INSIGHT-NET - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
INSIGHT-NET -FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
May 2013
M T W T F S S
« Apr   Jun »
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
2728293031  
05/30/13
936 LESSON 31-05-2013 FRIDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-மஹாபரினிப்பண ஸுத்த (அபார வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல்)Mahāparinibbāna Sutta ஸுத்தபிடக-திக்க நிகாய-Iமெய்யார்வ தியானம் -A. உள்ளுயிர்ப்பு மற்றும் சுவாசித்தல் பிரிவு Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya-I. Kāyānupassanā -A. Section on ānāpāna தமிழ்
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:43 pm

936 LESSON 31-05-2013 FRIDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

மிழில் திரிபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு
ஸுத்தபிடக
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் 
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-மஹாபரினிப்பண ஸுத்த (அபார வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல்)Mahāparinibbāna Sutta

ஸுத்தபிடக-திக்க நிகாய-Iமெய்யார்வ  தியானம் -A. உள்ளுயிர்ப்பு மற்றும் சுவாசித்தல் பிரிவு Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya-I. Kāyānupassanā -A. Section on ānāpāna

தமிழ்


from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


up a level
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A

TIPITAKA

TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level


animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha buddhabk.gif

Animated Candle


http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/ctmwelcome_e0.gif

TO

revolving globe

http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/globe08_e0.gif





GIF pics
GIF picsVipassana Gif




Best animated graphics


The Clear White Light

Tree
>>ஸுத்தபிடக-திக்க நிகாய-Iமெய்யார்வ  தியானம் -A. உள்ளுயிர்ப்பு மற்றும் சுவாசித்தல் பிரிவு Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya-I. Kāyānupassanā -A. Section on ānāpāna

தமிழ்


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:

 ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
(கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā  (பகவான்) தங்கி
இருந்தார்.

 அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா

- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில்  அளித்தார்.Bhagavā  (பகவா) சொற்றார்:

-
இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து, 
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.

மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில்
உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்? இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு
பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி
அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை
செங்குத்தாக சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே
அல்லது வெளியே சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே
அல்லது வெளியே செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:


சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை கடைசல்காரர்
அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல்
குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு குறைவான
சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: 
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



பாளி



Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 




Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā
pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya
paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.
Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 





English


Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
 I.Fixing the attention,  earnest meditation
 A. Section on ānāpāna
A.Section on the Basis of action. This term is applied to certain
religious exercises or meditations, by means of which samādhi, jhāna and
the four Paths are attained. Each of these is based on a certain
formula or rite, also called kammaṭṭhānaṃ

   B. Section on postures
B.Section on Way of deportment. There are four iriyāpathas or postures, viz. walking, standing sitting, lying down.
  
C. Section on sampajañña
C.Section on Knowing, understanding, conscious.
   D. Section on repulsiveness
D.Section on To expect, await, desire
   E. Section on the Elements
E.Section on Primary or elementary substance; principle, element,
material; a property of a primary substance, as colour, taste, sound; an
organ of sense; a bodily principle or humour of which there are three,
phlegm, wind and bile; a constituent of the body, as flesh, blood,
bones; the remains of a body after cremation; a sacred relic; a fossil; a
metal


   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas

   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas
   E. Section on the Truths
      E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca
      E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca
      E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca
      E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

Introduction

Thus have I heard:

On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:


– Bhikkhus.

– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said:


This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa ( Cessation of suffering- Nibbaṇa (Ultimate goal for eternal bliss), the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna (Ultimate goal for eternal bliss), that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas(Fixing the attention, earnest meditation).

Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body), ātāpī sampajāno (Ardent/ zealous/ strenuous/ active Knowing/ understanding conscious) satimā (Of retentive memory or active mind/ thoughtful/ reflecting) having given up abhijjhā-domanassa (Covetousness)  towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā (Feeling/ sensation/ perception; pain/suffering in threshold of Feeling/ sensation/ perception; pain/suffering) ātāpī sampajāno( Ardent/ zealous/ strenuous/ active Knowing/ understanding conscious), satimā(Of retentive memory or active mind/ thoughtful/ reflecting), having given up abhijjhā-domanassa ( Covetousness) towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta (The heart; the mind; a thought, an idea; will/ intention in threshold of The heart; the mind; a thought, an idea; will/ intention), ātāpī sampajāno (Ardent/ zealous/ strenuous/ active Knowing/ understanding conscious), satimā (Of retentive memory or active mind/ thoughtful/ reflecting), having given up abhijjhā-domanassa (Covetousness) towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s (and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
in threshold of
and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion)
ātāpī sampajāno
(Ardent/ zealous/ strenuous/ active Knowing/ understanding conscious), satimā (Of retentive memory or active mind/ thoughtful/ reflecting), having given up abhijjhā-domanassa (Covetousness) towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā (Fixing the attention, earnest meditation)

A. Section on ānāpāna ( Inhaled and exhaled breath, inspiration and respiration) (Basis of action. This term is applied to certain
religious exercises or meditations, by means of which samādhi (
Agreement, peace, reconciliation; tranquillity, self-concentration, calm), jhāna (Meditation, contemplation; religious meditation or abstraction of the mind, mystic or abstract meditation, ecstasy, trance) and
the four Paths are attained. Each of these is based on a certain
formula or rite, also called kammaṭṭhānaṃ)

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya
(the body in the threshold of the body)? Here, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree
or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise,
setting kāya (
body) upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ (Recollection; active state of mind, fixing the mind
strongly upon any subject, attention, attentiveness, thought,
reflection, consciousness
In front, before). Being
thus sato (
Recollecting, mindful, attentive, thoughtful, conscious)he breathes in, being thus sato (Recollecting, mindful, attentive, thoughtful, conscious) he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’;
he
trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya (body), I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya (body), I will breathe out’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras (refering to body
Constructing, preparing, perfecting, embellishing; aggregation; matter; karma ( Hail) ; the skandhas (own) , I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras
(refering to body Constructing, preparing, perfecting, embellishing; aggregation; matter; karma ( Hail) ; the skandhas (own), I will breathe out’. 


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a
long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn,
he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’;
he
trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya (body), I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya (body), I will breathe out’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras
(refering to body Constructing, preparing, perfecting, embellishing; aggregation; matter; karma ( Hail) ; the skandhas (own), I will breathe in’; he trains
himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras (refering to body Constructing, preparing, perfecting, embellishing; aggregation; matter; karma ( Hail) ; the skandhas (own), I will breathe out’.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya (Rise, origin, commencement; origination, cause; multitude) of phenomena (sapindus detergens)in kāya (body), or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena (sapindus detergens) in kāya (body); or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body).


http://thehamiltonproject.blogspot.in/2011/12/yogi-toobox-anapanasati-sutta.html


Image and video hosting by TinyPic


Lately, I have
returned to basics and have seen great things result from simply
following the Buddha’s anapana instructions found in the anapanasati sutta.
If practiced to the tee, the anapanasati instructions lead in sequence
to the cultivation of the very factors that come together to fabricate
the sutta style full bodied 100% sensuous 1st rupa jhana and beyond. 



Here is the lowdown of how I am currently putting these instructions into action to great effect.


In
the initial instructions the Buddha talks of,  notice that he gives a
secondary object/objective along with observing the incoming and
outgoing breath. 




“1) Breathing
in long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in long’; or breathing out long,
he discerns, ‘I am breathing out long.’ Or breathing in short, he
discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or breathing out short, he
discerns, ‘I am breathing out short.’  2)
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.’  3)
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.”

1)
Notice the first step is to observe the incoming and outgoing breath
discerning its length at the same time. One is not simply staring at the
breath but taking on board a secondary object/objective such as
discerning the length of the breath each time it comes in and out. One
can experiment with just staring at the breath VERSUS staring at it but
also actively discerning the length of it each time it goes in and out.
Notice a difference? 

One
is directing thought towards discerning whether the breath is long ,
longer than before, short, shorter than before, becoming sensitive to
the whole body etc etc. Having this secondary object/objective will take
up more of the brain’s capacity so there will be less space to wander. 


This
relates to something Tarin of the DhO has written about before. One
engages the mind’s proliferating tendency by giving it more things to
pay attention to as opposed to just the breath. Thus taking on the
secondary object/objective the Buddha gives along with the breath will
engage this very proliferating tendency:

“What
I mean by ‘the sense of seeing’ is, literally, what it is to experience
seeing directly; to perceive is to be engaged in a lively activity and
is what is meant by paying attention. Yet, such attention is likely to
tend toward proliferating stories and fabrications, from persistent
reflection and mental commentary on one hand (when concentration is weak
and/or scattered) to outright hallucination on the other (when
concentration is powerful and/or focused). Those proliferations are to
be avoided. How may these proliferations be avoided? By otherwise
engaging the proliferating tendency. How may the proliferating tendency
be otherwise engaged? By applying the mind further. To what further
apply the mind? To the apprehension (of more) of what is happening. What
more is happening (that is not yet engaged)? The apprehension of (the
apprehension of) perception itself.
  

To
apprehend perception directly is necessarily also to apprehend that
apprehension is occurring, and to experience in such a manner is to
experience cleanly and clearly, entirely engagedly and encompassedly,
incuding the bodily sense of such experience. To see not just what the
eye sees but what it is to see is therefore to see cleanly and clearly,
entirely engagedly and encompassedly, including the bodily sense of such
seeing. Seeing in this manner engages the energies which otherwise fuel
the proliferating tendency, and so avoids such proliferation. Further,
experiencing seeing as a bodily sense leads to deeper insight into what
the body is, and what perceiving is.” 

NOTE:
A yogi should spend enough time on each secondary object/objective
until one is able to follow the instructions without much mind wandering
and distraction. If a whole formal sit is spent on just the 1st
instruction, all the better to master each part before moving onto the
next part. 

2)
The Buddha goes onto give more secondary objects/objectives in
sequential order. Once one has mastered somewhat the discernment of the
length of the incoming and outgoing breath without being pulled here and
there by a wandering mind one can then proceed to the next step:
Becoming sensitive to the entire body. 

There
are a couple of interpretations of what ‘entire body’ is meant to be.
One interpretation is that it is the ‘breath body’ (the trail of the
breath throughout the body) and another is sensing the entire physical
body as a mass of sensations. I have run with the latter interpretation
as it helps one become aware of one of the factors of the sutta rupa
jhanas: full bodied awareness. The other approach probably does as well.
In the samadhanga sutta the first rupa jhana has the entire body
pervaded and suffused with rapture (joy) and pleasure. It is quite clear
one becomes aware of the entire body, legs, arms, genitals, torso, butt
cheeks, head, shoulders knees and toes. This is coming also from my own
experience
. I am able to become aware of the entire body buzzing with vibrations in every nook and cranny.

The
Blessed One said: “Now what, monks, is five-factored noble right
concentration? There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from
sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities — enters and remains in
the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied
by directed thought and evaluation. 
He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawalThere is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

3)
When one has mastered this part of the instruction, one can move onto
the next instruction which is to breath in and out calming bodily
fabrications. I take ‘bodily fabrications’ to be any ‘tension’ felt
anywhere in the body subtle or gross. Once one has become aware of the
of the entire body, one can also become aware of any physical tensions.
They will generally be pretty obvious against the backdrop of the
uniform sensations of the rest of the body. I breath in actively and
mentally ‘letting go’ of the tension, perhaps with a mental ‘letting go’
gesture. One can get a feel for what works for them. Try and keep the
entire body still within view from a panoramic wide angle and  simply
‘let go’ of any tensions as I once described in the 
letting go approach to jhana using the incoming and out going breath as the anchor to keep the mind’s attention suffused throughout the body. 

“Once
the mind sees that subtle tension, it is allowed to relax around it. If
you could picture Mother Theresa gently embracing a sick child, that is
how you let the mind relax around it. Very gently not pushing nor
pulling at the tension. I will then continue to let the mind relax
around this tension, allowing it to be there for as long as the tension
is there. I will attentively allow the mind to do this until a natural
process of letting the tension subside and drop away occurs. There is no
manipulation of the tension. Just an acceptance of it and a gentle
action of letting it be and letting it go. Like you would an injured
bird that you have cared for. You take it outside and place it on the
ground and just sit with it till it remembers to use its wings again,
and suddenly it flies off into the air. That is the approach.”

Image and video hosting by TinyPic

4)
Once one has developed the ability to discern the length of the
incoming and outgoing breath continuously, then become sensitive to the
entire physical body continuously, then breath in and out calming bodily
tensions continuously,  the ongoing experience should become quite
joyous. The body will become relaxed and will condition the arising of
‘joy’, or ‘rapture’ as ‘piti’ is translated below. One becomes sensitive
to the ‘joy’ that results from awareness of the body and the calming of
any bodily tensions. One can focus on the mental quality of lightness
of the relaxing mind and allow it to grow and pervade the entire body as
one anchors attention via the breath throughout it.

“4)
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to rapture.’ He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to rapture.’ 5)
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to pleasure.’ He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to pleasure.’ He trains himself,
6) ‘I
will breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out sensitive to mental fabrication.’ He trains himself,
‘I will breathe in calming mental fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out calming mental fabrication.’

5)
 When one has become sensitive to ‘joy/rapture’, one can then move onto
becoming aware of ‘pleasure’. For me, pleasure or sukkha will be the
sensations/vibrations felt throughout the body which can be seen to be
quite pleasurable. Allow this to take over the entire focus of the mind;
a body suffused with pleasure. 



6) Once
one has mastered the last instruction, one moves onto
becoming sensitive to and calming the mental fabrications. Here any
mental movements at all, thought, images, moods can actively be relaxed
as one did with the bodily fabrications/tension. Simply follow the same
technique of ‘letting go’ of the mental movements and any desires to
maintain them. 



If one masters
each of the instructions already mentioned one has actively developed
the very factors that give rise to the first rupa jhana. The first rupa
jhana has as its factors piti (joy/rapture), sukkha
(pleasure/happiness), vitakka (directed thought) and vicara (sustained
thought). What one has done so far with the anapana sati instructions is
to 
One
is ‘direct thought’ (directing to what? length of breath, rapture,
calming fabrications etc) which when done continuously leads to the flow
of the mind’s atttention and the flow of thought landing continuously
on the object/objective. Eventually it becomes ’sustained thought’. Piti
(joy/rapture)  is actively taken as a secondary object/objective along
with the incoming and outgoing breath. So is sukkha (pleasure). 



Thus
we have all the first rupa jhana factors in place. Following the
sequence to the tee will develop factors that support the following
factors that in turn support the following factors and so on. A mind
that has ‘engaged the proliferating tendencies’ will be able to become
aware more so of the entire body. When one becoems aware of the entire
body, one can become aware of any hidden physical tensions and actively
calm them down. When physical tensions have been calmed down,
the experience becomes much more pleasant which gives rise to ‘joy’ or
‘rapture’ which also is supported and supports ‘pleasure’. 



7), 8) and 10) When
one keeps following the instructions that follow, becoming sensitive
then steadying then satisfying then releasing the mind, one strengthens
the qualities that have pervaded the body and mind up to this point. 



“7)
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the mind.’ He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the mind.’  8) He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in satisfying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out satisfying the mind.’  (9) He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in steadying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out
steadying the mind.’ 10) He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in releasing
the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out releasing the mind.’

11)
At this point one can start to focus on
the secondary objects/objectives of ‘inconstancy’ of the factors of the
state one finds themselves,  i.e. first rupa jhana. 12)
When one is able to see that the fabricated factors of the first rupa
jhana are inherently transient, impermanent and inconstant, one will be
able to focus on cultivating dispassion for such fabrications.  Seeing
their inherent transitory inconstant nature leads to dispassion for them
which leads to a reduction in grasping and the ability to focus on the
cessation of the factors of fabrication. When one focuses on the
cessation of such factors, one is able to relinquish them. When there is
no grasping at the factors, they will surely drop away to reveal an
even subtler state i.e. the 2nd rupa jhana. The factors of directed and
sustained thought are the first to drop away revealing the 2nd jhana. 

11) He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on inconstancy.’ He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on inconstancy.’ 
12) He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on dispassion [literally,
fading].’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on
dispassion.’ 
13) He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on cessation.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on cessation.’ 14) He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on relinquishment.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on relinquishment.’

Continuing to do 11), 12), 13) and 14)
in each jhana, further factors will drop away to give rise to the next
jhana all the way up to the 8th jhana and then 9th with the cessation of
sanna and vedana. 



All of this can
result from simply following the anapanasati sutta instructions to the
tee in sequence, thus engaging the mind’s proliferating tendencies
fueled by the 5 hindrances and
cultivating the very factors that gives rise to the jhanas. One should
make sure to master each instruction first before moving onto the next
as each instruction supports the next instruction. 





bannerteens-new.jpg
WhyMeditate.JPGWhatIsAnapana.JPGTermAnapanaSati.JPG


How meditation helps the mind


Q1. What is the mind?

The mind is what thinks! The mind can be helpful or harmful. If
the mind has poor habits, it will have negative feelings towards others.
If we make the effort to train the mind to improve itself, the thoughts
will be more good-natured and loving towards others and ourselves.

Q1.gif


Q2. How can the mind improve?

The mind can purify itself. A part of the mind is always
observing what is happening and it can do the task of improving the
mind. If it learns to observe things as they are, then it will
understand that when there are negative thoughts or emotions, the mind
is distressed. As this observing part of the mind becomes stronger, the
reacting parts of the mind become weaker. The mind becomes more pure and
the suffering is removed.

Q2.gif


Q3. How can Anapana meditation help?

You observe the breath coming in and going out, without allowing
any other thoughts. Usually when pleasant thoughts come in the mind, we
want something, and with unpleasant thoughts, there is dislike. But when
we are simply observing the breath, even for a few moments, there is
no negativity polluting the mind. As these moments of purity become
longer, the mind gradually becomes cleaner. It is initially at the
surface level, but this prepares you to later practice Vipassana
meditation, which will clean down to the roots.

 Q3.jpg Q3_002.jpg

Q4. How can we keep focused when the mind is full of thoughts?

That is exactly why we meditate. If the mind was already able to
stay focused, you would not need to meditate. The mind keeps wandering –
this is its habit. All kinds of thoughts come, mostly about the past or
the future. The important thing is how soon we become aware the mind
has wandered. Our job is to keep bringing the mind back to observing the
breath.

q9.jpg


Q5. What is pure breath?

Pure breath is when there is only breath. The moment something
else, like a word or an image, is added to the breath it becomes impure.
In Anapana meditation, we work only with pure breath, nothing else
added.

q6.gif

Q6. What is natural breath?

The flow of breath that happens naturally, without making any
extra effort. It may be soft or hard, slow or fast, but we never try to
change how it is. The natural breath comes in and goes out without any
effort on our part. Our job is just to observe it.

q6.gif


Q7. Why do we observe only the breath?

Because we want to know the truth about ourselves. By meditating
with only pure breath, and nothing else, we start to experience this
truth. Our breath is related to our body and also to our mind. We are
observing the breath, and in the process, we begin to know our mind.
When thoughts come in the mind, the mind reacts to these thoughts, and
the breath changes. When we get angry or upset, we notice that the
breath becomes harder and faster. As the mind calms down, the breath
returns to normal. As we understand the mind through observing the
breath, we are able to strengthen our good qualities.

q8.jpg


Q8. What are the qualities of a pure mind?

A pure mind is full of love, goodwill and compassion for
everyone. It does not generate anger, ill-will, hatred or greed. With a
pure mind, our thoughts and actions are kind and helpful to ourselves
and others.


Q13.jpg

Please watch:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLel1sMDpEM&list=LPWCeFjm-hYPo&index=1&feature=plcp

for Buddhist Meditation - Lama Ole Nydahl
05:11 mins

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-49FV0Bs6mw&list=LPWCeFjm-hYPo&index=2&feature=plcp

for Buddhas in Gardens - HD - Calming Nature Buddha Meditation -05:54 mins

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2a5RZjzC8A&list=LPWCeFjm-hYPo&index=3&feature=plcp

for Buddhism, Meditation Nature & Water - Sublime,Inspiring Buddha Quotes HD Se- 04:08 mins

http://deoxy.org/annex/cwl.htm

http://www.thefullwiki.org/Meditation
http://savanatasisilasa.org/Thripitakaya.htm


 


(Please
right
click
and
“save
target
as”
to
save
onto
your
computer)

 

We
added
these
great
electronic
version
of
thripitaka
books
to
this
site,
in
order
to
keep
all
under
one
umbrella
for
Savanata
Sisilasa
listners.
However,
this
wonderful
work
was
done
by
one
great
buddhist
friend
(Mr.
Ranasinghe).
Therefore,
every
time
you
download
these
dhamma
books
think
about
that
gentleman
and
pass
merits
to
him.

Vinaya Pitakaya

Sutta Pitakaya

Abhidhamma Pitakaya

01. Vinaya Parajika Pali

 Deega Nikaya

45.Dhammasangani Pakarana
02. Vinaya Pachittiya Pali Bhikkhu vibhanga 10.Deegha Nikaya 1 46.Vibhanga Pakarana 1
03.Vinaya Pachittiya Pali Bhikkhuni vibhanga 11.Deegha Nikaya 2 47.Vibhanga Pakarana 2
04.Vinaya Mahavagga Pali 1 12.Deegha Nikaya 3 48.KathaVatthu Prakarana 1
05.Vinaya Mahavagga Pali 2

 Majjima Nikaya

49.KathaVatthu Prakarana 2
06.Vinaya ChullaVagga Pali 1 13.Majjhima Nikaya 1 50.KathaVatthu Prakarana 3
07.Vinaya ChullaVagga Pali 2 14.Majjhima Nikaya 2 51.Dhatukatha Puggala Pannatti
08.Vinaya Parivara Pali 1 15.Majjhima Nikaya 3
09.Vinaya Parivara Pali 2   Samyuththa Nikaya
  16.Samyutta Nikaya 1
  17.Samyutta Nikaya 2
  18.Samyutta Nikaya 3
  19.Samyutta Nikaya 4
  20.Samyutta Nikaya 5.1
  21.Samyutta Nikaya 5.2
  Anguttara Nikaya

22.Anguttara Nikaya 1
 
  24.Anguttara Nikaya 3
  25.Anguttara Nikaya 4
  26.Anguttara Nikaya 5
  27.Anguttara Nikaya 6
  Anguttara Nikaya
  28.Khuddka Patha
  29.Kuddaka Nikaya_Sutta_Nipatha
  30.Kuddaka Nikaya_Vimana_vatthu_Preta_vatthu
  31.Kuddaka Nikaya_Thera_Gaatha_Therii_Gaatha
  32.Kuddaka Nikaya_Jataka_Pali_1
  33.Kuddaka Nikaya_Jataka_Pali_2
  34.Kuddaka Nikaya_Jataka_Pali_3
  35.Kuddaka Nikaya_Maha_Niddesa_Pali
  36.Kuddaka Nikaya_Chulla_Niddesa_Pali
  37.Kuddaka Nikaya_PatisambidhamaggaPakarana_1
  38.Kuddaka Nikaya_PatisambidhamaggaPakarana_2
  39.Kuddaka Nikaya_Apadana_Pali_1
  40.Kuddaka Nikaya_Apadana_Pali_2-1
  41.Kuddaka Nikaya_Apadana_Pali_2-2
  42.Kuddaka Nikaya_Buddhawansa_Chariyapitaka
  43.Kuddaka Nikaya_Nettippakarana
  44.Kuddaka Nikaya_Petakopadesaya

 

 



Meditation
Centres
in
Sri
Lanka



**********************



Kanduboda
Meditation
Centre

Delgoda
Tel.
011
445518
or
011
570306

Located
16
miles
from
Colombo,
accessible
by
bus
route
224
(Colombo/Pugoda).
Started
in
1956,
and
offers
Vipassana
instruction.
The
centre
can
accommodate
up
to
70
meditators
at a
time.
Accommodation,
meals
and
services
are
offered
free
of
charge,
the
centre
being
funded
by
donation.
Meditators
must
dress
in
white
throughout
their
stay
(White
clothing
is
available
for
foreigners).
Meditators
can
stay
for
a
number
of
weeks
or
months,
and
help
can
be
given
with
visa
extensions.
It
is
recommended
that
meditators
undergo
an
initial
training
period
of 3
weeks
at
the
centre.
Tuition
continues
throughout
the
year,
but
as
the
centre
can
be
full
at
times
(particularly
around
poya
days)
it
is
wise
to
telephone
ahead.
_____________________________________________________________



Na
Uyana
Meditation
Centre

Melsiripura
Chief
Incumbent:
Most
Ven.
Nauyane
Ariyadamma
NayakaThero
Telephone:
0375677328
_____________________________________________________________



Nilambe
Meditation
Centre

Nilambe,
Near
Kandy
Telephone
0777-804555
between
6pm
and
9pm
E-mail
address:

upulnilambe@yahoo.com

The
teacher,
until
his
death
in
March
2000,
at
this
centre
was
Godwin
Samararatne,
a
layman
with
extensive
experience
of
teaching
both
in
Sri
Lanka
and
abroad.
Godwin’s
style
was
firmly
within
the
Buddhist
tradition
but
with
an
emphasis
on
metta
(loving-kindness)
and
mindfulness
in
daily
life.
The
emphasis
at
the
centre
under
teacher
Upul
Gamage
continues
to
stress
these
aspects.
The
centre
is
in
beautiful
surroundings
above
a
tea
plantation
outside
of
Kandy.
Meditators
are
expected
to
adhere
to
the
outline
schedule:

On
Poya
(full
moon)
days
there
is
an
optional
Group
Meditation
through
the
night.
On
the
quarter
and
half
moon
days
there
is
an
optional
extended
Group
Meditation
until
midnight.

The
centre
is
easily
reached
by
bus
from
Kandy.
Buses
for
Galaha
pass
Nilambe
Office
Junction
(about
17km).
From
there
it
is a
steep
walk
(or
rickshaw
ride)
through
tea
plantations
to
reach
the
centre.
Alternatively,
taxis
or
autorickshaws
are
available
from
Kandy.
It
is a
good
idea
to
contact
the
centre
in
advance
to
let
them
know
when
you
will
be
arriving.
Advice
can
also
be
sought
from
the
Buddhist
Publication
Society
in
Kandy.
(Autorickshaws
are
often
available
from
the
bottom
of
the
office
junction,
at
Nilambe,
but
the
gate
half
way
up
the
tea
estate
road
is
locked
most
of
the
time.
You
can
try
calling
Nalaka
on
0777-811653
to
get
more
information,
or
to
get
the
gate
opened
in
the
non
meditation
times
if
you
cannot
walk
the
last
mile.)

Meditators
stay
from
one
night
to
several
years,
and
the
centre
can
help
long
term
meditators
with
visa
extensions.
Accommodation
at
the
centre
is
in
single
or
shared
rooms.
The
centre
has
no
electricity
supply,
and
conditions
are
adequate
but
basic.
Although
this
is a
lay
centre,
often
there
are
members
of
the
Sangha
undertaking
personal
retreats
at
Nilambe.

The
centre
charges
400
Sri
Lankan
rupees
per
day
(about
GBP
1.90
sterling,
USD
3.70
at
Feb
2007
rates)
to
foreigners
to
cover
accommodation
and
food.
Sri
Lankans
may
offer
donations
instead.
The
majority
of
longer-term
meditators
are
Westerners,
but
many
Sri
Lankans
also
use
the
centre
(particularly
around
Poya
days).
Teaching
is
available
in
English
and
Sinhala
from
the
resident
teachers.
There
is a
good
library
of
books
and
tapes
in
English
and
Sinhala.
________________________________________________________________



Dekanduwala
Meditation
Centre

Kananwila,
Kahatapitiya,
Horana

Inquiries
and
bookings
should
be
made
through:
Buddhist
Cultural
Centre,
125
Anderson
Road,
Nedimala,
Dehiwala.

This
is a
Vipassana
centre
catering
mainly
to
Sri
Lankan
meditators.
English
and
Sinhala
are
both
spoken
by
the
monk-in-charge,
and
foreign
meditators
are
welcome.
Transport
regularly
leaves
the
BCC
in
Dehiwala
(outskirts
of
Colombo)
to
go
to
the
meditation
centre,
and
the
BCC
should
be
able
to
arrange
an
interview
with
the
teacher
beforehand
should
this
be
required.
The
meditation
centre
is
also
accessible
by
bus
from
Colombo.
The
centre
is
under
the
direction
of
Ven.
K
Wimalajothi.
Chief
Incumbent:
Ven.
Uhumiya
Sumanasara
Thero
Telephone:
0344286334,
0112734256,
2728468
Email
:

BCC456@sltnet.lk

________________________________________________________________



Dhamma
Kuta

Mowbray,
Galaha
Road,
Hindagala,
Peradeniya
Tel:
08-234649

A
meditation
centre
which
follows
the
instruction
of
S.N.Goenka.
Regular
10
day
courses
in
Goenkaji’s
vipassana
method
take
place
at
the
centre.
Please
telephone
for
dates.
Instruction
is
with
the
aid
of
tapes,
and
assistant
teachers
are
in
attendence.
Goenka
follows
the
technique
introduced
by U
Ba
Khin
of
Burma.
After
instruction
in
Anapanasati
(mindfulness
of
breathing),
the
meditator
moves
on
to a
form
of
’sweeping’
meditation,
whereby
mindfulness
of
the
sensations
arising
and
ceasing
in
the
body
lead
to
an
understanding
of
anicca
(impermanance),
and
through
that
an
understanding
of
dukkha
and
anatta.
Instruction
is
available
in
Sinhala
and
English.
No
fees
are
charged,
donations
welcome.
See
dhamma.org
for
more
details
on
this
and
other
Goenka
centres
worldwide.
________________________________________________________________



Lewella
Meditation
Centre

160
Dharmasoka
Mawatha,
Lewella,
Kandy
Tel:
081-4921814
E-mail:

lewella.meditation@gmail.com

A
centre
for
experienced
male
meditators,
and
for
the
study
of
Buddhism,
situated
on
the
outskirts
of
Kandy.
In
addition
to
rooms
within
the
centre
several
individual
retreat
kutis
(huts)
are
available
on
the
edge
of
the
Udawattakelle
forest
reserve.

________________________________________________________________



Thalagala
Meditation
Centre

Horana
Chief
Incumben
:
Ven.
Uduwe
Hemaloka
Thero
Telephone
:
0342254206
________________________________________________________________



Madakada/
Nachchimale
Aranya
Senasanaya

MahaIngiriya
Ingiriya
Chief
Incumbent:
Ven.
Ampitiye
Sumangala
________________________________________________________________



Dhamma
Sobha
Vipassana
Meditation
Centre

Kosgama
Telephone:
0362253955
Emai
:

dhammasoba@yahoo.com


________________________________________________________________



Dhammakuta
Vipassana
Meditation
Centre

Hindagala,
Peradeniya
Telephone:
0812385774
Email:

dhamma@sltnet.lk


________________________________________________________________



Sri
Dalada
Thapowanaya

Udawatte
Kele
Kandy
Telephone:
0812225052
________________________________________________________________



Siyane
Vidarshana
Meditation
Centre

Kandubod,
Delgoda
Telephone:
0112445518,
257030

________________________________________________________________



Sumathipala
Nahimi
Aranya
Senasanaya

Kanduboda,
Delgoda
Telephone
:
0112402805
________________________________________________________________



Meethirigala
Nissarana
Wanaya

Meethirigala
Telephone:
0602339193
Web:

www.lewellameditation.org


________________________________________________________________



Nimalawa
Aranya
Senasanaya

Tissamaharama
Chief
Incumbent
:
Most
Ven.
Welimada
Dhammadassi
Nayaka
Thero
Telephone
:
0115734075



May
attain
your
Nibbana
!!!







VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ


Construction of flyover near Mayawati’s residence started

Lucknow: Work has started
on a flyover at Mall Avenue here, which had raised the hackles of BSP
supremo Mayawati as it would pass near her residence and party office.

The flyover, to be constructed by Uttar Pradesh Bridges Corporation at
an estimated cost of Rs 40 crore, would be 15 m wide, 650 m long and
would be completed in 15 months, official sources said here.

The state government had proposed to construct the flyover in its annual budget.

During a post-budget press conference, UP Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav
had said that a large number of bridges were being constructed in the
state.

“If anything comes in the way, even then flyover will be constructed,
route will not be changed. Crossing is also there,” he said.

Taking strong exception to the proposal to build the flyover on the road
facing the party headquarters here, BSP member and Leader of Opposition
Swami Prasad Maurya had termed it as “politically motivated”.

“If there is really a need to ease the traffic, an overbridge should
first come up on Vikramaditya Marg which has the residence of SP chief
Mulayam Singh Yadav and also has SP office,” Maurya had said.

“The government should first worry about the traffic jam on the
Vikramaditya Marg before thinking about Loreto Convent-Telibagh route
(on the road facing the BSP office)… If they do not do so, it would
mean that they have wrong intentions for which they would have to pay a
heavy price later,” he had said.

SP govt have wrong intentions which means BSP is treading the right path and SP the wrong path which will certainly bring them down.


cooltext826500372.gif

2.jpg

A trio of daredevil
musicians known as Led Zipline have taken to the skies for jamming sessions -
dangling 1,000ft above a French gorge. Above, Armin Holzer plays the didgeridoo
while Mich Kemeter relaxes in a hammock hanging on a highline 300m above the
River Verdon in France.




Food as Medicine

HAY FEVER? EAT YOGURT!

Eat lots of yogurt before pollen season.
Also-eat honey from your area (local region) daily.

TO PREVENT STROKE DRINK TEA!
Prevent build-up of fatty deposits on artery walls with regular doses
of tea. (actually, tea suppresses appetite and keeps the pounds from
invading….Green tea is great for our immune system)!

INSOMNIA (CAN’T SLEEP?) HONEY!
Use honey as a tranquilizer and sedative.

ASTHMA? EAT ONIONS!!!!
Eating onions helps ease constriction of bronchial tubes. (onion packs
place on chest helped the respiratory ailments and actually made
breathing better).

ARTHRITIS? EAT FISH, TOO!!
Salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines actually prevent arthritis. (fish
has omega oils, good for our immune system)

UPSET STOMACH? BANANAS - GINGER!!!!!
Bananas will settle an upset stomach.
Ginger will cure morning sickness and nausea..

BLADDER INFECTION? DRINK CRANBERRY JUICE!!!!

High-acid cranberry juice controls harmful bacteria.

BONE PROBLEMS? EAT PINEAPPLE!!!
Bone fractures and osteoporosis can be prevented by the manganese in pineapple.

MEMORY PROBLEMS? EAT OYSTERS!

Oysters help improve your mental functioning by supplying much-needed zinc.

COLDS? EAT GARLIC!
Clear up that stuffy head with garlic. (remember, garlic lowers
cholesterol, too.)

COUGHING? USE RED PEPPERS!!

A substance similar to that found in the cough syrups is found in hot
red pepper. Use red (cayenne) pepper with caution-it can irritate your
tummy.

BREAST CANCER? EAT Wheat, bran and cabbage
Helps to maintain estrogen at healthy levels.

LUNG CANCER? EAT DARK GREEN AND ORANGE AND VEGGIES!!!
A good antidote is beta carotene, a form of Vitamin A found in dark
green and orange vegetables.

ULCERS? EAT CABBAGE ALSO!!!
Cabbage contains chemicals that help heal both gastric and duodenal ulcers.

DIARRHEA? EAT APPLES!
Grate an apple with its skin, let it turn brown and eat it to cure
this condition. (Bananas are good for this ailment)

CLOGGED ARTERIES? EAT AVOCADO!

Mono unsaturated fat in avocados lowers cholesterol.

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE? EAT CELERY AND OLIVE OIL!!!
Olive oil has been shown to lower blood pressure.
Celery contains a chemical that lowers pressure too.

BLOOD SUGAR IMBALANCE? EAT BROCCOLI AND PEANUTS!!!

The chromium in broccoli and peanuts helps regulate insulin and blood sugar.

Kiwi: Tiny but mighty. This is a good source of potassium, magnesium,
Vitamin E fibre. It’s Vitamin C content is twice that of an orange.

Apple: An apple a day keeps the doctor away? Although an apple has a

low Vitamin C content, it has antioxidants flavonoids which enhances
the activity of Vitamin C thereby helping to lower the risks of colon
cancer, heart attack stroke..

Strawberry: Protective fruit. Strawberries have the highest total
antioxidant power among major fruits protects the body from cancer
causing, blood vessels clogging free radicals. (Actually, any berry is
good for you..they’re high in anti-oxidants and they actually keep us
young………..blueberries are the best and very versatile in the
health field……..they get rid of all the free-radicals that invade
our bodies)

Orange : Sweetest medicine. Taking 2 - 4 oranges a day may help keep

colds away, lower cholesterol, prevent dissolve kidney stones as well
as lessen the risk of colon cancer..

Watermelon: Coolest Thirst Quencher. Composed of 92% water, it is also
packed with a giant dose of glutathione which helps boost our immune
system.. They are also a key source of lycopene - the cancer fighting
oxidant. Other nutrients
Found in watermelon are Vitamin C Potassium.(watermelon also has
natural substances [natural SPF sources] that keep our skin healthy,
protecting our skin from those darn UV rays)

Guava Papaya: Top awards for Vitamin C. They are the clear winners for
their high Vitamin C content. Guava is also rich in fibre which helps
prevent constipation.

Papaya is rich in carotene, this is good for your eyes. (also good for
gas and indigestion)

Tomatoes are very good as a preventative measure for men, keeps those
prostrate problems from invading their bodies……GOOD AS MEDICINE..

17 Reasons Why You Need a Mango Every Day ~

1. Fights cancer
2. Keeps cholesterol in check
3. Skin cleanser
4. Alkalizes the body
5. Weight loss
Inline image 1
6. Regulates diabetes
7. Aphrodisiac
8. Eye care
9. Helps in digestion
10. Heat stroke
11. Strengthens your immune
12. Body scrub
13. Aids concentration and memory
14. High iron for women
15. Reduces Kidney Stones
16. Perfect Snack
17. Stomach Tonic


comments (0)
05/29/13
935 LESSON 30-05-2013 THURSDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக வினயபிடகே அபிதம்மபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A TIPITAKA TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS Brief historical background Sutta Pitaka Vinaya Pitaka Abhidhamma Pitaka Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:18 pm

935 LESSON 30-05-2013 THURSDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

மிழில் திரிபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு
ஸுத்தபிடக
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் 
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-மஹாபரினிப்பண ஸுத்த (அபார வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல்)Mahāparinibbāna Sutta

from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org



up a level
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A

TIPITAKA

TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha buddan.gif

Tree
>>ஸுத்தபிடக-திக்க நிகாய Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 16 - (D ii 137)

மஹாபரினிப்பண ஸுத்த (அபார வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல்)

- இறுதி நெறிமுறைக் கட்டளைத்தொகுதி -

இந்த
ஸுத்த (சூத்திரத்தொகுதி )  புத்தர் அவரை பின்பற்றுபவர்கள் பொருட்டு
பற்பலவிதமான கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்ட மிக முக்கியமான நெறிமுறைக் கட்டளைத்தொகுதி
குழுமத்தை  முன்னேற்றமுற்ற இக்காலத்திற்கு நமக்கு கொடுத்திறுக்கிறார், 

தமிழ்

(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)

நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,  மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,  மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம், துரதிருஷ்டம், துக்க நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன், sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

மற்றும்
என்ன, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா), தம்மா மீதான அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன், ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்) ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு, ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு,  மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை, மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,  மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை, மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம், துரதிருஷ்டம், துக்க நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன், sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)உடைய வராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.


‘இதிபி ஸொ பகவா அரஹங் ஸம்மாஸம்புத்தொ

விஜ்ஜாசரணஸம்பனொ ஸுகதொ லோகவிது அனுத்தரொ
புரிஸதம்மஸாரதி ஸத்த தேவமனுசானங் புத்தொ
பகவா,தி.

பாளி
தம்மாதாஸ

தம்மாதாஸங்
நாம தம்மா-பரியாயங், யேன ஸம்மன்னாகதொ ஆரியஸாவகொ ஆகன்கமானொ  அட்டணாவ
அட்டாணங் ப்யா - கரெய்ய: கின-நிரயோ-மி கின-திர்ச்சான-வொனி
கின-பெட்டிவிசவொ கின் அப்பாவ-துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ, ஸோதாப்பன்னொ - ஹமஸ்மி
அவினிபாதொ-தம்மொ நியதொ ஸம்போதி பரயனொ’தி.

கதமொ ச ஸொ, ஆனந்தா,
தம்மாதாஸொ தம்மா-பரியாயவொ, யேன ஸம்மன்னாகதொ ஆரியஸாவகொ ஆகன்கமானொ 
அட்டணாவ அட்டாணங் ப்யா - கரெய்ய: கின-நிரயோ-மி கின-திர்ச்சான-வொனி
கின-பெட்டிவிசவொ கின் அப்பாவ-துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ, ஸோதாப்பன்னொ - ஹமஸ்மி
அவினிபாதொ-தம்மொ நியதொ ஸம்போதி பரயனொ’தி?

இத்’ஆனந்தா, ஆரியஸாவகொ புத்தே அவெச்சப்பஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகதொ ஹோதி

Idhānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti


English


Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

I will expound the
discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which
the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me,
there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya,
no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a
sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being
destined to sambodhi.

And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

சிறந்த  வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல் சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம் - எல்லாம் உணர்வுநிலையின் அடி எல்லை

இந்த சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம், புத்தரால், அவருடைய
முடிவுறுதல் அப்புறம், அவருடைய பின்பற்றுபவர்களின் நிமித்தம் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட
பற்பல விதிமுறைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அவை, நமக்கு  தற்காலத்தில் மிக
முக்கிய இணைகோப்பு விதிமுறைகளை உண்டாக்குகிறது.

இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

மற்றும்
என்ன,Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:

‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

 Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

நன்று
தெரிவித்த பகவதா தம்மம் (இயற்சக்தி, கட்டுப்பாடு, நிபந்தனை, வரையறை,
கட்டியம், நிலைமை, நன்னிலை, தகுதி, முறைமை, பண்பு, படிநிலை, தரம்,
உயர்நிலை, மனநிலை, உணர்ச்சிநிலை, ஒப்பந்த விதியின் வரையறைக்கூறு,
கட்டுப்பாடு, முன்னீடு, செயலுக்கு முன்பே பெற்றிருக்கவேண்டிய
இன்றியமையாக்கூறு, குணம், தனியியல்பு, தனித்திறம், தொனி, நயம், உள்ளார்ந்த
தனிக்கூறு,  நயநலக்கூறு, பண்புநலம்,  பண்புக்கூறு, பண்புத்தரம், பண்புவகை,
பண்புப்படி, உடன்பாட்டு எதிர்மறை நிலைக்கூறு,இயற்கைப் பண்பு, தன்மை, உடைமை ,
சொத்து , உரிமைப்பொருள் , ஆதனம், இனப்பொதுப்பண்பு, ஆஸ்தி , செல்வம்,
தனித்தன்மை,சிறப்பியல்பு,இயல்பாய்வு , பண்பான, தனிச் சிறப்பான ,
குறிப்பிடத்தக்க, தனிச்சிறப்புப் பண்பு , வேறுபரத்திக் காட்டும் இயல்பு ,
பண்புருவாக்கும் அடிப்படைக்கூறு , மடர்க்கையின் நேர்க்கூறு , முனைப்பான ,
தனிச் சிறப்பான , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க , தனிப்பண்பு மூலமான , மரபுக் கூறான ,
மரபியைவான,  வினை , வினைசெயல் , செய்கடமை , சமயவினைமுறை , நடைமுறைச்சடங்கு ,
நிகழ்ச்சிமுறை , செயற்படு , செயலாற்று , கடனாற்று, காரியம் , கடமை ,
சடங்கு, செயல் புரி , வேலை செய், சார்பு , சார்புலன், செயல்கூறு ,
செயல்படுத்து, பண்ணம், நடைமுறை வழக்கம் , பழக்கம் , வழக்கமான செயல் , சட்ட
நடைமுறை ஒழுங்கும , வாடிக்கை , நீடித்த பயிற்சி , பயிற்சித்தொடர்பு ,
அப்பியாசி , அப்பியாசம், பயிற்சி செய், கடமை , மேலோர்க்குக் காட்டத்தகும்
மட்டுமதிப்பு , பணிவிணக்கம் , அறமுறைக்கடப்பாடு , சட்டக்கட்டுப்
பாட்டுணர்ச்சி , நேர்மைப் பற்றுணர்வு , பொருள் , பருப்பொருள் ,
காட்சிப்பொருள் , புறப்பொருள் , புலனால் அறியப்படும்பொருள் , நானெனும்
தன்மைக்கப் புறம்பானது , கருத்துநோக்கம் , செயல் இலக்கு , குறிக்கோள் ,
நாடும்பொருள் , இலக்கானவர் , உரியவர் , ஆட்பட்டவ . இலக்கு , நோக்கம் ,
எண்ணம், செயப்படுபொருள், காரியம் , உளக்கருத்து , சிந்தனை , கருத்து,
வடிப்பு, இயற்காட்சி , இயல்நிகழ்ச்சி , காரண காரியத்தொடர்பு ஆய்ந்து
காணப்படாச் செய்தி , புலன்குறித்த செய்தி , மனங்குறித்துக் கண்ட செய்தி ,
ஆராய்ச்சிக்குரிய செய்தி , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க ஒன்று , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க
நிகழ்ச்சி , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க ஆள், உணரக்கூடியபொருள் , காட்சி, கவனிக்கப்பட
வேண்டிய நிகழ்வு, தோற்றப்பாடு, கோட்பாடு , வகுத்தமைத்த கொள்கை விளக்கம் ,
போதனைத் தொகுப்பு , சித்தாந்தம் , சமயமுடிபு விளக்கக் கோட்பாடு , அறிவியல்
விளக்க இணைப்புக் கோட்பாடு , அரசியல் தத்துவக் கோட்பாடு, போதனைகள்,
வியப்புணர்த்துஞ்சொல் , வியப்பிடைச்சொல், ஒழுக்கம் , நன்மை , நலம் , நேர்மை
, தகுதி , தன்மை , சிறப்பு , சிறந்த பண்பு , கடமையுணர்வு , நற்குணம் ,
நற்பண்புக்கூறு , புண்ணியம் , நற்கூறு , உள்ளார்ந்த நலம் , உள்ளார்ந்த
ஆற்றல் , பண்புறுதி , பயனுறுதிப்பாடு , கற்பு, கடமையுணர்ச்சி, சமய ஈடுபாடு,
வியப்புணர்த்துஞ்சொல் அல்லது புத்தரின் உண்மை , மெய்ம்மை , உண்மைச்
செய்திகளின் முழுத்தொகுதி , தத்துவம் , ஆழ்ந்த உண்மைச்செய்தி ,
மெய்றுதிப்பாடு , உண்மையுடைமை , இசைவு , பொருத்தம் , மெய்யான செய்தி ,
நிலையான மெய்ப் பொருள் , மெய்யான உரை , புத்தரால் தோற்று விக்கப்பட்ட சமயம
தர்ம சாஸ்திரம் , வேதப்புத்தகம், வேதவசனம், புனித நூல்.)சந்தித்துகோ(
கட்புலனாகிற , பார்க்கக்கூடிய , விளங்கக்கூடிய , வெளிப்படையான , மூடாக்கிற ,
மறைவற்ற, காணக்கூடிய , கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற, கண்ணுக்குப் புலப்படும்,
உண்மையாக உள்ள , உண்மையான , நடைமுறையில் உள்ள, நிஜமான , உள்ளபடியான, இந்த
வாழ்வுக்கு உரியதாயிருக்கிற) காலதாமதம் இன்றி உடனடியான அழைக்க , அழைத்தல் ,
உகந்த தனிமையாய், யாவும் ஒவ்வொன்றாக,
தனித்தனியே, ஓர் வழிபாட்டுத்
திருவினைக்குரிய இடம் , ஒரு நீதிப்பீடம் ,  ஒரு சுவர்ப்பக்க வரை விளிம்பு ,
அறைச்சுவர் உச்சி நெடுக கூரைக்கு அடுத்துக் கீழ் உள்ள அச்சுருவச் சிற்ப
வேலைப்பாடு , முன்கூரை , அறிவுத்திறம்வாய்ந்த , மெய்யறிவார்ந்த , கற்றறிந்த
, முன் விழிப்புடைய ,பார்க்க.

நன்று தெரிவித்த பகவதா தம்மம்
சந்தித்துகோ காலதாமதம் இன்றி உடனடியான அழைக்க , உகந்த தனிமையாய்,
அறைச்சுவர் உச்சி நெடுக கூரைக்கு அடுத்துக் கீழ் உள்ள அச்சுருவச் சிற்ப
வேலைப்பாடு , முன் விழிப்புடைய ,பார்க்க.


இது,
Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya
(நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும்
மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna
(புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி.


Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

-ஆனந்தா,
பூவா பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு
மலர்ச்சி அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு
செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி
சிதற, இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி
Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே
பூமழை பொழிந்தது. மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ்
சமிக்கையால் சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள்
காற்றுவெளியில் வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.

உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு  நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர்
வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது,  இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த  Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.

புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

பாளி

‘இதிபி ஸொ பகவா அரஹம்
ஸம்மாஸம்புத்தொ விஜ்ஜாசரனொஸம்பன்னொ ஸுகதொ லோகவிது அனுத்தரொ புரிஸதம்மஸாரதி
ஸத்தா தேவமனுஸ்ஸானம் புத்தொ பகவா’தி.


தம்மெ அவெச்சப்பஸ்ஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஹோதி:

ஸ்வாகாதொ பகவதா தம்மொ ஸந்திதிகொ அகாலிகொ எதிபசஸ்ஸிகொ ஒபனேவிகொ பச்சதம் வெதிதப்பொ வின்னுஹி’தி.
ஸங்கே அவெச்சப்பஸ்ஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஹோதி:

 Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

ஸுப்பதிபன்னொ  பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ,
உஜ்ஜுபதிபன்னொ பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ, 
ஞாயபதிபன்னொ பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ,
ஸாமிசிதிபன்னொ பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ, வாதிதம் சத்தாரி புரிஸவுக்கானி, ஏஸ பகவதொ
ஸாவகச்ங்கொ, ஆஹுனெய்யொ பாஹுனெய்யொ அன்ஞலிகாரனியொ அனுத்தரம் புண்யக்கேதம்
லோகஸ்ஸ’தி.

அகந்தேஹி அச்சிதேஹி அஸபலேஹி அக்கம்மாசஸேஹி புஜ்ஜஸ்ஸேஹி வின்யுபஸத்தேஹி அபராமதேஹி ஸமாதிஸம்வதனிகேஹி.



யங் கொ ஸொ,ஆனந்தா,தம்மதாஸொ தம்மா-பரியாயொ, வென ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஆரியஸாவகொ
ஆக்கன்கமானொ அட்டனாவ அட்டானம் ப்வா-கரேவ்வா ‘
கின-நிரவொ-மி-கின-திரச்சானி-வொனி
கின-பெட்டிவிஸவொ’அபாயொ-துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ,ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸமி அவினிபாத-தம்மொ
நிவதொ ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’ தி
ஸதொ, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு
விஹாரெய்ய  ஸம்பஜனொ அ யங் வொ அமாக்ஹம் அனுஸாஸனி.கதான்யச, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸாதொ ஹோதி? இதா, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு

காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ 
ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்; வெதன்னாஸு வெதனானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி
ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்; சித்தெ சித்தானுபஸ்ஸி
விஹாரதி ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்; தம்மேஸு
தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்.

ஏவங் கொ, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸாதொ ஹோதி.கதான்யச, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸம்பஜானொ ஹோதி? இதா, பிக்காவெ.

பிக்கு அபிஹிகந்தெ பதிக்கந்தெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி,
ஆலோகித விலோகித ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.ஸமிஞ்ஜிதெ பஸாரிதெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.
ஸங்காதிபட்டாசிவரதாரனெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி. அஸிதெ பிதெ காவிதெ ஸாவிதெ
ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி. உச்சாரபஸ்ஸவகம்மா ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.
காதெ,திதெ,நிஸின்னெ ஸுதெ ஜாகரிதெ பாஸிதெ துனிஹிபாவெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.

ஏவங் கொ, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸம்ப்ஜானொ ஹோதி.ஸாதொ,பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு விஹாரெய்ய ஸம்ப்ஜானொ. அ யங் வொ அம்ஹாகம் அனுஸாஸனி தி.


- ஸப்பாபாலிபுல்லா கொ,
ஆனந்தா, வமகஸாலா அகலப்புப்ஹேஹி. தெ ததாகதஸ்ஸ ஸரிரங் ஒகிரந்தி அஜ்ஜொகிரந்தி
அபிஹிப்பகிரந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய. திப்பானிபி மனதாரபுப்பாஹானிபி அந்தலிக்ஹா
பாபதந்தி. தானி ததாகதஸ்ஸ ஸரிரங் ஒகிரந்தி அஜ்ஜொகிரந்தி அபிஹிப்பகிரந்தி
ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய. திப்பானிபி சந்தனாசுன்னானி அந்தலிக்ஹா பாபதந்தி. தானி
ததாகதஸ்ஸ ஸரிரங் ஒகிரந்தி அஜ்ஜொகிரந்தி அபிஹிப்பகிரந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய.
திப்பானிபி துரியானி அந்தலிக்ஹெ வஜ்ஜந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய. திப்பானிபி
அந்தலிக்ஹெ வட்டந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய.


நா கொ, ஆனந்தா, எத்தவதா ததாகதொ ஸக்கதொ வ ஹோதி கருகதொ வ மானிதொ வ
பூஜிதொ வ அபசிதொ வ. யொ கொ. ஆனந்தா, பிக்கு வ பிக்குனி வ உபாஸகொ வ உபாஸிகா வ
தம்மனுதம்மாபதிபன்னொ விஹாரதி ஸாமிசிபதிபன்னொ அனுதம்மாசாரி, ஸொ ததாகதம்
ஸக்கரொதி கரும் கரோதி மானதி பூஜேதி அபசிவதி பரமாய பூஜெய. தஸ்மாத்ஹி ஆனந்தா,
தம்மனுதம்மாபதிபன்னா விஹாரிஸாம  ஸாமிசிபதிபன்னா  அனுதம்மாசாரி’னோதி.
ஏவன்ஹி வொ ஆனந்தா, ஸிக்ஹிதப்ப நிதி.


-ஸிவா கொ பன்’ஆனந்தா, தும்ஹாகம்ஏவம்’அஸ்ஸ: ‘அதித-ஸத்துக்கம்
பாவசனம், னத்தி நொ ஸத்தா தி. நா கொ பன்’னெதம்.ஆனந்தா, ஏவங் தத்தாத்தம். யொ
வொ, ஆனந்தா, மயா தம்மொ ச வினயொ ச தேஸிதொ பன்னதொ. ஸொ வொ மம்’அசவென ஸத்தா.


And what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma
which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so
desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no
more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness,
of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states
of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?


At Kusinara

Last Place of Rest


t .

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:

Calamity,
accident Own Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni Worthy, venerable, sanctified, holy A venerable person, a holy
man, a saint; one who has attained final sanctification, an arhat
Knowledge, learning, scholarship, science; wisdom Who walks well, happy,
blest Knowing the universe. A common epithet of a Buddha Unrivaled,
preeminent, incomparable, supreme second to none Manhood, virility A
teacher, master see devo Known, understood; possessing knowledge,
enlightened, wise; expanded, full-blown Worshipful, venerable, blessed,
holy. This word is generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in
particular, Sākyamuni see

‘Itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho
vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro  purisadammasārathi satthā
devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.

Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.

Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho,                                               
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.

 bhagavato (N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed,
holy. This word is generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in
particular, Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho, => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
ujuppaṭipanno (N|NOM) => Straight, right, direct; straightforward, honest, upright
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho, => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
ñāyappaṭipanno (N|NOM) => Method, manner, means; suitable manner, propriety, right conduct, justice
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho, => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
sāmīcippaṭipanno (N|NOM) => Correctness, propriety, proper or respectful act or duty
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho (N|NOM) => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
yadidaṃ (N|ACC) => Namely, that is to say
cattāri => Four
purisayugāni => Manhood, virility
aṭṭha => Eight
purisapuggalā, => Manhood, virility
esa => see eso
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho (N|NOM) => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
āhuneyyo (N|NOM) => Sacrificial, worthy of offerings, worshipful
pāhuneyyo (N|NOM) => Sufficient
dakkhiṇeyyo (N|NOM) => Worthy of offerings
añjalikaraṇīyo
(N|NOM) => The hollow of the joined hand; a respectful salutation
performed by raising the joined hands to the forehead
anuttaraṃ (N|ACC) => Pre-eminence, supremacy
puññakkhettaṃ (N|ACC) => Meritoriousness, merit, good works
lokassā’ => see akkhāyikā and lokāyataṃ
ti. => see iti
Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

 akhaṇḍehi => Unbroken, intact, entire
acchiddehi => Uninjured, intact, faultless
asabalehi => Improper, wrong, sinful
akammāsehi => Intransitive
bhujissehi => A freed slave, a freedman; a freeman
viññūpasatthehi => Intelligent, wise, learned, discreet
aparāmaṭṭhehi => Unconquered
samādhisaṃvattanikehi. => Agreement, peace, reconciliation; tranquillity, self-concentration, calm
Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 


This, Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma
which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he
so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no
more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of
unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free
from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi. 


… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 

Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu

And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

 kāye => Referring to the body
kāyānupassī => see satipaṭṭhāno
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; => Covetousness
vedanāsu => Feeling, sensation, perception; pain, suffering
vedanānupassī => Feeling, sensation, perception; pain, suffering
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; => Covetousness
citte => To paint, to variegate
cittānupassī => Name of a nakkhatta
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; => Covetousness
dhammesu (N|LOC) => Justly, righteously
dhammānupassī => see anudhammo
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. => Covetousness

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

 bhikkhu => A beggar; a mendicant friar; a Buddhist monk
abhikkante => Advanced, having approached
Beautiful; excellent,
Withered; exhausted
paṭikkante => To step backwards, retreat, depart; to return
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
ālokite => Looking at, regarding, seeing
vilokite => Looking, a look
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
samiñjite => To be moved, tremble, falter
pasārite => To stretch out, spread out, expand, exhibit, expose
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe => One of the three robes of a Buddhist monk
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
asite => A sickle
pīte => Yellow
khāyite => Eaten
sāyite => Lying, sleeping
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
uccārapassāvakamme => Utterance, pronunciation
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
gate => One whose journey is ended, who has reached his destination
ṭhite => Standing up
nisinne => Seated
sutte => A string, thread; a portion of the Buddhist scriptures; a rule, aphorism
jāgarite => Waking, watching, vigil
bhāsite => One who speaks or utters
tuṇhībhāve => Silently, without speaking
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti. => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti.

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

… 



Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya.

– Ananda, the twin sala trees
are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And the
blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter and
are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā
Tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo
kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā
dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so
Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya
pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda, dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma
sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba
nti.

It is not by this, Ānanda, that
the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, paid homage and
honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman or laywoman,
remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates, esteems, pays
homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent homage.
Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will remain
dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, living in accordance
with the Dhamma’.

… 

… 


‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā.


‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of the Teacher
have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this, Ānanda, should not,
be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught and made known to
you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your Teacher after my
passing away. 


… 

இத், ஆனந்தா, ஆரியஸாவகொ புத்தே அவெச்சப்பஸ்ஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஹோதி:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

இத், ஆனந்தா, ஆரியஸாவகொ புத்தே அவெச்சப்பஸ்ஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஹோதி:
This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

இந்த சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம்,
புத்தரால், அவருடைய முடிவுறுதல் அப்புறம், அவருடைய பின்பற்றுபவர்களின்
நிமித்தம் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட பற்பல விதிமுறைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அவை,
நமக்கு  தற்காலத்தில் மிக முக்கிய இணைகோப்பு விதிமுறைகளை உண்டாக்குகிறது.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Pāḷi

English


… 

(Dhammādāsa)

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti.

தம்மதாஸம்
நாம தம்மா-பரியாம் தெஸ்ஸாமி வென ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஆரியஸாவகொ ஆக்கன்கமானொ
அட்டனாவ அட்டானம் ப்வா-கரேவ்வா ‘ கின-நிரவொ-மி-கின-திரச்சானி-வொனி
கின-பெட்டிவிஸவொ’அபாயொ-துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ,ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸமி அவினிபாத-தம்மொ
நிவதொ ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’ தி

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I will
expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.
தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti?

கதமொ
சா ஸொ, ஆனந்தா,தம்மதாஸொ தம்மா-பரியாயொ, வென ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஆரியஸாவகொ
ஆக்கன்கமானொ அட்டனாவ அட்டானம் ப்வா-கரேவ்வா ‘
கின-நிரவொ-மி-கின-திரச்சானி-வொனி
கின-பெட்டிவிஸவொ’அபாயொ-துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ,ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸமி அவினிபாத-தம்மொ
நிவதொ ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’ தி?

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

இத், ஆனந்தா, ஆரியஸாவகொ புத்தே அவெச்சப்பஸ்ஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஹோதி:


And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

Calamity,
accident Own Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni Worthy, venerable, sanctified, holy A venerable person, a holy
man, a saint; one who has attained final sanctification, an arhat
Knowledge, learning, scholarship, science; wisdom Who walks well, happy,
blest Knowing the universe. A common epithet of a Buddha Unrivaled,
preeminent, incomparable, supreme second to none Manhood, virility A
teacher, master see devo Known, understood; possessing knowledge,
enlightened, wise; expanded, full-blown Worshipful, venerable, blessed,
holy. This word is generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in
particular, Sākyamuni see

‘Itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho
vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro  purisadammasārathi satthā
devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.
‘இதிபி ஸொ பகவா அரஹம்
ஸம்மாஸம்புத்தொ விஜ்ஜாசரனொஸம்பன்னொ ஸுகதொ லோகவிது அனுத்தரொ புரிஸதம்மஸாரதி
ஸத்தா தேவமனுஸ்ஸானம் புத்தொ பகவா’தி.

Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
தம்மெ அவெச்சப்பஸ்ஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஹோதி:
He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
 Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.
ஸ்வாகாதொ பகவதா தம்மொ ஸந்திதிகொ அகாலிகொ எதிபசஸ்ஸிகொ ஒபனேவிகொ பச்சதம் வெதிதப்பொ வின்னுஹி’தி.
நன்று
தெரிவித்த பகவதா தம்மம் (இயற்சக்தி, கட்டுப்பாடு, நிபந்தனை, வரையறை,
கட்டியம், நிலைமை, நன்னிலை, தகுதி, முறைமை, பண்பு, படிநிலை, தரம்,
உயர்நிலை, மனநிலை, உணர்ச்சிநிலை, ஒப்பந்த விதியின் வரையறைக்கூறு,
கட்டுப்பாடு, முன்னீடு, செயலுக்கு முன்பே பெற்றிருக்கவேண்டிய
இன்றியமையாக்கூறு, குணம், தனியியல்பு, தனித்திறம், தொனி, நயம், உள்ளார்ந்த
தனிக்கூறு,  நயநலக்கூறு, பண்புநலம்,  பண்புக்கூறு, பண்புத்தரம், பண்புவகை,
பண்புப்படி, உடன்பாட்டு எதிர்மறை நிலைக்கூறு,இயற்கைப் பண்பு, தன்மை, உடைமை ,
சொத்து , உரிமைப்பொருள் , ஆதனம், இனப்பொதுப்பண்பு, ஆஸ்தி , செல்வம்,
தனித்தன்மை,சிறப்பியல்பு,இயல்பாய்வு , பண்பான, தனிச் சிறப்பான ,
குறிப்பிடத்தக்க, தனிச்சிறப்புப் பண்பு , வேறுபரத்திக் காட்டும் இயல்பு ,
பண்புருவாக்கும் அடிப்படைக்கூறு , மடர்க்கையின் நேர்க்கூறு , முனைப்பான ,
தனிச் சிறப்பான , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க , தனிப்பண்பு மூலமான , மரபுக் கூறான ,
மரபியைவான,  வினை , வினைசெயல் , செய்கடமை , சமயவினைமுறை , நடைமுறைச்சடங்கு ,
நிகழ்ச்சிமுறை , செயற்படு , செயலாற்று , கடனாற்று, காரியம் , கடமை ,
சடங்கு, செயல் புரி , வேலை செய், சார்பு , சார்புலன், செயல்கூறு ,
செயல்படுத்து, பண்ணம், நடைமுறை வழக்கம் , பழக்கம் , வழக்கமான செயல் , சட்ட
நடைமுறை ஒழுங்கும , வாடிக்கை , நீடித்த பயிற்சி , பயிற்சித்தொடர்பு ,
அப்பியாசி , அப்பியாசம், பயிற்சி செய், கடமை , மேலோர்க்குக் காட்டத்தகும்
மட்டுமதிப்பு , பணிவிணக்கம் , அறமுறைக்கடப்பாடு , சட்டக்கட்டுப்
பாட்டுணர்ச்சி , நேர்மைப் பற்றுணர்வு , பொருள் , பருப்பொருள் ,
காட்சிப்பொருள் , புறப்பொருள் , புலனால் அறியப்படும்பொருள் , நானெனும்
தன்மைக்கப் புறம்பானது , கருத்துநோக்கம் , செயல் இலக்கு , குறிக்கோள் ,
நாடும்பொருள் , இலக்கானவர் , உரியவர் , ஆட்பட்டவ . இலக்கு , நோக்கம் ,
எண்ணம், செயப்படுபொருள், காரியம் , உளக்கருத்து , சிந்தனை , கருத்து,
வடிப்பு, இயற்காட்சி , இயல்நிகழ்ச்சி , காரண காரியத்தொடர்பு ஆய்ந்து
காணப்படாச் செய்தி , புலன்குறித்த செய்தி , மனங்குறித்துக் கண்ட செய்தி ,
ஆராய்ச்சிக்குரிய செய்தி , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க ஒன்று , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க
நிகழ்ச்சி , குறிப்பிடத்தக்க ஆள், உணரக்கூடியபொருள் , காட்சி, கவனிக்கப்பட
வேண்டிய நிகழ்வு, தோற்றப்பாடு, கோட்பாடு , வகுத்தமைத்த கொள்கை விளக்கம் ,
போதனைத் தொகுப்பு , சித்தாந்தம் , சமயமுடிபு விளக்கக் கோட்பாடு , அறிவியல்
விளக்க இணைப்புக் கோட்பாடு , அரசியல் தத்துவக் கோட்பாடு, போதனைகள்,
வியப்புணர்த்துஞ்சொல் , வியப்பிடைச்சொல், ஒழுக்கம் , நன்மை , நலம் , நேர்மை
, தகுதி , தன்மை , சிறப்பு , சிறந்த பண்பு , கடமையுணர்வு , நற்குணம் ,
நற்பண்புக்கூறு , புண்ணியம் , நற்கூறு , உள்ளார்ந்த நலம் , உள்ளார்ந்த
ஆற்றல் , பண்புறுதி , பயனுறுதிப்பாடு , கற்பு, கடமையுணர்ச்சி, சமய ஈடுபாடு,
வியப்புணர்த்துஞ்சொல் அல்லது புத்தரின் உண்மை , மெய்ம்மை , உண்மைச்
செய்திகளின் முழுத்தொகுதி , தத்துவம் , ஆழ்ந்த உண்மைச்செய்தி ,
மெய்றுதிப்பாடு , உண்மையுடைமை , இசைவு , பொருத்தம் , மெய்யான செய்தி ,
நிலையான மெய்ப் பொருள் , மெய்யான உரை , புத்தரால் தோற்று விக்கப்பட்ட சமயம
தர்ம சாஸ்திரம் , வேதப்புத்தகம், வேதவசனம், புனித நூல்.)சந்தித்துகோ(
கட்புலனாகிற , பார்க்கக்கூடிய , விளங்கக்கூடிய , வெளிப்படையான , மூடாக்கிற ,
மறைவற்ற, காணக்கூடிய , கண்ணுக்கு தெரிகிற, கண்ணுக்குப் புலப்படும்,
உண்மையாக உள்ள , உண்மையான , நடைமுறையில் உள்ள, நிஜமான , உள்ளபடியான, இந்த
வாழ்வுக்கு உரியதாயிருக்கிற) காலதாமதம் இன்றி உடனடியான அழைக்க , அழைத்தல் ,
உகந்த தனிமையாய், யாவும் ஒவ்வொன்றாக,
தனித்தனியே, ஓர் வழிபாட்டுத்
திருவினைக்குரிய இடம் , ஒரு நீதிப்பீடம் ,  ஒரு சுவர்ப்பக்க வரை விளிம்பு ,
அறைச்சுவர் உச்சி நெடுக கூரைக்கு அடுத்துக் கீழ் உள்ள அச்சுருவச் சிற்ப
வேலைப்பாடு , முன்கூரை , அறிவுத்திறம்வாய்ந்த , மெய்யறிவார்ந்த , கற்றறிந்த
, முன் விழிப்புடைய ,பார்க்க.

நன்று தெரிவித்த பகவதா தம்மம்
சந்தித்துகோ காலதாமதம் இன்றி உடனடியான அழைக்க , உகந்த தனிமையாய்,
அறைச்சுவர் உச்சி நெடுக கூரைக்கு அடுத்துக் கீழ் உள்ள அச்சுருவச் சிற்ப
வேலைப்பாடு , முன் விழிப்புடைய ,பார்க்க.

Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
ஸங்கே அவெச்சப்பஸ்ஸாத ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஹோதி:
He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
 Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho,                                               
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.
ஸுப்பதிபன்னொ  பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ,
உஜ்ஜுபதிபன்னொ பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ, 
ஞாயபதிபன்னொ பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ,
ஸாமிசிதிபன்னொ பகவதொ ஸாவகச்ங்கொ, வாதிதம் சத்தாரி புரிஸவுக்கானி, ஏஸ பகவதொ
ஸாவகச்ங்கொ, ஆஹுனெய்யொ பாஹுனெய்யொ அன்ஞலிகாரனியொ அனுத்தரம் புண்யக்கேதம்
லோகஸ்ஸ’தி.
 bhagavato (N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed,
holy. This word is generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in
particular, Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho, => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
ujuppaṭipanno (N|NOM) => Straight, right, direct; straightforward, honest, upright
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho, => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
ñāyappaṭipanno (N|NOM) => Method, manner, means; suitable manner, propriety, right conduct, justice
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho, => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
sāmīcippaṭipanno (N|NOM) => Correctness, propriety, proper or respectful act or duty
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho (N|NOM) => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
yadidaṃ (N|ACC) => Namely, that is to say
cattāri => Four
purisayugāni => Manhood, virility
aṭṭha => Eight
purisapuggalā, => Manhood, virility
esa => see eso
bhagavato
(N|NOM) => Worshipful, venerable, blessed, holy. This word is
generally used as an epithet or name of a Buddha, in particular,
Sākyamuni
sāvakasaṅgho (N|NOM) => A hearer, listener, pupil; a disciple
āhuneyyo (N|NOM) => Sacrificial, worthy of offerings, worshipful
pāhuneyyo (N|NOM) => Sufficient
dakkhiṇeyyo (N|NOM) => Worthy of offerings
añjalikaraṇīyo
(N|NOM) => The hollow of the joined hand; a respectful salutation
performed by raising the joined hands to the forehead
anuttaraṃ (N|ACC) => Pre-eminence, supremacy
puññakkhettaṃ (N|ACC) => Meritoriousness, merit, good works
lokassā’ => see akkhāyikā and lokāyataṃ
ti. => see iti
Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.
அகந்தேஹி அச்சிதேஹி அஸபலேஹி அக்கம்மாசஸேஹி புஜ்ஜஸ்ஸேஹி வின்யுபஸத்தேஹி அபராமதேஹி ஸமாதிஸம்வதனிகேஹி.

 akhaṇḍehi => Unbroken, intact, entire
acchiddehi => Uninjured, intact, faultless
asabalehi => Improper, wrong, sinful
akammāsehi => Intransitive
bhujissehi => A freed slave, a freedman; a freeman
viññūpasatthehi => Intelligent, wise, learned, discreet
aparāmaṭṭhehi => Unconquered
samādhisaṃvattanikehi. => Agreement, peace, reconciliation; tranquillity, self-concentration, calm
Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 


யங் கொ ஸொ,ஆனந்தா,தம்மதாஸொ தம்மா-பரியாயொ, வென ஸம்மன்னாகததொ ஆரியஸாவகொ
ஆக்கன்கமானொ அட்டனாவ அட்டானம் ப்வா-கரேவ்வா ‘
கின-நிரவொ-மி-கின-திரச்சானி-வொனி
கின-பெட்டிவிஸவொ’அபாயொ-துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ,ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸமி அவினிபாத-தம்மொ
நிவதொ ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’ தி
This, Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma
which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he
so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no
more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of
unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free
from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi. 

இது,
Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya
(நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும்
மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna
(புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 
ஸதொ, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு
விஹாரெய்ய  ஸம்பஜனொ அ யங் வொ அமாக்ஹம் அனுஸாஸனி.
Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
கதான்யச, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸாதொ ஹோதி? இதா, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ 
ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்; வெதன்னாஸு வெதனானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி
ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்; சித்தெ சித்தானுபஸ்ஸி
விஹாரதி ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்; தம்மேஸு
தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி ஆதாபி ஸம்பஜானொ ஸதிமா, வினய்ய லோகெ அபிஜ்ஜா-தொம்மஸம்.

 kāye => Referring to the body
kāyānupassī => see satipaṭṭhāno
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; => Covetousness
vedanāsu => Feeling, sensation, perception; pain, suffering
vedanānupassī => Feeling, sensation, perception; pain, suffering
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; => Covetousness
citte => To paint, to variegate
cittānupassī => Name of a nakkhatta
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; => Covetousness
dhammesu (N|LOC) => Justly, righteously
dhammānupassī => see anudhammo
viharati (VB) => To dwell, sojourn, live
ātāpī => Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active
sampajāno (N|NOM) => Knowing, understanding, conscious
satimā, => Of retentive memory or active mind, thoughtful, reflecting
vineyya => To remove, put away; to subdue, conquer, restrain; to instruct, educate, train
loke => Brahman
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. => Covetousness

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
ஏவங் கொ, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸாதொ ஹோதி.கதான்யச, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸம்பஜானொ ஹோதி? இதா, பிக்காவெ.

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.
பிக்கு அபிஹிகந்தெ பதிக்கந்தெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி,
ஆலோகித விலோகித ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.ஸமிஞ்ஜிதெ பஸாரிதெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.
ஸங்காதிபட்டாசிவரதாரனெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி. அஸிதெ பிதெ காவிதெ ஸாவிதெ
ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி. உச்சாரபஸ்ஸவகம்மா ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.
காதெ,திதெ,நிஸின்னெ ஸுதெ ஜாகரிதெ பாஸிதெ துனிஹிபாவெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.
 bhikkhu => A beggar; a mendicant friar; a Buddhist monk
abhikkante => Advanced, having approached
Beautiful; excellent,
Withered; exhausted
paṭikkante => To step backwards, retreat, depart; to return
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
ālokite => Looking at, regarding, seeing
vilokite => Looking, a look
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
samiñjite => To be moved, tremble, falter
pasārite => To stretch out, spread out, expand, exhibit, expose
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe => One of the three robes of a Buddhist monk
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
asite => A sickle
pīte => Yellow
khāyite => Eaten
sāyite => Lying, sleeping
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
uccārapassāvakamme => Utterance, pronunciation
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti, => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave
gate => One whose journey is ended, who has reached his destination
ṭhite => Standing up
nisinne => Seated
sutte => A string, thread; a portion of the Buddhist scriptures; a rule, aphorism
jāgarite => Waking, watching, vigil
bhāsite => One who speaks or utters
tuṇhībhāve => Silently, without speaking
sampajānakārī => Knowing, understanding, conscious
hoti. => see bhavati, To be; to exist; to become; to take place; to befall; to behave

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti.
ஏவங் கொ, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு ஸம்ப்ஜானொ ஹோதி.ஸாதொ,பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு விஹாரெய்ய ஸம்ப்ஜானொ. அ யங் வொ அம்ஹாகம் அனுஸாஸனி தி.

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… 



Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
- ஸப்பாபாலிபுல்லா கொ,
ஆனந்தா, வமகஸாலா அகலப்புப்ஹேஹி. தெ ததாகதஸ்ஸ ஸரிரங் ஒகிரந்தி அஜ்ஜொகிரந்தி
அபிஹிப்பகிரந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய. திப்பானிபி மனதாரபுப்பாஹானிபி அந்தலிக்ஹா
பாபதந்தி. தானி ததாகதஸ்ஸ ஸரிரங் ஒகிரந்தி அஜ்ஜொகிரந்தி அபிஹிப்பகிரந்தி
ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய. திப்பானிபி சந்தனாசுன்னானி அந்தலிக்ஹா பாபதந்தி. தானி
ததாகதஸ்ஸ ஸரிரங் ஒகிரந்தி அஜ்ஜொகிரந்தி அபிஹிப்பகிரந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய.
திப்பானிபி துரியானி அந்தலிக்ஹெ வஜ்ஜந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய. திப்பானிபி
அந்தலிக்ஹெ வட்டந்தி ததாகதஸ்ஸ பூஜாய.

– Ananda, the twin sala trees
are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And the
blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter and
are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
-ஆனந்தா,
பூவா பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு
மலர்ச்சி அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு
செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி
சிதற, இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி
Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே
பூமழை பொழிந்தது. மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ்
சமிக்கையால் சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள்
காற்றுவெளியில் வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā
Tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo
kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā
dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so
Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya
pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda, dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma
sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba
nti.
நா கொ, ஆனந்தா, எத்தவதா ததாகதொ ஸக்கதொ வ ஹோதி கருகதொ வ மானிதொ வ
பூஜிதொ வ அபசிதொ வ. யொ கொ. ஆனந்தா, பிக்கு வ பிக்குனி வ உபாஸகொ வ உபாஸிகா வ
தம்மனுதம்மாபதிபன்னொ விஹாரதி ஸாமிசிபதிபன்னொ அனுதம்மாசாரி, ஸொ ததாகதம்
ஸக்கரொதி கரும் கரோதி மானதி பூஜேதி அபசிவதி பரமாய பூஜெய. தஸ்மாத்ஹி ஆனந்தா,
தம்மனுதம்மாபதிபன்னா விஹாரிஸாம  ஸாமிசிபதிபன்னா  அனுதம்மாசாரி’னோதி.
ஏவன்ஹி வொ ஆனந்தா, ஸிக்ஹிதப்ப நிதி.

It is not by this, Ānanda, that
the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, paid homage and
honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman or laywoman,
remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates, esteems, pays
homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent homage.
Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will remain
dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, living in accordance
with the Dhamma’.
இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
… 

… 


‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā.
-ஸிவா கொ பன்’ஆனந்தா, தும்ஹாகம்ஏவம்’அஸ்ஸ: ‘அதித-ஸத்துக்கம்
பாவசனம், னத்தி நொ ஸத்தா தி. நா கொ பன்’னெதம்.ஆனந்தா, ஏவங் தத்தாத்தம். யொ
வொ, ஆனந்தா, மயா தம்மொ ச வினயொ ச தேஸிதொ பன்னதொ. ஸொ வொ மம்’அசவென ஸத்தா.


‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of the Teacher
have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this, Ānanda, should not,
be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught and made known to
you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your Teacher after my
passing away. 

உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு  நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர்
வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது,  இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த  Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.
… 

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html
http://www.bali3d.com/highres/bud1-shockwave.php
http://www.bali3d.com/buddhist-temple.php
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mafxI1YiED4&feature=related
for
Wellness & Harmony: Pure Relaxation - Enjoy The Silence
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lVeCx0bM7Xg&feature=related
for
Zen Garden ♫✿
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9SCrpXN3EE&feature=related
for
Meditation (Zen Music)
http://www.sharewareconnection.com/software.php?list=Chakra+Mandala
http://www.sharewareconnection.com/shiny-clock-screensaver.htm
http://www.sacbee.com/2012/07/18/4640066/website-lets-you-create-free-animated.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IjB6l3Qz2HE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x6U7xIZKrBM
Best top class Buddhist chantings and music

Thousand Hand Guan Yin
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gcYLO8haYas
Top class High definition Buddhist  chantings

Buddhist Chants & Peace Music - Hanshan Temple
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=3GhE_lUQrok
Lin Feng Ting Mu Chan-pipa,erhu,dizi
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=bbgHZWwyhcQ
Om Mani Padme Hum - Original Extended Version.wmv
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-c9-XaA2f00&feature=relmfu
Buddhist Chant - Heart Sutra (Sanskrit) by Imee Ooi
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CR3dM-GlZK8
Relax - Buddhist Meditation Music - Zen Garden - Kokin Gumi
13,484,371 Views
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuJdzRcW174&feature=related
meditacion - musica para dormir (excelente)
8,122,639 Views
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-No-226O0tg&feature=related
Música de relajación
8 Hrs
2,171,656 Views

Only Search Buddha Jayanthi Tipitaka Free Download

Picture

The
Government of Sri Lanka sponsored the Translation of Tipitaka in to
Sinhala on 1956 and the project was undertaken by a prominent team of
scholars from the sangha community. Theis gigantic task was completed
only on 1990 January with the publication of the last book by the
Government Publisher.

As some people are trying to publish their
own versions and interpretations of tipitaka as genuine we believe
Sinhala Public should read the authentic translation so meticulously
carried out by our sangha fathers before jumping on the band waggon of
new versions of Tipitaka.

The series comprises of 40 volumes and
57 books.  The series fills  book case almirah. In order to make it
available for the public and prserve it  Mr Saminda Ranasinghe embarked
on converting the printed books to electronic versions.  He deserves the
merits of all this hard work.



Sutta Pitaka 

Picture


Vinaya Pitaka

Picture



Abhidhamma Pitaka

Picture

  1. Dhammasangani Pakarana
  2. Vibhanga Pakarana 1 of 2
  3. Vibhanga Pakarana 2 of 2
  4. Kathavathu Pakarana 1 of 3
  5. Kathavathu Pakarana 2 of 3
  6. Kathavathu Pakarana 3 of 3
  7. Dhathukatha Puggala Pannatti
  8. Yamaka Pakarana 1 of 3
  9. Yamaka Pakarana 2 of 3
  10. Yamaka Pakarana 3 of 3
  11. Patthana Pakarana  1 of 3
  12. Patthana Pakarana 2 of 3
  13. Patthana Pakarana 3 of 3



ථෙරවාද ත්‍රිපිටකය

ප භාග්‍යවත් අර්හත්
සම්මා සම්බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් ස්වකීය ශක්තියෙන් අවබෝධ කර ලෝ සත්නට
අනුකම්පා පිණිස දේශිත, උතුම් වූ ශ්‍රී සද්ධර්මය ට අයත් වූ, මහා කාශ්‍යප මහ
රහතන් වහන්සේගේ ප්‍රධානත්වයෙන් පැවැති ප්‍රථම සංගායනාවෙහි දී ආනන්ද මහ
රහතන් වහන්සේ ද ඇතුලු පන්සියයක් මහ රහතන් වහන්සේලා විසින් සංගායනා කරන්නට
යෙදුනු අසූහාරදහසක් වූ ධර්ම ස්කන්ධය, ත්‍රිපිටකය යි.


යමෙක් මෙහි ඇති යම් ධර්ම ස්කන්ධයක් හෝ බැහැර
කරන්නේ ද ඔහුට ධර්ම රත්නය හි පිහිට නොලැබෙනු ඇත. ත්‍රිවිධ රත්නය ම නො
පිළිගන්නා පුද්ගලයා අසරණ ය. ඔවුනගේ නිවන තව බොහෝ දුර ඈත ය. කෙනෙකුට ධර්මය
අවබෝධ වුව ද, නො වුව ද ලොව ඇති ධර්මතාවයනට ලක් වීමට ද එහි ප්‍රතිඵල විදීමට ද
සිදුවීම අනිවාර්ය ය. අවුරුදු කෝටි ප්‍රකෝටි ගණනකිනුදු ලැබීමට දුෂ්කර වූ
මෙ‍ම වටිනා අවස්ථාව ප්‍රයෝජනයට ගෙන ධර්ම රත්නය අවබෝධ කර ගැනීමට දැඩි ලෙස
උත්සාහ කළ යුතු ය. යථාවබෝධය ලබනු පිණිස අවංකව වීර්යය කරන්නා වූ සියල්ලන්ට ම
අපගේ ශක්ති ප්‍රමාණයෙන් උපකාර කිරීම අපගේ අභිලාෂය ය. ලෝ වටා සිටින
සියල්ලනට ම ත්‍රිපිටක ය පහසුවෙන් ලබාගැනීමට සැලැස්වීම එහි එක් පියවර කි.


සියල්ලෝ ම ධර්මාවබෝධය ලබත්වා ! සියලු
දෙව්මිනිසුන් සුවපත් වේවා ! අප භාග්‍යවත් අර්හත් සම්මා සම්බුදුරජාණන්
වහන්සේගේ ශාසනය බොහෝ කල් පවතීවා !



චිරං තිට්ඨතු ලෝකස්මිං සම්මාසම්බුද්ධසාසනං !


තමහට වැඩ කැමැත්තෝ තිසරණයෙහි පිහිටත්වා ! මේ පින් අනුමෝදන් වෙත්වා !


ශාසනාභිවෘද්ධිකාමී,

සමින්ද රණසිංහ.

2009.06.28

TO DOWNLOAD - Right click and select “Save Target As”

 සූත්‍ර පිටකය

 පාළි අට්ඨකථා


 
 
 

 පාළි ටීකා


comments (0)
05/28/13
934 LESSON 29-05-2013 WEDNESDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக வினயபிடகே அபிதம்மபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A TIPITAKA TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS Brief historical background Sutta Pitaka Vinaya Pitaka Abhidhamma Pitaka Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:31 pm

934 LESSON 29-05-2013 WEDNESDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

மிழில் திரிபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு
ஸுத்தபிடக
வினயபிடகே
அபிதம்மபிடக
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் 
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A

TIPITAKA

TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha BUDDHA.gif


Quotes, Pictures, Happiness,Moral ,Worries,Buddha, Inspirational Quotes, Motivational Thoughts and Pictures

http://www.tipitaka.net/community/news.php?page=130524e1

United Nations
Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York

Secretary-General, in Message, Calls Vesak Day Occasion to Examine
How Buddhist Teachings ‘Can Inform Our Response to Prevailing
Challenges’

Following is UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s message for Vesak Day, to be observed on 24 May:

Vesak Day is a celebration for Buddhists worldwide and an opportunity
for all members of the international community to benefit from their
rich traditions. This year’s observance, falling at a time of widespread
strife and misery, is an occasion to examine how Buddhist teachings can
inform our response to prevailing challenges.

Confronting the troubling problems facing our world is consonant with
Buddhism. The Buddha himself, as a young prince, left the safety of his
palace to discover the four sufferings of birth, sickness, old age and
death. While such painful realities cannot be avoided, Buddhism offers
insights into how to cope with them. Its history is replete with
inspiring examples of the transformative power of Buddhist philosophy.

The legendary King Ashoka, a conqueror who presided over a brutal
reign in India some three centuries after the Buddha’s passing,
ultimately converted to Buddhism, renounced violence and embraced peace.
The values that King Ashoka espoused, including human rights,
democratic governance and respect for the dignity of life, are common to
all great religions. The fact that he was able to embrace them after
years of brutal war offers proof that the goodwill of individuals can
end widespread suffering.

Now more than ever, we need the spirit of non-violence to help
inspire peace and quell conflict. I offer my best wishes to believers
celebrating Vesak Day, and my sincerest hopes that we may all draw on
spiritual ideals to strengthen our resolve to improve our world.

source: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2013/sgsm15031.doc.htm

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ


AHRC-FOL-006-2013             May 27, 2013

Letter from Bishop
Duleep de Chickera
to the Buddhists of Sri Lanka

SRI LANKA: My Esteem for the
Buddha
 
An open letter at Wesak to my Buddhist Sisters and
Brothers
My good friend, the Ven. Bellanwila Wimalarathana wrote a
letter to Christians on his understanding of Christ at Christmas last
year.  This has prompted me to reciprocate with this letter to you at
Wesak.

A seekers vision

I write in my personal capacity as a disciple of Christ, a student of
Buddhism and one who perceives the universal wisdom and values in world
religions as gifts for all and not just the adherents of a respective
religion.

This is not an attempt to teach you what you know better than I; but
an expression of my profound respect for the Buddha and the potential I see in
the Dhamma for compassion, contentment and coexistence for all life. I
know you will be patient with any shortcomings in my perception of
Buddhism.

Compassion for all
life

I have never ceased to be stirred by the Buddha’s compassion for all
living beings; and not humans only. This all inclusive compassion makes sense,
since compassion for humans only, if accompanied with disrespect for other
forms of life upsets the balance in an interdependent life system.
Consequently compassion for humans only, is short sighted and
counter-productive; it inevitably induces chaos for all forms of life,
including humans.
Within this wider framework however this teaching has a direct impact
on critical human relations such as ethnic discrimination, inter-religious
tensions, economic injustice, political intolerance and the collapse of
ethical norms that we wrestle with today. Since compassion according to the
Buddha is never selective and will not endorse divisive and oppressive
systems, it is full of potential to transform these exclusive and destructive
trends into a just and integrated system for all life.

Liberation from
Tanha

From my early adult days I have found the Buddha’s analysis of the
cycle of life in the four noble truths, most enlightening. His discernment of
Tanha as the cause of suffering is a precise explanation of the human
dilemma. The inordinate greed for power, dominance, wealth and material
resources that motivate many, leads to aggression, suppression and suffering
which eventually destroys all; the greedy, the content and Mother
Earth.
The objective of life is consequently to overcome Tanha. This
path ranges from the simple life style, which demonstrates contentment; to
detachment, that state of selflessness which rises above the enticement of the
market, the arsenal and a false sense of prestige and is undoubtedly a sign of
true liberation.

The fullest manifestation of selfless detachment is demonstrated in
total renunciation; the ability to point to the way by getting out of the way.
This profound insight into self-emptying is an indispensable lens for personal
and social evaluation which our leaders and people cannot afford to
ignore.

The Wisdom of Ahimsa

That the Dhamma is received through self-realisation and bears
fruit in Ahimsa, (transforming non-violence) safeguards personal
privacy and prevents social aggression. Just as the Dhamma cannot be
subject to force or manipulation to bring enlightenment, recipients of the
Dhamma cannot indulge in these tendencies and to the contrary strive to
overcome them. This, in my understanding, is how surrounding forms of life are
respected and the Dhamma shared with dignity in ever widening
circles.

This refreshing option to violence is undoubtedly one of the reasons
that has made Buddhism a world religion. Consequently it is those who are the
vehicles of this enlightened, non-violent and compassionate teaching who will
continue to sustain and commend Buddhism today.

May the Dhamma of the
Compassionate One, shed enlightenment and emancipate our beloved
Sri Lanka from greed and violence.

With Peace and Blessings to all living
beings.
Bishop Duleep de
Chickera
Wesak 2013

http://www.tipitaka.net/community/news.php?page=100808e5

Two-way bilingual system

G.H. Asoka

The use of several languages as medium of instruction was
common in Buddhism based education in Sri Lanka during ancient times.

The model more or less used in ancient Sri Lanka in its
multilingual educational context reflects characteristics of the model
called two-way bilingual education: teaching the same content in both
languages: first in the known language and then in the target language
with the use of ample supplementary material.

From the time of the King Dutugemunu the formal method of
teaching followed by the Religion Ministries established throughout the
country was composed of three stages in its procedure in Dhamma Desana
according to Manorathapurani, the commentary to Anguttara Nikaya.

At the first stage, a priest or an educated layman called Diva
Katika Thera preached bana during the day time using mother tongue.
Then the reciter of the words called ‘Padabhanaka’
explained the same, especially in relation to words/vocabulary: this
situation might have created the opportunity to explain semantically
important aspects related to the concepts depicted in lexemes
(vocabulary). Finally the Chief Preacher preached the Doctrine in
detail: this third stage might have been the core of the lesson with
theories (doctrine) supported by the first two stages which reflects
the possibilities of understanding through language transfer.

In addition to using mother tongue mixing it in various
percentages in the three stages of Damma Desana, it is possible to find
evidence for using various other measures to enrich religious education
through practices related to bilingual or multilingual education.
Commentarial literature consisting three types of Sihalatthakatha is
one among many such used at the beginning.

There were numerous parallel passages available in Sinhala to
Pali Canon, and at the outset, mainly available as oral exegetical
material in early Prakrit tradition in Sri Lanka.

They can be interpreted as adaptations which are used nowadays
in bilingual education when localizing and appropriating learning
contexts written in another language. These commentaries were first
developed to explain the intricacies of the Buddhist doctrine during
the life time of Arhath Mahinda himself.

Samantapasadika mentions that there had been three types of
Sihalaatthakata, Maha (Mula) Atthakatha, Maha Pacccari Atthakatha and
Kurundi Atthakatha which are not physically available today since the
time that Ven Buddhagosha had finalized his retranslations
(subcommentaries) in Pali.

Mahaatthakathanceva
Mahapaccarimevaca,
Kurundincati tissopi
sihalaatthakatha ima.

According to the senior lecturer of the Sinhala Department,
Colombo University, Agalakada Sri Sumana Thera after retranslations of
Sihala Atuwa by Buddhagosha Thera, palm leaf manuscripts high up to the
height of five elephants, were destroyed. These commentaries developed
first in Sinhala can be interpreted as explanations or first
supplementary material to the content available in Pali.

Ample evidence

The content of this supplementary material in Sinhala
consisted of three components: explanations of difficult words and
phrases of the Pali Canon, doctrinal interpretations and judgements on
disputed points of ecclesiastical law.

Today these Sihalattakatha are no more there: Only records are
available about them and retranslations by Buddhagosha Thera provided
ample evidence about them to the world.

Later new Atuwa (commentaries) and, Tika and Tippani developed
as sub-commentaries in Pali using Sihatthakatha have replaced the
latter (commentaries): ‘atuwa’ developed as
subcommentaries to Atthakatha had been introduced in Anuradhapura
period, and ‘Tika’ tradition was introduced in the
Polonnaruwa period. There are four major ‘Atuwas’
developed for Digha Nikaya, Majjima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya, and
Anguttara Nikaya. They were Sumangalavilasani, Papanncasudhani,
Saratthadeepani and Manorathapurani respectively.

Kuddaka Nikaya consists of 15 Atuwas. Sihala Atuwas were the
direct, original commentaries to what had been available in Pali.
‘Atuwas’ in Pali were subcommentaries developed
from Buddhagosha Thera’s work onwards linking Sihalatthakatha
with doctrines of Buddhism originally available in Pali.

The Atuwa written as commentaries in Pali and the
‘Tika’ and ‘Tippani’ developed
in Pali as subcommentaries were bridges between the Sinhala Atuwa and
doctrines originally available in Pali. When an
‘Atuwa’ was developed, three principles had been
followed: relevancy of its content to religious doctrines,
appropriation and localization and justification of the writer for his
interpretations. These three principles read the modern principles in
an adaptation, too.

‘Tikas’ were documents more or less
similar to glossaries nowadays, but with paraphrasing. It is evident
that the vocabulary had been given a prominent place in second or
foreign language learning.

Low competency in vocabulary in studying Thripitakaya is
similar to a blind elephant which walks step by step with doubt.

Classification of the supportive material (supplementary) of
ancient literary works in Sinhala to the Pali and Sanskrit literature
were found in seven types of texts: Vyakyana (explanatory texts to
explain Pali literature), Gadya (prose texts), Padaya (Verse texts),
Chandolankara (rhetorical texts), Waidya and Jotis (medical and
astrological texts), Vyakarana (grammatical texts) and Kosa (lexicons).

These seven types of literary and language texts have been
used for bridging the difficulty-gap between Sinhala and Pali and
Sinhala and Sanskrit using the known language-support for understanding
the content written in another foreign language (Pali and/or Sanskrit).

Agalakada Sumanasiri Thera mentions several types of
vyakyanas: ‘getapda’ which provided meaning for
difficult words, ‘Sanya’ which provided meaning for
all the words in a text, ‘Parikatha’ that provides
details for a selected number of words as a critique (the best
‘Parikatha’ is Dharmapradeepikawa composed by
Gurulugomi with the nature of a literary work written by an eminent
scholar of the 12th Century AD, and the first text on Sinhala
literature with explanations for difficult words of the Dhammapada
Atthathakatha available in Pali), ‘Winisa’ which is
a complete critique to a text and, ‘Pitapoth’ which
is an addition to a previously produced text by the same author.

Educational purposes

He has identified that the ‘Sanya’
developed by the King, Pandith Parakramabahu II of Dambadeniya era who
was awarded the title ‘Kalikala Sahitya Sarvangna Pandit for
his erudition, is the most significant ‘Sanya’.
These efforts indicate ancient Sri Lankans’ efforts of using
their bilingual or multilingual capacities for expanding education
using language and language related talents to promote cognition based
on Buddhist doctrines.

Localization of Buddhism

Later with the development of communication in Sinhala in its
use in secondary skills with the influence of its mother languages,
Pali and Sanskrit, retranslations from Sinhala to Pali were introduced
as both commentaries and sub-commentaries because of deviations found
in religious aspects due to use of idiomatic expressions when
appropriation and localization of Buddhism in Sri Lankan context.

In addition, few other linguistically important reasons also
caused the need for retranslations (adaptations) in Pali: importance of
Pali over Sinhala out of the country for popularity of Theravada
Buddhism and the contemporary use of Pali as a world lingua franca.

Sararthadeepani and Rasavahini by Vedeha Thera in the 12th
Century AD are some such sub commentaries rewritten in Pali to Sinhala
and religious content.

Thus both commentaries in Sinhala and sub-commentaries in Pali
had been available side by side for educational purposes up to the 12th
Century AD. Yet absence of the Sihala Atuwa from the 5th Century AD to
10th Century AD in macro use in education in the country might have
closed paths for Sinhala language to be developed in its literature and
use of it among the erudite in the presence of using Pali as a lingua
franca.

When studying this situation, it can be interpreted that
Buddhism based and Buddhism related education in the ancient Sri Lanka
had been in a model reflecting bilingual education which caused
plurilingualism (individual capacity of using several languages) and
biliteracy (capacity of using several languages for reading and
writing) which in return reflect additive aspects of bilingual
education.

Thus it is clear that bilingual or multilingual education and
its various characteristics in pedagogy and androgogy are not something
totally new for today’s Pirivena Education: it had been in
the country since formal education under traditional authority was
established with introduction of Buddhism and practices such as
extensive use of rote learning, discussions and lecture method.

Use of Sinhala

Pali or Sanskrit which had been foreign languages by that time
had not been used as the medium of instruction for learning Pali and
Sanskrit or content of Buddhism.

Instead Sinhala had been used with its developments for using
it in secondary skills, reading and writing with the emergence of
Sinhala script in the Eighth Century AD as a result of undergoing a
process of slow evolution. Consequently learners were able to shift
from the known to the unknown, the unfamiliar to the familiar, the
simple to complex and from the general to specific in education.

Thus there had been balanced bilingualism among the erudite or
the learnt with positively addressing relevant cognitive demands. Yet
equity of access to education was an issue in the past.

The writer is National Institute of Education Language
Coordination Unit’s Head of the Languages, Humanities and
Social Sciences

source: http://www.dailynews.lk/2010/06/08/fea03.asp

Buddhist News Features:

Friday, May 24, 2013 Vesak Extra!
UN: Buddhist teachings can inform our response to prevailing challenges

Saturday, May 5, 2012 Vesak Extra!
UN: Buddhist belief offers insight to improve world conditions

Tuesday, May 17, 2011 Vesak Extra!
UN: Apply universal values of Buddhism to end worldwide suffering

ஸுத்தபிடக, புத்தர்
பெரும் அளவு அவரே வெவ்வேறு
சந்தர்ப்பங்களில் வழங்கிய போதனைகள்  உளதாகும். ஒரு சில
போதனைகள் அவருடைய மேன்மைதங்கிய கெளரவம் நிறைந்த சீடர்களால்ல கூட
வழங்கப்பட்டுள்ளது (எடுத்துக்காட்டு.ஸாரிபுத்தா,ஆனந்தா,மொக்கல்லனா)
அவற்றில் உள்ளடங்கியுள்ளது.  விவரமாக எடுத்துக்கூறி வெவ்வேறு
சந்தர்ப்பங்களில் மற்றும் வெவ்வேறு நபர்கள்
மனப்போகிற்குப்  பொருந்தும் பிரகாரம் நீதிபோதனைகள் விவரமாக எடுத்துக்கூறி
அதில் உள்ளடக்கியதால் அது ஒரு மருந்துக் குறிப்பு புத்தகம்  போன்றதாகும்.
முரண்பாடானது  என்பது போன்று அறிக்கைகள் இருக்கக்கூடும், ஆனால் அவைகள்
தறுவாய்க்கு ஏற்ற புத்தர் கூற்று என்பதால் தவறாகத் தீர்மானி
க்
வேண்டியதில்லை. இந்த பிடக ஐந்து நிகாய அல்லது திரட்டுகள் பாகங்களாகப் பிரிப்பட்டுள்ளது. அதாவது:-


The
Sutta Pitaka consists mainly of discourses delivered by the Buddha
himself on various occasions. There were also a few discourses delivered
by some of his distinguished disciples (e.g. Sariputta, Ananda,
Moggallana) included in it. It is like a book of prescriptions, as the
sermons embodied therein were expounded to suit the different occasions
and the temperaments of various persons. There may be seemingly
contradictory statements, but they should not be misconstrued as they
were opportunely uttered by the Buddha to suit a particular purpose.

This Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas or collections, viz.:- 


திக்க (நீளமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

 மஜ்ஜிம (மத்திம) (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

புத்தரால்
கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

ஸம்யுத்த (குவியல்) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

குவியல்
நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய
பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம்
விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு
நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.
  
அங்குத்தர (கூடுதல் அங்கமான) (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

இறங்குதல்
காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு
உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.

குத்தக (சுருக்கமான, சிறிய) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

சுருக்கமான,
சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள்  ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால்,
மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்
புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு
பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(
தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் ,
ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது
புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short,
small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been
composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

இந்த ஐந்தாவது பதினைந்து நூட்களாக பிரிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது:-
       The fifth is subdivided into fifteen books:- 


சுருக்கமான பாதை (சமய விரிவுரை)
        Khuddaka Patha (Shorter Texts)

தம்மபத (மெய்ம்மை பாதை)
   Dhammapada (The Way of Truth)

உதன (மனப்பூர்வமான முதுமொழி அல்லது ஓரசை நீண்ட நாலசைச்சீர்களான மகிழ்ச்சி)
     Udana (Heartfelt sayings or Paeons of Joy)

இதி உத்தக (இவ்வாறாக அல்லது அவ்வாறாக கூறிய போதனைகள்)
   Iti Vuttaka (’Thus said’ Discourses)

ஸுத்த நிபட (சேர்த்த போதனைகள்)
   Sutta Nipata (Collected Discourses)

விமான வத்து (வானியல் குடும்பங்கள் தனித்தனியாகத் தங்குதற்கேற்பப் பிரிக்கப்பட்ட பெரிய கட்டிட கதைகள்)
   Vimana Vatthu (Stories of Celestial Mansions)

பேடா வத்து (இறந்து போன,மாண்டவர் கதைகள்)
   Peta Vatthu (Stories of Petas)

தேராகாதா (சகோதரர்கள் வழிபாட்டுப் பாடல்கள்)
      Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren)

தேரிகாதா (சகோதரிகள் வழிபாட்டுப் பாடல்கள்)
     Therigatha (Psalms of the Sisters)

    ஜாதகா (பிறப்பு கதைகள்)
Jataka (Birth Stories)

நித்தேச (விளக்கிக்காட்டுதல்)
    Niddesa (Expositions)

பதிசம்பித (பகுத்து ஆராய்கிற அறிவு)
      Patisambhida (Analytical Knowledge)

அபதான (ஞானிகள் வாழ்க்கை)
        Apadana (Lives of Saints)

புத்தவம்ஸ (புத்தரின் வரலாறு)
    Buddhavamsa (The History of Buddha)
   

சாரிய பிடக (நடத்தை முறைகள்)
 Cariya Pitaka (Modes of Conduct)

  
  Vinaya Pitaka 
The Vinaya Pitaka mainly deals with the rules and
regulations of the Order of monks (Bhikhus) and nuns (Bhikhunis). It
also gives an account of the life and ministry of the Buddha. Indirectly
it reveals some useful information about ancient history, Indian
customs, arts, sciences, etc. 
For nearly twenty years since his
enlightenment, the Buddha did not lay down rules for the control of the
Sangha. Later, as the occasion arose, the Buddha promulgated rules for
the future discipline of the Sangha. 
This Pitaka consists of the
following five books:- 


     Parajika Pali (Major Offences)
     Pacittiya Pali (Minor Offences)
    Mahavagga Pali (Greater Section)
  Cullavagga Pali (Smaller Section)
  Parivara Pali (Epitome of the Vinaya)

 
Abhidhamma Pitaka 
The Abhidhamma, is the most important and
interesting, as it contains the profound philosophy of the Buddha’s
teaching in contrast to the illuminating but simpler discourses in the
Sutta Pitaka. 
In the Sutta Pitaka one often finds references to
individual, being, etc., but in the Abhidhamma, instead of such
conventional terms, we meet with ultimate terms, such as aggregates,
mind, matter etc. 
In the Abhidhamma everything is analyzed and
explained in detail, and as such it is called analytical doctrine
(Vibhajja Vada). 
Four ultimate things (Paramattha) are enumerated in
the Abhidhamma. They are Citta (Consciousness), Cetasika (Mental
concomitants). Rupa (Matter) and Nibbana. 
The so-called being is
microscopically analyzed and its component parts are minutely described.
Finally the ultimate goal and the method to achieve it is explained
with all necessary details. 
The Abhidhamma Pitaka is composed of the
following works: 


   Dhamma-Sangani (Enumeration of Phenomena)
    Vibhanaga (The Book of the Treatises)
  Ikatha Vatthu (Point of Controversy)
  Puggala Pannatti (Description of Individuals)
   Dhatu Katha (Discussion with reference to Elements)
   Yamaka (The Book of Pairs)
    Patthana (The Book of Relations)

   
  Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons 
The content of Buddhist canons
is divided into twelve divisions, categorized by the types of forms of
literature (i.e., Sutta, Geyya and Gatha) and the context (i.e., all
other nine divisions). It is known as the Twelve Divisions. 


  
Sutta  - These are the short, medium, and long discourses expounded by
the Buddha on various occasions. The whole Vinaya Pitaka is also
included in this respect.

   Geyya  - i.e., the metrical pieces. These are discourses/proses mixed with Gathas or verses.

      
Gatha - i.e., verses, chants or poems. These include verses formed in
the Dharmapada, etc., and those isolated verses which are not classified
amongst the Sutta.

   Nidana - i.e., the causes and conditions of the Buddha’s teachings.

    Itivrttaka - i.e., the suttas in which the Buddhas tell of the deeds of their disciples and others in previous lives.

    Jataka - i.e., stories of the former lives of Buddhas. These are the 547 birth-stories.

  
Abbhuta-dhamma - i.e., miracles, etc. These are the few discourses that
deal with wonderful and inconceivable powers of the Buddhas.

  
Avadana - i.e., parables, metaphors. Illustrations are used to
facilitate the human beings to understand the profound meanings of the
Buddhist Dhamma.

   Upadesa - i.e.,
dogmatic treatises. The discourse and discussions by questions and
answers regarding the Buddhist doctrines. It is a synonym for Abhidhamma
Pitaka.

      Udana - i.e.,
impromptu or unsolicited addresses. The Buddha speaks voluntarily and
not in reply to questions or appeals, e.g., the Amitabha Sutta.

    
Vaipulya - i.e., interpretation by elaboration or deeper explanation of
the doctrines. It is the broad school or wider teachings, in contrast
with the “narrow” school. The term covers the whole of the specifically
Mahayana suttas. The Suttas are also known as the scriptures of
measureless meaning, i.e., infinite and universalistic.

    Veyyakarama  - i.e. prophecies, prediction by the Buddha of the future attainment of Buddhahood by his disciples.

  
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons 
The term is generally referred to
Hinayana. There are only nine divisions excluding Udana, Vaipulya and
Veyyakarana. 
However, there is also a Mahayana division of nine of the
Twelve Divisions, i.e., all except Nidana, Avadana and Upadesa.


http://www.buddhistculture.net/tipitaka-download.html

Picture

Picture
Picture

  • Basics Teaching of Buddhism
  • Learn Abhidhamma & History
  • Buddhist Culture & History
  • Buddhist Social Philosophy
Of paths the Eight-fold is the best,
of truths the statement four,
the passionless of teachings best,
of humankind the Seer.

Picture

SINHALA TIPITAKA fREE dOWNLOAD

JUST LEARN PALI LANGUAGE EASILY

Picture




Picture

Picture
බල๜๧ග๟ඩ
ආනන๞ද ๧๧මත๫๢ හ๢໧ප๟ණන๞ ව๠ල๢໶ට ๧ස๟๞රත ස๞ථ໶රයන๞ ව๠න๢ පණ๞ຌත හ๟ම๤຺ර๠වර๠න๞
පනස๞ නමක๞ පමණ වසර 32 ක๞ ප๤ර๟ මහන๞ස๢๧යන๞ කරන ලද ස๜ස๞කරණය ප๢໱ස๢຺ ස๢๜හල සහ
ධ໮මය ๧ථරව๟ද ත๫๢ප๢ටකයඅප භ๟ග๯වත๞ අ໮හත๞ ස໦ම๟ ස໦බ๤຺රජ๟ණන๞ වහන๞๧ස๞ ໶ස๢න๞
ස๞වක๣ය ශක๞ත๢๧යන๞ අව๧බ๟๞ධ කර ๧ල๟๞ සත๞නට අන๤ක໦ප๟ ප๢ຒස ๧ද๞ශ๢ත, උත๩໦ ව๥ ໹
සද๞ධ໮මය ට අයත๞ ව๥, මහ๟ ක๟ශ๯ප මහ රහතන๞ වහන๞๧ස๞๧ග๞ ප๫ධ๟නත๞ව๧යන๞ ප๠ව๠ත๢
ප๫ථම ස๜ග๟යන๟๧වහ๢ ຬ ආනන๞ද මහ රහතන๞ වහන๞๧ස๞ ද ඇත๩໳ පන๞ස๢යයක๞ මහ රහතන๞
වහන๞๧ස๞ල๟ ໶ස๢න๞ ස๜ග๟යන๟ කරන๞නට ๧ය຺න๤ අස๥හ๟රදහසක๞ ව๥ ධ໮ම ස๞කන๞ධය,
ත๫๢ප๢ටකය ය๢. 

The
ultimate objective in Buddhism is attained by purifying and improving
mind. However, understanding what “mind” is a quite complicated act for
any person. This is a barrier for someone who is interested in learning
Buddhism in-depth. One of the teachings in Buddhism which provides a
comprehensive analysis on mind is “Abhidhamma”.

The Buddhist
doctrine is categorized into three, which is known to anyone, as
“Thripitaka” namely Suthra Pitaka, Vinya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Vinaya Pitaka consists rules of conduct for Sangha and Suthra Pitaka
consists of Suttas containing the central teachings of Buddhism. Suthra
Pitaka is mostly on “Conventional Teachings” (Sammuthi Dheshana) of
Buddhism. Abhidhamma Pitaka provides a theoretical framework for the
doctrine principles in Suthra Pitaka which could be used to describe
“Mind and Matter”. Hence, Abhidhamma embraces the “Ultimate Teachings”
(Paramaththa Dheshana) in Buddhism.

Abhidhamma Pitaka consists of seven treatises; 
1. Dhammasangani
2. Vibhanga
3. Dhatukatha
4. Puggalapannatti
5. Kathavatthu
6. Yamaka
7. Pattthana

The
term “Abhidhamma” simply means “Higher Doctrine”. It is an in-depth
investigation to mind and matter. It answers many intricate points of
Dhamma. It analyses complex machinery of human, world, mind, thoughts,
thought-process, mental formations and etc. Therefore it is indeed a
complex doctrine to understand. However, there are many who are
interested in learning this beautiful branch of doctrine. Amongst them
there are plenty of non-Buddhists as well. This effort is to present
this doctrine in an “Easy to Understand” manner.

comments (0)
05/27/13
933 LESSON 28-05-2013 TUESDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 111212 TUESDAY LESSON 777 - தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக வினயபிடகே அபிதம்மபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A TIPITAKA TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS Brief historical background Sutta Pitaka Vinaya Pitaka Abhidhamma Pitaka Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 10:05 pm

933 LESSON 28-05-2013 TUESDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY


111212 TUESDAY LESSON 777 -
மிழில் திரிபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு
ஸுத்தபிடக
வினயபிடகே
அபிதம்மபிடக
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் 
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A

TIPITAKA

TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level
Animated Candle

http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/ctmwelcome_e0.gif

TO

revolving globe

http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/globe08_e0.gif





GIF pics
GIF picsVipassana Gif









திரிபிட  மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தரின் 45 ஆண்டுகளுக்கும் மேலாக போதிக்கப்பட்ட கோட்பாடு தொகுப்பு. அது ஸுத்த (மரபொழுங்கு சார்ந்த போதனை),வினய (ஒழுங்கு சார்ந்த விதித் தொகுப்பு) மற்றும் அபிதம்ம (விளக்கவுரைகளின்) உள்ளடக்கு. திரிபிட
இப்பொழுதுள்ள படிவத்தில் தொகுத்து மற்றும் ஒழுங்கு படுத்தியது,
சாக்கியமுனி புத்தருடன் நேரடியான தொடர்பிருந்த சீடர்களால். புத்தர் இறந்து
போனார், ஆனால் அவர், மட்டுமழுப்பின்றி மரபுரிமையாக மனித இனத்திற்கு அளித்த உன்னத
தம்மம் (தருமம்) இன்னும் அதனுடைய பண்டைய தூய்மையுடன் இருக்கிறது. புத்தர்
எழுத்து மூலமாய்த் தெரிவிக்கப்பட்டுள்ள பதிவுகள் யாவும் விட்டுச்
செல்லாபோதிலும், அவருடைய மேன்மைதங்கிய கெளரவம் நிறைந்த சீடர்கள் அவற்றை 
ஞாபக சக்தியால் ஒப்புவித்து,  பேணிக்காத்து மற்றும் அவற்றை வாய்மொழியாக
தலைமுறை தலைமுறையாககைமாற்றிக் கொண்டுள்ளனர்.

  
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS  is the collection of the teachings
of the Buddha over 45 years. It consists of Sutta (the conventional
teaching), Vinaya (Disciplinary code) and Abhidhamma (commentaries).

The Tipitaka was compiled and arranged in its present form by the
disciples who had immediate contact with Shakyamuni Buddha. 
The Buddha
had passed away, but the sublime Dhamma which he unreservedly bequeathed
to humanity still exists in its pristine purity. 
Although the Buddha
had left no written records of his teachings, his distinguished
disciples preserved them by committing to memory and transmitting them
orally from generation to generation. 


சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு

புத்தரின் இறுதி
சடங்கிற்கப்புறம் உடனே, 500  மேன்மைதங்கிய கெளரவம் நிறைந்த அறஹதர்கள்
(அருகதையுள்ளவர்கள்) முதலாவது பெளத்த சமயத்தினர் அவை என்றழைக்கப்பட்ட
புத்தர் போதித்த போதனைகளை மறுபடிமுற்றிலும் சொல் அவை கூட்டினர்.
புத்தருடன் திடப்பற்றுடன் உடனிருந்த மற்றும் புத்தரின் முழுமை போதனையுரைகளையும் கேட்டுணரும் வாய்ப்புப் பெற்ற பிரத்தியேகமான சிறப்புரிமை வாய்ந்த பூஜிக்கத்தக்க ஆனந்தா, ஸுத்த (மரபொழுங்கு சார்ந்த போதனை) நெட்டுருப்பண்ணி ஒப்புவிவித்தார், அதே சமயம் பூஜிக்கத்தக்க உபாலி, வினய (ஒழுங்கு
சார்ந்த விதித் தொகுப்பு) ஸங்கத்திற்கான நடத்தை விதிகளை நெட்டுருப்பண்ணி
ஒப்புவிவித்தார்.முதலாவது பெளத்த சமயத்தினர் அவையின் ஒரு நூற்றாண்டுக்குப்
பின், சில சீடர்கள்  ஒரு சில சிறுபகுதி விதிகளின்  மாற்றம் தேவை என
உணர்ந்தனர். பழமையிலிருந்து நழுவாத பிக்குக்கள் மாற்றங்கள் எதுவும்
தேவையில்லை எனக் கூறினர் அதே சமயம் மற்றவர்கள் சில ஒழுங்கு சார்ந்த விதிகளை
(வினய) (ஒழுங்கு
சார்ந்த விதித் தொகுப்பு)) சிறிது மாற்றியமைக்க வலியுருத்தினர்.முடிவில்
அவருடைய அவைக்குப் பிறகு வேறான தனி வேறான புத்தமத ஞானக்கூடங்கள்
உருவாக்குதல் வளரத் தொடங்கியது.  மற்றும் இரண்டாவது அவையில் (வினய) (ஒழுங்கு
சார்ந்த விதித் தொகுப்பு)) உரியதாயிருந்த விசயம் மட்டும்  தான் விவாதம்
செய்ப்பட்டது மற்றும் தம்மா பற்றிய கருத்து மாறுபாடு அறிவிக்கப் படவில்லை.
மூன்றாம் நூற்றாண்டு அசோக சக்கரவர்த்தி காலத்தில் மூன்றாவது அவையில் ஸங்க சமூகத்தின் வேறான தனி வேறான நடத்தை விதிகளின் அபிப்பிராயங்கள் விவாதம் செய்ப்பட்டது. இந்த அவையில் வேறான தனி வேறான(வினய) (ஒழுங்கு சார்ந்த விதித் தொகுப்பு)) உரியதாயிருந்த விசயம் மட்டும்  வரையறுக்கப்பபடவில்லை ஆனால் மேலும் தம்மா தொடர்பானதாகவும் இருந்தது. அபிதம்மபிடக  இந்த அவையில் விவாதம் செய்ப்பட்டது மற்றும் சேர்த்துக்
கொள்ளப்பட்டது. ஸ்ரீலங்கா (இலங்கையில்) 80ம் நூற்றாண்டு கூடிய, நான்காம்
அவை என அழைக்கப்படும் இந்த அவை சமயப்பணியார்வமுடைய வேந்தர் வட்டகாமினி
அபைய கீழுள்ள ஆதரவுடன் கூடியது. அது இந்த காலத்தில் தான் திரிபிட ஸ்ரீலங்காவில் முதன்முறையாக எழுத்து வடிவில் புத்தசமயத்தவரது புணித பாளி மொழியில் ஈடுபடுதலானது.

     Brief historical background 


 
Immediately after the final passing away of the Buddha, 500
distinguished Arahats held a convention known as the First Buddhist
Council to rehearse the Doctrine taught by the Buddha. Venerable Ananda,
who was a faithful attendant of the Buddha and had the special
privilege of hearing all the discourses the Buddha ever uttered, recited
the Sutta, whilst the Venerable Upali recited the Vinaya, the rules of
conduct for the Sangha. 
One hundred years after the First Buddhist
Council, some disciples saw the need to change certain minor rules. The
orthodox Bhikkus said that nothing should be changed while the others
insisted on modifying some disciplinary rules (Vinaya). Finally, the
formation of different schools of Buddhism germinated after his council.
And in the Second Council, only matters pertaining to the Vinaya were
discussed and no controversy about the Dhamma was reported. 
In the 3rd
Century B.C. during the time of Emperor Asoka, the Third Council was
held to discuss the differences of opinion held by the Sangha community.
At this Council the differences were not confined to the Vinaya but
were also connected with the Dhamma. The Abhidhamma Pitaka was discussed
and included at this Council. The Council which was held in Sri Lanka
in 80 B.C. is known as the 4th Council under the patronage of the pious
King Vattagamini Abbaya. It was at this time in Sri Lanka that the
Tipitaka was first committed to writing in Pali language. 


This outline displays the publication of books in the Vipassana Research Iinstitute’s Devan±gari-script edition of the Chaμμha Saªg±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±¼i” indicating the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.

http://www.metta.lk/fonts/index.html


Sinhala and Roman
fonts
If you use a PC then you should download the files:
Sinhala and Roman fonts
This archive contails several True type fonts in Sinhala and
Roman
If you use a MAC then send us an email and we shall help you
soon.

Download font from This Server As .exe
Download font from This Server as .zip


Installing your new fonts
The font that you have down loaded should be installed in
Windows. Double click on the font to extract the self
extracting archive Sinhala.com For Win 3.1 use Settings
Control Panel Fonts Install New fonts select the directory
that contain the uncompressed (Extracted) true type font file.
Select Tipitaka_Sinhala1.ttf . and it will be installed
to your system. If you want to un-install them use the
similar operation. For Win 95 +, just drag the font to the
Font folder and restart Windows



If you see Your Sinhala script below then your fonts have been
installed correctly.



Y1s ,xld

Tipitaka_Sinhala1
is a public domain font made by DMS, Sri Lanka.

for the Sri Lanka Tipitaka Project.

Se the enclosed key-board layout,

and

Enjoy some Sinhala letters to your friends!

 



The Sinhalese Alphabet

w wd we wE b B W W# t ta T Tz
T# iD iDD
a à     i ã u å e -   o -   au iru irå
l L . X ZZ Z.
ka kha ga gha nga



p P c CO [ Zc {

ca cha ja jha ¤ ¤ja gna


g G v V K ZV

ña ñha óa óha õ nñha

; : o O k ZO Zo
ta tha da dha na ddha
nda


m M n N u
U

pa pha ba bha ma mba

h r , j i
I Y y < x %

ya ra la va sa ùa ÷a
ha ëa ü þ


la l ld le
lE ls lS l2 l@

k ka kà k? k? ki kã kå ku
fl fla fld flda
ffl fl#

ke k? ko k? kai kau


l1 ;! rA re rE / ?
| \

kra rta r ??ru ???rè ???rŠ
???r? ??fa ??fa


kq kQ ZM f#

nu ?nå Âu gau

È É Ê Ë Ì Í
C F J H

du då dra nda ndu ndå k t n ya

I do not know the Roman representation of all of them 




Technical support & comments please
email us


Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale from Pariyatti or from VRI.
No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org
Vinaya Piμaka Sutta Piμaka Abhidhamma Piμaka
Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)
(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)
1. Sutta Vibhaªga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]
(1) P±r±jika-p±¼i Bhikku Bhikkhuni
p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4 8
saªghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13 17
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2 0
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30 30
(2) P±cittiya-p±¼i
suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92 166
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4 8
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75 75
adhikaraºasamath± (legal process) 7 7
(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______ ______
227 311
2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±¼i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the
Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha
3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±raº±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism
(4) C³¼avagga-p±¼i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and procedures
for institutional acts or functions, known as saªghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saªgh±disesa)
2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li
3. Pariv±ra-p±¼i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]
(5) Pariv±ra-p±¼i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.
[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]
1. Dhammasaªgaº²
(enumeration of the dhammas)
(1) Dhammasaªgaº²-p±¼i
2. Vibhaªga-p±¼²
(distinction or analysis of dhammas)
(2) Vibhaªga-p±¼²
3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)
4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.
(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±¼²
5. Kath±vatthu-p±¼²
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aoeoka’s reign, at Patna)
(4) Kath±vatthu-p±¼²
6. Yamaka-p±¼²
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambiguities
and define precise usage of technical terms)
(5) Yamaka-p±¼², Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±¼², Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±¼², Vol III
7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)
(8) Paμμh±na-p±¼i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±¼i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±¼i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±¼i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±¼i, Vol V
(Five nik±yas, or collections)
1. D²gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S²lakkhandavagga-p±¼i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±¼i (10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±¼i (11 suttas)
2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5 vaggas each, known as paºº±sa (‘fifty’)]
(1) M³lapaºº±ssa-p±¼i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M³lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S²han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)
4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)
5. C³¼ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaºº±sa-p±¼i (the ‘middle’ fifty)
6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)
10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaºº±sa-p±¼i (means ‘more than fifty’)
11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaªga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa¼±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)
3. Sa½yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa½yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]
(1) Sag±thavagga-sa½yutta-p±¼i (11 sa½yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa½yutta-p±¼i (10 sa½yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa½yutta-p±¼i (13 sa½yuttas)
(4) Sa¼±yatanavagga-sa½yutta-p±¼i (10 sa½yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa½yutta-p±¼i Vol I ( 6 sa½yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa½yutta-p±¼i Vol II ( 6 sa½yuttas)
4. Aªguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each vagga; 6 books]
(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±¼i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±¼i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±¼i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±¼i (sixes, sevens)
(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±¼i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±¼i (tens, elevens)
5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gathering
of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]
(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±¼i
1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26 vaggas)
3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with
some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)
(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±¼i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta½ bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular suttas of the Buddha
(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±¼i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279 g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)
(4) J±taka-p±¼i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±¼i, Vol II
10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.
(6) Mah±nidessa-p±¼i
(7) C³¼anidessa-p±¼i
11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga
C³¼anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and
the Khaggavis±ºa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±¼i
12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])
(9) Apad±na-p±¼i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)
(10) Apad±na, Buddhava½sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±¼i
14. Buddhava½sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D²paªkara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram²)
(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±¼i
16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explaining
canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)
(12) Milindapañha-p±¼i
18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)

The empty room [Indian Chamber of Buddha Museum in Kandy]

1. The empty room

 

Where is India’s
contribution to the museum showcasing Buddhism?

The
Museum of World Buddhism in Kandy, established close to the Temple of
the Tooth Relic, is a testament to the goodwill that Sri Lanka enjoys.
Inaugurated at a former High Court Complex in May 2011, it aims to
showcase the history of Buddhism.
Sixteen
countries— India, Sri Lanka Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan,
China, Korea, Japan, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam,
Indonesia and
the Maldives — had agreed to showcase exhibits from their countries in
separate chambers at the museum. There are a variety of exhibits at the
permanent pavilions of each country. But one chamber, the largest one, is empty. Yes, you guessed right: it is the Indian chamber.
As
usual, there are many problems: the first related to budget, then
questions raised over “inflated estimates.” “We are also in the process
of setting up an Indian Gallery at the International Buddhist Museum at
Sri Dalada Maligawa complex in Kandy. The MEA has signed an agreement
with the National Council of Science
Museums
(NCSM) in this regard and NSCM will be the implementing agency for this
project,” says the Colombo Indian High Commission website.
A
year and a half after the inauguration, there is no word on when India
will get its act together. But there is one saving grace: a huge 16 ft
replica of the Sarnath-style Buddha adorns the entrance to the Museum.
This is a gift from India.
 

2. Jemini Kadu (~15 minutes) on Vedic Dharma Vs Buddha’s Dhamma

 
 

3. Hon. D.K.Khaparde (~6 minutes) on Politics & Service

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ


Mayawati’s party demands President’s rule in Uttar Pradesh over alleged misuse of SC/ST/OBC memorials

Mayawati's party demands President's rule in Uttar Pradesh over alleged misuse of Dalit memorials

Lucknow: Upset
over Uttar Pradesh government’s decision to allow SC/ST/OBC memorials,
constructed during former chief minister Mayawati’s rule, to be used for
cultural functions, the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) today demanded
imposition of President’s rule in the state.

A delegation of BSP
leaders met Governor BL Joshi and handed him a memorandum, stating that
the move was in violation of High Court and Supreme Court orders.

“The
use of land in SC/ST/OBC memorials for marriage and other events is in
violation of High Court and Supreme Court’s order, which means state
government is deliberately doing it. It has no right to continue and we
have demanded from the Governor to impose President’s rule in the
state,” BSP National General Secretary Satish Chandra Mishra told
reporters.



BSP leader Swami Prasad Maurya said his
party would start an agitation and come out on the streets if the
decision was not withdrawn.

The Samajwadi Party government had
recently allowed holding marriage ceremonies and other events at various SC/ST/OBC memorials in the state.

The Indian Express
Caste

The Times of India


http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/us/Over-260m-victims-of-caste-based-bias-UN/articleshow/20268042.cms

Over 260m victims of caste-based bias: UN

UNITED
NATIONS: More than 260 million people across the world are still
victims of human rights abuses due to caste-based discrimination, a
group of independent experts appointed by the UN warned on Saturday and
asked South Asian countries to strengthen legislation to protect them.

“This form (caste-based) of discrimination entails gross and
wide-ranging human rights abuses, including brutal forms of violence,”
the group of experts noted.

People considered low caste in South Asia are known as ‘dalits’ or ‘untouchables’.

In many countries, they face marginalization, social and economic
exclusion, segregation in housing, limited access to basic services,
including water and sanitation and employment, and work in conditions
similar to slavery.

Two years ago, Nepal adopted the
‘caste-based discrimination and untouchability bill’, a landmark law
that protects the rights of dalits.

Recently, the British government decided the equality act would cover caste discrimination to protect dalits in diaspora
communities. The experts expressed concern about a serious lack of
implementation in countries where legislation exists, and called for an
effective application of laws, policies and programme to protect those
affected by this discrimination.



Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

a minute ago


Some
religions believe in athmas (soul) of human beings and no athmas for
other beings so that they can practice discrimination including killing
them. Some religions believe in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th rate (Brahmin,
Baniya, Vaishya, Shudhra) athmas and the untouchables (SC/STs) have no
athmas so that they practice discriminative source of caste bias which
entails gross and wide-ranging human rights abuses, including brutal
forms of violence.They face marginalization, social and economic
exclusion, segregation in housing, limited access to basic services,
including water and sanitation and employment, and work in conditions
similar to slavery.But Buddha never believed in any soul. He said all
are equal. Hence Babasaheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar made lots of discriminated
people to return back to Buddhism.

British government had rightly decided the
equality act that would cover caste discrimination to protect
untouchables (SC/STs) in diaspora communities. The experts expressed
concern about a serious lack of implementation in countries where
legislation exists, and called for an effective application of laws,
policies and programme to protect those affected by this discrimination.

Apart from the ‘caste-based discrimination and untouchability
bill’, a landmark law that protects the rights of SC/STs. British, US,
and all democratic governments along with the media including TOI must
adopt to highlight this discrimination in all possibility ways and help
these discriminated communities to acquire the MASTER KEY for unlocking
all doors of progress and developments. Political parties such as BSP
must be helped in this regard so that they will distribute the wealth of
the country equally among all sections of the society including
SC/ST/OBC/Minorities/ poor upper castes so that all poor farmers will be
distributed with government land, proper irrigation, healthy seeds,
government loan for all youths to start trade and business and to have
honest government employees for good and efficient governance that will
enable all people to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.


comments (0)
05/26/13
932 LESSON 27-05-2013 MONDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY (Adhikaraõasamathà) MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -14
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:22 pm
932 LESSON 27-05-2013 MONDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
(Adhikaraõasamathà)
 MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -14



http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/1Vinaya-Pitaka/index.html

animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha BUDDHA_BEADS_by_VISHNU108.gif

Wishing You All A Blessed Buddha Purnima


All fired up to break the world record: Thousands of
students release lanterns into night sky

By 
SARA SMYTH

PUBLISHED: 00:51 GMT, 25 May 2013 UPDATED: 00:51 GMT, 25 May 2013


Thousands
of lanterns filled the sky in a spectacular new World record. In what
could look like a sky-full of fireflies from a distance, thousands of
lanterns were released and floated into the sky to create a vision of
suspended lights.

More than 15,000 sky lanterns are believed to have been by 10,000 volunteers at the University of the Philippines Visayas- Miagao Campus, setting a new world record.


Sign of peace: The lanterns floated into the sky as 10,000 volunteers meditate to celebrate World Peace

Sign of peace: The
lanterns floated into the sky as 10,000 volunteers meditate to celebrate World Peace


Clear message: 10,000 volunteers gathered to celebrate the slogan of peace, calling for an end to international conflicts

Clear message: 10,000 volunteers gathered to celebrate the slogan of peace, calling for an end to international conflicts

The event aims to promote world peace while breaking a world record. It
is the first international event of its kind to be held in the country.
It’s slogan ‘World peace through inner peace’ was written on each
lantern, in an effort to create awareness around internatio
nal conflicts.

 

The breathtaking event topped Romania’s record of releasing 12,470 sky lanterns in 2012 during the opening of a shopping centre.

Uplifted: The volunteers look on in awe as they prepare to add their lantern to the thousands above. The spectacular images convey the meditative spirit of the event

Uplifted:
The volunteers look on in awe as they prepare to add their lantern to
the thousands above. The spectacular images convey the meditative spirit
of the event

Calming sight: Sky lanterns, also known as Chinese lanterns, are small hot air balloons made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire is suspended

Calming
sight: Sky lanterns, also known as Chinese lanterns, are small hot air
balloons made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire
is suspended

Message for all: Volunteers were taught the basics of meditation in preparation for the event, so<br />
 that they could enter celebrate its spiritual ethos. They were briefed on how to release the sky lanterns properly to ensure safety

Message for all: Volunteers were taught the basics of meditation in preparation for the event, so that they could
enter celebrate its spiritual ethos. They were briefed on how to release the sky lanterns properly to ensure safety

Dr.
Emiliano Bernardo III, who organised the event, said that if universal
inner peace can be achieved then there would be no major conflicts since
most conflicts can be traced from a lack of inner peace of the
individual.

He
said that a series of Inner Peace Previews were conducted to orient the
volunteers the basics of meditation and how to release the sky lanterns
properly to ensure safety.

Community spirit: The students hold a Guinness World record plaque in the air, celebrating their World Record

Community spirit: The students hold a Guinness World record plaque in the air, celebrating their World
Record

Illuminated: Sky lanterns are also known as sky candles or fire balloons. The volunteers were briefed in how to release them in the air safely

Illuminated:
Sky lanterns are also known as sky candles or fire balloons. The
volunteers were briefed in how to release them in the air safely




Benefits of walking bare foot

    •    MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -14
    •   
    •    New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to them depriving the dipressed classes  to enable them to acquire the MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.
    •     
    •    Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.
9 Alternatives to Blanket Disclosure that Increase Transparency

Given what we have described as the “enclosure of transparency'’, that source code access is a key aspect of voting system evaluation and that there are clear risks to public source code disclosure, we now turn to examining alternatives to blanket disclosure of source code. Such alternatives include limited disclosure, increased public access at the Federal level, incentivized or coordinated disclosure and technological mechanisms that support or obviate access.


9.1 Limited Disclosure

It is clear that source code access is key part of effective evaluation. As in the California case,80 where a critical interface between the paper record and a non-sighted voter was mandated to be open, there are critical pieces of a computerized voting system where public oversight and comprehensibility of the technology is of great importance. The interfaces between ballot presentation and the storage of vote data as well as the myriad of input and output methods are such critical points where maintaining secrecy results in pushing trust from one part of a voting system to another. In the end, openness is a natural and highly efficient way to break this cycle of pushing trust from one system to another. Other areas of critical importance include vote storage, reading and writing. Limited disclosure of this code could achieve many of the benefits of source disclosure while minimizing risks.

Limited disclosure can be achieved by restricting the scope of code disclosed and the audience to which it is disclosed. That is, what in the code should be disclosed, critical systems (as argued for above) or all the code? Disclosing all the code has the benefit of ensuring that there is no place for malicious or erroneous code to hide. Allowing the public to view all the source code would have the benefits and risks discussed in §.
Once the decision as to what code is disclosed has been made, we need to decide who gets to see it. As in the federal open source and disclosed source bills discussed previously, do we allow all the public to acquire the voting systems code that will run our election or do we limit the pool to a select few or a subset of the public? On the contrary, if source code dissemination was controlled by application and contract,81 the goal of having third-party code review could be achieved without the exposure and intellectual property concerns associated with public dissemination. However, a critical piece of restricted dissemination would be a requirement that all output from such reviews would be publicly available and unredacted to balance the exclusivity of code availability.


9.2 Other Alternatives

A natural approach to increasing voting system transparency would be first to tackle the most obscure aspect of the current system. The Federal testing process (discussed in §) is the most mysterious and critically obscure step in ensuring voting systems perform according to the federal standards for voting systems. We can infer from increased state-level certification requirements and the fact that numerous vulnerabilities have slipped through federal certification over the past year that the federal evaluation process and the voting system standards do not ensure that a voting system can be used in elections free from serious flaws. A first step in increasing the quality of the federal certification process would be to make the testing plans and full evaluation reports public, perhaps in redacted form.

Incentivized disclosure is another option. State governments or a consortium of state governments could decide to hold a contest or post a prize for the first development team to produce a voting system, like the ACT’s eVACS, that would be released under a specified open source license. Another interesting model is that of “community source'’ where a consortium of government entities would agree to donate annual dues and full-time coders to a foundation that would develop, certify, market and support the consortium’s voting systems.82

Finally, there are technological mechanisms for increasing transparency of voting systems. For example, the move in many states to mandate that DRE voting systems produce a VVPAT is essentially public verification of a record independent of the larger system. This allows the customer to treat the larger voting system as a black box as there will always be a verified indelible record of each vote as cast. In this vein, there is a body of work being developed by researchers that narrows the scope and minimizes the amount of what has to be evaluated. Examples of this work include isolated vote storage systems83, voting systems with dramatically less trusted code84, and hardware isolation techniques for security verification85.


10 Conclusion

There has been an enclosure of transparency surrounding voting technology in the United States with recent efforts to halt the enclosure by increasing access to source code. It is clear that some source code access is needed to support transparency of voting systems. There are risks associated with public disclosure of source code and more substantial risks associated with mandated disclosure. The regulatory, financial, organizational and perceptional barriers to the entry of open source voting system software combine such that the open source business models that are now thriving in other sectors don’t easily translate to the voting systems market.
We conclude that disclosure of full system source code to qualified individuals will promote technical improvements in voting systems, while limiting some of the potential risks associated with full public disclosure. Considering the alternatives to blanket disclosure mentioned in §, such as increased access to the Federal process, incentives, collaborative models and technological solutions, we still have not explored all our options. We acknowledge that limited source code disclosure to experts does not support general public scrutiny of source code, and therefore does not fully promote the transparency goals of public oversight, comprehension, accuracy and accountability. However, in a public source code disclosure or open source code model most members of the public will be unable to engage in independent analysis of the source code and will need to rely on independent, hopefully trusted and trustworthy, experts. Given the potential risks posed by broad public disclosure of election system source code, we conclude that moving incrementally in this area is both a more realistic goal and the prudent course given that it will yield many benefits, greatly minimizes potential risks and provides an opportunity to fully evaluate the benefits and risks in this setting

11 Acknowledgments

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CNS-0524745.
A very special thanks to my legal supervisor and mentor, Deirdre K. Mulligan; without her advice and direction, this work would only be a shadow of itself. Discussions with the following people were important in the development of this work: Pam Samuelson, Eddan Katz, David Molnar, Ka-Ping Yee, Pam Smith, Naveen Sastry, Dan Wallach, Michael Shamos and Mitch Kapor.

About this document …

Transparency and Access to Source Code in Electronic Voting
This document was generated using the LaTeX2HTML translator Version 2002-2-1 (1.71)
Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, Nikos Drakos, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds. 
Copyright © 1997, 1998, 1999, Ross Moore, Mathematics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney.
The command line arguments were: 
latex2html -split 0 -show_section_numbers -local_icons jhall_evt06.tex
The translation was initiated by Joseph Hall on 2006-06-16

Footnotes
… transparency.1
See §.
… requirements,2
Source code escrow involves depositing the source code for a voting system with a third party and/or an election official and stipulating under what conditions the source code can be released. See the discussion of source code escrow in note .
… reviews,3
A state election official may reserve the right to ask an independent party to do source code review on top of what is done at the federal certification level.
… testing,4
Performance testing involves testing a system in conditions similar to those used on election day.
… code.5
A note on terminology: There are three important distinctions to make in this discussion. The difference between open source development and releasing commercially developed code under an open source license is important as these are two modes that we see clearly in voting systems (see discussion of eVACs in §). Open source software is software that is usually developed by a team of volunteers and released under generous licensing terms that allow users to exercise a number of rights, such as copying, modification and distribution, which traditional software licenses withhold. (The Open Source Initiative (OSI) issues and Open Source certification mark to software licenses that follow their Open Source Definition: http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition.php.) In contrast to both open source development and releasing software under an open source license, disclosed source code allows a much more limited use of source code, usually for evaluation purposes only and without permissions to make further copies, modify works or distribute. For example, see VoteHere’s license agreement: http://www.votehere.net/VoteHere_Source_Code_License_2.htm.
… selling.6
Keller, A. M., Mertz, D., Hall, J. L., And Urken, A. Privacy issues in an electronic voting machine. In Privacy and Technologies of Identity: A Cross-Disciplinary Conversation, Katherine J. Strandburg and Daniela Stan Raicu, Eds. Springer Science+Business Media:New York, 2006.
… ballot7
The Australian ballot provides for a uniform ballot, free from bias in design and presentation, printed by the government and cast in secret.
… states.8
Id. note  at 2.
… Virginia9
West Virginia allows “open voting'’ whereby a citizen may choose to show their marked ballot to whomever they choose (W.V. CONST. ART. IV, § 4, cl. 2.). Interestingly, West Virginia also makes it a crime to sell or buy votes.
… elections.10
For example, in Cuyahoga County, Ohio — which is not required to provide ballots in non-English languages — there were over 6,000 ballot styles provided to voters in the 2006 primary election. See: Candice Hoke, post to the Election Law listserv, available at: http://majordomo.lls.edu/cgi-bin/lwgate/ELECTION-LAW_GL/archives/election-law_gl.archive.0605/date/article-63.html
… disabilities.11
Relevant authorities include the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Public Law 89-10 (VRA), The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Public Law 101-336 (ADA), Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, Public Law 98-435 and The Help America Vote Act of 2002 Public Law 107-252 (HAVA).
… system.12
Kohno, T., Stubblefield, A., Rubin, A. D., And Wallach, D. S. Analysis of an electronic voting system. In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (2004), pp. 27.
… franchise.13
The “enclosure'’ metaphor has also been extended by legal scholars to apply to recent efforts to reduce the amount of material in the public domain. Boyle, J. The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain, 66 Law and Contemporary Problems 33-74, Winter-Spring 2003, available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=470983.
… applications.14
For a partial list of bug-finding tools, see: List of tools for static code analysis, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_tools_for_static_code_analysis&oldid=58643351 (last visited June 14, 2006).
… vulnerabilities.15
For an example of what can be done with automated source code analysis, see: Ashcraft, K., And Engler, D. Using programmer-written compiler extensions to catch security holes. In SP ‘02: Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Washington, DC, USA, 2002), IEEE Computer Society, p. 143.
… error.16
For an example of work that has used binary analysis techniques to uncover vulnerabilities in executable applications, see: Desclaux Fabrice, Skype uncovered: Security study of Skype, EADS CCR/STI/C, November 2005, available at: http://www.ossir.org/windows/supports/2005/2005-11-07/EADS-CCR_Fabrice_Skype.pdf
… components17
For early work in this area, see: Beizer, B. Wiley, J. Black Box Testing: Techniques for Functional Testing of Software and Systems, IEEE Software, 13:5, 98- (1996), available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=536464
… systems.18
See text in § and notes -.
… system.19
See the discussion of the Hursti II findings in Hall, note .
… testing,20
Penetration testing (sometimes called “Red team'’ or “tiger team'’ attacks) involve a simulated attack on a system where the attack team may know everything (“white box'’ testing) or very little (“black box'’ testing) about a system and attempt to compromise it in the same manner as would a malicious actor. These types of exercises are common in the testing and implementation of high-integrity systems. For more on penetration testing rationales and methodologies, see: Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual, available at: http://www.isecom.org/osstmm/.
… monitoring,21
Parallel monitoring, employed during each election now in the State of California, Washington and soon Maryland, involves randomly quarantining a subset of voting machines on election day and voting on them with fake voters and scripted votes to detect bugs, procedural flaws and evidence of possible malicious activity. For more, see: Douglas W. Jones, Testing Voting Systems: Parallel testing during an election, The University of Iowa, Department of Computer Science, available at: http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/testing.shtml.
… feedback.22
For example, Carnegie Mellon University’s Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a computer security incident tracking and response service, see: http://www.cert.org/. In response to a question asked by the author at the NIST Voting Systems Threats workshop, EAC commissioners Davisdson and DeGregorio expressed interest in setting up a similar service and process for computerized voting systems.
… out-of-date.23
ACCURATE. Public comment on the 2005 voluntary voting system guidelines, 2005, available at: http://accurate-voting.org/accurate/docs/2005_vvsg_comment.pdf
… day24
More Than 4,500 North Carolina Votes Lost Because of Mistake in Voting Machine Capacity, Associated Press / USA Today, November 5, 2004, available at: http://tinyurl.com/3nhfw.
… examined.25
NASED letter, “Voting System Memory Card Issues'’, March 22, 2006, available under “certification'’ at: http://www.nased.org/.
… guidelines.26
The set of federal standards that are in effect at the time of writing are the FEC’s 2002 Voting System Standards (2002 VSS). The EAC’s 2005 Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (2005 VVSG) have been approved by the EAC but will not go into effect until January 2008. See: http://guidelines.kennesaw.edu/vvsg/intro.asp.
… vendors.27
Kim Zetter, E-Voting Tests Get Failing Grade, Wired News, November 1, 2004, (article notes that ITAs cannot discuss specific systems due to NDAs with vendors) available at: http://www.wired.com/news/evote/0,65535-2.html.
… systems.28
ITAA letter to Assemblymember Tom Umberg, “OPPOSE: AB 2097′’, March 22, 2006, on file with author. Similar sentiments were expressed in written testimony to a California State Senate Committee on Elections hearing in February of 2006; see: http://tinyurl.com/rsk5e.
… discredited.29
Mercuri, R. T. and Neumann, P. G. Security by obscurity, Communications of the ACM 46:11, 160 (2003) available at: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/948383.948413; One of the best discussions of the notion of “security through obscurity'’ is available on the Wikipedia page for the term. See: Security through obscurity: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Security_through_obscurity&oldid=58172204 (last visited June 14, 2006). Full disclosure: the author is one of the many editors of this Wikipedia page.
… influence.30
Lipner, S. B. Security and source code access: Issues and realities. In SP Õ00: Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Washington, DC, USA, 2000), IEEE Computer Society, p. 124.
… standards.31
Joseph Lorenzo Hall, “Background on Recent Diebold Election Systems, Inc. (DESI) Vulnerabilities'’, National Committee for Voting Integrity Briefing for Congressmembers and Staff (2006), available at: http://josephhall.org/papers/DESI_vulns_background_briefing-20060607.pdf.
… experts.32
Security Analysis of the Diebold AccuBasic Interpreter, Voting Systems Technology Assessment Advisory Board (VSTAAB), February 14, 2006, available at: http://ss.ca.gov/elections/voting_systems/security_analysis_of_the_diebold_accubasic_interpreter.pdf; Linda H. Lamone, Administrator for the Maryland State Board of Elections, letter to Diebold Election Systems, Inc. CEO, available at: http://truevotemd.org/images/stories//ll-diebold.pdf. (discussing official’s concern and reserving the right to hire an independent expert of their choice to review source code)
… form.33
There have also been movements to obviate the need for increased transparency, such as the move to require voter-verified paper records (VVPRs). At the time of writing, there are currently 26 states that have enacted legislation requiring Direct-Recording Electronic voting machines to produce a Voter Verified Paper Record to provide an independent check on the voting system’s recording functions. See VerifiedVoting.org’s Legislation Tracking page: http://verifiedvoting.org/article.php?list=type&type=13.
… review.34
Other provisions relevant to public scrutiny and expert evaluation include: Vendors must establish a California County User Group and hold one annual meeting where the system’s users are invited to review the system and give feedback and volume reliability testing of 100 individual voting machines under election-day conditions. See: California Secretary of State, “10 Voting System Certification Requirements'’, available at: http://ss.ca.gov/elections/voting_systems/vs_factsheet.pdf.
… 2006.35
Id., California VSTAAB, note .
… systems.36
“[T]he Legislature hereby requests the Secretary of State to investigate and evaluate the use of open-source software in all voting machines in California and report his or her findings and recommendations to the Legislature.'’ See ACR 242, as chaptered, available here: http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/03-04/bill/asm/ab_0201-0250/acr_242_bill_20040831_chaptered.html, Office of the California Secretary of State, “Open Source Software in Voting Systems'’, 31 January 2006, available at: http://ss.ca.gov/elections/open_source_report.pdf.
… 2097.37
See AB 2097, “An act to add Section 19213.5 to the Elections Code, relating to voting systems, and declaring the urgency thereof, to take effect immediately.'’, available at: http://leginfo.ca.gov/pub/bill/asm/ab_2051-2100/ab_2097_bill_20060217_introduced.html.
… issues.38
Id., note .
… system.39
See §163-165.7(c), available as passed by both houses of the NC Legislature here: http://www.ncga.state.nc.us/Sessions/2005/Bills/Senate/HTML/S223v7.html.
… enforced.40
Diebold Election Systems, Inc. was concerned that, among other things, it didn’t have the rights to provide access to the source code of third-party software components of its system. It sued the North Carolina Board of Elections to prevent this regulation from taking effect. The case was dismissed as the Court found that there was no dispute as to the language or interpretation of the statute. See: Diebold v. North Carolina Board of Elections, unpublished (NC. Super. November 30, 2005), available at: http://www.eff.org/Activism/E-voting/diebold_order_dismissal.pdf.
… cast.'’41
Wisconsin Assembly Bill 627, as introduced, available at: http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2005/data/AB-627.pdf.
… equipment'’.42
Wisconsin Act 92, available at: http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2005/data/acts/05Act92.pdf. The author knows of at least eight states with escrow requirements in regulation or statute (CA, CO, IL, MN, NC, UT, WI and WA). Unfortunately, it is unclear how many states actually escrow software; some states use the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) National Software Reference Library (NSRL) as a form of “escrow'’. However, the NSRL stores binary versions of software products, not source code. See: http://www.nsrl.nist.gov/. The conditions for when escrowed software can be accessed and by whom vary but generally protect proprietary information from public disclosure.
… software:43
There has been no federal electoral legislation since the passage of HAVA in 2002. At the time of writing, there are at least six bills — excluding companion bills — in the U.S. Congress that would substantially reform the conduct of elections on top of the reforms of HAVA. These six bills are: H.R. 550 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:h.r.00550:), H.R. 704/S. 330 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.R.704: and http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:S.330: respectively), H.R. 939/S. 450 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:h.r.00939: and http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:s.00450: respectively; note the two versions of these bills contain significant differences), H.R. 533/S. 17 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:h.r.00533: and http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:S.17: respectively; note the two versions of these bills contain significant differences), H.R. 278 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.R.278:) and H.R. 3910 (text is available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.R.3910:). VerifiedVoting.org maintains a comprehensive list of these bills and their differences here: http://www.verifiedvoting.org/article.php?list=type&type=13.
… HAVA.44
Congressman Bob Ney, former chair of the Committee on House Administration — which has federal election law jurisdiction — has expressed the sentiment that possible election reform should wait for past legislative action to run its course. See: Speech by Congressman Bob Ney, given at Cleveland State University, Center for Election Integrity on November 30, 2005, available at: http://cha.house.gov/MediaPages/PRArticle.aspx?NewsID=1146. This sentiment appears to be the main cause behind why none of the six bills in Congress have gained much traction. While wise in some respects, this mindset neglects the fact that the time cycles involved in development of computerized voting equipment are much quicker than the timeframes included as deadlines in the statutes.
… elections.45
The relevant language in both bills is: “No voting system shall at any time contain or use any undisclosed software.'’ See: H.R. 550 §247(c)(1) and H.R. 939/S. 450 §101(c). The one-word difference is that H.R. 550 would allow the disclosure to any “person'’ while H.R. 939/S. 450 only allows disclosure to “citizens'’.
… software.46
H.R. 533 §329(a) and §299G.
… terms.47
For an appreciation of the variety in open source licensing regimes, browse the Open Source Initiative’s (OSI) “Approved License'’ list http://www.opensource.org/licenses and the Free Software Foundation’s web page “Various Licenses and Comments about Them'’ http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/license-list.html. Open source licensing covers many licenses, some of which are incompatible with each other. Licenses span a spectrum of very simple — like the modified BSD license: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php — to the very intricate and complex — like the GNU General Public License: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html.
… licenses.48
Most open source licenses grant or withhold the exclusive rights, granted to creators under copyright law, of copying, modifying and distributing. For detailed inspection of the source code, inspectors would need at least the rights to copy and make modifications. That is, to properly test and debug a program, inspectors will need all source code necessary to build the binary application in a machine-readable format. They would then need to be able to transfer this code to their own build environment, verify that the source code behaves as it purports to, properly build the application and verify that the executable built behaves appropriately and matches the binaries on the target voting systems in the field. Transferring of code, compilation and modification necessary to test source routines implicates the right of reproduction and the right to prepare derivative works or modifications granted by copyright. The right to distribute the source code is not necessarily essential from this perspective as long as the inspecting parties get full access to the code.
… (AVVPAT).49
Kevin Shelley, Secretary of State of the State of California. Position Paper and Directives of Secretary of State Kevin Shelley Regarding the Deployment of DRE Voting Systems in California (Nov. 21, 2003). See: http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/ks_dre_papers/ks_ts_response_policy_paper.pdf.
… AVVPAT50
Kevin Shelley, Secretary of State of the State of California. Standards For Accessible Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail Systems In Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) Voting Systems (Jun. 15, 2004). See: http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/ks_dre_papers/avvpat_standards_6_15a_04.pdf.
… independently.51
Id., note , at 1, 4.
… California.52
Id., note , at 5.
… software.'’53
David Jefferson, Chair of the California Secretary of State’s Voting Technology Advisory Board, post to the Voting-Project mailing list. See: http://gnosis.python-hosting.com/voting-project/February.2004/0031.html.
… software.54
Minimal licensing criteria would be statements such as “The software source code is distributable to any member of the public.'’
… it.55
California Secretary of State Elections Division, Proposed Changes to Accessible Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (AVVPAT) Standards, January 14, 2005, available at: http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/voting_systems/012005_1b_s.pdf.
… systems.56
See Lipner, note ; “Fuzz testing'’ — where software products are bombarded with random input to test reliability — has found that source-available software utilizing open source development techniques is considerably more reliable than closed, proprietary products. See: B. Miller, D. Koski, C. Lee, V. Maganty, R. Murthy, A. Natarajan and J. Steidl. Fuzz revisited: A re-examination of the reliability of unix utilities and services. Technical report, Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin (1995), available at http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/miller95fuzz.html
… systems.57
Here are a few examples: In the Fall of 2004, Diebold sent cease-and-desist letters to a number of students who had published an internal email archive that exposed the fact that Diebold had been using uncertified software on their machines. OPG, Pavlosky & Smith v. Diebold, 72 U.S.P.Q.2d 1200 (N.D. Cal. Sept. 30, 2004) available at: http://www.eff.org/legal/ISP_liability/OPG_v_Diebold/20040930_Diebold_SJ_Order.pdf. Diebold has also sent letters and a “product use advisory'’ to Florida election officials warning them of intellectual property limitations on the testing of their voting systems in conjunction with other vendors systems. See Id., note , at 21. In North Carolina, in response to the new legislation discussed in §4.3.2, Diebold sued the State Board of Elections arguing that it could not provide source code to third-party software for the evaluation demanded by the new statute (see note ).
… defenders.58
Swire develops a model of when disclosing security vulnerabilities will help or hinder system defenders: Swire, P. P. A model for when disclosure helps security: What is different about computer and network security? 2 Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law 163 (2004).
… equipment.59
In the past, vendors have “updated'’ software on voting systems in the field without requesting recertification. After The California Attorney General settled a lawsuit against Diebold Election Systems, Inc. in the Winter of 2004, in part for fielding voting systems which were running uncertified software, this practice seems to have stopped. See: Press Release, California Office of the Attorney General, “Attorney General Lockyer Announces $2.6 Million Settlement with Diebold in Electronic Voting Lawsuit: Settlement Would Resolve False Claims Allegations, Strengthen Security of Equipment'’, November 10, 2004, available at: http://ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/release.php?id=843.
… election.60
There are unanswered questions about whether or not Presidential elections can be postponed without amending the Constitution. See: Congressional Research Service, “Postponement and Rescheduling of Elections to Federal Office'’, October 4, 2004: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RL32623.pdf.
… secret.61
“A trade secret may consist of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information which is used in one’s business, and which gives him an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it.'’ Restatement of Torts §757, comment b (1939).
… disclosed.62
Id. ITAA testimony, note , “Similarly, software source code, like many other written works (e.g., customer lists, secret formulas for products, strategic plans for future competition and an almost infinite variety of similar materials) can be protected against unauthorized disclosure under state trade secrets laws and with contractual non-disclosure agreements.'’
… damages.63
For patents and copyright, 28 USC 1498 provides that a patent or copyright holder can sue the government for “recovery of his reasonable and entire compensation'’ but cannot enjoin the work being “used by or for'’ the government. Disclosure of patented, copyrighted software would not correspond to large financial exposure for voting systems vendors; depending on the terms of distribution (limited or public), the availability of the source code for voting system software would not undermine their ability to sell software products or enforce and license their patents.
… information.64
State equivalents to FOIA in the form of public records acts typically have broad exemptions for confidential information and trade secrets. Exemption 4 of FOIA allows the government to withhold trade secrets under certain circumstances involving FOIA requests. See: Erisman, M. K. The never ending saga of unit prices: To disclose or not to disclose, that is the question. 2005 Army Law 138 (2005).
… Co.,65
Ruckelshaus, Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency v. Monsanto Co. 467 U.S. 986 (1984).
… property.66
Id., at 1003-1004.
… program.67
Id., at 1010-1014.
… property.68
See discussion accompanying note .
… code.69
The first quasi-open source software product to be used in U.S. elections was ChoicePlus by Voting Solutions. This software has been used to administer local-level ranked-ballot elections in Cambridge, MA since 1998 and Burlington, VT. It was planned to be released under the GNU GPL in November of 2003 but one small, proprietary piece of code has prohibited the full release of the software under the GNU GPL. Interview with Steve Willet of Voting Solutions, April 7, 2006, on file with author; Jay Lyman, Successful public election joins Diebold, free software, NewsForge, April 4, 2006, available at: http://trends.newsforge.com/article.pl?sid=06/03/23/2040258&tid=136&tid=132.
… efforts,70
The following nations have either posted or claim to have posted voting system software in publicly-accessible forums or to select organizations: Argentina, Venezuela, Estonia and Kazakhstan. See: “Publicación de Software y Documentación'’, available (in Spanish) here: http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar/dgelec/index.php?module=pruebaPiloto&file=publicacion, See: “Auditorías en Venezuela garantizan la integridad del voto'’, available (in Spanish) at: http://www.smartmatic.com/noticias_077_2005-18.htm, See (in Estonian): http://www.vvk.ee/elektr/docs/Yldkirjeldus-eng.pdf and documentation/software at: http://www.vvk.ee/elektr/dokumendid.htm, Kazakhstan claims to allow review of the source code used to power their voting systems; it is hard to find. The Kazakh elections website (in Cyrillic): http://election.kz/.
… election.71
Clive Boughton and Carol Boughton, “Credible Election Software — eVACSTM'’, white paper on file with author (2005).
… fix.72
Email interview with Carol Boughton of Software Improvements Pty Ltd. (on file with author).
… footing73
For example, under §68(1) of Australia’s Trade Practices Act of 1974, a disclaimer of warranty is void if it does not follow the particular conventions and wording of the Act. See: Fitzgerald, B., And Bassett, G. Legal issues relating to free and open source software. Essays in Technology Policy and Law (Queensland University of Technology School of Law) 1 (2003).
… property.74
Software Improvements stated two concerns with releasing code that they’ve written under the GPL: first, that they would loose any trade secrecy embodied in the code and second, that another firm could use software that they’ve developed to compete against them.
… eVACS.75
Email interview with Philip Greene of the ACT electoral commission. (on file with author).
… license.76
Of course, under U.S. copyright law, a copyright holder can license their works under as many licenses as they like.
… system.77
However, as this article goes to press, there are indications that Apple has closed pieces of its software in a strategy to prevent people from running their software on non-Apple hardware. See: Tom Yager, Apple closes down OS X, InfoWorld, May 17, 2006, available at: http://www.infoworld.com/article/06/05/17/78300_21OPcurve_1.html.
… system.78
Coggins, C. Independent testing of voting systems. Communications of the ACM 47:10, 34-38 (2004).
… certification.79
Vogue Election Products & Services, LLC. did just this recently when it teamed up with Election Systems and Software (ES&S) to certify and market the AutoMARK ballot marking device.
… case,80
See, supra, § .
… contract,81
For example, an individual or organization could have to submit an application attesting to certain competences and sign a legally binding agreement that forbid certain activities. Such pre-requisite competencies could be to have a PhD-level degree in an area such as computer science and experience in system evaluation. Examples of activities to forbid would be to distribute the code further, to compile code flaws that aren’t made available to the regulatory agency, to publish non-public reports and to transmit source-level information to a vendor’s competitors.
… systems.82
The SAKAI project uses this “community source'’ model, where a consortium of higher educational institutions have started to develop their own course management software instead of paying vendors . See: http://sakaiproject.org/.
… systems83
Molnar, D., Kohno, T., Sastry, N., And Wagner, D. Tamper-evident, history-independent, subliminal-free data structures on PROM storage -or - how to store ballots on a voting machine (extended abstract). In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (2006).
… code84
Yee, K.-P., Wagner, D., Hearst, M., And Bellovin, S. Prerendered user interfaces for higher-assurance electronic voting. In USENIX/ACCURATE Electronic Voting Technology Workshop (2006).
… verification85
Sastry, N., Kohno, T., And Wagner, D. Designing voting machines for verification. In Fifteenth USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 2006) (August 2006).

Swimming upstream

by lynnjkelly

One
thing that the article we’ve been looking at, “Nourishing the Roots”,
brings up is how re-framing our words and actions using the Buddha’s
teachings goes against the grain of our culture in the English-speaking
world. The evidence is all around us, and I offer an example below.

Excerpts from an Op Ed piece by David Brooks in the NY Times, 20 May, 2013:(http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/21/opinion/brooks-what-our-words-tell-us.html?hp&_r=0)

About
two years ago, the folks at Google released a database of 5.2 million
books published between 1500 and 2008. You can type a search word into
the database and find out how frequently different words were used at
different epochs…A study by Jean M. Twenge, W. Keith Campbell and
Brittany Gentile found that between 1960 and 2008 individualistic words
and phrases increasingly overshadowed communal words and phrases.

That
is to say, over those 48 years, words and phrases like “personalized,”
“self,” “standout,” “unique,” “I come first” and “I can do it myself”
were used more frequently. Communal words and phrases like “community,”
“collective,” “tribe,” “share,” “united,” “band together” and “common
good” receded.

…The
Kesebirs [in a different study, covering the 20th century] identified
50 words associated with moral virtue and found that 74 percent were
used less frequently as the century progressed. Certain types of virtues
were especially hard hit. Usage of courage words like “bravery” and
“fortitude” fell by 66 percent. Usage of gratitude words like
“thankfulness” and “appreciation” dropped by 49 percent.

Usage
of humility words like “modesty” and “humbleness” dropped by 52
percent. Usage of compassion words like “kindness” and “helpfulness”
dropped by 56 percent. Meanwhile, usage of words associated with the
ability to deliver, like “discipline” and “dependability” rose over the
century, as did the usage of words associated with fairness. The
Kesebirs point out that these sorts of virtues are most relevant to
economic production and exchange.

…So
the story [Brooks would] like to tell is this: Over the past
half-century, society has become more individualistic. As it has become
more individualistic, it has also become less morally aware, because
social and moral fabrics are inextricably linked. The atomization and
demoralization of society have led to certain forms of social breakdown,
which government has tried to address, sometimes successfully and often
impotently.

(end of excerpt)

This
essay describes part of a trend in which we come to think of ourselves
less as citizens and more as consumers. As the markets of exchange
become more global, the role of consumer may seem to be the only role we
all have in common. I don’t see any evil intent here, just the
evolution of our world culture. But an unfortunate by-product of this
change is that our self image can be swept up in these assumptions.

As
the society (as reflected in word usage) supports our moral aspirations
less, we end up carrying our moral framework with us individually. We
can seek out people who hold values similar to our own, who support our
wholesome intentions, but sometimes it may just seem easier to work and
rest and not bother building a network that intentionally supports our
moral life.

One
could get the sense that it’s hopeless to resist the tide of our
culture, but it may be that each of us, with our efforts to speak and
act from a clear, wholesome ethical framework, forms a little eddy of
countercultural force. As we find others who share our values, our
commitment is strengthened. Who knows? Our tiny minority, identifying
more as ethical beings than consumers, may start a small tide of our
own.



BHIKKHUNä PATIMOKKHA Ý ENGLISH.


The Four Preliminary Functions

Sweeping the place, lighting a lamp, administering water and spreading seats.

The Five Functioning Things

Interest, purity, the suitable time, the number of bhikkhunis and the advice.

The Four Features To Be Suitable

The day of the full moon, all the defeated bhikkhunis, those
excluded from the Community are not present and the bhikkhunis defeated
are at a distance.

The four preliminary functions, the five functions and the four
features of suitability completed, we invite the bhikkhunis who have got
the consent of the order of bhikkhunis to recite the rules of the
higher order.

The origin

Noble ladies listen, today is the fifteenth day of the full moon,
as suitable may the Community of bhikkhunis recite the rules of the
bhikkhunis

What are the functions? Noble ladies inform your purity. I will
recite the rules of the higher order. All present, listen carefully and
attentively. Those that have ecclesiastical offences should voice them.
Those who haven’t should be silent, by their silence I will know their
purity. In a gathering like this, it should be heard up to the third
time. When listening to it, up to the third time, if you recall any
offences, they should be declared. If a bhikkhuni listening to it, up to
the third time, were not to declare an offence that she recalls, it
amounts to telling a deliberate lie. The Blessed One has said that
telling a deliberate lie is an impediment. Therefore those recalling
their offences should declare them, it’s for their mental health.

Noble ladies, the origin is recited, how is your purity? For the
second and for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies
are pure, therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.

End of the original story.

Offences which merit excommunication

Now the eight offences are recited.

The training precept for sexual things

1.If a bhikkhuni interested in sexual things practice them in the
form of an animal, that is an offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The training precept, for stealing.

2. A bhikkhuni taking from village or forest, something not given
with a thievish mind and if it amounts to a robbery for which the king
would arrest, execute, imprison, or banish, she does an offence, fit to
be ex-communicated.

The training precept, for depriving human life.

3. If a bhikkhuni intentionally deprives human life by providing a
weapon or by praising death, or by inciting one to die, saying, `Good
man, what is the use of this evil unpleasant life, dying is better than
living.’ Praising death in various ways makes one to think and ponder
about dying, that is an offence, fit to be ex-communicated.

Training precept, for attainments above human.

4. A bhikkhuni impressing others about attainments above human,
without attaining them, would say, `I know and see noble attainments and
visions above human.’ Later, when cross questioned or even not cross
questioned, seeing her offence and seeking purity would say: `Noble
lady, not knowing or seeing I said I know and see, I said those useless
lies, out of conceit’. It’s an offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The training precept above the knee caps.

5 If a bhikkhuni with desire consents to a male person’s approach to
brush up or down, or massage, or take hold, or touch or press above the
knee caps, is an offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The training precept for hiding an offence.

6. A bhikkhuni knowing that another bhikkhuni had done an offence,
would not accuse her for it, nor inform the Community about it, while
she is present and alive Afterwards she would say: `Even earlier, I knew
that sister is of such behavior’. Not accusing the bhikkhuni herself,
nor informing the Community about it, is an offence fit to be
ex-communicated.

Training precept for associating an ex-communicated bhikkhu.

7. A bhikkhuni associating a bhikkhu, rightfully ex communicated by
the Teacher’s discipline as disrespectful and cannot be corrected,
should be advised by the bhikkhunis up to the third time: `Noble lady,
this bhikkhu is rightfully ex-communicated by the Teacher’s discipline
as disrespectful and cannot be corrected do not associate him.’ It’s
good if she gives up the association, if not, it is an offence fit to be
ex-communicated.

Training precept, for eight fold misbehavior

8. If a bhikkhuni with desires endures a male person’s approaches in
the form of holding hands, touching the edge of the robe, standing
close, talking or exchanging ideas, or follow him to enclosures, or
disclose the body with such intentions, this wrong behavior is an
offence fit to be ex-communicated.

The end of the offences, which merit excommunicating

Noble ladies, the eight offences for excommunication are recited. A
bhikkhuni fallen for one or the other of these offences is fit to be
ex-communicated. Noble ladies, I ask how is your purity? For the second
and for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are
pure, therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.


OFFENCES PARDONED BY A COMMUNITY
OF BHIKKHUS AND BHIKKHUNIS
OF MORE THAN TWENTY

Noble ladies, now the seventeen serious offences will be recited.

Precept for quarrelling

1. A bhikkhuni leading a quarrelsome life, quarrelling with a
householder, his son, a servant, a workman or at least a wandering
ascetic, falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for associating a deceitful woman.

2. A bhikkhuni knowing that a certain woman is deceitful, ignoring
the fact and without a suitable arrangement with the king, the
Community, a group, a guild, or an army, associates her and falls with
the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Precept for wandering alone in the village.

3. A bhikkhuni, wandering alone in the village, or crossing the river
alone, or spending the night alone, or leaving the Community of
bhikkhunis, falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for restoring an ex-communicated.

4. A bhikkhunã restoring another bhikkhunã, rightfully
ex-communicated by the Community of bhikkhunis, according to the
discipline of the dispensation of the Teacher, ignoring the decisions of
the working committee, and the ex-communication by a majority of votes,
falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious
offence.

Precept for accepting food.

5.A bhikkhuni accepting eatables and drinks from the hands of a male
with desire, falls with the first offence and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

The second precept for accepting food.

6. A bhikkhuni saying: `Noble lady, what does it matter, whether this
male is with or without desire, you without desire, accept the eatables
and drinks with your own hands and partake them.’ Here she falls with
the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Training precept for acting as go-between.

7.A bhikkhuni conveying a woman’s intentions to a man or a man’s
intentions to a woman, or at least for a temporary communion falls with
the first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Training precept for evil anger.

8. A bhikkhuni angry and displeased accuses another bhikkhuni saying
she merits complete ex-communication, `What is the use of this holy
life, give up robes.’ Later when questioned, or not, or after a complete
examination, the accusation proves to be wrong and is found that the
bhikkhuni had been angry. This bhikkhuni falls with the first offence
and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

For a precept, in another section.

9 A bhikkhuni angry and displeased accuses a bhikkhuni, with an
irrelevant category of offences, for a small reason and says she merits
complete ex-communication, `What is the use of this holy life, give up
robes.’ Later when questioned, or not or after a complete examination of
the other class of offences, the accusation proves to be wrong and is
found that the bhikkhuni had been angry. This bhikkhuni falls with the
first offence and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Precept for giving up the training.

10. A bhikkhuni angry and displeased says, `I withdraw, from
enlightening myself, from the Teaching, from the Community and from the
training. I’m far behind the daughters of the Sakyas. There are other
bhikkhunis, bashful and scrupulous of the training, I will lead the holy
life under them.’ That bhikkhuni should be advised by the other
bhikkhunis thus: `Noble lady, angry and displeased, do not say, I
withdraw, from enlightening myself, from the Teaching, from the
Community and from the training. I’m far behind the daughters of the
Sakyas. There are other bhikkhunis, bashful and scrupulous of the
training, I will lead the holy life under them. The Teaching is well
proclaimed, live, the holy life, delight in it and make an end of
unpleasantness rightfully.’ If she holds on to this view when advised,
she should be advised up to the third time. It’s good if she gives it
up, if not she falls with an offence for not heeding admonition
repeatedly up to the third time and becomes helpless with a serious
offence.

Precept for being angry about a lawful decision

11. If a bhikkhuni angry and displeased over a lawful decision were
to say: `The bhikkhunis are led by interest, anger, delusion and fear.’
That bhikkhuni should be admoished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, angry
and displeased, over a lawful decision do not say the bhikkhunis are
led by interest, anger, delusion and fear. Noble lady, you may be led by
interest, anger, delusion and fear.’ The bhikkhunis should admonish her
up to the third time to give up that view. Good, if she gives it up, if
not she falls with an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up
to the third time and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

The first precept for evil behavior.

12. If bhikkhunis practice wrong behavior, wrong faith, wrong
virtues, worry the Community of bhikkhunis hiding each other’s faults.
The bhikkhunis should admonish them: `Sisters, you practice wrong
behavior, wrong faith, wrong virtues, worry the Community of bhikkhunis
hiding each other’s faults.

Noble ladies, the Community praises openness.’ If they persistently
practice wrong behavior, they should be admonished up to the third time.
If they give up their wrong behavior that’s good, if not they fall with
an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the third time
and becomes helpless with a serious offence. .

Second precept for evil behavior.

13.If a bhikkhuni says: `Noble ladies, live withdrawn, yet do not
live in various ways. There are other bhikkhunis in this Community with
this behavior, this faith, these virtues, worrying the Community of
bhikkhunis hiding each others’ faults. The Community of bhikkhunis said
nothing to them. Not liking you, gossiping about you and because you are
weak, they say: `Sisters, you practice wrong behavior, wrong faith,
wrong virtues, worry the Community of bhikkhunis hiding each others’
faults. Noble ladies, the Community praises openness.’ That bhikkhuni
should be admonished thus: ‘Noble lady, do not say: `Noble ladies, live
withdrawn, yet do not live in various ways. There are other bhikkhunis
in this Community with this behavior, this faith, these virtues,
worrying the Community of bhikkhunis hiding each others faults. The
Community of bhikkhunis said nothing to them. Not liking you, gossiping
about you and because you are weak, they say: `Sisters, you practice
wrong behavior, wrong faith, wrong virtues, worry the Community of
bhikkhunis hiding each others’ faults. Noble ladies, the Community
praises openness.’ If she persistently behaves in this manner, she
should be admonished up to the third time. It’s good if she gives up
that behavior, if not she falls with an offence for not heeding
admonition repeatedly, up to the third time and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for causing schism in the Community.

14. A bhikkhuni that causes a split in the Community that is in
concord, or one persisting with a litigation that needs settlement with a
split, should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, do not
cause a schism in the Community that is in concord, do not persist with a
litigation that needs settlement with a split. Noble lady, appreciate
the concord in the Community. A united pleasant Community that recites a
single recitation is good’ If she persists in her endeavor she should
be admonished up to the third time. Good if she gives it up, if not she
falls with an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the
third time and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Precept for associating schemers

15. The same bhikkhuni is reckoned by one, or two, or three
bhikkhunis saying: `Noble ladies, do not say anything to this bhikkhuni,
she says the rightful thing according to the discipline. I too agree
with her interests and liking. She knows what she says, I too agree with
her words. The bhikkhunis should admonish these bhikkhunis: `Noble
ladies, do not say so, this bhikkhuni does not say the rightful,
according to the discipline. You should not give your vote for a schism
in the Community. Noble ladies, live in concord with the Community. A
united pleasant Community that recites a single recitation is good’ If
they persist in their endeavor, they should be admonished up to the
third time. Good if they give it up, if not they fall with an offence
for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the third time and become
helpless with a serious offence.

The precept of training for unruliness.

16. A bhikkhuni of unruly nature would not listen, when the
bhikkhunis admonish her rightfully. She would say, `Noble ladies, do not
admonish me on what is good or bad. I too will refrain from admonishing
the noble ladies, on what is good or bad.’ The bhikkhunis should
admonish her: `Noble lady, do not be beyond admonition. Make yourself
available for admonition and you too admonish the bhikkhunis rightfully.
The gathering of the Blessed One grows by mutual admonition and
rehabilitation of each other. Admonished thus if she is not amendable,
should be admonished up to the third time. Good if she gives up her
unruly nature, if not she falls with an offence for not heeding
admonition repeatedly up to the third time and becomes helpless with a
serious offence.

Precept for causing ill fame to a family.

17. A certain bhikkhuni lives dependent on a village or hamlet. She
is seen and heard to be visiting a certain family. That family too sees
and knows of her evil behavior. The bhikkhunis should admonish her:
`Noble lady, you are heard and seen to be always visiting a certain
family. That family too does not approve your evil behavior. Noble lady,
leave this dwelling, it is for your good.’ That bhikkhuni might retort:
`The bhikkhunis are led by interest, by anger, by delusion and fear, on
account of such an offence a certain one would be sent away and another
would not be sent away.’ The bhikkhunis should admonish that bhikkhuni:
`Noble lady, do not say the bhikkhunis are led by interest, anger,
delusion and fear. The noble lady is heard and seen to be visiting a
certain family and that family does not approve your behavior. You
should leave this dwelling, it’s for your own good.’ Admonished up to
the third time if she gives up the wrong behavior, it’s good, if not she
falls with an offence for not heeding admonition repeatedly up to the
third time and becomes helpless with a serious offence.

Noble ladies, the seventeen serious offences consisting of the nine
primary offences and the eight offences for not heeding admonition given
up to the third time are recited. A bhikkhuni fallen for one or the
other of these offences has to beg pardon in the presence of both
Communities. To cut down her conceit the bhikkhuni should be
rehabilitated in a place where there is a Community of twenty
bhikkhunis. If it happens that the number is less than twenty, she is
not rehabilitated and those bhikkhunis are censurable. This is the
proper course. Noble ladies, I ask how is your purity? For the second
and for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are
pure, therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.

End of the offences pardoned by a major Community of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis of more than twenty.

 

ATONEMENT FOR OFFENCE.

Noble ladies, the thirty offences for which there’ll be atonement are recited.

Section on bowls.

Precept for accumulating bowls.

1.If a bhikkhuni accumulates bowls, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for untimely robe material

2. If a bhikkhuni determines robe material received at the wrong time
as `received at the right time’, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for exchanging robes.

3. If a bhikkhuni having exchanged robes with another bhikkhuni later
says: ‘Noble lady, this is your robe, take it and return my robe, that
is mine.’ And she tears away her robe, or instigates another to tear it
away, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for teaching others

4. If a bhikkhuni does not teach one and teaches another, it is an offence for atonement.

Precept for exchanging things

5. If a bhikkhuni exchanges things, with one and not with another, it is an offence for atonement.

First precept for giving away things of the Community.

6. If a bhikkhuni gives away requisites of the Community, intended for some other purpose, it’s an offence for atonement.

Second precept for exchanging things of the Community.

7. If a bhikkhuni skillfully exchanges requisites of the Community,
intended for some other purpose for something else, it’s an offence for
atonement.

First precept for giving away things of the Community to people

8. If a bhikkhuni gives eatables of the Community, intended for some other purpose to people, it’s an offence for atonement.

Second precept for giving belongings of the Community to people

9. If a bhikkhuni skillfully exchanges eatables of the Community,
intended for some other purpose with people, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for exchanging belongings of the Community with a person

10. If a bhikkhuni skillfully exchanges eatables of the Community,
intended for some other purpose with a person, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Section one on the bowl

THE SECTION ON ROBES

The precept concerning the important robe*

11. A bhikkhuni bargaining on the important robe could do so to the
maximum of four copper coins, if she exceeds that, it’s an offence for
atonement.

*Important robe. `garupàvura,na’ It’s the robe offered after the
recitation of the `rules for the bhikkhunis’ to the bhikkhuni who
observed the rains, at the place of observing the rains.

Precept concerning an unimportant robe*

12. A bhikkhuni bargaining on an unimportant robe could do so to the
maximum of three and half copper coins, if she exceeds that, it’s an
offence for atonement.

*Unimportant robe. `lahupàvuraõa’ It’s any other robe offered after
the recitation of the `rules for bhikkhunis’ to the bhikkhunis who
observed the rains ceremony.

Precept for the robe material offered to make robes, for the rains ceremony.

13. At a time when robes are sewn, and the robe material is
distributed, a bhikkhuni could be in possession of extra robes for ten
days, if she exceeds that period, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept to leave no room for errors

14. At a time when robes are sewn, and the robe material is
distributed, a bhikkhuni should not put aside any one of her three robes
even for one night unless with the consent of the bhikkhunis otherwise,
it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for robes out of season.

15. At a time when robes are sewn, and the robe material is
distributed, the need of a robe may arise to a bhikkhuni. If she
desires, she could accept the robe material and quickly make the robe.
She should complete it within a month the most or even within another
week, if she exceeds that time limit, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for asking robe material from an unknown.

16. If a bhikkhuni asks for robe material from an unknown householder
or a householder’s wife, without a reason, it’s an offence for
atonement. The reason here is her robe is stolen or it is destroyed.

Further for the former precept.

17. If the aforesaid man or woman had offered much material for
robes, much more material than the necessary, that bhikkhuni could
prepare her robe with them, if she exceeds her needs, it’s an offence
for atonement.

First precept for favors.

18 For a certain bhikkhuni, an unknown householder, or an unknown
householder’s wife may collect some money and contemplate: `With the
collected money, I will buy some robes material, prepare the robe and
supply a robe to the bhikkhuni of such name.’ Before the rains ceremony
that bhikkhuni approaching that household would suggest an alternate
suggestion: `Sir, good if you buy this material with the collected money
and offer me a robe of this nature out of compassion’ it’s an offence
for atonement.

.

Second precept for favors.

19 For a certain bhikkhuni, two unknown householders, or two unknown
householder’s wives collect some money and individually contemplate:
`With the collected money, I will buy some robes material, prepare the
robe and supply a robe to the bhikkhuni of such name.’ Before the rains
ceremony that bhikkhuni approaching those households might suggest an
alternate suggestion: `Sirs, good if you buy this material with the
collected money and offer me one robe of this nature, both in concord
out of compassion.’ It’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the royalty.

20. To a certain bhikkhuni the king, a royal member, a brahmin, or a
householder sends a messenger saying: `With this money buy the necessary
robe material and supply the bhikkhuni of such name with a robe.’ That
messenger approaches the bhikkhuni and says: `Noble lady, accept this
money, it is sent to prepare a robe for you.’ If the bhikkhuni needs a
robe she should reply the messenger thus: `Good sir, I do not accept
money for the preparation of robes, I accept suitable robes, at the
correct time.’ The messenger then asks: `Has the noble lady a
stewardess?’ The bhikkhuni could name someone in the monastery or a
laywoman The messenger would approach the named stewardess give her the
money and the message and approaching the bhikkhuni would say: `Noble
lady, we informed the stewardess, at the suitable time approach her and
get the robe offered to you.’ For the preparation of the robe the
bhikkhuni should approach the stewardess two or three times and remind
her about it, saying: `Good one I need a robe.’ Good if the robe is
prepared when reminded two or three times. The fourth, fifth and up to
the sixth time a silent notification should be made. Good if the robe is
prepared by then and offered. If she makes any other endeavors to get
the robe, it is an offence for atonement. If the robe is not prepared,
either the bhikkhuni herself should go or a messenger should be sent to
those who sent the material for robes, saying: `Good sirs, out of the
money you sent for the material for robes the bhikkhuni did not get
anything. Do not pursue it, do not be angry over it.’ That is the course
of action there.

The section on robes is the second.

THE SECTION ON GOLD

Precept for gold.

21.If a bhikkhuni picks up, or makes another to pick up or puts away
carefully, gold, silver or coins, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for trafficking with money.

22. If a bhikkhuni engages herself in trafficking with money in various ways,

it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for buying and selling.

23. If a bhikkhuni engages in buying and selling various things, it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for less than five mends

24. If a bhikkhuni with a bowl that has less than five mends, buys a
new bowl it is an offence for atonement. That bhikkhuni should abandon
her new bowl in front of the Community of bhikkhunis, and be the
possessor of the last bowl after everyone chooses a bowl and she would
be told: `Bhikkhuni, this is your bowl until it breaks up.’ That is the
course of action there.

The precept for medicinal requisites

25. Sick bhikkhunis could accept and partake medicinal requisites
such as ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey and molasses, keeping them for a
period of seven days. If someone keeps them beyond that period, it is an
offence for atonement.

The precept for tearing away a robe.

26. If a bhikkhuni gives a robe to another bhikkhuni and later angry
and displeased would tear it away or make another tear it away from her,
it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for giving an order to make yarn.

27. If a bhikkhuni herself informs the weavers to make cloth and get a robe woven, it is an offence for atonement

The major precept for weavers

28.Should a certain householder or a householder’s wife, give orders
to the weavers to weave a special cloth for a certain bhikkhuni not
related, to them. And should the bhikkhuni before the rains ceremony,
approach the weaver and suggest: `Sir, is this cloth woven for me?. Good
if you make it tall and wide, weave the cloth well, give a good finish
and a brush. We will give you a small bonus for doing this work ` Should
that bhikkhuni later give the weaver a small bonus at least in the form
of something put in her bowl, it is an offence for atonement.

The precept for an extra robe

29. An extra robe is gained by the bhikkhuni who completes the three
months of the rains and the last ten days successfully. It should be
accepted by the bhikkhuni, aware of this fact and should be kept until
the ceremony is over. If she keeps it longer than that, it is an offence
for atonement.

The precept for one, thoroughly knowing

30. A bhikkhuni appropriating the gains of the Community for herself,
thoroughly knowing they are the gains of the Community does an offence
that merit atonement. .

The third section on gold

Noble ladies, the thirty offences that merit atonement, are recited,
now I ask how is your purity? For the second and for the third time I
ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they are
silent, and I record it as such.

The end of the offences that merit atonement

PURE ATONEMENTS

Noble ladies, now the one hundred and sixty six offences that need atonement will be recited.

Precept for eating garlic.

1. If a bhikkhuni eats garlic, it’s an offence that merits atonement.

Precept for removing obstructing hairs on the body

2.If a bhikkhuni shaves obstructing hairs on her body, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for slapping the palms

3. If a bhikkhuni slaps the palms, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for applying lacquer

4 If a bhikkhuni applies lacquer, it’s an offence that merit atonement.

Precept for purity with water

5. A bhikkhuni intending to wash should obtain water from the vessel
up to the height of two inches, if she exceeds that, it’s an offence
that merit atonement.

Precept on attendance

6. If a bhikkhuni offers water or fans a bhikkhu partaking food, it’s an offence that merit atonement.

Precept for accepting raw grains.

7. If a bhikkhuni begs for raw grains, roast it, pound it, or cook it
and eat it, or make another to do it for her and eat it, it’s an
offence that merit atonement.

Precept for throwing out excrement

8. If a bhikkhuni throws excrement, urine, rubbish or stale food,
over a wall or fence, or make another to do it for her, she does an
offence that merit atonement.

The second precept for throwing excrement

9. If a bhikkhuni throws excrement, urine, rubbish or stale food , on
vegetation or make another to do it for her, she does an offence that
merit atonement.

Precept for dancing and singing

10. If a bhikkhuni goes to see dancing, singing or musical displays, it’s an offence for atonement.

The first garlic section

2. SECTION FOR THE DARKNESS OF THE NIGHT


Precept for the darkness of the night

11. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to
him in the dark, without a light, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for being in an enclosure

12. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to him in an enclosure it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for talking in the open

13. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to him in open space, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for dismissing the attendant

14. If a bhikkhuni without another, stand close to a male and talk to
him, or whisper in the ear, on the public road, in an arranged place,
or at the crossroads or send away the accompanying bhikkhuni, it is an
offence for atonement.

Precept for going away without informing

15.If a bhikkhuni approach a family before the mid-day meal, take a
seat and leave that house without informing the mistress, it’s an
offence for atonement

Precept for taking a seat uninvited

16.If a bhikkhuni approaches a family after the mid-day meal, take a
seat uninvited, or dose off there, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for lying without informing

17 If a bhikkhuni approach a family untimely, spread a cover, and
either sit or sleep there, without the permission of the mistress, it’s
an offence for atonement.

Precept for belittling another

18. If a bhikkhuni belittle another owing to a misunderstanding, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for cursing another

19. If a bhikkhuni curse her self or another about the holy life or about hell, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for wailing

20. If a bhikkhuni repeatedly wail hurting her self, it’s an offence for atonement

The darkness of the night is the second.

SECTION ON NAKEDNESS

Precept for nakedness

21. If a bhikkhuni bathe naked, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for the bathing cloth

22. The bathing cloth of a bhikkhuni should be in length four spans
and breadth two spans, according to the measurements of the Well Gone
One.* If it exceeds, it’s an offence for atonement.

*The Well Gone One is a synonym for the Enlightened One.

Precept for sewing the robe.

23 If a bhikkhuni un -pick the sewn stitches of a robe and leave it
aside for four or five days without sewing it, and without making an
effort to get it sewn, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the upper robe

24. If a bhikkhuni fail to wear the upper robe for five succeeding days, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the borrowed upper robe

25.If a bhikkhuni wear the borrowed upper robe, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the gain of many upper robes

26. If a bhikkhuni obstruct the gain of robes by many, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for withholding robe material

27. If a bhikkhuni withhold a rightful section of the robe-material, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for offering robes

28. If a bhikkhuni offer the robe of a recluse, to a householder, a
wandering ascetic, or a female wandering ascetic, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for letting the robe season pass

29. If a bhikkhuni let the robe season pass owing to weak expectations of robe material, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the privileges of the robe season

30. If a bhikkhuni keep back from enjoying the rightful privileges of the robe season, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section for nakedness is the third.

THE SECTION ON SHARING

Precept for sharing one bed.

31 Two bhikkhunis sharing one bed, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for sharing one cover

32. If two bhikkhunis share one cover, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for causing discomfort

33. If a bhikkhuni intentionally cause discomfort to another bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for nursing

34. A bhikkhuni not attending or making another attend on an ailing woman living with her, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for turning out

35.Should a bhikkhuni giving lodgings to a bhikkhuni, when angry and displeased turn her out, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for associations

36. A bhikkhuni associating a householder, or a householder’s son,
should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, do not associate a
householder or the son of a householder. Live secluded. The Community of
bhikkhunis praise seclusion.’ If the bhikkhuni pursues that behavior
when admonished, she should be admonished up to the third time. Good, if
she give up the association, if not, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept within the country

37. A bhikkhuni going on a tour in a region considered dangerous and
fearful within the country unprotected, is an offence for atonement.

Precept outside the country

38. A bhikkhuni going on a tour out of the country if considered
dangerous, fearful and unprotected, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the rainy season

39. A bhikkhuni going on a tour within the period of observing the rains, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for not going on a tour

40. A bhikkhuni not going on a tour of at least thirty-five to
forty-two miles, when the observation of the rains end, is an offence
for atonement.

The section on sharing is the fourth

THE SECTION FOR GAILY COLOURED HOUSES

The precept for the royal palace

41. If a bhikkhuni go sight seeing to a royal palace, a decorated
house, a forest resort, an orchard, or a beautiful pond, it is an
offence for atonement.

The precept for using an easy chair

42. If a bhikkhuni usean easy chair or a sofa, it’s an offence for atonemenmt.

Precept for spinning yarn

43. If a bhikkhuni spin yarn, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for doing household work

44. If a bhikkhuni, do household work it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for settling a legal matter

45.A bhikkhuni told, Noble lady settle this legal matter, and the
bhikkhuni accepting to settle it, would not settle it, nor make an
effort to settle it through some other means, is an offence for
atonement.

Precept for distribution of food

46. A bhikkhuni distributing eatables to a householder, a wandering
ascetic or a female wandering ascetic with her own hands, is an offence
for atonement.

Precept for household robes

47.If a bhikkhuni without giving up her household robes, would use them, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept about the dwelling

48. .If a bhikkhuni without giving up her dwelling should go on a tour, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept about learning pseudo sciences

49. .If a bhikkhuni learn pseudo sciences, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for reciting pseudo sciences

50. .If a bhikkhuni recite pseudo sciences, it’s an offence for atonement.

SECTION ON MONASTERIES

Precept for entering a monastery

51. If a bhikkhuni knowing there are bhikkhus should enter a monastery without permission, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for scolding a bhikkhu

52. If a bhikkhuni revile and abuse a bhikkhu, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for abusing a group

53. If a bhikkhuni dare to abuse a group, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for satisfaction

54. Should a bhikkhuni who has eaten to her satisfaction partake eatables or nourishment again, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for being fond of the family

55.If a bhikkhuni is fond of her family, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the absence of bhikkhus

56. If a bhikkhuni observe the rains in a monastery where there are no bhikkhus, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for failing to satisfy

57. If a bhikkhuni completing the rains observance should not satisfy
the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis in the three ways of seeing them, hearing
from them and removing doubts, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for admonition

58. If a bhikkhuni does not visit bhikkhus, or get admonition from them, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for approaching for admonition

59 Every fort-night a bhikkhuni should meet the Community of bhikkhus
for two things, to inquire about the recitation of the rules and for
admonition. If she exceeds that, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for a boil in a minor limb

60. If a bhikkhuni with a boil in a minor limb, should get it treated by a male,

not informing the Community, or even a group of on looking people, it’s an offence for atonement.

The sixth section for monasteries

THE SECTION FOR CONFINEMENT

Precept for confinement

61. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman that is confined, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept when giving suck

62. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman, giving suck, it’s an offence for atonement.

First precept for a trainee

63. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman who has not spent two rains observing the six precepts, it’s an offence for atonement.

The second precept for a trainee

64. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman who has spent two rains observing
the six precepts, without the consent, it’s an offence for atonement.

The first precept for a woman gone with a man

65. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman gone with a man, before completing twelve years, it’s an offence for atonement.

Second precept for a woman gone with a man

66. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman gone with a man and spent the
complete twelve years, but not the two rains observing the six precepts,
it’s an offence for atonement.

The third precept for a woman gone with a man

67. If a bhikkhuni ordain a woman gone with a man and has spent the
complete twelve years and the two rains observing the six precepts,
without the consent of the Community of bhikkhunis, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The first precept for one living with the bhikkhuni

68. A bhikkhuni having ordained a woman living with her, would not
see to her development or make another do it, is an offence for
atonement.

The precept for not following the Teacher

69. If a bhikkhuni would not follow the teacher that ordained her for two years, it’s an offence for atonement.

The second precept for one living with the bhikkhuni

70. A bhikkhuni having ordained a woman living with her, would not
leave her to herself and go away at least forty -two to thirty-five
miles, or make that arrangement for her, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section on confinement is the seventh

SECTION FOR GIRLS NOT OF AGE.

The first precept for girls not of age

71. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl less than twenty years of age, it’s an offence for atonement.

The second precept for girls not of age

72. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl who has completed twenty years but
has not lived two years observing the six precepts, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The third precept for girls not of age

73. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl who has completed twenty years has
lived two years observing the six precepts, without the consent of the
Community of bhikkhunis, it’s an offence for atonement

The precept for girls less than twelve years

74. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl less than twelve years, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for twelve year olds

75. If a bhikkhuni ordain a girl of twelve years without the consent
of the Community of bhikkhunis it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for being angry.

76 Should a bhikkhuni be told, the ordinations she had already done
are enough, would first agree and later get angry, it’s an offence for
atonement

First precept for not ordaining a trainee

77.A bhikkhuni promising to ordain a trainee if she offer a robe,
later would neither ordain her nor make arrangements for her to be
ordained, it’s an offence for atonement

Second precept for not ordaining a trainee

78.A bhikkhuni promising to ordain a trainee if she would live with
her for two years, later would neither ordain her nor make arrangements
for her to be ordained, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for living grievously

79. If a bhikkhuni ordain a daring woman, that associate men and boys and live grief stricken, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept when permission is not given

80. If a bhikkhuni ordain a trainee without the permission of father and mother or husband, it’s an offence for atonement

The precept for probationers

81. If a bhikkhuni ordain a trainee under probation, showing favors, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for annual ordination

82. If a bhikkhuni ordain annually, it’s an offence for atonement

Precept for ordaining in one year

83. If a bhikkhuni ordain two, in one year, it’s an offence for atonement.

Section for girls underage is the eighth

THE SECTION ON PARASOLS AND SANDALS

Precept for parasols and sandals

84. If a bhikkhuni not sick use a parasol and a pair of sandals, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for conveyances

85.If a bhikkhuni not sick use a means of conveyance, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for wearing a loin cloth

86. If a bhikkhuni wear a loin -cloth, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for wearing ornaments

87. If a bhikkhuni wear ornaments, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for bathing with perfumes and paints

88. If a bhikkhuni bathe with perfumes and paints, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for bathing with scented sesame

89. If a bhikkhuni bathe with scented sesame, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a bhikkhuni brush another bhikkhuni

90. If a bhikkhuni brush another bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a trainee brush a bhikkhuni

91. If a trainee brush a bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a novice brush a bhikkhuni

92. If a novice brush a bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for making a lay woman brush a bhikkhuni

93. If a lay woman brush a bhikkhuni upwards or downwards it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for sitting before a bhikkhu without permission

94. A bhikkhuni sitting before a bhikkhu without permission, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for quarrying a bhikkhu

95. If a bhikkhuni ask a question from a bhikkhu to make him uneasy, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for not wearing a vest

96. If a bhikkhuni fail to wear a vest when going out in the village, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section for parasols and sandals is the ninth

THE SECTION FOR TELLING LIES

Precept for telling lies.

97. Telling lies with awareness, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for abusing

98. Using abusive language, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for slandering

99. Slandering is an offence for atonement.

Precept for repeating the Teaching with one not fully ordained

100. A bhikkhuni repeating the Teaching with one not fully ordained, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for sleeping with one not fully ordained

101. A bhikkhuni sleeping with one not fully ordained, is an offence for atonement.

The second precept for sleeping with a man

102.A bhikkhuni sleeping with a man is an offence for atonement.

Precept for Teaching

103. A bhikkhuni teaching a man, more than five or six sentences
without an intelligent woman attending to the conversation, is an
offence for atonement.

Precept for informing attainments

104. If a bhikkhuni inform her attainments above human, to one not fully ordained, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for informing offences

105. If a bhikkhuni inform a bhikkhuni’s offences, to one not fully
ordained, without the consent of the Community, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for digging the earth

106. A bhikkhuni digging the earth or making another to dig the earth, is an offence for atonement.

The tenth section is for telling lies.

THE SECTION ON VEGETATION

Precept for vegetation

107. The destruction of vegetation, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for those with a different view

108.Annoying those with another view, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for stirring up

109. Stirring up and arousing anger, is an offence for atonement.

The first precept for a dwelling

110. If a bhikkhuni take out a bed, chair, cushion, or pillow
belonging to the Community, use it and go away without restoring it or
making another to do it or not informing about it, is an offence for
atonement.

The second precept for a dwelling

111. Should a bhikkhuni spread a bed belonging to the Community use
it and go away without restoring it or making another to do it nor
informing about it, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for encroaching

112. A bhikkhuni knowing that a bhikkhuni had arrived at the
monastery before her, make her bedding encroaching her bedding,
thinking, she will leave the place if it is troublesome to her, if that
be the only reason, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for driving away

113. Should a bhikkhuni angry and displeased drive away another
bhikkhuni from a monastery belonging to the Community, it’s an offence
for atonement.

Precept for the important room

114. Should a bhikkhuni sit or sleep obstructing the entrance to the
main room of a monastery belonging to the Community, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for a huge monastery

115. A bhikkhuni making a huge monastery should intend to clear the
vegetation for the purpose of protecting the entrance to the monastery
and for the purpose of bringing in light. If she intends to clear the
vegetation beyond that, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for living things

116. Should a bhikkhuni knowing there are living things in some
water, throw it on grass or clay, or make another do it, is an offence
for atonement.

Section for vegetation is the eleventh.

THE SECTION ON FOOD

The precept for parking alms food in houses

117. A bhikkhuni not sick should accept alms food at one house, if she exceeds that, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for partaking food in a company

118. Partaking food in a company, other than with a reason, is an
offence for atonement. The reasons are when ill, robes are offered,
going on a journey, embarking a ship or a huge sacrifice for ascetics.

Precept for the blind mother

119. A bhikkhuni gone to a family after being satisfied with rice
cakes or milk rice, if she desires could accept two bowls full of it,
exceeding that is an offence for atonement. Bringing it to the
monastery, she should distribute it among the other bhikkhunis. That
should be the course of action.

Precept for untimely food

120. A bhikkhuni partaking eatables or nourishment at untimely hours, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for accumulating

121. A bhikkhuni partaking accumulated eatables or nourishment is an offence for atonement.

Precept for tooth -picks

122. If a bhikkhuni carries to the mouth food not offered, other than water and a tooth -pick, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for dismissing

123. Should a bhikkhuni invite another bhikkhuni: `Come noble lady,
we will go the alms round in the village or hamlet.’ When going the alms
round without inquiring whether she got anything or not she is
dismissed saying: `Go noble lady, it is not pleasant to talk to you or
sit with you. It’s peaceful for me to be alone.’ Doing it for that
reason only, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for food

124. Should a bhikkhuni sit encroaching in a family where food is shared, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for sitting covered, secretly

125. Should a bhikkhuni sit with a man covered and in secrecy it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for sitting secretly

126. Should a bhikkhuni sit with a man away from the others secretly, it’s an offence for atonement.

The twelfth is the section on food

SECTION ON ETIQUETTE

Precept for etiquette

127. Should a bhikkhuni invited for alms, open up a conversation with
the members of that family before or after the meal, without informing
the other bhikkhunis, it’s an offence for atonement, unless there is a
reason.

The reasons are if it is the time of offering robes or the time of sewing robes.

The precept for Mahanama

128. A bhikkhuni not sick should satisfy the winding of the rains
ceremony at the end of four months, unless a winding ceremony is held
again or a winding ceremony held for good, if she prolongs the winding
of the rains ceremony, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the army in action

129. If a bhikkhuni goes to see the army in action, without a suitable reason,

it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for residing with the army

130. Should the bhikkhuni go to meet the army for some reason, she
could stay with the army for two or three nights if she exceeds that,
it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for seeing a combat

131. While the bhikkhuni is living with the army for two or three
nights, should she go to see a combat, the frontiers, the battle-field
or the army in action it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for taking intoxicants.

132. Taking intoxicants, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for poking with the finger

133. Poking anyone with the fingers, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for laughing

134. Sporting in water, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for being inconsiderate

135. Being inconsiderate is an offence for atonement.

Precept for frightening

136. Should a bhikkhuni frighten another bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

The thirteenth section on etiquette

THE SECTION ON FIRE

Precept for fire

137. If a bhikkhuni lights a fire, or make another light a fire to
warm up without a suitable reason, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for bathing

138.If a bhikkhuni bathe twice within the interval of two weeks without a suitable reason, it’s an offence for atonement.

The suitable reason is a period of hot weather, one and a half months
long, followed by the first month of the rainy season, which add up to a
period of two and a half months of hot weather with burning, or a
period of illness, or a period of working, or when embarked on a
journey, or a period of wind and rain

Precept for de coloring

139.A bhikkhuni with the gain of a new robe should mark it with one
of these colors, either blue, dark brown or black. If she uses the robe
without marking it, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for exchanging

140. Should a bhikkhuni who had offered her upper robe to a bhikkhu,
bhikkhuni, a male novice, or a female novice, use a rejected robe, it’s
an offence for atonement.

Precept for hiding

141. Should a bhikkhuni hide or make another hide a bhikkhuni’s bowl,
robe, sitting mat, needle case, or belt even for a joke, it’s an
offence for atonement.

Precept for awareness

142. Should a bhikkhuni take the life of a living thing with awareness, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for living things

143. Should a bhikkhuni knowing there are living things in the water, partake it, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for agitating

144. Should a bhikkhuni knowing that the rightful litigation is rendered, agitate further, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for the caravan belonging to the thieves

145. If a bhikkhuni should arrange to go on a journey in a caravan
belonging to thieves at least between two villages, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The section on fire is the fourteenth

SECTION ON VIEWS

The precept of Ariññha

146. If a bhikkhuni says, as I understand the Teaching preached by
the Blessed One. `The things that are said to be obstructions by the
Blessed One are not real obstructions to one who indulges in them.’ She
should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady, do not say that, do
not misinterpret the words of the Blessed One, it’s not good to
misinterpret the Teaching. The Blessed One did not say it. The Blessed
One has explained in various ways, that the obstructing things are
dangerous and indeed those who indulge in them fall into trouble.’ If
the bhikkhuni pursues with the view when admonished, she should be
admonished up to the third time. When admonished up to the third time,
good, if she gives up that view. If not, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept for associating one with the above view and living together

147.Should a bhikkhuni knowing a bhikkhuni of that view, associate,
partake food and live with her, it’s an offence for atonement.

The precept of a thorn

148. Even a novice says:’ The things that are said to be obstructions
by the Blessed One are not real obstructions to one who indulges in
them.’ The novice should be admonished by the bhikkhunis: `Noble lady,
the Blessed One did not say that, do not misinterpret the words of the
Blessed One.It’s not good to misinterpret the Teaching. The Blessed One
did not say it. The Blessed One has explained in various ways, that the
obstructing things are dangerous and indeed those who indulge in them
fall into trouble.’ If the novice pursues with the view when admonished
by the bhikkhunis this should be said: `Noble lady, from today, the
Blessed One is not your Teacher, I stand witness for that. Other novices
are favored and could live with the bhikkhunis

for two or three nights, that favor is not for you. Now go and
destroy your self. Should a bhikkhuni knowing the novice so destroyed,
speak with her, partake food and live with her, it’s an offence for
atonement.

The precept for rightfulness

149. Should a bhikkhuni say thus to something told rightfully by the
bhikkhunis: `Noble ladies, I will not observe this precept until I get
it explained by a learned disciplinarian.’ It’s an offence for
atonement.

Bhikkhus, a novice should learn, question and question again, from the bhikkhunis, that is the right course of action.

Expressing consternation for the precepts

150. When the rules of the higher order are recited, if a bhikkhuni
says: `What is the use of reciting these kindred precepts, they arouse
doubt, worry and consternation.’ Decrying the precepts is an offence for
atonement.

Precept for being deluded

151. When the rules of the higher order are recited fortnightly if a
bhikkhuni says:’ Noble ladies, now I know, this gets included in the
discourses.’ She had been seen by the other bnhikkhunis listening to the
recitation of the rules of the higher order, two or three times,
undoubtedly even more. It is not possible that she could get free
expressing not knowing. If she had done an offence, she should be dealt
accordingly for it and for hiding in delusion: `Noble lady, it is no
gain for you, it’s a rare chance you get to listen to the recitation of
the rules of the higher order attentively.’ That delusion is an offence
for atonement.

Precept for hitting.

152. If a bhikkhuni angry and displeased hit a bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for showing the gesture of hitting

153. If a bhikkhuni angry and displeased raises the palm with the gesture of hitting a bhikkhuni, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for a false accusation

154. If a bhikkhuni accuses a bhikkhuni for a serious offence falsely, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for groundless accusation

155. If a bhikkhuni arouse doubts about a bhikkhuni, intending to
make her unhappy for a moment, when there is no other reason, it’s an
offence for atonement.

156. Should a bhikkhuni secretly listen to what the bhikkhunis say,
when they take sides, dispute and fight, with the purpose of eves
dropping, it’s an offence for atonement.

The section on views is the fifteenth

SECTION ON RIGHTEOUSNESS

The precept for bewilderment.

157. A bhikkhuni giving her proxy vote to settle a legitimate matter, later getting angry, is an offence for atonement.

Precept for going away without giving the vote.

158. At the moment of settling a legal matter, should a bhikkhuni get
up from her seat and go without giving her vote, it’s an offence for
atonement.

Precept for lacking in power.

159. Should a bhikkhuni in concord with the Community of bhikkhunis
offer a robe to a certain bhikkhuni and later regret saying: `The
bhikkhunis offer the gains of the Community according to their whims.’
is an offence for atonement.

Precept for offering a robe

160. Should a bhikkhuni knowing it’s a gain of the Community, offer a robe to an aged person, it’s an offence for atonement.

Precept for gems

161. Should a bhikkhuni pick, or cause another to pick a gem, or
something worthy like a gem, it’s an offence for atonement. When a gem
or something worthy like a gem is picked, it should be put away,
thinking, `may it be found by the owner.’

Precept for the needle case

162. Should a bhikkhuni possess a needle case made out of bones,
teeth or horns, it’s an offence for atonement, when it breaks up.

Precept for beds and chairs

163. A bhikkhuni making a new, bed or chair, should make it to the
height of eight finger lengths of the Well Gone One, ignoring the stand
at the bottom. If the height exceeds, it’s an offence for atonement,
when it breaks up.

Precept for stuffing with cotton

164. Should a bhikkhuni stuff cotton to a bed or chair, it’s an offence for atonement, when it strips out.

Precept for concealing itch

165. A bhikkhuni making a cloth to conceal her skin disease should do
it adhering to the following measurements, for four lengths it should
be two breadths. If the measurements exceed, and if it’s torn, it is an
offence for atonement.

The precept for Nanda

166. A bhikkhuni making an upper robe to the measurements of the Well
Gone One, should cut it up, it’s an offence for atonement. The
measurements of the Well Gone One’s robe is nine lengths for six
breadths

The sixteenth is the section on views

Noble ladies, the one hundred and sixty six offences that merit
atonement, are recited, now I ask how is your purity? For the second and
for the third time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure,
therefore they are silent, and I record it as such.

The end of the offences that merit atonement

.OFFENCES THAT SHOULD BE CONFESSED

Noble ladies, now the eight offences that should be confessed will be recited.

Precept of training for asking ghee

1. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for ghee and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking oil

2. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for oil and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking honey

3. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for honey and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking molasses

4. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for molasses and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking fish

5. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for fish and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking meat

  1. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for meat and partaking it, should
    confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
    and confess it

Precept of training for asking milk

7. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for milk and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable
and confess it.’

Precept of training for asking curd

8. A bhikkhuni not sick asking for curd and partaking it, should
confess it: `Noble ladies, I have done an offence that is not suitable,
and confess it.’

Noble ladies, the eight offences that have to be confessed, are
recited, now I ask how is your purity? For the second and for the third
time I ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they
are silent, and I record it as such.

The end of the offences that have to be confessed

FOR TRAINEES

Now the training precepts for the venerable ones will be recited.

SECTION FOR COMPLETENESS

1. I train, to wear all round.

2 I train, to cover all round.

3. I train, shall enter a house well covered.

4. I train, shall sit inside a house well covered.

5. I train, shall enter a house well restrained

6. I train, shall sit inside a house well restrained

7.I train, shall enter a house with eyes turned down.

8 I train, shall sit inside a house with eyes turned down.

9 I train, shall not enter a house raising the body.

10. I train, shall not sit inside a house raising the body. .

11. I train, shall enter a house without a mocking gesture.

12. I train, shall sit inside a house without a mocking gesture. .

13. I train, shall enter a house without making a noise.

14. I train, shall sit inside a house without making a noise.

15 I train, shall enter a house without moving my body.

16. I train, shall sit inside a house without moving my body.

17. I train, shall enter a house without moving my shoulders.

18. I train, shall sit inside a house without moving my shoulders.

19. I train, shall enter a house without moving my head.

20. I train, shall sit inside a house without moving my head.

21 I train, shall not enter a house with my hands akimbo

22. I train, shall not sit inside a house with my hands akimbo.

23. I train, shall not enter a house covering my head.

24. I train, shall not sit inside a house covering my head.

25. I train, shall not enter a house squatting.

26. I train, shall not sit inside a house squatting.

These are the twenty-six proper things.

27. I train, shall accept alms food carefully.

28. I train, shall accept alms food with attention on the bowl.

29. I train, shall accept soups and curries in proportion to the rice.

30. I train, shall accept alms food according to the capacity of the bowl.

31. I train, shall partake the alms food carefully.

32. I train, shall partake the alms food with attention on the bowl.

33 I train, shall partake the alms food without choosing.

34. I train, shall partake soups and curries in proportion to the rice.

35. I train, shall not partake the food crushing down from the top.

36. I train, shall not cover the soups or curries with rice, to gain more soups and curries.

37. I train, shall not ask for soups or rice and partake them, when not sick.

38. I train, shall not look at another’s bowl irritably.

39. I train, shall not take in, large mouthfuls of rice

40. I train, shall make a round mouthful.

41. I train, shall not open the mouth before the mouthful is carried to it.

42. I train, shall not put all the fingers into the mouth, when taking the mouthful.

43. I train, shall not talk, with food in the mouth.

44. I train, shall not eat throwing food into the mouth.

45. I train, shall not eat chewing the food too much.

46. I train, shall not eat stuffing too much food in the mouth.

47. I train, shall not eat shaking the hand.

48. I train, shall not eat scattering food.

49. I train, shall not pull out the tongue to eat.

50. I train, shall not eat making a `capucapu’ sound.

51. I train, shall not eat making a `surusuru’ sound.

52. I train, shall not lick my fingers when eating.

53. I train, shall not eat scraping the bowl.

54. I train, shall not eat licking my lips.

55. I train, shall not accept drinking water with a soiled hand.

56. I train, shall not drop water with particles of food inside the house.

The thirty rules when partaking food.

57. I train, shall not teach someone with an umbrella in the hand, other than when sick.

58. I train, shall not teach someone with a stick in the hand, other than when sick.

59. I train, shall not teach someone with a knife in the hand, other than when sick.

60. I train, shall not teach someone with a weapon in the hand, other than when sick.

61 I train, shall not teach someone wearing shoes other than when sick.

62. I train, shall not teach someone in a vehicle, other than when sick.

63. I train, shall not teach someone going in a vehicle, other than when sick

64. I train, shall not teach someone in bed, other than when sick

65. I train, shall not teach someone in an easy chair, other than when sick

66. I train, shall not teach someone wearing a headdress, other than when sick

67. I train, shall not teach someone with a head cover, other than when sick

68. I train, shall not teach someone on a seat, seated on the ground, other than when sick

69. I train, shall not teach someone on a high seat, seated on a low seat, other than when sick.

70. I train, shall not teach someone seated, while standing other than when sick

71. I train, shall not teach someone going in front, other than when sick.

Sixteen rules connected with teaching.

73. I train, shall not evacuate or make water standing, other than when sick.

74. I train, shall not evacuate, make water or spit on vegetation, other than when sick.

75. I train, shall not evacuate, make water or spit, into water other than when sick.

The three miscellaneous rules

Noble ladies, the rules for the trainee are recited, now I ask how is
your purity? For the second and for the third time I ask how is your
purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they are silent, and I
record it as such.

End of the trainee rules.

Noble ladies, now the seven ways of settling an arisen legal matter will be recited.

1 Discipline should be established in confrontation.

2ôiscipline should be established by recalling memory.

3. Discipline should be established, by proving that the bhikkhuni was deranged mentally

4. By making to promise.

5. Settling the legal matter with a majority of votes.

6. Settling the legal matter by showing its evil nature.

7. By covering up the whole thing.

Noble ladies, the seven ways of establishing discipline are recited,
now I ask how is your purity? For the second and for the third time I
ask how is your purity? The noble ladies are pure, therefore they are
silent, and I record it as such.

End of the seven ways of establishing discipline.

Noble ladies, the origin is recited. The eight serious offences, the
seventeen serious offences that merit excommunication, the thirty rules
that cause a fall and excommunication, the eight offences that have to
be confessed, the rules for the trainee and the seven ways of
establishing discipline are recited. These have come down from the
discourses of the Blessed One and are to be recited fortnightly. All
should train in them united and without a dispute.

End of the detailed exposition.

End of the rules of the higher order for bhikkhunis.


comments (0)
05/25/13
931 LESSON 26-05-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY (Adhikaraõasamathà) MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -13
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 9:03 pm



931 LESSON 26-05-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
(Adhikaraõasamathà)
 MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -13


Best animated graphics



http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/1Vinaya-Pitaka/index.html

 MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -13
    •   
    •    New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to them depriving the dipressed classes  to enable them to acquire the MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.
    •     
    •    Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.
8 Barriers to Open Source Voting Systems

In addition to the restricted environment for open source business models discussed in the last section, there are also significant regulatory, economic, organizational and perceptional barriers to the use and development of open source software in the voting systems market. In terms of voting system regulation, any changes in system source code trigger system recertification at all levels. Unlike traditional open source software where the ability to change the software frequently is important, open source voting system software development would have to operate differently and take into account that once a product is out on the market, it will be very difficult to change or “patch'’ the software. In addition, federal and most state certification processes are evaluations of an end-to-end system; it will be insufficient to simply develop the software, as any successful certification will have to include hardware, documentation, and procedures in addition to the software.

Even with sufficient attention to planning and development, it will still be difficult for small firms or non-profits to get a foothold in the elections systems market. It takes quite a bit of infrastructure and financial backing to be able to develop, certify, market, implement and service voting systems. Federal certification alone can take from two months to a year and cost between $150,000 and $400,000 for a single voting system.78Contractual performance bonds — where a vendor puts a certain percentage of the cost of a contract in escrow until the system has performed according to a set of criteria in the contract — can be hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars. Due to the nature of state and federal voting systems standards and guidelines, voting systems must be certified as end-to-end voting systems — including precinct-tabulation, data storage and central tabulation — or a vendor of a subsystem has to team up with a larger firm that has the missing pieces and is willing to sponsor a full system certification.79

Of course, other pieces of a voting system business outside of code development need to be in place to field a product. To support the requirements of certifying and marketing an end-to-end system, an open source voting systems vendor will need to have a support organization the likes of which no other open source software applications have had to develop. Some open source businesses such as MySQL AB and SugarCRM do have extensive marketing and support infrastructures for their paying customers, but no open source business produces a product like an end-to-end voting system with on-site support where software, hardware, documentation and procedures are developed, evaluated, marketed, sold and maintained throughout the lifetime of the product.

Finally, in addition to these regulatory, economic and organizational barriers, there are a number of perceptional barriers related to voting system customers that an open source voting system vendor would have to overcome. First, voting system customers — typically local election officials — might not understand the debate around disclosure and system security. The intuitive view is that disclosing system source code will result in a less-secure system. Vendors will have to take care to explain the arguments against “security through obscurity'’ and how openly published algorithms, for example in cryptography, have proven more robust to attack. Also, to make a sale, open source vendors will need to be able to demonstrate that the organizational structure they choose will be able to support the system over its lifetime or provide alternatives to such support if the vendor goes out of business.
animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha BuddhaMed.gif

(Adhikaraõasamathà)


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 588] [\x 588/]

Ime kho panàyasmanto satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà uddesaü àgacchanti.

Uppannuppannànaü adhikaraõànaü samathàya våpasamàya:

1: Sammukhàvinayo dàtabbo.

2: Sativinayo dàtabbo.

3: Amåëhavinayo dàtabbo.

4: Pañi¤¤àya kàretabbaü.

5: Yebhuyyasikà.

6: Tassapàpiyyasikà.

7: Tiõavatthàrakoti.


Uddiññhà kho àyasmanto satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà.
Tatthàyasmante pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Dutiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Tatiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Parisuddhetthàyasmanto, tasmà tuõhã, evam-etaü dhàrayàmi.



Adhikaraõasamathà Niññhità

Uddiññhaü kho àyasmanto nidànaü.
Uddiññhà cattàro pàràjikà dhammà.
Uddiññhà terasa saïghàdisesà dhammà.

Uddiññhà dve aniyatà dhammà.

Uddiññhà tiüsa nissaggiyà pàcittiyà dhammà

Uddiññhà dvenavuti pàcittiyà dhammà.

Uddiññhà cattàro pàñidesanãyà dhammà.

Uddiññhà sekhiyà dhammà.

Uddiññhà satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà.

Ettakaü tassa Bhagavato suttàgataü suttapariyàpannaü anvaddhamàsaü
uddesaü àgacchati. Tattha sabbeheva samaggehi sammodamànehi
avivadamànehi sikkhitabbaü.


Bhikkhupàtimokkhaü niññhitaü


 

 

  Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi Home Page

âràdhanà     (Nidànuddeso)

(Pàràjikuddeso)     (Saïghàdisesuddeso)

(Aniyatuddeso)     (Nissaggiyapàcittiyà)

(Suddhapàcittiyà)     (Pàñidesanãyà)

(Sekhiyà)     (Adhikaraõasamathà)

Word Index



  


End Notes

 

29 Editor’s note: BJT omits this title by mistake. The Pàñidesanãya rules are listed only as Pañhama-, Dutiya-, etc. there being no distinctive titles for these training rules either in BJT or ChS.


30 BJT note: Ekassa ce pi - ChS


31 Editor’s note: BJT has no distinctive titles for the Sekhiya training rules, they are listed there as Pañhama-, Dutiya-, etc. up to Dasama-, after which they start again with Pañhama-.
As the titles serve a useful function as mnemonics they have been
inserted here following the ChS editon of the Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi. At
the beginning of this section as the rules generally come in pairs no
title for the second rule is given.


32 BJT note: Thåpakato - ChS.


33 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhãyyokamyataü, but it’s normal practice is to write these forms as bhãyo- etc.


34 Editor’s note: BJT, bhu¤jissàmi-ti, printer’s error.


35 Editor’s note: BJT, bhå¤jissàmã-ti, printer’s error.


36 Editor’s note: BJT, desessàmi-ti, here but desissàmã-ti elsewhere.

http://photobucket.com/images/animated%20buddha?page=1

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ

The Times of India


Expect e-voter slips in Lok Sabha elections




Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan (Bangalore)
First
New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines has to replace the
EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are
“Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”. New
Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM
voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper
Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator
software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No
use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it has been
demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be
pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election.
The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do
so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to
them depriving the dipressed classes to enable them to acquire the
MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.

Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no
relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the
Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General
Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy
including the free and fair media to ensure Open Source Voting Systems.

In UP EC has to drape all bicycles as the elephants with raised trunks
were draped in the last UP Assembly elections.


comments (0)
05/24/13
930 LESSON 25-05-2013 SATURDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY- Happy Vesak Buddha’s Life Animation ( 2007) Thai (March 25, 2013) Buddha life Cartoon Animation 1Hr. 38 Mins http://in-mg61.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch#mail [Attachment(s) from vinaya rakkhita included below] Dear All, Wish You All Happy Budddha Jayanthi /UN Vesak - 2013 CE/2556 BE
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:16 am


930 LESSON 25-05-2013 SATURDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-


Happy Vesak - People all over the world  hope our Raj Bhavan, Parliament, Rajya Sabha, The White House, and all our Media celebrate Buddha Jayanthi in a grand manner for the Welfare, Happiness and Peace of the entire people.

Please watch

http://archive.org/details/BuddhasLifeAnimation2007Thai_201303
for

Buddha’s Life Animation ( 2007) Thai (March 25, 2013)

Buddha life Cartoon Animation

1Hr. 38 Mins

http://archive.org/details/KimClarkBuddha_sTeachingonLoving-Kindness
for
A synopsis of the Buddha’s world view is followed by a hauntingly
beautiful rendition of his teaching on Loving-Kindness, the Metta Sutta.

6.21 mins

http://in-mg61.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch#mail
[Attachment(s) from vinaya rakkhita included below]

Dear All,
 Wish You All Happy Budddha Jayanthi /UN Vesak - 2013 CE/2556 BE



Stern, Smiling and Radiant Buddha

February 2nd, 2013 by david

In this wonderful image of the Buddha from
Bagan, Myanmar, facial expression changes from stern through smiling to
radiant as the figure is viewed from increasing distance.  According to
my friend Eddy Keon, the highest status members of the temple audience,
along with temple officials, would have stood closest to the Buddha and
therefore have experienced him at his sternest, whilst his radiance
increased with the poverty of the viewer, banished to the back of the
crowd.

The figure is the Kassapa Buddha, one of four Buddhas in the Ananda Temple, Bagan, Myanmar.
 The city was the capital of the ancient Pagan kingdom, built, along
with the temple and this figure of the Buddha, eight hundred years ago.

 The left hand and centre photos are from the brilliant travel blog of Forrestwalker.
 The right hand image was taken by Eddy Keon.  His photo is so
beautiful, here’s the whole thing.  Eddy hopes to use his pictures to support a hill village school in Myanmar.


http://www.desktopnexus.com/tag/buddha/
http://abstract.desktopnexus.com/wallpaper/1459670/


Zen meditation

Zen meditation - splendor, lovely, earth, buddha, peaceful, magic, beautiful, white, bird, peace

http://architecture.desktopnexus.com/wallpaper/1432375/
http://nature.desktopnexus.com/wallpaper/1414891/


Zen meditation Buddha Peonies and Buddha
Light of Wisdom Three buddha ♥
trippy The Golden Buddha Journey To The West
Bodhisattva see Buddha Buddha

http://www.undv.org/vesak2013/en/aboutundv.php
with metta,
Bhanteji
__._,_.___


Attachment(s) from vinaya rakkhita

1 of 1 Photo(s)








About UNDV

 

About UNDV
Story of each Vesak Celebrations

UNDV History
History of UN Day of Vesak Celebrations

ICDV EXCO
International Council of the United Nations Day of Vesak

IABU EXCO
International Association of Buddhist Universities

IABU/ICDV OFFICE
Officers and Location

Project
Background & Objectives

Bangkok Declaration
on The International Celebration on the Occasion of United Nations Day of Vesak

     

The First Vesak Day
Conference
On 25 May 2004, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University and ICDV held
the World Buddhist Leaders Conference on International Recognition of
the Day of Vesak at Buddhamonthon Conference Hall , Nakhon Pathom
Province, The Kingdom of Thailand.


Buddhajayanti: The Celebration of 2600 Years of the Buddha’s Enlightenment.
The United Nations Day of Vesak 2555/2012

International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of
Vesak At Conference Hall Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University,
Main Campus, Wang Noi, Ayutthaya and United Nations Conference Centre,
Bangkok, The Kingdom of Thailand 31 May – 02 June 2012 /2555

Participants : 5,000 Buddhist leaders, scholars, delegates and observers from all over the world are expected to attend the conference.



International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of Vesak 2554/2011

International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of
Vesak At Conference Hall Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University,
Main Campus, Wang Noi, Ayutthaya and United Nations Conference Centre,
Bangkok, The Kingdom of Thailand 12-14 May 2011/2554

Participants : 5,000 Buddhist leaders, scholars, delegates and observers from all over the world are expected to attend the conference.



International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of Vesak 2553/2010

International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of
Vesak At Conference Hall Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University,
Main Campus, Wang Noi, Ayutthaya and United Nations Conference Centre,
Bangkok, The Kingdom of Thailand 23-25 May 2553/2010

Participants : 5,000 Buddhist leaders, scholars, delegates and observers from all over the world are expected to attend the conference.



International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of Vesak 2552/2009

International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of
Vesak At Conference Hall Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University,
Main Campus, Wang Noi, Ayutthaya and United Nations Conference Centre,
Bangkok, The Kingdom of Thailand 4-6 May 2552/2009

Participants : Over 2,000 Buddhist leaders, scholars and delegates from all over the world are expected to attend the conference.



International Conference on the Day of Vesak 2008

Between 18-19 May 2008, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya
University and ICDV,hosted the 2nd International Buddhist Conference on
the United Nations Day of Vesak at Buddhamonthon Conference Hall ,
Nakhon Pathom Province, The Kingdom of Thailand.

Emphasis : The emphasis of the conference was to
promote and support sustainable development; resolve that Buddhamonthon,
The Kingdom of Thailand should be recognized as the Center of world
Buddhism; play a leading role in coordinating between Buddhist
institutions and in promoting and sharing Dhamma resources.



International Conference on the Day of Vesak 2007

Between 26 – 29 May 2007, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, in
conjunction with ICDV and the Sangha Supreme Council hosted the 4th
International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of Vesak at
Buddhamonthon, Nakhon Pathom Province, and at the United Nations
Conference Centre in Bangkok, The Kingdom of Thailand.

Participants : Over 2000 Buddhist leaders, scholars and delegates from all over the world are expected to attend the conference.

Emphasis : This year’s conference emphasizes Buddhism
and good governance, and marks the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty
King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s 80th Birthday Anniversary.



International Conference on the Day of Vesak 2006

Between 7 – 10 May 2006, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya
University and ICDV, in conjunction with the Sangha Supreme Council and
the Thai Government hosted the 3rd International Buddhist Conference on
the United Nations Day of Vesak at Buddhamonthon, Nakhon Pathom
Province, and at the United Nations Conference Centre in Bangkok, The
Kingdom of Thailand.

Emphasis : The conference emphasized world peace,
cooperation between all schools of Buddhism, sustainable development,
and the sufficiency-economy theories of H.M.King Bhumibol.



The Second Vesak Day Conference

Between 18-21 May 2005, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya
University and ICDV,hosted the 2nd International Buddhist Conference on
the United Nations Day of Vesak at Buddhamonthon Conference Hall ,
Nakhon Pathom Province, The Kingdom of Thailand.

Emphasis : The emphasis of the conference was to
promote and support sustainable development; resolve that Buddhamonthon,
The Kingdom of Thailand should be recognized as the Center of world
Buddhism; play a leading role in coordinating between Buddhist
institutions and in promoting and sharing Dhamma resources.



The First Vesak Day Conference

On 25 May 2004, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University and ICDV
held the World Buddhist Leaders Conference on International Recognition
of the Day of Vesak at Buddhamonthon Conference Hall , Nakhon Pathom
Province, The Kingdom of Thailand.

Emphasis : The emphasis of the conference was to study,
practice, propagate and protect Buddhism and to jointly organize the
Vesak Day celebration at the United Nations Headquaters and at the UN
regional offices.

 

 Friends:

At this Fullmoon Day do all Buddhas Awaken:
24th May 2013 Vesak Day celebrates birth, Enlightenment, and passing away
of the Buddha Gotama. Rejoice! Keep clean, calm, cool, clever, and caring…
About this Buddhist Vesak Festival: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vesak

This May full moon also celebrates the Buddha’s third visit to Sri Lanka in
the eighth year after his Enlightenment, where he journeyed to Kelaniya on
the invitation of the Nāga King Maniakkhika (Mahavamsa i,72ff.).
The day also celebrates the crowning of king Devānampiyatissa (Mhv.Xi.42),
and the laying of the foundation stone of the Mahā Stūpa (Mhv.Xxix.1)


Please Remember:
At this very May full moon in year 528 BC the Blessed Buddha awakened
by completely perfect and utterly unsurpassable self-Enlightenment!
At that time a girl named Sujata Senani lived in Uruvela. When adult she
prayed before a certain Banyan tree, that she might get a good husband
equal to herself in caste & that her firstborn may be a son. Her prayer was
successful. Since indeed it did happen. At the full moon day of the Wesak
month, she rose at early dawn and milked the cows. As soon as new buckets
were placed under the cows, the milk poured spontaneously in streams all by
itself! Seeing this miracle, she knew something special was happening!
That same night the Future Buddha dreamt 5 dreams making him conclude:
“Surely, truly, without any doubt, today I will reach perfect Enlightenment!”
His 5 colored radiance illuminated the whole tree. Then Sujata came and
offered the cooked milk rice into the hands of this Great Being.

Later a local grass-cutter came going with a bundle of grass just harvested
from nearby. He offered the Great Being 8 handfuls of Kusa grass, when he
saw that this Sage was a Holy Man. The Future Buddha accepted the grass
and proceeded to the foot of the Bodhi-tree. Reaching the imperturbable
Eastern side, where all the Buddhas take their seat, he sat down saying to
himself: This is the immovable spot, where all the prior supreme Buddhas
have planted themselves! This is the place for destroying this net of desire!
Then the Future Buddha turned his back to the trunk and thus faced east.
Right there, he then resolutely settled on this mighty decision:

Let just blood and flesh of this body dry up & let skin and sinews fall from
the bones. I will not leave this seat before having attained the absolute and
Supreme Self-Enlightenment!

So determined did he seat himself in this unconquerable seat, from which
not a 100 lightning strikes could make him waver. At this very moment
the rebel deity Mara -The Evil One- raised exclaiming: Prince Siddhattha will
pass beyond my power, but I will never allow it! And sounding the Mara’s war
shout, he summoned his mighty army for battle. Then Mara warned his evil
militia: This Sakyamuni, son of Suddhodana, is far greater than any other
man, so we will never succeed to fight him up front. We must thus attack
him from the rear. Frustrated, being unable even to touch this big wielder 
of power also with 9 mighty hurricanes of wind, rain, rocks, weapons, red
coals, hot ashes, sand, mud, and darkness Mara somewhat in panic shouted
at his army: “Why do you all stand still? Seize, kill & drive away this prince!”

Mara then yelled: “Siddhattha, leave this seat. It is not yours, but mine!”
Hearing this, the Well-gone One replied: Mara, neither have you fulfilled the
10 perfections to the third degree, nor have you given the 5 great donations.
Neither have you striven for insight, nor for the welfare of all the world,
nor for supreme self-enlightenment! Therefore does this very seat surely
not belong to you, but truly indeed only to me. Suddenly overpowered by fear
Mara’s followers fled helter-skelter in all directions. No two went in the 
same direction, but leaving their weapons in a chaos, they all fled terrified
by metaphysical panic. Seeing them flee thus, the great assembly of deities
triumphantly shouted: Mara is defeated. Prince Siddhattha has won! Let us
celebrate this truly sublime, wonderful and unique victory! It was before
the sun had set that the Tathagata conquered Mara and defeated his army.
That same night, after having bathed, while the Bo tree rained red sprigs onto
his robe, The Consummate One gained knowledge of his prior lives during the
1st watch of the night: “With the mind thus concentrated, purified, bright,
unified, focused, tractable, compliant, steady & imperturbable, I directed
mind to remembrance of my past lives. I recollected many past lives, i.e., one
re-birth, two…five, ten… 50, a hundred, a thousand, 100 thousand,  many eons
of cosmic contraction, & many eons of cosmic expansion: There I had such
a name, belonged to such a clan & species, had such a body. Such was my food,
such my life of pleasures and pains. Such was the end of my life. Passing away
from that state, I re-arose there. There I had such name, belonged to such
a sort & family, had such a form. Such was my food, such my experience of
pleasures & pains. Such was the end of my life. Passing away from that state,
I re-arose here. Thus I remembered my various past lives in all their various
modes and manifold details. This was the first knowledge I attained in the
first watch of the night. Ignorance was destroyed; the knowledge arose;
darkness was destroyed; light arose as happens in one who is alert, aware,
and determined. But the very pleasant feeling that arose by this did neither
invade my mind, nor remain. With the mind thus concentrated, purified, bright,
intact, pliant, malleable, steady, and totally imperturbable, I directed it to
the knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. I saw by
means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human eye! I saw beings
passing away & re-appearing, and I realized how & why they are high or low,
beautiful or ugly, fortunate and unfortunate all in exact accordance with
the intentions of their prior actions: These beings who were endowed with
bad behaviour of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the Noble Ones, held
wrong views & acted under the influence of wrong views, with the break-up
of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of misery, the bad
painful destination, the lower realms, even in hell. But the beings who were
gifted with good behaviour of body, speech and mind, who did not revile the
Noble Ones, who held right views and acted under the influence of right
views after the break-up of the body, after the death, have re-appeared in
happy destinations, even in a divine world! Thus by means of the divine eye,
purified and surpassing the human I saw beings passing away & re-appearing,
all in accordance with their particular mixture of good and bad kamma
But the satisfaction that arose here did neither invade my mind, nor remain.
With the mind thus concentrated and completely absorbed, I then directed
it towards understanding the ending of mental fermentation. I realized how
it actually comes to be, that:

This is Suffering
Such is the Cause of Suffering
Such is the End of Suffering
Such is the Way to End Suffering

Such was the mental fermentations
Such is the Cause of mental fermentation
Such is the End of mental fermentation
Such is the Way leading to the end of mental fermentation.

When my mind saw that, it was instantly freed of the fermentation of all
sense-desire, it was released from the fermentation of becoming, and it
became fully uncovered from the fermentation of ignorance. Thus fully and
perfectly Enlightened - The Buddha - perceiving this immense glory, spoke
these 2 solemn  verses, which never has been omitted by any of countless
billions of prior Buddhas:

Through this round of countless existences have I searched, but yet failed
to find “the Creator”, who framed this construction: What Suffering indeed
is such endless birth, ageing, decay, sickness and ever repeated death!
Now I see that “the Constructor” of this structure is Craving…!!! Never shall
this construction be built again, since all the rafters are shattered and the
main beam is busted and completely broken… At this calming of all Craving,
the mind was finally, irreversibly and ultimately stilled…
Then, friends, this revelation of certainty arose in me: This release is indeed
immutable, this is the very last rebirth, this endless reappearance has finally
come to a happy end… Nibbāna  is verily the Highest Bliss!

About Absolute Awakening!
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/b/buddha.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/g/gotama.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/s/sujaataa.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/b/bodhisatta.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/wtb/b_f/bodhi.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/b/bodhirukka.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/b/bodhimanda.htm
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/wtb/s_t/sammaa_sambodhi.htm

Good Picture video of the Gotama Buddha’s life:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrrmOR9suvc

Source:
The Jātaka Nidāna. The story of Gotama Buddha.
Tr. by N.A. Jayawickrama, Pali Text Society 1990.
http://www.pariyatti.com/book.cgi?prod_id=132935


VESAK FESTIVAL VIDEO, COLOMBO 2011:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLScBZ1tW0A

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7eunH6Dh2mM


Happy Vesak to All Beings!

Have a nice & noble day!

 
Friendship is the Greatest!

http://in-mg61.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch#mail

Dear JC,
Good morning.
Hope things are fine at religious, political and home fronts.
 
I appreciate and acknowledge receipt of your recent valuable Mails.
out of so you had been sending meticulously.
 
- 3d street pictures- Hats off to the artist for his brilliance.
- Banta and Beer
 
The latest covering the wonderful and World Famous Budha statues
and most importantly the concise brief life history of lord Budha
on the eve of Budha Poornima.  
 
Thanks  once again.
with warm regards.
 
Dr Bala
MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -12
    •   
    •    New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to them depriving the dipressed classes  to enable them to acquire the MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.
    •     
    •    Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.


7.2 Open Source Business Models and the Voting Systems Market

The larger information technology and services sector has seen a substantial growth in business activity directly or indirectly tied to open source software. Is disclosed and open source software something that would naturally arise in the voting systems market? The voting technology market and regulatory environment are sufficiently distinct that a direct translation of current open source business models is questionable. Here, we cover what business models from other open source business endeavors might be applicable in the voting systems market. In Section , we highlight some barriers to entry and ongoing business that such an enterprise might face.

A few ways to make money off of open source software used in the IT sector might apply to the business environment surrounding voting systems. Firms such as 10X Software make money off of integrating IT systems into operating environments. A similar idea could be extended to voting, where a system integrator would incorporate open source voting system software and voting hardware to produce a voting solution for a state or local jurisdiction. Some firms, such as Wild Open Source, structure their business around targeted development of open source software. A software firm could be hired by a jurisdiction to add, fix or modify certain features of an open source voting system to their own specifications. This could ensure that specific functionality, such as supporting Instant Runoff Voting, was available in the technology that the customer was going to purchase. This also has the benefit that a feature could be added to the software before the open source voting system as a whole was certified and minimize the costs of having to re-certify a base system with the contracted modifications. Dual licensing is where a company offers the same software under two different software licenses, usually one being free software or open source and the other being a commercial license.76This can allow their product to benefit from some aspects of open source development while also allowing their customers, commercial and non-commercial, flexibility in their licensing options. For example, MySQL AB offers its MySQL database software freely under the terms of the GNU GPL, but also allows companies to purchase commercial licenses that permit them to deviate from the terms of the GPL. In the voting systems context, a vendor could offer its software for free under a disclosed or open source license, but then charge commercial users to build variants. Companies could use the open source software simply to sell their hardware. That is, with open source software running their voting hardware, they can devote more resources to ensuring that their voting hardware is innovative and as cutting-edge and economical as their customers demand. For example, to concentrate their efforts at selling their high-quality hardware, Apple computer has embraced open source software as the core of their Mac OS X operating system.77

Some ways that companies use to make money off of open source do not translate well to the voting systems market. For example, Google’s business strategy involves running optimized web search services on server clusters running the Linux operating system. Given the concerns and problems with networking in election systems, it would be difficult for a company to make money off of running open source voting software remotely. IBM sells proprietary software that works on top of or in concert with open source software. A company that tried to do this in the voting market would have to marshal each version of its software package through certification, and then it would only be partially open as a whole.


(Sekhiyà)

Ime kho panàyasmanto sekhiyà dhammà uddesaü àgacchanti.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 488] [\x 488/]

Sekh 1: (Parimaõóalasikkhàpadaü) : 31

Parimaõóalaü nivàsessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 490] [\x 490/]

Sekh 2:

Parimaõóalaü pàrupissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 3: (Suppañichannasikkhàpadaü):

Supañicchanno antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 4:

Supañicchanno antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 492] [\x 492/]

Sekh 5: (Susaüvutasikkhàpadaü):

Susaüvuto antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 6:

Susaüvuto antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 7: (Okkhittacakkhusikkhàpadaü):

Okkhittacakkhu antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 494] [\x 494/]

Sekh 8:

Okkhittacakkhu antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 9: (Ukkhittakasikkhàpadaü):

Na ukkhittakàya antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 10:

Na ukkhittakàya antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Parimaõóalavaggo pañhamo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 496] [\x 496/]

Sekh 11: (Ujjhagghikasikkhàpadaü):

Na ujjagghikàya antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 12:

Na ujjagghikàya antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 13: (Uccasaddàsikkhàpadaü):

Appasaddo antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 498] [\x 498/]

Sekh 14:

Appasaddo antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 15: (Kàyappacàlakàdisikkhàpadaü):

Na kàyappacàlakaü antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 16:

Na kàyappacàlakaü antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 500] [\x 500/]

Sekh 17: (Bàhuppacàlakasikkhàpadaü):

Na bàhuppacàlakaü antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 18:

Na bàhuppacàlakaü antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 19: (Sãsappacàlakasikkhàpadaü):

Na sãsappacàlakaü antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 502] [\x 502/]

Sekh 20:

Na sãsappacàlakaü antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Ujjagghiakavaggo dutiyo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 504] [\x 504/]

Sekh 21: (Khambhakatasikkhàpadaü):

Na khambhakato antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 22:

Na khambhakato antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 23: (Oguõñhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na oguõñhito antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 506] [\x 506/]

Sekh 24:

Na oguõñhito antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 25: (Ukkuñikasikkhàpadaü):

Na ukkuñikàya antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 26: (Pallatthikasikkhàpadaü):

Na pallatthikàya antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 508] [\x 508/]

Sekh 27: (Sakkaccapañiggahaõasikkhàpadaü):

Sakkaccaü piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 28: (Pattasa¤¤ãpañiggahaõasikkhàpadaü):

Pattasa¤¤ã piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 29: (Samasåpakapañiggahaõasikkhàpadaü):

Samasåpakaü piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 510] [\x 510/]

Sekh 30: (Samatittikasikkhàpadaü):

Samatittikaü piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Khambhakavaggo tatiyo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 512] [\x 512/]

Sekh 31: (Sakkaccabu¤janasikkhàpadaü):

Sakkaccaü piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 32: (Pattasa¤¤ãbhu¤janasikkhàpadaü):

Pattasa¤¤ã piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 33: (Sapadànasikkhàpadaü):

Sapadànaü piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 514] [\x 514/]

Sekh 34: (Samasåpakasikkhàpadaü):

Samasåpakaü piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 35: (Nathåpakatasikkhàpadaü):

Na thåpato 32 omadditvà piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 36: (Odanappañicchàdanasikkhàpadaü):

Na såpaü và bya¤janaü và odanena pañicchàdessàmi bhãyokamyataü 33 upàdàyàti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 516] [\x 516/]

Sekh 37: (Såpodanavi¤¤attisikkhàpadaü):

Na såpaü và odanaü và agilàno attano atthàya vi¤¤àpetvà bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 38: (Ujjhànasa¤¤ãsikkhàpadaü):

Na ujjhànasa¤¤ã paresaü pattaü olokessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 39: (Kabaëasikkhàpadaü):

Nàtimahantaü kabaëaü karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 520] [\x 520/]

Sekh 40: (âlopasikkhàpadaü):

Parimaõóalaü àlopaü karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sakkaccavaggo catuttho

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 522] [\x 522/]

Sekh 41: (Anàhañasikkhàpadaü):

Na anàhañe kabaëe mukhadvàraü vivarissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 42: (Bhu¤jamànasikkhàpadaü):

Na bhu¤jamàno sabbaü hatthaü mukhe pakkhipissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 43: (Sakabaëasikkhàpadaü):

Na sakabaëena mukhena byàharissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 524] [\x 524/]

Sekh 44: (Piõóukkhepakasikkhàpadaü):

Na piõóukkhepakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 45: (Kabaëavacchedakasikkhàpadaü):

Na kabaëàvacchedakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 46: (Avagaõóakàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na avagaõóakàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 526] [\x 526/]

Sekh 47: (Hatthaniddhunakasikkhàpadaü):

Na hatthaniddhunakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, 34 sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 48: (Sitthàvakàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na sitthàvakàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 49: (Jivhànicchàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na jivhànicchàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 528] [\x 528/]

Sekh 50: (Capucapukàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na capucapukàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Kabaëavaggo pa¤camo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 530] [\x 530/]

Sekh 51: (Surusurukàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na surusurukàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 52: (Hatthanillehakàdisikkhàpadaü):

Na hatthanillehakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 532] [\x 532/]

Sekh 53: (Pattanillehakasikkhàpadaü):

Na pattanillehakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, 35 sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 54: (Oññhanillehakasikkhàpadaü):

Na oññhanillehakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 534] [\x 534/]

Sekh 55: (Sàmisasikkhàpadaü):

Na sàmisena hatthena pànãyathàlakaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 536] [\x 536/]

Sekh 56: (Sasitthakasikkhàpadaü):

Na sasitthakaü pattadhovanaü antaraghare chaóóessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 538] [\x 538/]

Sekh 57: (Chattapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na chattapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, 36 sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 58: (Daõóapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na daõóapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 540] [\x 540/]

Sekh 59: (Satthapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na satthapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 60: (âyudhapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na àyudhapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Surusuruvaggo chaññho

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 542] [\x 542/]

Sekh 61: (Pàdukasikkhàpadaü):

Na pàdukàråëhassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 62: (Upàhanasikkhàpadaü):

Na upàhanàråëhassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 63: (Yànasikkhàpadaü):

Na yànagatassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 544] [\x 544/]

Sekh 64: (Sayanasikkhàpadaü):

Na sayanagatassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 65: (Pallatthikasikkhàpadaü):

Na pallatthikàya nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 66: (Veñhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na veñhitasãsassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 546] [\x 546/]

Sekh 67: (Oguõñhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na oguõñhitasãsassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 68: (Chamàsikkhàpadaü):

Na chamàya nisãditvà àsane nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 548] [\x 548/]

Sekh 69: (Nãcàsanasikkhàpadaü):

Na nãce àsane nisãditvà ucce àsane nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 550] [\x 550/]

Sekh 70: (òhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na ñhito nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 71: (Pacchatogamanasikkhàpadaü):

Na pacchato gacchanto purato gacchantassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 72: (Uppathenagamanasikkhàpadaü):

Na uppathena gacchanto pathena gacchantassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 552] [\x 552/]

Sekh 73: (òhito-uccàrasikkhàpadaü):

Na ñhito agilàno uccàraü và passàvaü và karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 74: (Harite-uccàrasikkhàpadaü):

Na harite agilàno uccàraü và passàvaü và kheëaü và karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 554] [\x 554/]

Sekh 75: (Udake-uccàrasikkhàpadaü):

Na udake agilàno uccàraü và passàvaü và kheëaü và karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Pàdukavaggo sattamo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 556] [\x 556/]

Uddiññhà kho àyasmanto sekhiyà dhammà.
Tatthàyasmante pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?
Dutiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?


Tatiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?


Parisuddhetthàyasmanto, tasmà tuõhã, evam-etaü dhàrayàmi.



Sekhiyà niññhità
 
 


(Adhikaraõasamathà)

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 588] [\x 588/]

Ime kho panàyasmanto satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà uddesaü àgacchanti.

Uppannuppannànaü adhikaraõànaü samathàya våpasamàya:

1: Sammukhàvinayo dàtabbo.
2: Sativinayo dàtabbo.

3: Amåëhavinayo dàtabbo.

4: Pañi¤¤àya kàretabbaü.

5: Yebhuyyasikà.

6: Tassapàpiyyasikà.

7: Tiõavatthàrakoti.


Uddiññhà kho àyasmanto satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà.
Tatthàyasmante pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?


Dutiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?


Tatiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?


Parisuddhetthàyasmanto, tasmà tuõhã, evam-etaü dhàrayàmi.



Adhikaraõasamathà Niññhità

Uddiññhaü kho àyasmanto nidànaü.
Uddiññhà cattàro pàràjikà dhammà.
Uddiññhà terasa saïghàdisesà dhammà.


Uddiññhà dve aniyatà dhammà.


Uddiññhà tiüsa nissaggiyà pàcittiyà dhammà


Uddiññhà dvenavuti pàcittiyà dhammà.


Uddiññhà cattàro pàñidesanãyà dhammà.


Uddiññhà sekhiyà dhammà.


Uddiññhà satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà.

Ettakaü tassa Bhagavato suttàgataü suttapariyàpannaü anvaddhamàsaü
uddesaü àgacchati. Tattha sabbeheva samaggehi sammodamànehi
avivadamànehi sikkhitabbaü.


Bhikkhupàtimokkhaü niññhitaü


 

 

  Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi Home Page

âràdhanà     (Nidànuddeso)

(Pàràjikuddeso)     (Saïghàdisesuddeso)

(Aniyatuddeso)     (Nissaggiyapàcittiyà)

(Suddhapàcittiyà)     (Pàñidesanãyà)

(Sekhiyà)     (Adhikaraõasamathà)

Word Index



  


End Notes

 

29 Editor’s note: BJT omits this title by mistake. The Pàñidesanãya rules are listed only as Pañhama-, Dutiya-, etc. there being no distinctive titles for these training rules either in BJT or ChS.


30 BJT note: Ekassa ce pi - ChS


31 Editor’s note: BJT has no distinctive titles for the Sekhiya training rules, they are listed there as Pañhama-, Dutiya-, etc. up to Dasama-, after which they start again with Pañhama-.
As the titles serve a useful function as mnemonics they have been
inserted here following the ChS editon of the Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi. At
the beginning of this section as the rules generally come in pairs no
title for the second rule is given.


32 BJT note: Thåpakato - ChS.


33 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhãyyokamyataü, but it’s normal practice is to write these forms as bhãyo- etc.


34 Editor’s note: BJT, bhu¤jissàmi-ti, printer’s error.


35 Editor’s note: BJT, bhå¤jissàmã-ti, printer’s error.


36 Editor’s note: BJT, desessàmi-ti, here but desissàmã-ti elsewhere.


 

  Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi Home Page

âràdhanà    (Nidànuddeso)

(Pàràjikuddeso)     (Saïghàdisesuddeso)

(Aniyatuddeso)     (Nissaggiyapàcittiyà)

(Suddhapàcittiyà)     (Pàñidesanãyà)

(Sekhiyà)     (Adhikaraõasamathà)

Word Index



comments (0)
929 LESSON 24-05-2013 FRIDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Celebrates Buddha Poornima on 24-05-2013 at 6.00 PM on 24-05-2013 at Head Office 668 5thA main Road, 8th Cross HAL 3rd Stage Bangalore-560075 Program: Meditation Distribution of sweets Chief Guest Mr.Kodandaram on 25-05-2013 Distribution of Mangoes for Monks at Mahabodhi Society Gandhinagar Bangalore Please watch: http://archive.org/details/BuddhasLifeAnimation2007Thai_201303 for Buddha’s Life Animation ( 2007) Thai (March 25, 2013) Buddha life Cartoon Animation 1Hr. 38 Mins https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5-LTjS-BOI for indira joshi tutyo tara akashma buddha purnima 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UuWYdYR-tpY for ghatu nach buddha purnima 2013 uk magar sangh http://publicholiday.org/calendar/vesak-wesak/ Vesak Day 2013 – Wesak Day 2013
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 2:32 am

929 LESSON 24-05-2013 FRIDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-Celebrates Buddha Poornima on 24-05-2013 at 6.00 PM on 24-05-2013 at Head Office 668 5thA main Road, 8th Cross HAL 3rd Stage Bangalore-560075
Program:
Meditation
Distribution of sweets
Chief Guest
Mr.Kodandaram

on 25-05-2013
Distribution of Mangoes for Monks
at Mahabodhi Society
Gandhinagar
Bangalore

Please watch:
http://archive.org/details/BuddhasLifeAnimation2007Thai_201303
for


Buddha’s Life Animation ( 2007) Thai (March 25, 2013)

Buddha life Cartoon Animation

1Hr. 38 Mins

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5-LTjS-BOI
for



indira joshi tutyo tara akashma buddha purnima 2013

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UuWYdYR-tpY
for


ghatu nach buddha purnima 2013 uk magar sangh

http://publicholiday.org/calendar/vesak-wesak/


Vesak Day 2013 – Wesak Day 2013


2013 Vesak / 2013 Wesak Celebration
In Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Thailand, Cambodia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and India

Vesak is an annual public holiday observed traditionally by
practicing Buddhists in South Asian and South East Asian countries like
Nepal, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka,
Myanmar, Indonesia, Pakistan and India. Sometimes informally called
“Buddha’s birthday”, it actually encompasses the birth, enlightenment
Nirvana, and passing (Parinirvana) of Gautama Buddha.

Vesak Celebration

When Is Vesak 2013 / Wesak 2013?

Vesak Day 2013
When is Vesak Day 2013? Vesak Day 2013 falls on Friday, 24 May 2013,
which is the 15th day in the 4th month of Chinese lunar calendar.
However, some countries observes the Vesak Day 2013 on different dates.

Date Of Vesak Day
Vesak 2013 is celebrated by Buddhist around the world, and in different
manners all over the world. Though some countries occasionally use
different date for this festival, many would fall on the same day.

The exact date of Vesak Day varies according to the various lunar
calendars used in different countries and traditions. In Theravada
countries following the Buddhist calendar, it falls on the full moon
Uposatha day (typically the 5th or 6th lunar month). Vesak Day in China,
Hong Kong and Macau is on the eighth of the fourth month in the Chinese
lunar calendar.

Thus the date varies from year to year, but as general consensus in many countries, falls on the full-month day in May.

The decision to agree to celebrate the Vesak as the Buddha?s birthday
was formalized at the first Conference of the World Fellowship of
Buddhists held in Sri Lanka in 1950, although festivals at this time in
the Buddhist world are a centuries-old tradition. The Resolution that
was adopted at the World Conference reads as follows:

“That this Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists, while
recording its appreciation of the gracious act of His Majesty, the
Maharaja of Nepal in making the full-moon day of Vesak a Public Holiday
in Nepal, earnestly requests the Heads of Governments of all countries
in which large or small number of Buddhists are to be found, to take
steps to make the full-moon day in the month of May a Public Holiday in
honour of the Buddha, who is universally acclaimed as one of the
greatest benefactors of Humanity.”

Vesak Day Around The World

Vesak Day is often referred to with other names in each country.
Official names of Vesak Day are Ves?kha, Vesak, Wesak, Waisak, Visakah
Puja, Vaishaka, Buddha Purnima, Visakha Bucha, Saga Dawa, ?? (fó dàn),
Ph?t ??n, and ?????????

In Mahayana Buddhist traditions, the holiday is known by its Sanskrit
name, ????? Vai??kha, and derived variants of it. Ves?kha is known as
Vesak or Wesak (???) in the Sinhalese language.

It is also known as:

* ????? ????????/????? ???????? Buddha Purnima or ????? ?????/????? ??????? Buddha Jayanti in India, Bangladesh and Nepal
* ?? (Hanamatsuri) in Japan,
* ?? ??? Seokka Tanshin-il (Hanja: ?????) in Korean (Korea),
* ?? (Mandarin: Fódàn, Cantonese: F?tdàahn) in Chinese-speaking communities in China, Singapore, Taiwan.
* Ph?t ??n in Vietnamese (Vietnam),
* ????????? Saga Dawa (sa ga zla ba) in Tibetan (Tibet),
* (Kasone la-pyae Boda nei), lit. “Full Moon Day of Kason,” the second month of the traditional Burmese calendar (Burma)
* ????????? Visak Bochéa in Khmer (Cambodia),
* ??????? Vixakha Bouxa in Laotian (Laos)
* ???????????? Visakah Puja, Vesakha Puja, or Visakha Bucha in Thai (Thailand),
* Waisak in Indonesia,
* ????? ???????? ??? Vesak / Wesak in Sri Lanka and Malaysia

Singapore Vesak 2013
The Vesak Day is an extremely important occasion observed in Singapore.
Huge crowds will usually assemble at various Buddhist temples around the
city. Inside the Buddha temples the monks chant sacred hymns and a
large number of devotees set caged-birds free. Setting the imprisoned
birds free is considered as a graceful gesture which serves as a mark of
respect to all living creatures in the world. On this day, Singapore
Buddhist youths organize blood donation camps and distribute gifts to
the poor people. During the evenings, candlelit processions are found
walking across the streets of Singapore and this is how the festival is
ended.

You can observe the Vesak Day festival in Singapore for free as
people can enter the temples free of charge. Some of the best points in
the city for observing the festivities of Vesak Day in Singapore are the
Buddhist Lodge at River Valley Road, The Thai Buddhist Temple at Jalan
Bukit Merah and Lian Shan Shuang Lin Temple at Jalan Toa Payoh.

The Singapore Vesak Day is always celebrated in the month of May and
is a yearly event. Vesak 2013 is celebrated on Friday, 24 May 2013 in
Singapore.

Hari Waisak 2013 In Indonesia
Hari Waisak celebrations in Indonesia generally follows the decision of The World Fellowship of Buddhists.
Hari Waisak 2013 in Indonesia will be celebrated on Saturday, 25 May
2013. Traditionally, the celebration is focused nationally on the
complex of Borobudur Temple in Central Java.

Rituals of national Waisak (Vesak) celebration in Indonesia usually observe following ceremonies:
1. Taking blessed water from the spring of Jumprit in Temanggung Country
and torch ignition with the eternal flame of Mrapen, Grobogan County.
2. “Pindatapa” ritual, a ritual of giving food to the monks by the
congregation to remind that the monks had devoted his life without
livelihoods.
3. Meditation on the peak of the full moon. Determination of the full
moon is based on the calculation of astronomy, so that the peak of the
full moon can also occur during the daytime.

Besides the three main ceremonies, other Waisak ceremonies that were also conducted are pradaksina, parades, and art events.

2013 Wesak Day in Malaysia
Wesak Day is the most important festivals of the Buddhists in Malaysia
and fall in the month of May. In Malaysia, 2013 Wesak (Vesak) Day will
be celebrated on Friday, 24 May 2013.

Vesak is celebrated to commemorate the birth, enlightenment and death
of Lord Buddha because according to Buddhists, all the three events
took place on the same lunar date.

The Wesak day celebrations begins much before the dawn when the
Malaysian Buddhist devotees gather in Buddhist temples for worship all
over Malaysia. The Buddhists will then hoist the Buddhist flag and sing
hymns in praise of the holy triple gem namely; The Buddha, The Dharma
(his teachings) and The Sangha (his disciples). The celebration is done
with prayers, chants, offerings and giving alms. Simple offerings are
also brought to the temple such as flowers while prayers using candles
and joss-sticks are used.

The Buddhist eat a vegetarian diet prior to the festival in order to
cleanse and purify themselves. Animals such as doves and tortoises are
released by the Malaysian Buddhist devotees on the Wesak Day as a
symbolic gesture of releasing the soul and giving up the past sins.
Besides that, this particular act is also seen as a way of giving
freedom for those that are held against their will or being tortured.
Free meals are also given to the needy on the Wesak Day.

Wesak 2013 in Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka the Wesak Festival is celebrated as a religious and a
cultural festival in Sri Lanka on the full moon of the month of May, for
two days. In Sri Lanka, Wesak 2013 will be celebrated from Friday, 24
May 2013 to Saturday, 25 May 2013.

During these two days, the selling of alcohol and flesh is prohibited
by government decree. As a symbolic act of liberation, birds, insects
and animals are released in huge numbers.

Celebrations include various religious and alms giving activities.
Electrically lit pandols called toranas are erected in various locations
in Colombo and elsewhere, most sponsored by donors, religious societies
and welfare groups. Each pandol illustrates a story from the 550 Jataka
Katha or the 550 Past Life Stories of the Buddha.

In addition, colourful lanterns called Vesak koodu are hung along
streets and in front of homes. They signify the light of the Buddha,
Dharma and the Sangha. Many devout Buddhists wear simple white dresses
on Vesak Day and spend the whole day in temples with renewed
determination to observe the observance of the Eight Precepts of
Buddhism.

Vesak celebration also means making special efforts to bring
happiness to the people in more straightened circumstances. Food stalls
set up by Buddhist devotees called dansälas provide free food and drinks
to passersby. Groups of people from various community organisations,
businesses and government departments sing bhakti gee or Buddhist
devotional songs. Colombo experiences a massive influx of public from
all parts of the country during this week.

2013 Buddha Purnima in India

In India, Vesak Day is known as Buddha Purnima. On this day,
Buddhists do not eat meat. This is considered an act of compassion
towards animals. People are encouraged to perform other acts of kindness
such as sharing food with the poor. Some people even set up road stalls
providing free, clean drinking water. Buddha Purnima 2013 will be
celebrated on Saturday, 25 May 2013 in India.

Birth of Buddha or Tathagata is celebrated in India, especially in
Sikkim, Ladakh , Arunachal Pradesh, Bodh Gaya and Maharashtra (where 6%
of total population are Buddhists) and other parts of India as per
Indian calendar. Buddhist People go to common Viharas to observe a
rather longer-than-usual, full-length Buddhist sutra, as something like a
service. The usual dress is pure white. Non-vegetarian food is normally
avoided. Kheer, a sweet rice porridge is commonly served to recall the
story of Sujata, a maiden who, in Gautama Buddha’s life, offered the
Buddha a bowl of milk porridge.

The Buddhists bathe and dress only in white clothes. They gather in
their viharas (monasteries) before sunrise to worship Buddha, offer alms
to the bhikshus (monks), hoist the Buddhist flag, and sing hymns
admiring the sacred triple treasure: The Buddha, The Dharma (his
teachings), and The Sangha (his disciples).

Many devotees offer flowers, candles, and joss sticks at the feet of
the monks. Such a ritual allows a Buddhist to reflect on the truth that
just as the magnificent flowers shrink and the candles and joss sticks
burn out in short time, our life span is too short and will decay soon.

Several followers listen to the continuous speech on the life and
preaching of the Buddha throughout the day or request monks to come to
their homes. Buddhist monks recite 2500 years old verses obtained from
Buddha and urge people to respect other religions.

2013 Hanamatsuri in Japan
In Japan, Ves?kha or hanamatsuri (??) is also known as: Kanbutsu-e
(???), Goutan-e (???), Busshou-e (???), Yokubutsu-e (???), Ryuge-e
(???), Hana-eshiki (???). It is not a public holiday. It is based on a
legend that a dragon appeared in the sky on his birthday and poured soma
over him.

It used to be celebrated on the 8th day of the fourth month in the
Chinese Lunar Calendar, based on one of the legends that proclaims the
day as Buddha’s birthday. At present, the celebration is observed on
April 8 of the Solar Calendar since the Meiji government adopted the
western solar calendar as the official calendar. Since the 8th day of
the fourth month in the lunar calendar commonly falls in May of the
current solar calendar, it is now celebrated about a month earlier. Thus
in Japan, 2013 Vesak Day will be celebrated on Monday, 8 April 2013.

In Japan, the general populace are not practicing Buddhists (and may
be called casual Buddhists), so most Buddhist temples provide a way to
allow the general public to celebrate and participate in only the aspect
of the day being Buddha’s birthday, providing the statue of baby Buddha
and allowing the populace to worship or pay respect by pouring ama cha,
a tea made of Hydrangea. In Buddhist temples, monasteries and
nunneries, more involved ceremonies are conducted for practicing
Buddhists, priests, monks and nuns. Also, there are public festivals
made out of the day in some areas.

2013 Visakha Bucha in Thailand
In Thailand, where majority of the population are buddhists, ach year,
the nationwide festival of Vesak Day is held to pay tribute to the
birth, enlightenment and death of Buddha. The Vesak Day will fall on
Friday, 24 May 2013, however celebrations can be seen for more than a
week.

In Thailand, people will congregate around the Buddhist temples to
pray and give thanks to the deity on the Vesak Day. Monks dressed in
their saffron robes will lead sermons and services throughout the day,
with candlelit processions often taking place once night has fallen.

2013 Buddha Poornima in Nepal

The birth of the Buddha is often celebrated by Buddhists in Nepal for
an entire month in the Buddhist calendar. The actual day is called
Buddha Poornima (or Buddha Purnima), also traditionally known as
Vaishakh Poornima. In Nepal, Buddha Poornima 2012 will fall on Friday,
25 May 2013.

The event is celebrated by gentle and serene fervour, keeping in mind
the very nature of Buddhism. People, especially women, go to common
Viharas to observe a rather longer-than-usual, full-length Buddhist
sutra, as something like a service. The usual dress is pure white.
Non-vegetarian food is normally avoided. Kheer, a sweet rice porridge is
commonly served to recall the story of Sujata, a maiden who, in Gautama
Buddha’s life, offered the Buddha a bowl of milk porridge after he had
given up the path of asceticism following six years of extreme
austerity. This event was one major link in his enlightenment.

It is said that the Buddha originally followed the way of asceticism
to attain enlightenment sooner, as was thought by many at that time. He
sat for a prolonged time with inadequate food and water, which caused
his body to shrivel so as to be indistinguishable from the bark of the
tree that he was sitting under. Seeing the weak Siddhartha Gautama, a
girl named Sujata placed a bowl of milk in front of him as an offering.
Realizing that without food one can do nothing, the Buddha refrained
from harming his own body.

2013 Buddha Birthday in China, Hongkong and Taiwan
In the Chinese speaking countries of Hongkong, China, as well as Taiwan,
the Vesak Day called Guanfo (bathing the Buddha) or Yufo (Buddha?s
birthday celebration featuring washing Buddha image with perfumed
water). The celebrations begin before sunrise and devotees throng the
temples early at dawn to meditate. Chanshi (the ceremony of chanting the
sutras and confession and prayer) is practiced by monks.

As the day progresses, Buddhist devotees visit orphanages, welfare
homes, homes for the aged and charitable institutions to distribute cash
donations and gifts to the needy. On this occasion, caged birds are
freed to symbolize humanity and compassion.

The celebration is also marked with the devotees performing the
?bathing Buddha? ritual where they held a wooden ladle and poured water
over a small statue of the Buddha. Bathing a statue of the Buddha
symbolizes a fresh start in life and the care given to newborn babies.

Legend has it that when the historical Buddha, Prince Siddhartha, was
born, there were auspicious signs heralding his birth. They describe
the sky as blue and clear on his birth, with dragons spurting purified
water to bathe him. Since then, Buddhists have celebrated his birthday
by using fragrant water to bathe the image of Buddha.

In these East Asia countries, Buddha?s birthday is celebrated in on
the eighth day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Thus
in 2012, the Buddha birthday falls on Friday, 17 May 2013.

2013 Buddha Birthday in South Korea

In Korea the birthday of Buddha is celebrated according to the
Lunisolar calendar. This day is called ????? (Seokga tansinil), meaning
“the day of Buddha’s birthday” or ??? ?? ? (Bucheonim osin nal) meaning
“the day when Buddha arrived”. Lotus lanterns cover the entire temple
throughout the month which are often flooded down the street. On the day
of Buddha’s birth, many temples provide free meals and tea to all
visitors. The breakfast and lunch provided are often sanchae bibimbap.

In 2013, South Korea will celebrate the Buddha Birthday on Friday, 17 May 2013.

Happy Wesak 2013 ! Happy Vesak 2013 !

http://www.nepalidirectory.com.au/events-detail.php?eventid=428


Buddha Jayanti Lord Buddha’s 2557th Birthday Celebration 2013
 
Buddha Jayanti Lord Buddha's 2557th Birthday Celebration 2013


25-May-2013

Entrance :

free

Tamu Samaj Victoria & Tamang Society of Victoria Presents

Buddha Jayanti Lord Buddha’s 2557th Birthday Celebration 2013

Bring Your family & Friends Lets celebrate it together

Program: Buddha Puja, 108 Candle Lightning, Prasad Grahan, Tea/Coffee, Vegetarian Food

Venue & Contact Information

Venue :
Linh Son Buddhist Temple
33-35 Radford RD, Reservior 3073, Melbourne,
Victoria

Contact Person :

Tamangsocietyof Victoria
Phone :

Not Available
Email :

tamangsocietyof.victoria.73@facebook.com
Website :

Not Available


Dakshina Kannada District Bouddha Maha Sabha will observe Buddha
Jayanthi on May 25 at Dr BR Ambedkar Bhavana on May 25. Discourse on
Buddhism will be held on this occasion under the guidance of Bodhidamma
Bhantheji from Vishwashanthi Buddha Vihar, Bangalore.Wishing all born this day of Buddha Purnima a Happy Birthday

May all be happy, well and secure
May all beings be happy
May all live long with
Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind
with the understanding that every thing is changing

New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to them depriving the dipressed classes  to enable them to acquire the MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.
    •     
    •    Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.

7 Open Source Voting Systems in the Voting Systems Market
If open source voting systems have real advantages compared to closed and disclosed source voting systems, then they should appear in the market much in the way that open source solutions have gained a substantial market presence in other areas of information technology. In this section, we review past and existing efforts to produce an open source voting system and then examine which types of existing open source business models might translate to the voting systems market.


7.1 Open Source E-Voting Projects

There have been a number of efforts to write open source voting code.69Most exist purely in software form, but three systems are used or aim to be used in actual elections: Australia’s eVACS, The Open Voting Consortium (OVC) and Open Voting Solutions (OVS).

Among international efforts,70 The Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly commissioned an electronic voting system in 2000 to be used in the 2001 assembly election.71The winning bid, from an Australian firm called Software Improvements, was chosen on the grounds of superior project and quality management as well as increased transparency, as their solution would be freely licensed under the GNU GPL license. Software Improvements designed eVACS to be used on regular PCs that were used during the rest of the year for other purposes.
Aside from the fact that it was the first officially commissioned open source voting system, there are other interesting aspects of the eVACs system. First, while being a GPL’d product, it was not a product of an open source development model; software engineers employed by Software Improvements conducted all development in a highly controlled contribution environment. In fact, when a bug was discovered in the code by outside researchers and brought to the attention of the vendor firm, they developed their own internal fix instead of accepting the outside researchers’ fix.72Second, the GPL was abandoned for the latest version of the system due to concerns of inadequate Australian legal footing73 as well as a desire of the firm to protect their intellectual property.74However, ACT Electoral Commissioner Philip Greene has said that any future work will have to support the same level of access as what Software Improvements provided with eVACS.75Software Improvements is currently in the process of designing a licensing model that would simultaneously solve their concerns while allowing third-party examination and evaluation of the code.

Two groups, The Open Voting Consortium (OVC) and Open Voting Solutions (OVS) have emerged in the U.S. that aim to design or build voting systems with software source code distributed under an open source license. OVS is very new and seems still in the coordination phase of their work but has as its mission to “develop open public specification based voting systems.'’ The OVC, a loose-knit group of activists, information technology professionals and academics, produced a prototype system in 2003 that consisted of demonstration software that ran on commodity computers running the Linux operating system. The OVC’s mission now appears to have shifted toward advocacy for the use of open source code in electronic voting systems and away from the production of an electronic voting system.
Given the interest in electronic voting systems powered by open source software it is notable that no working models have fully matured in the current market. I discuss some of the potential reasons for this in Section  below. While the verdict is certainly not in on whether the market will independently yield open source powered voting systems, it might now be appropriate to think about other ways of incentivizing open source development so that groups like the OVC can attract the resources needed to produce marketable products. We discuss some possible ideas for this in Section .

Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi
Suddhapàcittiyà

MISUSE OF EVM _ PART - 14


AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE

http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm
http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Web-Design-Small-Business-Idea.htm


Web Design Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Web Design Business

There is no denying the small business power of having an online
presence. A professionally designed website is one of the ways
businesses can establish themselves online.

If you are a trained or self-taught web designer, a web design
business could be the best way to follow your dream of being a small
business owner.

The Pros

Among the benefits of starting a web design business include:

  • You get to be creative every day.
  • Your business can be home-based.
  • Your work can help your clients create a unified brand for their business.
  • You can expand your business by offering related services, such as blog customization and setup.
  • You can create partnerships with copywriters, SEO experts, web developers, marketing consultants, etc.
  • You can provide ongoing web maintenance to create a steady income.

The Cons

Some of the potential challenges of starting a web design business include:

  • You must be knowledgeable in all of the coding standards and technology.
  • You need experience and to be knowledgeable about the industry.
  • Ongoing training and software can be expensive.
  • It can be challenging to come up with unique and creative designs.
  • You will be tied to your computer every day.
  • You have to extensively test every site you design on different computers and browsers.
  • There is a lot of competition, especially from template-driven services.
  • It can be challenging to sell ongoing website maintenance.

Recommended Resources

(Pàñidesanãyà)


Ime kho panàyasmanto cattàro pàñidesanãyà dhammà uddesaü àgacchanti.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 466] [\x 466/]
Pàñ 1: Pañhamapàñidesanãyasikkhàpadaü:
29

Yo pana bhikkhu a¤¤àtikàya bhikkhuniyà
antaragharaü paviññhàya hatthato khàdanãyaü và bhojanãyaü và sahatthà
pañiggahetvà khàdeyya và bhu¤jeyya và. Pañidesetabbaü tena bhikkhunà:
ßGàrayhaü àvuso dhammaü àpajjiü, asappàyaü, pàñidesanãyaü, taü
pañidesemãû-ti.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 468] [\x 468/]
Pàñ 2: Dutiyapàñidesanãyasikkhàpadaü:


Bhikkhå
paneva kulesu nimantità bhu¤janti. Tatra ce sà bhikkhunã vosàsamànaråpà
ñhità hoti: ßIdha såpaü detha, idha odanaü dethàû-ti. Tehi bhikkhåhi sà
bhikkhunã apasàdetabbà: ßApasakka tàva bhagini, yàva bhikkhå
bhu¤janti.û Ekassa pi ce
30
bhikkhuno nappañibhàseyya taü bhikkhuniü apasàdetuü: ßApasakka tàva
bhagini, yàva bhikkhå bhu¤jantãû-ti. Pañidesetabbaü tehi bhikkhåhi:
ßGàrayhaü àvuso dhammaü àpajjimhà, asappàyaü, pàñidesanãyaü, taü
pañidesemàû-ti.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 476] [\x 476/]
Pàñ 3: Tatiyapàñidesanãyasikkhàpadaü:


Yàni kho pana tàni sekhasammatàni
kulàni. Yo pana bhikkhu tathàråpesu sekhasammatesu kulesu pubbe
animantito agilàno khàdanãyaü và bhojanãyaü và sahatthà pañiggahetvà
khàdeyya và bhu¤jeyya và. Pañidesetabbaü tena bhikkhunà: ßGàrayhaü àvuso
dhammaü àpajjiü, asappàyaü, pàñidesanãyaü, taü pañidesemãû-ti.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 482] [\x 482/]
Pàñ 4: Catutthapàñidesanãyasikkhàpadaü:


Yàni kho pana tàni àra¤¤akàni
senàsanàni sàsaïkasammatàni sappañibhayàni. Yo pana bhikkhu tathàråpesu
senàsanesu viharanto pubbe appañisaüviditaü khàdanãyaü và bhojanãyaü và
ajjhàràme sahatthà pañiggahetvà agilàno khàdeyya và bhu¤jeyya và.
Pañidesetabbaü tena bhikkhunà: ßGàrayhaü àvuso dhammaü àpajjiü,
asappàyaü, pàñidesanãyaü, taü pañidesemãû-ti.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 486] [\x 486/]
Uddiññhà kho àyasmanto cattàro pàñidesanãyà dhammà.

Tatthàyasmante pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Dutiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Tatiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Parisuddhetthàyasmanto, tasmà tuõhã, evam-etaü dhàrayàmi.



Pàñidesanãyà niññhità
 
 


(Sekhiyà)

Ime kho panàyasmanto sekhiyà dhammà uddesaü àgacchanti.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 488] [\x 488/]

Sekh 1: (Parimaõóalasikkhàpadaü) : 31

Parimaõóalaü nivàsessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 490] [\x 490/]

Sekh 2:

Parimaõóalaü pàrupissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 3: (Suppañichannasikkhàpadaü):

Supañicchanno antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 4:

Supañicchanno antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 492] [\x 492/]

Sekh 5: (Susaüvutasikkhàpadaü):

Susaüvuto antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 6:

Susaüvuto antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 7: (Okkhittacakkhusikkhàpadaü):

Okkhittacakkhu antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 494] [\x 494/]

Sekh 8:

Okkhittacakkhu antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 9: (Ukkhittakasikkhàpadaü):

Na ukkhittakàya antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 10:

Na ukkhittakàya antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Parimaõóalavaggo pañhamo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 496] [\x 496/]

Sekh 11: (Ujjhagghikasikkhàpadaü):

Na ujjagghikàya antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 12:

Na ujjagghikàya antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 13: (Uccasaddàsikkhàpadaü):

Appasaddo antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 498] [\x 498/]

Sekh 14:

Appasaddo antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 15: (Kàyappacàlakàdisikkhàpadaü):

Na kàyappacàlakaü antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 16:

Na kàyappacàlakaü antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 500] [\x 500/]

Sekh 17: (Bàhuppacàlakasikkhàpadaü):

Na bàhuppacàlakaü antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 18:

Na bàhuppacàlakaü antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 19: (Sãsappacàlakasikkhàpadaü):

Na sãsappacàlakaü antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 502] [\x 502/]

Sekh 20:

Na sãsappacàlakaü antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Ujjagghiakavaggo dutiyo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 504] [\x 504/]

Sekh 21: (Khambhakatasikkhàpadaü):

Na khambhakato antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 22:

Na khambhakato antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 23: (Oguõñhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na oguõñhito antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 506] [\x 506/]

Sekh 24:

Na oguõñhito antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 25: (Ukkuñikasikkhàpadaü):

Na ukkuñikàya antaraghare gamissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 26: (Pallatthikasikkhàpadaü):

Na pallatthikàya antaraghare nisãdissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 508] [\x 508/]

Sekh 27: (Sakkaccapañiggahaõasikkhàpadaü):

Sakkaccaü piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 28: (Pattasa¤¤ãpañiggahaõasikkhàpadaü):

Pattasa¤¤ã piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 29: (Samasåpakapañiggahaõasikkhàpadaü):

Samasåpakaü piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 510] [\x 510/]

Sekh 30: (Samatittikasikkhàpadaü):

Samatittikaü piõóapàtaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Khambhakavaggo tatiyo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 512] [\x 512/]

Sekh 31: (Sakkaccabu¤janasikkhàpadaü):

Sakkaccaü piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 32: (Pattasa¤¤ãbhu¤janasikkhàpadaü):

Pattasa¤¤ã piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 33: (Sapadànasikkhàpadaü):

Sapadànaü piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 514] [\x 514/]

Sekh 34: (Samasåpakasikkhàpadaü):

Samasåpakaü piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 35: (Nathåpakatasikkhàpadaü):

Na thåpato 32 omadditvà piõóapàtaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 36: (Odanappañicchàdanasikkhàpadaü):

Na såpaü và bya¤janaü và odanena pañicchàdessàmi bhãyokamyataü 33 upàdàyàti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 516] [\x 516/]

Sekh 37: (Såpodanavi¤¤attisikkhàpadaü):

Na såpaü và odanaü và agilàno attano atthàya vi¤¤àpetvà bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 38: (Ujjhànasa¤¤ãsikkhàpadaü):

Na ujjhànasa¤¤ã paresaü pattaü olokessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 39: (Kabaëasikkhàpadaü):

Nàtimahantaü kabaëaü karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 520] [\x 520/]

Sekh 40: (âlopasikkhàpadaü):

Parimaõóalaü àlopaü karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sakkaccavaggo catuttho

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 522] [\x 522/]

Sekh 41: (Anàhañasikkhàpadaü):

Na anàhañe kabaëe mukhadvàraü vivarissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 42: (Bhu¤jamànasikkhàpadaü):

Na bhu¤jamàno sabbaü hatthaü mukhe pakkhipissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 43: (Sakabaëasikkhàpadaü):

Na sakabaëena mukhena byàharissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 524] [\x 524/]

Sekh 44: (Piõóukkhepakasikkhàpadaü):

Na piõóukkhepakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 45: (Kabaëavacchedakasikkhàpadaü):

Na kabaëàvacchedakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 46: (Avagaõóakàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na avagaõóakàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 526] [\x 526/]

Sekh 47: (Hatthaniddhunakasikkhàpadaü):

Na hatthaniddhunakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, 34 sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 48: (Sitthàvakàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na sitthàvakàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 49: (Jivhànicchàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na jivhànicchàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 528] [\x 528/]

Sekh 50: (Capucapukàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na capucapukàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Kabaëavaggo pa¤camo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 530] [\x 530/]

Sekh 51: (Surusurukàrakasikkhàpadaü):

Na surusurukàrakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 52: (Hatthanillehakàdisikkhàpadaü):

Na hatthanillehakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 532] [\x 532/]

Sekh 53: (Pattanillehakasikkhàpadaü):

Na pattanillehakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, 35 sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 54: (Oññhanillehakasikkhàpadaü):

Na oññhanillehakaü bhu¤jissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 534] [\x 534/]

Sekh 55: (Sàmisasikkhàpadaü):

Na sàmisena hatthena pànãyathàlakaü pañiggahessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 536] [\x 536/]

Sekh 56: (Sasitthakasikkhàpadaü):

Na sasitthakaü pattadhovanaü antaraghare chaóóessàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 538] [\x 538/]

Sekh 57: (Chattapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na chattapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, 36 sikkhà karaõãyà.


Sekh 58: (Daõóapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na daõóapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 540] [\x 540/]

Sekh 59: (Satthapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na satthapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 60: (âyudhapàõisikkhàpadaü):

Na àyudhapàõissa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Surusuruvaggo chaññho

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 542] [\x 542/]

Sekh 61: (Pàdukasikkhàpadaü):

Na pàdukàråëhassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 62: (Upàhanasikkhàpadaü):

Na upàhanàråëhassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 63: (Yànasikkhàpadaü):

Na yànagatassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 544] [\x 544/]

Sekh 64: (Sayanasikkhàpadaü):

Na sayanagatassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 65: (Pallatthikasikkhàpadaü):

Na pallatthikàya nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 66: (Veñhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na veñhitasãsassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 546] [\x 546/]

Sekh 67: (Oguõñhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na oguõñhitasãsassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 68: (Chamàsikkhàpadaü):

Na chamàya nisãditvà àsane nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 548] [\x 548/]

Sekh 69: (Nãcàsanasikkhàpadaü):

Na nãce àsane nisãditvà ucce àsane nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 550] [\x 550/]

Sekh 70: (òhitasikkhàpadaü):

Na ñhito nisinnassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 71: (Pacchatogamanasikkhàpadaü):

Na pacchato gacchanto purato gacchantassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 72: (Uppathenagamanasikkhàpadaü):

Na uppathena gacchanto pathena gacchantassa agilànassa dhammaü desissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 552] [\x 552/]

Sekh 73: (òhito-uccàrasikkhàpadaü):

Na ñhito agilàno uccàraü và passàvaü và karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

Sekh 74: (Harite-uccàrasikkhàpadaü):

Na harite agilàno uccàraü và passàvaü và kheëaü và karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 554] [\x 554/]

Sekh 75: (Udake-uccàrasikkhàpadaü):

Na udake agilàno uccàraü và passàvaü và kheëaü và karissàmã-ti, sikkhà karaõãyà.


Pàdukavaggo sattamo

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 556] [\x 556/]

Uddiññhà kho àyasmanto sekhiyà dhammà.
Tatthàyasmante pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Dutiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Tatiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Parisuddhetthàyasmanto, tasmà tuõhã, evam-etaü dhàrayàmi.



Sekhiyà niññhità
 
 


(Adhikaraõasamathà)

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 588] [\x 588/]

Ime kho panàyasmanto satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà uddesaü àgacchanti.

Uppannuppannànaü adhikaraõànaü samathàya våpasamàya:

1: Sammukhàvinayo dàtabbo.

2: Sativinayo dàtabbo.

3: Amåëhavinayo dàtabbo.

4: Pañi¤¤àya kàretabbaü.

5: Yebhuyyasikà.

6: Tassapàpiyyasikà.

7: Tiõavatthàrakoti.


Uddiññhà kho àyasmanto satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà.
Tatthàyasmante pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Dutiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Tatiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Parisuddhetthàyasmanto, tasmà tuõhã, evam-etaü dhàrayàmi.



Adhikaraõasamathà Niññhità

Uddiññhaü kho àyasmanto nidànaü.
Uddiññhà cattàro pàràjikà dhammà.
Uddiññhà terasa saïghàdisesà dhammà.

Uddiññhà dve aniyatà dhammà.

Uddiññhà tiüsa nissaggiyà pàcittiyà dhammà

Uddiññhà dvenavuti pàcittiyà dhammà.

Uddiññhà cattàro pàñidesanãyà dhammà.

Uddiññhà sekhiyà dhammà.

Uddiññhà satta adhikaraõasamathà dhammà.

Ettakaü tassa Bhagavato suttàgataü suttapariyàpannaü anvaddhamàsaü
uddesaü àgacchati. Tattha sabbeheva samaggehi sammodamànehi
avivadamànehi sikkhitabbaü.


Bhikkhupàtimokkhaü niññhitaü


 

 

  Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi Home Page

âràdhanà     (Nidànuddeso)

(Pàràjikuddeso)     (Saïghàdisesuddeso)

(Aniyatuddeso)     (Nissaggiyapàcittiyà)

(Suddhapàcittiyà)     (Pàñidesanãyà)

(Sekhiyà)     (Adhikaraõasamathà)

Word Index



  


End Notes

 

29 Editor’s note: BJT omits this title by mistake. The Pàñidesanãya rules are listed only as Pañhama-, Dutiya-, etc. there being no distinctive titles for these training rules either in BJT or ChS.


30 BJT note: Ekassa ce pi - ChS


31 Editor’s note: BJT has no distinctive titles for the Sekhiya training rules, they are listed there as Pañhama-, Dutiya-, etc. up to Dasama-, after which they start again with Pañhama-.
As the titles serve a useful function as mnemonics they have been
inserted here following the ChS editon of the Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi. At
the beginning of this section as the rules generally come in pairs no
title for the second rule is given.


32 BJT note: Thåpakato - ChS.


33 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhãyyokamyataü, but it’s normal practice is to write these forms as bhãyo- etc.


34 Editor’s note: BJT, bhu¤jissàmi-ti, printer’s error.


35 Editor’s note: BJT, bhå¤jissàmã-ti, printer’s error.


36 Editor’s note: BJT, desessàmi-ti, here but desissàmã-ti elsewhere.


 


comments (0)
05/22/13
928 LESSON 23-05-2013 THURSDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY- Please watch: http://archive.org/details/BuddhasLifeAnimation2007Thai_201303 for Buddha’s Life Animation ( 2007) Thai (March 25, 2013) Buddha life Cartoon Animation 1Hr. 38 Mins Wishing all born this day of Buddha Purnima a Happy Birthday May all be happy, well and secure May all beings be happy May all live long with Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind with the understanding that every thing is changing 23-05-2013 Thursday 2.30 PM Venue: Indira Gandhi Institute of Child health, Hosur Road, Bengaluru Children Service Led by Shri K.N.Srinivas Chairman, Amar Jyothi Educational Institutions, Bengaluru Service by Samyak Prabodhan, Bangalore Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi Suddhapàcittiyà MISUSE OF EVM _ PART - 13 AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Virtual-Call-Center-Small-Business-Idea.htm Virtual Call Center Small Business Idea The Pros and Cons of Starting a Virtual Call Center Business
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 4:28 pm

928 LESSON 23-05-2013 THURSDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-
Please watch:
http://archive.org/details/BuddhasLifeAnimation2007Thai_201303
for


Buddha’s Life Animation ( 2007) Thai (March 25, 2013)

Buddha life Cartoon Animation

1Hr. 38 Mins


Wishing all born this day of Buddha Purnima a Happy Birthday

May all be happy, well and secure
May all beings be happy
May all live long with
Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind
with the understanding that every thing is changing

23-05-2013        Thursday           2.30 PM
Venue: Indira Gandhi Institute of Child health, Hosur Road, Bengaluru

Children Service

Led by

Shri K.N.Srinivas
Chairman, Amar Jyothi Educational Institutions, Bengaluru

Service by

Samyak Prabodhan, Bangalore

Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi
Suddhapàcittiyà

MISUSE OF EVM _ PART - 13


AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE

http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm
http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Virtual-Call-Center-Small-Business-Idea.htm


Virtual Call Center Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Virtual Call Center Business

http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/1Vinaya-Pitaka/index.html


The city of Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh is getting ready to observe
Buddha Purnima in the coming week featuring a series of programmes.
Sarnath, near Varanasi, is the place where Buddha preached his first
sermon and is deemed to be one of the most sacred places by Buddhists.
Both, the Maha Bodhi Society of India (MBSI) and UP Tourism are going
to hold a two-day programme starting from May 25 combining both
religious and cultural activities to attract foreign and Indian
devotees and tourists.

According to the UP tourism department, Buddhists worldwide look upon India
as the land of the Buddha and a visit to this country means a
pilgrimage to those places sacred to the memory of the Enlightened One.
After the Buddha attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya he came to Sarnath and delivered his first sermon. Buddhist monks and scholars from across the world throng Sarnath for the two-day festival in Sarnath.

On the morning of Buddha Purnima, MBSI monks will administer
Ashtangsheel and offerings to Lord Buddha followed by religious function
at the Mulagandha Kuty Vihara. The day-long religious function will end
with the recitation of Dhammachakka Pavattana Sutta. Thereafter, there
will be a ceremony of lighting of lamps at the Bodhi Tree complex in the
evening.

The two-day festival at Sarnath is going to attract large number of
devotees who will flock to the city to perform important religious
activities marked by prayers, sermons and recitation of Buddhist
scriptures on the first day. On the second day classical music and dance
performances will be held by the tourism department.

The National Museum in Delhi, as usual, will bring the mortal remains
of Buddha, believed to be his bones and ashes, for their public viewing
on Buddha Purnima at Sarnath.

The Buddha, in Dhammapada, has said, “The kind of seed sown will
produce that kind of fruit. Those who do good will reap good results. 
Those who do evil will reap evil results. If you carefully plant a good
seed, you will joyfully gather good fruit.” May Lord Buddha’s teachings
enlighten us on the path of love, peace and truth. Wishing all Buddhists
a Happy Buddha Purnima!

The giant Buddha welcoming visitors at Foguangshan Temple, Taiwan. PIC: PAGolden statue buddhaHappy Buddha JayantiLord BuddhaWishing You A Blessed Buddha PurnimaHappy Buddha Jayanti

10 Famous Buddha Statues

Written by on May 24, 2009 in Asia, World Religions - 9 Comments

The study of Buddhism has inspired some of
the world’s most beautiful contributions to the world of art, most
notable in the form of statues known as Buddharupa (literally, the form
of the Awakened One) that adorn Buddhist temples of worship. Listed here
are ten of the world’s most famous and beautiful statues celebrating
the Awakened One and his message of peace.

Some of these Buddha statues are among the largest in the world. A comparison between these and other great statues in the world can be found here.

10 Famous Buddha Statues

Written by on May 24, 2009 in Asia, World Religions - 9 Comments

The study of Buddhism has inspired some of
the world’s most beautiful contributions to the world of art, most
notable in the form of statues known as Buddharupa (literally, the form
of the Awakened One) that adorn Buddhist temples of worship. Listed here
are ten of the world’s most famous and beautiful statues celebrating
the Awakened One and his message of peace.

Some of these Buddha statues are among the largest in the world. A comparison between these and other great statues in the world can be found here.

10Hussain Sagar Buddha Statue

The Buddha statue situated at the center of an artificial lake in the
city of Hyderabad is one of India’s most famous Buddha statues. This
figure stands at a full 17 meters (56 feet) tall and weighs 320 tons.
The single largest monolithic statue in all of India, it was sculpted by
a group of artisans from a single piece of stone. Tragically, during
the statue’s installation in 1992 the figure tipped over and fell into
the lake, causing the death of 8 workers. The government recovered the
statue and restored it to its full height and stature.

9Tian Tan Buddha Statue

Tian Tan Buddha sometimes locally referred to as the Big Buddha, is
located on Lantau Island, in Hong Kong. Fashioned of bronze and
completed in 1993, The statue is the main feature of the Po Lin
Monastery, symbolizing harmony between man, nature, people and religion.
The statue is named Tian Tan Buddha because its base is a replica of
Tian Tan, the Temple of Heaven in Beijing. The statue sits on a lotus
throne on top of a three tiered altar. At 34 meters (110 feet) tall,
the Tian Tan Buddha is presented in a posture of serenity. His right
hand is raised to remove affliction. His left hand rests on his knee,
representing happiness.

8Monywa Buddhas

Monywa is a city in central Myanmar located on the banks of the
Chindwin River. Just east of the city is the Po Khaung Taung, a range of
hills where you can see the Monywa Buddha– the largest reclining Buddha
statue in the world. This colossal figure measures 90 meters (300 feet)
in length. The head alone is 60 feet high. The Monywa Buddha was
constructed in 1991 and is hollow inside, allowing visitors to walk
along from the head to the feet. Inside the figure are 9,000
one-foot-high metal images of the Buddha and his disciples, depicting
various representations of important events in the Buddha’s life.

Recently a gigantic standing Buddha statue was built on top of Po
Kaung Hills. At 132 meter (433 feet) high it is one of the largest
Buddha statues in the world.

7Ayutthaya Buddha Head
Ayutthaya Buddha Headflickr/Ren

Thailand’s city of Ayutthaya is the location of one of the world’s
most unusual Buddhist statues. Among the ruins of Wat Mahathat (The
Temple of the Great Relic) is the remains of a sandstone statue of the
Buddha whose body has been lost to the ages but whose head rests
appropriately in the climbing roots and vines of a tree. Around this
famous figure are many other stature of the Ayutthaya period which have
survived the ravages of time.

6Gal Viharaya

Located in north central Sri Lanka, Polonnaruwa is the site of one of
the most breathtaking of the world’s representations of the Buddha –
the Gal Gal Viharaya. This massive rock temple was constructed by
Parakramabahu the Great in the 12th century. The central attraction of
the temple are 4 large Buddha statues carved into the face of a granite
boulder. Among these giant stone figures are a reclining statue of the
Buddha that measures 14 meters (46 feet) in length and a standing figure
measuring 7 meters (23 feet) high.

5Ushiku Daibutsu
Ushiku Daibutsuflickr/tsukubajin

The Ushiku Daibutsu is located in the city of Ushiku in Japan.
Finished in 1995, the figure is one of the world’s tallest statues,
standing a total of 120 meters (394 feet) high including the 10m (30
foot) base and 10m high lotus platform. Visitors to the Buddha statue
can take an elevator to a platform where an observation deck is
situated. The bronze-plated figure depicts Amitabha Buddha, and is also
known as Ushiku Arcadia.

4Temple of the Reclining Buddha

Located in Bangkok,
Wat Pho is famous for the huge Reclining Buddha statue it houses. It is
one of the largest temples in Bangkok and also one of the oldest,
constructed nearly 200 years before Bangkok became Thailand’s capital.
Wat Pho holds the distinction of having both Thailand’s largest
reclining Buddha image and the largest number of Buddha images in
Thailand. The gold-plated Reclining Buddha statue is 46 meters long and
15 meters high, and commemorates the passing of the Buddha into Nirvana.
The statue’s eyes and feet are decorated with engraved mother of pearl,
the soles of the feet displaying the 108 auspicious characteristics of
the true Buddha.

3Great Buddha of Kamakura
Great Buddha of Kamakuraflickr/enggul

The Kotoku-in is a Buddhist temple of the Jodo shu sect located in
the city of Kamakura in Japan. The temple is famous for its great
Buddhist statue (or daibutsu). a colossal outdoor representation of
Amida Buddha, one of Japan’s most celebrated Buddhist figures. Cast in
bronze, the Great Buddha stands at over 13 meters (40 feet) high and
weighs nearly 93 tons.

The statue reportedly dates from 1252 and is generally believed to
have been cast by the Buddhist monk Joko, who also collected donations
to build it. Although it originally was housed in a small wooden temple,
the Great Buddha now stands in the open air as the original temple was
washed away in a tsunami in the 15th century.

2Temple of the Emerald Buddha
Temple of the Emerald Buddhaflickr/amangupta

Another of Bangkok’s Buddhist temples is Wat Phra Kaew, the Temple of
the Emerald Buddha, located within the grounds of the Grand Palace. The
main building is the central ubosoth, which houses The Emerald Buddha,
one of the oldest and most famous Buddha statues in the world.

A jade statue adorned in gold clothing, the Emerald Buddha was,
according to legend, created in India in 43 BC in the city of
Pataliputra, where it remained for 300 years. In the 4th century AD it
was taken away to Sri Lanka by Buddhist monks to save it from
destruction by war. Eventually the statue made its way to Thailand and
was moved to Wat Phra Kaew in 1779. The statue has three different sets
of gold clothing, which are changed by the King of Thailand in a
ceremony at the changing of the seasons.

1Leshan Giant Buddha
#1 of Famous Buddha Statuesflickr/drs2biz

The Giant Buddha of Leshan is a gigantic Buddha statue carved out of a
cliff face in Sichuan, western China. The great sculpture is a figure
of Maitreya — a Bodhisattva traditionally represented in sitting
posture. Begun in the year 713 during the Tang Dynasty, the statue was
not completed until the year 803, and was the effort of thousands of
sculptors and workers. As the biggest carved stone Buddha in the world,
the Leshan Giant Buddha is featured in poetry, song and story. The
sculpture stands about 71 meters (233 feet) high and has three meter (11
feet) long fingers on each of its enormous resting hands. Today it is a
popular tourist attraction in China.


Dear Buddhist Brothers and Sisters,

Namo Buddhay!

May this day be as happy and gay as lily in May!

LORD BUDDHA – LIFE PHILOSOPHY

 

  1. LIFE –SKETCH

 

 

Nourished by Prajapati Gautami,  elder
sister of his mother.

·       
Wife                             Princess Yashodhara

·       
Son                              Rahul, after ten years of marriage

·       
Palaces                         3 palaces. Ist – for summer, IInd –
for winter and IIIrd- for autumn.

He had all the pleasures and luxuries of the life. 

 

·       
Mahaparinirvan 483
BC in 80 years of age. Kushinara. At present Gorakhpur , UP

 

  1. SHAKYA SANGH

 

·                   
The membership of the Sangh was mandatory for
every Shakya youth.

·                   
The meetings of the Sangh were held in
Sansthagar – Meeting Hall.

·                   
Siddharth became the member of the Sangh at 20
years.

·                   
The Rules and Regulations of the Sangh were
equal for all & equally implemented.

·                   
The power of the Sangh was supreme – above the
king too.

·                   
The Sangh had an Army Chief called Senapati.

 

  1. CONFLICT WITH
    THE SANGH

 

·       
At that time the conflict between the Shakyas
and Koliyas began over the water of the Rohini River .
The Senapati gained a majority in favour of war against the Koliyas by voting
method.

·       
But Siddharth Gautam was against this
resolution. He did not accept the majority opinion and at the same time, the
order of the Army Chief.

 

  1. PUNISHMENT

 

·       
The Senapati kept three alternatives before
Siddharth. They were :

( i ) To join
the forces and  participate  in the war against the Koliyas.

( ii) To
consent to be hanged or  exiled.

(iii) To allow
a social boycott  and confiscation of
property of his  family members.

·       
Siddharth accepted the second option i.e. to exile
from the nation.

 

  1. PARIVRAJA –
    THE WAY OUT –  AT 29 YEARS OF AGE

 

·       
He renounced his home in the knowledge and
presence of his wife and parents.

·       
At this occasion his wife, Yashodhara said – All
I wish is that now that you are becoming a Parivrajaka leaving behind all who
are near and dear to you, you will find a NEW
WAY OF LIFE which would result
in the HAPPINESS OF MANKIND.

·       
He did not leave his home, as tradition says,
after seeing a – SICK PERSON, AN OLD
MAN, A DEAD PERSON AND A SANYASI
– this is reasonably incorrect.

 

  1. IN SEARCH OF
    NEW LIGHT

 

·       
At that time, there were chiefly three Acharyas.
He went one by one to them. First he went to the Ashram of Bhrigu Rishi.

 

      (
I ) BHRIGU RISHI

 

·       
Bhrigu told him all the various kinds of penaces
and the fruits thereof. The saint also told him – By these penaces, you can get
HEAVEN AND THE GOD AS WELL.

·       
Gautam replied – I am hurt by the sorrows of the
world. My desire is not for HEAVEN and God. Rather, my desire is that the ILLS
OF LIFE ON EARTH BE PROBED AND TO FIND THE SOLUTION. SO THAT, THE HUMANITY
WOULD BE MADE HAPPY.

·       
Siddharth asked Bhrigu – Do you know this? The
Rishi answered – Nay, Nay! Unsatisfied with the answer, Siddharth leaved his
Ashram.  

 

     ( II )ARADA
KALAM

 

·       
Gautam studied 
Sankhya philosophy and learnt the Seventh stage of Meditation.

·       
After this, Siddharth took leave from Arada
kalam.

 

  
( III ) UDDAKA RAMAPUTTA RISHI

 

·       
Gautam learnt Eighth stage of Meditation from
this saint. At last, he asked the same questions to Uddaka – How to make the
mankind happy? Uddaka replied – I don know. Unsatisfied with this, Siddharth
quit his Ashram too.

 

  1. TRIAL OF
    ASCETICISM

 

·       
Siddharth learnt the Sankhya philosophy and
Samadhi Marga but did not practice them. He thought to do practical and to get
the real experience of these things.

·       
He strived hardest but got nothing. At last he
thought – Now, I would myself have to find out the answer of my problems.

·       
So, LORD BUDDHA HAS NO GURU. HE WAS HIMESLF HIS
GURU. HE ATTAINED THE WISDOM, THE SUPREME KNOWLEDGE BY HIS OWN EFFORTS.

 

  1. ENLIGHTENMENT
    –  AT THE AGE  OF  35 YEARS

 

·       
He had two problems : First, there was suffering
in the world and second, how to remove this suffering and make mankind happy.

·       
At last, after contemplating for four weeks
continuously, he ultimately attained the ENLIGHTEMENT AND THUS BECAME THE
BUDDHA, THE HAPPY ONE. 

·       
That Tree – Bodhi Tree, The Place – Bauddhagaya.

·       
This is also known as SAMYAK SAMBODHI - The
Perfect Enlightenment. A formulae based on - Optimism into Pessimism. This is a NEW WAY OF LIFE.

·       
In this way, Lord Buddha invented a New Dharma
which is known as Buddhism in the world.               

  1. WHAT IS
    BUDDHISM IN MODERN SCENARIO

 

·       
Planted by highly compassionate Lord Buddha,
nurtured by Priyadarshi emperor Ashoka, the great and revived by Baba Sahab
Ambedkar, the prophet of Buddhism - The Buddhism is a happy way of living i.e.
to lead a HAPPY, PROSPEROUS AND JOYOUS LIFE.

·       
The meaning of the Buddha is – Dispeller of
ignorance i.e. the carrier of the masses from darkness to light, Dispeller of
Sorrows i.e. the carrier of the humanity from sorrow to happiness.

·       
Thus, the Buddhism is purely - a philosophy of
happiness, a philosophy to be happy!

 

  1. HOW TO CELEBRATE THE FESTIVAL

 

·       
We must celebrate our all festivals in a Pure Religious Way .
And the Pure Religious Way
is – to buy something from the  market so
that the market should decorate , look like a bride. In brief, the bazars
should be over crowded before  this
auspicious day.

·       
 We must
go to Buddha Vihar to celebrate collectively and should show our strength in the
Viharas.

·       
We should also decorate and light our Buddha
Viharas  as well as our houses in the
evening.

·       
Those, who neither go to Buddha Viharas nor buy
some articles , are false Buddhists.  

 

bhavatu sabba mangalang!

 

 

Dhan Prakash
Bauddha

Bauddhacharya
& Philosopher,

President,

Shakti Sadhana
Mission,

Maitri, 122,
Cross-8A, Tapovan Enclave, Tarla Aamwala,

Dehradun –
248001 ( UK
)

Contact : 99979
58689

e-mail  : dpbauddha@yahoo.co.in

A virtual call center business can be started quickly and relatively
inexpensively, and has the potential to produce significant levels of
income.

If you are reliable and have a highly professional telephone presence, a virtual call center business is a business idea you may want to explore.

The Pros

Some of the benefits of starting a virtual call center business include:

  • Startup costs are low, and there is the potential for high profits.
  • Virtual call centers are typically operated as home-based businesses.
  • There is a growing demand as businesses are reverting to live help for their callers.
  • It’s an excellent business for people who are outgoing, and love to talk and help others.
  • You can service local clients as well as remote clients via the Internet.
  • You can expand as the business grows by using other virtual workers.

The Cons

Some of the potential challenges of a virtual call center include:

  • You need to have a consistently pleasant voice, professional phone etiquette and excellent organizational skills.
  • You need standard office equipment, including a computer, fax,
    printer, good quality, and a multi-line phone or virtual phone system.
  • You’d have an initial investment for home-based call center equipment.
  • You may need to be flexible on your hours of operation and willing to work evenings and weekends.
  • The greatest competition comes from offshore services, so you need to differentiate yourself.
  • It can be challenging to market your business and find clients.

Recommended Resources

Related Articles

New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to them depriving the dipressed classes  to enable them to acquire the MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.
    •     
    •    Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.
6.1 The Case of Mandated Source Disclosure
There are risks and some benefits associated with government-mandated public disclosure using either a disclosed source regime or open source licenses. One such risk is that trade secrecy would be de facto eliminated from the highly competitive, small-margin voting systems market. A trade secret is defined as any secret information used in business that gives one a competitive advantage; trade secrecy protection only applies to information that is kept secret.61Vendors have asserted that their software contains trade secrets that would no longer be protectable if their software source were disclosed.62
The end of trade secrecy in software source code could mean the end for larger companies, which are more sensitive to the smallness of margins, as it will cause a slip of their market position and competitive edge against other larger vendors. If open source software is required, a body of open source software for election management and tabulation will be created that will lower the barriers to entry into the market and necessarily increase competition. The available software will be one piece that new firms will not need to develop in creating a viable voting system (see § for a discussion of other barriers to entry). Either of these possibilities will make it easier for small firms to enter the market, but also may make the market less appetizing for large vendors.
There could be narrower licensing options under a government mandate. That is, if a governmental entity deems it necessary to mandate disclosure, it would seem that they would also specify the terms of such disclosure. This would prohibit vendors from doing their own calculus of what to allow and disallow in the terms of their software license and would mean that they now had to fit their previous business models into the license agreement mandated for the market in which they seek to operate.
Finally, there is an evolving concept of eminent domain in the field of intellectual property, where the government must compensate an individual for taking property. The government “takings'’ here apply to situations where a vendor’s intellectual property is disclosed without their consent or approval. Should vendors be compensated for the release of intellectual property in the source code that runs their systems? The relevant forms of intellectual property implicated in the source code for voting systems are patents, copyright and trade secrets. Patents and copyrights are not much of an issue as both these forms of intellectual property will still be enforceable upon disclosure and there are statutory limits to damages.63 Claims under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) or its state-level equivalents will usually protect proprietary and confidential information.64

That leaves the case of trade secrets released against the vendor’s wishes. In Ruckelshaus v. Monsanto Co.,65 the Supreme Court found that the disclosure of trade secrets claimed to be held in confidence by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a pesticide registration program was a 5th amendment “taking'’ of property.66The Court ruled that the “taking'’ existed when Monsanto had a “reasonable investment-backed expectation'’ of confidentiality and that this was formed when the EPA allowed vendors to mark certain information as trade secret through their registration program.67Further, without a reasonable investment-backed expectation, no taking existed. A key feature of the Ruckelshaus notion of “takings'’ is its retroactive nature; that is, the analysis turns on the expectation of confidentiality that the vendor had when submitting information to the government.

For voting systems, this means that any disclosure should be done carefully. That is, with rules or laws that mandate disclosure, any efforts to extend the effects of such policy to source code submissions made under a previous regime would likely run afoul of the Ruckelshaus notion of 5th Amendment “taking'’ of trade secrets. Voting systems vendors will likely not find it difficult to make a showing of “reasonable investment-backed expectation'’, as past indications show that vendors have been highly protective of their intellectual property.68From this analysis, the best course of action would be a non-retroactive policy in which the government clearly stated its intent to disclose system source code and also stipulated that any trade secrets would have to be removed by the vendor prior to submission.

(Suddhapàcittiyà)


Ime kho panàyasmanto dvenavuti pàcittiyà dhammà uddesaü àgacchanti.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 004] [\x 004/]

Pàc 1: Musàvàdasikkhàpadaü:


Sampajànamusàvàde, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 016] [\x 016/]

Pàc 2: Omasavàdasikkhàpadaü:


Omasavàde, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 042] [\x 042/]

Pàc 3: Pesu¤¤asikkhàpadaü:


Bhikkhupesu¤¤e, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 052] [\x 052/]

Pàc 4: Padasodhammasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu anupasampannaü padaso dhammaü vàceyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 058] [\x 058/]

Pàc 5: Sahaseyyasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu anupasampannena uttariü 15 dirattatirattaü sahaseyyaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 064] [\x 064/]

Pàc 6: Dutiyasahaseyyasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu màtugàmena sahaseyyaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 068] [\x 068/]

Pàc 7: Dhammadesanàsikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu màtugàmassa uttariü chappa¤cavàcàhi dhammaü deseyya, a¤¤atra vi¤¤unà purisaviggahena, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 078] [\x 078/]

Pàc 8: Bhåtàrocanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu anupasampannassa uttarimanussadhammaü àroceyya bhåtasmiü, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 098] [\x 098/]

Pàc 9: Duññhullàrocanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa duññhullaü àpattiü anupasampannassa àroceyya, a¤¤atra bhikkhusammutiyà, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 102] [\x 102/]

Pàc 10: Pathavikhaõanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu pañhaviü khaõeyya và khaõàpeyya và, pàcittiyaü.


Musàvàdàvaggo pañhamo


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 106] [\x 106/]

Pàc 11: Bhåtagàmasikkhàpadaü:

Bhåtagàmapàtavyatàya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 112] [\x 112/]

Pàc 12: A¤¤avàdakasikkhàpadaü:


A¤¤avàdake vihesake, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 118] [\x 118/]

Pàc 13: Ujjhàyanasikkhàpadaü:


Ujjhàpanake khãyanake, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 120] [\x 120/]

Pàc 14: Pañhamasenàsanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu saïghikaü ma¤caü và
pãñhaü và bhisiü và kocchaü và ajjhokàse santharitvà và santharàpetvà
và, taü pakkamanto neva uddhareyya na uddharàpeyya, anàpucchaü và
gaccheyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 124] [\x 124/]

Pàc 15: Dutiyasenàsanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu saïghike vihàre seyyaü
santharitvà và santharàpetvà và, taü pakkamanto neva uddhareyya na
uddharàpeyya, anàpucchaü và gaccheyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 128] [\x 128/]

Pàc 16: Anupakhajjasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu saïghike vihàre jànaü
pubbåpagataü bhikkhuü anupakhajja seyyaü kappeyya: ßYassa sambàdho
bhavissati, so pakkamissatãû-ti. Etad-eva paccayaü karitvà ana¤¤aü,
pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 132] [\x 132/]

Pàc 17: Nikkaóóhanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuü kupito anattamano saïghikà vihàrà nikkaóóheyya và nikkaóóhàpeyya và, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 136] [\x 136/]

Pàc 18: Vehàsakåñisikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu saïghike vihàre
uparivehàsakuñiyà àhaccapàdakaü ma¤caü và pãñhaü và abhinisãdeyya và
abhinipajjeyya và, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 140] [\x 140/]

Pàc 19: Mahallakavihàrasikkhàpadaü:


Mahallakaü pana bhikkhunà vihàraü
kàrayamànena, yàva dvàrakosà aggalaññhapanàya àlokasandhiparikammàya
dvatticchadanassa pariyàyaü, appaharite ñhitena adhiññhàtabbaü. Tato ce
uttariü appaharite pi ñhito adhiññhaheyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 142] [\x 142/]

Pàc 20: Sappàõasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü sappàõakaü udakaü tiõaü và mattikaü và si¤ceyya và si¤càpeyya và, pàcittiyaü.


Bhåtagàmavaggo dutiyo


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 148] [\x 148/]

Pàc 21: Ovàdasikkhàpadaü:

Yo pana bhikkhu asammato bhikkhuniyo ovadeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 160] [\x 160/]

Pàc 22: Atthaïgatasikkhàpadaü:


Sammato pi ce bhikkhu atthaïgate suriye bhikkhuniyo ovadeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page ] [\x /]

Pàc 23: Bhikkhunåpassayasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhunåpassayaü upsaïkamitvà bhikkhuniyo ovadeyya, a¤¤atra samayà, pàcittiyaü.

Tatthàyaü samayo: gilànà hoti bhikkhunã - ayaü tattha samayo.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 168] [\x 168/]

Pàc 24: âmisasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu evaü vadeyya: ßâmisahetu bhikkhå 16 bhikkhuniyo ovadantãû-ti, pàcittiyaü.


[BJT Vol II (I), Page 174] [\x 174/]

Pàc 25: Cãvaradànasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu a¤¤àtikàya bhikkhuniyà cãvaraü dadeyya, a¤¤atra pàrivaññakà, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 178] [\x 178/]

Pàc 26: Cãvarasibbanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu a¤¤àtikàya bhikkhuniyà cãvaraü sibbeyya và sibbàpeyya và, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page ] [\x /]

Pàc 27: Saüvidhànasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu 17 bhikkhuniyà saddhiü saüvidhàya ekaddhànamaggaü pañipajjeyya antamaso gàmantaram-pi, a¤¤atra samayà, pàcittiyaü.

Tatthàyaü samayo: satthagamanãyo hoti maggo sàsaïkasammato sappañibhayo - ayaü tattha samayo.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 186] [\x 186/]

Pàc 28: Nàvàbhiråhatasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuniyà saddhiü saüvidhàya ekaü nàvaü abhiråheyya uddhagàminiü 18 và adhogàminiü và, a¤¤atra tiriyaü taraõàya, pàcittiyaü.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 192] [\x 192/]

Pàc 29: Paripàcitasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü bhikkhunãparipàcitaü piõóapàtaü bhu¤jeyya, a¤¤atra pubbe gihãsamàrambhà, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 196] [\x 196/]

Pàc 30: Rahonisajjasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuniyà saddhiü eko ekàya raho nisajjaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.


Bhikkhunovàdavaggo tatiyo


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 202] [\x 202/]

Pàc 31: âvasathapiõóasikkhàpadaü:

Agilànena bhikkhunà eko àvasathapiõóo bhu¤jitabbo. Tato ce uttariü bhu¤jeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 210] [\x 210/]

Pàc 32: Gaõabhojanasikkhàpadaü:


Gaõabhojane, a¤¤atra samayà, pàcittiyaü.

Tatthàyaü samayo: gilànasamayo, cãvaradànasamayo, cãvarakàrasamayo,
addhànagamanasamayo, nàvàbhiråhanasamayo, mahàsamayo, samaõabhattasamayo
- ayaü tattha samayo.

 

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 218] [\x 218/]

Pàc 33: Paramparabhojanasikkhàpadaü:


Paramparabhojane, a¤¤atra samayà, pàcittiyaü.

Tatthàyaü samayo: gilànasamayo, cãvaradànasamayo, cãvarakàrasamayo - ayaü tattha samayo.

  

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 224] [\x 224/]

Pàc 34: Kàõamàtusikkhàpadaü:


Bhikkhuü paneva kulaü upagataü påvehi
và manthehi và abhihaññhuü pavàreyya. âkaïkhamànena bhikkhunà
dvattipattapårà pañiggahetabbà. Tato ce uttariü pañiggaõheyya,
pàcittiyaü.

Dvattipattapåre pañiggahetvà tato nãharitvà bhikkhåhi saddhiü saüvibhajitabbaü. Ayaü tattha sàmãci.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 230] [\x 230/]

Pàc 35: Pañhamapavàraõasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhuttàvã pavàrito anatirittaü, khàdanãyaü và bhojanãyaü và khàdeyya và bhu¤jeyya và, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 234] [\x 234/]

Pàc 36: Dutiyapavàraõasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuü bhuttàviü
pavàritaü anatirittena khàdanãyena và bhojanãyena và abhihaññhuü
pavàreyya: ßHanda bhikkhu khàda và bhu¤ja vàû-ti, jànaü àsàdanàpekkho,
bhuttasmiü, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 238] [\x 238/]

Pàc 37: Vikàlabhojanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu vikàle khàdanãyaü và bhojanãyaü và khàdeyya và bhu¤jeyya và, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 242] [\x 242/]

Pàc 38: Sannidhikàrasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu 19 sannidhikàrakaü khàdanãyaü và bhojanãyaü và khàdeyya và bhu¤jeyya và, pàcittiyaü.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 246] [\x 246/]

Pàc 39: Paõãtabhojanasikkhàpadaü:


Yàni kho pana tàni paõãtabhojanàni,
seyyathãdaü: sappi, navanãtaü, telaü, madhu, phàõitaü, maccho, maüsaü,
khãraü, dadhi. Yo pana bhikkhu evaråpàni paõãtabhojanàni agilàno attano
atthàya vi¤¤àpetvà bhu¤jeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 250] [\x 250/]

Pàc 40: Dantaponasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu adinnaü mukhadvàraü àhàraü àhareyya, a¤¤atra udakadantaponà, pàcittiyaü.


Bhojanavaggo catuttho


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 254] [\x 254/]

Pàc 41: Acelakasikkhàpadaü:

Yo pana bhikkhu acelakassa và paribbàjakassa và paribbàjikàya và sahatthà khàdanãyaü và bhojanãyaü và dadeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

 [BJT Vol II (I), Page 256] [\x 256/]

Pàc 42: Uyyojanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuü: ßEhàvuso
gàmaü và nigamaü và piõóàya pavisissàmàû-ti. Tassa dàpetvà và adàpetvà
và uyyojeyya: ßGacchàvuso na me tayà saddhiü kathà và nisajjà và phàsu
hoti, ekakassa me kathà và nisajjà và phàsu hotãû-ti. Etad-eva paccayaü
karitvà ana¤¤aü, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 260] [\x 260/]

Pàc 43: Sabhojanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu sabhojane kule anupakhajja nisajjaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.

  

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 264] [\x 264/]

Pàc 44: Pañhamarahonisajjasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu 20 màtugàmena saddhiü raho pañicchanne àsane nisajjaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.


[BJT Vol II (I), Page 266] [\x 266/]

Pàc 45: Dutiyarahonisajjasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu màtugàmena saddhiü eko ekàya raho nisajjaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

 [BJT Vol II (I), Page 274] [\x 274/]

Pàc 46: Càrittasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu nimantito sabhatto
samàno santaü bhikkhuü anàpucchà purebhattaü và pacchàbhattaü và kulesu
càrittaü àpajjeyya, a¤¤atra samayà, pàcittiyaü.

Tatthàyaü samayo: cãvaradànasamayo, cãvarakàrasamayo - ayaü tattha samayo.

 [BJT Vol II (I), Page 280] [\x 280/]

Pàc 47: Mahànàmasikkhàpadaü:


Agilànena bhikkhunà
càtumàsappaccayapavàraõà sàditabbà, a¤¤atra punapavàraõàya, a¤¤atra
niccapavàraõàya. Tato ce uttariü sàdiyeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

 [BJT Vol II (I), Page 286] [\x 286/]

Pàc 48: Uyyuttasenàsikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu uyyuttaü senaü dassanàya gaccheyya, a¤¤atra tathàråpappaccayà, pàcittiyaü.

 

 [BJT Vol II (I), Page 288] [\x 288/]

Pàc 49: Senàvàsasikkhàpadaü:


Siyà ca tassa bhikkhuno kocid-eva
paccayo senaü gamanàya, dirattatirattaü tena bhikkhunà senàya
vasitabbaü. Tato ce uttariü vaseyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

 [BJT Vol II (I), Page 292] [\x 292/]

Pàc 50: Uyyodhikasikkhàpadaü:


Dirattatirattaü ce bhikkhu senàya vasamàno uyyodhikaü và balaggaü và senàbyåhaü và anãkadassanaü và gaccheyya, pàcittiyaü.


Acelakavaggo pa¤camo


[BJT Vol II (I), Page 300] [\x 300/]

  Pàc 51: Suràpànasikkhàpadaü:


Suràmerayapàne, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 302] [\x 302/]

Pàc 52: Aïgulipatodakasikkhàpadaü:


Aïgulipatodake, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 304] [\x 304/]

Pàc 53: Hassadhammasikkhàpadaü:


Udake hassadhamme, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 306] [\x 306/]

Pàc 54: Anàdariyasikkhapadaü:


Anàdariye, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 310] [\x 310/]

Pàc 55: Bhiüsàpanakasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuü bhiüsàpeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 314] [\x 314/]

Pàc 56: Jotisikkhapadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu agilàno visibbanàpekkho jotiü samàdaheyya và samàdahàpeyya và, a¤¤atra tathàråpappaccayà, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 322] [\x 322/]

Pàc 57: Nahàtasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu orenaddhamàsaü nahàyeyya, a¤¤atra samayà, pàcittiyaü.

Tatthàyaü samayo: diyaóóho màso seso gimhànan-ti, vassànassa pañhamo
màso, iccete aóóhateyyamàsà, uõhasamayo, pariëàhasamayo, gilànasamayo,
kammasamayo, addhànagamanasamayo, vàtavuññhisamayo - ayaü tattha samayo.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 324] [\x 324/]

Pàc 58: Dubbaõõakarasikkhàpadaü:


Navaü pana bhikkhunà cãvaralàbhena
tiõõaü dubbaõõakaraõànaü a¤¤ataraü dubbaõõakaraõaü àdàtabbaü, nãlaü và
kaddamaü và kàëasàmaü và. Anàdà ce bhikkhu tiõõaü dubbaõõakaraõànaü
a¤¤ataraü dubbaõõakaraõaü navaü cãvaraü paribhu¤jeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 328] [\x 328/]

Pàc 59: Vikappanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa và
bhikkhuniyà và sikkhamànàya và sàmaõerassa và sàmaõeriyà và sàmaü
cãvaraü vikappetvà apaccuddhàrakaü paribhu¤jeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 332] [\x 332/]

Pàc 60: Cãvaràpanidhànasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu 21
bhikkhussa pattaü và cãvaraü và nisãdanaü và såcigharaü và
kàyabandhanaü và apanidheyya và apanidhàpeyya và antamaso hassàpekkho
pi, pàcittiyaü.



Suràpànavaggo chaññho


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 336] [\x 336/]

Pàc 61: Sa¤ciccapàõasikkhàpadaü:

Yo pana bhikkhu sa¤cicca pàõaü jãvità voropeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 338] [\x 338/]

Pàc 62: Sappàõakasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü sappàõakaü udakaü paribhu¤jeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 340] [\x 340/]

Pàc 63: Ukkoñanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü yathàdhammaü nihatàdhikaraõaü punakammàya ukkoñeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 344] [\x 344/]

Pàc 64: Duññhullasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa jànaü duññhullaü àpattiü pañicchàdeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 348] [\x 348/]

Pàc 65: ænavãsativassasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü ånavãsativassaü
puggalaü upasampàdeyya, so ca puggalo anupasampanno, te ca bhikkhå
gàrayhà. Idaü tasmiü pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 352] [\x 352/]

Pàc 66: Theyyasatthasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü theyyasatthena saddhiü saüvidhàya ekaddhànamaggaü pañipajjeyya antamaso gàmantaram-pi, pàcittiyaü

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 354] [\x 354/]

Pàc 67: Saüvidhànasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu màtugàmena saddhiü saüvidhàya ekaddhànamaggaü pañipajjeyya antamaso gàmantaram-pi, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 362] [\x 362/]

Pàc 68: Ariññhasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu evaü vadeyya:
ßTathàhaü Bhagavatà dhammaü desitaü àjànàmi. Yathà yeme antaràyikà
dhammà vuttà Bhagavatà, te pañisevato nàlaü antaràyàyàû-ti. So bhikkhu
bhikkhåhi evam-assa vacanãyo: ßMà àyasmà evaü avaca. Mà Bhagavantaü
abbhàcikkhi, na hi sàdhu Bhagavato abbhakkhànaü, na hi Bhagavà evaü
vadeyya. Anekapariyàyena àvuso antaràyikà dhammà antaràyikà vuttà
Bhagavatà, ala¤-ca pana te pañisevato antaràyàyàû-ti. Eva¤-ca pana so
bhikkhu bhikkhåhi vuccamàno tatheva paggaõheyya, so bhikkhu bhikkhåhi
yàvatatiyaü samanubhàsitabbo tassa pañinissaggàya. Yàvatatiyaü ce
samanubhàsiyamàno tam-pañinissajjeyya iccetaü kusalaü. No ce
pañinissajjeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 366] [\x 366/]

Pàc 69: Ukkhittasambhogasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü tathàvàdinà
bhikkhunà akañànudhammena taü diññhiü appañinissaññhena saddhiü
sambhu¤jeyya và saüvaseyya và saha và seyyaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 374] [\x 374/]

Pàc 70: Kaõñakasikkhàpadaü:


Samaõuddeso
pi ce evaü vadeyya: ßTathàhaü Bhagavatà dhammaü desitaü àjànàmi. Yathà
yeme antaràyikà dhammà vuttà Bhagavatà, te pañisevato nàlaü
antaràyàyàû-ti. So samaõuddeso bhikkhåhi evam-assa vacanãyo: ßMà àvuso
samaõuddesa evaü avaca. Mà Bhagavantaü abbhàcikkhi, na hi sàdhu
Bhagavato abbhakkhànaü, na hi Bhagavà evaü vadeyya. Anekapariyàyena
àvuso samaõuddesa antaràyikà dhammà antaràyikà vuttà Bhagavatà, ala¤-ca
pana te pañisevato antaràyàyàû-ti. Eva¤-ca pana so samaõuddeso bhikkhåhi
vuccamàno tatheva paggaõheyya, so samaõuddeso bhikkhåhi evam-assa
vacanãyo: ßAjjatagge te àvuso samaõuddesa na ceva so Bhagavà satthà
apadisitabbo, yam-pi ca¤¤e samaõuddesà labhanti bhikkhåhi saddhiü
dirattatirattaü sahaseyyaü, sàpi te natthi, cara pare vinassàû-ti. Yo
pana bhikkhu
22 jànaü tathànàsitaü samaõuddesaü upalàpeyya và upaññhàpeyya và sambhu¤jeyya và saha và seyyaü kappeyya, pàcittiyaü.



Sappàõakavaggo sattamo


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 380] [\x 380/]

Pàc 71: Sahadhammikasikkhàpadaü:

Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhåhi
sahadhammikaü vuccamàno evaü vadeyya: ßNa tàvàhaü àvuso etasmiü
sikkhàpade sikkhissàmi, yàva na a¤¤aü bhikkhuü vyattaü vinayadharaü
paripucchàmãû-ti, pàcittiyaü.

Sikkhamànena bhikkhave bhikkhunà a¤¤àtabbaü paripucchitabbaü paripa¤hitabbaü. Ayaü tattha sàmãci.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 384] [\x 384/]

Pàc 72: Vilekhanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu pàtimokkhe uddissamàne
evaü vadeyya: ßKiü panimehi khuddànukhuddakehi sikkhàpadehi uddiññhehi,
yàvad-eva kukkuccàya, vihesàya, vilekhàya saüvattantãû-ti.
Sikkhàpadavivaõõake, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 388] [\x 388/]

Pàc 73: Mohanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu anvaddhamàsaü
pàtimokkhe uddissamàne evaü vadeyya: ßIdàneva kho ahaü jànàmi, ayam-pi
kira dhammo suttàgato suttapariyàpanno anvaddhamàsaü uddesaü
àgacchatãû-ti. Ta¤-ce bhikkhuü a¤¤e bhikkhå jàneyyum: ßNisinnapubbaü
iminà bhikkhunà dvattikkhattuü pàtimokkhe uddissamàne. Ko pana vàdo
bhiyyo na ca tassa bhikkhuno a¤¤àõakena mutti atthi. Ya¤-ca tattha
àpattiü àpanno, ta¤-ca yathàdhammo kàretabbo, uttariü cassa moho
àropetabbo: ßTassa te àvuso alàbhà, tassa te dulladdhaü. Yaü tvaü
pàtimokkhe uddissamàne, na sàdhukaü aññhikatvà manasikarosãû-ti. Idaü
tasmiü mohanake, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 392] [\x 392/]

Pàc 74: Pahàrasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa kupito anattamano pahàraü dadeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 396] [\x 396/]

Pàc 75: Talasattikasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa kupito anattamano talasattikaü uggireyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 398] [\x 398/]

Pàc 76: Amålakasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuü amålakena saïghàdisesena anuddhaüseyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 400] [\x 400/]

Pàc 77: Sa¤ciccasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa sa¤cicca
kukkuccaü upadaheyya: ßItissa muhuttam-pi aphàsu bhavissatãû-ti.
Etad-eva paccayaü karitvà ana¤¤aü, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 404] [\x 404/]

Pàc 78: Upassutisikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhånaü
bhaõóanajàtànaü kalahajàtànaü vivàdàpannànaü upassutiü tiññheyya: ßYaü
ime bhaõissanti, taü sossàmãû-ti. Etad-eva paccayaü karitvà ana¤¤aü,
pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 408] [\x 408/]

Pàc 79: Kammapañibàhanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu dhammikànaü kammànaü chandaü datvà pacchà khãyanadhammaü àpajjeyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 410] [\x 410/]

Pàc 80: Chandaüadatvàgamanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu saïghe vinicchayakathàya vattamànàya chandaü adatvà uññhàyàsanà pakkameyya, pàcittiyaü.

 

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 412] [\x 412/]

Pàc 81: Dabbasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu samaggena saïghena
cãvaraü datvà pacchà khãyanadhammaü àpajjeyya: ßYathàsanthutaü bhikkhå
saïghikaü làbhaü pariõàmentãû-ti, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 418] [\x 418/]

Pàc 82: Pariõàmanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu jànaü saïghikaü làbhaü pariõataü puggalassa pariõàmeyya, pàcittiyaü.


Sahadhammikavaggo aññhamo


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 428] [\x 428/]

Pàc 83: Ràjantarapurasikkhàpadaü:

Yo pana bhikkhu 23 ra¤¤o khattiyassa muddhàvisittassa anikkhantaràjake anãgataratanake pubbe appañisaüvidito indakhãlaü atikkàmeyya, pàcittiyaü.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 434] [\x 434/]

Pàc 84: Ratanasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu ratanaü và ratanasammataü và, a¤¤atra ajjhàràmà và ajjhàvasathà và uggaõheyya và uggaõhàpeyya và, pàcittiyaü.

Ratanaü và pana bhikkhunà ratanasammataü và ajjhàràme và ajjhàvasathe
và uggahetvà và uggahàpetvà và nikkhipitabbaü: ßYassa bhavissati, so
harissatãû-ti. Ayaü tattha sàmãci.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 440] [\x 440/]

Pàc 85: Vikàlagàmappavesanasikkhàpadaü: 24

Yo pana bhikkhu santaü bhikkhuü anàpucchà vikàle gàmaü paviseyya, a¤¤atra tathàråpà accàyikà karaõãyà, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 444] [\x 444/]

Pàc 86: Såcigharasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu 25 aññhimayaü và dantamayaü và visàõamayaü và såcigharaü kàràpeyya, bhedanakaü, pàcittiyaü.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 446] [\x 446/]

Pàc 87: Ma¤casikkhàpadaü:


Navaü pana bhikkhunà ma¤caü và pãñhaü
và kàrayamànena aññhaïgulapàdakaü kàretabbaü Sugataïgulena, a¤¤atra
heññhimàya añaniyà. Taü atikkàmayato, chedanakaü, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 450] [\x 450/]

Pàc 88: Tålonaddhasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu ma¤caü và pãñhaü và tålonaddhaü kàràpeyya, uddàlanakaü, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 452] [\x 452/]

Pàc 89: Nisãdanasikkhàpadaü:


Nisãdanaü pana bhikkhunà kàrayamànena
pamàõikaü kàretabbaü. Tatridaü pamàõaü: dãghaso dve vidatthiyo
Sugatavidatthiyà, tiriyaü diyaóóhaü, dasà vidatthi. Taü atikkàmayato,
chedanakaü, pàcittiyaü.

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 456] [\x 456/]

Pàc 90: Kaõóupañicchàdisikkhàpadaü:


Kaõóupañicchàdiü pana bhikkhunà kàrayamànena pamàõikà kàretabbà. Tatridaü 26 pamàõaü: dãghaso catasso vidatthiyo Sugatavidatthiyà, tiriyaü dve vidatthiyo. Taü atikkàmayato, chedanakaü, pàcittiyaü.


[BJT Vol II (I), Page 458] [\x 458/]

Pàc 91: Vassikasàñikasikkhàpadaü:


Vassikasàñikaü pana bhikkhunà kàrayamànena pamàõikà kàretabbà. Tatridaü 27 pamàõaü: dãghaso cha vidatthiyo Sugatavidatthiyà, tiriyaü aóóhateyyà. Taü atikkàmayato, chedanakaü, pàcittiyaü.


 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 460] [\x 460/]

Pàc 92: Nandattherasikkhàpadaü:


Yo pana bhikkhu Sugatacãvarappamàõaü cãvaraü kàràpeyya atirekaü và, chedanakaü, pàcittiyaü.

Tatridaü 28
Sugatassa Sugatacãvarappamàõaü: dãghaso nava vidatthiyo
Sugatavidatthiyà, tiriyaü cha vidatthiyo. Idaü Sugatassa
Sugatacãvarappamàõaü.


Ràjavaggo navamo


 

 

[BJT Vol II (I), Page 462] [\x 462/]

Uddiññhà kho àyasmanto dvenavuti pàcittiyà dhammà.
Tatthàyasmante pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?
Dutiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Tatiyam-pi pucchàmi: kaccittha parisuddhà?

Parisuddhetthàyasmanto, tasmà tuõhã, evam-etaü dhàrayàmi.



Pàcittiyà niññhità

 

Next Section

 


End Notes

 

15 BJT note: Uttari - ChS.


16 BJT note: Therà bhikkhå - ChS.


17 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhikkhå - printer’s error.


18 BJT note: Uddhaü gàmaniü - ChS.


19 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhikkhå - printer’s error.


20 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhikkhå - printer’s error.


21 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhikkhå - printer’s error.


22 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhikkhå - printer’s error.


23 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhikkhå - printer’s error.


24 Editor’s note: BJT, against its normal practice writes the title as two words: Vikàle gàmappavesanasikkhàpadaü.


25 Editor’s note: BJT, Bhikkhå - printer’s error.


26 Editor’s note: BJT, Tatrãdaü - BJT wavers between Tatridaü & tatrãdaü, for the sake of consistency the former spelling has been preferred here.


27 Editor’s note: BJT, Tatrãdaü - see note above.


28 Editor’s note: BJT, Tatrãdaü - see note above.


comments (0)
927 LESSON 22-05-2013 WEDNESDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY- 23-05-2013 Thursday 2.30 PM Venue: Indira Gandhi Institute of Child health, Hosur Road, Bengaluru Children Service Led by Shri K.N.Srinivas Chairman, Amar Jyothi Educational Institutions, Bengaluru Service by Samyak Prabodhan, Bangalore ________________________________________________________________________________________ Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi MISUSE OF EVM _ PART - 12 AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Virtual-Assistant-Small-Business-Idea.htm Virtual Assistant Small Business Idea The Pros and Cons of Starting a Virtual Assistant Business
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:45 am

927 LESSON 22-05-2013 WEDNESDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-


23-05-2013        Thursday           2.30 PM
Venue: Indira Gandhi Institute of Child health, Hosur Road, Bengaluru

Children Service

Led by

Shri K.N.Srinivas
Chairman, Amar Jyothi Educational Institutions, Bengaluru

Service by

Samyak Prabodhan, Bangalore

________________________________________________________________________________________

Bhikkhupàtimokkhapàëi

MISUSE OF EVM _ PART - 12


AWAKENED ONE WITH AWARENESS ONE’S FAIR TRADE PRACTICE

http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/a/small-business-ideas.htm
http://sbinformation.about.com/od/business-ideas/qt/Virtual-Assistant-Small-Business-Idea.htm


Virtual Assistant Small Business Idea

The Pros and Cons of Starting a Virtual Assistant Business

A virtual assistant is a business owner who supports other small
business owners or entrepreneurs in a variety of industries by providing
administrative, creative and/or technical services.

As outsourcing becomes a standard process for small business owners
everywhere, more and more entrepreneurs will be looking to virtual
assistants for help in advancing their businesses.

If you thrive on collaborating with other small business owners, can
think on your feet and enjoy taking control of and improving scattered
processes, a virtual assistant small business may be the perfect business idea for you.

The Pros

Some of the reasons you might want to start a virtual assistant business include:

  • Your business can be entirely home-based.
  • Startup costs are minimal, especially if you already have a home office set up.
  • You can provide general business support services, or specialize
    in a specific area such as real estate, social media, Internet
    marketing, etc.
  • You can create a business with flexible work hours.
  • There are hundreds of high-quality resources online to advance your skills, knowledge and experience.
  • You get to use exciting and fun software and tools every day.
  • You can grow your business to the point where you outsource extra work to subcontractors.
  • There is no specific education, training or certifications required to become a virtual assistant.
  • You can provide ongoing services for your clients and create long-term relationships.

The Cons

Some of the potential challenges of starting a virtual assistant business include:

  • It can be difficult to get clients when you first start your business.
  • You may find that you’re competing with offshore support people who charge a very low hourly rate.
  • As the industry grows, so does your competition.
  • It can be difficult to identify the right rate to charge.
  • You have to be willing to continuously keep up with technology and expand your knowledge.
  • You have to be careful to maintain independent contractors status as defined by the IRS.
  • You may find it challenging to work with clients who are used to hiring employees instead of delegating to another business owner.
  • Your work could be high-stress and deadline-driven.
  • You may need liability insurance, depending on the services you offer.

Recommended Resources

21-05-2013
    •    MISUSE OF EVM _ PART -11
    •   
    •    New voter verifiable paper trail (VVPT) machines to replace the EVMs, following doubts that it could be tampered.Voting Machines are “Calculators which can be manipulated by computer softwares”.  New Machines are ordered by EC, where a paper slip will come out with EVM voting which will be then deposited in a box. What is the use? Paper Slip will show that voter has casted vote for “Party A”, but calculator software will add vote to “Party B”! The Computers are programmable. No use for such fake paper slips. In Superior Courts it  has been demonstrated how these computers can be manipulated and how it can be pre-programmed to make sure victory to one candidate during election. The EVM machines have killed Democracy and have all the potentials to do so. The ruling castes are manipulating EVMs to make sure victory to them depriving the dipressed classes  to enable them to acquire the MASTER KEY that can unlock all doors of progress to the entire people.
    •     


    •    Under such circumstances the following exposure by media had no relevance during the last Karnataka Assembly Elections 2013 where the Congress won and the trend will continue in the forth coming General Elections until the Superior Court and the upholders of Democracy including the free and fair media.
6 Benefits and Risks of Source Availability


Open and disclosed source software present options for improving the performance and public scrutiny of computerized voting systems as they become even more complex. In this section we try to ascertain potential benefits and risks involved in these two models and use this information to evaluate various policy options. Here, we highlight the risks and benefits of both open s