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2095 Sun 01 Jan 2017 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan of Free Online Buddhism - World Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506Awaken One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things) - the art of Giving, taking and Living to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM). Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by Start using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF. Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body. from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up free online university research practice up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/ email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card modinotourpm@gmail.com jchandra1942@icloud.com sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56272224.cms 20 Uttar Pradesh assembly constituencies to witness ATM-like receipt after casting vote. Election Commission of India has decided to use VVPAT (Voter-Verified Paper Audit Trail) machines in 20 assembly constituencies covering 14 districts of Uttar Pradesh. The VVPAT machines would be used in the upcoming assembly elections. The CEC had said that only in 2019 entire EVMs would be replaced. Now only in 20 Uttar Pradesh assembly constituencies the EVMs will be replaced. The ex CJI had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs would be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of 1600 involved in the entire replacement. Only 8 out of the 543 seats in 2014 Lok Sabha elections were replaced which helped Modi to gobble the Master Key. Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost because of these fraud EVMs. while they won in a majority in UP Panchayat elections as paper ballots were used as followed in 80 democracies of the world. Neither the CJI nor ECI ordered for paper ballots untill the entire EVMs were replaced. Now in UP appart from 20 constituencies in rest of the constituencies paper ballots must be used til the entire EVMs were replaced. The Central and all the Sate governments selected by these fraud EVMs must be dissolved and go for fresh polls until all the EVMs were replaced. C. Section on sampajañña
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 7:30 pm


2095
Sun 01 Jan 2017


LESSONS

from



Rector


JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart



an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan

of



Free Online

Buddhism
- World

Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506
Awaken
One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)
+
ioT (insight-net of Things) 
- the art of
Giving,
taking
and
Living   to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through
Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science
-Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement
(TPSTEEM).




Struggle
hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by




Start
using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru
FOA1TRPUVF.



Practice
Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,
lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for
health mind in a healthy body.




 from



INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart
Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University

in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up


free online university research practice









up a level
through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
up a level



https://awakenmediaprabandhak.
wordpress.com/











email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card


modinotourpm@gmail.com

jchandra1942@icloud.com

sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in


is
the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the
teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on
Techno-Politico-Socio
Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions
of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.



Rendering
exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue
to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream

Enterer (Sottapanna) and


to
attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56272224.cms

20 Uttar Pradesh assembly constituencies to witness ATM-like receipt after casting vote.

Election
Commission of India has decided to use VVPAT (Voter-Verified Paper Audit
Trail) machines in 20 assembly constituencies covering 14 districts of
Uttar Pradesh. The VVPAT machines would be used
in the upcoming assembly elections.

The CEC had said that only in 2019 entire EVMs would be replaced.

Now only in 20 Uttar Pradesh assembly constituencies the EVMs will be replaced.
The ex CJI had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the
EVMs would be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC
Sampath because of the cost of 1600 involved in the entire replacement.
Only 8 out of the 543 seats in 2014 Lok Sabha
elections were replaced which helped Modi to gobble the Master Key.

Ms Mayawati’s
BSP lost because of these fraud EVMs. while they won in a majority in UP
Panchayat elections as paper ballots were used as followed in 80
democracies of the world.

Neither the CJI nor ECI ordered for paper ballots untill the entire EVMs were replaced.

Now in UP appart
from 20 constituencies in rest of the constituencies paper ballots must
be used til the entire EVMs were replaced.

The Central and
all the Sate governments selected by these fraud EVMs must be dissolved
and go for fresh polls until all the EVMs were replaced.

C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.

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PRIVACY ISSUES IN AN ELECTRONIC VOTING https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyQ0ZKMnNYTlVPNmM/view
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:21 pm

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyQ0ZKMnNYTlVPNmM/view

Page
20
/
20

Page 1 of 20

Chapter #

PRIVACY ISSUES IN AN ELECTRONIC VOTING

MACHINE

Arthur M. Keller1

, David Mertz2

, Joseph Lorenzo Hall

3

, and Arnold Urken4

1

UC Santa Cruz and Open Voting Consortium, ark@soe.ucsc.edu; 2

Gnosis Software, Inc.,

mertz@gnosis.cx; 3

UC Berkeley, School of Information Management and Systems,

jhall@sims.berkeley.edu; 4

Stevens Institute of Technology, aurken@stevens.edu

Abstract: The Open Voting Consortium has a developed a prototype voting system that

includes an open source, PC-based voting machine that prints an accessible,

voter-verified paper ballot along with an electronic audit trail. This system was

designed for reliability, security, privacy, accessibility and auditability. This

paper describes some of the privacy considerations for the system.

Key words: Electronic voting; privacy; secret ballot; Open Voting Consortium; Electronic

Ballot Printer; paper ballot; barcodes; accessible; reading impaired interface;

multiple languages; accessible voter-verified paper ballot.

1. INTRODUCTION – WHY A SECRET BALLOT?

The requirements for secrecy in elections depend upon the values and

goals of the political culture where voting takes place. Gradations of partial

and complete privacy can be found in different cultural settings. For

instance, in some cantons in Switzerland, voters traditionally communicate

their choices orally in front of a panel of election officials.

1 In contrast, in

most modern polities, the ideal of complete privacy is institutionalized by

relying on anonymous balloting.

2

The use of secret balloting in elections—where a ballot’s contents are

disconnected from the identity of the voter—can be traced back to the

earliest use of ballots themselves. The public policy rationales for instituting

anonymous balloting are typically to minimize bribery and intimidation of

1 Benjamin Barber, Strong Democracy (Twentieth Anniversary Edition, University of

California Press, 2004). 2 Alvin Rabushka and Kenneth Shepsle, POLITICS IN PLURAL SOCIETIES: A THEORY OF

DEMOCRATIC INSTABILITY (1972).

Page 1 of 20

Page 2 of 20

2 Chapter #

the voter. For example, in Athens, Greece during the sixth century B.C.E.,

Athenians voted by raising their hands “except on the question of exiling

someone considered dangerous to the state, in which case a secret vote was

taken on clay ballots.”

3 In this case, presumably it was deemed necessary to

vote via secret ballot to avoid bodily harm to the voter.

Secret ballots, although not always required, have been in use in America

since colonial times.

4 The Australian ballot,

5 designed to be uniform in

appearance because it is printed and distributed by the government, was

adopted throughout most of the U.S. in the late 1800’s. Today,

approximately one hundred years after most states in the U.S. passed legal

provisions for anonymous balloting, a strong sense of voter privacy has

emerged as a third rationale. All fifty states have provisions in their

constitutions for either election by “secret ballot” or elections in which

“secrecy shall be preserved,” which has been interpreted by the courts as an

implied requirement for secret balloting.

6 West Virginia does not require a

secret ballot and leaves that to the discretion of the voter.7 Fourteen states’

8

3
Spencer Albrecht, THE AMERICAN BALLOT (1942) at 9. 4 In 1682, the
Province of Pennsylvania in its Frame of the Government required “THAT
all

the elections of Members or Representatives of the People, to serve in the Provincial

Council and General Assembly … shall be resolved and determined by ballot.” (Votes

and Proceedings of the House of Representatives of the Province of Pennsylvania. Printed

and sold by B. Franklin and D. Hall, at The New Printing Office, near the Market.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MDCCLII, at xxxi.) In 1782, the legislature of the

Colony/State of New Jersey tried to intimidate Tories by requiring viva voce voting. (At

that time, about half of New Jersey voted with ballots and the other half viva voce.) They

rescinded this in their next session. (Richard P. McCormick, THE HISTORY OF VOTING IN

NEW JERSEY 74 (1953). In 1796, the State of New Jersey required federal elections to be

by ballot and extended that to state elections the following year. (Id. at 106.) In the 1853

pamphlet SECRET SUFFRAGE, Edward L. Pierce recounted Massachusetts’ battle to

make the secret ballot truly secret. The Massachusetts Constitution in 1820 required

elections for representatives to have “written” votes. In 1839, the legislature attacked the

secrecy of the written ballot by requiring the ballot to be presented for deposit in the ballot

box open and unfolded. In 1851, the legislature passed the “Act for the better security of

the Ballot,” which provided that the ballots are to be deposited in the ballot box in sealed

envelopes of uniform size and appearance furnished by the secretary of the Commonwealth

(State of Massachusetts). The battle waged until a provision in the State Constitution made

the secret ballot mandatory. (Edward L. Pierce, SECRET SUFFRAGE 7 (1853)(published by

the
Ballot Society, No. 140 Strand, London, England). 5 The more general
“Australian ballot” is a term used for anonymous balloting using
official

non-partisan ballots distributed by the government. See Albright 1942 at 26. “The very

notion of exercising coercion and improper influence absolutely died out of the country.”

See supra note 3, at 24, quoting Francis S. Dutton of South Australia in J. H. Wigmore’s

THE
AUSTRALIAN BALLOT SYSTEM (2nd ed., Boston, 1889) at 15-23. 6 For
example, The Delaware Supreme Court recognized that the Delaware’s
constitutional

language amounts to an “implied constitutional requirement of a secret ballot.” Brennan v.

Black,
34 Del. Ch. 380 at 402. (1954). 7 See W. Va. Const. Art. IV, §2 8 “In
all elections by the people, the mode of voting shall be by ballot; but
the voter shall be

left free to vote by either open, sealed or secret ballot, as he may elect.” (W. VA. CONST.

Page 2 of 20

Page 3 of 20

#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 3

constitutions do not list “secret” balloting or “secrecy” of elections and/or

ballots explicitly. These states have either state laws (election code) or case

law (decided legal cases in that state) that mandate secret balloting or

interpret the phrase “election shall be by ballot” to mean a “secret ballot.”

These cultural values and practices contribute to the sets of user

requirements that define the expectations of voters in computer-mediated

elections

9 and determine alternative sets of specifications that can be

considered in developing open source software systems for elections. The

Open Voting Consortium (OVC)10 has developed a model election system

that aims as one of its goals to meet these requirements. This paper describes

how the OVC model ensures ballot privacy.

The OVC has developed its model for an electronic voting system largely

in response to reliability, usability, security, trustworthiness, and

accessibility concerns about other voting systems. Privacy was kept in mind

throughout the process of designing this system. Section 2 of this paper

discusses the requirements for a secret ballot in more detail. Section 3

considers how secrecy could be compromised in some systems. Section 4

describes the architecture of the polling place components of the OVC

system. Section 5 describes how the OVC handles privacy concerns. While

this paper focuses mostly on privacy issues for U.S.-based elections, and

how they are addressed in the OVC system, many of the issues raised are

relevant elsewhere as well.

2. SECRET BALLOT REQUIREMENTS

The public policy goals of secret balloting

11

— to protect the privacy

of the elector and minimize undue intimidation and influence — are

supported by federal election laws and regulations. The Help America Vote

Act of 200212

codifies this policy as “anonymity” and “independence” of all

voters, and “privacy” and “confidentiality” of ballots. It requires that the

ART. IV, § 2 (2003). 9 Arthur B, Urken, Voting in A Computer-Networked Environment, in THE INFORMATION

WEB: ETHICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER NETWORKING (Carol Gould, ed.,

1989). 10

The Open Voting Consortium (OVC) is a non-profit organization dedicated to the

development, maintenance, and delivery of open voting systems for use in public

elections.
See http://www.openvotingconsortium.org/. 11 There are two aspects to
anonymous voting. The first is ballot privacy—the ability for

someone to vote without having to disclose his or her vote to the public. The second is

secrecy—someone should not be able to prove that they voted one way or another. The

desire for the latter is rooted in eliminating intimidation while the former is to curb vote

buying.
The history of these two concepts is beyond the scope of this paper. 12
The Help America Vote Act of 2002, 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 15301 – 15545 (West,
2004).

Page 3 of 20

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Federal Election Commission create standards that “[preserve] the privacy of

the voter and the confidentiality of the ballot.”

13

The Federal Election Commission has issued a set of Voting System

Standards (VSS)14 that serve as a model of functional requirements that

elections systems must meet before they can be certified for use in an

election. The VSS state explicitly:

To facilitate casting a ballot, all systems shall:

[…] Protect the secrecy of the vote such that the system cannot reveal any

information about how a particular voter voted, except as otherwise

required by individual State law;

15

and:

All systems shall provide voting booths [that shall] provide privacy for

the voter, and be designed in such a way as to prevent observation of the

ballot by any person other than the voter;

16

as well as a lengthy list of specific requirements that Direct Recording

Electronic voting systems must meet.

17 The basic, high-level requirement not

to expose any information about how an individual voted is required of all

voting systems before certification and is the most important. The second

requirement listed above is a corollary.

It is not sufficient for electronic voting systems merely to anonymize the

voting process from the perspective of the voting machine. Every time a

ballot is cast, the voting system adds an entry to one or more software or

firmware logs that consists of a timestamp and an indication that a ballot was

cast. If the timestamp log is combined with the contents of the ballot, this

information becomes much more sensitive. For example, it can be combined

with information about the order in which voters voted to compromise the

confidentiality of the ballot. Such information can be collected at the polling

place using overt or covert surveillance equipment—such as cell phone

cameras or security cameras common at public schools. As described

below, system information collected by the voting system should be kept

separated from the content of cast ballots and used in conjunction only by

authorized, informed election officials.

13 Id., § 301(a)(1)(C). (Also see §§ 242(a)(2)(B), 245(a)(2)(C), 261(b)(1), 271(b)(1), 281

(b)(1), 301(a)(3)(A)). 14 Federal Election Commission, Voting System Standards, Vols. 1 & 2 (2002), available at

http://www.fec.gov/pages/vsfinal (Microsoft Word .doc format) or

http://sims.berkeley.edu/~jhall/fec_vss_2002_pdf/
(Adobe PDF format) 15 Id. at Vol. 1, §2.4.3.1(b). 16 Id. at Vol. 1,
§3.2.4.1. 17 Id. at Vol. 1, §3.2.4.3.2(a)-(e) and §4.5.

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 5

3. HOW SECRECY COULD BE COMPROMISED

3.1 A voter’s secret identity

When a voter enters a polling place, she enters with a valuable secret: her

identity. A secret ballot is not really “secret” in a general sense — it is

possible, and even required, for certain recipients to disclose ballots. A

secret ballot is “secret” only in the sense that it is blind as to the identity of

the voter who cast it. The anonymity of ballots must apply even to most

statistical properties of the voters who cast them; a notable exception,

however, is in the disclosure of the geographic distribution of voters who

vote certain ways in the aggregate. We all know there are “Republican

precincts” and “Democratic precincts,” and anyone can easily and legally

find out which are which.

Complicating matters is the fact that a voter’s secret, her identity, must be

disclosed at a certain stage in the voting process. To be allowed to vote at

all, a voter must authenticate her right to vote using her identity, if only by a

declaration of purported identity to elections workers. Depending on

jurisdiction, different standards of identity authentication apply—some

require identification cards and/or revelation of personal information outside

the public domain—but in all cases, identity acts as a kind of key for entry to

voting. However, legally this key must be removed from all subsequent

communication steps in the voting process.

The act of voting, and the acts of aggregating those votes at subsequently

higher levels (called “canvassing” in voting parlance) can be thought of as

involving a series of information channels. At a first step, a voter is given a

token to allow her vote to pass through later stages; depending on the system

model, this token may be a pre-printed ballot form, a PIN-style code, a

temporary ballot-type marker, an electronic smart card, or at a minimum

simply permission to proceed. Although the OVC has not yet settled on a

particular token, we will focus on smart cards in this paper, because they

have the most serious implications for privacy. Outside the US, tokens such

as hand stamps in indelible ink are also used, particularly to preclude

duplicate votes being cast.

Once at a voting station, a voter must perform some voting actions using

either pen-and-paper, a mechanical device like a lever machine or a punch

card guide, or an electronic interface, such as a touchscreen or headphones-
with-keypad. After performing the required voting actions, some sort of

record of the voter’s selections is created, either on paper, in the state of

gears, on electronic/magnetic storage media, or using some combination of

those. That record of selections becomes the “cast ballot.” Under the Open

Voting Consortium system, the paper ballot produced at a voting station

undergoes final voter inspection before being cast into a physical ballot box.

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After votes are cast, they are canvassed at several levels: first by precinct;

then by county, district, or city; then perhaps statewide. At each level of

canvassing, either the literal initial vote records or some representation or

aggregation of them must be transmitted.

3.2 Understanding covert channels

At every stage of information transmission, from voter entry, through

vote casting, through canvassing, a voter’s identity must remain hidden. It is

relatively simple to describe the overt communication channels in terms of

the information that actually should be transmitted at each stage. But within

the actual transmission mechanism it is possible that a covert channel also

transmits improper identity information.

Covert channels in a voting system can take a number of forms. Some

covert channels require the cooperation of collaborators, such as voters

themselves or poll workers. Other covert channels can result from

(accidental) poor design in the communication channels; while others can be

created by malicious code that takes advantage of incomplete channel

specification. A final type of covert channel is what we might call a

“sideband attack”—that is, there may be methods of transmitting improper

information that are not encoded directly in the overt channel, but result

indirectly from particular implementations.

For illustration, let us briefly suggest examples of several types of covert

channels. One rather straightforward attack on voter ballot anonymity is

repeatedly missed by almost every new developer approaching design from a

databases-and-log-files background. If the voting channels contain

information about the times when particular ballots are cast and/or the

sequence of ballots, this information can be correlated with an under-
protected record of the sequence of times when voters enter a polling place.

We sometimes call this a “covert videotape” attack. In part, this attack uses a

sideband: the covert videotaping of voters as they enter; but it also relies on

a design flaw in which ballots themselves are timestamped, perhaps as a

means to aid debugging.

A pure sideband attack might use Tempest

18 equipment to monitor

electro-magnetic emissions of electronic voting stations. In principle, it

might be possible for an attacker to sit across the street from a polling place

with a van full of electronics, watch each voter enter, then detect each vote

she selects on a touchscreen voting station.

Cooperative attacks require the voter or poll worker to do something

special to disclose identity. As with other attacks, these covert channels need

not rely on electronics and computers. For example, a malicious poll worker

might mark a pre-printed blank paper ballot using ultraviolet ink before

18 See http://www.cryptome.org/nsa-tempest.htm (Last visited February 13, 2005)

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 7

handing it to a targeted voter. The covert channel is revealed only with an

UV lamp, something voters are unlikely to carry to inspect their ballots. A

voter herself might cooperate in a covert channel in order to facilitate vote

buying or under threat of vote coercion. One such covert channel is to

instruct a bought or coerced voter to cast “marked votes” to prove she cast

the votes desired by her collaborator. Unique write-in names and unusual

patterns in ranked preference or judicial confirmations are ways to “mark” a

ballot as belonging to a particular voter.

3.3 Links between registration data and ballots

Since a voter must identify herself when signing in at the polling place,

there is the potential for her identity to be tied to her vote. The token given

to the voter to allow her to vote may contain her identity. For example, the

voter’s registration number could be entered into the smart-card writer and

then encoded on the smart card that is given to the voter to enable use of a

Direct Recording Electronic voting machine. When the voter registration list

is given to the polling place on paper, this channel appears less of an issue.

However, if the voter registration list is handled electronically, then the

smart card could easily contain the voter’s identity. Diebold’s stated intent

makes this issue a potentially serious privacy risk.

Diebold already has purchased Data Information Management Systems,

one of two firms that have a dominant role in managing voter-registration

lists in California and other states. “The long-term goal here is to introduce

a seamless voting solution, all the way from voter registration to (vote)

tabulation,” said Tom Swidarski, Diebold senior vice president for strategic

development.

19

4. OVC SYSTEM OVERVIEW

The Open Voting Consortium is developing a PC-based open source

voting system based on an accessible voter-verified paper ballot. We mostly

describe the components of the system that operate in the polling place.

20 In

addition, we briefly discuss the components at the county canvassing site.

19 Ian Hoffman, With e-voting, Diebold treads where IBM wouldn’t, OAKLAND TRIB., May 30,

2004, available at

http://www.oaklandtribune.com/Stories/0,1413,82~1865~2182212,00.html
20 See Arthur M. Keller, et al., A PC-Based Open Source Voting Machine
with an Accessible

Voter-Verifiable Paper Ballot, 2005 USENIX ANNUAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE,

FREENIX/OPEN SOURCE TRACK, April 10-15, 2005, pp. 163–174, and available at

http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/keller/2004/electronic-voting-machine.pdf

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4.1 Voter sign-in station

The Voter Sign-In Station is used by the poll worker when the voter signs

in and involves giving the voter a “token.” It is a requirement that each voter

cast only one vote and that the vote cast be of the right precinct and party for

the voter. The “token” authorizes the voter to cast a ballot using one of these

techniques.

• Pre-printed ballot stock

o Option for scanning ballot type by Electronic Voting Machine

o Poll worker activation

• Per-voter PIN (including party/precinct identifier)

• Per-party/precinct token

• Smart cards

The token is then used by the Electronic Voting Machine or an Electronic

Voting Machine with a Reading Impaired Interface to ensure that each voter

votes only once and only using the correct ballot type.

If the voter spoils a ballot, the ballot is marked spoiled and kept for

reconciliation at the Ballot Reconciliation Station, and the voter is given a

new token for voting.

4.2 Electronic voting machine

The Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) includes a touch-screen interface

for the voter to view the available choices for each contest and select among

them. The EVM then prints a paper ballot, which the voter verifies (possibly

using the Ballot Verification Station) and places in the ballot box. The EVM

is activated by a token, such as a smart card, obtained at the sign-in station.

The EVM maintains an electronic ballot image as an audit trail and to

reconcile with the paper ballots at the Ballot Reconciliation Station.

4.3 Electronic voting machine with reading impaired interface

The Electronic Voting Machine with Reading Impaired Interface is a PC

similar to the Electronic Voting Machine described above which provides

auditory output of the ballot choices and selections made and also supports

additional modes of making selections suitable for the blind or reading

impaired. Whether these features are integrated into a common voting

machine with all functionality, or whether there is a separate configuration

for the disabled, is an open question. For example, additional modes of input

may be useful for those who can read printed materials, but have physical

limitations. The idea is to have a universal design that accommodates all

voters.

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 9

4.4 Ballot verification station

The Ballot Verification Station reads the ballot produced by the

Electronic Voting Machine or the Electronic Voting Machine with Reading

Impaired Interface and speaks (auditorily) the selections on the voter’s

ballot. A count is kept of usage, including counts of consecutive usage for

the same ballot, but no permanent record is kept of which ballots are

verified.

The Ballot Verification Station could also have a screen for displaying

the selections. Such an option, enabled by the voter upon her request, would

enable a voter who can read to verify that her ballot will be read correctly for

automated tallying.

4.5 Ballot reconciliation station

The Ballot Reconciliation Station reads the paper ballots, both cast and

spoiled, and reconciles them against the Electronic Ballot Images from the

Electronic Voting Machine or the Electronic Voting Machine with Reading

Impaired Interface.

4.6 Paper ballot

The paper ballot is printed by the Electronic Voting Machine or the

Electronic Voting Machine with Reading Impaired Interface. It must be

“cast” in order to be tallied during canvassing, testing, or a manual recount.

The paper ballot is intended to be easily read by the voter so that the voter

may verify that his or her choices have been properly marked. It also

contains security markings and a bar code. The bar code encodes the voter’s

choices, as expressed in the human readable portion of the ballot. The human

readable text should be in an OCR-friendly font so it is computer-readable as

well. Voters may use the Ballot Verification Station to verify that the bar

code accurately reflects their choices. The Ballot Verification Station not

only assists sight-impaired and reading-impaired voters in verifying their

ballots, but will also give all voters the assurance that the bar-code on the

ballot properly mirrors their choices, as represented in the human-readable

text on the ballot.

4.7 Privacy folder

The paper ballot contains the voter’s choices in two forms: a form that

can be read by people and a bar code that expresses those choices in a

machine-readable form.

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Poll workers may come in contact with the ballot should they be asked to

assist a voter or to cast the ballot into the ballot box. In order to protect voter

privacy it is desirable to minimize the chance that a voting place worker

might observe the voter’s ballot choices. A privacy folder is just a standard

file folder with an edge trimmed back so that it reveals only the bar code part

of a ballot. The voter is expected to take his/her ballot from the printer of the

Electronic Voting Machine or the Electronic Voting Machine with Reading

Impaired Interface and place it into a privacy folder before leaving the

voting booth.

The privacy folder is designed so that the voter may place the ballot, still

in its folder, against the scanning station of the Ballot Verification Station to

hear the choices on the voter’s ballot spoken.

When handed the ballot by the voter, the poll worker casts the ballot

by turning the privacy folder so the ballot is face down, and then sliding the

paper ballot into the ballot box.

4.8 Ballot box

The ballot box is a physically secure container, into which voters have

their paper ballots placed, in order to “cast” their votes. The mechanical

aspects of the ballot box will vary among jurisdictions, depending on local

laws and customs. Optionally, a perforated tab is removed from the ballot

before placing the ballot into the ballot box, and the tab is handed to the

voter. The removal of the tab ensures that the ballot cannot be marked

“spoiled.”

4.9 Box for spoiled ballots

When a voter spoils a ballot, perhaps because the ballot does not

accurately reflect her preferences, the ballot is marked spoiled and placed in

a box for spoiled ballots for later reconciliation.

5. OVC BALANCES SECURITY, RELIABILITY AND

PRIVACY

This section discusses how the Open Voting Consortium is balancing

security, reliability and privacy in its electronic voting system.

5.1 Free and open source software

Opening the source code to a voting system — all stages of it, not only

the voting station—is a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 11

ensuring trustworthiness, including the absence of trapdoors and covert

channels. For practical purposes, no system that functions as a black box, in

which the implementing source code is maintained as a trade secret, can be

known to lack covert channels. Any channel with non-optimal utilization

includes non-utilized content that is potentially malicious rather than merely

accidental — behavior analysis, in principle, cannot distinguish the two.

Of course, free and open source code is not sufficient to prevent covert

channels. Sideband channels, in particular, are never exposed by direct

examination of source code in isolation; it is necessary to perform additional

threat modeling. But even direct encoding of extra information within an

overt channel can sometimes be masked by subtle programming tricks. More

eyes always reduce the risk of tricks hidden in code. Parallel implementation

to open specifications, and message canonicalization also helps restrict

channels to overt content.

A frequent criticism of free and open source software is that, while the

code is available for inspection, no coordinated inspection is actually

conducted.

21 The absence of Non-Disclosure Agreements and restrictive

intellectual property agreements makes it possible for a large body of open

source developers to inspect the code. Furthermore, in the realm of elections

systems, which are mission-critical for a democratic government, open

source software could benefit from a specific group of developers who are

tasked with recognizing and repairing vulnerabilities. This is a common need

in many open source software projects, and in this sense, it might be an

appropriate role for a non-profit institution that has delivered such services

to other important projects like GNU/Linux, BIND, the Mozilla tool suite

and the Apache web server.

5.2 Privacy in the voting token (e.g., smart card)

The token given to the voter to enable her to use the electronic voting

machine might contain information that could compromise her anonymity.

Indeed, it is not possible to demonstrate the absence of covert channels

through black box testing. Thus, analysis of the software is important to

show how the data for the smart card is assembled. Above, we considered

the benefits of open source software in that numerous people, both inside

and outside the process, have the ability to inspect and test the software to

reduce the likelihood of covert channels. The hardware that enables smart-
card use also includes an interface used by the poll worker (the Voter Sign-
In Station). The nature of that interface limits the type of information that

can be encoded. Encoding the time of day in the smart card, either

intentionally or as a side effect of the process of writing files to the smart

21 Fred Cohen, Is Open Source More or Less Secure? MANAGING NETWORK SECURITY, (July

2002).

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12 Chapter #

card, is a potential avenue for attack. However, the electronic voting

machine receiving the smart card knows the time as well, so the smart card

is not needed to convey this information.

We propose to encode in the voting token the ballot type and (particularly

for multiple precincts at the same polling place) the precinct. The smart card

should also be digitally signed by the smart card enabling hardware, so as to

help reduce forgeries.

5.3 Printed ballot

The printed ballot contains a human readable version of the voter’s

selections. After all, that is how it is a voter-verifiable paper ballot.

However, the secrecy of the voter’s selections is at risk while the voter

carries the paper ballot from the electronic voting machine, optionally to the

ballot validation station, and on to the poll worker to cast her ballot.

Our approach is to use a privacy folder to contain the ballot. When the

voter signs in, she receives the token plus an empty privacy folder. When the

EVM prints the ballot, the voter takes the ballot and places it in the privacy

folder, so that only the barcode shows. The barcode can be scanned by the

Ballot Validation Station without exposing the human readable portion of

the ballot. When the privacy folder containing the ballot is given to the poll

worker to be cast, the poll worker turns the privacy folder so the ballot is

face down and then slides the ballot out of the privacy folder and into the

official ballot box. The poll worker thus does not see the text of the ballot,

with the possible exception of precinct and (for primaries) party identifiers

that may be printed in the margin.

The privacy folder is an ordinary manila folder trimmed along the long

edge so that the barcode sticks out.

5.4 Reading impaired interface

The reading impaired interface is used both by voters who cannot read

and by voters who cannot see. Having a segregated electronic voting

machine used only by the reading and visually impaired can compromise

privacy. It is therefore desirable for the electronic voting machines with the

reading impaired interface to be used also by those who can read. For

example, if all electronic voting machines incorporated the reading impaired

interface, then reading impaired voters would not be segregated onto a

subset of the voting machines.

It is important that the ballot not record the fact that a particular ballot

was produced using the reading impaired interface. Nor should the electronic

voting machine record that information for specific ballots. Using a separate

voting station for the reading impaired means that the audit trail is

segregated by whether the voter is reading impaired.

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 13

Nonetheless, it is useful for the electronic voting machine to maintain

some statistics on the use of the reading impaired interface, provided that

these statistics cannot identify specific ballots or voters. These statistics

could be used to improve the user interface, for example.

5.5 Privacy issues with barcodes

The Open Voting Consortium system design uses a barcode to automate

the scanning of paper ballots. Such barcodes raise several possibilities for

introducing covert channels.

The prototype/demo system presented by OVC, for example, used a 1-D

barcode, specifically Code128. For vote encoding, selections were first

converted to a decimal number in a reasonably, but not optimally, efficient

manner; specifically, under the encoding particular digit positions have a

direct relationship to corresponding vote selections. These digits, in turn, are

encoded using the decimal symbology mode of Code128.

Co-author David Mertz identified the problem that even though barcodes

are not per-se human readable, identical patterns in barcodes — especially

near their start and end positions — could be recognized by observers. This

recognition would likely even be unconscious after poll workers saw

hundred of exposed barcodes during a day. For example, perhaps after a

while, a poll worker would notice that known Bush supporters always have

three narrow bars followed by a wide bar at the left of their barcode, while

known Kerry supporters have two wide bars and two narrow bars. To

prevent an attack based on this kind of human bar code recognition, 1-D

barcodes undergo a simple obfuscation of rotating digits by amounts keyed

to a repetition of the random ballot-id. This “keying” is not even weak

encryption—it resembles a Caesar cipher,

22 but with a known key; it merely

makes the same vote look different on different ballots.

In the future, OVC anticipates needing to use 2-D barcodes to

accommodate the information space of complex ballots and ancillary

anonymity-preserving information such as globally unique ballot-IDs and

cryptographic signatures. At this point, we anticipate that patterns in 2-D

barcodes will not be vulnerable to visual recognition; if they are, the same

kind of obfuscation discussed above is straightforward. But the greatly

expanded information space of 2-D barcodes is a vulnerability as well as a

benefit. More bit space quite simply provides room to encode more improper

information. For example, if a given style of barcode encodes 2000 bits of

information, and a particular ballot requires 500 bits to encode, those unused

1500 bits can potentially contain improper information about the voter who

cast the ballot.

22 See http://www.fact-index.com/c/ca/caesar_cipher.html (Last visited February 13, 2005).

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14 Chapter #

Just because a barcode has room for anonymity-compromising

information does not mean that information is actually encoded there, of

course. Preventing misuse of an available channel requires complementary

steps. Moreover, even a narrow pipe can disclose quite a lot; it only takes

about 10 bits to encode a specific address within a precinct using a lookup

table. Even a relatively impoverished channel might well have room for a

malicious ten bits. For example, if a non-optimal vote encoding is used to

represent votes, it is quite possible that multiple bit-patterns will correspond

to the same votes. The choice among “equivalent” bit patterns might leak

information.

Eliminating barcodes, it should be noted, does not necessarily eliminate

covert channels in a paper ballot. It might, however, increase voter

confidence as average voters become less concerned about covert channels

(which is both good and bad). For example, even a barcode-free printed

ballot could use steganography

23 to encode information in the micro-spacing

between words, or within security watermarks on the page.

5.6 Ballot validation station

The Ballot Validation Station allows reading impaired voters—or

anyone—to hear and therefore validate their paper ballots. Since only the

barcode of the ballot (and possibly the ballot type—the precinct and party

for primaries) is viewable (and as mentioned above, the barcode is

obscured), it is best to keep the paper ballot in the privacy folder. So the

Ballot Validation Station should be able to read the barcode without

removing the paper ballot from the privacy folder. The back of the ballot

should have a barcode (possibly preprinted) saying “please turn over,” so a

Ballot Validation Station will know to tell the blind voter that the ballot is

upside down. So that others will not hear the Ballot Validation Station speak

the choices on the ballot, the voter should hear these choices through

headphones.

It is useful to know how many times the Ballot Validation Station is used,

and how many consecutive times the same ballot is spoken. It is important to

assure that ballot-IDs are not persistently stored by the Ballot Validation

Station. In particular, to tell how many consecutive times the same ballot

was spoken, the Ballot Validation Station must store the previous ballot-ID.

However, once another ballot with a different ballot-ID is read, then that

new ballot-ID should replace the previous ballot-ID. And the ballot-ID field

should be cleared during the end-of-day closeout. The counts of consecutive

reads of the same ballot should be a vector of counts, and no other ordering

23 Neil F. Johnson and Sushil Jajodia, Steganography: Seeing the Unseen, IEEE COMPUTER

(February 1998) at 26-34.

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 15

information should be maintained. Inspection of the code together with clear

interfaces of persistently maintained records can help assure privacy.

5.7 Languages

Steve Chessin has identified a problem with ballots for non-English

speakers. For the voter, the ballot must be printed in her own language.

However, for canvassing and manual counts, the ballot and its choices must

also be printed in English. However, this approach makes bilingual ballots

easy to identify, and that can compromise ballot anonymity if only a small

number of voters in a given precinct choose a particular language. Steve

Chessin’s solution is to have all ballots contain both English and another

language, where the other language is randomly chosen for English

speakers.

24

It is important that the Ballot Validation Station handle multiple

languages so the voter can choose the language for validating the ballot. To

simplify this process, the ballot barcode can include a notation of the second

language, but only if that information does not compromise anonymity.

Always choosing a second language at random where none is specifically

requested reduces the risk. When the ballot’s barcode is scanned by the

Ballot Validation Station, the voter is given a choice of these two languages

for the spoken review of choices listed on the ballot.

5.8 Randomization of ballot-IDs

Under the OVC design, ballots carry ballot-IDs. In our prototype, these

IDs are four digit numbers, which provides enough space for ten thousand

ballots to be cast at a polling place. We anticipate this ballot-ID length to

24 It is important to note that the procedure for randomizing the second, non-English language

printed on a ballot would have to be quite good. Flaws in the randomization or maliciously

planted code could result in the “marking” of certain ballots leading to a compromise of

ballot privacy. A simple solution would be to have all ballots printed only in English, and

requiring non-English literate voters to use the BVA to verify their vote auditorily. As an

alternative for ballots printed only in English, ballot overlays could by provided for each

language needed for each ballot type. The overlay could either be in heavy stock paper

printed with the contest names with holes for the selections to show through, or it could be

a translation sheet showing all the contest names and selections translated into non-English

language. In the former case, the ballots would have to be have the layout of each contest

fixed, so it would be necessary to have extra spaces when the length of the results vary,

such as for pick up to 3 candidates when only 2 were selected. These overlays could be

tethered to every voting machine so that voters who read only a specific language could

simply place the overlay over their ballot so that she could read their selections as if the

ballot was printed in their native language. The overlay approach reduces confusion for

English speakers and it also reduces the length of the printed ballot.

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16 Chapter #

remain sufficient in production. The main purpose of ballot-IDs is simply to

enable auditing of official paper ballots against unofficial electronic ballot

images.

The crucial feature of ballot-IDs is that they must not reveal any

information about the sequence of votes cast. The prototype and current

reference implementation use Python’s ‘random’ module to randomize the

order of ballot-IDs. The module uses the well-tested Mersenne Twister

algorithm, with a periodicity of 219937–1. Seeding the algorithm with a

good source of truly random data—such as the first few bytes of

/dev/random on modern Linux systems—prevents playback attacks to

duplicate ballot-ID sequences.

Because the ballot-IDs are generated at random by each of the electronic

voting machines, it is important that two machines do not use the same

random ballot-ID. As a result, the first digit (or character) of the ballot-ID in

the reference platform will represent the voting machine ID for that polling

place.

The remaining 3 digits of the ballot-ID are randomly selected from the

range of 000 to 999. A list is maintained of already used ballot-IDs for this

electronic voting machine for this election. (One way to obtain such a list is

to scan the stored electronic ballot images for the ballot numbers used.) If

the random number generated matches an already used ballot-ID, then that

number is skipped and a new random number is generated.

5.9 Information hidden in electronic ballot images and their files

The electronic ballot images (EBIs) are stored on the electronic voting

machine where the ballot was created. One purpose of maintaining these

EBIs is to reconcile them against the paper ballots, to help preclude paper

ballot stuffing. The EBIs are in XML format, which can be interpreted when

printed in “raw” form.

We prefer not to store the EBIs in a database on the electronic voting

machine. A database management system incurs additional complexity,

potential for error, and can contain sequence information that can be used to

identify voters. On the other hand, flat files in XML format would include

the date and time in the file directory, and that is also a potential privacy

risk. We can mitigate this risk by periodically “touching” EBI files

electronically during voting station operation, in order to update the date and

time of all files to the latest time. The placement order of the files on the

disk, however, may still disclose the order of balloting.

Another approach is to store all the EBIs in a single file as if it were an

array. Suppose that it is determined that the largest XML-format EBI is 10K

bytes. Since there are 1000 possible ballot-IDs for this electronic voting

machine, it is possible to create a file with 1000 slots, each of which is 10K

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 17

in length. When the ballot is to be printed, the random ballot-ID is chosen,

and the EBI is placed in that slot in the file, padded to the full 10K in length

with spaces (which would be removed during canonicalization). The file can

be updated in place, thereby having only the latest date and time.

Alternatively, two files can be used, and the electronic voting machine can

write to one, wait for completion, and then write to the other. The benefit of

this approach is increased reliability of persistent storage of the EBI file.

A similar technique can be used to maintain copies of the Postscript versions

of the ballots.

When the polling place closes, the electronic voting machine is changed

to close out the day’s voting. At this time, the EBIs are written as individual

flat files in ascending ballot-ID order to a new session of the CD-R that

already contains the electronic voting machine software and personalization.

Because the EBIs are written all at once, and in order by ascending random

ballot-ID, anonymity is preserved.

5.10 Public vote tallying

It is important that the ballots be shuffled before publicly visible scanning

occurs using the Ballot Reconciliation System. The ballots will naturally be

ordered based on the time they were placed in the ballot box. As described

above, the time or sequence of voting is a potential risk for privacy

violations.

An illustration of this problem was reported privately to co-author Arthur

Keller about a supposedly secret tenure vote at a university. Each professor

wrote his or her decision to grant or deny tenure on a piece of paper. The

pieces of paper were collected and placed on top of a pile one-by-one in a

sequence determined by where each person was sitting. The pile was then

turned over and the votes were then read off the ballots in the reverse of that

sequence as they were tallied. One observer noted how each of the faculty

members voted in this supposedly secret vote.

5.11 Results by precinct

A key approach to ensuring the integrity of county (or other district)

canvassing (i.e., vote tallying) is to canvass the votes at the precinct and post

the vote totals by contest at the precinct before sending on the data to the

county. As a crosscheck, the county should make available the vote totals by

contest for each precinct. However, because the county totals include

absentee votes, it is difficult to reconcile the posted numbers at the precinct

against the county’s totals by precinct, unless the county separates out

absentee votes (plus hand-done polling place votes). However providing

these separations may reduce the aggregation size to impair anonymity. An

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18 Chapter #

even worse threat to anonymity arises when provisional ballots are

incrementally approved and added to the tally one-by-one.

We propose to exclude provisional ballots from the results posted at the

precinct. The county tallies by precinct should be separated into a group of

votes included in the precinct-posted tally and a group of votes not included

in the precinct-posted tally. As long as there is a publicly viewable

canvassing of the votes not included in the precinct-posted tally, the issue of

voter confidence in the system will be addressed. If that canvassing process

involves ballots that have already been separated from the envelope

containing the voter’s identity, privacy is enhanced.

The totals by precinct are aggregate counts for each candidate. There is

no correlation among specific ballots, an important factor to help assure

privacy. However, ranked preference voting schemes, such as instant runoff

voting, require that the ordering of the candidates must be separately

maintained for each ballot. Vote totals are useful to help assure that each

vote was counted, but they do not contain enough information to produce an

absolute majority winner. Therefore, vote totals can be posted at the

precinct — independent of ranking — and those totals can also be posted at

the county. A voter who specifies a write-in candidate for a ranked

preference voting race might in principle be doing so as a marker for

observation during the canvassing process. To ensure anonymity, write-in

candidates whose vote totals are below a certain threshold could be

eliminated from the canvassing process. This threshold must be set to avoid

distortions of aggregate scores at the county level.

5.12 Privacy in the face of voter collusion

Complex cast ballots, taken as a whole, inevitably contain potential

covert channels. We reach a hard limit in the elimination of improper

identifying information once voter collusion is considered. In an ideal case,

voters cooperate in the protection of their own anonymity; but threats of vote

coercion or vote buying can lead voters to collaborate in disclosing—or

rather, proving—their own identity. It is, of course, the right of every voter

to disclose her own votes to whomever she likes; but such disclosure must

not be subject to independent verifications that attack voter anonymity as a

whole.

Elections with many contests, with write-ins allowed, or with

information-rich ranked preference contests, implicitly contain extra fields in

which to encode voter identity. For example, if an election contains eight

judicial retention questions, there are at least 6561 possible ways to complete

a ballot, assuming Yes, No, and No Preference are all options for each

question. Very few precincts will have over 6561 votes cast within them, so

a systematic vote buyer could demand that every voter cast a uniquely

identifying vote pattern on judicial retentions. That unique pattern, plus the

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#. Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine 19

precinct marked on a ballot, in turn, could be correlated with a desired vote

for a contested office.

Ballots may not generally be completely separated into records by each

individual contest. For recounts or other legal challenges to elections, it is

generally necessary to preserve full original ballots, complete with correlated

votes. Of course it is physically possible to cut apart the contest regions on a

paper ballot, or to perform a similar separation of contests within an EBI.

However, doing so is not generally permissible legally.

The best we can do is to control the disclosure of full ballots to mandated

authorities, and maintain the chain of custody over the ballots, including the

EBIs. A full ballot must be maintained, but only aggregations of votes, per

contest, are disclosed to the general public. The number of people who have

access to full ballots should be as limited as feasible, and even people with

access to some full ballots should not necessarily be granted general access

to all full ballots.

5.13 Privacy in electronic voting machines with

voter-verifiable paper audit trails

This section discusses other approaches to voter-verifiable paper audit

trails. These issues do not apply to the design described in this paper ─ the

voter-verifiable paper ballot.

25

Rebecca Mercuri has proposed that Direct Recording Electronic voting

machines have a paper audit trail that is maintained under glass, so the voter

does not have the opportunity to touch it or change it.

26 Some vendors are

proposing that paper from a spool be shown to the voter, and if the ballot is

verified, a cutter will release the paper audit trail piece to drop into the box

for safekeeping.

27 The challenge with this approach is to make sure that all

of the paper audit trail is readable by the voter and does not curl away out of

view, and yet that paper audit trails from previous voters are obscured from

view. Furthermore, there is the problem that the paper audit trail would fall

in a more-or-less chronologically ordered pile. It is also difficult to reconcile

the paper audit trail with the electronic ballot images in an automated

manner if the paper audit trail cannot be sheet-fed.

25 See http://evm2003.sourceforge.net/security.html for the difference between a paper receipt

and a paper ballot, and between a paper audit trail and an electronically generated paper

ballot. 26 Rebecca Mercuri, A Better Ballot Box?, IEEE SPECTRUM ONLINE (October 2002), available

at
http://spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/publicfeature/oct02/evot.html 27 For
reference, see Avanti VOTE-TRAKKERTMEVC308, available at

http://aitechnology.com/votetrakker2/evc308.html

Page 19 of 20

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20 Chapter #

Another approach is to keep the paper audit trail on a continuous spool.

28

While this approach has the potential to allow the audit trail to be more

easily scanned in an automated fashion for reconciliation, privacy is

compromised by maintaining an audit trail of the cast ballots in

chronological order. We described above why maintaining order information

is a problem for privacy.

6. CONCLUSION

We have described the Open Voting Consortium’s voting system that

includes a PC-based open-source voting machine with a voter-verifiable

accessible paper ballot, and discussed the privacy issues inherent in this

system. By extension, many of the privacy issues in this paper also apply to

other electronic voting machines, such as Direct Recording Electronic voting

machines. The discussion illustrates why careful and thorough design is

required for voter privacy. Even more work would be required to ensure that

such systems are secure and reliable.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We acknowledge the work of the volunteers of the Open Voting Consortium

who contributed to the design and implementation we describe. In particular,

Alan Dechert developed much of the design and Doug Jones provided

significant insights into voting issues. The demonstration software was

largely developed by Jan Kärrman, John-Paul Gignac, Anand Pillai, Eron

Lloyd, David Mertz, Laird Popkin, and Fred McLain. Karl Auerbach wrote

an FAQ on which the OVC system description is based. Amy Pearl also

contributed to the system description. Kurt Hyde and David Jefferson gave

valuable feedback. David Dill referred some of the volunteers.

An extended abstract of this paper appeared at the Workshop on Privacy

in the Electronic Society on October 28, 2004 in Washington DC, part of

ACM CCS 2004 (Conference on Computer and Communications Security).

Other papers on this topic are at http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/keller

under electronic voting. More information on the Open Voting Consortium

may be found at http://www.openvotingconsortium.org.

28 Press Release, Sequoia Voting Systems, Sequoia Voting Systems Announces Plan to Market

Optional Voter Verifiable Paper Record Printers for Touch Screens in 2004,

available at http://www.sequoiavote.com/article.php?id=54

Page 20 of 20

Page 20 of 20

comments (0)
2094 Sat 31 Dec 2016 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan of Free Online Buddhism - World Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506Awaken One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things) - the art of Giving, taking and Living to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM). Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by Start using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF. Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body. from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up free online university research practice up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/ email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card modinotourpm@gmail.com jchandra1942@icloud.com sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay. http://picphotos.net/narendra-modi-cartoons/ http://blog.grabon.in/modis-currency-ban-summed-up-in-5-gi…/ http://www.firstpost.com/…/india-singapore-tax-treaty-amend… Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) (Mad)i)) launches ‘Bheem App’ in digital push. http://indianexpress.com/…/why-hope-in-up-based-on-only-da…/ Why hope in Uttar Pradesh based on only SC/STs, Muslims of sarvajan samaj including Upper castes is Maya http://www.jantakareporter.com/…/serious-discontent-…/89124/ Serious discontent emerges among BJP and RSS leaders over note ban impact on assembly polls Uttar Pradesh: begins rallies in all 75 districts Mayawati will come to power in UP Mayawati is already leading..because of Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhaya, is she planning to win all the 400 seats..not to leave any seats for Murderer of democratic institutions ((Modi).
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 1:14 am



2094 Sat 31 Dec 2016


LESSONS


from

Rector
JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart

an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
of


Free Online
Buddhism - World

Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506
Awaken One With Awareness Mind
(A1wAM)
+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss
as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on
Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic
Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).


Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start
using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use
of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru
FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice
Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,
lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for
health mind in a healthy body.



 from

INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up


free online university research practice









up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/












email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card


modinotourpm@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in



is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.


Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and

to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvaj
an Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://picphotos.net/narendra-modi-cartoons/

http://blog.grabon.in/modis-currency-ban-summed-up-in-5-gi…/

http://www.firstpost.com/…/india-singapore-tax-treaty-amend…

Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) (Mad)i)) launches ‘Bheem App’ in digital push.

http://indianexpress.com/…/why-hope-in-up-based-on-only-da…/

Why hope in Uttar Pradesh based on only SC/STs, Muslims of sarvajan samaj including Upper castes is Maya

http://www.jantakareporter.com/…/serious-discontent-…/89124/

Serious discontent emerges among BJP and RSS leaders over note ban impact on assembly polls

Uttar Pradesh: begins rallies in all 75 districts

Mayawati will come to power in UP


Mayawati is already leading..because of Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan
Sukhaya, is she planning to win all the 400 seats..not to leave any
seats for Murderer of democratic institutions ((Modi).




http://indianexpress.com/…/why-hope-in-up-based-on-only-da…/

Why hope in Uttar Pradesh based on only SC/STs, Muslims of sarvajan samaj including Upper castes is Maya


Results of past elections show that not only has Mayawati’s SC/STs
Muslims of sarvajan samaj including Upper castes votes increased , she
has found the going is not difficult with support from other upper
castes.

You will see that BSP will win 400 plus seats.


As electoral combinations are discussed ahead of Assembly elections in
UP, it is allways believed that a solid SC/ST base and Muslim and poor
Upper castes support — adding up to 99% of the vote — can put the BSP
in the driver’s seat. It is assumed that Muslims, upset after a series
of communal incidents, would move away from the ruling SP. Results of
past elections, however, show that not only has Mayawati’s SC/ST vote
increased , she has not found the going difficult with upper castes.


Rajya Sabha MP Satish Chandra Misra, and the Upadhyay family of
Aligarh, led by Maya’s former minister Ramveer, have held important
positions in the party for around 2 decades. Entire Sarvajan samaj feel
that if Mayawati becomes the PM the whole country will be peaceful as
she will distribute the wealth of the country equally among all sections
of the society as enshrined in our constitutions with then policy of
Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhaya.

The BSP’s 2007 victory — with
over 30% votes — was largely because Maya put Misra in front and fielded
a large number of Brahmins, who suddenly allowed the BSP to speak for
“sarvajan” and “social engineering”. However, in 2014, even as Maya gave
21 out of 80 tickets to Brahmins — the most to any caste — not one
could win.

That was because the fraud EVMs were tampered to
gobble the Master key by the Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)
with the support of PRESSTITUTE media as suggested by BJP but yet
support them for the sake of money. The media is is only with the
urbanites and not with the masses like internet, facebook and WhatsApps
where every intellectuals and the common man became journalists and
scribes. Once Napolean said that he can face two battalions but not two
scribes. The nettizens are those scribes mentioned by Napolean and not
the money greed PRESSTITUTES.
From JAN 1st they will be fully supporting Modi or Mad(i).


Results
of past elections show that not only has Mayawati’s Dalit vote shrunk,
she has found the going difficult without support from other — read
upper — castes.
indianexpress.com


http://picphotos.net/narendra-modi-cartoons/

http://blog.grabon.in/modis-currency-ban-summed-up-in-5-gi…/

http://www.firstpost.com/…/india-singapore-tax-treaty-amend…

Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) (Mad)i)) launches ‘Bheem App’ in digital push.
Entire Sarvajan Samaj i.e., OBCs/Religious Minorities/Upper castes in
general and the SC/STs in particular oppose naming an app as Bheem App
to popularise his failed idea which killed innocent citizens in his
QUEUE INDIA MOVEMENT to withdraw their own money . To hush up his grave
sins the madi has taken refuge under the name of Babasaheb. He cannot
fool the world as they are aware of his cunning and crooked ideas. He
has no right to use the name of the Chief Archetect of our Modern
Constitution Dr BR Ambedkar for a lucky dip. Sarvajan Samaj condemns his
unconstitutional act as he is selected by the tampering of the fraud
EVMs.
The ex CJI had committed a grave error by ordering that the
EVMs could be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC
Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores invloved in replacing the
entire EVMs. Only 8 out of 543 seats in 2014 Lok Sabha elections were
replaced that helped madi gobble the Master Key.
The present CEC
said that only in 2019 entire EVMs will be repalced. But none of them
ordered for using the paper ballots until entire EVMs were replaced.

Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost in Lok Sabha because of these fraud EVMs while it won with a thumping majorityt with paper ballots.


Hence it is the duty of Sarvajan Samaj, the nes CJI, CEC to see that
the Central and State governments selected by these fraud EVMs be
dissolved and go for fresh polls with paper ballots.

Modi’s currency ban

1. The most wanted man in the whole country right now!

loose change currency ban Translation: My name is Bulla and I keep loose change.

getting change currency ban Translation: I have come to get change for my Rs 1000 notes.

4. Winter is here and no firewood? Might as well burn all the useless money.

money firewood currency ban

5. And finally, It’s not about the money…

money burning currency ban


Pics Photos - Narendra Modi Cartoons
picphotos.net

http://www.jantakareporter.com/…/serious-discontent-…/89124/

Serious discontent emerges among BJP and RSS leaders over note ban impact on assembly polls


The shock note ban announcement by the Murderer of democratic
institutions( Modi )has left everyone in his party incredibly worried
about its potential adverse impact on their electoral fortunes in
poll-bound states next year.

News
agency Reuters, which claimed to have interviewed the saffron party’s
lawmakers and a senior functionary of the BJP’s ideological parent, the
RSS, said that there was a considerable disquiet among the party cadres
on demonetisation.

“There is no doubt that it is difficult to
convince voters that everything will be fine,” Santosh Gangwar, who is
leading the BJP campaign in Uttar Pradesh, was quoted by the news
agency.

Gangwar added, “Every candidate who will be contesting
polls is nervous because they feel people may not vote for the BJP …
There is tension and we cannot deny it,” he said.

Such is the
worry among the BJP’s senior functionaries that 71 MPs from Uttar
Pradesh reportedly met the BJP President Amit Shah as well as visited
Arun Jaitly to seek solutions for the cash crunch.

An RSS leader
said that they had advised Modi days before the move to take time to
prepare the ground for such a massive exercise, including setting up two
new mints and expanding the banking network, and to roll it out in
phases.

But, the RSS leader, Modi decided to press ahead, and he alone would bear responsibility for its failure or success.


Jagdambika Pal, a BJP lawmaker from Uttar Pradesh who attended the
meeting, told Reuters, “The situation is grim, and we cannot ignore it.
It is a challenge for every BJP lawmaker to manage the situation, but we
cannot do anything if there is no money in the banks.”

Modi ne kaha tha jaise matadan samay me EVM ke charcha hota.. said Ananthkumar.


That is during election time people discus about EVMs that they could
be tampered in favour of BJP as it was done during the 2014 Lok Sabha
elections.

The ex CJI had committed a grave error of judgement by
ordering that the EVMs would be replaced in a phased manner as
suggested by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores
involved in entire replacement of the fraud EVMs.

The present CEC
said that the entire EVMs would be replaced in 2019 and none of them
ordered for using paper ballots till the entire EVMs were replaced.


Therefore all democracy loving people CJI, CEC and even the
discontented BJP, RSS must seeto it that the Central and State
governments selected by these fraud EVMs were dissolved and go for fresh
polls with paper ballots as followed by 80 democracies of the world to
save equality, liberty and fraternity as enshrined in our modern
constitution.


Shock
note ban announcement by PM Modi has left many in his party incredibly
worried about its potential adverse impact on their electoral fortunes
jantakareporter.com|By JKR Staff


Uttar Pradesh: begins rallies in all 75 districts

Mayawati will come to power in UP


Mayawati is already leading..because of Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan
Sukhaya, is she planning to win all the 400 seats..not to leave any
seats for Murderer of democratic institutions ((Modi).


Whenever the just 1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching
lunatic. mentally retarded chitpawan brahmin RSS (Rakshasa Swayam
Sevaks) guided BJP (Bahut Jiyadha Psychopaths ) start finding fault with
BSP it means that BSP in on the right path as said by Dr BR Ambedkar.


The plan of RSS to make this country as a stealth, shadowy
discriminating hinutva cult rashtra is snubbed by the 99% Sarvajan
Samaj.

The party’s public meeting in Lucknow district on Saturday
will be presided over by former state president Dayaram Pal, who hails
from the backward Gadariya caste.

Pal confirmed that he will
preside over the meeting where BSP general secretary Naseemuddin
Siddiqui will be the chief guest. The party will hold similar programmes
across the state in the coming few days.Among the prominent OBC leaders
who will be part of these rallies are former speaker Sukhdeo Rajbhar,
BSP state president Ram Achal Rajbhar, former minister Lalji Verma,
former MP RK Singh Patel, and former MLC Pratap Singh Baghel.


Party sources said that the SP was “losing its grip” on backward castes,
especially non-Yadav castes, more so because of the widening rift
between Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav and party state president Shivpal
Yadav, BSP has been in a position to take these sections into its fold.


On the death anniversary of BR Ambedkar on December 6, Mayawati had
successfully persuaded the OBCs to not support BJP, alleging that the
party wants to re-establish the stealth, shadowy, discriminating
hindutva caste system in which both Aboriginal inhabitants Backward
Castes and SC/STs were treated as shudras and adi shudras and by upper
castes.


The
party’s public meeting in Lucknow district on Saturday will be presided
over by former state president Dayaram Pal, who hails from the backward
Gadariya caste.
indianexpress.com

comments (0)
12/29/16
B. Iriyāpatha Pabba-
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 6:19 pm



B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 



http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif





Page 1 of 2

Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine

Arthur M. Keller

UC Santa Cruz, Baskin

School of Engineering

Santa Cruz, CA 95066

+1(831)459-1485

ark@soe.ucsc.edu

David Mertz

Gnosis Software, Inc.

99 2nd Street

Turners Falls, MA 01376

+1(413)863-4552

mertz@gnosis.cx

Joseph Lorenzo Hall

UC Berkeley, SIMS

102 South Hall

Berkeley, CA 94720

+1(510)642-1464

joehall@berkeley.edu

Arnold Urken

Stevens Inst. of Technology,

Political Science

Hoboken, NJ 07030

+1(201) 216-5394

aurken@stevens.edu

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we describe the Open Voting Consortium’s voting

system and discuss the privacy issues inherent in this system. By

extension, many of the privacy issues in this paper also apply to

other electronic voting machines, such as DREs (Direct

Recording Electronic voting machines). The privacy issues

illustrate why careful and thorough design is required to ensure

voter privacy and ballot secrecy.

Categories and Subject Descriptors: K.4.1 [Computers and

Society]: Public Policy Issues — privacy.

General Terms: Design, Human Factors, Legal Aspects.

Keywords: Electronic voting, open source, privacy design.

1. INTRODUCTION

The requirements for secrecy in elections depend upon the

values and goals of the political culture where voting takes place.

Gradations of partial and complete privacy can be found in

different cultural settings. Most modern polities institutionalize

the ideal of complete privacy by relying on anonymous balloting.

The use of secret balloting in elections — where a ballot’s

contents are disconnected from the identity of the voter — can be

traced back to the earliest use of ballots themselves in 6th Century

B.C.E. Athens, Greece. The public policy rationales for instituting

anonymous balloting typically aim to minimize bribery and

intimidation of the voter [1]. Secret ballots, although not always

required, have been in use in America since colonial times.

Today, almost one hundred years after most states in the U.S.

passed laws to require anonymous balloting, a strong sense of

voter privacy has emerged as a third rationale.

These cultural values and practices contribute to the sets of

user requirements that define the expectations of voters in

computer-mediated elections and determine alternative sets of

specifications that can be considered in developing open source

software systems for elections [7]. The Open Voting Consortium

(OVC) has developed a model election system that aims as one of

its goals to meet these requirements. This paper describes how the

OVC model ensures ballot privacy.

The OVC has developed the model for an electronic voting

system largely in response to the reliability, usability, security,

trustworthiness, and accessibility concerns of other voting

systems. Privacy was kept in mind throughout the process of

designing this system. Section 2 of this paper discusses the

requirements for a secret ballot in more detail and how secrecy

could be compromised in some systems. Section 3 describes how

the OVC handles the privacy concerns. While this paper focuses

mostly on privacy issues for US-based elections, and how they are

addressed in the OVC system, many of the issues raised are

applicable elsewhere.

2. SECRET BALLOT REQUIREMENTS

The public policy goals of secret balloting — to protect the

privacy of the elector and minimize undue intimidation and

influence — are supported by federal election laws and

regulations. The Help America Vote Act of 2002 [5] codifies this

as “anonymity” and “independence” of all voters, “privacy” and

“confidentiality” of ballots and requires that the Federal Election

Commission create standards that “[preserve] the privacy of the

voter and the confidentiality of the ballot.”

The Federal Election Commission (FEC) has issued a set of

Voting System Standards (VSS) [4] that serve as a model of

functional requirements that elections systems must meet before

they can be certified for use in an election. The FEC VSS state

explicitly:

“To facilitate casting a ballot, all systems shall: […] Protect the

secrecy of the vote such that the system cannot reveal any

information about how a particular voter voted, except as

otherwise required by individual State law;” ([4] at § 2.4.3.1(b).)

This high level requirement of not exposing any information

about how an individual voted is required of all voting systems

before certification.

It is not sufficient for electronic voting systems to merely

anonymize the voting process from the perspective of the voting

machine. Each time a ballot is cast, the voting system adds an

entry to one or more software or firmware logs with a timestamp

and an indication that a ballot was cast. If the timestamp log is

combined with the contents of the ballot, this information

becomes much more sensitive. For example, it can be combined

with information about the order of votes cast collected at the

polling place with surveillance equipment — from cell phone

cameras to security cameras common at public schools — to

compromise the confidentiality of the ballot. As described below,

system information collected by the voting system should be kept

separated from the content of cast ballots and only used in

conjunction by authorized, informed elections officials.

Rebecca Mercuri proposed that Direct Recording Electronic

(DRE) voting machines have a paper audit trail maintained under

glass, so the voter does not have the opportunity to touch it or

change it. [6] Some vendors are proposing that paper from a spool

be shown to the voter, and a cutter releases the paper audit trail

piece to drop into a box for safekeeping. [2] A challenge is to

make sure that all of the paper audit trail is readable by the voter,

doesn’t curl away out of view, and yet the paper audit trails from

previous voters is obscured from view. However, the paper audit

trail can fall in a more-or-less chronologically ordered pile. The

Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for

personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are

not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that

copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy

otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists,

requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.

WPES’04, October 28, 2004, Washington, DC, USA.

Copyright 2004 ACM 1-58113-968-3/04/0010…$5.00.


Page 2 of 2

problem of reconciling the paper audit trail with the electronic

ballot image is difficult to do in an automated manner if the paper

audit trail cannot be sheetfed. Another approach is to keep the

paper audit trail on a continuous spool. [7] While this approach

has the potential to be more easily scanned in an automated

fashion for recounts, privacy is compromised by maintaining the

chronological order.

In the longer version of this paper, we discuss in more detail these

issues. We discuss that problem that the voter’s secret identity

must be disclosed to poll workers and yet not be discernable from

the ballot. Covert channels can be used to transfer identity of the

voter to the ballot. A critical example is when the machine that

prepares for the voter an authorizing token also contains the voter

registration data, which might be passed to the electronic voting

machine through that authorizing token.

3. SECURITY, PRIVACY, RELIABILITY

In the full version of this paper, we discuss a variety of issues and

their solutions in security, privacy, and reliability for the voting

system designed by the Open Voting Consortium and described

more fully there.

Some of these issues are the following.

The Advantage of Free and Open Source Software. When

the system is a black box, where the source code is maintained as

a trade secret, we must trust the official testers. A frequent

criticism of free and open source software is that, while the code

is available for inspection, no coordinated inspection is actually

conducted. [3] The absence of Non-Disclosure Agreements and

restrictive intellectual property agreements encourages the large

body of open source developers to inspect the code.

Randomization of Ballot-IDs. Under the OVC design

ballots carry ballot-IDs to enable auditing of official paper ballots

against unofficial electronic ballot images. Ballot IDs are easily

remembered and can be a vehicle for disclosing the vote.

Privacy Issues with Barcodes. The Open Voting

Consortium system design uses a barcode to automate the

scanning and tallying of paper ballots. Such barcodes raise several

possibilities for introducing covert channels.

Privacy in the Voting Token. The token given to the voter

to enable her to use the electronic voting machine might contain

information that could compromise anonymity. Analysis of the

software and the poll worker interface for encoding the voter

token can show the type of information that can be encoded.

Information Hidden in Electronic Ballot Images and

Their Files. The electronic ballot images (EBIs) are stored on the

electronic voting machine where the ballot was created. Storing

the EBIs in a database management system can record sequence

information that can be used to identify voters. Flat files can

include the date/time in the file directory, a potential privacy risk.

Reading Impaired Interface. It is important that the ballot

not record that the voter used the reading impaired interface. Nor

should the electronic voting machine maintain such information in

a way that identifies specific ballots. If a separate reading

impaired voting station is used, the ballot-ID should be generated

in a manner that does not identify the voting station used.

Printed Ballot. The secrecy of the voter’s selections is at

risk while the voter carries the paper ballot around the polling

place. We use a privacy folder — an ordinary manila folder

trimmed along the long edge so that the barcode sticks out.

Ballot Validation Station. The ballot validation station

allows visually impaired voters, or anyone, to hear through

headphones and therefore validate their paper ballots. Ballot-IDs

should not be persistently stored by the ballot validation station.

Languages. Steve Chessin identified a problem with ballots

for non-English speakers when printed in the voter’s own

language. This approach makes bilingual ballots easy to identify,

and that can compromise ballot anonymity if only a small number

of voters in a given precinct choose a particular language.

Public Vote Tallying. It is important that the ballots be

shuffled before publicly visible scanning occurs. The ballots will

naturally be ordered based on the time they were placed in the

ballot box. The sequence of voting is a potential privacy risk.

Results by Precinct. Care must be taken to ensure that

results posted by precinct do not compromise privacy and yet can

be reconciled against county totals.

Privacy in the Face of Voter Collusion. Complex cast

ballots, taken as a whole, contain potential covert channels.

4. CONCLUSION

We have discussed the privacy issues inherent the Open Voting

Consortium’s voting system that includes a PC-based open-source

voting machine with a voter-verifiable accessible paper ballot. By

extension, many of the privacy issues in this paper also apply to

other electronic voting machines, such as DREs (Direct

Recording Electronic voting machines). The privacy issues

illustrate why careful and thorough design is required for voter

privacy. Imagine how much work is required to ensure that such

systems are secure and reliable.

Further information about the Open Voting Consortium can be

found at http://www.openvotingconsortium.org. This paper is an

extended abstract; a longer version may be found at

http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/keller.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We acknowledge the work of the volunteers of the Open Voting

Consortium who contributed to the design and implementation we

describe. In particular, Alan Dechert developed much of the

design and Doug Jones provided significant insights into voting

issues. The demonstration software was largely developed by Jan

Kärrman, John-Paul Gignac, Anand Pillai, Eron Lloyd, David

Mertz, Laird Popkin, and Fred McLain. Karl Auerbach wrote an

FAQ on which the OVC system description is based. Amy Pearl

also contributed to the system description. Kurt Hyde and David

Jefferson gave valuable feedback. David Dill referred some of the

volunteers.

6. REFERENCES

[1] Albright, S. The American Ballot. American Council on Public Affairs,

Washington, D.C., 1942.

[2] Avante VOTE-TRAKKERTM EVC308-SPR,

http://www.aitechnology.com/votetrakker2/evc308spr.html.

[3] Cohen, F. Is Open Source More or Less Secure? Managing Network

Security, 2002, 7 (Jul. 2002), 17–19.

[4] Federal Election Commission. Voting System Standards. Vols. 1 & 2

(2002), http://www.fec.gov/pages/vssfinal/

[5] Help America Vote Act, 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 15301 – 15545.

[6] Mercuri, R. A Better Ballot Box? IEEE Spectrum Online, October 2,

2002, http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/

publicfeature/oct02/evot.html

[7] Sequoia Voting Systems, “Sequoia Voting Systems Announces Plan to

Market Optional Voter Verifiable Paper Record Printers for Touch

Screens in 2004,” http://www.sequoiavote.com/article.php?id=54

[8] Urken, A. B. Voting in a Computer-Networked Environment. In The

Information Web: Ethical and Social Implications of Computer

Networking, Carol Gould (ed.), Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 1989.

Page 2 of 2

comments (0)
12/28/16
2092 Thu 29 Dec 2016 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan of Free Online Buddhism - World Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506Awaken One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things) - the art of Giving, taking and Living to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM). Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by Start using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF. Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body. from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up free online university research practice up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/ email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card modinotourpm@gmail.com jchandra1942@icloud.com sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay. http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif UP Assembly election: Advantage BSP, while uncle Shivpal has the last laugh over nephew Akhilesh The BSP will turn out to be the biggest beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family. The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used. Magadhi [Pali] Prakrit of the Thervadin Buddhists Of all the Buddhists Traditions, Theravada was the only sect to preserve the usage of Magadhi Prakrit in its literature. [The term “Pali” was traditionally used for denoting the Texts in the language, the language is itself referred to as Magadhi in Theravadin literature]. https://www.reddit.com/…/what_language_did_siddhartha_gau…/… TRIKURAL AND TRIVALLUVAR The Tripitaka, the earliest collection of Buddhist teachings and the only text recognized as canonical by Theravada Buddhists Please visit http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for animated yoga postures http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?m=201206 http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojHBcT5e_M8 Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya DN 16 - (D ii 137) Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 7:30 pm



2092 Thu 29 Dec 2016


LESSONS


from

Rector
JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart

an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
of


Free Online
Buddhism - World

Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506
Awaken One With Awareness Mind
(A1wAM)
+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss
as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on
Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic
Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).


Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start
using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use
of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru
FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice
Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,
lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for
health mind in a healthy body.



 from

INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up


free online university research practice









up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/












email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card


modinotourpm@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in



is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.


Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and

to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvaj
an Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

UP Assembly election: Advantage BSP, while uncle Shivpal has the last laugh over nephew Akhilesh

The BSP will turn out to be the biggest beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family.
The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used.

Magadhi [Pali] Prakrit of the Thervadin Buddhists


Of all the Buddhists Traditions, Theravada was the only sect to
preserve the usage of Magadhi Prakrit in its literature. [The term
“Pali” was traditionally used for denoting the Texts in the language,
the language is itself referred to as Magadhi in Theravadin literature].


https://www.reddit.com/…/what_language_did_siddhartha_gau…/…

TRIKURAL AND TRIVALLUVAR

The Tripitaka, the earliest collection of Buddhist teachings and the only text recognized as canonical by Theravada Buddhists

Please visit http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for animated yoga postures
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?m=201206

http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm

Summary of the Problem with Electronic Voting
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZWVzSnVBcVY4a28/view


http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

UP Assembly election: Advantage BSP, while uncle Shivpal has the last laugh over nephew Akhilesh

The BSP will turn out to be the biggest beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family.


Marginalised by his own father and subdued by his own uncle, a
seemingly fuming but apparently helpless Akhilesh Yadav may be talking
of persuading Mulayam to rethink on the list, but the announcement has
already been made undermining his authority.

It’s clear that his
uncle Shivpal Yadav has had the last laugh, but possibly after the
Assembly elections in UP, the BSP will turn out to be the biggest
beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family.


Meanwhile, BSP supremo Mayawati has been alleging that a tie-up between
Congress and the SP was being engineered by the BJP after the
demonetisation. But ‘Netaji’ Mulayam Singh Yadav put to rest all such
speculations. He categorically stated that Samajwadi Party will go it
alone and have no tie up with anyone in the elections. He also said that
the Samajwadi Party’s nominations for 325 seats were made by him, and
his was the final word.

Today’s development will comfort the BSP
especially since UP’s ruling party is a divided house in itself and that
the ambitious plans of Akhilesh to have a tie up with the Congress has
now been rubbished by Mulayam.

While Mayawati have benefited greatly, BJP’s own prospects have diminished considerably too.

AKHILESH’S AUTHORITY QUESTIONED


The Chacha-Bhatija wedge is threatening to get deeper after several
names in Akhilesh’s own list have been omitted in party nominations.
This coupled with the fact that don-turned politician Atik Ahmed,
despite thumbing his nose several times at Akhilesh, managed to secure
his Kanpur Cantt seat nomination.

Several of those close to
Akhilesh have been dropped from nominations. This has created a question
mark on Akhilesh’s say in party matters.

SP supremo Mulayam
seems to have put aside Akhilesh’s ‘Kaam Bolta Hai’ push, while on an
inauguration spree, and given credence to his younger brother Shivpal. A
deeper chasm in the party coming to the fore might not augur well for
SP, as divisive forces and conflicting interests may act as loggerheads.

In the meantime, it is advantage BSP. Especially, post demonetisation.

The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used.


The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
ordering that the EVMs would be replaced in a phased manner as suggested
by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in
entire replacement.In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections only 8 out of 543
seats were replaced to benefit BJP. They never ordered for using paper
ballots until the entire EVMs were replaced.

Ms Mayawati’s BSP
lost all the Lok Sabha seats because of these EVMs and BSP won majority
of the seats in UP Panchayat elections conducted with paper ballots as
followed by 80 democracies of the world.

All people having faith
in democracy, the present CJI and CEC must dissolve the central and
state governments selected by these fraud EVMs and go for polls with
paper ballots to save equality, liberty and fraternity as enshrined in
our modern constitution for Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for
the welfare, happiness and peace of all societies.

http://www.firstpost.com/…/uttar-pradesh-assembly-election-…

Uttar Pradesh Assembly Election 2017: Mayawati alleges BJP of SC/ST discrimination


Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) -led BJP (Bajuth Jiyadha
Psychopaths) is targetting her because of she is a Aboriginal Scheduled
caste as well as the ‘master key’ to unlocking the upcoming Uttar
Pradesh Assembly election.


Alleging that the BJP has an anti-SC/ST mindset and is being casteist,
Mayawati said, “They don’t like that a Aboriginal Scheduled Caste
daughter working for the upliftment of all societies ,” Mayawati said in
a special press conference on Tuesday.

She said that the Modi is
afraid of Mayawati’s popularity: “Mayawati is the master key to UP
Assembly election and the BJP is shaken.”

Modi must know that the Aboriginal Inhabitants Scheduled Caste is the Mother Caste of all other castes. They are the HRD & D (Human Resource Developers and Distributors) and he must know that all the people belong to a single same race irrespective of castes, creeds, colours and relegions.

The BSP chief
reiterated how the BSP was the first party to oppose demonetisation, and
that Modi is targetting her and the party because it blames her for
fuelling opposition parties to rise up against the move.

She also
clarified on the Rs 100 crore deposited in a BSP account stating that
the party has all the records of the deposits made into its accounts
after demonetisation, and the money was deposited as per the rules of
the BSP. “All the money has been collected after 21 August. We convert
all the donations into notes of higher denominations because it’s easier
to transport. All the donations are collected in Delhi for final
accounting. It’s deposited in banks only after final accounting in my
presence. We were unable to deposit earlier because I was unable to go
to Delhi,” she said.

On a sarcastic note, the BSP chief thanked
the Modi and party president Amit Shah, stating that the tactics of
Modi, Amit Shah of BJP will get her gain full majority in the upcoming
election, just like allegations towards her helped win the election in
2007. “Modi is targetting me and senior members of the party along with
my friends and relatives for political gains. Shah is maligning my
reputation by talking about the ghotalas, and the Taj Corridor. I want
to tell you that most parties in power do that. The BJP especially.
There’s not a single file on the project that went through me. I have
not signed on a single file. They maligned by name between 2003 and
2007, but I got an absolute majority. They are doing it again. And I am
sure the BSP will form a government again with an absolute majority. I
am grateful to them(!)”

Mayawati also challenged the Modi to
divulge records of all bank deposits and purchases made by the party
before and after 8 November.

Taking a jibe at the Modi on
demonetisation, the BSP chief said, “I pray to God that they take a
couple of more decisions like demonetisation and make it easier for us
to form government. I won’t even have to go to the 75 districts for poll
campaigning. I will win sitting at home.”


A day after reports emerged of deposits worth Rs 100 crore in old notes of Rs 1,000 made in Bahujan…
firstpost.com


http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/narendra-modi-and-his-ministers-declare-assets-heres-what-they-own/




 Modi

Age
66
Marital Status
Separated

Modi and his party declare assets: Here’s what they own



The richest among
Modi’s friends Arun Jaitley, who along with
his wife, has assets worth Rs 72.10 crore.

Modi owns movable assets worth Rs 26,12,288 and immovable assets worth Rs 1 crore.

Rajnath Singh,
who also features in the list, is richer than Modi. He
owns movable assets worth Rs 66,41,260.33 and immovable assets worth Rs
1,90,00,000. He has also declared the wealth owned by his
wife, and it’s worth Rs 40,88,871.

Sushma Swaraj has declared her wealth worth Rs 2,98,48,485, in addition
to an ancestral land in Palwal, Haryana. Her husband, Swaraj Kaushal,
has movable assets worth Rs 8,88,91,635 and immovable worth Rs
3,18,90,050 (total wealth worth Rs 12,07,81,685).

The list further has declaration of assets by all the friends of Modi .

What about undeclared asets ?

Why do they need our currency.They were in foreign countries last year!!!!

Rs
5000 crore spent by Modi in election campaining…..can modi remotely
controlled by Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) declare the source of
funding.

Mark
 

Modi has only 1.3cr.huh What a joke..

Citizen
 Good
at last a beginning is made now it is for the citizens to keep track
and be vigilant on these things to find any wrong doing by these guys
so that some good advocate/group can file a PIL in the courts to haul
them up.



http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2016/12/02/modis-demonetization-is-a-cure-worse-than-the-disease-for-india/#344d205a5c58
In November 2016 he unexpectedly announced plans to eliminate Country’s
two largest bank notes in a bid to reduce money laundering and
corruption, creating a nationwide frenzy to quickly swap out the bills.

Modi’s Demonetization Is a Cure Worse Than The Disease For The Country

Tuesday  marked four weeks since Modi
made his surprise demonetization announcement that has sent shockwaves
throughout the South Asian country’s economy.

In an effort by Modi to combat black money and put Rs 15 lakhs in every citizens bank accounts all
500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes are no longer recognized as legal tender.

Inevitably, low-income and rural households have been hardest hit by
Modi’s currency reform. Barter economies have reportedly sprung up in
many towns and villages. Banks have limited the amount that can be
withdrawn. Scores of weddings have been called off. Indian stocks
plunged below their 200-day moving average.


indian stocks tumble following modis demonetization announcement




Buys, holds, and hopes

Frank Holmes Frank Holmes, Contributor

Next
Tuesday will mark four weeks since Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi
made his surprise demonetization announcement that has sent shockwaves
throughout the South Asian country’s economy.

overnight indian prime minister narendra modi killed 90 nations currency

In an effort to combat corruption, tax evasion and counterfeiting,
all 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes are no longer recognized as legal
tender.

I’ve previously written about the possible ramifications of the “war on cash,”
which is strengthening all over the globe, even here in the U.S. Many
policymakers, including former Treasury Secretary Larry Summers, are in
favor of axing the $100 bill. In May, the European Central Bank (ECB)
said it would stop printing the 500 euro note, though it will still be
recognized as legal currency. The decision to scrap the “Bin Laden”
banknote, as it’s sometimes called, hinged on its association with money
laundering and terror financing.

Electronic payment systems are convenient, fast and easy, but when a government imposes this decision on you, your economic liberty is debased.
In a purely electronic system, every financial transaction is not only
charged a fee but can also be tracked and monitored. Taxes can’t be
levied on emergency cash that’s buried in the backyard. Central banks
could drop rates below zero, essentially forcing you to spend your money
or else watch it rapidly lose value.

Inevitably, low-income and rural households have been hardest hit by
Modi’s currency reform. Barter economies have reportedly sprung up in
many towns and villages. Banks have limited the amount that can be
withdrawn. Scores of weddings have been called off. Indian stocks
plunged below their 200-day moving average.

indian stocks tumble following modis demonetization announcement

Recommended by Forbes

Demonetization has also weighed heavily on the country’s
manufacturing sector. The Nikkei India Manufacturing PMI fell to 52.3 in
November from October’s 54.4. Although still in expansion mode,
manufacturing production growth slowed, possibly signaling further
erosion in the coming months.

Indian Manufacturing Cools in December


The Country Runs on Cash


The two Country’s bills in question, worth $7.50 and $15, represented an
estimated 86 percent of all cash in circulation by value. No two bills
in the U.S. so dominate transactions quite like the Rs500 and Rs1,000
notes, but imagine if tomorrow the Treasury Department killed everything
north of the $20 bill. Despite the widespread availability and
acceptability of electronic payment systems, this would be devastating
to many American consumers who prefer cash or who are underbanked.


Because Country’s economy relies predominantly on cash, the effects
will be far greater. ATMs are scarce, and few rural Indians have a
credit or debit card. An estimated 600 million Indians—nearly half the
country’s population—are without a bank account. Three hundred million
have no government identification, necessary to open an account. By
comparison, about
7 percent of Americans are unbanked, with an additional 20 percent underbanked, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).

In india cash is king


This is one of the main reasons why the Country’s people have traditionally held
gold in such high demand. Many have little faith in banks and other
financial institutions, preferring instead to store their wealth in
something more reliable and tangible. So great is Countrys’ appetite for
the yellow metal that prices have
historically surged in September,
following the end of the monsoon season and ahead of Diwali and the
wedding season, when gifts of gold jewelry are typically given.


“Gold is a need of the [the Country’s] people,” says Suresh Jain, owner of India’s B.J. Jain Jewellers, as quoted in the Financial Times. “It is not a luxury item. It is essential.”


Ironically, though, Modi’s demonetization scheme will likely hurt
gold demand in the long run, “by dramatically reducing the stock of
black money hitherto used in a large chunk of purchases,” according to
the Financial Times.

As per the article in Forbes and Ms Mayawati
we are already in a worst than emergency days. 99% of the people are
affected by this economic emergency. May be Modi is trying through such
polls to officially declare emergency.

The nut wants the dictator coconut to declare emergency that is already there.

Just
1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching, cannibal
chitpawan brahmin Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) psychopaths are for
emergency for their stealth, shadowy discriminating hindutva cult
rashtra. But the 99% Sarvajan Samaj like our Chief Architect of Modern
Constitution Dr BR Ambedkar which is for equality, liberty and
farternity opposed to manuvad that believes in brahmins as 1st rate,
kshatras as 2nd, Vyshayas as 3rd and Shudras as 4th rate athmas (Souls )
and the aboriginal inhabitant SC?STs having no souls so that any crime
cand be done for them. But the Buddha never believed in any soul. He
said all are equal and that is enshrined in our modern constitution for
Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for the welfare, happiness and
peace for all societies.


overnight indian prime minister narendra modi killed 90 nations currency


The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used.


The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
ordering that the EVMs would be replaced in a phased manner as suggested
by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in
entire replacement.In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections only 8 out of 543
seats were replaced to benefit BJP. They never ordered for using paper
ballots until the entire EVMs were replaced.


Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost all the Lok Sabha seats because of these EVMs
and BSP won majority of the seats in UP Panchayat elections conducted
with paper ballots as followed by 80 democracies of the world.


All people having faith in democracy, the present CJI and CEC must
dissolve the central and state governments selected by these fraud EVMs
and go for polls with paper ballots to save equality, liberty and
fraternity as enshrined in our modern constitution for Sarvajan Hitay
Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for the welfare, happiness and peace of all
societies.

Magadhi [Pali] Prakrit of the Thervadin Buddhists


Of all the Buddhists Traditions, Theravada was the only sect to
preserve the usage of Magadhi Prakrit in its literature. [The term
“Pali” was traditionally used for denoting the Texts in the language,
the language is itself referred to as Magadhi in Theravadin literature].

The usage of Pali is still strong among the native Buddhists.
This serves as the strong example for the bonding between the Magadhi
Language & Theravada.

The Theravadins also held the view that their language is
the most natural language and original language.

The fifth century Visuddhimagga by Buddhaghosa declares:


Magadhi is the root of all dialects, which was spoken by Brahmas, by
men before the present kalpa, by those who had neither heard nor uttered
human accent, and also by supreme Buddhas

sā māgadhī mūla bhāsā nārā yā yādi kappikā
brahmānochassutālāpā sambuddhā ehāpi bāsare

The Atthagatha (commentary) of Abhidhamma Vibhanga, states the below as the view of the Buddha Bhikshu Tissadatta Thera:

seated_buddha_in_bhumisparshamudra_rm56


If a new born baby is kept isolated and but not hear any language
spoken by any one, he would speak the Magadhl If, again, a person in an
uninhabited forest, in which no speech (is heard), should intuitively
attempt to articulate words, he would speak the very Magadhi.

It predominates in all regions (such as) Hell; the animal kingdom; the
Preta sphere ; the human world ; and the world of the devas. The rest
of the eighteen languages—Otta, Kirata, Andhaka, Yonaka, Damila, etc.,
undergo changes —but the Magadhi does not, which alone is unchangeable,
and is said to be the speech of Brahmans and Ariyas.

Even Buddha,
who rendered his tipitaka words into texts, did so by means of the very
Magadhi ; and why ? Because by doing so it (was) easy to acquire their
(true) significations. Moreover, the sense of the words of Buddha which
are rendered into doctrines by means of the Magadhi language, is
conceived in hundreds and thousands of ways by those who have attained
the patisambhida, so soon as they reach the ear, or the instant the ear
comes in contact with them ; but discourses rendered into other
languages are acquired with much difficulty.

It (i.e. Magadhi) was first predominant in the hells and in the world of
men and that of the gods. And afterwards the regional languages such as
Andhaka, Yonaka, Damila, etc., as well as the eighteen great languages,
Sanskrit, etc., arose out of it.


va apāyesuu manusse devaloke c’eva paṭhamam ussannā | pacchā ca tato
andhaka yonaka damiḽādi desabhāsā c’eva sakkaṭadi aṭṭhārasa mahābhāsā ca
nibattā |


As the grand finale, here to the view converges to considering Pali as
the source language of all. One interesting point to note that it
considers the Greek Language (Yonaka) as being born from Pali
.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magadhi_Prakrit

Magadhi Prakrit


Magadhi Prakrit (Ardhamāgadhī) is of one of the three Dramatic
Prakrits, the written languages. Magadhi Prakrit was spoken in the
eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region spanning what is now eastern
India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. It is believed to be the language spoken
by the important religious figures Gautama Buddha and Mahavira and was
also the language of the courts of the Magadha mahajanapada and the
Maurya Empire; the edicts of Ashoka were composed in it.

Magadhi
Prakrit later evolved into the Eastern Zone Indo-Aryan languages,
including Assamese, Bengali, Odia and the Bihari languages (Bhojpuri,
Maithili, and Magahi languages, among others).
Pali and Ardhamāgadhī


Theravada Buddhist tradition has long held that Pali was synonymous
with Magadhi and there are many analogies between it and an older form
of Magadhi called Ardhamāgadhī “Proto-Magadhi”. Ardhamāgadhī was
prominently used by Jain scholars and is preserved in the Jain Agamas.
Both Gautama Buddha and the tirthankara Mahavira preached in Magadha.

Pali: Dhammapada 103:

Yo sahassaṃ sahassena, saṅgāme mānuse jine;

Ekañca jeyyamattānaṃ, sa ve saṅgāmajuttamo.

Greater in battle than the man who would conquer a thousand-thousand men, is he who would conquer just one — himself.

http://manipurinfo.tripod.com/


W.Shaw and Raj Mohan Nath , two eminent scholars are of the view that ”
Bishnupriya ” with its Devanagari script had been language of ancient
Manipur.(18)

On the other hand, some other Bishnupriya Scholars
like Dr. K.P. Sinha has objected to claim of Manipur to the alleged
connection of Hindu legend. Dr. Sinha tried to prove his theory on the
basis that Bishnupriya Manipuri language as a resultant language of
Magadhi Prakrit.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magadhi_Prakrit


https://www.reddit.com/…/what_language_did_siddhartha_gau…/…

TRIKURAL AND TRIVALLUVAR

The Tripitaka, the earliest collection of Buddhist teachings and the only text recognized as canonical by Theravada Buddhists.

Trikural, Trimandiram, Trivasagam, Trivennba, Trimaalai, Trikadugam, was later replaced by Thiru and became Thirukural etc.


Pāḷi means “Buddha Vacanam”, the word of the Buddha consisting the
texts of the Tripitaka, the sacred Buddhist Canon, containing the
original teachings of the Buddha. The home of Pāḷi is Magadha. That
is why it is also known as Māgadhi.

The Buddha purposely did not speak in Chandas, the language
of Vedas, also called as Vedic Sanskrit. He spoke in the language of the common people.


“Anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāyaniruttiā Buddhavacanaṁ pariyāpunitaṁ -
Monks, I instruct that the words of the Buddha are learnt in the
standard vernacular of the masses.”

In the latest research when a
just born baby is separated and kept alone it will speak a natural
language of humans that is Magadhi/prakruth/ Pali like all other spices
like birds, animals etc.,have their own language with which it can
interact.

Hence Pali the natural common language of the humans was spoken by the Buddha in all his discourses.

Hence Pali is the mother language of all other languages which are its off shoots.

This apart, chronologically, Pāḷi is decidedly older
than modern classical Sanskrit.

It is hoped that in the age of science and technology when
language studies are becoming more and more objective, Pāḷi should be
studied widely as a discipline inseparable from other classical
languages of Prabuddha Bharath.

The Tripitaka was handed down
orally, and then written down in the third century B.C.E. According to
Buddhist tradition, the contents of the Tripitaka were determined at the
First Buddhist Council, shortly after the Buddha’s death. As many as
500 of Buddha’s disciples assembled, and at the direction of
Mahakashypa, Buddha’s
successor, the teachings of the Buddha were
recited in full. They were then verified by others who had also been
present and organized into the Tripitaka (although not written at the
time).

The Vinaya Pitaka (Discipline Basket) was recalled by a
monk named Upali. It deals with rules and regulations for the monastic
community (the sangha), including 227 rules for monks, further

regulations for nuns, and guidelines for the interaction between the
sangha and the laity. Most of these rules derive from the Buddha’s
responses to specific situations in the community.

The Sutta Pitaka (Discourse Basket) was recited by Ananda, Buddha’s cousin and closest companion. It contains the
Buddha’s teachings on doctrine and behavior, focusing especially on meditation techniques.

The Abhidharma Pitaka (Higher Knowledge or Special Teachings Basket) was recited by Mahakashyapa, the Buddha’s successor.
It is essentially a collection of miscellaneous writings, including songs,
poetry, and stories of the Buddha and his past lives. Its primary
subjects are Buddhist philosophy and psychology. Also within the
Abhidharma Pitaka is the Dhammapada a popular Buddhist text. The
Dhammapada consists of sayings of the Buddha and simple discussions of
Buddhist doctrine based on the Buddha’s
daily life.

Later Thirukural of Thiruvalluvar was written in Dravidian Language,
is the most popular, and most widely esteemed Tamil Classic of all
times. It is a Tamil book on philosophy and life in general, written by
Thiruvalluvar, a sage and philosopher, about 2000 years ago. Its appeal
is universal. It is the only Tamil literary work that has been
translated many times in almost all languages of the world.

Written by the Sage Thiruvalluvar, the Thirukkural is in the
form of couplets which convey noble thoughts.

The Thirukkural is a code of ethics. It has something noble
for the ordinary man, the administrator, the king and the ascetic. It
is global ears ago. It deals with the power of virtue, extols self
control, urges man to perform sacrifice and charity, and elucidates the
qualities that go to make perfection in all people - the married and the
ascetic.

The Thirukkural consists of Divided into three sections, the
first part called arattupaal in 38 chapters enumerates the ways to live
a morally upright life; touching on such things as the happy married life and the greatness of those who renounce.


The second part, called porutpaal tackles the conduct of those involved
in administration and socio-political life; about social
relations and citizenship.

The third part, inbatupaal, deals with love; about
physical longing, about true love and ethics.

Pandidamani Iyodhi Dass thought that the untouchables were
originally Buddhists and their salvation lay in Buddhism. He was the
great thinker and writer, he wrote Trikural apart from Thiruvalluvar
Aaraachi, Kural Kadavul Vaazhuthu etc.

He married Dhanalakshmi, the younger sister of Devan Bhadur
R. Srinivasan, who represented the Depressed Classes with Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar at the Round Table Conference.

Pandit Iyodhi Dass had four sons and two daughters. One of
his sons Shri I.Rajaram went to Natal, South Africa and tried to spread
Buddhism there. Later A.C.P. Periaswamier founded the natal
Buddhist Society in the year 1920.

Pandidamani Iyodhi Dass was the first Buddhist revivalist in
India among the untouchables. He breathed his last 5th May 1914 at the age of 69.


Early Buddhism followed aniconic tradition, which avoids direct
representation of the human figure. But wanted Dhamma to be spread all
over the world. Around the 1st century CE an iconic
period emerged lasting to this day which represents the Buddha in human form.


Buddhist art followed believers as the dharma spread, adapted, and
evolved in each new host country. It developed to the north through
Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern branch of
Buddhist art, and to the east as far as Southeast Asia to form the
Southern branch of Buddhist art. In India, Buddhist art flourished and
even influenced the development of Hindu art

The three-layered
gilt-copper round base is engraved with treasure flowers and curling
grass patterns inlaid with turquoise, lapis lazuli and ivory. The body
of the pagoda is made of lapis lazuli, with the outer surface engraved
with gold-filled Prajna Paramita Sutra. The shoulders of the pagoda are
adorned with four gilt-silver beast faces holding strings of pearls,
turquoises and lapis lazuli stones in their mouths. These strings are
connected with the canopy.

There’s a Buddhist niche on the front
side of the pagoda, with a jade-carved flight of steps at the entrance.
The gilt-silver niche door is engraved with two dragons playing with a
pearl, and the front of the door is fitted with a glass pane bearing the
gold-traced inscriptions “wuliang shoufo zan” (meaning) “Ode to the
Amitayus Buddha”) by Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. There’s a
gold Buddha statue enshrined inside the niche. The 13-storey finial is
decorated with lotus petal patterns and the carved gold canopy is
ringed with lapis lazuli-inlaid Sanskrit inscriptions, with tourmaline-ended strings of pearls and turquoises hanging down.


The sun, crescent moon, flames and treasure pearl at the top are inlaid
with rubies, tourmalines, turquoises and pearls respectively. Thus the
Buddhists rejoice now.

Who has seen how Buddha appeared before 2600 years age?


Thiruvalluvar did not mention even once as ‘god’ in any of 133
chapters with each containing 10 couplets composed in the kural-venba
metre, like the Buddha, who preached Compassion and loving kindness.

The Thirukkural has achieved a perfect balance between the
secular and the spiritual.

Although we can say much about the book, we cannot do the
same about the author. Very little is known about Thiruvalluvar and his life.

Indian sages have this unique quality of making themselves
unimportant and wishing only for their works to be known and useful.


They shy away from talking about themselves. This is one reason why
there is little information about many of our sages. They held the
belief that their message was more important than themselves.
Thiruvalluvar was one of these noble souls.

Thiruvalluvar’s parents names are not conclusively known.


However his wife’s name is given as Vasugi. She is described as the
embodiment of chastity with many stories about her purity being often
quoted even today.

Thiruvalluvar in his Trirukural insisted on Aadhibaghavan,
Vaalivaan, Malar Misai Yeaginaan, Veadudhal, Veeanaamaillaan,
Porivaayil Iyndhavithaan, Thanakuvamaiillaadhavan, Aravaazhi Andanan,
Yenngunathaan, Muraicheidhu Kaaptriya Iraivan which depict Buddha.

Like Buddha’s Dhamma, he Thirukkural can lead to a happy,
contented, morally upright and peaceful life. It can lead to harmonious and peaceful social relations and co-existence.


Please visit http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for animated yoga postures
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?m=201206

http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm

Main Page

Welcome to our yoga postures section. Here you will find
yoga moves that are broken down to the bare basics with colour photos
to match. We also have state of the art flash yoga animation
technology that you can use to view these moves in full screen size,
full colour and with full instruction.

Yogic exercises cater to the needs of each individual
according to his or her specific needs and physical condition. They
involve vertical, horizontal, and cyclical movements, which provide
energy to the system by directing the blood supply to the areas of the
body which need it most.

In yoga, each cell is observed, attended to, and
provided with a fresh supply of blood, allowing it to function smoothly.
The mind is naturally active and dynamic, while the innerself is
luminous. In this section we will give you plenty of yoga images and
instruction.

Breathing Pose

Arm Stretch

Kneeing Twist

Breathing Pose

The simple act of learning to control the breath
has a number of beneficial effects on your wellbeing, ranging from
increasing your energy, to improved relaxation into sleep. It purifies
the body by flushing away the gaseous by products of metabolism and will
also help you to remain calm in the face of the challenges that we
encounter in our everyday lives.

Control of the breath is an essential element in
the art of yoga. When bringing the air in to the abdomen, do not to puff
the stomach out, but pull the air into it while extending the inside
wall. By harnessing the power of the breath the mind can be stilled and
can be prepared for your Yoga practise.

Instruction Table Breathing Basics
1


Sit in a simple cross-legged position on
the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded
blanket under your buttocks.

Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen

Inhale
slowly through the nose feeling the breath filling the abdomen,
bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then the upper chest.

Exhaling
softly feeling the breath leave the abdomen first, then the ribs and
lastly the upper chest. Observe the space at the end of the exhale

2

Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position
resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm.

Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.


Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama
(Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .

Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.

Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .

Please visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

The Virasana Arm/Shoulder Stretch

Hero Pose

The purpose of this pose is to help give the entire
body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It improves
strength and endurance and helps to control your breathing in
conjunction with the movements of the body.

It eases and stimulates the joints especially the
knees, ankles and shoulders. It reduces and alleviates backache and
improves the circulation of the entire body.

Instruction Table
1

Come in to a position on your hands and your

knees with your knees together and your feet slightly wider than hip width apart. Your big

toes & little toes pressing firmly into the floor

2

Push back with your hands & sit between your
buttocks on the floor, make sure you roll your calf muscles out wards so
your not sitting on them.

3


Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your
ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides.

4

Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders down.

5

Exhale lengthen out through the fingertips & turn your palms to the roof. Inhale stretch your arms overhead.

6

Interlock the fingers. Slowly exhaling turn the palms
towards the ceiling, and with a powerful push lift up from the belly
into your chest and shoulders.

7

Exhale bring your hands down in a smooth continuance motion….

8

Now bringing your arms interlocking behind your back
with straight arms, being careful not to roll the shoulders forward,
squeezing the shoulder blades together and opening the chest on the
front of the body.

9

Inhale hands back to the side

Repeat 2-3 more times

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Kneeing Twist Pose

Regular practice of the kneeling twist pose
will aid in your ability to rotate the spine and upper torso more
effectively, while increasing the flexibility and strength in your back
and abdominal muscles. It also massages, stimulates and rejuvenates the
internal abdominal organs.

This pose is a good beginners pose and will get you ready for more advanced twists.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Sit on your heals with your knees together, the tops of the feet
pressing firmly into the ground. Your head, shoulders, and hips should
be in one straight line.

Arms relaxed by the side keep your base firm by contracting your buttocks.

2

Inhale, extending the spine upwards, exhale twist around to the
right, placing your left hand on the outside of your right thigh,
turning the head in the direction of the twist, but keeping the head and
shoulders relaxed.

Take a few breaths here, keeping the stomach soft and the eyes soft.

Repeat on the other side

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Triangle Pose
Tree
Warrior

The Triangle Pose


Triangle pose tones the leg muscles, spinal nerves and abdominal
organs; it contributes towards a strong healthy lower back.

The triangle gives an excellent and complete stretch

throughout the entire body.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

Inhale deeply and jump your feet out landing approx
1.2-1.5m apart. your feet need to be in line and pointing forward at
right angles. Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they
are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of
your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead.

3

Now turn your right foot out while keeping your hips to
the front, and turn your left foot in from 90 to 70 degrees, by pivoting
on your heel. Insure your right heel is in line with the instep of the
left foot.

This is important as it sets the base for this pose.

4

The kneecaps and thighs are pulling up,
simultaneously pushing downward through your feet into the floor.
Inhale, extend the spine, exhale as you bend to the right, pushing out
from the hips, through the right arm…

5

Taking your right hand to a comfortable position on your
leg, your left arm coming up to straight, moving down as far as
possible without turning the hips or torso. Keep the thighs firm and
rolling around towards the buttocks, moving the left hip back and open
the chest.

6

Inhale, extend the neck and spine, exhale, turn your head to look up at your left hand.

Keep
your head, your buttocks and your heels in one straight line,not
looking down with you body, keep opening your whole body up.

Breathe easy.

Click here to view the Triangle pose

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

The Tree Pose

This pose harnesses the powers of mental concentration, while
allowing you to calm the mind. It develops balance and stability, and
strengthens the legs and feet, also increasing flexibility in the hips
and knees.

The tree pose is a balance pose incorporating three lines of
energy, emitting from the centre outwards. One line proceeds down the
straight leg, one line extends up the spine and out the fingertips, and
the third moves outward through the bent knee.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

On your next inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto
your left foot. Exhale bend the right knee, and assisting with your
hand, place the sole of your right foot as high as possible into the
left inner thigh, with toes pointing down, steady yourself, and

breathe easy.

3

Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that
they are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle
of your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely
focused on the pose.

4

Now bring your palms together in prayer
position. Keeping your eyes focused on a point in front of you, will
assist your balance.

5

Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips.

Keep working your right knee back and contracting your buttocks muscles in and down.

Feel your abdomen plane and hips facing straight ahead, while lifting out of the waist.

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The Warrior Pose

Virabhadra

The Warrior pose is
named after the mythic warrior-sage, Virabhadra. This challenging pose
strengthens the entire body while improving mental capacity and self
control.

It builds, shapes and tones the entire lower body. It tones the
abdominal section and helps to prevent, reduce and eliminate back pain.
The entire upper body -front and back- is worked and doing this pose
increases the capacity of the respiratory system.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.

2

Jump your feet sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your
ankles are below your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling
your knees and thighs up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet
firmly into the floor.

Visualise
an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your body,
dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the
centreline.

3

Keep an awareness of this line as you turn your right
foot out to 90 degrees and turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure
the heel of your front foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips
facing forward.


If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing
simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.

4

Inhale, an as you exhale bend your right
leg, pulling up with the outside and inside of the thigh to form a right
angle at the knee. Only go as low as you can with out turning your hips
off centre.

Ideally
you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming
vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through
the back leg into the floor.

5

Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.


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Mountain Pose
Prayer Pose
Shrug

Mountain Yoga Pose

The Mountain Pose is one of the most important poses in yoga. It is the start and finish point of all standing poses.

When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet,
and the body strong and still, like a mountain. This is a pose you can
practise in your daily life, practising to stand correctly will have a
profound influence on your physical and mental well being.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Moutain Pose 1


Stand with your feet hip width apart, so the outsides of the feet are almost parallel edged.

Press and spread the toes into the floor. Feel the weight of your
body distributed evenly through your feet, from the toes to the heels,
keep pressing firmly into the floor.

2

Moutain Posture 2
Lift the kneecaps up by contracting the front thigh
muscles, but not locking the backs of the knees. Pull up with the back
of the thighs, and activate the hip and buttocks to level the pelvis.

3

Mountain Poses Back
Your hips should be directly over your knees, and your
knees over your ankles. This gives you a stable foundation and by
positioning the pelvis properly, keeps the spine healthy.

4

Now extend the spine, by slowly inhaling, lifting up
through the legs as you lift the ribcage, opening the chest and dropping
the shoulders down, extending the neck, keeping the jaw and eyes soft.


5

Bring the shoulder blades into the back, to support the ribcage. Breathe slowly and softly.

Keep your head directly over your shoulders, and look at eye level at a point in front of you.


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The Prayer Pose

This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a
key movement to more advanced poses. This pose will teach you how to
push from under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle
group of the back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses.

It strengthens and aligns the upper body while
releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,
which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the
abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Centre yourself in mountain pose and take a
few deep breaths here, breathing down into the abdomen, continuing the
breathing that you are now familiar with.

2

Inhale, raise your arms to shoulder height and stretch them out in the opposite direction to each other

3

Now twist your arms from the shoulder and turning your palms upwards. Keep the body in a nice strong upright position

4

Bring your arms out in front of you, pushing
your elbows firmly together and your fingers extending away from you,
while focusing on pulling your shoulder blades together..

5

Continue squeezing the elbows together as you bring your palms together

6

Now bend at the elbow and take the forearms to vertical.
Keep pressing firmly with the palms and the elbows as you breathe the
arms upwards. With each exhale moving slightly higher.
Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This
movement will teach you how to push from under the shoulders and out of
the lats, the major muscle group of the back. A key movement in a lot of
yoga poses. This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a key
movement to more advanced poses.

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The Shoulder Shrug

The shoulder rotation is another pose which can be practiced anywhere and at any time.

It strengthens and aligns the shoulder region while
releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,
which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the
abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.

3

As you exhale, rotate the shoulders around

by pushing up out of the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them

in a full circle.

4

Back down into mountain pose

Repeat 3 more times

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Lying Twist
Downward Dog
Seated Forward Bend

The Lying Basic Twist

Doing this pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

The lying twist is another pose which is very
simple yet extremely effective. This pose is soothing to the spine and
neck, and warms and frees the lower back and hips and it also improves
digestion and assists in toxin elimination.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Come to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to
the side and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.

Move your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the
back and shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.

2

Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.

3


Inhale, keeping your knees and ankles together,
Exhale, rolling your knees to the right. Focus on keeping your arms
pressing out wards and your shoulders pushing firmly into the ground.
You may feel or hear your spine lengthening as it extends into the
correct alignment.

Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,

4

Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.

Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side
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The Downward Facing Dog

Adhomukha Svanasana

The downward yoga pose is
named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog stretching itself out.
This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in the legs
while strengthening and shaping the upper body. Dog pose Yoga Posture .
One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try
this one.

Holding this pose for a minute or longer will
stimulate and restore energy levels if you are tired. Regular practice
of this pose rejuvenates the entire body and gently stimulates your
nervous system.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip
width apart and the hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide
pressing firmly into the floor.

2

Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.

3

As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.

4

Now push the floor away from you hands, positioning your
body like an inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to
your shoulders to the hips. Straight arms and straight legs.

As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.

Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.

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The Seated Forward Bend

Paschimottanasana

The purpose of this pose is to give the entire back
of your body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It is
excellent for posture improvement and stimulates the internal organs as
well.

It adds in improved mental concentration and
endurance and helps to control and calm the mind. It relieves
compression while increasing the elasticity of the spine, it also
strengthens and stretches the hamstrings.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you.

Move
the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the
top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your
legs.
2

Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.

Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.

Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you.

Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.
3

Now take your strap around both feet. The
strap`s purpose is to keep the spine straight. This is very important.
Be aware the head is an extension of the spine, so keep it aligned
accordingly.

Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.
4

On your next exhale; come down the belt further while
maintaining the extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of
you will be able to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and
continuously. Don’t pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper
body.

Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.
5

Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, as
you lengthen, exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in
your vertebrae.

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The Locust
The Bridge
Extended Child’s Pose

The Locust Pose

Salabhasana

The locus yoga posture is
named as such as it resembles the shape of the insect known as the
Locust. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in
the lower back while bringing flexibility to the upper back region.

When you first begin to practice this pose, your
legs may not move very far off the floor. Please continue and stay
positive as you will find your range will continue to improve the more
you practice. Learning to master this pose will hold you in good stead
for more advanced back bends.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with
your arms along side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your
knees and ankles together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and
down. Push your palms into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards,
contract the buttocks, and press the hips and pubis firmly into the
floor.

2

On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.

Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.

3

Extend the front of your body as you pull
the shoulder blades together, raising the head, the arms, and upper
torso away from the floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of
the chest and pushing down the lines of the arms.

Keep the legs working strongly.

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The Bridge Pose

The Bridge Pose is
a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps to promote a
healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and buttock muscles.
It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and
organs.

It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks,
Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel.

Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.

2

Inhale, and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly
into the floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the
shoulders and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are
comfortable with.

Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.

3


Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind
you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them
contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the
breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.

This
pose stretches the whole front of the body, and brings mobility to the
spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of the ribcage and chest
area.
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The Extended Child’s Pose / Garbhasana

The Childs Yoga pose when
practiced regularly is very beneficial to your entire mind and body. It
helps to release the pressure on the spine while providing an entire
stretch through the upper body to the fingertips. It also aids in
strengthening and stretching the insides of the legs while massaging the
internal organs.

Breathing will becomes more efficient and your mind
will become clear. It also aids in improved mental processes and helps
to rejuvenate and energize the entire being.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.

2

Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands
out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the
fingertips.

3


Place your forehead on the ground & buttocks
back to the heels. Work your pubis to the floor and strech the inner
thigh muscles. Focus on the breath.

4

Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it
forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.
Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the
slow controlled breathing.

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Standing Forward Bend
The Boat (beginners)

The Standing Forward Bend

This pose aids in digestion and is restorative. It
frees the rib cage allowing for improved breathing. It aids in mental
concentration and helps to revive mental and pysichal exhaustion. The
heartbeat is slowed and the lower back is strengthened and pressure is
removed from the lumbar region.

It increases flexibility while strengthening and
developing the hamstrings. It also helps to strengthen the feet and
ankles while realigning the entire body.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

2

Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.

3


Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend forward,
continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and your base
nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the extension on the
stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting it.

Take a few breaths here.

4

Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.

If
you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees and
keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not against
it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

5

Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.
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The Boat Pose

Doing the boat pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

Keep challenging yourself to stay in this pose
longer. If you find the stimulation of the midsection becoming intense,
just persist with it, knowing your mind has ultimate control over the
body.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.

Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.

2

Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.

3


Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.
Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and
squeezing the shoulder blades together.

Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with

4

Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,
opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This
will help your stability. Continue with the controlled breathing.

Feel the stimulation of the entire abdominal region, as you hold this pose for a few more breaths.
Advanced Variation of The Boat


Now bring your legs up to straight. Continue to keep your focus on that point in front of you.

Continue with the controlled breathing.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojHBcT5e_M8

Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. �
(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.
தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? �
And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Itipi
so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.�
Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.�
Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.�
Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.�
Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti �
This,
Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi. �
இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:�’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… �
… �
Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. �
Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
�Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. �
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… �


Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. �
– Ananda, the twin sala
trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
-ஆனந்தா,பூவா
பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. �
It is not
by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma’.
இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
… �
… �

‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā. �
– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
Teacher after my passing away. �
உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர் வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது, இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.


Venerable Kiribathgoda Gnanananda Thero
youtube.com


Summary of the Problem with Electronic Voting
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZWVzSnVBcVY4a28/view


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Summary of the Problem with Electronic Voting


The 2000 presidential election and the consequential actions of Congress and the states are dramatically


changing the American election process. The Help America Vote Act (HAVA) passed by Congress in 2002


mandates reform of the election processes of all states. HAVA provides funding to replace obsolete voting


technologies such as punch cards and lever machines with more modern
technologies such as precinct- based optical scanners and direct
recording electronic (DRE) voting machines.


While HAVA includes a requirement that all voting systems must provide a manual audit capacity, its


definition of that requirement is ambiguous, and there are conflicting interpretations of its meaning.


Many elections officials have concluded that HAVA does not require a paper record of each ballot, verified by


the voter at the time the ballot is cast. As a result, over 100,000 paperless DRE voting machines have


already been deployed which lack the ability to produce a voter-verified paper ballot.


We are gravely concerned about the extensive reliance of voting machines that record and tally votes


exclusively through electronic means and provide no paper ballot that can be verified by the voter. We have


three major objections to entrusting our elections to these machines:


• Software errors are unavoidable


• Without a voter-verified paper ballot it is impossible to perform meaningful recounts


• The opportunities for fraud exist on a greater scale than ever before


Software Errors


No one knows how to write bug-free software. This fact is not in dispute. The more complex the software,


the more difficult it is to find and fix bugs. Election software is very complex because of the wide variety of


ballot types used across the nation, and it will contain errors, regardless of the skill and dedication of the


engineers who design it and the programmers who code it.


Computer glitches are not uncommon. All of us who use computers know this. Undoubtedly, software errors


will cause problems in future elections, just as they have in past elections. Here are three of the many


examples of computer errors reported in newspapers in recent elections:


• Cateret County, North Carolina, November 2004: software problems caused 4,438 electronic


ballots to be lost and never recovered. The vendor acknowledged responsibility for the loss.


• Fairfax County, Virginia, November 2003: testing ordered by a judge revealed the several


voting machines subtracted one in every hundred votes for the candidate who lost her seat on the


school board.


• Broward County, Florida, January 2004: 134 electronic ballots were blank in a one-race


election held on DRE voting machines in which the margin of victory was 12 votes. Florida law


required a manual recount of the ballots, but that recount was impossible because there were no


physical ballots to recount.


These and many other reports of computer problems present us with an obvious question: how many election


results were compromised by unnoticed computer errors and malfunctions? Of course, we have no way of


knowing. These reported cases were detected, but it is only reasonable to assume that were other


undetected errors, and we will never know how many.


Impossibility of Meaningful Recounts


Trusting our votes to a wholly electronic process of recording and storage leaves us completely without


recourse if that electronic process fails - and history shows that the process fails all too frequently. DRE


voting machines do allow voters to inspect and correct their choices on the touch screen’s final summary


display prior to casting their vote. But, DREs do not provide voters any method for inspecting how their vote


is stored inside the DRE’s electronic memory. Thus, the electronic ballot records stored in those memory


circuits are completely invisible to and unverified by the voter; they are also alterable. Yet it is the contents


of that invisible, impermanent, and unverified computer memory that are used to total up the votes.


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Without voter-verified paper records that accurately reflect the voters’ choices, it is simply impossible to


perform a meaningful recount. While most DRE voting machines can print a paper record of the votes cast,


this report is not generated until after the polls have closed, and is nothing more than a printout of the


electronic records. If the electronic record is inaccurate, then the printed report will also be inaccurate.


Such a printout is not voter-verified and does not provide an audit trail appropriate for a meaningful


recount.


Consider this scenario, not unlike events that have occurred in past elections: A voter marks the


appropriate locations on the voting machine’s touch screen, reviews the choices, and gives the command to


cast the ballot. Due to a software problem or malfunction, the computer records the ballot incorrectly, or


not at all. The voter leaves the booth, and at the end of the day, the poll worker prints out the ballot images.


The voter’s votes are incorrectly tallied and the printed ballot image is incorrect, but this error goes


undetected because the voter is not there to view the printed version. But because the printed version of


the ballot images all match the electronic records (as they must, since one is simply a copy of the other),


elections officials proudly report that they have successfully conducted yet another flawless election.


Opportunities for Grand-Scale Fraud


Election fraud is not unknown in previous American elections, and it is not unexpected in future elections.


However, the opportunities for fraud provided by electronic voting machines surpass all the opportunities


available previously. For example, a corrupt insider, working for one of the vendors of widely-used voting


machines, could hide malicious code in the software. That vendor could then unwittingly distribute that


malicious code to thousands of machines across the nation and alter the election results in every state


where those machines are used. Existing testing and certification procedures for DREs are voluntary and


currently insufficient to guarantee that this type of tampering will be detected. Elections officials are


usually not computer security experts and most do not fully appreciate the security vulnerabilities of DRE


voting machines.


Concerns about fraud are not simply speculation. A 2003 study by Johns Hopkins and Rice University


computer experts revealed hundreds of security flaws in the software of a leading manufacturer. Two


separate studies commissioned by Maryland (the SAIC and RABA reports) confirmed many of those findings


and identified additional vulnerabilities. An Ohio study of the four major voting machines has shown them


all to have serious security vulnerabilities. That study prompted the Ohio Secretary of State to delay the


installation of DRE voting machines in that state until after the 2004 election.


A Reasonable Solution


How each voter votes is a private matter. But how those votes are counted is everyone’s business. When


voters cast their ballots, they must be able to verify that their choices have been accurately and


permanently recorded on that ballot. They must also be ensured that their ballots cannot be altered or


deleted after they have verified them, and that their voter-verified paper ballots are available for a


meaningful recount, including manual recounts where required by law.


There are now several vendors of voting machines that provide both accessibility to voters with disabilities


and a voter-verified paper ballot. In addition, a major vendor of DRE voting machines is now supplying


printers that can be retrofit onto its previously-paperless systems; those retrofit printers were used


successfully to produce voter-verified paper ballots on the DRE voting machines used in the September


2004 primary elections in Nevada.


Accordingly, a reasonable solution to the problem with electronic voting is to pass legislation requiring all


DRE voting machines to provide a voter-verified paper ballot that is saved in a ballot box for use in recounts


and audits. Since HAVA mandates that all voting systems must (by 2006) provide equivalent accessibility


to voters with disabilities, any such voter-verified paper ballot system must also be accessible by that date.


In the last session (the 108th), several bills were introduced in the U.S. Congress that would establish such


a voter-verified paper ballot requirement for all voting systems. While these bills differed in the details of


their implementation and in their effective dates, all would have established a voter-verified paper ballot


requirement by 2006. As of October 2004, the combined cosponsorship for these bills included members of


both parties and totaled 192 members of the House and 20 members of the Senate. Of all of the VVPB bills


that were introduced into the Senate, only the Ensign amendment, S. 2437, attracted bipartisan support.


For additional information, please visit http://www.verifiedvoting.org


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revised_summary31.pdf


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12/27/16
Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyUkxuWWJscVZFbjg/view
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 11:18 pm

Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyUkxuWWJscVZFbjg/view

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1
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Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine

Arthur M. Keller

UC Santa Cruz, Baskin

School of Engineering

Santa Cruz, CA 95066

+1(831)459-1485

ark@soe.ucsc.edu

David Mertz

Gnosis Software, Inc.

99 2nd Street

Turners Falls, MA 01376

+1(413)863-4552

mertz@gnosis.cx

Joseph Lorenzo Hall

UC Berkeley, SIMS

102 South Hall

Berkeley, CA 94720

+1(510)642-1464

joehall@berkeley.edu

Arnold Urken

Stevens Inst. of Technology,

Political Science

Hoboken, NJ 07030

+1(201) 216-5394

aurken@stevens.edu

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we describe the Open Voting Consortium’s voting

system and discuss the privacy issues inherent in this system. By

extension, many of the privacy issues in this paper also apply to

other electronic voting machines, such as DREs (Direct

Recording Electronic voting machines). The privacy issues

illustrate why careful and thorough design is required to ensure

voter privacy and ballot secrecy.

Categories and Subject Descriptors: K.4.1 [Computers and

Society]: Public Policy Issues — privacy.

General Terms: Design, Human Factors, Legal Aspects.

Keywords: Electronic voting, open source, privacy design.

1. INTRODUCTION

The requirements for secrecy in elections depend upon the

values and goals of the political culture where voting takes place.

Gradations of partial and complete privacy can be found in

different cultural settings. Most modern polities institutionalize

the ideal of complete privacy by relying on anonymous balloting.

The use of secret balloting in elections — where a ballot’s

contents are disconnected from the identity of the voter — can be

traced back to the earliest use of ballots themselves in 6th Century

B.C.E. Athens, Greece. The public policy rationales for instituting

anonymous balloting typically aim to minimize bribery and

intimidation of the voter [1]. Secret ballots, although not always

required, have been in use in America since colonial times.

Today, almost one hundred years after most states in the U.S.

passed laws to require anonymous balloting, a strong sense of

voter privacy has emerged as a third rationale.

These cultural values and practices contribute to the sets of

user requirements that define the expectations of voters in

computer-mediated elections and determine alternative sets of

specifications that can be considered in developing open source

software systems for elections [7]. The Open Voting Consortium

(OVC) has developed a model election system that aims as one of

its goals to meet these requirements. This paper describes how the

OVC model ensures ballot privacy.

The OVC has developed the model for an electronic voting

system largely in response to the reliability, usability, security,

trustworthiness, and accessibility concerns of other voting

systems. Privacy was kept in mind throughout the process of

designing this system. Section 2 of this paper discusses the

requirements for a secret ballot in more detail and how secrecy

could be compromised in some systems. Section 3 describes how

the OVC handles the privacy concerns. While this paper focuses

mostly on privacy issues for US-based elections, and how they are

addressed in the OVC system, many of the issues raised are

applicable elsewhere.

2. SECRET BALLOT REQUIREMENTS

The public policy goals of secret balloting — to protect the

privacy of the elector and minimize undue intimidation and

influence — are supported by federal election laws and

regulations. The Help America Vote Act of 2002 [5] codifies this

as “anonymity” and “independence” of all voters, “privacy” and

“confidentiality” of ballots and requires that the Federal Election

Commission create standards that “[preserve] the privacy of the

voter and the confidentiality of the ballot.”

The Federal Election Commission (FEC) has issued a set of

Voting System Standards (VSS) [4] that serve as a model of

functional requirements that elections systems must meet before

they can be certified for use in an election. The FEC VSS state

explicitly:

“To facilitate casting a ballot, all systems shall: […] Protect the

secrecy of the vote such that the system cannot reveal any

information about how a particular voter voted, except as

otherwise required by individual State law;” ([4] at § 2.4.3.1(b).)

This high level requirement of not exposing any information

about how an individual voted is required of all voting systems

before certification.

It is not sufficient for electronic voting systems to merely

anonymize the voting process from the perspective of the voting

machine. Each time a ballot is cast, the voting system adds an

entry to one or more software or firmware logs with a timestamp

and an indication that a ballot was cast. If the timestamp log is

combined with the contents of the ballot, this information

becomes much more sensitive. For example, it can be combined

with information about the order of votes cast collected at the

polling place with surveillance equipment — from cell phone

cameras to security cameras common at public schools — to

compromise the confidentiality of the ballot. As described below,

system information collected by the voting system should be kept

separated from the content of cast ballots and only used in

conjunction by authorized, informed elections officials.

Rebecca Mercuri proposed that Direct Recording Electronic

(DRE) voting machines have a paper audit trail maintained under

glass, so the voter does not have the opportunity to touch it or

change it. [6] Some vendors are proposing that paper from a spool

be shown to the voter, and a cutter releases the paper audit trail

piece to drop into a box for safekeeping. [2] A challenge is to

make sure that all of the paper audit trail is readable by the voter,

doesn’t curl away out of view, and yet the paper audit trails from

previous voters is obscured from view. However, the paper audit

trail can fall in a more-or-less chronologically ordered pile. The

Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for

personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are

not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that

copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy

otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists,

requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.

WPES’04, October 28, 2004, Washington, DC, USA.

Copyright 2004 ACM 1-58113-968-3/04/0010…$5.00.

Page 1 of 2
Page 2 of 2

problem of reconciling the paper audit trail with the electronic

ballot image is difficult to do in an automated manner if the paper

audit trail cannot be sheetfed. Another approach is to keep the

paper audit trail on a continuous spool. [7] While this approach

has the potential to be more easily scanned in an automated

fashion for recounts, privacy is compromised by maintaining the

chronological order.

In the longer version of this paper, we discuss in more detail these

issues. We discuss that problem that the voter’s secret identity

must be disclosed to poll workers and yet not be discernable from

the ballot. Covert channels can be used to transfer identity of the

voter to the ballot. A critical example is when the machine that

prepares for the voter an authorizing token also contains the voter

registration data, which might be passed to the electronic voting

machine through that authorizing token.

3. SECURITY, PRIVACY, RELIABILITY

In the full version of this paper, we discuss a variety of issues and

their solutions in security, privacy, and reliability for the voting

system designed by the Open Voting Consortium and described

more fully there.

Some of these issues are the following.

The Advantage of Free and Open Source Software. When

the system is a black box, where the source code is maintained as

a trade secret, we must trust the official testers. A frequent

criticism of free and open source software is that, while the code

is available for inspection, no coordinated inspection is actually

conducted. [3] The absence of Non-Disclosure Agreements and

restrictive intellectual property agreements encourages the large

body of open source developers to inspect the code.

Randomization of Ballot-IDs. Under the OVC design

ballots carry ballot-IDs to enable auditing of official paper ballots

against unofficial electronic ballot images. Ballot IDs are easily

remembered and can be a vehicle for disclosing the vote.

Privacy Issues with Barcodes. The Open Voting

Consortium system design uses a barcode to automate the

scanning and tallying of paper ballots. Such barcodes raise several

possibilities for introducing covert channels.

Privacy in the Voting Token. The token given to the voter

to enable her to use the electronic voting machine might contain

information that could compromise anonymity. Analysis of the

software and the poll worker interface for encoding the voter

token can show the type of information that can be encoded.

Information Hidden in Electronic Ballot Images and

Their Files. The electronic ballot images (EBIs) are stored on the

electronic voting machine where the ballot was created. Storing

the EBIs in a database management system can record sequence

information that can be used to identify voters. Flat files can

include the date/time in the file directory, a potential privacy risk.

Reading Impaired Interface. It is important that the ballot

not record that the voter used the reading impaired interface. Nor

should the electronic voting machine maintain such information in

a way that identifies specific ballots. If a separate reading

impaired voting station is used, the ballot-ID should be generated

in a manner that does not identify the voting station used.

Printed Ballot. The secrecy of the voter’s selections is at

risk while the voter carries the paper ballot around the polling

place. We use a privacy folder — an ordinary manila folder

trimmed along the long edge so that the barcode sticks out.

Ballot Validation Station. The ballot validation station

allows visually impaired voters, or anyone, to hear through

headphones and therefore validate their paper ballots. Ballot-IDs

should not be persistently stored by the ballot validation station.

Languages. Steve Chessin identified a problem with ballots

for non-English speakers when printed in the voter’s own

language. This approach makes bilingual ballots easy to identify,

and that can compromise ballot anonymity if only a small number

of voters in a given precinct choose a particular language.

Public Vote Tallying. It is important that the ballots be

shuffled before publicly visible scanning occurs. The ballots will

naturally be ordered based on the time they were placed in the

ballot box. The sequence of voting is a potential privacy risk.

Results by Precinct. Care must be taken to ensure that

results posted by precinct do not compromise privacy and yet can

be reconciled against county totals.

Privacy in the Face of Voter Collusion. Complex cast

ballots, taken as a whole, contain potential covert channels.

4. CONCLUSION

We have discussed the privacy issues inherent the Open Voting

Consortium’s voting system that includes a PC-based open-source

voting machine with a voter-verifiable accessible paper ballot. By

extension, many of the privacy issues in this paper also apply to

other electronic voting machines, such as DREs (Direct

Recording Electronic voting machines). The privacy issues

illustrate why careful and thorough design is required for voter

privacy. Imagine how much work is required to ensure that such

systems are secure and reliable.

Further information about the Open Voting Consortium can be

found at http://www.openvotingconsortium.org. This paper is an

extended abstract; a longer version may be found at

http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/keller.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We acknowledge the work of the volunteers of the Open Voting

Consortium who contributed to the design and implementation we

describe. In particular, Alan Dechert developed much of the

design and Doug Jones provided significant insights into voting

issues. The demonstration software was largely developed by Jan

Kärrman, John-Paul Gignac, Anand Pillai, Eron Lloyd, David

Mertz, Laird Popkin, and Fred McLain. Karl Auerbach wrote an

FAQ on which the OVC system description is based. Amy Pearl

also contributed to the system description. Kurt Hyde and David

Jefferson gave valuable feedback. David Dill referred some of the

volunteers.

6. REFERENCES

[1] Albright, S. The American Ballot. American Council on Public Affairs,

Washington, D.C., 1942.

[2] Avante VOTE-TRAKKERTM EVC308-SPR,

http://www.aitechnology.com/votetrakker2/evc308spr.html.

[3] Cohen, F. Is Open Source More or Less Secure? Managing Network

Security, 2002, 7 (Jul. 2002), 17–19.

[4] Federal Election Commission. Voting System Standards. Vols. 1 & 2

(2002), http://www.fec.gov/pages/vssfinal/

[5] Help America Vote Act, 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 15301 – 15545.

[6] Mercuri, R. A Better Ballot Box? IEEE Spectrum Online, October 2,

2002, http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/

publicfeature/oct02/evot.html

[7] Sequoia Voting Systems, “Sequoia Voting Systems Announces Plan to

Market Optional Voter Verifiable Paper Record Printers for Touch

Screens in 2004,” http://www.sequoiavote.com/article.php?id=54

[8] Urken, A. B. Voting in a Computer-Networked Environment. In The

Information Web: Ethical and Social Implications of Computer

Networking, Carol Gould (ed.), Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 1989.

Page 2 of 2

privacy-electronic-voting-WPES-2004.pdf

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The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 11:01 pm

Dhammarakkhita

The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation

Translation
and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin -
Theravada Practice Blog” (http://theravadin.wordpress.com/).

We consider here the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, a classical text and revered in Hinduism, dated at approx. 200 BC and compared its semantics and vocabulary to Buddhist canonical texts. In
summary, this comparison is quite obvious that the author of Yoga Sutra
was highly influenced by Buddhist philosophy and meditation practice,
possibly contemporaneously to the author.

Moreover,
it appears that a student of Buddhist canonical texts may in fact be
more easily understood than the Yoga Sutra a Hindu practitioner with no
other previous reference parameter practical and philosophical.
 We
do not consider comments here later Hindu / Brahman existing this text,
some of which seem to avoid (or ignore) the original references to
Buddhism in this text.

The
proximity of the Yoga Sutra-style, vocabulary, and subject to canonical
texts in Pali could also mean simply that Patanjali - or whoever it is
that inspired his writings - had practiced meditation from a Buddhist
contemplative community, a community of monks for a time before
returning to Brahmanism and then the movement would have rephrased his
experience in order to add a divine touch to your experience, making
substantial use of technical terms of Buddhist meditation, as originally
framed or developed by the Buddha for the purpose of contemplative
practice.
 But this would be pure speculation, because there is so far no studies or historical finding that supports this understanding.

It
is also possible, even likely, that the Buddhist meditation had so
broadly permeated the practice Hindu / Brahman at the time (after years
of a strong cultural influence began with Buddhist proselytism promoted
by Ashoka the Buddhist Sangha in his reign and Consolidation of India),
that these technical terms as well as descriptions of practice of jhana /
dhyana (meditative absorptions) have it built into common knowledge at
the point of no longer sounding particularly Buddhists.
 Something
similar to what happens today with the adoption of the ideas of
“nirvana” and “karma” in Western culture, in Christian countries.

In
particular, if the Yoga Sutra is read in one continuous line is amazing
how close the text is the thoughts and topics about samadhi, jhana
meditation and Samatha (concentration) as defined in the ancient texts
in Pali Buddhist.

For a first analysis, an overview. Look
at the “Ashtanga Yoga” or the “Eightfold Path of Yoga” (sic) we are
certainly inclined to think the definition of the central Buddha of the
Noble Eightfold Path.

But
instead of following the Buddhist literary definition of the Noble
Eightfold Path, the interpretation of the eightfold path of yoga follows
(to our surprise?) Another description of the Buddhist path: the one
given by the Buddha as he described how he taught his disciples to
practice in your system meditative, which consists of a number of steps
outlined in various suttas of the volume of speeches with Mean Length
(as in Ariyapariyesana Sutta, MN 26, etc.) and remind us much of the way
“yogic” (pragmatic?), as devised by Patanjali at Yoga Sutra.

Then compare these two “paths to reach the samadhi.”

First what is in the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali:

1.                  Yama, on the field conduct, morality or virtue

2.                 Niyama, self-purification and study

3.                 Asana, proper posture

4.                 Pranayama, breath control

5.                 Pratyahara, the removal of the five senses

6.                 Dharana, concentration or apprehension of the object meditative

7.                  Samadhi, meditative absorption

And down the list of steps recommended by the Buddha when asked about the gradual development through his teachings. This list is found in many suttas of the volumes of speeches and Mean Length Long, as in other parts of the Canon:

1.                  Sila, moral conduct or virtue, and Santosa, contentment

2.                 Samvara, containment or removal of the senses

3.                 Kayagata-sati and Iriyapatha, or “Asana” means the cultivation of mindfulness and four correct postures.

4.                 Anapanasati, mindfulness of breathing

5.                 Overcoming Obstacles or five nivarana (sensual desire, ill will, anxiety and remorse, sleep and torpor, doubt, skeptical)

6.                 Sati, mindfulness, keep the object in mind, often quoted along with the comments dharana canonical.

7.                  Jhana, levels of meditative absorption

8.                 Samadhi, a result of absorption, the “realization” of various kinds or Samāpatti

Of course we’re not the first to notice similarities such as the list above. A handful of other authors have noted some more and others less obvious parallels. In fact, even Wikipedia has an entry for Yoga Sutra in which we read:

“Karel Werner writes that” the system of Patanjali is unthinkable without Buddhism. As
far as terminology goes aa long in the Yoga Sutra that reminds us of
formulations of the Buddhist Pali Canon and even more Abhidharma
Sarvastivada Sautrantika and school. “Robert Thurman writes that
Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system
to formulate its own matrix for the version of thought he considered
orthodox (…) The division between Eight States (Sanskrit Ashtanga)
Yoga is reminiscent of the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddha, and the
inclusion of brahmavihara (Yoga Sutra 1:33) also shows the influence of
Buddhism in parts of the Sutras. “

Now
this is where the subject becomes interesting for us here on this blog
and its relevance to the practice of Buddhist meditation.

Does
all the above tells us that the Yoga Sutra is a comment Hindu / Brahmin
or at least a photograph of meditation practices common (influenced by
Buddhism) in the second century BC?

If this is the case, definitely warrants a closer look at. Certainly,
this is because the text is not a Buddhist but shares a “core” of
fundamental ideas on meditation to be able to take it as a sign pointing
to a deeper understanding of some of the terminology in the context of
the first centuries of Buddhist practice.

Thus,
if the Yoga Sutra is read in a Buddhist context, one can have some idea
of how people understood at that time and (ou!) practiced Buddhist
meditation?
 Could this be of some help in triangular or point of which was the direction of former Buddhist meditation?

The
more we know how people practiced a few centuries after the Buddha’s
Parinibbana, the more we can understand how some of his teachings have
evolved and how they were implemented and explained / taught.

What
makes this fascinating idea is that this text would definitely be
filterable through the eyes of a Hindu / Brahman, but he is still
influenced by the “knowledge” of Buddhist meditation apparently so well
received, and the time of his writing had become the mainstream
“contemplative practices.
 This
would show us how and in what particular point, was considered to be
the “essence” of meditation (in addition to being philosophical
discussion of its purpose) in order to be considered universally true,
then that can be “merged” into other forms of practice religious.

Under this view, the Yoga Sutra is actually quite revealing. Consider a few passages that copies may shed light on this idea. Passages like the following really seems a direct copy and paste the Buddha-Dhamma. Some of them even make much sense in a context of religious doctrine theological-in-search-of-the-soul-creationist , but it fits absolutely in the philosophy of liberation through concentration and wisdom. However,
they were considered “truth” and “accepted” so that the author Hindu /
Brahman had no other choice but to incorporate them into their theistic
philosophy, reminding us Western Christians today that due to the common
acceptance of the idea karma / kamma, sometimes find ways to
incorporate this idea in their religious views.

Let’s start seeing the following list of impurities that Yoga Sutra tells us must be overcome:

“Avidya
(ignorance), Asmita (egoism), raga-Dvesha (desires and aversions),
Abhinivesha (clinging to mundane life) are the five klesha or distress.
 Destroy these afflictions [e] You will realize Samadhi. “

[Free translation of the original quote from Wikipedia]

What
impresses the reader as Buddhist before this paragraph is the simple
fact that all these impurities listed are those that no longer are you
supposed to Arahant one, or Awakened (!!!).
 That is, according to the text of Patanjali, the “Samadhi of Conduct” would be conceptually the same as the Buddhist Liberation.

Consider the terms used:

Avijja,
ignorance or mental turvidão is even mentioned in the first place,
while clearly a Buddhist point of view is considered the root of all
problems.

Then
“asmita”, which is superficially translated as “selfishness” by
understanding that had developed in shallow Sanskrit tradition that was
ignorant of the deeper meaning of that term as used in the suttas of the
Pali Canon (or tried to distort to suit your context religious).

This
term Buddhist in particular, pointing to the deeply embedded “notion
that it is” (ASMI-tā) has a clear explanation in the suttas, but here in
this passage and elsewhere, is reduced to a mere “selfishness” as a
moral impurity devoid of its original psychological application.
 In
the suttas “ASMI-Mana” is a deeply rooted psychological tendency that
only a Arahant (Iluminsfo) won [see post “The scent of am” blog
Theravadin].

And
there is also “abhinivesa”, a term the Buddha uses to explain how our
mind comes in and assumes the five groups of attachment.
 The
term “Nives” denotes a dwelling, a house - a simile brought by the
Buddha to show how our consciousness moves “inside” of the contact
experience of the senses and settles as if living in a house (see Sutta
Nipata, Atthakavagga , and Haliddakani Magandiya Sutta Sutta). This
usage is decreased very particular psychological context in Hindu /
Brahmin to denote only an “attachment to worldly life.”But here is worth
questioning whether this was also shared by superficial understanding
or just by Patanjali Yoga Sutra later commentators, who have lost sight
of these implications for not having knowledge of or access to the
preceding context of Buddhism in the Yoga Sutra was written?

And sometimes something awakening about the “sati” Buddhist can also be found. We
have another pearl of a Buddhist point of view, which can be considered
truly revealing: the use of the word “Dharana” in the text of
Patanjali.

This is one area in which our contemporary knowledge of Buddhism can benefit from insights. The
term “Dharana”, which literally means short and “I can hold, carry,
keep (in mind)” is a good description of the task faced in Buddhist
contemplative practice, regardless of what tradition / school
considered.

In meditation we also need to maintain our meditation object firmly in focus in mind, without losing it. This
central feature of the task undertaken when trying to cultivate
meditative concentration, relates as an equivalent to the literal
meaning of the Buddhist term “sati” (which means reminder / recall) and
what is general and now translated simply as “mindfulness” - a
translation that often aboard with questions.

And the reason is as follows, in summary: To maintain the object of meditation in mind you need to remember it. Remember here that means you have to hold, keep in mind, your object of concentration. This
is exactly what makes the faculty of memory, usually being pushed away
by the impressions with new information by the six senses, which, if
penetrated, would result in more or less a wild spin.

If
you are able to sustain their concentration on one point however - or
even as much as you can keep it, one of the laws of functioning of the
mind that the Buddha rediscovered and explained in detail that this
rebate is “artificial” senses the support and focus on a particular
mental object equivalent to a minor sensory stimulus.

As
a result of mental calmness and happiness (piti) and happiness index
(sukha) will arise and show signs of the primeirs a stronger
concentration - these being two of the five factors of meditative
absorption (jhana), along with (i) directed thought (vitakka) (ii)
sustained (Vicara) and (iii) equanimity (Upekkha).

This
is also the reason why is quite logical that samma sati, mindfulness,
has to come before samma samadhi, full concentration in the Noble
Eightfold Path of Buddhism - or, as shown in this case in the Yoga
Sutra, “Dharana” would be the stage immediately prior to “Delivering the
Samadhi.”

In
this case the Yoga Sutra throws much light on the original meaning as
understood in the early centuries of Buddhist practice and can help us
reach a more precise understanding of what “samma sati, right
mindfulness, originally meant or pointed.
 (In Theravadin blog post is a rather plain and that shows how sati yoniso manasikara are coming in practical terms, check this 
link ).

On
the opposite side, or better, understanding it as a byproduct of the
practice of sati is no other term that would best be described as
“mindfulness.”
 The Pali term is sampajaññā -
which literally means “next-consideration”, eg, be well aware of when
performing an action, then a “clear understanding” of what it does - but
this activity is a result of sati, as having the mind fixed on an
object leads to a refined consciousness that arises when during the next
and keep the mind of an object, creating a clear understanding of the
few sensory impressions that may enter. According to this concept, mindfulness would be a result of sati and not the practice of sati in itself!

But
again, both activities are happening almost simultaneously, even if not
in the same order and then the current use of the term translated can
be done - at the same time a fine distinction, however, has its
benefits.
 You can not
keep an object from the standpoint of mind without which would create or
develop mindfulness in mind - but (unfortunately!) you may be aware of
all your actions that you work without the right concentration - as when
eat an ice cream, in seeking the sensual pleasure, an example of
improper care. This being the fact that unfortunately idealize the interpretations of some Westerners who want to say “Buddhist”.

There
is a difference between deliberately let himself be led by sense
impressions by focusing on their physical pleasures and enhancing /
supporting raga (desire) and nandi (joy) - and, from the perspective of
Gotama Buddha, put his feet on the ground using the mindful memory and
thus experiencing a more refined awareness of trying to get it off the
shaft so that it results in a greater mindfulness, in the culmination of
his experience flows into total equanimity in the face of both
pleasurable and painful sensations.

Thus,
then, we must understand as vipassanā is no way a synonym for
mindfulness (sati) but something that springs from the combination of
all these factors especially the last two, samma sati (mindfulness) and
samma samadhi (right concentration) applied to the relentless
observation of what appears to be in front of (yathabhuta).

You
could say, vipassanā is a name for the Buddhist practice of sati
associated samadhi directed to the view anicca / anatta / dukkha (ie,
generating the wisdom of the vision of these three features) in the
processes of the six senses, including any mental activity.
 Thus, one will find the term vipassanā but the idea of sati in
the Yoga Sutra, Buddhist texts mention as the first term clearly having
samādhi as just the beginning of the journey to insight and access -
for example aniccanupassana .

Finish here the parenthesis. Suffice
to say that any particular reference to the Buddhist philosophy citing
anicca antta or point to the goal of Nibbana, a philosophical
proposition to which the system of Yoga certainly does not refer.

In essence the school of Yoga can be placed below the postures eternalists. So,
while it definitely does need to produce sati-samadhi, definitely does
not need to understand is samadhi anicca, dukkha and anatta - that does
not sound very compatible with the worldview of a eternalistic. Before
this, all spiritual approach arise due to the attempt to interpret
Samadhi Yoga Sutra as marriage or at least as close as you can get from a
“God”, a “Lord.” Something
that sounds quite natural in the end to a theist - such as an
Evangelical Christian would never interpret the reduction of its focus
on mental object unique sensual ecstasy and consequently a mere effect
of a psychological technique, but he would label it “the divine sign of
God touching him. “ It is for
this reason that, according to the Buddha Dhamma, in fact in most
situations we are inclined to be led by the plots of our senses,
including the mental impressions / thoughts / feelings / perceptions -
and therefore tend to limit ourselves to go beyond such experiences also
distorted the merger would allow access to insight and liberation.

Returning
to the context of comparison with the Christian interpretation of this
ecstasy, in short what Patanjali is facing such a theistic
interpretation sounds like someone moving a large portion of vocabulary
and terminology for the New Testament, which gives this ring a Buddhist.

The
funny thing is that this is exactly how many of the contemporary New
Age books are written - an amalgam of the terms of Western Spirituality /
Christian trying to express a view east.
 So
one can imagine that the situation in India was similar to that when
the Yoga Sutra was written addressing the Buddhist philosophy of that
era.

The
remaining Buddhist philosophy with his particular terminology
established by the Buddha himself would have become so pervasive in
religious thought, so to make seemingly trusted what was written on
meditation was a need to borrow or rely on several of these Buddhist
concepts predominant.
 This
had largely been done or even conscious, as most New Age authors
present not even reflect the content of their texts but about the
message you want to spend.

Thus,
below is done in a way a translation - or rather a translation of a
transliteration given the proximity between languages - as was done with
the text of the Yoga Sutra in Sanskrit brought back to Pāli.
 Similar to what has been done this Sutra ( Theravadin available on the blog, in English on this 
link ),
the exercise helps us see how the same text would sound the Pāli
language, opening then find parallels in ancient Buddhist texts, the
suttas.

However,
having said all that, pragmatism invoked by the text (which is what
makes it so valuable) also indicates much more than a simple textual
exploration.
 As you
read this you can not discern the notion, especially since the position
of a meditator concentration of whoever has written or inspired by this
text, at some point personally experienced jhana and samadhi and wanted
to convey his experience making use a rich language Buddhist meditation
on the same interpretation being directed to an audience Brahman /
proto-Hindu India 200 BC.

Anyway,
check by itself - the pauses between sets of paragraphs labeled in bold
are the author / translator and some important technical terms
Buddhists were deployed, with additional comments made in italics:

Patañjalino yogasutta (Part I of IV)

Introduction

atha yogānusāsana | | 1 | |

And now a statement about the European Union (Yoga)

[1] Read yourself to be the object of meditation, or an instruction (anusāsana) on the meditative practice (yoga).

yogo-citta-vatta nirodho | | 2 | |

The Union (Yogo) is the extinction of the movement of the mind

[2] in this passage denotes vatta turbulence, swirl, activity - literally wandering, circling, confused. In
this context broadly means “meditation is (…) a stop to the busy
mind,” which is very active and its activity suggests a walk in circles.
 Probably the most direct (and correct) translation.

Tada ditthi (muni) svarūpe’avaṭṭhāna | | 3 | |

(Only) then he who sees is allowed (to be) in (his) true nature.

[3]
In the Pāli language Drist the word does not exist, and it would be
something like subsitituída by Muni, which has the same meaning -
except, of course, the fact that “he who sees” further points in this
case the seeing process.
 Here was however used the term Pāli ditthi so as to maintain the link with the term semantic ditthi. The alternate translation is then: “So lets see who (or have the opportunity - avaṭṭhāna) of being in their true and natural.”

Sarup-vatta itaritara | | 4 | |

(Otherwise) at other times we become (equal) to this activity (of mind).

Challenges

vatta Panza kilesa akilesā ca ca | | 5 | |

Activities (Mental) are five, some non-contaminating other contaminants:

pamanes-vipariyesa-vikappa-Nidda-sati | | 6 | |

i)
Experience (Evident-Measurement), ii) misperception (Illusion), iii)
Intentional Thinking / Willing, iv) Sleep / Numbness, v) Memory /
Mindfulness.

i) pamanes, experience or clear-measurement

Paccakkh’ānumān’āgamā honte pamāāni | | 7 | |

What one sees and looks directly (paccakha), taking as a reference - it’s called experience.

[7] Literally: “What comes through direct visualization and measurement is called the experience”

ii) Vipariyesa, misperception or illusion

Micca vipariyeso-Nanam atad-rūpa-patiṭṭhita | | 8 | |

Illusion is the wrong understanding, based on something (lit. “one way”) that is not really.

iii) Vikappa, Thought Intentional / Keen

Saddam-ñāānupattī vatthu-Sunna vikappo | | 9 | |

Intentional
Thinking / Willing is any way of understanding and unfounded assertion
(ie the internal speech, voltiva, partial and willful, based on mental
speculation).

[9]
Alternative translation: “Thinking is cognition without a sound object /
cause noise (vatthu).Think about it, thoughts are no more than sounds,
silent babble that passes through our being.

iv) Nidda, Sleep / Numbness

abhava-paccay’-ārammaā vatta Nidda | | 10 | |

Mental activity in the absence of mental objects is called Sleep / Torpor.

v) Sati, the Memory / Mindfulness

Anubhuti-visayāsammosā sati | | 11 | |

Not to be confused (or not lose) the object (sensory) previously experienced is called Memory / Mindfulness.

Abhyasa-virāgehi Tesam nirodho | | 12 | |

The extinction of these [activities] comes from the practice of detachment / cessation of passions (turning)

[12] We have here the words turn and nirodha in the same sentence! It can not be more Buddhist canon than this! Interestingly, however, is the current use and non-metaphysical terms of this stretch. They are applied in a simple process of meditation, in particular the process of concentration meditation. This can not go unnoticed and goes directly in line with readings jhanic cultivation practices in Buddhism.

 The Training 

tatra-tiṭṭha yatano abhyasi | | 13 | |

The
practice’s commitment to non-movement (ie, become mentally property (at
the same time it parmanece fluid - an excellent description for the
concentration!)

so-Kala-pana Dīgha nirantara-sakkār’āsevito dalhia-bhumi | | 14 | |

Mast this (practice) must be based firmly in a long and careful exercise [excellent point here!]

[14]
This goes in line with what the author wrote the medieval Pali
subcomentários the volume of the Digha Nikaya, where also we find the
combination of the terms and dalhia bhumi - “firmness” and
“establishment” - in the same sentence, denoting ” firm establishment “

diṭṭhānusavika-visaya-vitahāya Vasik-Sannes viraga | | 15 | |

Detachment is the mastery (VASI-kara) of perception, the dropping of the seat (vitahā) by the following (anu-savika, lit.’s Subsequent flow) experience a prey to view.

parama-tam Puris akkhātā gua-vitaha | | 16 | |

This is the climax: the abandonment of the current headquarters of the senses, based on personal revelation / knowledge of self.

[16] Here we turned a Brahman, is this approach that allows the soul to win the seat / attachment, Tanh. And this short sentence has much to offer! At
that moment in history, Patanjali was so convinced of the Buddhist goal
of “opening up the attachment, the seat stop,” which boils down to vita
hā term he uses. However,
it does not give up without a soul which its theistic philosophy simply
collapses and nothing in the text would make it distinguishable from a
treatise on the Buddha Dhamma.
 Thus,
mounted on a meditative Buddhist terminology and guidelines in the
conversation he introduces the term “Puris, which can be read as” soul,
“saying that the more you get closer to its” intrinsic nature “(svarūpa)
and inner body “Puri, or soul, you become able to stop itself this seat
/ attachment.
 Interesting.

Realization - Jhana / Dhyanas 

The first jhana / Dhyāna

vitakka-vicar-Anand-Asmita rūp’ānugamā sampajaññatā | | 17 | |

This
is the alertness (sampajañña) from (the) (Kingdom of) form: a
self-directed thought-based consciousness, which remains (to this) and
inner happiness.

[17] Here we describe an almost identical description of the first jhana used time and again by the Buddha in Pali texts ( see this example ). Indeed,
we have a very beautiful description of the first jhana as a form of
sampajaññatā (fully aware of what is happening), after the plan of the
form (the theme of our meditation is a mental form) and a combined
happiness at the thought we are trying to grasp what itself could be
described as the pure experience of “I am” (Asmita - the term is being
used more loosely in place as would suttas).

However,
the announcement vitakka / vicara the first mention of meditative
absorption is a clear reference to the origin of Buddhist Yoga Sutra.
 Interesting also is the connection that is being done now with sampajaññatā: Think of everything we have said before about sati. If sati is simply the seizure of an object (the paṭṭhāna
of sati, so to speak), so it’s interesting to see how sampajaññā this
case, is identified with the state of the first jhana.
 Could this mean that when the Buddha mentions these two texts in Pali, which implicitly means samatha-vipassana?

This
is not at all a strange idea, like many vipassana meditators, focusing
on objects will be much more subtle quickly show signs of the first
jhana.
 Could it be then that the term “sampajaññatā” was seen as the first result of a concentrated mind?

In
any case, experience will teach you very quickly that when you try to
hold an object in your mind, your awareness of what happens at this time
will increase dramatically, simply due to the fact that his effort to
keep the object is under constant danger during the siege of sense.

saw-Paticca Abhyasa-anno-pubbo sakhāraseso | | 18 | |

(This accomplishment) is based on detachment and previously applied for any subsequent activities.

bhava-Paticca videha-prakriti-layana | | 19 | |

(For example) Based on this existence and the characteristics of self

saddha-viriya-sati-samadhi-paññā-pubbaka itaresam | | 20 | |

This
flower gives himself (based on these qualities) of conviction (saddha),
energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom
(paññā)

[20] The Buddha mentions these five factors when he was training arupa jhana under his previous two teachers. He also mentions how crucial factors when striving for enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. Later,
during his years of teaching, he gave the name of “powers” (bullet) and
explained that, if perfected, would lead to enlightenment.

Tibba-savegānām āsanno | | 21 | |

(For those) with a firm determination reached (this accomplishment, the first Dhyana / jhana).

Advancing in jhana, tips and tricks.

Mudu-majjhim’ādhi-mattatā tato’pi Visions | | 22 | |

There is also a differentiation between (achievement) lower, middle and high

Issar paidhānā-go | | 23 | |

Or based on devotion (devotion) to a Lord (a master of meditation).

kilesa-kamma-vipākāsayā aparāmissā Puris-visions’ Issar | | 24 | |

The Lord (the Master) that is no longer influenced by the outcome kammic impurities and past desires.

[24]
Besides the question whether the term “Issar” found here could be read
as merely referring to a master of meditation (which fits perfectly into
the discussion until verse 27, where it starts to not fit any more) is
likely discussion, including on-line
 translation of the Yoga Sutra by Geshe Michael Roach . The
principle can be interpreted so as to skeptics recalling the first
sutta MN seemed more logical to assume Issar was first used to designate
“the Lord” (ie your God).

But with a little more research found that the term Issar Theragatha us are used to designate the “master”. Interesting is also the word in Pali āsayih replaced simple wish / desire - “Asa.” But
“almost” sounds like “Asava” that would fit even better in the context
of kamma and vipaka Asava.But the idea is very specific (”that which
flows within you, taking it) and may or may not be what was meant in
this passage.

tatra-niratisaya sabbaññatā bīja | | 25 | |

It is this that lies the seed of omniscience unmatched.

sa pubbesam api guru kālen’ānavacchedanā | | 26 | |

This Master from the beginning never abandoned him or abandon

[26] Literally, “not” drop “(an + evaluation + chedana), or abandon, even for a time (short) (Kalena)

tassa vācako Panavia | | 27 | |

His Word is the breath and the clamor of living

[27] On the panavah term, which can be interpreted as “om” in Hindu literature. It
all depends if we read verses 24-27 as involving “Issar” to mean “God”
or simply refer to consider meditation master of meditation you learn.
 If
you do a search in the Tipitaka, you see that when the Buddha used the
term was to refer to teachers (see for example Theragatha)

taj-tad-japp attha-bhavana | | 28 | |

Praying in unison with this, this is the goal of meditation

touch-pratyak cetanādhigamo’pi antarāyābhāvo ca | | 29 | |

So if the mind itself and carries it away all obstacles / hazards:

Vyadha-ṭṭhāna-samsaya-pamādālayāvirati-bhrānti-dassanā’laddhabhūmikatvā’navatthitatāni

Diseases,
skeptical questions, be moved to laziness of attachment, wrong view of
things, not meditative placements, or not yet firmly established in
these.

citta-vikkhepā te’ntarāyā | | 30 | |

These are the causes of mental distractions (they fall due).

dukkha-domanass’agam ejayatv’assāsa-Passaseo vikkhepa-saha-Bhuvah | | 31 | |

The physical and mental pain arises in the body, the shaking of the inhale and exhale conjução occur with such distractions.

[31] Here dukkha and Domanassam mentioned. They also appear in the definition of the Buddha’s four jhana, but in a different direction. The problem described here meditative seems out of place and looks as if someone had to fit these words here. Also
the inhale and exhale clearly has an important role in that they cease
to exist (nirodha) so subjective to the practitioner in the fourth
jhana.
 It is strange that all this is on the list, but is presented in a very different interpretation.

  The Objects of Meditation

tat-pratiedhārtham ekatattābhyāsa | | 32 | |

In order to control these distractions, this is the practice of unification of mind:

metta-karuna-mudita Upekkha-sukha-dukkha-Visayan-puññāpuñña bhāvanātassa cittapasādana | | 33 | |

The
cheerful calm the mind (citta-pasada) is achieved by meditation of
loving kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity in the face of pleasure,
pain as well as luck and misfortunes.

[33] And here we go. The
four brahmavihara, of course, famous for the way Buddha encouraged
monks to practice them to subdue the obstacles and enter the five jhana.
 It
is also interesting as the Tipitaka sometimes aligns them with the
progression in four jhana (which deserves to be studied separately).

pracchardana-vidhāraābhyā go prāasya | | 34 | |

Or the inhale and exhale, which is also an excellent exercise in meditation.

Visayavati go pa-vatta uppannā manaso thiti-nibandhinī | | 35 | |

It helps to stop and control the increasing mental activity that occurs through the power of the senses.

[34
and 35] Wow, now includes Anapanasati to the list of meditation
techniques, the most favorite topics of Buddhist meditation, in addition
to brahmavihara, which “coincidentally” was mentioned in the previous
passage.
 Here
he almost “cites” the benefit of Anapanasati of Pali suttas, the Buddha
gave in the Anapanasatisamyutta Mahavagga, where it is clearly said
that the greatest benefit of Anapanasati is the ability to quiet the
mind.
 Very interesting!

Visoko go jotimatī | | 36 | |

And the mind becomes free from sorrow and radiant.

vita-raga-visaya go citta | | 37 | |

Free from desire for sense objects

[36
and 37] These two passages seem more like a copy of what the Buddha
says in the suttas: “It is almost always remain in these states, O
monks, neither my body or my eyes get tired.” Although it immediately to
Explaining how the mind free from desires and radiant moves away from
the senses, as do the experienced meditators, this passage is important
because it shows that the author knew what he was talking in terms
pragmáticos.Não there is something more important to the induction of
samadhi (ie, jhana) that the resolution of the mind, the balance against
the attack of the senses to the mind.

svapna Nidda-go-jnānālambana | | 38 | |

Of dreaming and sleep,

yathābhimata dhyānād-go | | 39 | |

parama-anu-stop-mahattvānto’ssa vasīkāri | | 40 | |

kkhīa-vatta abhijātass’eva grahīt mani-Graham-grāhyeu stha-tat-tad-anjanatāsamāpatti | | 41 | |

When
it happens in the destruction of mental activity or movement
[Khin-vatta], there is the appearance of a jewel, the emergence of
someone who carries such an object, the object and the carrying of such
an object in itself - and this immobility is what is called a
realization, or state of completion.

tatra-nana-saddattha vikappai sakiṇṇā savitakkā Samāpatti, | | 42 | |

There is the state of realization is “with thought” and marked by impurity of speech of conscious thought, the internal speech.

[42], in the Pali Canon parlance we would say “savitakka-jhana.”

sati-parisuddha svarūpa-suññevattha-matta-nibbhāsā nivitakkā | | 43 | |

(However)
there is a state of achievement without thinking (nirvitakka) with full
attention and clearer that it is the nature of emptiness without a
voice.

[43] parisuddham sati is obviously the name the Buddha gave to the fourth jhana. It
seems that the author tries to show us the range of four jhana,
pointing to the criteria of the first, and then, in contrast to the
characteristics of the fourth jhana again using the terminology of the
Pali suttas.

etadeva savic Nirvicārā ca-sukkhuma visaya akkhātā | | 44 | |

Likewise, the state with and without research and consideration (vicara) is judged by subtlety of the object.

[44] Here we are somewhat hampered by the language, and tempted to ask: by whom discerned before the non-self (anatta)?

sukkhuma-visayatta c’āliga-pary’avasānam | | 45 | |

It culminates in a subtle object with no features