name

Mr. Prabhu Das, who retired from
the Indian Government’s Postal Department as a section head.

Mother’s name

Mrs. Ramrati (housewife), who provided economic sustenance
to the family through her untiring efforts, and despite not being literate,
took keen interest in education of all her children and made them capable
in life.

Date
of Birth

15 January, 1956.

Place
of Birth

Shrimati Sucheta Kriplani Hospital (formerly known as
Lady Harding Hospital), New Delhi

In
Father’s Family

Six brothers and
two sisters (besides herself)

Her
own family

First it was entire
Bahujan Samaj’, now it
is Sarva Samaj, people
belonging to all section of the society.

Her
Everything

Dedicated to
welfare of majority deprived section of the society.

Dearest
to heart

Welfare and
empowerment of “oppressed, depressed and exploited” section of the society,

Political
Goal

Turn “Bahujan Samaj” into a ruling
class by capturing country’s power centre and authority through votes.

Ancestral
Village

Badalpur, District Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar
Pradesh

Field
of Action

Initially Uttar
Pradesh and later the entire
India

Things
fond of

Normal light Indian
cuisine; attracted towards natural environment and extremely fond of
cleanliness.

Marital
Status

Have taken a vow to
remain unmarried to dedicate her entire life whole-heartedly and devotedly
to serve the cause and interest of the people of
Bahujan
Samaj and poor of High Castes and to work towards
their social, educational and economic emancipation.

Educational
Status

Bachelor of Arts,
Bachelor of Education and Bachelor of Laws (LL.B),

1. B.A. from Kalindi College, Delhi University,
2.
B.Ed. BMLG College, Ghaziabad, Meerut University,
3. Law Degree from the
Delhi University

Occupation

Lawyer, Political
and social activist

Permanent
Address

C-57, Indrapuri, New Delhi-110012

Present
Address

C-1/12, Humayun Road, New Delhi-110003

Phone
Nos.

011-24616606/
24616607

Political
And Administrative Experience:

November
1989

Both she and the
party, the BSP made debut in Parliament. Won
Bijnore
(reserved) Lok Sabha
seat in Uttar Pradesh in the Ninth General Elections of 1989.

April
1994

Elected to the Rajya Sabha from Uttar
Pradesh, signaling her debut, as also of the party, in the Upper House of
Indian Parliament.

June
1995

In
1995, Ms.
Mayawati created history by becoming
Indian’s first Dalit woman chief minister,
heading first Bahujan Samaj
Party (Majority People’s Party) government in India’s most-populated state of Uttar Pradesh.

Became
Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, the largest state of
India in
terms of population 4-times :

 

(1) 1995 : 3rd June, 1995 to 18th October, 1995

 

(2) 1997 : 21st March, 1997 to 20th September, 1997

 

(3) 2002 : 3rd May, 2002 to 26th August, 2003

 

(4) 2007 : 13th May, 2007 till date

1996-98

Elected as a
legislator. Elected from the two different constituencies of Uttar Pradesh—
Harora (reserved) in Saharanpur district and Bilsi (reserved) in Budaun
district. Represented the constituency of Harora
in the state assembly, resigning from Bilsi seat
as per the law.

21st March, 1997

Became Chief
Minister of Uttar Pradesh for the second time.

February
1998

Elected for the
second time in the 12th
Lok Sabha elections from Uttar Pradesh’s
Akbarpur (reserved) parliamentary constituency in
Ambedkar Nagar
district.

February
1999

Elected for the
third time in the 13th
Lok Sabha
elections from Akbarpur (reserved) constituency.

14th April, 1999

Senior journalist
Mohammad
Jamil Akhter’s
book, entitled “Iron Lady Kumari Mayawati”, was released by Mr. Kanshi
Ram Ji at a grand function in New Delhi on the occasion of
Dr.
Ambedkar’s birth anniversary.

3rd June, 2000

Release of her own
book, “
Bahujan Samaj Aur Uski Rajniti
(Bahujan Samaj and its
Politics) by Mr. Kanshi Ram Ji
at a function in New Delhi’s Talkatora stadium on the occasion of the fifth
anniversary of the first ‘Bahujan Samaj’ government in Uttar Pradesh.

15th December, 2001

BSP architect and
founder,
Manyawar Shri Kanshi Ram Ji, declared her
as the sole heir and political successor of him and the “Bahujan Movement” at a grand rally in the Lakshman Mela ground on the
bank of river Gomti in the Uttar Pradesh capital Lucknow.

February
2002

Re-elected as a
legislator in the Uttar Pradesh assembly elections. Was declared a winner
from the two constituencies—
Harora (reserved) in Saharanpur district and Jahangirganj (reserved) in Ambedkar
Nagar District. Represented Harora
seat and resigned from Jahangirganj seat.

March,
2002

Resigned from Akbarpur (reserved) Lok Sabha seat.

3rd May, 2002

Became Chief
Minister of Uttar Pradesh for the third time

18th September, 2003

Assumed the office
of
Bahujan Samaj
Party’s National President after Mr. Kanshi Ram Ji suddenly fell seriously ill following a brain
stroke.

April-May,
2004

Elected for the
fourth time in the 14th
Lok Sabha elections from Akbarpur
(reserved) seat in Uttar Pradesh

July
2004

After resigning
from the
Lok Sabha,
elected for the second time as a member of the Rajya
Sabha for a six-year term from Uttar Pradesh.

27th August, 2006

Re-elected as
National President of the
Bahujan Samaj Party unanimously in an All India Delegate
Conference held at Lucknow.

13th May, 2007

Was administered
oath for the office of the Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh fourth time after
her party registered a comfortable majority win in the general elections
for the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, trouncing
Samajwadi
party, BJP and the Congress.

3rd July, 2007

Joined as member of
the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council after elected unopposed in the
by-election for the upper house of the state legislature. Declared that she
chose to become MLC as she wish to concentrate on the development of all
the 403 assembly constituencies of state assembly rather than my
constituency
only …. I am not Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav, who had
diverted all the funds to develop his home area only.

Book writing (for missionary objectives):

 

(1) Bahujan Samaj Aur Uski Rajniti
(October 2000)

(2) Bahujan Samaj Aur Uski Rajniti,
English (October 2001)

(3) Mere Sangarshmai Jeevan Evam Bahujan Movement Ka Safarnama, three-volume over 3300 pages book, first two
part of which was released by BSP founder Manyawar
Shri Kanshi Ram Ji on 15th January, 2006 on the occasion of 50th birth
anniversary of Ms. Mayawati Ji.

(4) A Travelogue of
My struggle-ridden life and of
Bahujan Samaj, English, two volume book released on 15th March,
2008 on the birth anniversary of Mamnyawar Shri Kanshi Ram Ji.

Social
& Cultural activities

To serve the
country’s real natives—-Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward
Classes (
OBCs) and religious minorities—and
encourage activities for their overall development.

Special
Inclination

Educate and organise the poor, oppressed and impoverished sections
of the society to fight for their legal and constitutional rights.

Life’s
Aim

To remain engaged
in the fight for “social transformation and economic liberation” of the
Bahujan Samaj” so that about
85 per cent people of India’s more than a
hundred
crore population, representing the “Bahujan Samaj”, could be
brought in the national mainstream. Poor of other sections of the society
are also to be educationally and economically uplifted.

Foreign
Travels

(1) Visited Canada, Denmark, France, Japan, Switzerland, Korea and Taiwan in the capacity of
the Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister

(2) London: To inaugurate the
Dr.
Bhimrao Ambedkar
Memorial Community Centre as Bahujan Samaj Party National Vice-President

(3) As a
representative of
India, addressed the UN
General Assembly while participating in an international seminar on the
topic, “Democracy through Partnership between Men and Women”,
organised by the Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU) on 7th June, 2000 in New York, USA

Other
Information

As a teacher
(government employee), remained associated with BAMCEF—The All India
Backward (Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Castes) and
Minority Communities Employees Federation since 1977. Entered politics
through the
Bahujan Samaj
Party, set up on 14 April, 1984. At present,
National President of the
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP).

Spotlight:

(1) “NEWSWEEK”
Lists Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ms.
Mayawati
Among World’s Top Eight Women/New York, America, October 15, 2007: US news magazine
NEWSWEEK has listed firebrand Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister
Mayawati among eight women leaders worldwide who have
reached the top despite all odds. Narrating her struggle briefly, Ms. Mayawati said: “I like the competition and I like to
win.”

(2) Queen of the Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath……emerging even as potential Prime Minister/
Profile/ “TIME” news Magazine 2 page news story on April 14, 2008 issue.

PM dream
is Maya rally theme
 

New Delhi, Nov. 23: The Prime
Ministerial dream of Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath. queen and BSP supremo, Ms Mayawati, is now
turning out to be the theme of party’s election rallies. 


“Apni sherni
bahena, banegi Pradhan Mantri

(our tigress sister, will become the
PM),”


the song, sung by the BSP’s band of travelling rent the DDA
ground in Trilokpuri on Sunday afternoon.

This was the BSP chief’s first public rally in Delhi,
slated to go for Assembly polls on November 29. The rally was for the
Assembly elections, but the agenda was to market Ms Mayawati for the
top slot during the forthcoming general elections.

At 2.15 pm, the ground packed to the capacity roared
with “behenji zindabad”, as she stepped on the dais to address the
gathering. The wily politician of Uttar Pradesh, aiming for the
country, immediately raised her most successful electoral weapon —
social engineering. Before she spoke, her close aide and party
general-secretary, Mr Satish Chandra Mishra, had made the agenda clear.

“The sarvajan movement has now taken deep roots and
is spreading fast in other parts of the country. Stage is set for Ms
Mayawati to become the Prime Minister in 2009 and nobody will be able
to stop her from occupying the top post,” he spoke amidst a thunderous
applause.

The BSP chief tried to turn the heat on the Congress
over the law and order situation and indicated that the situation was
better in her home state. “The crime situation of Delhi is same as it
was before I came to power in UP. Everyday I read news of murder and
crime in Delhi, which is shameful,” said Ms Mayawati.

And then she targeted both the Congress and the BJP.
“The Congress and BJP have been ruling the country. These parties spend
lots of money on elections, which they get from big industrialists and
rich people. After coming to the power their policies only benefit the
rich,” she said. In her typical style she said,


“We take money from you
to fight elections. Once we come to power we will make policies which
work for you, not for the rich.”

If she touched on the basic problems of Delhi, like
unauthorised colonies, electricity, waters, problems of the traders,
she also signalled for the Lok Sabha polls, by saying, once BSP comes
to power, there would “reservations also for the economically weaker
section among the upper caste”.

She reminded her moves in UP to work for the
upliftments and creating opportunities for the minority communities and
the backwards.


The BJP and the Congress are for trying to divide India on the basis of caste and religion.

Ms Mayawati  held a major rally in the Trilokpuri area of east
Delhi. The national capital goes to the polls to elect its new Assembly
on November 29.

 

The BSP supremo talked about her social engineering strategies and
strongly denied that hers was a caste-based party. “People try to label
us a caste-based party, which we are not. We are not against upper
castes… We want the development of all sections of society.”

 


Bipolar structure under threat in M.P

SATNA: The November 27 Assembly elections in Madhya Pradesh will
decide whether the bipolar political structure will be retained or a
new political order will surface.

The BJP and the Congress, for the first time, are faced with the
prospect of having to acknowledge the presence of quite a few political
forces seeking a proper share in shaping the State’s destiny. And most
of these parties are striving to form their base in the Bundelkhand and
Baghelkhand regions.

The battle lines in Satna district conform to the political
situation along the State’s border with Uttar Pradesh which appeared
more prone to an invasion by forces from across the border unlike from
borders touching other States.

The electoral tussle along the border appears as an extended
battlefield of Uttar Pradesh, what with the BSP and the SP seeking to
get a better foothold in Madhya Pradesh.

The party in power from across the border gets to reap a good
harvest. The advantage
this time lay with Ms. Mayawati.

The BSP  is harming both the Congress and the BJP and the
BJSP is damaging the BJP most by depleting its workforce.  The BSP had a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath base and the party
fielded candidates tactically in all the 50-odd constituencies of
Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.

The two regions are very backward and dominated by backward castes.
They also have a good sprinkling of upper castes and Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath, allowing
for a host of forces to play on their sentiments and find roots for
themselves. The BSP, for instance, has promised a new State for
Bundelkhand.

It’s development versus corruption in Rajasthan

Jaipur, Nov 23 (IANS) Anti-incumbency, the Gujjar
issue, corruption and development are set to hog the campaign in the
Dec 4 Rajasthan assembly elections.

The state assembly has 200 seats, with the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) now having 121 legislators and Congress 53.

It
has always been a two-party contest in the state, but Uttar Pradesh
Chief Minister Mayawati’s Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is pulling out all
stops to make a dent in the votes of both the major parties. The BSP is
fighting for all 200 seats and may win 130 seats as per Three baskets Study Circle

Vote BSP in Delhi to put criminals behind bars: Mayawati

New Delhi, Nov 23 (IANS) Uttar Pradesh Chief
Minister and Bahujan Samaj Party chief Mayawati Sunday promised to rid
the national capital of crime if her party was voted to power in next
week’s assembly elections.

‘Despite Delhi
falling within the jurisdiction of the Congress government in the state
and the centre, they are incapable of tackling the dismal law and order
situation. If BSP comes to power, criminals will be in jails and not
outside,’ she said to applause from a crowd of thousands at Trilokpuri
in east Delhi.

The BSP is contesting all the 70 seats in Delhi assembly election.

She
also described the Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the
main contestants, as parties of the rich while, she claimed, her party
stands for the common people.

‘The
Congress and the BJP are the rich man’s parties. The BSP wants to win
elections on the basis of the common man’s support. We are the common
man’s party,’ Mayawati said.

She
said if Delhi wanted development and solution to its problems, ‘you
will have to ensure that the BJP, the Congress and their allies are
defeated and the BSP is voted to power in Delhi.’

Mayawati,
who successfully experimented caste politics based on a Brahmin-Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath
equation in the Uttar Pradesh assembly election last year, said there
will not be any discrimination between people on caste or religious
lines if the BSP came to power.

‘Our party ensures that no one in the state is discriminated against on grounds of religion or caste,’ she said.

Talking
about the social situation in Uttar Pradesh, Mayawati said: ‘We empower
the Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward
Classes, who have been discriminated against in the past and there had
been no improvement in their status.’

Spelling
out the populist measures being taken by her government in her state,
Mayawati said: ‘In Uttar Pradesh, the children of the poor have more
opportunities in education. The enrolment has increased. We are even
giving free coaching to aspirants of IAS, IPS and other government
posts.’

‘Two-bedroom
flats are being constructed and given to the homeless, even the
standard of living of villagers has improved drastically,’ she said.

Comparing
her administration with the earlier Samajwadi Party (SP)
administration, Mayawati said after the BSP came to power in the state,
crime has reduced, especially crime against women.

‘If
you compare BSP’s regime in Uttar Pradesh to the earlier party’s, one
can see how mafia and caste-based violence was prevalent in earlier
times,’ she said.

Her
remarks were frequently applauded by her supporters who came on foot,
in buses, vans and trucks. Nearly 20,000 enthusiastic people poured in
from Delhi and its outskirts to hear Mayawati.

The
grounds where the rally took place wore a festive look as people,
especially women and children, wore caps and scarves and brandished
banners and flags - all with the BSP election symbol of elephant and in
blue, the party colour - and eagerly awaited their ‘behenji’, as she is
affectionately referred to, to speak.

‘We
support behenji because she works for the poor and the neglected like
us. She works for women,’ said a woman holding a BSP flag in the crowd.

C.M. inspects roads of Lucknow


International Federation for Freedom of
Original Inhabitants and Migrates (IFFOM)

 

 

Mighty Great Mind Training!

Social Transformation!

And Economical Emancipation!

Through

Testing the efficacy of social engineering!

 

First Lesson

 

Vote for Bahujan Samaj Party with the Elaphant Symbol for
the success of Social Engineering to achieve Social Transformation
  and Economical Emancipation in order
distribute the wealth equally among all sections of the society and to enable
the Government to distribute lands to the tillers with Healthy Seeds, loans to
all those who wish to do business and for directing the Government Employees to
do efficient corrupt free job.

 

O! Pure land

 

Our aspiration in life is to see entire people triumph over
the suppressive forces of ignorance, un-satisfactoriness,greed, hatred, anger,
jealousy, delusion, superstition (false religious teaching) and tyranny.
Therefore, we have sworn to confront these influences wherever they arise.
Being spellbound for thousands of years is long enough! In our age, the battles
for freedom and supremacy are being waged on the mental planes. In order to
fulfill prophecy and emerge victorious, we must be armed with an over standing
of our origins, history and the machinations of those who conspire against us.
Any part that we can play in such a revolution of consciousness is our willing
service to a resurgent Pure
Land.



comments (0)
11/22/08
Vinaya Pitaka-Part Two: The Robe-cloth Chapter -Sutta Pitaka Ogha-tarana Sutta Crossing over the Flood -Abhidhamma Practice Step by Step-Food for the Heart-Buddha’s own words on Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation Teacher of the Devas-I. Introduction -Mayawati’s magic Will work in M.P.
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:35 pm


Part Two: The Robe-cloth Chapter [go up]

11. When a bhikkhunī is asking
for a heavy cloth, one worth four “bronzes” at most may be asked for.
If she asks for more than that, it is to be forfeited and confessed.
(§•)

12. When a bhikkhunī is asking
for a light cloth, one worth two and a half “bronzes” at most may be
asked for. If she asks for more than that, it is to be forfeited and
confessed. (§•)

13 [1].
When a bhikkhunī has finished her robe and the frame is destroyed (her
kathina privileges are in abeyance), she is to keep extra robe-cloth
ten days at most. Beyond that, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

14 [2].
When a bhikkhunī has finished her robe and the frame is destroyed (her
kathina privileges are in abeyance): If she dwells apart from (any of)
her five robes even for one night — unless authorized by the bhikkhunīs
— it is to be forfeited and confessed.

15 [3].
When a bhikkhunī has finished her robe and the frame is destroyed (her
kathina privileges are in abeyance): Should out-of-season robe-cloth
accrue to her, she may accept it if she so desires. Having accepted it,
she is to make it up immediately (into a cloth requisite). But should
it not be enough, she may lay it aside for a month at most if she has
an expectation for filling the lack. If she should keep it beyond that,
even when she has an expectation (for further cloth), it is to be
forfeited and confessed.

16 [6].
Should any bhikkhunī ask for robe-cloth from a man or woman householder
unrelated to her, except at the proper occasion, it is to be forfeited
and confessed. Here the proper occasion is this: The bhikkhunī’s robe
has been snatched away or destroyed. This is the proper occasion here.

17 [7].
If that unrelated man or woman householder presents the bhikkhunī with
many robes (pieces of robe-cloth), she is to accept at most (enough
for) an upper and a lower robe. If she accepts more than that, it is to
be forfeited and confessed.

18 [8].
In case a man or woman householder unrelated (to the bhikkhunī)
prepares a robe fund for the sake of a bhikkhunī, thinking. “Having
purchased a robe with this robe fund, I will clothe the bhikkhunī named
so-and-so with a robe:” If the bhikkhunī, not previously invited,
approaching (the householder) should make a stipulation with regard to
the robe, saying, “It would be good indeed, sir, if you clothed me
(with a robe), having purchased a robe of such-and-such a sort with
this robe fund” — out of a desire for something fine — it is to be
forfeited and confessed.

19 [9].
In case two householders — men or women — unrelated (to the bhikkhunī)
prepare separate robe funds for the sake of a bhikkhunī, thinking,
“Having purchased separate robes with these separate robe funds of
ours, we will clothe the bhikkhunī named so-and-so with robes”: If the
bhikkhunī, not previously invited, approaching (them) should make a
stipulation with regard to the robe, saying, “It would be good indeed,
sirs, if you clothed me (with a robe), having purchased a robe of
such-and-such a sort with these separate robe funds, the two (funds)
together for one (robe)” — out of a desire for something fine — it is
to be forfeited and confessed.

20 [10].
In case a king, a royal official, a brahman, or a householder sends a
robe fund for the sake of a bhikkhunī via a messenger, (saying,)
“Having purchased a robe with this robe fund, clothe the bhikkhunī
named so-and-so with a robe”: If the messenger, approaching the
bhikkhunī, should say, “This is a robe fund being delivered for the
sake of the lady. May the lady accept this robe fund,” then the
bhikkhunī is to tell the messenger: “We do not accept robe funds, my
friend. We accept robes (robe-cloth) as are proper according to season.”

If the messenger should say to the bhikkhunī, “Does the lady have a
steward?” then, bhikkhunīs, if the bhikkhunī desires a robe, she may
indicate a steward — either a monastery attendant or a lay follower —
(saying,) “That, sir, is the bhikkhunīs’ steward.”

If the messenger, having instructed the steward and going to the
bhikkhunī, should say, “I have instructed the steward the lady
indicated. May the lady go (to her) and she will clothe you with a robe
in season,” then the bhikkhunī, desiring a robe and approaching the
steward, may prompt and remind her two or three times, “I have need of
a robe.” Should (the steward) produce the robe after being prompted and
reminded two or three times, that is good.

If she should not produce the robe, (the bhikkhunī) should stand in
silence four times, five times, six times at most for that purpose.
Should (the steward) produce the robe after (the bhikkhunī) has stood
in silence for the purpose four, five, six times at most, that is good.

If she should not produce the robe (at that point), should she then
produce the robe after (the bhikkhunī) has endeavored further than
that, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

If she should not produce (the robe), then the bhikkhunī herself
should go to the place from which the robe fund was brought, or a
messenger should be sent (to say), “The robe fund that you, venerable
sirs, sent for the sake of the bhikkhunī has given no benefit to the
bhikkhunī at all. May the you be united with what is yours. May what is
yours not be lost.” This is the proper course here.

Sutta Pitaka in Cronological order


Ogha-tarana Sutta
Crossing over the Flood

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s
monastery. Then a certain devata, in the far extreme of the night, her
extreme radiance lighting up the entirety of Jeta’s Grove, went to the
Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to him, she stood to one
side. As she was standing there, she said to him, “Tell me, dear sir,
how you crossed over the flood.”

“I crossed over the flood without pushing forward, without staying in place.”1

“But how, dear sir, did you cross over the flood without pushing forward, without staying in place?”

“When I pushed forward, I was whirled about. When I stayed in place,
I sank. And so I crossed over the flood without pushing forward,
without staying in place.”

[The devata:]

At long last I see
a brahman, totally unbound,
who without pushing forward,
without staying in place,
has crossed over
the entanglements
of the world.

That is what the devata said. The Teacher approved. Realizing that
“The Teacher has approved of me,” she bowed down to him,
circumambulated him — keeping him to her right — and then vanished
right there.

Abhidhamma Practice Step by Step
Food for the Heart

Introduction [go up]

One of the most notable features of Venerable Ajahn Chah’s teaching
was the emphasis he gave to the Sangha, the monastic order, and its use
as a vehicle for Dhamma practice. This is not to deny his unique gift
for teaching lay people, which enabled him to communicate brilliantly
with people from all walks of life, be they simple farmers or
University professors. But the results he obtained with teaching and
creating solid Sangha communities are plainly visible in the many
monasteries which grew up around him, both within Thailand and, later,
in England, Australia, Europe and elsewhere. Ajahn Chah foresaw the
necessity of establishing the Sangha in the West if long-term results
were to be realized.

This book is a collection of talks he gave to the monastic
communities in Thailand. They are exhortations given to the communities
of bhikkhus, or Buddhist monks, at his own monastery, Wat Ba
Pong, and some of its branches. This fact should be born in mind by the
lay reader. These talks are not intended to, and indeed cannot, serve
as an introduction to Buddhism and meditation practice. They are
monastic teachings, addressed primarily to the lifestyle and problems
particular to that situation. A knowledge of the basics of Buddhism on
the part of the listener was assumed. Many of the talks will thus seem
strange and even daunting to the lay reader, with their emphasis on
conformity and renunciation.

For the lay reader, then, it is essential to bear in mind the
environment within which these talks were given — the rugged, austere,
poverty-stricken North-East corner of Thailand, birth place of most of
Thailand’s great meditation teachers and almost its entire forest
monastic tradition. The people of the North-East are honed by this
environment to a rugged simplicity and gentle patience which make them
ideal candidates for the forest monk’s lifestyle. Within this
environment, in small halls dimly lit by paraffin lamps, surrounded by
the assembly of monks, Ajahn Chah gave his teachings.

Exhortations by the master occurred typically at the end of the
fortnightly recitation of the Patimokkha, the monks’ code of
discipline. Their content would be decided by the current situation —
slackness in the practice, confusion about the rules, or just plain
“unawakenment.” In a lifestyle characterized by simplicity and
contentment with little, complacency is an ongoing tendency, so that
talks for arousing diligent effort were a regular occurrence
.

The talks themselves are spontaneous reflections and exhortations
rather than systematic teachings as most Westerners would know them.
The listener was required to give full attention in the present moment
and to reflect back on his own practice accordingly, rather than to
memorize the teachings by rote or analyze them in terms of logic. In
this way he could become aware of his own shortcomings and learn how to
best put into effect the skillful means offered by the teacher.

Although meant primarily for a monastic resident — be one a monk,
nun or novice — the interested lay reader will no doubt obtain many
insights into Buddhist practice from this book. At the very least there
are the numerous anecdotes of the Venerable Ajahn’s own practice which
abound throughout the book; these can be read simply as biographical
material or as instruction for mind training.

From the contents of this book, it will be seen that the training of
the mind is not, as many believe, simply a matter of sitting with the

eyes closed or perfecting a meditation technique, but is, as Ajahn Chah
would say, a great renunciation.

Buddha’s own words on Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation

Teacher of the Devas

I.
Introduction

In the canonical formula for contemplation of the Buddha, nine
epithets of the Awakened One are mentioned. One of these, likely to be
overlooked, is sattha devamanussanam, “teacher of gods and
humans.” The present essay focuses on one aspect of this epithet: the
Buddha’s role as teacher of the devas or gods. In the pages to follow
we will carefully consider the instructions and techniques he used when
teaching beings of divine stature. If we study these teachings we will
gain deeper understanding of how we should purify our own minds, and by
studying the responses of the gods we can find models for our own
behavior in relation to the Master and his teaching.

Many religious leaders consider themselves prophets whose authority
stems from an Almighty God, but as our epithet implies, the Buddha’s
relationship to divinity was very different. He instructed deities, as
well as humans, on how to end all suffering (dukkha) by
eradicating ignorance and other unwholesome states. The gods came to
the Buddha to request instruction and clarification, to support his
Sasana or Dispensation, to praise his incomparable qualities, and to
pay homage at his feet. Devas and brahmas are often mentioned
throughout the Pali canon. They regularly manifest themselves on the
human plane and participate in many episodes of the Buddha’s career.
Some of these higher beings are foolish, some exceedingly wise; some
are barely distinguishable from well-off people, others are extremely
powerful, long-lived, and magnificent. The multiple connections between
the Buddha and beings of the higher planes can inspire meditators to
develop the Noble Eightfold Path that leads to the end of suffering.

This essay will explore: (1) the Buddha’s direct instructions to
devas and how they can help human meditators practice the Dhamma; (2)
how devas, out of gratitude and faith, honor the Buddha and support his
Dispensation; and (3) the process of attaining liberation for devas,
brahmas, and humans.

The Buddhist universe consists of thirty-one planes of existence
(see chart below). Every being lives on one or another of these planes.
After death all beings, except the arahants, will be reborn in a realm
and under circumstances that accords with their kamma — their
volitional actions of body, speech, and mind made in that existence or
in any previous one. We will often refer to this chart to indicate
where, in the cosmic hierarchy, the deities we meet come from.



Mayawati’s magic Will work in M.P.

GWALIOR: Now  in the outgoing
230-member Madhya Pradesh Assembly, the Bahujan Samaj Party hopes to
make a comeback by recreating the Uttar Pradesh magic of reaching out
to all sections ahead of the November 27 elections.

Keen on testing the efficacy of its social engineering outside U.P.,
the BSP has fielded candidates across the State, distributing ticket to
both the upper castes and other caste and communities.

The Gwalior-Chambal region, which runs along Uttar Pradesh, is being
seen one of the testing grounds in the Hindi-speaking belt. There, the
BSP fielded nine Brahmins and six Thakurs. Among them is veteran
Balendu Shukla, who served as Minister in the previous Congress
governments.


Congress, BJP flayed

Speakers at Ms. Mayawati’s rally here on Saturday did not hide their
disappointment with the ruling BJP and the Congress. Leading the charge
was Mr. Shukla and he was supported by U.P. Minister Fateh Bahadur
Singh, son of the former Congress Chief Minister, Bir Bahadur Singh.

On her part, the BSP supremo said she had written to the Centre on
several occasions suggesting that reservation be provided on economic
criteria and promised the gathering that she would implement it when
the party came to power in New Delhi.

As Surendra Singh Tomar, candidate in Gwalior, sees it, the BSP is emerging as the most potent force in the region.





comments (0)
Vinayapitaka-Part One: The Bowl Chapter -Introduction to the First Discourse The Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta -Abhidhamma And Practice-Jumbo’s circus-1,300 Independents join poll fray in Madhya Pradesh-Rabi acreage up in all crops barring wheat -
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 3:04 am


Part One: The Bowl Chapter [go up]

1. Should any bhikkhunī make a bowl-hoard (have more than one bowl in her possession), it is to be forfeited and confessed. [See Bhikkhus’ NP 21]

2. Should any bhikkhunī, having
determined an out-of-season cloth to be an in-season cloth, distribute
it, it is to be forfeited and confessed. (§¶¨•) 2

3. Should any bhikkhunī, having
exchanged robe-cloth with another bhikkhunī, later say to her, “Here,
lady. This is your robe-cloth. Bring me that robe-cloth of mine. What
was yours is still yours. What was mine is still mine. Bring me that
one of mine. Take yours back,” and then snatch it back or have it
snatched back, it is to be forfeited and confessed. [See Bhikkhus’ NP 5]

4. Should any bhikkhunī, having
had one thing requested, (then send it back and) have another thing
requested, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

5. Should any bhikkhunī, having
had one thing bought, (then send it back and) have another thing
bought, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

6. Should any bhikkhunī, using a
fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one purpose for a
Community, have something else bought, it is to be forfeited and
confessed. (§•)

7. Should any bhikkhunī, having
herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one
purpose for a Community, use it to have something else bought, it is to
be forfeited and confessed. (§•) 3

8. Should any bhikkhunī, using a
fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one purpose for a group,
have something else bought, it is to be forfeited and confessed. (§•)

9. Should any bhikkhunī, having
herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one
purpose for a group, use it to have something else bought, it is to be
forfeited and confessed. (§•)

10. Should any bhikkhunī,
having herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to
one purpose for an individual, use it to have something else bought, it
is to be forfeited and confessed. (§•)


Introduction to the First Discourse
The Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta

Samyutta Nikaya LVI, 11

by Narada Maha Thera

Reprinted from BuddhaSasana, with gratitude.

“The best of paths is the Eightfold Path. The
best of Truths are the four Sayings. Non-attachment is the best of
states. The best of bipeds is the Seeing One.”

– The Dhammapada

Ancient India was noted for distinguished philosophers and religious
teachers who held diverse views with regard to life and its goal.
Brahmajala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya mentions sixty-two varieties of
philosophical theories that prevailed in the time of the Buddha.

One extreme view that was diametrically opposed to all current
religious beliefs was the nihilistic teaching of the materialists who
were also termed Carvakas after the name of the founder.

According to ancient materialism which, in Pali and Samskrit, was
known as Lokayata, man is annihilated after death, leaving behind him
whatever force generated by him. In their opinion death is the end of
all. This present world alone is real. “Eat, drink, and be merry, for
death comes to all,” appears to be the ideal of their system. “Virtue”,
they say, “is a delusion and enjoyment is the only reality. Religion is
a foolish aberration, a mental disease. There was a distrust of
everything good, high, pure and compassionate. Their theory stands for
sensualism and selfishness and the gross affirmation of the loud will.
There is no need to control passion and instinct, since they are the
nature’s legacy to men.”

Another extreme view was that emancipation was possible only by
leading a life of strict asceticism. This was purely a religious
doctrine firmly held by the ascetics of the highest order. The five
monks that attended on the Bodhisatta, during His struggle for
Enlightenment, tenaciously adhered to this belief.

In accordance with this view the Buddha, too, before His
Enlightenment subjected Himself to all forms of austerity. After an
extraordinary struggle for six years He realized the utter futility of
self-mortification. Consequently, He changed His unsuccessful hard
course and adopted a middle way. His favourite disciples thus lost
confidence in Him and deserted Him, saying — “The ascetic Gotama had
become luxurious, had ceased from striving, and had returned to a life
of comfort.” Their unexpected desertion was definitely a material loss
to Him as they ministered to all His needs. Nevertheless, He was not
discouraged. The iron-willed Bodhisatta must have probably felt happy
for being left alone. With unabated enthusiasm and with restored energy
He persistently strove until He attained Enlightenment, the object of
His life.

Precisely two months after His Enlightenment on the Asalha (July)
full moon day the Buddha delivered His first discourse to the five
monks that attended on Him.

Dhammacakka is the name given to this first discourse of the Buddha.
It is frequently represented as meaning “The Kingdom of Truth.” “The
Kingdom of Righteousness.” “The Wheel of Truth.” According to the
commentators Dhamma here means wisdom or knowledge, and Cakka means
founding or establishment. Dhammacakka therefore means the founding or
establishment of wisdom. Dhammacakkappavattana means The Exposition of
the Establishment of Wisdom. Dhamma may also be interpreted as Truth,
and cakka as wheel. Dhammacakkappavattana would therefore mean — The
Turning or The Establishment of the Wheel of Truth.

In this most important discourse the Buddha expounds the Middle Path
which He Himself discovered and which forms the essence of His new
teaching. He opened the discourse by exhorting the five monks who
believed in strict asceticism to avoid the extremes of self-indulgence
and self-mortification as both do not lead to perfect Peace and
Enlightenment. The former retards one’s spiritual progress, the latter
weakens one’s intellect. He criticized both views as He realized by
personal experience their futility and enunciated the most practicable,
rational and beneficial path, which alone leads to perfect purity and
absolute Deliverance.

This discourse was expounded by the Buddha while He was residing at the Deer Park in Isipatana near Benares.

The intellectual five monks who were closely associated with the
Buddha for six years were the only human beings that were present to
hear the sermon. Books state that many invisible beings such as Devas
and Brahmas also took advantage of the golden opportunity of listening
to the sermon. As Buddhists believe in the existence of realms other
than this world, inhabited by beings with subtle bodies imperceptible
to the physical eye, possibly many Devas and Brahmas were also present
on this great occasion. Nevertheless, it is clear that the Buddha was
directly addressing the five monks and the discourse was intended
mainly for them.

At the outset the Buddha cautioned them to avoid the two extremes. His actual words were: — “There are two extremes (anta) which should not be resorted to by a recluse (pabbajitena),”
Special emphasis was laid on the two terms “anta” which means end or
extreme and “pabbajita” which means one who has renounced the world.

One extreme, in the Buddha’s own words, was the constant attachment to sensual pleasures (kamasukhallikanuyoga). The Buddha described this extreme as base, vulgar, worldly, ignoble, and profitless.

This should not be misunderstood to mean that the Buddha expects all
His followers to give up material pleasures and retire to a forest
without enjoying this life. The Buddha was not so narrow minded.

Whatever the deluded sensualist may feel about it, to the
dispassionate thinker the enjoyment of sensual pleasures is distinctly
short-lived, never completely satisfying, and results in unpleasant
reactions. Speaking of wordly happiness, the Buddha says that the
acquisition of wealth and the enjoyment of possessions are two sources
of pleasure for a layman. An understanding recluse would not however
seek delight in the pursuit of these fleeting pleasures. To the
surprise of the average man he might shun them. What constitutes
pleasure to the former is a source of alarm to the latter to whom
renunciation alone is pleasure.

The other extreme is the constant addiction to self-mortification (attakilamathanuyoga).
Commenting on this extreme, which is not practised by the ordinary man,
the Buddha remarks that it is painful, ignoble, and profitless. Unlike
the first extreme this is not described as base, worldly, and vulgar.
The selection of these three terms is very striking. As a rule it is
the sincere recluse who has renounced his attachment to sensual
pleasures that resorts to this painful method, mainly with the object
of gaining his deliverance from the ills of life. The Buddha, who has
had painful experience of this profitless course, describes it as
useless. It only multiplies suffering instead of diminishing it.

The Buddhas and Arahants are described as Ariyas meaning Nobles.
Anariya (ignoble) may therefore be construed as not characteristic of
the Buddha and Arahants who are free from passions. Attha means the
ultimate Good, which for a Buddhist is Nibbana, the complete
emancipation from suffering. Therefore anatthasamhita may be construed as not conducive to ultimate Good.

The Buddha at first cleared the issues and removed the false notions
of His hearers. When their troubled minds became pliable and receptive
the Buddha related His personal experience with regard to these two
extremes.

The Buddha says that He (the Tathagata), realizing the error of both
these two extremes, followed a middle path. This new path or way was
discovered by Himself. The Buddha termed His new system Majjhima Patipada
– the Middle Way. To persuade His disciples to give heed to His new
path He spoke of its various blessings. Unlike the two diametrically
opposite extremes this middle path produces spiritual insight and
intellectual wisdom to see things as they truly are. When the insight
is clarified and the intellect is sharpened everything is a seen in its
true perspective.

Furthermore, unlike the first extreme which stimulates passions,
this Middle Way leads to the subjugation of passions which results in
Peace. Above all it leads to the attaintment of the four supramundane
Paths of Sainthood, to the understanding of the four Noble Truths, and
finally to the realization of the ultimate Goal, Nibbana.

Now, what is the Middle Way? The Buddha replies: It is the Noble
Eightfold Path. The eight factors are then enumerated in the discourse.

The first factor is Right Understanding, the keynote of Buddhism.
The Buddha started with Right Understanding in order to clear the
doubts of the monks and guide them on the right way. Right
Understanding deals with the knowledge of oneself as one really is; it
leads to Right Thoughts of non-attachment or renunciation
(nekkhammasamkappa), loving-kindness (avyapada samkappa), and
harmlessness (avihimsa samhappa), which are opposed to selfishness,
illwill, and cruelty respectively. Right Thoughts result in Right
Speech, Right Action, and Right Livelihood, which three factors perfect
one’s morality. The sixth factor is Right Effort which deals with the
elimination of evil states and the development of good states in
oneself. This self-purification is best done by a careful
introspection, for which Right Mindfulness, the seventh factor, is
essential. Effort, combined with Mindfulness, produces Right
Concentration or one-pointedness of the mind, the eighth factor. A
one-pointed mind resembles a polished mirror where everything is
clearly reflected with no distortion.

Prefacing the discourse with the two extremes and His newly
discovered Middle Way, the Buddha expounded the Four Noble Truths in
detail.

Sacca is the Pali term for Truth which means that which is. Its Samskrit equivalent is satya
which denotes an incontrovertible fact. The Buddha enunciates four such
Truths, the foundations of His teaching, which are associated with the
so-called being. Hence His doctrine is homocentric, opposed to
theocentric religions. It is introvert and not extrovert. Whether the
Buddha arises or not these Truths exist, and it is a Buddha that
reveals them to the deluded world. They do not and cannot change with
time, because they are eternal truths. The Buddha was not indebted to
anyone for His realization of them, as He Himself remarked in this
discourse thus: “With regard to things unheard before, there arose in
me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.”
These words are very significant because they testify to the
originality of His new Teaching. Hence there is no justification in the
statement that Buddhism is a natural outgrowth of Hinduism, although it
is true that there are some fundamental doctrines common to both
systems.

These Truths are in Pali termed Ariya Saccani. They are so called because they were discovered by the Greatest Ariya, that is, one who is far removed from passions.

The First Noble Truth deals with dukkha which, for need of a
better English equivalent, is inappropriately rendered by suffering or
sorrow. As a feeling dukkha means that which is difficult to be
endured. As an abstract truth dukkha is used in the sense of
contemptible (du) emptiness (kha). The world rests on suffering –
hence it is contemptible. It is devoid of any reality — hence it is
empty or void. Dukkha therefore means contemptible void.

Average men are only surface-seers. An Ariya sees things as they truly are.

To an Ariya all life is suffering and he finds no real happiness in
this world which deceives mankind with illusory pleasures. Material
happiness is merely the gratification of some desire.

All are subject to birth (jati) and consequently to decay (jara), disease (vyadhi) and finally to death (marana). No one is exempt from these four causes of suffering.

Wish unfulfilled is also suffering. As a rule one does not wish to
be associated with things or persons one detests nor does one wish to
be separated from things or persons one likes. One’s cherished desires
are not however always gratified. At times what one least expects or
what one least desires is thrust on oneself. Such unexpected unpleasant
circumstances become so intolerable and painful that weak ignorant
people are compelled to commit suicide as if such an act would solve
the problem.

Real happiness is found within, and is not to be defined in terms of
wealth, power, honours or conquests. If such worldly possessions are
forcibly or unjustly obtained, or are misdirected or even viewed with
attachment, they become a source of pain and sorrow for the possessors.

Normally the enjoyment of sensual pleasures is the highest and only
happiness of the average person. There is no doubt some momentary
happiness in the anticipation, gratification, and retrospection of such
fleeting material pleasures, but they are illusory and temporary.
According to the Buddha non-attachment (viragata) or the transcending
of material pleasures is a greater bliss.

In brief this composite body (pancupadanakkhandha) itself is a cause of suffering.

There are three kinds of craving. The first is the grossest form of
craving, which is simple attachment to all sensual pleasures (kamatanha). The second is attachment to existence (bhavatanha). The third is attachment to non-existence (vibhavatanha).
According to the commentaries the last two kinds of craving are
attachment to sensual pleasures connected with the belief of Eternalism
(sassataditthi) and that which is connected with the belief of Nihilism (ucchedaditthi).
Bhavatanha may also be interpreted as attachment to Realms of Form and
vibhavatanha, as attachment to Formless Realms since Ruparaga and
Aruparaga are treated as two Fetters (samyojanas).

This craving is a powerful mental force latent in all, and is the
chief cause of most of the ills of life. It is this craving, gross or
subtle, that leads to repeated births in Samsara and that which makes
one cling to all forms of life.

The grossest forms of craving are attenuated on attaining Sakadagami, the second stage of Sainthood, and are eradicated on attaining Anagami, the third stage of Sainthood. The subtle forms of craving are eradicated on attaining Arahantship.

Right understanding of the First Noble Truth leads to the eradication (pahatabba)
of craving. The Second Noble Truth thus deals with the mental attitude
of the ordinary man towards the external objects of sense.

The Third Noble Truth is that there is a complete cessation of
suffering which is Nibbana, the ultimate goal of Buddhists. It can be
achieved in this life itself by the total eradication of all forms of
craving.

This Nibbana is to be comprehended (sacchikatabba) by the mental eye by renouncing all attachment to the external world.

This First Truth of suffering which depends on this so called being
and various aspects of life, is to be carefully perceived, analysed and
examined (parinneyya). This examination leads to a proper understanding of oneself as one really is.

The cause of this suffering is craving or attachment (tanha). This is the Second Noble Truth.

The Dhammapada states: “From craving springs grief, from craving
springs fear; For him who is wholly free from craving, there is no
grief, much less fear.” (verse 216).

Craving, the Buddha says, leads to repeated births (ponobhavika).
This Pali term is very noteworthy as there are some scholars who state
that the Buddha did not teach the doctrine of rebirth. This Second
Truth indirectly deals with the past, present and future births.

This Third Noble Truth has to be realized by developing (bhavetabba) the Noble Eightfold Path (ariyatthangika magga). This unique path is the only straight way to Nibbana. This is the Fourth Noble Truth.

Expounding the Four Truths in various ways, the Buddha concluded the
discourse with the forcible words: “As long, O Bhikkhus, as the
absolute true intuitive knowledge regarding these Four Noble Truths
under their three aspects and twelve modes was not perfectly clear to
me, so long I did not acknowledge that I had gained the incomparable
Supreme Enlightenment.

“When the absolute true intuitive knowledge regarding these Truths
became perfectly clear to me, then only did I acknowledge that I had
gained the incomparable Supreme Enlightenment (anuttara sammasambodhi).”

“And there arose in me the knowledge and insight: Unshakable is the
deliverance of my mind, this is my last birth, and now there is no
existence again.”

At the end of the discourse Kondanna, the senior of the five
disciples, understood the Dhamma and, attaining the first stage of
Sainthood, realized that whatever is subject to origination all that is
subject to cessation — Yam kinci samudayadhammam sabbam tam nirodhadhammam.

When the Buddha expounded the discourse of the Dhammacakka, the
earth-bound deities exclaimed: “This excellent Dhammacakka, which could
not be expounded by any ascetic, priest, god, Mara or Brahma in this
world, has been expounded by the Exalted One at the Deer Park, in
Isipatana, near Benares.”

Hearing this, Devas and Brahmas of all the other planes also raised the same joyous cry.

A radiant light, surpassing the effulgence of the gods, appeared in the world.

The light of the Dhamma illumined the whole world, and brought peace and happiness to all beings.

Abhidhamma And Practice

By Nina van Gorkom

What
is the cause of all misery and sorrow in the world?  We read in the
‘Kindred Sayings’ (Vol. I, Ch. III, iii, par. 3,  The World) that
King Pasenadi asked the Buddha:

 ‘How many kinds of
things, lord, that happen in the world, make for trouble, for suffering,
for distress?’

 The Buddha answered:

  ‘Three things, sire, happen
of that nature.  What are the three?  Greed, hate, and delusion;-
these three make for trouble, for suffering, for distress.’

 In the Buddha’s time defilements
were the cause of all sorrow and suffering and this is also true for today. 
It is true for all times.  Only those who are perfected have no sorrow
and suffering.

 The Buddha taught the solution
to all problem: the eradication of all unwholesomeness through the development
of right understanding; right understanding of all phenomena of our life.

 Is the eradication of our defilements
really the solution to all problems in the world?  Is it not a selfish
attitude to be solely occupied with the eradication of one’s own defilements,
and even more, is it possible to eradicate defilements?

 We cannot eradicate the defilements
of others, “we” cannot even eradicate our own defilements.  But when
right understanding has been developed, it is right understanding which
can gradually eradicate defilements.  But this may take many lives.

 At this moment we are full
of ignorance as to the phenomena of our live.  We usually seek only
ourselves and we serve our own interests.  How could we then really
serve other people?  Detachment from ‘self’ is only possible through
right understanding of the phenomena of our life.  Through right understanding
there will be less unwholesomeness in life and more wholesomeness, such
as loving-kindness and compassion.  Thus, the development of right
understanding should be our first aim.

 The Buddha taught that all
phenomena which arise, fall away immediately, they are impermanent. 
What is impermanent cannot be true happiness and thus it is ‘suffering’
(dukkha),  Phenomena are not self, and they do not belong to a self,
they are ‘not-self’ (anatta).  At this moment we have wrong view of
reality.  We do not see things as they are: impermanent, ‘suffering’
and not self.  We believe that we see the impermanence of things,
but we have only theoretical understanding of impermanence.  In reality
we do not experience the arising and falling away of phenomena as it occurs
now, and at each moment.

 Our body is impermanent, but
we are so attached to it.  We all see a change in the body after some
time, when we become older, but in reality our body changes each moment
of our life. What we take for ‘our body’ are only different physical phenomena
which arise and then fall away immediately.

 We are so attached to our mind,
our ‘soul’, our ambitions, our pleasures.  But what we take for our
mind, our soul, are in reality many different mental phenomena which change
all the time.  We are attached to the idea of ‘my mind’, but where
is it?  Is it thinking?  But thinking is never the same, we think
now of this, now of that.  There is thinking now, but it is always
changing.  Is feeling something which lasts?  Feeling is sometimes
pleasant, sometimes unpleasant, and sometimes there is indifferent feeling. 
Each moment feeling is different.  There is no mind, there are only
ever-changing mental phenomena which do not belong to a self.  The
Buddha taught us to develop right understanding of all the changing phenomena
in our daily life and this is the essence of his teachings.  Thus
we can gradually become detached from the self and develop more wholesomeness.

 We come to know the Buddha’s
teachings through the ‘Three Collections’ of The Vinaya (Book of Discipline
for the monks), the Suttanta and the Abhidhamma.  The Abhidhamma teaches
us in detail about all mental phenomena and physical phenomena.  The
Abhidhamma teaches us in detail about all wholesome moments of consciousness
and all unwholesome moments of consciousness, and is this not valuable? 
If we do not know about the moments of consciousness how could we develop
wholesomeness?  Often we take for wholesome what is actually not wholesome. 
For example, we think that there is unselfish love while there is actually
attachment to people.  The study of the Abhidhamma can help us to
develop more understanding of the different moments of consciousness.

 We may wonder whether a precise
knowledge of the phenomena of life is necessary.  Does this not make
our life unnecessarily complicated?  The Abhidhamma teaches about
realities.  The different moments of consciousness change so rapidly
and they are all different.  We cannot catch them, but the study of
the different moments of consciousness which occur will help us to develop
right understanding of our life.

 We believe that a self exists,
sees, hears and thinks, we believe that a self lives and dies.  We
believe that other people exist.  This is a wrong view of reality. 
What we take for self are only ever-changing phenomena.  In reality
there is no ‘I”, no ‘he’.  We spend our life dreaming about things
which do not exist.  Our wrong view causes us suffering.  We
have expectations about ourselves and others and if these do not come true
we suffer from frustrations.  We are afraid of death and we do not
know what will happen to the ‘self’ after we have died.  It would
be a great gain if we could see our life as it really is—only changing
phenomena.  Then we could face with right understanding old age, sickness
and death.

 The Abhidhamma teaches us that
all phenomena in ourselves and around 


ourselves are only two kinds of
realities:

 Mental phenomena, or nama,

 Physical phenomena, or rupa.

 Nama experiences or knows something,
rupa does not know anything.

 What we take for self or person
are only changing phenomena, nama and rupa.  But, we may wonder, is
the world not full of people, animals and things?  We see them, we
touch them, we live with them.  If we see them as only changing phenomena,
namas and rupas, does this vision estrange us from the world, from our
fellow men?

 When we think about old age,
sickness and death, we will understand that life, that all people, are
impermanent.  But there is impermanence at each moment, each phenomena
which arises falls away immediately.  This does not mean that these
phenomena are not real.  Love is real, but it falls away immediately,
and it does not belong to a self who could be master of it.  We can
have the intention to be kind, but we cannot force ourselves to kindness. 
When things are not the way we want them to be we may become angry, in
spite of ourselves, as we say.  This shows us that phenomena are anatta,
not self.  Anger is real, but it falls away immediately.  Love,
hate, wisdom, generosity, all these things are real, but there is no self
which could not be mater of them, they are anatta.

 Does not everybody have his
own personality?  There is nothing lasting in a man, not even what
we call his character.  There are ever changing moments of consciousness
which arise and fall away.  There is only one moment of consciousness
(citta) at a time, and it falls away immediately after it has arisen, but
it is succeeded by a next moment.  Thus our whole life is like a chain
of moments of consciousness.  Each moment of consciousness which falls
away conditions the next moment of consciousness and thus it is possible
that our good and bad moments today condition our inclinations in the future. 
Generosity today or anger today conditions generosity or anger in the future. 
A moment of right understanding now conditions right understanding in the
future, and thus it is possible to develop wisdom.  Although each
moment falls away we can still speak of an ‘accumulation’ of experiences
in each moment of consciousness, and we can call this character. 
But we should not forget that the mental phenomena we call character do
not last and that they do not belong to a self.

 We do not become estranged
from life and from our fellowmen when we see both ourselves and others
as nama and rupa which are impermanent and not self.  We would rather
that there is no impermanence, no death, but that is not possible. 
It is better to know the truth about life than to mislead ourselves with
regard to the truth.  When there is less clinging to the concept of
self we will be able to act with more unselfishness and thus we can be
of more help to others and we can perform our duties with more wholesomeness.

 In reality there are only nama
and rupa which are impermanent and not self.  Nama experiences or
knows something, rupa does not know anything.  Seeing, hearing, thinking,
love, hate, these are all experiences, they are namas.  Sound, hardness
or softness are rupas, they do not experience anything.  Both nama
and rupa are realities which we experience time and again, they are real
for everybody.  We do not have to name them in order to experience
them; They can be directly experienced when they present themselves, at
this moment.

 We see and hear the whole day,
but we know so little about these realities.  Seeing is an experience
through the eyes and it is different from thinking of what we see. 
Hearing is an experience through the ears and it is different from thinking
of what we hear.  Since the different moments of consciousness succeed
one another so rapidly we believe that we can see and hear or see and think
all at the same time.  However, there is only one moment of consciousness
at a time which experiences one object and then falls away immediately.

 We are attached to all namas
and rupas.  We are, for example, attached to seeing and to what we
see, but what is actually seeing and what is visible object?  We should
know seeing and visible object as they are.  We think that we are
a person but seeing sees only what appears through the eyes: the visible. 
A person could not contact the eye-sense.  When we pay attention to
the shape and form of something there is no seeing, but thinking. 
Thinking of a person is another moment of consciousness which cannot occur
at the same time as seeing.

 At first we may find it strange
that seeing only sees visible object and not a person.  We find it
strange because we actually cling to the concept of a person who exists,
who stays, at least for some time,  But this is not the truth.

 When we look at what we call
a ‘person’, seeing sees only what is visible, visible object. Visible object
is not a person, it is a kind of rupa which falls away immediately, although
we do not realize it.  At the moment of seeing only visible object
is experienced, no other reality such as solidity.  It is true that
the rupa which is visible object does not arisen alone, it arises together
with other rupas such as solidity and temperature.  Visible object
could not arise if there were no solidity and other rupas arising together
with it.  However, only one reality can be known at a time; it can
be known when it appears through the appropriated doorway.  Realities
can be experienced one at a time through eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body-sense
and mind, through these six doors.  The moment of consciousness which
experiences visible object does not experience sound or hardness (solidity). 
When we touch what we call a ‘human-body’ hardness may appear through the
body-sense.  The hardness which is experienced is not a body, it is
only hardness, a rupa which is experienced through the body-sense and it
falls away again, although we do not realize it.  Since we always
cling to the concept of a person or the human body we fail to see them
as different elements which do not stay, even for a second.  We are
always attached to people and to self and this causes us sorrow.

 We do not only cling to the
concept of a person but also to the concepts of things such as a house
or a tree and we believe that they exist, that they can stay.  In
reality there are only different elements which arise and fall away. 
Our life is actually one moment of consciousness which experiences one
object and this moment falls away immediately.  Then another moment
arises.  The object which is experienced does not stay either, it
falls away.

 The development of a more precise
knowledge of realities which appear one at a time is the only way to gradually
eliminate ignorance and wrong view about them.  If we learn to be
aware of the characteristic of visible object when it appears we will know
that it is only a rupa appearing through the eye-sense, not a person. 
If there can be awareness of hardness when it appears we will know that
it is only a rupa appearing through the body-sense, not a person or a thing. 
We should not try to avoid thinking of people or things, thinking is a
reality, it arises.  However, we should know that the concepts which
are object of our thinking are not realities; they are different from nama
and rupa which can be experienced one at a time through the appropriate
doorways.  We form up concepts because of a combination of many different
experiences which we remember. 

 Nama and rupa are ‘ultimate
realities’, paramattha dhammas; they are realities which can be directly
experienced by everybody, without there being the need to think about them. 
We do not have to think of sound or hardness in order to experience them. 
They are real for everybody and they can be experienced when they appear. 
Person, animal, tree or house are not paramattha dhammas, they are concepts.

 We may find it difficult to
accept that nama and rupa are realities and that concepts such as people,
animals and things are not realities.  Gradually we may be able to
prove to ourselves that life is actually one moment of experiencing one
object through one of the six doors.  Thus, life is nama and rupa
which arise because of conditions and fall away again.  Time and again
there are objects impinging on the different doorways.  When there
is a pleasant object attachment is bound to arise, and when there is an
unpleasant object, aversion.  Defilements have been accumulated and
they can arise at any time so long as they have not been eradicated. 
Defilements are nama which arise because of conditions.  When there
is no right understanding of nama and rupa we will only have a superficial
knowledge of both ourselves and others.  We will have a wrong understanding
of cause and effect in life.  Don’t we blame others for our own unhappiness? 
The real cause of unhappiness is within ourselves.  Right understanding
of the different namas and rupas which appear is the only way to have less
defilements and thus to have less sorrow in life.

 Namas and rupas can experienced
now.  There are seeing and hearing time and again but we may never
have been aware of them.  Still, it is necessary to know them as they
are.  Seeing is not thinking.  Seeing sees and it does not think. 
When we close our eyes we may think of many things but we cannot see. 
When we open our eyes something appears which did not appear when our eyes
were closed.  There is seeing, and seeing sees visible object. 
Seeing does not see a man or a tree.

 The development of insight
is a kind of study of nama and rupa through the direct experience of them. 
Namas and rupas which appear one at a time should be ‘studied’ with mindfulness,
but each moment of study is extremely short, since mindfulness does not
last, it falls away.  However, gradually a clearer understanding of
realities can be accumulated.  Nama and rupa are the objects of the
‘study with mindfulness’, not people, animals or things.  Whenever
we are there are in reality only nama and rupa, such as seeing, hearing,
the visible object, sound or hardness.  Instead of clinging to them
or having aversion towards them we can know them as they are.  When
we realize that our life is actually only nama and rupa which arise because
there are conditions for their arising, we can become more patient, even
in difficult situations.

 Mindfulness (sati) is nama
which arises with a wholesome moment of consciousness.  We cannot
induce mindfulness whenever we want it, but it can arise when there are
the appropriate conditions.  All namas and rupas in our life arise
only when there are the appropriate conditions, not because of our will. 
The condition for right mindfulness is intellectual understanding of what
nama and rupa are: realities which appear through the six doorways. 
Nama and rupa which appear now – thus, realities, not ideas - are the objects
about which right understanding should be developed.  When we read
in the Buddhist scriptures time and again about the realities which appear
through the six doors or we listen to talks about nama and rupa, and we
understand what we read or what we hear, then the intellectual understanding
can condition the arising of mindfulness.  Even one moment of mindfulness
is valuable because it can condition another moment later on and thus right
understanding can grow.  The development of insight is the highest
form of wholesomeness, it is the only way to eradicate attacment, aversion
and ignorance.

 Mindfulness of the nama or
rupa which appears now is the way to develop insight.  When one believes
that one does all one’s actions in a day with thoughtfulness but there
is no awareness of  nama and rupa, it is not the development of insight. 
When one, for example, follows what one’s hands and feet are doing in a
day one does not learn anything about nama and rupa, about what is real,
about impermanence.

 In the development of insight
we do everything as usual, but in our daily life there can be mindfulness
of a nama or a rupa, a moment of ‘study with mindfulness’, study through
the practice.  When my husband takes my hand, there is, as we say,
a ‘human contact’.  What are the realities?  There is attachment
and this is real, we do not have to try to suppress it.  There can,
in a very natural way, be study with mindfulness of a nama or a rupa. 
What appears through the body-sense?  Not a person, not my husband. 
Heat or cold, hardness or softness can appear through the body-sense. 
We do not have to think about it, it can be directly experienced. 
Through mindfulness we can prove that no person is experienced through
the body-sense, that a person does not exist.  There is no person,
only different namas and rupas appearing one at a time, and they do not
stay.  Clinging to people brings sorrow; eventually I will have to
take leave from my husband, nothing is permanent.  Through the development
of insight, clinging to the concept of a person who exists can be eradicated.

 When there is more right understanding
of nama and rupa we will have a different view of the events of our life. 
We like to make plans but often things do not happen the way we would like
them to.  Our good and bad deeds (kamma) are the causes in our life
which bring their results in the form of pleasant and unpleasant experiences. 
When we understand that our life is nama and rupa which arise because of
their own conditions, not because of our will, we will be less attached
to pleasant results and less inclined to blame others for unpleasant things
we experience.  There are only nama and rupa and we are not master
of them.  Through the development of insight we will become more patient,
we will have more loving-kindness and compassion.  Thus, the development
of insight is to the benefit of other people as well.



 

 

 Appendix

The Paramattha Dhammas

 According to the teaching of
the Buddha there exist certain realities which constitute the realness
of the phenomena of life and there are concepts which are just thoughts,
ideas, figmentations, illusions, etc., with which we concern ourselves
most of the day.  The purpose of this appendix is to list and briefly
explain the realities (paramattha dhammas).  The term ‘paramattha
dhammas’ means absolute realities.  That is, these realities exist
and there are no other realities.

 The paramattha dhammas are
divided first into two kinds.  There are mental phenomena (or mentality)
known as ‘nama’ in the Pali language and there are physical phenomena (or
materiality) known as ‘rupa’ in Pali.  Nama has the function of experiencing
something while rupa cannot experience anything.  That is, it is through
mentality that we experience things and it is both mental phenomena and
material phenomena that is experienced.  So there are two kinds of
realities:

1. nama (mentality)

2. rupa (materiality)

The paramattha dhammas can be further
divided in four ways:

1. citta (a moment of consciousness
or a moment of experience),


2. cetasika (mental factors accompanying
consciousness), 


3. rupa (material phenomena)

4. nibbana (the unconditioned reality)

 The first three of these four
realities are called conditioned.  That is because they all arise
from causes, they are all conditioned by other occurences.  The fourth
type, nibbana, is the unconditioned reality.  It is not caused by
any other thing.  It does not arise and it does not cease.  All
the other realities arise and cease continuously, so they do not last. 
Our lives consist of phenomena which are constantly arising and ceasing. 
So we cannot hold onto, own or keep anything in reality.

 Of the four-way division of
realities, citta, cetasika and nibbana are types of nama (mentality) and
the fourth, rupa, is materiality.

 The paramattha dhamma can be
further divided by way of the five types of aggregates or groups (khandhas)
into which they fall.  These five khandhans are the aggregates of
our daily existence.  All conditioned namas and rupas can be classified
under the five khandhas:-

1. rupa-khandha- which is all material/physical
phenomena,


2. vedana-khandha – which is feeling
(vedana),


3. sanna-khandha – which is perception
or memory (sanna),


4. sankhara-khandha – which is fifty
mental factors (cetasikas),


5. vinnana-khandha – which is all
the types of cittas.

 The first of the group of aggregates
is known as rupa-khandha and consists of all the material elements of existence. 
For example, hardness, temperature, pressure, color, smell, taste are all
types of rupa-khandha.  All aspects of the body can be classified
under rupa.

 The second is vedana-khandha. 
This comprises several types of feeling, viz., pleasant feeling, unpleasant
feeling and indifferent feeling.  Feeling is a mental factor (cetasika). 
There are also two other types of feeling, the pleasant bodily feeling
and unpleasant bodily feeling.  The first three are mental feeling
and the last two are bodily feelings.

 The third is sanna-khandha. 
Sanna is the mental factor (cetasika) known as memory or perception. 
Sanna marks the object of experience so that it can be recognized now and
in the future.

 The fourth is sankhara-khandha.
This comprises the other fifty cetasikas which arise with the moment of
experience (citta).  (See ‘cetasikas’ enumerated later).

 The fifth is ’vinnana-khandha. 
This comprises all types of moments of experience (citta).  All types
of citta are classified under this khandha.

 The khandhas are called the
‘groups of grasping’.  This means that we cling to, or grasp at these
aggregates as belonging to a self.  As long as we take them for self
we do not understand them as they really are, just paramattha dhammas,
just conditioned realities.

 Citta is the first of the four
types of paramattha dhammas.  It is also the fifth group of aggregates. 
The word ‘citta’ is derived from the root ‘cit’, to think.  Citta
is that which is the chief in experiencing an object.  There are many
different types of citta.  They are divided four ways according to
whether it is –

1. consciousness pertaining to the
sense sphere (kamavacara citta),


2. consciousness pertaining to the
form sphere (rupavacara citta),


3. consciousness pertaining to the
formless sphere (arupavacara citta),


4. supramundane consciousness (lokuttara
citta).

 The four categories of consciousness
are classified according to whether they are wholesome or skillful (kusala
citta), unwholesome or unskilful (akusala citta), the result of deeds (kamma)
in the past (vipaka citta) or neutral consciousness with on effect (kiriya
citta).

 There are

  1) in the sensuous sphere
54 types of consciousness,


  2) in the form sphere 15
types of consciousnes,


  3) in the formless sphere
12 types of consciousness,


  4) in the supramundane 8
types of consciousness.

 This total 89 types of consciousness
in all (see later; citta can be also classed as 121 different types).

 In the sensuous sphere there
12 types of akusala citta (unwholesome consciousness) that have roots:-

a.) cittas rooted in attachment (i.e.
with their base or foundation in attachment):


1. citta, unprompted connected with
wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


2. Citta, prompted connected with
wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


3. Citta, unprompted not connected
with wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


4. Citta, prompted not connected
with wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


5. Citta, unprompted  connected
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.


6. Citta, prompted  connected
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.


7. Citta, unprompted not connected 
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.


8. Citta, prompted not connected
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.

b.) cittas rooted in ill – will or
aversion:


9. Citta, unprompted  accompanied
by unpleasant feeling, connected with ill-will.


10. Citta, prompted  accompanied
by unpleasant feeling, connected with ill-will.

c.) cittas rooted in delusion or
ignorance:


11. citta, connected with doubt
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


12. Citta, connected with restlessness
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


 

There are 18 types of rootless consciousness:-

a.) cittas which are unwholesome
results:


1. body-consciousness accompanied
by unpleasant feeling.


2. Ear-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


3. nose-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


4. tongue-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


5. eye-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


6. receiving-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


7. investigation-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.

b.) cittas which are wholesome results:

8. body-consciousness accompanied
by pleasant feeling.


9. Ear-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


10. nose-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


11. tongue-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


12. eye-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


13. receiving-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


14. investigation-consciousness
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


15. investigation-consciousness
accompanied by pleasant feeling.

c.) functional (kiriya) cittas:

16. five sense-door adverting consciousness
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


17. mind-door adverting consciousness
accompanied by pleasant feeling.


18. Smile-producing consciousness
(of an arahant) accompanied by pleasant feeling.


 

 There are 24 types of beautiful
(sobhana) cittas of the sensuous sphere:-

a.) cittas which are wholesome consciousness
(kusala):


1. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


2. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


3. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


4. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


5. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


6. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


7. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


8. citta, prompted dissociated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.

b.) cittas which are wholesome result
(kusala vipaka):


9. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


10. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


11. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


12.citta, prompted dissociated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


13. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


14. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


15. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


16. citta, prompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.

c.) citas which are neutral (kiriya)
:


17. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


18. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


19. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


20. citta, prompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


21. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


22. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


23. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


24. citta, prompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


 

 There are 15 types of form
sphere consciousness (rupavacara citta) of the meditative absorptions:-

a.) cittas which are wholesome consciousness:

1. first jhana citta with initial
application, sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


2. Second jhana citta with sustained
application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


3. Third jhana citta with joy, happiness
and one- pointedness.


4. Fourth jhana citta with happiness
and one-pointedness.


5. Fifth jhana citta with equanimity
and one-pointedness.

b.) cittas which are resultant consciousness:

6.  first jhana  resultant
citta with initial application, sustained application, joy, happiness and
one-pointedness.


7. Second jhana resultant citta
with sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


8. Third jhana resultant citta with
joy, happiness and one- pointedness.


9. Fourth jhana resultant citta
with happiness and one-pointedness.


10. Fifth jhana resultant citta
with equanimity and one-pointedness.

c.) cittas which are neutral (kiriya)
consciousness:


11. first jhana kiriya citta with
initial application, sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


12. Second jhana kiriya citta with
sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


13. Third jhana kiriya citta with
joy, happiness and one- pointedness.


14. Fourth jhana kiriya citta with
happiness and one-pointedness.


15. Fifth jhana kiriya citta with
equanimity and one-pointedness.


 

 There are 12 types of formless
sphere consciousness (arupavacara citta) of the higher meditative absorptions:-

a.) cittas which are wholesome consciousness:

1. jhana citta dwelling on the ‘Infinity
of Space’.


2. Jhana citta dwelling on the ‘infinity
of Consciousness’.


3. Jhana citta dwelling on ‘Nothingness’.

4. Jhana citta dwelling on ‘Neither
Perception nor non-perception’.

b.) cittas which are resultant consciousness:

5.  resultant jhana citta dwelling
on the ‘Infinity of Space’.


6.  Resultant jhana citta dwelling
on the ‘infinity of Consciousness’.


7. Resultant jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Nothingness’.


8. Resultant jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Neither Perception nor non-perception’.

c.) cittas which are functional (kiriya)
consciousness:


9. kiriya jhana citta dwelling on
the ‘Infinity of Space’.


10. Kiriya jhana citta dwelling
on the ‘infinity of Consciousness’.


11. Kiriya jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Nothingness’.


12. Kiriya jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Neither Perception nor non-perception’.


 

 There are 8 types of supramundane
consciousness (lokuttara citta).  These are the cittas of one who
is experiencing the unconditioned reality, nibbana:-

a.) cittas which are supramundane
path consciousness (maggacitta):


1. sotapanna path consciousness.

2. sakadagami path consciousness.

3. anagami path consciousness.

4. arahatta path consciousness.

b.) cittas which are resultant supramundane
consciousness (phalacitta):


5. sotapanna fruit consciousness.

6. sakadagami fruit consciousness.

7. anagami fruit consciousness.

8. arahatta fruit consciousness.

 

 Thus there are 89 different
types of citta which can be experienced-12 unwholesome cittas, 21 wholesome
cittas, 36 resultant cittas and 20 functional cittas.  In the sensuous
sphere there are 54 types of citta, in the form sphere 15 types, in the
formless sphere 12 types and in the supramundane sphere 8 types.

 These different classes of
cittas can also be divided into 121 types according to if the cittas of
the path and fruit of Sotapanna consciousness, Sakadagami consciousness,
Anagami consciousness and Arahatta consciousness are accompanied by the
jhana factors of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth jhana. 
Thus there are 16 additional types of maggacitta and 16 additional types
of phalacitta.


 The mental factors (cetasikas)
which accompany moments of citta are of 52 different kinds.  Of these
52, they are subdivided according to their natures into seven classes.

 First there are the 7 universals
(sabbacittasadharana).  They accompany every single moment of citta
and thus are called universals:

1. contact (phassa)

2. feeling (vedana)

3. perception (sanna)

4. volition or intention (cetana)

5. one-pointedness (ekaggata)

6. phychic-life (jivitindriya)

7. attention (manasikara)

 

 Then there are the 6 particular
cetasikas, so called because they associate with only particular types
of consciousness.  They associate with either the wholesome or unwholesome
cittas.  They are called pakinnaka in Pali.

1. initial application (vitakka)

2. sustained application (vicara)

3. determination (adhimokkha)

4. effort (viriya)

5. interest (piti)

6. desire-to-do (chanda)

 

 Next are the 14 unwholesome
cetasikas (akusala cetasikas).  They make up all the akusala moments
of consciousness.

1. ignorance (moha)

2. lack of moral shame (ahirika)

3. lack of fear of unwholesomeness
(anotthappa)


4. restlessness (uddhacca)

5. attachment (lobbha)

6. wrong view (ditthi)

7. conceit (mana)

8. aversion (dosa)

9. envy (issa)

10. stinginess (macchriya)

11. regret (kukkucca)

12. sloth (thina)

13. torpor (middha)

14. doubt (vicikiccha)

 

 Next are the 19 beautiful cetasikas
(sobhanasadharana) so called because they are common to all morally beautiful
moments of consciousness.

1. confidence (saddha)

2. mindfulness (sati)

3. moral shame (hiri)

4. fear of unwholesomeness (ottappa)

5. disinterestedness (alobha)

6. amity (adosa)

7. equanimity (tatramajjhattata)

8. composure of mental states (kayapassadhi)

9. composure of mind (cittapassanhi)

10. lightness of mental states (kaya-lahuta)

11. lightness of mind (citta-lahuta)

12. pliancy of mental states (kaya-muduta)

13. pliancy of mind (citta-muduta)

14. adaptability of mental states
(kaya-kammannata)


15. adaptability of mind (citta-kammannuata)

16. proficiency of mental states
(kaya-pagunnata)


17. proficiency of mind (citta-pagunnata)

18. rectitude of mental states (kaya-ujukata)

19. rectitude of mind (citta-ujukata).

 There are the 3 abstinences
(virati cetasikas):


20. right speech (samma vaca)

21. right action (samma kammanta)

22. right livelihood (samma ajiva)

 

 The two cetasikas called the
illimitables (appamanna), so called because their objects are without limit:

23. compassion (karuna)

24. sympathetic joy (mudita).

 

 And finally the last sobhana
cetasika:


25. wisdom (panna).

 

 Thus there are 25 morally beautiful
cetasikas (sobhana cetasikas) arising in various combinations in the wholesome
states of consciousness.  And a total of 52 different cetasikas that
can arise in groups with the citta.

 We now come to the classification
of matter.  Rupa or material phenomena consists of 8 basic constituents
which compose all matter.  These are known as the ‘eightfold group’
(suddhtthaka-kalapa)  These consist of the four great elements (mahabhuta)
and four more derived form them (upadaya-rupa).

1. solidity (pathavi)

2. cohesion (apo)

3. temperature (tejo)

4. motion (vayo)

and the derivatives:

5. color (vanna)

6. smell (ghandha)

7. taste (rasa)

8. nutriment (oja).

 There are a further 20 types
of matter, all of which are also dirived rupas:


9. eye organ (cakkhu)

10. ear organ (sota)

11. nose organ (ghana)

12. tongue organ (jivha)

13. body organ (kaya)

14. male and female characteristic
– 2 rupas (bhava-rupas)


15. heart base (hadayavatthu)

16. material life-principle (rupa-jivita)

17. space (pariccheda)

18. bodily intimation (kaya-vinnatti)

19. speech intimation (vaci-vinnatti)

20. sound (sadda)

21. lightness (lahuta)

22. plasticity (muduta)

23. adaptability (kammannata)

24. growth (upacaya)

25. continuity (santati)

26. decay (jarata)

27. impermanence (aniccata)

 

 These are all the different
types of rupa.  The fourteenth type, male and female characteristic,
is of two types which makes a total of 28 rupas.

 Thus concludes the appendix
containing the classification of the varieties of nama and rupa (mental
phenomena and material phenomena).  There are 89 (or 121) types of
consciousness, 52 different mental factors and 28 types of matter. 
The Buddha explained that these are the sum total of conditioned realities. 
There is one type of unconditioned reality and that is called nibbana (in
Sanskrit, nirvana).  Nibbana is described as the ‘deathless’, the
‘cool’, the ‘incomparable’, the ‘peaceful’.  It is the end of craving,
the goal of the Buddha’s teachings.

SUGGESTED  FURTHER READING LIST

ABHIDHAMMA READING;

Abhidhamma For the Beginner, E.G.
Baptist, Colombo, 1959,


The Path of Purification, Buddhaghosa,
(trans. Bhikkhu Nanamoli), Buddhist Publication Society, 


 Kandy, 1975.

Abhidhamm in Daily Life, Nina van
Gorkom, Dhamma Study Group, Bangkok, 1975.


Manual of Abhidhamma, Narada Thera,
B.P.S., Kandy, 1975.


Guide Through the Abhidhamma Pitaka,
Nyanatiloka, B.P.S., Kandy, 1971.

ANTHOLOGIES AND TRANSLATIONS;

The Lion’s Roar, David Maurice,
Doubleday, N.Y.


The Dhammapada, Narada Thera, Vajiranrama,
Colombo, 1972.


Note: There are many translations
available of the Dhammapada, this can be recommended as one of the betther
ones.


Buddhism in Translation, H.C. Warren,
Atheneum, N.Y., 1976.

GENERAL READING;

The life of the Buddha, Bhikkhu
Nanamoli, B.P.S., Kandy, 1972.


The Buddha and His Teachings, Narada
Thera, Vajirarama, Colombo, 1973.


Path to Deliverance, Nyanantiloka,
Bauddha Sahitya Sobha, Colombo, 1974.


The Buddha’s Ancient Path, Piyadassi
Thera, B.P.S., Kandy, 1974.


What The Buddha Taught, Walpole
Rahula, Grove Press, N.Y., 1974.


Answering Dhamma Questions, Sujin
Boriharnwanaket, D.S.G., Adelaide, 1977.


Buddhism in Daily life, Nina van
Gorkom, D.S.G., Bangkok, 1977.


Pilgrimage in Sri Lanka, Nina van
Gorkom, D.S.G. Bangkok, 1977.


 

Kindly visit:

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Jumbo’s circus

Mayawati has begun her journey to Race Course road with a 590-seat step
Mayawati has begun her journey to Race Course road with a 590-seat step
On
any given day, Kanwar Singh Tanwar, a Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
candidate for the Delhi Assembly, can be spotted moving around his
constituency.  Tanwar last week chose to feel the wind in his face as he
rode an elephant on his way to file his nomination for the Chhattarpur
assembly seat in the capital.

The richest MLA aspirant’s caparisoned
elephant won eyeballs and brought traffic to a halt on Chhattarpur’s
potholed roads. But his party has let loose the elephant—the BSP’s
electoral symbol—into the wilds of north Indian politics.

The
BSP is contesting all 590 seats at stake in Delhi, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh as a dry run for Mayawati’s planned march to
Race Course Road next year. Five years ago, it contested 387 seats and
won only six but Mayawati believes she and the BSP have come a long way
since last year’s landslide victory in Uttar Pradesh.

Mayawati
kicked off her poll campaign in Madhya Pradesh with an election rally
at Khandwa during the week. In Delhi, the party was the first to
announce candidates for all the seats. “Winning seats in the Delhi
polls is important as a message will spread across the country ahead of
Lok Sabha polls that Mayawatiji is prime minister material,” says BSP
Delhi President Brahm Singh Bidhuri.

The ambitions may be
national, but the issues remain local. “Price rise, complete statehood
demand, basic amenities such as bijli, sadak, paani and unauthorised
colonies are among the issues the BSP would be raising during the
elections,” Bidhuri says.

Not even die-hard BSP optimists think the party can win a handful of
seats, if any, but its USP is the spoiler’s role of poaching from the
traditional votebank of the Congress—Original Inhabitaants of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath, Muslims and people hailing
from eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

It can effectively dent the chances of Congress candidates in nearly a
dozen constituencies. In another 18 constituencies where 20 per cent of
the voters are SCs, the BSP is again a threat to the Grand Old Party.
To gain cross-caste acceptance, as it did in Uttar Pradesh last year,
the party has given 51 tickets to Brahmins, Gujjars, Jats, Vaishyas,
Muslims, Khatris, Yadavs, Kshatriyas and Sikhs.

The elections will
also put to test, albeit in a smaller way, the big ticket alliance
between the Left and Mayawati. It will show how far Team Maya can go
beyond the photo-ops with an impressive line-up and mark a nation-wide
presence.

The BSP has now grown beyond Uttar Pradesh into a
party that is capable of upsetting other parties in at least 10 states
including Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Punjab in next
year’s Lok Sabha polls.

Its aim is to bag all 80 seats UP in
the General Elections. In the Uttar Pradesh assembly elections, it won
206 of the 403 seats. It led in 55 of the state’s 80 parliamentary
segments and the Mayawati camp believes that the party can do similarly
well in all the 80 seats outside the state.

The ongoing
elections will gauge if the Maya-Marx friendship can walk the talk. The
Red brigade has called upon its cadre to vote for BSP candidates in all
constituencies where Left candidates are not contesting.

The party also fears
that due to its alliance with the BSP, it will end up losing its
residual cadre to the bigger partner.

In the
2003 assembly polls, the BSP got 7.26 per cent of the vote share in
Madhya Pradesh as against 6.3 per cent five years earlier.


The
reason for its electoral breakthroughs in Madhya Pradesh and
Chhattisgarh lay in its successful social engineering even before the
recent wooing of the upper castes in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan, the
party will contest all 200 assembly seats and all prominent castes have
found equal representation.

It is symptomatic of the nature of the
party’s leadership that the BSP remains the only party not to have
released it own poll manifesto. “The performance of Mayawati Government
in Uttar Pradesh is our manifesto,” says a party functionary. The BSP
is looking for flashes of recognition in its journey to Race Course
Road.

1,300 Independents join poll fray in Madhya Pradesh

BHOPAL: Though independent legislators
hardly influence Madhya Pradesh
politics
, more than 1,300 independent candidates
have entered the fray.

Three Baskets Study Circle political pundits say there is a possibility that Bahujan Samaj party
would hit the magic figure of 116 in the 230-member assembly.

While the Congress and the BJP are contesting 228 seats
each, the BSP has fielded candidates in all the 230 constituencies, the
Samajwadi Party 225 seats and the BJS 215 seats.



“If the Congress
faces the threat of the BSP cutting into its vote share, the BJP is up for a
similar situation from the BJS, which accentuates the possibility of no single
party getting an absolute majority”.
.

Rabi acreage up in all crops barring wheat



Our Bureau

New Delhi, Nov. 21 With winter steadily setting in, farmers have already sown almost a third of the normal area under rabi.

According to the Agriculture Ministry’s latest Crop Weather Watch
Report, released here on Friday, wheat planting has so far been done on
83.78 lakh hectares (lh), which is marginally lower than the 84.99 lh
covered during the same period last year.

While acreage has gone up in Haryana (from 17.50 lh to 18 lh),
Gujarat (1.90 to 2.96), Rajasthan (1.57 to 4.84) and Karnataka (1.80 to
1.91), it is trailing behind in Punjab (22.70 to 21.45), Madhya Pradesh
(15.78 to 15.24), Uttar Pradesh (14.49 to 12.13) and Maharashtra (3.21
to 3.14).

The normal time for sowing wheat is from mid-November to mid-December.

In case of planting after mid-December, the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR) has estimated average per hectare yields
to drop from 4.5 tonnes to 3.6 tonnes in North-West India (Punjab,
Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh), from 4.3 to 3.7 tonnes in central
India (Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat), and from 3.8 to 3.1 tonnes
in Eastern UP-Bihar.

The yields could go down still further in these regions to 2.8
tonnes, 2.6 tonnes and 2.4 tonnes, respectively if sowing takes place
after late-December. “With minimum temperatures slated to fall over
North-West and adjoining central India, much of the area will be
covered within the next couple of weeks,” Ministry officials said.

Meanwhile, in most other crops, there has been a significant jump in
acreages – be it jowar, maize and barley or oilseeds (rapeseed-mustard,
sunflower and groundnut) and pulses (gram, lentil and peas).



comments (0)
11/21/08
Vinayapitaka-Befriending the Suttas Tips on Reading the Pali Discourses -Part Two: The Silk Chapter -The Abhidhamma in Practice-Introduction - ___The Buddhist Way to Economic Stability___ Ven. M. Pannasha Maha Nayaka Thera-Make me PM Write Down on the Wall was Dr. Ambedkar’s Sign ! Two Thousand Nine ! Will Be Mine ! - Says Ms Mayawati Bahen ! -A Catholic woman, Hemlata Minj, is contesting the same seat on the Bahujan Samaj Party (common people’s party) ticket.–BSP NEWS
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:17 am


Part Two: The Silk Chapter [go up]

11. Should any bhikkhu have a felt (blanket/rug) made of a mixture containing silk, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

12. Should any bhikkhu have a felt (blanket/rug) made of pure black wool, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

13. When a bhikkhu is having a
new felt (blanket/rug) made, two parts of pure black wool are to be
incorporated, a third (part) of white, and a fourth of brown. If a
bhikkhu should have a new felt (blanket/rug) made without incorporating
two parts of pure black wool, a third of white, and a fourth of brown,
it is to be forfeited and confessed.

14. When a bhikkhu has had a
new felt (blanket/rug) made, he is to keep it for (at least) six years.
If after less than six years he should have another new felt
(blanket/rug) made, regardless of whether or not he has disposed of the
first, then — unless he has been authorized by the bhikkhus — it is to
be forfeited and confessed.

15. When a bhikkhu is having a
felt sitting rug made, a piece of old felt a sugata span [25 cm.] on
each side is to be incorporated for the sake of discoloring it. If,
without incorporating a piece of old felt a sugata span on each side, a
bhikkhu should have a new felt sitting rug made, it is to be forfeited
and confessed.

16. Should wool accrue to a
bhikkhu as he is going on a journey, he may accept it if he so desires.
Having accepted it, he may carry it by hand — there being no one else
to carry it — three leagues [48 km.=30 miles] at most. If he should
carry it farther than that, even if there is no one else to carry it,
it is to be forfeited and confessed.

17. Should any bhikkhu have wool washed, dyed, or carded by a bhikkhunī unrelated to him, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

18. Should any bhikkhu accept
gold and silver, or have it accepted, or consent to its being deposited
(near him), it is to be forfeited and confessed.

19. Should any bhikkhu engage in various types of monetary exchange, it (the income) is to be forfeited and confessed.

20. Should any bhikkhu engage in various types of trade, it (the article obtained) is to be forfeited and confessed.


Befriending the Suttas
Tips on Reading the Pali Discourses

“Thus you should train yourselves: ‘We
will listen when discourses that are words of the Tathagata — deep,
deep in their meaning, transcendent, connected with emptiness — are
being recited. We will lend ear, will set our hearts on knowing them,
will regard these teachings as worth grasping & mastering.’ That’s
how you should train yourselves.” [SN 20.7]


The Pali canon
contains many thousands of suttas (discourses), of which more than nine
hundred are now available in English translation here at Access to
Insight. When faced with such a vast store of riches, three questions
naturally spring to mind: Why should I read the suttas? Which ones should I read? How should I read them?

There are no simple cookie-cutter answers to these questions; the
best answers will be the ones you discover on your own. Nevertheless, I
offer here a few ideas, suggestions, and tips that I’ve found to be
helpful over the years in my own exploration of the suttas. Perhaps
you’ll find some of them helpful, too.



Why should I read the suttas? [go up]

They are the primary source of Theravada Buddhist teachings.
If you’re interested in exploring the teachings of Theravada
Buddhism, then the Pali canon — and the suttas it contains — is the
place to turn for authoritative advice and support. You needn’t worry
about whether or not the words in the suttas were actually uttered by
the historical Buddha (no one can ever prove this either way). Just
keep in mind that the teachings in the suttas have been practiced —
with apparent success — by countless followers for some 2,600 years. If
you want to know whether or not the teachings really work, then study
the suttas and put their teachings into practice and find out
firsthand, for yourself.
They present a complete body of teachings.
The teachings in the suttas, taken in their entirety, present a
complete roadmap guiding the follower from his or her current state of
spiritual maturity onwards toward the final goal. No matter what your
current state may be (skeptical outsider, dabbler, devout lay
practitioner, or celibate monk or nun), there is something in the
suttas to help you progress another step further along the path towards
the goal. As you read more and more widely in the Pali canon, you may
find less of a need to borrow teachings from other spiritual
traditions, as the suttas contain most of what you need to know.
They present a self-consistent body of teachings.
The teachings in the Canon are largely self-consistent, characterized by a single taste [Ud 5.5]
— that of liberation. As you wend your way through the suttas, however,
from time to time you may encounter some teachings that call into
question — or outright contradict — your present understanding of
Dhamma. As you reflect deeply on these stumbling blocks, the conflicts
often dissolve as a new horizon of understanding opens up. For example,
you might conclude from reading one sutta [Sn 4.1] that your practice should be to avoid all desires. But upon reading another [SN 51.15],
you learn that desire itself is a necessary factor of the path. Only
upon reflection does it become clear that what the Buddha is getting at
is that there are different kinds of desire, and that some things are
actually worth desiring — most notably, the extinction of all
desire. At this point your understanding expands into new territory
that can easily encompass both suttas, and the apparent contradiction
evaporates. Over time you can learn to recognize these apparent
“conflicts” not as inconsistencies in the suttas themselves but as an
indication that the suttas have carried you to a frontier of your own
understanding. It’s up to you to cross beyond that boundary.
They offer lots of practical advice.
In the suttas you’ll find a wealth of practical advice on a host of
relevant real-world topics, such as: how children and parents can live
happily together [DN 31], how to safeguard your material possessions [AN 4.255], what sorts of things are and are not worth talking about [AN 10.69], how to cope with grief [AN 5.49], how to train your mind even on your deathbed [SN 22.1],
and much, much more. In short, they offer very practical and realistic
advice on how to find happiness, no matter what your life-situation may
be, no matter whether you call yourself “Buddhist” or not. And, of
course, you’ll also find ample instructions on how to meditate [e.g., MN 118, DN 22].
They can bolster your confidence in the Buddha’s teachings.
As you explore the suttas you’ll come across things that you
already know to be true from your own experience. Perhaps you’re
already well acquainted with the hazards of alcoholism [DN 31], or perhaps you’ve already tasted the kind of refined pleasure that naturally arises in a concentrated mind [AN 5.28].
Seeing your own experience validated in the suttas — even in small ways
— can make it easier to accept the possibility that the more refined or
“advanced” experiences that the Buddha describes may not be so
farfetched after all, and that some of the more counter-intuitive and
difficult teachings may not, in fact, be so strange. This validation
can inspire renewed confidence and energy that will help your
meditation and your understanding forge ahead into new territory.
They can support and energize your meditation practice.
When you read in the suttas about other people’s meditation
experiences, you may begin to get a feel for what you have already
accomplished in your own practice, and what still remains to be done.
This understanding can provide a powerful impetus to apply yourself
even more wholeheartedly to the teachings.
Reading them is just plain good for you.
The instructions contained in the suttas are entirely of a
wholesome nature, and are all about the development of skillful
qualities such as generosity, virtue, patience, concentration,
mindfulness, and so on. When you read a sutta you are therefore filling
your mind with wholesome things. If you consider all the harmful
impressions with which the modern media bombard us day in and day out,
a little regular sutta study can become an island of sanity and safety
in a dangerous sea. Take good care of your mind — read a sutta today
and take it to heart.


Which suttas should I read? [go up]

The short answer is: Whichever ones you like.

It can be helpful to think of the Dhamma as a multi-faceted jewel,
with each sutta offering a glimpse of one or two of those facets. For
example, there are teachings of the four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path; of dana and sila; of mindfulness of breathing and mindfulness of death; of living skillfully as a layperson or as an ordained monk.
No single sutta says it all; each one depends upon all the others to
paint a complete picture of the Buddha’s teachings. The more widely you
can read in the suttas, the more complete your picture of this jewel
becomes.

As a starting point, every student of Buddhism should study, reflect upon, and put into practice the Five Precepts and the Five Subjects for Daily Contemplation. Furthermore, we should take to heart the Buddha’s advice to his young son, Rahula,
which concerns our basic responsibilities whenever we perform an
intentional act of any kind. From there, you can follow along with the
Buddha’s own step-by-step or “graduated” system of teachings that
encompasses the topics of generosity, virtue, heaven, drawbacks of sensuality, renunciation, and the four Noble Truths.

If you’re interested in a solid grounding on the basics of the
Buddha’s teachings, three suttas are widely regarded as essential
reading: Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion (SN 56.11), The Discourse on the Not-self Characteristic (SN 22.59), and The Fire Sermon
(SN 35.28). Together, these suttas — the “Big Three” of the Sutta
Pitaka — define the essential themes of the Buddha’s teachings that
reappear in countless variations throughout the Canon. In these suttas
we are introduced to such fundamental notions as: the Four Noble
Truths; the nature of dukkha; the Eightfold Path; the “middle way”; the “wheel” of the Dhamma; the principle of anatta
(not-self) and the analysis of one’s “self” into the five aggregates;
the principle of shedding one’s enchantment with sensual gratification;
and the many planes of being that characterize the vast range of
Buddhist cosmology. These basic principles provide a sturdy framework
upon which all the other teachings in the Canon can be placed.

Furthermore, these three suttas demonstrate beautifully the Buddha’s
remarkable skill as teacher: he organizes his material in clear,
logical, and memorable ways by using lists (the Four Noble Truths, the
Eightfold Path, the five aggregates, etc.); he engages his listeners in
an active dialogue, to help them reveal for themselves the errors in
their understanding; he conveys his points by using similes and imagery
that his listeners readily understand; and, most significantly, time
and again he connects with his listeners so effectively that they are
able to realize for themselves the transcendent results that he
promises. Seeing the Buddha for the extraordinarily capable teacher
that he is encourages us to proceed even deeper into the Canon,
confident that his teachings won’t lead us astray.

A few other fruitful points of departure:

  • The Khuddaka Nikaya offers a rich mine of important suttas in verse form. Consider, in particular, the Dhammapada, the Sutta Nipata, the Therigatha, and the Theragatha.
  • For the Buddha’s basic instructions on breath meditation, see the Anapanasati Sutta; for his instructions on the practice of mindfulness, see the Maha-satipatthana Sutta.
  • To learn how to cultivate a heart of loving kindness, see the Karaniya Metta Sutta.
  • In the Devadaha Sutta Ven. Sariputta explains how to introduce the Buddha’s teachings to inquisitive, intelligent people — people like you.
  • How does one decide which spiritual paths are worth following and which are not? The Kalama Sutta sheds light on this ancient dilemma.
  • In the Sigalovada Sutta the Buddha offers a concise “instruction manual” that shows how laypeople can live happy and fulfilling lives.

When you find a sutta that captures your interest, look for others like it.1 From there, wander at will, picking up whatever gems catch your eye along the way.



How should I read a sutta? [go up]

To get the most from your sutta studies, it can be helpful to consider a few general principles before you actually begin reading and, once you’ve begun reading a sutta, to bear in mind a few questions as you read.

Some general principles [go up]

There is no such thing as a “definitive” translation.
Don’t forget that the Pali canon was recorded in Pali, not in
English. Not once in his career did the Buddha speak of “suffering” or
“enlightenment”; he spoke instead of such things as dukkha and nibbana.
Keep in mind, too, that every English translation has been filtered and
processed by a translator — someone inextricably embedded within his or
her culture at a particular moment in time, and whose experience and
understanding inevitably color the translation. British translations of
the suttas from the late 19th and early 20th
century sound leaden and dreary to us today; a hundred years from now,
today’s translations will undoubtedly sound equally archaic.
Translation, like the cartographer’s attempts to project the round
Earth onto a flat sheet of paper, is an imperfect art.

It is probably best not to let yourself get too comfortable with
any one particular translation, whether of a word or of an entire
sutta. Just because, for example, one translator equates “suffering”
with dukkha or “Unbinding” with nibbana, doesn’t mean
that you should accept those translations as truth. Try them on for
size, and see how they work for you. Allow plenty of room for your
understanding to change and mature, and cultivate a willingness to
consider alternate translations. Perhaps, over time, your own
preferences will change (you may, for example, come to find “stress”
and “quenching” more helpful). Remember that any translation is just a
convenient — but provisional — crutch that you must use until you can
come to your own first-hand understanding of the ideas it describes.

If you’re really serious about understanding what the suttas are about, you’ll just have to bite the bullet and learn some Pali.
But there’s an even better way: read the translations and put the
teachings they contain into practice until you get the results promised
by the Buddha. Mastery of Pali is, thankfully, not a prerequisite for
Awakening.

No one sutta contains all the teachings.
To reap the greatest reward from the Canon, explore many different
suttas, not just a select few. The teachings on mindfulness, for
example, although valuable, represent just a small sliver of the
entirety of the Buddha’s teachings. Rule of thumb: whenever you think
you understand what the Buddha’s teachings are all about, take that as
a sign that you need to dig a little deeper.
Don’t worry about whether or not a sutta contains the actual words uttered by the historical Buddha.
There is no way to prove it one way or other. Just read the suttas,
put the teachings into practice as best you can, and see what happens.
If you like a sutta, read it again.
Sometimes you’ll come across a sutta that grabs hold of you in some
way when you first read it. Trust this reaction and read it again; it
means both that the sutta has something valuable to teach you and that
you’re ripe to receive the teaching it offers. From time to time
re-read the suttas you remember having liked months or years ago. You
may discover in them some nuances now that you missed earlier.
If you dislike a sutta, read it again.
Sometimes you’ll come across a sutta that is just plain irritating.
Trust this reaction; it means that the sutta has something valuable to
teach you, although you may not be quite ready for it yet. Put a
bookmark there and put the sutta aside for now. Pick it up a few weeks,
months, or years later, and try again. Perhaps someday you’ll connect
with it.
If a sutta is boring, confusing, or unhelpful, just put it aside.
Depending on your current interests and depth of practice, you may
find that a given sutta just doesn’t make sense or seems utterly
tedious and boring. Just put that one aside for now and try another
one. Keep trying until you find one that makes a direct, personal
connection.
A good sutta is one that inspires you to stop reading it.
The whole point of reading suttas is to inspire you to develop right view,
live an upright life, and meditate correctly. So if, as you’re reading,
you feel a growing urge to put down the book, go sit in a quiet spot,
close your eyes, and attend to the breath, then do it! The sutta will have then fulfilled its purpose. It will still be there when you come back to it later.
Read the sutta aloud, from beginning to end.
This helps in several ways: it encourages you to read every single
word of the sutta, it trains your mouth to use right speech, and it
teaches your ears how to listen to Dhamma.
Listen for teachings at different levels.
Many suttas offer teachings on several levels simultaneously, and
it’s good to develop an ear for that. For example, when the Buddha
explains to a disciple the finer points of right speech, notice how the
Buddha himself uses speech [MN 58]. Does the Buddha “practice what he preaches”? Do you?
Don’t ignore the repetitions.
Many suttas contain repetitive passages. Read the sutta as you
would a piece of music: when you sing or listen to a song, you don’t
skip over each chorus; likewise, when you read a sutta, you shouldn’t
skip over the refrains. As in music, the refrains in the suttas often
contain unexpected — and important — variations that you don’t want to
miss.
Discuss the sutta with a friend or two.
By sharing your observations and reactions with a friend, both of
you can deepen your understanding of the sutta. Consider forming an
informal sutta study group. If you have lingering questions about a
sutta, ask an experienced and trusted teacher for guidance. Consult
with elder monks and nuns, as their unique perspective on the teachings
can often help you break through your bottlenecks of confusion.
Learn a little Pali.
Once you’ve read a few suttas or a few different translations of
the same sutta, you may find yourself puzzled by particular choices of
words. For example, why does this translator use the word “foundations
of mindfulness” while that one uses “frames of reference”? What are
these phrases really getting at? Turning to a Pali-English dictionary
and looking up the word satipatthana (and its component
elements) can help shed new light on this word, paving the way to an
even more rewarding study of the suttas.
Read what others have said about the sutta.
It’s always helpful to read what commentators — both contemporary
and ancient — have to say about the suttas. Some people find the
classical Tipitaka commentaries — particularly those by the medieval
writer Buddhaghosa — to be helpful. A few of these are available in
English translation from the Pali Text Society and the Buddhist Publication Society. Some people prefer more contemporary commentators, such as those who have written in the Wheel Publications of the Buddhist Publication Society. Many outstanding booklets and articles have been written by authors such as Vens. Bodhi, Khantipalo, Ñanamoli, Narada, Nyanaponika, Soma, and Thanissaro. You may also enjoy reading the excellent introductions and endnotes to Bhikkhu Bodhi’s The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995) and Maurice Walshe’s The Long Discourses of the Buddha (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987). Also read from the masters in the Thai forest traditions, as they offer refreshing and unique perspectives on the suttas that are based on deep meditative experience.
Give the sutta time to ripen.
Whatever helpful message you found in the sutta, whatever
satisfying taste it left behind, let that grow and develop in the
course of your meditation practice and in your life. Over time, the
ideas, impressions, and attitudes conveyed by the sutta will gradually
percolate into your consciousness, informing the way you view the
world. One day you may even find yourself in the middle of an otherwise
ordinary everyday experience when suddenly the recollection of a sutta
you read long ago will spring to mind, bringing with it a powerful
Dhamma teaching that’s exactly appropriate for this moment.

To facilitate this slow ripening process, allow yourself plenty of
room for the suttas. Don’t cram your sutta reading in among all your
other activities. Don’t read too many suttas all at once. Make sutta
study a special, contemplative activity. It should be a pleasant
experience. If it becomes dry and irritating, put it all aside and try
again in a few days, weeks, or months. Sutta study calls for more than
simply reading it once or twice and telling yourself, “There. I’ve
‘done’ the Satipatthana Sutta. What’s next?” After you finish reading a
sutta, take a little time out afterwards for some breath meditation to
give the teachings a chance to settle down into the heart.

Questions to bear in mind [go up]

As you read a sutta, keep in mind that you are eavesdropping on the
Buddha as he teaches someone else. Unlike many of the Buddha’s
contemporaries from other spiritual traditions, who would often adhere
to a fixed doctrine when answering every question [AN 10.93],
the Buddha tailored his teachings to meet the particular needs of his
audience. It is therefore important to develop a sensitivity to the
context of a sutta, to see in what ways the circumstances of the
Buddha’s audience may be similar to your own, so you can gauge how best
to apply the Buddha’s words to your own life situation.

As you read, it can be helpful to keep certain questions circulating
gently in the back of your mind, both to help you understand the
context of the sutta and to help you tune in to the different levels of
teaching that are often going on at once. These questions aren’t meant
to make you into a Buddhist literary scholar; they’re simply meant to
help each sutta come alive for you.

What is the setting?
The opening paragraph of (usually beginning, “Thus have I
heard…”) sets the stage for the sutta. Does it take place in a
village, in a monastery, in the forest? What season is it? What events
are taking place in the background? Fixing these details in your mind
reminds you that this sutta describes real events that happened to real people — like you and me.
What is the story?
One sutta may offer little in the way of a narrative story [AN 7.6], while another may be filled with pathos and drama, perhaps even resembling a short story [Mv 10.2.3-20]. How does the story line itself reinforce the teachings presented in the sutta?
Who initiates the teaching?
Does the Buddha take the initiative [AN 10.69], or does someone come to him with questions [DN 2]?
If the latter, are there any unspoken assumptions or attitudes lying
behind the questions? Does someone come to the Buddha with the
intention of defeating him in debate [MN 58]?
These considerations can give you a sense of the motivation behind the
teachings, and of the listener’s receptivity to the Buddha’s words.
With what attitude do you approach these teachings?
Who is teaching?
Is the teacher the Buddha [SN 15.3], one of his disciples [SN 22.85], or both [SN 22.1]? Is he or she ordained [SN 35.191] or a layperson [AN 6.16]? What is the teacher’s depth of understanding (e.g., is she “merely” a stream-enterer [AN 6.16], or is she an arahant [Thig 5.4])?
Having some sense of the teacher’s credentials can help you assess the
context of the teachings. Many suttas offer little in the way of
biographical details about the participants; in such cases consult the
commentaries or ask a Buddhist scholar or monastic for help.
To whom are the teachings directed?
Are they addressed to a monk [SN 35.85], nun [AN 4.159], or lay follower [AN 7.49]? Are they addressed to one group of people, while someone else within earshot actually takes the teaching to heart [SN 35.197]? Is the audience a large assembly [MN 118] or an individual [AN 4.184]? Or are the listeners followers of another religion altogether [MN 57]?
What is the depth of their understanding? If the audience consists of
stream-enterers striving for arahantship, the teachings presented may
be considerably more advanced than if the audience has only a limited
grasp of the Buddha’s teachings [AN 3.65]. These questions can help you assess how appropriate a particular teaching is for you.
What is the method of presentation?
Is it a formal lecture [SN 56.11], a question-and-answer session [Sn 5.6], a retelling of an old story [AN 3.15], or simply an inspired verse [Thig 1.11]? Is the heart of the teaching contained in its content [SN 12.2] or is the way in which the teacher interacts with his listeners itself part of the message [MN 57]?
The great variety of teaching styles employed by the Buddha and his
disciples shows that there is no fixed method of teaching Dhamma; the
method used depends on the particular demands of the situation and the
spiritual maturity of the audience.
What is the essential teaching?
Where does the teaching fit in with the Buddha’s threefold
progressive system of training: Does it focus primarily on the
development of virtue [MN 61], concentration [AN 5.28], or wisdom [MN 140]? Is the presentation consistent with what is given in other suttas (e.g., Sn 2.14 and DN 31)?
How does this teaching fit into your own “roadmap” of the Buddha’s
teachings? Does it fit in nicely with your previous understanding, or
does it call into question some of your basic assumptions about the
Dhamma?
How does it end?
Does the hearer attain Awakening right then and there [SN 35.28], or does it take a little while after hearing the teachings [MN 57]?
Does someone “convert” to the Buddha’s way, as evidenced by the stock
passage, “Magnificent! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright
what was overturned…” [AN 4.111]? Sometimes the simple act of snuffing a candle is enough to bring someone to full Awakening [Thig 5.10]; sometimes even the Buddha himself can’t help someone overcome their past bad kamma [DN 2]. The various outcomes of the suttas help illustrate the extraordinary power and complexity of the law of kamma.
What does this sutta have to offer me?
This is the most important question of all, as it challenges you to
take the sutta to heart. After all, it is the heart that is to be
transformed by these teachings, not the intellect. Ask yourself: Do I
identify with any of the situations or characters in the sutta? Are the
questions asked or teachings presented pertinent to me? What lessons
can I learn from the sutta? Does this teaching fill me with doubts
about my capacity to achieve Awakening, or does it fill me with even
greater faith and confidence in the Dhamma?


Note

1. There are many ways to find related suttas on this website. If you click on the “About
link at the top of a sutta page, you will find other suttas that are
located nearby in the Canon. Often these “neighbors” concern related
topics. To find other suttas, articles, or books on related topics,
explore the General Index. If there is a character mentioned in the sutta about whom you’d like to read more, try the Index of Proper Names. If you’d like to find out where else in the Canon a simile appears, try the Index of Similes.

The Abhidhamma in Practice
by

Namo Sammaasambuddhassa
Namo Saddhammassa
Namo Buddhasanghassa

Homage to the Supremely Enlightened One
Homage to the Sublime Teaching
Homage to the Buddha’s Community of Monks

The Abhidhamma forms the third part of the Pali Canon, the
Tipi.taka. The other two parts are the Vinaya Pi.taka, the code of
discipline for monks and nuns, and the Sutta Pi.taka, which contains
the Buddha’s discourses. The word “Abhidhamma” means the higher
teaching because it treats subjects exclusively in an ultimate sense (paramatthasacca),
differing from the Sutta Pi.taka where there is often the use of
expressions valid only from the standpoint of conventional truth (vohaarasacca).
In the Abhidhamma the philosophical standpoint of the Buddha is given
in a pure form without admixture of personalities, anecdotes, or
discussions. It deals with realities in detail and consists of numerous
classifications. These may at first discourage the prospective student.
However, if one perseveres one will be able to derive much benefit in
life-situations from the practical application of the knowledge gained
through study of the Abhidhamma.

Origins

Theravaada tradition holds that the Buddha conceived the Abhidhamma
in the fourth week after his enlightenment, while still sitting in the
vicinity of the Bodhi tree. Tradition also has it that he first
preached the Abhidhamma to the assembly of deities in the Taavati.msa
heaven; his mother, reborn as a deity, was present in the assembly.
This can be taken to mean that the Buddha, by intense concentration,
transcended the earth-bound mentality and rose mentally to the world of
the deities, a feat made possible by his attainment of higher powers (abhiññaa)
through utmost perfection in mental concentration. Having preached the
Abhidhamma to the deities, he returned to earth, that is, to normal
human consciousness, and preached it to the venerable Saariputta, the
arahant disciple most advanced in wisdom.

From ancient times doubts have been expressed as to whether the
Abhidhamma was really taught by the Buddha. What is important for us is
to experience the realities described in the Abhidhamma. Then one will
realize for oneself that such profound truths can emanate only from a
source of supreme enlightenment, from a Buddha. Much of what is
contained in the Abhidhamma is also found in the Sutta Pi.taka and such
sermons had never been heard by anyone until they were uttered by the
Buddha. Therefore those who deny that the source of the Abhidhamma was
the Buddha will then have to say that the discourses also were not
uttered by the Buddha. At any rate, according to the Theravaada
tradition, the essence of the Abhidhamma, the fundamentals, the
framework, is ascribed to the Buddha. The tabulations and
classifications may have been the work of later scholars. What is
important is the essence; it is this we should try to experience for
ourselves.

The question is also raised whether the Abhidhamma is essential for
Dhamma practice. The answer to this will depend on the individual who
undertakes the practice. People vary in their levels of understanding
and spiritual development. Ideally all the different spiritual
faculties should be harmonized, but some people are quite content with
devotional practice based on faith, while others are keen on developing
penetrative insight. The Abhidhamma is most useful to those who want to
understand, who want to know the Dhamma in depth and detail. It aids
the development of insight into the three characteristics of
existence-impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and no-self. It will be
found useful not only during the periods devoted to formal meditation,
but also during the rest of the day when we are engaged in various
chores. When we experience realities then we are deriving benefit from
the study of the Abhidhamma. A comprehensive knowledge of the
Abhidhamma is further useful to those engaged in teaching and
explaining the Dhamma to others.

The Ultimate Realities

The Abhidhamma deals with realities existing in an ultimate sense, called in Pali paramattha dhammaa. There are four such realities:

  1. Citta, mind or consciousness, defined as that which knows or
    experiences an object. Citta occurs as distinct momentary states of
    consciousness.
  2. Cetasikas, the mental factors that arise and occur along with the cittas.
  3. Ruupa, physical phenomena, or material form.
  4. Nibbaana.

Citta, the cetasikas, and ruupa are conditioned realities. They
arise because of conditions and disappear when their conditions cease
to sustain them. Therefore they are impermanent. Nibbaana is an
unconditioned reality. It does not arise and therefore does not fall
away. These four realities can be experienced regardless of what name
we give them. Any other thing — be it within ourselves or without,
past, present, or future, coarse or subtle, low or lofty, far or near —
is a concept and not an ultimate reality.

Citta, cetasikas, and nibbaana are also called naama. The two
conditioned naamas, citta and cetasikas, together with ruupa make up naama-ruupa, the psycho-physical organism. Each of us, in the ultimate sense, is a naama-ruupa,
a compound of mental and material phenomena, and nothing more. Apart
from these three realities that go to form the naama-ruupa compound
there is no ego, self, or soul. The naama part of the compound is what
experiences an object. The ruupa part does not experience anything.
When the body is injured it is not the body, which is ruupa, that feels
the pain, but naama, the mental side. When we are hungry it is not the
stomach that feels the hunger but again the naama. However, naama
cannot eat the food to ease the hunger. The naama, the mind and its
factors, makes the ruupa, the body, ingest the food. Thus neither the
naama nor the ruupa has any efficient power of its own. One is
dependent on the other; one supports the other. Both naama and ruupa
arise because of conditions and perish immediately, and this is
happening every moment of our lives. By studying and experiencing these
realities we will get insight into: (1) what we truly are; (2) what we
find around us; (3) how and why we react to what is within and around
us; and (4) what we should aspire to reach as a spiritual goal.


___The Buddhist Way to Economic Stability___

Ven.
M. Pannasha Maha Nayaka Thera


T
he
word ‘Manussa,’ man, had different etymological meanings
given it by eastern scholars in the past. While popular or
general Indian tradition traces the origin of the word to
‘Manu’ the mythical progenitor of the human race, in
the Buddhist texts the derivation of the word is given as
‘manassa-ussannataya=manussa’- man, because of his
highly developed state of mind (as compared to the underdeveloped
or rudimentary mental state of the lower animal). According
to Buddhist thought man ranks as the highest of beings due
to the vast potential of the human mind.

Kautilya’s
Arthasastra and Brhaspati’s Arthasastra - two
famous ancient treatises on economics - were both written
after the Buddha’s lifetime. They held one common feature,
and that, - under title of Arthasastra both writers
had written on politics and economics, leaving out the most
important factor, of ethics and the moral development of man
himself.

Of
the Pali term “Attha (-Sanskrit ‘artha’)
- which has more than one meaning according to
Buddhism, the word as signifying success is used at two separate
levels, i.e. ‘attha’ meaning success, and ‘uttamattha’
meaning the highest success. The latter concerns man’s
mental and spiritual development resulting in the realization
of supramundane knowledge of the Four Noble Truths, in the
conquest of Self and attainment to spiritual perfection or
Arahanthood.

Generally
speaking, the word ‘attha’ as success, relates to the
various aspects of man’s socio-economic development - such
as the economy, politics, education, health, law and morality
of a society. It refers to social progress due to the harmonious
unification of all the above factors, contributing to the
prosperity and peaceful co-existence of a people.

Except
in the case of legal administration of the Sangha, no single
discourse of the Buddha deals fully on any one of the above
factors of social progress. Yet reading through the numerous
discourses (or Suttas) it is possible to develop a fully consistent
and complete view-point of the Buddha’s stand on each of the
above topics drawn from the various discourses of the Buddha.
A socio-economic system based on Buddhist principles and practices
could easily be formulated to suit today’s modern progressive
society.

In
recent times many books have been written on the subject of
economics and economic theory, all of them either from the
Capitalist or Socialist point of view. Neither of these systems
pays attention to, nor considers the inner development of
man as an important factor in the growth of society. Hence
there has been a rapid deterioration in human values and standards
of behaviour in all classes of society. Science and technology
have taken gigantic strides forward to send man to the moon,
and it will not be long before he visits other planets. But
fears are expressed that if the present trend towards moral
degeneration continues, before long it would be impossible
to differentiate human action from that of the animal. This
fear is not baseless. It would be a great tragedy indeed were
man to turn beast even in one of the many bestial aspects
of behaviour belonging to the lower animals. Thus what the
world requires today is a socially stable economic system
which yields the highest place to man’s moral development
and cultivation of human values.

The
Buddha lived in a society entangled and confused by sixty-two
divergent views and one hundred and eight types of craving.
There were hundreds who went about in search of an escape
from this entanglement of views. Once the Buddha was asked
the question: (Jata sutta)

The
inner tangle and the outer tangle -
This world is entangled in a tangle.
Who succeeds in disentangling this tangle?

The
Buddha who explained that all these tangles have mind as the
fore-runner, answered thus

When
a wise man, established well in virtue, Develops consciousness
and understanding, ‘Men as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious
He succeeds in disentangling this tangle.

Realising
the importance of the external factors in man’s endeavour
towards disentangling himself from the inner tangle, the Buddha
gave many discourses on the ways and means of overcoming the
outer tangle. Some of these teachings were meant only for
the bhikkhus. Others were only for laymen. The rest were meant
for both bhikkhus and laymen, although in the latter case,
the discourses were mainly directed to the bhikkhus. In one
such discourse, he approved the acceptance by the bhdddius
of the four requisites namely robes, food, shelter and medicine.
Man could live without all other modern contraptions but for
life to go on, these four requisites are essential. Wealth
is required by man to obtain these four requisites and to
meet his other needs.

The
Noble Eightfold Path which could be classified under right
values and right action, enables man to achieve the highest
ends. For economic stability and well-being, the Buddhist
system stresses three factors in the Vyagghapajja Sutta.

1.
Utthana Sampada: Production of wealth through skilled and
earnest endeavour.
2. Arakkha Sampada: Its protection and savings.
3. Samajivikata - Living within one’s means.

1.
Utthana Sampada

The
Buddha when encouraging the production of wealth makes special
reference to six job ranges prevalent at that time:

1.
Agriculture
2. Trade
3. Cattle breeding
4. Defence services
5. Government services
6. Professional services

India
was predominantly an agricultural country. Hence many references
in the discourses were made to agriculture. For example in
the ‘Sadapunnappavaddhana Sutta’ it is mentioned that
providing of irrigation facilities results in yielding continuous
merit. In the ‘Samyutta Nikaya’ it is mentioned that
the greatest asset for agriculture is cattle, while in the
Sutta Nipatha cattle from whom man obtains milk, ghee,
curd, butter and whey, of much nutritious value, are described
as the best friends of a country. In developing countries,
water and draught power provided by cattle, are basic needs
for agriculture.

In
the discourse pertaining to a layman’s happiness (domestic
and otherwise) (Cahapati Sukha), foremost is mentioned
the satisfaction derived by a layman from the possession of
wealth obtained through righteous means. (Atthi Sukka).
However, the Buddha warns man against the tendency to
become a slave to the mere accumulation of wealth for its
own sake. Ibis would lead to both physical and mental suffering
later. Adequate means of livelihood to support oneself and
family, to help relatives and friends, and to distribute among
the needy and the deserving, would lead to contentment and
inner satisfaction. This in turn would result in the moral
and spiritual development of man.

In
the ‘Kutadanta Sutta’ the Buddha shows how peace and
prosperity and freedom from crime comes to a country
through the equitable distribution of wealth among its people.

He
says: ‘Long ago, 0 Brahman, there was a king by name Wide-realm
(Maha-Vijita), mighty with great wealth and large property
with stores of silver and gold, of aids to enjoyment, of goods
and corn; with his treasure houses and his garners full. Now
when Ying Wide-realm was once sitting alone in meditation
he became anxious at the thought: I have in abundance all
the good things a mortal can enjoy. The whole wide circle
of the earth. is mine by conquest to possess. “Twere
well if I were to offer a great sacrifice that should ensure
me weal and welfare for many days.”

And
he had the Brahman, his chaplain, called; and telling him
all that he had thought, he said: “So I would fain, 0
Brahman, offer a great sacrifice - let the venerable one instruct
me how - for my weal and my welfare for many days.”

Thereupon
the Brahman who was chaplain said to the king: ‘The king’s
country, Sire, is harassed and harried. There are dacoits
abroad who pillage the villages and townships, and who make
the roads unsafe. Were the king, so long as that is so, to
levy a fresh tax, verily his majesty would be acting wrongly.
But perchance his majesty might think: I will soon put a stop
to these scoundrels’ game by degradation and banishment, and
fines and bonds and death! But their licence cannot be satisfactorily
put a stop to do so. The remnant left unpunished would still
go on harassing the realm. Now there is one method to adopt
to put a thorough end to this disorder. Whosoever, there be
in the king’s realm who devote themselves to keeping cattle
and the farm, to them let his majesty the king give food and
seed corn. Whosoever, there be in the king’s realm who devote
themselves to trade, to them let his majesty the king give
wages and food. Then those men, following each his own business,
will no longer harass the realm; the king’s revenue will go
up; the country will be quiet and at peace; and the populace,
pleased one with another and happy, dancing their children
in their arms, will dwell with open doors.”

The
King Wide-realm, 0 Brahman, accepted the word of his chaplain,
and did as he had said. And the men, following their business,
harassed the realm no n-tore. And the king’s revenue went
up. And the country became quiet and at peace. And the populace,
pleased one with another and happy, dancing their children
in their arms, dwelt with open doors.

So
King Wide-realm had his chaplain called, and said: The disorder
is at an end. The country is at peace. (Dialogues of the
Buddha -
Part I, pp. 175-6).

2.
Arakkha Samapada

This
means the worldly happiness derived from the constant protection
of one’s wealth (that has been righteously obtained) from
burglary, fire, floods etc. As the Buddha has extolled the
virtue of savings, this factor too could be considered in
this context.

Obtaining
money on credit (or loans) was prevalent even during the Buddha’s
time. Persons like Anathapindika were the bankers of the day.
The Buddhist texts make references to instances where he gave
loans both to the state as well as to ordinary people. However,
Buddhism does not approve of excessive borrowing for as the
saying goes “borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry”
- and the Buddha’s advocacy of a life free from debts (anana
sukha)
as being conducive to the happiness of a layman
supports this statement.

In
the ‘Samannaphala Sutta,’ the Buddha compares the SamannaPhala
(or fruit of a recluse’s life) to the happiness derived
by a person, who having been in debt frees himself of all
his debts, and now supports his family and children from the
savings he has managed to put aside. The importance of making
savings from one’s earnings is stressed in this manner. In
general, the Buddha gives details of the proper use of one’s
earnings. But in the ‘Sigalovada Sutta.’ He admonishes
particularly a big magnate, Sigala to apportion his savings
into four and to spend one part of it for his daily upkeep
and that of his family. Two portions were to be invested in
his business; and the fourth put aside for any emergency.

3.
Sanmjivikata

This
is the third of the three basic principles in the Buddhist
Economic system. A person should spend reasonably in proportion
to his income, neither too much nor too little. In the discourse
relating to the householders’ happiness (gahapati sukha)
enjoyment of one’s income appropriately and wisely
(bhoga sukha) is given as one of the four factors conducive
to lay happiness.

In
the Pattakamma Sutta the manner in which a person
should spend his wealth is given in detail as follows:

1.
Expenditure on food and clothing and other needs.
2. Maintenance of parents, wife and children and servants.
3. For illness and other emergencies.
4. For charitable purposes.
5. For the performance of the following:

(i)
treating one’s relatives;
(ii) treating one’s visitors;
(iii) offering alms in memory of the departed;
(iv) offering merit to the deities;
(v) payment of state taxes and dues in time.

The
Buddha extols simple living as being more conducive to the
development of one’s mind. A society progresses to the extent
the mind of the individual is developed. Administration of
such a society becomes easier, when law and order is well
established. Knowing this, ancient kings in Sri Lanka gave
much publicity to the contents of the Ariyavamsa Sutta.’
In this Sutta, preached by the Buddha for the benefit
of the bhikkhus, the latter are exhorted to be contented with

(i)
The robes (clothes) they receive (whether coarse or fine).
.
(ii) Alms (food) they receive (whether unpalatable or delicious).
(iii) The abodes (houses) they receive (whether simple or
luxurious).
(iv) Meditation (development of mind).

Becoming
content with the first three it is possible to reduce economic
restlessness, and at the same time to inculcate the habits
and values of simple living. Through meditation the human
mind develops itself both morally and spiritually, resulting
in reducing social disharmony and insurrection which arise
first in the minds of men and then put into action. Peace
and progress of a country is thus assured.

In
this modern world although highly advanced in science and
technology, with its rapid expansion of knowledge, there appears
to be a steady deterioration of human values. Present day
politics, the economy, and educational systems are some of
the more important reasons for this state of affairs. In this
context it is considered desirable that the existing political
and economic thought and educational systems should be changed
so as to give priority to the development of human values.

Buddhism
is both a path of emancipation and a way of life. As a way
of life it interacts with the economic, Political and social
beliefs and practices of the people. It is felt that the time
is now most opportune to make known to the world each of the
above aspects of society within the framework of Buddhist
Ethics and the basic principles of Buddhism. The progress
of a country depends ultimately on the progress of the individual.
Over 2500 years ago, the Buddha was born into a confused society
entangled in various views regarding life and thought in general.
Through Buddhism it was possible to disentangle this tangle
of views and to reduce this confusion. Today too, in This
Confused Society
it is generally believed that Buddhism
could again help in lighting a path through the darkness of
this confusion.

Special
thanks to Phramaha Somnuek Saksree







‘No force
can stop me from becoming PM’

After her surprise anointment as the UNPA’s
prime ministerial candidate, BSP supremo Mayawati’s confidence levels have
reached a new high. She told Editor Prabhu Chawla that she is
destined to become the country’s prime minister. An exclusive interview:

Q. Finally a Original Inhabitant of
Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most
communities of the world’s daughter’s name has been finalised for prime
minister. How did this happen?

A. Apart from being a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that
is the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the
world ’s daughter, I am also the daughter of India. Don’t forget that India’s highest
populated state has given me four chances to be CM. I have worked not just for
the Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath
which is one of the top most communities of the world s but for all sections of
the society. I am born in India
so I am not just Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha
Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the world  ki beti
but also Hindustan
ki beti
.

Q. You said there was a conspiracy
against a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha
Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the world ’s daughter
becoming PM.

A. Everyone saw it. And they (my political rivals) have seen
what a good government I have given in UP, so they are scared that if the BSP
forms a government at the Centre and Mayawati becomes PM, they will have to
wait for a long time to come back to power at the Centre.

That is why they thought it is better we
don’t let her come to power at all. Moreover, the BJP and the Congress I think
are alike—whether at the Centre or at the state, their governments have economic
policies that make rich industrialists richer and the poor poorer. So they know
that once they are removed from power, all their rich industrialist friends
will suffer while the poor, the farmers and small industrialists will benefit,
and they don’t want that.

Q. So they won’t let you become the PM?
A. This kind of question was raised even when the BSP was
improving in UP and there was a chance that I could become chief minister. But
I did become UP chief minister, and I think a day will come when the wishes of
the oppressed, the poor, the downtrodden and beloved Dr Ambedkar will come
true. One day, this section will get political power. If I can become UP chief
minister, then I think a day will surely come when the dreams of our people
will come true.

Q. Will the dream be realised through
Mayawati?

A. Definitely, it will come true.

Q. So you think that your becoming PM is
only a matter of time. Nothing can stop you now.

A. A movement has begun. When the time comes, no one can stop.
No one could stop me from becoming the chief minister of UP.

Q. Will you be able to run the
government? Can you rule India?

A. This question was also raised in UP before I became chief
minister. But from Independence
till today, if you compare all the sarkars to my government and ask
the aam janta of UP, they will tell you that Mayawati is the best. So
if I can give UP-which is India’s
largest state—the best sarkar, why can’t I do the same at the Centre?

Q. Do you have an agenda for governance?

A. Of course I have.

Q. But until now you were limited to UP
and you didn’t even meet leaders of other parties.

A. I did meet other leaders, but I also had to run my party. I
did both.

Q. If you do become the PM, what is your
agenda for governance? What are your views on privatisation and economic
reforms that Manmohan Singh started?

A. Our sarkar’s economic agenda will benefit the
country’s poor and weaker sections. It will benefit all sections of the
society.

Q. You are talking like Indira Gandhi,
Gareebi hatao, desh
bachao
“.
A. My party is not against privatisation. Like we have done in
UP, at the Centre too we will see that the country’s Scheduled Castes have the
benefits of reservations. When a government office is privatised, reservation
rights should be protected as I have done in UP. Apart from the Scheduled
Castes, we will take care of the minorities, Backward Classes and also the
economically poor among the upper castes. I have written to the Centre about
reservation in government jobs for the economically poor among upper castes. 



Mayawati

Q. Should there be foreign investment in retail?
A.
There are different castes and religions in India, lots of
poor and jobless, so we will take all this into account.

Q. Should there be FDI in retail?
A. The interests of the small shopkeepers must be protected.

Q. So you are not against FDI in retail?
A. No I am not.

Q. What about the nuclear deal?
A. The Congress is claiming that because of this deal we will
get cheap electricity. This is wrong. Whatever electricity we get will be much
more expensive and it will take 10-15 years to get it. And the output will be
only 8-10 per cent more than what we are getting. It will be so expensive that
neither the poor nor the small industrialists will be able to use it.

Q. So will you cancel the nuclear deal?
A. When my government is formed, we will rethink this deal and
examine if it’s in the nation’s interests or not. We are told that America has put conditions on India, like if they attack Iran, India will have to offer support.
Such conditions are meant to make India a slave.

Q. Before opposing this deal, you must
have read it.

A. We do not agree with this deal. We will rethink it.

Q. But the Left is totally opposed to America and
they are supporting you.

A. Whenever we do a deal with any country, we must first take
into account the country’s interests. When my party comes to power at the
Centre, we will take into account all sections of the society while making
policies.

Q. Opposition parties claim that your
politics is caste-based. Does this suit a prime minister?

A. The people who make such allegations are the ones who are
indulging in caste politics. The BSP has finished jaativaad in this
country and wants to bring together all sections of the society. The charge
that the BSP is jaativaadi is false.

Q. Maybe this is because
you are now being promoted as the leader of UNPA.

A. I am the leader of BSP. The UNPA is different, the Left is
separate. They all have their own leaders.

Q. But they are promoting you as the PM,
no one else.

A. I welcome this suggestion and I am grateful.

Q. But other leaders of the UNPA like
Chandrababu Naidu and Chautala belong to forward castes. How does
behen
Mayawati fit into all this?

A. The Left parties and other members of the UNPA have
realised that Mayawati in UP has included all sections of the society in the
BSP’s way of thinking. Along with the backward sections and the minorities, it
has also sent upper castes to Parliament and the state assembly and given them
posts in the ministry. They don’t see her as jaativaadi but as one who
takes all sections of the society together.

Q. Well you do have the slogan. But
these leaders first went to Mulayam. When that did not work out, they came
after you in the hope that by sailing in your boat they too will get somewhere.
And then, they will leave you too?

A. The names that you have mentioned did at first go to
Mulayam, and you say that they will leave me too. But in the UPA and NDA too,
there are many allies who are attracted to the BSP. And there will be a time
when they too will join us.

Q. So there will be some attempt to
break parties.

A. I am against breaking any party, but those who come on
their own are welcome.

Q. But you will still need the Congress
or the BJP to become PM. How will a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is
the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the
world
  ki beti become PM without their
help?

A. With Lok Sabha elections a few months away, I am sure that
the BJP and Congress, along with their allies, will not get more than 200 seats
together. The rest will be 340. So I will not need the BJP or the Congress.

Q. Their company will come to you?
A. No, I will not need their company. They will come to me on
their own.

Q. On one side is the “Note
Gate” and on the other side there is terrorism. But there seems to be
little desire to fight terrorism.

A. I think the way wads of money were placed in Parliament and
MPs are being bought over, this should be condemned.

Q. What about terrorism?
A. The state governments should get together and plan and
strategise to counter it. The borders of our country are not strengthened.

Q. Who do you blame for the rise in
terrorism? Is it minority appeasement, weak governance or the lack of a strong
law?

A. We should not link terrorism with politics, but the states
and the Centre should sit and strategise how to contain it.

Q. For this we need a strong law. But
POTA has been removed. Even you are against POTA.

A. No. I think that central and state governments should make
strict laws. Not POTA, but there can be other strict laws.

Q. Like MCOCA in Maharashtra?
Gujarat wanted to make a strong law but was
not allowed.

A. In UP too we have passed a law but the Centre has not
okayed it.

Q. So would you say the Centre is weak
in formulating laws?

A. Yes. Also, our borders are weak. After all, the terrorists
enter our country from across the borders. So it’s up to the central government
to make the borders strong and make a law along with the states.

Q. A law like POTA?
A. Not necessarily but a strong law.

Q. Our Muslim brothers say they are
against terrorism as much as the rest of us, yet they say that to appease the
Muslim vote we won’t make a strong law.

A. If a person commits a wrong, you should not punish the
entire community.

Q. Should Mohd Afzal be hanged? The
Supreme Court has said he should be.

A. This is for the courts and the government to decide.

Q. But in the name of terrorism,
politics is being played.

A. That’s not good.

Q. Will you do anything to stop this?
A. When I become PM, we will try and create such a situation
that there will be no terror incidents.

Q. How will you ensure this? Will you
make a strong law?

A. Maybe there will be no need to make a strong law. There
will be such an environment that there will be no need for it.

Q. The terrorists will feel scared of
you and not come out?

A. (laughs)

Q. The word supremo is often used for
you. It evokes dictatorship more than democracy. It is used for Bal Thackeray
and Jayalalithaa.

A. That title I didn’t give myself. You keep calling me that,
so ask yourself.

Q. But do you work like a dictator?
A. No, I believe in democracy and take everyone’s views into
account.

Q. It is often said that how a Original
Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of
the top most communities of the world
  ki
beti could collect so much money and have so many houses.

A. The CBI has given a false affidavit to the court. When my
lawyer presents my case, the truth will come out.

Q. But charges are being laid against
you

A. This is all because of political pressure, whether it is
the UPA or the NDA. It is all politics.

Q. There was so much bonhomie between
you and Sonia. She came and wished you on your birthday. What happened between
the two sisters suddenly?

A. Milna julna alag cheez hai and politics is
separate.

Q. And now Amar Singh is
in the central government indirectly. Are you feeling threatened?

A. I am not but I can say for sure that the Congress will be
feeling threatened that if not today then tomorrow he will do something against
them.

Q. Have you gone soft on Amar Singh?
A. No I have not. The UP assembly results threw them out of
the government and installed me. So if the people of UP have already killed
them then why should I bother to do anything? Mare huey ko kyon maarna?

Q. You had earlier made charges of
corruption against them and said you will send them to jail. Have you forgiven
them?

A. No.

Q. Or is it that you did not find
anything?

A. Whatever the charges of corruption against them, the cases
are going on in the Supreme Court. Why should I come in the middle of that? And
why should I feel scared of weak people?

Q. But Amar Singh and Mulayam have been
reborn. They have become more powerful.

A. They are now more dead than ever.

Q. They sit and eat with the PM and meet
Sonia every day.

A. Dining is not everything. The way this government has been
saved, they will get no political gains out of this.

Q. There is talk of pressing ahead with
the cases against you. Don’t you think they must have made some sort of a deal?

A. Whenever there has been a political attack against me, via
the CBI or others, I have emerged stronger.

Q. So you are ready to fight?
A. Absolutely.

Q. So how do you keep so fit? Do you
exercise?

A. I don’t. I just keep busy with my work.

Q. No gym or personal trainer?
A. I don’t get the time for exercise, I just do my work.

Q. Do you control your diet?
A. I eat what I get.

Q. I have seen you for the last 15 years
and there is an image makeover. Was this part of a plan to ready yourself for
chief ministership and prime ministership?

A. I have done nothing. All this has happened naturally. I keep
busy with my work and that is my exercise.

Q. What hobbies do you have?
A. All 24 hours of the day, I think about the movement I am
associated with and how to take my party forward. How to help the backward and
weaker sections of our country. I keep making plans for them and that keeps me
busy.

Q. Weaving conspiracies?
A. No, plans.

Q. But politics is like conspiracy. How
to get to power etc

A. No, I don’t need to. My party is different from others; it
is both a mission and a movement.

Q. In the end, it is politics only-how
to get power.

A. I agree with Babasaheb Dr Ambedkar, who said that if any
section of the society wants to solve its problems, it has to get political
power.

Q. So to fulfill Babasaheb’s dream, this
Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath which is
one of the top most communities of the world
 
ki beti is readying her political arsenal.

A. Not just Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the
Great Prabuddha Bharath which is one of the top most communities of the
world  ki beti
but Hindustan
ki beti
. I will fulfill Babasaheb’s dream, and those who believe in
Babasaheb are working to make this possible.

Q. I will ask you five questions and you
must answer them in one line. Who do you think is your biggest enemy? I am not
taking Amar Singh or Mulayam’s name.

A. I am against discrimination and untouchability and jaativaad.

Q. And your best friend? The one who
will put you in power?

A. The day our society that is divided on caste lines becomes
one.

Q. I am asking about individuals. There
have been 14 prime ministers in India.
Who do you like the best?

A. If I liked any one then I would not have felt the need to
form my own party.

Q. The worst?
A. They are all the same.

Q. Do you watch films?
A. No, I don’t. I barely get the time. I do watch the news
though.

Q. Do you have a favourite heroine?
A. Well, I don’t watch movies, so how will I have a favourite
heroine?

Q. Your favourite food? You do eat,
right?

A. (laughs) Yes, otherwise how will I stay alive. Green
vegetables, daal…

Q. Which is your favourite tourist spot?

A. Whenever I travel, I am so busy that I don’t have the time
to do any sightseeing.

Q. If you got a chance, where would you
like to go? After all, even Jawaharlal Nehru took a holiday sometimes.

A. I like natural surroundings. I am very fond of nature.

Q. Whom do you see as a political
villain in the country today?

A. (laughs)

Q. Is it Amar Singh or anyone other?
A. There is no shortage of such people in the country today.

Q. You don’t want to take a name?
A. Well you have taken the name yourself, so I don’t need to.

 



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11/19/08
Vinayapitaka Nissaggiya Pācittiya [go up] Rules entailing forfeiture and confession Part One: The Robe-cloth Chapter -Sutta Pitaka Samyutta Nikaya-Food for the Heart-Abhidhamma Practice Introduction -Mayawati appeals for clear mandate in MP-Uttar Pradesh to host its first children parliament-13 booked for selling Waqf property in Uttar Pradesh -DDA denies permission for Mayawati rally-BSP rides on support from UP migrants-BSP banking on ’social engineering’ formula in MP
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Rules entailing forfeiture and confession

Part One: The Robe-cloth Chapter [go up]

1. When a bhikkhu has finished
his robe and the frame is dismantled (his kathina privileges are
ended), he is to keep extra robe-cloth ten days at most. Beyond that,
it is to be forfeited and confessed.

2. When a bhikkhu has finished
his robe and the frame is dismantled (his kathina privileges are
ended): If he dwells apart from (any of) his three robes even for one
night — unless authorized by the bhikkhus — it is to be forfeited and
confessed.

3. When a bhikkhu has finished
his robe and the frame is dismantled (his kathina privileges are
ended): Should out-of-season robe-cloth accrue to him, he may accept it
if he so desires. Having accepted it, he is to make it up immediately
(into a cloth requisite). If it should not be enough, he may lay it
aside for a month at most when he has an expectation for filling the
lack. If he should keep it beyond that, even when he has an expectation
(for further cloth), it is to be forfeited and confessed.

4. Should any bhikkhu have a
used robe washed, dyed, or beaten by a bhikkhunī unrelated to him, it
is to be forfeited and confessed.

5. Should any bhikkhu accept
robe-cloth from the hand of a bhikkhunī unrelated to him — except in
exchange — it is to be forfeited and confessed.

6. Should any bhikkhu ask for
robe-cloth from a man or woman householder unrelated to him, except at
the proper occasion, it is to be forfeited and confessed. Here the
proper occasion is this: The bhikkhu’s robe has been snatched away or
destroyed. This is the proper occasion here.

7. If that unrelated man or
woman householder presents the bhikkhu with many robes (pieces of
robe-cloth), he is to accept at most (enough for) an upper and a lower
robe. If he accepts more than that, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

8. In case a man or woman
householder unrelated (to  the bhikkhu) prepares a robe fund for the
sake of a bhikkhu, thinking, “Having purchased a robe with this robe
fund, I will clothe the bhikkhu named so-and-so with a robe”: If the
bhikkhu, not previously invited, approaching (the householder) should
make a stipulation with regard to the robe, saying, “It would be good
indeed, sir, if you clothed me (with a robe), having purchased a robe
of such-and-such a sort with this robe fund” — out of a desire for
something fine — it is to be forfeited and confessed.

9. In case two householders —
men or women — unrelated (to the bhikkhu) prepare separate robe funds
for the sake of a bhikkhu, thinking, “Having purchased separate robes
with these separate robe funds of ours, we will clothe the bhikkhu
named so-and-so with robes”: If the bhikkhu, not previously invited,
approaching (them) should make a stipulation with regard to the robe,
saying, “It would be good indeed, sirs, if you clothed me (with a
robe), having purchased a robe of such-and-such a sort with these
separate robe funds, the two (funds) together for one (robe)” — out of
a desire for something fine — it is to be forfeited and confessed.

10. In case a king, a royal
official, a brahman, or a householder sends a robe fund for the sake of
a bhikkhu via a messenger, (saying,) “Having purchased a robe with this
robe fund, clothe the bhikkhu named so-and-so with a robe”: If the
messenger, approaching the bhikkhu, should say, “This is a robe fund
being delivered for the sake of the venerable one. May the venerable
one accept this robe fund,” then the bhikkhu is to tell the messenger:
“We do not accept robe funds, my friend. We accept robes (robe-cloth)
as are proper according to season.”

If the messenger should say to the bhikkhu, “Does the venerable one
have a steward?” then, bhikkhus, if the bhikkhu desires a robe, he may
indicate a steward — either a monastery attendant or a lay follower —
(saying,) “That, my friend, is the bhikkhus’ steward.”

If the messenger, having instructed the steward and going to the
bhikkhu, should say, “I have instructed the steward the venerable one
indicated. May the venerable one go (to him) and he will clothe you
with a robe in season,” then the bhikkhu, desiring a robe and
approaching the steward, may prompt and remind him two or three times,
“I have need of a robe.” Should (the steward) produce the robe after
being prompted and reminded two or three times, that is good.

If he should not produce the robe, (the bhikkhu) should stand in
silence four times, five times, six times at most for that purpose.
Should (the steward) produce the robe after (the bhikkhu) has stood in
silence for the purpose four, five, six times at most, that is good.

If he should not produce the robe (at that point), should he then
produce the robe after (the bhikkhu) has endeavored further than that,
it is to be forfeited and confessed.

If he should not produce (the robe), then the bhikkhu himself should
go to the place from which the robe fund was brought, or a messenger
should be sent (to say), “The robe fund that you, venerable sirs, sent
for the sake of the bhikkhu has given no benefit to the bhikkhu at all.
May the you be united with what is yours. May what is yours not be
lost.” This is the proper course here.

Sutta Pitaka
Samyutta Nikaya

The Samyutta Nikaya, the third division of the Sutta Pitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). Each vagga is further divided into samyuttas, each of which in turn contains a group of suttas on related topics. The samyuttas
are named according to the topics of the suttas they contain. For
example, the Kosala Samyutta (in the Sagatha Vagga) contains suttas
concerning King Pasenadi of Kosala; the Vedana Samyutta (in the
Salayatana Vagga) contains suttas concerning feeling (vedana); and so on.

An excellent modern print translation of the complete Samyutta Nikaya is Bhikkhu Bodhi’s The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2000; originally published in two volumes, but now available in a single volume). A fine anthology of selected suttas is Handful of Leaves (Vol. 2), by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (distributed by the Sati Center for Buddhist Studies).

The suttas are numbered here by samyutta (chapter) and sutta, with
the suttas numbered sequentially from the start of each samyutta, using
as a guide the Rhys Davis & Woodward PTS English translations of the Samyutta Nikaya (The Book of the Kindred Sayings).
The braces {} that follow each sutta and samyutta title contain the
corresponding volume and starting page number, first in the PTS
romanized Pali edition of the Samyutta Nikaya, then in Bhikkhu Bodhi’s Connected Discourses of the Buddha (”CDB”). The translator appears in the square brackets [].



Food for the Heart

Abhidhamma Practice

Introduction [go up]

One of the most notable features of Venerable Ajahn Chah’s teaching
was the emphasis he gave to the Sangha, the monastic order, and its use
as a vehicle for Dhamma practice. This is not to deny his unique gift
for teaching lay people, which enabled him to communicate brilliantly
with people from all walks of life, be they simple farmers or
University professors. But the results he obtained with teaching and
creating solid Sangha communities are plainly visible in the many
monasteries which grew up around him, both within Thailand and, later,
in England, Australia, Europe and elsewhere. Ajahn Chah foresaw the
necessity of establishing the Sangha in the West if long-term results
were to be realized.

This book is a collection of talks he gave to the monastic
communities in Thailand. They are exhortations given to the communities
of bhikkhus, or Buddhist monks, at his own monastery, Wat Ba
Pong, and some of its branches. This fact should be born in mind by the
lay reader. These talks are not intended to, and indeed cannot, serve
as an introduction to Buddhism and meditation practice. They are
monastic teachings, addressed primarily to the lifestyle and problems
particular to that situation. A knowledge of the basics of Buddhism on
the part of the listener was assumed. Many of the talks will thus seem
strange and even daunting to the lay reader, with their emphasis on
conformity and renunciation.

For the lay reader, then, it is essential to bear in mind the
environment within which these talks were given — the rugged, austere,
poverty-stricken North-East corner of Thailand, birth place of most of
Thailand’s great meditation teachers and almost its entire forest
monastic tradition. The people of the North-East are honed by this
environment to a rugged simplicity and gentle patience which make them
ideal candidates for the forest monk’s lifestyle. Within this
environment, in small halls dimly lit by paraffin lamps, surrounded by
the assembly of monks, Ajahn Chah gave his teachings.

Exhortations by the master occurred typically at the end of the
fortnightly recitation of the Patimokkha, the monks’ code of
discipline. Their content would be decided by the current situation —
slackness in the practice, confusion about the rules, or just plain
“unenlightenment.” In a lifestyle characterized by simplicity and
contentment with little, complacency is an ongoing tendency, so that
talks for arousing diligent effort were a regular occurrence.

The talks themselves are spontaneous reflections and exhortations
rather than systematic teachings as most Westerners would know them.
The listener was required to give full attention in the present moment
and to reflect back on his own practice accordingly, rather than to
memorize the teachings by rote or analyze them in terms of logic. In
this way he could become aware of his own shortcomings and learn how to
best put into effect the skillful means offered by the teacher.

Although meant primarily for a monastic resident — be one a monk,
nun or novice — the interested lay reader will no doubt obtain many
insights into Buddhist practice from this book. At the very least there
are the numerous anecdotes of the Venerable Ajahn’s own practice which
abound throughout the book; these can be read simply as biographical
material or as instruction for mind training.

From the contents of this book, it will be seen that the training of
the mind is not, as many believe, simply a matter of sitting with the
eyes closed or perfecting a meditation technique, but is, as Ajahn Chah
would say, a great renunciation.



Mayawati appeals for clear mandate in MP

Bhopal, November 19: Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
supremo and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati applealed to the
people of Madhya Pradesh to vote for her party which has ensured the
welfare of all as both Congress and the BJP have cheated them after
getting their votes.

Addressing poll rallies at Khandwa and Bhopal in
support of the BSP candidates, Mayawati appealed to the people to vote
like in Uttar Pradesh where her party got a clear mandate following
which it has ensured welfare of all.

Criticising both Congress and BJP, she alleged
that both of them cheat people for coming to power and later their
policies aimed towards the welfare of industrialists and capitalists.

Mayawati said that like Uttar Pradesh, people of
Madhya Pradesh also should give their valuable vote to BSP which is
capable of providing a government committed to “sarvajan sukhay,
sarvjan hitay” (welfare of all).

She said that because of landslide verdict, her
party has changed the situation in Uttar Pradesh and conditions in that
state is far better now than what it was earlier.

The BSP supremo said that her party has fielded
candidates on almost all the seats in the state and is capable of
forming government on its own.

She also highlighted several steps taken by her government for welfare of people of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh to host its first children parliament

Lucknow, Nov 19 (IANS) A first ever ‘Children’s Parliament’ of Uttar
Pradesh will be held at the state assembly here Thursday, officials
said.A consortium of voluntary organisations working on child rights in
assistance with the Unicef is organising the event, which will start
from 11 a.m. Thursday.

“In the parliament, nearly 200 children from across the state will
discuss various issues related to child welfare,” said Augustine
Veliath, communication head at Unicef, Lucknow.

Ministers and politicians will attend the parliament to listen to
these children as they take up various issues concerning them,
officials said.

According to social activists, the parliament will enable Uttar Pradesh to have a concrete policy on child protection.

13 booked for selling Waqf property in Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow, Nov 19 (IANS) As many as 13 people,
including a government official, have been booked for encroaching on
‘Waqf’ (a Muslim charitable endowment) property, and selling it off
fraudulently in Uttar Pradesh, the police Tuesday said.

Waqf is a gift of land or property made by a Muslim, intended for religious, educational, or other charitable use.

‘Out of the 13 people, one is a Waqf inspector, who apparently
procured fake documents and managed to sell a building in Khwaja Qutub
locality in Bareilly, which is Waqf property,’ police inspector N.K.
Bhatnagar told IANS over telephone from Bareilly, 250 km from Lucknow.

He declined to reveal to whom the property was sold. Efforts are on to trace the 13 people, who are still at large, he added.

DDA denies permission for Mayawati rally

Mayawati’s Bahujan Samaj party
has gone on the warpath after being denied permission to hold a rally
at a DDA park on the outskirts of Delhi.

The rally was scheduled for 23 November as part of a series of rallies to be addressed by Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati.

Now after being denied permission the BSP is considering moving court.

BSP rides on support from UP migrants

NEW
DELHI: Despite both BJP and Congress maintaining that they don’t see BSP as a threat in this assembly. Bahujan leaders are sure to spring a surprise, particularly in east and northeast parliamentary constituencies.
Party poll
managers feel the regions’ proximity to UP and a sizable migrant population that
empathises with Mayawati will help it clinch victory in all the seats where
SC and sarvajan samaj voters have a large presence.

Majority of the migrants in east Delhi are from UP. Behnji’s
(Mayawati’s) rise in UP is hailed by most of them. Since we are into this
assembly election on the lines of UP polls, we will get support of these voters.
They are aware of how good governance has reached their native villages and
towns,'’ said Chandrapal Jatav, party general secretary in charge of Trilokpuri,
Kondli, Patparganj, Jangpura and Okhla constituencies of east
Delhi
.

Dr I A Khan who is responsible for poll campaign in Gokalpur,
Seemapuri, Mustafabad, Karawal Nagar and Rohtas Nagar, also said the party’s
reach to all communities and sub-groups working at grass-root level would help
the party emerge victorious. “We don’t believe in getting huge numbers when on
the campaign trail. Other political parties get full-time campaigners because
they are paid,'’ Khan added.



Prem Chand Pramookh, in-charge of east
Delhi Lok Sabha constituency, said, “I have been working here since August and
since then we have been reaching out to voters. Other parties have begun
campaigning only after filing nominations. We have our underground network to
take care of voters.'’



To ensure that Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is The Great Prabuddha Bharath votes don’t get eroded,
UP leaders and local campaigners are freely using Mayawati’s name to campaign.
“She has restored our dignity. Now in UP, cops provide you a seat when you go to
lodge an FIR. This will also happen in Delhi when we come to power,'’ a local
leader was heard saying while addressing a meeting in Maujpur
village.



Senior UP leaders are looking beyond the assembly elections.
One of them said party’s performance in winning significant support would help
them to chalk out the strategy for next Lok Sabha elections. “The ultimate aim
of the party is to see Mayawati becoming the PM,'’ said a sitting BSP MP.

From: David Plouffe
Subject: The Presidential transition
To: “Sashikanth Chandrasekharan”
Date: Thursday, November 20, 2008, 5:19 PM

Sashikanth –

Please take a few minutes and help shape the future of this movement.

Share your campaign experience and your thoughts on the best way to keep supporting our agenda for change.

The inauguration is just 62 days away, and as President-elect Obama and
Vice President-elect Biden prepare to take office, they’ll need your
support more than ever.

You’ve built an organization in your community and across the country
that will continue to work for change — whether it’s by building
grassroots support for legislation, backing state and local candidates,
or sharing organizing techniques to effect change in your neighborhood.

Your hard work built this movement. Now it’s up to you to decide how we move forward.

Take this short survey and share your ideas:

http://my.barackobama.com/whatsnext

Thanks to you, this country has an historic opportunity. Electing
Barack was the first big step, but there’s a lot of challenging and
important work ahead.

Together, we can keep making history,

I have a special request for you.

The Obama-Biden Transition Project is a nonpartisan entity whose
purpose is to facilitate the transition to a new government and prepare
for the next administration.

In the past, efforts like these have often been very secretive and funded by the D.C. lobbying and corporate community.

But, like in the campaign, we’ve decided to do things differently.

For the first time, transition efforts won’t be financed with donations
from Washington lobbyists and PACs — which means we’ll need to keep
asking for your help. Your generosity during the campaign helped get us
here, but building a more transparent and open government means
continuing to rely on a broader group of people to do this the right
way.

We only have a few weeks to assess the state of the federal agencies,
prepare our agenda, and staff key positions in the new administration.
Your support right now will be crucial to helping us accomplish these
goals.

Will you help support the urgent mission of our transition team with a donation of $25 or more?

https://donate.barackobama.com/transition

You know that we got here by building this campaign from the ground up.
We’re committed to building the White House team the same way.

Thank you,

David

David Plouffe
Campaign Manager
Obama for America

The message of Gautam Buddha has endured the passage
of time and continues to resonate around the world, more than two and a half
millennia later. For centuries, the life, spirituality and the teachings of
Gautam Buddha have offered solace to millions of people across the world, and
his teachings are an invaluable part of our proud national heritage. Gautam
Buddha’s uniqueness lay in the fact that he prescribed a moral code of conduct,
based on love and compassion, which could enable any person to realize the
Truth.


More than 2,500 years after Lord Gautam Buddha’s
Maha-parinibbana, we find his teachings still casting a lasting influence on
the political and social priorities of our times.

Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar, too, was deeply influenced by
the egalitarianism and humanism of Gautam Buddha’s teachings. He eventually
embraced Buddhism because he was seeking, in his own words, ‘Pragyan
that is enlightenment; Karuna, that is compassion; and Samata,
that is equality.’

Dr.
Ambedkar, gave a new meaning and relevance to the ancient wisdom of Gautam
Buddha.


Dr. Bhimrao
Ramji Ambedkar, affectionately called ‘Baba Saheb’ by millions of his admirers
and followers, played a pivotal role in shaping the destiny of free India and
left an indelible imprint on our national life and polity. The architect of our
Constitution, the champion of the downtrodden, and a rebel against social and
economic inequities, Dr. Amebdkar was rightly described
by Mahatma
Gandhi as ‘a
patriot of sterling worth.’

Born in a
‘Mahar’ family, Baba Saheb had to suffer the ugliest forms of caste oppression
and social discrimination in his early days. But he fought against them with
indomitable courage, and overcoming the twin social barriers of extreme poverty
and caste prejudice, obtained a law degree and multiple doctorates in law,
economics and political science from universities in the UK and USA.


Dr. Ambedkar
was chiefly instrumental in creating a new awakening, a new sense of social
significance and a unique sense of dignity and self-respect amongst a large
section of our people who were otherwise placed at the lowest strata in our
hierarchical social order with first, second, third and fourth rate souls and
human beings without any soul who are treated in a most ugliest form of caste
oppression and social discrimination, while the Buddha never believed in any
soul but all were equal . Endowed with extraordinary brilliance, great
foresight, tenacious purpose and courage of conviction, Babasaheb inspired the
deprived sections of our society to question the basis of the exploitative and
degrading social milieu in which they lived and to stand up for their
legitimate rights.


Baba Saheb’s
eminence as a national leader, jurist, constitutional expert and
Parliamentarian was fully recognized when he was elected to Constituency
Assembly in 1946, and appointed as the Chairman of Drafting Committee of the
Indian Constitution in August, 1947. Working prodigiously, literally burning
the midnight oil, Dr. Ambedkar sat for 141 days to draw up the Draft
Constitution of India.
Being an economist, legal luminary and socialist, he was deeply aware that the
Constitution was not merely a legal document but an organic entity,
representing the aspirations of millions of our countrymen. Speaking on the
vitality and the endurability of the Constitution, Dr. Ambedkar said ‘The
Constitution as settled by the Drafting Committee is workable. It is flexible
and it is strong enough to hold the country both in peace time and war time.
Indeed,
  if things go wrong under the new Constitution, the reason
will not be that we had a bad Constitution. What we will have to say is that
man was vile.’


Dr.
Ambedkar’s attempt was to link the interest of the depressed classes and their
liberation with the common national movement for freedom. Nationalism in him
emerged out of his principled fight against both external domination and
internal oppression. His view of nationalism not only contemplated the
liberation of every country enslaved by colonial domination but also the
freedom for all subjects and subjugated people even in free countries. He
emphasized that without freedom that ensured the dignity of all individuals
social brotherhood cannot be achieved.


He believed
that certain political rights alone did not constitute the basis of democracy.
He perceived it as a form of social engineering, a way of life. The fundamental
elements in the democracy of his concept were: liberty, equality, fraternity,
reason, human experience, prevalence of rule of law, respect for natural
rights, and an emphasis on the individual in social relationships

On the
inauguration of the Constitution, he declared in unequivocal terms that though India had
attained equality in politics, there still existed inequality in social and
economic life. In his concluding Address in the Constituent Assembly, Dr.
Ambedkar forcefully put forth his views in this regard. He said, and I quote: ‘We
must make our political democracy a social democracy. It means a way of life,
which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of life.
Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity,
liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things.’

The Indian
Constitution as given to us by Dr. Ambedkar is a unique affirmation of
individual rights and social justice. Its great value lies in the fact that it
guarantees social empowerment through constitutional and democratic means. Our
unique path of achieving social and economic emancipation through peaceful and
democratic means holds lessons for all societies in transition and for all
countries striving to cope with social and economic disparities
.


Dr.
Ambedkar’s role as a political leader and his intellectual contribution have
become an integral part of our country’s political evolution. He brought to the
forefront of our nation’s conscience, the deprivations suffered by a large
section of our people due to our exploitative social system. More than anything
else he will be remembered for his role in laying the institutional foundation
of our Republic and for his heroic struggle for raising the down-trodden to a
life of dignity and self-respect.


What a steamroller intellect he brought to bear upon this
magnificent and tremendous task; irresistible, unconquerable…; whatever he felt
to be right he stood by, regardless of consequences.


In
recognition of the distinguished services rendered by Dr. Ambedkar, the
Government of India conferred on him the nation’s highest award ‘the Bharat
Ratna’ posthumously in 1990, and commemorated the centenary year of his birth
in 1990-91 as the Year of Social Justice.


Even today,
Dr. Ambedkar’s vision for a just and free society continues to guide political
thought and action in India.
The scheme for affirmative action or positive discrimination in favour of the
weak, enjoys support of all political parties across the ideological spectrum.
Drawing inspiration from Dr. Ambedkar’s life - where education provided empowerment,
the Indian State is paying special attention to
making education, especially higher education, more accessible to the weaker
sections of society.


However,
administrative measures alone cannot bring about societal changes. There is a
need to change our mind-sets too. This requires an all - encompassing political
and cultural movement against various forms of injustice in our society.
Ultimately, the battle for a just social order has to be waged and won in the
minds of our people.


Today, there
are thousands of young men and women in India whose lives mirror that of
Baba Saheb. More and more talented young persons from the so-called backward
castes are able to achieve recognition in different fields due to their merit
despite disadvantages and discrimination faced by them. And that is because of
their educational attainments. As this trickle becomes a flood, Indian Society
and Economy will speedily become more just, more equalitarian, more inclusive
and above all, more productive.


India’s
position as an emerging global power will lie in the manner it treats its
weaker sections and its minorities, and in following a path of inclusive
growth. The vision of Baba Saheb and his life continue to be a beacon light,
showing us the way forward in our search for a just social order
.


Now his
caravan is being carried forward by
Bahujan
Samaj Party (BSP) supremo and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and Prime Minister
in waiting


Mayawati who appleals to the people of the entire Nation to vote for
her party which has ensured the welfare of all.


Mayawati appeals to the people to vote like in
Uttar Pradesh where her party got a clear mandate following which it has
ensured welfare of all.


Mayawati says that like Uttar Pradesh, people of
the entire Nation also should give their valuable vote to BSP which is capable
of providing a government committed to ” sarvjan hitay, sarvajan sukhay ”
(welfare of all).


She says that because of landslide verdict, her
party has changed the situation in Uttar Pradesh and conditions in that state
is far better now than what it was earlier.


The BSP supremo says that her party will  field candidates on almost all the seats in
the coming Lok Sabah and  all the states
and is capable of forming government on its own.


She also highlights several steps taken by her
government for welfare of people of Uttar Pradesh

BSP banking on ’social engineering’ formula in MP

ge


Indore,
Nov 20: After the success in the Uttar Pradesh assembly elections last
year, Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is banking on the formula of “social
engineering” for the success in Madhya Pradesh assembly elections.




While justifying her decision about not entering into alliance with
either Congress or BJP, BSP Chief Mayawati said, “people of the region
irrespective of all classes had been cheated by Congress and the BJP
for the past 60 years.” “We are not against upper castes. But the union
government is not ready to amend the Constitution for reservation based
on economic condition,” she said.




The UP chief minister also spoke on the achievements of the BSP government in Uttar Pradesh.

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Shrawasti to be accessible by air soon - Tipitaka The Pali Canon-BSP not against upper castes: Mayawati-BSP wrests Hardoi seat from SP BSP wrests Hardoi seat from SP- U.P. C.M. expresses gratitude to people for BSP victory in Hardoi By-election Lucknow:-U.P. C.M. reviews progress of NHAI and Lucknow Bypass projects Directive to speedily complete all road projects -UP to lure Arab world to ‘greener pastures’-Natwar, Jagat broke party discipline: BSP
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:14 am

Tipitaka
The Pali Canon

Vinaya Pitaka



Bhikkhunī

Nissaggiya Pācittiya [go up]

Part One: The Bowl Chapter [go up]

1. Should any bhikkhunī make a bowl-hoard (have more than one bowl in her possession), it is to be forfeited and confessed. [See Bhikkhus’ NP 21]

2. Should any bhikkhunī, having
determined an out-of-season cloth to be an in-season cloth, distribute
it, it is to be forfeited and confessed. (§¶¨•) 2

3. Should any bhikkhunī, having
exchanged robe-cloth with another bhikkhunī, later say to her, “Here,
lady. This is your robe-cloth. Bring me that robe-cloth of mine. What
was yours is still yours. What was mine is still mine. Bring me that
one of mine. Take yours back,” and then snatch it back or have it
snatched back, it is to be forfeited and confessed. [See Bhikkhus’ NP 5]

4. Should any bhikkhunī, having
had one thing requested, (then send it back and) have another thing
requested, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

5. Should any bhikkhunī, having
had one thing bought, (then send it back and) have another thing
bought, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

6. Should any bhikkhunī, using a
fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one purpose for a
Community, have something else bought, it is to be forfeited and
confessed. (§•)

7. Should any bhikkhunī, having
herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one
purpose for a Community, use it to have something else bought, it is to
be forfeited and confessed. (§•) 3

8. Should any bhikkhunī, using a
fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one purpose for a group,
have something else bought, it is to be forfeited and confessed. (§•)

9. Should any bhikkhunī, having
herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one
purpose for a group, use it to have something else bought, it is to be
forfeited and confessed. (§•)

10. Should any bhikkhunī,
having herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to
one purpose for an individual, use it to have something else bought, it
is to be forfeited and confessed. (§•)







Shrawasti to be accessible by air soon
http://shravasti.nic.in/Sahet3.jpg

Shrawasti (Uttar Pradesh): This world famous Buddhist site will
soon be accessible by air with the airstrip being renovated, official
sources said here on Tuesday.

The work of renovating the airstrip has been awarded to RITES Ltd.
and orders to construct a VIP Lounge and Tourist Security Post will be
released soon, they said. The surfacing work is nearly finished and as
per directions of the aviation department sufficient area of adjacent
land has been acquired by the administration, said Sub-Divisional
Magistrate Babu Lal here.




home

AT A GLANCE :

Shravasti  is a newly created district of Uttar Pradesh (India)
carved out from districts of Gonda and Bahraich . Besides these two districts, Shravasti
shares its border with district Balrampur. Bhinga, the District Headquarter of Shrawasti,
  is approximately 150 k.m away from the state capital, Lucknow.

Geographical
Area
1126.00
K.m2
Population 923380
Literacy
19.27%
Parliamentary
constituency
Behraich

Assembly
Constituencies

Bhinga,Ikauna,Charda,Behraich

Tehsil Bhinga,Ikauna
Community
Development Blocks
Hariharpur
Rani,Sirsia,Gilola,Jamunaha,Ikona
No.of
Panchayats
72
No
of Villages

Inhabited-683,
Uninhabited-19

Up

GENERAL
INFORMATION :

Shravasti, the northeastern town of Uttar Pradesh, is
located near river Rapti. This town is closely associated with the life of Lord Buddha.
Lord Buddha
 It
is being said that the mythological king  Sravast founded this town. Shravasti was
the capital of Kosala Kingdom during 6th century BC to 6th century AD. This prosperous
trading center was well known for its religious associations. The ‘Sobhanath’ temple is
believed to be the birthplace of Jain Tirthankar ‘Sambhavanath’ making Shravasti an
important center for the Jainas.
 As mentioned in the ‘Bruhatkalpa’
and various kalpas of the fourteenth century the name of the city was
‘Mahid’. There are subsequent mentions showing that the name of this city was
‘Sahet-Mahet’. It is   also mentioned that a vast fort covered this
city in which there were many temples having idols of Devkulikas.
Buddha is believed to have spent 24 monsoons in this city. Age-old stupas, majestic
monasteries and several temples near the village of “Sahet-Mahet” establish
Buddha’s association with Shravasti.
Moreover, Shravasti is the holy land of all the four Kalyanakas – Chayan, Birth,
Diksa and Attainment of omniscience of Bhagawan Samabhavanath.

Today a great rampart of earth
and brick surrounds this city.
 During
excavation in ‘Sahet-Mahet’ near Shravasti City, many ancient idols and
inscriptions were found. They are now kept in museums of Mathura and Lucknow. At present,
the archaeological department of the Indian Govt. is doing excavation to perform allied
  research.
Up

HISTORY :

The ancient city of Shravasti, venerated by Buddhist and Jains alike, is at present a
collection of ruins called SAHET - MAHET. This twin name is applied to two distinct groups
of remains, Sahet and Mahet.Sahet is the site of the famous Buddhist monastery known as
JETAVANA VIHAR, which lay outside the limits of the Remains at SahetShravasti city. The latter is
identified with modern Mahet. The ruins at Sahet consist mainly of plinths and foundation
of monasteries and stupas, all Buddhist. The other site i.e., Mahet situated at about 500m
from the site denotes the ancient city proper.

Very little is known of the city of Shravasti until  it
rose to fame owing to its association with Buddha and Mahavira in sixth century B.C.

At the time of Buddha, Presanajit was the king of
Shravasti.The site of Sahet is said to be the park of prince Jeta, son of Presanajit,
hence named Jetavan. Sudatta (also known as Ananthapindika), a wealthy merchant of
Shravasti, bought this park from prince Jeta by paying enough  gold pieces that could
cover the park. This episode is found in a sculpture of second century B.C.  A
Jetavana scene is also found on an early Amaravati stele. The earliest structural
activities at Sahet are attributed  mainly to Suddatta, Prince Jeta and his father
King Presanajit.

In the third rainy season after his awakenment, Lord
Buddha visited Jetavana and since then he regularly made his sojourn to the monastery
spending here 24 rainy seasons in all.Remains of the memorial of  Angulimala, built by King  Ashoka

One of the interesting episodes in an off-told story of
Buddha at Shravasti was the conversion of a robber named Angulimala.

After the age of Buddha and Mahavira, the history of
Shravasti is obscure till we come to the period of Ashoka in the third century B.C. .The
material prosperity of Shravasti was at its height during  Ashoka’s period. Ashoka is
credited with the erection of two pillars, each 21m high, in addition to the construction
of several monasteries and stupas. The monasteries and shrines of Jetavana were renovated
during the early centuries of the Christian era under the patronage of Kushanas. During
the period of Gupthas, the Buddhist establishment at Jetavana was prosperous as before.

In the early fifth century FA-HIEN visited this  
place.

In the reign of king Harsha (AD 606 - 647) Hiuen - Tsang
visited Shravasti and found it a wild ruin. There is evidence to show that some Buddhist
establishments survived in Jetavana down to the middle of the Twelfth century  mainly
due to the patronage of the Gahadavala kings of Kannauj. The history of Shravasti
thereafter is quite unknown.

The ruins of Shravasti remaind long forgotten until they were
brought to light and identified with Shravasti by Alexander Cunninghum in 1863. Successive
excavations have yielded the remains of several stupas, temples and monsteries,etc.




BSP not against upper castes: Mayawati


Says Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party work for the interests of the
capitalists



Photo: A. M. Faruqui





Welcome: Bahujan Samaj Party supremo and Uttar
Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati being welcomed at an election meeting
in Bhopal on Tuesday.

Bhopal: Hoping to increase the Bahujan Samaj Party’s stake in Madhya
Pradesh, party supremo and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati on
Tuesday denied that her party was against the upper castes and said she
was in favour of reservation for the upper caste poor, but the Central
government was dithering on it.

“My government is committed to providing 10 per cent reservation to
the poor among upper castes. I have written to the Prime Minister about
this but no action has been taken,” she said, adding that the BSP was
not against the upper castes as was being projected by some political
parties.

“The BSP’s policies have never been against any caste or com munity,
the party is committed to the welfare of all sections and castes,” she
said, addressing an election meeting here.

“The party wants development of all the castes. In Uttar Pradesh,
the party has taken care of backward Muslims and we promise that we
will amend the Constitution to provide reservation to backward people
from the upper castes when we come to power at the Centre.

“Though the BSP stands for ‘Sarvajan Hitay, Sarvajan Sukhay’
(welfare of all people, happiness for all), the first priority is
people from the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as they have been
ignored by the Congress and BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) governments in
the last 60 years,” Ms. Mayawati said.

“These parties are run with capitalists’ funds. They work for the
interests of these capitalists when they come to power. But the BSP
will work for the welfare of the people since it is run with the
monetary cooperation of its followers and workers,” she said.

“To establish an equal society and also to come to power, it is
important that the BSP takes sarvajan samaj (all sections of society)
with it,” the UP Chief Minister claimed.

Ms. Mayawati, however, did not forget to reiterate her demand for
job reservations in the private sector also. “All those companies which
get government contracts will have to provide this reservation,” she
said and added: “Those companies which provide reservation will get
support from the government.” -IANS

BSP wrests Hardoi seat from SP

Special Correspondent

LUCKNOW: The Bahujan Samaj Party wrested the Hardoi Assembly seat
from the Samajwadi Party in the lone Vidhan Sabha byelection in Uttar
Pradesh.

The seat was won by Nitin Agarwal of the BSP, who defeated his
nearest Samajwadi rival Sukh Saagar Mishra ‘Madhur’ by a margin of
17,372 votes.

While the BSP candidate polled 65,533 votes, 48,161 votes were
garnered by the Samajwadi Party nominee. With 5,737 votes, Mithilesh
Singh Chauhan of the Congress came third. He lost his deposit.


BJP did not contest

The Bharatiya Janata Party had not entered the fray.

The byelection in Hardoi was caused by the resignation of the former
Minister, Naresh Agarwal, who subsequently joined the BSP in July this
year. Mr. Agarwal had won the seat as a Samajwadi Party candidate in
the 2007 U.P. Assembly elections.

He later fell out with Samajwadi chief Mulayam Singh and joined the BSP.

Nitin Agarwal is the son of Naresh Agarwal, who has now been
appointed the national general secretary of the BSP by Uttar Pradesh
Chief Minister Mayawati.

Press Information Bureau (C.M. Information Campus) Information & Public Relations Department,

U.P. C.M. expresses gratitude to people for BSP victory in Hardoi By-election Lucknow:

November 18, 2008

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati has expressed gratitude to the people on victory of BSP candidate Mr. Nitin Agrawal with great margin in the Sursa assembly by-election in Hardoi. She termed it as the victory of BSP Government ’ s policies and programmes adding that the results of the by-election had once again proved that BSP Government had measured up to the expectations and aspirations of the people. The Chief Minister maintained that it was the triumph of ‘ Sarvjan Hitai, Sarvjan Sukhai ’ principle, as the BSP Government was committed to the development of all sections of the society. Her commitment to the well-being of all sections would continue to be translated into action. Ms. Mayawati said that the results of the last by-elections, including Hardoi, had exposed the hollowness of the opposition parties. The people of Hardoi had rejected almost all the parties, that criticised the BSP Government continuously, she added.
*******
1 Press Information Bureau (C.M. Information Campus) Information & Public Relations Department,

U.P. C.M. reviews progress of NHAI and Lucknow Bypass projects Directive to speedily complete all road projects
Lucknow: November 18, 2008

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati reviewed the progress of repair and improvement works of national highways and other projects of National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) at a high-level meeting at her official residence here today. She directed that effective action should be taken on projects run by NHAI, and the work on all other roads of the State be completed at the earliest. It may be recalled, that Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati had written a letter to Prime Minister in October last regarding allocation of funds for repair and improvement work on National Highways, tardy progress of works for converting four-lanes into six-lanes on different national highways by the NHAI and the poor conditions and proper maintenance of National Roads handed over to Authority. After the review meeting by the Chief Minister, the senior government officers discussed in detail the different projects of the Authority with Mr. Vireshwar Singh, Chairman NHAI and his other colleagues. At the meeting, his attention was drawn to the slow pace of progress of the projects of National Highway Authority of India— Lucknow-Sitapur Highway, Lucknow-Kanpur Highway, Lucknow-Jhansi Highway, Basti-Gorakhpur-Kushinagar Highway and Lucknow Bypass. Mr. Vireshwar Singh assured that work on these projects would be completed soon. It was informed at the meeting that work on Lucknow Bypass in progress for the last seven years and it was still incomplete. Work on it was stopped two years ago. The Cabinet Secretary said that if Authority
PN-18Nov-08 (Prabhat)(RKS)-CM-Hardoi

UP to lure Arab world to ‘greener pastures’

After promoting the Buddhist circuit to woo international tourists,
the Uttar Pradesh government has now picked up a novel theme — 
‘Chasing the Monsoons’ — to invite tourists from the Arab countries. 

This is part of the Indian Tourism Ministry’s ‘Incredible India’
campaign that was launched as Integrated International Media Campaign
in Arabian Travel Market Convention concluded in Dubai on May 7. The
media campaign was launched to promote India as a must-see tourist
destination and focuses on both generic and niche areas to convert the
country into a destination all year long.

In this campaign, Uttar Pradesh has invited tourists from Arab
countries to UP to enjoy lush green environment and its unique circuits
during the monsoon season. 

Principal secretary (Tourism) Om Prakash, after returning from
Arabian Travel Market Convention in Dubai said, “We have been taking
various initiatives in the tourism sector with the sole objective of
attracting more tourists. Infrastructural facilities in the country are
being augmented in a well-planned manner. With an open-sky policy
providing better air connectivity, the aviation system has been
radically liberalised,” he said.

In order to overcome the shortage in accommodation, efforts are on
to build more hotel rooms in the next four years under the new state
hotel policy, he added. The new ‘Bed and Breakfast’ scheme has been
launched to cater to the requirements of more tourists.

Besides infrastructure, the major destination for all tourists is
Taj Mahal. In the Buddhist circuit, we plan to develop, Shrawasti,
Kapilvastu


and Kushinagar.





There are also plans to develop Barsana,
Vrindavan and Govardhan. The Department has also firmed up plans to
develop the Mahabharata circuit around Hastinapur and all known places
like Baghpat and Bijnore.

Keeping in mind Muslim tourists, importance has been given to the
Sufi Circuit. The circuit includes Fatehpur Sikri, Rampur, Badaun,
Bareilly, Lucknow, Kakori, Deva Sharif (Barabanki), Bahraich, Kichocha
Sharif, Kade Shah - Kada (Kaushambi)http://www.buddhist-pilgrimage.com/gifs/kaushambi.jpg, Allahabad, Kantit Sharif
(Mirzapur). All these places have shrines (mazars) or birthplaces of
famous Sufi saints. These places are being developed by the department,
added the principal secretary. 

He said people from the Arab countries like fresh and lush green places as they come from places with dry weather.



Natwar, Jagat broke party discipline: BSP

Atiq Khan

LUCKNOW: The former External Affairs Minister, K. Natwar Singh, and
his son Jagat Singh have been expelled from the Bahujan Samaj Party on
the charge of indiscipline. Mr. Natwar Singh has been charged with
working against the principles and policies of the BSP. He joined the
BSP at a rally in Lucknow on August 9 this year.

After having been expelled earlier from the Congress, he campaigned
for the Samajwadi Party-led United National Progressive Alliance in
Uttar Pradesh for the 2007 Assembly elections.

In a press release on Tuesday, BSP national general secretary Satish
Chandra Mishra charged Mr. Natwar Singh with indiscipline following the
leadership’s refusal to nominate him for the Rajya Sabha.

Mr. Mishra said that he had been clearly told that it was not
possible to nominate him as preference was given to those who had a
long association with the BSP movement. The former Minister was told
that ticket would not be given to an industrialist nor would an
opportunist be sent to the House.

As for Mr. Jagat Singh, Mr. Mishra said he had been given ticket to
contest the Lok Sabha election from Jaipur. When he realised that the
BSP would play an important role in the formation of the next
government in Rajasthan, he clamoured for contesting the Vidhan Sabha
poll from Bharatpur. However, Mr. Jagat Singh was refused nomination as
a Brahmin candidate was already named for the seat.

Mr. Mishra clarified that no party post had been given to Mr. Natwar
Singh and his son, who were in the BSP as ordinary workers. Mr. Jagat
Singh was earlier expelled from the Rajasthan BSP unit.


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11/17/08
The Abhidhamma in Practice by N.K.G. Mendis of Abhidhamma Practice-Samaññaphala Sutta The Fruits of the Contemplative Life Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu of Sutta Pitaka-Saṅghādisesa [go up] Rules entailing an initial and subsequent meeting of the Sangha of Vinaya Pitaka-Tipitaka The Pali Canon-Indian Politics- BSP Will spring a surprise at state polls -Christians asked to take part in politics -time has come to explore and test new options like the Bahujan Samaj Party-BSP has fielded a community member, Lata Edwin, for the Jhabua seat-Now the Entire People, that is, Sarvajan will be Secure, Well and Happy, no sooner they become the members of Bahujan Samaj Party. No evil force can ever touch them as all of them are Original Ihabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharth - Three Baskets Study Circle -Court dismisses expelled BSP member’s plea
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:10 pm





A UNESCO World Heritage Site

Rooftops of Haeinsa Temple
View over the rooftops of Haeinsa Temple. Photo Creative Commons License Brian B.

Monks
Monks go about their daily routine at Haeinsa. Photo Creative Commons License Joshua Klein.


Photo Creative Commons License Joshua Klein.

Korean Tripitaka
The Tripitaka Koreana. Photo Creative Commons License Brian B.

Wooden block
One of the wooden blocks on display. Photo Creative Commons License Brian B.


Festival at Haeinsa. Photo Creative Commons License Erik Shin.


Springtime blossoms at Haeinsa. Photo Creative Commons License Erik Shin.

Hyoo-Geh-Shil at Haeinsa. Photo Creative Commons License Erik Shin.

Vinaya Pitaka

Rules entailing an initial and subsequent meeting of the Sangha

1. Intentional emission of semen, except while dreaming, entails initial and subsequent meetings of the Community.

2. Should any bhikkhu, overcome
by lust, with altered mind, engage in bodily contact with a woman, or
in holding her hand, holding a lock of her hair, or caressing any of
her limbs, it entails initial and subsequent meetings of the Community.

3. Should any bhikkhu, overcome
by lust, with altered mind, address lewd words to a woman in the manner
of young men to a young woman alluding to sexual intercourse, it
entails initial and subsequent meetings of the Community.

4. Should any bhikkhu, overcome
by lust, with altered mind, speak in the presence of a woman in praise
of ministering to his own sensuality thus: “This, sister, is the
foremost ministration, that of ministering to a virtuous, fine-natured
follower of the celibate life such as myself with this act” — alluding
to sexual intercourse — it entails initial and subsequent meetings of
the Community.

5. Should any bhikkhu engage in
conveying a man’s intentions to a woman or a woman’s intentions to a
man, proposing marriage or paramourage — even if only for a momentary
liaison — it entails initial and subsequent meetings of the Community.

6. When a bhikkhu is having a
hut built from (gains acquired by) his own begging — having no sponsor
and destined for himself — he is to have it built to the standard
measurement. Here the standard is this: twelve spans, using the sugata
span, in length (measuring outside); seven in width, (measuring)
inside. Bhikkhus are to be assembled to designate the site. The site
the bhikkhus designate should be without disturbances and with adequate
space. If the bhikkhu should have a hut built from his own begging on a
site with disturbances and without adequate space, or if he should not
assemble the bhikkhus to designate the site, or if he should have the
standard exceeded, it entails initial and subsequent meetings of the
Community.

7. When a bhikkhu is having a
large dwelling built — having a sponsor and destined for himself — he
is to assemble bhikkhus to designate the site. The site the bhikkhus
designate should be without disturbances and with adequate space. If
the bhikkhu should have a large dwelling built on a site with
disturbances and without adequate space, or if he should not assemble
the bhikkhus to designate the site, it entails initial and subsequent
meetings of the Community.

8. Should any bhikkhu — corrupt,
aversive, disgruntled — charge a bhikkhu with an unfounded case
entailing defeat, (thinking), “Perhaps I may bring about his fall from
this celibate life,” then regardless of whether or not he is
cross-examined on a later occasion, if the issue is unfounded and the
bhikkhu confesses his aversion, it entails initial and subsequent
meetings of the Community.

9. Should any bhikkhu — corrupt,
aversive, disgruntled — using as a mere ploy an aspect of an issue that
pertains otherwise, charge a bhikkhu with a case entailing defeat,
(thinking), “Perhaps I may bring about his fall from this celibate
life,” then regardless of whether or not he is cross-examined on a
later occasion, if the issue pertains otherwise, an aspect used as a
mere ploy, and the bhikkhu confesses his aversion, it entails initial
and subsequent meetings of the Community.

10. Should any bhikkhu agitate
for a schism in a united Community, or should he persist in taking up
an issue conducive to schism, the bhikkhus are to admonish him thus:
“Do not, venerable sir, agitate for a schism in a united Community or
persist in taking up an issue conducive to schism. Let the venerable
one be reconciled with the Community, for a united Community, on
courteous terms, without dispute, with a common recitation, dwells in
peace.”

And should that bhikkhu, thus admonished by the bhikkhus, persist as
before, the bhikkhus are to rebuke him up to three times so as to
desist. If while being rebuked up to three times he desists, that is
good. If he does not desist, it entails initial and subsequent meetings
of the Community.

11. Should bhikkhus — one,
two, or three — who are followers and partisans of that bhikkhu, say,
“Do not, venerable sirs, admonish that bhikkhu in any way. He is an
exponent of the Dhamma. He is an exponent of the Vinaya. He acts with
our consent and approval. He knows, he speaks for us, and that is
pleasing to us,” the bhikkhus are to admonish them thus: “Do not say
that, venerable sirs. That bhikkhu is not an exponent of the Dhamma and
he is not an exponent of the Vinaya. Do not, venerable sirs, approve of
a schism in the Community. Let the venerable ones’ (minds) be
reconciled with the Community, for a united Community, on courteous
terms, without dispute, with a common recitation, dwells in peace.”

And should those bhikkhus, thus admonished by the bhikkhus, persist
as before, the bhikkhus are to rebuke them up to three times so as to
desist. If while being rebuked up to three times they desist, that is
good. If they do not desist, it entails initial and subsequent meetings
of the Community.

12. In case a bhikkhu is by
nature difficult to admonish — who, when being legitimately admonished
by the bhikkhus with reference to the training rules included in the
(Pāṭimokkha) recitation, makes himself unadmonishable, (saying,) “Do
not, venerable ones, say anything to me, good or bad; and I won’t say
anything to the venerable ones, good or bad. Refrain, venerable ones,
from admonishing me” — the bhikkhus are to admonish him thus: “Let the
venerable one not make himself unadmonishable. Let the venerable one
make himself admonishable. Let the venerable one admonish the bhikkhus
in accordance with what is right, and the bhikkhus will admonish the
venerable one in accordance with what is right; for it is thus that the
Blessed One’s following is nurtured: through mutual admonition, through
mutual rehabilitation.”

And should that bhikkhu, thus admonished by the bhikkhus, persist as
before, the bhikkhus are to rebuke him up to three times so as to
desist. If while being rebuked up to three times he desists, that is
good. If he does not desist, it entails initial and subsequent meetings
of the Community.

13. In case a bhikkhu living
in dependence on a certain village or town is a corrupter of families,
a man of depraved conduct — whose depraved conduct is both seen and
heard about, and the families he has corrupted are both seen and heard
about — the bhikkhus are to admonish him thus: “You, venerable sir, are
a corrupter of families, a man of depraved conduct. Your depraved
conduct is both seen and heard about, and the families you have
corrupted are both seen and heard about. Leave this monastery,
venerable sir. Enough of your staying here.”

And should that bhikkhu, thus admonished by the bhikkhus, say about
the bhikkhus, “The bhikkhus are biased through favoritism, biased
through aversion, biased through delusion, biased through fear,
in that for this sort of offense they banish some and do not banish
others,” the bhikkhus are to admonish him thus: “Do not say that,
venerable sir. The bhikkhus are not biased through favoritism, are not biased through aversion, are not biased through delusion, are not biased through fear.
You, venerable sir, are a corrupter of families, a man of depraved
conduct. Your depraved conduct is both seen and heard about, and the
families you have corrupted are both seen and heard about. Leave this
monastery, venerable sir. Enough of your staying here.”

And should that bhikkhu, thus admonished by the bhikkhus, persist as
before, the bhikkhus are to rebuke him up to three times so as to
desist. If while being rebuked up to three times he desists, that is
good. If he does not desist, it entails initial and subsequent meetings
of the Community.

Sutta Pitaka

Samaññaphala Sutta
The Fruits of the Contemplative Life
Translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Translator’s Introduction

This discourse is one of the masterpieces of the Pali canon. At
heart, it is a comprehensive portrait of the Buddhist path of training,
illustrating each stage of the training with vivid similes. This
portrait is placed in juxtaposition to the Buddhist view of the
teachings of rival philosophical teachers of the time, showing how the
Buddha — in contradistinction to the inflexible, party-line approach of
his contemporaries — presented his teaching in a way that was pertinent
and sensitive to the needs of his listeners. This larger portrait of
the intellectual landscape of early Buddhist India is then presented in
a moving narrative frame: the sad story of King Ajatasattu.

Ajatasattu was the son of King Bimbisara of Magadha, one of the
Buddha’s earliest followers. Urged on by Devadatta — the Buddha’s
cousin, who wished to use Ajatasattu’s support in his bid to take over
the Buddha’s position as head of the Sangha — Ajatasattu arranged for
his father’s death so that he could secure his own position on the
throne. As a result of this evil deed, he was destined not only to be
killed by his own son — Udayibhadda (mentioned in the discourse) — but also to take immediate rebirth in one of the lowest regions of hell.

In this discourse, Ajatasattu visits the Buddha in hopes that the
latter will bring some peace to his mind. The question he puts to the
Buddha shows the limited level of his own understanding, so the Buddha
patiently describes the steps of the training, beginning at a very
basic level and gradually moving up, as a way of raising the king’s
spiritual horizons. At the end of the talk, Ajatasattu takes refuge in
the Triple Gem. Although his earlier deeds were so heavy that this
expression of faith could have only limited consequences in the
immediate present, the Commentary assures us that the king’s story
would ultimately have a happy ending. After the Buddha’s death, he
sponsored the First Council, at which a congress of arahant disciples
produced the first standardized account of the Buddha’s teachings. As a
result of the merit coming from this deed, Ajatasattu is destined —
after his release from hell — to attain Awakening as a Private Buddha.



I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Rajagaha, in Jivaka Komarabhacca’s
mango grove, with a large community of monks — 1,250 monks in all. Now
at that time — it being the observance day, the full-moon night of the
water-lily season, the fourth month of the rains — King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Videha,
was sitting on the roof terrace of his palace surround by his
ministers. Then he felt inspired to exclaim: “How wonderful is this
moonlit night! How beautiful… How lovely… How inspiring… How
auspicious is this moonlit night! What priest or contemplative should
we visit tonight who might enlighten and bring peace to our mind?”

When this was said, one of the ministers said to the king: “Your majesty, there is Purana Kassapa,
the leader of a community, the leader of a group, the teacher of a
group, honored and famous, esteemed as holy by the mass of people. He
is aged, long gone forth, advanced in years, in the last phase of life.
Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps, if you visited him, he would
enlighten and bring peace to your mind.”

When this was said, the king remained silent.

Then another minister said to the king: “Your majesty, there is Makkhali Gosala… Your majesty, there is Ajita Kesakambalin… Your majesty, there is Pakudha Kaccayana… Your majesty, there is Sañjaya Belatthaputta… Your majesty, there is Nigantha Nataputta,
the leader of a community, the leader of a group, the teacher of a
group, honored and famous, esteemed as holy by the mass of people. He
is aged, long gone forth, advanced in years, in the last phase of life.
Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps, if you visited him, he would
enlighten and bring peace to your mind.”

When this was said, the king remained silent.

All this time Jivaka Komarabhacca was sitting silently not far from
the king. So the king said to him, “Friend Jivaka, why are you silent?”

“Your majesty, there is the Blessed One, worthy and rightly
self-awakened, staying in my mango grove with a large community of
monks — 1,250 monks in all. Concerning this Blessed One, this admirable
report has been spread: ‘Surely, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly
self-awakened, consummate in clear knowing and conduct, well-gone, an
expert with regard to the cosmos, unexcelled trainer of tamable people,
teacher of beings human and divine, awakened, blessed.’ Your majesty
should visit him. Perhaps, if you visited him, he would enlighten and
bring peace to your mind.”

“Then in that case, friend Jivaka, have the riding elephants prepared.”

Having replied, “As you say, your majesty,” having had five hundred
female elephants prepared as well as the king’s personal tusker, Jivaka
announced to the king: “Your majesty, your riding elephants are
prepared. Do what you think it is now time to do.”

Then the king, having had five hundred of his women mounted on the
five hundred female elephants — one on each — and having mounted his
own personal tusker, set out from the capital in full royal state, with
attendants carrying torches, headed for Jivaka Komarabhacca’s mango
grove. But when the king was not far from the mango grove, he was
gripped with fear, trepidation, his hair standing on end. Fearful,
agitated, his hair standing on end, he said to Jivaka Komarabhacca:
“Friend Jivaka, you aren’t deceiving me, are you? You aren’t betraying
me, are you? You aren’t turning me over to my enemies, are you? How can
there be such a large community of monks — 1,250 in all — with no sound
of sneezing, no sound of coughing, no voices at all?”

“Don’t be afraid, great king. Don’t be afraid. I’m not deceiving you
or betraying you or turning you over to your enemies. Go forward, great
king, go forward! Those are lamps burning in the pavilion hall.”

Then the king, going as far on his tusker as the ground would
permit, dismounted and approached the door of the pavilion on foot. On
arrival, he asked Jivaka: “Where, friend Jivaka, is the Blessed One?”

“That is the Blessed One, great king, sitting against the middle pillar, facing east, surrounded by the community of monks.”

Then the king approached the Blessed One and, on reaching him, stood
to one side. As he was standing there — surveying the community of
monks sitting in absolute silence, as calm as a lake — he felt inspired
to exclaim: “May my son, Prince Udayibhadda, enjoy the same peace that this community of monks now enjoys!”

[The Blessed One said:] “Have you come, great king, together with your affections?”

“Lord, my son, Prince Udayibhadda, is very dear to me. May he enjoy the same peace that this community of monks now enjoys!”

Then, bowing down to the Blessed One, and saluting the community of
monks with his hands palm-to-palm over his heart, he sat to one side.
As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: “I would like to
ask the Blessed One about a certain issue, if he would give me the
opportunity to explain my question.”

“Ask, great king, whatever you like.”

The King’s Question

“Lord, there are these common craftsmen: elephant-trainers,
horse-trainers, charioteers, archers, standard bearers, camp marshals,
supply corps officers, high royal officers, commandos, military heroes,
armor-clad warriors, leather-clad warriors, domestic slaves,
confectioners, barbers, bath attendants, cooks, garland-makers,
laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers, potters, calculators, accountants,
and any other craftsmen of a similar sort. They live off the fruits of
their crafts, visible in the here and now. They give happiness and
pleasure to themselves, to their parents, wives, and children, to their
friends and colleagues. They put in place an excellent presentation of
offerings to priests and contemplatives, leading to heaven, resulting
in happiness, conducive to a heavenly rebirth. Is it possible, lord, to
point out a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the
here and now?”

“Do you remember, great king, ever having asked this question of other priests and contemplatives?”

“Yes, I do.”

“If it isn’t troublesome for you, how did they answer?”

“No, it’s not troublesome for me wherever the Blessed One — or someone like the Blessed One — is sitting.”

“Then speak, great king.”

Non-action

“Once, lord, I approached Purana Kassapa
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I
was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Kassapa, there are these
common craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible
in the here and now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a
similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Purana Kassapa said to me, ‘Great king, in
acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others to
mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture, in inflicting
sorrow or in getting others to inflict sorrow, in tormenting or getting
others to torment, in intimidating or getting others to intimidate, in
taking life, taking what is not given, breaking into houses, plundering
wealth, committing burglary, ambushing highways, committing adultery,
speaking falsehood — one does no evil. If with a razor-edged disk one
were to turn all the living beings on this earth to a single heap of
flesh, a single pile of flesh, there would be no evil from that cause,
no coming of evil. Even if one were to go along the right bank of the
Ganges, killing and getting others to kill, mutilating and getting
others to mutilate, torturing and getting others to torture, there
would be no evil from that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were
to go along the left bank of the Ganges, giving and getting others to
give, making sacrifices and getting others to make sacrifices, there
would be no merit from that cause, no coming of merit. Through
generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech there is no
merit from that cause, no coming of merit.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Purana Kassapa answered with non-action. Just as if a
person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or,
when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same
way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here
and now, Purana Kassapa answered with non-action. The thought occurred
to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or
contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Purana
Kassapa’s words nor did I protest against them. Neither delighting nor
protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction,
without accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my
seat and left.

Purification through Wandering-on

“Another time I approached Makkhali Gosala
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I
was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Gosala, there are these
common craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible
in the here and now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a
similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Makkhali Gosala said to me, ‘Great king, there
is no cause, no requisite condition, for the defilement of beings.
Beings are defiled without cause, without requisite condition. There is
no cause, no requisite condition, for the purification of beings.
Beings are purified without cause, without requisite condition. There
is nothing self-caused, nothing other-caused, nothing human-caused.
There is no strength, no effort, no human energy, no human endeavor.
All living beings, all life, all beings, all souls are powerless,
devoid of strength, devoid of effort. Subject to the changes of fate,
serendipity, and nature, they are sensitive to pleasure and pain in the
six great classes of birth.

“‘There are 1,406,600 principle modes of origin. There are 500 kinds
of kamma, five kinds, and three kinds; full kamma and half kamma. There
are 62 pathways, 62 sub-eons, six great classes of birth, eight classes
of men, 4,900 modes of livelihood, 4,900 kinds of wanderers, 4,900
Naga-abodes, 2,000 faculties, 3,000 hells, 36 dust-realms, seven
spheres of percipient beings, seven spheres of non-percipient beings,
seven kinds of jointed plants, seven kinds of devas, seven kinds of
human beings, seven kinds of demons, seven great lakes, seven major
knots, seven minor knots, 700 major precipices, 700 minor precipices,
700 major dreams, 700 minor dreams, 84,000 great aeons. Having
transmigrated and wandered on through these, the wise and the foolish
alike will put an end to pain.

“‘Though one might think, “Through this morality, this practice,
this austerity, or this holy life I will ripen unripened kamma and
eliminate ripened kamma whenever touched by it” — that is impossible.
Pleasure and pain are measured out, the wandering-on is fixed in its
limits. There is no shortening or lengthening, no accelerating or
decelerating. Just as a ball of
string, when thrown, comes to its end simply by unwinding, in the same
way, having transmigrated and wandered on, the wise and the foolish
alike will put an end to pain.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Makkhali Gosala answered with purification through
wandering-on. Just as if a person, when asked about a mango, were to
answer with a breadfruit; or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to
answer with a mango. In the same way, when asked about a fruit of the
contemplative life, visible here and now, Makkhali Gosala answered with
purification through wandering-on. The thought occurred to me: ‘How can
anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living in
his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Makkhali Gosala’s words nor did
I protest against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was
dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his
teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

Annihilation

“Another time I approached Ajita Kesakambalin
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I
was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Ajita, there are these common
craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the
here and now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar
fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Ajita Kesakambalin said to me, ‘Great king,
there is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is
no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no
next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no
priests or contemplatives who, faring rightly and practicing rightly,
proclaim this world and the next after having directly known and
realized it for themselves. A person is a composite of four primary
elements. At death, the earth (in the body) returns to and merges with
the (external) earth-substance. The fire returns to and merges with the
external fire-substance. The liquid returns to and merges with the
external liquid-substance. The wind returns to and merges with the
external wind-substance. The sense-faculties scatter into space. Four
men, with the bier as the fifth, carry the corpse. Its eulogies are
sounded only as far as the charnel ground. The bones turn
pigeon-colored. The offerings end in ashes. Generosity is taught by
idiots. The words of those who speak of existence after death are
false, empty chatter. With the break-up of the body, the wise and the
foolish alike are annihilated, destroyed. They do not exist after
death.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Ajita Kesakambalin answered with annihilation. Just as if
a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit;
or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango. In the
same way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Ajita Kesakambalin answered with annihilation. The
thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a
priest or contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted
in Ajita Kesakambalin’s words nor did I protest against them. Neither
delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing
dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I
got up from my seat and left.

Non-relatedness

“Another time I approached Pakudha Kaccayana
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I
was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Kaccayana, there are these
common craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible
in the here and now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a
similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Pakudha Kaccayana said to me, ‘Great king,
there are these seven substances — unmade, irreducible, uncreated,
without a creator, barren, stable as a mountain-peak, standing firm
like a pillar — that do not alter, do not change, do not interfere with
one another, are incapable of causing one another pleasure, pain, or
both pleasure and pain. Which seven? The earth-substance, the
liquid-substance, the fire-substance, the wind-substance, pleasure,
pain, and the soul as the seventh. These are the seven substances —
unmade, irreducible, uncreated, without a creator, barren, stable as a
mountain-peak, standing firm like a pillar — that do not alter, do not
change, do not interfere with one another, and are incapable of causing
one another pleasure, pain, or both pleasure and pain.

“‘And among them there is no killer nor one who causes killing, no
hearer nor one who causes hearing, no cognizer nor one who causes
cognition. When one cuts off [another person’s] head, there is no one
taking anyone’s life. It is simply between the seven substances that
the sword passes.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Pakudha Kaccayana answered with non-relatedness. Just as
if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a
breadfruit; or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a
mango. In the same way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, Pakudha Kaccayana answered with
non-relatedness. The thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me
think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his realm?’
Yet I neither delighted in Pakudha Kaccayana’s words nor did I protest
against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied.
Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching,
without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

Fourfold Restraint

“Another time I approached Nigantha Nataputta
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I
was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Aggivessana, there are these
common craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible
in the here and now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a
similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Nigantha Nataputta said to me, ‘Great king,
there is the case where the Nigantha — the knotless one — is restrained
with the fourfold restraint. And how is the Nigantha restrained with
the fourfold restraint? There is the case where the Nigantha is
obstructed by all waters, conjoined with all waters, cleansed with all
waters, suffused with all waters. This is how the Nigantha is
restrained with the fourfold restraint. When the Nigantha — a knotless
one — is restrained with such a fourfold restraint, he is said to be a
Knotless One (Nigantha), a son of Nata (Nataputta), with his self perfected, his self controlled, his self established.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold restraint. Just
as if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a
breadfruit; or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a
mango: In the same way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold
restraint. The thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of
disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I
neither delighted in Nigantha Nataputta’s words nor did I protest
against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied.
Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching,
without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

Evasion

“Another time I approached Sañjaya Belatthaputta
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I
was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Sañjaya, there are these
common craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible
in the here and now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a
similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Sañjaya Belatthaputta said to me, ‘If you ask
me if there exists another world [after death], if I thought that there
exists another world, would I declare that to you? I don’t think so. I
don’t think in that way. I don’t think otherwise. I don’t think not. I
don’t think not not. If you asked me if there isn’t another world…
both is and isn’t… neither is nor isn’t… if there are beings who
transmigrate… if there aren’t… both are and aren’t… neither are
nor aren’t… if the Tathagata exists after death… doesn’t… both…
neither exists nor exists after death, would I declare that to you? I
don’t think so. I don’t think in that way. I don’t think otherwise. I
don’t think not. I don’t think not not.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Sañjaya Belatthaputta answered with evasion. Just as if a
person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or,
when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same
way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here
and now, Sañjaya Belatthaputta answered with evasion. The thought
occurred to me: ‘This — among these priests and contemplatives — is the
most foolish and confused of all. How can he, when asked about a fruit
of the contemplative life, visible here and now, answer with evasion?’
Still the thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of
disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I
neither delighted in Sañjaya Belatthaputta’s words nor did I protest
against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied.
Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching,
without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

The First Visible Fruit of the Contemplative Life

“So, lord, I ask the Blessed One as well: There are these common
craftsmen: elephant-trainers, horse-trainers, charioteers, archers,
standard bearers, camp marshals, supply corps officers, high royal
officers, commandos, military heroes, armor-clad warriors, leather-clad
warriors, domestic slaves, confectioners, barbers, bath attendants,
cooks, garland-makers, laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers, potters,
calculators, accountants, and any other craftsmen of a similar sort.
They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and now.
They give happiness and pleasure to themselves, to their parents,
wives, and children, to their friends and colleagues. They put in place
an excellent presentation of offerings to priests and contemplatives,
leading to heaven, resulting in happiness, conducive to a heavenly
rebirth. Is it possible, lord, to point out a similar fruit of the
contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. But first, with regard to that, I will ask
you a counter-question. Answer however you please. Suppose there were a
man of yours: your slave, your workman, rising in the morning before
you, going to bed in the evening only after you, doing whatever you
order, always acting to please you, speaking politely to you, always
watching for the look on your face. The thought would occur to him:
‘Isn’t it amazing? Isn’t it astounding? — the destination, the results,
of meritorious deeds. For this King Ajatasattu is a human being, and I,
too, am a human being, yet King Ajatasattu enjoys himself supplied and
replete with the five strings of sensuality — like a deva, as it were —
while I am his slave, his workman… always watching for the look on
his face. I, too, should do meritorious deeds. What if I were to shave
off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from the
household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the
ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.
Having thus gone forth he lives restrained in body, speech, and mind,
content with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude.
Then suppose one of your men were to inform you: ‘You should know, your
majesty, that that man of yours — your slave, your workman… always
watching for the look on your face… has gone forth from the household
life into homelessness… content with the simplest food and shelter,
delighting in solitude.’ Would you, thus informed, say, ‘Bring that man
back to me. Make him again be my slave, my workman… always watching
for the look on my face!’?”

“Not at all, lord. Rather, I am the one who should bow down to him,
rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, invite him to
accept gifts of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites for
the sick. And I would provide him with righteous safety, defense, and
protection.”

“So what do you think, great king. With that being the case, is
there a visible fruit of the contemplative life, or is there not?”

“Yes, lord. With that being the case, there certainly is a visible fruit of the contemplative life.”

“This, great king, is the first fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now, that I point out to you.”

The Second Visible Fruit of the Contemplative Life

“But is it possible, lord, to point out yet another fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. But first, with regard to that, I will ask

you a counter-question. Answer however you please. Suppose there were a
man of yours: a farmer, a householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal
treasury. The thought would occur to him: ‘Isn’t it amazing? Isn’t it
astounding? — the destination, the results, of meritorious deeds! For
this King Ajatasattu is a human being, and I, too, am a human being,
yet King Ajatasattu enjoys himself supplied and replete with the five
strings of sensuality — like a deva, as it were — while I am a farmer,
a householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal treasury. I, too, should
do meritorious deeds. What if I were to shave off my hair and beard,
put on the ochre robes, and go forth from the household life into
homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small;
leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and
beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life
into homelessness. Having thus gone forth he lives restrained in body,
speech, and mind, content with the simplest food and shelter,
delighting in solitude. Then suppose one of your men were to inform
you: ‘You should know, your majesty, that that man of yours — the
farmer, the householder, the taxpayer swelling the royal treasury…
has gone forth from the household life into homelessness… content
with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude.’ Would you,
thus informed, say, ‘Bring that man back to me. Make him again be a
farmer, a householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal treasury!’?”

“Not at all, lord. Rather, I am the one who should bow down to him,
rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, invite him to
accept gifts of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites for
the sick. And I would provide him with righteous safety, defense, and
protection.”

“So what do you think, great king. With that being the case, is
there a visible fruit of the contemplative life, or is there not?”

“Yes, lord. With that being the case, there certainly is a visible fruit of the contemplative life.”

“This, great king, is the second fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now, that I point out to you.”

Higher Fruits of the Contemplative Life

“But is it possible, lord, to point out yet another fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. Listen and pay close attention. I will speak.

“There is the case, great king, where a Tathagata appears in the
world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma
admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its
end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars and in its
essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

“A householder or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life is confining,
a dusty path. The life gone forth is like the open air. It is not easy
living at home to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure,
like a polished shell. What if I were to
shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from
the household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small;
leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and
beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life
into homelessness.

“When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the rules of
the monastic code, seeing danger in the slightest faults. Consummate in
his virtue, he guards the doors of his senses, is possessed of
mindfulness and alertness, and is content.

The Lesser Section on Virtue

“And how is a monk consummate in virtue? Abandoning the taking of
life, he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid
down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the
welfare of all living beings. This is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking
what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is
given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become
pure. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining
from the sexual act that is the villager’s way. This, too, is part of
his virtue.

“Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks
the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the
world. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What
he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart
from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here
to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling
those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves
concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create
concord. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He
speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that
go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at
large. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks
in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal,
the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring,
seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal. This,
too, is part of his virtue.

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.

“He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching shows.

“He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and cosmetics.

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He abstains from accepting gold and money.

“He abstains from accepting uncooked grain… raw meat… women and
girls… male and female slaves… goats and sheep… fowl and pigs…
elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares… fields and property.

“He abstains from running messages… from buying and selling…
from dealing with false scales, false metals, and false measures…
from bribery, deception, and fraud.

“He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

“This, too, is part of his virtue.

The Intermediate Section on Virtue

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to damaging seed and plant life such as these —
plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buddings, and seeds — he
abstains from damaging seed and plant life such as these. This, too, is
part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to consuming stored-up goods such as these —
stored-up food, stored-up drinks, stored-up clothing, stored-up
vehicles, stored-up bedding, stored-up scents, and stored-up meat — he
abstains from consuming stored-up goods such as these. This, too, is
part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to
watching shows such as these — dancing, singing, instrumental music,
plays, ballad recitations, hand-clapping, cymbals and drums, magic
lantern scenes, acrobatic and conjuring tricks, elephant fights, horse
fights, buffalo fights, bull fights, goat fights, ram fights, cock
fights, quail fights; fighting with staves, boxing, wrestling,
war-games, roll calls, battle arrays, and regimental reviews — he
abstains from watching shows such as these. This, too, is part of his
virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to heedless and idle games such as these —
eight-row chess, ten-row chess, chess in the air, hopscotch,
spillikins, dice, stick games, hand-pictures, ball-games, blowing
through toy pipes, playing with toy plows, turning somersaults, playing
with toy windmills, toy measures, toy chariots, toy bows, guessing
letters drawn in the air, guessing thoughts, mimicking deformities — he
abstains from heedless and idle games such as these. This, too, is part
of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to high
and luxurious furnishings such as these — over-sized couches, couches
adorned with carved animals, long-haired coverlets, multi-colored
patchwork coverlets, white woolen coverlets, woolen coverlets
embroidered with flowers or animal figures, stuffed quilts, coverlets
with fringe, silk coverlets embroidered with gems; large woolen
carpets; elephant, horse, and chariot rugs, antelope-hide rugs,
deer-hide rugs; couches with awnings, couches with red cushions for the
head and feet — he abstains from using high and luxurious furnishings
such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to scents,
cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these — rubbing powders
into the body, massaging with oils, bathing in perfumed water, kneading
the limbs, using mirrors, ointments, garlands, scents, creams,
face-powders, mascara, bracelets, head-bands, decorated walking sticks,
ornamented water-bottles, swords, fancy sunshades, decorated sandals,
turbans, gems, yak-tail whisks, long-fringed white robes — he abstains
from using scents, cosmetics, and means of beautification such as
these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to talking
about lowly topics such as these — talking about kings, robbers,
ministers of state; armies, alarms, and battles; food and drink;
clothing, furniture, garlands, and scents; relatives; vehicles;
villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women and heroes; the gossip
of the street and the well; tales of the dead; tales of diversity
[philosophical discussions of the past and future], the creation of the
world and of the sea, and talk of whether things exist or not — he
abstains from talking about lowly topics such as these. This, too, is
part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to debates such as these — ‘You understand this doctrine and discipline? I’m
the one who understands this doctrine and discipline. How could you
understand this doctrine and discipline? You’re practicing wrongly. I’m
practicing rightly. I’m being consistent. You’re not. What should be
said first you said last. What should be said last you said first. What
you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your doctrine has been
overthrown. You’re defeated. Go and try to salvage your doctrine;
extricate yourself if you can!’ — he abstains from debates such as
these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to running messages and errands for people such as
these — kings, ministers of state, noble warriors, priests,
householders, or youths [who say], ‘Go here, go there, take this there,
fetch that here’ — he abstains from running messages and errands for
people such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, engage in scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, and
pursuing gain with gain, he abstains from forms of scheming and
persuading [improper ways of trying to gain material support from
donors] such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

The Great Section on Virtue

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by
wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as: reading marks on the limbs
[e.g., palmistry]; reading omens and signs; interpreting celestial
events [falling stars, comets]; interpreting dreams; reading marks on
the body [e.g., phrenology]; reading marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
offering fire oblations, oblations from a ladle, oblations of husks,
rice powder, rice grains, ghee, and oil; offering oblations from the
mouth; offering blood-sacrifices; making predictions based on the
fingertips; geomancy; laying demons in a cemetery; placing spells on
spirits; reciting house-protection charms; snake charming, poison-lore,
scorpion-lore, rat-lore, bird-lore, crow-lore; fortune-telling based on
visions; giving protective charms; interpreting the calls of birds and
animals — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as
these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
determining lucky and unlucky gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears,
arrows, bows, and other weapons; women, boys, girls, male slaves,
female slaves; elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, goats, rams,
fowl, quails, lizards, long-eared rodents, tortoises, and other animals
— he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting: the rulers will march forth; the rulers will march forth
and return; our rulers will attack, and their rulers will retreat;
their rulers will attack, and our rulers will retreat; there will be
triumph for our rulers and defeat for their rulers; there will be
triumph for their rulers and defeat for our rulers; thus there will be
triumph, thus there will be defeat — he abstains from wrong livelihood,
from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting: there will be a lunar eclipse; there will be a solar
eclipse; there will be an occultation of an asterism; the sun and moon
will go their normal courses; the sun and moon will go astray; the
asterisms will go their normal courses; the asterisms will go astray;
there will be a meteor shower; there will be a darkening of the sky;
there will be an earthquake; there will be thunder coming from a clear
sky; there will be a rising, a setting, a darkening, a brightening of
the sun, moon, and asterisms; such will be the result of the lunar
eclipse… the rising, setting, darkening, brightening of the sun,
moon, and asterisms — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly
arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting: there will be abundant rain; there will be a drought;
there will be plenty; there will be famine; there will be rest and
security; there will be danger; there will be disease; there will be
freedom from disease; or they earn their living by counting,
accounting, calculation, composing poetry, or teaching hedonistic arts
and doctrines — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such
as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
calculating auspicious dates for marriages, betrothals, divorces; for
collecting debts or making investments and loans; for being attractive
or unattractive; curing women who have undergone miscarriages or
abortions; reciting spells to bind a man’s tongue, to paralyze his
jaws, to make him lose control over his hands, or to bring on deafness;
getting oracular answers to questions addressed to a mirror, to a young
girl, or to a spirit medium; worshipping the sun, worshipping the Great Brahma,
bringing forth flames from the mouth, invoking the goddess of luck — he
abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
promising gifts to devas in return for favors; fulfilling such
promises; demonology; teaching house-protection spells; inducing
virility and impotence; consecrating sites for construction; giving
ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing; offering sacrificial
fires; administering emetics, purges, purges from above, purges from
below, head-purges; administering ear-oil, eye-drops, treatments
through the nose, ointments, and counter-ointments; practicing
eye-surgery (or: extractive surgery), general surgery, pediatrics;
administering root-medicines binding medicinal herbs — he abstains from
wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. This, too, is part of
his virtue.

“A monk thus consummate in virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through virtue. Just as
a head-anointed noble warrior king who has defeated his enemies sees no
danger anywhere from his enemies, in the same way the monk thus
consummate in virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through
virtue. Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is inwardly
sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless. This is how a monk is
consummate in virtue.

Sense Restraint

“And how does a monk guard the doors of his senses? On seeing a form
with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if
he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil,
unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On
hearing a sound with the ear… On smelling an odor with the nose… On
tasting a flavor with the tongue… On touching a tactile sensation
with the body… On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not
grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without
restraint over the faculty of the intellect — evil, unskillful
qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. Endowed with this
noble restraint over the sense faculties, he is inwardly sensitive to
the pleasure of being blameless. This is how a monk guards the doors of
his senses.

Mindfulness & Alertness

“And how is a monk possessed of mindfulness and alertness? When
going forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking
toward and looking away… when bending and extending his limbs… when
carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl… when eating,
drinking, chewing, and tasting… when urinating and defecating… when
walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and
remaining silent, he acts with alertness. This is how a monk is
possessed of mindfulness and alertness.

Contentedness

“And how is a monk content? Just as a bird,
wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden; so too is he
content with a set of robes to provide for his body and almsfood to
provide for his hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his barest
necessities along. This is how a monk is content.

Abandoning the Hindrances

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint
over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and alertness, and
this noble contentment, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a forest, the
shade of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground,
a jungle grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal,
returning from his alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds
his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.

“Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an
awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness.
Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of
ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He
cleanses his mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and
drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth and drowsiness,
mindful, alert, percipient of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth and
drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed,
his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness and
anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over
uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental
qualities. He cleanses his mind of uncertainty.

Suppose that a man, taking a loan,
invests it in his business affairs. His business affairs succeed. He
repays his old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining his
wife. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, taking a loan, I
invested it in my business affairs. Now my business affairs have
succeeded. I have repaid my old debts and there is extra left over for
maintaining my wife.’ Because of that he would experience joy and
happiness.

Now suppose that a man falls sick — in
pain and seriously ill. He does not enjoy his meals, and there is no
strength in his body. As time passes, he eventually recovers from that
sickness. He enjoys his meals and there is strength in his body. The
thought would occur to him, ‘Before, I was sick… Now I am recovered
from that sickness. I enjoy my meals and there is strength in my body.’
Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man is bound in
prison. As time passes, he eventually is released from that bondage,
safe and sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to
him, ‘Before, I was bound in prison. Now I am released from that
bondage, safe and sound, with no loss of my property.’ Because of that
he would experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man is a slave,
subject to others, not subject to himself, unable to go where he likes.
As time passes, he eventually is released from that slavery, subject to
himself, not subject to others, freed, able to go where he likes. The
thought would occur to him, ‘Before, I was a slave… Now I am released
from that slavery, subject to myself, not subject to others, freed,
able to go where I like.’ Because of that he would experience joy and
happiness.

Now suppose that a man, carrying money
and goods, is traveling by a road through desolate country. As time
passes, he eventually emerges from that desolate country, safe and
sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to him,
‘Before, carrying money and goods, I was traveling by a road through
desolate country. Now I have emerged from that desolate country, safe
and sound, with no loss of my property.’ Because of that he would
experience joy and happiness.

“In the same way, when these five hindrances are not abandoned in
himself, the monk regards it as a debt, a sickness, a prison, slavery,
a road through desolate country. But when these five hindrances are
abandoned in himself, he regards it as unindebtedness, good health,
release from prison, freedom, a place of security. Seeing that they
have been abandoned within him, he becomes glad. Glad, he becomes
enraptured. Enraptured, his body grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he
is sensitive to pleasure. Feeling pleasure, his mind becomes
concentrated.

(The Four Jhanas)

“Quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental
qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and
evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very
body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. Just as if a skilled bathman
or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and
knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that
his ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within
and without — would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk
permeates… this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of
withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture
and pleasure born from withdrawal.

“This is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thoughts &
evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and
pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed
thought and evaluation — internal assurance. He permeates and pervades,
suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of
composure. Just like a lake with
spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from the east,
west, north, or south, and with the skies supplying abundant showers
time and again, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within
the lake would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool
waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters;
even so, the monk permeates… this very body with the rapture and
pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body
unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure.

“This, too, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous,
mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters
& remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare,
‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ He permeates and
pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested
of rapture. Just as in a lotus pond, some
of the lotuses, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the
water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that they
are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from
their roots to their tips, and nothing of those lotuses would be
unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates… this very
body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his
entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

“This, too, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as
with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and
remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness,
neither-pleasure nor stress. He sits, permeating the body with a pure,
bright awareness. Just as if a man were
sitting covered from head to foot with a white cloth so that there
would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend;
even so, the monk sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright
awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure,
bright awareness.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Insight Knowledge

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision.
He discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the
four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice
and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution,
and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and
bound up here.’ Just as if there were a
beautiful beryl gem of the purest water — eight faceted, well polished,
clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects, and going through the
middle of it was a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread — and a
man with good eyesight, taking it in his hand, were to reflect on it
thus: ‘This is a beautiful beryl gem of the purest water, eight
faceted, well polished, clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects.
And this, going through the middle of it, is a blue, yellow, red,
white, or brown thread.’ In the same way — with his mind thus
concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects,
pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk
directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He discerns: ‘This
body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the four primary
elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice and
porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution, and
dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and bound
up here.’

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

The Mind-made Body

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made
body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made
of the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties. Just as if a man
were to draw a reed from its sheath. The thought would occur to him:
‘This is the sheath, this is the reed. The sheath is one thing, the
reed another, but the reed has been drawn out from the sheath.’ Or as if a man
were to draw a sword from its scabbard. The thought would occur to him:
‘This is the sword, this is the scabbard. The sword is one thing, the
scabbard another, but the sword has been drawn out from the scabbard.’ Or as if a man
were to pull a snake out from its slough. The thought would occur to
him: ‘This is the snake, this is the slough. The snake is one thing,
the slough another, but the snake has been pulled out from the slough.’
In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and
bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and
attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to
creating a mind-made body. From this body he creates another body,
endowed with form, made of the mind, complete in all its parts, not
inferior in its faculties.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Supranormal Powers

With his mind thus
concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects,
pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs
and inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers. He wields manifold
supranormal powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been many
he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through
walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out
of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as
if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like
a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and
moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even
as far as the Brahma worlds. Just as a skilled potter or his assistant could craft from well-prepared clay whatever kind of pottery vessel he likes, or as a skilled ivory-carver or his assistant could craft from well-prepared ivory any kind of ivory-work he likes, or as a skilled goldsmith
or his assistant could craft from well-prepared gold any kind of gold
article he likes; in the same way — with his mind thus concentrated,
purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant,
malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs
and inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers… He exercises
influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Clairaudience

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element.
He hears — by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing
the human — both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or
far. Just as if a man traveling along a
highway were to hear the sounds of kettledrums, small drums, conchs,
cymbals, and tom-toms. He would know, ‘That is the sound of
kettledrums, that is the sound of small drums, that is the sound of
conchs, that is the sound of cymbals, and that is the sound of
tom-toms.’ In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified,
and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady,
and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to
the divine ear-element. He hears — by means of the divine ear-element,
purified and surpassing the human — both kinds of sounds: divine and
human, whether near or far.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Mind Reading

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings,
other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He
discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without
passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as
a mind with aversion, and a mind without aversion as a mind without
aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and
a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a
restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a
scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and
an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind
[one that is not at the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and
an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated
mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an
unconcentrated mind. He discerns a released mind as a released mind,
and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. Just as if a young woman
— or man — fond of ornaments, examining the reflection of her own face
in a bright mirror or a bowl of clear water would know ‘blemished’ if
it were blemished, or ‘unblemished’ if it were not. In the same way —
with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings,
other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He
discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without
passion as a mind without passion… a released mind as a released
mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Recollection of Past Lives

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
recollection of past lives (lit: previous homes). He recollects his
manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four,
five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one
hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of
cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion,
[recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had
such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure
and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I
re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan,
had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of
pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that
state, I re-arose here.’ Thus he recollects his manifold past lives in
their modes and details. Just as if a man
were to go from his home village to another village, and then from that
village to yet another village, and then from that village back to his
home village. The thought would occur to him, ‘I went from my home
village to that village over there. There I stood in such a way, sat in
such a way, talked in such a way, and remained silent in such a way.
From that village I went to that village over there, and there I stood
in such a way, sat in such a way, talked in such a way, and remained
silent in such a way. From that village I came back home.’ In the same
way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of
the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past
lives… in their modes and details.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

The Passing Away & Re-appearance of Beings

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the
divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away and
re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior,
beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their
kamma: ‘These beings — who were endowed with bad conduct of body,
speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and
undertook actions under the influence of wrong views — with the
break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of
deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these
beings — who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind,
who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook
actions under the influence of right views — with the break-up of the
body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the
heavenly world.’ Thus — by means of the divine eye, purified and
surpassing the human — he sees beings passing away and re-appearing,
and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly,
fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. Just as if there were a tall building
in the central square [of a town], and a man with good eyesight
standing on top of it were to see people entering a house, leaving it,
walking along the street, and sitting in the central square. The
thought would occur to him, ‘These people are entering a house, leaving
it, walking along the streets, and sitting in the central square.’ In
the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of
the passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the
divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away and
re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior,
beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their
kamma…

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

The Ending of Mental Fermentations

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of
the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to
be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This
is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation
of stress… These are mental fermentations… This is the origination
of fermentations… This is the cessation of fermentations… This is
the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus
knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality,
the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With
release, there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is
ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further
for this world.’ Just as if there were a
pool of water in a mountain glen — clear, limpid, and unsullied — where
a man with good eyesight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel,
and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting, and it
would occur to him, ‘This pool of water is clear, limpid, and
unsullied. Here are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these
shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ In the same way — with his
mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from
defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability —
the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the
mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to be, that ‘This is
stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of
stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of stress… These
are mental fermentations… This is the origination of fermentations…
This is the cessation of fermentations… This is the way leading to
the cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing,
is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of
becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the
knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life
fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.’

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime. And as for another visible fruit of the contemplative life,
higher and more sublime than this, there is none.”

When this was said, King Ajatasattu said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent,
lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was
overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was
lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could
see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One — through many lines of
reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge,
to the Dhamma, and to the community of monks. May the Blessed One
remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this
day forward, for life.

“A transgression has overcome me, lord, in that I was so foolish, so
muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to kill my father — a righteous man,
a righteous king — for the sake of sovereign rulership. May the Blessed
One please accept this confession of my transgression as such, so that
I may restrain myself in the future.”

“Yes, great king, a transgression overcame you in that you were so
foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to kill your father — a
righteous man, a righteous king — for the sake of sovereign rulership.
But because you see your transgression as such and make amends in
accordance with the Dhamma, we accept your confession. For it is a
cause of growth in the Dhamma & Discipline of the noble ones when,
seeing a transgression as such, one makes amends in accordance with the
Dhamma and exercises restraint in the future.”

When this was said, King Ajatasattu said to the Blessed One: “Well,
then, lord, I am now taking leave. Many are my duties, many my
responsibilities.”

“Then do, great king, what you think it is now time to do.”

So King Ajatasattu, delighting and
rejoicing in the Blessed One’s words, rose from his seat, bowed down to
him, and — after circumambulating him — left. Not long after King
Ajatasattu had left, the Blessed One addressed the monks: “The king is
wounded, monks. The king is incapacitated. Had he not killed his father
— that righteous man, that righteous king — the dustless, stainless
Dhamma eye would have arisen to him as he sat in this very seat.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/mendis/wheel322.html

The Abhidhamma in Practice
by
N.K.G. Mendis



This book is not a synopsis of the Abhidhamma which, in itself,
comprises seven volumes of the Pali Canon. Here, some aspects of the
Abhidhamma have been related to practice. If this little book helps the
reader to appreciate that the teachings of the Enlightened One are
never mere theories but always stand to reason and can be verified in
the crucible of his or her experience, then its purpose will have been
served.

The writer wishes to place on record:

  1. The inspiration gained from Dhamma discussions with the Venerable
    D. Piyananada Mahaathera and the Venerable H. Gunaratana Mahaathera,
    respectively the former and present chief incumbents of the Washington
    Buddhist Vihaara in the U.S.A.
  2. The deepest gratitude to the Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi of the same
    Vihaara who, with great patience and compassion, gave instruction and
    guidance to get the facts straight and to the present them in a
    readable style.
  3. Grateful thanks to Mrs. Norma Cooke who, with devotion to the Dhamma, typed the manuscript.

— Dr. N. K. G. Mendis
Isaacs Harbour
Nova Scotia
Canada

Namo Sammaasambuddhassa
Namo Saddhammassa
Namo Buddhasanghassa

Homage to the Supremely Enlightened One
Homage to the Sublime Teaching
Homage to the Buddha’s Community of Monks

The Abhidhamma forms the third part of the Pali Canon, the
Tipi.taka. The other two parts are the Vinaya Pi.taka, the code of
discipline for monks and nuns, and the Sutta Pi.taka, which contains
the Buddha’s discourses. The word “Abhidhamma” means the higher
teaching because it treats subjects exclusively in an ultimate sense (paramatthasacca),
differing from the Sutta Pi.taka where there is often the use of
expressions valid only from the standpoint of conventional truth (vohaarasacca).
In the Abhidhamma the philosophical standpoint of the Buddha is given
in a pure form without admixture of personalities, anecdotes, or
discussions. It deals with realities in detail and consists of numerous
classifications. These may at first discourage the prospective student.
However, if one perseveres one will be able to derive much benefit in
life-situations from the practical application of the knowledge gained
through study of the Abhidhamma.

Origins

Theravaada tradition holds that the Buddha conceived the Abhidhamma
in the fourth week after his enlightenment, while still sitting in the
vicinity of the Bodhi tree. Tradition also has it that he first
preached the Abhidhamma to the assembly of deities in the Taavati.msa
heaven; his mother, reborn as a deity, was present in the assembly.
This can be taken to mean that the Buddha, by intense concentration,
transcended the earth-bound mentality and rose mentally to the world of
the deities, a feat made possible by his attainment of higher powers (abhiññaa)
through utmost perfection in mental concentration. Having preached the
Abhidhamma to the deities, he returned to earth, that is, to normal
human consciousness, and preached it to the venerable Saariputta, the
arahant disciple most advanced in wisdom.

From ancient times doubts have been expressed as to whether the
Abhidhamma was really taught by the Buddha. What is important for us is
to experience the realities described in the Abhidhamma. Then one will
realize for oneself that such profound truths can emanate only from a
source of supreme enlightenment, from a Buddha. Much of what is
contained in the Abhidhamma is also found in the Sutta Pi.taka and such
sermons had never been heard by anyone until they were uttered by the
Buddha. Therefore those who deny that the source of the Abhidhamma was
the Buddha will then have to say that the discourses also were not
uttered by the Buddha. At any rate, according to the Theravaada
tradition, the essence of the Abhidhamma, the fundamentals, the
framework, is ascribed to the Buddha. The tabulations and
classifications may have been the work of later scholars. What is
important is the essence; it is this we should try to experience for
ourselves.

The question is also raised whether the Abhidhamma is essential for
Dhamma practice. The answer to this will depend on the individual who
undertakes the practice. People vary in their levels of understanding
and spiritual development. Ideally all the different spiritual
faculties should be harmonized, but some people are quite content with
devotional practice based on faith, while others are keen on developing
penetrative insight. The Abhidhamma is most useful to those who want to
understand, who want to know the Dhamma in depth and detail. It aids
the development of insight into the three characteristics of
existence-impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and no-self. It will be
found useful not only during the periods devoted to formal meditation,
but also during the rest of the day when we are engaged in various
chores. When we experience realities then we are deriving benefit from
the study of the Abhidhamma. A comprehensive knowledge of the
Abhidhamma is further useful to those engaged in teaching and
explaining the Dhamma to others.

The Ultimate Realities

The Abhidhamma deals with realities existing in an ultimate sense, called in Pali paramattha dhammaa. There are four such realities:

  1. Citta, mind or consciousness, defined as that which knows or
    experiences an object. Citta occurs as distinct momentary states of
    consciousness.
  2. Cetasikas, the mental factors that arise and occur along with the cittas.
  3. Ruupa, physical phenomena, or material form.
  4. Nibbaana.

Citta, the cetasikas, and ruupa are conditioned realities. They
arise because of conditions and disappear when their conditions cease
to sustain them. Therefore they are impermanent. Nibbaana is an
unconditioned reality. It does not arise and therefore does not fall
away. These four realities can be experienced regardless of what name
we give them. Any other thing — be it within ourselves or without,
past, present, or future, coarse or subtle, low or lofty, far or near —
is a concept and not an ultimate reality.

Citta, cetasikas, and nibbaana are also called naama. The two
conditioned naamas, citta and cetasikas, together with ruupa make up naama-ruupa, the psycho-physical organism. Each of us, in the ultimate sense, is a naama-ruupa,
a compound of mental and material phenomena, and nothing more. Apart
from these three realities that go to form the naama-ruupa compound
there is no ego, self, or soul. The naama part of the compound is what
experiences an object. The ruupa part does not experience anything.
When the body is injured it is not the body, which is ruupa, that feels
the pain, but naama, the mental side. When we are hungry it is not the
stomach that feels the hunger but again the naama. However, naama
cannot eat the food to ease the hunger. The naama, the mind and its
factors, makes the ruupa, the body, ingest the food. Thus neither the
naama nor the ruupa has any efficient power of its own. One is
dependent on the other; one supports the other. Both naama and ruupa
arise because of conditions and perish immediately, and this is
happening every moment of our lives. By studying and experiencing these
realities we will get insight into: (1) what we truly are; (2) what we
find around us; (3) how and why we react to what is within and around
us; and (4) what we should aspire to reach as a spiritual goal.

Christians asked to take part in politics
Bhopal, Nov 17 (IANS)

As Madhya Pradesh goes to the polls Nov 27,
Archbishop Leo Cornelio of Bhopal has called for greater involvement of
Christians in politics though many others in the community feel the
elections would make little difference to them.

Christians represent one per cent of the state’s six crore (60 million) population.

“Our voice is not heard in the process of decision-making as we are not involved in politics,” Archbishop Cornelio told IANS.

“Had
it not been so, there would not have been 171 attacks on our priests
and religious places in the five years since the Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) came to power in the state,” he said.

The Christian
community, which is up against militant Hindu outfits and the BJP
government in the face of a spurt in attacks on them, however, does not
feel its involvement can make much difference.

This is because
not a single member of the community was elected to the state assembly
in the 2003 elections and they do not expect the situation to change.

“Other
minority communities like Sikhs have a substantial political
representation despite their minuscule presence in the state as
compared to Christians but we have no representation at all,” says a
community leader.

Though the Christian population in the state
is less than their national average, the community does have a sizeable
presence in cities like Jabalpur, Indore and Bhopal apart from the
western region of the state, especially Jhabua and adjoining areas.

“We
are annoyed as the community finds itself voiceless and the Congress
has not given ticket to any tribal Christian, especially from Jhabua.
We have to have our own political voice, otherwise we cannot survive,”
says Indira Iyengar, president of the Madhya Pradesh-Chhattisgarh
Christian Forum.

“The tribal Christians have suffered the most
during the attacks on the community. We urged the Congress to field
tribal Christian leaders, but to no avail,” she said.

“The
Congress has announced the candidature of Ratnesh Solomon but he is not
a tribal Christian. Now, I think that the time has come to explore and
test new options like the Bahujan Samaj Party.”

“This may indirectly help the BJP but we have already suffered for our blind support to the Congress,” said Iyengar.

She
said her Forum recommended the names of some young tribal leaders to
the Congress for tickets for the Thandla, Petlawad and Jhabua seats,
but it was turned down. As against this, the BSP has fielded a
community member, Lata Edwin, for the Jhabua seat.

Muttungal,
the spokesman of Catholic Church for MP and Chhattisgarh, said with as
many as 171 attacks on Christians in the state, Madhya Pradesh happened
to be the second among all states in the country to have seen the most
number of attacks on the community.

“There appears to be a
political vacuum and though Christians have traditionally voted for the
Congress, the lack of tough action on perpetrators of communal violence
is worrying the community,” he said.

“I don’t think there is any enthusiasm and many will not even exercise their right to vote.”

Christians
have a substantial presence in nearly a dozen assembly constituencies
spread over urban areas of Madhya Pradesh apart from some
constituencies in rural areas of western MP.

Now the Entire People, that is, Sarvajan will be Secure, Well and Happy, no sooner they become the members of Bahujan Samaj Party. No evil force can ever touch them as all of them are Original Ihabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharth
                                           - Three Baskets Study Circle

Court dismisses expelled BSP member’s plea

New Delhi, Nov 17 (IANS) The Delhi High Court
Monday dismissed the plea of an expelled Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
member Isam Singh, who had challenged his disqualification as member of
the Rajya Sabha.

Justice G.S. Sistani dismissed
Singh’s plea stating that since he had already floated another party
due to which he was expelled from the BSP, his disqualification was
correct.

Singh, elected as a BSP member, had formed Bahujan Kranti Party even before he was expelled from the party Sep 3, 2006.

On
Sep 1, the court had issued notices to the central government, Rajya
Sabha chairman, Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) and Uttar Pradesh Chief
Minister Mayawati after admitting Singh’s plea.

Singh
was disqualified by Rajya Sabha chairman Hamid Ansari July 4 after the
privileges committee of the house sent him a report May 22.



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8 for Bhikkhunis

Pārājika [go up]

1 [1].
Should any bhikkhunī willingly engage in sexual intercourse, even with
a male animal, she is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

2 [2].
Should any bhikkhunī, in what is reckoned a theft, take what is not
given from an inhabited area or from the wilderness — just as when, in
the taking of what is not given, kings arresting the criminal would
flog, imprison, or banish her, saying, “You are a robber, you are a
fool, you are benighted, you are a thief” — a bhikkhunī in the same way
taking what is not given is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

3 [3].
Should any bhikkhunī intentionally deprive a human being of life, or
search for an assassin for him, or praise the advantages of death, or
incite him to die, saying, “My good man, what use is this evil,
miserable life to you? Death would be better for you than life,” or
with such an idea in mind, such a purpose in mind, should in various
ways praise the advantages of death or incite him to die, she also is
defeated and no longer in affiliation.

4 [4].
Should any bhikkhunī, without direct knowledge, boast of a superior
human state, a truly noble knowledge and vision as present in herself,
saying, “Thus do I know; thus do I see,” such that regardless of
whether or not she is cross-examined on a later occasion, she — being
remorseful and desirous of purification — might say, “Ladies, not
knowing, I said I know; not seeing, I said I see — vainly, falsely,
idly,” unless it was from over-estimation, she also is defeated and no
longer in affiliation.

5. Should any bhikkhunī, lusting,
consent to a lusting man’s rubbing, rubbing up against, taking hold of,
touching, or fondling (her) below the collar-bone and above the circle
of the knees, she also is defeated and no longer in affiliation for
being “one above the circle of the knees
.” [See Bhikkhus’ Saṅghādisesa 2]

6. Should any bhikkhunī, knowing that
(another) bhikkhunī has fallen into an act (entailing) defeat, neither
accuse her herself nor inform the group, and then — whether she (the
other bhikkhunī) is still alive or has died, has been expelled or gone
over to another sect — she (this bhikkhunī) should say, “Even before,
ladies, I knew of this bhikkhunī that ‘This sister is of such-and-such
a sort,’ and I didn’t accuse her myself nor did I inform the group,”
then she also is defeated and no longer in affiliation for being “one
who concealed a fault.” [See Bhikkhus’ Pācittiya 64]

7. Should any bhikkhunī follow a
bhikkhu who has been suspended by a united Community (of bhikkhus) in
line with the Dhamma, in line with the Vinaya, in line with the
teacher’s instructions, and who is disrespectful, has not made amends,
has broken off his friendship (with the bhikkhus), the bhikkhunīs are
to admonish her thus: “Lady, that bhikkhu has been suspended by a
united Community in line with the Dhamma, in line with the Vinaya, in
line with the teacher’s instructions. He is disrespectful, he has not
made amends, he has broken off his friendship. Do not follow him, lady.”

And should that bhikkhunī, thus admonished by the bhikkhunīs,
persist as before, the bhikkhunīs are to rebuke her up to three times
so as to desist. If while being rebuked up to three times she desists,
that is good. If she does not desist, then she also is defeated and no
longer in affiliation for being “a follower of a suspended (bhikkhu).”
(§¶•) 1

8. Should any bhikkhunī, lusting,
consent to a lusting man’s taking hold of her hand or touching the edge
of her outer robe, or should she stand with him or converse with him or
go to a rendezvous with him, or should she consent to his approaching
her, or should she enter a hidden place with him, or should she dispose
her body to him — (any of these) for the purpose of that unrighteous
act (Comm: physical contact) — then she also is defeated and no longer
in affiliation for “(any of) eight grounds.
” (§)

Digha Nikaya
The Long Discourses

The Digha Nikaya, or “Collection of Long Discourses” (Pali digha = “long”) is the first division of the Sutta Pitaka, and consists of thirty-four suttas, grouped into three vaggas, or divisions:

  1. Silakkhandha-vagga — The Division Concerning Morality (13 suttas)
  2. Maha-vagga — The Large Division (10 suttas)
  3. Patika-vagga — The Patika Division (11 suttas)

An excellent modern translation of the complete Digha Nikaya is Maurice Walshe’s The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya (formerly titled: Thus Have I Heard) (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987). A fine anthology of selected suttas is Handful of Leaves (Vol. 1), by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (distributed by the Sati Center for Buddhist Studies).

The translator appears in the square brackets []. The braces {} contain the volume and starting page number in the PTS romanized Pali edition.



  • DN 2: Samaññaphala Sutta — The Fruits of the Contemplative Life {D i 47} [Thanissaro].
    King Ajatasattu asks the Buddha, “What are the fruits of the
    contemplative life, visible in the here and now?” The Buddha replies by
    painting a comprehensive portrait of the Buddhist path of training,
    illustrating each stage of the training with vivid similes.
  • DN 9: Potthapada Sutta — About Potthapada {D i 178} [Thanissaro].
    The wandering ascetic Potthapada brings to the Buddha a tangle of
    questions concerning the nature of perception. The Buddha clears up the
    matter by reviewing the fundamentals of concentration meditation and
    showing how it can lead to the ultimate cessation of perception.
  • DN 11: Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta — To Kevatta (Kevaddha) {D i 211} [Thanissaro].
    This discourse explores the role of miracles and conversations with
    heavenly beings as a possible basis for faith and belief. The Buddha
    does not deny the reality of such experiences, but he points out that —
    of all possible miracles — the only reliable one is the miracle of
    instruction in the proper training of the mind. As for heavenly beings,
    they are subject to greed, anger, and delusion, and so the information
    they give — especially with regard to the miracle of instruction — is
    not necessarily trustworthy. Thus the only valid basis for faith is the
    instruction that, when followed, brings about the end of one’s own
    mental defilements. The tale that concludes the discourse is one of the
    finest examples of the early Buddhist sense of humor. [This summary provided by Thanissaro Bhikkhu]
  • DN 12: Lohicca Sutta — To Lohicca {D i 224} [Thanissaro].
    A non-Buddhist poses some good questions: If Dhamma is something that
    one must realize for oneself, then what is the role of a teacher? Are
    there any teachers who don’t deserve some sort of criticism? The
    Buddha’s reply includes a sweeping summary of the entire path of
    practice.
  • DN 15: Maha-nidana Sutta — The Great Causes Discourse {D ii 55} [Thanissaro].
    One of the most profound discourses in the Pali canon, which gives an
    extended treatment of the teachings of dependent co-arising (paticca
    samuppada) and not-self (anatta) in an outlined context of how these
    teachings function in practice. An explanatory preface is included.
  • DN 16: Maha-parinibbana Sutta — The Last Days of the Buddha {D ii 72} [Vajira/Story (complete text) | Thanissaro (chapters 5-6)].
    This wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes
    the events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death
    and final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful
    narrative contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s
    final instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and
    practiced long after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this
    sutta also depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that
    unfolds among the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of
    the death of their beloved teacher.
  • DN 20: Maha-samaya Sutta — The Great Meeting {D ii 253} [Piyadassi | Thanissaro].
    A large group of devas pays a visit to the Buddha. This sutta is the
    closest thing in the Pali canon to a “who’s who” of the deva worlds,
    providing useful material for anyone interested in the cosmology of
    early Buddhism.
  • DN 21: Sakka-pañha Sutta — Sakka’s Questions (excerpt) {D ii 263} [Thanissaro].
    Sakka, the deva-king, asks the Buddha about the sources of conflict,
    and about the path of practice that can bring it to an end. This
    discourse ends with a humorous account about Sakka’s frustration in
    trying to learn the Dhamma from other contemplatives. It’s hard to find
    a teacher when you’re a king.
  • DN 22: Maha-satipatthana Sutta — The Great Frames of Reference (The Great Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness) {D ii 290} [Thanissaro].
    This sutta offers comprehensive practical instructions on the
    development of mindfulness in meditation. The Buddha describes how the
    development of continuous mindfulness of the four satipatthana
    (”foundations of mindfulness” or “frames of reference”) — mindfulness
    of the body, of feelings, of the mind, and of mind-objects — can lead
    ultimately to full Awakening. [The text of this sutta is identical to
    that of the Satipatthana Sutta
    (MN 10), except that the Majjhima version omits the exposition of the
    Four Noble Truths (sections 5a,b,c and d in part D of this version).]
  • DN 26: Cakkavatti Sutta — The Wheel-turning Emperor (excerpt) {D iii 58} [Thanissaro].
    In this excerpt the Buddha explains how skillful action can result in
    the best kind of long life, the best kind of beauty, the best kind of
    happiness, and the best kind of strength.
  • DN 31: Sigalovada Sutta — To Sigala/The Layperson’s Code of Discipline {D iii 180} [Narada | Kelly/Sawyer/Yareham].
    The householder’s code of discipline, as described by the Buddha to the
    layman Sigala. This sutta offers valuable practical advice for
    householders on how to conduct themselves skillfully in their
    relationships with parents, spouses, children, pupils, teachers,
    employers, employees, friends, and spiritual mentors so as to bring
    happiness to all concerned.
  • DN 32: Atanatiya Sutta — The Discourse on Atanatiya {D iii 194} [Piyadassi]. One of the “protective verses” (paritta) that are chanted to this day for ceremonial purposes by Theravada monks and nuns around the world. See Piyadassi Thera’s The Book of Protection (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1999).
Abhidhamma Pitaka
Baskets of Abhidhamma

Note: At present there are no translations from the Abhidhamma Pitaka available here at Access to Insight.

The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the third division of the Tipitaka,
offer an extraordinarily detailed analysis of the basic natural
principles that govern mental and physical processes. Whereas the Sutta and Vinaya
Pitakas lay out the practical aspects of the Buddhist path to
Awakening, the Abhidhamma Pitaka provides a theoretical framework to
explain the causal underpinnings of that very path. In Abhidhamma
philosophy the familiar psycho-physical universe (our world of “trees”
and “rocks,” “I” and “you”) is distilled to its essence: an intricate
web of impersonal phenomena and processes unfolding at an inconceivably
rapid pace from moment to moment, according to precisely defined
natural laws.

According to tradition, the essence of the Abhidhamma was formulated
by the Buddha during the fourth week after his Enlightenment.1
Seven years later he is said to have spent three consecutive months
preaching it in its entirety in one of the deva realms, before an
audience of thousands of devas (including his late mother, the former
Queen Maya), each day briefly commuting back to the human realm to
convey to Ven. Sariputta the essence of what he had just taught.2
Sariputta mastered the Abhidhamma and codified it into roughly its
present form. Although parts of the Abhidhamma were recited at the
earlier Buddhist Councils, it wasn’t until the Third Council (ca. 250 BCE) that it became fixed into its present form as the third and final Pitaka of the canon.3

Despite its relatively late entrance into the Canon, the Abhidhamma
stands as an essential pillar of classical Theravada Buddhist thought.
Its significance does, however, vary considerably across regional and
cultural boundaries. In Thai Buddhism, for example, the Abhidhamma
(and, for that matter, many of the Commentaries as well) play a
relatively minor role in Buddhist doctrine and practice. In Sri Lanka
and Myanmar (Burma), however, they hold the same venerated status as
the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas themselves. The modern Burmese approach to
the teaching and practice of Satipatthana meditation, in particular,
relies heavily on an Abhidhammic interpretation of meditative
experience. Regardless of the Abhidhamma’s position on the shelf of
Buddhist canonical texts, the astonishing detail with which it
methodically constructs a quasi-scientific model of mind (enough, by
far, to make a modern systems theorist or cognitive scientist gasp in
awe), insures its place in history as a monumental feat of intellectual
genius.


The Abhidhamma Pitaka is divided into seven books, although it is
the first (Dhammasangani) and last (Patthana) that together lay out the
essence of Abhidhamma philosophy. The seven books are:

  1. Dhammasangani (”Enumeration of Phenomena”). This book enumerates all the paramattha dhamma (ultimate realities) to be found in the world. According to one such enumeration these amount to:

    • 52 cetasikas (mental factors), which, arising together in various combination, give rise to any one of…
    • …89 different possible cittas (states of consciousness)
    • 4 primary physical elements, and 23 physical phenomena derived from them
    • Nibbana

    Availability of English translations:

    • Buddhist Psychological Ethics, translated from the Pali by C.A.F. Rhys Davids (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1900).
  2. Vibhanga (”The Book of Treatises”). This book continues the analysis of the Dhammasangani, here in the form of a catechism.

    Availability of English translations:

    • The Book of Analysis, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Thittila (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1969).
  3. Dhatukatha (”Discussion with Reference to the Elements”). A reiteration of the foregoing, in the form of questions and answers.

    Availability of English translations:

    • Discourse on Elements, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1962).
  4. Puggalapaññatti (”Description of Individuals”). Somewhat out
    of place in the Abhidhamma Pitaka, this book contains descriptions of a
    number of personality-types.

    Availability of English translations:

    • A Designation of Human Types, translated from the Pali by B.C. Law (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1922).
  5. Kathavatthu (”Points of Controversy”). Another odd inclusion
    in the Abhidhamma, this book contains questions and answers that were
    compiled by Moggaliputta Tissa in the 3rd century BCE, in order to help
    clarify points of controversy that existed between the various
    “Hinayana” schools of Buddhism at the time.

    Availability of English translations:

    • Points of Controversy, translated from the Pali by S.Z. Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1915).
  6. Yamaka (”The Book of Pairs”). This book is a logical
    analysis of many concepts presented in the earlier books. In the words
    of Mrs. Rhys Davids, an eminent 20th century Pali scholar, the ten
    chapters of the Yamaka amount to little more than “ten valleys of dry
    bones.”

    Availability of English translations: None.

  7. Patthana (”The Book of Relations”). This book, by far the
    longest single volume in the Tipitaka (over 6,000 pages long in the
    Siamese edition), describes the 24 paccayas, or laws of conditionality, through which the dhammas interact. These laws, when applied in every possible permutation with the dhammas described in the Dhammasangani, give rise to all knowable experience.

    Availability of English translations:

    • Conditional Relations (vol I), translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1969). Part I of the Tika-patthana section of the Patthana.
    • Conditional Relations (vol II), translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1981). Part II of the Tika-patthana section of the Patthana.
    • A Guide to Conditional Relations, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1978). An introduction and guide to the first 12 pages (!) of the Patthana.

The Abhidhamma Pitaka has a well-deserved reputation for being dense
and difficult reading. The best way to begin studying Abhidhamma is not
to dive right into its two key books (Dhammasangani and Patthana), but
to explore some of the more modern — and readable — commentarial texts.
These will help you get oriented to the Abhidhamma’s challenging
terrain:

  • The Abhidhamma in Practice, by N.K.G. Mendis (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society Wheel Publication 322, 1985).
  • Buddhist Philosophy of Relations, by Ven. Ledi Sayadaw (Wheel publication No. 331; Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1986). An excellent introduction to the Patthana, the most difficult of the Abhidhamma books, which explains each of the 24 conditional relations by which the dhammas interact.
  • Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, A: The Abhidhamma Sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993). This book, an expanded treatment of Ven. Narada’s classic A Manual of Abhidhamma
    (see below), should be required reading for every Abhidhamma student.
    It gives a remarkably lucid and insightful overview of Abhidhamma
    philosophy. Even if you read no further than the Introduction, your efforts will be well rewarded.
  • Dhamma Theory, The: Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, by Y. Karunadasa (Wheel
    publication No. 412/413; Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1996).
    The Dhamma Theory is the fundamental principle on which the entire
    Abhidhamma is based: that all empirical phenomena are made up of a
    number of elementary constituents — dhammas — the ultimate
    realities that lie behind manifest phenomena. This short book offers a
    good overview of the philosophical and analytical methods used in
    Abhidhamma.
  • Guide Through the Abhidhamma Pitaka, by Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).
  • Manual of Abhidhamma, A: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha
    of Anuruddhacariya

    (fourth edition), translated from the Pali by Ven. Narada Maha Thera
    (Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1979). Available online at » BuddhaSasana.
    A classic work that provides an excellent introduction to the
    essentials of Abhidhamma study. Largely superseded by Bhikkhu Bodhi’s
    expanded and more thoroughly annotated A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhamma Sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha (see above) but useful in its compactness.
  • Psychology and Philosophy of Buddhism, The: An Introduction to the Abhidhamma, by Dr. W.F. Jayasuriya (Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1988).


Notes

1. Handbook of Pali Literature, by Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne, 1994), p. 1.
2. From the Atthasalini, as described in Great Disciples of the Buddha, by Nyanaponika Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1997), pp. 45-46.
3. The Katthavatthu, composed during the Third Council, was the final addition to the Abhidhamma Pitaka. See Guide Through the Abdhidhamma Pitaka, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983), p xi.


‘BSP not against upper castes’

Bilaspur: Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo and Uttar Pradesh Chief
Minister Mayawati on Sunday said her party is not against the upper
castes as several political parties have been trying to project it.

“The BSP’s policies are never against any caste or community, the
party is committed to the welfare of all sections and castes. Some
other parties are now spreading false rumours that the BSP is against
the upper castes,” she stated at a public rally in Bilaspur.

Ms. Mayawati said, “BSP wants development of all the castes; in
Uttar Pradesh the party has taken care of backward Muslims and we
maintain we will amend the Constitution if we form a government at the
Centre to provide reservation to backward people from the upper castes.”

Leading geologist warns some regions are quake-prone


‘The Indian plate is pushing at about 5 centimetres every year’


Lucknow: Pointing to the geology of the Indian subcontinent, a
leading geologist on Saturday warned that some regions of Himachal
Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh near Nepal could be prone to an
earthquake.


Collision course

Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology Director B. R. Arora who
delivered the 54th Sir Albert Charles Seward Memorial Lecture as part
of the Foundation Day celebrations of the Birbal Sahni Institute of
Palaeobotany here, said the Indian and the Eurasian plates were on a
collision course.

“The youngest mountains of the world, Himalayas, formed as a result
of collision between Indian and Eurasian plate. The Indian plate is
pushing at about 5 centimetres every year but the Eurasian plate is
shifting only about 3 centimetres which leaves a strain of about 2
centimetres,” he said.

This strain is a matter of concern as such strains are released in
earthquakes and there are areas in Himachal, Eastern UP (near Nepal)
and Uttarakhand where a strain has been building but has no history of
earthquakes in the past hundred years, Dr. Arora said.


Research

A centre has been established at Kuttu in New Tehri to research
into the phenomenon and hopefully predict earthquakes, he said. – PTI


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11/16/08
Tipitaka The Pali Canon-The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”)-The three divisions of the Tipitaka are: Vinaya Pitaka -Sutta Pitaka-Abhidhamma Pitaka
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Introduction to the Patimokkha Rules

Communal Harmony [go up]

To persist — after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in the
Community — in trying to form a schismatic group or in taking up a
position that can lead to schism is a saºghādisesa offense. (Sg 10)

To persist — after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in the
Community — in supporting a potential schismatic is a saºghādisesa
offense. (Sg 11)

To persist — after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in the
Community — in being difficult to admonish is a saºghādisesa offense. (Sg 12)

To persist — after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in the
Community — in criticizing a banishment transaction performed against
oneself is a saºghādisesa offense. (Sg 13)

When a trustworthy female lay follower accuses a bhikkhu of having
committed a pārājika, saºghādisesa, or pācittiya offense while sitting
alone with a woman in a private, secluded place, the Community should
investigate the charge and deal with the bhikkhu in accordance with
whatever he admits to having done. (Ay 1)

When a trustworthy female lay follower accuses a bhikkhu of having
committed a saºghādisesa or pācittiya offense while sitting alone with
a woman in an unsecluded but private place, the Community should
investigate the charge and deal with the bhikkhu in accordance with
whatever he admits to having done. (Ay 2)

Telling an unordained person of another bhikkhu’s serious offense —
unless one is authorized by the Community to do so — is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 9)

Persistently replying evasively or keeping silent in order to
conceal one’s own offenses when being questioned in a meeting of the
Community — after a formal charge of evasive speech or being
frustrating has been brought against one — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 12)

If a Community official is innocent of bias: Criticizing him within earshot of another bhikkhu is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 13)

When one has set a bed, bench, mattress, or stool belonging to the
Community out in the open: Leaving its immediate vicinity without
putting it away, arranging to have it put away, or taking leave is a
pācittiya offense. (Pc 14)

When one has spread bedding out in a dwelling belonging to the
Community: Departing from the monastery without putting it away,
arranging to have it put away, or taking leave is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 15)

Intruding on another bhikkhu’s sleeping or sitting place in a
dwelling belonging to the Community, with the sole purpose of making
him uncomfortable and forcing him to leave, is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 16)

Causing a bhikkhu to be evicted from a dwelling belonging to the
Community — when one’s primary impulse is anger — is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 17)

Sitting or lying down on a bed or bench with detachable legs on an
unplanked loft in a dwelling belonging to the Community, is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 18)

Saying that a properly authorized bhikkhu exhorts the bhikkhunīs for
the sake of worldly gain — when in fact that is not the case — is a
pācittiya offense. (Pc 24)

Deliberately tricking another bhikkhu into breaking Pācittiya 35, in hopes of finding fault with him, is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 36)

Speaking or acting disrespectfully after having been admonished by
another bhikkhu for a breach of the training rules is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 54)

Agitating to re-open an issue, knowing that it was properly dealt with, is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 63)

Not informing another bhikkhu of a serious offense that one knows a
third bhikkhu has committed — out of a desire to protect the third
bhikkhu either from having to undergo the penalty or from the jeering
remarks of other bhikkhus — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 64)

Acting as the preceptor in the full Acceptance (ordination) of a
person one knows to be less than 20 years old is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 65)

Refusing — after the third announcement of a formal rebuke in a
meeting of the Community — to relinquish the evil view that there is
nothing wrong in intentionally transgressing the Buddha’s ordinances is
a pācittiya offense. (Pc 68)

Communing, affiliating, or lying down under the same roof with a
bhikkhu who has been suspended and not been restored — knowing that
such is the case — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 69)

Befriending, receiving services from, communing, or lying down under
the same roof with an expelled novice — knowing that he has been
expelled — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 70)

When being admonished by another bhikkhu with regard to a training
rule formulated in the Vinaya, saying something as a ploy to excuse
oneself from training under the rule is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 71)

Criticizing the discipline in the presence of another bhikkhu, in hopes of preventing its study, is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 72)

Using half-truths to deceive others into believing that one is
ignorant of the rules in the Pāṭimokkha — after one has already heard
the Pāṭimokkha in full three times, and a transaction exposing one’s
deceit has been brought against one — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 73)

Giving a blow to another bhikkhu when impelled by anger — except in self-defense — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 74)

Making a threatening gesture against another bhikkhu when impelled by anger — except in self-defense — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 75)

Intentionally provoking anxiety in another bhikkhu that he may have
broken a rule, when one has no other purpose in mind, is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 77)

Eavesdropping on bhikkhus involved in an argument over an issue —
with the intention of using what they say against them — is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 78)

Complaining about a Community transaction to which one gave one’s
consent — if one perceives the transaction as having been carried out
in accordance with the rule — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 79)

Getting up and leaving a meeting of the Community in the midst of a
valid transaction that one knows to be valid — without having first
given one’s consent to the transaction and with the intention of
invalidating it — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 80)

After participating in a Community transaction giving robe-cloth to
a Community official: Complaining that the Community acted out of
favoritism is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 81)

When the Community is dealing formally with an issue, the full
Community must be present, as must all the individuals involved in the
issue; the proceedings must follow the patterns set out in the Dhamma
and Vinaya. (As 1)

If the Community unanimously believes that a bhikkhu is innocent of
a charge made against him, they may issue a transaction declaring him
innocent on the basis of his memory of the events. (As 2)

If the Community unanimously believes that a bhikkhu was insane
while committing offenses against the rules, they may issue a
transaction absolving him of any responsibility for the offenses. (As 3)

If a bhikkhu commits an offense, he should willingly undergo the
appropriate penalty in line with what he actually did and the actual
seriousness of the offense. (As 4)

If an important dispute cannot be settled by a unanimous decision,
it should be submitted to a vote. The opinion of the majority, if in
accord with the Dhamma and Vinaya, is then considered decisive. (As 5)

If a bhikkhu admits to an offense only after being interrogated in a
formal meeting, the Community should carry out a further-punishment
transaction against him, rescinding it only when he has mended his
ways. (As 6)

If, in the course of a dispute, both sides act in ways unworthy of
contemplatives, and the sorting out of the penalties would only prolong
the dispute, the Community as a whole may make a blanket confession of
its light offenses. (As 7)

The Etiquette of a Contemplative [go up]

Training a novice or lay person to recite passages of Dhamma by rote is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 4)

Lying down at the same time, in the same lodging, with a novice or
layman for more than three nights running is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 5)

Digging soil or commanding that it be dug is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 10)

Intentionally cutting, burning, or killing a living plant is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 11)

Handing food or medicine to a person ordained in another religion is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 41)

Sending another bhikkhu away so that he won’t witness any misconduct one is planning to indulge in is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 42)

To sit down intruding on a man and a woman in their private quarters
— when one or both are sexually aroused, and when another bhikkhu is
not present — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 43)

Watching a field army — or similar large military force — on active
duty, unless there is a suitable reason, is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 48)

Staying more than three consecutive nights with an army on active
duty — even when one has a suitable reason to be there — is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 49)

Going to a battlefield, a roll call, an array of the troops in
battle formation, or to see a review of the battle units while one is
staying with an army is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 50)

Taking an intoxicant is a pācittiya offense regardless of whether one is aware that it is an intoxicant. (Pc 51)

Tickling another bhikkhu is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 52)

Jumping and swimming in the water for fun is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 53)

Attempting to frighten another bhikkhu is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 55)

Lighting a fire to warm oneself — or having it lit — when one does
not need the warmth for one’s health is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 56)

Bathing more frequently than once a fortnight when residing in the
middle Ganges Valley, except on certain occasions, is a pācittiya
offense. (Pc 57)

Hiding another bhikkhu’s bowl, robe, sitting cloth, needle case, or
belt — or having it hidden — either as a joke or with the purpose of
annoying him, is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 60)

Traveling by arrangement with a group of thieves from one village to
another — knowing that they are thieves — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 66)

Entering a king’s sleeping chamber unannounced, when both the king and queen are in the chamber, is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 83)

Picking up a valuable, or having it picked up, with the intention of
putting it in safe keeping for the owner — except when one finds it in
a monastery or in a dwelling one is visiting — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 84)

A bhikkhu should wear his upper and lower robes even all around. (Sk 1 & 2)

Etiquette in inhabited areas [go up]

When going or sitting in inhabited areas, a bhikkhu should:

  • wear his robes so that they hang down evenly, covering his chest, knees, wrists, and everything in between.
  • refrain from playing with his hands or feet.
  • keep his gaze lowered except when it is necessary to look up.
  • refrain from hitching up his robe so that it exposes the side of his body.
  • refrain from laughing loudly or speaking loudly.
  • refrain from swinging his body, arms or head.
  • refrain from putting his arms akimbo.
  • refrain from covering his head unless the weather is unbearably cold or hot.
  • refrain from walking on tiptoe or just on his heels.
  • refrain from sitting with his knees held up, either by hugging them or by surrounding them with a strip of cloth. (Sk 3-26)

Receiving and eating almsfood [go up]

When receiving alms, a bhikkhu should:

  • be mindful to receive them appreciatively.
  • focus his attention on the alms bowl.
  • take bean curry only in proper proportion to the rice.
  • accept no more food than will fill the bowl level to the bottom edge of the top rim. (Sk 27-30)

When eating, a bhikkhu should:

  • be mindful to eat his food appreciatively.
  • focus his attention on the bowl.
  • eat his food methodically, from one side of the bowl to the other.
  • eat bean curry only in proper proportion to the rice.
  • refrain from taking food from the middle of the heap in his bowl.
  • refrain from hiding his substantial food with rice, out of a hope of getting more.
  • refrain from looking at another bhikkhu’s bowl intent on finding fault with him for not sharing his food.
  • refrain from making extra-large mouthfuls.
  • eat his rice in rounded mouthfuls.
  • refrain from opening his mouth until he has brought food to it.
  • refrain from putting his whole hand in his mouth.
  • refrain from speaking when there is so much food in his mouth that it affects his pronunciation.
  • refrain from lifting a large handful of food from his bowl and breaking off mouthfuls with the other hand.
  • refrain from nibbling bit by bit at his mouthfuls of food.
  • refrain from stuffing out his cheeks.
  • refrain from shaking food off his hands or scattering rice about.
  • refrain from sticking out his tongue or smacking his lips.
  • refrain from making a slurping noise.
  • refrain from licking his hands, his bowl or his lips.
  • refrain from accepting a water vessel with a hand soiled by food.
  • refrain from throwing away — in an inhabited area — bowl-rinsing water that has grains of rice in it.(Sk 31-36, 38-56)

Teaching Dhamma [go up]

When his listener is not ill, a bhikkhu should not teach Dhamma if the listener:

  • has an umbrella in his/her hand.
  • has a staff in his/her hand.
  • has a knife in his/her hand.
  • has a weapon in his/her hand.
  • is wearing shoes, boots or sandals.
  • is sitting in a vehicle when the bhikkhu is in a lower vehicle or not in a vehicle at all.
  • is lying down when the bhikkhu is sitting or standing.
  • is sitting holding his/her knees.
  • is wearing a hat or a turban, or has covered his/her head with a scarf or shawl.
  • is sitting on a seat while the bhikkhu is sitting on the ground.
  • is sitting on a high seat while the bhikkhu is sitting on a lower seat.
  • is sitting while the bhikkhu is standing.
  • is walking ahead of the bhikkhu.
  • is walking on a path while the bhikkhu is walking beside the path. (Sk 57-72)

Urinating, defecating & spitting [go up]

Unless he is ill, a bhikkhu should not urinate or defecate while standing. (Sk 73)

Unless he is ill, a bhikkhu should not urinate, defecate or spit on
living crops or in water that is fit for bathing or drinking. (Sk 74-75)

Sutta Pitaka
Index of Suttas

The suttas listed below are available here at Access to Insight. A handful of sutta-like passages from the Vinaya Pitaka are also listed here.

Sutta references
are either to sutta number (in the case of DN, MN, and Iti), samyutta
and sutta number (SN), nipata and sutta number (AN), verse number
(Dhp), vagga and sutta number (Ud, Sn), or vagga and poem number (Thag,
Thig). The translator’s name appears in the square brackets []. Suttas
marked with the »SuttaReadings.net icon ( SuttaReadings.net icon
) are regarded by senior Theravada Buddhist teachers as being
especially noteworthy. Click on the icon to visit SuttaReadings.net and
hear a teacher read it aloud.

A B C D EF G H I J K L M N O PQ R S T U V WXYZ

A [go up]

Abhasita Sutta: What Was Not Said (AN 2.23) [Thanissaro]
Abhaya (Thag 1.26) [Thanissaro]
Abhaya Sutta: Fearless (AN 4.184) [Thanissaro]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Abhaya Sutta (Abhaya-raja-kumara Sutta): To Prince Abhaya (On Right Speech) (MN 58) [Thanissaro]
Abhibhuta (Thag 3.13) [Thanissaro]
Abhisanda Sutta: Bonanzas (1) (SN 55.31) [Thanissaro]
Abhisanda Sutta: Bonanzas (2) (SN 55.32) [Thanissaro]
Abhisanda Sutta: Bonanzas (3) (SN 55.33) [Thanissaro]
Abhisanda Sutta: Rewards (AN 8.39) [Thanissaro]
Accayika Sutta: Urgent (AN 3.91) [Thanissaro]
Acela Sutta: To the Clothless Ascetic/Naked Kassapa
(SN 12.17) [Thanissaro | Walshe]
Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturable (AN 4.77) [Thanissaro]
Adanta Suttas: Untamed (AN 1.21-40) [Woodward (excerpts)]
Adhimutta and the Bandits (Thag 16.1) [Thanissaro]
Adhipataka Sutta: Insects (Ud 6.9) [Olendzki | Thanissaro]
Adhipateyya Sutta: Governing Principles (AN 3.40) [Thanissaro]
Aditta Sutta: (The House) On Fire (SN 1.41) [Thanissaro]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Aditta-pariyaya Sutta: The Fire Sermon (SN 35.28) [Ñanamoli | Thanissaro]
Adiya Sutta: Benefits to be Obtained (From Wealth) (AN 5.41) [Thanissaro]
Agara Sutta: The Guest-house (SN 36.14) [Nyanaponika]
Agati Sutta: Off Course (AN 4.19) [Thanissaro]
Aggikkhandopama Sutta: The Mass of Fire Comparison (AN 7.68) [Thanissaro]
Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire (MN 72) [Thanissaro]
Aghata Sutta: Hatred (AN 10.80) [Thanissaro]
Aghatavinaya Sutta: Subduing Hatred (1) (AN 5.161) [Ñanamoli | Thanissaro]
Aghatavinaya Sutta: Subduing Hatred (2) (AN 5.162) [Thanissaro]
Ahara Sutta: Nutriment (SN 12.11) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]
Ahina Sutta: By a Snake (AN 4.67) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Ahu Sutta: It Was (Ud 6.3) [Thanissaro]
Ajaniya Sutta: The Thoroughbred (AN 3.94) [Thanissaro]
Ajañña Sutta: The Thoroughbred (AN 8.13) [Thanissaro]
Ajita-manava-puccha: Ajita’s Questions (Sn 5.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro]
Ajivaka Sutta: To the Fatalists’ Student (AN 3.72) [Thanissaro]
Akankha Sutta: Wishes (AN 10.71) [Thanissaro]
Akasa Sutta: In the Sky (1) (SN 36.12) [Nyanaponika]
Akkhama Sutta: Not Resilient (AN 5.139) [Thanissaro]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Akkosa Sutta: Insult/Bharadvaja the Abusive (SN 7.2) [Buddharakkhita | Thanissaro | Walshe]
Alagaddupama Sutta: The Snake Simile (MN 22) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]
Alavaka Sutta: To the Alavaka Yakkha (SN 10.12) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Alavaka Sutta: To the Alavaka Yakkha (Sn 1.10) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Alavika Sutta: Sister Alavika (SN 5.1) [Bodhi | Thanissaro]
Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta: Instructions to Rahula at Mango Stone (MN 61) [Thanissaro]
Ambapali (Thig 13.1) [Thanissaro]
Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (1) (AN 5.77) [Thanissaro]
Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (2) (AN 5.78) [Thanissaro]
Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (3) (AN 5.79) [Thanissaro]
Anagata-bhayani Sutta: Future Dangers (4) (AN 5.80) [Thanissaro]

Ananda (Thag 17.3) [Hecker/Khema | Olendzki]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Anana Sutta: Debtless (AN 4.62) [Thanissaro]

Ananda Sutta: Ananda (Instructions to Vangisa) (SN 8.4) [Thanissaro]
Ananda Sutta: Ananda (SN 22.83) [Thanissaro]
Ananda Sutta: To Ananda (on Self, No Self, and Not-self) (SN 44.10) [Thanissaro]
Ananda Sutta: To Ananda (on Mindfulness of Breathing) (SN 54.13) [Thanissaro]
Ananda Sutta: With Ananda (AN 9.37) [Thanissaro]
Ananda Thera: Ananda’s Grief (Thig 17.3) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing (MN 118) [Thanissaro]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Anathapindikovada Sutta: Instructions to Anathapindika (MN 143) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Anatta-lakkhana Sutta: Discourse on the Not-self Characteristic (SN 22.59) [Mendis | Ñanamoli | Thanissaro]
Andhakavinda Sutta: Let the Wilderness Serve! (SN 6.13) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Andhakavinda Sutta: At Andhakavinda (AN 5.114) [Thanissaro]
Andhakara Sutta: Darkness (SN 56.46) [Thanissaro]
Aneñja-sappaya Sutta: Conducive to the Imperturbable (MN 106) [Thanissaro]
Anga Sutta: Factors (For Exertion) (AN 5.53) [Thanissaro]
Angulimala Sutta: About Angulimala (MN 86) [Thanissaro]
Angulimala Thera: The Moon Released (Thag 16.8) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Anguttara Nikaya: The Further-factored Discourses [Various]
Ani Sutta: The Peg (SN 20.7) [Thanissaro]
Anicca Sutta: Impermanent (SN 36.9) [Nyanaponika]
Animitto Sutta: The Signless (SN 40.9) [Walshe]
Anisansa Sutta: Rewards (AN 6.97) [Thanissaro]
Aññakondañña (Thag 15.1) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Anodhi Sutta: Without Exception (1) (AN 6.102) [Thanissaro]
Anodhi Sutta: Without Exception (2) (AN 6.103) [Thanissaro]
Anodhi Sutta: Without Exception (3) (AN 6.104) [Thanissaro]
Anopama, the Millionaire’s Daughter (Thig 6.5) [Thanissaro]
Anottapi Sutta: Carelessness (SN 16.2) [Walshe]
Anubuddha Sutta: Understanding (AN 4.1) [Thanissaro]
Anudhamma Sutta — In Accordance with the Dhamma (1) (SN 22.39) [Thanissaro]
Anudhamma Sutta — In Accordance with the Dhamma (2) (SN 22.40) [Thanissaro]
Anudhamma Sutta — In Accordance with the Dhamma (3) (SN 22.41) [Thanissaro]
Anudhamma Sutta — In Accordance with the Dhamma (4) (SN 22.42) [Thanissaro]
Anugghita Sutta: Supported (AN 5.25) [Thanissaro]
Anupada Sutta: One After Another (MN 111) [Thanissaro]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Anuradha Sutta: To Anuradha (SN 22.86) [Thanissaro | Walshe]
Anuruddha Sutta: Anuruddha (SN 9.6) [Thanissaro]
Anuruddha Sutta: To Anuruddha (AN 8.30) [Thanissaro]
Anusaya Sutta: Obsessions (1) (AN 7.11) [Thanissaro]
Anusaya Sutta: Obsessions (2) (AN 7.12) [Thanissaro]
Anusota Sutta: With the Flow (AN 4.5) [Thanissaro]
Aññatra Sutta: A Certain Brahman (SN 12.46) [Thanissaro]
Apannaka Sutta: A Safe Bet (MN 60) [Thanissaro]
Aparihani Sutta: No Falling Away (AN 4.37) [Thanissaro]
Appaka Sutta: Few (SN 3.6) [Thanissaro]
Appamada Sutta: Heedfulness (SN 3.17) [Thanissaro]
Appativana: Relentlessly (AN 2.5) [Thanissaro]
Appayuka Sutta: Short-lived (Ud 5.2) [Thanissaro]
Aputtaka Sutta: Heirless (1) (SN 3.19) [Thanissaro]
Aputtaka Sutta: Heirless (2) (SN 3.20) [Thanissaro]
Araham Sutta: The Arahant (SN 1.25) [Walshe]
Araham Sutta: The Arahant (SN 22.110) [Walshe]
Arakenanusasani Sutta: Araka’s Teaching (AN 7.70) [Thanissaro]
Arañña Sutta: The Wilderness (SN 1.10) [Ireland | Olendzki | Thanissaro]
Arañña Sutta: Wilderness (AN 5.98) [Thanissaro]
Araññika Sutta: A Wilderness Dweller (AN 4.259) [Thanissaro]
Arittha Sutta: To Arittha (on Mindfulness of Breathing) (SN 54.6) [Thanissaro]
Ariyamagga Sutta: The Noble Path (AN 4.235) [Thanissaro]
Ariyapariyesana Sutta: The Noble Search (MN 26) [Thanissaro]
Ariya-vamsa Sutta: The Traditions of the Noble Ones (AN 4.28) [Thanissaro]
Ariyavasa Sutta: Dwellings of the Noble Ones (AN 4.20) [Thanissaro]
Asivisa Sutta: Vipers (SN 35.197) [Thanissaro]
Assu Sutta: Tears (SN 15.3) [Thanissaro]
Assutava Sutta: Uninstructed (SN 12.61) [Thanissaro]
Atanatiya Sutta: The Discourse on Atanatiya (DN 32) [Piyadassi]
Attadanda Sutta: The Rod Embraced (Sn 4.15) [Ireland | Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro]
Attadipa Sutta: An Island Unto Oneself (SN 22.43) [Walshe]
Atta-rakkhita Sutta: Self-protected (SN 3.5) [Thanissaro]
Atthakanagara Sutta: To the Man from Atthakanagara (MN 52) [Thanissaro]
Atthakarana Sutta: In Judgment (SN 3.7) [Thanissaro]
Atthaka Vagga: The Octet Chapter (Sn 4) [Various]
Atthakatha (Commentaries)
Atthasata (Atthasattapariyaya) Sutta: One Hundred Eight Feelings (SN 36.22) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro ]
Atthi Raga Sutta: Where There is Passion (SN 12.64) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]
Atthinukhopariyayo Sutta: Is There a Criterion? (SN 35.152) [Walshe]
Avarana Sutta: Obstacles (AN 5.51) [Thanissaro]
Avaranata Sutta: Obstructions (AN 6.86) [Thanissaro]
Avassuta Raga Sutta: Soggy (SN 35.202) [Thanissaro]
Avijja Sutta: Ignorance (SN 35.80) [Thanissaro]
Avijja Sutta: Ignorance (SN 45.1) [Thanissaro]
Avijjapaccaya Sutta: From Ignorance as a Requisite Condition (SN 12.35) [Thanissaro]
Avyakata Sutta: Undeclared (AN 7.51) [Thanissaro]
Ayacana Sutta: The Request (SN 6.1) [Thanissaro]
Ayoniso-manasikara Sutta: Inappropriate Attention (SN 9.11) [Thanissaro]


B [go up]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Bahiya Sutta: About Bahiya (Ud 1.10) [Ireland | Thanissaro]
Bahuna Sutta: To Bahuna (AN 10.81) [Thanissaro]
Bahuvedaniya Sutta: Many Things to be Experienced/The Many Kinds of Feeling (MN 59) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]
Bahuvedaniya Sutta: The Many Kinds of Feeling (SN 36.19) [Nyanaponika]
Bala Sutta: Fools (AN 2.98) [Thanissaro]
Bala-pandita Sutta: The Fool & the Wise Person (SN 12.19) [Thanissaro]
Bala-pandita Sutta: Fools & Wise People (AN 2.21) [Thanissaro]
Balisika Sutta: The Fisherman (SN 35.189) [Thanissaro]
Belatthasisa (Thag 1.16) [Hecker/Khema | Thanissaro]
Bhabba Sutta: Capable (AN 9.62) [Thanissaro]
Bhadda Kapilani (Thig 4.1) [Hecker/Khema]
Bhadda Kundalakesa, the Former Jain Ascetic (Thig 5.9) [Hecker/Khema]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Bhaddekaratta Sutta: An Auspicious Day (MN 131) [Ñanananda | Thanissaro]
Bhaddiya Kaligodha Sutta: About Bhaddiya Kaligodha (Ud 2.10) [Ireland | Thanissaro]
Bhaddiya Kaligodhayaputta (Thag 16.7) [Thanissaro]
Bhaddiya Sutta: About Bhaddiya the Dwarf (1) (Ud 7.1) [Thanissaro]
Bhaddiya Sutta: About Bhaddiya the Dwarf (2) (Ud 7.2) [Thanissaro]
Bhadravudha-manava-puccha: Bhadravudha’s Question (Sn 5.12) [Thanissaro]
Bhalliya (Thag 1.7) [Thanissaro]
Bhara Sutta: The Burden (SN 22.22) [Thanissaro | Walshe]
Bharadvaja Sutta: About Bharadvaja (SN 35.127) [Thanissaro | Walshe]
Bhaya Sutta: Danger (AN 3.62) [Thanissaro]
Bhaya-bherava Sutta: Fear & Terror (MN 4) [Thanissaro]
Bhikkhu Patimokkha: The Bhikkhus’ Code of Discipline [Thanissaro]
Bhikkhu Sutta: The Monk (On Identifying with the Aggregates) (SN 22.36) [Thanissaro]
Bhikkhu Sutta: To a Certain Bhikkhu (SN 36.23) [Thanissaro]
Bhikkhu-aparihaniya Sutta: Conditions for No Decline Among the Monks (AN 7.21) [Thanissaro]
Bhikkhuni Patimokkha: The Bhikkhunis’ Code of Discipline [Thanissaro]
Bhikkhuni Sutta: The Nun (AN 4.159) [Thanissaro]
Bhikkhunupassaya Sutta: Directed and Undirected meditation (SN 47.10) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Bhojana Sutta: A Meal (AN 5.37) [Thanissaro]
Bhumija Sutta: To Bhumija (MN 126) [Thanissaro]
Bhumija Sutta: To Bhumija (SN 12.25) [Thanissaro]
Bhuta Thera: No Greater Contentment (Thag 9) [Olendzki]
Bhutamidam Sutta: This Has Come Into Being (SN 12.31) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]
Bija Sutta: Means of Propagation (SN 22.54) [Thanissaro]
Bija Sutta: The Seed (AN 10.104) [Thanissaro]
Bodhi Sutta: Awakening (1) (Ud 1.1) [Ireland | Thanissaro]
Bodhi Sutta: Awakening (2) (Ud 1.2) [Ireland | Thanissaro]
Bodhi Sutta: Awakening (3) (Ud 1.3) [Ireland | Thanissaro]
Brahmadatta (Thag 6.12) [Thanissaro]
Brahmana Sutta: To Unnabha the Brahman (SN 51.15) [Thanissaro]
Brahma-nimantanika Sutta: The Brahma Invitation (MN 49) [Thanissaro]
Brahmavihara Sutta: The Sublime Attitudes (AN 10.208) [Thanissaro]
Buddha Sutta: Awakened (SN 22.58) [Thanissaro]


C [go up]

Cakka Sutta: Wheels (AN 4.31) [Thanissaro]
Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor (DN 26) [Thanissaro (excerpt)]
Cakkhu Sutta: The Eye (SN 25.1) [Thanissaro]
Cakkhu Sutta: The Eye (SN 27.1) [Thanissaro]
Cakkhupala (Thag 1.95) [Thanissaro]
Cala Sutta: Sister Cala (SN 5.6) [Bodhi | Thanissaro]
Canda the Beggar (Thig 5.12) [Thanissaro]
Candala Sutta: The Outcaste (AN 5.175) [Thanissaro]
Candima Sutta: The Moon Deity’s Prayer for Protection (SN 2.9) [Piyadassi]
Canki Sutta: With Canki (MN 95) [Thanissaro (excerpt)]
Capala Sutta: Nodding (AN 7.58) [Thanissaro]
Cetana Sutta: Intention (SN 12.38) [Thanissaro | Walshe]
Cetana Sutta: Intention (SN 25.7) [Thanissaro]
Cetana Sutta: Intention (SN 27.7) [Thanissaro]

SuttaReadings.net icon
Cetana Sutta: An Act of Will (AN 11.2) [Thanissaro]
Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sextets (MN 148) [Thanissaro]
Channa Sutta: To Channa (SN 22.90) [Thanissaro]
Channa Sutta: To Channa the Wanderer (AN 3.71) [Thanissaro]
Chappana Sutta: The Six Animals (SN 35.206) [Thanissaro | Walshe (excerpt)]
Chavalata Sutta: The Firebrand/Wood from a Pyre (AN 4.95) [Buddharakkhita | Thanissaro]
Chiggala Sutta: The Hole (SN 56.48) [Thanissaro]
Cittaka (Thag 1.22) [Thanissaro]
Cula-dhammasamadana Sutta: Shorter Discourse on Taking on Practices (MN 45) [Thanissaro]
Cula-dukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Lesser Mass of Stress (MN 14) [Thanissaro]
Cula-gopalaka Sutta: Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd (MN 34) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Cula-hatthipadopama Sutta: The Shorter Elephant Footprint Simile (MN 27) [Thanissaro]
Cula-kammavibhanga Sutta: Lesser Discourse on Kamma (MN 135) [Ñanamoli | Thanissaro]
Cula-Malunkyovada Sutta: The Shorter Instructions to Malunkya (MN 63) [Thanissaro]
Cula-punnama Sutta: The Shorter on the Full-moon Night (MN 110) [Thanissaro]
Cula-Rahulovada Sutta: The Shorter Exposition to Rahula (MN 147) [Thanissaro]
Cula-sihanada Sutta: Lesser Discourse on the Lion’s Roar (MN 11) [Ñanamoli]
Cula-suññata Sutta: Lesser Discourse on Emptiness (MN 121) [Thanissaro]
Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers (MN 44) [Thanissaro]
Cula-viyuha Sutta: The Lesser Array (Sn 4.12) [Thanissaro]
Culaka (Thag 2.46) [Olendzki]
Cunda Sutta: About Cunda (Sariputta’s Passing Away) (SN 47.13) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]
Cunda Sutta: Cunda (AN 6.46) [Thanissaro]
Cunda Sutta: Cunda (AN 10.24) [Thanissaro]
Cunda Sutta: To Cunda (Sn 1.5) [Thanissaro]


D [go up]

Dabba Sutta: About Dabba Mallaputta (1) (Ud 8.9) [Thanissaro]

Dabba Sutta: About Dabba Mallaputta (2) (Ud 8.10) [Thanissaro]
Dahara Sutta: Young (SN 3.1) [Thanissaro]
Dana Sutta: Giving (AN 7.49) [Thanissaro]
Danda Sutta: The Stick (SN 15.9) [Thanissaro]
Danda Sutta: The Stick (Ud 2.3) [Thanissaro]
Dantabhumi Sutta: The Discourse on the “Tamed Stage” (MN 125) [Horner]
Dantika and the Elephant (Thig 3.4) [Rhys Davids | Thanissaro]
Daruka-khandha Sutta: The Log (SN 35.200) [Thanissaro]
Daruka-khandha Sutta: The Wood Pile (AN 6.41) [Thanissaro]
Dasabalaa (2) Sutta: Ten Powers (SN 12.22) [Walshe]
Dasa Dhamma Sutta: Ten Things (AN 10.48) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Dasa Sikkhapada: The Ten Training Rules (Khp 2) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Dasama Sutta: To Dasama (AN 11.17) [Thanissaro]
Datthabba Sutta: To Be Known (SN 36.5) [Nyanaponika]
Desana Sutta: Teaching (SN 42.7) [Walshe]
Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha (MN 101) [Thanissaro]
Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha (SN 22.2) [Thanissaro]
Dhajagga Sutta: The Top of the Standard (SN 11.3) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Dhamma (Thig 1.17) [Thanissaro]

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Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion (SN 56.11) [Harvey | Ñanamoli | Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Dhammacariya Sutta: Wrong Conduct (Sn 2.6) [Ireland]
Dhammakathiko Sutta: The Teacher of the Dhamma (SN 12.16) [Walshe]
Dhamma-niyama Sutta: The Orderliness of the Dhamma (AN 3.134) [Thanissaro]
Dhammaññu Sutta: One With a Sense of Dhamma (AN 7.64) [Thanissaro]
Dhammapada [Buddharakkhita | Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro]
Dhammassavana Sutta: Listening to the Dhamma (AN 5.202) [Thanissaro]
Dhamma-viharin Sutta: One Who Dwells in the Dhamma (AN 5.73) [Thanissaro]
Dhammika (Thag 4.10) [Thanissaro]
Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika (AN 6.54) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika (Sn 2.14) [Ireland (excerpt)]
Dhana Sutta: Treasure (AN 7.6) [Thanissaro]
Dhanañjani Sutta: To Dhanañjani (MN 97) [Thanissaro]
Dhanañjani Sutta: Dhanañjani (SN 7.1) [Walshe]
Dhaniya Sutta: Dhaniya the Cattleman (Sn 1.2) [Thanissaro]
Dhanuggaha Sutta: The Archer (SN 20.6) [Thanissaro]
Dhatu Sutta: Properties (SN 25.9) [Thanissaro]
Dhatu Sutta: Properties (SN 27.9) [Thanissaro]
Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Properties (MN 140) [Thanissaro]
Dhotaka-manava-puccha: Dhotaka’s Questions (Sn 5.5) [Thanissaro]
Digha Nikaya: The Long Discourses [Various]
Dighajanu (Vyagghapajja) Sutta: To Dighajanu/Conditions of Welfare (AN 8.54) [Narada | Thanissaro]
Dighanakha Sutta: To LongNails (MN 74) [Thanissaro]
Dighavu-kumara Vatthu: The Story of Prince Dighavu (Mv 10.2.3-20) [Thanissaro]
Dipa Sutta: The Lamp (SN 54.8) [Thanissaro]
Ditthi Sutta: Views (AN 10.93) [Thanissaro]
Dona Sutta: With Dona (AN 4.36) [Thanissaro]
Donapaka Sutta: A Heavy Meal/King Pasenadi Goes on a Diet (SN 3.13) [Olendzki | Walshe]
Duggata Sutta: Fallen on Hard Times (SN 15.11) [Thanissaro]
Dukkaram Sutta: Difficult (SN 1.17) [Walshe]
Dukkha Sutta: Stress (SN 38.14) [Thanissaro]
Dukkhadhamma Sutta: Things Productive of Suffering (SN 35.203) [Walshe (excerpt)]
Dullabha Sutta: Hard to Find (AN 2.119) [Thanissaro]
Dutthatthaka Sutta: Corrupted (Sn 4.3) [Thanissaro]
Dvattimsakara: The 32 Parts (Khp 3) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Dvaya Sutta: A Pair (SN 35.93) [Thanissaro]
Dvayatanupassana Sutta: The Contemplation of Dualities (Sn 3.12) [Ireland (excerpt) | Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro]
Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Sorts of Thinking (MN 19) [Thanissaro]
Dvejana Sutta: Two People (1) (AN 3.51) [Thanissaro]
Dvejana Sutta: Two People (2) (AN 3.52) [Thanissaro]


EF [go up]

Ekadhamma Suttas: A Single Thing (AN 1.21-40) [Thanissaro]
Ekaputta Sutta: The Only Son (Ud 2.7) [Thanissaro]
Ekavihariya: Dwelling Alone (Thag 10.2) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro]
Ekuddaniya (Thag 1.68) [Thanissaro]
Eraka (Thag 1.93) [Thanissaro]


G [go up]

Gabbhini Sutta: The Pregnant Woman (Ud 2.6) [Thanissaro]
Gaddula Sutta: The Leash (1) (SN 22.99) [Thanissaro]
Gaddula Sutta: The Leash (2) (SN 22.100) [Thanissaro]
Gadrabha Sutta: The Donkey (AN 3.81) [Thanissaro]
Ganaka-Moggallana Sutta: The Discourse to Ganaka-Moggallana (MN 107) [Horner]
Ganda Sutta: A Boil (AN 9.15) [Thanissaro]
Gandhabhaka (Bhadraka) Sutta: To Gandhabhaka (Bhadraka) (SN 42.11) [Thanissaro]
Gandhatthena Sutta: The Thief of a Scent (SN 9.14) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro]
Ganika Sutta: The Courtesan (Ud 6.8) [Thanissaro]
Garava Sutta: Reverence (SN 6.2) [Thanissaro]
Gavesin Sutta: About Gavesin (AN 5.180) [Thanissaro]
Gavi Sutta: The Cow (AN 9.35) [Thanissaro]
Gelañña Sutta: The Sick Ward (1) (SN 36.7) [Nyanaponika | Thanissaro]
Gelañña Sutta: The Sick Ward (2) (SN 36.8) [Nyanaponika]
Ghatva Sutta: Having Killed (SN 1.71) [Thanissaro]
Ghosa Suttas: Voice (AN 2.125-126) [Thanissaro]
Gihi Sutta: The Householder (AN 5.179) [Thanissaro]
Gilana Sutta: Ill (1) (SN 35.74) [Thanissaro]
Gilana Sutta: Ill (2) (SN 35.75) [Thanissaro]
Gilana Sutta: Sick (Citta the Householder’s Last Hours) (SN 41.10) [Thanissaro | Walshe]
Gilana Sutta: Ill (SN 46.14) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Gilana Sutta: Ill (SN 46.16) [Piyadassi]
Gilana Sutta: Sick People (AN 3.22) [Thanissaro]
Gilana Sutta: To a Sick Man (AN 5.121) [Thanissaro]
Gilana Sutta: Illness (SN 52.10) [Thanissaro]
Girimananda Sutta: To Girimananda (AN 10.60) [Piyadassi | Thanissaro]
Godatta (Thag 14.2) [Thanissaro]
Godatta Sutta: To Godatta (On Awareness-release) (SN 41.7) [Thanissaro]
Gopaka Moggallana Sutta: Moggallana the Guardsman (MN 108) [Thanissaro]
Gopala Sutta: The Cowherd (Ud 4.3) [Thanissaro]
Gopalaka Sutta: The Cowherd (AN 11.18) [Thanissaro]
Gosala (Thag 1.23) [Thanissaro]
Gotama (Thag 3.14) [Thanissaro]
Gotamaka-cetiya Sutta: At Gotamaka Shrine (AN 3.123) [Thanissaro]
Gotami Sutta: Sister Gotami (SN 5.3) [Bodhi | Thanissaro]
Gotami Sutta: To Gotami (AN 8.53) [Thanissaro]
Guhatthaka Sutta: The Cave of the Body (Sn 4.2) [Thanissaro]
Guhatthaka-suttaniddeso: Upon the Tip of a Needle (Nm I.42) [Olendzki (excerpt)]
Gutta (Thig 6.7) [Thanissaro]


H [go up]

Haliddakani Sutta: To Haliddakani (SN 22.3) [Thanissaro]
Harita (Thag 1.29) [Thanissaro]
Harita (2) (Thag 3.15) [Thanissaro]
Hatthaka Sutta: To Hatthaka (on Sleeping Well in the Cold Forest) (AN 3.34) [Thanissaro]
Hatthaka Sutta: About Hatthaka (1) (AN 8.23) [Thanissaro]
Hatthaka Sutta: About Hatthaka (2) (AN 8.24) [Thanissaro]
Hemaka-manava-puccha: Hemaka’s Question (Sn 5.8) [Thanissaro]
Heraññakani (Thag 2.13) [Olendzki (excerpt) | Thanissaro]
Himavanta Sutta: The Himalayas (on the Factors for Awakening) (SN 46.1) [Thanissaro]
Hiri Sutta: Conscience (SN 1.18) [Thanissaro]
Hiri Sutta: Conscience (Sn 2.3) [Ireland | Thanissaro]
Hita Sutta: Benefit (AN 5.20) [Thanissaro]


I [go up]

Iccha Sutta: Desire (SN 1.69) [Thanissaro]
Iddhipada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Bases of Power (SN 51.20) [Thanissaro]
Ina Sutta: Debt (AN 6.45) [Thanissaro]
Indriya Sutta: Faculties (SN 35.153) [Thanissaro]
Indriya-bhavana Sutta: The Development of the Faculties (MN 152) [Thanissaro]
Indriya-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Mental Faculties (SN 48.10) [Thanissaro]