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LESSON 2794 FRI 2 Nov 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) Do Good Be Mindful 112 Classical Languages Structured flow of the tree of TIPITAKA in 29)Classical English,36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
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LESSON 2794 FRI 2 Nov 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
Do Good Be Mindful

112 Classical Languages
Structured flow of the tree of TIPITAKA

in 29)Classical English,36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uNISpIXd5tM&t=24s
Trailer T I P I T A K A

Kiva Tep
Published on Dec 25, 2017
Category
Film & Animation


https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka song

Structured flow of the tree of TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1st to 2nd century) [Extract: The evolution of
Sorting] Sutta Vibhaaga [two books that contain rules for bhikkhus
i
bhikkhunis, outlining eight kinds of crimes]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Important role of women in Buddhism and the rules of monks - from the MN-44

(Five nics or collections)
The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the teaching of the Buddha
about the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. Is
divided into five collections called Nikāyas (A crowd, assembly; a
collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity,
congregation; a house, housing).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Ask a monk: the Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Under Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
DN 01 The All Net of Views of I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: long] Dīgha Nikāya collects 34 of the longest speeches
given by the Buddha. There are several tips that many of them arrive late
additions to the original corpus and questionable authenticity.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“Majjhima Nikaya, the speeches of the average length”

The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for the restriction and
the abandonment of the dyes, the fundamental deficiencies that maintain slavery
to the round of birth and death.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] Saṃyutta Nikāya collects the suttas according to
Its subject in 56 subgroups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than
Three thousand speeches of varying length, but generally relatively
short

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionalnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivided
In eleven subgroups called nipātas, each one of them collecting speeches
which consists of enumerations of an additional factor versus that of the
previous nipta It contains thousands of suttas that are generally
short

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka
The short texts of Nikāya are considered compounds of two strata:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
and Jātaka form the old strata, while other books are late additions
and its authenticity is more questionable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka song


36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,

36) Clásico galego-Clásico galego,

LECCIÓN 2794 FRI 2 de novembro de 2018
PRACTICA BUDDHA VACANA para PEACE (PBVP)
Do Good Be Mindful

Fluxo estructurado da árbore de TIPITAKA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uNISpIXd5tM&t=24s
Tráiler T I P I T A K A

Kiva Tep
Publicado o 25 de decembro de 2017
Categoría
Película e animación
youtube.com
Tráiler T I P I T A K A

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Canción Tripitaka

Fluxo estructurado da árbore de TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1º a 2º século) [Extracto: a evolución de
Clasificación] Sutta Vibhaaga [dous libros que conteñen regras para bhikkhus
eu
bhikkhunis, que esboza oito tipos de delitos]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Papel importante das mulleres no budismo e as regras dos monxes - do MN-44

(Cinco nics ou coleccións)
O Sutta Piṭaka contén a esencia do ensino do Buda
sobre o Dhamma. Contén máis de dez mil suttas. É
dividido en cinco coleccións chamadas Nikāyas (A multitude, montaxe; a
colección; unha clase, orde, grupo; unha asociación, fraternidade,
congregación; unha vivenda, vivenda).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Pregunta a un monxe: o Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Baixo Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
DN 01 The All Net of Views of I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: longa] Dīgha Nikāya recolle 34 dos discursos máis longos
dada polo Buda. Hai varios consellos que moitos deles chegan tarde
adicións ao corpus orixinal e autenticidade cuestionable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“Majjhima Nikaya, os discursos da lonxitude media”

O Buda ensina aos bhikkhus sete métodos para a restrición e
o abandono dos tintes, as deficiencias fundamentais que manteñen a escravitude
á rolda de nacemento e morte.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: grupo] Saṃyutta Nikāya recolle as suttas segundo
O seu tema en 56 subgrupos chamado saṃyuttas. Contén máis que
Tres mil discursos de distinta duración, pero en xeral relativamente
curto

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionalnal] Aṅṅguttara Nikāya está subdividida
En once subgrupos chamados nipātas, cada un deles recollendo discursos
que consiste en enumeracións dun factor adicional versus o da
Nipta anterior Contén miles de suttas que son en xeral
curto

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: curto, pequeno] The Khuddhaka
Os textos curtos de Nikāya son considerados compostos de dous estratos:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
e Jātaka forman os estratos antigos, mentres que outros libros son complementos tardíos
e a súa autenticidade é máis cuestionable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Canción Tripitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwSgxlNeL8k
Caucasian Iberia
FrogCast
Published on Nov 16, 2017
In Greco-Roman geography, ‘'’Iberia”’ ( Ancient Greek: ; In Latin:
Hiberia. ) was an exonym ( foreign name ) for the Georgian kingdom of
‘'’Kartli”’, known after its core province, which during Classical
Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the
Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger
empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires. Iberia, centered on
present-day Eastern Georgia, was bordered by Colchis in the west,
Caucasian Albania in the east and Armenia in the south.
All text, either derivative works from Wikipedia Articles or original content shared here, is licensed under:
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
A full list of the authors of the original content can be found in the following subdomain of wikipedia, here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caucasi… (Civilization: Classical Age States)
Category
Education
License
Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)
37) კლასიკური ქართული კლასიკური ქართული,

გაკვეთილი 2794 FRI 2 ნოე 2018
პრაქტიკა BUDDA VACANA მშვიდობისათვის (PBVP)
კარგად იფიქრეთ

TIPITAKA- ის ხის სტრუქტურული ნაკადი
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uNISpIXd5tM&t=24s
ტრეილერი T I P I T A K

კივა ტპ
გამოქვეყნდა Dec 25, 2017
კატეგორია
ფილმი და ანიმაცია
youtube.com
ტრეილერი T I P I T A K

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
Tripitaka სიმღერა

TIPITAKA- ის ხის სტრუქტურული ნაკადი

ვინანას პიკაკა
https://www.youtube.com/watch
ვინანას პიტაკა: მაჰავაგა (~ 1-დან 2 წლამდე) [ამონაწერი: ევოლუცია
დახარისხება] Sutta Vibhaaga [ორი წიგნი, რომელიც შეიცავს ბიკკების წესებს
მე
ბიკხუნისი, რვა სახის დანაშაულთან დაკავშირებით]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
ბუდიზმის ქალთა მნიშვნელოვანი როლი და ბერების წესები - დან MN-44

(ხუთი nics ან კოლექციები)
სუტა პიტაკი შეიცავს ბუდას სწავლების არსს
დმამის შესახებ. იგი შეიცავს ათზე მეტი სუნას. არის
დაყოფილია ხუთ კოლექციაში, რომელსაც უწოდებენ ნიკაას (ხალხის შეკრება, შეკრება;
კოლექცია კლასი, წესრიგი, ჯგუფი; ასოციაცია, fraternity,
კრება სახლი, საცხოვრებელი).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
დასვით ბერი: ტიპითკა

https://www.youtube.com/watch

ქვეშ პიკაკა

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 ყველა I- ს I- ის ნახვა

დიგა ნიკაია
[დიღას: ხანგრძლივი] დიღას ნიკაია 34-მა ყველაზე დიდ გამოსვლაში აგროვებს
ბუდას მიერ. რამდენიმე რჩევაა, რომ ბევრი მათგანი გვიან ღამით მიდის
დამატებები ორიგინალური კორპუსი და საეჭვო ნამდვილობა.

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“მაჯჯიმი ნიკაია, საშუალო ხანგრძლივობის გამოსვლები”

Buddha ასწავლის ბიკხილებს შვიდი მეთოდის შეზღუდვაზე
საღებავების მიტოვება, ფუნდამენტური ხარვეზები, რომლებიც მონობის შენარჩუნებას უწყობენ ხელს
დაბადების და გარდაცვალების რაუნდი.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
საულიო ნიკაია
[samyutta: ჯგუფი] Saṃyutta Nikāya აგროვებს suttas მიხედვით
მისი სუბიექტები 56 ქვეჯგუფშია, სახელწოდებით saṃyuttas. მასში მეტია
განსხვავებული სიგრძის სამი ათასი გამოსვლა, მაგრამ ზოგადად შედარებით
მოკლე

https://www.youtube.com/watch
აჟღუტარა ნიაია
[aṅg: ფაქტორი | დამატებითი: დამატებითი] Aṅguttara Nikya არის subdivided
თერთმეტი ქვეჯგუფში უწოდა nipātas, თითოეული მათგანი აგროვებს გამოსვლებს
რომელიც შედგება დამატებითი ფაქტორების რიცხვისაგან
წინა nipta იგი შეიცავს ათასობით suttas, რომლებიც ზოგადად
მოკლე

ხუდაკა ნიკაია
[ხუხა: მოკლე, პატარა] ხუდხკა
ნაკაშიას მოკლე ტექსტები ითვლება ორი ფენის ნაერთებად:
დმამპადა, უდანა, იტივუტაკა, სატუტ ნიპატა,
თრეგატი-თირგატა
და იატაკა ძველი ფენა, ხოლო სხვა წიგნები გვიან დამატებებია
და მისი ნამდვილობა უფრო საეჭვოა.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
Tripitaka სიმღერა


youtube.com
In
Greco-Roman geography, ‘'’Iberia”’ ( Ancient Greek: ; In Latin:
Hiberia. ) was an exonym ( foreign name ) for the Georgian kingdom of
‘'’Kartli”’,…

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
38) Klassik Germanisches Klassisches Deutsch,

LEKTION 2794 FR 2. November 2018
PRAXIS BUDDHA VACANA für den Frieden (PBVP)
Tue gut, sei achtsam

Strukturierter Fluss des Baums von TIPITAKA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uNISpIXd5tM&t=24s
Trailer T I P I T A K A

Kiva Tep
Veröffentlicht am 25.12.2017
Kategorie
Film & Animation
youtube.com
Trailer T I P I T A K A

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka-Lied

Strukturierter Fluss des Baums von TIPITAKA

Vinaya Piμaka
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~ 1. bis 2. Jahrhundert) [Auszug: Die Entwicklung von
Sortierung] Sutta Vibhaaga [zwei Bücher, die Regeln für Bhikkhus enthalten
ich
Bhikkhunis, acht Arten von Verbrechen

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Wichtige Rolle der Frau im Buddhismus und den Regeln der Mönche - aus dem MN-44

(Fünf Nics oder Sammlungen)
Die Sutta Piṭaka enthält die Essenz der Lehre des Buddha
über das Dhamma Es enthält mehr als zehntausend Suttas. Ist
in fünf Sammlungen unterteilt, die als Nikāyas bezeichnet werden (eine Menschenmenge, Versammlung; a
Sammlung; eine Klasse, Ordnung, Gruppe; eine Vereinigung, Brüderlichkeit,
Gemeinde; ein Haus, Wohnung).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Fragen Sie einen Mönch: den Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Unter Piμaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
DN 01 Das ganze Netz der Ansichten von I II

Dīgha Nikāya
[dgha: long] Dīgha Nikāya sammelt 34 der längsten Reden
vom Buddha gegeben. Es gibt mehrere Tipps, von denen viele zu spät ankommen
Ergänzungen zum Originalkorpus und fragwürdige Authentizität.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“Majjhima Nikaya, die Reden der durchschnittlichen Länge”

Der Buddha lehrt den Bhikkhus sieben Methoden für die Einschränkung und
der Verzicht auf die Farbstoffe, die grundlegenden Mängel, die die Sklaverei aufrechterhalten
bis zur Runde von Geburt und Tod.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] Saṃyutta Nikāya sammelt die Suttas nach
Sein Thema in 56 Untergruppen heißt Saṃyuttas. Es enthält mehr als
Dreitausend Reden unterschiedlicher Länge, aber im Allgemeinen relativ
kurz

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: Faktor | uttara: additionalnal] Die Aṅguttara Nikāya ist unterteilt
In elf Untergruppen, Nipātas genannt, sammelten sie jeweils Reden
das besteht aus Aufzählungen eines zusätzlichen Faktors gegenüber dem des
vorheriges nipta Es enthält Tausende von Suttas, die im Allgemeinen sind
kurz

Khuddaka Nikāya
[Khuddha: kurz, klein] Der Khuddhaka
Die kurzen Texte von Nikāya werden als Verbindungen zweier Schichten betrachtet:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
und Jātaka bilden die alten Schichten, während andere Bücher spät hinzugefügt werden
und seine Authentizität ist fragwürdiger.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
Tripitaka-Lied


39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
39) Κλασική Ελληνική-Κλασική English,


Ταξινόμηση] Sutta Vibhaaga [δύο βιβλία που περιέχουν κανόνες για bhikkhus
Εγώ
bhikkhunis, περιγράφοντας οκτώ είδη εγκλημάτων]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
Σημαντικός ρόλος των γυναικών στον Βουδισμό και τους κανόνες των μοναχών - από το MN-44

(Πέντε nics ή συλλογές)
Η Sutta Piṭaka περιέχει την ουσία της διδασκαλίας του Βούδα
για το Dhamma. Περιέχει περισσότερες από δέκα χιλιάδες suttas. Είναι
χωρισμένο σε πέντε συλλογές που ονομάζονται Nikāyas (Ένα πλήθος, συνέλευση · a
συλλογή; μια τάξη, σειρά, ομάδα? μια ένωση, αδελφοσύνη,
εκκλησίασμα; ένα σπίτι, στέγαση).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
Ρωτήστε έναν μοναχό: το Tipitaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch

Κάτω από την Πύμπακα

https://www.youtube.com/watch
DN 01 Ολόκληρο το δίχτυ των προβολών του I II

Νίγκα Νικαγιά
[dgha: long] Η Dīgha Nikāya συγκεντρώνει 34 από τις μεγαλύτερες ομιλίες
που δόθηκε από τον Βούδα. Υπάρχουν πολλές συμβουλές που πολλοί από αυτούς φτάνουν αργά
προσθήκες στο αρχικό σώμα και αμφισβητήσιμη αυθεντικότητα.

https://www.youtube.com/watch

“Majjhima Nikaya, οι ομιλίες του μέσου μήκους”

Ο Βούδας διδάσκει τις επτά μεθόδους του bhikkhus για τον περιορισμό και
την εγκατάλειψη των βαφών, τις θεμελιώδεις ελλείψεις που διατηρούν τη δουλεία
στον γύρο της γέννησης και του θανάτου.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
Σαύντουτα Νικαγιά
[samyutta: group] Η Saṃyutta Nikāya συλλέγει τα suttas σύμφωνα με το
Το θέμα της σε 56 υποομάδες που ονομάζονται saṃyuttas. Περιέχει περισσότερο από
Τρεις χιλιάδες ομιλίες ποικίλου μήκους, αλλά γενικά σχετικά
μικρός

https://www.youtube.com/watch
Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: συντελεστής | uttara: πρόσθετο] Η Aṅguttara Nikāya υποδιαιρείται
Σε ένδεκα υποομάδες που ονομάζονται nipātas, ο καθένας από τους οποίους συλλέγει ομιλίες
η οποία συνίσταται σε απαριθμήσεις ενός πρόσθετου παράγοντα έναντι του συντελεστή
προηγούμενη nipta Περιέχει χιλιάδες suttas που είναι γενικά
μικρός

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: σύντομη, μικρή] Η Khuddhaka
Τα σύντομα κείμενα της Νικαίας θεωρούνται ενώσεις δύο στρωμάτων:
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā
και το Jātaka αποτελούν τα παλιά στρώματα, ενώ άλλα βιβλία είναι καθυστερημένες προσθήκες
και η αυθεντικότητά του είναι πιο αμφισβητήσιμη.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/
Τραγούδι Τρυπητάκα


youtube.com
Donald Duck - Tea For Two Hundred (Greek Version)

40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
40) ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી- ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,

પાઠ 2794 એફઆરઆઇ 2 નવેમ્બર 2018
પીસેસ માટે પ્રેક્ટિસ બુધ્ધા વાંકાના (પીબીવીપી)
શુદ્ધ રહો માઇન્ડફુલ

ટીપ્ટાકાના વૃક્ષનું માળખાગત પ્રવાહ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uNISpIXd5tM&t=24s
ટ્રેઇલર ટી આઇ પી આઈ ટી એ કે કે એ

કિવા ટેપ
25 ડિસેમ્બર, 2017 ના રોજ પ્રકાશિત
શ્રેણી
ફિલ્મ અને એનિમેશન
youtube.com
ટ્રેઇલર ટી આઇ પી આઈ ટી એ કે કે એ

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
ટ્રિપિતકા ગીત

ટીપ્ટાકાના વૃક્ષનું માળખાગત પ્રવાહ

વિનય પીઆકાક
https://www.youtube.com/watch …
વિનય પિયાકા: મહાગગ (~ 1 લીથી બીજી સદી) [કાઢવું: ઉત્ક્રાંતિ
સૉર્ટિંગ] સુત્ત વિભાગા [ભિખુસ માટે નિયમો ધરાવતી બે પુસ્તકો
હું
ભિખુનીસ, આઠ પ્રકારના ગુનાઓની રૂપરેખા આપે છે]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
એમએન -44 માંથી બૌદ્ધવાદ અને સાધુઓના નિયમોમાં મહિલાઓની મહત્વની ભૂમિકા

(પાંચ નિક્સ અથવા સંગ્રહ)
સુત્ત પિયાકામાં બુદ્ધના શિક્ષણનો સાર છે
ધમ્મા વિશે. તેમાં દસ હજારથી વધુ સુત્ત છે. છે
પાંચ સંગ્રહોમાં વહેંચાયેલા, જેને નિકાયસ કહેવાય છે (એક ભીડ, એસેમ્બલી; એ
સંગ્રહ વર્ગ, ઓર્ડર, જૂથ; એસોસિએશન, ભાઈચારા,
મંડળ ઘર, આવાસ).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
સાધુને પૂછો: ટિપ્તાકા

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

Piucaka હેઠળ

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
ડી.એન. 01 આઇ II ના દૃશ્યોના બધા નેટ

દિઘ નિક્યા
[દગા: લાંબી] દિગા નિક્યા સૌથી લાંબી ભાષણોમાંથી 34 એકત્ર કરે છે
બુદ્ધ દ્વારા આપવામાં આવે છે. ત્યાં ઘણા ટીપ્સ છે કે જેમાંથી ઘણા મોડી થઈ જાય છે
મૂળ ભંડોળ અને શંકાસ્પદ અધિકૃતતા માટે ઉમેરાઓ.

https://www.youtube.com/watch …

“મેજિહિમા નિકાય, સરેરાશ લંબાઈના ભાષણો”

બુદ્ધ ભક્તિ માટે પ્રતિબંધ અને સાત પદ્ધતિ શીખવે છે
ગુલામોનું ત્યાગ, ગુલામીને જાળવી રાખતી મૂળભૂત ખામીઓ
જન્મ અને મૃત્યુના રાઉન્ડમાં.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk
સંયુતા નિક્યા
[સામ્યતા: સમૂહ] સ્યુયત્ત નિક્યા અનુસાર સુત્ત એકત્રિત કરે છે
56 પેટાજૂથોમાં તેનો વિષય સ્યુટુટ્સ કહેવાય છે. તે કરતાં વધુ સમાવે છે
વિવિધ લંબાઈના ત્રણ હજાર ભાષણો, પરંતુ પ્રમાણમાં પ્રમાણમાં
ટૂંકા

https://www.youtube.com/watch …
અગુત્તારા નિક્યા
[આજ: પરિબળ | ઉત્તરા: અતિરિક્ત] અગુત્તારા નિક્યા ઉપવિભાજિત છે
નિપટસ તરીકે ઓળખાતા અગિયાર પેટાજૂથોમાં, દરેકમાંના એકે ભાષણો એકત્ર કર્યા
જેમાં વધારાના પરિબળની ગણતરીઓ વિરુદ્ધ છે
અગાઉના નિપ્તા તેમાં હજારો સુત્તો છે જે સામાન્ય રીતે છે
ટૂંકા

ખુડકા નિકાયા
[ખુધ: ટૂંકા, નાનું] ખુધક
નિક્યાના ટૂંકા ગ્રંથોને બે સ્તરના સંયોજનો ગણવામાં આવે છે:
ધામપદ, ઉદના, ઇતિવુત્કા, સુત્ત નિપ્તા,
થાગઠ્ઠા-થીરિગાથા
અને જાતાક જૂના સ્તરની રચના કરે છે, જ્યારે અન્ય પુસ્તકોમાં મોડા ઉમેરાય છે
અને તેની અધિકૃતતા વધુ શંકાસ્પદ છે.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv_mtv94_WU

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/ …
ટ્રિપિતકા ગીત


image.png



55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,

ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿ ಮೋದಿ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದ ಸುಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ

ಭಾರತದ
ವಾಯುಸೇನೆ  ಸುಮಾರು 126 ಯುದ್ಧ ವಿಮಾನಗಳನ್ನು ಒಂದು ಯುದ್ಧ ವಿಮಾನಕ್ಕೆ ರೂ.560 ಕೋಟಿ
ಯಂತೆ 126 ಯುದ್ಧ ವಿಮಾನಗಳನ್ನು ಖರೀದಿಸಲು ಪ್ರಾನ್ಸಿನ ಡೆಸಾಲ್ಟ್ ಎವೀಯೇಷನ್
ಕಂಪೆನಿಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ಕಾಂಗ್ರೆಸ್ ನೇತೃತ್ವದ ಯು.ಪಿ.ಎ-2 ಸರಕಾರ ಒಪ್ಪಂದ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದನ್ನು 2014
ನೇ ಇಸವಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮೋದಿ ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿಯಾದ ತಕ್ಷಣ ಆ ಒಪ್ಪಂದವನ್ನು ರದ್ದು ಮಾಡಿ ಒಂದು
ಯುದ್ಧ ವಿಮಾನಕ್ಕೆ ರೂ.1600 ಕೋಟಿ ಯಂತೆ ಒಂದು ಯುಧ್ಧ ವಿಮಾನಕ್ಕೆ ರೂ.1040/- ಕೋಟಿ
ಅಧಿಕ ಬೆಲೆಗೆ ಕೇವಲ 36 ಯುದ್ಧ ವಿಮಾನಗಳನ್ನು ರಕ್ಷಣಾ ಸಚಿವಾಲಯ ಮತ್ತು ಹಣಕಾಸು
ಸಚಿವಾಲಯದ ಅನುಮತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸಮಾಲೋಚನೆ ಮಾಡದೆ ಗುಪ್ತವಾಗಿ ಅನಿಲ್ ಅಂಬಾಣಿ ನೇತೃತ್ವದ
ರಿಲಾಯನ್ಸ್ ಡಿಪೆನ್ಸ್ ಎವಿಯೇಷನ್ ಕಂಪೆನಿಗೆ ನೀಡುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ ಸುಮಾರು ರೂ.40 ಸಾವಿರ
ಕೋಟಿಯ ಭ್ರಹ್ಮಾಂಡ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರ ಎಸೆಗಿರುತ್ತಾರೆ. 

ಇದರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಶ್ರೀ ರಾಹುಲ್
ಗಾಂಧಿಯವರು ಗಂಭೀರವಾದ ಆಕ್ಷೇಪಣೆಯನ್ನು ಎತ್ತಿದ್ದು ದೇಶದಾದ್ಯಂತ ಮೋದಿಯವರು ಮಾಡಿದ
ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಅರಿವು ಮೂಡಿಸಿ ಯಶಸ್ಸನ್ನು ಕಂಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ಪೂರಕವಾಗಿ
ದೇಶದ ಅತ್ಯುನ್ನತ ತನಿಖಾ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯಾದ ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ ನಿರ್ದೇಶಕರಾದ ಪ್ರಾಮಾಣಿಕ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿ
ಅಲೋಕ್ ವರ್ಮರವರು ದಾಖಲೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕಲೆ ಹಾಕಿದ್ದು ತನಿಖೆ ಮಾಡಲು ಪ್ರಥಮ ವರ್ತಮಾನ ವರದಿ
ದಾಖಲು ಮಾಡಲು ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸಿರುವುದನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸಿದ ದೇಶದ ಕಾವಲುಗಾರ ಮೋದಿಯವರು ಅವರ ನೇರ
ಸುಪರ್ದಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯ ನಿರ್ದೇಶಕರನ್ನು ಕಾನೂನು ಮತ್ತು
ನಿಯಮಾವಳಿಗಳನ್ನು ಗಾಳಿಗೆ ತೂರಿ ಮಧ್ಯ ರಾತ್ರಿ 2 ಗಂಟೆಗೆ ಹುದ್ದೆಯಿಂದ ವಜಾ
ಮಾಡಿರುವುದು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಕಛೇರಿಗೆ ಬೀಗ ಜಡಿದಿರುವುದು ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯ ನಿಷ್ಪಕ್ಷಪಾತ
ತನಿಖೆಗೆ ಗಧಾಪ್ರಹಾರ ಮಾಡಿರುವುದು ದೇಶದ ದುರಂತ. ಮಾತ್ರವಲ್ಲದೇ ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ
ನಿರ್ದೇಶಕರಾದ ಅಲೋಕ್ ವರ್ಮಾರವರ ಮನೆಗೆ ಗುಪ್ತಚರ ಸಿಬ್ಬಂದಿಗಳನ್ನು ಕಳುಹಿಸುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ
ಶಿಷ್ಟಾಚಾರವನ್ನು ಕೂಡ ಮೋದಿಯವರು ಉಲ್ಲಂಘಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದಲ್ಲಿ
ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯಿಂದಲೇ ತನಿಖೆ ಎದುರಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿ ನಾಗೇಶ್ವರ್ ರಾವ್
ಅವರನ್ನು ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ ಯ ಹಂಗಾಮಿ ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷರಾಗಿ ನೇಮಕ ಮಾಡಿರುವುದು ಕಾನೂನು ಬಾಹಿರ
ಮಾತ್ರವಲ್ಲದೇ ದೇಶದ ಉನ್ನತ ತನಿಖಾ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯ ವಿಶ್ವಾಸರ್ಹತೆಯನ್ನು
ಕುಂಠಿತಗೊಳಿಸಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ರಫೇಲ್ ಯುದ್ದ ವಿಮಾನ ಖರೀದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದ ವಾಸನೆಯ
ಆರೋಪವನ್ನು  ಹೊತ್ತಿರುವ ದೇಶದ ಕಾವಲುಗಾರ ಮೋದಿಯವರು ಪ್ರಾಮಾಣಿಕ ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ
ನಿರ್ದೇಶಕರಾದ ಅಲೋಕ್ ವರ್ಮಾರವರ ನಿರ್ಧಾರದಿಂದ ತತ್ತರಿಸಿ ಹೋಗಿರುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದ ಕೂಪzಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾವಲುಗಾರ ಮೋದಿ ಎಲ್ಲಿ ಸತ್ಯ ಹೊರ ಬಂದರೆ ತನ್ನ ಮುಖವಾಡ ಕಳಚಿ
ಬೀಳುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂಬ ಭಯದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ ನಿರ್ದೇಶಕರನ್ನು ನೇಮಕ ಮಾಡಲು
ಸುಪ್ರಿಂ ಕೋರ್ಟಿನ ಮುಖ್ಯ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಧೀಶರು, ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರತಿಪಕ್ಷದ
ನಾಯಕರ ಸಮಿತಿ ಮಾಡುತ್ತದೆ. ಸಿ.ಬಿ.ಐ ನಿರ್ದೇಶಕರನ್ನು ವಜಾ ಮಾಡುವುದಾಗಲೀ, ವರ್ಗಾವಣೆ
ಮಾಡುವುದಾಗಲೀ ಅಥವಾ ಯಾವುದೇ ಕ್ರಮ ಜರುಗಿಸಬೇಕಾದಲ್ಲಿ ನೇಮಕಾತಿ ಸಮಿತಿಯ ಅನುಮತಿ
ಪಡೆಯಬೇಕಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂಬ ಕಾನೂನು ಇದ್ದರೂ ಸಹ ದೇಶದ ಕಾವಲುಗಾರ ಮೋದಿ ಕಾನೂನಿಗೆ
ಕಿಂಚಿತ್ತೂ ಬೆಲೆ ಕೊಡದೆ ಅಲೋಕ್ ವರ್ಮಾರವರನ್ನು ವಜಾ ಮಾಡಿರುವುದು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಕಛೇರಿಗೆ
ಬೀಗ ಜಡಿದಿರುವುದು ಈ ದೇಶದ ದುರಂತ. ಇಂತಹ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟ ಕಾವಲುಗಾರನ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ದೇಶದ ಜನತೆ
ದ್ವನಿ ಎತ್ತದೇ ಹೋದಲ್ಲಿ ನಮ್ಮ ದೇಶ ನಾಶದತ್ತ ಹೋಗುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವುದೇ ಸಂಶಯವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಇಂದು ಜಾರಿ ನಿರ್ಧೇಶನಾಲಯ, ಆದಾಯ ತೆರಿಗೆ ಇಲಾಖೆ, ಸೆಂಟ್ರಲ್ ವಿಜಿಲೆನ್ಸ್ ಕಮಿಷನ್,
ಮಹಾ ಲೆಕ್ಕ ಪಾಲಕರು, ಚುನಾವಣಾ ಆಯೋಗ ಮತ್ತು ಆರ್.ಬಿ.ಐ ಮುಂತಾದ ಸಂವಿಧಾನಿಕ
ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕಾವಲುಗಾರ ಮೋದಿ ದುರ್ಬಲಗೊಳಿಸಿರುವುದು ದೇಶದ ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ದುರಂತ.

–ಕೃಪೆ Times Desk..

image.png

You
are cordially invited to participate with family and friends for Buddha
Vandana, Meditation & Discourse on Dhamma at Nagasena Buddha Vihar,
Sadashivanagar, Bengaluru at 10 A. M & Share the Merit - Dr. H. R.
Surendra, Buddha Shanna Parishath.

They divided the judiciary
They divided the CBI
They divided the RBI
They divided the people

And they gave us a
Statue Of Unity 😲

image.png

comments (0)
LESSON 2792 Wed 31 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) Do Good Be Mindful The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit. Kindly revert back to Ballot Papers for the following reasons: INSTRUCTIONS FOR E-FILING REGISTRATION image.png
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 12:04 am


LESSON 2792 Wed 31 Oct 2018
PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
Do Good Be Mindful


The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit.

Kindly revert back to Ballot Papers for the following reasons:



INSTRUCTIONS 
FOR  E-FILING REGISTRATION


Buddha

https://www.quora.com/What-language-did-Gautama-Buddha-speak-according-to-Indian-mythology-and-why-is-it-significant

The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit.

Magadhi Prakrit is the spoken language of
the ancient Magadha kingdom, one of the 16 city-state kingdoms  at the
time, located in the eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region around
modern-day
Bihār,
and spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. The
first Magadha king is Bimbisara (558 BC –491 BC), during whose reign the
Buddha attained enlightenment. Both king Bimbisara and his successor
son Ajatashatru, were mentioned in several Buddhist Sutras, being lay disciplines, great friends and protectors of the Buddha

When
a just born baby is separated and kept in isolation, after some days it
will speak a natural human language just like all other species like
birds, animals, inspects etc have their own languages for communication.
So also the human beings have their natural (Prakrit) language. That is
Magadhi Prakrit the natural human language.


Magadha empire, ~500 BCE

The Magadha kingdom later became part of the Mauryan Empire, one of the world’s largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent.

Inline image 1

Mauryan Empire, 265 BCE

Magadhi Prakrit is the official language of the Mauryan court. Its emperor “Ashoka
the Great” (ruled 273- 232 BCE) united continental India. During the
war to conquer Kalinga, the last Southern part of India not subject to
his rule, he personally witnessed the devastation that caused hundred of
thousands of deaths, and began feeling remorse. Although the annexation
of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddhism, and renounced war and violence. He sent out missionaries to travel around Asia - his son Mahinda  and daughter Sanghamitra,  who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) - and spread  Buddhism to other countries.


Stone lion of Ashoka, later became symbol of modern India

Magadhi Prakrit is predominantly the language by which Emperor Ashoka’s edicts  were composed in. These edicts were carved on stone pillars placed throughout the empire.
The inscriptions on the pillars described edicts about morality based on Buddhist tenets.

Ashoka Pillar at Feroze Shah Kotla, Delhi, written in Magadhi, Brami and Urdu


Geographically,
the Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his
life are all outside of it. It is likely that he taught in several
closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree
of mutual intelligibility.

Brāhmī Alphabet  

Brāhmī lipi
The Brāhmī alphabet is the ancestor of most of the 40 or so
modern alphabets, and of a number of other
alphabets, such as Khmer and Tibetan.
It is thought to have been modelled on the Aramaic
or Phoenician alphabets, and appeared in Jambudvipa sometime before 500 BC.


The earliest known inscriptions in the Brāhmī alphabet are those of
King Asoka (c.270-232 BC), third monarch of the Mauryan dynasty.


Brāhmī was used to write a variety of languages, including  Prakrit.

Notable features


  • Type of writing system: abugida - each letter represents a consonant with an
    inherent vowel. Other vowels were indicated using a variety of diacritics
    and separate letters.
  • Letters are grouped according to the way they are pronounced.
  • Many letters have more than one form.
  • Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines

Vowels and vowel diacritics

Brāhmī vowel diacritics

Consonants

Brāhmī consonantsBrāhmī consonants

Sample text

Sample text in Brāhmī

Asokan Edict - Delhi Inscription

Transliteration


devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā ye atikaṁtaṁ
aṁtalaṁ lājāne husa hevaṁ ichisu kathaṁ jane
dhaṁmavaḍhiyā vāḍheya nocujane anulupāyā dhaṁmavaḍhiyā
vaḍhithā etaṁ devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā esame
huthā atākaṁtaṁ ca aṁtalaṁ hevaṁ ichisu lājāne katha jane

Translation


Thus spoke king Devanampiya Piyadasi: “Kings of the olden time have gone to heaven under
these very desires. How then among mankind may religion (or growth in grace) be increased?
Yea, through the conversion of the humbly-born shall religion increase”

Source: http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva/144-asokan-edict-delhi

Some modern descendants of Brāhmī

Bengali,
Devanāgarī,
Gujarāti,
Gurmukhi,
Kannada,
Khmer,
Malayalam,
Odia,
Sinhala,
Tamil,
Telugu,
Tibetan

Links

Information about Brāhmī

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Br%C4%81hm%C4%AB_script

http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva

http://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html

http://www.nibbanam.com/Brahmi/brahmi.htm

Brāhmī fonts

https://sites.google.com/site/brahmiscript/

The Edicts of King Asoka

http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html


ALPHABETUM - a Unicode font
specifically designed for ancient scripts, including classical
& medieval Latin, ancient Greek, Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian,
Faliscan, Messapic, Picene, Iberian, Celtiberian, Gothic, Runic,
Old & Middle English, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Old Nordic, Ogham,
Kharosthi, Glagolitic, Old Cyrillic, Phoenician, Avestan, Ugaritic,
Linear B, Anatolian scripts, Coptic, Cypriot, Brahmi, Old Persian cuneiform:
http://guindo.pntic.mec.es/~jmag0042/alphabet.html

Some of the writing systems used to write Sanskrit

Syllabic alphabets / abugidas





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    Vipassana Fellowship - Calm and Insight meditation inspired by the early Buddhist tradition.


























































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    Kindly revert back to Ballot Papers for the following reasons:

    On
    the advise of ex CEC Mr. Sampath the ex CJI Mr. Sathasivam had
    committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs could be
    replaced in a phased manner. In 2014 Lok Sabha Elections only 8 out of
    543 seats the EVMs were replaced for the advantage of BJP. Subsequently
    in all the Assembly elections including Uttar Pradesh only in 20 seats
    out of 403 seats the EVMs were replaced again to the benefit of BJP.
    Thye ex CJI never ordered for Ballot Papers to be used until the entire
    EVMs were replaced. This has negated the Universal Adult Franchise
    provided in the Constitution. Therefore, there is no need for taking
    stock of EVMs using a mobile App. Only choice is to revert back to
    Ballot papers to save democracy, liberty, equality and fraternity as
    enshrined in our Constitution.

    References with public comments:


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoTl_36Tzzs
    संसद में ईवीएम घोटाले पर मायावती का सनसनीखेज बयान/MAYAWATI ON EVM IN PARLIAMENT



    youtube.com

    behenji sach bol rahi hai

    Sahi hai evm ko hatao

    EVM should be banned

    Toamit Chaudhary

    She is absolutely right…according her E.V.M ought to be ban…!! She is the God of  society….

    BJP can go to any extant of debauchery

    inko bolne kiun nahi diya jaa raha hai baar baar unko baithne kiun kaha jaate raha hai

    I salute u


    ye maderchod sale sab chor hai beiman hain voton ki chori karke jeete hain inki salo ki aulad doob jayegi

    correct iron Lady👍👍👍

    Pankaj Rawat

    बहन जी आप शेरनी है
    हमे पता है कि आप कभी पिछे नही हटेंगी
    Aap aage badhe hum aap ke sath hai

    sabha pati bjp ka agent hai

    Vikkarm John

    Mazhar Abbas sahi kaha Bhai

    Bhenji zindaabaad a age bado janta aapke saath hai

    evm se election nai honi chaiye. evm is dangerous for country…


    evm murdabad




    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tF8bOI05WPY
    EVM FRAUD SCAM - BSP Leader SATISH CHANDRA MISHRA [Best Speech] with complete study and Evidence






    SUBSCRIBE OUR CHANNEL = https://www.youtube.…
    youtube.com

    Published on Mar 24, 2017

    SUBSCRIBE OUR CHANNEL = https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCaIi…
    Video Credits goes to : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7Id…
    SHARE this video and comment below your views and Don’t forget to subscribe this CHANNEL.
    SUBSCRIBERS Aim: 5000
    ======================================================
    These Big Politicians are against EVM Machine Results - EVM Fraud Scam के लिए सवाल उठाने वाले नेता
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1tmn…
    ======================================================
    Supreme Court ने EVM Fraud Scam पर कर दिया फैसला - देखें पूरा वीडियो - Arvind Kejriwal ने बताया
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZt_M…
    ======================================================
    क्या
    ABP news, Aaj tak news, India tv News और Zee News जैसे बड़े News
    Channel EVM Tampering or EVM Fraud Scam को छिपाने की कोशिस कर रहे है |
    Supreme Court ने माना EVM में कराई जा सकती है गड़बड़ी | EVM Fraud Scam की जांच होनी चाहिए या नहीं ?
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJmmL…
    ======================================================
    EVM Fraud Scam से देश के नागरिकों में भड़का BJP और PM Narendra Modi के खिलाफ गुस्सा
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVHzq…
    ======================================================
    How to Hack EVM Machine | Hacked EVM Machine, How it works | 2 Methods to hack | UP Election
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJFa4…
    ======================================================
    THIS VIDEO IS NOT IN SUPPORT OR AGAINST OF ANYONE:
    Give
    your comments and views below without using abusive words, just stay
    calm and give your views in acceptable manner as a good citizen of your
    countries.
    BJP won due to EVM machine SCAM, allegations by
    Oppositions. UP: Fraud in EVM Machine By BJP explained in detail ईवीएम
    में कैसे हुई गड़बड़ी- मायावती का सनसनीखेज खुलासा/MAYAWATI BLAMES FRAUD
    IN EVM
    BJP tampered with EVMs, alleges Mayawati; asks for fresh polling by ballot papers
    “Most
    votes in Muslim majority constituencies have gone to BJP, makes it
    evident that voting machines were manipulated,” said Mayawati.


    uttar
    pradesh elections 2017, up polls, mayawati akhilesh yadav, bsp,
    samajwadi party, indian express news, india news, elections updates
    BSP Chief Mayawati (File Photo)
    Not
    ready to accept defeat in Uttar Pradesh, BSP chief mayawati accused the
    BJP of tampering with the EVMs and demanded fresh poll with the use of
    ballot paper. The BJP is likely to secure a landlisde victory in the
    state, according to the latest trend. But Mayawati alleged that the
    voting was fudged and accused the BJP and its workers of tampering with
    the electronic voting machines. She said that she will write to the
    Election Commission to conduct a fresh poll in the state.
    “The
    results in UP and Uttarakhand are surprising and not palatable to
    anyone…it seems EVMs did not accept votes polled for any party other
    than BJP,” said Mayawati, whose Bahujan Samaj Party has fared poorly in
    the UP elections.
    Assembly
    Elections,Fraud,Cheating,Reality,Latest,Update,Congress,UP
    Elections,Modi,Technical guruji,Technicalguruji,Narendra Modi,EVM
    Problem Voting Machine Scam: Miss Pooja blames to Modi party वोटिंग मशीन
    घोटाले में पूजा ने खोली मोदी की पोल ये है गवाह यूपी में हुआ वोटिंग मशीन
    घोटाला । EVM scam EVM fraud UP ईवीएम में कैसे हुई गड़बड़ी- मायावती का
    सनसनीखेज खुलासा/MAYAWATI BLAMES FRAUD IN EVM Nashik: EVM Machine scam
    Issue; candidate complaint fraud in EVM machine BJP का चुनाव जीतने का
    नया हथकंडा, पहले Kamal का Button दबा कर EVM Machine Check करें ? किस-किस
    नेता ने उठाए ईवीएम पर सवाल ?/BIG LEADER AGAINST EVM MACHINE

     

     

    b j p chor he


                                

              

    waah really wonderful speech .

                             



    good speech

    and true speech

    good spech

    Good speech



    s sir good
    speech .bjp wale agar mard ki aulad hain to re election karwao (ballot
    paper se)Kya himmat hi .agar tum ram ke manne wale ho aur ram par
    bharosa hi to pm se bolo re election ke liye. is me Gali de ke kuch NAHI
    hoga (Tamam rajion ka re election karwao)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULUzoCRi4eo#t=6.826666

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULUzoCRi4eo#t=6.826666
    ईवीएम घोटाले पर शरद यादव का आंखें खोल देने वाला भाषण/JDU LEADER SHARAD YADAV ON EVM SCAM



    Satish Chandra Mishra presented the case to revert back to paper ballots in a very befitting manner.

    Following are the recent developments of the EVMs:


    http://indianexpress.com/…/faulty-evm-machine-ocassionally…/

    Faulty EVM ‘ocassionally’ casts vote for BJP in Buldhana: Report
    The report says that on February 16th, the day of polling, Zore and her
    representatives made a complaint at around 10 am after they objected to
    LED light flashing for BJP candidate when votes were case in her favour
    at an EVM unit in Sultanpur

    An
    Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) used during the Zilla Parishad elections
    in the month of February in Maharashtra reportedly recorded votes in
    favour of a BJP candidate when they were cast for an independent
    candidate.

    According to a report in DNA, independent candidate
    Ashatai Arun Zore filed a complaint after an EVM in Buldhana district of
    Vidarbha votes polled in her favour “occasionally” went to the rival
    candidate from BJP. The complaint was forwarded to Buldhana district
    collectorate by RTI activist Anil Galgali who sought information
    regarding the complaint.

    Maharashtra: EVM malfunctioned in Buldhana local election, says Collector


    The report says that on February 16th, the day of polling, Zore and her
    representatives filed a complaint at around 10 am after they objected
    to the LED light flashing for BJP candidate when votes were cast in her
    favour at a polling booth in Sultanpur. The inquiry report was earlier
    found to be “without substance” by centre in-charge Ramnarayan Sawant
    and election officer Manikrao Bazad. Similar complaints were made again
    at 1:30 PM, which were then found to be true, the report added.


    The complaint was brought to the notice of the Assistant Returning
    Officer prompting officials to seal the machine and restart the polling.
    Re-polling took place a few days after the incident at booth 57/6, the
    report stated. The Buldhana district collector, in his letter to the
    State Election Commission, admitted that Zore’s complaint turned out to
    be true.

    The reason for the malfunction remains unclear but the
    officials denied that it was a case of EVM tampering. “This could be a
    technical fault. On an average, there are 60 seats in a Zilla Parishad.
    The problem occurred on one machine in one centre in a particular
    constituency. If there was deliberate tampering, similar complaints
    could have been reported from more machines in other centres,” a
    Buldhana district official told DNA.


    The
    report says that on February 16th, the day of polling, Zore and her
    representatives made a complaint at around 10 am after they objected to
    LED light flashing for BJP…

    indianexpress.com

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1RoAWljcWc

    EVM In Madhya Pradesh Votes Just For BJP, Says Opposition Seeking Probe

    An Electronic Voting Machine that was reported to have voted for a
    particular party during a demonstration in Madhya Pradesh on Saturday
    reignited the opposition charge that tampered EVMs had helped the BJP in
    the last round of assembly elections. The Election Commission of India
    has sought a detailed report from Bhind’s District Election Officer
    after seeing the video of a demonstration organised by state election
    officials for journalists ahead of by-elections in the state’s two
    assembly seats.

    NDTV is one of the leaders in the production and
    broadcasting of un-biased and comprehensive news and entertainment
    programmes in India and abroad. NDTV delivers reliable information
    across all platforms: TV, Internet and Mobile.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8HtWHL0Ztk
    EVM Controversy: SP, Collector of Bhind removed

    For latest breaking news, other top stories log on to: http://www.abplive.in & https://www.youtube.com/c/abpnews

    EVM Controversy: SP, Collector of Bhind removed For latest breaking news, other top stories log on to: http://www.abplive.in & https://www.youtube.com/c/abpnews
    youtube.com

    Following are the most happiest people on the earth because of the EVMs:


    image.png
    image.png
    image.png
    image.png

    IANS quoted Congress general secretary Ghulam Nabi Azad as saying soon after his party`s defeat in Orissa in July 2009.

    • LK Advani has demanded a paper back-up to electronic voting.
    Parties such as CPM, TDP, AIADMK, RJD, LJP and Trinamool Congress have joined the chorus.

    • In 2001, Capt. Amarinder Singh, Punjab Pradesh Congress
    Committee alleged that EVMs can be tampered with.(
    ttp://www.tribuneindia.com/2001/20010312/main4.htm

    • In 2009, Chandrababu Naidu blamed the EVMs for his defeat. (
    http://www.deccanchronicle.com/hyderabad/now,-naidu-blames-evms-720

    • In 2009, AIADMK urged the EC to revert back to paper ballots,
    saying that EVMs were rigged in Lok Sabha polls
    (http://www.thehindu.com/2009/05/28/stories/2009052850110100.htm)

    • When the Indian National Congress surpassed all projections to
    win 262 seats in 2009, According to Dr. Subramanian Swamy, President
    of the Janata Party (24-8-2010) , the Leader of Indian National
    Congress Mrs. Sonia Gandhi reportedly hired hackers to hack into
    election results of the electronic voting machines, which resulted in
    landslide victory of the Indian National Congress in the national
    elections in 2009. (Electronic Voting Machine: Excellent tool of
    manipulation- by News Desk, December 17,
    2011-http://www.weeklyblitz.net/1993/electronic-voting-machine-excellent-tool)

    • In 2004, the Hon. Kerala High Court has asked EC to consider
    representation seeking changes in the EVMs. to consider suggestions of
    Prof. Satinath Choudhary and address issues concerning possible
    tampering of EVMs
    ( http://www.thehindu.com/2009/05/27/stories/2009052751030200.htm

    • On 1st December, 2010, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina of
    Bangladesh announced that there will be full electronic voting system
    in Bangladesh to arrange the future elections in a flawless manner. But
    there are serious allegations that a group of “election planners” of
    the ruling party has already contacted a number of leading EVM hackers
    in India, including the most infamous “Cyber Army”. According to
    unconfirmed sources, the ruling party influential figures from
    Bangladesh are already bargaining a “package deal” with the Indian
    hackers in ensuring a massive victory and re-election of Bangladesh
    Awami League during the election in 2014 in exchange of a huge amount of
    money. Initially, the Indian hackers demanded US$ 1 billion for this
    service; while the figure has already been brought down to US$ 400
    million and the ruling party men are optimistic of getting even a
    cheaper deal with the Indian hackers. Once the deal will be successfully
    concluded, there will be visibly no way in stopping the ruling party
    from getting re-elected in the election of 2014. Bangladesh has
    indigenously developed its own electronic voting machines. Bangladesh
    University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) has developed these
    systems. (http://www.indianevm.com/blogs/?cat=3 )

    Possible solutions

    Nine safeguards recommended by International Electrical &
    Electronics Engineering Journal (May 2009, p 23) should be incorporated.
    EVMs should print a paper record of each vote, to be deposited in a
    conventional ballot box. This ensures physical evidence and speedy
    results. A Voter Verified Paper Ballot (VVPB) provides an auditable way
    to assure voters that their ballots will be available to be counted.
    Without VVPB there is no way to independently audit the election
    results.

    Use two machines produced by different manufacturers to records votes.

    Expose the software behind EVMs to public scrutiny. Having the software
    closely examined by independent experts would make it easier to close
    technical loopholes that hackers can exploit.

    Booth monitoring: Strict monitoring of the activities inside the polling
    booth is important to eliminate human elements responsible for fraud
    and corruption .

    EVMs may be needed, but this is not the best option for corruption
    prone environment that exist in our country.


    Intellectuals belonging to Sarvajan Samaj have decided to do e-filing to the Supreme Court,


    http://www.sc-efiling.nic.in/sc-efiling/index.html









    INSTRUCTIONS 
    FOR  E-FILING REGISTRATION


    First time
    users of Supreme Court E-filing have to register him/her through
    the “Sign Up” option.


    Through
    “e-FILING” only Advocate-on Record and
    petitioners-in-person can file cases in the Supreme Court of
    India.


     Advocate
    option is to be chosen if you are an “Advocate-on-Record”,
    otherwise choose “In-person” option in case you are
    petitioner-in-person.


    For
    registering first time personal details such as Address, contact
    details, E-mail Id etc., which are mandatory, need to be entered.


    For
    Advocate-on-record, his/her code (Advocate-on-record code) will
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    his/her Login-Id through “Sign Up” option. 
    Password needs to be entered thereafter. Login Id and password
    will be created once the mandatory requirements are filled
    properly.


    After
    successful login the “Disclaimer screen” appears on the
    screen.


    Clicking of “I
    agree” button on Disclaimer allows the user to proceed
    further, while “I decline” button sends the control
    back to the Login screen.


    After
    successful login, the user can file the case electronically.


    “New
    Case” option allows the user to file a new case.


    “Modify”
    option allows a user to carryout changes to the already e-filed
    case, provided the court fee payment option is not invoked.


    Court fee can
    be paid only through credit card.


    Defects
    associated with the e-filed case will be e-mailed to the
    advocate/petitioner by the Supreme Court Registry.




    Note:- Petitions filed through E-MAIL are not entertained. For Electronic filing of
    case in Supreme Court. Use E-Filing facility only. Payment of Fee for E-Filed
    case are accepted only through Credit Cards and Debit Cards of the following
    banks mentioned below:



    Andhra Bank Axis Bank Limited Barclays Bank Plc Canara Bank
    City Union Bank Ltd. Corporation Bank Deutsche Bank AG GE Money Financial Services Ltd.
    HDFC Bank Ltd. ICICI Bank Ltd. Also for Mastercard debit cards (Only on
    ICICI PG)
    Indian Overseas Bank Kotak Bank-Virtual card
    Standard Chartered Bank State Bank of India Syndicate Bank The Federal Bank Ltd.
    The Karur Vysys Bank Ltd.      


































    For further assistance, “Help” option is
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    FAQ….

    Click
    Here to Proceed…
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    INSTRUCTIONS 
    FOR  AVAILING ORDER / DOCUMENTS


    Note dated
    25-06-07 of Ld. Registrar regarding providing of certified copy
    of order through post and charges thereof.

    Whenever any
    person /party concerned sends application by post or through
    e-mail for issuance of certified copy of order/document etc.
    first of all charges are calculated as the details given below


     

     

    1. Folio(per
    page) 

    2.
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    10/30/18
    LESSON 2792 Wed 31 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) Do Good Be Mindful in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
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    LESSON 2792 Wed 31 Oct 2018
    PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
    Do Good Be Mindful
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    LESSON 2792 Wed 31 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) Do Good Be Mindful The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit. Vipassana Fellowship Kindly revert back to Ballot Papers for the following reasons:
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    LESSON 2791 Tue 30 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) Do Good Be Mindful
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    LESSON 2791 Tue 30 Oct 2018
    PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
    Do Good Be Mindful



    Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

    What is Theravada Buddhism?

    Sangha

    Nibbana

    the true goal

    craving

    ignorance

    avijja

    dukkha

    Birth

    Analysis of Dependent Co-arising

    SN 12.2;

    Uninstructed


    in Classical English,Afrikaans-Klassieke Afrikaans


    I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi
    in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. There he addressed the
    monks, “Monks, an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person might grow
    disenchanted with this body composed of the four great elements, might
    grow dispassionate toward it, might gain release from it. Why is that?
    Because the growth & decline, the taking up & putting down of
    this body composed of the four great elements are apparent. Thus the
    uninstructed run-of-the-mill person might grow disenchanted, might grow
    dispassionate, might gain release there.

    “But
    as for what’s called ‘mind,’ ‘intellect,’ or ‘consciousness,’ the
    uninstructed run-of-the-mill person is unable to grow disenchanted with
    it, unable to grow dispassionate toward it, unable to gain release from
    it. Why is that? For a long time this has been relished, appropriated,
    and grasped by the uninstructed run-of-the-mill person as, ‘This is me,
    this is my self, this is what I am.’ Thus the uninstructed
    run-of-the-mill person is unable to grow disenchanted with it, unable to
    grow dispassionate toward it, unable to gain release from it.




    “It
    would be better for the uninstructed run-of-the-mill person to hold to
    the body composed of the four great elements, rather than the mind, as
    the self. Why is that? Because this body composed of the four great
    elements is seen standing for a year, two years, three, four, five, ten,
    twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, a hundred years or more. But what’s
    called ‘mind,’ ‘intellect,’ or ‘consciousness’ by day and by night
    arises as one thing and ceases as another. Just as a monkey, swinging
    through a forest wilderness, grabs a branch. Letting go of it, it grabs
    another branch. Letting go of that, it grabs another one. Letting go of
    that, it grabs another one. In the same way, what’s called ‘mind,’
    ‘intellect,’ or ‘consciousness’ by day and by night arises as one thing
    and ceases as another.

    “The
    instructed disciple of the noble ones, [however,] attends carefully
    & appropriately right there at the dependent co-arising:

    “‘When this is, that is

    “‘From the arising of this comes the arising of that.

    “‘When this isn’t, that isn’t.

    “‘From the cessation of this comes the cessation of that.

    “‘In other words:

    “‘From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications.

    “‘From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness.

    “‘From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form.

    “‘From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media.

    “‘From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact.

    “‘From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling.

    “‘From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.

    “‘From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance

    “‘From clinging/sustenance as a requisite condition comes becoming.

    “‘From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth.

    “‘From
    birth as a requisite condition, then aging & death, sorrow,
    lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play. Such is the
    origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering.

    “‘Now
    from the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance
    comes the cessation of fabrications. From the cessation of fabrications
    comes the cessation of consciousness. From the cessation of
    consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form. From the cessation
    of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media. From the
    cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact. From
    the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling. From the
    cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving. From the cessation
    of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance. From the
    cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From
    the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the
    cessation of birth, then aging & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain,
    distress, & despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire
    mass of stress & suffering.’

    “Seeing
    thus, the instructed disciple of the noble ones grows disenchanted with
    form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with perception,
    disenchanted with fabrications, disenchanted with consciousness.1
    Disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion, he is fully
    released. With full release, there is the knowledge, ‘Fully released.’
    He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task
    done. There is nothing further for this world.’”





    Note

    1.
    The discussion here shifts from the framework of dependent co-arising
    to that of the five aggregates. It’s a useful exercise to relate the two
    teachings, and a good place to start this exercise is with SN 12.2.

    See also: SN 12.2; SN 22.5.



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmrme4sozoI

    www.youtube.com
    More
    than 300 religious and spiritual leaders from around the world, Kenyan
    musicians, dancers and tribal elders gather for Africa’s first Buddhist
    ‘Fire and Water’ ritual which is supposed to nurture spiritual
    awakening.Duration: 02:05
    Published on Mar 5, 2012

    More
    than 300 religious and spiritual leaders from around the world, Kenyan
    musicians, dancers and tribal elders gather for Africa’s first Buddhist
    ‘Fire and Water’ ritual which is supposed to nurture spiritual
    awakening.Duration: 02:05

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FG4UWpPtIYg

    www.youtube.com
    Thirty-five
    years ago, the largest statue of Buddha in the southern hemisphere was
    built by Dutch architect Louis van Loon at the Buddhist Retreat Center
    in Ixopo, South Africa. This poetic and entertaining documentary takes a
    look at the influence Buddhism has had on the neighbouring Zulu girl
    who grew up nearby. Buddha-like in the way she faces hardship, S’Lungile
    Chiliza gives a unique perspective on the presence of the Buddhists and
    how they have affected her life.

    Published on Oct 4, 2013

    Thirty-five
    years ago, the largest statue of Buddha in the southern hemisphere was
    built by Dutch architect Louis van Loon at the Buddhist Retreat Center
    in Ixopo, South Africa. This poetic and entertaining documentary takes a
    look at the influence Buddhism has had on the neighbouring Zulu girl
    who grew up nearby. Buddha-like in the way she faces hardship, S’Lungile
    Chiliza gives a unique perspective on the presence of the Buddhists and
    how they have affected her life.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism_in_Africa

    en.wikipedia.org
    Buddhism,
    as a major world religion, is practiced in Africa. Though there have
    been some conversion amongst Africans, most of the Buddhists in Africa,
    are of Asian …

    Buddhism in Africa



    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




    Nan Hua Temple in Bronkhorstspruit, South Africa is the largest Buddhist pagoda in Africa.



    Buddhism, as a major world religion, is practiced in Africa. Though there have been some conversion amongst Africans, most of the Buddhists in Africa, are of Asian, mostly Chinese, Vietnamese, Sri Lankan or Japanese descent.

    South Africa is holding the largest Buddhist population in the continent. According to the 2010s estimates, Buddhist adherents (included Taoism and Chinese Folk Religion) áre increasing to between 0.2%[1] 0.3%[2] of the South African population, or between 100 and 150 thousand people while the number of practicing Buddhists maybe low.

    The African countries and territories in the Indian Ocean are also having significant Buddhist minorities. Mauritius has the highest Buddhist percentage (between 1.5[3] to 2%[4] of the total population) among African countries due to high number of Chinese people (nearly 40 thousands or 3% of the Mauritian population[5]). But the number of practicing Buddhists is only about 0.4%.[6] And Madagascar is also home of about 20 thousand Buddhists[7] (or about 0.1%[8] of the total population). In the Seychelles and Réunion, Buddhists represented about 0.1%[9][10] to 0.2%[1][11] of the island populations.

    In North Africa, about 0.3%[1][12] (or about 20 thousand people) of the Libya’s population are also Buddhists (mostly foreign workers from Asia). There are also two Buddhist centers in Casablanca, Morocco.[13]

    There are some Buddhist centers or temples can be found in Sub-Saharan African countries like: Botswana,[14] Cameroon,[15] Cote d’Ivoire,[16] Ghana,[17] Guinea,[18] Kenya,[19] Lesotho,[20] Liberia,[21] Malawi,[22] Mali,[23] Namibia,[24] Nigeria,[25] Senegal, Sierra Leone,[26] Swaziland,[27] Tanzania,[28] Togo,[29] Uganda,[30] Zambia,[31] and Zimbabwe.[32]

    There have also been cases of some high-profile celebrities converting to Buddhism such as Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje, a famous British actor of Nigerian descent.[33]

    One of the very few monastics of African descent is Ven. Bhante Buddharakkhita from Uganda, founder of the Uganda Buddhist




    Buddhist population by country



    Countries/Territories Practicing Buddhism

    (2010’s estimates)
    [34]
    Chinese Folk Religions

    (2010’s estimates)
    [35]
    Combined numbers
    Eastern Africa
     Burundi - - -
     Comoros - - -
     Djibouti - - -
     Eritrea - - -
     Ethiopia 1,327 - 1,327
     Kenya 1,276 1,945 3,221
     Madagascar 5,178 10,357 15,535
     Malawi available[22][36] - -
     Mauritius 3,222 17,292 20,514
     Mayotte (France) - - -
     Mozambique 2,035 4,341 6,376
     Réunion (France) 1,570 - 1,570
     Rwanda - - -
     Seychelles available[9] available[10] -
     Somalia - - -
     South Sudan - - -
     Tanzania 10,157 23,699 33,856
     Uganda 2,005 4,278 6,283
     Zambia 3,927 8,377 12,304
     Zimbabwe 189 402 591
    Central Africa
     Angola 1,632 162 1,794
     Cameroon 353 753 1,106
     Central African Republic - - -
     Chad 1,684 3,593 5,277
     Republic of the Congo - 283 283
     Democratic Republic of the Congo 3,734 - -
     Equatorial Guinea - - -
     Gabon - - -
     São Tomé and Príncipe - - -
    Northern Africa
     Algeria 5,320 11,350 16,670
     Egypt 1,687 - -
     Libya 20,209 1,773 21,982
     Morocco available[13] - -
     Sudan 982 2,094 3,076
     Tunisia 79 168 247
     Western Sahara - - -
    Southern Africa
     Botswana 1,120 111 1,231
     Lesotho available[20] - -
     Namibia available[24] - -
     South Africa 159,220 35,589 194,809
     Swaziland available[27] - -
    Western Africa
     Benin - - -
     Burkina Faso available[37] - -
     Cape Verde - - -
     Côte d’Ivoire 9,869 - -
     Gambia - - -
     Ghana 488 707 1,195
     Guinea 8,983 - -
     Guinea-Bissau - - -
     Liberia available[21] - -
     Mali available[23]
     Mauritania - - -
     Niger - - -
     Nigeria 8,458 4,675 13,133
     Senegal 1,679 398 2,057
     Sierra Leone available[26][38]
     Togo available[29][39] - -
    Africa 256,383 132,348 388,731





    Nan Hua Temple in Bronkhorstspruit, South Africa is the largest Buddhist pagoda in Africa.



    1) Classical Afrikaans
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    ” style=”font-size: 8pt;”>avijja

    ” style=”font-size: 8pt;”>geboorte

    ” style=”font-size: 8pt;”>SN 12.2;

    ononderwezen

     

    Ek het gehoor dat aan die een geleentheid die Geseënde Een gebly naby Savatthi in Jeta se Grove, Anathapindika se klooster. Daar
    aangespreek hy die monnike, “Monks, ‘n ononderwezen run-of-the-mill
    persoon kan groei ontnugterde met hierdie liggaam bestaan ​​uit die vier
    groot elemente, kan groei objektiewe daarop, kan vrystelling kry van
    dit. Hoekom is dit? Omdat die
    “Maar
    wat se verstand, ‘’ intellek,” of “bewussyn” die ononderwezen
    run-of-the-mill persoon nie in staat ontnugterde daarmee om te groei,
    nie objektiewe rigting dit om te groei, nie in staat is om sy vrylating
    te bewerkstellig daaruit genoem
    .
    Hoekom is dit? Vir ‘n lang tyd hierdie is gekruid, bewillig, en
    aangegryp deur die ononderwezen persoon run-of-the-mill as: dit is my,
    dit is my eie, dit is wat ek is. ”
    “Dit
    sou beter wees vir die ononderwezen run-of-the-mill persoon om vas te
    hou aan die liggaam saamgestel uit die vier groot elemente, eerder as om
    die gedagte, soos die self. Hoekom is dit? Omdat hierdie liggaam
    bestaan ​​uit die vier groot elemente
    gesien
    staan ​​vir ‘n jaar, twee jaar, drie, vier, vyf, tien, twintig, dertig,
    veertig, vyftig, ‘n honderd jaar of meer. Maar wat is bekend as
    ‘gedagte,’ ‘intellek, “of” bewussyn “deur die dag en
    in
    die nag ontstaan ​​as een ding en ophou as ‘n ander. Net soos ‘n aap,
    swaai deur ‘n woud woestyn, gryp ‘n tak. loslaat van dit, dit gryp ‘n
    ander tak. loslaat van wat dit gryp ‘n ander een. loslaat van wat
    “Die opdrag dissipel van die maghebbers, [maar] bywoon noukeurig & toepaslik net daar op die afhanklike mede-voortspruit:

     

    “” Wanneer hierdie is, dit wil sê.

    “Uit die ontstaan ​​van hierdie kom die ontstaan ​​van daardie.

    “” Wanneer hierdie is nie, dit wil sê nie.

    “Uit die beëindiging van hierdie kom die beëindiging van daardie.

    “‘Met ander woorde:

    “Uit onkunde as ‘n vereiste toestand kom fabrications.

    “Uit fabrications as ‘n vereiste toestand kom bewussyn.

    “Uit die bewussyn as ‘n vereiste toestand kom naam - & - vorm.

    “Uit naam - & - vorm as ‘n vereiste toestand kom die ses sin media.

    “Uit die ses sin media as ‘n vereiste toestand kom kontak.

    “Uit kontak as ‘n vereiste toestand kom voel.

    “Uit voel as ‘n vereiste toestand kom drang.

    “Uit drang as ‘n vereiste toestand kom klou / lewensmiddele.

    “Uit vasklou / lewensmiddele as ‘n vereiste toestand kom raak.

    “Uit besig om as ‘n vereiste toestand kom geboorte.

    ” ‘Van geboorte as ‘n vereiste toestand, dan veroudering en dood,
    hartseer, geklaag, pyn, angs, en wanhoop kom in die spel. Dit is die
    ontstaan ​​van hierdie hele massa van stres en lyding.


    ‘En van die remainderless vervaag & beëindiging van daardie onkunde
    kom die beëindiging van fabrications Van die beëindiging van
    fabrications kom die beëindiging van bewussyn uit die beëindiging van
    bewussyn kom die beëindiging van naam -.. & -. Vorm uit die
    beëindiging van naam
    -
    & - vorm kom die beëindiging van die ses sin media uit die
    beëindiging van die ses sin media kom die beëindiging van kontak van die
    beëindiging van die kontak kom die beëindiging van gevoel uit die
    beëindiging van gevoel kom die beëindiging van drang van….
    die
    beëindiging van drang kom die beëindiging van vasklou / voedsel kry
    nie. van die beëindiging van vasklou / lewensmiddele kom die beëindiging
    van steeds. van die beëindiging van steeds kom die beëindiging van
    geboorte. van die beëindiging van geboorte, dan veroudering en dood,
    hartseer, geklaag
    “Terwyl
    dus die opdrag dissipel van die maghebbers groei ontnugter met vorm,
    ontnugterde met gevoel, ontnugter met persepsie, ontnugterde met
    fabrications, ontnugterde met consciousness.1 Disenchanted, word hy
    objektiewe. Deur dispassion, is hy ten volle vrygestel. Met volle
    vrystelling
    daar is die kennis, ‘ten volle vrygestel. Hy onderskei wat se geboorte is ten einde, die heilige lewe vervul die taak gedoen. Daar is niks verder vir die wêreld. “

    1. Die bespreking hier verskuif vanaf die raamwerk van afhanklike mede-voortspruit aan dié van die vyf aggregate. Sien ook: SN 12.2;



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    हमें विरोधियों की टक्कर की लीडरशिप पैदा करनी है, यह हम अपने में काबिलियत पैदा कर ही कर सकते हैं।
    दिल्ली, १३ सितम्बर, १९८९
    We have to develop the leadership which is equal to our opponents, we can only do this by improving our ability.
    Delhi, 13th September, 1989

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    propagation entitles to become a Stream
    Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal.

    http://media.kmspks.org/category/awaken-magazine?doing_wp_cron=1476671777.5531549453735351562500


    http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/


    https://www.buddhistdoor.net/


    http://buddhisttrends.com/


    http://thedailyenlightenment.com/


    https://www.dailyzen.com/


    http://www.abhayagiri.org/home/


    http://www.globalbuddhism.org/jgb/index.php/jgb/


    http://www.indology.net/


    http://www.pragmaticbuddhism.org/


    http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/


    https://sites.google.com/site/worldreligionsforkids/buddhism

    comments (0)
    10/28/18
    LESSON 2790 Mon 29 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE 1) Classial Magadhi Meaning and origin When a just born baby is separated and kept isolated it will speak a natural (Prakriti) human language just like any other living beings such as birds, animals, insects communicate in their languages.That natural Human language is Magadhi.
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 4:13 pm
    LESSON 2790 Mon 29 Oct 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    1) Classial Magadhi Meaning and origin

    When a just born baby is separated and kept isolated it will speak a
    natural (Prakriti) human language just like any other living beings such
    as birds, animals, insects communicate in their languages.That natural
    Human language is Magadhi.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXErV0P9_xk

    1) Classial Magadhi Meaning and origin

    When a just born baby is separated and kept isolated it will speak a
    natural (Prakriti) human language just like any other living beings such
    as birds, animals, insects communicate in their languages.That natural
    Human language is Magadhi.

    ADictionary
    Published on Apr 25, 2015
    Video shows what Magadhi means. An Indo-Iranian language, spoken
    primarily in the Bihar state of India.. Magadhi Meaning. How to
    pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say Magadhi. Powered by
    MaryTTS, Wiktionary
    Category
    Education

    Video
    shows what Magadhi means. An Indo-Iranian language, spoken primarily in
    the Bihar state of India.. Magadhi Meaning. How to pronounce,
    definition…



    This
    outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script
    edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of
    the volumes are displayed
    in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
    the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial
    literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
    Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

    No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org


    இந்த  நூட்கள் வெளியீடு
    காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக 
    முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.



    (Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

    விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~1st-2nd century) [Excerpt: The Evolution of Ordination]

    Jade Vine
    Published on Jan 12, 2016
    An excerpt of writing from an early Buddhist canon, specifically about the development of monastic communities.
    Category
    People & Blogs

    youtube.com
    An excerpt of writing from an early Buddhist canon, specifically about the development of monastic…

    (மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

    Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
    bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWteUSs-8m4
    Important Role of Women in Buddhism and Monks Rules -From MN-44
    Bhante Vimalaramsi
    Published on Jun 21, 2016
    Bhante is finishing his reading of Sutta MN 44 and talks about how the
    Buddha praised women in the order, and in this case Dhammadinna, an
    Arahant who he held in as high esteem as any monk.
    He then goes off and talks about Monks and the rules they have to follow.

    Recorded:6-14-16
    Where: DSMC
    Talk by Bhante Vimalaramsi
    Abbot - Dhamma Sukha Meditation Center
    www.dhammasukha.org
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    Bhante
    is finishing his reading of Sutta MN 44 and talks about how the Buddha
    praised women in the order, and in this case Dhammadinna, an Arahant…

    (Five nik±yas, or collections)

    The
    Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
    the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
    five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
    class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
    dwelling).

    1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர  மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட
    விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

    Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)
    திபிடக  முக்கூடைகள்

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9exdLBS6Y7A&t=607s
    Ask A Monk: The Tipitaka

    122
    5
    Share
    Save
    Yuttadhammo Bhikkhu
    Published on Mar 11, 2011
    “Can you speak on the Tipitika I heard the oral tradition wasn’t
    written down for many yrs Even then not in language of the Buddha If
    this is the case why argue over such things as did the Buddha say “rites
    and rituals”or “prayers and practices”Thanks”

    Please submit questions to my YouTube Channel:

    http://www.youtube.com/yuttadhammo

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    May all beings be happy.

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    Category
    Education

    youtube.com
    “Can
    you speak on the Tipitika I heard the oral tradition wasn’t written
    down for many yrs Even then not in language of the Buddha If this is the
    case why ar…

    ஸுத்த பியுயக


    ( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)


    Sutta Piμaka


    நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை
    ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர் கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு நிரம்பியது.  அது
    பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய
    ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை, ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை, வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர்
    கூட்டமைப்பு, பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக்
    குழு, கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக
    பிரிந்துள்ளது.


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka - Samyutta Nikaya
    Supreme Master Television
    Published on Jul 12, 2008
    http://suprememastertv.com/ - From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka -Samyutta Nikaya (In English), Episode: 618, Air date: 24 - May - 2008
    Category
    Entertainment

    ஸுத்த பியுயக

    ( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)

    Sutta Piμaka


    நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர் கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை
    சாறு நிரம்பியது. அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
    நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை, ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை,
    வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு, பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு
    கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு, கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என
    அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

    youtube.com
    http://suprememastertv.com/ - From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka -Samyutta Nikaya (In English),…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    DN 01 The All embracing Net of Views I II

    Dīgha Nikāya
    [dīgha:long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses
    given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late
    additions to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

    நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
    புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

    Tai Tran
    Published on Aug 12, 2016
    Dīgha Nikāya 1
    Brahmajāla Sutta

    I. Talk on Wanderers (Paribbājakakathā)
    “If, bhikkhus, others speak in dispraise of me, or in dispraise of the
    Dhamma, or in dispraise of the Sangha, you should not give way to
    resentment, displeasure, or animosity against them in your heart.
    For if you were to become angry or upset in such a situation, you would only be creating an obstacle for yourselves.
    If you were to become angry or upset when others speak in dispraise of
    us, would you be able to recognize whether their statements are rightly
    or wrongly spoken?”

    “Certainly not, Lord.”

    “If, bhikkhus,
    others speak in dispraise of me, or in dispraise of the Dhamma, or in
    dispraise of the Sangha, you should unravel what is false and point it
    out as false, saying:
    ‘For such and such a reason this is false, this is untrue, there is no such thing in us, this is not found among us.’

    “And if, bhikkhus, others speak in praise of me, or in praise of the
    Dhamma, or in praise of the Sangha, you should not give way to
    jubilation, joy, and exultation in your heart.
    For if you were to
    become jubilant, joyful, and exultant in such a situation, you would
    only be creating an obstacle for yourselves.
    If others speak in
    praise of me, or in praise of the Dhamma, or in praise of the Sangha,
    you should acknowledge what is fact as fact, saying:
    ‘For such and such a reason this is a fact, this is true, there is such a thing in us, this is found among us.’
    II. The Analysis of Virtue
    1. The Short Section on Virtue (Cūḷasīla)
    2. The Intermediate Section on Virtue (Majjhimasīla)
    3. The Long Section on Virtue (Mahāsīla)
    Category
    People & Blogs

    youtube.com
    Dīgha
    Nikāya 1 Brahmajāla Sutta I. Talk on Wanderers (Paribbājakakathā) “If,
    bhikkhus, others speak in dispraise of me, or in dispraise of the
    Dhamma, or in …

    Dīgha Nikāya
    [dīgha:long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the
    longest discourses given by the Buddha. There are various hints that
    many of them are late additions to the original corpus and of
    questionable authenticity.

    நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
    புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Majjhima Nikāya
    [majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the
    Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

    மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


    புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு
    வகைப்பட்ட விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.
    Majjhima Nikaya (MN 2: part 1-1, 2009.10.17) Bhikkhu Bodhi.MPG

    BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
    Published on Feb 11, 2012
    Chapter 2: Sabbāsava Sutta: All the Taints

    “The Majjhima Nikaya, the Middle Length Discourses”


    The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for restraining and
    abandoning the taints, the fundamental defilements that maintain bondage
    to the round of birth and death.

    Sutta Study Class with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi series:

    Place: Chuang Yen Monastery, Kuan Yin Hall

    Time: Saturday morning, 9:30 - 11:30 am

    Info: please contact (845) 225-1819, or email cym@baus.org

    youtube.com
    Chapter
    2: Sabbāsava Sutta: All the Taints “The Majjhima Nikaya, the Middle
    Length Discourses” The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus seven methods for…



    Majjhima Nikāya
    [majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers
    152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with
    diverse matters.

     மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு
    வகைப்பட்ட விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfcteN91nnk

    Saṃyutta Nikāya
    [samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to
    their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than
    three thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively
    short.

    குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


    குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
    அவற்றினுடைய பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.
    அது மூவாயிரம்
    விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.
    Samyutta Nikaya 22.85 Khanda Vagga - Khemaka Sutta
    Dhammaloka Suttas
    Published on Apr 15, 2014
    Teacher : Ajahn Brahmavamso
    Date : 13 April 2014
    Category
    Nonprofits & Activism

    youtube.com
    Teacher : Ajahn Brahmavamso Date : 13 April 2014

    Saṃyutta Nikāya
    [samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the
    suttas according to their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It
    contains more than three thousand discourses of variable length, but
    generally relatively short.

    குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
    அவற்றினுடைய பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.
    அது மூவாயிரம்
    விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Aṅguttara Nikāya
    [aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized
    in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
    consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
    precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
    short.

    கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


    இறங்குதல் காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ
    தற்போதைக்கு உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
    கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
    குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
    காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
    நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

    Anguttara Nikaya: The Ekaka-nipāta, the Book of the Ones (AN 1 2016.10.15 part 1) Bhikkhu Narayan Bodhi

    BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
    Published on Oct 31, 2016
    Section 1: The Mind. Suttas 1–57

    Info: please contact (845) 225-1819, or email cym@baus.org
    Category
    Education

    youtube.com
    Section 1: The Mind. Suttas 1–57 Info: please contact…

    Aṅguttara Nikāya
    [aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The
    Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each
    of them gathering discourses consisting of enumerations of one
    additional factor versus those of the precedent nipāta. It contains
    thousands of suttas which are generally short.

    கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    இறங்குதல் காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ
    தற்போதைக்கு உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
    கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
    குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
    காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
    நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

    Khuddaka Nikāya
    [khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is
    considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna,
    Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
    Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the
    ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their
    authenticity is more questionable.

    சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)


    சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி
    தணிந்த இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர்
    வாக்கியம் , மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள் ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி
    அல்லது பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால், மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட
    அல்லது மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி,
    மகிழ்ச்சி அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது
    குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,:
    புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல்
    காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக (
    பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் , ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் ,
    ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)

    Introduction to Khuddaka Nikaya - Ven. Dhammavuddho Mahathera

    喬達摩佛寺Vihara Buddha Gotama
    Published on May 23, 2012
    Date: 12-08-2011

    Venue: Vihara Buddha Gotama, Temoh
    www.vbgnet.org
    Category
    People & Blogs

    youtube.com
    Date: 12-08-2011 Venue: Vihara Buddha Gotama, Temoh www.vbgnet.org


    Khuddaka Nikāya
    [khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya
    short texts and is considered as been composed of two stratas:
    Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
    Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
    books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

    சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    சுருக்கமான,
    சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
    இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
    மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள்  ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
    பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால், மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
    மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
    அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய
    நான்காம்புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல்
    ஒரு பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல்
    காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக (
    பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் , ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் ,
    ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)

    Picture

    Picture


                Sutta Pitak

    Picture

            Vinay Pitak

    Picture


    Abhidhamma Pitak


    The
    ultimate objective in Buddhism is attained by purifying and improving
    mind. However, understanding what “mind” is a quite complicated act for
    any person. This is a barrier for someone who is interested in learning
    Buddhism in-depth. One of the teachings in Buddhism which provides a
    comprehensive analysis on mind is “Abhidhamma”.
    The Buddhist doctrine
    is categorized into three, which is known to anyone, as “Thripitaka”
    namely Suthra Pitaka, Vinya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka. Vinaya Pitaka
    consists rules of conduct for Sangha and Suthra Pitaka consists of
    Suttas containing the central teachings of Buddhism. Suthra Pitaka is
    mostly on “Conventional Teachings” (Sammuthi Dheshana) of Buddhism.
    Abhidhamma Pitaka provides a theoretical framework for the doctrine
    principles in Suthra Pitaka which could be used to describe “Mind and
    Matter”. Hence, Abhidhamma embraces the “Ultimate Teachings”
    (Paramaththa Dheshana) in Buddhism.
    Abhidhamma Pitaka consists of seven treatises; 
    1. Dhammasangani
    2. Vibhanga
    3. Dhatukatha
    4. Puggalapannatti
    5. Kathavatthu
    6. Yamaka
    7. Pattthana
    The
    term “Abhidhamma” simply means “Higher Doctrine”. It is an in-depth
    investigation to mind and matter. It answers many intricate points of
    Dhamma. It analyses complex machinery of human, world, mind, thoughts,
    thought-process, mental formations and etc. Therefore it is indeed a
    complex doctrine to understand. However, there are many who are
    interested in learning this beautiful branch of doctrine. Amongst them
    there are plenty of non-Buddhists as well. This effort is to present
    this doctrine in an “Easy to Understand” manner. 


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    comments (0)
    10/27/18
    LESSON 2789 Sun 28 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 5:15 pm

    LESSON 2789 Sun 28 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    The Buddha not only makes suffering and release
    from suffering the focus of his teaching, but he deals with the problem of
    suffering in a way that reveals extraordinary psychological insight. He traces
    suffering to its roots within our minds, first to our craving and clinging, and
    then a step further back to ignorance, a primordial unawareness of the true
    nature of things. Since suffering arises from our own minds, the cure must be
    achieved within our minds, by dispelling our defilements and delusions with
    insight into reality. The beginning point of the Buddha’s teaching is the
    unawakened mind, in the grip of its afflictions, cares, and sorrows; the end
    point is the awakened mind, blissful, radiant, and free.

    (1) We must overcome exploitative greed with
    global generosity, helpfulness, and cooperation.
    (2) We must replace hatred and revenge with a policy of kindness, tolerance,
    and forgiveness.
    (3) We must recognize that our world is an interdependent, interwoven whole
    such that irresponsible behavior anywhere has potentially harmful repercussions
    everywhere.

    Namo Sammaasambuddhassa

    Namo Saddhammassa

    Namo Buddhasanghassa

    Homage to the Supremely Awakened One
    Homage to the Sublime Teaching
    Homage to the Buddha’s Community of Monks

    The Abhidhamma forms the third part of the Pali Canon, the
    Tipi.taka. The other two parts are the Vinaya Pi.taka, the code of
    discipline for monks and nuns, and the Sutta Pi.taka, which contains
    the Buddha’s discourses. The word “Abhidhamma” means the higher
    teaching because it treats subjects exclusively in an ultimate sense (paramatthasacca),
    differing from the Sutta Pi.taka where there is often the use of
    expressions valid only from the standpoint of conventional truth (vohaarasacca).
    In the Abhidhamma the philosophical standpoint of the Buddha is given
    in a pure form without admixture of personalities, anecdotes, or
    discussions. It deals with realities in detail and consists of numerous
    classifications. These may at first discourage the prospective student.
    However, if one perseveres one will be able to derive much benefit in
    life-situations from the practical application of the knowledge gained
    through study of the Abhidhamma.

    Origins

    Theravaada tradition holds that the Buddha conceived the Abhidhamma
    in the fourth week after his awakenment, while still sitting in the
    vicinity of the Bodhi tree. Tradition also has it that he first
    preached the Abhidhamma to the assembly of deities in the Taavati.msa
    heaven; his mother, reborn as a deity, was present in the assembly.
    This can be taken to mean that the Buddha, by intense concentration,
    transcended the earth-bound mentality and rose mentally to the world of
    the deities, a feat made possible by his attainment of higher powers (abhiññaa)
    through utmost perfection in mental concentration. Having preached the
    Abhidhamma to the deities, he returned to earth, that is, to normal
    human consciousness, and preached it to the venerable Saariputta, the
    arahant disciple most advanced in wisdom.

    From ancient times doubts have been expressed as to whether the
    Abhidhamma was really taught by the Buddha. What is important for us is
    to experience the realities described in the Abhidhamma. Then one will
    realize for oneself that such profound truths can emanate only from a
    source of supreme awakenment, from a Buddha. Much of what is
    contained in the Abhidhamma is also found in the Sutta Pi.taka and such
    sermons had never been heard by anyone until they were uttered by the
    Buddha. Therefore those who deny that the source of the Abhidhamma was
    the Buddha will then have to say that the discourses also were not
    uttered by the Buddha. At any rate, according to the Theravaada
    tradition, the essence of the Abhidhamma, the fundamentals, the
    framework, is ascribed to the Buddha. The tabulations and
    classifications may have been the work of later scholars. What is
    important is the essence; it is this we should try to experience for
    ourselves.

    The question is also raised whether the Abhidhamma is essential for
    Dhamma practice. The answer to this will depend on the individual who
    undertakes the practice. People vary in their levels of understanding
    and spiritual development. Ideally all the different spiritual
    faculties should be harmonized, but some people are quite content with
    devotional practice based on faith, while others are keen on developing
    penetrative insight. The Abhidhamma is most useful to those who want to
    understand, who want to know the Dhamma in depth and detail. It aids
    the development of insight into the three characteristics of
    existence-impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and no-self. It will be
    found useful not only during the periods devoted to formal meditation,
    but also during the rest of the day when we are engaged in various
    chores. When we experience realities then we are deriving benefit from
    the study of the Abhidhamma. A comprehensive knowledge of the
    Abhidhamma is further useful to those engaged in teaching and
    explaining the Dhamma to others

    The Ultimate Realities

    The Abhidhamma deals with realities existing in an ultimate sense, called in Pali paramattha dhammaa. There are four such realities:

    Citta, mind or consciousness, defined as that which knows or
    experiences an object. Citta occurs as distinct momentary states of
    consciousness.
    Cetasikas, the mental factors that arise and occur along with the cittas.
    Ruupa, physical phenomena, or material form.
    Nibbaana.
    Citta, the cetasikas, and ruupa are conditioned realities. They
    arise because of conditions and disappear when their conditions cease
    to sustain them. Therefore they are impermanent. Nibbaana is an
    unconditioned reality. It does not arise and therefore does not fall
    away. These four realities can be experienced regardless of what name
    we give them. Any other thing — be it within ourselves or without,
    past, present, or future, coarse or subtle, low or lofty, far or near —
    is a concept and not an ultimate reality.

    Citta, cetasikas, and nibbaana are also called naama. The two
    conditioned naamas, citta and cetasikas, together with ruupa make up naama-ruupa, the psycho-physical organism. Each of us, in the ultimate sense, is a naama-ruupa,
    a compound of mental and material phenomena, and nothing more. Apart
    from these three realities that go to form the naama-ruupa compound
    there is no ego, self, or soul. The naama part of the compound is what
    experiences an object. The ruupa part does not experience anything.
    When the body is injured it is not the body, which is ruupa, that feels
    the pain, but naama, the mental side. When we are hungry it is not the
    stomach that feels the hunger but again the naama. However, naama
    cannot eat the food to ease the hunger. The naama, the mind and its
    factors, makes the ruupa, the body, ingest the food. Thus neither the
    naama nor the ruupa has any efficient power of its own. One is
    dependent on the other; one supports the other. Both naama and ruupa
    arise because of conditions and perish immediately, and this is
    happening every moment of our lives. By studying and experiencing these
    realities we will get insight into: (1) what we truly are; (2) what we
    find around us; (3) how and why we react to what is within and around
    us; and (4) what we should aspire to reach as a spiritual goal

    The Lesser Section on Virtue

    “And how is a monk consummate in
    virtue? Abandoning the taking of life, he abstains from the taking of life. He
    dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful,
    compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. This is part of his virtue.

    “Abandoning the taking of what
    is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He takes only what is
    given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self
    that has become pure. This, too, is part of his virtue.

    “Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives
    a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager’s
    way. This, too, is part of his virtue.

    “Abandoning false speech, he
    abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm,
    reliable, no deceiver of the world. This, too, is part of his virtue.

    “Abandoning divisive speech he
    abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to
    break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he
    does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus
    reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he
    loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create
    concord. This, too, is part of his virtue.

    “Abandoning abusive speech, he
    abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear,
    that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and
    pleasing to people at large. This, too, is part of his virtue.

    “Abandoning idle chatter, he
    abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what
    is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words
    worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the
    goal. This, too, is part of his virtue.

    “He abstains from damaging seed
    and plant life.

    “He eats only once a day,
    refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.

    “He abstains from dancing,
    singing, instrumental music, and from watching shows.

    “He abstains from wearing
    garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and cosmetics.

    “He abstains from high and
    luxurious beds and seats.

    “He abstains from accepting gold
    and money.

    “He abstains from accepting
    uncooked grain… raw meat… women and girls… male and female slaves…
    goats and sheep… fowl and pigs… elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares…
    fields and property.

    “He abstains from running
    messages… from buying and selling… from dealing with false scales, false
    metals, and false measures… from bribery, deception, and fraud.

    “He abstains from mutilating,
    executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

    “This, too, is part of his
    virtue.

    Puggalapannatti (”Designation of Person”, or
    “Descriptions of Individuals), an interesting psychological typology in
    which people are classified according to their intellectual acumen and
    spiritual attainments.
    Dukkara.m (Kummo) Sutta
    Difficult (or The Tortoise)

    …the deva spoke this verse…:

    Hard it is to keep, and hard to bear,Recluse-life for him who lacks the skill.Obstacles abound, the fool is lost.How long can he endure the holy life,If he cannot hold his heart in check?Caught now here, now there, he stumbles, falls,
    [The Blessed One replied:]

    As the tortoise draws into his shell
    Each limb, the monk, withdrawn, with mind applied,
    Unattached, and doing harm to none,
    Passions wholly stilled, dwells blaming none.1

    PEACE BEGINS WITHIN ME

    GET A VOTE AND A NOTE !
    FOR THE BSP !
    DONT WAIT! BUT BAIT !
    FOR THE MASTER KEY !
    It was resolved by www.ambedkar and http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org as follows:

    www.ambedkar.org
    will be collecting Rs.500 per month from its supporters to be handed
    over to the Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhhaya Movement through
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar to enable to get the Master Key. The Karnataka
    State Cadres will work hard for a Vote and and a Note campaign by collecting Rs.10 from each member.

    http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/images/i/in%7Dbsp.gif

    *ಡಿವಿಜನ್ ಮಟ್ಟದ ಸಭೆ* ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸಂಯೋಜಕರಾದ ಮಾನ್ಯ ಎಂಎಲ್ ತೋಮರ್,ಮಾನ್ಯ ಎನ್ ಮಹೇಶ್,ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷರು ಪ್ರೊ ಹರಿರಾಮ್, ಉಪಾಧ್ಯಕ್ಷರು ಮಾನ್ಯ ಮಾರಸಂದ್ರ ಮುನಿಯಪ್ಪ ಹಾಗೂ ಜೋನ್ ಉಸ್ತುವಾರಿ ನಾಯಕರು ಈ ಕೆಳಕಂಡಂತೆ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಡಿವಿಷನ್ ಮಟ್ಟದ ಸಭೆ ನಡೆಸಲಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

    ತಮ್ಮ ಡಿವಿಜನ್ ನಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರತಿ ಜಿಲ್ಲಾ /ಅಸೆಂಬ್ಲಿ/ ಸೆಕ್ಟರ್ /ಬೂತ್ ಮಟ್ಟದ ಬಿಎಸ್ಪಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಿ ವಿ ಎಫ್ ನ ಪದಾಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳ ಸಭೆಯನ್ನು ಒಳಾಂಗಣದಲ್ಲಿ ನಡೆಸಬೇಕು.ಸಮಿತಿಯ ವರದಿ ಸಿದ್ಧ ಇರಲಿ.

    *11 ನವೆಂಬರ್ ಮದ್ಯಾನ್ಹ 2ಕ್ಕೆ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸಮಿತಿ ಸಭೆ ಕರೆಯಲಾಗಿದೆ*

    12 ನವೆಂಬರ್-ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು ನಗರ,ಗ್ರಾ ,ಕೋಲಾರ ,
    ಚಿಕ್ಕಬಳ್ಳಾಪುರ

    13 ನವೆಂಬರ್ -ಮಂಡ್ಯ, ರಾಮನಗರ ಹಾಸನ

    14 ನವೆಂಬರ್ -ಮೈಸೂರು, ಚಾಮರಾಜನಗರ,ಕೊಡಗು

    15 ನವೆಂಬರ್ -ಚಿಕ್ಕಮಗಳೂರು,ಉಡುಪಿ, ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಕನ್ನಡ, ಉತ್ತರ ಕನ್ನಡ,

    16 ನವೆಂಬರ್ -ಚಿತ್ರದುರ್ಗ, ದಾವಣಗೆರೆ,ಶಿವಮೊಗ್ಗ,
    ತುಮಕೂರು

    17 ನವೆಂಬರ್ - ಬಳ್ಳಾರಿ ಗದಗ, ಹಾವೇರಿ

    25 ನವೆಂಬರ್ - ಗುಲ್ಬರ್ಗ, ಬೀದರ್, ರಾಯಚೂರು, ಯಾದಗಿರಿ.

    26ನವೆಂಬರ್-ವಿಜಯಪುರ, ಬಾಗಲಕೋಟ, ಕೊಪ್ಪಳ

    27 ನವೆಂಬರ್ - ಬೆಳಗಾವಿ, ಧಾರವಾಡ

    ಜೋನ್ ,ಡಿವಿಜನ್, ಜಿಲ್ಲಾ ಪದಾಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ಒಟ್ಟಾಗಿ ಶ್ರಮಿಸಿ ಡಿವಿಜನ್ ಮಟ್ಟದ ಸಭೆಗಳನ್ನು ಯಶಸ್ವಿಗೊಳಿಸಲು ಕೋರಿಕೆ.

    ಜೈಭೀಮ್,
    ಪ್ರೊ ಹರಿರಾಮ್
    ರಾಜ್ಯಾಧ್ಯಕ್ಷರು
    Bahujan Samaj Party

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    LESSON 2787 Fri 26 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

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    LESSON 2788 Sat 27 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE
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    LESSON 2788 Sat 27 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    The History of Buddhism Soon after Buddha’s death or parinibbana, five hundred monks met at the first council at Rajagrha, under the leadership of Kashyapa. Upali recited the monastic code (Vinaya) as he remembered it. Ananda, Buddha’s cousin, friend, and favorite disciple — and a man of prodigious memory! — recited Buddha’s lessons (the Suttas). The monks debated details and voted on final versions. These were then committed to memory by other monks, to be translated into the many languages of the Indian plains. It should be noted that Buddhism remained an oral tradition for over 200 years.

    Tibet. Finally, let’s turn out attention to the most mysterious site of Buddhism’s history, Tibet. Its first encounter with Buddhism occurred in the 700’s ad, when a Tantric master, Guru Rinpoché, came from India to battle the demons of Tibet for control. The demons submitted, but they remained forever a part of Tibetan Buddhism — as its protectors!

    One who sees the Dhamma sees me. One who sees
    me sees the Dhamma.” Buddha

    Budh is Wisdom

    Buddha
    is a Title Like a President or Prime Minister of a Country-meaning- Any
    One with an Exalted, Blessed, Noble and an Awakened Mighty Great Mind
    with full Awareness

    Dhamma is the Practice of His Teachings

    Vinaya Pitaka
    The Basket of the Discipline

    Thou Shalt Not Cut this Tree!

    There are five nikayas (collections) of suttas:

    The Vinaya Pitaka, the first division of the Tipitaka,
    is the textual framework upon which the monastic community (Sangha) is
    built. It includes not only the rules governing the life of every
    Theravada bhikkhu (monk) and bhikkhuni (nun), but also a
    host of procedures and conventions of etiquette that support harmonious
    relations, both among the monastics themselves, and between the
    monastics and their lay supporters, upon whom they depend for all their
    material needs.

    When the Buddha first established the Sangha, the community
    initially lived in harmony without any codified rules of conduct. As
    the Sangha gradually grew in number and evolved into a more complex
    society, occasions inevitably arose when a member would act in an
    unskillful way. Whenever one of these cases was brought to the Buddha’s
    attention, he would lay down a rule establishing a suitable punishment
    for the offense, as a deterrent to future misconduct. The Buddha’s
    standard reprimand was itself a powerful corrective:

    It is not fit, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is not proper, it
    is unworthy of a recluse, it is not lawful, it ought not to be done.
    How could you, foolish man, having gone forth under this Dhamma and
    Discipline which are well-taught, [commit such and such offense]?… It
    is not, foolish man, for the benefit of un-believers, nor for the
    increase in the number of believers, but, foolish man, it is to the
    detriment of both unbelievers and believers, and it causes wavering in
    some.

    — The Book of the Discipline, Part I, by I.B. Horner (London: Pali Text Society, 1982), pp. 36-37.

    The monastic tradition and the rules upon which it is built are
    sometimes naïvely criticized — particularly here in the West — as
    irrelevant to the “modern” practice of Buddhism. Some see the Vinaya as
    a throwback to an archaic patriarchy, based on a hodge-podge of ancient
    rules and customs — quaint cultural relics that only obscure the
    essence of “true” Buddhist practice. This misguided view overlooks one
    crucial fact: it is thanks to the unbroken lineage of monastics who
    have consistently upheld and protected the rules of the Vinaya for
    almost 2,600 years that we find ourselves today with the luxury of
    receiving the priceless teachings of Dhamma. Were it not for the
    Vinaya, and for those who continue to keep it alive to this day, there
    would be no Buddhism.

    It helps to keep in mind that the name the Buddha gave to the spiritual path he taught was “Dhamma-vinaya” — the Doctrine (Dhamma) and Discipline (Vinaya)
    — suggesting an integrated body of wisdom and ethical training. The
    Vinaya is thus an indispensable facet and foundation of all the
    Buddha’s teachings, inseparable from the Dhamma, and worthy of study by
    all followers — lay and ordained, alike. Lay practitioners will find in
    the Vinaya Pitaka many valuable lessons concerning human nature,
    guidance on how to establish and maintain a harmonious community or
    organization, and many profound teachings of the Dhamma itself. But its
    greatest value, perhaps, lies in its power to inspire the layperson to
    consider the extraordinary possibilities presented by a life of true
    renunciation, a life lived fully in tune with the Dhamma.

    Contents [go up]

    I. Suttavibhanga — the basic rules of conduct (Patimokkha) for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, along with the “origin story” for each one.
    II. Khandhaka
    A. Mahavagga
    — in addition to rules of conduct and etiquette for the Sangha, this
    section contains several important sutta-like texts, including an
    account of the period immediately following the Buddha’s Awakening, his
    first sermons to the group of five monks, and stories of how some of
    his great disciples joined the Sangha and themselves attained Awakening.
    B. Cullavagga
    — an elaboration of the bhikkhus’ etiquette and duties, as well as the
    rules and procedures for addressing offences that may be committed
    within the Sangha.
    III. Parivara — A
    recapitulation of the previous sections, with summaries of the rules
    classified and re-classified in various ways for instructional purposes.

    Suttavibhanga
    (selected texts)
    The Suttavibhanga contains the basic training rules for bhikkhus and
    bhikkhunis, along with the “origin story” for each one. These rules are
    summarized in the Patimokkha, and amount to 227 rules for the bhikkhus, 311 for the bhikkhunis. The Patimokkkha rules are grouped as follows:

    Parajika: rules entailing expulsion from the Sangha (Defeat) (4 for bhikkhus, 8 for bhikkhunis)
    Sanghadisesa: rules entailing an initial and subsequent meeting of the Sangha (13, 17)
    Aniyata (indefinite) rules (2, 0)
    Nissaggiya pacittiya: rules entailing forfeiture and confession (30, 30)
    Pacittiya: rules entailing confession (92, 166)
    Patidesaniya: rules entailing acknowledgement (4, 8)
    Sekhiya: rules of training (75, 75)
    Adhikarana samatha: rules for settling disputes (7, 7)
    Summaries and anthologies based on the Suttavibhanga:

    The Bhikkhus’ Rules — A Guide for Laypeople: The Theravadin Buddhist Monk’s Rules Compiled and Explained, by Bhikkhu Ariyesako.
    The Bhikkhuni Patimokkha: The Bhikkhunis’ Code of Discipline, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. A concise summary of the bhikkhuni Patimokkha rules.
    The Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume I: The Patimokkha Training Rules Translated and Explained, by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. This book provides an in-depth examination of each of the rules.
    Introduction to the Patimokkha Training Rules, by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    The Patimokkha: The Bhikkhus’ Code of Discipline, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. A concise summary of the bhikkhu Patimokkha rules.
    Introduction to the Patimokkha Rules

    Rule summaries [go up]
    With this background, we may now look at the content of the rules.
    What follows is a list summarizing the basic meanings of the rules,
    organized into five major categories: dealing with Right Speech, Right
    Action, Right Livelihood, Communal harmony and the etiquette of a
    contemplative. The first three categories — the factors of the Noble
    Eightfold Path that make up the training in heightened virtue — are
    especially useful for showing how the rules relate to the Buddhist path
    as a whole.

    These five categories are not sharply distinct types. Instead, they
    are more like the colors in the band of light thrown off by a prism —
    discernably different, but shading into one another with no sharp
    dividing lines. Right Speech, for instance, often shades into Communal
    harmony, just as Right Livelihood shades into personal etiquette. Thus
    the placement of a particular rule in one category rather than another
    has been a somewhat arbitrary process. There are a few cases — such as
    Pācittiyas 46 & 84
    — where the reason for placing the rule in a particular category will
    become clear only after reading the detailed discussions in BMC.

    Each rule is followed by a code giving the rule’s number in its section of the Patimokkha.

    If you count the number of rules in the list, you will see that they
    do not quite equal 227. This is because there are a couple of cases
    where I have condensed two or three Sekhiya rules into one summary.

    Right Speech [go up]

    MN 117 defines wrong speech as lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, and idle chatter.

    Lying [go up]

    Making an unfounded charge to a bhikkhu that he has committed a
    pārājika offense, in hopes of having him disrobed, is a saºghādisesa
    offense. (Sg 8)

    Distorting the evidence while accusing a bhikkhu of having committed
    a pārājika offense, in hopes of having him disrobed, is a saºghādisesa
    offense. (Sg 9)

    The intentional effort to misrepresent the truth to another individual is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 1)

    Making an unfounded charge to a bhikkhu — or getting someone else to
    make the charge to him — that he is guilty of a saºghādisesa offense is
    a pācittiya offense. (Pc 76)

    Divisive speech [go up]

    Telling a bhikkhu about insulting remarks made by another bhikkhu —
    in hopes of winning favor or causing a rift — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 3)

    Abusive speech [go up]

    An insult made with malicious intent to another bhikkhu is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 2)

    Idle chatter [go up]

    Visiting lay families — without having informed an available bhikkhu
    — before or after a meal to which one has been invited is a pācittiya
    offense except during the robe season or any time one is making a robe.
    (Pc 46)

    Entering a village, town, or city during the period after noon until
    the following dawn, without having taken leave of an available bhikkhu
    — unless there is an emergency — is a pācittiya offense. (Pc 85)

    Rector
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    OTHERWISE
    YOU ARE NOT
    MY FOLLOWERS!! ! ! !
    SAHIB KANSHI RAM`S INTERVIEW

    QUESTION: Why are you so hostile to all the national
    parties, especially the communists?

    KANSHI RAM: To my mind, all parties represent the forces of status quo.
    For us, politics is the politics of transformation. The existing parties are
    the reason for the status quo. That is why there has been no upward mobility
    for the backward communities. The communist parties have become the biggest
    stumbling block in this regard. They keep talking about change, but work for
    status quo. The BJP is better, they never talk about change. So people never
    feel duped. Parties like the Congress and communists talk about abolishing
    poverty, but work towards keeping people poor. If the poor are not kept poor,
    these people cannot remain in their seats.

    QUESTION: At the Congress centenary, Arun Singh said your emergence was not
    healthy for the national ethos.

    KANSHI RAM: He is the grandson of a maharaja who never kept the interests of
    the nation in mind. Nationalism to him is feudalism. NATIONALISM TO ME IS THE
    MASSES OF INDIA.
    I BELIEVE IN THE TWO NATION THEORY: THOSE WHO OPPRESS AND THOSE WHO ARE
    OPPRESSED .What does the grandson of a wretched maharaja know about
    nationalism? What can we expect from Arun Singh than such things?

    QUESTION: Why is your cadre so hostile to Mahatma Gandhi?

    KANSHI RAM: Gandhi is the root of every thing. I want change. Dr. Ambedkar
    wanted change. But Gandhi was the custodian of the status quo. He wanted
    Shudras to remain Shudras .Gandhi worked to keep the nation divided .We are
    working to unite the nation and erase all artificial divisions.

    QUESTION: Why has your movement taken so much time to become a reality?

    KANSHI RAM: Upto 1971, I was not so much
    interested. I was working with RPI .Then I found I was marching towards a ship
    that others were deserting .It took a long time to prepare myself and others .
    We had to collect a lot of information, so that we could know how to prepare
    society and build a cadre. Preparing society initially took a long time. Now we
    are moving at a tremendous speed. Next year when you meet me, you will ask me
    how we have acquired such a speed.

    QUESTION: How can you abolish caste by floating a casteist party?

    KANSHI RAM: The BSP is not a casteist party. If we are uniting 6000
    castes, how can you call us casteist?

    QUESTION: I believe your party is off-limits to the upper castes.

    KANSHI RAM: The upper castes say why not include us. I say you are
    leading all the parties. If you join our party, you will block change here also
    .THE UPPER CASTES CAN JOIN THE PARTY, BUT THEY CANNOT BE ITS LEADERS
    .LEADERSHIP WILL REMAIN IN THE HANDS OF THE BACKWARD COMMUNITY. My fear is that
    these upper caste people will come into our party and block the process of
    change .When this fear goes, they can join our party.

    QUESTION: What is your constituency?

    KANSHI RAM: I REPRESENT THE CONSTITUENCIES OF BABU JAGJIVAN RAM AND
    CHAUDHARY CHARAN SINGH. AND MAY BE TO SOME EXTENT, SAYED SHAHABUDDIN.

    QUESTION: Politicians we spoke to in Delhi
    say that if the BSP gets too belligerent they will finish you politically.

    KANSHI RAM: WE WILL FINISH THEM .BECAUSE IF INDIRA CAN BE FINISHED BY A
    CHAMAR, ARE THESE FELLOWS GOING TO BE SAVED? WHEN WE ARE 90 PERCENT IN THE
    ARMED FORCES, 70 PER CENT IN THE BSF, 50 PER CENT IN THE CRPF AND THE POLICE,
    WHO CAN DO INJUSTICE TO US? A GENERAL NEEDS LESS BULLETS COMPARED TO JAWANS
    .THEY MAY HAVE GENERALS BUT NO JAWANS.

    QUESTION: Are you advocating an eye for an eye?

    KANSHI RAM: TWO EYES .I tell my followers Ek Eet Ka Jawab, Do Pathron Se
    ( you must retaliate for one brick with two stones ) , otherwise you are not my
    followers .

    QUESTION: So you are propagating violence.

    KANSHI RAM: I am propagating strength. To curb
    violence, I must have strength .Other than me, for instance nobody can crush
    the Shiv Sena. Any time I come to Maharashtra,
    I will finish them .The violence of Shiv Sena will end.

    QUESTION: - How will you do that?

    KANSHI RAM: - Who are the members of the Shiv
    Sena who burn and destroy? They are four castes: 1. Agari 2. Bhandari 3. Koli
    4. Chamar. They are Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and most backward
    communities. As soon as I touch the Maharashtra,
    these people will instantly come with me.

    QUESTION: - What makes you think that the BSP will not
    end up like the RPI? Bargaining for power with the ruling party.

    KANSHI RAM: - The RPI never bargained. It was
    begging. It never reached the status of bargaining .I remember in 1971, the
    party struck an electoral alliance with the Congress to contest 521 seats .The
    Congress contested 520 seats, the RPI contested one seat. I love the RPI, but I
    hate being compared to it. It is like a cheap prostitute available at a
    pittance. As long as I am alive, this will not happen to the BSP. We want
    change .We don’t want alliances with the forces of status quo. If a government
    cannot be formed without our co-operation, then we will have our own
    conditions, for change. We want fundamental and structural changes, not
    cosmetic ones.

    QUESTION: - There are rumours that you met Hazi Mastan
    Mirza at Gonda last November to solicit funds.

    KANSHI RAM: - I have never met him anywhere. I
    have only seen his photograph .He may be paying other people, but not us. In
    fact he is being used against us. If anybody can prove that I have ever met
    him, I am prepared to face the highest punishment .Moreover, how much money
    Hazi Mastan can have? He is a very small man compared to me, as far as funds
    are concerned. If I only have funds like Hazi Mastan, how can I beat the
    Congress and other parties? How many crores can he give us?

    QUESTION: - THERE IS SOME MYSTREY ABOUT THE SOURCES OF
    YOUR FUNDS.

    KANSHI RAM: - My funds come from various sources
    which will not dry up. My funds come from those people who produce wealth. The
    Bahujan Samaj produces wealth. I get my money from them. Lakhs of my people
    spend crores going to festivals like the Kumbh Mela to improve their next
    birth. I tell them that Kanshi Ram does not know anything about the next life.
    But he is an expert in the present life.

    Those interested in improving their next life , I tell
    them , must go to the Brahmins on the banks of the Ganga .Those interested in
    improving their present life must come to me . So they throng to my meetings.

    QUESTION: - There is talk of your being sponsored by
    the CIA.

    KANSHI RAM: - For so many years this government
    has been clapping about it. It distributed lakhs of pamphlets about this in
    Bijnore. But the result was that people became furious and could not be
    purchased. Babu Ji tried to purchase votes at Rs. 1000 each .But even
    those who used to be purchased at Rs.10 turned him down. And if I am a CIA man,
    why hasn’t this government taken any action against me? That shows it is a
    hijra (eunuch) government.

    QUESTION: - They say you spent a lot of money on the Lucknow rally.

    KANSHI RAM: -Rs. 22 lakhs were spent on hiring
    the buses alone .But I am angry. It should have been Rs. 22 crores .A time will
    come when people should spend Rs. 22 crores on my call .I don’t feel any dearth
    of money. If money is coming from a treasury, it will be extinguished. I am
    getting money from a perennial source of funds. I need only one crore rupees to
    win all the 542 parliamentary seats. One day, voters will queue up to pay money
    to Kanshi Ram. The next day, they will que up to vote for Kanshi Ram.

    QUESTION: - Some of your party men have broken away
    from you.

    KANSHI RAM: - You cannot keep all the people
    together. Some people may get tired. Some people may be purchased. Some may
    become frightened. This will be a permanent feature. It will not demoralise us.
    I have created a method where in a given time if 10 people go away , we will
    produce 110 people of the same caliber .Whom we dropped as deadwood , others
    are trying to pick up and burn a fire .They are trying to use them against
    us.

    QUESTION: - You reiterate that you have never taken
    funds from a foreign source.

    KANSHI RAM: - When I went to England two years ago, some people
    - there are seven lakh Chamars there - offered me funds. I decided not to take
    the money, though Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and Buta Singh had taken money
    from the same source - the Guru Ravidass Gurdwara in Birmingham. They had given to Babu Ji also .I
    was the only person who didn’t accept.

    QUESTION: - What Kind of change are you looking
    for?

    KANSHI RAM: - I don’t want temporary changes. I
    am not prepared to attain what I cannot sustain .Let us attain whatever we can,
    but it must be retained and retained only by permanent change.

    QUESTION: - And when do you intend to contest
    elections?

    KANSHI RAM: - I will sutand when there are 100
    constituencies in India
    where I can get a walk over.

    QUESTION: - How long will that take?

    KANSHI RAM: - For so many years this government
    has been clapping about it. It distributed lakhs of pamphlets about this in
    Bijnore. But the result was that people became furious and could not be
    purchased. Babu Ji tried to purchase votes at Rs. 1000 each .But even
    those who used to be purchased at Rs.10 turned him down. And if I am a CIA man,
    why hasn’t this government taken any action against me? That shows it is a
    hijra (eunuch) government.

    QUESTION: - They say you spent a lot of money on the Lucknow rally.

    KANSHI RAM: -Rs. 22 lakhs were spent on hiring
    the buses alone .But I am angry. It should have been Rs. 22 crores .A time will
    come when people should spend Rs. 22 crores on my call .I don’t feel any dearth
    of money. If money is coming from a treasury, it will be extinguished. I am
    getting money from a perennial source of funds. I need only one crore rupees to
    win all the 542 parliamentary seats. One day, voters will queue up to pay money
    to Kanshi Ram. The next day, they will que up to vote for Kanshi Ram.

    QUESTION: - Some of your party men have broken away
    from you.

    KANSHI RAM: - You cannot keep all the people
    together. Some people may get tired. Some people may be purchased. Some may
    become frightened. This will be a permanent feature. It will not demoralise us.
    I have created a method where in a given time if 10 people go away , we will
    produce 110 people of the same caliber .Whom we dropped as deadwood , others
    are trying to pick up and burn a fire .They are trying to use them against
    us.

    QUESTION: - You reiterate that you have never taken funds
    from a foreign source.

    KANSHI RAM: - When I went to England two years ago, some people
    - there are seven lakh Chamars there - offered me funds. I decided not to take
    the money, though Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and Buta Singh had taken money
    from the same source - the Guru Ravidass Gurdwara in Birmingham. They had given to Babu Ji also .I
    was the only person who didn’t accept.

    QUESTION: - What Kind of change are you looking
    for?

    KANSHI RAM: - I don’t want temporary changes. I
    am not prepared to attain what I cannot sustain .Let us attain whatever we can,
    but it must be retained and retained only by permanent change.

    QUESTION: - And when do you intend to contest
    elections?

    KANSHI RAM: - I will stand when there are 100
    constituencies in India
    where I can get a walk over.

    QUESTION: - How long will that take?

    KANSHI RAM: - Two years at the most.

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    of
    ALL SOCIETIES

    From

    PRABANDHAK

    LESSON 2787 Fri 26 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    comments (0)
    10/25/18
    LESSON 2787 Fri 26 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE Buddha Tipitaka The Pali Canon NAMO BUDDHAYA KATHINA CIVARA DANA FESTIVAL – 2018 27th and 28th October 2018 At Maha Bodhi Society, Loka Shanti Buddha Vihara, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru – 560009, India.
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 9:58 pm

    LESSON 2787  Fri 26  Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    Buddha


    Tipitaka

    The Pali Canon

    NAMO BUDDHAYA

    KATHINA CIVARA DANA FESTIVAL – 2018

    27th and 28th October 2018

    At Maha Bodhi Society, Loka Shanti Buddha Vihara, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru – 560009, India.

    Tipitaka

    The Pali Canon

    Sutta Index

    The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka,
    “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language
    texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka
    and the paracanonical
    Pali texts
    (commentaries,

    chronicles,
    etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

    The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the
    texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has
    already been published in English over the years. Although only a small
    fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a
    good place to start.

    The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

    Vinaya Pitaka

    The collection of texts concerning
    the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the
    community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained
    nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes
    the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the
    Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a
    large and diverse spiritual community.

    Sutta Pitaka

    The collection of suttas, or
    discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples,
    containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than nine
    hundred sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are
    divided among five nikayas (collections):

    ·        
    Digha Nikaya
    the “long collection”

    ·        
    Majjhima Nikaya
    — the “middle-length collection”

    ·        
    Samyutta Nikaya
    — the “grouped collection”

    ·        
    Anguttara Nikaya
    — the “further-factored collection”

    ·        
    Khuddaka Nikaya
    — the “collection of little texts”:

    o       
    Khuddakapatha

    o       
    Dhammapada

    o       
    Udana

    o       
    Itivuttaka

    o       
    Sutta Nipata

    o       
    Vimanavatthu

    o       
    Petavatthu

    o       
    Theragatha

    o       
    Therigatha

    o       
    Jataka

    o       
    Niddesa

    o       
    Patisambhidamagga

    o       
    Apadana

    o       
    Buddhavamsa

    o       
    Cariyapitaka

    o       
    Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese
    edition of the Tipitaka)

    o       
    Petakopadesa (  ”   ”
     )

    o       
    Milindapañha
    (  ”   ”  )

    Abhidhamma Pitaka

    The collection of texts in which
    the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0UVUHf6FHk&t=1668sSutta Study Class
    Published on Feb 25, 2018
    . Objective Of the Class
    . Contents & Structure
    . Introduction to Pali Canon (Tipitaka)
    . English translators of Pali Texts
    Category
    People & Blogs


    youtube.com
    . Objective Of the Class . Contents & Structure . Introduction to Pali Canon (Tipitaka) . English translators of Pali Texts

    🙏🌺🙏🌺🙏🌺


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DxQkoZg78WMAnanda Bhante Maha Bodhi Society General SecretarySwaraj TV
    Published on Aug 9, 2013
    Category
    News & Politics🙏🌺🙏🌺🙏🌺

    You are most welcome to participate. For more details please contact Mr.Sanjit 09535941846 or email to info@mahabodhi.info

    NAMO BUDDHAYA

    https://www.youtube.com/watch… - Lankarama Buddhist Vihara Sydney 2017LBYG Sydney
    Published on Oct 29, 2017
    Lankarama Vihara is a traditional Theravada Buddhist Temple established
    in Sydney that promotes Dhamma, the teachings of Buddha in Australia.
    The 26th Katina Pinkama was held at Lankarama Buddhist Vihara on the
    14th October 2017.

    Even in the most rural villages in Sri Lanka,
    Buddhist devotees will carry out the Katina Pinkama with much devotion.
    A unique feature of this noble
    meritorious act is that is performed entirely in the name of Buddhist
    monks. Katina is undoubtedly the most important religious event for
    Buddhists. One of the stanzas chanted during Katina glorifies the
    greatness of the merit which one gets from performing Katina. The stanza
    says that a diamond could tremble, shake and break at times. However,
    the merit obtained by offering of Katina cannot be nullified by anything
    until one achieves Nirvana. So if we truly understand that this is the
    essence of the Katina, then we would understand just how blessed we are
    to be able to participate in such a ceremony.

    May you be blessed by the Triple Gems!
    Category
    Nonprofits & Activism🙏🌺🙏🌺🙏🌺
    NAMO BUDDHAYA

    KATHINA CIVARA DANA FESTIVAL – 2018

    27th and 28th October 2018

    At Maha Bodhi Society, Loka Shanti Buddha Vihara, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru – 560009, India.

    🌸🌸🌸
    One of the important Buddhist festivals is the Kathina Civara Dana
    Festival – Offering of the Kathina Robe to the Sangha every year after
    the three months of rainy season. This year the Upasakas and Upasikas of
    the Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru, are offering Kathina on 27th and
    28th October 2018.

    The ceremony will start on 27-10-2018 at 5 PM
    by the inauguration of the weaving of the Kathina robe in a solemn
    traditional way. First there will be offering puja to the Triple Gem and
    undertaking of the eight precepts – Attha sila. The weavers will weave
    the cloth for robe whole night. During this weaving ceremony throughout
    the night there will also be Meditation & a chanting of the Great
    Protection – Maha Paritta chanting by the monks.

    In the morning
    of 28-10-2018 when the weaving is finished, the clothe pieces weaved by
    the different groups are stitched into a robe and the Kathina Robe will
    be offered to the Sangha at 9 AM. Along with Kathina Robe the lay
    devotees donate other requisites of the monks and monastery and there
    will be puja and talks by monks & dignitaries. The program ends with
    lunch dana for monks at 11 AM and punyanumodana, followed by lunch for
    all people.

    You are most welcome to participate. For more details please contact Mr.Sanjit 09535941846 or email to info@mahabodhi.info

    NAMO BUDDHAYA


    youtube.com
    Lankarama
    Vihara is a traditional Theravada Buddhist Temple established in Sydney
    that promotes Dhamma, the teachings of Buddha in Australia. The…



    Rector
    JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart





    INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

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    for
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    From

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    comments (0)
    10/24/18
    LESSON 2786 Thu 25 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 6:59 pm

    LESSON 2786 Thu 25 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    🙏🌺🙏🌺🙏🌺
    NAMO BUDDHAYA

    KATHINA CIVARA DANA FESTIVAL – 2018

    27th and 28th October 2018

    At Maha Bodhi Society, Loka Shanti Buddha Vihara, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru – 560009, India.

    🌸🌸🌸
    One of the important Buddhist festivals is the Kathina Civara Dana Festival – Offering of the Kathina Robe to the Sangha every year after the three months of rainy season. This year the Upasakas and Upasikas of the Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru, are offering Kathina on 27th and 28th October 2018.

    The ceremony will start on 27-10-2018 at 5 PM by the inauguration of the weaving of the Kathina robe in a solemn traditional way. First there will be offering puja to the Triple Gem and undertaking of the eight precepts – Attha sila. The weavers will weave the cloth for robe whole night. During this weaving ceremony throughout the night there will also be Meditation & a chanting of the Great Protection – Maha Paritta chanting by the monks.

    In the morning of 28-10-2018 when the weaving is finished, the clothe pieces weaved by the different groups are stitched into a robe and the Kathina Robe will be offered to the Sangha at 9 AM. Along with Kathina Robe the lay devotees donate other requisites of the monks and monastery and there will be puja and talks by monks & dignitaries. The program ends with lunch dana for monks at 11 AM and punyanumodana, followed by lunch for all people.

    You are most welcome to participate. For more details please contact Mr.Sanjit 09535941846 or email to info@mahabodhi.info

    NAMO BUDDHAYA
    🙏🌺🙏🌺🙏🌺

    Ambedkar’s Efforts for Adivasis

    All these people are now realizing that Dr. Ambedkar had struggled a lot for Adivasis also. We must strive for upliftment of BCs and Adivasis said Dr. Ambedkar. The purpose of keeping them in sub-clause (2) of Hindu Code Bill was to make some provision for them and Hindu Law would “apply to them only if it is proved that Hindu customs and Hindu usages are prevallent in that class”, and it will not apply to them unless “they have adopted the customs.” [W&S, vol. 14 part 2, p.886-7]
    Ambedkar asked for right of Adult franchise for Adivasis, in 1928, Simon Commision Statemnt, commenting that Legislatures are the places where “social battles have to be fought, previlages have to be destroyed, and rights have to be won”. He avered that their illeteracy should not come in way of giving them right to vote, as even an illiterate is intellegent and knows his welfare. [W&S, vol.2, p.471]

    Disagreeing with the Britishers’ idea of keeping the Adivasis segregated, during the evidence taken before the joint Committee on Indian Constitutional Reforms in 1933, he professed the ideal that these primitive people should not remain primitive and they should cease to be an isolated part of humanity and take part in the public affairs of this country like others. That they must not loose their lands and be landless labourers and their lands be protected from money lendes by suitable Laws. The education is more neccesary for BCs and Adivasis, more than anybody else, he said, and wanted adequate representation for them in legislature assuring the friendship of many BCs. [W&S, vol.2, p.737 ff.]

    Election Commission India

    Elections India : Article 324 of the constitution establishes an independent Election Commission to supervise parliamentary and state elections in India. Supervising elections in the world’s largest democracy is by any standard an immense undertaking. Some 521 million people were eligible to vote in 1991.

    We the people - these are the most important words in our constitution. Everything depends on
    us- the voters,who have an opportunity and the right to choose our representatives, demand
    accountability and determine the direction of growth and governance of the country. Several
    problems have surfaced in the gigantic task of conducting elections in India and to ensure that
    elections are free and fair. With each passing election, the educated citizens of our country
    seem to have grown ignorant and apathetic about the electoral process and elections. The result
    has been a steady deterioration in the standards and practices of political parties reflected in
    rampant corruption and the reckless use of money and muscle power to win elections.

    Active participation of citizens is an absolute prerequisite to make the electoral system more representative, fair, transparent and free from all the other ills. Eleanor Roosevelt once said:“nobody can hurt you without your consent” which in this context can be rephrased as“nobody can marginalise you without your cooperation.
    Hence include all the eligible voters whose names are missing in the voters list with their photo identity.

    Strive for Election Tribunal to form Election Committee like any other Parliamentary Committee with the representatives of all sections of the society to ensure that all eligible voters are included in the voters list with their photo identity. And to see that no elections are conducted till this process is completed as enshrined by the constitution of India. And the Chief Election Commission to come under RTI.

    Eacha nd every Election Office in Each Constituency must have representative from different sections of the society right from the begining of the election process till the end.

    from
    Analytic Insight Net -

    Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart

    Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice
    University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in

    105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

    Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya
    Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
    
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
    is
    an Online GOOD NEWS CHANNEL FOR WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE FOR ALL
    SOCIETIES Catering to more than 3000 Emails: 200 WhatsApp, Facebook and
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    is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world.
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    Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal.

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    buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
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    comments (0)
    10/23/18
    LESSON 2785 Wed 24 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 6:44 pm

    LESSON 2785 Wed 24 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    BUDDHISM- Our Message of Peace, Non-violence and Goodwill

    Centuries after it disappeared from India, Buddhism has staged a comeback here as a tool for social reformation. It remains to be seen whether its essence, that which makes it a way of living peacefully and gently, will be adopted as readily
    On October 16, 2002, when most Indians were celebrating Dussehra, symbolic of the victory of justice over injustice, five Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath families in Jhajjar, Haryana were mourning relatives who had been lynched by upper caste people. The incident was a millionth repeat of the injustice that has plagued Indian society for millennia, where it has branded a section of itself as less than human and perpetrated the grossest injustices against them. Even today, 60 years after the Indian Constitution outlawed it, 22 per cent of the country’s population continues to bear the cross of ‘untochability’.

    Although caste-based political movements have attempted to liberate Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath politically and socially, another, more controversial choice made available to them is that of religious conversion. This is the choice that families of the Jhajjar victims made, when 11 days after the gruesome massacre, they converted to Buddhism. In doing so, they followed the example of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar, an architect of the Indian Constitution, and a Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath , who embraced Buddhism with 3,80,000 followers just six weeks before his death in 1956. Babasaheb, who had combated narrow casteist mindsets all his life, ultimately decided that the best course of action would be to forge a new religious identity for Dalits: one that would free them from oppression and empower them with inner strength.

    Why Buddhism?

    Babasaheb examined Islam, Christianity and Sikhism before turning to Buddhism. One reason was that right at its origin 2,500 years ago, it had become a tool for a caste revolution. Many of those oppressed as lower castes at the time took refuge in the Buddha’s dhamma because it offered the possibility of a dignified life beyond caste or gender.

    Said Ambedkar: “Buddhism teaches social, intellectual, economic and political freedom—equality not only between man and man but also between man and woman. If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason.”

    In the Buddha’s time, Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath had already borne the yoke of caste for a couple of thousand years. The aboriginal inhabitants of India, they were enslaved by Aryan tribes during 1800-1500 BC. Gradually, the Aryan system of division of labour hardened into a rigid system determined by birth. In this, the aboriginal Indians were the lowest of the low, made to do the most menial of jobs. Before long, they had been categorized as ‘untouchables’.

    According to the law book Manusmriti, untouchables could not own property or go to heaven unless they worshipped Brahmins. It was explained that they were being punished for sins of previous lives, a hypothesis that gave Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath an inferiority complex.

    The Buddha’s Attitude

    Around the fifth century BC, an anti-caste revolution began in India. Gautama Buddha, born a Kshatriya (warrior caste) prince, began talking of a dhamma whose social expression, the sangha (community), was devoid of caste and gender distinctions.

    In a story from the Pali suttas, we are told that a Brahmin enquired the Buddha about his lineage, who answered: “No Brahmin I, no prince, / No farmer, or aught else. / All worldly ranks I know, / but knowing go my way / as simply nobody: / Homeless, in pilgrim garb, / with shaven crown, I go my way alone, serene. / To ask my birth is vain.”

    Indeed we hear of the Buddha equally welcoming Upali, the barber; Suniita, the scavenger; Ambapaali, the courtesan; Saati, a fisherman; Subhaa, a smith’s daughter; and Punnaa, daughter of a deerstalker, into his fold and teaching them the dharma. For, he believed: “By birth is not one an outcast, / By birth is not one a Brahmin. / By deeds is one an outcaste, / By deeds is one a Brahmin.”

    Sangha Life

    Bhikkus ordained by the Buddha were from various communities. A bhikku wasn’t a priest but a monk, who lived on alms and was a guide on religious and social matters to the larger lay sangha. The Buddha told them: “O bhikkus, just as the rivers when they have fallen into the great ocean lose their identity, just so brethren, do these four castes—Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras—when they begin to follow the doctrine and discipline as propounded by the Tathagata, renounce different names of castes and rank and become members of one society.”

    The bhikkus would accept food from all castes, including ‘untouchables’. This was significant since caste rules dictated that one rather starve than accept food from a person of caste lower than one’s own. The deliberate breaking of caste rules signified the contempt of the aware mind for superficial distinctions, evident in this poem by an early bhikku: “I made a hut / From three palm leaves by the Ganges / Took a crematory pot / For an eating bowl,/ Lifted my robe off a trash bin / Two rainy seasons passed and I / Spoke only one word / Clouds came again / But this time the darkness / Tore open.”

    Using a crematory pot as food bowl and taking a robe from garbage were marks of renunciation that indicated a blurring and eventual dissolution of caste boundaries. Needless to say, Buddhism came to be known as the religion of the common man. However by the 12th century AD, the Brahmanical religion had reinforced itself and Buddhism was practically extinct in India.

    New Cycle

    When Ambedkar took refuge in the Buddha, dhamma and sangha on October 14, 1956, he marked the return of what had by then become a world religion. That this was done to transcend caste oppression seemed an appropriate echo of the historical Buddha’s times. The movement that began that day is referred to as neo-Buddhism.

    Most neo-Buddhists follow the Theravada school of Buddhism. Ambedkar himself didn’t wish to get embroiled in the Hinayana-Mahayana controversy, preferring to follow ‘Buddhayana’, vehicle of the Buddha. Since Ambedkar’s death, an estimated one crore Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath , mostly from Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, have followed him into Buddhism. According to Bhante Dipankara Sumedho, chairperson of the Buddhist Cultural Foundation: “Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath embrace Buddhism for dignity rather than for economic reasons.”

    Mass Conversions

    In recent years, mass conversions of Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath to Buddhism have been organised.

    They realized that the condition of my people could only be improved if they could embrace Buddhism, which does not believe in caste. They have found Buddhism to be rational and logical.They also sees caste as a psychological barrier. Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that The Great Prabuddha Bharath have been psyched into believing that they can’t change their fate, that they are being punished for past sins. Embracing Buddhism has helped them come out of these fatalistic misconceptions. They not comfortable with the word ‘conversion’, though. “Buddhism is not alien; India is its motherland. Buddhist philosophy is practical; it talks of human rights and how to eradicate suffering,” They believe. It is just Dikhsa.

    They have regained self-esteem. Even if the upper castes look down upon them, they know they belong to a religion that believes in universal brotherhood.

    Dhamma Education

    Eminent Buddhist missionary Ven. L. Ariyawnsa Nayaka Mahathera said during his 1968 speech at the Buddhist National Conference in Mumbai: “Most new Buddhists are Buddhists only in name as they have no education and training in the Buddhist way of life. Unfortunately, Babasaheb passed away within two months after initiating the movement. So, they need assistance and guidance for practicing the dhamma properly.” He advised bhikkus to roam from village to village to propagate the teachings.

    Bhante Sumedho of the Ashoka Mission Vihara, New Delhi, points out: “There are many traditional Buddhists who are not religious and Awakened Buddhists (neo-Buddhists) who try their best to follow the Buddhist way of life.” A visit to the Vihara confirms this. Founded by Cambodian monk Ven. Dharmavara Mahathera in 1948, it is a place where neo- and traditional Buddhists meet regularly for spiritual practice.

    Lama Lobzang, president of the Vihara, says: “Traditional Buddhist monks are unable to reach out to the neo-Buddhists mainly because of the language barrier. We need more monks who would teach neo-Buddhists in their own dialect.” Organizations like the Bharatiya Boudh Maha Seva, Punjab-based Buddha Parchar Samiti, Taiwanese Corporate Body of Buddha Education Foundation, and the Vipassana Visodhan Vinyas in Igatpuri, Maharashtra have translated Buddhist works into Indian languages for neo-Buddhists.

    Many neo-Buddhists continue to be deeply connected to Hindu deities and sometimes celebrate Hindu festivals. Bhante Sumedho sees nothing wrong with this. “One finds festivals common to Hinduism and Buddhism, especially those that occur on full moon days. Also, King Ashoka accepted Buddhism on Dussehra and made it the national religion on Deepavali. So these are special days for us too.”

    The Essence

    One may embrace Buddhism by taking diksha from an eminent monk. The conversion ceremony is simple. One takes refuge in the Three Jewels—Buddha, dhamma and sangha, and chants the five precepts that one will abstai
    Bn from killing, stealing, adultery, lying and intoxicants. Yet the essence of the dharma lies in its practice, in transcending afflictive emotions and cultivating mindfulness, compassion and loving-kindness.

    Even though Buddhism has managed to stage a comeback in India as a tool for social reformation, it remains to be seen whether its essence, that which makes it a way of living peacefully and gently, will be adopted as readily. For that, conversion is not a pre-requisite at all. As His Holiness the Dalai Lama says: “If you have a particular faith or religion, that is good. But you can survive without it,” and that, “my religion is very simple. My religion is kindness.”

    TRIPLE GEM STUDY CIRCLE preffered to call as “Prabuddha Bharath Rathna or Arahath” as the Indian Constitution was based on Vinaya(Baba Saheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar and Dada Saheb Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji deserved such awards) and for the follow harrowing reason for which Bharath Rathna was conferred to any one this year

    https://youtu.be/z-kLgr17wYI
    https://youtu.be/z-kLgr17wYI
    ಭವತು ಸಬ್ಬ ಮಂಗಲಂ,
    ಮೈತ್ರಿಯ ಮಿತ್ರರೆ,
    62 ನೇ ಧಮ್ಮದೀಕ್ಷೋತ್ಸವ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ರಮವು ಎಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಾರಂಭವಾಯಿತು, ಎಂದು ಗೊತ್ತಾದರೆ, ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸಂತೋಷ ದ ಅನಂದಕ್ಕೆ ಅಂತ್ಯವೇ ಇರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ,
    ಬಹಳ ಮುಖ್ಯವಾದ ವಿಷಯ, ಇನ್ನೂ ನೀವು ಈ ಚಾನಲ್ಗೆ Subscribe ಅಗಿಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೆ ಮೊದಲು Subscribe ಅಗಿ, ಅಗುವುದರಿಂದ ಭಂತೆಜೀಗಳಿಗೆ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ರೀತಿಯಲಿಯೋ, ಸಹಕರಿಸಿ, ಸಹಾಯ ಮಾಡಿದಂತಾಗುವುದು,
    ನೀವು ಈ ವಿಡಿಯೋ ಗಳನ್ನು ನೋಡಿದರೆ ಭಂತೆಜೀಗಳು ಇನ್ನೂ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಹೆಚ್ಚಾಗಿ ವಿಡಿಯೋ ಮುಖಾಂತರ ನಿಮಗೆ ಧಮ್ಮ ಪ್ರವಚನಗಳನ್ನು ಕಳುಹಿಸಬಹುದು, ಸರಿನಾ,
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    ಸಾಧು ಸಾಧು ಸಾಧು,
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    #அவசியம் முழுவதும் படிக்கவும்

    சமூக சீர்திருத்தமே நமது மரபு!
    -”கேரளப் பெரியார்” பிணராயி விஜயன்

    (16.10.2018 அன்று திருவனந்தபுரத்தில் நடந்த இடது ஜனநாயக முன்னணி கொள்கை விளக்கப் பொதுக்கூட்டத்தில் ஆற்றிய உரையிலிருந்து….)

    சமூக சீர்திருத்த மரபு தான் நமது மகத்தான மரபு…

    நாம் அத்தகைய சமூக சீர்திருத்த மரபைத் தான் அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்டிருக்கிறோம். இங்கு மேலோங்கி நிற்கும் சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்கள் அனைத்தும் ஸ்ரீ நாராயண குரு, சட்டம்பி சுவாமிகள் போன்றவர்களால் தலைமை தாங்கி வழிநடத்தப்பட்டவை. அதனால்த்தான் “இது ஒரு பைத்தியக்காரர்களின் கூடாரம்”, என்று விவேகானந்தரால் விமர்சிக்கப்பட்ட இந்த மாநிலம், இன்று மத பேதமற்ற, ஜாதி பேதமற்ற சமூகமாக முன்னேறி நாட்டிற்கே முன்னுதாரணமாக திகழ்கிறது என்பதை நாம் நினைவில் கொள்ள வேண்டும்.

    இங்கே நமது நாட்டின் வரலாற்றை எடுத்துக்கொண்டாலும், நமது மாநிலத்தின் வரலாற்றை எடுத்துக்கொண்டாலும், எந்த காலகட்டங்களில் எல்லாம் சமூக சீர்திருத்தக் கருத்துக்கள் உருவெடுத்தனவோ அந்த காலகட்டங்களில் எல்லாம் அதற்கெதிரான ஒரு பகுதியினரும் களத்திலிறங்கி இருக்கிறார்கள். அந்த பிரிவினரில் பிற்போக்கு சக்திகள் மட்டும் பங்கெடுக்கவில்லை. சமூக சீர்திருத்தங்கள் மூலம், உரிமைகள் அடைய வேண்டிய, நன்மைகளைப் பெற வேண்டிய, பலனடைய வேண்டிய பிரிவினர் யாரோ அவர்களை, அன்றைய நம்பிக்கைகளின், சம்பிரதாயங்களின் சக்திகளைப் பயன்படுத்தி சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்களுக்கு எதிராக அணி வகுக்கும்படி செய்ய பிற்போக்கு சக்திகளால் முடிந்தது.

    நமது நாடு பார்த்த மிகக் கொடூரமான சடங்கு, சதி என்ற ஒன்றாகும். கணவர் இறந்துவிட்டால், மனைவியை கணவரின் அந்த சிதையில் தள்ளிவிடும் வழக்கம்….ஒரு மூட நம்பிக்கை. அந்த சதி என்ற வழக்கத்திற்கு எதிராக சட்டம் இயற்றப்பட்டது. அது சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்களின் பலானால் மட்டுமே நடந்தது. நாம் இதில் கவனிக்க வேண்டியது எனவேனில், அன்றைய கணக்குப்படி 1813 முதல் 1829 வரையிலான காலகட்டத்தில் 8135 பெண்கள் சிதையில் குதித்து உயிரிழந்தார்கள். அந்த வழக்கம் இன்றும் தொடர்ந்திருந்தால், எத்தனை ஆயிரம், எத்தனை லட்சமாகியிருக்கும் என்று கணக்கிட்டு பார்த்துக் கொள்ளலாம்…என்ன ஆகியிருக்கும் நமது நாட்டின் நிலைமை? ஆனால் இந்த சடங்கின், மூடநம்பிக்கையின் பெயரில், இந்த வழக்கத்திற்கெதிராக சட்டம் இயற்றப்பட்ட பிறகும், பெண்கள் இதுபோன்று சிதையில் குதிக்க முயன்றார்கள்….சிலர் குதிக்கவும் செய்தார்கள். அதற்கெதிராக பெரிய எதிர்ப்புகளும் கிளம்பின.

    இங்கே இ.எம்.எஸ், வி.டி, எம்.ஆர்.ஜி, பிரேம்ஜி போன்றவர்கள் எல்லாம் அன்றைய பிராமண சமுதாயத்திலிருந்த தவறான வழக்கங்களுக்கு எதிராக எதிர்ப்புப் போராட்டகளைத் தொடங்கினார்கள். அதன் பகுதியாக விதவை மறுமணம் சாத்தியமாகும் நிலை வந்தது. அதுபோல, அன்றைய சமூகத்தில் இருந்த வித்தியாசமான சூழலின் அடிப்படையில் இளம்பெண்களை, அதாவது பருவமடைவதற்கு முன்பாகவே, சிறுமிகளை படுகிழவர்களுக்கு மணம் முடித்து வந்தார்கள். அந்த சிறுமிகள் பருவமடைவதற்கு முன்பே அந்த கிழவனின் கதை முடிந்துவிடும். பின்பு அந்தச் சிறுமி தலை மொட்டையடிக்கப்பட்டு இருட்டறையில் அடைந்து கிடக்கவேண்டும். அதற்கெதிராக முன்பு குறிப்பிடப்பட்டவர்கள் எல்லாம் போராட்டம் நடத்தத் துணிந்த போது அவர்களை ஜாதி விலக்கம் செய்ய முடிவெடுத்தார்கள்….பயமுறுத்தப்பட்டார்கள்…பிற்போக்காளர்களின் கடுமையான எதிர்ப்பும் இருந்தது.

    நமது நாட்டில் சில இடங்களில் மனிதப்பலி கொடுக்கும் முறை இருந்தது. பின்னர், அது மிருகப்பலியாக மாற்றப்பட்டது. மிருக பலியும் செய்யக்கூடாது என்ற நிலை வந்தபோது தான் மஞ்சளும் சுண்ணாம்பும் சேர்த்து கலக்கி இரத்தம் போன்ற திரவத்தை உருவாக்கி அடையாளரீதியாக பலியிடும் முறை வந்தது.

    இதெல்லாம் சடங்குகளில் ஏற்பட்ட மாற்றங்களாகும். நமது நாட்டில், நமது மாநிலத்தில் என்னவெல்லாம் வகையிலான மாற்றங்கள்? வழக்கங்கள் என்பது மரபுவழியாக கடைபிடிக்கப்படுபவை ஆகும். அது காலகட்டங்கள் தோறும் மாற்றமடையும். ஒரு காலத்தில் இருப்பது பின்வரும் காலங்களில் இருக்கவேண்டும் என்பதில்லை.

    முன்பெல்லாம் கோவிலில் நுழைவது என்றால், கோவில் குளத்தில் நன்றாகக் குளித்து, அந்த ஈரத்துணியுடன் தான் செல்லவேண்டும். இப்போது, எல்லோரும் அப்படியா கோவிலுக்குள் நுழைகிறார்கள். உடலை தங்கள் வசதிக்கேற்ப சுத்தம் செய்துகொள்ளுகிறார்கள். ஆனால், கோவிலில் அப்படியே தானே நுழைகிறார்கள்?

    முன்பு பெண்களின் விஷயத்தில் என்னவெல்லாம் கட்டுப்பாடுகள் இருந்தது? மாதவிடாய் வந்துவிட்டால்…அந்தப் பெண்களுக்கு வீட்டில் கூட இருக்கமுடியாது. வசிக்குமிடத்திலிருந்து வெளியே செல்ல முடியாது. வீட்டிலிருந்து தனியே வேறொரு இடத்தில் அதற்கென கட்டப்பட்ட கட்டிடத்தில் தான் தங்கிக்கொள்ள வேண்டும்….ஆனால் இப்போது?
    எல்லாம் மாற்றங்கள் அல்லவா..?நமது கண் முன்னே ஏற்பட்ட மாற்றங்கள் அல்லவா?
    முன்காலத்தில் பிரசவம் நடந்தால் ‘வாலாய்மை” (பிரசவ நேரத்தில் அசுத்தம் என்ற பெயரில் கடைப்பிடிக்கப் பட்ட தீட்டு). மரணம் நடந்தால்…குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்கள் இறந்தால் “புலை” (இறப்பினால் ஏற்படும் தீட்டு)..எத்தனை நாட்கள் அதற்கு…?ஆனால் இப்போதோ மரணம் நடந்து சவ அடக்கம் முடிந்தவுடன், ஒருவர் கூறுவார்,”எல்லா காரியங்களும் இத்துடன் முடிந்துவிட்டது. கலைந்து செல்பவர்கள் கலைந்து செல்லலாம்.”என்று…. எல்லோரும் கலைந்து செல்கிறார்கள். இதுதானே சடங்குகளின் நிலைமை?

    மாற்றங்கள் நிகழும் போக்கை நாம் பார்க்கவேண்டும் அல்லவா? இத்தகைய மாற்றங்கள், முன்பு சொன்ன சமூக சீர்திருத்த நாயகர்களின் தலையீட்டினால் ஏற்பட்டது தானே?

    இங்கே முன்பு மார்பு மறைக்க உரிமை இல்லை அல்லவா? அவ்வாறு மார்பு மறைக்க உரிமையில்லாத காலகட்டத்தில் அதற்கு எதிராக போராட்டம் நடத்தப்படவில்லையா? அவ்வாறு மார்பு மறைத்து, கோவிலில் நுழையும் உரிமை கிடைத்த பிறகும் கூட அந்த உரிமையை சீர்குலைப்பதற்கான போராட்டங்கள் நடக்கவில்லையா இங்கே..? பெண்களே கூட அதற்கெதிராக களமிறங்கினார்கள்…அதோடு மார்பு மறைத்தவர்களின் மாராப்பை, மார்பு மறைக்காத பெண்களே கிழித்தெறியத் துணிந்தார்கள்.

    இதெல்லாம் நமது மாநிலத்தின் வரலாறல்லவா? ஆனால், நாம் அங்கேயே நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிறோமா? ‘எங்களுக்கு மார்பை மறைக்க வேண்டாம்’ என்று கூறிய பெண்களுடனா இந்த நாடு நின்றது…? காலம் அவர்களுடனா நின்றது…?காலத்தின் மாற்றங்களுக்கு ஏற்ப சடங்குகளும் வழக்கங்களும் மாறுவதில்லையா?

    முன்பு, இங்கே பெண்களுக்கு சொத்துரிமை இருந்ததில்லை. பெண்களுக்கு சொத்துரிமை கொடுக்கப்பட்டது பெரிய மாற்றமாக இருக்கவில்லையா? நமது சமூகத்தின் முன்னேறிய பகுதியினர் அதனை ஏற்றுக்கொண்டார்களா? பிற்போக்கு சக்திகள் அதற்கெதிராக நிற்கவில்லையா? சுருக்கமாகச் சொன்னால், என்னென்ன சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்கள் நடந்துள்ளனவோ அந்த கட்டங்களில் எல்லாம் அதற்கெதிராக கடுமையான எதிர்ப்புகளும் ஏற்பட்டுள்ளன.

    முன்பிருந்த நிலை என்னவாக இருந்தது? பிராமணர்களிடமிருந்து 64 அடி தூரத்தில் பறையர் நிற்க வேண்டும். 54 அடி தூரத்தில் புலையர் நிற்க வேண்டும். 36 அடி தூரத்தில் ஈழவர் நிற்க வேண்டும். ஈழவர்களிடத்திலும் தீண்டாமை வழக்கமிருந்தது. ஈழவர்களிடமிருந்து 30 அடி தூரத்தில் புலையர் சமுதாயத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள் நிற்க வேண்டும். என்னவெல்லாம் தவறான பழக்கவழக்கங்கள் நமது மாநிலத்தில் நடைமுறையில் இருந்தன? இதுபோன்ற சமூக சீர்திருத்த இயக்கங்களின் பலனாகத்தானே, இவையெல்லாம் மாறின? அதற்கு உறுதியான தொடர்ச்சிகளும் ஏற்பட்டன. நமது மாநிலத்தில் மேலோங்கி வந்த பலவேறு இயக்கங்கள் விவசாயிகளின் இயக்கம், தொழிலாளர்களின் இயக்கம், இடதுசாரி இயக்கம் போன்றவற்றின் தலையீடுகள், இந்த சமூக சீர்திருத்தக் கருத்துக்களை எல்லாம் உள்வாங்கிக்கொண்டு முன்னேறிச் சென்றன. அதுதானே இந்த மாநிலத்தை மாற்றின? இந்த மாநிலத்தின் இதுபோன்ற மாற்றங்களை உள்வாங்க முடியாத ஒரு நிலை இப்பொழுதும் உள்ளன என்பதையும் நாம் பார்க்க வேண்டும்.

    ஸ்ரீ நாராயண குரு, அய்யன் காளி, சட்டம்பி சாமிகள் போன்றவர்களின் வரிசையில் உட்படுபவர்கள் தான் அய்யா வைகுண்டரும் பொய்கையில் குமார குருதேவனும் எல்லாம். இவர்களால், இந்த மாநிலத்தில் நடைமுறையில் இருந்த மூடநம்பிக்கைகள் நீங்கியதால் வந்த ஒளி தான் இப்போது கேரளத்தில் வீசுகின்றது.

    நாம் அதில் பார்க்க வேண்டியது என்னவென்றால், அவர்கள் எல்லோரும் ‘சடங்குகளை மீறுவதற்காகத்தான் நிலைபாடு கொண்டிருந்தார்கள்’ என்பதைத் தான். ஸ்ரீ நாராயண குரு அருவிப்புறத்தில் சிவபிரதிஷ்டை நடத்திய சம்பவம்…உண்மையில் அது ஒரு சடங்கு மீறல் அல்லவா? அப்போது “உங்களுக்கு இதைச் செய்ய என்ன உரிமை?” என்று அவரிடம் கேட்டார்கள் அல்லவா? அதற்கு குரு என்ன பதில் கூறினார்…? “நாம் பிரதிஷ்டித்தது பிராமணர்களின் சிவனை அல்ல…நமது சிவனைத் தான் நாம் பிரதிஷ்டித்துள்ளோம்” அங்கு சடங்கு மீறல் தான் நடத்தப்பட்டது. அதன்பிறகு, அதே குரு. “இனி கோவில்களையல்ல…பள்ளிக்கூடங்களைக் கட்டுவது தான் மக்களுக்கான தேவை” என்று தானே சொன்னார்…..அங்கேயும் சடங்கு மீறல்கள் தானே தென்படுகிறது? அப்படியென்றால், சடங்குகள் மீறப்பட வேண்டியது என்று தான் அவர்கள் நமக்குக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்திருக்கிறார்கள். இதை நாம் நினைவில் இருத்த வேண்டும்.

    அய்யன்காளியின் வில்வண்டிப் போராட்டத்தைப் பாருங்கள்…பொட்டு வைத்து, பட்டுத் தலைபாகை வைத்து, கோட்டு அணிந்து….அன்று அதற்கெல்லாம் உரிமை இருந்ததா? பொட்டு வைக்க உரிமை இருந்ததா? பட்டுத் தலைப்பாகை வைக்க உரிமை இருந்ததா? கோட்டு அணிய உரிமை இருந்ததா? அப்படியென்றால், உரிமையில்லை என்று சொன்னவர்களின் சட்டத்தோடு சேர்ந்து நிற்காமல், ‘எங்களுக்கு உரிமை உண்டு’ என்று கூறி, அந்த உரிமையை நிலைநாட்டுவதற்காகத் தான் நின்றார்கள்.

    கடந்த வருடம் என்று தான் நினைக்கிறேன்…

    இங்குள்ள ஊரூட்டம்பலம் ஆரம்பப்பள்ளிக்குச் சென்ற போது, அங்கே பாதி எரிந்துபோன பெஞ்சை நான் பார்க்க நேர்ந்தது. அது…எந்த பெஞ்சு தெரியுமா? பஞ்சமி என்ற தாழ்த்தப்பட்ட சமூகச் சிறுமியைப் பள்ளியில் அமரவிடவில்லை என்று கேள்விப்பட்ட போது, அந்த சிறுமியையும் அழைத்துக்கொண்டு, அய்யன்காளி தட்டிக்கேட்க வருகிறார் என்று கேள்விப்பட்ட மேல்ஜாதியினர் அந்த பள்ளிக்கே தீ வைத்தார்கள். அதில் முற்றும் எரிந்து போன பள்ளியிலிருந்து, எஞ்சிய இந்த எரிந்த, துண்டு பெஞ்சு மட்டும் கிடைத்தது. அதைத்தான் நான் அங்கு காண நேர்ந்தது. அவ்வாறு நமது மாநிலத்தில் வெவ்வேறு போராட்டங்கள் நடந்துள்ளன. அப்படித்தான், நாம் இன்று காணும் கேரளம் உருவானது.

    அத்தகைய போராட்டங்களில்…
    அடையாளத்திற்காக மேல்ஜாதியினரால் அணிய வைக்கப்பட்ட கல் மாலையை அறுத்தெறிய நடத்தப்பட்ட போராட்டம்…
    உடன் அமர்ந்து படிக்க நடத்தப்பட்ட போராட்டம்…
    படித்த பிறகு…
    வேலைகிடைப்பதற்கான போராட்டம்…
    பாதையில் நடப்பதற்கான உரிமை கேட்டு நடத்தப்பட்ட போராட்டம்…
    கோவிலுக்குள் நுழைந்து வழிபடுவதற்கான போராட்டம்…
    இத்தகைய வெவ்வேறு போராட்டங்கள் மூலம் தான், நாம் இன்று காணும் கேரளம் உருவானது என்பதை நினைவில் கொள்ள வேண்டும்.

    இங்கே பாரதிய ஜனதா கட்சி நாட்டையாளும் கட்சியல்லவா? அக்கட்சியின் நிலைபாட்டை தனியாக நாம் பரிசீலிக்கவேண்டும். மகாராஷ்டிராவில் சனி தேவனின் ஒரு திருத்தலம் உள்ளது….ஒரு கோவில். அங்கு சனிதேவன் இருக்கிறார் என்று சொல்கிறார்கள். சனி சிக்னாபூர் என்பது தான் அந்தக் கோவிலின் பெயர். அந்தக் கோவிலில் எக்காலத்திலும் பெண்கள் நுழைந்ததில்லை. பெண்கள் அக்கோவிலுக்குள் செல்லவே கூடாதாம். சனிதேவன் பெண்களைப் பார்க்கவே கூடாது என்பதுதான் அங்குள்ள நிலைமை. இந்நிலையில் மும்பை உயர்நீதிமன்றம் ‘பெண்களுக்கு கோவிலுக்குள் செல்ல உரிமை உண்டு’ என்று தீர்ப்பளித்தது. அங்கே பாஜக அரசு தான் உள்ளது. அவர்கள் அந்தத் தீர்ப்பை அமுல்ப் படுத்தினார்கள். இப்போது பெண்கள் அந்தக் கோவிலுக்குச் செல்கிறார்கள். அப்படியென்றால், பாஜக ஆளும் மாநிலத்தில் நீதிமன்றத் தீர்ப்பை அமுல்படுத்தலாம். பாஜக ஆட்சியில் இல்லாத மாநிலத்தில், இடது ஜனநாயக முன்னணி ஆளும் மாநிலத்தில், உச்சநீதிமன்றத்தின் தீர்ப்பே வந்தாலும் அமுல்படுத்தக் கூடாது என்று எதிர்ப்புப் போராட்டம் நடத்துகிறார்கள். இது என்ன மாதிரியான இரட்டை நிலைப்பாடு?

    அங்கே அதுபோலவே உச்சநீதிமன்றத்தின் இன்னொரு தீர்ப்பு…மும்பைக்கு அருகே ஹாஜி அலி தர்கா…அங்கே பெண்களை செல்ல அனுமதிக்கவேண்டுமென்று மனு கொடுக்கப்பட்டதன் அடிப்படையில், நீதிமன்றம் பெண்கள் அந்த மசூதியில் செல்ல அனுமதித்தது. அந்த மசூதியில் பெண்கள் செல்கிறார்கள். இதெல்லாம் மகாராஷ்டிராவில் நடந்த விஷயங்களாகும்.

    அதோடு இடதுமுன்னணி அரசு சமூக சீர்திருத்த பாரம்பரியத்தின் அடிப்படையிலான நடவடிக்கைகளைத் தான் மேற்கொண்டு வருகிறது. நமது கோவில்களில் பிராமணர்கள் அல்லாதவர்களும் பூசாரிகள் ஆகாலாம். அது, நமது தேசமே பெரும் ஆதரவளித்து வரவேற்ற ஒன்றாகும். சாதாரணமாக எல்லோரும் பூசாரிகள் ஆகிவிட முடியாது என்பது போன்ற, மேல்ஜாதி ஆதிக்கம் நிறைந்த விதிமுறைகளை எழுதியவர்கள் உட்பட எல்லோரும், “எல்லா ஆகமங்களையும் கற்றுத் தேர்ந்தால் பூசாரி ஆவதற்கு தடையேதுமில்லை” என்ற நிலைபாட்டை முன்வைத்தபோது ஏற்றுக்கொண்டார்கள். அதுபோலவே தான், அறநிலையத்துறை ஊழியர்களின் நியமனத்தில் பட்டியலினத்தவர்கள், மலைவாழ் இனத்தவர்கள், பிற்படுத்தப்பட்டவர்களுக்கான இடஒதுக்கீடு சதவீதத்தை உயர்த்தினோம். உயர்வகுப்பினரில் பொருளாதார ரீதியாக பின்னடைந்துள்ளவர்களுக்கு, அறநிலையத்துறை ஊழியர் நியமனத்தில் தனியாக இடஒதுக்கீடு செய்யும் ஒரு முறையும் மாநில அரசு அமுல்ப்படுத்தியுள்ளது. இதெல்லாம், சமூக சீர்திருத்த மரபின் அடிப்படையில் மேற்கொள்ளப்பட்ட நடவடிக்கைகள் ஆகும்.

    இங்கே காங்கிரசார் எண்ணிப்பார்க்க வேண்டிய விஷயம் என்னவென்றால், கட்சிக் கொடியின்றி பாஜக தலைமை தாங்கும் போராட்டத்தில் பங்கேற்றால், நீங்கள் காங்கிரஸ் அல்ல என்று ஆகிவிடுவீர்களா..? ஆமாம்…காங்கிரஸ் இல்லையென்று ஆகிவிடும் நிலை உங்களுக்கு நிச்சயம் ஏற்படும்….நாளை அவர்கள் பாஜக ஆகிவிடுவார்கள் என்று தெரிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்.

    காங்கிரசுடன் இணைந்து நிற்பவர்கள் கவனிக்க வேண்டிய ஒரு விஷயம் இருக்கிறது…அது அரசியலமைப்புச்சட்டம் பற்றிய ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ்-ன் பார்வை ஆகும். அரசியலமைப்புச் சட்டத்தைத் தகர்க்க வேண்டுமென்று தான் ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ் நினைக்கிறது. அதை அவர்கள் வெளிப்படையாகவே கூறுகிறார்கள். இந்திய பாராளுமன்றத்திலேயே கூறிவிட்டார்கள். ஆனால் இப்போது ஒரு வாதம் முன்வைக்கப்படுகிறது. அந்த வாதத்தை காங்கிரசாரும் உயர்த்திப்பிடிக்கிறார்கள். அது, “எல்லாவற்றையும் விட உயர்ந்தது நம்பிக்கையே ஆகும். நம்பிக்கையே முக்கியம்….அரசியலமைப்புச்சட்டத்தின் மதிப்புமிக்க அம்சங்களை விட சட்டங்களைவிட நம்பிக்கையே முக்கியம்” என்பதாகும். இந்த வாதத்துடன் இணைந்து நிற்பவர்கள் அதன் பின்னால் மறைந்திருக்கும் ஆபத்தை சரியான விதத்தில் புரிந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறார்களா?

    இந்திய யூனியன் முஸ்லிம் லீக் இந்த வாதத்துடன் அணிதிரள்வதாக செய்திகள் வருகின்றன. முஸ்லீம் லீக் தலைவர்களும் உணர்ச்சிவசப்பட்டு இந்த வாதத்துடன் அணிவகுக்கிறார்கள். நீங்கள் இந்த வாதத்தை கொஞ்சம் விரிவுபடுத்திப் பாருங்கள். பாபர் மசூதி விவகாரத்தில்…எங்கே போய் முடியும்? நம்பிக்கைதான் முக்கியம் எனில், இராமர் கோவில்தான் அது என்று கூறும் நம்பிக்கையோடு அல்லவா இணைந்து நின்றிருக்க வேண்டும். ஆர்.எஸ்.எஸ்-ம் அந்த வாதத்தோடு தான்…பாஜக-வும் அந்த வாதத்தோடு தான்… காங்கிரசும் மிகச்சரியாக அந்த வாதத்தோடு தான், அக்காலத்தில் நின்றார்கள் என்று எல்லோருக்கும் தெரியும்…இந்த வாதத்தின் பின்னால் உள்ள ஆபத்து என்னவென்று சரியான முறையில் யார் புரிந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறார்கள்? நமது நாட்டில், சங் பரிவாரங்கள் உரிமை கொண்டாடுவது ஒரு பாபர் மசூதியின் மீது மட்டுமல்ல. இந்தியாவில் உள்ள ஏராளமான வழிபாட்டுத்தலங்கள் மீது அவர்களின் உரிமைவாதம் இருக்கிறது. இது எங்களது ஆராதனாலயம் என்று கூறுகின்ற உரிமைவாதத்தை முன்வைக்கிறார்கள்.

    எல்லாமே நம்பிக்கையின் அடிப்படையிலானது என்றால் நாளைய எதிர்காலம் என்னவாகும் என்று…நிதானமாக சிந்தித்தால் போதும்…சிந்திக்க முடிந்தால்…இவ்வாறு நம்பிக்கையின்பால் அடித்துச் செல்லப்பட்டவர்கள் சிந்தித்துப் பார்க்கவேண்டும் என்பதை மட்டும் நாங்கள் உங்களுக்குச் சொல்லிக்கொள்ள விரும்புகிறோம்…

    நாம் கவனமாகப் பார்க்க வேண்டிய விஷயம் என்னவெனில், எது அவர்களின் குறிக்கோள் என்பதே….அரசைத் திட்டுவதோ…இடதுஜனநாயக முன்னணியைத் திட்டுவதோ அல்ல…மாறாக அவர்களின் உண்மையான நோக்கம் கேரளத்தின் மதசார்பற்ற சிந்தனையைத் தகர்ப்பதே ஆகும். அதை அனுமதிக்க வேண்டுமா? என்பதே நமக்கு முன் உள்ள கேள்வி. அதை அனுமதிக்கவே முடியாது. நாம் உறுதியாக இத்தகைய முன்னெடுப்புகளை எதிர்த்து நின்று போராடியிருக்கிறோம். மதசார்பற்ற சிந்தனைகளை எதிர்க்கவும், மதசார்பற்ற எண்ணங்களை தகர்க்கவும் நடத்தப்படும் முயற்சிகளை, நாம் எல்லோரும் இணைந்து முறியடிக்க வேண்டும். மதநம்பிக்கையாளர்கள் உட்பட உள்ள அனைவரும், அதற்காக அணிதிரண்டு களத்திலிறங்கிப் போராட வேண்டுமென்று இந்நேரத்தில் கேட்டுக்கொள்ள விரும்புகிறேன்.

    KUSHINAGAR | the Maitreya Buddha Project | 152m — India’s and the World’s Tallest Statue and Buddhist temple!

    26 July, 2007 by feloniousvindaloo

    The Maitreya Project, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
    …The World’s tallest statue and a brilliant religious masterpiece dedicated to the Maitreya Buddha!

    Now, another great religious project has officially been given the go-ahead in one of the poorest parts of India. The Maitreya Project is a tribute to Buddhism for and from the land of the Buddha and is as a multi-faith cooperative designed by Tibetans who call India their home as as a lasting gift to India and Buddhism.

    In this era of veritable skyscraper-hedonism (*cough*Dubai*coughh* j/k), this project is unique in that it is designed to fulfill a completely selfless goal, namely “to benefit as many people as possible.” A monumental sustainable work of art that will serve as a constant source of inspiration and a symbol of loving-kindness, work will soon begin on the 152 meter-tall Maitreya Buddha Statue that is the centerpiece of a large temple complex.

    An engineering marvel that at will not only be — at three times the size of the Statue of Liberty — the world’s tallest statue and world’s tallest temple but will also be the world’s largest (first?) statue-skyscraper, designed to have a lifespan surpassing a 1,000 years.

    For more information and a large collection of pictures of this beautiful project originally posted by me on Skyscrapercity.com, read on!…

    The focal point of Indian architecture, like its culture, has always been religious in nature. Just as the Indian economic boom is bringing incredible economic and architectural growth in the secular area, so has Indian religious architecture once again become manifest in the construction of some of the largest, massive, and most intricate religious architecture the world has seen, from the recently completed Akshardham Temple, New Delhi — the largest volume Hindu Temple in India, to the under construction Global Vipassana Pagoda, Mumbai — the largest stupa, largest dome, and largest rock cave in the world, to the planned Sri Mayapur Vedic Temple and Planetarium, Mayapur, the world’s tallest Hindu temple.

    And now the Maitreya Buddha Statue is to be another gem added to this crow. The statue is a veritable temple-skyscraper that will contain 17 individual shrine rooms. The highest room at 140 meters high — the equviliant height of the 40th storey of a standard building. This statue and complex will be a fusion of Indian and Tibetan architectural styles that will adhere to ancient Vaastu Shastra design code and will also hold the world’s largest collection of Lord Buddha’s relics.

    ^ A cutaway view of the 152 meter Maitreya statue and throne building showing the spaces and levels within. Note that the throne itself will be a 17 storey fully functional temple, with 15 additional shrine rooms in the the body of the Maitreya statue.

    Apart from the statue/skyscraper, the Maitreya Project organizers will also build free hospitals and schools servicing tens of thousands of poor, and also be a huge catalyst for infrastructure and tourism development efforts in one of the most economically backwards parts of India.

    The project is a joint religious collaboration by organizations representing the various sects and faiths that revere the Buddha: from Hinduism to Mahayana to Vajrayana to Hinayana to Jaina to Christian and Muslim. Under guidance of the overall project conceptualizer, Nepalese-Tibetan spiritual leader Lama Zopa Rinpoche, the Project was funded by Buddhist and Hindu temples, social organizations, religious groups and by individuals in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, the UK and America.

    Through this project, India once again shows that the ancient arts of massive devotional architecture continues to undergo a veritable renaissance.

    —–==–=–==—–

    The Maitreya Complex: Project Detail

    ^ A prerendering of the Maitreya Buddha statue and temple, showing its massive size.

    The Maitreya Project “is based on the belief that inner peace and outer peace share a cause and effect relationship and that loving-kindness leads to peace at every level of society — peace for individuals, families, communities and the world.”

    The entire temple complex is designed to be completely sustainable, meaning that it will quite literally have the same environmental impact (i.e. emit the same amount of carbon dioxide and methane) as the paddy field it will be constructed.

    The Project will include schools and universities that focus on ethical and spiritual development as well as academic achievement, and a healthcare network based around a teaching hospital of international standard with the intention of supplementing the medical services currently provided by the government to provide healthcare services, particularly for the poor and underprivileged.

    As such, the Maitreya Project organizers are working in tandem with the local, regional and state governments in Uttar Pradesh, India, who have fully supported the project. To this effect, the Kushinagar Special Development Area Authority will support the planned development of the area surrounding the Project.

    The total project cost is estimated at $250 million, but the project will develop this impoverished region and will earn a hundredfold more that will be funneled into the Maitreya Project’s historical preservation plans and charities.

    ^ Maitreya Project engineers on-site

    —–==–=–==—–

    The Location of the Maitreya Complex

    The Maitreya Buddha project was originally concieved to be built in Bodh Gaya, Bihar state, the site of the Buddha’s enlightenment, but due to threat of delays due to red tape, was moved to what was seen to be a more appropriate location, the village of Kushinagar, in Uttar Pradesh state.

    Kushinagar is a place of great historical and spiritual significance. It is the place where Shakyamuni (Historical) Buddha passed away and it is predicted to be the birthplace of the next Buddha, Maitreya – the Buddha of Loving-kindness - of whom this temple is dedicated to.

    ^ The original conception of the Maitreya Buddha statue, then to be located at Bodh Gaya

    Recognising the long-term benefits Maitreya Project is bringing to the region, the State Government of Uttar Pradesh is providing, free of charge, 750 acres of mainly agricultural land in Kushinagar.

    ^ A view of the Maitreya Project land site, currently rice paddy

    Indeed, the Project itslef will be located adjacent to the ancient Mahaparinirvana Temple, commemorating the Buddha’s passing, the ancient Ramabhar Stupa, commemorating the Buddha’s cremation site, as well as several equally old and older Hindu temples. It is predicted that the pilgrimage, tourism and development capital that will flow into this region because of this project will created sustainable income for the restoration, refurbishment and maintinance of these ancient sacred sites.

    Surrounding the complex is the Kushinagar Special Development Area, designed as a sustainable development entity that will coordinate the various organizations involved in the project and surrounding tourist and general development that will come with the project.

    -=—-=—=–

    The Kushinagar Special Development Area

    The Maitreya Project and the Uttar Pradesh have worked together to create the Kushinagar Special Development Area (KSDA), an additional area of 7.5 kilometres surrounding the Maitreya Project site.

    Municipal bylaws and planning regulations have now been adopted to protect the KSDA from the kind of opportunism that is often seen in communities of emerging economic development. Maitreya Project has representation on the legal bodies governing the KSDA as well as the work of monitoring the development of the region will be ongoing.

    It is within the KSDA that Maitreya Project will implement its extensive healthcare and education programmes.

    —–==–=–==—–

    Maitreya Project Preliminary Site Plan

    Maitreya Project’s lead architects, Aros Ltd., have drawn up a preliminary proposed plan for the beautiful 750 acre Kushinagar site.

    Main features being:

    The Ceremonial Gateway & Maitreya Statue Sanctuary will lead visitors to the 500ft/152m Maitreya Buddha statue.
    The Maitreya Buddha Statue will sit on the Throne Building containing temples, prayer halls, exhibition halls, a museum, library and audio-visual theatre.
    The Hospital and Healthcare Centre will be the hub of Maitreya Project’s public healthcare programmes. The development of these programmes will begin with primary care clinics in the communities of the Kushinagar Special Development Area. Over the years, the medical services will be developed and expanded to meet the needs of many communities. A complete healthcare network will be developed to provide medical services that are centred around a teaching hospital of international standard. The healthcare system will primarily serve the poor and under-privileged, even in remote parts of the area.
    The Centre of Learning, will eventually serve students from primary to university levels of education.
    The Meditation Park will be a secluded area next to the ancient Mahaparinirvana Temple, which commemorates Buddha Shakyamuni’s passing away from our world, the ancient Ramabhar Stupa, commemorating the Buddha’s holy cremation site, and monasteries and temples belonging to many different traditions of Buddhism that include both modern facilities and ancient ruins.

    ^ A View from the Maitreya Project Park

    All of these features will be set in beautifully landscaped parks with meditation pavilions, beautiful water fountains and tranquil pools. All of the buildings and outdoor features will contain an extensive collection of inspiring sacred art.

    ^ A view of the temple from the gardens surrounding the site

    —–==–=–==—–

    The Statue of the Maitreya Buddha

    The center of the Maitreya Project, of course, is the bronze plate statue of the Maitreya Buddha itself. Rising 500ft/152m in height, the statue will sit on a stone throne temple building located in an enclosed sanctuary park.

    -=—-=—=–

    The Living Wall:

    Surrounding the Maitreya Buddha statue is a four-storey halo of buildings called the “Living Wall.” This ring of buildings contains accomadation for the complex’s monks and workers as well as rooms for functions ancillary to the statue and throne building.

    The wall also serves two additional important functions. In light of cross-border Islamist terrorist attacks against Indian holy sites in Ayodhya, Akshardham and Jama Masjid, the Living Wall also is designed to be a security cordon eqivalent to a modern castle wall, staffed with security personnel and designed to withstand an attack from 200 heavily armed raiders.

    ^ Prerendering of the Statue showing the location of the living wall, main gate, paths and garden areas.

    The final major function it performs is that of the boundary for the enclosed sanctuary area of landscaped gardens, pools and fountains for meditation directly surrounding the Maitreya statue. The entry to the enclosed sanctuary and the Maitreya statue will be serviced by a main gate.

    ^ The tree and stupa lined paths to the ceremonial gate, which is the entrance to the sanctuary.

    Passing the ceremonial gate, landscaped paths allow devotes to do Pradakshina (circumambulation) of the Maitreya Statue.

    ^ The terraced circumambulation paths, with the gate in the background.

    Within the sanctuary, the gardens provide a place for relaxing, resting, and meditating, with educational artwork depicting the Buddha’s life.

    ^ A view towards the statue from one of these stupa lined terraces.

    Walking further inward, the is Maitreya Statue and Throne Temple, surrounded by tranquil ponds and fountains that will cool the area in the intense Indian summer.

    ^ The Maitreya statue and throne surrounded by the tranquil ponds containing Buddha statues of the meditation sanctuary.

    -=—-=—=–

    The Throne Temple:

    The “seat” of the statue is itelf a fully functioning 17-storey temple roughly 80m x 50m in size. The building will contain two very large prayer halls, as well as meditation and meeting rooms, a library and facilities to deal with the anticipated annual influx of 2 million visitors.

    ^ The entrance to the throne building with the Maitreya Buddha statue resting upon the lotus on top

    Pilgrims will enter the throne temple through the giant lotus that supports the Maitreya Buddha statue’s feet. The throne temple contains several entrance rooms that contain works of art on the Buddha’s life and teachings.

    ^ The first major prayer hall of throne building, containing works of art on the Buddha.

    Continuing inward is the cavernous main auditorium of the Maitreya Temple containing the Sanctum Sanctorum which in Indian architectural tradition is the innermost most sacred room where the actual shrine is held. This Sanctum Sanctorum is unique in that within it contains two large auditorium temples.

    The first temple in the Sanctum Sanctorum is the Temple of the Maitreya Buddha, containing a huge, 12 meter tall statue of the Buddha.

    ^ Upon entering the Sanctum Sanctorum, the 12 meter tall statue of the Buddha can be glimpsed.

    A wall containing 200,000 images of the Buddhas rises up to the throne ceiling over 50 metres above, behind both auditorium temples.

    ^ A glimpse from the ambulatory of the side walls within the Maitreya Temple and the 1,000 paintings of the Buddhas.

    The centerpiece shrine of the Maitreya Temple is the 12 meter tall Maitreya Buddha. Stairs and elevators lead to viewing platforms around the Maitreya Temple, allowing views of the entire room

    ^ A view of the Maitreya Buddha statue and the wall of the 200,000 images of the Buddha, seen from viewing platforms.

    The next biggest shrine in the Sanctum Sanctorum is the Temple of the Shakyamuni Buddha which contains a 10 meter statue of the Shakyamuni (Historical) Buddha. Behind the shrine is the continuation of the wall of 200,000 Buddhas.

    ^ On a higher level yet again, the Shakyamuni Temple will house a 10 metre (33 ft.) statue of the historical Buddha. The glass rear wall will reveal the wall of 200,000 Buddhas within the Maitreya Temple.

    ^ Another view of the Shakyamuni Temple.

    In Indian architecture, the Sanctum Sanctorum is encircled by a pathway that allows devotees to do Pradakshina (circumambulation) of the shrine. The Maitreya Temple, following this tradition, also has this feature.

    ^ The main throne building and Pradakshina path where visitors may circumambulate Sanctum Sanctorum of the Maitreya Temple, which can be seen through the doorways on the right

    From this area, elevators and staircases will carry visitors to the various other rooms in the 17 storey base, including prayer halls, meditation halls and libraries. Eventually conveying devotees to a large rooftop garden terrace upon which the Maitreya Buddha statue actually rests.

    Here, rising into the upper legs of the main statue, is the Merit Field Hall with a 10 meter, 3-dimensional depiction of over 390 Buddhas and Buddhist masters at it’s center. Surrounding this will be 12 individual shrine rooms devoted to particular deities in the Hindu-Buddhist pantheon.

    ^ The Merit Field Hall with its 10m, 3-D depiction.

    From the garden terrace, another bank of elevators will whisk pilgrims to the higher shrine rooms contained in the statue’s torso and head.

    -=—-=—=–

    The Statue:

    The statue will contain 15 individual shrine rooms and have a total height of 152 meters, with the highest shrine room in the statue’s head, at over 140 meters up. This is roughly equivalent in height to a 40-storey skyscraper.

    ^ A cutaway diagram of the statue-tower.

    The statue is itself an engineering marvel. Rather than simply be designed in its massive size, the statue of the Maitreya Buddha was actually reversed-designed from a carved statue only a meter and half in height and the structure’s engineering extrapolated into its current form.

    ^ The original statue from which the Maitreya Buddha statue tower is extrapolated from was hand carved, and is in the Indian Gupta style.

    Moreover, the statue is designed to stand for at least 1,000 years, supporting the Project’s spiritual and social work for at least a millennium. Due to the statue’s millenia-passing lifespan, the huge structure is designed to withstand high winds, extreme temperature changes, seasonal rains, possible earthquakes and floods and environmental pollution.

    Extensive research has gone into developing “Nikalium”, the special nickel-aluminum bronze alloy to be used for the outer ’skin’ of the statue designed to withstand the most challenging conditions that could conceivably arise.

    As the bronze ’skin’ will expand and contract dramatically due to daily temperature changes, the statue will require special expansion joints that were designed to be not only invisible to the observer, but also in such a way as to protect the internal supports of the statue from water leakage, erosion and corrosion. The material and structural components of the statue are meant to be able to withstand potential unforseen disasters like earthquakes and monsoon flooding.

    ^ The engineering process of the Buddha statue.

    —–==–=–==—–

    Construction Status — June, 2007

    The Maitreya Project recently passed its first major milestone this month, when, in compliance with the Indian Land Acquistion Act, the State Government of Uttar Pradesh has completed the necessary legal requirements for the acquisition of the 750 acre land site to be made available to the Project.

    While there are still permissions and clearances to be obtained, it has now officially given the green light and the full support of the government.

    It is expected that the Project will formally break ground either later this year or early 2008, with an expected construction time of five years. The project will employ more than a thousand skilled and semi-skilled workers in the construction phase.

    —–==–=–==—–

    For more information on this fantastic project, check out

    Maitreyaproject.org

    Sorry for the length of the post, but I wanted this veritable essay to be a comprehensive introduction to what Maitreya Project organizers aim to literally be the 8th Wonder of the World, and an everlasting symbol of Religious Syncretism, Tolerance, Compassion and most of all, Love.

    A cause truely fitting of the Buddha, Shakya Muni Sri Siddharth Gautamaji.

    American Buddhist Net

    Uttar Pradesh to boast of world’s tallest Buddha statue

    Fri, 2008-03-28 10:32 — ABN
    Does this sound good to you? Here’s a story about something similar in Australia: Nowra to get its own Kung Fu temple: Australia ABN
    ____________

    Tuesday, 25 March , 2008, 18:25

    Lucknow: Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

    Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs 10 billion project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi Group. Provision of land is UP government’s share in the project.

    For more news, analysis click here>> | For more Science and Medicine news click here >>

    The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.

    Nowra to get its own Kung Fu temple: Australia

    Sat, 2006-06-10 08:25 — ABN
    The more I read about this temple, the less I like it. See also this. ABN
    _______________

    There will be a three-tier temple complex, with two pagodas, 500-room hotel, a 500-place kung fu academy. There’ll be some residential subdivision, a 27-hole golf course, herbal medicine, herbal gardens, acupuncture, special massage, and that’s about it.

    AM - Saturday, 10 June , 2006 08:24:30
    Reporter: John Taylor
    ELIZABETH JACKSON: It’s probably the most famous temple in the world.

    China’s Shaolin Temple has been made famous through books, films, and TV, because of its legendary kung fu fighting monks.

    Now, the Zen Buddhist temple is looking to build another home for its monks, outside Nowra in New South Wales.

    A deal to purchase 1,200 hectares will be signed in China today, as our Correspondent, John Taylor, reports.

    LINK TO ORIGINAL

    JOHN TAYLOR: In the history of kung fu, there is no other place like the Shaolin Temple.

    The 1,500-year-old Zen Buddhist monastery in central China is home to fighting monks, made famous in modern times on the big and small screen.

    If things go to plan, the monks may be about to set up a lavish home away from home, just south of Nowra.

    Greg Watson is Mayor of the Shoalhaven City Council.

    GREG WATSON: There will be a three-tier temple complex, with two pagodas, 500-room hotel, a 500-place kung fu academy.

    There’ll be some residential subdivision, a 27-hole golf course, herbal medicine, herbal gardens, acupuncture, special massage, and that’s about it.

    JOHN TAYLOR: Today in central China’s Henan province Mayor Watson and the Temple’s Abbott are to sign off on the monks’ purchase of a 1,200 hectare property south of Nowra.

    Patrick Peng is the Abbott’s representative in Australia.

    PATRICK PENG: The Shaolin of course is very well known in China itself, so he like to take this opportunity to try to introduce the Shaolin legacy, the heritage to the rest of the world, through another outlet.

    JOHN TAYLOR: The NSW Government is still to give final approval to the project. But speaking in Beijing yesterday, Mayor Greg Watson wasn’t expecting a fight.

    GREG WATSON: What happened was, I heard via a Member of Parliament, that the Abbott was looking for a potential location to establish the second Shaolin temple in the world, somewhere in Australia, and I said have I got a deal for the Abbott?

    JOHN TAYLOR: Who says religion and big business can’t mix?

    The Shaolin Temple already has a performance touring the world, featuring the impressive skills of its fighting monks.

    The Abbott’s man in Australia, Patrick Peng, says Shaolin is not just about kung fu.

    PATRICK PENG: You know, it’s culture.

    JOHN TAYLOR: Well can you have the two together, a tourist attraction and a functioning temple?

    PATRICK PENG: Oh yes, in fact, on the contrary. Nowadays many religions, not only just Buddhism, Daoism, they’re all trying to make themselves more relevant to the modern world, and really they’re not exclusive, they’re not just men in the caves, you know.

    So what they’re trying to do is to share the philosophies and the lifestyle, the healthy lifestyle, to the world.

    ELIZABETH JACKSON: Patrick Peng, who represents the Abbott of the Shaolin Temple in Australia, ending that report from John Taylor.

    Thaindian News

    Uttar Pradesh to have world’s tallest Buddha statue

    March 25th, 2008 - 3:37 pm ICT by admin

    Lucknow, March 25 (IANS) Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs.10 billion project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi group.

    Proviuion of land is UP government’s share in the project.

    The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.

    UP Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were present here Monday. A presentation on the project was made.

    Significantly, the project was initiated during the previous tenure of Chief Minister Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the backburner during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime.

    “Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,” Misra told IANS.

    He said: “Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land.

    “The government had already started the acquisition process. The whole project would not involve any major displacement of people and not more than 70-80 farmers would be involved,” he said.

    “We have worked out a handsome rehabilitation package for the farmers who would get displaced on account of the project.”

    UP to have world’s tallest Buddha statue
    Published: Wednesday, 26 March, 2008, 08:05 AM Doha Time
    LUCKNOW: World’s tallest Buddha statue will be installed in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
    Chief Minister Mayawati has asked officials to speed up acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs10bn project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi group.
    The state government will give the land for the project which involves installation of a 152m tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art hospital and a museum.
    The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.
    Uttar Pradesh Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were present here on Monday. A presentation on the project was made.
    The project was initiated during the previous tenure of Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the backburner.
    “Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,” Misra said.
    “Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land,” he said.- IANS

    India eNews Logo

    From correspondents in Uttar Pradesh, India, 03:33 PM IST

    Decks are being cleared for the installation of the world’s tallest Buddha statue in Kushinagar town of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

    Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati was understood to have directed officials to speed up the acquisition and transfer of 600 acres of land required for the Rs.10 billion project to be funded and undertaken by the global Maitryi group.

    Proviuion of land is UP government’s share in the project.

    The project involves installation of a 152-metre-tall bronze statue of Lord Buddha along with a giant meditation centre, an international university, a state-of-art world-class hospital and a museum. The project also envisages an entertainment complex in the neighbourhood that would include an amusement park and a five-star hotel.

    UP Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Misra presided over a high level meeting of state officials, in which representatives from Maitryi were present here Monday. A presentation on the project was made.

    Significantly, the project was initiated during the previous tenure of Chief Minister Mayawati in 2003, after which it was put on the backburner during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime.

    ‘Since then, it had been hanging fire, so we decided to revive it after Maitryi officials approached us,’ Misra told IANS.

    He said: ‘Of the 600 acres required for the project, we need to acquire only about 300 acres while the rest is government land.

    ‘The government had already started the acquisition process. The whole project would not involve any major displacement of people and not more than 70-80 farmers would be involved,’ he said.

    ‘We have worked out a handsome rehabilitation package for the farmers who would get displaced on account of the project.’

    India - Uttar Pradesh - Kushinagar Buddhist Site
    Kushinagar Buddhist Site

    Population : 14,000
    Distance : 55km from Gorakhpur

    ¤ Kushinagar - A Site of Buddhist Parinirvana

    KushinagarSituated in Deoria district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Kushinagara was a small town in the days of the Buddha. But it became famous when the Buddha died here, on his way from Rajgir to Sravasti. His last memorable words were, “All composite things decay. Strive diligently!” This event is known as the ‘Final Blowing-Out’ (Parinirvana) in Buddhist parlance. Since then the place has become a celebrated pilgrim centre. It was the capital of the kingdom of the Mallas, one of the 16 Janapadas (see Sravasti).

    ¤ Places of Interest

    Muktabandhana Stupa
    The Muktabandhana Stupa was built by the Mallas just after the Buddha’s death. It is built over the sacred relics of the Buddha himself. The Stupa is also known as Ramabhar Stupa and is 50 ft tall. It is believed that the Stupa was built on the spot where the Buddha was cremated.

    Nirvana Stupa
    1km west of the Muktabandhana Stupa is the Nirvana Stupa that was built in the days of Ashoka. It was renovated in 1927 by the Burmese Buddhists. In front of the Stupa is the Mahaparinirvana Temple in which is installed a colossal sandstone statue of the Buddha in the reclining position. It was built by the Mathura school of art and was brought to Kushinagar by a Buddhist monk named Haribala during the reign of Kumaragupta (c. a.d.415-454).

    Kushinagar

    Kushinagar

    Once in Kushinagar, it appears that time has come to a complete halt. This sleepy town, with its serenity and unassuming beauty, absorbs visitors into a contemplative mood. It is this place that the Buddha had chosen to free himself from the cycles of death and life and, therefore, it occupies a very special space in the heart of every Buddhist.
    Location
    Kushinagar is situated in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, 51 km off Gorakhpur. The place, which is famous for the Mahaparinirvana (death) of Lord Buddha, has been included in the famous Buddhist trail encompassing Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Nepal.
    Kushinagar is also known as Kasia or Kusinara. The founder of Buddhism, Lord Buddha passed away at this place near the Hiranyavati River and was cremated at the Ramabhar stupa. It was once a celebrated center of the Malla kingdom. Many of its stupas and viharas date back to 230 BC-AD 413. when its prosperity was at the peak. The Mauryan emperor Ashoka added grandeur to this place by getting the magnificent statue of Buddha carved on a single piece of red sandstone. Fa Hien, Huen Tsang, and I-tsing, the three famous Chinese scholar travelers to India, all visited Kushinagar.

    With the decline of Buddhism, however, Kushinagar lost its importance and suffered much neglect. It was only in the last century that Lord Alexander Cunningham excavated many important remnants of the main site such as the Matha Kua and Ramabhar stupa. Today, people from all over the world visit Kushinagar. Many national and international societies and groups have established their centers here.

    Climate
    Like other places in the Gangetic plain, the climate of Kushinagar is hot and humid in the summers (mid-April-mid-September) with Maximum Temperature touching 40-45°C. Winters are mild
    and Minimum Temperature in December can go down to around 5°C. Monsoon reaches this region in June and remains here till September

    Population
    Around 22,35,505 people live here

    Language
    Hindi and Bhojpuri

    Places of Interest

    Mahaparinirvana Temple
    The Mahaparinirvana temple (also known as the Nirvana temple) is the main attraction of Kushinagar. It is a single room structure, which is raised on a platform and is topped by a superstructure, which conforms to the traditional Buddhist style of architecture. The Mahaparinirvana temple houses the world famous 6m (19.68 ft) long statue of the reclining Buddha.

    This statue was discovered during the excavation of 1876 by British archaeologists. The statue has been carved out from sandstone and represents the dying Buddha. The figures carved on the four sides of the small stone railing surrounding the statue, show them mourning the death of Lord Buddha. According to an inscription found in Kushinagar, the statue dates back to the 5th century AD.
    It is generally believed that Haribala, a Buddhist monk brought the statue of the reclining Buddha to Kushinagar, from Mathura during 5th century, during the period of the Gupta Empire.

    Nirvana Stupa
    The Nirvana stupa is located behind the Mahaparinirvana temple. British archaeologists discovered this brick structure during the excavation carried out in 1876. Subsequent excavations carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed a copper vessel, which contained the remains of Lord Buddha apart from precious stones, cowries and a gold coin belonging to the Gupta Empire. The copper vessel bore the inscription that the ashes of Lord Buddha had been interred here.

    Mathakuar Shrine
    The Mathakuar Shrine is an interesting place to visit in Kushinagar. It is located near the Nirvana stupa. A statue of Buddha made out of black stone was found here. The statue shows Buddha in the Bhumi Sparsha mudra (pose in which Buddha is touching the earth with his fingers). It is believed that Lord Buddha preached his last sermon here before his death.

    Ramabhar Stupa
    The Ramabhar Stupa (also known as the Mukutabandhana stupa) is a 14.9 m (49 ft) tall brick stupa, which is located at a distance of 1 km from the Mahaparinirvana temple. This stupa is built on the spot where Lord Buddha was cremated in 483 BC. Ancient Buddhist scriptures refer this stupa as the Mukutabandhana stupa. It is said that the Malla rulers, who ruled Kushinagar during the death of Buddha built the Ramabhar stupa.

    Modern Stupas
    Kushinagar has a number of modern stupas and monasteries, which have been built, by different Buddhist countries. The important shrines worth visiting are the Chinese stupa and the IndoJapan-Sri Lankan Buddhist Centre.

    Kushinagar Museum
    The Kushinagar Museum (Archaeological Museum) is located near the IndoJapan-Sri Lankan Buddhist Centre. The museum has a collection of artefacts like statues, carved panels etc excavated from various stupas and monasteries in Kushinagar and places around it.

    Excursion
    Gorakhpur
    Fifty-one kilometers off Kushinagar is Gorakhpur, an important city of eastern Uttar Pradesh. At Gorakhpur is the Rahul Sanskrityayan Museum, which has an excellent collection of Thanka paintings and relics of the Buddha. The water sports complex at Ramgarh Tal Planetarium and the Gorakhnath Temple in the city are also worth a visit.
    Kapilavastu (Piprahwa)
    Situated 148 km from Kushinagar and is an important Buddhist pilgrimage. Kapilavastu was the ancient capital of the Sakya clan ruled by Gautama Buddha’s father.

    Lumbini
    Situated in Nepal at a distance of 122 km from Gorakhpur, Lumbini is the birthplace of Lord Buddha. There are regular buses to the Nepalese border, from where the remaining 26 km has to be covered by private vehicles

    How to get there
    Airport
    The nearest airhead is located at Varanasi from where one can take flights to Delhi, Calcutta, Lucknow, and Patna.
    Rail
    Kushinagar does not have a railway station. The nearest railway station is at Gorakhpur (51 km), which is the headquarters of Northeastern Railways and linked to important destinations. Some important trains to Gorakhpur are Bombay-Gorakhpur-Bandra Express, New Delhi-Barauni-Vaishali Express, Cochin-Gorakhpur Express, Shaheed Express, Amarnath Express, and Kathgodam Express.

    Road
    Kushinagar is well connected to other parts of the state of Uttar Pradesh by bus. The distances from places around are : Gorakhpur (51 km), Lumbini (173 km), Kapilavastu (148 km), Sravasti (254 km), and Sarnath (266 km), and Agra (680 km).

    BUDDHIST HEARTLAND

    comments (0)
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    LESSON 2784 Tue 23 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE
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    LESSON 2784 Tue 23 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE

    http://www.kushinagar.com/
    ” Now, O Brothers ! I do remind you, all component things are subject to decay. Work for your salvation in the earnest”
    Above is the last sermon Buddha preached in 543 BC when he arrived at Kushinagar. Three months earlier at Vaishali (Bihar) on the day of ‘Magh Purnima’, he declared his death & destined to exhale the last breath at Kushinagar. The cremation was done at ‘Mukut Bandhan’ (Rambhar) where ‘Mallas` constructed a big stupa over the ashes. Later, Ashoka, the Great, renovated it. The Chineese travelers Fa Hien & Hieun Tsang have mentioned “Kushinara” in their Travel Memo. Kushinara continued to be living-city till the 12th century A.D. & was thereafter lost into oblivion. After extensive excavations main stupa was exposed in 1876 AD. In addition a 6.10 m long statue of reclining Buddha was discovered. Ven. Chandra Swami a Burmeese Monk, came to India in 1903 and made Mahaparinivana Temple into a living shrine.

    http://www.kushinagar.com/default1.htm

    Above is the last sermon Buddha preached in 543 BC when he arrived at Kushinagar. Three months earlier at Vaishali (Bihar) on the day of ‘Magh Purnima’, he declared his death & destined to exhale the last breath at Kushinagar. The cremation was done at ‘Mukut Bandhan’ (Rambhar) where ‘Mallas` constructed a big stupa over the ashes. Later, Ashoka, the Great, renovated it. The Chineese travelers Fa Hien & Hieun Tsang have mentioned “Kushinara” in their Travel Memo. Kushinara continued to be living-city till the 12th century A.D. & was thereafter lost into oblivion. After extensive excavations main stupa was exposed in 1876 AD. In addition a 6.10 m long statue of reclining Buddha was discovered. Ven. Chandra Swami a Burmeese Monk, came to India in 1903 and made Mahaparinivana Temple into a living shrine.

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    OBJETO DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN: En este trabajo se adoptó Protección Motivación Teoría (PMT) para examinar el conocimiento y la percepción de riesgo de cáncer de cuello de útero y los parajumpers españa factores que influyen en su motivación para recibir screening.METHODS Y MUESTRA futuras de las mujeres chinas: Un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo con 167 mujeres chinas (142 mujeres estaban dispuestas a recibir una proyección en el futuro y 25 mujeres no eran) en 2007 para recoger información air max baratas sociodemográfica de las mujeres y la historia sexual, las percepciones relacionadas con la salud y el conocimiento del cuerpo sobre el cáncer y la detección cervical, y Protección medidas teoría de la motivación. RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES: La mayoría de las mujeres declaró su intención de recibir el cribado futuro y eficacia la respuesta se asoció significativamente con su intención. Sin embargo, parajumpers españa no se observó una nike air max 90 baratas asociación significativa entre la historia sexual y la protección de la motivación. Utilizando el análisis multivariado, el cáncer en familiares (odds ratio, OR = 9,97, 95% CI [1,44 a 436,3], p = 0,010), la percepción de que visitar a un médico con regularidad es importante para la salud (OR = 9,85, 95% CI [1,61 -999.9], p = 0.009)), y siempre asistir para el cribado cervical durante los tres años anteriores (OR = 3,49; IC del 95% [01/23 a 11/02], p = 0,016) se asociaron significativamente con la motivación mujeres a recibir screening nike air max 90 baratas futuro .Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio ponen de manifiesto el importante papel de las creencias de las mujeres en el valor del cribado cervical y la experiencia de selección previa en motivarlos para recibir una proyección. Aunque muchas medidas han sido adoptadas por la Comisión Conjunta para timberland españa mejorar la atención al paciente y definir el comportamiento disruptivo, hay más margen de mejora por los médicos. Barreras para la eliminación de conductas disruptivas por cirujanos ortopédicos incluyen miedo a las represalias, la falta de conciencia entre los compañeros del cirujano, y los factores financieros. Los cirujanos tienen la obligación de abordar los patrones de comportamiento negativo nike air force baratas entre pares para el beneficio de la atención al paciente. No hubo diferencias étnicas en la medida en que los adolescentes se preocupaban por microaggressions. Por otra parte, incluso las formas supuestamente inocuos de discriminación están asociados nike shox baratas con niveles elevados de ansiedad, la ira y el estrés, que pueden aumentar los sentimientos de depresión y la enfermedad. Microaggressions deben ser reconocidos como la discriminación sutil que enviar mensajes sobre el estado del grupo y la devaluación, y similar a la discriminación abierta, puede evocar abercrombie españa poderosas reacciones emocionales y pueden afectar la salud mental .. En este estudio, hemos utilizado extinción de fluorescencia de un triptófano en la interfaz de unión a la membrana con lípidos bromados junto con la mutagénesis de VP40 a entender new balance baratas la profundidad de penetración de la membrana en las bicapas lipídicas. Los resultados experimentales indican que VP40 penetra 8,1 Å en el núcleo de hidrocarburo de la bicapa de membrana plasmática. VP40 también induce cambios sustanciales a la membrana curvatura ya que tubulates liposomas e induce vesiculación en vesículas unilamelares gigantes, efectos que son derogados por mutaciones hidrofóbicas. nike flyknit chukka cheap NBA Jerseys Clearance Sale Nike Flyknit Air Max Fresh leBron James 11 elite Nike Air Max Thea Baskets Nike Air Max Janoski Sale LeBron James 12 Shoes LeBron James 12 Shoes NIKE KD 8 INDEPENDENCE DAY NIKE KD 8 INDEPENDENCE DA

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    LESSON 2783 Mon 22 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (
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    LESSON 2783 Mon 22 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (

    III. Anattaa
    The above discussion of the two signata of impermanence and unsatisfactoriness naturally leads to the basic Buddhist concept of anattaa, non-self or insubstantiality.
    Every student of Buddhism knows that this concept is the most controversial of all the basic ideas of the system, and that a hundred and one interpretations have been suggested by commentators, scholars and critics. To the Western student of Buddhism the so-called “anattaa-doctrine” has been the hunting-ground, not always a happy one, for the display of personal ingenuity and dialectical jumbling, and it is signi­ficant that this idea has been the cause of the most glaring contradictions among themselves, and even within the writings of the same authority. Even our own historical schools of Buddhist interpretation have found this concept the most difficult. The main difficulty confronting the interpreters has, in my opinion, been the lack of a clear definition of the term attaa. It is curious how writers, particularly those of the West, have plunged into discussions of this doctrine equipped with no other definition of it than the ideas of Soul or Ego borrowed from theistic and pantheistic systems of philosophy or religion, as they were accustomed to before taking up the study of Buddhism. It is not intended to pursue the criticism of such interpretation in this article, but to emphasize the important fact that by the word attaa or atta books of the Pali Canon refer to a number of historical concepts that prevailed in India about the sixth century before Christ, and, therefore, the term must be defined accordingly in relation to the particular context under review. Here then we shall confine ourselves to those contexts where the adjective anattaa is used as the universal characteristic of all dhammas (sabbe dhamma anattaa) which is the third of the three signata or tilakkha.na.
    The two previous articles dealt with the facts of the impermanence of all compounded things and processes, and of the general unsatisfactoriness of all states derived from these, namely, the five groups of physical and mental properties dependent on grasping (pa.tcupadaanakkhandhaa); in particular those feelings and sensations that go to make up individual experience (vedanaa) which could be classified as pleasant, unpleasant, and neither-pleasant-nor-unpleasant. The relevant texts were cited to show that the latter characteristic of general unsatisfactoriness is derived directly from the first characteristic of impermanence. It is now opportune to show how as a necessary corollary of this general unsatisfactoriness of all experience arises the reali­zation of the third and last verity included in the three signata, viz. the universal characteristic of all physical and mental states and phenomena as anattaa.
    In the words of the Master himself: “Physical form, monks, is transient [anicca], and whatever is transient is unsatisfactory [dukkha] whatever is unsatisfactory, that is anattaa [non-self]; and whatever is non-self, that is not of me, that I am not, that is not my self.” This same rigorous logic is in turn applied to the four other groups constituting individuality viz. the feelings and sensations (vedanaa), perception and cognitions (sa.t.taa), mental processes and reflexes (sa.nkhaara) and finally, the individual’s consciousness itself (vi.t.taa.na). This last application of the universal characteristic of non-self to consciousness is in several ways the most significant act in this statement, and when we remind ourselves that the Pali word vi.t.taa.na includes even the innermost mental experiences of the. sentient being, we can see clearly the exact force of the anattaa characteristic as conceived by the Buddha. The most rarified concept of Self or Ego that any philosopher, before or after the Buddha, ever conceived was somehow or somewhere concerned with a state of self-consciousness, the consciousness that “I am I.”
    To the Buddha, even this self-consciousness or “I-ness” is subject to the inexorable characteristics of impermanence and un­satisfactoriness, and since whatever is subject to these characteristics is non-self, this I-consciousness must be regarded as an illusion or an error. This is, in short, the significance of the adjective anattaa as used in the above mentioned doctrine. In the Cha-chakka Sutta (MN 148) a detailed analysis of this concept occurs:
    “If any one regards the eye [i.e. seeing] as the self, that does not hold, for the arising and the passing away of the eye is [clear from experience]. With regard to that which arises and passes away, if anyone were to think, ‘myself is arising and passing away’ [such a thought] would be controverted by the person himself. Therefore, it does not hold to regard the eye as the self. Thus the eye [or seeing] is [proved to be] non-self. Similar­ly if anyone says that the forms [ruupaa or visual objects] are the self, that too does not hold.”
    So both the eye and the visual objects [cognized by it] are non-self. The same argument applies to visual perception or the eye-conscious­ness [cakkhuvi.t.taa.na] if one were to consider this as self. Similarly, it applies to visual sense-contact [cakkhu-samphassa], so that the eye, its sense objects, visual consciousness and visual sense-contact are all four non-self [anattaa]. It applies also to feelings [that arise due to the above four], so that the eye, its sense-objects, visual consciousness, visual sense-contact, and the resultant feelings, are all five non-self. It applies lastly to the [instinctual] craving [ta.nhaa] that is associated with above five, so that the eye, its sense objects, visual consciousness, visual contact, the resultant feelings, and the craving behind them all, these six are non-self. And, what thus applies to the eye or the sense of sight, applies equally to the other five senses [the last being the mind (mano) as an organ of sense]. Thus, if it be said that the mind is self [mano attaa ’ ti ], that too does not hold. Similarly, it is inadmissible to assert that the mind, or its sense-objects [dhamma] or mental-consciousness [manovi.t.taa.na], or mental contact [manosamphassa], or the feelings [vedanaa] that result from all the craving [ta.nhaa], that is associated with all these, are the self. They are non-self, all of them. The way that leads to the origination of the [concept of] permanent individuality or personality [sakkaaya-samudaya] is to regard as mine, or as “I am this,” or as “This is my self” either the sense of seeing, or the visual data, or visual consciousness, or visual contact, its feelings or its craving or similarly, to regard hearing and the four other senses [including mind] with their adjuncts. The way that leads to the cessation of the [view of] permanent personality [sakkaaya-nirodha-gaama.ni-pa.tipadaa] is to cease regarding as mine and so forth, either [the functions of] seeing, or hearing, or smelling, or tasting, or touching, or thinking, or their adjuncts.”
    Now, the Buddha goes on to discuss the ethical impli­cations of this view of self (attaa) or permanent personality (sakkaaya):
    “From sight and visual objects arises visual consciousness and the meeting of all three is contact, from which contact come feelings which may be pleasant, or un­pleasant, or neither. When experiencing a pleasant feeling, a man rejoices in it, hails it and clings tight to it, and a trend to passion [attachment] ensues. When experiencing an unpleasant feeling a man sorrows, feels miserable, wails, beats his breast and goes distraught, and a trend of repugnance ensues. When experiencing a feeling that is neither pleasant nor unpleasant he has no true and causal comprehension of that feeling’s origin, disappearance, agree­ableness, perils and outcome, and a trend of ignorance ensues. It can never possibly result that, without first discarding the pleasant feeling’s trend to passion, without first discarding the unpleasant feeling’s trend to repugnance, and without getting rid of the neutral feeling’s trend to ignorance, with­out discarding ignorance, and stopping it from arising, he will put an end, here and now, to dukkha. And what is true of sight, is equally true of the other five senses.”
    Thus the Buddha admonishes his disciples to analyse the whole conception of self or abiding personality and thereby the whole of experience (loka) along with every single component of the process, whereby the fallacy of Self or abiding persona­lity arises, viewing this whole process of the arising of individuality (naamaruupa) in a perfectly objective manner.
    From all this it becomes clear that the three concepts of anicca, dukkha and anattaa, the three signata or tilakkha.na, are the three corner-stones of the whole edifice of Buddhism. To be convinced of their validity is to accept the Dhamma in its entirety and therefore there can be no half-way house in this process of conviction. It behoves each one of us, who call ourselves Buddhists, to contemplate these three permanent characteristics of the world as we experience it, both objectively and subjectively, and apply in our individual and social lives the ethical principles that, as the Master pointed out, derive from such conviction and lead us to that state free from these three signata, viz. the eternal bliss of Nibbaana.
    The Three Signata
    Gleanings from the Pali Scriptures
    These texts have been selected by the editors of this series and partly adapted from various translations.
    Abbreviations
    AN—A.nguttara Nikaaya
    MN—Majjhima Nikaaya
    DN—Diigha Nikaaya
    SN—Sa.myutta Nikaaya
    Dhp—Dhammapada
    Sn—Suttanipaata
    Ud­—Udaana
    Vism—Visuddhi Magga
    Anicca—Impermanence
    Whatever has origination, all that is subject to cessation. (MN 56)
    “There is no materiality whatever, O monks, no feelings no perception, no formations, no consciousness whatever that is permanent, everlasting, eternal, changeless, identically abiding for ever.” Then the Blessed One took a bit of cow-dung in his hand and he spoke to the monks. ”Monks if even that much of permanent, everlasting, eternal, change­less individual Selfhood [attabhaava], identically abiding for ever, could be found, then this living of a life of purity [brahmacariya] for the complete eradication of ill [dukkha­kkhaya] would not be feasible.” (SN 22:96)
    Here a monk abides contemplating rise and fall in the five categories affected by clinging thus: “Such is materiality, such its origin, such its disappearance, [and so with the other four].” Cultivating this kind of concentration conduces to the eradication of taints [aasavakkhaya]. (DN 33)
    Monks, formations are impermanent; they are not lasting; they provide no real comfort; so that that is enough for a man to become dispassionate, for his lust to fade out, and for him to be liberated. (AN 7:62)
    Here, monks, feelings, perceptions and thoughts are known to him as they arise, known as they appear present, known as they disappear. Cultivating this kind of concen­tration conduces to mindfulness and full awareness. (DN 33)
    When a man abides thus mindful and fully aware, diligent, ardent and self-controlled, then, if pleasant feeling arises in him, he understands, “This pleasant feeling has arisen in me; but that is dependent, not independent. Dependent on what? Dependent on this body. But this body is impermanent, formed and dependently originated. Now how could pleasant feeling, arisen dependent on an impermanent, formed, dependently arisen body, be perma­nent?” In the body and in feeling he abides contemplating impermanence and fall and fading and cessation and relin­quishment. As he does so, his underlying tendency to lust for the body and for pleasant feeling is abandoned. Similarly when he contemplates unpleasant feeling his underlying tendency to resistance [pa.tigha] to the body and unpleasant feelings is abandoned; and when he contemplates neither­-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling his underlying tendency to ignorance of the body and of that feeling is abandoned. (SN 36:7)
    Monks, when a man sees as impermanent the eye [and the rest], which is impermanent, then he has right view. (SN 35:155)
    Consciousness comes into being [sambhoti] by dependence on a duality. What is that duality? It is the eye, which is impermanent, changing, becoming-other, and visible objects, which are impermanent, changing and becoming-other; such is the transient, fugitive duality [of eye-cum-visible objects], which is impermanent, changing and becoming-other. Eye-consciousness is impermanent, changing and be­coming-other; for this cause and condition [namely eye cum-visible objects] for the arising of eye-consciousness being impermanent, changing and becoming-other, how could eye-consciousness, arisen by depending on an impermanent condition, be permanent? Then the coincidence, concurrence and confluence of these three impermanent dhammas is called contact [phassa]; but eye-contact too is impermanent, chang­ing becoming- other; for how could eye-contact arisen by depending on an impermanent condition, be permanent? It is one touched by contact who feels [vedeti], likewise who perceives [sa.tjaanaati]; so these transient, fugitive dhammas too [namely, feeling, choice and perception] are impermanent, changing and becoming, other. (And so with ear-cum­-sounds, nose-cum-odours, tongue-cum-flavours, body-cum­-tangibles, mind-cum-ideas.) (SN 35:93)
    When a monk abides much with his mind fortified by perception of impermanence, his mind retreats, retracts and recoils from gain, honour and renown, and does not reach out to it just as a cock’s feather or a strip of sinew thrown on a fire retreats, retracts and recoils and does not reach out to it. (AN 7:46)
    Perception of impermanence should be cultivated for the elimination of the conceit “I am,” since perception of not-self becomes established in one who perceives imperma­nence; and it is perception of not-self that arrives at the elimination of the conceit “I am,” which is extinction [nibbaana] here and now. (Ud 4.1)
    Fruitful as an act of [lavish] giving is, yet it is still more fruitful to go with confident heart for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha and undertake the five precepts of virtue … Fruitful as this is, yet it is still more fruitful to cultivate even as little as a whiff of fragrance of loving-kindness. Fruitful as that is, still more fruitful it is to cultivate the perception of impermanence even for only as long as the snapping of a finger. (AN 9:20)
    Better a single day of life perceiving how things rise and fall than to live out a century yet not perceive their rise and fall. (Dhp 14)
    When a monk sees six rewards it should be enough for him to establish unlimitedly perception of impermanence in all formations. What six? “All formations will seem to me insubstantial. My mind will find no relish in all the world. My mind will emerge from all the world. My mind will incline towards Nibbaana. My fetters will come to be abandoned. And I shall be endowed with the highest in monkhood.” (AN 6:102)
    All life and all existence here
    With all its joys and all its woe,
    Rests on a single state of mind,
    And quick passes that moment by.
    Nay, even gods whose life does last
    For four and eighty thousand kalpas,
    Do not remain one and the same,
    Not even for two single thoughts.
    Those groups that passed away just now,
    Those groups that will pass later on,
    Those groups just passing in between,
    They’re not in nature different.
    Not in the future moment does one live,
    One now lives in the present moment.
    ”When consciousness dissolves, the world is dead“;
    This utterance is true in the highest sense.
    No hoarding up of things passed by,
    No heaping up in future time!
    And things arisen are all like
    The mustard seed on pointed awl.
    The groups of life that disappeared
    At death, as well as during life,
    Have all alike become extinct,
    And never will they rise again.
    Out of the unseen did they rise,
    Into the unseen do they pass.
    Just as the lightning flashes forth,
    So do they flash and pass away.
    (Vism Ch. 20)
    The monk in deepest solitude,
    Grown still and tranquil in his heart,
    Feels superhuman happiness
    Whilst clearly he perceives the truth.
    Whenever he reflects upon
    The rise and passing of the groups,
    He’s filled with rapture and with bliss
    Whilst he beholds the Deathless Realm.
    (Dhp 373f.)
    Transient are formations all.
    Their law it is to rise and fall.
    Arisen - soon they disappear.
    To make them cease is happiness.
    (SN 6:15, DN 16)

    Dukkha—Suffering or Unsatisfactoriness
    This only do I teach: suffering, and its end. (MN 22)
    Suffering only arises when anything arises; suffering only ceases when anything ceases. (SN 12:15)
    Suffering is threefold: intrinsic suffering [dukkha­-dukkha], suffering in change [viparinaama-dukkha] and suffering due to formations [sa.nkhaara-dukkha]. Bodily and mental painful feeling are called intrinsic suffering because suffering is their very nature, their common designation and because they are in them­selves suffering… . Bodily and mental pleasant feeling are called suffering in change because they are a cause for the arising of pain when they change. Neutral feeling and the remaining formations of the three planes of existence are called suffering due to formations because they are oppressed by rise and fall. ( Vism Ch. 16)
    Pleasant feeling is agreeable while it lasts and is dis­agreeable when it changes; painful feeling is disagreeable while it lasts and is agreeable when it changes; the neither­ pleasant-nor unpleasant feeling is agreeable when there is knowledge and disagreeable when there is no knowledge. (MN 44)
    A heedless man is vanquished by the disagreeable in the guise of the agreeable, by the unloved in the guise of the loved, by suffering in the guise of happiness. (Ud 2.8)
    In the past, sense-pleasures were a painful experience, intensely burning and searing; in the future too, sense­-pleasures will be a painful experience, intensely burning and searing; and also now in the present, sense-pleasures are a painful experience, intensely burning and searing. But these beings have not yet lost their greed for sense-pleasures, are consumed by craving for sense-pleasures, burning in feverish passion for sense-pleasures; and with their faculties clouded, they have, in spite of that painful experience, the illusion of happiness. (MN 75)
    Whoso delights in materiality, in feeling, in perception, in formations, and in consciousness, he delights in suffering; and whoso delights in suffering, will not be freed from suffering. Thus I say. (SN 22:29)
    The arising, presence and manifestation of materiality, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness is but the arising of suffering, the presence of maladies, the manifes­tation of decay and death. The cessation, the stilling, the ending of materiality, feeling, perception, formations and consciousness is but the cessation of suffering, the stilling of maladies, the ending of decay and death. (SN 22:30)
    Inconceivable is the beginning of this sa.msaara; not to be discovered is a first beginning of beings who, obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths. Which do you think, O monks, is more: the flood of tears which, weeping and wailing, you have shed upon this long way, hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths, united with the undesired, separated from the desired; this or the waters of the four great oceans? Long have you suffered the death of father and mother, of sons, daughters, brothers and sisters. And whilst you were thus suffering you have, indeed, shed more tears upon this long way than there is water in the four great oceans. And thus, O monks, have you long undergone torment, undergone misfortune, filled the graveyards full; verily, long enough to be dissatisfied with all forms of existence, long enough to turn away and free yourselves from them all. (SN 15:3 )
    How can you find delight and mirth
    Where there is burning without end?
    In deepest darkness you are wrapped!
    Why do you not aspire for light?
    Look at this puppet here, well rigged,
    A heap of many sores, piled up,
    Diseased and full of greediness,
    Unstable and impermanent!
    Devoured by old age is this frame,
    A prey to sickness, weak and frail;
    To pieces breaks this putrid body,
    All life must truly end in death!
    (Dhp 146–48)
    For those who know not Ill and how Ill grows,
    who neither know how Ill is stilled and quenched
    nor know the Way to lay Ill to rest,
    —those miss Release, alike of heart and mind;
    they cannot end it all and reach the goal;
    they tramp the round of birth, decay and death.
    But they who know both Ill and how Ill grows,
    and also know how Ill is stilled and quenched
    and know the Way that lays all Ill to rest;
    —these win Release of heart, Release of mind;
    these surely end it all and reach the goal;
    these nevermore shall know decay and birth.
    (Sn 724–727)
    When a monk sees six rewards it should be enough for him to establish unlimited perception of suffering in all formations. What six? “The thought of turning away from all formations will be established in me, like unto a murderer with drawn sword. My mind will emerge from all the world. I shall see peace in Nibbaana. The underlying [evil] tenden­cies will be eliminated in me. Dutiful shall I be. And l shall have well attended upon the Master, with a loving heart.” (AN 6:103)
    Anattaa: Not-self or Egolessness
    Give up what does not belong to you! Such giving-up will long conduce to your weal and happiness. And what is it that does not belong to you? Materiality, feelings, perception, formations and con­sciousness; these do not belong to you and these you should give up. Such giving-up will long conduce to your weal and happiness. (SN 22:33)
    All ascetics and brahmins who conceive a self in various ways, all those conceive the five groups [as the self] or one or another of them. Which are the five? Herein an ignorant worldling conceives materiality, feeling, perception, formations or con­sciousness as the self; or the self as the owner of any of these groups; or that group as included in the self; or the self as included in that group. (SN 22:47)
    It is impossible that anyone with right view should see anything [or idea, dhamma] as self. (MN 115)
    The learned and noble disciple does not consider materi­ality, feeling, perception, formations, or consciousness as self; nor the self as the owner of these groups; nor these groups as included within the self; nor the self as included within the groups. Of such a learned and noble disciple it is said that he is no longer fettered by any group of existence, [his] own or external. Thus I say. (SN 22:117)
    It is possible that a virtuous man while contemplating the five groups as impermanent, woeful . . , empty, not-self may realize the Fruit of Stream-entrance. (SN 22:122)
    One should not imagine oneself as being identical with the eye, should not imagine oneself as being included within the eye, should not imagine oneself as being outside the eye, should not imagine: “The eye belongs to me.” And so with ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. One should not imagine oneself as being identical with visual objects, sounds, odours, tactile and mental objects. One should not imagine oneself as being included in them or outside of them; one should not imagine: “They belong to me.” One should not imagine oneself as being identical with eye-consciousness… ear-consciousness… nose-conscious­ness… body-consciousness… mind-consciousness; should not imagine oneself as being included within mind-conscious­ness; should not imagine oneself as being outside of mind-consciousness, should not imagine: “Mind-consciousness belongs to me.” One should not imagine oneself as being identical with the totality of things [the All, sabba.m] should not imagine oneself as being included in the totality of things; should not imagine oneself as being outside the totality of things; should not imagine: “The totality of things belongs to me.” Thus not imagining any more, the wise disciple clings no longer to anything in the world. Clinging no longer to any­thing, he trembles not. Trembling no longer, he reaches in his own person the extinction of all vanity: “Exhausted is rebirth, lived the holy life, the task is done, and nothing fur­ther remains after this.” Thus he knows. (SN 35:90)
    It would be better for an untaught ordinary man to treat as self [attaa] this body, which is constructed upon the four great primaries of matter [maha-bhuuta], than mind. Why? Because the body can last one year, two years … even a hundred years: but what is called “mind” and “thinking” and “consciousness” arises and ceases differently through night and day. (SN 12:61)
    Consciousness is not-self. Also the causes and condi­tions of the arising of consciousness, they likewise are not-­self. Hence, how could it be possible that consciousness, having arisen through something which is not-self, could ever be a self? (SN 35:141)
    When a monk sees six rewards it should be enough for him to establish unlimited perception of not-self concerning all things [dhamma]. What six? “I shall be aloof from all the world. No impulses of ‘I’ [egotism] will assail me. No impulses of ‘mine’ will assail me. With extraordinary insight shall I be endowed. I shall clearly see causes and the causally-arisen phenomena.” (AN 6:104)
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    LESSON 2782 Sun 21 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (
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    Question and Answers

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    Questionnaire No 3 and Answers of Second Year Diploma Course

    1.
    When was the first sermon of the Buddha delivered? Write a short essay giving details, such as, the day, month, place etc. Write also the contents of the discourse and what happened at its conclusion.

    The historic sermon ‘Dhammachakkappavattana Sutta’ was delivered by the All-knowing Buddha on the full moon day of Aasalha (July), exactly two months after his Awakenment on the Vesaakha (May), in the cool evening, at the juxtaposition of the sun steeing in the west and the moon rising in the east.
    The discourse “Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth” comprises the following themes:
    1) Two extremes prevalent in the world.
    2) The Middle Way which avoids all extremes.
    3) The Noble Eight Path being the Middle Way.
    4) The Four Noble Truths in twelve modes.
    5) The spiritual transformation following the discourse and the attainment of the Supermundane Path of fruition Insight-states (Lokuttara Mahaphala nana)

    At the conclusion of the discourse the Venerable Kondanna, senior most of the five ascetics, became a Stream-Enterer (Sotaapanna), one who has entered the Stream that irreversibly flows into Nibbaana. He became the first awakened disciple of the Buddha. Thereafter each day another ascetic, duly instructed by the Buddha, became a Sotaapanna. Thus on the fifth day, all the five ascetics disciples became ariyas, Buddha’s awakened disciples.

    2. Who is an Ariya, a Noble One? How many stages of awakenment are there? What happens when a person gains the first stage?

    At the conclusion of the discourse the Venerable Kondanna, senior most of the five ascetics, became a Stream-Enterer (Sotaapanna), one who has entered the Stream that irreversibly flows into Nibbaana. He became the first awakened disciple of the Buddha. Thereafter each day another ascetic, duly instructed by the Buddha, became a Sotaapanna. Thus on the fifth day, all the five ascetics disciples became ariyas a Noble One Buddha’s awakened disciples.

    To these five disciples who had received the rare “Ehi Bhikkhu” ordination, the Buddha delivered his second discourse entitled ‘Characteristics of non-self’ (Anattalakkhana Sutta), following which all the five Sotaapanna bhikkus became Arahats, Perfect Ones.

    3. Which is the second discourse of the Buddha? Where was it delivered? Give a Brief account of the manner in which the five disciples attained all the stages of awakenment culminating in the state of the Perfect One.

    Anattalakkhana Sutta is the second discourse of the Buddha., hearing which the first five disciple became Arahats, Perfect Ones. These five disciples had gained the first stage of supermundane path and fruition insights. This Sutta describes the nature or characteristics of non-self. Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha., therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality. Unfortunately, in a world of blind beliefs and wrong views, reality is the casualty. Thus the idea of a self is taken for granted.

    4. What is the subject matter of the second sutta and in what way is it the unique teaching of the Buddha?

    Anattalakkhana Sutta is the second discourse of the Buddha., hearing which the first five disciple became Arahats, Perfect Ones. These five disciples had gained the first stage of supermundane path and fruition insights. This Sutta describes the nature or characteristics of non-self. Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha, therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality. Unfortunately, in a world of blind beliefs and wrong views, reality is the casualty. Thus the idea of a self is taken for granted.

    5. Explain the meaning of the term Anatta. Is is a concept or a reality? Give reason.

    Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha, therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality.

    6. What does the term Atta, self, signify? Is it a concept, religious theory or reality? Explain.

    All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea.

    7. Why did the Buddha reject the idea of self, which all other religions of the world accept?

    All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea.

    8. Write an essay on Anatta, quoting the paragraph of the text of Anattalakkhana sutta, which provides the logic underlying the truth of Anatta.

    Anattalakkhana Sutta is the second discourse of the Buddha., hearing which the first five disciple became Arahats, Perfect Ones. These five disciples had gained the first stage of supermundane path and fruition insights. This Sutta describes the nature or characteristics of non-self. Anatta is the profoundest and unique teaching of the Buddha, therefore very specific to Buddhism. All religions and philosophic systems in the world posit the concept of self, soul, ego or attaa. The Buddha unambiguously rejected this assumption as a mental construct, a concept or idea. Since Anatta, non-self, is true nature of everything, it is a reality. Unfortunately, in a world of blind beliefs and wrong views, reality is the casualty. Thus the idea of a self is taken for granted.

    9. Write an essay on the discourse entitled Charecteristics of non-self. Give the meaning underlying each of the aggregates.

    10. Write an essay on the Three Charecteristics of every thing that exists, namely, impermanence, suffering, an no-self.

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    LESSON 2782 Sun 21 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 3:12 am

    The Three Signata: Anicca, Dukkha, Anattaa

    1. Anicca
    The concept of the three signata (tilakkha.na) forms the essential basis for understanding the Buddha’s scheme of emancipation (vimokkha). The three signata, the three universal properties of all existing things of the phenomenal world, are anicca (impermanence, transience or transitoriness), dukkha (unsatisfactoriness, ill, suffering or painfulness), and anattaa (non-self, absence of a permanent ego, or insubstantiality). It is the contemplation of these three universal characteristics of all compounded things and processes (sa.nkhaara), or of all phenomena (dhamma), that leads to true insight (vipassanaa) and enlightenment (bodhi­.taa.na). The realisation of these three fundamental truths can thus be regarded as the key to the highest spiritual perfection afforded by the Buddha Dhamma.
    The first of the three signata, anicca (impermanence, transitoriness of all things in the universe), is a doctrine constantly and emphatically insisted upon in the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddha’s Teaching, the Buddha Dhamma, there is nothing divine or human, animate or inanimate, organic or inorganic, which is permanent or stable, unchang­ing or everlasting.
    This Buddhist concept of the transitoriness of all things, the Buddhist law of impermanence, finds classic expression in the famous formula “sabbe sa.nkhaaraa aniccaa” occurring in the Cuulasaccaka Sutta (MN 35), and in the more popular statement “aniccaa vata sa.nkhaaraa.” Both these formulas amount to saying that all conditioned things or processes are transient or impermanent. This is not given as the result of metaphysical inquiry, or of any mystical intuition, but as a straightforward judgement to be arrived at by investigation and analysis. It is founded on unbiased thought and has a purely empirical basis. In the Mahaavagga of the A.nguttara Nikaaya (AN 7:62/IV 100ff.) the Master admonishes his disciples thus: “Impermanent, monks, are [all] sa.nkhaaras, unstable [not constant], monks, are [all] sa.nkhaaras, [hence] not a cause for comfort and satisfaction are [all] sa.nkhaaras, so much so that one must get tired of all these sa.nkhaaras, be disgusted with them, and be completely free of them.”
    There is no doubt here as to what is meant by the term sa.nkhaara, for the Master himself continues by way of illustration:
    There will come a time, monks, maybe hundreds of thousands of years hence, when no more rains will fall and consequently all plants and trees, all vegetation, will dry up and be destroyed with the scorching due to the appearance of a second sun; streams and rivulets will go dry; and with the appearance of a third sun, such large rivers as the Ganges and Yamunaa will dry up; similarly, the lakes and even the great ocean itself will dry up in course of time, and even such great mountains as Sineru, nay even this wide earth, will begin to smoke and be burnt up in a great and universal holocaust … Thus impermanent, monks, are all sa.nkhaaraa, unstable, and hardly a cause for comfort, so much so that one [contemplating their impermanent nature] must necessarily get tired of them.
    It is easy to understand from this discourse in what an all-embracing sense the term sa.nkhaara is used: it includes all things, all phenomena that come into existence by natural development or evolution, being conditioned by prior causes and therefore containing within themselves the liability to come to an end, to be dissolved from the state in which they are found.
    According to the Buddha, there is no “being,” but only a ceaseless “becoming” (bhava). Every thing is the product of antecedent causes, and, therefore, of dependent origination (pa.ticcasamuppanna). These causes themselves are not ever­lasting and static, but simply antecedent aspects of the same ceaseless becoming. Thus we may conceive everything as the result of a concatenation of dynamic processes (sa.nkhaara) and, therefore, everything created or formed is only created or formed through these processes and not by any agency outside its own nature. In Buddhism everything is regarded as compounded (sa.nkhata). Thus sa.nkhata in these contexts implies everything arisen or become (bhuuta), which depends on antecedent conditions (sahetu-sappaccaya). It is for this very reason (namely, that everything conceivable in this world has come to be or become depending on antecedent conditions or processes) that everything is to be regarded as liable to pass away. As it is declared in the Sa.myutta Nikaaya (SN < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags” />12:31/S II 49): “Whatever has become is of the nature of passing away (ya.m bhuuta.m ta.m nirodhadhamma.m).” This law, if one may call it so, holds in the case of the mightiest of gods, such as Mahaa-Brahmaa, as much as of the tiniest creature. In the 11th discourse of the Diigha Nikaaya it is regarded as ludicrous that even God or Brahma should imagine himself to be eternal. As Professor Rhys Davids remarked,
    The state of an individual, of a thing or person, distinct from its surroundings, bounded off from them, is un­stable, temporary, sure to pass away. It may last as, for instance, in the case of the gods for hundreds of thousands of years; or, as in the case of some insects, for some hours only; or as in the cause of some material things (as we should say some chemical compounds), for a few seconds only. But in every case as soon as there is a beginning, there begins also at that moment to be an ending.
    The ethical significance of this law of impermanence is well brought out in the Mahaa-Sudassana Suttanta (DN 17). There the Buddha tells Aananda, his favourite disciple, about the glories of the famous king of the past, Mahaa Sudassana; about his cities, treasures, palaces, elephants, horses, carriages, women, and so on, in the possession of which he led a wonderful life; about his great regal achievements; and finally his death; only to draw the moral conclusion: “Behold, Aananda, how all these things [sa.nkhaara] are now dead and gone, have passed and vanished away. Thus, impermanent, Aananda, are the sa.nkhaaras; thus untrustworthy, Aananda, are the sa.nkhaaras. And this, Aananda, is enough to be weary of, to be disgusted with and be completely free of such sa.nkhaaras.”
    When the Buddha characterized all compounded things and conditioned processes as impermanent and unstable, it must be understood that, before all else, stood out that particular heap of processes (sa.nkhaarapu.tja) that is called man; for at bottom it was with man chiefly that Buddha had to do, in so far as it was to man primarily that he showed the way to emancipation. Thus the chief problem was to find out the real nature of man, and it is precisely in this great discovery that the uniqueness of the Dhamma is visible. The Buddha’s conclusion regarding man’s nature is in perfect agreement with his general concept of impermanence: Man himself is a compound of several factors and his supposedly persistent personality is in truth nothing more than a collection of ceaselessly changing processes; in fact, a con­tinuous becoming or bhava. The Buddha analysed man into five aggregates: ruupa, vedanaa, sa.t.taa, sa.nkhaara, and vi.t.taa.na , that is to say, material form, sensations, perceptions, dynamic processes and consciousness. In discourse after discourse, the Master has emphatically asserted that each of these aggre­gates is impermanent and unstable. In the famous discourse of the Diigha Nikaaya (DN 22/D II 301) entitled “The Discourse on the Establishment of Mindfulness” (Mahaa Satipa.t.thaana Sutta) the Master teaches the disciple to view all these categories as being of the nature of arising (samudayadhamma) and of passing away (vaya­dhamma): “Such is material form, such is its genesis, such its passing away; and so on with the other three groups: perceptions, dynamic processes and conscious­ness.” In fact, the highest consummation of spiritual life is said to result from the true perception of the evanescent nature of the six spheres of sense contact. The 102nd discourse of the Majjhima Nikaaya ends with the words: “This, indeed, monks, is the perfect way of utter peace into which the Tathaagata has won full Enlightenment, that is to say, the understanding, as they really are, of the six spheres of sense-contact, of their arising and passing away, their comfort and misery, and the way of escape from them free of grasping” (M II 237). It is these six spheres of sense-contact that cause the continuity of sa.msaara, in other words, bhava or becoming, and thus they are to be under­stood as involving the most important sa.nkhaaras. Hence the oft repeated stanza in the Pali Canon: “All compounded things indeed are subject to arising and passing away; what is born comes to an end; blessed is the end of becoming; it is peace.”
    II. Dukkha
    The fact of impermanence as the leading characteristic of all compounded things and processes of the phenomenal world has been dealt with above. The next, according to the concept of the three signata (tilakkha.na), is the fact of dukkha which signifies the universal characteristic of all sa.msaaric existence, viz. its general unsatisfactoriness. It must be admitted that this Pali word “dukkha” is one of the most difficult terms to translate. Writers in English very often use as its equivalent the English word “sorrow” or “ill” and some even translate it as “pain,” “suffering” and so on. But none of these English words covers the same ground as the Pali dukkha, they are too specialized, too limited and usually too strong. The difficulty is increased by the fact that the Pali word itself is used in the Canon in several senses.
    There is what one may call the general philosophical sense, then a narrower psychological sense, and a still narrower physical sense. It is as indicating the general philosophical sense of dukkha that the word un-satisfactoriness has been selected. This is perhaps the best English term, at least in this particular context of the “three signata.”
    Whatever some writers of Buddhism may have said, the recognition of the fact of dukkha stands out as the most essential concept of Buddhism. In the very first discourse after attaining Enlightenment the Master formulated this concept in the following terms:
    This, indeed, monks, is the Noble Truth of dukkha, namely the fact that birth itself is dukkha, disease is dukkha, death is dukkha; to be joined with what is unpleasant is dukkha, to be separated from what is pleasant is dukkha, failure in getting what one wants is dukkha, in short the five groups of physical and mental qualities making up the individual due to grasping are themselves dukkha. (Vin I 10; cp. S V 421)
    This observation of the universal fact of unsatisfactoriness is, as any unbiased student of Buddhism will soon realize, the central pivot of the whole system of spiritual and moral progress discovered and proclaimed by the Buddha.
    According to the Buddha, the beginning, continuity and ending of all experience (i.e. the whole world [loka]) for a sentient being, are centred in its own individuality (naama-ruupa), that is to say, the five groups of grasping that constitute the individual (the pa.tcupadaanakkhandhaa viz. material form, sensations and feelings, perceptions [physical and mental], dynamic processes, and consciousness [ruupa, vedanaa sa.t.taa, sa.nkhaara and vi.t.taa.na]). Now, the physical form or the body of the individual is the visible basis of this individuality, and this body, as every one knows, is a product of material components derived from the four great elements, viz. the watery, the fiery, the airy and the earthy (aapo tejo, vayo, pa.thavii ). It is said to be built up of these four chief elements (caatummahaabhuutika) and therefore, it is conditioned by these. As was explained in the previous article, the universal characteristic of the four great elements is their impermanence (anicca), and not much science is needed to understand this fact which is self-evident to the thoughtful person. The Buddha says:
    “A time will come when the watery element will rise in fury, and when that happens, the earthy element will disappear, unmistakably revealing itself as transient and subject to ruin, destruction and vicissitude… There may also come a time when the watery element will dry up and no more water is left in the great ocean than will cover one joint of a finger. On that day this great watery element will unmistakably reveal itself as transient and subject to ruin, destruction and vicissitude. A time will come when the fiery element will rage furiously and devour the whole surface of the earth, ceasing only when there is nothing more to devour. On that day this great fiery element will unmistakably reveal itself as transient and subject to destruction. A time will come when the airy element will rage in fury and carry away village and town and everything upon the earth … till it exhausts itself completely. On that day this great airy element will unmistakably reveal itself as transient and itself subject to ruin, destruction and all vicissitude.” (MN 28/M I 187)
    Thus everything that is comprised within the four great elements shows itself subject to the universal law of transitoriness, and it is not a difficult inference to conclude that this fathom-long body which is a derivative of these four elements will itself go the way of its elemental source.
    Now the Buddha goes on to show the impermanence or transitoriness of the remaining components of our individu­ality which are based upon the body and its organs:
    The corporeal form, monks, is transient, and what underlies the arising of corporeal form, that too is transient. As it is arisen from what is transient, how could corporeal form be permanent? Sensations and feelings are transient; what underlies the arising of these [viz. the sense organs, depending on the body] is also transient. Arisen from what is transient, how could sensations and feelings be permanent? Similarly, perceptions, dynamic processes of the mind, and consciousness: all these, arising from the transient, cannot but be transient. (SN 22:15/S III 23)
    In all these are observed arising, vicissitude and passing away. This real, imperma­nent nature of everything constituting the individual can only lead to one conclusion: that as they are transitory and by nature unabiding, they cannot be the basis for a satisfactory experience dependent on them. In short, what­ever is transient, is (by that very fact) unsatisfactory (yad-anicca.m ta.m dukkha.m, SN 22:15). Hence is established the great Truth of Buddhism that the whole personality or individuality (wherever that may take shape, whether in this world or in another, as is possible in sa.msaara) and there­fore the whole world of experience which simply depends on this individuality, all this is unsatisfactory or dukkha.
    What do you think, monks; is the body permanent or is it transient?
    It is transient, Sir.
    Now, that which is transient: is it satisfactory or unsatisfactory?
    It is unsatisfactory, Sir.
    What do you think, monks, sensa­tion, perception, mental processes and consciousness: are all these permanent or transient?
    They are transient, Sir.
    Now, what is transient: is it satisfactory or un­satisfactory?
    It is unsatisfactory, Sir. (SN 22:57).
    Thus this general unsatisfactoriness is to be regarded as the universal characteristic of all sa.msaaric experience, and this fact constitutes the Noble Truth of dukkha. To the intelligent person all this must sound axiomatic. But, then, why are the large majority of people unconvinced of, or unconcerned with, this great Truth which forms the bed-rock of the Buddha Dhamma? To answer this we have to probe into the working of man’s own mind which alone can realize this conception of the universality of dukkha.
    The Master has said that the sentient being is psycho­logically so constituted that he seeks what is pleasurable and shuns what is non-pleasurable (sukhakaamo dukkhapa.tikkuula); to use the above employed terminology, he hankers after what is satisfactory for himself and recoils from what is unsatisfactory. Critics of Buddhism may wonder whether it is justifiable to regard the whole psychology of the sentient being as being so strongly ruled by this principle of hankering for the pleasurable and shunning what is unpleasant. That a similar conclusion was arrived at by Freud, the founder of the modem school of psychoanalysis, should cause such critics or sceptics to pause and reflect upon the scientific validity of such an observation. Freud begins his famous dissertation on “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” with the following significant words: “In the theory of psychoanalysis we have no hesitation in assuming that the course taken by mental events is automatically regulated by the pleasure principle. We believe, that is to say, that the course of those events is invariably set in motion by an unpleasurable tension, and that it takes a direction such that its final outcome coincides with a lowering of that tension, that is, with an avoidance of unpleasure or a production of pleasure.” Freud thus introduces what he calls an “economic” principle into his study of mental processes, and is it not a noteworthy fact in the history of human ideas that the Buddha had nearly twenty five centuries earlier formulated the same principle in practically the same terms? Now, if man by nature is driven by his own unconscious processes to seek for the pleasant and avoid what is unpleasant, it stands to reason that he would be unwilling to accept a philosophy whose basic idea is the characterization of all his experiences as impermanent and therefore liable to bring unhappiness or dukkha. That is why the Buddha soon after his Enlightenment considered that only a very few in the world had their vision sufficiently clear to grasp this great Truth of the universality of dukkha.
    Before concluding this brief exposition of dukkha a doubt should be cleared which is often seen to cloud this conception and erroneously leads certain people to conclude that if the fact of dukkha is such a universal characteristic of experience, Buddhism must be regarded as a profession of pessimism. That such a view is totally wrong is seen clearly from certain passages of the Canon itself. According to Buddhism there is a point of view from which experiences, that is to say, sensations and feelings (vedanaa) can be considered to be threefold: they can be pleasant or happy (sukha), or they can be unpleasant or unhappy (dukkha), or they can be neutral, i.e. neither pleasant nor unpleasant (adukkhamasukha). From this lower or relative point of view which holds good for all individual experience, there is what may be called happiness in the world just as much as unhappiness, the degree of predominance of the one over the other varying according to personal and environ­mental conditions prevailing at a given moment. But further contemplation of such happiness and unhappiness and neutral feelings shows unmistakably that there is a common denominator between all these three types of experiences, namely, the fact that all three are subject to the universal property of impermanence or transience. Thus the Venerable Saariputta assures the Master that if questioned on the real nature of sensations and feelings, he would reply: “Threefold, indeed, friend, are those feelings and sensations: pleasant, unpleasant and neither-pleasant-nor-unpleasant; but, friend, [all] these three [experiences] are transient, and when one realizes that whatever is transient [and fleeting] must give rise to dukkha [in other words, is unsatisfactory], no hankering after them arises.”
    It can easily be seen that in the last sentence, dukkha is used in the wider philosophical sense, as referred to at the beginning of this article. Hence is the Master’s joyful approval of Saariputta’s words: “Well said, well said, Saariputta, this exactly is the manner in which one should summarily dispose of such a question: Whatever experience there is, such [being transitory] must fall within the category of dukkha” (ya.m ki.tci vedayita.m tam dukkhasmi.m ; SN 12:32/S II 53). All sa.msaaric experience is in this sense vedayita and thus arises the incontrovertible proposition that all becoming in sa.msaara (bhava) is dukkha or unsatisfactory from the highest point of view (paramattha). Herein is also based that absolutely certain optimism of Buddhism, viz. that there is a way out of this sa.msaaric dukkha, a haven of utter peace and tranquillity, which is the absolute happiness of Nibbaana. Nibbaana.m parama.m sukha.m.

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    10/20/18
    LESSON 2781 Sat 20 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)
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    Posted by: site admin @ 4:40 am

    LESSON 2781 Sat 20 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP)

    http://online.sfsu.edu/rone/Buddhism/footsteps.htm

    Following the Buddha’s Footsteps
    Instilling Goodness School
    City of Ten Thousand Buddhas
    Talmage, CA 95481

    INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM

    As a child, Siddhartha the Buddha, was troubled by some of the same thoughts that children today have. They wonder about birth and death. They wonder why they get sick and why grandfather died. They wonder why their wishes do not come true. Children also wonder about happiness and the beauty in nature.

    Because the Buddha knew what was in the hearts of children and human kind, he taught everyone how to live a happy and peaceful life. Buddhism is not learning about strange beliefs from faraway lands. It is about looking at and thinking about our own lives. It shows us how to understand ourselves and how to cope with our daily problems.

    UNIT 1
    THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA

    Life in the Palace

    Buddhism is one of the major religions in the world. It began around 2,500 years ago in India when Siddhartha Gautama discovered how to bring happiness into the world. He was born around 566 BC, in the small kingdom of Kapilavastu. His father was King Suddhodana and his mother was Queen Maya.

    Soon after Prince Siddhartha was born, the wise men predicted that he would become a Buddha. When the king heard this, he was deeply disturbed, for he wanted his son to become a mighty ruler. He told Queen Maya, “I will make life in the palace so pleasant that our son will never want to leave.”

    At the age of sixteen, Prince Siddhartha married a beautiful princess, Yasodhara. The king built them three palaces, one for each season, and lavished them with luxuries. They passed their days in enjoyment and never thought about life outside the palace.

    The Four Sights

    Soon Siddhartha became disillusioned with the palace life and wanted to see the outside world. He made four trips outside the palace and saw four things that changed his life. On the first three trips, he saw sickness, old age and death. He asked himself, “How can I enjoy a life of pleasure when there is so much suffering in the world?”

    On his fourth trip, he saw a wandering monk who had given up everything he owned to seek an end to suffering. “I shall be like him.” Siddhartha thought.

    Renunciation

    Leaving his kingdom and loved ones behind, Siddhartha became a wandering monk. He cut off his hair to show that he had renounced the worldly lifestyle and called himself Gautama. He wore ragged robes and wandered from place to place. In his search for truth, he studied with the wisest teachers of his day. None of them knew how to end suffering, so he continued the search on his own.

    For six years he practiced severe asceticism thinking this would lead him to enlightenment. He sat in meditation and ate only roots, leaves and fruit. At times he ate nothing. He could endure more hardships than anyone else, but this did not take him anywhere. He thought, “Neither my life of luxury in the palace nor my life as an ascetic in the forest is the way to freedom. Overdoing things can not lead to happiness. ” He began to eat nourishing food again and regained his strength.

    Enlightenment

    On a full-moon day in May, he sat under the Bodhi tree in deep meditation and said. “I will not leave this spot until I find an end to suffering.” During the night, he was visited by Mara, the evil one, who tried to tempt him away from his virtuous path. First he sent his beautiful daughters to lure Gautama into pleasure. Next he sent bolts of lightning, wind and heavy rain. Last he sent his demonic armies with weapons and flaming rocks. One by one, Gautama met the armies and defeated them with his virtue.

    As the struggle ended, he realized the cause of suffering and how to remove it. He had gained the most supreme wisdom and understood things as they truly are. He became the Buddha, ‘The Awakened One’. From then on, he was called Shakyamuni Buddha.

    The Buddha Teaches

    After his enlightenment, he went to the Deer Park near the holy city of Benares and shared his new understanding with five holy men. They understood immediately and became his disciples. This marked the beginning of the Buddhist community.

    For the next forty-five years, the Buddha and his disciples went from place to place in India spreading the Dharma, his teachings. Their compassion knew no bounds, they helped everyone along the way, beggars, kings and slave girls. At night, they would sleep where they were; when hungry they would ask for a little food.

    Whenever the Buddha went, he won the hearts of the people because he dealt with their true feelings. He advised them not to accept his words on blind faith, but to decide for themselves whether his teachings are right or wrong, then follow them. He encouraged everyone to have compassion for each other and develop their own virtue, “You should do your own work, for I can teach only the way.”

    He never became angry or impatient or spoke harshly to anyone, not even to those who opposed him. He always taught in such a way that everyone could understand. Each person thought the Buddha was speaking especially for him. The Buddha told his followers to help each other on the Way. Following is a story of the Buddha living as an example to his disciples.

    Once the Buddha and Ananda visited a monastery where a monk was suffering from a contagious disease. The poor man lay in a mess with no one looking after him. The Buddha himself washed the sick monk and placed him on a new bed. Afterwards, he admonished the other monks. “Monks, you have neither mother nor father to look after you. If you do not look after each other, who will look after you? Whoever serves the sick and suffering, serves me.”

    The Last Years

    Shakyamuni Buddha passed away around 486 BC at the age of eighty. Although he has left the world, the spirit of his kindness and compassion remains.

    The Buddha realized that that he was not the first to become a Buddha. “There have been many Buddhas before me and will be many Buddhas in the future,” The Buddha recalled to his disciples. “All living beings have the Buddha nature and can become Buddhas.” For this reason, he taught the way to Buddhahood.

    The two main goals of Buddhism are getting to know ourselves and learning the Buddha’s teachings. To know who we are, we need to understand that we have two natures. One is called our ordinary nature, which is made up of unpleasant feelings such as fear, anger, and jealousy. The other is our true nature, the part of us that is pure, wise, and perfect. In Buddhism, it is called the Buddha nature. The only difference between us and the Buddha is that we have not awakened to our true nature.

    Unit 2
    BASIC TEACHINGS OF THE BUDDHA
    Chapter 1
    THE THREE UNIVERSAL TRUTHS

    One day, the Buddha sat down in the shade of a tree and noticed how beautiful the countryside was. Flowers were blooming and trees were putting on bright new leaves, but among all this beauty, he saw much unhappiness. A farmer beat his ox in the field. A bird pecked at an earthworm, and then an eagle swooped down on the bird. Deeply troubled, he asked, “Why does the farmer beat his ox? Why must one creature eat another to live?”

    During his enlightenment, the Buddha found the answer to these questions. He discovered three great truths. He explained these truths in a simple way so that everyone could understand them.

    1. Nothing is lost in the universe

    The first truth is that nothing is lost in the universe. Matter turns into energy, energy turns into matter. A dead leaf turns into soil. A seed sprouts and becomes a new plant. Old solar systems disintegrate and turn into cosmic rays. We are born of our parents, our children are born of us.

    We are the same as plants, as trees, as other people, as the rain that falls. We consist of that which is around us, we are the same as everything. If we destroy something around us, we destroy ourselves. If we cheat another, we cheat ourselves. Understanding this truth, the Buddha and his disciples never killed any animal.

    2. Everything Changes

    The second universal truth of the Buddha is that everything is continuously changing. Life is like a river flowing on and on, ever-changing. Sometimes it flows slowly and sometimes swiftly. It is smooth and gentle in some places, but later on snags and rocks crop up out of nowhere. As soon as we think we are safe, something unexpected happens.

    Once dinosaurs, mammoths, and saber-toothed tigers roamed this earth. They all died out, yet this was not the end of life. Other life forms like smaller mammals appeared, and eventually humans, too. Now we can even see the Earth from space and understand the changes that have taken place on this planet. Our ideas about life also change. People once believed that the world was flat, but now we know that it is round.

    3. Law of Cause and Effect

    The third universal truth explained by the Buddha is that there is continuous changes due to the law of cause and effect. This is the same law of cause and effect found in every modern science textbook. In this way, science and Buddhism are alike.

    The law of cause and effect is known as karma. Nothing ever happens to us unless we deserves it. We receive exactly what we earn, whether it is good or bad. We are the way we are now due to the things we have done in the past. Our thoughts and actions determine the kind of life we can have. If we do good things, in the future good things will happen to us. If we do bad things, in the future bad things will happen to us. Every moment we create new karma by what we say, do, and think. If we understand this, we do not need to fear karma. It becomes our friend. It teaches us to create a bright future.
    The Buddha said,

    “The kind of seed sown
    will produce that kind of fruit.
    Those who do good will reap good results.
    Those who do evil will reap evil results.
    If you carefully plant a good seed,
    You will joyfully gather good fruit.”
    Dhammapada

    ——————————————————————————————————-
    Chapter 2
    THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
    Once there was a woman named Kisagotami, whose first-born son died. She was so stricken with grief that she roamed the streets carrying the dead body and asking for help to bring her son back to life. A kind and wise man took her to the Buddha.

    The Buddha told her, “Fetch me a handful of mustard seeds and I will bring your child back to life.” Joyfully Kisagotami started off to get them. Then the Buddha added, “But the seeds must come from a family that has not known death.”

    Kisagotami went from door to door in the whole village asking for the mustard seeds, but everyone said, “Oh, there have been many deaths here”, “I lost my father”, I lost my sister”. She could not find a single household that had not been visited by death. Finally Kisagotami returned to the Buddha and said, “There is death in every family. Everyone dies. Now I understand your teaching.”

    The Buddha said, “No one can escape death and unhappiness. If people expect only happiness in life, they will be disappointed.”

    Things are not always the way we want them to be, but we can learn to understand them. When we get sick, we go to a doctor and ask:

    What’s wrong with me?
    Why am I sick?
    What will cure me?
    What do I have to do get well?
    The Buddha is like a good doctor. First a good doctor diagnoses the illness. Next he finds out what has caused it. Then he decides what the cure is. Finally he prescribes the medicine or gives the treatment that will make the patient well again.
    The Four Noble Truths
    1. There is Suffering Suffering is common to all.
    2. Cause of Suffering We are the cause of our suffering.
    3. End of Suffering Stop doing what causes suffering.
    4. Path to end Suffering Everyone can be enlightened.

    1. Suffering: Everyone suffers from these thing
    Birth- When we are born, we cry.
    Sickness- When we are sick, we are miserable.
    Old age- When old, we will have ache and pains and find it hard to get around.
    Death- None of us wants to die. We feel deep sorrow when someone dies.

    Other things we suffer from are:
    Being with those we dislike,
    Being apart from those we love,
    Not getting what we want,
    All kinds of problems and disappointments that are unavoidable.

    The Buddha did not deny that there is happiness in life, but he pointed out it does not last forever. Eventually everyone meets with some kind of suffering. He said:
    “There is happiness in life,
    happiness in friendship,
    happiness of a family,
    happiness in a healthy body and mind,
    …but when one loses them, there is suffering.”
    Dhammapada

    2. The cause of suffering
    The Buddha explained that people live in a sea of suffering because of ignorance and greed. They are ignorant of the law of karma and are greedy for the wrong kind of pleasures. They do things that are harmful to their bodies and peace of mind, so they can not be satisfied or enjoy life.

    For example, once children have had a taste of candy, they want more. When they can’t have it, they get upset. Even if children get all the candy they want, they soon get tired of it and want something else. Although, they get a stomach-ache from eating too much candy, they still want more. The things people want most cause them the most suffering. Of course, there are basic things that all people should have, like adequate food, shelter, and clothing. Everyone deserve a good home, loving parents, and good friends. They should enjoy life and cherish their possessions without becoming greedy.

    3. The end of suffering
    To end suffering, one must cut off greed and ignorance. This means changing one’s views and living in a more natural and peaceful way. It is like blowing out a candle. The flame of suffering is put out for good. Buddhists call the state in which all suffering is ended Nirvana. Nirvana is an everlasting state of great joy and peace. The Buddha said, “The extinction of desire is Nirvana.” This is the ultimate goal in Buddhism. Everyone can realize it with the help of the Buddha’s teachings. It can be experienced in this very life.

    4. The path to the end of suffering: The path to end suffering is known as the Noble Eightfold Path. It is also known as the Middle Way.

    Chapter 3
    THE NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH

    When the Buddha gave his first sermon in the Deer Park, he began the ‘Turning of the Dharma Wheel’. He chose the beautiful symbol of the wheel with its eight spokes to represent the Noble Eightfold Path. The Buddha’s teaching goes round and round like a great wheel that never stops, leading to the central point of the wheel, the only point which is fixed, Nirvana. The eight spokes on the wheel represent the eight parts of the Noble Eightfold Path. Just as every spoke is needed for the wheel to keep turning, we need to follow each step of the path.

    1. Right View. The right way to think about life is to see the world through the eyes of the Buddha–with wisdom and compassion.

    2. Right Thought. We are what we think. Clear and kind thoughts build good, strong characters.

    3. Right Speech. By speaking kind and helpful words, we are respected and trusted by everyone.

    4. Right Conduct. No matter what we say, others know us from the way we behave. Before we criticize others, we should first see what we do ourselves.

    5. Right Livelihood. This means choosing a job that does not hurt others. The Buddha said, “Do not earn your living by harming others. Do not seek happiness by making others unhappy.”

    6. Right Effort. A worthwhile life means doing our best at all times and having good will toward others. This also means not wasting effort on things that harm ourselves and others.

    7. Right Mindfulness. This means being aware of our thoughts, words, and deeds.

    8. Right Concentration. Focus on one thought or object at a time. By doing this, we can be quiet and attain true peace of mind.

    Following the Noble Eightfold Path can be compared to cultivating a garden, but in Buddhism one cultivates one’s wisdom. The mind is the ground and thoughts are seeds. Deeds are ways one cares for the garden. Our faults are weeds. Pulling them out is like weeding a garden. The harvest is real and lasting happiness.

    UNIT 3
    FOLLOWING THE BUDDHA’S TEACHINGS

    The Buddha spoke the Four Noble Truths and many other teachings, but at the heart they all stress the same thing. An ancient story explains this well.

    Once a very old king went to see an old hermit who lived in a bird’s nest in the top of a tree, “What is the most important Buddhist teaching?” The hermit answered, “Do no evil, do only good. Purify your heart.” The king had expected to hear a very long explanation. He protested, “But even a five-year old child can understand that!” “Yes,” replied the wise sage, “but even an 80-year-old man cannot do it.”

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Chapter 1
    THE TRIPLE JEWEL
    The Buddha knew it would be difficult for people to follow his teachings on their own, so he established the Three Refuges for them to rely on. If a person wants to become Buddhists take refuge in and rely on the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. These are known as the Triple Jewel. The Sangha are the monks and nuns. They live in monasteries and carry on the Buddha’s teaching. The word Sangha means ‘harmonious community’. The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha together possess qualities that are precious like jewels and can lead one to enlightenment.

    A refuge is a place to go for safety and protection, like a shelter in a storm. Taking refuge does not mean running away from life. It means living life in a fuller, truer way.

    Taking refuge is also like a man traveling for the first time to a distant city. He will need a guide to show him which path to follow and some traveling companions to help him along the way.

    The Buddha is the guide.
    The Dharma is the path.
    The Sangha are the teachers or companions along the way.
    There is a special ceremony for taking refuge with the Triple Jewel. With a sincere mind, one recites the following verse in front of an ordained monk or nun.
    I go to the Buddha for refuge.
    I go to the Dharma for refuge.
    I go to the Sangha for refuge.

    For a Buddhist, taking refuge is the first step on the path to enlightenment. Even if enlightenment is not achieved in this life, one has a better chance to become enlightened in a future life. One who take the precepts is called a lay person.

    ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Chapter 2
    THE FIVE PRECEPTS
    All religions have some basic rules that define what is good conduct and what kind of conduct should be avoided. In Buddhism, the most important rules are the Five Precepts. These have been passed down from the Buddha himself.

    1. No killing Respect for life
    2. No stealing Respect for others’ property
    3. No sexual misconduct Respect for our pure nature
    4. No lying Respect for honesty
    5. No intoxicants Respect for a clear mind

    No killing

    The Buddha said, “Life is dear to all beings. They have the right to live the same as we do.” We should respect all life and not kill anything. Killing ants and mosquitoes is also breaking this precept. We should have an attitude of loving-kindness towards all beings, wishing them to be happy and free from harm. Taking care of the earth, its rivers and air is included. One way that many Buddhists follow this precept is by being vegetarian.

    No stealing

    If we steal from another, we steal from ourselves. Instead, we should learn to give and take care of things that belong to our family, to the school, or to the public.

    No sexual misconduct

    Proper conduct shows respect for oneself and others. Our bodies are gifts from our parents, so we should protect them from harm. Young people should especially keep their natures pure and develop their virtue. It is up to them to make the world a better place to live. In happy families, the husband and wife both respect each other.

    No lying

    Being honest brings peace into the world. When there is a misunderstanding, the best thing is to talk it over. This precept includes no gossip, no back-biting, no harsh words and no idle speech.

    No intoxicants

    The fifth precept is based on keeping a clear mind and a healthy body. One day, when the Buddha was speaking the Dharma for the assembly, a young drunkard staggered into the room. He tripped over some monks who were sitting on the floor and started cursing loudly. His breath reeked of alcohol and filled the air with a sickening stench. Mumbling to himself, he reeled out the door.

    Everyone was astonished at his rude behavior, but the Buddha remained calm. “Great assembly!” he spoke, “Take a look at this man! He will certainly lose his wealth and good name. His body will grow weak and sickly. Day and night, he will quarrel with his family and friends until they abandon him. The worst thing is that he will lose his wisdom and become stupid.”

    Little by little, one can learn to follow these precepts. If one sometimes forgets them, one can start all over again. Following the precepts is a lifetime job. If one kills or hurts someone’s feelings by mistake, that is breaking the precepts, but it was not done on purpose.

    Chapter 3
    THE WHEEL OF LIFE

    Buddhists do not believe that death is the end of life. When one dies, one’s consciousness leaves and enters one of the six paths of rebirth.

    Heavenly Beings
    Humans
    Asuras are beings who have many good things in life, but still like to fight. They appear in the heavens or on earth as people or animals.
    Hungry ghosts are beings who suffer from constant hunger.
    Hell-beings
    These are the six states on the wheel of life. At the top are the heavens, where everyone is happy. Below are the hells where the suffering is unbearable. Beings can rise or fall from one path to another. If one does good deeds, one will be born into the paths of gods, humans, or asuras. If one does evil deeds, one will be born into the paths of animals, hungry ghosts, or hell-beings. From one life to the next one can suddenly change from an human to an animal or from a ghost to a hell-being, according to the things one has done.
    How to Escape the Turning Wheel

    The wheel of life and death is kept turning by the three poisons of greed, hatred, and stupidity. By cutting off the three poisons, we can escape the wheel and become enlightened. There are four stages of enlightenment.

    Buddhas- perfect in enlightenment.
    Bodhisattvas- enlighten themselves as well as others.
    Pratyekabuddhas- hermits who retreat from the world to enlighten themselves.
    Arhats- enlighten themselves.
    Unit 4
    THE BUDDHIST COMMUNITY
    In Asia, it is considered the highest honor if a member of one’s family leaves the home life. Westerners, however, may be shocked at the idea of anyone leaving their family to become a monk or nun. They may think this is selfish and turning one’s back on the world. In fact, monks and nuns are not selfish at all. They dedicate themselves to helping others. They don’t wish to own a lot of things, or to have money or power. They give these things up to gain something far more valuable–spiritual freedom. By living a pure simple life with others on the same path, they are able to lessen their greed, hatred, and ignorance.

    Although monks and nuns live in a monastery, they do not entirely give up their families. They are allowed to visit and take care of them when they are ill.

    Chapter 1
    LIFE IN A MONASTERY

    A day in a temple begins early for monks and nuns. Long before daybreak, they attend morning ceremony and chant praises to the Buddha. The ceremonies lift one’s spirit and bring about harmony. Although the Sangha lead simple lives, they have many responsibilities to fulfill. Everyone works diligently and is content with his or her duties.

    During the day, some monks and nuns go about teaching in schools or speaking the Buddha’s teachings. Others may revise and translate Buddhist Sutras and books, make Buddha images, take care of the temple and gardens, prepare for ceremonies, give advice to laypeople, and care for the elders and those who are sick. The day ends with a final evening ceremony.

    In the daily life of work and religious practice, the monks and nuns conduct them-selves properly and are highly respected. By leading a pure, simple life, they gain extraorinary insight into the nature of things. Although their life is hard and rigorous, the results are worth it. It also keeps them healthy and energetic. The laity, who live in the temple or visits, follows the same schedule as the Sangha and works along with them.

    Chapter 2
    THE SHAVEN HEAD, ROBE, AND OFFERING BOWL

    Ideally, monks and nuns own only a few things, such as robes and an offering bowl. While most people spend lots of time and money on their hair, Buddhist monks and nuns shave their heads. They are no longer concerned with outward beauty, but with developing their spiritual lives. The shaven head is a reminder that the monks and nuns have renounced the home life and are a part of the Sangha.

    Offering food to monks and nuns is a part of Buddhism. In Asia, it is not unusual to see monks walking towards the villages early in the morning carrying their offering bowls. They do not beg for food, but accept whatever is offered. This practice not only helps the monks and nuns to be humble, but gives laypeople an opportunity to give. In some countries laypeople go to the monastery to make offerings.

    The robes of monks and nuns are simple and made from cotton or linen. Their color varies according to different countries. For instance, yellow robes are mostly worn in Thailand, while black robes are worn in Japan. In China and Korea, gray and brown robes are worn for work, while more elaborate robes are used for ceremonies. Dark red robes are worn in Tibet.

    Robes and offering bowls are very important to monks and nuns. The Buddha said, “Just as a bird takes its wings with it wherever it flies, so the monk takes his robes and bowl with him wherever he goes.”

    Chapter 3
    THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LAITY IN BUDDHISM

    The laity are very important in Buddhism, for they are the supporting members of the Buddhist community. They build the temples and monasteries and give offerings of food, robes, bedding, and medicine to the monks and nuns. This enables the Sangha to carry on the Buddha’s work. In this way the Sangha and laity benefit each other and together keep the Dharma alive.

    In Buddhism, it is also important to support the poor and needy. Giving to support religious people, however, is considered a very meritorious deed. The Buddha not only encouraged giving to Buddhists, but to any spiritual person who is sincere.

    The Buddha taught his disciples to be tolerant of other religions. For example, when one lights a candle from the flame of another candle, the flame of the first candle does not lose its light. Instead, the two lights glow more brightly together. It is the same with the great religions of the world.

    Whether one is a member of the Sangha or a lay person, the ideal is to practice Buddhism for the sake of all.

    UNIT 5
    DIFFERENT KINDS OF BUDDHISM

    Chapter 1
    TWO SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM

    In the centuries following the Buddha’s lifetime, his followers faithfully preserved his teachings and spread them to many countries in Asia. Today, there are two main schools of Buddhism: Theravada and Mahayana. Theravada means ‘the teaching of the Elders’. Theravada monks follow the practices that have been passed down by the senior monks from the Buddha’s time, such as living in the forests and meditating. The goal in Theravada Buddhism is to become an Arhat, a person who is free of suffering. Theravada is practiced mainly in southern Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand and Myanmar (Burma).

    Mahayana stresses following the Buddha’s example of going out into the world and doing good. Mahayana means ‘Great Vehicle’. The goal in Mahayana Buddhism is to follow the Bodhisattva Path. A Bodhisattva is one who enlightens oneself as well as others. In Mahayana Buddhism, there are many Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. It mainly spread to northern Asian countries like China, Tibet, Korea, Vietnam and Japan. Recently, both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism have been introduced into the West.

    Chapter 2
    VISITING BUDDHIST TEMPLES

    In this unit, we will pretend to visit different Buddhist temples. When visiting a temple, we should dress modestly and follow the rules and customs of the temple. Buddhists pay their respects to the Triple Jewel by facing the altar and bowing when entering the temple. Visitors may join in the worship rituals or just watch quietly.

    In Buddhism, the monks and nuns are treated with great respect. They sit or stand in front of everyone else and take their food first. When we talk to them, we should put our palms together and speak politely.

    Theravada Buddhism

    Our first visit is to a Theravada Buddhist monastery in the forest in Thailand where only the monks live. We sit in the quietness of a small bamboo temple built on stilts, surrounded by the sounds of chirping birds and rustling trees. A young monk who is our guide explains to us. “The monks live alone in huts called ‘kutis’. They are built on stilts to keep the animals and insects out. There they practice sitting and walking meditation, which is very important for their spiritual life. In front of each hut is a path for walking meditation. The monks sweep them clean to keep from stepping on insects and killing them.”

    The guide continues, “Early in the morning and in the evening, the monks meet together for meditation and recitation. After the ceremonies called pujas, they study the Dharma. Before entering the temple they wash their feet with water carried up to the monastery from a stream below. It is traditional for the monks and nuns to live in the forest as part of their early training. The older ones, however, are not required to do so. Some monks and nuns may live all their lives in the forest, while others live in the temples in towns and cities.

    Someone asks, “Living in the jungle, aren’t you afraid of tigers?”

    The monk answers, “Sometimes, when the monks are walking in the jungle, they sense tigers following them. But since they hold the precept of no killing, they’re not afraid and the tigers know they will not be harmed.”

    Tibetan Buddhism

    Next we will visit a Tibetan temple. A young Tibetan boy named Lobsang is our guide. He smiles as he talks, “Our temple is very colorful. It is decorated with many kinds of Buddha images and wall hangings called thankas. On the altars are beautiful lamps and incense holders. Big prayer wheels are set into the walls of the temple. Mantras, written on strips of rice paper, are placed inside the wheels. They are symbolic phrases with deep spiritual meanings. We recite them over and over as we turn the prayer wheels. There are also hand-held prayer wheels that people whirl as they walk about.

    “To us Tibetans, Buddhism is a happy religion. My favorite days are the festivals. People in masks and costumes act out dramas about the life of the Buddha. Bright, new prayer flags are hung on these days. They blow in the wind along the hillsides and remind us to live in harmony with nature. Now that your visit is over, may you go with the spirit of the Buddha.”

    Japanese Buddhism
    At a Japanese temple, we are met by Taro. She will tell us about her Sunday School: “We chant ‘Namo Amida Butsu’ to show our gratitude to Amida Buddha, the Buddha of Infinite Light. We believe that by reciting his name we will have a good life and be reborn in his Western Pure Land. You can see a statue of Amida in the front of the hall. On the altar you can see other beautiful things, but the most important is the offering of rice cakes.

    “I will tell you why. Rice is very important to Asian people. If you were to ask a young Japanese boy or girl, ‘What did you eat today?’ He or she would probably say, ‘Rice’” When we see rice offered, it reminds us to offer our best to the Buddha. In Sunday school, we sit in meditation on cushions called zafus. Japanese meditation is called zen.

    Chinese Buddhism

    Today we are visiting a Chinese-American monastery in California. It is called the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. There are over ten thousand small Buddha statues inside the main worship hall. Our guide is a young novice named Gwo Cheng from mainland China. She came to the United States when she was 10 years old and became a novice at age 11.

    Gwo Cheng: “The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is a Buddhist community where people from all over the world come to study Buddhism. The City has its own schools, but you do not have to be a Buddhist to attend our schools or to live here.

    “A day at the temple begins at 4:00 a.m. with the morning ceremony. After that we bow, sit in meditation, and recite Sutras. These ceremonies lift everyone’s spirits and help us live together in harmony. We do our ceremonies in both English and Chinese. There are many ceremonies throughout the day. We finish off the day with an evening ceremony and a Dharma talk.

    “Everyone goes to work or school at 8:00 in the morning. In our school, we learn the way of truth and goodness We also learn both Chinese and English. We young novices attend school and are in training to become nuns. We can become fully ordained nuns when we are twenty-one, so we have time to make up our minds. We are not expected to do everything the nuns do, but we do our best. At first it was difficult to get up so early and to sit in meditation, but now we are used to it. It’s a healthy life!

    “After school, we help with the temple duties and do other chores. I really like gardening and planting. Many people ask me if the novices ever have any fun. We do! We are very good friends and enjoy studying together. We go on walks and picnics and sing Buddhist songs. The nuns are always thinking of fun things for us to do. We also like to see our families who live here and visit with us.”

    UNIT 6
    BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES, SYMBOLS, AND FESTIVALS

    Chapter 1
    BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES

    The Dharma reveals the Buddha’s understanding of life. The Buddha instructed countless people, but he, himself, wrote nothing down, just as Jesus wrote nothing down. They both lived a complete life. His disciples remembered his talks and recited them regularly. These talks were collected into books called Sutras. There are many Sutras, so Buddhism does not have just a single holy book, like the Christian Bible or the Koran of Islam.

    The first Sutras were written on palm leaves in Pali and Sanskrit, ancient Indian languages. They have been gathered together in a collection called the Tripitaka, which means ‘three baskets’. It is divided into three parts.

    Sutra Pitaka~Sutras and their explanations
    Vinaya Pitaka~Rules for monks and nuns
    Abhidharma Pitaka~The psychology and philosophy of the Buddha’s teachings
    Buddhists treat Sutras with great respect and place them on the highest shelves in the most respected areas.
    Chapter 2
    BUDDHIST SYMBOLS

    Buddhist symbols have special meanings that remind us of the Buddha’s teachings. The main room or building is called a shrine or a Buddha Hall. In the front of this room, there is an altar. There are many beautiful things on the altar. Here are some of them.

    Images of the Buddha
    Traditional offerings
    Dharma instruments
    _________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Buddha Images
    Some people believe that Buddhists worship idols, but this is not true. Buddhists bow or make offerings of flowers and incense in reverence to the Buddha, not to the image. When they do so they reflect on the virtues of the Buddha and are inspired to become like him. Buddha images are not necessary, but they are helpful. The most important thing is to follow the Buddha’s teachings.

    There are many different kinds of Buddha and Bodhisattva images that show different qualities. For example, a statue of the Buddha with his hand resting gently in his lap reminds us to develop peace within ourselves. A statue with the Buddha’s right hand touching the ground shows determination.

    Traditional Offerings

    Traditional offerings are to show respect to the Buddha.

    Flowers- are offered as reminders of how quickly things change
    Light from lamps or candles- symbolizes wisdom
    Incense- reminds one to be peaceful
    Water- represents purity
    Food- reminds us to give our best to the Buddhas.
    Dharma Instruments
    The instruments used in ceremonies and meditation are called Dharma instruments. Each instrument has a specific use. For instance, the wooden fish is hit to keep rhythm

    Bells- gives signals in ceremonies and meditation
    Drums-announces ceremonies and keeps rhythm
    Gongs- announces ceremonies and activities
    Wooden fish-keeps rhythm while chanting
    Lotus Flower
    The lotus flower represents enlightenment described in the poem.

    The lotus has its roots in the mud,
    Grows up through the deep water,
    And rises to the surface.
    It blooms into perfect beauty and purity in the sunlight.
    It is like the mind unfolding to perfect joy and wisdom.

    The Bodhi Tree

    The Bodhi Tree is a pipal tree, a kind of fig tree found in India. After the Buddha attained enlightenment under this tree, it became known as the Bodhi Tree, the Tree of Enlightenment. It is located in Bodhgaya, where people visit to pay their respects to the Buddha. Although the parent tree is no longer alive, its grandchildren are still there.

    The Buddhist Flag

    As the Buddha sat beneath the Bodhi Tree after his enlightenment, six rays of light came out from his body and spread for miles around. The colors were yellow, blue, white, red, orange and a mixture of all the colors. The Buddhist flag was designed after these colors.

    Stupas and Pagodas
    Stupas and pagodas are monuments where the relics of the Buddha and high monks and nuns are kept so that people can show their respects. These relics are jewels that remain after cremation.

    Chapter 3
    BUDDHIST FESTIVALS

    Buddhists have many festivals throughout the year. These festivals celebrate events in the lives of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and famous teachers. During these occasions people can also take refuge and precepts, or leave the home life to become monks and nuns.

    Buddha Day

    For the Buddhist community, the most important event of the year is the celebration of the Birth of the Buddha, his Enlightenment and Nirvana. It falls on the full-moon day in May. On this day, Buddhists take part in the ceremonial bathing of the Buddha. They pour ladles of water scented with flowers over a statue of the baby Siddhartha. This symbolizes purifying one’s thoughts and actions.

    The temples are elaborately decorated with flowers and banners; the altars are laden with offerings; vegetarian meals are provided for all; and captive animals, such as birds and turtles are set free. This is a very joyous day for everyone.

    Dharma Day

    Asalha Puja, known as ‘Dharma Day’, is celebrated during full-moon in July. This holiday commemorates the first sermon of the Buddha to the five monks in the Deer Park at Benares.

    Sangha Day

    Sangha Day or Kathina Day is usually held in October. In the Theravada tradition, monks and nuns go on a three-month retreat during the rainy season. After the retreat, the laity offers robes and other necessities to them. This day symbolizes the close relationship between the Sangha and laity.

    Ullambana

    The observance of Ullambana is based on the story of Maudgalyayana, a disciple of the Buddha. When Maudgalyayana’s mother died, he wanted to know where she was reborn. Using his spiritual powers, he traveled into the hells and found her suffering miserably from hunger. He brought her a bowl of food, but when she tried to swallow it, the food turned into hot coals.

    The distressed Maudgalyayana asked the Buddha, “Why is my mother suffering in the hells?”

    The Buddha replied, “In her life as a human, she was stingy and greedy. This is her retribution.” He advised, “Make offerings to the Sangha. The merit and virtue from this act will release your mother and others from the hells.” As a result of Maudgalyana’s offering, his mother and thousands of others were released from their unhappy state. After this, making offerings to release departed relatives and others from the hells became popular in Mahayana countries. Usually, it takes place in September.

    UNIT 7
    HISTORY OF BUDDHISM

    Chapter 1
    BUDDHISM IN THE EAST

    Buddhism was first introduced into Sri Lanka from India in the 3rd century BC by Mahinda, the son of King Asoka. There it achieved great popularity and is still flourishing today.

    In the early centuries AD, Buddhism was introduced taken to Southeast Asia by merchants and missionaries. The great monuments like Borobudur in Indonesia and Angkor Thom in Cambodia are evidence of the splendor of Buddhism in these regions.

    In the 1st century AD, Buddhism reached China where many Sutras were translated into classical Chinese.

    In the 4th century AD, Buddhism found its way to Korea and on into Japan.

    Chapter 2
    BUDDHISM IN THE WEST

    Even before the 17th century, people in the West heard of the Buddha and his teachings from early travelers such as Marco Polo and Christian missionaries.

    By the early 20th century, many Europeans had traveled to the East to study Buddhism. Some of them became monks and inspired Buddhism in the West. In the 19th century, Chinese and Japanese immigrants brought many different traditions of Buddhism to America. Today, there are numerous Buddhist centers spread across Europe and North and South America.

    UNIT 8
    JATAKA TALES AND OTHER BUDDHIST STORIES

    The Buddha was a great storyteller and often told stories to get his message across. Stories were also told about the Buddha by his followers both to explain and understand the Dharma. These stories have been passed down to the present day and the most popular ones are the Jataka tales, a collection of hundreds of tales about the Buddha’s past lives. They show the kind of life one should lead to become a Buddha one day. In many of these stories, the Buddha appears as an animal to teach the value of qualities such as kindness, compassion, and giving.

    The Monkey King and the Mangoes

    Once upon a time, the Buddha came into the world as a Monkey King and ruled over 80,000 monkeys. He was very tall and strong and had wisdom like the sun. In his kingdom on the banks of the Ganges River, there was a mango tree as big as the moon. The 80,000 monkeys jumped from branch to branch chattering and eating the lovely fruit that was big and sweet and delicious. Sometimes a ripe mango fell into the river.

    One day, the Monkey King strolled downstream and came upon a river palace where a human king lived. “Soon danger will come if the mangoes float downstream,” he told the monkeys. “Pick all the mangoes and flowers on the trees and take them deep into the forest.”

    But one mango, hidden by a bird’s nest, was left unseen by the 80,000 monkeys. When it was large and ripe, it fell into the river and floated downstream where the human king was bathing.

    The human king, who was very curious, tasted the beautiful mango. “This is delicious!’ he exclaimed. “I must have more. Servants, find all the mangoes and bring them to me at once!”

    Deep in the forest, the servants found hundreds of mango trees. In the trees were the 80,000 monkeys. When the human king heard about the monkeys, he was very angry, “The monkeys are eating my mangoes. Kill them all!” he ordered his archers.

    “Very well,” said the archers and chased the monkeys to the edge of the forest where they came to a deep cliff. There was no way for the monkeys to escape. Shivering with fright, they ran to the Monkey King asked, “What shall we do?”

    “Don’t be afraid. I will save you,” said their king. Quickly, he stretched his huge body as far as possible and made a bridge over the cliff to a bamboo grove on the other side.

    “Come monkeys, run across my back to the bamboo grove,” he called. And so the 80,000 monkeys escaped.

    The human king watched all that happened. He was amazed, “This Monkey King has risked his life to save his whole troop! And all I’m doing is being selfish. I have learned a great lesson.” Then he called to his archers, “Put down your bows. It isn’t right to kill this King of Monkeys.”

    Forgetting about the mangoes, the human king went back to his palace by the river and ruled kindly and wisely for the rest of his life.

    The Deer King

    Long ago in a forgotten forest, lived a deer named Banyan. He was golden like the sun and his horns glistened like silver. His body was as large as a colt and his eyes sparkled like jewels-alight with wisdom. He was a King of Deer and watched over a herd of 500 deer.

    Not far away, another herd of deer was watched over by another golden deer named Branch. In the tall grass and shadows of the deep forest, the two herds lived in peace.

    One day, the King of Benares was out on a hunt and spied the beautiful green forest where the deer lived. “What a perfect hunting ground!” he declared and into the forests he dashed with his thousands of hunters and came upon the two herds of deer. Without a moment’s hesitation, he notched an arrow in his bow. Suddenly he spotted the two golden deer. Never had he seen such beautiful creatures! “From this day on,” he commanded, “No one is to harm or kill these golden deer.”

    Thereafter, he came to the forest everyday and killed more deer than was needed for his dinner table. As the weeks went by, many deer were wounded and died in great pain.

    Finally Banyan Deer called the two herds together, “Friends, we know there is no escape from death, but this needless killing can be prevented. Let the deer take turns going to the chopping block, one day from my herd and the next day from Branch’s herd.”

    All the deer agreed. Each day the deer whose turn it was went to the chopping block on the edge of the forest and laid its head upon the block.

    One day, the turn fell to a pregnant doe from Branch’s herd. She went to Branch Deer and begged, “Grant that I be passed over until after my fawn is born. Then I will gladly take my turn.”

    Branch Deer replied, “It is your turn. You must go.”

    In despair, the poor doe went to Banyan Deer and explained her plight. He gently said, “Go rest in peace. I will put your turn upon another.” The deer king went and laid his golden head upon the chopping block. A deep silence fell in the forest.

    When the king of Benares came and saw the golden deer ready for sacrifice, his heart skipped a beat, “You are the leader of the herd,” he exclaimed, “You should be the last to die!” Banyan Deer explained how he had come to save the life of the doe.

    A tear rolled down the cheek of the king. “Golden Deer King,” he exclaimed. “Among men and beasts, I have not seen one with such compassion. Arise! I spare both your life and hers.

    “So we will be safe. But what shall the rest of the deer do?” “Their lives I shall also spare.” “So the deer will be safe, but what will the other four-footed animals do?” “From now on they too will be safe.” “And what of the birds?” “I will spare their lives.” “And the fish in the water” “The fish shall be spared- all creatures of the land, sea, and sky will be free.”

    Having saved the lives of all creatures, the golden deer raised his head from the chopping block and returned to the forest.

    The Wounded Swan

    One day when Prince Siddhartha and his cousin Devadatta were walking in the woods, they saw a swan. Quickly, Devadatta drew his bow and shot the swan down. Siddhartha rushed to the wounded swan and pulled out the arrow. He held the bird in his arms and caressed it.

    Devadatta angrily shouted at Prince Siddhartha, “Give me the swan. I shot it. It belongs to me!”

    “I shall never give it to you, You will only kill it!” said the prince firmly. “Let’s ask the ministers of the court and let them decide.”

    The ministers all had different views. Some said, “The swan should be given to Devadatta.” Others said, “It should go to Prince Siddhartha.” One wise minister stood up and said, “A life belongs to one who saves it, not to one who will destroy it. The swan goes to the prince.”
    Prince Siddhartha took care of the swan until it could fly again. Then he turned it loose so it could live freely with its own kind.

    Aniruddha and the Golden Rabbit

    Once there was a poor farmer who offered his only bowl of rice to a holy man who was even poorer than he. This meant he would have nothing to eat that day. He went back to his work and forgot all about having given his rice away. Suddenly a rabbit hopped alongside the farmer and jumped on his back. The surprised farmer tried to brush it off. He tried to shake it off, he tried to knock it off, but the rabbit would not bulge.

    He ran home to his wife, crying, “Get this rabbit off my back!” By this time the rabbit had turned into solid gold! The wife flipped the rabbit into the air. It hit the floor with a “Crackkk!” One of its golden legs broke off and another one magically grew in its place.

    From that day on, whenever the farmer and his wife needed money, they would break off a piece of the golden rabbit. And from that life onward, Aniruddha was never poor. This was his reward for giving.
    __________________________________________________________________________________________________
    A LESSON IN MEDITATION

    Concentration on the Breath

    A very simple way of meditating is concentrating on your breath. The breath is like a bridge between your body and mind. When you concentrate on your breath for a while, your body becomes relaxed and your mind becomes peaceful.

    Sit in a comfortable position with your back straight.
    Place your hands in your lap with the left hand on the bottom.
    Keep your eyes half-closed or closed.
    Concentrate on the tip of your nose. Notice your breath going in and out.
    Lotus posture
    Full lotus is the best sitting posture. Begin by sitting in half-lotus, then work your way up to full lotus.

    Full-lotus- Sit on the edge of a cushion. Place your left ankle on your right thigh. Then lift your right ankle onto your left thigh.
    Half-lotus- Lift your left ankle onto your right thigh.
    Note: It is best to sit at the same time and place everyday. Increase your sitting time little
    by little. You may sit in a chair or stand if necessary.
    ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
    GLOSSARY
    asuras: Beings who like to fight.
    Bodhi tree: A pipal tree that is known as the ‘tree of enlightenment’. The tree under which Gautama achieved enlightenment and became a Buddha.

    Bodhisattva: A compassionate being who enlightens himself and helps others to be enlightened.

    Buddha: The Enlightened or Awakened One. The word ‘Bodhi’ means to awaken.

    Buddha Hall: The main room inside a Buddhist temple.

    Buddha nature:

    Dharma: Teachings of the Buddha

    enlightenment: Understanding the truth of life, freedom from ignorance.

    Five Precepts: The five rules of conduct given by the Buddha to his disciples: no killing, no stealing, no sexual misconduct, no false speech, no intoxicants.

    Four Noble Truths: The first teachings spoken by the Buddha: the truth of suffering, the cause of suffering, the end of suffering, and the Path leading to the end of suffering.

    hungry ghosts: Ghosts that suffer a lot because they are greedy.

    Jataka tales: stories about the past lives of the Buddha.

    karma: ‘Action’ or the law of cause and effect. For every action there is a cause.

    Kathina: A ‘festival of giving’ held in autumn, where people make offerings to the monks and nuns.

    lamas: Tibetan religious leaders.

    lotus posture: A meditation posture.

    lotus: The lotus symbolizes the purity of the Buddha. It grows out of mud, yet it is not defiled by it.

    Mahayana: The tradition of Northern Buddhism.

    mantras: Symbolic phrases that Buddhists chant.

    meditation: A method of calming and training the mind.

    Middle Way: The path in life prescribed by the Buddha, the path between extremes.

    Nirvana: An everlasting state of great joy and peace.

    Noble Eightfold Path: The Buddha’s prescription for ending suffering. It is made up of eight parts: right views, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

    offering bowl: A bowl that nuns and monks receive offerings in.

    Pali: An ancient language of India that the Buddhist Sutras were originally written in.

    Pratyekabuddha: Hermits who become enlightened by themselves.

    puja: A Pali word for Buddhist worship.

    Sangha: The community of Buddhist nuns and monks.

    Sanskrit: An ancient language of India that the Buddhist Sutras were written in.

    Six Perfections: The six ideals that a Bodhisattva perfects: giving morality, patience, effort, concentration, and wisdom.

    stupas: Monuments to the Buddha

    Sutras: The Buddha’s teachings in writing.

    thankas: Wall hangings found in Tibetan temples.

    Theravada: The tradition of Southern Buddhism.

    Three Refuges: The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

    Tripitaka: The ‘three baskets’, a collection of the Buddha’s written teachings.

    Triple Jewel: The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

    Ullambana: A Buddhist festival when offerings are given to the Sangha..

    Wheel of Life and Death: The six worldly states of rebirth: gods, asuras, humans, animals, hungry ghosts, and hell-beings.

    zafu: A round meditation cushion used in Japanese Buddhism.

    Zen: Japanese meditation.
    __________________________________________________________________________________________________

    SOURCES:

    Bhagwat, N. K. The Dhammapada And The Buddha’s Last Bequest. Taiwan: The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation.

    Buddhism: A Brief Introduction. Developing Virtue Secondary School.Burlingame, California: Buddhist Translation Society, 1996.

    Buddhist Studies. Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore. Singapore: Pan Pacific Publications Pte Ltd, 1984.

    Cohen, Joan Lebold. Buddha. New York: Delacore Press, 1969.

    Dhammika, Ven. S. Good Question–Good Answer. Taiwan: The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation.

    Filiality Buddhist Text Translation Society. Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1982-83.

    Flower Adornment Sutra. Universal Worthy’s Conduct and Vows. Chapter 40. Burlingame, California: Buddhist Translation Text Society, 1983.

    Human Roots. Buddhist Text Translation Society. Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1982-83.

    Hui, Pitt Chin. Lord Buddha. Singapore: World Fellowship of Buddhists.

    I Must Keep My Link Bright and Strong. Sunday School Department. San Francisco: Buddhist Churches of America, San Francisco, 1966.

    India Long Ago. Sunday School Department. San Francisco: Buddhist Churches of America, San Francisco, 1966

    Jones, J. J. Mahavastu. England: Pali Text Society, 1952.

    Lord Buddha Speaks to Me. Sunday School Department. San Francisco: Buddhist Churches of America, 1966.

    Nan, Upasaka Li Ping. A Buddhist Goal That Can Be Achieved in One’s Present Life. Taiwan: Prajna Foundation.

    Shurangama Mantra. Buddhist Text Translation Society: Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1981.

    Shurangama Sutra. Buddhist Text Translation Society: Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1979.

    he Human Source. Buddhist Text Translation Society. Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1982.

    The Teaching of Buddha. Sunday School Department. San Fransisco: Buddhist Churches of America, 1967.

    Thompson, Mel. The Buddhist Experience. England, Hodder & Stroughton Educational, 1993.

    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?p=387
    Presentation
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 10:37 am
    Dear Dhammachari Chandrashekar, < ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

    You will have received my email (given below here), after my telephonic conversation with you… I feel very grateful you have accepted to speak to us on Nov 9th.Meanwhile, may I request you send me your bio-data. It could be sent by email to my ID above or by post to my address (Fr Ronnie
    Prabhu, Fatima Retreat House, Kankanady, Mangalore 575 002).
    Dear Dhammachari Chandrashekar,,

    It was a joy to talk to you today and I am grateful you have accepted to speak to us on Friday 9 November, the second day of our three day Kristotsava festival. I am grateful also to Banthe Ananda for speaking to you about this.

    We expect to have around a thousand Catholics from different part of Karnataka. Though educated, a good number of them will not be able to speak in English and we would appreciate you talking in Kannada, with a mixture of English!

    It is our conviction that we will be helped in this if we can see ourselves also as others see us. So we are requesting a representative form each major religious community to give us a feedback covering the following questions:
    What in the message of Jesus strikes a chord in you and what do you like about Christianity Where do you find the Christians and the Church in our times in India falling short of the teachings of Christ

    You will necessarily have to do some plain speaking and the reason why we are approaching you is that you are one who can speak the truth with love.

    The Kristostsava festival will be held in the Good Shepherd Convent Hall, < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />Museum Road , Bangalore 560025, and the session will be on Friday Nov 9, 2007, at 10.00 am. The other speakers include Nidumamidi Swamiji, Dr Taha Mateen and hopefully Ham Pa Nagarajaiah.. You have half an hour for your talk with some clarifications. The whole session with other speakers will last two hours or so.

    I know you are extremely busy with many concerns and I am happy and grateful you will still do this for us. This invitation comes to you from the Catholic Bishops of Karnataka, who are the organizers of this program. Writing on their behalf, I convey their great appreciation and gratitude to you.

    Yours sincerely,

    Ronnie Prabhu

    With regards,
    Ronnie Prabhu

    ronnieprabhu@yahoo.com
    Bio data

    Dear Most Reverend Ronnie Prabhu

    I am grateful to your Kind self and Venerable Ananda Bhante for asking me to do some plain speaking of truth with love to you on Friday 9th November 2007, the second day of the three day Kristotsava festival.

    I informed Venerable Anand Bhante that I wish to present a prepared speech on that occasion. I have already started preparing the speech. Hence this delay in giving you my bio-data.

    My prepared speech will be sent you your kind self and Venerable Anand Bhante.
    In fact if all the speakers do the same and if I get a copy of the same I wish to publish in http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org.

    I hope you are visiting that site.

    Also I will be very grateful to your kind self if you can prepare a speech on

    What is the message of The Buddha strikes a Chord in you and what do you like about Buddhism. Where do you find the Buddhists and Monasteries in our times in Jambudvipa that is The Great Prabuddha Bharath falling short of the Practice of the Doctrine of the Buddha.

    The other speakers may also be asked to prepare on the above subject to enable me to publish the same in http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org on the occasion of completion 2550th Buddha Jayanthi.

    Bio-data
    A Peaceful Revolution
    At the age of 65 Dhammachari Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan is one of the most senior members of Mahabodhi Society Bangalore. Here he looks back over a life, which spans of extraordinary change within Jambudvipa That is The Great Prabuddha Bharath and particularly in the communities now known as ‘Original Inhabitants of The Great Prabuddha Bharath That is Jambydvipa’.

    My parents followed some other culture out of ignorance of the fact that more than 98% were original inhabitants of Jambudvipa that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath. After visiting a slaughter house in childhood, the suffering of the animals those were slaughtered developed loving kindness and compassion. While human beings were cremated or buried in the grave yards. It was observed that the birds, fishes and domestic animals were in double trouble. They were cremated in the kitchen crematoriums, after storing them in refrigerator mortuaries and buried in the mobile human beings grave yards that are their stomachs.

    Then step by step I started training my mind and started practicing abstaining from the taking of life that leads to longevity, abstaining from stealing to prosperity, abstaining from sexual misconduct to popularity, abstaining from false speech to a good reputation, and abstaining from intoxicants to mindfulness and wisdom.

    Attended Pabajja and Vipassana and Zen Meditation Practice

    To preserve the practice of the Triple Gem in the mind, the body is kept in a fit condition by daily cycling for 10 Km and swimming. Participated in State, National competitions and would participate in International events.
    Practice to endure being contented and satisfied with little; eating little, sleeping little, speaking little and living in moderation. By doing this we can put an end to worldliness.
    Retired as Senior Manger (Design) Aircraft Research and Design Centre, involved in designing passenger Aircrafts in HAL Bangalore.

    Dear Most Reverend Ronnie Prabhu
    Thank you very much for your mail.
    I will come on my own.
    If you prepare a talk on Buddha, kindly mail it to me.
    Now many people are returning back to their own home i.e., Buddhism, after realizing the true fact that they are the original inhabitants of Jambudvipa i.e., The Great Prabuddha Bharath, since every one in this world are for the gain of the many and welfare of the many and wish to live a very happy and peaceful life.
    We are all part of this one family of humankind and that is one reason that your kind self is able to bring all of us together. If this exercise continues, it will set an example to the whole world as how to live in peace. This is possible in this country since we originally belong to that one family. I also sincerely feel that if all the invited speakers could prepare talks on different religions and exchange amongst each other that will go a long way.
    I have prepared the following presentation for 9th November 2007. I discussed with Venerable Anand Bhante and decided to send the same to your kind self for amendments if need be.
    It was very easy for me to get the translation in English. But it will be very difficult to get it translated to any other languages including Kannada. Hence I would like to make this written presentation with any amendments you would like to make in the larger interest of mankind. I have no attachment to my presentation.
    If I talk in Kannada or any other languages, the murder of the language will be keenly observed by the audience. But that will not happen when it is presented in English. Since it is a prepared presentation one can translate at leisure.
    With Kind regards and
    Lots of Metta
    Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
    Presentation
    Most Respected Reverend Ronnie Prabhu, Venerable Nidumamidi Swamiji, Dr Taha Mateen and Honourable < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags” />Ham Pa Nagarajaiah

    I am very grateful to Venerable Anand Bhante, Reverend Ronnie Prabhu, Catholic Bishops of Karnataka who are the organizers of this program on whose invitation this presentation is made for the benefit of this learned august house of Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that is The Great Prabuddha Bharath.

    As the purpose of this get-together is to do some introspection as to
    whether as a Christian community we are living up to expectations of our faith.

    If faith is “the substance of things hoped for,” then worry is the substance of things dreaded (Hebrews 3:6). Worry is destructive. It fritters away time. It kills creativity and it often is a prophet of its own self-fulfilling doom. Most of all worry keeps us from claiming the blessings God has for us. It prevents us from living up to the fullness of our creation and finding joy in life. How do you fight worry and build faith?

    Danema, 48, North Carolina says

    I’ve come to stand on God’s word, “As a man thinketh, so is he”. Since God gave us the freedom of choice. Why is it so hard to “choose” not to worry? I’ve pondered this question many times, realizing as scripture reveals that all things are rooted in either fear or love. Since I know God is love and I believe God loves me…then I have to question any and all thoughts of doubt and negativity as to its root. I ask myself, is there truth to this thought of doubt or negativity? Is it based on love or fear? Exercising the power of choice, or should I say the gift of choice, is what I have to do daily. This goes along with the scripture that says, Examine each thought carefully. And also what the word says about meditating on the word, meditating on truth day and night… So therefore, I make a decision and choose to “meditate” on the positive, standing in faith using prayer as a tool and wait in expectation from my the best to come out of the situation, praising God all the way. And then I get up each morning and start all over again, exercising my muscles of faith. When I need more strength, I call on God even more

    Jhanas-Stream-enterer-The definition (with similes)-[First jhana]
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 11:03 pm
    Jhanas

    Stream-enterer

    Jhana is a meditative state of profound stillness and concentration in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of attention. It is the cornerstone in the development of Right Concentration.

    The definition (with similes)

    [First jhana]

    “There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities — enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

    “Just as if a skilled bathman or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and without — would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal..

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    Jhanas-Once-returner-[Second jhana]
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 11:01 pm
    Jhanas

    Once-returner

    [Second jhana]

    “Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation — internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure.

    “Just like a lake with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from east, west, north, or south, and with the skies periodically supplying abundant showers, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure…

    comments (0)
    Jhanas- Non-returner-[Third jhana]
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 10:59 pm
    Jhanas

    Non-returner

    [Third jhana]

    “And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, is mindful & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.’ He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

    “Just as in a blue-, white-, or red-lotus pond, there may be some of the blue, white, or red lotuses which, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those blue, white, or red lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture…

    comments (0)
    Jhanas- Arahant-[Fourth jhana]
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    Posted by: site admin @ 10:51 pm
    Jhanas

    Arahant

    [Fourth jhana]

    “And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.

    “Just as if a man were sitting wrapped from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating his body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.”

    Mastery of jhana is a mark of wisdom

    “I declare a person endowed with four qualities to be one of great discernment, a great man. Which four?

    “There is the case, brahman, where he practices for the welfare & happiness of many people and has established many people in the noble method, i.e., the rightness of what is admirable, the rightness of what is skillful.

    “He thinks any thought he wants to think, and doesn’t think any thought he doesn’t want to think. He wills any resolve he wants to will, and doesn’t will any resolve he doesn’t want to will. He has attained mastery of the mind with regard to the pathways of thought.

    “He attains — whenever he wants, without strain, without difficulty — the four jhanas that are heightened mental states, pleasant abidings in the here-&-now.

    “With the ending of mental fermentations — he remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for himself right in the here-&-now.

    “…I declare a person endowed with these four qualities to be one of great discernment, a great man.”

    Jhana and insight, hand-in-hand

    There’s no jhana
    for one with no discernment,
    no discernment
    for one with no jhana.
    But one with both jhana
    & discernment:
    he’s on the verge
    of Unbinding.

    comments (0)
    10/18/18
    LESSONS 2780 Fri 19 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) N
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    LESSONS 2780 Fri 19 Oct. 2018 PRACTICE BUDDHA VACANA for PEACE (PBVP) N

    தமிழில் திரபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள்TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-C-
    from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and
    Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

    இந்த நூட்கள் வெளியீடு காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.

    This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the
    Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
    the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
    Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

    No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

    விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka
    (மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

    (Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

    1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட
    விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

    Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
    bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

    திபிடக முக்கூடைகள்

    Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

    ஸுத்த பியுயக

    ( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)

    Sutta Piμaka

    (Five nik±yas, or collections)

    The
    Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
    the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
    five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
    class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
    dwelling).

    நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர்
    கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு நிரம்பியது. அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி
    முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை,
    ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை, வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு,
    பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு,
    கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

    Dīgha Nikāya
    [dīgha:
    long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
    the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
    to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

    நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
    புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

    Majjhima Nikāya
    [majjhima:
    medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
    intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

    மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    புத்தரால்
    கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
    விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

    Saṃyutta Nikāya
    [samyutta:
    group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
    subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
    thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

    குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    குவியல்
    நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய
    பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம்
    விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு
    நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

    Aṅguttara Nikāya
    [aṅg:
    factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
    eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
    consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
    precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
    short.

    கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    இறங்குதல்
    காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு
    உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
    கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
    குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
    காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
    நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

    Khuddaka Nikāya
    [khuddha: short,
    small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been
    composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
    Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
    books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

    சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

    சுருக்கமான,
    சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
    இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
    மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள் ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
    பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால்,
    மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
    மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
    அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்
    புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு
    பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(
    தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் ,
    ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது
    புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)

    Sutta Piμaka

    (Five nik±yas, or collections)

    1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
    (1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
    (2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
    (3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)

    2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
    5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]

    (1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
    1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
    2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
    3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)

    4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)

    5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
    (2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)

    6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
    7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
    8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
    9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)

    10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
    (3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)

    11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
    12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
    13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
    14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
    15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)

    3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
    into 6 books]

    (1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)

    4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
    numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
    each vagga; 6 books]

    (1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
    (2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
    (3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
    (4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)

    (5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
    (6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)

    5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
    ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
    doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
    been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]

    (1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i

    1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
    novice bhikkhus)
    2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
    verses in 26 vaggas)

    3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with

    some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)

    (2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
    4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
    said by the Buddha])
    5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
    known, most popular suttas of the Buddha

    (3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
    6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
    merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
    7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
    unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
    8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
    elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279 g±thas)
    9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)

    (4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
    (5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II

    10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
    stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
    tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
    explain the story behind the verses.

    (6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
    (7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i

    11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
    Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga
    C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and

    the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
    (8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i

    12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
    teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three vaggas,
    each containing ten topics [kath±])

    (9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
    13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)

    (10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i

    14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
    question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
    Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
    15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)

    (11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i

    16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
    ing canonical texts)
    17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
    teaching of the Buddha)

    (12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i

    18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
    answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
    mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)

    Abhidhamma Piμaka

    [Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
    12 books]

    1. Dhammasaagao2
    (enumeration of the dhammas)

    (1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i

    2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
    (distinction or analysis of dhammas)

    (2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42

    3. Dh±tukath±
    (discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
    must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)

    4. Puggalapaññatti
    (designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
    individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.

    (3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42

    5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
    (points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
    settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)

    (4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42

    6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
    (book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
    guities and define precise usage of technical terms)

    (5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
    (6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
    (7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III

    7. Paμμh±na
    (book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
    relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
    the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)

    (8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
    (9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
    (10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
    (11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
    (12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V

    (1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
    p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
    saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
    aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
    nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30

    (2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
    suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
    p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
    sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
    adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7

    (concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______
    227

    Bhikkhuni

    8
    17
    0
    30

    166
    8
    75
    7
    ______
    311

    2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
    (3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the

    Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
    outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
    1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
    2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha

    3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
    4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
    5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
    6. medicine and food
    7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
    8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
    9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
    10. proceedings in cases of schism

    (4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
    dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
    1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
    (saagh±disesa)

    2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
    3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
    4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
    5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
    6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
    7. schisms
    8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
    9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
    10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
    11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
    12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li

    3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
    catechism for instruction and examination]

    (5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
    to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.

    Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

    DN 9 -
    Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
    {excerpt}
    — The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

    Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.

    Note: plain texts

    ஸஞ்யா
    நு கொ பந்தெ பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி, பச்சா ஞானங்? உதாஹு ஞானங் பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி,
    பச்சா ஸஞ்யா? உதாஹு ஸஞ்யா ச ஞானங்ச அபுபங் ஆசரிமங் உப்பஜ்ஜந்தி?’ தி.

    Saññā nu kho bhante paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ? Udāhu ñāṇaṃ
    paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā saññā? Udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ
    acarimaṃ uppajjantī?’ ti.

    இப்பொழுது, பந்த்தே, எது முதலாவது எழும்புவது புலனுணர்வா,ஞானங் அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஞானங் முதலாவது மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஒரே நேரத்தில் புலனுணர்வும் ஞானமும் எழும்புகிறதா?

    Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
    knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
    knowledge arise simultaneously? 


    ஸஞ்யா கொ பொத்தபாதப தமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங். ஸன்யுப்பாதா ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி. ஸொ ஏவங் பஜானாதி: இதப்பச்சாயா கிர மெ ஞானங் உதபாதிதி. இமினா கொ ஏதங் பொத்தபாத பரியாயென வேதிதப்பங், யதா ஸஞ்யா பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங், ஸன்யுப்பாதொ ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி’தி.

    Saññā kho poṭṭhapāda paṭhamaṃ uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ. Saññuppādā ca pana
    ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti: idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādīti.
    Iminā kho etaṃ poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ
    uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādo ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī’ ti. 


    பொத்தபாத, முதலாவது
    புலனுணர்வும் பின்னால் ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது.மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
    எழும்புகிறபோது ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது. ஒரு பிரித்தறியும் நிலை சார்ந்துள்ள
    என்னுடைய இந்த ஞானம் எழும்பியது. இவ்வழியான வரம்பின் காரண ஆய்வால் ஒருவர்
    எப்படி முதலாவது புலனுணர்வு எழும்புகிறது மற்றும் ஞானம் அடுத்து என்று உணர
    முடியும் மற்றும் எவ்வாறு புலனுணர்வு எழும்பியதால், ஞானம் எழும்பிமயது
    என்றும்.

    Potthapada, perception arises first, and
    knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of
    perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my knowledge
    has arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize how
    perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of
    knowledge comes from the arising of perception.
    Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

    DN 16 - (D ii 137)
    Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
    {excerpts}
    — The last instructions —
    [mahā-parinibbāna]

    This
    sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
    followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
    of instructions for us nowadays.

    Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

    Dhammādāsaṃ
    nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
    ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
    khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
    sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. 

    (The Mirror of the Dhamma)

    I
    will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
    possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
    himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
    more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
    misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
    of being destined to sambodhi.
    தமிழ்
    (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
    நான்
    Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
    வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
    சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
    ‘ஆக
    எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
    (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
    பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
    (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

    Katamo
    ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
    ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
    khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
    sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

    And
    what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
    Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
    declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
    tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
    misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
    misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
    மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
    (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
    உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
    விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
    தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
    ‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
    niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
    சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
    இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
    sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
    விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
    இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

    Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

    Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
    இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    ‘Itipi
    so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
    anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.

    Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
    He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
    Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    ‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.

    Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
    He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
    Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    ‘Suppaṭipanno
    bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
    ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
    sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
    bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
    anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.

    Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
    He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
    புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

    Ayaṃ
    kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
    ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
    khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
    sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 

    This,
    Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
    possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
    himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
    more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
    misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
    of being destined to sambodhi. 

    இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
    அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும்
    தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
    (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
    கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
    (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
    பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
    (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

    … 

    … 

    Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 

    Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
    
Sato(கவனமான)
    நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
    இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
    எங்களுடைய போதனை.

    Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
    And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
    மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

    kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
    abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
    satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
    ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
    dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
    abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

    Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
    Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

    இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
    sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
    sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
    இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

    bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
    hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
    sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
    pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
    sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
    sampajānakārī hoti.

    Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 

    Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
    இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
    sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
    நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
    அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
    எங்களுடைய போதனை.

    … 



    Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
    sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
    Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
    sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
    Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
    okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
    tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
    antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 

    – Ananda, the twin sala
    trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
    the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
    and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
    flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
    body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
    worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
    instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
    -ஆனந்தா,பூவா
    பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
    அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
    போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
    இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
    சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
    (குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
    வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
    மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
    சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
    வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

    Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
    hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
    vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
    sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
    māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
    dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
    anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 

    It is not
    by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
    paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
    or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
    living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
    esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
    homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
    remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
    accordance with the Dhamma’.
    இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
    (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
    மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
    பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
    உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
    பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
    மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
    செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
    இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
    dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
    பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
    … 

    … 


    ‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
    natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
    Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
    satthā. 

    – ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
    the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
    Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
    and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
    Teacher after my passing away. 

    உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு நேரிடக் கூடும்:
    கற்பிப்பவர்
    வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது, இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
    ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
    மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
    வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
    இருக்கும்.
    … 


    DN 22 - (D ii 290)
    Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
    — Attendance on awareness —
    [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

    This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

    Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

    Pāḷi

    Uddesa

    I. Kāyānupassanā
    A. Ānāpāna Pabba
    B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
    C. Sampajāna Pabba
    D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
    E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
    F. Navasivathika Pabba

    II. Vedanānupassanā

    English

    Introduction

    I. Observation of Kāya
    A. Section on ānāpāna
    B. Section on postures
    C. Section on sampajañña
    D. Section on repulsiveness
    E. Section on the Elements
    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

    II. Observation of Vedanā

    Uddesa

    Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
    Introduction

    Thus have I heard: 

    Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
    On
    one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
    a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
    – Bhikkhavo ti.
    – Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

    – Bhikkhus.
    – Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


    Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
    samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
    nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

    – This,
    bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
    beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
    dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
    Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

    Katame
    cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
    sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
    vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
    abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
    vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
    sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
    Which four?
    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
    He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
    given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
    in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
    towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

    I. Kāyānupassanā

    A. Ānāpāna Pabba

    Katha·ñ·ca,
    bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
    arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
    ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
    sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
    assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
    pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
    passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
    assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
    sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
    ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


    நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:

    ஒரு
    குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
    (கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā (பகவான்) தங்கி
    இருந்தார்.

    அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
    - பிக்குக்களுக்களா

    - பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில் அளித்தார்.Bhagavā (பகவா) சொற்றார்:

    -
    இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
    நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து,
    dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
    உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
    satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.

    எந்த
    நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல்
    கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு
    வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
    ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
    எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
    உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம்
    நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
    ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
    மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
    வழியில்லாமல் பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க
    கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

    I. Kāyānupassanā

    A. Section on ānāpāna

    And
    how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
    root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
    legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
    thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
    long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
    understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
    understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
    understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
    whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
    kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.
    மற்றும்
    எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
    இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
    மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
    கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
    சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
    சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார். sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
    செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
    உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே
    செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
    அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
    செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
    குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
    பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
    மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு
    kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
    செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: kāya-saṅkhāras
    உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
    செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
    செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
    Seyyathāpi,
    bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
    ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
    pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
    assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
    pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
    passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
    assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
    sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
    ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


    Just
    as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
    turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
    understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
    breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
    in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
    he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
    the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
    whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

    சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
    கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
    உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
    குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
    உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
    உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
    அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
    செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
    குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
    செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
    தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
    கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
    பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
    மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
    kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
    உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
    வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

    Iti
    ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
    samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
    kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
    ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
    ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
    loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati. 




    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
    or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
    kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
    of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
    phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
    of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
    present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
    dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

    இவ்வாறு அவர்
    kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
    காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
    vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
    vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
    tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

    B. Section on postures

    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
    while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
    understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
    lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
    understands it accordingly. 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
    na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

    மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
    பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
    அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
    கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
    பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
    படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
    அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
    செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

    இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
    உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
    உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
    எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
    கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
    C. Sampajāna Pabba

    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
    ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
    hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
    khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
    hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
    hoti. 


    C. Section on sampajañña

    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
    sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
    sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
    while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
    he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
    while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
    of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
    while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
    talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

    Iti
    ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
    samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
    kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
    ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
    ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
    loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
    in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
    phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
    in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
    phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
    in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
    detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


    மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
    பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
    நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார்,
    முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
    கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
    உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது மற்றும்
    நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
    நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
    பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
    பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு
    செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
    சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
    நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும் மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
    பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்
    நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
    கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
    உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
    பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
    sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் நுணுகிக்கண்டு செயல்
    படுகிரார்.

    இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
    கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
    செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
    வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்.
    D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

    Puna ca·paraṃ,
    bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā,
    taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
    imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
    vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
    udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
    siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


    D. Section on Repulsiveness

    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
    feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
    skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
    the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
    tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
    lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
    phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
    synovial fluid and urine.” 

    Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
    putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
    muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
    paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
    taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
    pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
    asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
    maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
    papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
    sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

    Just as if,
    bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
    kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
    seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
    would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
    are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
    husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
    body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
    which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
    “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
    nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
    liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
    contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
    saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


    Iti
    ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
    samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
    kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
    ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
    ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
    loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
    in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
    phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
    in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
    phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
    in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
    detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


    மேலும்,
    பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
    கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
    அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
    மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
    இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
    இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
    வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
    சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
    அறீவார்.

    ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள்
    உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல்
    பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன்
    நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து
    ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
    பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல், பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
    ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
    வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
    kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
    தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
    மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
    மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
    மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
    மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

    இவ்வாறு அவர்
    kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
    காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
    yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
    āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


    E. Section on the Elements

    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
    however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
    water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


    Seyyathāpi,
    bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
    catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
    bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
    paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
    vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

    Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
    butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
    cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
    this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
    kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
    and the air element.”


    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
    na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
    மேலும்,
    பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
    எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம் பிரதிபலிக்க
    இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
    நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

    சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
    கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
    ஒரு
    குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ; அதே போன்றே,
    பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
    எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம் பிரதிபலிக்க
    இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
    நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

    இவ்வாறு அவர்
    kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
    காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


    F. Navasivathika Pabba

    (1)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
    vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
    kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

    (1)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
    swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
    also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
    free from such a condition.” 


    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
    na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

    மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
    இருப்பதைப்
    பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
    இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
    புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய
    ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
    உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
    அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
    நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    (2)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
    khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
    khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
    pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
    kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

    (2)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
    eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
    eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
    of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
    nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.”

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
    na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
    மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
    இருப்பதைப்
    பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால்
    தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால்
    தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
    சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால்
    தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
    kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
    அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு
    கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
    நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    (3)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
    imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
    evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

    (3)
    Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
    if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
    squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
    this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
    become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


    Iti
    ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
    samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
    kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
    ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
    ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
    loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
    in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
    phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
    in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
    phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
    in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
    detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
    இருப்பதைப்
    பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும்
    இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால் ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
    kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
    இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
    இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
    நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    (4)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ
    nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
    evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

    (4)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
    charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
    together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
    such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
    such a condition.” 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
    bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
    na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
    மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
    இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,
    நரம்புகளால்
    ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
    ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
    இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
    ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
    நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    (5)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
    imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
    evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

    (5)
    Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
    if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
    squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
    considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
    going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

    Iti
    ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
    samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
    kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
    ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
    ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
    loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
    in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
    phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
    in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
    phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
    in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
    detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

    மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
    இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் இல்லாமல்,
    நரம்புகளால்
    ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
    ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
    இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
    ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
    நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


    (6)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
    hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
    jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
    phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
    gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
    sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
    evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

    (6)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
    charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
    hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
    here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
    a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
    or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
    such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
    such a condition.” 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
    bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
    na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
    இருப்பதைப்
    பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான,
    இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால்
    எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
    இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே
    ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே
    ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு,
    அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய
    ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
    உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
    அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



    (7)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
    upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
    ti. 

    (7)
    Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
    seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
    like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
    a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.” 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

    22 X 2012

    10 07 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 663 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

    TIPITAKA
    TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
    Sutta Pitaka
    Vinaya Pitaka
    Abhidhamma Pitaka
    Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
    Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons

    (7)
    Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
    seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
    like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
    a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.” 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
    ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    மேலும்,
    பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு
    பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
    கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் கடல்நுரை போல் வெண்மையாக இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த
    மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட
    அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி
    ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு
    வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
    உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
    உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
    எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
    கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


    (8)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
    upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
    ti. 

    (8)
    Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
    seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a
    year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
    nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.” 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
    ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    மேலும்,
    பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு
    பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
    கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் ஒரு ஆண்டுக்கு மேலே பழையதாகி குவியல் போல்
    இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
    kāya உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
    அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு
    கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு அவர்
    kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
    காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
    உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


    (9)
    Puna
    ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
    chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇaka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
    upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
    ti. 

    (9)
    Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
    seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced
    to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
    nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.” 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
    kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
    viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
    vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
    vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
    hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na
    ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    மேலும்,
    பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில் ஒரு
    பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக்
    கொண்டிருந்தால்,சீரழிந்த எலும்புகள் பொடியாகி இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த
    மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya உடல்/காய கூட
    அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி
    ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு கட்டுப்பாட்டு
    வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து வேறல்ல.

    இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
    உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
    காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
    உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
    எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
    கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
    எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
    மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    ________________________________________________________________________________________
    II. Vedanānupassanā

    Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati? 


    II. Observation of Vedanā

    And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā? 

    Idha,
    bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
    vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
    vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno
    ‘a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ
    vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti;
    nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
    vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ
    dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
    vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā
    a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ
    vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
    vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. 

    Here,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am
    experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands:
    “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā
    vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”;
    experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
    sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands:
    “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha
    vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”;
    experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a
    dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa,
    undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”;
    experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am
    experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”. 

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā
    vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī
    viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati;
    samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
    vedanāsu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati;
    ‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
    ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
    upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī
    viharati. 



    Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally,
    or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells
    observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally; he dwells
    observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing
    the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the
    samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:]
    “this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere
    ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to
    anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā
    in vedanā.

    II. வேதனையை கூர்ந்த கவனித்தல்

    மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, vedanā in vedanā வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்?

    இங்கு,
    பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒரு sukha vedanā சுக வேதனையை
    அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு சுக வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என
    புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு dukkha vedanā துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்கும்போது,
    நான் ஒரு துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு
    adukkham-asukhā vedanā அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை
    அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā அதுக்க-அசுக
    (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā
    vedanā sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு
    sukhā vedanā sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என
    புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā vedanā nirāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை
    மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு sukhā vedanā nirāmisa சுக
    வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha
    vedanā sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான்
    ஒரு dukkha vedanā sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன்
    என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha vedanā nirāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை
    மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு dukkha vedanā nirāmisa துக்க
    வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு
    adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை
    மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa
    அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என
    புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக
    (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு
    adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை
    உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் vedanā in vedanā வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம்
    செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம்
    செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
    வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்.
    31 07 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 684 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
    up a levelTipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words

    sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
    TIPITAKA
    TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
    Sutta Pitaka
    Vinaya Pitaka
    Abhidhamma Pitaka
    Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
    Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
    Sutta Piṭaka

    — The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
    F. Navasivathika Pabba F. Section on the nine charnel grounds F. II. Vedanānupassanā
    II. Observation of Vedanā - III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

    >> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

    DN 22 - (D ii 290)

    Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
    — Attendance on awareness —
    [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]
    This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

    Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

    Pāḷi

    Uddesa
    I. Kāyānupassanā

    A. Ānāpāna Pabba
    B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
    C. Sampajāna Pabba
    D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
    E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
    F. Navasivathika Pabba

    II. Vedanānupassanā

    III. Cittānupassanā

    IV. Dhammānupassanā

    A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
    B. Khandha Pabba
    C. Āyatana Pabba
    D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

    English

    Introduction
    I. Observation of Kāya

    A. Section on ānāpāna
    B. Section on postures
    C. Section on sampajañña
    D. Section on repulsiveness
    E. Section on the Elements
    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

    II. Observation of Vedanā

    III. Observation of Citta

    IV. Observation of Dhammas

    A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
    B. Section on the Khandhas
    C. Section on the Sense Spheres
    D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

    III. Cittānupassanā

    Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?

    III. Observation of Citta

    And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?

    Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sa·rāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·rāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vīta·rāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vīta·rāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sa·dosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·dosaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vīta·dosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vīta·dosaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sa·mohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·mohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vīta·mohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vīta·mohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘saṅkhittaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vikkhittaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘mahaggataṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, a·mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘a·mahaggataṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sa·uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa·uttaraṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, an·uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘an·uttaraṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samāhitaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, a·samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘a·samāhitaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, a·vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘a·vimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti.

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with rāga“, or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga“, or he understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa“, or he understands citta without dosa as “citta without dosa“, or he understands citta with moha as “citta with moha“, or he understands citta without moha as “citta without moha“, or he understands a collected citta as “a collected citta“, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered citta“, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta“, or he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta“, or he understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta“, or he understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta“, or he understands a concentrated citta as “a concentrated citta“, or he understands an unconcentrated citta as “an unconcentrated citta“, or he understands a liberated citta as “a liberated citta“, or he understands an unliberated citta as “an unliberated citta“.

    Iti ajjhattaṃ vā citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi cittaṃ’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.

    Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.

    தமிழ்

    III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

    மற்றும்
    இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
    அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்?

    மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு,
    Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையை ” Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
    அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது Citta மனம்
    அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga
    ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது

    Citta மனம்
    அதனுடைய அகநிலை “dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையை Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை
    dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
    அகநிலை dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை dosa
    வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது Citta மனம்
    அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையை “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை
    moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
    அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha
    மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது ஒரு சேர்த்த
    Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு சேர்த்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
    புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு சிதறலான
    Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு
    சிதறலான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
    விரிவாக்கம் செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்த
    Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு விரிவாக்கம்
    செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்யாத Citta மனம்
    அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம்
    அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
    புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு
    மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
    திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
    அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், ஒரு திண்மையற்ற Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
    அகநிலை “ஒரு திண்மையற்ற Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
    புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை
    “ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,
    ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை “ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத
    Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்.

    இவ்வாறு
    அவர் Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில்
    கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta
    மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம்
    செய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் அதனுடைய
    அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
    கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார், samudaya
    and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் மற்றும்
    கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
    இல்லாவிடில் “இது citta அகநிலை” என உணர்ந்து, sati விழிப்பு நிலை
    அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும்
    ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார். மற்றும் உலகத்தில்
    சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta
    மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து
    கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

    Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

    சிறந்த வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல் சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம் - எல்லாம் உணர்வுநிலையின் அடி எல்லை

    DN 16 - (D ii 137)
    Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
    {excerpts}
    — The last instructions —
    [mahā-parinibbāna]

    இந்த
    சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம், புத்தரால், அவருடைய முடிவுறுதல் அப்புறம், அவருடைய
    பின்பற்றுபவர்களின் நிமித்தம் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட பற்பல விதிமுறைகள்
    கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அவை, நமக்கு தற்காலத்தில் மிக முக்கிய இணைகோப்பு
    விதிமுறைகளை உண்டாக்குகிறது.

    This
    sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
    followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
    of instructions for us nowadays.

    Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

    தம்மாதாஸங் நாம தம்மா பரியாயங் தெசஸ்ஸஸ்ஸாமி, யென ஸம்மங்காதொ ஆரியஸாவகொ ஆகன்கமாகொ அத்தனாவ அத்தானங் ப்யா-கரெய்ய: ‘கின்ன-நிரயொ-மி-கின்ன-திர்ச்சான-யொனி கின்ன-பெத்திவிஸயொ கின்’அபாய துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ, ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸ்மி அவினிபாதொ-தம்மொ நியதொ ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’தி?

    தமிழ்

    (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)

    நான்
    Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
    வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
    சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
    ‘ஆக
    எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
    (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
    பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
    (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

    Dhammādāsaṃ
    nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
    ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
    khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
    sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti?

    (The Mirror of the Dhamma)

    I
    will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
    possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
    himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
    more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
    misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
    of being destined to sambodhi.

    Katamo
    ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
    ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
    khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
    sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

    And
    what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
    Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
    declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
    tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
    misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
    misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
    மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
    (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
    உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
    விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
    தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
    ‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
    niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
    சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
    இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
    sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
    விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
    இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

    Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

    Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
    இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    ‘Itipi
    so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
    anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.

    Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
    He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
    Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    ‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.

    Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
    He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
    Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    ‘Suppaṭipanno
    bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
    ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
    sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
    bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
    anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.

    Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
    He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
    புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

    akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

    Ayaṃ
    kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
    ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
    khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
    sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 

    This,
    Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
    possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
    himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
    more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
    misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
    of being destined to sambodhi. 

    இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
    அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும்
    தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
    (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
    கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
    (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
    பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
    பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
    (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

    … 

    … 

    Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 

    Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
    
Sato(கவனமான)
    நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
    இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
    எங்களுடைய போதனை.

    Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
    And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
    மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

    kāye
    kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
    abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
    satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
    ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
    dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
    abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

    Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
    Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

    இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
    sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
    sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
    இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

    bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
    hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
    sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
    pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
    sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
    sampajānakārī hoti.

    Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 

    Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
    இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
    sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
    நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
    அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
    எங்களுடைய போதனை.

    … 



    Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
    sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
    Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
    sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
    Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
    okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
    tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
    antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 

    – Ananda, the twin sala
    trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
    the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
    and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
    flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
    body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
    worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
    instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
    -ஆனந்தா,பூவா
    பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
    அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
    போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
    இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
    சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
    (குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
    வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
    மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
    சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
    வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

    Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
    hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
    vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
    sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
    māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
    dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
    anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 

    It is not
    by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
    paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
    or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
    living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
    esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
    homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
    remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
    accordance with the Dhamma’.
    இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
    (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
    மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
    பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
    உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
    பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
    மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
    செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
    இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
    dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
    பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
    … 

    … 


    ‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
    natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
    Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
    satthā. 

    – ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
    the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
    Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
    and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
    Teacher after my passing away. 

    உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு நேரிடக் கூடும்:
    கற்பிப்பவர்
    வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது, இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
    ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
    மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
    வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
    இருக்கும்.
    … 


    DN 22 - (D ii 290)
    Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
    — Attendance on awareness —
    [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

    This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

    Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

    Pāḷi

    Uddesa

    I. Kāyānupassanā
    A. Ānāpāna Pabba
    B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
    C. Sampajāna Pabba
    D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
    E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
    F. Navasivathika Pabba

    II. Vedanānupassanā

    English

    Introduction

    I. Observation of Kāya
    A. Section on ānāpāna
    B. Section on postures
    C. Section on sampajañña
    D. Section on repulsiveness
    E. Section on the Elements
    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

    II. Observation of Vedanā

    Uddesa

    Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
    Introduction

    Thus have I heard: 

    Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
    On
    one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
    a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
    – Bhikkhavo ti.
    – Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

    – Bhikkhus.
    – Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


    Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
    samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
    nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

    – This,
    bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
    beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
    dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
    Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

    Katame
    cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
    sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
    vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
    abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
    vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
    sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
    Which four?
    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
    He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
    given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
    in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
    towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

    I. Kāyānupassanā

    A. Ānāpāna Pabba

    Katha·ñ·ca,
    bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
    arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
    ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
    sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
    assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
    pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
    passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
    assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
    sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
    ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


    நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:

    ஒரு
    குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
    (கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā (பகவான்) தங்கி
    இருந்தார்.

    அவ்விடம், பிக்க