INSIGHT-NET - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
INSIGHT-NET -FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
September 2010
M T W T F S S
« Aug   Oct »
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930  
09/30/10
May we, the leaders, the media with nature of awakened-one with awareness avoid outing on 30-09-2010 from 03:30 onwards. Be calm, quite, alert, attentive with equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing. Be happy, well and secure.-LESSON 44 ARHAT PART IX Ariya puggala Katthahāri Jātaka Pasenadi Vidūdabha 30 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -I do not believe in a fate that falls on men however they act; but I do believe in a fate that falls on them unless they act. – Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji calls an emergency meeting in connection of law and order after Supreme Court’s decision-Hon’ble Chief Minister appeals to people to maintain peace and harmony-No compromise on law and order issue—Hon’ble Chief Minister-CM writes letter to PM requesting him again to release initial assistance amount of Rs. 2175 cr. for flood-affected districts of State-Government of India should immediately send Central team to assess loss caused by floods in U.P.-Ayodhya verdict: No curfew, no closure of schools, colleges, says Uttar Pradesh police
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 1:24 am

 

May we, the leaders, the media with nature of awakened-one with awareness avoid outing on 30-09-2010 from 03:30 onwards. Be calm, quite, alert, attentive with equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing. Be happy, well and secure.

  LESSON  44 ARHAT PART IX  Ariya puggala Katthahāri Jātaka Pasenadi Vidūdabha 30 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

I do not believe in a fate that falls on men however they act; but I do believe in a fate that falls on them unless they act. – Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                     MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!       ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM      IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

asekha,

Suddhodana, 

Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

·         Katthahāri Jātaka (No.7)

Brahmadatta, king of Benares, while wandering about in a grove, seeking for fruits and flowers, came upon a woman merrily singing as she gathered sticks. He became intimate with her, and the Bodhisatta was conceived then and there. The king gave the woman his signet ring, with instructions that if the child was a boy, he should be brought to the court with the ring. When the Bodhisatta grew up his playmates nicknamed him “No-father.” Feeling ashamed, he asked his mother about it and, on hearing the truth, insisted on being taken to the king. When confronted with the child, the king was too shy to acknowledge his parentage, and the mother, having no witness, threw the child into the air with the prayer that he should remain there if her words were true. The boy, sitting cross-legged in the air, requested the king to adopt him, which request was accepted, his mother being made queen consort. On his father’s death he became king under the name of Katthavāhana.

The story was told to Pasenadi on his refusal to recognize the claim to the throne of Vidūdabha, his son by Vāsabha-Khattiyā (J.i.133ff; iv.148; DhA.i.349).

Perhaps the story has some connection with that of Dusyanta and Sakuntalā, as given in the Mahābhārata and later amplified by Kālidāsa in his drama.

·         Pasenadi

King of Kosala and contemporary of the Buddha. He was the son of Mahā Kosala, and was educated at Takkasilā where, among his companions, were the Licchavi Mahāli and the Malla prince Bandhula. On his return home his father was so pleased with his proficiency in the various arts that he forthwith made him king. (DhA.i.338; for his genealogy see Beal: Records ii.2, n. 3).

As ruler, Pasenadi gave himself wholeheartedly to his administrative duties (*2) and valued the companionship of wise and good men (*3). Quite early in the Buddha’s ministry, (*4) Pasenadi became his follower and close friend, and his devotion to the Buddha lasted till his death.




(*2) E.g., S.i.74, 100; the Commentary (SA i.109f.) adds that the king tried to put down bribery and corruption in his court, but his attempt does not appear to have been very successful.

(*3) Thus he showed his favour to Pokkharasādi and Cankī, by giving them, respectively, the villages of Ukkatthā and Opasāda free of all taxes. It is said that his alms halls were always open to everyone desiring food or drink (Ud.ii.6). Even after becoming the Buddha’s follower, he did not omit to salute holy men of other persuasions (Ud.vi.2).

(*4) According to Tibetan sources, Pasenadi’s conversion was in the second year of the Buddha’s ministry (Rockhill, p.49). We find the king referring to the Buddha, at their first meeting, as being young in years (S.i.69). Their first meeting and conversation, which ended in Pasenadi’s declaring himself an adherent of the Buddha, are recorded in the Dahara Sutta.




But Pasenadi’s conversion did not prevent him from extending his favour, with true Indian toleration, to the members of other religious orders. Mention is even made of a great animal sacrifice which he once prepared, but which he abandoned on the advice of the Buddha, whom he sought at Mallika’s suggestion (*5). He frequently visited the Buddha and discussed various matters with him (*6). The whole of the Third Samyutta (Kosala Saipyutta), consisting of twenty five anecdotes, each with a moral bias, is devoted to him. The topics discussed are many and varied. The Buddha and Pasenadi were equals in age, and their talks were, therefore, intimate and frank (*7).




(*5) S.i.75; for details see the Mahāsupina and Lohakumbhi Jātakas. It is said (SA.i.111) that the king fell in love with a woman while riding round the city; on discovering that she was married, he ordered her husband to go, before sunset, and fetch clay and lilies from a pond one hundred leagues away. When the man had gone, the king ordered the gatekeepers to shut the gates early and not on any account to open them. The husband returned in the evening, and finding the gates shut, went to Jetavana, to seek protection from the king’s wrath. The king spent a sleepless night owing to his passion and had bad dreams. When the brahmins were consulted they advised a great animal sacrifice. The story is also found at DhA.ii.1ff., with several variations in detail.

(*6) It is said that he went three times a day to wait on the Buddha, sometimes with only a small bodyguard. Some robbers, knowing this, arranged an ambush in the Andhavana. But the king discovered the plot, of which he made short work.

(*7) Pasenadi was extremely attached to the Buddha, and the books describe how, when he saw the Buddha, he bowed his head at the Buddha’s feet, covering them with kisses and stroking them (M.ii.120). The Chinese records say (Beal,xliv) that when the Buddha went to Tāvatimsa, Pasenadi made an image of the Buddha in sandalwood, to which he paid honour. He was very jealous of the Buddha’s reputation, and put down with a firm hand any attempt on the part of heretics to bring discredit on him - e.g., in the case of Sundarī Nandā. In the Aggañña Sutta (D.iii.83f.), the Buddha explains why Pasenadi honours him. For Pasenadi’s own explanation as to why people honoured the Buddha even more than the king, see M.ii.123; see also A.v.65 ff. Pasenadi was also jealous of the reputation of the Order, and if anything arose which seemed likely to bring discredit on it, he took prompt steps to have the matter remedied -  e.g., in the case of Kundadhāna and Kumāra Kassapa’s mother. Pasenadi’s palace overlooked the Aciravati, and when he once saw some monks sporting in the river in an unseemingly way, he made sure that the Buddha knew of it (Vin.iv.112). The story of the blind man and the elephant shows that he was anxious to justify the Buddha’s teaching as against that of other sects (SNA.ii.529).




On one occasion we find the Buddha telling him to eat less and teaching his nephew Sudassana (or Uttara) a verse on the advantages of moderation, to be repeated to the king whenever he sat down to a meal. This advice was followed and the king became slim.

S.i.81; DhA.iii.264f.; iv.6f.; the Samyutta Commentary (SA.i.136) states that the bowl out of which he ate (paribhogapāti) was the size of a cartwheel. Pasenadi was always conscious of his own dignity - e.g., the incident with Chattapāni; but see Vin.iv.157f., which probably refers to the same story.

Pasenadi’s chief consort was Mallikā, daughter of a garland maker (see Mallikā for details of her marriage with the king). He loved her dearly and trusted her judgment in all things. When in difficulty he consulted her, realizing that her wisdom was greater than his own (E.g., in the Asadisadāna). There is an account given (S.i.74) of Pasenadi seeking a confession from her that she loved him more than her own soul (attā) as a confirmation of their mutual trust. But the queen was pious and saw into the reality of things, and declared that nothing was dearer to her than her own soul. Piqued by this answer, Pasenadi sought the Buddha, who comforted him by explaining the true import of Mallikā’s words. On another occasion, Pasenadi expressed to the Buddha his disappointment that Mallikā should have borne him a daughter instead of a son; but the Buddha pointed out to him that there was much, after all, to be said for daughters (S.i.83).

Mallikā predeceased Pasenadi (A.iii.57); he had also other wives, one of them being the sister of Bimbisāra, (*14) and another Ubbirī. The Kannakatthala Sutta (M.ii.125) mentions two others who were sisters: Somā and Sakulā. (*16)




(*14) DhA.i.385; Pasenadi’s relations with Bimbisāra were very cordial. Bimbisāra had five millionaires in his kingdom -  Jotiya, Jatila, Mendaka, Punnaka and Kākavaliya -  while Pasenadi had none. Pasenadi therefore visited Bimbisāra and asked for one to be transferred to him. Bimbisāra gave him Dhanañjaya, Mendaka’s son, and Pasenadi settled him in Sāketa (DhA.i.385ff).

(*16) In the Samyutta Nikāya (v. 351), the king’s chamberlains, Isidatta and Purāna, speak of his harem. When he went riding in the park he took with him his favourite and lovely wives on elephants, one before and one behind. They were sweetly scented -  “like caskets of scent” -  and their hands were soft to the touch.




It is stated that Pasenadi wished to associate himself with the Buddha’s family so that their relationship might be even closer. For seven days he had given alms to the Buddha and one thousand monks, and on the seventh day he asked the Buddha to take his meals regularly at the palace with five hundred monks; but the Buddha refused the request and appointed Ananda to take his place. Ananda came daily with five hundred others, but the king was too busy to look after them, and the monks, feeling neglected, failed to come any more, only Ananda keeping to his undertaking. When the king became aware of this he was greatly upset, and determined to win the confidence of the monks by marrying a kinswoman of the Buddha. He therefore sent messages to the Sākiyan chiefs, who were his vassals, asking for the hand of one of their daughters. The Sākiyans discussed the proposition in their Mote-Hall, and held it beneath the dignity of their clan to accede to it. But, unwilling to incur the wrath of their overlord, they sent him Vāsabhakhattiyā, daughter of Mahānāma and of a slave woman, Nāgamundā. By her, Pasenadi had a son Vidūdabha. When the latter visited Kapilavatthu, he heard by chance of the fraud that had been practised on his father and vowed vengeance. When he came to the throne, he invaded the Sākiyan territory and killed a large number of the clan without distinction of age or sex (DhA.i.339ff.; J.i.133f.; iv.144ff). It is said that when Pasenadi heard of the antecedents of Vāsabhakhattiyā, he withdrew the royal honours, which had been bestowed on her and her son and reduced them to the condition of slaves. But the Buddha, hearing of this, related to Pasenadi the Katthahārika Jātaka, and made him restore the royal honours to the mother and her son.

Mention is made of another son of Pasenadi, named Brahmadatta, who entered the Order and became an arahant.

ThagA.i.460; the Dulva says that Jeta, owner of Jetavana, was also Pasenadi’s son (Rockhill, p.48).

Pasenadi’s sister, Kosaladevī, was married to Bimbisāra. Mahākosala gave her a village in Kāsi as part of her dowry, for her bath money. When Ajātasattu killed Bimbisāra, Kosaladevī died of grief, and Pasenadi confiscated the Kāsi village, saying that no patricide should own a village which was his by right of inheritance. Angered at this, Ajātasattu declared war upon his aged uncle. At first, victory lay with Ajātasattu, but Pasenadi had spies who reported to him a plan of attack suggested by the Thera Dhanuggaha Tissa, in the course of a conversation with his colleague Mantidatta, and in the fourth campaign Pasenadi took Ajātasattu prisoner, and refused to release him until he renounced his claim to the throne. Upon his renunciation, Pasenadi not only gave him his daughter Vajirā in marriage, but conferred on her, as a wedding gift, the very village in dispute (J.ii.237, 403; iv.342f).

Three years later, Vidūdabha revolted against his father. In this he was helped by the commander in chief, Dīghakārāyana, nephew of Bandhula. Bandhula, chief of the Mallas, disgusted with the treachery of his own people, had sought refuge with his former classmate, Pasenadi, in Sāvatthi. Bandhula’s wife, Mallikā, bore him thirty two sons, brave and learned. Pasenadi, having listened to the tales of his corrupt ministers, contrived to have Bandhula and all his sons killed while they were away quelling a frontier rebellion. Bandhula’s wife was a devout follower of the Buddha’s faith, and showed no resentment against the king for this act of treachery. This moved the king’s heart, and he made all possible amends. But Dīghakārāyana never forgave him, and once when Pasenadi was on a visit to the Buddha at Medatalumpa (Ulumpa), leaving the royal insignia with his commander in chief, Dīghakārāyana took advantage of this opportunity, withdrew the king’s bodyguard, leaving behind only one single horse and one woman servant, hurried back to the capital and crowned Vidūdabha king. When Pasenadi heard of this, he hurried on to Rājagaha to enlist Ajātasattu’s support; but as it was late, the city gates were closed. Exhausted by his journey, he lay down in a hall outside the city, where he died during the night.

When Ajātasattu heard the news, he performed the funeral rites over the king’s body with great pomp. He wished to march at once against Vidūdabha, but desisted on the advice of his ministers (M.ii.118; MA.ii.753ff.; DhA.i.353ff.; J.iv.150ff).

Pasenadi had a sister, Sumanā, who was present at his first interview with the Buddha and decided to enter the Order, but she delayed doing so as she then had to nurse their aged grandmother. Pasenadi was very fond of his grandmother, and was filled with grief when she died in her one hundred and twentieth year. After her death, Sumanā became a nun and attained arahantship (ThigA.22; S.i.97; A.iii.32). The old lady’s possessions were given over to the monks, the Buddha giving special permission for them to be accepted (Vin.ii.169).

Among the king’s most valued possessions was the elephant Seta (A.iii.345); he had two other elephants, Bhadderaka (or Pāveyyaka) (DhA.iv.25) and Pundarīka (Ibid., ii.1). Mention is also made (J.iii.134f ) of a pet heron which lived in the palace and conveyed messages. Tradition says (SA.i.115; J.i.382ff ) that Pasenadi had in his possession the octagonal gem which Sakka had given to Kusa. He valued it greatly, using it as his turban jewel, and was greatly upset when it was reported lost; it was, however, recovered with the help and advice of Ananda. The Jātaka Commentary records that Pasenadi built a monastery in front of Jetavana. It was called the Rājakārāma, and the Buddha sometimes stayed there (J.ii.15). According to Hiouen Thsang, Pasenadi also built a monastery for Pajāpati Gotamī (Beal, Records ii.2).

Pasenadi’s chaplain, Aggidatta had originally been Mahākosala’s chaplain. Pasenadi therefore paid him great respect. This inconvenienced Aggidatta, and he gave his wealth to the poor and renounced the world.

DhA.iii.241ff.; SNA. (580) says that Bāvarī was Mahākosala’s chaplain and Pasenadi studied under him. When Pasenadi came to the throne, Bāvarī declared his wish to leave the world. The king tried to prevent him but failed; he did, however, persuade Bāvarī to live in the royal park. Bāvarī, after staying there for some time, found life in a city uncongenial. The king thereupon detailed two of his ministers to establish a suitable hermitage for Bāvarī.

Pasenadi’s minister, Santati, who was once allowed to reign for a week in the king’s place as reward for having quelled a frontier dispute, gave his wealth to the poor and renounced the world like Aggidatta (DhA.iii.28ff). The king was always ready to pay honour to those who had won the praise of the Buddha, as in the case of Kānā (Ibid., ii.150ff), Culla Eka Sātaka (Ibid., iii.2ff ) or Angulimālā (M.ii.100); on the other hand, he did not hesitate to show his disapproval of those who disregarded the Buddha’s teaching -  e.g., Upananda (S.i.153f).

Pasenadi liked to be the foremost in gifts to the Buddha and his Order. This was why he held the Asadisadāna under the guidance and inspiration of Mallikā; but he was hurt when the Buddha’s sermon of thanksgiving did not seem to him commensurate with the vast amount (fourteen crores) which he had spent. The Buddha then explained to him that this lack of enthusiasm was out of consideration for the king’s minister Kāla. When the king learned that Kāla disapproved of the lavish way in which money had been spent at the almsgiving, he banished him from the court, while he allowed the minister Junha, who had furthered the almsgiving, to rule over the kingdom for seven days (DhA.iii.188ff).

Pasenadi seems to have enjoyed discussions on topics connected with the Dhamma. Reference has already been made to the Kosala Samyutta, which records several conversations which he held with the Buddha when visiting him in Sāvatthi; even when Pasenadi was engaged in affairs of state in other parts of the kingdom, he would visit the Buddha and engage him in conversation if he was anywhere in the neighbourhood. Two such conversations are recorded in the Dhammacetiya Sutta (q.v.) and the Kannakatthala Sutta (q.v.). If the Buddha was not available, he would seek a disciple. Thus the Bāhitika Sutta (q.v.) records a discussion between Pasenadi and Ananda on the banks of theAciravatī. Once when Pasenadi was in Toranavatthu, midway between Sāketa and Sāvatthi, he heard that Khemā Therī was there, and went at once to visit and talk to her (S.iv.374ff). Rhys Davids thinks (Buddhist India, p.10) that Pasenadi was evidently an official title (*38) and that the king’s personal name was Agnidatta. He bases this surmise on the fact that in the Divyāvadāna (p. 620) the king who gave Ukkatthā to Pokkarasādi is called Agnidatta, while in the Digha Nikāya (i.87) he is called Pasenadi, and that Pasenadi is used, as a designation for several kings (*39). The evidence is, however, insufficient for any definite conclusion to be drawn.




(*38) The UdA. (104) explains Pasenadi as “paccantam parasenam jinātī ti = Pasenadi.” According to Tibetan sources he was so called because the whole country was illuminated at the time of his birth (Rockhill, p.16).

(*39) E.g., in Dvy. 369, for a king of Magadha and again in the Kathāsaritsāgara i.268, 298.




According to the Anāgatavamsa (J.P.T.S. 1886, p. 37), Pasenadi is a Bodhisatta. He will be the fourth future Buddha.

The Sutta Vibhanga (Vin.iv.298) mentions a Cittāgāra (? Art Gallery) which belonged to him.

·         Vidūdabha

Son of Pasenadi and Vāsabhakhattiyā. On the birth of Vidūdabha, the king, glad at having a son, sent word to his own grandmother asking her to choose a name. The minister who delivered the message was deaf, and when the grandmother spoke of Vāsabhakhattiyā as being dear to the king, mistook “vallabha” for “Vidūdabha,” and, thinking that this was an old family name, bestowed it on the prince. When the boy was quite young, Pasenadi conferred on him the rank of senāpati, thinking that this would please the Buddha. It was for the same reason he married Vāsabhakhattiyā; both in the Piyajātika Sutta (M.ii.110) and the Kannakatthala Suttas (M.ii.127) Vidūdabha is spoken of as senāpati.

When Vidūdabha was seven years old, he wished to visit his maternal grandparents, hoping to be given presents, like his companions by theirs, but Vāsabhakhattiyā persuaded him against this, telling him that they lived too far away. But he continued to express this desire, and when he reached the age of sixteen she consented to his going. Thereupon, accompanied by a large retinue, he set out for Kapilavatthu. The Sākiyans sent all the younger princes away, there being thus none to pay obeisance to him in answer to his salute, the remaining ones being older than he. He was shown every hospitality and stayed for several days. On the day of his departure, one of his retinue overheard a contemptuous remark passed by a slave woman who was washing, with milk and water, the seat on which Vidūdabha had sat. This was reported to him, and, having discovered the deceit which had been practiced on his father, he vowed vengeance on the Sākiyans. Pasenadi cut off all honours from Vāsabhakhattiyā and her son, but restored them later, at the Buddha’s suggestion.

After Pasenadi’s death, which was brought about by the treachery of Dīghakārāyana in making Vidūdabha king (for details see Pasenadi), Vidūdabha remembered his oath, and set out with a large army for Kapilavatthu. The Buddha, aware of this, stood under a tree, with scanty shade, just within the boundaries of the Sākiyan kingdom. On the boundary was a banyan which gave deep shade. Vidūdabha, seeing the Buddha, asked him to sit under the banyan. “Be not worried,” said the Buddha, “the shade of my kinsmen keeps me cool.” Vidūdabha understood and returned home with his army. This exposure to the sun gave the Buddha a headache which lasted through out his life (UdA.265; Ap.i.300).

Three times he marched against the Sākiyans and three times he saw the Buddha under the same tree and turned back. The fourth time the Buddha knew that the fate of the Sākiyans could not be averted and remained away. In a previous existence they had conspired and thrown poison into a river.

The Sākiyans went armed into the battle, but not wishing to kill, they shot their arrows into Vidūdabha’s ranks without killing anyone. On this being brought to Vidūdabha’s notice, he gave orders that all the Sākiyans, with the exception of the followers of the Sākiyan Mahānāma, should be slain. The Sākiyans stood their ground, some with blades of grass and some with reeds. These were spared, and came to be known as Tinasākyā and Nalasākiyā respectively.*

The others were all killed, even down to the infants. Mahānāma was taken prisoner and went back with Vidūdabha, who wished him to share his meal. But Mahānāma said he wished to bathe, and plunged into a lake with the idea of dying rather than eating with a slave woman’s child. The Nāgas of the lake, however, saved him and took him to the Nāga world. That same night Vidūdabha pitched his camp on the dry bed of the Aciravatī. Some of his men lay on the banks, others on the river bed. Some of those who lay on the river bed were not guilty of sin in their past lives, while some who slept on the bank were. Ants appeared on the ground where the sinless ones lay, and they changed their sleeping places. During the night there was a sudden flood, and Vidūdabha and those of his retinue who slept in the river bed were washed into the sea. This account is taken from DhA.i.346 9, 357 61; but see also J.i.133 and iv.146f., 151f.




* According to Chinese records, Vidūdabha took five hundred Sākiyan maidens into his harem, but they refused to submit to him and abused him and his family. He ordered them to be killed, their hands and feet to be cut off, and their bodies thrown into a ditch. The Buddha sent a monk to preach to them, and they were reborn after death in heaven. Sakra collected their bones and burnt them (Beal, op. cit.ii.11f.).

The eleventh Pallava of the Avadānakalpalatā has a similar story. Vidūdabha killed seventy seven thousand Sākiyans and stole eighty thousand boys and girls. The girls were rude to him, and he ordered their death 

 

CM writes letter to PM requesting him again to release initial assistance amount of Rs. 2175 cr. for flood-affected districts of State

Government of India should immediately send Central team to assess loss caused by floods in U.P.

Lucknow: 29 September 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Hon’ble Ms. Mayawati Ji has again

requested the Prime Minister to provide Rs. 2175 cr. for the flood-affected

districts of the State. In a letter written to the Prime Minister today, she

said that this demand was based on initial estimates. She further said

that the detailed memorandum would be forwarded to the Centre once

the floods receded and the losses were estimated correctly. She

demanded from the Centre that a Central team should be sent to U.P. to

assess the losses caused by the floods and the assistance amount should

be provided at the earliest.

It is noteworthy that the Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji had conducted

aerial survey of the flood-affected districts of the State on 22 September

2010 to assess the loss caused by the floods. The districts of Western

U.P. were widely affected by floods caused by the huge release of water

from the dams of Uttarakhand. The State Government had declared the

districts of Western U.P. as disaster-affected area and demanded that an

assistance of Rs. 1000 cr. should be provided for the districts of Western

U.P. and another Rs. 1000 cr. should be provided for the other districts of

the State. In all, an assistance of Rs. 2000 cr. was demanded from the

Centre through her letter written to the Prime Minister recently. In her

letter written to the Prime Minister today, she said that on the basis of

the initial estimates, the Principal Secretary Revenue and Relief

Commissioner, Uttar Pradesh through a letter dated 27-9-2010 had

forwarded memorandum demanding Rs. 2175 cr. assistance to the Joint

Secretary, Disaster Management, Ministry of Home, Government of India.

She said that the letter had been received by the aforesaid ministry.

In this light, Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji requested the P.M. to release

Rs. 2175 cr. immediately. Giving details about the wide losses caused by

the floods in the State, she wrote in her letter that about 5969 villages of

the 33 districts had been affected by the floods since June till date and

2022 villages had been fully submerged in the water. Referring to the

deaths caused by the floods, she said that 96 persons had perished in

floods, while 330 persons had died in the incidents of house collapses.

Besides, a large number of cattle had also died. She said that about 8.08

lack hectares of sown crops had been damaged all over the State by the

floods, while a large number of infrastructure facilities had also been

damaged in the floods. A large number of roads, embankments, electric

poles and wires had also been damaged. Many houses had also been

damaged. She said that their reconstruction and repair was immediately

needed.

The Hon’ble Chief Minister Ji requested the Government of India to

send a Central team immediately to assess the losses caused by the

floods. She again requested the Centre to release the amount

immediately so that the relief and rescue works could be carried out

properly.

*******

    Ayodhya verdict: No curfew, no closure of schools, colleges, says Uttar Pradesh police

    Uttar Pradesh police today released six phone numbers of the control room set up at the director general of police (DGP) office here to immediately report about any untoward incident taking place ater the pronouncement of the Ayodhya title suit verdict tomorrow.

    “In case of any untoward incident or mischief, the people can call at these phone numbers so that the situation can be controlled immediately”, inspector general of PAC RK Singh toldnewspersons here.

    Thee numbers are 0522 2206901, 9454402508, 9454402509,
    9454402510, 9307100100 and 998410010, the IG said.

    On the security arrangements and force deployment, the IG said the strategy has been worked out in a manner so as to ensure that general public faced minimum problems and anti-social elements are controlled effectively.

    Districts have been asked to work out contingency plans and use the forces availabale with them as per requirement, the IG said.

    Pointing out that there has been no closure of schools and colleges, state home secretary Anand Kumar said a government order has already been issued banning fire works and celebratory firing in the state in view of the court orders.

    There would also be no restriction on movement of people nor has curfew been imposed anywhere in the state, he said.

    Meanwhile, DGP Karamvir Singh, IG (law and order) AP Maheshwari, Lucknow district magistarate, DIG and several
    judges had a meeting with the chief justice of the Allahabad
    high court, FI Rebello here this evening to review the security arrangements in the court compound.

comments (0)
09/29/10
LESSON- 43 -ARHAT PART VIII - Ariya puggala -asekha -Suddhodana -Dasaratha- 29 -09 -2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship. – Buddha- EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 3:42 am

 

Entire people including the media have the nature of Awakened-One with awareness. They see truth as truth and untruth as untruth. For truth ultimately trimphs. they all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing.

LESSON- 43 -ARHAT PART VIII - Ariya puggala -asekha -Suddhodana -Dasaratha- 29 -09 -2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship. – Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                     MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!       ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM      IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

asekha,

Suddhodana, 

Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

·         asekha

(lit.: ‘not-learner’; s. sekha), a disciple ‘perfected in training’, one beyond training, an adept.

This is a name for the Arahat, the Holy One (s. ariya-puggala), since he has reached the perfection in higher moral training, higher mind training and higher wisdom training (s. sikkhā) and needs no longer to train himself therein.

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/s/suddhodana.htm

·         Suddhodana

A Sākiyan Rājā of Kapilavatthu and father of Gotama Buddha.

He was the son of Sihahanu and Kaccānā. His brothers were Dhotodana, Sakkodana, Sukkodana and Amitodana, and his sisters were Amitā and Pamitā.

Māyā was his chief consort, and, after her death her sister Pajāpatī was raised to her position (Mhv.ii.15f.; Dpv.iii.45; J.i.15, etc.).

When soothsayers predicted that his son Gotama had two destinies awaiting him, either that of universal sovereignty or of Buddha hood, he exerted his utmost power to provide the prince with all kinds of luxuries in order to hold him fast to household life. It is said (E.g., J.i.54) that when Asita, who was his father’s chaplain and his own teacher, visited Suddhodana to see the newly born prince, and paid homage to the infant by allowing his feet to rest on his head, Suddhodana was filled with wonder and himself worshipped the child. And when, at the ploughing ceremony, Suddhodana saw how the jambu-tree under which the child had been placed kept its shadow immoveable in order to protect him, and that the child was seated cross legged in the air, he again worshipped him (J.i.57f).

Later, when, in spite of all his father’s efforts, the prince had left household life and was practising austerities, news was brought to Suddhodana that his son had died owing to the severity of his penances. But he refused to believe it, saying that his son would never die without achieving his goal (J.i.67). When this was afterwards related to the Buddha, he preached the Mahādhammapāla Jātaka and showed that in the past, too, Suddhodana had refused to believe that his son could have died even when he was shown the heap of his bones.

When news reached Suddhodana that his son had reached Enlightenment, he sent a messenger to Veluvana in Rājagaha with ten thousand others to invite the Buddha to visit Kapilavatthu. But the messenger and his companions heard the Buddha preach, entered the Order, and forgot their mission. Nine times this happened. On the tenth occasion, Suddhodana sent Kāludāyī with permission for him to enter the Order on the express condition that he gave the king’s invitation to the Buddha. Kāludāyī kept his promise and the Buddha visited Kapilavatthu, staying in the Nigrodhārāma. There, in reference to a shower of rain that fell, he preached the Vessantara Jātaka. The next day, when Suddhodana remonstrated with the Buddha because he was seen begging in the streets of Kapilavatthu, the Buddha told him that begging was the custom of all Buddhas, and Suddhodana hearing this became a sotāpanna. He invited the Buddha to his palace, where he entertained him, and at the end of the meal the Buddha preached to the king, who became a sakadāgāmī (J.i.90; cf. DhA.iii.164f). He became an anāgāmī after hearing the Mahādhammapāla Jātaka(DhA.i.99; J.iv.55), and when he was about to die, the Buddha came from Vesāli to see him and preach to him, and Suddhodana became an arahant and died as a lay arahant (ThigA.141).

Nanda was Suddhodana’s son by Mahā Pajāpati, and he had also a daughter called Sundarī Nandā. When the Buddha ordained both Rāhula and Nanda, Suddhodana was greatly distressed lest other parents should be similarly afflicted, and persuaded the Buddha to establish a rule that none should be ordained without the permission of his parents (Vin.i.82f).

Suddhodana was the Bodhisatta’s father in numerous births, but he is specially mentioned as such by name in only a few Jātakas e.g.,

Dasaratha,

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/d/dasaratha_jat_461.htm

·         Dasaratha Jātaka (No.461)

Dasaratha, king of Benares, had three children, Rāmapandita, Lakkhana and Sītā. On the death of his queen he took another queen and had by her a son, Bharata. When Bharata was seven years old his mother claimed the kingdom for him in accordance with a boon granted her by the king. The king was horrified and fearing that she would harm his elder children, sent them into the forest for twelve years, asking them to return after his death. In the forest Rāma lived the ascetic life while Lakkhana and Sītā provided him with food. Dasaratha died after nine years, and when the ministers refused to recognise Bharata as king, he went into the forest in search of Rāma. Rāma, however, refused to return until three more years had elapsed, and on Bharata refusing to occupy the throne, Rāma gave him his straw slippers to be placed on the throne in his absence. When cases were heard, if the decision given was wrong, the slippers would beat upon each other, but, if right, they would lie quiet. After three years Rāma returned and reigned from his palace of Sucandaka for sixteen thousand years, with Sītā as queen consort.

Dasaratha was Suddhodana, Bharata Ananda, Lakkhana Sāriputta, Sītā Rāhulamātā and Rāma the Bodhisatta.

The story was related to a man of Sāvatthi who greatly grieved at his father’s death and neglected all his duties. J.iv.123-30.

·         Sokyā, Sakka, Sākiyā

A tribe in North India, to which the Buddha belonged. Their capital was Kapilavatthu. Mention is also made of other Sākyan settlements - e.g., Cātumā, Khomadussa, Sāmagāma, Devadaha, Sīlavatī, Nagaraka, Medatalumpa, Sakkhara and Ulumpa (q.v.). Within the Sākyan tribe there were probably several clans, gottā. The Buddha himself belonged to the Gotamagotta. It has been suggested (E.g., Thomas, op. cit., 22) that this was a brahmin clan, claiming descent from the ancient isi Gotama. The evidence for this suggestion is, however, very meagre. Nowhere do we find the Sākyans calling themselves brahmins. On the other hand, we find various clans claiming a share of the Buddha’s relics on the ground that they, like the Buddha, were khattiyas (D.ii.165). It is stated a that the Sākyans were a haughty people. Vin.ii.183; D.i.90; J.i.88; DhA.iii.163. Hiouen Thsang, however, found them obliging and gentle in manners (Beal, op. cit., ii.14).

When the Buddha first visited them, after his Enlightenment, they refused to honour him on account of his youth. The Buddha then performed a miracle and preached the Vessantara Jātaka, and their pride was subdued. They evidently fond of sports and mention is made of a special school of archery conducted by a Sākyan family, called Vedhaññā (D.iii.117; DA.iii.905). When the prince Siddhattha Gotama (later the Buddha) wished to marry, no Sākyan would give him his daughter until he had showed his proficiency in sport (J.i.58).

The Sākyans evidently had no king. Theirs was a republican form of government, probably with a leader, elected from time to time. The administration and judicial affairs of the gotta were discussed in their Santhāgāra, or Mote Hall, at Kapilavatthu. See, e.g., D.i.91; the Sākyans had a similar Mote Hall at Cātumā (M.i.457). The Mallas of Kusinārā also had a Santhāgāra (D.ii.164); so did the Licchavis of Vesāli (Vin.i.233; M.i.228).

Ambattha (q.v.) once visited it on business; so did the envoys of Pasenadi, when he wished to marry a Sākyan maiden (see below). A new Mote Hall was built at Kapilavatthu while the Buddha was staying at the Nigrodhārāma, and he was asked to inaugurate it. This he did by a series of ethical discourses lasting through the night, delivered by himself, Ananda, and Moggallāna. M.i.353f.; S.iv.182f; the hall is described at SA.iii.63; cf. UdA.409.

The Sākyans were very jealous of the purity of their race; they belonged to the ādiccagotta, (ādiccā nāma gottena, Sākiyā nāma jātiyā, SN. vs.423) and claimed descent from Okkāka (q.v.). Their ancestors were the nine children of Okkāka, whom he banished in order to give the kingdom to Jantukumāra, his son by another queen. These nine children went towards Himavā, and, having founded Kapilavatthu (q.v. for details), lived there. To the eldest sister they gave the rank of mother, and the others married among themselves. The eldest sister, Piyā, later married Rāma, king of Benares, and their descendants became known as the Koliyans (see Koliyā for details). When Okkāka heard of this, he praised their action, saying, “Sakyā vata bho kumārā, paramasakyā vata bho rājakumāra; hence their name came to be “Sakyā.”

SNA.i.352f.; cf. DA.i.258. Okkāka had a slave girl, Disā, her offspring were the Kanhāyanas, to which gotta belonged Ambattha (q.v.). The Mhv.ii.12ff gives the history of the direct descent of the Buddha from Okkāka, and this contains a list of the Sākyan chiefs of Kapilavatthu:

From the very first there seems to have been intermarriage between the Sākyans and the Koliyans; but there was evidently a good deal of endogamy among the Sākyans, which earned for them the rebuke of the Koliyans in the quarrel between them   “like dogs, jackals, and such  like beasts, cohabiting with their own sisters. E.g., SNA.i.357; J.v.412 L; there were eighty two thousand rājās among the Koliyans and Sākyans (SNA.i.140).

A quarrel, which broke out in the Buddha’s lifetime, between the Sākyans and the Koliyans is several times referred to in the books. The longest account is found in the introductory story of the Kunāla Jātaka. The cause of the dispute was the use of the water of the River Rohinī (q.v.), which flowed between the two kingdoms. The quarrel waxed fierce, and a bloody battle was imminent, when the Buddha, arriving in the air between the two hosts, asked them, “Which is of more priceless value, water or khattiya chiefs?” He thus convinced them of their folly and made peace between them. On this occasion he preached five Jātaka stories -  the Phandana, Daddabha, Latukika, Rukkhadhamma and Vattaka (Sammodamāna) -  and the Attadanda Sutta.

To show their gratitude the Sākyans and Koliyans gave each two hundred and fifty young men from their respective families to join the Order of the Buddha. (J.v.412f.; for their history see also SNA.i.358f ) Earlier, during the Buddha’s first visit to Kapilavatthu, when he had humbled the pride of his kinsmen by a display of miracles, each Sākyan family had given one representative to enter the Order and to help their famous kinsman. The wives of these, and of other Sākyans who had joined the Order, were the first to become nuns under Pajāpatī Gotamī (q.v.) when the Buddha gave permission for women to enter the Order. Among the most eminent of the Sākyan young men, who now joined, were Anuruddha, Ananda, Bhaddiya, Kimbila, Bhagu and Devadatta. Their barber, Upāli, entered the Order at the same time; they arranged that he should be ordained first, so that he might be higher than they in seniority and thus receive their obeisance, and thereby humble their pride Vin.ii.181f.; according to DhA.i.133, eighty thousand Sākyan youths had joined the Order.

The Buddha states, in the Aggañña Sutta, that the Sākyans were vassals of King Pasenadi of Kosala. D.iii.83 (Sakyā . . . Pasenadi-Kosalassa anuyuttā bhavanti, karonti Sakyā rañño Pasenadimhi Kosale nipaccakāram abhivādanam paccupatthānam añjalikammam sāmīcikammam); cf. SN.vs 422, where the Buddha describes his country as being “Kosalesu niketino.”

Yet, when Pasenadi wished to establish connection with the Buddha’s family by marrying one of the daughters of a Sākyan chief, the Sākyans decided in their Mote Hall that it would be beneath their dignity to marry one of their daughters to the King of Kosala. But as they dared not refuse Pasenadi’s request, the Sākyan chieftain, Mahānāma, solved the difficulty by giving him Vāsabhakhattiyā (q.v.), who was his daughter by a slave girl, Nāgamundā. By her Pasenadi had a son, Vidūdabha. When Pasenadi discovered the trick, he deprived his wife and her son of all their honours, but restored them on the intervention of the Buddha. Later, when Vidūdabha, who had vowed vengeance on the Sākyans for the insult offered to his father, became king, he marched into Kapilavatthu and there massacred the Sākyans, including women and children. The Buddha felt himself powerless to save them from their fate because they had committed sin in a previous life by throwing poison into a river. Only a few escaped, and these came to be called the Nalasākiyā and the Tinasākiyā. The Mhv. Tīkā (p. 180) adds that, during this massacre, some of the Sākyans escaped to the Himālaya, where they built a city, which came to be called Moriyanagara because the spot resounded with the cries of peacocks. This was the origin of the Moriya dynasty, to which Asoka belonged (189). Thus Asoka and the Buddha were kinsmen.

Among the Sākyans who thus escaped was Pandu, son of Amitodana. He crossed the Ganges, and, on the other side of the river, founded a city. His daughter was Bhaddakaccānā (q.v.), who later married Panduvāsudeva, king of Ceylon. Thus the kings of Ceylon were connected by birth to the Sākyans. Mhv.viii.18ff. Six of her brothers also came to Ceylon, where they founded settlements: Rāma, Uruvela, Anurādha Vijita, Dīghāyu and Rohana (Mhv.ix 6ff.)

 

comments (0)
09/27/10
LESSON - 42 -ARHAT -PART VII - Ariya puggala -Arahant -28 -09- 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment. - Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-She pointed out that once the main Rs. 17 cr. Taj corridor case had come to an end and it was conclusively proved that she had no role to play in the case, the CBI should have dropped the case immediately
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 11:06 pm

 

LESSON - 42 -ARHAT -PART VII - Ariya puggala -Arahant -28 -09- 2010 -FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

 

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment. - Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                 MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!                ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

ariya-puggala. asekha, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

Arahat, Arahant

Ariya-puggala

Arahant comes from the Pali word arahati meaning ‘worthy’ or ‘noble’ and is a title given to someone who has attained awaken-ness as a result of listening to and practicing the teachings of a Buddha. Like a Buddha, an arahant has perfected wisdom and compassion and is no longer subject to rebirth. The Buddha describes the arahant as having transcended ‘the round of birth and death, they have destroyed the taints, lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the ultimate goal, destroyed the fetters and become completely free, liberated through final knowledge’ (Majjhima Nikaya 1. 141).

Attaining to the level of full awaken-ness is not to be taken lightly or as something easily attainable. It can take several decades of devoted practice and will more likely take several lifetimes to perfect the Paramitas,(

Theravāda Buddhism

Theravāda Buddhism’s teachings on the pāramitās can be found in late canonical books and post-canonical commentaries.

[edit]Canonical sources

In the Pāli canon’s Buddhavaṃsa[3] the Ten Perfections (dasa pāramiyo) are (original terms in Pāli):

  1. Dāna pāramī : generosity, giving of oneself
  2. Sīla pāramī : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. Nekkhamma pāramī : renunciation
  4. Paññā pāramī : transcendental wisdom, insight
  5. Viriya (also spelt vīriya) pāramī : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  6. Khanti pāramī : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  7. Sacca pāramī : truthfulness, honesty
  8. Adhiṭṭhāna (adhitthana) pāramī : determination, resolution
  9. Mettā pāramī : loving-kindness
  10. Upekkhā (also spelt upekhā) pāramī : equanimity, serenity

Two of the above virtues, metta and upekkha also comprise two of the four immeasurables (brahmavihāra)).

 theJhanas,

(Stages of jhāna

The Rupa Jhānas

There are four stages of deep collectedness which are called the Rupa Jhāna (Fine-material Jhāna):

  1. First Jhāna - In the first jhana there are - “directed thought, evaluation, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence,mindfulness, equanimity & attention”
  2. Second Jhāna - In the second jhana there are - “internal assurance, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention.”
  3. Third Jhāna - In the third jhana, there are - “equanimity-pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention”
  4. Fourth Jhāna - In the fourth jhana there are - “a feeling of equanimity, neither pleasure nor pain; an unconcern due to serenity of awareness; unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention”.[10]

[edit]The Arupa Jhānas

Beyond the four jhānas lie four attainments, referred to in the early texts as aruppas. These are also referred to in commentarial literature as immaterial/the formless jhānas (arūpajhānas), also translated as The Formless Dimensions:

  1. Dimension of Infinite Space - In the dimension of infinite space there are - “the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of space, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  2. Dimension of Infinite Consciousness - In the Dimension of infinite consciousness there are - “the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  3. Dimension of Nothingness - In the dimension of nothingness, there are - “the perception of the dimension of nothingness, singleness of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  4. Dimension of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception - About the role of this jhana it is said: “He emerged mindfully from that attainment. On emerging mindfully from that attainment, he regarded the past qualities that had ceased & changed: ‘So this is how these qualities, not having been, come into play. Having been, they vanish.’ He remained unattracted & unrepelled with regard to those qualities, independent, detached, released, dissociated, with an awareness rid of barriers. He discerned that ‘There is no further escape,’ and pursuing it there really wasn’t for him.” [11]

In the suttas, these are never referred to as jhānas. According to the early scriptures, the Buddha learned the last two formless attainments from two teachers, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta respectively, prior to his enlightenment.[12] It is most likely that they belonged to the Brahmanical tradition.[13]

[edit]Cessation of feelings and perceptions

The Buddha himself discovered an attainment beyond the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, the “cessation of feelings and perceptions”. This is sometimes called the “ninth jhāna” in commentarial and scholarly literature.[14][15]

About this, it is said: “Seeing with discernment, his fermentations were totally ended. He emerged mindfully from that attainment. On emerging mindfully from that attainment, he regarded the past qualities that had ceased & changed: ‘So this is how these qualities, not having been, come into play. Having been, they vanish.’ He remained unattracted & unrepelled with regard to those qualities, independent, detached, released, dissociated, with an awareness rid of barriers. He discerned that ‘There is no further escape,’ and pursuing it there really wasn’t for him.”[16]

Someone attaining this state is an anagami or an arahant.[17] In the above extract, the Buddha narrates that Sariputta became an arahant upon reaching it.[18])

and other advanced states. There are however, several other partially enlightened noble levels (see: 10 hindrances).(

There are ten hindrances to enlightenment (shown below) and four stages of realization (enlightenment) based on how many hindrances have been eliminated and / or the degree to which they have been eliminated.

A Buddha is someone who is fully enlightened. A person who is fully enlightened, but not the Buddha of our time, is called an Arahant in Pali. Such a person has eradicated all ten hindrances to enlightenment:

  1. The belief in a permanent personality, ego
  2. Doubt, extreme skepticism
  3. Attachment to rites, rituals, and ceremonies
  4. Attachment to sense desires
  5. Ill-will, anger
  6. Craving for existence in the Form world (heavenly realms)
  7. Craving for existence in the Formless world (heavenly realms)
  8. Conceit
  9. Restlessness
  10. Ignorance

(from Anguttara Nikaya 10.13)

An anagami (non-returner) has completely eradicated the first five hindrances and never returns to earth or any other world system (planet, solar system). Such a person is re-born to a heavenly realm and attains enlightenment from there.

A sakadagami (once-returner) has eradicated the first three hindrances and greatly weakened the fourth and fifth; attachment to sense desires and ill-will. Such a person will be re-born to either the human or heavenly realm and will attain enlightenment there.

A sotapanna (stream-entrant) has eradicated the first three hindrances and will be re-born no more than seven more times and re-birth will either be as a human or a deva in a heavenly realm)

Buddhism is unique among the major world religions in that followers can attain to the same level as the founder. For example, in Judaism, Abraham and Moses are considered the founders who made the covenant with God and provided the Law (Torah) and there cannot be another one to do so. In Christianity, there can only be one Christ. In Islam, Muhammad is considered the seal or final prophet. Whereas, in Buddhism, anyone can attain awaken-ness and reach the same wisdom and title as the Buddha, an awakened one.

MAYAWATI    < ?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” />< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />                                                           

Message

            In the social transformation movement in our country, the great heroes of social revolution have played a particular important role. The humanitarian thoughts and deeds of those great heroes stirred and influenced the society a great deal. Our Sants, Gurus and other great men wagesd stupendous struggles and made countless sacrifices throughout their life for securing the right to vote and human right to equality that we enjoy today in the 21st century. All o0f you are aware that there is a long saga of relentless struggles and sacrifices by these great men in which names of great humanists, Tathagat  Gautam Buddha, Sant Kabir, Guru Ravidas, Mahatma Jotiba Phule, Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj,the most revered Baba Saheb Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar and Bahujan Nayak Hon.Shri Kanshi Ram Ji in particular deserve mention. It is because of limitless love of these leading lights of India for the people , society and country that these great men are held in great esteem everywhere and all of them hold sway over hearts and minds of the people.

            Establishment of a caste-less equalitarian social order based on humanism and equality in our country has been the great goal of these great men. At the time of attaining Independence of the country also, the architect of the Indian Constitution, the most revered Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar had reminded all his countrymen, “ We have gained Political Independence, but there is no Social Equality in India. How long shall we continue to live the life of contradiction?  If we continue to delay it for long, we will do so, only putting our Political Democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction at the earlist possible moment…”

            But even 62 years after Independence of the country, the casteist mindset and the social order based on it are destroying our country like white ants. This malady has continued to be a big hurdle in the development of both the country and the state because, as everyone knows it, the renouncing of the castiest mindset alone is true patriotism and without establishing a caste-less society India cannot become a humanitarian and developed country of the world.

            It has always been my efforts that these high priests/great men who sacrificed their all for “Social Transformation” should get adequate honour in the society and our country, and their memories should be preserved as a valuable heritage and  a source of inspiration. During my all the four tenures of power in Uttar Pradesh in the honour of these great men and in the direction of preserving their memorable heritage, efforts have been made to do the historic work of establishing new districts and building sthals, institutions, gr4and memorials, buildings, parks etc., for them.

            In this very process, I am happy that a guide/album, “Certainly Towards an Equalitarian Society”, based on the works that mu government has got done in the honour of Tathagat Gautam Buddha is being published by the Information and Public Relations Department of the state. I am confident that this effort will certainly play a positive role in my government’s campaign to establish an” equalitarian social order”.

                                                                                                            -sd-

                                                                                                            (Mayawati)

                                                                                                Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh

http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Buddha_in_Sarnath_Museum_(Dhammajak_Mutra).jpg/300px-Buddha_in_Sarnath_Museum_(Dhammajak_Mutra).jpg

http://www.mahindarama.com/mbt/holysite_files/kushinagar-bud.jpg

Sant Kabir Das

Kabir was born in 1398 AD. He was a great poet and a weaver by profession. He was born to a Hindu but grew up in a Muslim weavers family.  Ramananda was his guru from whom he took initiation.

< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />Guru Ravidass: Prophet of Untouchables Consciousness

Mahatma Jyotiba Phule

Shahu Chhatrapati

Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was born on the 11th of April 1827 and died on the 28th of November 1890 at the age of 63. Punekar pays tribute to the reformer on the occasion of his 118th Death Anniversary.

Jyotiba Phule was a true believer in the saying, ‘charity begins at home’. As many of us are aware (especially girls), Jyotiba and his wife, Savitribai Phule, were the pioneers in starting schools for women. But Jyotiba took the step of starting a school only after imparting the necessary education to his wife. Married at the tender age of twelve, Jyotiba and Savitribai together walked the road less travelled.

They were the first Indians to promote the cause of female education and make India what it is today. As a woman, I feel immensely honoured to be able to write about the man who brought about a change because of which I am able to sit here and write about him and be independent.

Jyotiba and his wife were not only responsible for starting women’s education but were also one of the few to open their hearts and doors to the ‘Harijans’ or untouchables during the fight for freedom. Jyotiba carried with him an air of liberation as is evidenced in the works of his contemporaries like Raja Ram Mohun Roy who not only supported the cause of education for women but also worked hard to abolish the inhuman laws against the practice of ‘Sati’.

Jyotiba’s contribution did not end at planting the seed of women’s education. He also took efforts to go to people’s houses and convince the parents of the importance of educating the female child. He also, in many cases, took responsibility for the girls coming to his house. Savitribai Phule acted like a teacher and a mother to the girls who were allowed to attend school. Jyotiba and Savitribai did not discriminate on the grounds of caste or religion; they strived towards the selfless goal of imparting education to as many girls as possible.

Jyotiba was also amongst the founder members of the ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’. The aim of this society was to help eradicate the stigma attached with the ‘shudras’ and ‘ati-shudras’ and also to liberate them from the constant exploitation by the ‘Brahmin’ class. The Satyashodhak Samaj propounded rational thinking and rejected the need for a hierarchy in the society in the form of a caste system. His is the first name that comes to mind when mentioning The Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra.

There was more to the man just fighting for the cause of women’s education and eradicating the caste system. As well as being a reformer, he was an educated one. He not only put forth ideas but also explained them in the light of the good they would do to the society. He strongly believed that the ignorance in society cannot be fought without good education being provided to all classes and genders alike.

He also holds the credit for starting a house for widows to save them from the practice of ‘Sati’ and also an orphanage for girls to save them from female infanticide. Jyotiba Phule has truly contributed towards a better future for women and that too with the support of a strong woman, Savitribai.

 

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar(Babasaheb)

Bharat Ratna Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Bahujan Samaj Party

 

 

BSP chief Kanshi Ram offers a piece of cake to Uttar Pradesh chief<br />
minister Mayawati on her 47th birthday, in New Delhi on January 15,<br />
2003.” src=”http://www.timescontent.com/tss/photos/preview/8539/Kanshi%20Ram-Mayawati.jpg”></p>
	<p style=A portrait of mentor Kanshi Ram is seen as Bahujan Samaj Party<br />
president Mayawati, smiles during an election rally in Nuh, 75<br />
kilometers (47 miles) from New Delhi, India, in this, April 6, 2009<br />
photo. Mayawati, whose election symbol is an elephant, seeks national<br />
power as the larger parties…” src=”http://www.dlcache.indiatimes.com/imageserve/09g9d434zAe7f/500×350.jpg?center=0.5,0″></p>
	<p style=She pointed out that once the main Rs. 17 cr. Taj corridor case had come to an end and it was conclusively proved that she had no role to play in the case, the CBI should have dropped the case immediately.

 

The Supreme Court has asked the Union government to clearly spell out its stand whether it wanted to proceed against Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati in the disproportionate assets case or not.

A Bench, comprising Justices B. Sudershan Reddy and S.S. Nijjar, gave six weeks to the Centre and the CBI to file their response to Ms. Mayawati’s petition that sought quashing of the proceedings.

During the resumed hearing on Monday, when counsel for the Centre pleaded for adjournment to file the response, Justice Reddy told him, “What is this? Every time, you seek time or an adjournment. Sometimes, you seek time for filing reply, then you say that you want to file a counter-affidavit then you say that you want to file an affidavit. If both of you [Centre and Ms. Mayawati] are together then let this petition go.”

“Political reasons”

In her petition, Ms. Mayawati accused the CBI of harassing her by filing the disproportionate assets cases. She said while the former Railway Minister, Lalu Prasad, was let off by the CBI without filing any appeal in the income-tax case, she was being targeted for political reasons.

She contended that the CBI had neither the authority nor the jurisdiction to initiate any proceedings, including filing of First Information Report, against her in the DA case.

She pointed out that once the main Rs. 17 cr. Taj corridor case had come to an end and it was conclusively proved that she had no role to play in the case, the CBI should have dropped the case immediately. However, in a most illegal and arbitrary manner, simply to harass and defame her, the CBI had illegally and under political pressure been continuing the DA case till date.

Ms. Mayawati said the CBI and income-tax authorities not only went ahead to investigate the income during 2002-2003 to which the Taj case related but even went back from the assessment years 1998-99 onwards for re-opening the assessment proceedings.

comments (0)
LESSON 41 ARHAT PART VI Ariya puggala Anāgāmī 27 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -He is able who thinks he is able. - Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-INTRODUCING BUDDHIST ABHIDHAMMA -Towards An Equalitarian Society Uttar Pradesh The Cradle of Buddhism
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 3:12 am

 

LESSON  41 ARHAT PART VI  Ariya puggala Anāgāmī 27 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

He is able who thinks he is able. - Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                     MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!       ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM      IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

ariya-puggala. asekha, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

Arahat, Arahant

Ariya-puggala

http://www.scribd.com/doc/489460/Introducing-Buddhist-Abhidhamma

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Ariya-puggala

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Sotapanna

http://forums.sgclub.com/singapore/life_buddha_pictures_227095.html

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Sakadagami

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Anagami

Anāgāmī: The Non-Returner is a Noble Disciple Ariya-puggala on the 3rd stage of Nobility.

An anagami (non-returner) has completely eradicated the first five hindrances of the 10 hindrances (There are ten hindrances to enlightenment (shown below) and four stages of realization (enlightenment) based on how many hindrances have been eliminated and / or the degree to which they have been eliminated.

A Buddha is someone who is fully enlightened. A person who is fully enlightened, but not the Buddha of our time, is called an Arahant in Pali. Such a person has eradicated all ten hindrances to enlightenment:

1.    The belief in a permanent personality, ego

2.    Doubt, extreme skepticism

3.    Attachment to rites, rituals, and ceremonies

4.    Attachment to sense desires

5.    Ill-will, anger

6.    Craving for existence in the Form world (heavenly realms)

7.    Craving for existence in the Formless world (heavenly realms)

8.    Conceit

9.    Restlessness

10.  Ignorance )

to awaken-ness  and never returns to earth or any other world system (planet, solar system). Such a person is re-born to a heavenly realm and attains enlightenment from there.

There are 5 classes of Non-Returners, as it is said e.g. Pug. 42-46:

A being, through the disappearing of the 5 lower mental chains samyojana, reappears in a higher world amongst the devas of the Pure Abodes, suddhāvāsa, and without returning from that world into the sense-sphere, he there reaches Nibbāna.

1. He may, immediately after appearing there in the Pure Abodes or before half of the life-time, attain the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of the life antarā-parinibbāyī.

2. Or, while living more than half of the lifetime there, or at the moment of death, he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna after crossing half the life-time upahacca-parinibbāyī.

3. Or, with effort he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion sasankhāra-parinibbāyī.

4. Or, without effort he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna without exertion asankhāra-parinibbāyī.

5. Or, after vanishing from the heaven of the Aviha-gods see: suddhāvāsa, he appears in the heaven of the unworried atappa gods. After vanishing from there he appears in the heaven of the clearly-visible sudassa gods, from there in the heaven of the clear-visioned sudassī gods, from there in the heaven of the highest akanittha gods. There he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who passes up-stream to the highest gods uddhamsota-akanittha-gāmī.

http://integral-options.blogspot.com/2010/05/kenneth-folk-and-joel-groover-power-of.html

The Power of Progress: The Four Paths of Awaken-ness

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_05tYDPFd2NA/SKKgOBFP7hI/AAAAAAAAAuA/lbYMYMqEmdo/s400/DSC06029.JPG

Stream-enterer

Main article: Sotāpanna

The first stage is that of Sotāpanna (Pali; Sanskrit: Srotāpanna), literally meaning “one who enters (āpadyate) the stream (sotas),” with the stream being the Noble Eightfold Pathregarded as the highest Dharma. The stream-enterer is also said to have “opened the eye of the Dharma” (dhammacakkhu, Sanskrit: dharmacakus).

A stream-enterer usually reaches enlightenment within seven successive rebirths upon opening the eye of the Dharma.

Due to the fact that the stream-enterer has attained an intuitive grasp of Buddhist doctrine (samyagdṛṣṭi or sammādiṭṭhi, “right view”), and has complete confidence or Saddha in the Three Jewels: Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, he will not be reborn in any of the unhappy states or rebirths (an animal, a preta, or inhell).

Once-returner

Main article: Sakadagami

The second stage is that of the Sakadāgāmī (Sanskrit:Sakdāgāmin), literally meaning “one who once (sakt) comes (āgacchati)”. The once-returner will return to the human world only one more time, and will attain Nirvana in that life.

Non-returner

Main article: Anāgāmi

The third stage is that of the Anāgāmī (Sanskrit: Anāgāmin), literally meaning “one who does not (an-) come (āgacchati)”. The non-returner does not come back into human existence, or any lower world, after death. Instead, he is reborn in one of the worlds of the Rūpadhātu called the Śuddhāvāsa worlds, or “Pure Abodes”, where he will attain Nirvāa; Pāli: Nibbana; some of them are reborn a second time in a higher world of the Pure Abodes.

An Anāgāmī has abandoned the five lower fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth. An Anāgāmī is thus partially enlightened, and on the way to perfect and completeEnlightenment.

Arahant

Main article: Arahant

The fourth stage is that of Arahant, a fully enlightened being who has abandoned all fetters, and who upon death (Sanskrit:Parinirvāa, Pāli: Parinibbāna) will not be reborn in any world, having wholly abandoned sasāra.[2] [3]

If you want more on each stage, go check out the main articles.

With that foundation, here is the discussion.

http://www.palikanon.com/english/intro-abhidhamma/chapter_i.htm

INTRODUCING BUDDHIST ABHIDHAMMA 

The Buddha preaching Abhidhamma in the Tavatimsa

Buddha alighting from Tavatimsa to teach Abhidhamma to Sariputta, the Thai version

User avatar

Beautiful Breath

1 - Preliminaries

l. The Buddha

2. Ultimates (paramattha)

3. Ultimates in Matter

4. Consciousness

5. Mental Constituents (cetasika)

6. Conventional Truth (paññatti)

7. Ultimates in Mind and Matter

9. Three Spheres or Realms

10. Thirty-one Planes of Existence

11. Death and Rebirth

12. The Subjective Mind

13. Noble Ones

14. Mundane and Supramundane Wisdom.




l. The Buddha

Prince Siddartha was the eldest son of King Suddhodhana. His mother was Queen Mahāmaya, and on the night he was conceived, she had a wonderful dream. She related the dream to her royal husband, who summoned the Sage Asita to explain its meaning. He told the royal parents that the Queen had conceived a son who would one day become either a Universal Monarch or a Buddha.

The King wanted his son to become a Universal Monarch and did not like the idea of his son becoming a Buddha. With that aim, he surrounded his son with sensual pleasures.

Prince Siddartha was married to Princess Yasodhara. He was given 3 palaces to suit the 3 seasons. One day, whilst he was driving through the Park, he saw an aged person. On another occasion he saw a diseased person, and later a dead corpse.

All this is described in the Anguttara Nikāya, III, 35, as, ’Warnings’ regarding decay, disease, and death, and has been put in a rhetorical way.

Herewith :

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman, eighty, or ninety, or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable roof, bent down, resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since fled, with broken teeth, gray and scanty hair, or bald headed, wrinkled, with blotched limbs? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to decay, that you cannot escape it?

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman who, being sick, afflicted, and grievously ill, and wallowing in their filth, was lifted up by some people, and put to bed by others? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to disease, and also you cannot escape it?

Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man, or a woman, one or two or three days after death, swollen, blue black in color, and full of corruption? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to death, and that also you cannot escape it?

What he saw and the explanations he received no doubt made a great impression on this introspective young man.

At the age of 29, on the birth of a child, he renounced his kingdom, for the purpose of solving the riddle of birth and death.

For fully 6 years, he studied under the Greatest Teachers of the day, meditating, or what would be called concentration his mind. Finally, along with 5 companions, called the 5 Vaggi, he took to ascetic practices and achieved all the psychic powers that could be got.

He had obtained the 5 super intellections, called abhiññas, one of which was the seeing of past existences. He was a Hindu and had the preconceived idea that what he saw were the souls of the different beings transmigrating from existence to existence.

One day he fell down in a swoon for lack of strength. On his recovery he realized that he was not getting to the bottom of what he renounced his kingdom to find out, namely the problem of birth and death.

He began to eat again and finally on the full moon eve of May he sat down under the Bodhi tree to meditate. The time was now ripe for him to distinguish between ultimate realities and conventional concepts and ideas.

It was only by meditating on ultimate realities that he came to realize the illusions and delusions and hallucinations and perversions induced by Mind-Consciousness, allegorized as Māra, the King of Darkness, whom I have called the Great Magician. The Buddha achieved Enlightenment at the dawn of the next day.

He now understood that there was no transmigration of souls but results of deeds which brings about beings from one existence to another.




2. Ultimates (paramattha)

Water exists. However, a molecule of water can be subdivided into H2 O, namely, two atoms of hydrogen to one atom of oxygen; therefore, water, as such, cannot be regarded as an ultimate, for an ultimate, by definition, is something that cannot be subdivided.

Once again, an atom is not an ultimate unit, for it can be subdivided into protons, electrons and neutrons. These protons, electrons and neutrons are not ultimates either, for they can be subdivided into atomic particles and muons and quarks, and maybe these are the present ultimates in Science.

There are two kinds of truth, one is conventional truth, like our concept of water, (sammuti-sacca), and there is ultimate truth, like atomic particles (paramattha-sacca).

This book deals with ultimate realities in Buddhism. You cannot see an ultimate with the naked eye but only with the eye of wisdom, that can be called the “inner eye”, for it is abstract. Similarly, you cannot see an atom or a molecule except with the “inner-eye”.

Just pause for a moment to consider that the whole body of water in this universe, the lakes and rivers and oceans are not ultimates; they exist only in conventional language but they do not exist in terms of ultimates.

There are ultimates in Matter (materiality) and ultimates in Mind (mentality), and they are seen by the Buddhist inner eye as having or manifesting properties or qualities. But nothing exists apart form the ultimates.

Each of these ultimates has its individual essence, called sabhāva; sabhāva is also translated as intrinsic nature. One has to come to realize these individual essences by contemplation or meditation, both the individual essences of the ultimates in Matter and ultimates in Mind.

Mind and Matter can be likened to a Cripple and a Blind Man. The Cripple can’t walk, and the Blind Man can’t see. When the cripple is put on the shoulders of the blind man, the cripple can see and directs the blind man to go left and right.

Mind wants to eat but it cannot eat, and it is the body that eats, Mind wants to drink, but it cannot drink and it is the body that drinks. It is the Mind that controls and directs.

The categories of the ultimate realities in Buddhism are:

1.     Consciousness; (citta)

2.     Mind Constituents; (cetasikas)

3.     Materiality; (rūpa)

4.     Nirvana (Nibbāna).




3. Ultimates in Matter

The ultimates in Matter are 28, namely,

a. The 4 essential qualities or properties of

1.     hardness, or softness; (pathavī)

2.     cohesion or fluidity; (āpo)

3.     heat or lack of heat; and (tejo)

4.     motion or resistance to motion. (vāyo)

b. The 4 secondary qualities or properties of

1.     colour; (vanna)

2.     smell; (gandhā)

3.     taste; (rasa)

4.     nutriment (ojā)

These eight properties are inseparable and are called the Octad. They are explained more fully later, and also how to see each property or quality with the inner eye. The other 20 properties are listed in the Appendix.

We have mentioned about the ultimates in matter.

Matter is generated by :

1.     Karma (Kamma),

2.     Mind (citta),

3.     Temperature (utu),

4.     Nutriment (āhāra).

They are called:

1.     Karma-produced matter,

2.     Mind-produced matter,

3.     Temperature-produced matter, and

4.     Nutriment-produced matter.

Matter is being produced all the time by these 4 causes. At any instant, the karma-produced matter may be prominent, at other times mind-produced matter may be prominent or temperature-produced matter or nutriment-produced matter.

It must be remembered that these ultimate realities in matter are what can be visualised only by the inner eye. But the properties or qualities are reflected in the human body. When you are angry, even a child can sense that you are angry. Similarly for other emotions, your body will reflect your emotions and moods.




4. Consciousness

There are 5 sense-organs in the body, and if anyone is defective, for instance, if you are blind or deaf, people are not apt to accept you as a full human being. The inanimate body has no sentience.

You see something. There arises visual consciousness.

You hear something. There arises auditory consciousness.

You smell something. There arises smell or olfactory consciousness.

You taste something. There arises gustatory consciousness.

You touch something. There arises tactile consciousness.

You daydream or think of something, without the basis of any of the 5 senses. There arises ideational consciousness, or mind consciousness.

It is the function of the eye to see, the ear to hear, and the nose to smell, etc. The eye cannot hear or smell, and the ear cannot see or smell, and the nose cannot see or hear, etc.

Consciousness arises and disappears immediately. Only one consciousness can arise at a time and it immediately disappears for the next consciousness to arise.




5. Mental Constituents (cetasika)

Mind is consciousness plus something. Along with any consciousness, there arise certain mental constituents which are called cetasikas, like love, hate anger, disgust, disappointment, etc. These cetasikas are also translated as mental factors, mental concomitants, mental adjuncts, psychic factors, etc.

There are 52 cetasikas. When any consciousness arises, some appropriate cetasikas always arise. These cetasikas arise and disappear along with consciousness.

Some 7 cetasikas always arise with every unit of consciousness and they are called Universals. Some 6 others arise as a whole or in parts. The remainder are morally good or bad or neutral and they arise in different combinations.

When a consciousness disappears, all the cetasikas that had arisen along with it also disappear simultaneously.

Each cetasika has its own individual essence or sabhāva.

The 7 Univerals or Common Properties (sabbacitta): (in every consciousness)

1.     phassa (Contact)

2.     vedanā (Feeling)

3.     saññā (Perception)

4.     cetanā (Volition)

5.     ekaggatā (One-pointedness of Mind)

6.     jīvitindriya (Psychic Life)

7.     manasikāra (Attention)

Consciousness is extremely swift. Commentators say that in the time taken by the twinkling of an eye or a flash of lightning, there are more than a billion consciousnesses. We can paraphrase it by saying that a consciousness takes about a billionth of a second to function.

In a course-of-cognition, which is called a thought-process by certain authors, there are 17 thought moments. In each thought moment there are 3 phases or khanas, namely: arising, development and cessation.

A thought-process always follows a certain sequence of consciousnesses; it is explained in more detail in the next chapter.

We receive information of the outside world through 5 sense doors. There is also a sixth door, called the mind door, through which we perceive our own ideas; this is ideational consciousness. We use our imagination here.

So far as a material object is concerned, it exists for 17 thought moments till a new material object takes its place existing for 17 thought moments.




6. Conventional Truth (paññatti)

You were told the distinction between ultimate truth (paramattha) and conventional truth. This conventional or relative truth is also called paññatti, which means concepts, ideas, notions, names or terms.

A paññatti either makes known or is made known.

The different kinds are given different names. There are collective concepts, general concepts, derivative concepts, formal concepts, concepts relating to locality, time and space, concepts of nothingness, and continuity, and conceptualized afterimages (in Samatha concentration) and conventional signs.

Some may be interested in the Pāli names:

·         Santhāna paññatti are concepts of form, like land, mountains, etc.

·         Samūha paññatti are collective concepts, corresponding to a collection or group of things, like chariot, table.

·         Disā paññatti refer to concepts of locality.

·         Kāla paññatti refer to concepts of time.

·         ākāsa paññatti refer to space, like caves, wells.

·         Nimitta paññatti refer to conceptualized images, visualized images.




7. Ultimates in Mind and Matter

The paramatthas are:

So all that is not a paramattha can be called a paññatti. This distinction between paramattha and paññatti is important A paramattha exists in reality. It is the bedrock of all existence. There are ultimates in matter and mind. They really exist, and what does not really exist is said not to exist. So such things as lakes, rivers, mountains, a human being, a person, a male, a female, do not exist in reality and are said not to exist. They are paññatti. It is called vohāra-sacca or spoken or relative truth. They are just words and ideas and names, and therefore conventional truth. They are not ultimate reality.

It was only under the Bodhi-Tree that the future Buddha came to understand the difference between paramattha and paññatti. Previously, his world was the world of paññatti; now it was the world of paramattha. Only on meditation on paramattha did he achieve Enlightment. Similarly you must meditate on paramattha in Vipassanā Meditation.




8. Subject and Object

In Abhidhamma there is always a subject and an object, and they arise together simultaneously. The subject is called arammanika and the object is arammana, also called alambana. The subject is “I” in paññatti language. The object can be anything at all. In terms of paramattha, the arammanika is citta, cetasika and rūpa. When we turn the mind inwards and think of the immediately past mind, the arammanika becomes the arammana.

Mind is consciousness plus a few appropriate cetasikas (mental constituents). So when we speak of Mind, we can also say Consciousness.

The objects taken by the different Minds are either one of the 5 sense objects, or an ideational object. Mind is also regarded in Buddhism as one of the senses, making 6 senses in all.

Consciousness can get more and more exalted till it reaches the very heights. How exalted can your consciousness become? It can’t get very exalted if it is bogged down by immoral or evil thoughts or what is called craving (tanhā) or selfish desire or thirst. You will hear more about this tanhā.




9. Three Spheres or Realms

In the universe, there are 3 Spheres or Realms, namely,

1.     Sphere or Realm of sensuous desires (kāmā vacara or kāma-loka).

2.     Sphere or Realm of Form (rūpāvacara or rūpa-loka)

3.     Sphere or Realm of the Formless (arūpāvacara or arūpa-loka).

In the sphere of sensuous desires, there are morally good and morally bad consciousnesses and the neutral. Unless you have transcended your bad thoughts and inclinations, your consciousness cannot reach the sphere of Form and the Formless, where the consciousnesses are all good.

It is the function of mental development (bhāvanā) to get your consciousness more and more exalted. Eventually there is Nirvana (Nibbāna) which can be attained if tanhā, or craving, is permanently eliminated.

By Vipassanā Meditation, by methods of acquiring the required Wisdom, Nirvana is attained. Buddhism is the only Religion that promises to reach its highest goal during life time, and you do not have to wait till after death.




10. Thirty-one Planes of Existence

In this Universe, we talk of the “human world”, the “animal world”, the “plant world”, etc., but we do not think of them as different material worlds or different places.

There are 31 planes of existence. The human mind can descend to the lowest depths and also ascend to the highest regions. We reach the heights as the results of the states of concentration called jhāna.

Kāma-loka, the Realm of sensuous desire, is divided into 6 main planes according to their respective degrees of suffering. They are in ascending order:

The plane of Purgatory (Niraya)

The plane of animals (Tirachhāna-yoni)

The plane of beings in whom the desire outweighs the possibilities of satisfaction (Petti-visaya)

The plane of ghosts (Asura-kāya)

The human plane (Manussā)

The planes of Higher Beings within the sense world (Devā-loka)

The 4 lower planes are called the abodes of misery (Apāya-bhūmi).

The two higher ones, including the human plane, are the abodes of fortunate sense experience (kāma-sugati-bhūmi).

In the Realm of Pure Form (Rūpa-loka), the only senses are visual, aural (auditory), and the mental.

The intensity of consciousness, namely, in purity and in its light, increases. Here, we have Beings of radiant light, of limited or boundless aura, limited or infinite radiance, and Beings of the abodes of purity.

The description of the 4 planes of non-form (arūpa-loka) coincides with that of the 4 Stages of non-form consciousness.

The human Mind can reach all these planes, by practicing the methods for reaching them. The human Mind can attain all the jhānas as the result of which beings are reborn in all the planes.




11. Death and Rebirth

The death consciousness (cuti-citta) of this existence occurs at the end of the dying process. The next consciousness is the Rebirth-linking consciousness, called the patisandhi citta, which is the moment of conception in the next existence.

It is explained in the Patthana, the last book of the Abhidhamma, that when death ceases, the force of proximity-condition brings about the next consciousness which is the Rebirth-linking Consciousness. It is further explained that the force left behind produces results. Although an asynchronous faultless or faulty volition arises for one thought moment and then ceases, this is not the end of it. For a special force is left behind in the mind’s successive continuity so that at some time in the future, the appropriate result of that volition will be produced when the proper conditions are satisfied. It is due to the presence of this force that results appear. However, this force does not manifest itself like the mind with its nascent, static and terminating phases but is present like the latent tendencies. And just as the latter are not concepts, so also this special force of asynchronous kamma is not a concept. It is a special force of the ultimate realities. It may be called a germinal force.

The patisandhi consciousness lasts for one thought moment only and is then called the bhavangha which lasts for 16 thought moments impelled by its craving for existence and then sinks into the passive state of mind.

It is at the moment of conception that the foetus gets its tactile sense organ and the heart basis (hadaya-vatthu), and its gender, whether it is going to be a male or a female, and all these are produced by its past karma.

At the end of each course-of-cognition, the bhavangas arise and cease successively till the next course-of-cognition occurs. But consciousnesses are so swift that the bhavangas in between are not detectable. How many thought moments your bhavanga takes between courses of cognition depends on the stage of your mind development. It is the aim of mind development to reduce the time of the bhavanga, and the shorter the time, the more alert is your mind. It determines the acuteness of your brain.

This death consciousness takes as its object one of three things. At the last moment, the person thinks of something that has been most prominent in his mind. A murderer may get an idea that he is going to commit a crime, whereas a pious man may think he is worshipping the Buddha or listening to a sermon. This is known as kamma or the “vision of action”.

Or he may see all article generally associated with his action. The murderer may see a knife whilst the pious man may see a yellow robe. This is vision as kamma-nimitta or the “vision of an article associated with the action”.

Or he may get a vision of hellfire or a vision of the higher regions. This is known as gati-nimitta, or the “vision of the sign of destiny”.

Your bhavanga of this existence has as its object what was the object of your last dying process.

After each course-of-cognition, the mind goes back to the bhavanga-state.

Life has been compared to a river, which has its beginning or source at birth and its mouth at death (cuti). It seems to have a constant form or identity but there is not a drop today of all the water that composed it yesterday.

This stream of life or being is also called the life-continuum by certain authors; it is the passive state of mind as in dreamless sleep.

The dividing line between Being and Thought is called the Mind Door (mano-dvāra); it is the threshold of consciousness. Below the threshold is subliminal consciousness and above the threshold is called supra-liminal consciousness.

One Indian author is of the opinion that a thought may be compared to a wave in the sea. The wave rises up from the surface and then sinks down again. Similarly, a thought rises up from the surface of the bhavanga and sinks back to its base; it sinks back between courses of cognition and after cognition is over before the start of any new course-of-cognition. However, this opinion is not universally accepted as it is said that the bhavanga is arrested before a thought commences.

For a vivid sense-object, there are 17 thought-moments in a course-of-cognition, after which bhavangas arise and cease successively for a few hundred thought-moments and then there arises the second course-of-cognition, followed by a few hundred more bhavangas.

Then there are thousands and thousands of more impressions, and course-of-cognitions, each followed at the end of each course by bhavangas, the duration of which are about 30,000 or 40,000 thought-moments. It is said that chief Disciple Sāriputta had such a great mind that there were only a few hundred bhavangas after each course-of-cognition.

It is the function of mind development to reduce the duration of the bhavangas between the course-of-cognitions. The quick mind has only a few thousand bhavangas after each course-of-cognition.

You cannot be born a human being, without some good karma in the sum total of previous existences. Nevertheless ignorance (avijjā) and craving (tanhā), of which you will hear a lot later, are pulling, like gravity, to bad deeds, to blindness of moral vision. Your education during all your childhood years, including your training, makes you a better and better boy changing your blindness to a better vision. The time will come when you will be more good than bad. Or, if you cannot profit from your education, you will be predominately bad.




12. The Subjective Mind

All verbal and physical actions are motivated by the mind. If you raise your hand or you sit down or you walk, it is all mind-motivated action.

It is well known that old people cannot hear certain sounds that are audible to younger people. And humans cannot hear certain sounds heard by animals. It does not mean, however, that these sounds do not exist.

Moreover, if the Mind is absorbed in something else and attention is not paid to these sounds, the Mind does not hear these sounds. In these cases, the sounds do not exist for the Mind.

Only when the Mind takes these sounds as objects can a person hear them, and they exist for the Mind.

Things may exist in the world but they are not known to the Mind, if they are not objects of the Mind.

However, the Mind cannot take everything as objects at one and the same time. The Mind can take as an object only one thing at any one time, and the rest of the world is non-existent so far as the Mind is concerned.

The Minds that have already disappeared are no more existent, and the Minds that are not yet born are still non-existent. Mind Consciousness exists at the present moment only, though the object it takes can be of the past, present or future, real or imaginary.




13. Noble Ones

There are 4 types of individuals, called the Noble Ones, who are near the Goal;

·         one “who has entered the stream” (sotāpanna),

·         the “once-returner” (sakadāgāmī),

·         the “non-returner” (anāgāmī),

·         the “Holy One” (arahat), who has realised the highest goal.

A definition of these Noble Ones is found in the fourth book of the Abhidhamma-Pitaka (Puggala-Paññatti 26-27):

He who has overcome the three fetters; such a man is called “one who has entered the stream” (sotāpanna).

He in whom sensual desire and anger are utterly reduced; such a man is called “once-returner” (sakadāgāmī).

He who has completely overcome sensual desire and anger; such a man is called “non-returner” (anāgāmī).

He who has completely overcome the craving or the world of Pure Form or of Non-Form as well as pride, restlessness, and ignorance; such a man is called a “Holy One” (arahat).

Of the ten fetters (samyojana) by which the ordinary human being (puthujjana) is bound to the world, the “stream winner” has overcome the first three:

·         the belief in a permanent personality (sakkāya-ditthi)

·         doubt (or scepticism) (vicikicchā)

·         clinging to rules and rituals (sīlabbata-parāmāsa)

The remaining seven fetters are:

·         sensual desire (kāma-rāga)

·         aversion or anger (patigha)

·         craving for existence in the world of Pure Form (rūpa-rāga)

·         craving for existence in the world of Non-Form (arūpa-rāga)

·         pride (māna)

·         restlessness (uddhacca)

·         ignorance, delusion (avijjā)

The first five are called the lower fetters. The five higher fetters are only overcome by the arahat.

Here is a short summary:

ARIYA-PUGGALA SAMYOJANA

1.     sotāpanna 1-3

2.     sakadāgāmī 1-3; 4 and 5 partly

3.     anāgāmī 1-5

4.     arahat 1-10




14. Mundane and Supramundane Wisdom.

The whole world is using mundane or paññatti wisdom. All Western philosophers are using mundane, paññatti wisdom.

But there is another wisdom, called the Supramundane Wisdom. This Book will explain how you become a Noble One.

Say, you meet a pretty girl who wants to come and live with you. On making inquiries, you learn that she has a venereal disease, and that she tells lies and she is a habitual thief. You use paññatti wisdom to decide that she will cause you suffering, and you turn down the proposition.

The other Wisdom is called Vipassanā Wisdom leading to Magga Wisdom, which leads to Nirvana, our final goal. It is also called Lokuttara Wisdom.

Towards An Equalitarian Society Uttar Pradesh The Cradle of Buddhism

The land of Uttar Pradesh has the glory of having been blessed by the dust beneath the feet of the great humanitarian and epoch-making person like Gautam Buddha. Gautam Buddha undertook a journey across the country with a view to inculcating in the masses the feelings of humanity and universal brotherhood. Places like Kapilavattu, (Piprahwa), Saranath, Savatti, Kausambi, Sankisa and Kusinara etc., in the state had the pride of having been blessed by the foot prints by the kindness and compassion incarnate. As a result these places in Uttar Pradesh became venerable and worthy of visit by national and international tourists. This is the reason why devout tourists from not only India, but also from many other countries like Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, Korea and Burma consider themselves fortunate in being able to come to these places and their floral tribute to Lord Buddha.

Named on the 5th day of the birth – Siddharth Gautam

                                                                        (Gautam ws family name)

Birth                                      -About 650 BC        Father’s Name - Shuddhodhan

Mother’s name                  -Mahamaya             Birth Place – Lumbini

Wife’s Name                       -Yashodhara

Mahaparinibbana             -In Kusinara at the age of 81 years

Important and historic places of Buddhist pilgrimage located in Uttar Pradesh have an extremely glorious history….in memorials and remains here is reflected an unforgettable and indelible image of peace, devotion and faith.

 

comments (0)
09/25/10
LESSON 40 ARHAT PART V Ariya puggala life Sakadagami 26 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes. - Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Hon’ble Chief Minister Grieved
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 9:36 pm

LESSON  40 ARHAT PART V  Ariya puggala life Sakadagami 26 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes. - Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                     MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!       ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM      IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

ariya-puggala. asekha, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

Arahat, Arahant

Ariya-puggala

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Ariya-puggala

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Sotapanna

http://forums.sgclub.com/singapore/life_buddha_pictures_227095.html

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Sakadagami

Sakadāgāmī: ‘Once returner’

A sakadagami (once-returner) has eradicated the first three hindrances of the 10 hindrances to awaken-ness and greatly weakened the fourth and fifth; attachment to sense desires and ill-will. Such a person will be re-born to either the human or heavenly realm and will attain enlightenment there.

See: 10 hindrances and the Four stages of realization.

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=10_hindrances

There are ten hindrances to awaken-ness (shown below) and four stages of realization (awaken-ness) based on how many hindrances have been eliminated and / or the degree to which they have been eliminated.

A Buddha is someone who is fully awakened. A person who is fully awakened, but not the Buddha of our time, is called an Arahant in Pali. Such a person has eradicated all ten hindrances to enlightenment:

1.    The belief in a permanent personality, ego

2.    Doubt, extreme skepticism

3.    Attachment to rites, rituals, and ceremonies

4.    Attachment to sense desires

5.    Ill-will, anger

6.    Craving for existence in the Form world (heavenly realms)

7.    Craving for existence in the Formless world (heavenly realms)

8.    Conceit

9.    Restlessness

10.  Ignorance

(from Anguttara Nikaya 10.13)

An anagami (non-returner) has completely eradicated the first five hindrances and never returns to earth or any other world system (planet, solar system). Such a person is re-born to a heavenly realm and attains enlightenment from there.

A sakadagami (once-returner) has eradicated the first three hindrances and greatly weakened the fourth and fifth; attachment to sense desires and ill-will. Such a person will be re-born to either the human or heavenly realm and will attain enlightenment there.

A sotapanna (stream-entrant) has eradicated the first three hindrances and will be re-born no more than seven more times and re-birth will either be as a human or a deva in a heavenly realm.

http://www.tamqui.com/buddhaworld/Four_stages_of_enlightenment

Пещеры Аджанта

http://wisdomquarterly.blogspot.com/2008/08/enlightenment-four-stages.html

Tam Qui - An ancient vietnamese martial art

Press Information Bureau

(Chief Minister’s Information Campus)

Information and Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon’ble Chief Minister Grieved

Lucknow : 25 Sep 2010

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh,

Ms. Mayawati ji has expressed profound grief over

the death of senior journalist & litterateur Mr.

Kanhaiyya Lal Nandan. She has conveyed her

heartfelt condolences and deep sympathies to

bereaved family members and prayed for peace to

departed soul.

In a condolence message, Ms. Mayawati ji said

that Mr. Nandan was a sensitive, humanitarian and

talented journalist. In his death, the world of

journalism and literature had suffered an irreparable

loss, which is difficult to fulfil, she added.

********

 

comments (0)
09/24/10
LESSON 39 ARHAT PART IV Ariya puggala life Buddha pictures 24 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -All that we are is the result of what we have thought. – Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 3:41 am

LESSON  39 ARHAT PART IV  Ariya puggala life Buddha pictures  24 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

All that we are is the result of what we have thought. – Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                     MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!       ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM      IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

ariya-puggala. asekha, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

Arahat, Arahant

Ariya-puggala

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Ariya-puggala

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Sotapanna

http://web.ukonline.co.uk/buddhism/nga02.htm

http://forums.sgclub.com/singapore/life_buddha_pictures_227095.html

When ascetic Sumedha knew of the coming of Dipankara Buddha to the city of Rammavati, he took part in preparing the road for the Buddha. He was still repairing it when the Buddha arrived but he was determined to complete it by prostrating himself into the muddy hollow, in fulfillment of his vow to become a Buddha. Beside him was a young lady named Sumitta bearing eight stalks of lotus flowers. She gave the Ascetic five stalks and kept for herself three stalks for her own aspiration. When the Buddha Dipankara saw this, He omnisciently declared the Ascetic Sumedha a future Buddha, while He stated that the aspiring young lady Sumitta would be his constant companion and helpmate.

The Devas (Gods) imploring the Bodhisatta Santussita Deva (whose real name was Setaketu) in Tusita heaven to be reborn on earth to become a Buddha. He accepted their request after viewing the Five Great Considerations (Panca Maha Vilokana); which are appropriate time, Island-continent, country, clan and life-span of mother.

At Lumbini Park in Nepal, on Vesakha Full Moon Day, the newly born Prince walked seven steps on the lotus flowers and pointing to the North said, “AGGOHAM ASMI LOKASSA” meaning “Chief Am I in this world”. The birth of this baby Prince brought great joy to his royal parents, King Suddhodana and Queen Maha Maya as well as all beings!

The marriage of Prince Siddhattha and Princess Yasodhara (whose real name was BaddaCancana ) took place at the Golden Palace which was presented by his father, King Suddhodana. It was a luxurious palace full of comforts of life . The celebration lasted many days.

During his visit to the Royal park, Prince Siddhattha saw the Four Great Signs, namely — an old man, a sick man, a corpse and a serene mendicant. These made the Prince to realize the unsatisfactoriness of life and urged him to ponder deeply about renunciation.

Mara (the Evil One), with his host tried without success to prevent Prince Siddhattha from his Great Renunciation at midnight . Prince Siddhattha was riding on Kanthaka his favourite stallion and followed by Channa his loyal charioteer. Mara said that if the prince did not proceed on his renunciation, he would become a Universal Monarch on the seventh day.

Prince Siddhattha cut off his hair to renounce the worldly life at the bank of the Anoma River. Ghatikara Maha Brahma presented the Monk’s Eight Requisites to Ascetic Siddhattha, who commanded his charioteer Channa to take his royal chattels back to the palace.

His hair was received by Sakka, King of Gods and enshirned in CULAMANI CETI (pagoda) in his celestial abode in TAVATIMSA. Similarly, Ghatikara Maha Brahma bore his princely clothes to his higher celestial abode, Akanittha and enshrined them in the pagoda known as DUSSA CET

The ascetic Bodhisatta spent six years practising austerity and meditation with steadfastness as well as earnestness, prior to his attainment. Even though he was reduced to a mere skeleton, he did not give up practising.

The Bodhisatta was sitting on a Golden Throne under a Bodhi tree and being challenged by Mara (the Evil One) riding on the ferocious elephant Girimekhala. Mara with host tried to capture the Golen Throne just before the Bodhistta’s Awaken-ness.

On Vesakha Full Moon day, Bodhisatta Siddhattha seated under a Bodhi tree at Gaya, attained Supreme Awaken-ness. On the first watch of the night he gained knowledge by which He remembered past lives. On the second watch of the night he was able to see into the future including the birth and death of other beings. On the third watch of the night, He destroyed all defilements and became a Fully Awakened One (Samma-Sambuddha).

It was in the final week (7th week) after his Awaken-ness, when the two merchant brothers Tapussa and Bhallika from Ukkalapa passed by the spot and saw the Buddha. They offered the Buddha their own provision; then the Buddha gave eight strands of hairs from His head for them to worship as sacred objects of veneration.The hair relics are now enshrined in the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar.

It was in the final week (7th week) after his Awaken-ness, when the two merchant brothers Tapussa and Bhallika from Ukkalapa passed by the spot and saw the Buddha. They offered the Buddha their own provision; then the Buddha gave eight strands of hairs from His head for them to worship as sacred objects of veneration.The hair relics are now enshrined in the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar.

The Buddha exhorted His first sixty Arahant disciples to go forth in different directions to preach the Doctrine, using these famous words: – “Go ye, 0 bhikkhus and wander forth for the gain of many, for the welfare of the many, in compassion for the world, for the good, for the gain, for the welfare of the Devas (Gods) and men . Proclaim ye, 0 Bhikkhus! The Doctrine that is glorious and preach ye a life of holiness, perfect and pure!”

When the Bodhisatta visited Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha, King Bimbisara offered his Kingdom to the Bodhisatta. But He did not accept it because of the worldly pleasures. After listening to the preaching of Buddha, the King attained the first stage of Sainthood (Sotapanna). He then dedicated his Royal park known as Veluvana (Bamboo Grove) to the Buddha and His disciples.

The Buddha performed the Twin Miracles of emitting fire and water simultaneously from His body, to subdue the pride of his older relatives who had erroneously thought that the Buddha being the younger would have to show respects to them.

On the seventh day after his arrival in Kapilavatthu, Princess Yasodhara dressed up Prince Rahula and pointing to the Buddha said, “Behold, son, the great Ascetic of majestic appearance is your father. Go up to him and ask for your inheritance!”

As advised by his mother, young Rahula came to His presence and asked for his inheritance. Instead, the Buddha told Venerable Sariputta to ordain Prince Rahula , giving him a spiritual inheritance better than the one he asked for.

During a subsequent visit to Rajagaha City, the Buddha went for alms-round in the company of His Chief Disciples and other monks. Along the way King Bimbisara and his royal family paid repects to the Buddha and His disciples.

The Buddha delivering a sermon of peace to two powerful warning armies of Kapilavatthu and Koliya at the opposite banks of the Rohini river before the two countries started fighting for the water supply of the river, for pastoral use.

The Order of Nuns (Bhikkhuni Sasana) was founded in the fifth year of the Buddha’s Awaken-ness. After the death of King Suddhodana, Maha Pajapati Gotami , who was His former foster mother desirous of joining the Order, approached the Buddha who was then, residing at Kapilavathu and begged permission for women to be admitted into the Order. After hearing and turning down their pleas, Buddha returned to Vesali for the Rains Retreat . Undaunted by the rebuff, Maha Pajapati Gotami cut off her hair and wearing yellow garments went on foot to Vesali, accompanied by many other Sakyan ladies. They stood outside the porch of the Pinnacled Great Hall in Mahayana where the Buddha was residing. Interceded by Venerable Ananda , the Buddha finally consented to establish the Bhikkhuni Sasana when Maha Pajapati Gotami and other Sakyan ladies agreed to observe the Eight Disciplinary Rules for nuns. Henceforth Maha Pajapati Gotami and other Sakyan ladies were admitted into the Order.
Later, the Nuns Khema and Uppalavanna were appointed the two Chief female Disciples; as were Sariputta and Moggalana the two Chief Male Disciples.

After losing in lively debate, the haughty hermit Saccaka refused to answer accordingly when the Buddha asked a question. Only when he was threatened to be beaten up by a celestial demon for arrogance, only then did he finally realize his own folly and listened to the Buddha’s preaching meekly. This wholesome action of his would augur well for his future.

On the seventh year after His Awaken-ness, the Buddha preached the Abhidhamma (higher Doctrine) in Tavatimsa Heaven. As a fulfillment of gratitude to his former mother, now a Santussita deva, the Buddha then delivered a sermon on the Higher Doctrine to thousands of Devas (Gods) and Brahmas (higher celestial beings) who attained the various stages of Noble Sainthood.

The non Buddhist sectarians grudgingly wanted to ruin the Buddha’s reputation. They told Cinca Manvika , a beautiful girl to falsely accuse the Buddha for her shamed, pregnancy in a big and august assembly. King of Devas (Gods) dispatched some Deities disguised as mice to gnaw through the strings holding a block of wood under her garment. Her plot was exposed when the wood fell on her feet. When the people saw that, they threw stones and chased her away. As she was walking away, the earth spilt open and a flame sprang up to envelop and drag her down to Avici (deepest and worst) Hell.