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154 LESSON 31 01 2011 Salayatana vibhanga Sutta An Analysis of the Six Sense media FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-POLITICS IS SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE-‘Do not bar poll contestants facing charges till conviction’-VOICE OF SARVAJAN-HONEYLEAKS-New York State Seizes Finances of Nassau County
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154 LESSON 31 01 2011 Salayatana vibhanga Sutta An Analysis of the Six Sense media FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

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Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 154

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.137.than.html

MN 137 

PTS: M iii 215

Salayatana-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Six Sense-media

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2003–2011

Translator’s Introduction

Despite the abstract format of this discourse, it deals with an emotional topic: the source of emotions, the use of the emotions in the course of the practice, and the ideal emotional state of a person who has completed the path and is fit to teach others. In particular, this discourse counters a common misperception: that the distress that comes from having an unachieved goal is an obstacle in the practice, and that the antidote for that distress is to renounce any sense of goals. In actuality, that distress — termed “renunciation distress” — has an important role in the practice: to overcome the distress that comes with a sense of loss over sensual pleasures that have not been attained, or those that have been attained in the past but now no longer exist. Renunciation distress serves as a reminder that the loss of sensual pleasures is not a serious matter. As for renunciation distress, it is overcome, not by abandoning any sense of goal, but by following the path and realizing the joy that comes when the goal is reached.

This discourse counters another misperception as well: that equanimity is the goal of the practice. In actuality, renunciation equanimity serves a function as part of the path of practice — as a tool for letting go of renunciation joy — and then it, too, is transcended by the state called “non-fashioning” (atammayata), in which there is no act of intention, not even the intention underlying equanimity, at all.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. There he addressed the monks, “Monks!”

“Yes, lord,” the monks replied.

The Blessed One said: “Monks, I will teach you the analysis of the six sense media. Listen, and pay close attention. I will speak.”

“Yes, lord,” the monks replied.

The Blessed One said: “The six internal sense-media should be known. The six external sense-media should be known. The six classes of consciousness should be known. The six classes of contact should be known. The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known. The thirty-six states to which beings are attached [1] should be known. With regard to them, depending on this, abandon that. There are three frames of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group. Among master trainers, he is said to be the unexcelled trainer of those people fit to be tamed. This is the summary of the analysis of the six sense-media.

‘The six internal sense-media should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? The eye-medium, the ear-medium, the nose-medium, the tongue-medium, the body-medium, the intellect-medium. ‘The six internal sense-media should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

‘The six external sense-media should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? The form-medium, the sound-medium, the aroma-medium, the flavor-medium, the tactile-sensation-medium, the idea-medium. ‘The six external sense-media should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to thus was it said.

‘The six classes of consciousness should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, intellect-consciousness. ‘The six classes of consciousness should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to thus was it said.

‘The six classes of contact should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, intellect-contact. ‘The six classes of contact should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

‘The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Seeing a form via the eye, one explores a form that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity. Hearing a sound via the ear … Smelling an aroma via the nose … Tasting a flavor via the tongue … Feeling a tactile sensation via the body … Cognizing an idea via the intellect, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for equanimity. The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

‘The thirty-six states to which beings are attached should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Six kinds of household joy & six kinds of renunciation joy; six kinds of household distress & six kinds of renunciation distress; six kinds of household equanimity & six kinds of renunciation equanimity.

And what are the six kinds of household joy? The joy that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of forms cognizable by the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous acquisition of such forms after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household joy. (Similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, & ideas.)

And what are the six kinds of renunciation joy? The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. (Similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, & ideas.)

And what are the six kinds of household distress? The distress that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition of forms cognizable by the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous non-acquisition of such forms after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household distress. (Similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, & ideas.)

And what are the six kinds of renunciation distress? The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. (Similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, & ideas.)

And what are the six kinds of household equanimity? The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action [2] & who is blind to danger [3] — sees a form with the eye. Such equanimity does not go beyond the form, which is why it is called household equanimity. (Similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, & ideas.)

And what are the six kinds of renunciation equanimity? The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond form, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. (Similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, & ideas.)

“‘The thirty-six states to which beings are attached should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“‘With regard to them, depending on this, abandon that’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said?

“Here, by depending & relying on the six kinds of renunciation joy, abandon & transcend the six kinds of household joy. Such is their abandoning, such is their transcending. By depending & relying on the six kinds of renunciation distress, abandon & transcend the six kinds of household distress. Such is their abandoning, such is their transcending. By depending & relying on the six kinds of renunciation equanimity, abandon & transcend the six kinds of household equanimity. Such is their abandoning, such their transcending.

“By depending & relying on the six kinds of renunciation joy, abandon & transcend the six kinds of renunciation distress. Such is their abandoning, such is their transcending. By depending & relying on the six kinds of renunciation equanimity, abandon & transcend the six kinds of renunciation joy. Such is their abandoning, such their transcending.

“There is equanimity coming from multiplicity, dependent on multiplicity; and there is equanimity coming from singleness, dependent on singleness.

“And what is equanimity coming from multiplicity, dependent on multiplicity? There is equanimity with regard to forms, equanimity with regard to sounds…smells…tastes…tactile sensations [& ideas: this word appears in one of the recensions]. This is equanimity coming from multiplicity, dependent on multiplicity.

“And what is equanimity coming from singleness, dependent on singleness? There is equanimity dependent on the dimension of the infinitude of space, equanimity dependent on the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… dependent on the dimension of nothingness… dependent on the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. This is equanimity coming from singleness, dependent on singleness.

“By depending & relying on equanimity coming from singleness, dependent on singleness, abandon & transcend equanimity coming from multiplicity, dependent on multiplicity. Such is its abandoning, such its transcending.

“By depending & relying on non-fashioning, [4] abandon & transcend the equanimity coming from singleness, dependent on singleness. Such is its abandoning, such its transcending.

“‘Depending on this, abandon that’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

‘There are three frames of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said?

“There is the case where the Teacher — out of sympathy, seeking their well-being — teaches the Dhamma to his disciples: ‘This is for your well-being, this is for your happiness.’ His disciples do not listen or lend ear or apply their minds to gnosis. Turning aside, they stray from the Teacher’s message. In this case the Tathagata is not satisfied nor is he sensitive to satisfaction, yet he remains untroubled, mindful, & alert. This is the first frame of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group.

“Furthermore, there is the case where the Teacher — out of sympathy, seeking their well-being — teaches the Dhamma to his disciples: ‘This is for your well-being, this is for your happiness.’ Some of his disciples do not listen or lend ear or apply their minds to gnosis. Turning aside, they stray from the Teacher’s message. But some of his disciples listen, lend ear, & apply their minds to gnosis. They do not turn aside or stray from the Teacher’s message. In this case the Tathagata is not satisfied nor is he sensitive to satisfaction; at the same time he is not dissatisfied nor is he sensitive to dissatisfaction. Free from both satisfaction & dissatisfaction, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert. This is the second frame of reference…

“Furthermore, there is the case where the Teacher — out of sympathy, seeking their well-being — teaches the Dhamma to his disciples: ‘This is for your well-being, this is for your happiness.’ His disciples listen, lend ear, & apply their minds to gnosis. They do not turn aside or stray from the Teacher’s message. In this case the Tathagata is satisfied and is sensitive to satisfaction, yet he remains untroubled, mindful, & alert. This is the third frame of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group.

“‘There are three frames of reference that a noble one cultivates, cultivating which he is a teacher fit to instruct a group’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“‘Among master trainers, he is said to be the unexcelled trainer of those people fit to be tamed’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said?

“Steered by the elephant trainer, the elephant to be tamed runs in only one direction: east, west, north, or south. Steered by the horse trainer, the horse to be tamed runs in only one direction: east, west, north, or south. Steered by the ox trainer, the ox to be tamed runs in only one direction: east, west, north, or south.

“But steered by the Tathagata — worthy and rightly self-awakened — the person to be tamed fans out in eight directions.

“Possessed of form, he/she sees forms. This is the first direction.

“Not percipient of form internally, he/she sees forms externally. This is the second direction.

“He/she is intent only on the beautiful. This is the third direction.

“With the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions of diversity, [perceiving,] ‘Infinite space,’ he/she enters and remains in the dimension of the infinitude of space. This is the fourth direction.

“With the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, [perceiving,] ‘Infinite consciousness,’ he/she enters and remains in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. This is the fifth direction.

“With the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, [perceiving,] ‘There is nothing,’ he/she enters and remains in the dimension of nothingness. This is the sixth direction.

“With the complete transcending of the dimension of nothingness, he/she enters and remains in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. This is the seventh direction.

“With the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, he/she enters and remains in the cessation of perception and feeling. This is the eighth direction.

“Steered by the Tathagata — worthy and rightly self-awakened — the person to be tamed fans out in eight directions.

“‘Among master trainers, he (the Tathagata) is said to be the unexcelled trainer of those people fit to be tamed’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.

Satta-pada. The question in translating this compound is whether satta means “living being” or “attached to.” In this translation, I have opted for both.

2.

A person who “has not conquered his limitations or the results of action”: this passage seems related to the passage in AN 3.99, which defines a person of limited mind, prey to the results of past bad actions, as one who is “undeveloped in contemplating the body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in concentration, and undeveloped in discernment; restricted, small-hearted, dwelling with suffering.” AsAN 3.99 points out, such a person suffers more intensely from the results of past unskillful actions than does one whose awareness is unrestricted. SN 42.8recommends the practice of the four sublime attitudes as a way of developing an unrestricted awareness that weakens the results of past unskillful actions.

3.

A person who is “blind to danger” is one who does not see the drawbacks of sensual pleasure or attachment to the body. For such a person, moments of equanimity are usually a dull spot in the midst of the quest for sensual pleasure. This is why such moments do not go beyond the sensory stimulus that generated them.

4.

Atammayata. Literally, “not-made-of-that-ness.” See the introductions to sectionsII/B and III/G in The Wings to Awakening.

AN 3.61

AN 3.67

 AN 4.42

SN 35.145

 SN 36.21

 SN 42.8

 SN 42.11

 AN 3.99

http://wn.com/The_Life_of_Buddha

http://www.sillyhumor.com/

http://vodpod.com/watch/1548910-funny-animated-pictures-ii

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

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Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

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Andanatomy

POLITICS IS SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE

‘Do not bar poll contestants facing charges till conviction’

State funding will help clean up electoral system: Mayawati

Mayawati

Mayawati

Differing with the Election Commission’s suggestion that even charge-sheeted candidates be debarred from contesting elections and state funding of elections be avoided, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati said on Sunday that candidates implicated in false cases should not be barred till they were convicted by court.

Speaking at the inaugural session of the regional consultation on electoral reforms here, she suggested that the entire poll expenses be borne by the government of India. State funding, she argued, would help to cure the evils plaguing the electoral system, including criminalisation of politics. She also called for a law to end criminalisation of politics, but wanted safeguards to prevent its misuse.

She wanted a complete ban on exit and opinion polls, which she said were an “impediment to the conduct of free and fair elections.” “The forecast of opinion polls are mostly wrong, but more importantly, the pre-poll surveys tend to affect the election process.”

Ms. Mayawati made her suggestions shortly after Union Law and Justice Minister M. Veerappa Moily and Chief Election Commissioner S.Y. Quraishi said that if electoral reforms made headway in Uttar Pradesh, one-sixth of India, the rest of the country would follow.

As for defections, Ms. Mayawati said experience had shown that the anti-defection law lacked teeth. Defections flourished under the garb of “merger,” which she termed a cruel joke on voters. Those charged under the anti-defection law should be disqualified from contesting elections for five years. Given that her Bahujan Samaj Party was at the receiving end after its MLAs switched sides in 1997 and 2003, she said the Speaker usually pronounced an unsatisfactory ruling.

“If an MP or MLA shifts political loyalty, he should be asked to resign and seek re-election on the symbol of the party he intended to join. But if the defection is for political gains, his membership of either House should be terminated by the Election Commission and a re-poll ordered. It is criminal to defect,” she said.

Ms. Mayawati said reforms would be incomplete if the Dalits, the poor and the downtrodden were unable to exercise their franchise without fear.

Mr. Moily said the reforms would address the needs of the common man so that his voice could be heard. From 156 million voters in the first general election to 750 million voters in the last election, India stood the test of time. However, he was unhappy that that compared with illiterate voters, literate voters, numbering 25 crore, did not tend to vote. Elections, he said, were an act of faith in the Republic and the Constitution.

Mr. Moily said the ongoing regional consultations, which would be followed by a national consultation in Delhi on April 2 and 3, would help evolve consensus on areas of concern.

Mr. Quraishi said persons with a criminal background contesting the elections had become a common phenomenon, and a legal answer was no solution as it “took 25 to 30 years for a person’s conviction.” A candidate charge-sheeted by a court should be debarred from contesting. He lauded Ms. Mayawati for having announced that her party ticket would not be given to candidates with criminal antecedents.

Describing the state funding of elections as a “dangerous suggestion,” Mr. Qurasihi said this would be impossible to implement as money power could not be controlled. The ceiling on poll expenditure needed to be rationalised. Dubbing ‘paid news’ a serious problem, he said opinion and exit polls could be manipulated with the use of money. “Since opinion polls can be manipulated, they should be banned.”

The transfer of officials should be finalised six months before election dates, and if they were to be transferred after that, the Commission should be consulted by the government. Victimisation of officers by the next government should also be brought to the Commission’s notice.

VOICE OF SARVAJAN

HONEYLEAKS

New York Today

New York State Seizes Finances of Nassau County

UNIONDALE, N.Y. — A state oversight board on Wednesday seized control of Nassau County’s finances, saying the county, one of the nation’s wealthiest and most heavily taxed, had nonetheless failed to balance its $2.7 billion budget.

Related

·        
Moody’s Credit Ratings of States to Factor in Unfunded Pensions (January 27, 2011)

Many hard-hit local governments have flirted with insolvency because of revenue shortfalls caused by the recession, but the financial problems of Nassau, on Long Island, owed more to a failure by county officials to face up to tough economic reality responsibly and quickly enough, according to the state board.

“The county’s 2011 budget is built on a foundation of sand,” a board member, George J. Marlin, said.

The move, which came after months of steadily more ominous threats and a downgrade of Nassau’s debt by a credit-rating agency in November, turns the oversight board into a control board, with vast power to rewrite the county’s budget and veto labor contracts, borrowings and other important financial commitments.

As a first step, the control board ordered the county government to rewrite its budget by Feb. 15 omitting cost-savings items that the board has called specious or too risky.

Nassau’s tax receipts are the envy of many worse-off municipalities: its malls and busy retail districts, a short drive from New York City, help generate about $1 billion in sales taxes a year, and its aging bedroom communities add about $800 million in county property taxes.

But the county has resisted cuts in services, and its current leaders have been just as adamant about not raising taxes.

Nassau now finds itself joining much less affluent places in New York State, like the cities of Newburgh, Troy and Yonkers, that have had control periods imposed on them in recent years.

The only other county in New York that has been taken over in modern times is Erie, the state’s 24th-wealthiest county, where the median household income is about half that in Nassau, which is the richest county in the state.

“Some places manage their way into fiscal problems, and other places are beset by social forces, many of them outside of their own control,” said Steven J. Hancox, a deputy state comptroller who oversees local government. “Nassau has had a history where the populace has enjoyed a variety of services, and those cost money.

“It doesn’t really matter where you are; when the money dries up you have tough choices to make.”

While voting 6 to 0 to take over the county’s finances, the control board, the Nassau Interim Finance Authority, stopped short, for now, of declaring a financial emergency, which would also allow it to impose a wage freeze on county workers. But it said that remained a likelihood if Nassau’s leaders did not comply with its demands to cooperate in bringing the county’s spending into line with revenues by Feb. 15.

“The taxpayers elected a team,” the authority’s chairman, Ronald A. Stack, said. “Hopefully the team will be able to perform.”

Yet the takeover was a stinging rebuke to Nassau’s county executive, Edward P. Mangano, a Republican who took office a year ago after upsetting a popular incumbent in 2009. Mr. Mangano had repeatedly said the budget was balanced, and then insisted there were ample contingencies to cover any shortfalls. But the authority said that many of his assertions were unfounded or unsupportable.

Should the county choose to work closely with the authority, it could seek to reopen talks with labor unions, emboldened and newly empowered by that alliance. But the response from the county on Wednesday was adversarial in tone.

“Who elected them?” asked the county attorney, John Ciampoli, referring to the authority.

Mr. Mangano, speaking to reporters after the board’s decision, said he was considering a lawsuit to block the takeover, accused the authority of wanting to raise property taxes and urged taxpayers to question its “motivation.” He has accused the board members of having partisan Democratic sympathies.

GLOBAL FINANCE is a fascinating, interdisciplinary interpretation of the volatile worlds of global finance and international trade.

Discussing the sheer scope, power, and social and economic effects of global finance. Capital markets are now valued at an estimated $83 trillion. They exist within a system based purely on self-interest, in which herd behaviour, often based on rumours, can inflate or destroy the value of companies - or whole economies - in a matter of hours.

Speaking stirringly of the nature of perception, illusion, and awakenment. , “Release your attachment to something that is not there in reality, but is a perception,” it is easily referred to 401(k) investments.

 “Release your attachment to something that is not there in reality, but is a perception,” it is easily referred to 401(k) investments.

There is no self, only a stream of continuous perceptions.We talk about global capital in similar terms. “It’s not that there are $83 trillion. It is essentially a continuous set of movements. It disappears and it reappears.”

Players in the global financial networks have seemingly had little use for this philosophy. It is demonstrated  that, seen through a such a lens, the exuberance of global financial wealth is illusory, divorced from the objective reality: the very real human suffering created by deals made on trading floors and in boardrooms invisible to most of us.

Although they approach the questions from different perspectives, their interpretations overlap quite a bit: the value of material wealth, and one’s experience of reality, is subjective. And, crucially, desire plays a decisive role in both daily life and neoliberal economics.

As the awakening discussion unfolds an important question is raised: can this profit at-all-costs mentality lead to a compassionate, humane economy, in which wealth is distributed more fairly? And how can an understanding of the fleeting and illusory nature of finance and consciousness help us develop alternative approaches?

“Recommended! A unique attempt to bring two complex world views together. We must have the very noble and necessary intent to use media to awaken those both inside and outside the global financial industry to the fundamental nature of their uneasiness and offer a path to a better life.”

အပၸမာေဒါ အမတံပဒံ၊ ပမာေဒါ မစၥဳေနာ ပဒံ။ အပၸမတၱာ န မီယႏၲိ၊ ေယ ပမတၱာ ယထာ မတာ။ဝိမုတၱိရသ ဓမၼရိပ္ျမံဳသို ့သာသနာ့ဝန္ထမ္း ရဟန္းေတာ္မ်ား။

 

 

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01/30/11
153 LESSON 30 01 2011 Devadaha Sutta At Devadaha FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-POLITICS IS SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE-VOICE OF SARVAJAN-HONEYLEAKS-Food Freedom Betrayal!
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153 LESSON 30 01 2011 Devadaha Sutta At Devadaha FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

 through

 http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 153

Please watch:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uVaypK6mAr0&feature=player_embedded#

for

Exact birthplace of Lord Buddha (Lumbini Mayadevi Temple)

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.101.than.html

MN 101 

PTS: M ii 214

Devadaha Sutta: At Devadaha

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2005–2011

Translator’s Introduction

In this sutta, the Buddha refutes the theories of the Jains — here called the Niganthas — an order of contemplatives flourishing in India during his time. Although on the surface this sutta may seem to be of strictly historical interest, it makes two important points that are very relevant to some common misunderstandings about Buddhism alive today.

The first point concerns the Buddhist teaching on action, or kamma (karma). The general understanding of this teaching is that actions from the past determine present pleasure and pain, while present actions determine future pleasure and pain. Or, to quote a recent book devoted to the topic, “Karma is the moral principle that governs human conduct. It declares that our present experience is conditioned by our past conduct and that our present conduct will condition our future experience.” This, however, does not accurately describe the Buddha’s teaching on karma, and is instead a fairly accurate account of the Nigantha teaching, which the Buddha explicitly refutes here. As he interrogates the Niganthas, he makes the point that if all pleasure and pain experienced in the present were determined by past action, why is it that they now feel the pain of harsh treatment when they practice asceticism, and no pain of harsh treatment when they don’t? If past action were the sole determining factor, then present action should have no effect on their present experience of pleasure or pain.

In this way, the Buddha points to one of the most distinctive features of his own teaching on kamma: that the present experience of pleasure and pain is a combined result of both past and present actions. This seemingly small addition to the notion of kamma plays an enormous role in allowing for the exercise of free will and the possibility of putting an end to suffering before the effects of all past actions have ripened. In other words, this addition is what makes Buddhist practice possible, and makes it possible for a person who has completed the practice to survive and teach it with full authority to others. For more on these points, see the articles, “Karma,” “A Refuge in Skillful Action,” and “Five Piles of Bricks“; see also the Introduction to The Wings to Awakening, along with the introductions to the sections on Skillfulness and Kamma & the Ending of Kamma in that book.

The second important point touched on in this sutta — how to put an end to pain and suffering — relates to the first. If the cause of present suffering were located exclusively in the past, no one could do anything in the present moment to stop that suffering; the most that could be done would be to endure the suffering while not creating any new kamma leading to future suffering. Although this was the Jain approach to practice, many people at present believe that it is the Buddhist approach as well. Meditation, according to this understanding, is the process of purifying the mind of old kamma by training it to look on with non-reactive equanimity as pain arises. The pain is the result of old kamma, the equanimity adds no new kamma, and thus over time all old kamma can be burned away.

In this sutta, however, the Buddha heaps ridicule on this idea. First he notes that none of the Niganthas have ever come to the end of pain by trying to burn it away in this way; then he notes that they have based their belief in this practice entirely on their faith in their teacher and their approval of his ideas, but neither faith nor approval can act as guarantees of the truth. As he illustrates with his simile of the man shot with an arrow, only a person who has succeeded in going beyond pain would be in a position to speak with authority of the method that actually puts an end to pain. (What is not mentioned in this sutta is the Nigantha idea that the practice of austerities, to succeed completely in burning away old kamma, must culminate in a suicide by starvation. Thus there could be no living person who would be able to vouch for the efficacy of their method.)

The Buddha then provides his own account of how meditation actually works in putting an end to pain and suffering. His discussion shows that the problem underlying pain is not past action, but passion — in the present — for the causes of pain. In other words, pain is not inevitable. Present suffering can be prevented by changing one’s understanding of, and attitude toward, the cause of suffering in the present. The Buddha illustrates this principle with the simile of a man in love with a woman: As long as he feels passion for her, he will suffer when he sees her enjoying the company of another man; when, seeing the connection between his suffering and his passion, he abandons that passion, he will no longer suffer from that cause.

Thus the practice must focus on ways to understand and bring about dispassion for the causes of stress and pain here and now. As the Buddha points out in MN 106, equanimity plays an important role in this practice, but it can also become an object for passion and delight, which would then stand in the way of true release. Thus he notes here that, in some cases, dispassion can arise simply from on-looking equanimity directed at the causes of stress. In other cases, it can come only through exertion: the mental effort — through the fabrications of directed thought, evaluation, and perception — to develop the discernment needed to see through and abandon any and all passion.

The remainder of the sutta is devoted to a standard map of how the practice develops over time, showing how the proper mixture of on-looking equanimity combined with fabrication and exertion can lead to dispassion, and through dispassion to release from all stress and suffering.

Queen Māyā's white elephant dream, and the conception of the Buddha. Gandhara, second-third century C.E.Queen Māyā’s white elephant dream, and the conception of the Buddha.Gandhara, second-third century C.E.

Queen Maya retreating to Lumbini to gave birth to Prince Siddharta Gautama, eighth century Borobudur, Indonesia.Queen Maya retreating toLumbini to gave birth to Prince Siddharta Gautama, eighth centuryBorobudur, Indonesia

The birth of Siddhārtha, Gandhara, second-third century C.E..The birth of Siddhārtha, Gandhara, second-third centuryC.E.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Sakyans. Now the Sakyans have a city named Devadaha, and there the Blessed One addressed the monks: “Monks!”

“Yes, lord,” the monks responded.

The Blessed One said, “Monks, there are some priests & contemplatives who teach in this way, who have this view: ‘Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.’ Such is the teaching of the Niganthas.

“Going to Niganthas who teach in this way, I have asked them, ‘Is it true, friend Niganthas, that you teach in this way, that you have this view: “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted”?’

“Having been asked this by me, the Niganthas admitted it, ‘Yes.’

“So I said to them, ‘But friends, do you know that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘And do you know that you did evil actions in the past, and that you did not not do them?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘And do you know that you did such-and-such evil actions in the past?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘And do you know that so-and-so much stress has been exhausted, or that so-and-so much stress remains to be exhausted, or that with the exhaustion of so-and-so much stress all stress will be exhausted?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘But do you know what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘So, friends, it seems that you don’t know that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist… you don’t know what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now. That being the case, it is not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“‘If, however, you knew that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist; if you knew that you did evil actions in the past, and that you did not not do them; if you knew that you did such-and-such evil actions in the past; you don’t know that so-and-so much stress has been exhausted, or that so-and-so much stress remains to be exhausted, or that with the exhaustion of so-and-so much stress all stress will be exhausted; if you knew what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now, then — that being the case — it would be proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“‘Friend Niganthas, it’s as if a man were shot with an arrow thickly smeared with poison. As a result of being shot with the arrow, he would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. His friends & companions, kinsmen & relatives would provide him with a surgeon. The surgeon would cut around the opening of the wound with a knife. As a result of the surgeon’s cutting around the opening of the wound with a knife, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. The surgeon would probe for the arrow with a probe. As a result of the surgeon’s probing for the arrow with a probe, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. The surgeon would then pull out the arrow. As a result of the surgeon’s pulling out the arrow, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. The surgeon would then apply a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound. As a result of the surgeon’s applying a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound, the man would feel fierce, sharp, racking pains. But then at a later time, when the wound had healed and was covered with skin, he would be well & happy, free, master of himself, able to go wherever he liked. The thought would occur to him, “Before, I was shot with an arrow thickly smeared with poison. As a result of being shot with the arrow, I felt fierce, sharp, racking pains. My friends & companions, kinsmen & relatives provided me with a surgeon… The surgeon cut around the opening of the wound with a knife… probed for the arrow with a probe… pulled out the arrow… applied a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound. As a result of his applying a burning medicine to the mouth of the wound, I felt fierce, sharp, racking pains. But now that the wound is healed and covered with skin, I am well & happy, free, master of myself, able to go wherever I like.”

“‘In the same way, friend Niganthas, if you knew that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist… if you knew what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now, then — that being the case — it would be proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.” But because you do not know that you existed in the past… you do not know what is the abandoning of unskillful mental qualities and the attainment of skillful mental qualities in the here-&-now, then — that being the case — it is not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“When this was said, the Niganthas said to me, ‘Friend, the Nigantha Nataputta[1] is all-knowing, all-seeing, and claims total knowledge & vision thus: “Whether I am walking or standing, sleeping or awake, knowledge & vision are continuously & continually established in me.” He has told us, “Niganthas, there are evil actions that you have done in the past. Exhaust them with these painful austerities. When in the present you are restrained in body, restrained in speech, and restrained in mind, that is the non-doing of evil action for the future. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.” We approve of that [teaching], prefer it, and are gratified by it.’

“When this was said, I said to the Niganthas, ‘Friend Niganthas, there are five things that can turn out in two ways in the here-&-now. Which five? Conviction, liking, unbroken tradition, reasoning by analogy, & an agreement through pondering views. These are the five things that can turn out in two ways in the here-&-now. That being the case, what kind of conviction do you have for your teacher with regard to the past? What kind of liking? What kind of unbroken tradition? What kind of reasoning by analogy? What kind of agreement through pondering views?’ But when I said this, I did not see that the Niganthas had any legitimate defense of their teaching.

“So I asked them further, ‘Friend Niganthas, what do you think: When there is fierce striving, fierce exertion, do you feel fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment? And when there is no fierce striving, no fierce exertion, do you feel no fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment?’

“‘Yes, friend…’

“‘… Then it’s not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”

“‘If it were the case that when there was fierce striving, fierce exertion, you felt fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment; and when there was no fierce striving, no fierce exertion, you still felt fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment, then — that being the case — it would be proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.” But because when there is fierce striving, fierce exertion, you feel fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment; and when there was no fierce striving, no fierce exertion, you feel no fierce, sharp, racking pains from harsh treatment, then — that being the case — it is not proper for you to assert that, “Whatever a person experiences — pleasure, pain, or neither pleasure nor pain — all is caused by what was done in the past. Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future. With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action. With the ending of action, the ending of stress. With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling. With the ending of feeling, all suffering & stress will be exhausted.”‘ But when I said this, I did not see that the Niganthas had any legitimate defense of their teaching.

“So I asked them further, ‘Friend Niganthas, what do you think: Can an action to be experienced in the here-&-now be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the future life?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action to be experienced in the future life be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the here-&-now?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action to be experienced as pleasure be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced as pain?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action to be experienced as pain be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced as pleasure?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action ripe to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not ripe to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action not ripe to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action ripe to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action greatly to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action barely to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action barely to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action greatly to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“What do you think: Can an action to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘Can an action not to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced?’

“‘No, friend.’

“‘So, friends, it seems that an action to be experienced in the here-&-now cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the future life. An action to be experienced in the future life cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the here-&-now… An action to be experienced cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not to be experienced. An action not to be experienced cannot be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced. That being the case, the striving of the Niganthas is fruitless, their exertion is fruitless.’

“Such is the teaching of the Niganthas. And, such being the teaching of the Niganthas, ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for censuring them.

(1) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, then obviously the Niganthas have done bad things in the past, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(2) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god, then obviously the Niganthas have been created by an evil supreme god, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(3) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, then obviously the Niganthas have evil luck, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(4) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, then obviously the Niganthas have had an evil birth, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(5) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, then obviously the Niganthas have evil efforts in the here-&-now, which is why they now feel such fierce, sharp, racking pains.

(6) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(7) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(8) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(9) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

(10) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, the Niganthas deserve censure. Even if not, they still deserve censure.

“Such is the teaching of the Niganthas, monks. And, such being the teaching of the Niganthas, these ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for censuring them. This is how striving is fruitless, how exertion is fruitless.

“And how is striving fruitful, how is exertion fruitful? There is the case where a monk, when not loaded down, does not load himself down with pain, nor does he reject pleasure that accords with the Dhamma, although he is not fixated on that pleasure. He discerns that ‘When I exert a [physical, verbal, or mental] fabrication against this cause of stress, then from the fabrication of exertion there is dispassion. When I look on with equanimity at that cause of stress, then from the development of equanimity there is dispassion.’ So he exerts a fabrication against the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion, and develops equanimity with regard to the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity. Thus the stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion is exhausted & the stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity is exhausted.

“Suppose that a man is in love with a woman, his mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion. He sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing. What do you think, monks: As he sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in him?”

“Yes, lord. Why is that? Because he is in love with her, his mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion…”

“Now suppose the thought were to occur to him, ‘I am in love with this woman, my mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion. When I see her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, then sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise within me. Why don’t I abandon my desire & passion for that woman?’ So he abandons his desire & passion for that woman, and afterwards sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing. What do you think, monks: As he sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in him?”

“No, lord. Why is that? He is dispassionate toward that woman…”

“In the same way, the monk, when not loaded down, does not load himself down with pain, nor does he reject pleasure that accords with the Dhamma, although he is not infatuated with that pleasure. He discerns that ‘When I exert a [physical, verbal, or mental] fabrication against this cause of stress, then from the fabrication of exertion there is dispassion. When I look on with equanimity at that cause of stress, then from the development of equanimity there is dispassion.’ So he exerts a fabrication against the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion, and develops equanimity with regard to the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity. Thus the stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion is exhausted & the stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity is exhausted.

“Furthermore, the monk notices this: ‘When I live according to my pleasure, unskillful mental qualities increase in me & skillful qualities decline. When I exert myself with stress & pain, though, unskillful qualities decline in me & skillful qualities increase. Why don’t I exert myself with stress & pain?’ So he exerts himself with stress & pain, and while he is exerting himself with stress & pain, unskillful qualities decline in him, & skillful qualities increase. Then at a later time he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was exerting himself with stress & pain. That is why, at a later time, he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain.

“Suppose a fletcher were to heat & warm an arrow shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable. Then at a later time he would no longer heat & warm the shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was heating & warming the shaft. That is why at a later time he would no longer heat & warm the shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable.

“In the same way, the monk notices this: ‘When I live according to my pleasure, unskillful mental qualities increase in me & skillful qualities decline. When I exert myself with stress & pain, though, unskillful qualities decline in me & skillful qualities increase. Why don’t I exert myself with stress & pain?’ So he exerts himself with stress & pain, and while he is exerting himself with stress & pain, unskillful qualities decline in him, & skillful qualities increase. Then at a later time he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was exerting himself with stress & pain. That is why, at a later time, he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain.

“This is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Furthermore, there is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

“A householder or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life is confining, a dusty path. Life gone forth is the open air. It isn’t easy, living at home, to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure, a polished shell. What if I, having shaved off my hair & beard and putting on the ochre robe, were to go forth from the household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.

Virtue

“When he has thus gone forth, endowed with the monks’ training & livelihood, then — abandoning the taking of life — he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings.

“Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager’s way.

“Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.

“Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord.

“Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large.

“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal.

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.

“He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching shows.

“He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and cosmetics.

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He abstains from accepting gold and money.

“He abstains from accepting uncooked grain… raw meat… women and girls… male and female slaves… goats and sheep… fowl and pigs… elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares… fields and property.

“He abstains from running messages… from buying and selling… from dealing with false scales, false metals, and false measures… from bribery, deception, and fraud.

“He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

“He is content with a set of robes to provide for his body and alms food to provide for his hunger. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden; so too is he content with a set of robes to provide for his body and alms food to provide for his hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his barest necessities along.

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless.

Sense Restraint

“On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a sound with the ear… On smelling an odor with the nose… On tasting a flavor with the tongue… On touching a tactile sensation with the body… On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the sense faculties, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless.

Mindfulness & Alertness

“When going forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking toward and looking away… when bending and extending his limbs… when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl… when eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting… when urinating and defecating… when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and remaining silent, he acts with alertness.

Abandoning the Hindrances

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness & alertness, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a wilderness, the shade of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a forest grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning from his alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.

“Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth and drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth and drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness and anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of uncertainty.

The Four Jhanas

“Having abandoned these five hindrances — imperfections of awareness that weaken discernment — then, quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Then, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, one-pointedness of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation — internal assurance. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Then, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Then, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

The Three Knowledges

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives.[2] He recollects his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion, [recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.’ Thus he recollects his manifold past lives in their modes and details. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: ‘These beings — who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views — with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings — who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views — with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.’ Thus — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of stress… These are mental fermentations… This is the origination of fermentations… This is the cessation of fermentations… This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.’ This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“Such is the teaching of the Tathagata. And, such being the teaching of the Tathagata, ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for praising him.

(1) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, then obviously the Tathagata has done good things in the past, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(2) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god, then obviously the Tathagata has been created by an excellent supreme god, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(3) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, then obviously the Tathagata has admirable luck, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(4) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, then obviously the Tathagata has had an admirable birth, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(5) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, then obviously the Tathagata has admirable efforts in the here-&-now, which is why he now feels such pleasure free from fermentation.

(6) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(7) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(8) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(9) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

(10) “If beings experience pleasure & pain based efforts in the here-&-now, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

“Such is the teaching of the Tathagata. And, such being the teaching of the Tathagata, these ten legitimate deductions can be drawn that give grounds for praising him.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.

Nigantha Nataputta: The leader of the Niganthas.

2.

Lit: previous homes.

Please watch:

http://wn.com/lumbini



LASER SHOW LUMBI­NI PARK HY­DER­ABAD INDIA.​flv
3:24

TVH Lumbi­ni Model house
2:09

Exact birth­place of Lord Bud­dha (Lumbi­ni Mayade­vi Tem­ple)
7:14

11-feet long lizard at Lumbi­ni Park in Thai­land
1:28

Lumbi­ni Gar­den : Ban­ga­lore’s Eco-friend­ly Boat­ing Park
3:05

Troops re­pair Lumbi­ni Vi­hare in Kilinochchi
4:17

Lumbi­ni gar­den Wave Pool, ban­ga­lore
1:15

Lumbi­ni, Birth­place of Lord Bud­dha - Part 1
8:16

lumbi­ni visit
10:57


 

lumbini

 

Lumbini 4.jpg

State Party  Nepal
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, vi

Region** Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1997  (21st Session)

Bodhi tree and pond at Lumbini

Exact birthplace of Gautama Buddha

Ashokan Pillar

Lumbini Garden

Eternal Peace Flame

Burmese Lokamani Cula Pagoda

Chinese Maitreya Temple

A mixture of Tibetan prayer flags and Korean lanterns near the Sacred Pool (Puskarni)

 

 

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And

Andanatomy

POLITICS IS SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE

VOICE OF SARVAJAN

HONEYLEAKS

Sat, 29 January, 2011 1:56:38 PM

[IHRO] Food Freedom Betrayal



From:

Arun1951

Add to Contacts



To:

indiagroup



 

Friends,

Some of the world’s top banksters and international organisations are directly complicit in engineering global food crisis, poisoning of our foods and water, introducing Genetically Engineered foods [that will also destroy the viability of Alternative Medical System worldwide, being based largely on plant material]

Some of these are: CGIAR, FORD FOUNDATION [the same organisation that started the infamous Green Revolution in India], the front organisations of the Rockefeller and Rothschild banksters.

 

Even the Organic Consumers’ Associations are funded by the same group of crooks.

 

Be warned.

 

Kind regards

Arun Shrivastava

 

 

Food Freedom Betrayal!

Organic Consumers Association Funded by Big Pharma!

http://farmwars.info/?p=5032

By Barbara H. Peterson

Farm Wars

Our food supply is in jeopardy. Not only from outside forces such as poisons from China, but from within. The very people that we look to for guidance seem to be working together to lead us straight into global food governance in the form of Codex Alimentarius. This is especially alarming when you consider that the very organizations such as the USDA and FDA, that are charged with the safeguarding and regulation of our food supply are at the forefront of the battle, leading us straight into worldwide genocide using food as a weapon.

But the USDA and FDA do not stand alone. There are others who consider food to be “fair game” in this war against the people, and they just happen to control some very large purse strings. So, who holds the purse strings behind the push to obliterate any food safeguards we may have? Let’s just pick two – Rockefeller and Merck, then take a closer look at a few of the “trusted” organizations that they fund. 

The Purse Strings

Rockefeller

Let’s take a look at just a part of what the Rockefeller crime family is involved in concerning our food supply.

Today, the Rockefellers use coercive population control tactics and food as a weapon through a front organization, CGIAR (Consultative Group on Agricultural Resources) as the Rockefellers are trying to distance themselves from public- just like the Rothschild clan has done. Engdahl reports that CGIAR operates under the umbrella of the UN World Bank, and its primary focus is the spread of GMO crops. CGIAR was created by the Rockefellers and the Ford Foundation, along with the UN World Bank in 1971 with $350 million dollars a year in funding. (MorphCity)

Financed by generous Rockefeller and Ford Foundation study grants, CGIAR saw to it that leading Third World agriculture scientists and agronomists were brought to the US to master the concepts of modern agribusiness production, in order to carry it back to their homeland. In the process they created an invaluable network of influence for US agribusiness promotion in those countries, most especially promotion of the GMO Gene Revolution in developing countries, all in the name of science and efficient, free market agriculture.(InformationLiberation)

The Rockefeller Foundation spent more than $100 million for the advance of the GMO revolution. (Engdahl – Seeds of Destruction)

Part of the Rockefeller dynasty includes a group known as Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors:

Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that advises donors in their philanthropic endeavors throughout the world. The foundation is headquartered in New York City and adheres to John D. Rockefeller Sr.’s practice of managing philanthropy “as if it were a business.”[1] Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors currently advises on and manages more than $200 million in annual giving in more than 60 countries.[2] (Wikipedia)

Philanthropy can be used by business to advance a corporate image that is acceptable to certain groups of people in order to put up a benevolent facade while all the time conducting business as usual, which may or may not be so benevolent.

 

comments (0)
01/29/11
152 LESSON 29 01 2011 Pañhapuccha Sutta On Asking Questions FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-GOOD GOVERNANCE-CM calls on Governor-Hon’ble Chief Minister ji honours 16 talented sportspersons with Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji International Sports Awards-Sportspersons presented mementos, citation letters and a total award amount of Rs. 1.97 crore-Prepare calendar for regular organisation of sports events for students belonging to rural areas from next educational session-Republic Day celebrated with fervour-Governor took salute at Vidhan Bhawan on Republic Day-Programmes highlighted feeling of Unity and Integrity
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:34 am




 

152 LESSON 29 01 2011 Pañhapuccha Sutta On Asking Questions FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

 through

 http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas



Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 152

insight knowledges

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an05/an05.165.than.html

AN 5.165 

PTS: A iii 191

Pañhapuccha Sutta: On Asking Questions

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2004–2011

Then Ven. Sariputta addressed the monks: “Friend monks.”

“Yes, friend,” the monks responded to him.

Ven. Sariputta said: “All those who ask questions of another do so from any one of five motivations. Which five?

“One asks a question of another through stupidity & bewilderment. One asks a question of another through evil desires & overwhelmed with greed. One asks a question of another through contempt. One asks a question of another when desiring knowledge. Or one asks a question with this thought,[1] ‘If, when asked, he answers correctly, well & good. If not, then I will answer correctly [for him].’

“All those who ask questions of another do so from any one of these five motivations. And as for me, when I ask a question of another, it’s with this thought: ‘If, when asked, he answers correctly, well & good. If not, then I will answer correctly [for him].’

Note

1.

Reading panevam-citto with the Thai edition. The PTS reading — pakuppanto citto, “with a provoked heart” — does not fit the context at all.

 

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And

Andanatomy

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

CM calls on Governor

Lucknow : 28 January 2011

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms.

Mayawati ji visited Raj Bhawan to meet the Governor

Mr. B.L. Joshi this evening. It was a courtesy call.

******A

Hon’ble Chief Minister ji honours 16 talented sportspersons with Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji International Sports Awards

Sportspersons presented mementos, citation letters and a total award amount of Rs. 1.97 crore

Prepare calendar for regular organisation of sports events for students belonging to rural areas from next educational session

— Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji

Lucknow : 28 January 2011

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji here today

honoured 16 sportspersons, who had brought laurels to State and Country

by winning medals in Commonwealth Games and Asian Games, with

Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji International Sports Awards-2010 at a function

held at her official Kalidas Marg residence. The sportspersons were given

away mementos, citation letters and a total award amount of Rs. 1.97 crore

by the Hon’ble Chief Minister ji.

The sportspersons honoured by the Hon’ble Chief Minister ji with

Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji International Sports Awards-2010, included

Km. Anuraj Singh, Mr. Ashish Kumar, Mr. Tushar Khandkar, Mr. Danish

Mujtabah and Mr. Sunil Kumar. All of them won medals at Commonwealth

Games as well as Asian Games. Besides, Smt. Sudha Singh, Mr. Jasmer

Singh, Mr. Rajesh Kumar, Mr. Lokesh Kumar and Mr. Rahul Bajaj won

medals in Asian Games, while Km. Alka Tomar, Ms. N.G. Sonia Chanu, Mr.

Narsingh Yadav, Mr. Imran Hassan Khan, Mr. Ritul Chatterjee and Mr. Anuj

Chaudhary won medals in Commonwealth Games.

Congratulating the medal winning sportspersons, the Hon’ble Chief

Minister ji said that they had brought laurels to the State by winning more

medals if compared to any other single state. She expressed the hope that

they would continue their performance in future as well and bring more

laurels to the State and they would also be a source of inspiration for others.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that the State Government honoured

sportspersons, who brought laurels to the State through their performances,

by giving them away Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji International Sports

Awards. She said that this award had been instituted to encourage the

sportspersons and sports activities in the State. She said that the excellent

display of talent of the sportspersons of the State indicated that there was

no dearth of talent in U.P. nor the sportspersons were weary of hard work.

She said that there was need to hone the skills of the raw talent. She said

that the State Government was making special efforts to encourage the

talent present in rural areas, because without that we cannot excel in

national-international sports events.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that various sports events should be

regularly organised in the rural areas to achieve this purpose. She said that

sports like Kabaddi, wrestling, Kho-Kho, swimming, volley-ball, football,

hockey and athletics should be included as these sports did not require

expensive resources.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister directed the officers of sports department to

co-ordinate with the officers of education and youth welfare departments to

prepare a calendar for organising sports competitions for students of rural

areas in regular manner and implement this calendar from next academic

session. She also directed the officers of sports department to ensure the

participation of children belonging to rural areas and organise sports

competitions at district, division and state level. She said that her

government is committed to provide ultra-modern facilities and resources to

sports persons.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister said that state government is paying full

attention to strengthen basic infrastructure of sports and develop sports

culture in the state. Keeping this in view, she had laid the foundation stone

of two new sports colleges on the occasion of her birthday on 15th January

this year, which would be equipped with all modern sports facilities and

resources. An amount of more than Rs. 86.63 crore is estimated on the

proposed sports college in Saharanpur and more than Rs. 81.14 crore on the

construction of sports college proposed in Fatehpur. Besides, sports

department had also dedicated 9 projects worth more than Rs. 6.23 crore to

the people, she added.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister said that the government had sanctioned

the construction of stadium in all newly created districts. The construction of

swimming pool is in progress in 10 districts, besides making the swimming

pool of K.D. Sing Babu Stadium ‘all weather’. Two International sports

complex and astro-turf field for Hockey in two districts are also under

construction.

After honouring sports persons with awards, the Hon’ble Chief Minister

listened to the problems of the players and their sports needs. She directed

the officers to solve the problems of sports persons, so that they could make

preparations for future sports competitions.

It may be recalled that each player who won gold medal in solo

competition in Commonwealth and Asian Games got Rs. 15 lakh, silver

medal Rs. 10 lakh and bronze medal Rs. 08 lakh. Similarly, each player of

the state in team competition in these International Games got Rs. 10 lakh,

Rs. 08 lakh and Rs. 06 lakh as prize money on gold, silver and bronze

medals respectively.

On this occasion, Chief Secretary Mr. Atul Kumar Gupta welcomed the

guests. Additional Cabinet Secretary Mr. Raveendra Singh conducted the

programme and expressed his gratitude towards the guests.

*********

Republic Day celebrated with fervour

Governor took salute at Vidhan Bhawan on Republic Day

Programmes highlighted feeling of Unity and Integrity

Lucknow : 26 January 2011

The Republic Day was celebrated with fervour in the state

capital Lucknow here yesterday. The main function was organised in

front of Vidhan Bhavan, where the Governor Mr. B.L. Joshi took

salute of the parade. Earlier, the Hon’ble Chief Minister Ms.

Mayawati ji welcomed the Governor and greeted him on the

occasion of Republic Day.

The grand parade, organised at the Republic Day function, was

led by Col. Samar Singh Pundeer in which various units of para

military forces, civil police, home guards, NCC jawans and students

of various schools participated. The T-72 M tank, VMP-1 and VMP-2,

105 MM light field gun, PMS bridge, AM-50 bridge with modern

facilities and missile mounted vehicle (ATGM Milan) of Indian Army

were also displayed on the occasion.

The contingents of 3/11 Gorkha Rifles, 16 Sikh Light Infantry,

Central Reserve Police Force, ITBP, SSB, PAC 32nd Battalion, UP

Police and Home Guards presented attractive march past at the

parade. The NCC cadets and students of Sainik school, Lucknow

Public school, Rajajipuram and City Montessori School Rajajipuram

and RDSO branches also presented excellent march past which

indicated that they had prepared hard for the Republic Day

celebrations.

The bands of Sikh Regimental Centre, Dogra Regimental

Centre, Garhwal Regimental Centre, 39 GTC, Rajput Regiment, 19

Garhwal Rifles, First Jack, ASC Centre North, CRPF, SSB, PAC 35th

Battalion, Home Guard, Sainik School and CMS (Kanpur Road)

played the tunes of songs symbolising National Unity and

patriotism.

The students of different schools presented attractive cultural

programmes as well on the occasion. The girl students of LPS Anand

Nagar Branch presented Maa Tujhe Pranam song, small children of

City Montessori School Chowk Branch presented Shramev Jayte, the

students of City Montessori School Mahanagar first branch

presented Mharo Pyaro Desh based on the chivalrous deeds of the

martyrs of the country and the students of the CMS Mahanagar

third branch presented Maa Tujhe Salaam. All of these

presentations were highly appreciated by the spectators.

The tableaux taken out by various government departments

and schools, on one hand presented a glimpse of various welfare

schemes being carried out by the state government for the

development of weaker sections of Sarv Samaj, while on the other

it also depicted the efforts of the state government being made for

the development of U.P. The various memorials, museums built in

Lucknow in the honour of saints, gurus and great men, who made

historic contribution to usher in social change, were depicted as new

tourism centres of the state. Besides, energy conservation and

linking of villages of the state with pucca roads were also shown in

the tableaux.

The tableau of the State Information and Public Relations

Department titled “Buddham Sharnam Gachchhami” attractively

presented the life of Lord Buddha and the places related with him.

It may be recalled that Gautam Buddha delivered his first sermon

after getting enlightenment at Sarnath and his Mahaparinirvana

took place at Kushi Nagar. Because of it, these places of the state

were famous all over the world. Depicting the state government’s

efforts to immortalise the memory of Lord Buddha, one tableau

showed him receiving water from the hands of a dalit woman. Thus,

the message of this tableau was not to discriminate between the

human beings.

Besides, tableaux with various themes were also presented by

LDA, Forest Department, U.P. Power Corporation, Aminabad Inter

College, CMS, Social Welfare Department, Horticulture and Food

Processing Department and Rajya Soochana Shiksha Sanchar

Bureau (Family Welfare).

The tableaux of Rajkiya Nirman Nigam, PWD, UP NEDA, LPS

and Colleges and Tourism Department also attracted people’s

attention. The squad of mounted police, dog squad and fire services

also participated in the programme.

The Members of the State Council of Ministers, MPs,

legislators, freedom fighters, senior officers of army, senior officers

of government and administration and a large number of prominent

citizens were present on the occasion.

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01/28/11
151 LESSON 28 01 2011 Sakka pañha Sutta Sakkas Questions FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss
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ABOVE: The west side of the Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya, Bihar, India. The Bodhi tree is on the east side and not visible in this photograph.

ABOVE: The north side of the Bodhi tree on the eastern side of the Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya, Bihar, India.  

ABOVE: The railing on the east side of the Bodhi tree at the Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya, Bihar, India. The Bodhi tree is behind this railing.  

 

 

 

151 LESSON 28 01 2011 Sakka pañha Sutta Sakkas Questions  FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

 through

 http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas



Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 151

Sakka © Christine Fitzmaurcie

DN 21 

PTS: D ii 276 

chapter 2

Sakka-pañha Sutta: Sakka’s Questions

(excerpt)

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1999–2011

Having been given leave by the Blessed One, Sakka the deva-king asked him his first question: “Fettered with what, dear sir — though they think, ‘May we live free from hostility, free from violence, free from rivalry, free from ill will, free from those who are hostile’ — do devas, human beings, asuras, nagas, gandhabbas, & whatever other many kinds of beings there are, nevertheless live in hostility, violence, rivalry, ill will, with those who are hostile?”

Thus Sakka asked his first question of the Blessed One, and the Blessed One, when asked, replied: “Devas, human beings, asuras, nagas, gandhabbas, & whatever other many kinds of beings there are, are fettered with envy & stinginess, which is why — even though they think, ‘May we live free from hostility, free from violence, free from rivalry, free from ill will, free from those who are hostile’ — they nevertheless live in hostility, violence, rivalry, ill will, with those who are hostile.”

Thus the Blessed One answered, having been asked by Sakka the deva-king. Gratified, Sakka was delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words: “So it is, O Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. Hearing the Blessed One’s answer to my question, my doubt is now cut off, my perplexity is overcome.”

Then Sakka, having delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words, asked him a further question: “But what, dear sir, is the cause of envy & stinginess, what is their origination, what gives them birth, what is their source? When what exists do they come into being? When what doesn’t exist do they not?”

“Envy & stinginess have dear-&-not-dear as their cause, have dear-&-not-dear as their origination, have dear-&-not-dear as what gives them birth, have dear-&-not-dear as their source. When dear-&-not-dear exist, they come into being. When dear-&-not-dear are not, they don’t.”

“But what, dear sir, is the cause of dear-&-not-dear, what is their origination, what gives them birth, what is their source? When what exists do they come into being? When what doesn’t exist do they not?”

“Dear-&-not-dear have desire as their cause, have desire as their origination, have desire as what gives them birth, have desire as their source. When desire exists, they come into being. When desire is not, they don’t.”

“But what, dear sir, is the cause of desire, what is its origination, what gives it birth, what is its source? When what exists does it come into being? When what doesn’t exist does it not?”

“Desire has thinking as its cause, has thinking as its origination, has thinking as what gives it birth, has thinking as its source. When thinking exists, desire comes into being. When thinking is not, it doesn’t.”

“But what, dear sir, is the cause of thinking, what is its origination, what gives it birth, what is its source? When what exists does it come into being? When what doesn’t exist does it not?”

Thinking has the perceptions & categories of objectification[1] as its cause, has the perceptions & categories of objectification as its origination, has the perceptions & categories of objectification as what gives it birth, has the perceptions & categories of objectification as its source. When the perceptions & categories of objectification exist, thinking comes into being. When the perceptions & categories of objectification are not, it doesn’t.”

“And how has he practiced, dear sir: the monk who has practiced the practice leading to the right cessation of the perceptions & categories of objectification?”

Joy is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.[2] Grief is of two sorts: to be pursued & not to be pursued. Equanimity is of two sorts: to be pursued & not to be pursued.

“‘Joy is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? When one knows of a feeling of joy, ‘As I pursue this joy, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline,’ that sort of joy is not to be pursued. When one knows of a feeling of joy, ‘As I pursue this joy, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase,’ that sort of joy is to be pursued. And this sort of joy may be accompanied by directed thought & evaluation or free of directed thought & evaluation. Of the two, the latter is the more refined. ‘Joy is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“‘Grief is of two sorts, I tell you: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? When one knows of a feeling of grief, ‘As I pursue this grief, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline,’ that sort of grief is not to be pursued. When one knows of a feeling of grief, ‘As I pursue this grief, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase,’ that sort of grief is to be pursued. And this sort of grief may be accompanied by directed thought & evaluation or free of directed thought & evaluation. Of the two, the latter is the more refined. ‘Grief is of two sorts, I tell you: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“‘Equanimity is of two sorts, I tell you: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? When one knows of a feeling of equanimity, ‘As I pursue this equanimity, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline,’ that sort of equanimity is not to be pursued. When one knows of a feeling of equanimity, ‘As I pursue this equanimity, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase,’ that sort of equanimity is to be pursued. And this sort of equanimity may be accompanied by directed thought & evaluation or free of directed thought & evaluation. Of the two, the latter is the more refined. ‘Equanimity is of two sorts, I tell you: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“This is how he has practiced, deva-king: the monk who has practiced the practice leading to the right cessation of the perceptions & categories of objectification.”

Thus the Blessed One answered, having been asked by Sakka the deva-king. Gratified, Sakka was delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words: “So it is, O Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. Hearing the Blessed One’s answer to my question, my doubt is now cut off, my perplexity is overcome.”

Then Sakka, having delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words, asked him a further question: “But how has he practiced, dear sir: the monk who has practiced for restraint in the Patimokkha?”

Bodily conduct is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued. Verbal conduct is of two sorts: to be pursued & not to be pursued. Searching is of two sorts: to be pursued & not to be pursued.

“‘Bodily conduct is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? When one knows of bodily conduct, ‘As I pursue this bodily conduct, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline,’ that sort of bodily conduct is not to be pursued. When one knows of bodily conduct, ‘As I pursue this bodily conduct, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase,’ that sort of bodily conduct is to be pursued. ‘Bodily conduct is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“‘Verbal conduct is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? When one knows of verbal conduct, ‘As I pursue this verbal conduct, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline,’ that sort of verbal conduct is not to be pursued. When one knows of verbal conduct, ‘As I pursue this verbal conduct, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase,’ that sort of verbal conduct is to be pursued. ‘Verbal conduct is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“‘Searching is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? When one knows of a search, ‘As I pursue this search, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline,’ that sort of search is not to be pursued. When one knows of a search, ‘As I pursue this search, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase,’ that sort of search is to be pursued. ‘Searching is of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued.’ Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

“This is how he has practiced, deva-king: the monk who has practiced the practice for restraint in the Patimokkha.”

Thus the Blessed One answered, having been asked by Sakka the deva-king. Gratified, Sakka was delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words: “So it is, O Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. Hearing the Blessed One’s answer to my question, my doubt is now cut off, my perplexity is overcome.”

Then Sakka, having delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words, asked him a further question: “But how has he practiced, dear sir: the monk who has practiced for restraint with regard to the sense faculties?”

Forms cognizable by the eye are of two sorts, I tell you, deva-king: to be pursued & not to be pursued. Sounds cognizable by the ear… Aromas cognizable by the nose… Flavors cognizable by the tongue… Tactile sensations cognizable by the body… Ideas cognizable by the intellect are of two sorts: to be pursued & not to be pursued.”

When this was said, Sakka the deva-king said to the Blessed One, “Dear sir, I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s brief statement. If, as one pursues a certain type of form cognizable by the eye, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline, that sort of form cognizable by the eye is not to be pursued. But if, as one pursues a certain type of form cognizable by the eye, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase, that sort of form cognizable by the eye is to be pursued.

“If, as one pursues a certain type of sound cognizable by the ear…

“If, as one pursues a certain type of aroma cognizable by the nose…

“If, as one pursues a certain type of flavor cognizable by the tongue…

“If, as one pursues a certain type of tactile sensation cognizable by the body…

“If, as one pursues a certain type of idea cognizable by the intellect, unskillful mental qualities increase, and skillful mental qualities decline, that sort of idea cognizable by the intellect is not to be pursued. But if, as one pursues a certain type of idea cognizable by the intellect, unskillful mental qualities decline, and skillful mental qualities increase, that sort of idea cognizable by the intellect is to be pursued.

“This is how I understand the detailed meaning of the Blessed One’s brief statement. Hearing the Blessed One’s answer to my question, my doubt is now cut off, my perplexity is overcome.”

Then Sakka, having delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words, asked him a further question: “Dear sir, do all priests & contemplatives teach the same doctrine, adhere to the same precepts, desire the same thing, aim at the same goal?”

“No, deva-king, not all priests & contemplatives teach the same doctrine, adhere to the same precepts, desire the same thing, aim at the same goal.”

“Why, dear sir, don’t all priests & contemplatives teach the same doctrine, adhere to the same precepts, desire the same thing, aim at the same goal?”

“The world is made up of many properties, various properties. Because of the many & various properties in the world, then whichever property living beings get fixated on, they become entrenched & latch onto it, saying, ‘Only this is true; anything else is worthless.’ This is why not all priests & contemplatives teach the same doctrine, adhere to the same precepts, desire the same thing, aim at the same goal.”

“But, dear sir, are all priests & contemplatives utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, followers of the utterly holy life, utterly consummate?”

“No, deva-king, not all priests & contemplatives are utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, followers of the utterly holy life, utterly consummate.”

“But why, dear sir, are not all priests & contemplatives utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, followers of the utterly holy life, utterly consummate?”

“Those monks who are released through the total ending of craving are the ones who are utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, followers of the utterly holy life, utterly consummate. This is why not all priests & contemplatives are utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, followers of the utterly holy life, utterly consummate.”

Thus the Blessed One answered, having been asked by Sakka the deva-king. Gratified, Sakka was delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words: “So it is, O Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. Hearing the Blessed One’s answer to my question, my doubt is now cut off, my perplexity is overcome.”

Then Sakka, having delighted in & expressed his approval of the Blessed One’s words, said to him: “Yearning is a disease, yearning is a boil, yearning is an arrow. It seduces one, drawing one into this or that state of being, which is why one is reborn in high states & low. Whereas other outside priests & contemplatives gave me no chance to ask them these questions, the Blessed One has answered at length, so that he has removed the arrow of my uncertainty & perplexity.”

“Deva-king, do you recall having asked other priests & contemplatives these questions?”

“Yes, lord, I recall having asked other priests & contemplatives these questions.”

“If it’s no inconvenience, could you tell me how they answered?”

“It’s no inconvenience when sitting with the Blessed One or one who is like him.”

“Then tell me, deva-king.”

“Having gone to those whom I considered to be priests & contemplatives living in isolated dwellings in the wilderness, I asked them these questions. But when asked by me, they were at a loss. Being at a loss, they asked me in return, ‘What is your name?’

“Being asked, I responded, ‘I, dear sir, am Sakka, the deva-king.’

“So they questioned me further, ‘But what kamma did you do to attain to this state?’

“So I taught them the Dhamma as far as I had heard & mastered it. And they were gratified with just this much: ‘We have seen Sakka, the deva-king, and he has answered our questions!’ So, instead of my becoming their disciple, they simply became mine. But I, lord, am the Blessed One’s disciple, a stream-winner, steadfast, never again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening.”

“Deva-king, do you recall ever having previously experienced such happiness & joy?”

“Yes, lord, I do.”

“And how do you recall ever having previously experienced such happiness & joy?”

“Once, lord, the devas & asuras were arrayed in battle. And in that battle the devas won, while the asuras lost. Having won the battle, as the victor in the battle, this thought occurred to me: ‘Whatever has been the divine nourishment of the asuras, whatever has been the divine nourishment of the devas, the devas will now enjoy both of them.’ But my attainment of happiness & joy was in the sphere of violence & weapons. It didn’t lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge to self-awakening, to Unbinding. But my attainment of happiness & joy on hearing the Blessed One’s Dhamma is in the sphere of no violence, the sphere of no weapons. It leads to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge to self-awakening, to Unbinding.”

Then Sakka, the deva-king, touched the earth with his hand and said three times, “Homage to the Worthy One, the Blessed One, the Rightly Self-awakened One! Homage to the Worthy One, the Blessed One, the Rightly Self-awakened One! Homage to the Worthy One, the Blessed One, the Rightly Self-awakened One!”

While this explanation was being given, there arose to Sakka the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye — “Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation” — as it also did to [his following of] 80,000 other devas.

Such were the questions that the Blessed One answered at Sakka’s bidding. And so this discourse is called “Sakka’s Questions.”

Note

1.

Objectification = papañca. The tendency of the mind to proliferate issues from the sense of “self.” This term can also be translated as self-reflexive thinking, reification, falsification, distortion, elaboration, or exaggeration. In the discourses, it is frequently used in analyses of the psychology of conflict. The categories of objectification stem from the self-reflexive thought, “I am the thinker,” (see Sn 4.14), and include the categories of inappropriate attention (see MN 2): being/not-being, me/not-me, mine/not-mine, doer/done-to. The perceptions of objectification include such thoughts as “This is me. This is mine. This is my self.” These perceptions and categories turn back on the person who allows them to proliferate, giving rise to internal conflict & strife, which then expand outward. For more on these terms, see MN 18.

2.

For further discussion of the skillful and unskillful pursuit of these feelings, see MN 101 and MN 137.

AN 3.72;

Sn 4.8.

 AN 4.42

AN 5.165

 Sn 4.8

MN 101 

MN 137.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.21.2x.than.html

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And

Anatomy

Dhamma Experience

http://kalyaano.blogspot.com/2009/12/india-kolkata-bodhgaya-gaya-rajgir.html

ABOVE: Display of Lord Buddha’s relics in the Minor Antiquities Annex at the India Museum, Kolkata. The relics are visible and contained in a small pottery container. The surrounding structure appears to be a scale model of an ancient stupa that may have existed at the time of Asoka.

ABOVE: Stone box at the India Museum, Kolkata that once contained Lord Buddha’s relics 

 ABOVE: The inadequate official label on the stone box at the India Museum, Kolkata that once contained Lord Buddha’s relics 

ABOVE: Deep Guest House, Bodh Gaya, Bihar State, India, December 2009 

ABOVE: The path leading up to Dungeshwara Cave. You can see the some of the beggars waiting for pilgrims and the temple at the site of the cave (white colour building in the centre of the photo).


ABOVE: The veranda outside the Dungeshwara Cave. I was told the cave itself is the rectangular opening on the left in between the two groups of Thai chanter pilgrims. 

ABOVE: The Indasala Cave, 7km east of Rajgir (Raajagaha). The cave is the dark spot in the centre of the photo. The other dark spot on the left centre is a crack in the rock and not a cave.

ABOVE: Looking out from the entrance to Indasala Cave.

ABOVE: A view looking south west from Indasala Cave. 

ABOVE: A view looking south east from Indasala Cave. The car and a small neglected Hindu temple is behind the clump of trees in the lower centre of the photo. 

 ABOVE: A view looking south at Venavana, Rajgir, Bihar, India.

ABOVE: A view looking east at Sattapana Cave, Rajgir, Bihar, India.

ABOVE: The entrance to one of the caves at the Sattapana Cave site, Rajgir, Bihar, India. Note 

ABOVE: The supposed site of King Bimbisaara’s Goal, Rajgir, Bihar, India. 

ABOVE: The chair lift going up to the Japanese Stupa and Gijjhakuta, Rajgir, Bihar, India. 

ABOVE: One of the caves alleged to be the Boar’s Grotto, Gijjhakuta, Rajgir, Bihar, India

ABOVE: One of the plat forms at Gijjhakuta, Rajgir, Bihar, India. This location has the remains of several kutis used by ascetics in the past 2500 years. This location in the photo had the most ribbons, gold film, scarves, candles and incense etc. That doesn’t necessarily mean it was the precise location of Lord Buddha’s kuti. The local men were there to sell water, incense and other paraphernalia. 

comments (0)
01/27/11
150 LESSON 27 01 2011 Kathavatthu Sutta Topics for Discussion FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-VOICE OF SARVAJAN-HONEYLEAKS-Happy Constitution Day!-
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:03 am




Pali Canon

  Vinaya Pitaka    

                                       
Sutta-


vibhanga Khandhaka Pari-


vara
               

    Sutta Pitaka    

                                                      
Digha


Nikaya Majjhima


Nikaya Samyutta


Nikaya
                     

    

                                                                     
Anguttara


Nikaya Khuddaka


Nikaya
                           

    Abhidhamma Pitaka    

                                                           
Dhs. Vbh. Dhk.


Pug. Kvu. Yamaka Patthana
                       

     

Sacred Buddhist Sites

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The grounds of the original palace in Lumbini, Nepal, where Buddha’s family lived.

The World Peace Pagoda built by the Japanese near Vulture’s Peak, Rajgir in Bihar, where Buddha delivered his second sermon.

The Mahabodhi temple at Budhgaya in Bihar is popular with pilgrims.

The reclining Buddha at Kushinagar.

The Matha Kuar Shrine at Kushinagar where Buddha is believed to have breathed his last.

The Mahaparinirvana stupa at Kushinagar.

 

The pavilion sheltering the Goddess of Mercy which was lit up at night.

An Icon of Faith

Malaysia’s largest temple complex opens to public

 


Read more:
 http://www.answers.com/topic/kathavatthu#ixzz1CF8jzUb8

150 LESSON 27 01 2011 Kathavatthu Sutta Topics for Discussion FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

 through

 http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 150

Kathavatthu

Kathavatthu

Kathavatthu

Kathavatthu

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.067.than.html

AN 3.67 

PTS: A i 197

Kathavatthu Sutta: Topics for Discussion

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2005–2011

“Monks, there are these three topics for discussion. Which three?

“One may talk about the past, saying, ‘Thus it was in the past.’ One may talk about the future, saying, ‘Thus it will be in the future.’ Or one may talk about now in the present, saying, ‘Thus it is now in the present.’

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a person, when asked a question, doesn’t give a categorical answer to a question deserving a categorical answer, doesn’t give an analytical (qualified) answer to a question deserving an analytical answer, doesn’t give a counter-question to a question deserving a counter-question, doesn’t put aside a question deserving to be put aside, then — that being the case — he is a person unfit to talk with. But if a person, when asked a question, gives a categorical answer to a question deserving a categorical answer, gives an analytical answer to a question deserving an analytical answer, gives a counter-question to a question deserving a counter-question, and puts aside a question deserving to be put aside, then — that being the case — he is a person fit to talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a person, when asked a question, doesn’t stand by what is possible and impossible, doesn’t stand by agreed-upon assumptions, doesn’t stand by teachings known to be true,[1] doesn’t stand by standard procedure, then — that being the case — he is a person unfit to talk with. But if a person, when asked a question, stands by what is possible and impossible, stands by agreed-upon assumptions, stands by teachings known to be true, stands by standard procedure, then — that being the case — he is a person fit to talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a person, when asked a question, wanders from one thing to another, pulls the discussion off the topic, shows anger & aversion and sulks, then — that being the case — he is a person unfit to talk with. But if a person, when asked a question, doesn’t wander from one thing to another, doesn’t pull the discussion off the topic, doesn’t show anger or aversion or sulk, then — that being the case — he is a person fit to talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a person can be known as fit to talk with or unfit to talk with. If a person, when asked a question, puts down [the questioner], crushes him, ridicules him, grasps at his little mistakes, then — that being the case — he is a person unfit to talk with. But if a person, when asked a question, doesn’t put down [the questioner], doesn’t crush him, doesn’t ridicule him, doesn’t grasp at his little mistakes, then — that being the case — he is a person fit to talk with.

“Monks, it’s through his way of participating in a discussion that a person can be known as drawing near or not drawing near. One who lends ear draws near; one who doesn’t lend ear doesn’t draw near. Drawing near, one clearly knows one quality, comprehends one quality, abandons one quality, and realizes one quality.[2] Clearly knowing one quality, comprehending one quality, abandoning one quality, and realizing one quality, one touches right release. For that’s the purpose of discussion, that’s the purpose of counsel, that’s the purpose of drawing near, that’s the purpose of lending ear: i.e., the liberation of the mind through no clinging.

Those who discuss

when angered, dogmatic, arrogant,

following what’s not the noble ones’ way,

seeking to expose each other’s faults,

delight in each other’s             misspoken word,

slip, stumble, defeat.

Noble ones

don’t speak in that way.

If wise people, knowing the right time,

want to speak,

then, words connected with justice,

following the ways of the noble ones:

That’s what the enlightened ones speak,

without anger or arrogance,

with a mind not boiling over,

without vehemence, without spite.

Without envy

they speak from right knowledge.

They would delight in what’s well-said

and not disparage what’s not.

They don’t study to find fault,

don’t grasp at little mistakes.

don’t put down, don’t crush,

don’t speak random words.

For the purpose of knowledge,

for the purpose of [inspiring] clear confidence,

counsel that’s true:

That’s how noble ones give counsel,

That’s the noble ones’ counsel.

Knowing this, the wise

should give counsel without arrogance.”

Notes

1.

Reading aññaatavaada with the Burmese edition. An alternate translation would be, “the teachings of those who know.”

2.

According to the Commentary, these qualities are, respectively, the noble truth of the path, the noble truth of stress, the noble truth of the origination of stress, and the noble truth of the cessation of stress.

AN 3.72

AN 5.159.

DN 21

AN 3.72;

Sn 4.8.

 AN 4.42

AN 5.165

 Sn 4.8

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

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GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information and Public Relations Department, U.P.

C.M. greets people of State on occasion of Republic Day

Lucknow : 25 January, 2011

The Hon

’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji has extended her heartiest greetings and good wishes to thepeople of the State on occasion of 61th anniversary of the Republic Day.

Ms. Mayawati ji said that 26

th January was a day to remember and pay homage to all known and unknownmartyrs and freedom fighters, who laid down their lives forachieving freedom. She said that because of their supremeefforts, today we are citizens of a free country.

The Hon

’ble Chief Minister ji further said that it was also a day to pay tributes to the heroes of social change, whofought for the rights of the exploited, deprived and SC/STsections of the society. They also waged battle against a socialsystem based on inequality and always fought to establish egalitarian society.

The Hon

’ble Chief Minister ji said that the Republic Day was also an occasion to introspect how far we succeeded inenforcing the provisions of the Indian Constitution.

Ms. Mayawati ji expressed the confidence that the people of the State would continue to extend their cooperation to the effective steps being taken by the Government for prosperity and development of Uttar Pradesh and the State would become a leading State of the Country. She said that we would also have to take resolve today to realise the dream of establishing a society based on equality and also to realise the dream of 

‘Sarvjan Hitay, Sarvjan Sukhay’.

*********

VOICE OF SARVAJAN

HONEYLEAKS

Tue, 25 January, 2011 8:16:15 PM

[The Buddhist Circle] Re: Happy Constitution Day!

From:

vinaya rakkhita  < ?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” />

View Contact

To:

dp bauddha

Dear Upasak,

                   much merits to you for sharing such Enlightening views. Most of the educated and well to do Ambedkarites  and other beneficiaries of reservation given by Babasaheb’s  constitution are showing disrespect to Babasaheb by not following Buddhism. Venerable Nagasena has mentioned about such  people in Question of Milinda as follows:

Disrespectful  Persons.

There are these twelve kinds of persons, O king who pay no respect- “The lustful man in his lust, the angry man in his malice, the dull man in his stupidity, the puffed-up man in his pride, the bad man in his want of discrimination, the obstinate man in his want of docility, the mean man in his littleness, the talkative man in his vanity, the wicked man in his cruelty, the wretched man in his misery, the gambler overpowered by his greed and the busy man in his search after gain.”

 Wish you all Happy Constitution Day.

with metta,

Bhanteji

Wed, 26 January, 2011 12:14:07 AM

[mfc_mumbai] My heartiest best wishes to all fellow Indians on occassion of 62nd Republic Day of “The Republic Of India”.

From:

Jayant RAMTEKE  

View Contact

To:

HPS ; mfc ; mulnivasibahujans@googlegroups.com; Apnaiimforum ; apnaiit@yahoogroups.com





 

My heartiest best wishes to all fellow Indians on occassion of 62nd Republic Day of “The Republic Of India”.

The freedom that we celebrate on Republic Day is the liberty to rule ourselves under a Constitution that we have created; one which safeguards our rights and allows us to be good citizens while not trampling over the rights of others.

“India is a peculiar country and her nationalists and patriots are a peculiar people. A patriot and a nationalist in India is one who sees with open eyes his fellow men treated as being less than man. But his humanity does not rise in protest. He knows that men and women for no cause are denied their rights. But it does not prick his civil sense of helpful action. He finds a whole class of people shut out from public employment. But it does not rouse his sense of justice and fair play. Hundreds of evil practices that injure man and society are perceived by him. But they do not sicken him with disgust. The patriot’s one cry is power for him and his class. I am glad I do not belong to that class of patriots. I belong to that class which takes its stand on democracy and which seeks to destroy monopoly in every form. Our aim is to realise in practice our ideal of one man one value in all walks of life - political, economical and social.”

“Walter Bagehot defined democracy as ‘Government by discussion’. Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as ‘ A Government of the people, by the people and for the people’.

My definition of democracy is - A form and a method of Government whereby revolutionary changes in the social life are brought about without bloodshed. That is the real test. It is perhaps the severest test. But when you are judging the quality of the material you must put it to the severest test.”

“Democracy is not merely a form of Government. It is primarily a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience. It is essentially an attitude of respect and reverence towards our fellow men.”

 

 ”A democratic form of Government presupposes a democratic form of a society, The formal framework of democracy is of no value and would indeed be a misfit if there was no social democracy. It may not be necessary for a democratic society to be marked by unity, by community of purpose, by loyalty to public ends and by mutuality of sympathy. But it does unmistakably involve two things. The first is an attitude of mind, and attitude of respect and equality towards their fellows. The second is a social organisation free from rigid social barriers. Democracy is incompatible and inconsistent with isolation and exclusiveness resulting in the distinction between the privileged and the unprivileged.”

“Without social union, political unity is difficult to be achieved. If achieved, it would be as precarious as a summer sapling, liable to be uprooted by the gust of wind. With mere political unity, India may be a state. But to be a state is not to be a nation and a state which is not a nation has small prospects of survival in the struggle of existence. This is especially true where nationalism - the most dynamic force of modern times, is seeking everywhere to free itself by the destruction and disruption of all mixed states. The danger to a mixed and composite state, therefore lies not so much in external aggression as in the internal resurgence of nationalities which are fragmented, entrapped, suppressed and held against their will.”

“Indians today are governed by two different ideologies. Their political ideal set in the preamble of the Constitution affirms a life of liberty, equality and fraternity. Their social ideal embodied in their religion denies them.”

“Constitutional morality is not a natural sentiment. It has to be cultivated. We must realise that our people have yet to learn it. Democracy in India is only a top dressing on an Indian soil which is essentially undemocratic.”

“On the 26th January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality. In politics we will be recognising the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value. In our social and economic life, we shall by reason of our social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value. How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life? If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment else those who suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of democracy which this Constituent Assembly has so laboriously built up.”

“No Constitution is perfect (but) I feel that it is workable, it is flexible and it is strong enough to hold the country together both in peacetime and in wartime. Indeed, if I may say so, if things go wrong under the new constitution, the reason will not be that we have had a bad constitution. What we will have to say is, that Man was vile.”

      - Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar- the builder of modern India 

Kind Regards,

Jayant Ramteke

 

 

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01/25/11
149 LESSON 26 01 2011-GOOD GOVERNANCE-C.M. greets people of State on occasion of Republic Day Madhupindika Sutta The Ball of Honey FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss
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149 LESSON 26 01 2011 Madhupindika Sutta The Ball of Honey FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

 through

 http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas



Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 148

 MN 18

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.018.than.html

MN 18 

PTS: M i 108

Madhupindika Sutta: The Ball of Honey

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1999–2011

Translator’s Introduction

This discourse plays a central role in the early Buddhist analysis of conflict. As might be expected, the blame for conflict lies within, in the unskillful habits of the mind, rather than without. The culprit in this case is a habit called papañca. Unfortunately, none of the early texts give a clear definition of what the word papañca means, so it’s hard to find a precise English equivalent for the term. However, they do give a clear analysis of how papañca arises, how it leads to conflict, and how it can be ended. In the final analysis, these are the questions that matter — more than the precise definition of terms — so we will deal with them first before proposing a few possible translation equivalents for the word.

Three passages in the discourses — DN 21, MN 18, and Sn 4.11 — map the causal processes that give rise to papañca and lead from papañca to conflict. Because the Buddhist analysis of causality is generally non-linear, with plenty of room for feedback loops, the maps vary in some of their details. In DN 21, the map reads like this:

 the perceptions & categories of papañca > thinking > desire > dear-&-not-dear > envy & stinginess > rivalry & hostility

In Sn 4.11, the map is less linear and can be diagrammed like this:

perception > the categories of papañca

perception > name & form > contact > appealing & unappealing > desire > dear-&-not-dear > stinginess/divisiveness/quarrels/disputes

In MN 18, the map is this:

 contact > feeling > perception > thinking > the perceptions & categories of papañca

In this last case, however, the bare outline misses some of the important implications of the way this process is phrased. In the full passage, the analysis starts out in an impersonal tone:

 Dependent on eye & forms, eye-consciousness arises [similarly with the rest of the six senses]. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as a requisite condition, there is feeling.

Starting with feeling, the notion of an “agent” — in this case, the feeler — acting on “objects,” is introduced:

 What one feels, one perceives (labels in the mind). What one perceives, one thinks about. What one thinks about, one “papañcizes.”

Through the process of papañca, the agent then becomes a victim of his/her own patterns of thinking:

 Based on what a person papañcizes, the perceptions & categories of papañca assail him/her with regard to past, present, & future forms cognizable via the eye [as with the remaining senses].

What are these perceptions & categories that assail the person who papañcizes? Sn 4.14states that the root of the categories of papañca is the perception, “I am the thinker.” From this self-reflexive thought — in which one conceives a “self,” a thing corresponding to the concept of “I” — a number of categories can be derived: being/not-being, me/not-me, mine/not-mine, doer/done-to, signifier/signified. Once one’s self becomes a thing under the rubric of these categories, it’s impossible not to be assailed by the perceptions & categories derived from these basic distinctions. When there’s the sense of identification with something that experiences, then based on the feelings arising from sensory contact, some feelings will seem appealing — worth getting for the self — and others will seem unappealing — worth pushing away. From this there grows desire, which comes into conflict with the desires of others who are also engaging in papañca. This is how inner objectifications breed external contention.

How can this process be ended? Through a shift in perception, caused by the way one attends to feelings, using the categories of appropriate attention [see MN 2]. As the Buddha states in DN 21, rather than viewing a feeling as an appealing or unappealing thing, one should look at it as part of a causal process: when a particular feeling is pursued, do skillful or unskillful qualities increase in the mind? If skillful qualities increase, the feeling may be pursued. If unskillful qualities increase, it shouldn’t. When comparing feelings that lead to skillful qualities, notice which are more refined: those accompanied with thinking (directed thought) and evaluation, or those free of thinking and evaluation, as in the higher stages of mental absorption, or jhana. When seeing this, there is a tendency to opt for the more refined feelings, and this cuts through the act of thinking that, according to MN 18, provides the basis for papañca.

In following this program, the notion of agent and victim is avoided, as is self-reflexive thinking in general. There is simply the analysis of cause-effect processes. One is still making use of dualities — distinguishing between unskillful and skillful (and affliction/lack of affliction, the results of unskillful and skillful qualities) — but the distinction is between processes, not things. Thus one’s analysis avoids the type of thinking that, according toDN 21, depends on the perceptions and categories of papañca, and in this way the vicious cycle by which thinking and papañca keep feeding each other is cut.

Ultimately, by following this program to greater and greater levels of refinement through the higher levels of mental absorption, one finds less and less to relish and enjoy in the six senses and the mental processes based on them. With this sense of disenchantment, the processes of feeling and thought are stilled, and there is a breakthrough to the cessation of the six sense spheres. When these spheres cease, is there anything else left? Ven. Sariputta, in AN 4.174, warns us not to ask, for to ask if there is, isn’t, both-is-and-isn’t, neither-is-nor-isn’t anything left in that dimension is to papañcize what is free from papañca. However, this dimension is not a total annihilation of experience. It’s a type of experience that DN 11 calls consciousness without feature, luminous all around, where water, earth, fire, & wind have no footing, where long/short, coarse/fine, fair/foul, name/form are all brought to an end. This is the fruit of the path of arahantship — a path that makes use of dualities but leads to a fruit beyond them.

It may come as cold comfort to realize that conflict can be totally overcome only with the realization of arahantship, but it’s important to note that by following the path recommended in DN 21 — learning to avoid references to any notion of “self” and learning to view feelings not as things but as parts of a causal process affecting the qualities in the mind — the basis for papañca is gradually undercut, and there are fewer and fewer occasions for conflict. In following this path, one reaps its increasing benefits all along the way.

Translating papañca: As one writer has noted, the word papañca has had a wide variety of meanings in Indian thought, with only one constant: in Buddhist philosophical discourse it carries negative connotations, usually of falsification and distortion. The word itself is derived from a root that means diffuseness, spreading, proliferating. The Pali Commentaries define papañca as covering three types of thought: craving, conceit, and views. They also note that it functions to slow the mind down in its escape from samsara. Because its categories begin with the objectifying thought, “I am the thinker,” I have chosen to render the word as “objectification,” although some of the following alternatives might be acceptable as well: self-reflexive thinking, reification, proliferation, complication, elaboration, distortion. The word offers some interesting parallels to the postmodern notion of logocentric thinking, but it’s important to note that the Buddha’s program of deconstructing this process differs sharply from that of postmodern thought.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was living among the Sakyans nearKapilavatthu in the Banyan Park. Then in the early morning, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl & outer robe, he went into Kapilavatthu for alms. Having gone for alms in Kapilavatthu, after the meal, returning from his alms round, he went to the Great Wood for the day’s abiding. Plunging into the Great Wood, he sat down at the root of a bilva sapling for the day’s abiding.

Dandapani (”Stick-in-hand”) the Sakyan, out roaming & rambling for exercise, also went to the Great Wood. Plunging into the Great Wood, he went to where the Blessed One was under the bilva sapling. On arrival, he exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he stood to one side. As he was standing there, he said to the Blessed One, “What is the contemplative’s doctrine? What does he proclaim?”

“The sort of doctrine, friend, where one does not keep quarreling with anyone in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & commonfolk; the sort [of doctrine] where perceptions no longer obsess the brahman who remains dissociated from sensuality, free from perplexity, his uncertainty cut away, devoid of craving for becoming & non-. Such is my doctrine, such is what I proclaim.”

When this was said, Dandapani the Sakyan — shaking his head, wagging his tongue, raising his eyebrows so that his forehead was wrinkled in three furrows — left, leaning on his stick.

Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from his seclusion and went to the Banyan Park. On arrival, he sat down on a seat made ready. As he was sitting there, he [told the monks what had happened]. When this was said, a certain monk said to the Blessed One, “Lord, what sort of doctrine is it where one does not keep quarreling with anyone in the cosmos with its deities, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & commonfolk; where perceptions no longer obsess the brahman who remains dissociated from sensuality, free from perplexity, his uncertainty cut away, devoid of craving for becoming & non-?”

“If, monk, with regard to the cause whereby the perceptions & categories of objectification assail a person, there is nothing there to relish, welcome, or remain fastened to, then that is the end of the obsessions of passion, the obsessions of resistance, the obsessions of views, the obsessions of uncertainty, the obsessions of conceit, the obsessions of passion for becoming, & the obsessions of ignorance. That is the end of taking up rods & bladed weapons, of arguments, quarrels, disputes, accusations, divisive tale-bearing, & false speech. That is where these evil, unskillful things cease without remainder.” That is what the Blessed One said. Having said it, the One Well-gone got up from his seat and went into his dwelling.

Then, not long after the Blessed One had left, this thought occurred to the monks: “This brief statement the Blessed One made, after which he went into his dwelling without analyzing the detailed meaning — i.e., ‘If, with regard to the cause whereby the perceptions & categories of objectification assail a person, there is nothing to relish… that is where these evil, unskillful things cease without remainder’: now who might analyze the unanalyzed detailed meaning of this brief statement?” Then the thought occurred to them, “Ven. Maha Kaccana is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his knowledgeable companions in the holy life. He is capable of analyzing the unanalyzed detailed meaning of this brief statement. Suppose we were to go to him and, on arrival, question him about this matter.”

So the monks went to Ven. Maha Kaccana and, on arrival exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, they sat to one side. As they were sitting there, they [told him what had happened, and added,] “Analyze the meaning, Ven. Maha Kaccana!”

[He replied:] “Friends, it’s as if a man needing heartwood, looking for heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood — passing over the root & trunk of a standing tree possessing heartwood — were to imagine that heartwood should be sought among its branches & leaves. So it is with you, who — having bypassed the Blessed One when you were face to face with him, the Teacher — imagine that I should be asked about this matter. For knowing, the Blessed One knows; seeing, he sees. He is the Eye, he is Knowledge, he is Dhamma, he is Brahma. He is the speaker, the proclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, the giver of the Deathless, the lord of the Dhamma, the Tathagata. That was the time when you should have questioned him about this matter. However he answered, that was how you should have remembered it.”

“Yes, friend Kaccana: knowing, the Blessed One knows; seeing, he sees. He is the Eye, he is Knowledge, he is Dhamma, he is Brahma. He is the speaker, the proclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, the giver of the Deathless, the lord of the Dhamma, the Tathagata. That was the time when we should have questioned him about this matter. However he answered, that was how we should have remembered it. But you are praised by the Teacher and esteemed by your knowledgeable companions in the holy life. You are capable of analyzing the unanalyzed detailed meaning of this brief statement. Analyze the meaning, Ven. Maha Kaccana!”

“In that case, my friends, listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, friend,” the monks responded.

Ven. Maha Kaccana said this: “Concerning the brief statement the Blessed One made, after which he went into his dwelling without analyzing the detailed meaning — i.e., ‘If, with regard to the cause whereby the perceptions & categories of objectification assail a person, there is nothing there to relish, welcome, or remain fastened to, then that is the end of the obsessions of passion, the obsessions of resistance, the obsessions of views, the obsessions of uncertainty, the obsessions of conceit, the obsessions of passion for becoming, & the obsessions of ignorance. That is the end of taking up rods & bladed weapons, of arguments, quarrels, disputes, accusations, divisive tale-bearing, & false speech. That is where these evil, unskillful things cease without remainder’

“Dependent on eye & forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as a requisite condition, there is feeling. What one feels, one perceives (labels in the mind). What one perceives, one thinks about. What one thinks about, one objectifies. Based on what a person objectifies, the perceptions & categories of objectification assail him/her with regard to past, present, & future forms cognizable via the eye.

“Dependent on ear & sounds, ear-consciousness arises…

“Dependent on nose & aromas, nose-consciousness arises…

“Dependent on tongue & flavors, tongue-consciousness arises…

“Dependent on body & tactile sensations, body-consciousness arises…

“Dependent on intellect & ideas, intellect-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as a requisite condition, there is feeling. What one feels, one perceives (labels in the mind). What one perceives, one thinks about. What one thinks about, one objectifies. Based on what a person objectifies, the perceptions & categories of objectification assail him/her with regard to past, present, & future ideas cognizable via the intellect.

“Now, when there is the eye, when there are forms, when there is eye-consciousness, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of contact.[1] When there is a delineation of contact, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of feeling. When there is a delineation of feeling, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of perception. When there is a delineation of perception, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of thinking. When there is a delineation of thinking, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of being assailed by the perceptions & categories of objectification.

“When there is the ear…

“When there is the nose…

“When there is the tongue…

“When there is the body…

“When there is the intellect, when there are ideas, when there is intellect-consciousness, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of contact. When there is a delineation of contact, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of feeling. When there is a delineation of feeling, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of perception. When there is a delineation of perception, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of thinking. When there is a delineation of thinking, it is possible that one will delineate a delineation of being assailed by the perceptions & categories of objectification.

“Now, when there is no eye, when there are no forms, when there is no eye-consciousness, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of contact. When there is no delineation of contact, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of feeling. When there is no delineation of feeling, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of perception. When there is no delineation of perception, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of thinking. When there is no delineation of thinking, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of being assailed by the perceptions & categories of objectification.

“When there is no ear…

“When there is no nose…

“When there is no tongue…

“When there is no body…

“When there is no intellect, when there are no ideas, when there is no intellect-consciousness, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of contact. When there is no delineation of contact, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of feeling. When there is no delineation of feeling, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of perception. When there is no delineation of perception, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of thinking. When there is no delineation of thinking, it is impossible that one will delineate a delineation of being assailed by the perceptions & categories of objectification.

“So, concerning the brief statement the Blessed One made, after which he entered his dwelling without analyzing the detailed meaning — i.e., ‘If, with regard to the cause whereby the perceptions & categories of objectification assail a person, there is nothing there to relish, welcome, or remain fastened to, then that is the end of the obsessions of passion, the obsessions of resistance, the obsessions of views, the obsessions of uncertainty, the obsessions of conceit, the obsessions of passion for becoming, & the obsessions of ignorance. That is the end of taking up rods & bladed weapons, of arguments, quarrels, disputes, accusations, divisive tale-bearing, & false speech. That is where these evil, unskillful things cease without remainder’ — this is how I understand the detailed meaning. Now, if you wish, having gone to the Blessed One, question him about this matter. However he answers is how you should remember it.”

Then the monks, delighting & approving of Ven. Maha Kaccana’s words, rose from their seats and went to the Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to him, they sat to one side. As they were sitting there, they [told him what had happened after he had gone into his dwelling, and ended by saying,] “Then Ven. Maha Kaccana analyzed the meaning using these words, statements, & phrases.”

“Maha Kaccana is wise, monks. He is a person of great discernment. If you had asked me about this matter, I too would have answered in the same way he did. That is the meaning of this statement. That is how you should remember it.”

When this was said, Ven. Ananda said to the Blessed One, “Lord, it’s as if a man — overcome with hunger, weakness, & thirst — were to come across a ball of honey. Wherever he were to taste it, he would experience a sweet, delectable flavor. In the same way, wherever a monk of capable awareness might investigate the meaning of this Dhamma discourse with his discernment, he would experience gratification, he would experience confidence. What is the name of this Dhamma discourse?”

“Then, Ananda, you can remember this Dhamma discourse as the ‘Ball of Honey Discourse.’”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, Ven. Ananda delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Note

1.

The artificiality of this phrase — “delineate a delineation” — seems intentional. It underlines the artifice implicit in the process by which the mind, in singling out events, turns them into discrete things.

AN 3.67; AN 3.72; AN 5.159.

See also: DN 21; AN 3.72; Sn 4.8.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And

Anatomy

 

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01/24/11
147 LESSON 24 01 2011 Udayi Sutta About Udayin FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-VOICE OF SARVAJAN-HONEYLEAKS-Mindfulness meditation training changes brain structure in 8 weeks-Buddhists/Prayer(?) before meals-Number of Buddhists world-wide-Precautions to be taken while filling census,2011 form.-Tax structure in India and Petrol price
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147 LESSON 24 01 2011 Udayi Sutta About Udayin FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

 through

 http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 147

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an05/an05.159.than.html

AN 5.159 

PTS: A iii 184

Udayi Sutta: About Udayin

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1997–2011

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Kosambi, in Ghosita’s Park. Now at that time Ven. Udayin was sitting surrounded by a large assembly of householders, teaching the Dhamma. Ven. Ananda saw Ven. Udayin sitting surrounded by a large assembly of householders, teaching the Dhamma, and on seeing him went to the Blessed One. On arrival, he bowed down to the Blessed One and sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: “Ven. Udayin, lord, is sitting surrounded by a large assembly of householders, teaching the Dhamma.”

“It’s not easy to teach the Dhamma to others, Ananda. The Dhamma should be taught to others only when five qualities are established within the person teaching. Which five?

“[1] The Dhamma should be taught with the thought, ‘I will speak step-by-step.’

“[2] The Dhamma should be taught with the thought, ‘I will speak explaining the sequence [of cause & effect].’

“[3] The Dhamma should be taught with the thought, ‘I will speak out of compassion.’

“[4] The Dhamma should be taught with the thought, ‘I will speak not for the purpose of material reward.’

“[5] The Dhamma should be taught with the thought, ‘I will speak without hurting myself or others.’[1]

“It’s not easy to teach the Dhamma to others, Ananda. The Dhamma should be taught to others only when these five qualities are established within the person teaching.”

Note

1.

According to the Commentary, “hurting oneself” means exalting oneself. “Hurting others” means putting other people down.

 DN 16 

See also:  (the Buddha’s answer to Subhadda’s question); MN 18; AN 3.67; AN 3.72; AN 5.159.

 (the Buddha’s answer to Subhadda’s question.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And

Anatomy

VOICE OF SARVAJAN

HONEYLEAKS

http://esciencenews.com/articles/2011/01/21/mindfulness.meditation.training.changes.brain.structure.8.weeks

e! Science News

Mindfulness meditation training changes brain structure in 8 weeks

Published: Friday, January 21, 2011 - 14:03 in Psychology & Sociology

Participating in an 8-week mindfulness meditation program appears to make measurable changes in brain regions associated with memory, sense of self, empathy and stress. In a study that will appear in the January 30 issue of Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, a team led by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) researchers report the results of their study, the first to document meditation-produced changes over time in the brain’s grey matter. “Although the practice of meditation is associated with a sense of peacefulness and physical relaxation, practitioners have long claimed that meditation also provides cognitive and psychological benefits that persist throughout the day,” says Sara Lazar, PhD, of the MGH Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Program, the study’s senior author. “This study demonstrates that changes in brain structure may underlie some of these reported improvements and that people are not just feeling better because they are spending time relaxing.”

Previous studies from Lazar’s group and others found structural differences between the brains of experienced mediation practitioners and individuals with no history of meditation, observing thickening of the cerebral cortex in areas associated with attention and emotional integration. But those investigations could not document that those differences were actually produced by meditation.

For the current study, MR images were take of the brain structure of 16 study participants two weeks before and after they took part in the 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Program at the University of Massachusetts Center for Mindfulness. In addition to weekly meetings that included practice of mindfulness meditation – which focuses on nonjudgmental awareness of sensations, feelings and state of mind – participants received audio recordings for guided meditation practice and were asked to keep track of how much time they practiced each day. A set of MR brain images were also taken of a control group of non-meditators over a similar time interval.

Meditation group participants reported spending an average of 27 minutes each day practicing mindfulness exercises, and their responses to a mindfulness questionnaire indicated significant improvements compared with pre-participation responses. The analysis of MR images, which focused on areas where meditation-associated differences were seen in earlier studies, found increased grey-matter density in the hippocampus, known to be important for learning and memory, and in structures associated with self-awareness, compassion and introspection. Participant-reported reductions in stress also were correlated with decreased grey-matter density in the amygdala, which is known to play an important role in anxiety and stress. Although no change was seen in a self-awareness-associated structure called the insula, which had been identified in earlier studies, the authors suggest that longer-term meditation practice might be needed to produce changes in that area. None of these changes were seen in the control group, indicating that they had not resulted merely from the passage of time.

“It is fascinating to see the brain’s plasticity and that, by practicing meditation, we can play an active role in changing the brain and can increase our well-being and quality of life.” says Britta Hölzel, PhD, first author of the paper and a research fellow at MGH and Giessen University in Germany. “Other studies in different patient populations have shown that meditation can make significant improvements in a variety of symptoms, and we are now investigating the underlying mechanisms in the brain that facilitate this change.”

Amishi Jha, PhD, a University of Miami neuroscientist who investigates mindfulness-training’s effects on individuals in high-stress situations, says, “These results shed light on the mechanisms of action of mindfulness-based training. They demonstrate that the first-person experience of stress can not only be reduced with an 8-week mindfulness training program but that this experiential change corresponds with structural changes in the amydala, a finding that opens doors to many possibilities for further research on MBSR’s potential to protect against stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder.” Jha was not one of the study investigators.

Source: Massachusetts General Hospital

Buddhists/Prayer(?) before meals

Long Meal Gatha 



“First, seventy-two labors brought us this food; 


we should know how it comes to us. 


Second, as we receive this offering, 


we should consider whether our virtue and practice deserve it. 


Third, as we desire the natural order of mind 


to be free from clinging, we must be free from greed. 


Fourth, to support our life, we take this food. 


Fifth, to attain our way, we take this food. 



First, this food is for the Three Treasures. 


Second, it is for our teachers, parents, nation,