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11112 Thursday LESSON 739 -மனதின் முன்னோடியே எண்ணம்.மனமே முதன்மையானது. வஞ்சக எண்ணத்துடன் உருவாகும் பேச்சு அல்லது செயற்பாடு காரணமாக ஏற்படும் துக்கம், சுமைவண்டியை இழுத்துச் செல்லும் மாட்டின் குளம்புச்சுவட்டை சக்கரம் போன்று பின்தொடரும்.-திரிபிடகம் மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் up a levelTIPITAKA- All mental phenomena have mind as their forerunner; they have mind as their chief; they are mind-made. If one speaks or acts with an evil mind, ‘dukkha’ follows him just as the wheel follows the hoofprint of the ox that draws the cart. from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org இல்லறத்தாரோடும், துறவிகளோடும் கலக்காமல், ஆசைகளை குறைத்துக் கொண்ட தேவைகளில் பற்றுத்லை ஏற்படுத்திக் கொள்ளாதவரையே நான் பிராமணர் என அழைப்பேன். Verse 404: Him I call a brahmana, who associates not with the householder or with the homeless one, or with both, who is free from sensual desire and has few wants.
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Posted by: @ 11:58 pm

11112 Thursday LESSON 739  -மனதின் முன்னோடியே எண்ணம்.மனமே முதன்மையானது. வஞ்சக எண்ணத்துடன் உருவாகும் பேச்சு அல்லது செயற்பாடு காரணமாக ஏற்படும் துக்கம், சுமைவண்டியை இழுத்துச் செல்லும் மாட்டின்  குளம்புச்சுவட்டை சக்கரம் போன்று பின்தொடரும்.-திரிபிம்  மூன்று தொகுப்புள் up a levelTIPITAKA- All mental phenomena have mind as their forerunner; they have
mind as their chief; they are mind-made. If one speaks or acts with an
evil mind, ‘dukkha’ follows him just as the wheel follows the hoofprint
of the ox that draws the cart.
from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

இல்லறத்தாரோடும், துறவிகளோடும் கலக்காமல், ஆசைகளை குறைத்துக் கொண்ட தேவைகளில் பற்றுத்லை ஏற்படுத்திக் கொள்ளாதவரையே நான் பிராமணர் என அழைப்பேன்.

Verse 404: Him I call a brahmana, who associates not with the householder or with the homeless one, or with both, who is free from sensual desire and has few wants.

மனோ புப்பங்கமாதம்மா
மனோ ஸெட்டா மனோமயா
மனஸா சே பதுட்டேன -
பாஸதி வா கரோதி வா
ததோ நங் மண்வெதி
சக்கங்வ வஹதோ பதங்

Manopubbangama dhamma1
manosettha manomaya
manasa ce padutthena2
bhasati va karoti va
tato nam dukkhamanveti
cakkamva vahato padam.

All mental phenomena have mind as their forerunner; they have
mind as their chief; they are mind-made. If one speaks or acts with an
evil mind, ‘dukkha’ follows him just as the wheel follows the hoofprint
of the ox that draws the cart.


Explanation: All that we experience begins with thought. Our
words and deeds spring from thought. If we speak or act with evil
thoughts, unpleasant circumstances and experiences inevitably result.
Wherever we go, we create bad circumstances because we carry bad thoughts.
This is very much like the wheel of a cart following the hoofs of
the ox yoked to the cart. The cart-wheel, along with the heavy load
of the cart, keeps following the draught oxen. The animal is bound
to this heavy load and cannot leave it.

The Story of Thera Cakkhupala

While residing at the Jetavana monastery in Savatthi, the Buddha uttered
Verse (1) of this book, with reference to Cakkhupala, a blind thera.

On one occasion, Thera Cakkhupala came to pay homage to the Buddha at the
Jetavana monastery. One night, while pacing up and down in meditation, the thera
accidentally stepped on some insects. In the morning, some bhikkhus visiting the
thera found the dead insects. They thought ill of the thera and reported the
matter to the Buddha. The Buddha asked them whether they had seen the thera
killing the insects. When they answered in the negative, the Buddha said,
“Just as you had not seen him killing, so also he had not seen those living
insects. Besides, as the thera had already attained arahatship he could have no
intention of killing and so was quite innocent.”
On being asked why
Cakkhupala was blind although he was an arahat, the Buddha told the following
story:

Cakkhupala was a physician in one of his past existences. Once, he had
deliberately made a woman patient blind. That woman had promised him to become
his slave, together with her children, if her eyes were completely cured.
Fearing that she and her children would have to become slaves, she lied to the
physician. She told him that her eyes were getting worse when, in fact, they
were perfectly cured. The physician knew she was deceiving him, so in revenge,
he gave her another ointment, which made her totally blind. As a result of this
evil deed the physician lost his eyesight many times in his later existences.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 1: All mental phenomena have mind as their forerunner; they
have mind as their chief; they are mind-made. If one speaks or acts
with an evil mind, ‘dukkha‘ follows him just as the wheel
follows the hoofprint of the ox that draws the cart.

At the end of the discourse, thirty thousand bhikkhus attained arahatship
together with Analytical Insight (Patisambhida).



Verse 404. A Brahmana Is He Who Has No Intimacy With Any

Aloof alike from laity
and those gone forth to homelessness,
who wanders with no home or wish,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: He does not establish extensive contact either
with laymen or with the homeless. He is not attached to the way of
life of the householder. He is content with the bare minimum of needs.
I call that person a true brahmana.




Dhammapada Verse 404
Pabbharavasitissatthera Vatthu

Asamsattham gahatthehi
anagarehi cubhayam
anokasari mappiccham
tamaham brumi brahmanam.

Verse 404: Him I call a brahmana, who
associates not with the householder or with the homeless one, or with both, who
is free from sensual desire and has few wants.


The Story of Thera Tissa

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (404) of this book with reference to Thera
Tissa.

Thera Tissa, after taking a
subject of meditation from the Buddha, went to a mountain side. There, he found
a cave which suited him and he decided to spend the three months of the rainy
season (vassa) in that cave. So he stayed in the cave and went to the village
for alms-food every morning. In the village, there was a certain elderly woman
who regularly offered him alms-food. In the cave, there also lived the guardian
spirit of the cave. As the thera was one whose practice of morality was pure,
the cave-spirit dared not live in the same cave with the noble thera; at the
same time, he did not have the courage to ask the thera to leave the place. So
he thought of a plan that would enable him to find fault with the thera and thus
cause him to leave the cave.

The cave-spirit possessed the son
of the elderly woman from the house where the thera usually went for his
alms-food. He caused the boy to behave in a very peculiar way, turning his head
backwards, and rolling his wide open eyes. His mother got alarmed and was in
tears. The cave-spirit, who possessed the boy, then said “Let your teacher,
the thera, wash his feet with water and pour that water on the head of your
son.” The next day when the thera came to her house for alms-food, she did
as she was advised by the cave-spirit and the boy was left in peace. The
cave-spirit went back to the cave and waited at the entrance for the return of
the thera. When the thera returned from his alms-round, the cave-spirit revealed
himself and said, “I am the spirit guarding this cave. O you physician, do
not enter this cave.” The thera knew that he had lived a clean life from
the day he had become a thera, so he replied that he did not remember practising
medicine. Then the cave-spirit accused him that in that very morning he had
cured a young boy possessed by an ogre at the house of the elderly woman. But
the thera reflected that it was not, in fact, practising medicine and he
realized that even the cave spirit could find no other fault with him. That gave
him a delightful satisfaction (piti) with himself, and abandoning piti
and concentrating hard on Insight Meditation he attained arahatship then and
there, while still standing at the entrance to the cave.

As the thera had now become an
arahat, he advised the cave-spirit to leave the cave. The thera continued to
stay there till the end of the vassa, and then he returned to the Buddha. When
he told the other bhikkhus about his encounter with the cave-spirit, they asked
him whether he did not get angry with the cave-spirit when he was forbidden to
enter the cave. The thera answered in the negative but they did not believe him.
So they went to the Buddha and said, “Thera Tissa claims himself to be an
arahat ; he is not speaking the truth.” To them the Buddha replied,
“Bhikkhus, my son Tissa was speaking the truth when he said he did not get
angry. He has indeed become an arahat he is no longer attached to anyone; he has
no occasion to get angry with anyone nor any need to associate with
others.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 404: Him I call
a brahmana, who associates not with the householder or with the
homeless one, or with both, who is free from sensual desire and has
few wants.

ECONOMY OF THE AWAKEN ONE WITH AWARENESS (AOA) is to provide all people with a minimum income

PRACTICE GOODNESS,TRADE & BUSINESS.BE HAPPY, WELL, SECURE,WISE,ALERT,ATTENTIVE & HAVE EQUANIMITY MIND WITH CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT EVERYTHING IS CHANGING
VOTE BSP FOR THAT CHANGE TO ACQUIRE THE MASTER KEY OF POLITICAL POWER BY WHICH YOU CAN OPEN ALL THE DOORS OF PROGRESS.

 ECONOMY OF THE AWAKEN ONES WITH AWARENESS (AOA)

The AOA assert that, “The way to change the world is to change the nature of man,”that offers Insight to Improve Conditions for Planet, Inhabitants.

The world needs waves of reforms.

Generate an opportunity to set the world on a more equitable and sustainable path of development.

The spirit to care not just for ourselves but for others, lies at the heart of AOA- and, indeed, all of the world’s great religions.

These thoughts challenge families, communities and nations to act in concert for the advancement of our common well-being.

That is the best way to secure individual and collective progress in an interdependent world.

We must also change longstanding assumptions and open our minds to new ideas and possible solutions if we are to address major global threats, from the proliferation of deadly weapons to intolerance and inequality.

We must invite AOA and people of all traditions to use the occasion to reflect on how we can change our actions to pave the way for a more sustainable future.

AOA bequeathed to humanity profound thoughts that can guide our efforts to resolve the severe problems facing today’s world.

Injunction against the three poisons of greed, anger and ignorance is especially relevant to multilateral efforts to overcome the hunger that needlessly affects nearly a billion people in a world of plenty, the brutal violence that takes millions of lives each year, and the senseless environmental damage that humans cause to our only home, the planet Earth.

Socio-economic development may sound modern, but its core is the very problem of human suffering that was addressed more than 2,500 years ago.

Numerous AOA organizations are putting these thoughts into practice. Their support is for activities to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
Our blueprint is for enabling all people to enjoy lives of dignity and opportunity.

Let us draw on the universal values of AOA to act in solidarity with those who are suffering, thereby contributing to a more compassionate and awakened world for all.

ECONOMY OF THE AWAKEN ONES WITH AWARENESS (AOA) is to provide all people with a minimum income.

Radiation theory sees the economy prospering through the virtuous actions of individuals following the moral law.

AOA accept existing political and economic institutions, even while providing a democratic social ethos revolutionary for its time.

King Asoka the great, pursued a highly activist fiscal policy even though he believed meditation could help people to advance in moral living.

AOA places great stress on gift giving.

Income Redistribution in the Ideal State

Through the laws of cause and condition there is a distributive cycle of one’s current social and economic position is due to one’s good cause and condition accumulated in the past. This does not mean indifference to the poor, for one’s economic status is not only dependent on the laws of cause and condition, but is also complemented by the moral virtues of compassion and generosity.’ Alms giving to the poor is regarded as increasing one’s merit The importance of our active intervention has some important implications for behavior of the “righteous ruler” as well.

AOA kings are also known for the financial aid which they provided for the poor; indeed, the kings were advised to give their gifts to all who are poor. Moreover, gifts to the those who practice AOA do not prevent them from providing a refuge for the destitute or from redistributing such beneficence to the indigent.

Redistribution of income, either through the public or private sectors, is certainly regarded in a favorable light. In order to favor the spiritual improvement of the population, the State is justified in taking steps to provide all people with a minimum income.

Radiation: Virtue as a Positive Externality

AOA theory of radiation sees the economy prospering through the collective impact of the virtuous actions of individuals.

AOA argue that since the economy can ultimately prosper only through virtuous action, ultimately the only hope for prosperity lies in a regeneration of human kind, e.g., through the cultivation of the Four Sublime Abodes (loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity). Any appropriate good action inevitably leads to an increase of the material wealth of the community.

Trade Through the Market

AOA discussion on right livelihood prohibits trade in certain goods and services, which means that all other types of trade are apparently allowed (but not explicitly approved). In an interesting comparison between trading and agriculture as means of livelihood, the AOA also notes that both can bring high or low returns, depending on the circumstances; however, trading is an occupation with little to do, few duties, a small administration, and small problems, while agriculture is the reverse. The capable merchant is approvingly said to know the value of goods and prices and the profits he obtains; and to buy where the price is low and to sell where the price is high.

A merchant who was generous to the cause was highly praised for his piety.

AOA accepts competition in general in the sense that it is possible to compete without hurting others,excel in virtue.

“prizes in the school of life that each may strive for to obtain…. If a man chooses to interpret this as free competition, it is still competition without rivalry, for victory to oneself does not mean the defeat of someone else.”

Economic Policies

Description of the origins of property also discusses the origins of the State. As crime increased after the division of the land, the people elected a king to maintain law and order, paying him for his troubles. This suggests a type of social contract theory, which means that the king has important obligations toward the people.

Some of the discussion about economic policy are traditional Ten Royal Precepts of Kingship: generosity, morality, liberality, uprightness, gentleness, self-restraint, non-anger, non-hurtfulness, forbearance, and non-opposition.

However, more practical advice can also be found. For instance, one of the sources, speaks of the Royal Acts to increase prosperity which include giving of seed corn and food to farmers and of capital to merchants to start or increase their business. The particular source emphasizes that if prosperity increases, economic disorders and crime such as theft decrease.

Additional insight into State economic activities can be gained by examining the records of some of the “righteous rulers” who are revered by the AOA. It should be noted that because of the participation of the State in the operations of the irrigation systems in many of these countries, the crown had a fairly active role in the economy.

The prototypical important righteous ruler was the revered King Asoka (Ashoka) (ca. 274-232 B.C.E.), the grandson of the founder of the Mauryan dynasty in indict and one of the greatest of the emperors. From Asoka’s edicts it appears that he generally accepted the economic and political institutions of his time.

However, he also took as the goal of statecraft the welfare and happiness of the people. He adopted a highly activist fiscal policy, both with regard to current and capital expenditures. For instance, he gave gifts to the aged, other needy, and religious orders; he set up public education courses to teach the doctrines of Rule of the Law; he cut back on large public festivals; he imported and planted medicinal herbs; and he carried out various public works projects such as digging of wells, planting of trees, construction of rest houses and animal watering stations along main roads in the empire. Some of his edicts appeared to enforce traditional AOA beliefs, e.g, bans on slaughtering various animals. The funds spent on the maintenance of the crown and good works were high, e.g., taxes were apparently about one fourth of the revenue of land.

Still another righteous ruler was King Ruang  who lived in the 14th century in Thailand, long after the canonical scriptures had been completed. Ruang stated quite clearly that a righteous king brings prosperity to his subjects. He apparently had a much less luxurious court or a less activist governmental expenditure policy than Asoka, since he advised that taxes should be less than 10 percent of the crop (and less in a drought) and that such taxes should never be higher than those of the preceding king. He also urged that the State provide interest free loans to those wishing to engage in commerce and that no profit taxes should be placed upon such commercial activities.

Awaken Ones with Awareness (AOA) and Politics

The Awaken Ones with Awareness (AOA) goes beyond all worldly affairs, but still give advice on good government.

The AoA comes from a warrior caste and naturally brings into association with kings, princes and ministers. Despite the origin and association, never resort to the influence of political power to introduce the thoughts nor allowed the Thoughts to be misused for gaining political power. But today, many politicians try to drag the AOA’s name into politics by introducing  as a communist, capitalist, or even an imperialist. They have forgotten that the new political philosophy as we know it really developed in the West long after the AOA’s time. Those who try to make use of the good name of the  AOA for their own personal advantage must remember that the  AOA was the Supremely Awaken One who had gone beyond all worldly concerns.

There is an inherent problem of trying to intermingle religion with politics. The basis of religion is morality, purity and faith, while that for politics is power. In the course of history, religion has often been used to give legitimacy to those in power and their exercise of that power.

Religion was used to justify wars and conquests, persecutions, atrocities, rebellions, destruction of works of art and culture.

When religion is used to pander to political whims, it has to forego its high moral ideals and become debased by worldly political demands.

The thrust of the  AOA Rule of Law is not directed to the creation of new political institutions and establishing political arrangements. Basically, it seeks to approach the problems of society by reforming the individuals constituting that society and by suggesting some general principles through which the society can be guided towards greater humanism, improved welfare of its members, and more equitable sharing of resources.

There is a limit to the extent to which a political system can safeguard the happiness and prosperity of its people. No political system, no matter how ideal it may appear to be, can bring about peace and happiness as long as the people in the system are dominated by greed, hatred and delusion. In addition, no matter what political system is adopted, there are certain universal factors which the members of that society will have to experience: the effects of good and bad Cause and Condition, the lack of real satisfaction or everlasting happiness in the world characterized by unsatisfactoriness, impermanence), and egolessness. To the  AOA, nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama.

Although a good and just political system which guarantees basic human rights and contains checks and balances to the use of power is an important condition for a happy in society, people should not fritter away their time by endlessly searching for the ultimate political system where men can be completely free, because complete freedom cannot be found in any system but only in minds which are free. To be free, people will have to look within their own minds and work towards freeing themselves from the chains of ignorance and craving. Freedom in the truest sense is only possible when a person uses Rule of Law to develop his character through good speech and action and to train his mind so as to expand his mental potential and achieve his ultimate aim of awaken-ness.

While recognizing the usefulness of separating religion from politics and the limitations of political systems in bringing about peace and happiness, there are several aspects of the  AOA’s thoughts which have close correspondence to the political arrangements of the present day.

Firstly, the  AOA spoke about the equality of all human beings long before Abraham Lincoln, and that classes and castes are artificial barriers erected by society. The only classification of human beings, according to the  AOA, is based on the quality of their moral conduct.

Secondly, the  AOA encouraged the spirit of social -co-operation and active participation in society. This spirit is actively promoted in the political process of modern societies.

Thirdly, since no one was appointed as the  AOA’s successor, the members of the Order were to be guided by the Rule of Law. Until today very member of the Order is to abide by the Rule of Law which governs and guides their conduct.

Fourthly, the  AOA encouraged the spirit of consultation and the democratic process. This is shown within the community of the Order in which all members have the right to decide on matters of general concern. When a serious question arose demanding attention, the issues were put before the followers of AOA and discussed in a manner similar to the democratic parliamentary system used today. This self-governing procedure may come as a surprise to many to learn that in the assemblies of  AOAs in Jambudvipa 2,500 years and more ago are to be found the rudiments of the parliamentary practice of the present day. A special officer similar to ‘Mr. Speaker’ was appointed to preserve the dignity of the Parliamentary Chief Whip, was also appointed to see if the quorum was secured. Matters were put forward in the form of a motion which was open to discussion. In some cases it was done once, in others three times, thus anticipating the practice of Parliament in requiring that a bill be read a third time before it becomes law. If the discussion showed a difference of opinion, it was to be settled by the vote of the majority through balloting.

The  AOA approach to political power is the moralization and the responsible use of public power. The  AOA preach non-violence and peace as a universal message. It did not approve of violence or the destruction of life, and declared that there is no such thing as a ‘just’ war.

It teaches: ‘The victor breeds hatred, the defeated lives in misery. He who renounces both victory and defeat is happy and peaceful.’ Not only did the AOA teach non-violence and peace, It was perhaps the first and only  teacher who went to the battlefield personally to prevent the outbreak of a war. It diffused tension between the Sakyas and the Koliyas who were about to wage war over the waters of Rohini. It also dissuaded King Ajatasattu from attacking the Kingdom of the Vajjis.

The  AOA discussed the importance and the prerequisites of a good government. It shows how the country could become corrupt, degenerate and unhappy when the head of the government becomes corrupt and unjust. It speaks against corruption and how a government should act based on humanitarian principles.

The  AOA says, ‘When the ruler of a country is just and good, the ministers become just and good; when the ministers are just and good, the higher officials become just and good; when the higher officials are just and good, the rank and file become just and good; when the rank and file become just and good, the people become just and good.

The  AOA says that immorality and crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty, could arise from poverty. Kings and governments may try to suppress crime through punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through force.

The  AOA suggests economic development instead of force to reduce crime. The government should use the country’s resources to improve the economic conditions of the country. It could embark on agricultural and rural development, provide financial support to entrepreneurs and business, provide adequate wages for workers to maintain a decent life with human dignity.

The  AOA gives rules for Good Government.  These ten rules can be applied even today by any government which wishes to rule the country peacefully. The rules are as follows:

1) be liberal and avoid selfishness,

2) maintain a high moral character,

3) be prepared to sacrifice one’s own pleasure for the well-being of the subjects,

4) be honest and maintain absolute integrity,

5) be kind and gentle,

6) lead a simple life for the subjects to emulate,

7) be free from hatred of any kind,

8) exercise non-violence,

9) practice patience, and

10) respect public opinion to promote peace and harmony.

Regarding the behavior of rulers, It is further advised:

- A good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and discriminate between one particular group of subjects against another.

- A good ruler should not harbor any form of hatred against any of his subjects.

- A good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if it is justifiable.

- A good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be enforced. It should not be enforced just because the ruler has the authority to enforce the law. It must be done in a reasonable manner and with common sense.

‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent, immoral, improper, unable and unworthy of kingship, has enthroned himself a king or a ruler with great authority, he is subject to be tortured‚ to be subject to a variety of punishment by the people, because, being unfit and unworthy, he has placed himself unrighteously in the seat of sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and transgress moral codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is equally subject to punishment; and moreover, to be censured is the ruler who conducts himself as a robber of the public. It is mentioned that a ruler who punishes innocent people and does not punish the culprit is not suitable to rule a country.

The king always improves himself and carefully examines his own conduct in deeds, words and thoughts, trying to discover and listen to public opinion as to whether or not he had been guilty of any faults and mistakes in ruling the kingdom. If it is found that he rules unrighteously, the public will complain that they are ruined by the wicked ruler with unjust treatment, punishment, taxation, or other oppressions including corruption of any kind, and they will react against him in one way or another. On the contrary, if he rules righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His Majesty.’

The AOA’s emphasis on the moral duty of a ruler to use public power to improve the welfare of the people had inspired Emperor Asoka in the Third Century B.C. to do likewise. Emperor Asoka, a sparkling example of this principle, resolved to live according to and preach the Rule of Law and to serve his subjects and all humanity. He declared his non-aggressive intentions to his neighbors, assuring them of his goodwill and sending envoys to distant kings bearing his message of peace and non-aggression. He promoted the energetic practice of the socio-moral virtues of honesty, truthfulness, compassion, benevolence, non-violence, considerate behavior towards all, non-extravagance, non-acquisitiveness, and non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious freedom and mutual respect for each other’s creed. He went on periodic tours preaching the Rule of Law to the rural people. He undertook works of public utility, such as founding of hospitals for men and animals, supplying of medicine, planting of roadside trees and groves, digging of wells, and construction of watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly forbade cruelty to animals.

Sometimes the  AOA is said to be a social reformer. Among other things, He condemned the caste system, recognized the equality of people, speaks on the need to improve socio-economic conditions, recognized the importance of a more equitable distribution of wealth among the rich and the poor, raises the status of women, recommends the incorporation of humanism in government and administration, and teach that a society should not be run by greed but with consideration and compassion for the people. Despite all these, the contribution to mankind is much greater because it takes off at a point which no other social reformer before or ever since had done, that is, by going to the deepest roots of human ill which are found in the human mind. It is only in the human mind that true reform can be effected. Reforms imposed by force upon the external world have a very short life because they have no roots. But those reforms which spring as a result of the transformation of man’s inner consciousness remain rooted. While their branches spread outwards, they draw their nourishment from an unfailing source — the subconscious imperatives of the life-stream itself. So reforms come about when men’s minds have prepared the way for them, and they live as long as men revitalize them out of their own love of truth, justice and their fellow men.

The doctrine preached by the  AOA is not one based on ‘Political Philosophy’. Nor is it a doctrine that encourages men to worldly pleasures. It sets out a way to attain Eternal Bliss as final goal. In other words, its ultimate aim is to put an end to craving  that keeps them in bondage to this world.’The path that leads to worldly gain is one, and the path that leads to Eternal Bliss as final goal (by leading a religious life)is another.’

However, this does not mean that  AOAs cannot or should not get involved in the political process, which is a social reality. The lives of the members of a society are shaped by laws and regulations, economic arrangements allowed within a country, institutional arrangements, which are influenced by the political arrangements of that society. Nevertheless, if a  AOA wishes to be involved in politics, it should not misuse religion to gain political powers, nor is it advisable for those who have renounced the worldly life to lead a pure, religious life to be actively involved in politics.

Putting Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) to Work:

A New Approach to Management and Business

Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economics: The Emerging Middle Path between Capitalism and Socialism

A novel approach to economic management that goes beyond socialism and capitalism. The proposed economics for the 21st century is ‘Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economics’.

Based on the insight of the Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) that spiritual liberation is attained by avoiding extremes, whether by indulgence in worldly pleasures or severe asceticism, and treading namely ‘ the Middle Way ‘,  ‘Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economics ‘ is recommended as the ideal middle path between the competing models of capitalism and socialism. Both these systems, have failed to contain the relentless destruction of the natural environment and the human community, thereby forcing leading executives and planners to search for new solutions for planetary problems.

Best aspects of both capitalist and socialist economic systems is drawn in  ‘ Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economics ‘ model. It supports the conventional forces of a free market and competition without destroying either nature or human society. Alternate vision of sustainable economics is meant to be more just and more ecologically sound.

Inspired by the fundamental AOA insight of the inter-connectedness existing among all living things, that AOA, Economics and Ecology are all inter-related. There is a heavy emphasis on the concept of freedom as understood in AOA in contrast to the Western concept of ‘freedom’. In the West ‘freedom’ revolves around the rights of the individual i.e. freedom to do what one wishes. In AOA, ‘freedom’ means freedom from personal desires or attachments.

An AOA approach to economics requires an understanding that economics and a moral and spiritual life are neither separate nor mutually exclusive. The 20th Century has been ravaged by a materialistic, self-centered consumerism. The next century needs to focus on the quality and spirituality of life itself. AOA, which advocates the ‘Middle Path’, serves as an important resource to pursue an alternative to the extremes of capitalism and socialism, or pure self-interest and utter self-negation.

The Essence of Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economics

Three key phrases are identified that underlie the model of Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economics.
They are:

1) an economics that benefits oneself and others

2) an economics of tolerance and peace

3) an economics that can save the earth.

An Economics that benefits oneself and others

Theory of free enterprise based on the concept of self-benefit is developed. This led to people being more concerned with enriching themselves and disregarding the interests of others. At the international level, major colonial powers such as England, Netherlands, France, Portugal and Spain developed their economies from the resources taken from other poorer regions, without an adequate resulting benefit accruing to the colonies. In contrast, the earlier AOA societies such as Jambudvipa during the time of the AOA or Japan during the time of Prince Shotuku ( 574 - 622 AD ) existed with a radically different social approach. In Japanese society where the density of population was high, human relations were tightly interwoven, and Japanese people were encouraged to pay great attention to how other people thought or reacted. In the Japanese world of business, earning the trust of others and entering into mutually beneficial transactions have always been given priority. Such conduct was the result of deep-seated AOA influence.

The Western obsession with ’self-benefit ‘ and indifference to the rights of non-European people has been well analysed by former  diplomat K.M.Panikkar in his ground breaking book ‘Asia and Western Domination - A Survey of the Vasco De Gama Epoch of Asian History 1498 - 1945, published in 1953. Panikkar says that western colonial powers were reluctant to recognise that doctrines of international law applied outside Europe or that European nations had any moral obligations when dealing with Asian people. For example, when Britain insisted on the opium trade against the laws of China in the 19th Century, there was a prohibition by law on opium smoking in England. In countries under direct British occupation eg. India, Ceylon and Burma, though there were equal rights established by law, there was considerable reservation in enforcing the law against Europeans. Maurice Collis, a British magistrate in Burma, gives a rare candid account in his book ‘Trials in Burma’ ( 1938 ) about the pressures brought upon him by the members of the Colonial Government and the British expatriate community, to be partial towards Europeans in his judgments. Panikkar avers that this doctrine of different rights (which made a mockery of the concept of the Rule of Law) persisted to the very end of western colonial domination and was a prime cause of Europe’s ultimate failure in Asia.

An Economics of Tolerance and Peace

Emperor Asoka established the world’s first welfare state in the third century BC upon embracing AOA approach. He renounced the idea of conquest by the sword. In contrast to the western concept of ‘ Rule of Law ‘, Asoka embarked upon a ‘policy of piety or rule of righteousness’. The basic assumption of this policy of piety was that the ruler who serves as a moral model would be more effective than one who rules purely by strict law enforcement. The right method of governing is not only by legislation and law enforcement, but also by promoting the moral education of the people. Asoka began by issuing edicts concerning the ideas and practice of Rule of Law, dealing with universal law and social order. Realizing that poverty eroded the social fabric, one of his first acts was to fund social welfare and other public projects. Asoka’s ideals involved promoting policies for the benefit of everyone in society, treating all his subjects as if they were his children and protecting religion. He built hospitals, animal welfare shelters and enforced a ban on owning slaves and killing. He gave recognition to animal rights in a number of his rock edicts and accepted state responsibility for the protection of animals. Animal sacrifice was forbidden by law.

An important aspect of Asoka’s economics of peace was tolerance. In one of his rock edicts, Asoka calls for religious freedom and tolerance, and declares that by respecting someone else’s religion, one brings credit to one’s own religion. The idea of religious tolerance only emerged in the West in 1689 with the publication of John Locke’s book ‘ A Letter Concerning Toleration ‘.

From a AOA perspective, politics can be summed up by the wheel turner, which means a king or political ruler who protects his people and the AOA teachings. Asoka was the prototype of this ruler whose political ideas were to inspire a countless number of other Asian Emperors and rulers. One enthusiastic follower of Asoka in Japan was Prince Shotuku. (574 - 622 AD ). An ardent believer in AOA approach, Shotukti drafted a 17 Article Constitution (the first AOA approach Constitution of Japan), which was promulgated in 604 AD. Shotuku appeals neither to ’self-evident truths ‘ (as in the American Constitution ) nor to some divine right of kings as the basis of law. Instead he begins pragmatically by stating that if society is to work efficiently for the good of all, then people must restrain factionalism and learn to work together. A key feature of this Constitution is the emphasis placed on resolving differences by appeals to harmony and common good, using the procedure of consensus. This approach is in marked contrast to the western view that factions can be controlled only legally by a balance of powers. Decision making by consensus is a significant characteristic of Japanese society. Every effort is made to ensure that minority dissident factions are not allowed to lose face.

The influence of AOA approach in Japan was such that in 792 AD Emperor Kammu (781 - 806 AD) despite constant threats from Korea, abolished the 100 year old national army, except for one regiment to guard the region near Korea. National security was maintained by sons of local clan leaders somewhat similar to the present day police. Japan was effectively without an army until the emergence of the new warrior class before the Kamakura, Shogunate (1192 - 1333 AD). Tibet is another example of demilitarisation (in the 17th century). What is significant to note here is that long before the ideal of demilitarisation was espoused in western countries, ancient Buddhist countries had already implemented it. In Japan, beginning from the 9th century, the death penalty was abolished for nearly three and a
half centuries.

An Economics to save the Earth

The practice of industrial societies indulging in a policy of take-and-take from nature is criticized, despite economics being fundamentally about exchange or give-and-take. A possible root cause of the western attitude towards nature. This passage declares:
“So God created man in his own image, in the image created he him, male and female created he them. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth”.

Some have interpreted this passage literally, as one giving divine sanction to domination of the earth for the benefit of only human beings and disregarding the interests of both plants and other living creatures of this world. In contrast, AOA approach sacred texts are much more humble and always emphasise the need to live in harmony with nature and peacefully co-exist with other living creatures, as the ideal and noble way. In the AOA approach worldview, humans rather being masters of this earth, simply make up one tiny element in a vast cosmos. In the AOA approach Economics that proposes, the earth rather than human beings will be placed at the center of our worldview.

History of Economics

The major ideas in the theories of prominent economists such as Adam Smith (1723 - 1790), David Ricardo (1772 - 1823), Karl, Marx (1818 - 1883), John Keynes (1883 - 1946) Joan Robinson (1903 - 1983) and the German Economists Friedrich von Hayek (1899 - 1992), Wilhelm Lopke (1899 - 1966) and Ludwig Erhard (1897 - 1977) is examined.Lopke’s best-selling book ‘ Civitas Humanas (Human Citizen) published in 1949 as laying the foundation for the new humanistic school of economics is singled out.The concept of `social market economics’ advocated by Ludwig Erhard in his 1957 book ‘Woffistand fur Alles (Happiness for All ) as the precedent for developing the new AOA approach Economics is used. Erhard called for the need to overcome the inherent tensions between the haves and have-nots in society, through such governmental policies as the banning of cartels, using government ‘price valuation’ to ensure fair pricing, rent control and supporting people with disabilities.

Dr. E.F Schumacher’s book ‘Small is Beautiful’, which has a chapter on AOA approach Economics is an inspiration. Schumacher was heavily influenced by AOA approach meditation and wisdom during his time in Myanmar (formerly Burma). Though Schumacher recommended a new approach to economics based on AOA approach, that Schumacher’s ultimate solutions were sought in Christian oriented ethics. Nevertheless, that Schumacher’s book should serve as a wake up call for those living in AOA approach countries. He further says that given the destruction of the natural environment that has taken place in the industrial West, the time has come to use a

AOA approach to economics.

Historical Background of Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economics

The life story of the AOA offers a valuable lesson when focusing on AOA approach economics. The Prince rejected the material comforts of a royal life, and also realised the futility of asceticism and denial of natural physical needs. ‘’The AOA walked a fine line between materialism and denial of the world, and this middle way or moderate standpoint is fundamental to understanding AOA Economics’.

The ordinary public and the merchant class supported AOA approach from the very outset. As AOA approach moved eastwards over the centuries, to China, Korea and Japan it absorbed elements of the culture of these countries and became transformed along the way. It also managed to transform the societies and economies of these countries by introducing ethical concepts into the pursuit of profit. In Japanese history there has been substantial AOA approach support of commerce, which had come to fruition during the Edo period (1603 - 1867). This period witnessed an explosion of economic activity. Some sociologists have found interesting parallels in the connections between the Protestant work ethic and capitalism, and between the rise of Japanese Capitalism and the religious thought of the time.

Unrestrained Consumption

The world’s natural resources would be depleted if two factors are not immediately addressed:

1) the ever increasing population growth, and

2) the mismanagement of desire ( particularly of those people in the so-called advanced countries)

In the Ryoan-ji, the AOA Temple of Kyoto, famous for its stone and sand garden, there is a poem carved on a stone, which says ‘ Know what one really needs ‘. This is no simple injunction. To know what one really needs in life requires great wisdom. But to have the strength to say ‘no’ to the unessential products in life would release a person from the coils of consumption. This view i.e. of wanting what is really essential reflects the AOA approach view of consumption and it is the ideal attitude to be promoted in the coming century.

Right Livelihood

Right livelihood is one of the components of the Noble Eightfold Path. Its importance lies in the fact that the work one does for a living influences a person’s thinking. The AOA has named five types of occupations as unwholesome ways of earning a living. They are 1) Selling liquor or being connected with the production and sale of liquor 2) Sale of flesh or being connected with the raising and killing of animals 3) Poison (includes drugs) 4) Trading in living beings (includes slavery or for similar purposes) 5) Dangerous weapons.
The layman’s code of discipline or gihi vinaya  is the premise for developing the right work ethic for the next century. In one passage AOA says “One should work like a bee to earn one’s livelihood. Do not wait for others to help, nor depend on others foolishly”.AOA showed his concern for the material welfare and the spiritual development of his lay disciples. In the discourse to young Sigala, the AOA explained the full range of duties owed by a layman to all those with whom he interacts. The AOA also indicated how wealth has to be spent i.e. one portion for one’s needs, which includes offerings to Order of AOA and charity, two portions on investment and the fourth portion to be kept for an emergency.

Japanese entrepreneurs who had incorporated AOA principles and meditation techniques in their day to day work in an effort to develop a more humanistic and environmentalist business ethic.

Awaken One with Awareness (AOA) Economic Vision

Provides food for thought to anyone wishing to adopt an innovative approach to Management and Business. However the greatest appeal of this highly readable book lies in the elaborate development of Schumacher’s profound insight that there is another way of approaching economics, based on the ideas taught in the East 2500 years ago, particularly of the fundamental interconnectedness of people and nature. It is upon this premise that the world can shift from a throw-away culture to a more sustainable* civilisation. This work also throws a challenge to governments in AOA approach countries to develop a AOA economic vision as a part of national planning, as we move towards a new millennium.

comments (0)
10/30/12
31X12 Wednesday LESSON 738 PRACTICE GOODNESS,TRADE & BUSINESS.BE HAPPY, WELL, SECURE,WISE,ALERT,ATTENTIVE & HAVE EQUANIMITY MIND WITH CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT EVERYTHING IS CHANGING.VOTE BSP FOR THAT CHANGE TO ACQUIRE THE MASTER KEY OF POLITICAL POWER BY WHICH YOU CAN OPEN ALL THE DOORS OF PROGRESS-திபிடக முக்கூடைகள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 403 Khemabhikkhuni Vatthu-A Brahmana Is He Who Has Reached His Ultimate Goal-Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief Mayawati Tuesday hit out at the Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government in Uttar Pradesh, accusing it of “complete failure on all fronts”, including curbing the rising incidence of communal violence
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Posted by: @ 5:26 pm

31X12 Wednesday LESSON 738  PRACTICE
GOODNESS,TRADE & BUSINESS.BE HAPPY, WELL,
SECURE,WISE,ALERT,ATTENTIVE & HAVE EQUANIMITY MIND WITH CLEAR
UNDERSTANDING THAT EVERYTHING IS CHANGING.VOTE BSP FOR THAT CHANGE TO
ACQUIRE THE MASTER KEY OF POLITICAL POWER BY WHICH YOU CAN OPEN ALL THE
DOORS OF PROGRESS-தி
பிக 
முக்கூடைள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 403 Khemabhikkhuni Vatthu-A Brahmana Is He Who Has Reached His Ultimate Goal-Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief Mayawati Tuesday
hit out at the Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government in
Uttar Pradesh, accusing it of “complete failure on all fronts”,
including curbing the rising incidence of communal violence

Verse 403. A Brahmana Is He Who Has Reached His Ultimate Goal

Whose knowledge is deep, who’s wise,
who’s skilled in ways right and wrong,
having attained the highest aim,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: He possesses profound wisdom. He is full of insight.
He is capable of discriminating the right path from the wrong path.
He has reached the highest state. I call that person a true brahmana.



Dhammapada Verse 403
Khemabhikkhuni Vatthu

Gambhirapannam medhavim
maggamaggassa kovidam
1
uttamattha manuppattam
tamaham brumi brahmanam.

Verse 403: Him I call a brahmana, who is wise
and is profound in his knowledge, who knows the right way from the wrong way,
and who has attained the highest goal (i.e., arahatship).


1. maggamaggassa kovidam: skilful in
differentiating the right way from the wrong way, i.e., knowledge of what does
and what does not lead to the realization of Nibbana.


The Story of Theri Khema*

While residing at the Gijjhakuta
hill, the Buddha uttered Verse (403) of this book, with reference to Theri Khema.

One night, Sakka, king of the
devas, came with his followers to pay homage to the Buddha. While they were with
the Buddha, Theri Khema, by her supernormal power, also came through the sky to
pay homage to the Buddha. But because Sakka and his company were there with the
Buddha, she just paid obeisance to the Buddha, and soon left him. Sakka asked
the Buddha who that bhikkhuni was and the Buddha replied, “She is one of
my pre-eminent disciples; she is known as Theri Khema. She is matchless amongst
the bhikkhunis in wisdom and she knows how to differentiate the right way from
the wrong way.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 403: Him I call
a brahmana, who is wise and is profound in his knowledge, who knows
the right way from the wrong way, and who has attained the highest
goal (i.e., arahatship).

* See also Verse 347: The
Story of Theri Khema
, Chapter XXIV.

The Story of Theri Khema

While residing at the Veluvana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (347) of
this book, with reference to Queen Khema.

Queen Khema was the chief queen of King Bimbisara. She was very beautiful and
also very proud.

The king wanted her to go to the Veluvana monastery and pay homage to the
Buddha. But she had heard that the Buddha always talked disparagingly about
beauty and she therefore tried to avoid seeing the Buddha.

The king understood her attitude towards the Buddha; he also know how proud
she was of her beauty. So the king ordered his minstrels to sing in praise of
the Veluvana monastery, about its pleasant and peaceful atmosphere, etc. Hearing
them, Queen Khema became interested and decided to set out for the Veluvana
monastery.

When Queen Khema arrived at the monastery, the Buddha was expounding the
Dhamma to an audience. By his supernormal power, the Buddha made a very
beautiful young lady appear, sitting not far from him, and fanning him. When
Queen Khema came to the audience hall, she alone saw the beautiful young lady.
Comparing the exquisite beauty of the young lady to that of her own, Khema
realised that her beauty was much inferior to that of the young lady. As she
looked again intently at the young lady her beauty began to fade gradually. In
the end, she saw before her eyes an old decrepit being, which again changed into
a corpse, her stinking body being attacked by maggots. At that instant, Queen
Khema realized the impermanence and worthlessness of beauty.

The Buddha knowing the state of her mind remarked, “O Khema! Look
carefully at this decaying body which is built around a skeleton of bones and is
subject to disease and decay. Look carefully at the body which is thought of so
highly by the foolish. Look at the worthlessness of the beauty of this young
girl.”
After hearing this, Queen Khema attained Sotapatti Fruition.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 347: Beings who are infatuated with lust, fall
back into the Stream of Craving they have generated, just as a spider
does in the web it has spun. The Wise, cutting off the bond of
craving, walk on resolutely, leaving, all ills (dukkha) behind.

At the end of the discourse Queen Khema attained arahatship and was admitted
to the Order and became the Chief Female Disciple of the Buddha.

Lucknow, Oct 30 — Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief Mayawati Tuesday
hit out at the Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government in
Uttar Pradesh, accusing it of “complete failure on all fronts”,
including curbing the rising incidence of communal violence.

Back from a hectic campaign in poll-bound Himachal Pradesh, the BSP
leader in a statement said the state was faced with communal strife and
goons were ruling the roost.

“It is a matter of great concern that the people are unsafe and the
law & order situation in the state is becoming worse by every
passing day,” said Mayawati, the previous chief minister.

Claiming that people were frightened in Akhilesh Yadav’s rule, she
said that while the state was faced with communal violence, the
government had “lost its grip on power”.

“Mathura, Bareilly, Pratapgarh and now Faizabad - the communal
violence is getting from bad to worse and curfew has been imposed for a
long period in many parts of the state… the situation is alarming,”
she said while suggesting that the SP government should learn to rule
from the BSP government she ran for five years between 2007 to 2012.

She also accused Akhilesh Yadav of being a “ghoshna mukhya mantri
(announcement chief minister)” and said that while the state was faced
with serious challenges, he was busy making “tall claims” and “hollow
announcements”.

IANS

comments (0)
10/29/12
30X12 Tuesday LESSON 737 திபிடக முக்கூடைகள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 402 Annatarabrahmana Vatthu-A brahmana, in this existence realizes the end of dukkha (i.e., Nibbana), who has laid down the burden (of the khandhas) and who is free from moral defilements.
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Posted by: @ 2:44 pm

30X12 Tuesday LESSON 737  திபிக  முக்கூடைள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 402 Annatarabrahmana
Vatthu-
A brahmana, in this existence realizes the end of dukkha
(i.e., Nibbana), who has laid down the burden (of the khandhas) and
who is free from moral defilements.

Verse 402. A Brahmana Is He Who Has Laid The Burden Aside

Whoso in this world comes to know
cessation of all sorrow,
laid down the burden, freed from bonds,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: He has become aware, in this world itself, the
end of suffering. He is unburdened: he has put down the load. He has
got disengaged from the bonds that held him. I call that person a
true brahmana.



Dhammapada Verse 402
Annatarabrahmana
Vatthu

Yo dukkhassa pajanati
idheva khayamattano
pannabharam visamyuttam
tamaham brumi brahmanam.

Verse 402: Him I call a brahmana, who even in
this existence realizes the end of dukkha (i.e., Nibbana), who has laid down the
burden (of the khandhas) and who is free from moral defilements.


The Story of a Certain Brahmin

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (402) of this book, with reference to a
certain brahmin, whose slave became an arahat.

Once, there was a young slave of
a brahmin. One day, fleeing from the house of his master he joined the Order of
the bhikkhus, and in due course, he attained arahatship. On one occasion, while
he went on an alms-round with the Buddha, his former master, the brahmin, saw
him and grabbed him firmly by the robe. When the Buddha asked what the matter
was, the brahmin explained that the young bhikkhu was his slave at one time. To
him the Buddha said, “This bhikkhu has laid down the burden (of the
khandhas).”
The brahmin took that to mean that his slave had become an
arahat. So to make sure, he asked the Buddha whether it was true that the young
bhikkhu had become an arahat, and the Buddha confirmed his statement.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 402: Him I call
a brahmana, who even in this existence realizes the end of dukkha
(i.e., Nibbana), who has laid down the burden (of the khandhas) and
who is free from moral defilements.

At the end of the discourse the
brahmin attained Sotapatti Fruition.


comments (0)
10/28/12
29X12 Monday LESSON 736 திபிடக முக்கூடைகள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 401 Uppalavanna Theri Vatthu-Him I call a brahmana, who does not cling to sensual pleasures, just as water does not cling to a lotus leaf, or the mustard seed to the tip of an awl
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Posted by: @ 6:59 pm

29X12 Monday LESSON 736  திபிக  முக்கூடைள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 401 Uppalavanna Theri
Vatthu-
Him I call
a brahmana, who does not cling to sensual pleasures, just as water
does not cling to a lotus leaf, or the mustard seed to the tip of an
awl.

Verse 401. He Is A Brahmana Who Clings Not To Sensual Pleasures

Like water on a lotus leaf,
or mustard seed on needle point,
whoso clings not to sensual things,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: The water does not get attached
to the surface of the lotus leaf. The mustard seed does not get attached
to the point of a needle. In the same way, the wise one’s mind does
not get attached to sensual pleasure. Such a non-attached person I describe
as the true brahmana .



Dhammapada Verse 401
Uppalavanna Theri

Vatthu

Vari pokkharapatteva
araggeriva sasapo
yo na limpati kamesu
tamaham brumi brahmanam.

Verse 401: Him I call a brahmana, who does not
cling to sensual pleasures, just as water does not cling to a lotus leaf, or the
mustard seed to the tip of an awl.


The Story of Theri Uppalavanna*

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (401) of this book, with reference to Theri
Uppalavanna.

Once, some bhikkhus were talking
about the arahat Theri Uppalavanna being molested by the young Nanda who was
then swallowed up by the earth. In this connection, they asked the Buddha
whether arahats do not enjoy sensual pleasures as they have the same physical
make-up like any other people. To them the Buddha replied, “Bhikkhus!
Arahats do not enjoy sensual pleasures; they do not indulge in sensual
pleasures, for they do not cling to objects of sense and to sensual pleasures,
just as water does not cling to the lotus leaf or the mustard seed to the tip of
an awl.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 401: Him I call
a brahmana, who does not cling to sensual pleasures, just as water
does not cling to a lotus leaf, or the mustard seed to the tip of an
awl.

* This story is the continuation of the story
given in Verse 69: The
Story of Theri Uppalavanna
, Chapter V.

The Story of Theri Uppalavanna

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (69) of
this book, with reference to Theri Uppalavanna.

Once there was a young daughter of a rich man in Savatthi. Because she was so
beautiful, with looks so tender and sweet, like a blue lotus flower, she was
called “Uppalavanna”, the blue lotus. The fame of her beauty spread
far and wide and there were many suitors: princes, rich men and many others. But
she decided that it would be better for her to become a bhikkhuni, a
female member of the Buddhist Order. One day, after lighting a lamp, she kept
her mind fixed on the flame and meditating on the fire kasina (object of
concentration) she soon achieved Magga Insight and finally attained arahatship.

Some time later, she moved to the ‘Dark Forest’ (Andhavana) and lived in
solitude. While Theri Uppalavanna was out on her alms-round, Nanda, the son of
her uncle, came to her monastery and hid himself underneath her couch. Nanda had
fallen in love with Uppalavanna before she became a bhikkhuni; his intention
obviously was to take her by force. When Uppalavanna returned she saw Nanda and
said, “You fool! Do no harm, do not molest.” But he would not be
stopped. After satisfying himself, he left her. As soon as he stepped on the
ground, the earth opened wide and he was swallowed up.

Hearing about this, the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 69: As long as the evil deed does not bear
fruit, the fool thinks it is sweet like honey; but when his evil deed
does bear fruit, the fool suffers for it.

At the end of the discourse, many attained Sotapatti Fruition.

The Buddha next sent for King Pasenadi of Kosala and told him about the
dangers that bhikkhunis living in forests had to face from irresponsible persons
obsessed with sex. The king then promised to build monasteries for bhikkhunis
only in towns or close to the towns.

Cong & Manmohan….special

..






Fun & Info<br />
 @<br />
 Keralites.net


Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

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Vatthu

BSP Takes on Gandhis in Rae Bareli



Former
Uttar Pradesh chief minister Kumari Mayawati doesn’t appear to want to
hand Congress party president Sonia Gandhi or her family a walkover in
the 2014 general elections.

This
week, Ms. Mayawati’s Bahujan Samaj Party announced it would put up a
candidate to fight Ms. Gandhi in her parliamentary seat of Rae Bareli in
Uttar Pradesh, according to local media reports.


The
seat has been a Nehru-Gandhi family stronghold since Independence – a
fact which appears to be discouraging other parties from even fielding a
candidate in the constituency.

Last
month, head of Uttar Pradesh’s ruling Party, said the leadership had
decided not to contest Rae Bareli in 2014 as a gratitude for Congress’s
decision not to field a candidate in another part of Uttar Pradesh
during a by-election this summer. The candidate then was SP head’s
daughter-in-law.

This kind of horse-trading diminishes democracy. A few families dominate a swathe of Country’s parliamentary seats.

Reason
for the BSP’s decision is that Congress is looking more vulnerable in
Rae Bareli. The party did badly in the constituency during Uttar Pradesh
state elections earlier this year.


The
BSP is planning to field Ram Lakhan Pasi, a local Scheduled Caste
leader from the party and a former state-level bureaucrat, in Rae
Bareli, reports say. The Pasis, part of the Indian caste system, are one
of the largest communities in the constituency.

In
Jaamodeep, a village of 70 or so families living in mud huts, farmers
say they have been disappointed by a lack of infrastructure
.

The village falls under the neighboring Amethi constituency, None of the other parties put up candidates.

Falling under a Gandhi constituency hasn’t brought any benefits for the village, pointing to unpaved roads.

They get electricity for just two hours a day. It comes in the middle of the night and by the time they wake up, it’s gone.

VOICE OF SARVAJAN

Ms Mayawati will the the next Prime Minister of PraBuddha Bharath for the following reasons:

1
BSP is only party which has got the capacity to not to hand Congress
party president Sonia Gandhi or her family a walkover in the 2014
general elections.

2 One family cannot dominate a swathe of
Country’s parliamentary seats which did badly in the constituency during
Uttar Pradesh state elections earlier this year.

3 Farmers say they have been disappointed by a lack of infrastructure.

4 Falling under a Gandhi constituency hasn’t brought any benefits for the village, pointing to unpaved roads.

5 They get electricity for just two hours a day. It comes in the middle of the night and by the time they wake up, it’s gone.

6 The VIEWS PAPERS and MEDIAS with ULTERIOR IDEAS will not succeed in 2014 elections.

7
The Chief Election Commission is expected to drape all the hands,
Lotuses, Bicycles and othe symbols of ruling parties in the respective
States and the statues of leadsers of those parties as it did in the
last UP elections for a level playing ground. And also publish the
source code of the program software of the Electronic Voting Machines
for openness and security.

It is hoped that The Wall Street Journal (INDIA REAL TIME) high light these points in the larger interest of Democracy.

Verse 400. A Brahmana Is He Who Is Not Wrathful

Who’s angerless and dutiful,
of virtue full and free of lust,
who’s tamed, to final body come,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: He is free of anger. He carefully performs his
religious duties and is mindful of the observances. He is disciplined
in terms of virtuous behaviour. He is restrained. This is the final
body he will occupy as he has ended his cycle of births. I call that
person a brahmana.



Dhammapada Verse 400
Sariputtatthera

Vatthu

Akkodhanam vatavantam
silavantam anussadam
dantam antimasariram
1
tamaham brumi brahmanam.

Verse 400: Him I call a brahmana, who is free
from anger, who practises austerity, who is virtuous and free from craving, who
is controlled in his senses and for whom this body (i.e., existence) is the very
last.


1. antimasariram: lit., one who has the last
body. This is his last body because he will not be reborn; he is an arahat.


The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at the Veluvana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (400) of this book, with reference to the
Venerable Sariputta.

While the Buddha was in residence
at the Veluvana monastery, the Venerable Sariputta, accompanied by five hundred
bhikkhus, entered Nalaka Village and stood at the door of the house of his own
mother for alms-food. His mother invited them into the house. But while she was
offering food to her son she said, “O you consumer of left-overs, you who
have abandoned eighty crores to become a bhikkhu, you have ruined us.”
Then, she offered alms-food to the other bhikkhus and said to them rudely,
“You all have used my son as your attendant; now eat your food.” The
Venerable Sariputta said nothing in reply but he just meekly took his bowl and
came back to the monastery. Back at the monastery, the bhikkhus told the Buddha
how the Venerable Sariputta had patiently borne the scolding and abuses of his
mother. To them, the Buddha said that arahats never get angry, they never
lose their temper.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 400: Him I call
a brahmana, who is free from anger, who practises austerity, who is
virtuous and free from craving, who is controlled in his senses and
for whom this body (i.e., existence) is the very last.
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Vatthu-A Brahmana Is He Who Is Patient-BSP Takes on Gandhis in Rae Bareli


Verse 399. A Brahmana Is He Who Is Patient

Who angerless endures abuse.
Beating and imprisonment,
with patience’s power, an armed might:
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: He is abused and insulted. He is tortured, imprisoned
and bound up. But he endures all these without being provoked or without
losing his temper. Such an individual who has patience as his power
and his army, I describe as a true brahmano.


Dhammapada Verse 399
Akkosakabharadvaja

Vatthu

Akkosam vadhabandhanca
aduttho yo titikkhati
khantibalam balanikam
tamaham brumi brahmanam.

Verse 399: Him I call a brahmana, who, without
anger endures abuse, beating and being bound, and to whom the strength of
patience is like the strength of an army.


The Story of the Abusive Brahmin Brothers

While residing at the Veluvana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (399) of this book, with reference to the
abusive Bharadvaja brothers.

Once there was a brahmin, whose
wife was in the habit of blurting out a string of words whenever she sneezed or
when something or someone touched her unawares. One day, the brahmin invited
some of his friends to a meal and suddenly she blurted out some words. Since she
was a Sotapanna, the words “Namo tassa bhagavato arahato
sammsambhuddassa”
automatically came out of her mouth. These words of
veneration to the Buddha were very much disliked by her husband, the brahmin.
So, in anger, he went to the Buddha hoping to put some challenging questions to
the Buddha. His first question was, “What do we have to kill to be able to
live happily and peacefully?” and his second question was, “Killing of
what dhamma do you approve of?” To these questions, the Buddha replied,
” O brahmin, to be able to live happily and peacefully, one will have to
kill ill will (dosa). Killing one’s ill will is liked and praised by the Buddhas
and the arahats.”
After hearing the Buddha, the brahmin was so
impressed and satisfied with the answer that he asked to be permitted to enter
the Order. Accordingly, he entered the Order and later became an arahat.

This brahmin had a brother who
was very notorious for his abusive words and was known as Akkosaka Bharadvaja,
the abusive Bharadvaja. When Akkosaka Bharadvaja heard that his brother had
joined the Order of the bhikkhus, he was furious. He went straight away to the
monastery and abused the Buddha. The Buddha in his turn asked, “O
brahmin, let us suppose you offered some food to some guests and they left the
house without taking the food. Since the guests did not accept your food, to
whom would that food belong?”
To this question the brahmin answered
that the food would be his. On receiving that answer, the Buddha said, “In
the same way, O brahmin, since I do not accept your abuse, the abuse would only
go back to you.”
Akkosaka Bharadvaja instantly realized the sagacity of
those words and he felt a great respect for the Buddha. He also entered the
Order and in due course became an arahat.

After Akkosaka Bharadvaja had
entered the Order, his two younger brothers also came to see the Buddha with the
same intention of abusing the Buddha. They too were made to see the light by the
Buddha and they also, in their turn, entered the Order. Eventually, both of them
became arahats.

One evening, at the congregation
of the bhikkhus, the bhikkhus said to the Buddha, “O how wonderful and how
great are the virtues of the Buddha! The four brahmin brothers came here to
abuse the Buddha; instead of arguing with them, he made them see the light, and
as a result, the Buddha has become a refuge to them.” To them, the Buddha
replied, “Bhikkhus! Because I am patient and forbearing, and do no wrong
to those who do me wrong, I have become a refuge to many.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 399: Him I call
a brahmana, who, without anger endures abuse, beating and being bound,
and to whom the strength of patience is like the strength of an army.


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Vatthu-A Brahmana Is He Who Has No Hatred

Verse 398. A Brahmana Is He Who Has No Hatred

When cutting strap and reins,
the rope and bridle too,
tipping the shaft, he’s Waked,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: He has got rid of the strap of ill-will. He has
freed himself from the thong of craving. He has escaped the large
shackle breaking all its links. These are the false views that curb
the people. He has taken off the cross-bar of ignorance. He has become
aware of the four noble truths. That person, I describe as a brahmana.

VOICE OF SARVAJAN

There is no doubt that Ms. Maywati has given her people a history just by spending 1% of the budget for creation of monuments and parks for icons of Bahujan (majority people belonging to they so called untouchables, and other backward castes) leaders who are the real Buddhists.Otherwise the country would have had only non-Buddhist icons memorial where huge amount is spent every year for their maintenance. This is not tolerated by the haters of such Bahujan leaders. When Ms mayawati becomes the Prime Minister, more such monuments have to come all over the country. In a democracy, leaders of the majority must also be honored. no body can stop this including the foreign press and the media. Ms Mayawati is creating history and she is part of it.



Dhammapada Verse 398
Dve Brahmana

Vatthu

Chetva naddhim varattanca
sandanam sahanukkamam
ukkhittapaligham buddham
tamaham brumi brahamanam.

Verse 398: Him I call a brahmana, who has cut
the strap (of ill will), the thong (of craving) and the cord (of wrong views
together with latent defilements), who has lifted the bar that fastens the door
(of ignorance), and who knows the Truth.


The Story of Two Brahmins

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (398) of this book, with reference to two
brahmins.

Once there lived in Savatthi two
brahmins, each of whom owned a bullock. Each claimed that his bullock was better
and stronger. At last, they agreed to put their animals to a test. So they went
to the bank of the Aciravati River and there they filled up a cart with sand.
One after the other, the bullocks pulled the cart, but they only pulled in vain,
because the cart, did not move and only the ropes broke off. The bhikkhus seeing
this reported to the Buddha and the Buddha said to them, “Bhikkhus! It
is easy to break off the straps which you can see with your eyes; anyone can
break them or cut them. But my sons, a bhikkhu should cut the strap of ill will
and the thong of craving which are within you and which bind you.”

Verse 398: Him I call
a brahmana, who has cut the strap (of ill will), the thong (of
craving) and the cord (of wrong views together with latent
defilements), who has lifted the bar that fastens the door (of
ignorance), and who knows the Truth.

At the end of the discourse five hundred bhikkhus attained arahatship.

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 Dont call Dalits. We are Buddhists - Sandip WE WERE BUDDHISTS, WE ARE BUDDHISTS AND WE WILL CONTINUE TO BE BUDDHISTS- GREAT BUDDHIST ARATH B. BASAVALINGAPPA

 

Verse 397. A Brahmana Is He Who Has Destroyed All Fetters

Who fetters all has severed
does tremble not at all,
who’s gone beyond all bond, unyoked,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: He has got rid of all fetters; in consequence,
he is free of trepidation and is fearless. He has travelled beyond
all bonds. Disengaged from bonds, he is no longer tied to the world.
Such a person I describe as a brahmana.




Dhammapada Verse 397
Uggasenasetthiputta Vatthu

Sabbasamyojanam chetva
yo ve na paritassati
sangatigam visamyuttam
tamaham brumi brahamanam.

Verse 397: Him I call a brahmana, who has cut
off all fetters and is fearless, who is beyond attachment and is free from moral
defilements.


The Story of Uggasena, the Son of a Rich Man*

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (397) of this book, with reference to
Uggasena, son of a rich man.

After marrying a dancer from a
theatrical troupe, Uggasena was trained by his father-in-law who was an acrobat,
and became very skilful in acrobatics. One day while he was demonstrating his
skill, the Buddha came on the scene. After hearing the Buddha’s teaching,
Uggasena attained arahatship while he was still performing his feats on top of a
long bamboo pole. After that, he climbed down from the pole and pleaded with the
Buddha to accept him as a bhikkhu and was accordingly admitted into the Order.

One day, when other bhikkhus
asked him whether he did not have any feeling of fear while climbing down from
such a great height (i.e., about ninety feet), he answered in the negative. The
bhikkhus took that to mean that Uggasena was claiming to have attained
arahatship even then. So, they went to the Buddha and said, “Venerable Sir!
Uggasena claims himself to be an arahat; he must be telling lies.” To them
the Buddha replied, “Bhikkhus, one who has cut off all fetters, like my
son Uggasena, has no fear.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 397: Him I call
a brahmana, who has cut off all fetters and is fearless, who is beyond
attachment and is free from moral defilements.

* Cross Reference: Verse 348: The
Story of Uggasena
, Chapter XXIV.


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Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

சிறந்த  வீடுபேற்றுநிலை குறிக்கோள் எய்தல் சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம் - எல்லாம் உணர்வுநிலையின் அடி எல்லை

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

இந்த சவுகதநூலின் ஒரு பாகம், புத்தரால், அவருடைய முடிவுறுதல் அப்புறம், அவருடைய பின்பற்றுபவர்களின் நிமித்தம் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட பற்பல விதிமுறைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அவை, நமக்கு  தற்காலத்தில் மிக முக்கிய இணைகோப்பு விதிமுறைகளை உண்டாக்குகிறது.

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

தம்மாதாஸங் நாம தம்மா பரியாயங் தெசஸ்ஸஸ்ஸாமி, யென ஸம்மங்காதொ ஆரியஸாவகொ ஆகன்கமாகொ அத்தனாவ அத்தானங் ப்யா-கரெய்ய: ‘கின்ன-நிரயொ-மி-கின்ன-திர்ச்சான-யொனி கின்ன-பெத்திவிஸயொ கின்’அபாய துக்கதி-வினிபாதொ, ஸோதாபன்னொ-ஹமஸ்மி அவினிபாதொ-தம்மொ நியதொ ஸம்போதி-பராயனொ’தி?

தமிழ்

(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)

நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti?

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.

Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Itipi
so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.

Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
 Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.

Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
 Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.

Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 

This,
Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi. 

இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 

Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… 



Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 

– Ananda, the twin sala
trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
-ஆனந்தா,பூவா
பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 

It is not
by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna,
living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma’.
இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
… 

… 


‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā. 

– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
Teacher after my passing away. 

உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு  நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர்
வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது,  இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த  Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.
… 


DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction

Thus have I heard: 

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma,
a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

– This,
bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of
beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Katame
cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Katha·ñ·ca,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So
sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:

 ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma
(கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā  (பகவான்) தங்கி
இருந்தார்.

 அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா

- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில்  அளித்தார்.Bhagavā  (பகவா) சொற்றார்:

-
இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில்
நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து, 
dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை
உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட
satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.

எந்த
நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல்
கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க
ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி
எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī
உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம்
நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.
மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு
வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க
கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.
மற்றும்
எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்?
இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது
மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக
கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக
சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே
செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே 
செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான்
குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு 
kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras
உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto
‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti
pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ
assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti
pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā
passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī
assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


Just
as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long
turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை
கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு
குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல்
உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக
உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என
அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே
செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான்
குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே
செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர்
தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும்
கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே
பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான்
மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: 
kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை
உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை
வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito
vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno
vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti,
tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti,
ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī
hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte
khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī
hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī
hoti. 


C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு
பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña
நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்,
முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும்
கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும்
நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள்
பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā,
taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus,
synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if,
bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various
kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame
seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it,
would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those
are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very
body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down,
which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities:
“In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body,
nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart,
liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its
contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
அறீவார்.

ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள்
உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல்
பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன்
நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ
yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu
āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a
butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads
cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on
this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this
kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element
and the air element.”

 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு
குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(2)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā
khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā
khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā
pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு,
சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால்
தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த
kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது,
அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு 
கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(3)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers
this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to
become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும்
இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான
kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு
இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக
இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(4)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ
nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held
together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,
நரம்புகளால் 
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(5)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so
imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī
evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as
if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a
squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he
considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is
going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்  இல்லாமல்,
நரம்புகளால் 
ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக
இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய
ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(6)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena
hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena
phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான,
இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால்
எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு
இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே
ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே
ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு,
அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(7)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’
ti. 

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was
seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened
like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such
a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

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10/21/12
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இந்த  நூட்கள் வெளியீடு காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிக  முக்கூடைளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.

This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the
Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed
in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka
(மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர  மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட
விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]


திபிக  முக்கூடைள்

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

ஸுத்த பியுயக

( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)

Sutta Piμaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)

The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house, dwelling).

நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர் கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு நிரம்பியது.  அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை, ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை, வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு, பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு, கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

 மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

இறங்குதல் காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல் காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் , மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள்  ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால்,
மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம் புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத( தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் , ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)

Sutta Piμaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)

1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i
(10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i
(11 suttas)

2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5
vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]

(1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10
suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)

4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)

5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i
(the ‘middle’ fifty)

6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)

10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i
(means ‘more than fifty’)

11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)

3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]

(1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
(10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i
Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)

4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each
nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each
vagga; 6 books]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)

(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)

5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes
suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]

(1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i

1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26
vaggas)

3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with

some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)

(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular
suttas of the Buddha

(3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279
g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)

(4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II

10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into
nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.

(6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i

11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th
vagga
C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and

the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i

12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three
vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])

(9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i

14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)

(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i

16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)

(12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i

18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)

Abhidhamma Piμaka

[Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the
dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i

2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of
dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42

3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.

(3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42

5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)

(4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42

6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)

(5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III

7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)

(8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V

(1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik±
(expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30

(2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy±
(ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7

(concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______
227

Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the

Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the
uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha

3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the
vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick
bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism

(4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as
saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)

2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a
bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of
bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the
p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li

3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]

(5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.


Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.

Note: plain texts

ஸஞ்யா நு கொ பந்தெ பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி, பச்சா ஞானங்? உதாஹு ஞானங் பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி, பச்சா ஸஞ்யா? உதாஹு ஸஞ்யா ச ஞானங்ச அபுபங் ஆசரிமங் உப்பஜ்ஜந்தி?’ தி.

Saññā nu kho bhante paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ? Udāhu ñāṇaṃ
paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā saññā? Udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ
acarimaṃ uppajjantī?’ ti.


இப்பொழுது, பந்த்தே, எது முதலாவது எழும்புவது புலனுணர்வா,ஞானங் அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஞானங் முதலாவது மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு அடுத்ததா? அல்லது ஒரே நேரத்தில் புலனுணர்வும் ஞானமும் எழும்புகிறதா?


Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously? 



ஸஞ்யா கொ பொத்தபாதப தமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங். ஸன்யுப்பாதா ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி. ஸொ ஏவங் பஜானாதி: இதப்பச்சாயா கிர மெ ஞானங் உதபாதிதி. இமினா கொ ஏதங் பொத்தபாத பரியாயென வேதிதப்பங், யதா ஸஞ்யா பதமங் உப்பஜ்ஜதி பச்சா ஞானங், ஸன்யுப்பாதொ  ச பன ஞானுப்பாதொ ஹோதி’தி.


Saññā kho poṭṭhapāda paṭhamaṃ uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ. Saññuppādā ca pana
ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti: idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādīti.
Iminā kho etaṃ poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ
uppajjati pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādo ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī’ ti. 


பொத்தபாத, முதலாவது
புலனுணர்வும் பின்னால் ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது.மற்றும் புலனுணர்வு
எழும்புகிறபோது ஞானம் எழும்புகிறது. ஒரு பிரித்தறியும் நிலை சார்ந்துள்ள
என்னுடைய இந்த ஞானம் எழும்பியது. இவ்வழியான வரம்பின் காரண ஆய்வால் ஒருவர்
எப்படி முதலாவது புலனுணர்வு எழும்புகிறது மற்றும் ஞானம் அடுத்து என்று உணர
முடியும் மற்றும் எவ்வாறு புலனுணர்வு எழும்பியதால், ஞானம் எழும்பிமயது
என்றும்.


Potthapada, perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my knowledge has arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception.

Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Dhammādāsaṃ nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto, sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. 

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi.
தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Katamo ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto, sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

And what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.

Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
 Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.

Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
 Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.

Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

Ayaṃ kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto, sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti 

This, Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi. 

இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… 

… 

Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. 

Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.

Sato(கவனமான) நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. 

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான) நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… 


– Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. 

– Ananda, the twin sala trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
-ஆனந்தா,பூவா பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற, இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது. மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால் சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில் வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda, dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. 

It is not by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates, esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, living in accordance with the Dhamma’.
இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர். இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள் dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paṭipanna, sāmīci’p'paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
… 

… 

– ‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ, natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo, Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena satthā. 

– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this, Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your Teacher after my passing away. 

உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு  நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர் வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது,  இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது, ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த  Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும் வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக இருக்கும்.
… 


DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction

Thus have I heard: 

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 

– Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

– This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Katha·ñ·ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


நான் இவ்வாறு கேட்டிருக்கேன்:

 ஒரு குறிப்பிட்டதறுவாயில், ஒரு கடைத்தெருவு நகரமான Kammāsadhamma (கம்மாசதம்மா) வில், Kurus (பாரத்துவாசர்) இடையில் Bhagavā  (பகவான்) தங்கி இருந்தார்.

 அவ்விடம், பிக்குக்களுக்கு அவர் உரை நிகழ்த்தினார்:
- பிக்குக்களுக்களா

- பிக்குக்களுக்கு Bhaddante (பந்த்தே) பதில்  அளித்தார்.Bhagavā  (பகவா) சொற்றார்:

- இது, பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒன்றுமில்லை இனங்களை தூய்மைப்படுத்தும் பாதையில் நடத்திச் செல்லும், துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்பலை முறியடித்து,  dukkha-domanassa(துக்கம்-துயரம்)மறைவு , Nibbāna(யாவுங் கடந்த நிலை உணர்தல்) மெய்யாகக் காண்டல்,அதுதான் நான்கு பொருள்கள் கொண்ட satipaṭṭhānas(விழிப்பு நிலை உளதாந்தன்மை) என கூறலாம்.

எந்த நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல் கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார். மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்? இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 




Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. 


C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña, while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking, while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும் கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும் நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள் பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது, சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும் பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள் உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன் நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.”

 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும், எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க  இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம், நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே, பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும், எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க  இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம், நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead, swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள் இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும் புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(2)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(3)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும் இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(4)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,
நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(5)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்  இல்லாமல்,
நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(6)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(6)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone, here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone, or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான, இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால் எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு, அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.



(7)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kā

22 X 2012

10 07 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 663 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons

   TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS  is the collection of the teachings of the Buddha over 45 years. It consists of Sutta (the conventional teaching), Vinaya (Disciplinary code) and Abhidhamma (commentaries). 
The Tipitaka was compiled and arranged in its present form by the disciples who had immediate contact with Shakyamuni Buddha. 
The Buddha had passed away, but the sublime Dhamma which he unreservedly bequeathed to humanity still exists in its pristine purity. 
Although the Buddha had left no written records of his teachings, his distinguished disciples preserved them by committing to memory and transmitting them orally from generation to generation. 

     Brief historical background 


  Immediately after the final passing away of the Buddha, 500 distinguished Arahats held a convention known as the First Buddhist Council to rehearse the Doctrine taught by the Buddha. Venerable Ananda, who was a faithful attendant of the Buddha and had the special privilege of hearing all the discourses the Buddha ever uttered, recited the Sutta, whilst the Venerable Upali recited the Vinaya, the rules of conduct for the Sangha. 
One hundred years after the First Buddhist Council, some disciples saw the need to change certain minor rules. The orthodox Bhikkus said that nothing should be changed while the others insisted on modifying some disciplinary rules (Vinaya). Finally, the formation of different schools of Buddhism germinated after his council. And in the Second Council, only matters pertaining to the Vinaya were discussed and no controversy about the Dhamma was reported. 
In the 3rd Century B.C. during the time of Emperor Asoka, the Third Council was held to discuss the differences of opinion held by the Sangha community. At this Council the differences were not confined to the Vinaya but were also connected with the Dhamma. The Abhidhamma Pitaka was discussed and included at this Council. The Council which was held in Sri Lanka in 80 B.C. is known as the 4th Council under the patronage of the pious King Vattagamini Abbaya. It was at this time in Sri Lanka that the Tipitaka was first committed to writing in Pali language. 



The Sutta Pitaka consists mainly of discourses delivered by the Buddha himself on various occasions. There were also a few discourses delivered by some of his distinguished disciples (e.g. Sariputta, Ananda, Moggallana) included in it. It is like a book of prescriptions, as the sermons embodied therein were expounded to suit the different occasions and the temperaments of various persons. There may be seemingly contradictory statements, but they should not be misconstrued as they were opportunely uttered by the Buddha to suit a particular purpose. 
This Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas or collections, viz.:- 

     Dlgha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses)
      Majjhima Nikaya (Collection of Middle-length Discourses)
    Samyuita Nikaya (Collection of Kindred Sayings)
    Anguttara Nikaya (Collection of Discourses arranged in accordance with number)
    Khuddaka Nikaya (Smaller Collection)
       The fifth is subdivided into fifteen books:- 

    
   Khuddaka Patha (Shorter Texts)
   Dhammapada (The Way of Truth)
     Udana (Heartfelt sayings or Paeons of Joy)
   Iti Vuttaka (’Thus said’ Discourses)
   Sutta Nipata (Collected Discourses)
   Vimana Vatthu (Stories of Celestial Mansions)
   Peta Vatthu (Stories of Petas)
      Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren)
     Therigatha (Psalms of the Sisters)
    Jataka (Birth Stories)
    Niddesa (Expositions)
      Patisambhida (Analytical Knowledge)
        Apadana (Lives of Saints)
    Buddhavamsa (The History of Buddha)
     Cariya Pitaka (Modes of Conduct)

     Vinaya Pitaka 
The Vinaya Pitaka mainly deals with the rules and regulations of the Order of monks (Bhikhus) and nuns (Bhikhunis). It also gives an account of the life and ministry of the Buddha. Indirectly it reveals some useful information about ancient history, Indian customs, arts, sciences, etc. 
For nearly twenty years since his enlightenment, the Buddha did not lay down rules for the control of the Sangha. Later, as the occasion arose, the Buddha promulgated rules for the future discipline of the Sangha. 
This Pitaka consists of the following five books:- 


     Parajika Pali (Major Offences)
     Pacittiya Pali (Minor Offences)
    Mahavagga Pali (Greater Section)
  Cullavagga Pali (Smaller Section)
  Parivara Pali (Epitome of the Vinaya)

  Abhidhamma Pitaka 
The Abhidhamma, is the most important and interesting, as it contains the profound philosophy of the Buddha’s teaching in contrast to the illuminating but simpler discourses in the Sutta Pitaka. 
In the Sutta Pitaka one often finds references to individual, being, etc., but in the Abhidhamma, instead of such conventional terms, we meet with ultimate terms, such as aggregates, mind, matter etc. 
In the Abhidhamma everything is analyzed and explained in detail, and as such it is called analytical doctrine (Vibhajja Vada). 
Four ultimate things (Paramattha) are enumerated in the Abhidhamma. They are Citta (Consciousness), Cetasika (Mental concomitants). Rupa (Matter) and Nibbana. 
The so-called being is microscopically analyzed and its component parts are minutely described. Finally the ultimate goal and the method to achieve it is explained with all necessary details. 
The Abhidhamma Pitaka is composed of the following works: 


   Dhamma-Sangani (Enumeration of Phenomena)
    Vibhanaga (The Book of the Treatises)
  Ikatha Vatthu (Point of Controversy)
  Puggala Pannatti (Description of Individuals)
   Dhatu Katha (Discussion with reference to Elements)
   Yamaka (The Book of Pairs)
    Patthana (The Book of Relations)

      Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons 
The content of Buddhist canons is divided into twelve divisions, categorized by the types of forms of literature (i.e., Sutta, Geyya and Gatha) and the context (i.e., all other nine divisions). It is known as the Twelve Divisions. 


   Sutta  - These are the short, medium, and long discourses expounded by the Buddha on various occasions. The whole Vinaya Pitaka is also included in this respect.

   Geyya  - i.e., the metrical pieces. These are discourses/proses mixed with Gathas or verses.

       Gatha - i.e., verses, chants or poems. These include verses formed in the Dharmapada, etc., and those isolated verses which are not classified amongst the Sutta.

   Nidana - i.e., the causes and conditions of the Buddha’s teachings.

    Itivrttaka - i.e., the suttas in which the Buddhas tell of the deeds of their disciples and others in previous lives.

    Jataka - i.e., stories of the former lives of Buddhas. These are the 547 birth-stories.

   Abbhuta-dhamma - i.e., miracles, etc. These are the few discourses that deal with wonderful and inconceivable powers of the Buddhas.

   Avadana - i.e., parables, metaphors. Illustrations are used to facilitate the human beings to understand the profound meanings of the Buddhist Dhamma.

   Upadesa - i.e., dogmatic treatises. The discourse and discussions by questions and answers regarding the Buddhist doctrines. It is a synonym for Abhidhamma Pitaka.

      Udana - i.e., impromptu or unsolicited addresses. The Buddha speaks voluntarily and not in reply to questions or appeals, e.g., the Amitabha Sutta.

     Vaipulya - i.e., interpretation by elaboration or deeper explanation of the doctrines. It is the broad school or wider teachings, in contrast with the “narrow” school. The term covers the whole of the specifically Mahayana suttas. The Suttas are also known as the scriptures of measureless meaning, i.e., infinite and universalistic.

    Veyyakarama  - i.e. prophecies, prediction by the Buddha of the future attainment of Buddhahood by his disciples.

   Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons 
The term is generally referred to Hinayana. There are only nine divisions excluding Udana, Vaipulya and Veyyakarana. 
However, there is also a Mahayana division of nine of the Twelve Divisions, i.e., all except Nidana, Avadana and Upadesa.

11 07 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 664 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]
Dīgha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —

Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]

The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in five collections called Nikāyas.

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

12 07 2012 THURSDAY LESSON 665 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —
[ sutta: discourse ]
Dīgha Nikāya
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
Dhammapada Verses 246,247 and 248 Panca Upasaka Vatthu-Verse 246. Wrong Deeds To Avoid-Verse 247. Precepts The Lay Person Should Follow-Verse 248. These Precepts Prevent Suffering

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 >> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Pāḷi

English


… 

(Dhammādāsa)

Dhammādāsaṃ nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto, sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. 

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi.
தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன், ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்) ஆக  ஆட்கொண்டு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை, இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம், துரதிருஷ்டம், துக்க நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன், sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Katamo ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto, sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? 

And what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என  கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே  விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?


Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)உடைய வராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.
Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda  (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)உடைய வராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

14 07 2012 SATURDAY LESSON 667 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons 
Sutta Piṭaka 
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —

DN 22 - (D ii 290) 
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction

Thus have I heard: 

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:
On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:
– Bhikkhavo ti.
– Bhaddante ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etad-avoca: 

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 

– Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. 

– This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas. 

Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Katha·ñ·ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’. 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 



B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. 

C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña, while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking, while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead, swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(2)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(3)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(4)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(5)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(6)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(6)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone, here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone, or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(7)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(8)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(9)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇaka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


II. Vedanānupassanā

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati? 


II. Observation of Vedanā

And how now, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā? 

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. 

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”; experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati; ‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati. 


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TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —
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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Uddesa

Evaṃ me sutaṃ:
Introduction
Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

எந்த நான்கு?இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு kāye kāyānupassī (உடலை உடல் கண்காணிப்புடன்) கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார் ātāpī sampajāno satimā,வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க  Vedanāsu vedanānupassī உறுதலுணர்ச்சி கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, சித்த நலம் கருதி ண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார். மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற அபூர்வமான வினயா(ஒழுக்கம்) காக்க வேறு வழியில்லாமல்   பிரபஞ்சம் நோக்கி எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்க ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க கண்காணிப்புடன் வசிக்கிரார்.

Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā in vedanā.
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T ipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
Dhammapada Verse 253-Ujjhanasannitthera Vatthu-Seeing Others’ Faults
ALL ABOUT USA
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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ.
Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā
I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

Pāḷi
Katha·ñ·ca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arañña-gato vā rukkha-mūla-gato vā suññ’āgāra-gato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. 


English

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna
Being thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

தமிழ்

மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களா,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்? இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

17 07 2012 MONDAY LESSON 670 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
T ipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
Dhammapada Verse 254-and 255 Subhaddaparibbajaka Vatthu-Verse 254. Nothing Is Eternal Other Than Nibbana-Verse 255. The Buddha Has No Anxiety
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 >> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Ānāpāna Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

Pāḷi
Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakār·antevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ’sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

I. Kāyānupassanā 

A. Section on ānāpāna
English

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

தமிழ்

சம்மதம்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,திறமை கடைசல்காரர் அல்லது கடைசல்காரின் தொழில் பழகுநர், ஒரு நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் நீளமான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;ஒரு குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குதல் குறிப்பறிது: ‘நான் குறைவான சுழற்றுதல் உருவாக்குகிறேன்’;அவ்வழி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு,மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:

Please watch:
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Buddhist Meditation - Lama Ole Nydahl

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Buddhas in Gardens - HD - Calming Nature Buddha Meditation
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Buddhism, Meditation Nature & Water - Sublime,Inspiring Buddha Quotes HD Secret Jungle Temple
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18 07 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 671 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,kāya in kāya (உடலில் உடலை கவனித்து வசிக்கிரார்? இங்கு பிக்குக்களுக்களா,ஒரு பிக்கு,காட்டுக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது மரத்தடிக்குச் சென்றோ அல்லது காலி அறைகுச் சென்றோ,காலை குறுக்காக கீழ்நோக்கி மடித்துக்கொண்டு அமர்கிரார்,உடலை செங்குத்தாக சரிசெய்துக்கொண்டு,மற்றும் sati parimukhaṃ. மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே சரிசெய்துக்கொள்கிரார்.  sato இவ்வாறு கவனமான மூச்சு உள்ளே அல்லது வெளியே செலுத்துகிரார். மூச்சு நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு நீண்டதாக வெளியே  செலுத்தும்போது: நான் நீண்டதாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்தும்போது: நான் குறைவாக உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.மூச்சு குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்தும்போது:நான் குறைவாக வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன் என அறிகிரார்.அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்: முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:முழு  kāya உடலை/காயாவையும் கூருணர்ச்சியுடன்,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:  kāya-saṅkhāras உடல்/காயா இச்சாசத்தியை அமைதி உண்டாக்கொண்டு.நான் மூச்சை உள்ளே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:,நான் மூச்சை வெளியே செலுத்துககின்றேன்:அவர் தானே பயிற்சித்துகொள்கிரார்:
19 07 2012 THURSSDAY LESSON 672 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
>> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

B. Iriyāpatha Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 

B. Section on postures

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he understands it accordingly. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
தமிழ்
மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து செல்கிறேன்’,
என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு செய்கிறாரோ
அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்

21 07 2012 SATURDAY LESSON 674 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the nīvaraṇas

C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. 

C. Section on sampajañña

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña, while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking, while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
தமிழ்

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு, அணுகும் பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும் கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும் நெட்டிமுறியும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள் பொழுது மற்றும் தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது, சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும் பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
24 07 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 677 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba     D. Section on Repulsiveness
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 

Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள் உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன் நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

25 07 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 678 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba-E. Section on the Elements-E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
>> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.” 

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும், எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க  இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம், நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே, பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும், எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க  இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம், நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு
27 07 2012 FRIDAY LESSON 680 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
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Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead, swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்
F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள் இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும் புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(2)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā pāṇaka·jātehi khajjamānaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(2)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,காகங்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பருந்துகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பிணந்தின்னிக் கழுகுகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாரைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, நாய்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, புலிகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, சிறுத்தைகளால் தின்னப்பட்டு, பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசரீரிவஸ்துக்களால் தின்னப்பட்டு, அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(3)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ sa·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.
மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசை மற்றும் இரத்தத்துடன்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

28 07 2012 SATURDAY LESSON 681 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 

(4)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ ni·maṃsa·lohita·makkhitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம் பூசப்பட்டு,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற  நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

(5)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhika·saṅkhalikaṃ apagata·maṃsa·lohitaṃ nhāru·sambandhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், ஒரு மனித  எலும்புக் கூடு தசைகளில்லாமல் மற்றும் இரத்தம்  இல்லாமல்,நரம்புகளால்  ஒன்றாய் பிடிக்கப்பட்டு,அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

30 07 2012 MONDAY LESSON 683 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words                 sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta
TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka
— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. II. Vedanānupassanā
II. Observation of Vedanā ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு - II. வேதனையை கூர்ந்த கவனித்தல்
Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

Pāḷi

Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā
   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā
   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

(6)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagata·sambandhāni disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena hatth·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena pād·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphak·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena jaṅgh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūru·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭi·ṭṭhikaṃ aññena phāsuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭh·iṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandh·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena gīv·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanuk·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena dant·aṭṭhikaṃ aññena sīsakaṭāhaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(6)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone, here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone, or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

தமிழ்

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால், கழற்றபட்ட எலும்புகள் அங்குமிங்குமா சிதறலான, இங்கே ஒரு கை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கால் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு கணுக்கால் எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முழந்தாள் எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு இடுப்பு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு விலா எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தொடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு முதுகு எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தண்டெலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு கழுத்து எலும்பு, இங்கே ஒரு தாடை எலும்பு, அங்கே ஒரு பல் எலும்பு, அல்லது அங்கே ஒரு மண்டை ஓடு என அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(7)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் கடல்நுரை போல் வெண்மையாக இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(8)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñja·kitāni terovassikāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,எலும்புகள் ஒரு ஆண்டுக்கு மேலே பழையதாகி குவியல் போல்  இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


(9)
Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇaka·jātāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு இருப்பதைப் பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருந்தால்,சீரழிந்த எலும்புகள் பொடியாகி  இருந்தால், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல் உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும் அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

________________________________________________________________________________________
II. Vedanānupassanā

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati? 


II. Observation of Vedanā

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā? 

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ a·dukkham-a·sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. 

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”; experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”. 

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati; ‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in vedanā, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā in vedanā.

II. வேதனையை கூர்ந்த கவனித்தல்

மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, vedanā in vedanā  வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்?

இங்கு, பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒரு sukha vedanā சுக வேதனையை அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு சுக வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு dukkha vedanā துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு துக்க வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்: ஒரு  adukkham-asukhā vedanā  அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā vedanā  அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā vedanā  sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு sukhā vedanā  sāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு sukhā vedanā  nirāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு sukhā vedanā nirāmisa சுக வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha vedanā  sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு dukkha vedanā  sāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு dukkha vedanā  nirāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு dukkha vedanā nirāmisa துக்க வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  sāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற) வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  sāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற)  வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:ஒரு adukkham-asukhā  vedanā  nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற)  வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்கும்போது, நான் ஒரு adukkham-asukhā  vedanā nirāmisa அதுக்க-அசுக (துக்க-சுகமற்ற)  வேதனையை உணவை மனப்பற்றறுடன் அனுபவிக்றேன் என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்:

இவ்வாறு அவர்  vedanā in vedanā  வேதனையை வேதனையில் கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது வேதனையை வேதனைக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
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— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
F. Navasivathika Pabba    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds  F. II. Vedanānupassanā
II. Observation of Vedanā  - III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

>> Sutta Piṭaka >> Digha Nikāya

DN 22 - (D ii 290)

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.




Note: infobubbles on all Pali words


Pāḷi



Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā

   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā

   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba



English



Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya

   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas

   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

III. Cittānupassanā


Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?


III. Observation of Citta



And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sa·rāgaṃ cittaṃsa·rāgaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vīta·rāgaṃ cittaṃvīta·rāgaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, sa·dosaṃ cittaṃsa·dosaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vīta·dosaṃ cittaṃvīta·dosaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, sa·mohaṃ cittaṃsa·mohaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vīta·mohaṃ cittaṃvīta·mohaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṃ cittaṃsaṅkhittaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vikkhittaṃ cittaṃvikkhittaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, mahaggataṃ cittaṃmahaggataṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, a·mahaggataṃ cittaṃa·mahaggataṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, sa·uttaraṃ cittaṃsa·uttaraṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, an·uttaraṃ cittaṃan·uttaraṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, samāhitaṃ cittaṃsamāhitaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, a·samāhitaṃ cittaṃa·samāhitaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, vimuttaṃ cittaṃvimuttaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti, a·vimuttaṃ cittaṃa·vimuttaṃ cittaṃti pajānāti.


Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with rāga“, or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga“, or he understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa“, or he understands citta without dosa as “citta without dosa“, or he understands citta with moha as “citta with moha“, or he understands citta without moha as “citta without moha“, or he understands a collected citta as “a collected citta“, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered citta“, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta“, or he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta“, or he understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta“, or he understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta“, or he understands a concentrated citta as “a concentrated citta“, or he understands an unconcentrated citta as “an unconcentrated citta“, or he understands a liberated citta as “a liberated citta“, or he understands an unliberated citta as “an unliberated citta“.

Iti ajjhattaṃ citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā citte cittānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā citte cittānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī cittasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī cittasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī cittasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi cittaṃti pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.


Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.


தமிழ்


III. Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை கூர்ந்து கவனித்தல்

மற்றும்
இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்?

மற்றும் இப்போது எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு,
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga  ஆர்வ வேட்கையை ” Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை rāga
ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது

Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை “dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையை Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை 
dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையாக” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை dosa வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை dosa
வெறுப்பு ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha  மருட்சி  ஆர்வ வேட்கையை “Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை 
moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,”Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை moha மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றதை, Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை moha
மருட்சி ஆர்வ வேட்கையற்றது” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், அல்லது ஒரு சேர்த்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு சேர்த்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு சிதறலான
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு
சிதறலான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
விரிவாக்கம் செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்த
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு விரிவாக்கம்
செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விரிவாக்கம் செய்யாத Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம்
அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு மிக மேற்பட்ட Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு  மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு
மிக மேற்படாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு
திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு திண்மையான Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,  ஒரு திண்மையற்ற Citta மனம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலை  “ஒரு திண்மையற்ற  Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என
புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்,அல்லது ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை 
“ஒரு விடுதலை செய்த Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார், 
ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை  “ஒரு விடுதலை செய்யாத 
Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலை” என புரிந்துகொள்கிரார்.

இவ்வாறு
அவர்  Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில்
கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta
மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் அதனுடைய
அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், samudaya
and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் மற்றும்
கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
இல்லாவிடில் “இது  citta  அகநிலை” என உணர்ந்து,  sati விழிப்பு நிலை
அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa  ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும்
ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார். மற்றும் உலகத்தில்
சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, Citta
மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையை in Citta மனம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து 
கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

 

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10/20/12
21X12 Sunday LESSON 729 திபிதக மூன்று கூடைகள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org- Dhammapada Verse 394 Kuhakabrahmana Vatthu-Be Pure Within-VOICE OF SARVAJAN-To Dr Manmohan Singh Honourable Prime Minister of India on Sub: Dhukka of Sarvajan Samaj related to LPG and Ration Card
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Posted by: @ 5:44 pm

21X12 Sunday LESSON 729  திபிமூன்று கூடைள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 394 Kuhakabrahmana Vatthu-Be Pure Within-VOICE OF SARVAJAN-To Dr Manmohan Singh Honourable Prime Minister of India on Sub: Dhukka of Sarvajan Samaj related to LPG and Ration Card

Verse 394. Be Pure Within

What’s the coiled hair for?
For what your cloak of skins?
Within you are acquisitive,
you decorate without.

Explanation: Of what use are your exterior sights of asceticism:
you matted hair, your leopard skin garment? Your outside you keep
clean and bright, while inside you are filled with defilements.


Dhammapada Verse 394
Kuhakabrahmana Vatthu

Kim te jatahi dummedha
kim te ajinasatiya
abbhantaram te gahanam
bahiram parimajjasi.

Verse 394: O foolish one! What is the use of
wearing matted hair? What is the use of your wearing a garment made of antelope
skin? In you, there is a forest (of moral defilements); you clean yourself only
externally.


The Story of a Deceitful Brahmin

While residing at the Kutagara
monastery in Vesali, the Buddha uttered Verse (394) of this book, with reference
to a deceitful brahmin.

Once, a deceitful brahmin climbed
up a tree near the city-gate of Vesali and kept himself hanging upside down like
a bat from one of the branches of the tree. From this very awkward position, he
kept on muttering, “O people! Bring me a hundred heads of cattle, many
pieces of silver and a number of slaves. If you do not bring these to me, and if
I were to fall down from this tree and die, this city of yours will surely come
to ruin.” The people of the town, fearing that their city night be
destroyed if the brahmin were to fall down and die, brought all the things he
demanded and pleaded with him to come down.

The bhikkhus hearing about this
incident reported to the Buddha and the Buddha replied that the deceitful one
could only cheat the ignorant people but not the wise ones.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 394: O foolish
one! What is the use of wearing matted hair? What is the use of your
wearing a garment made of antelope skin? In you, there is a forest (of
moral defilements); you clean yourself only externally.

VOICE OF SARVAJAN IN Dhukka

To,

Dr Manmohan Singh
Honourable Prime Minister of India

Sir,

Sub: Dhukka of Sarvajan Samaj related to LPG and Ration Card

1    `There is no shortage of LPG. However due to verification process as per the new LPG policy which has become cumbersome, people are not able to get cooking gas.

2    People are made to wait for hours together in queues to update their LPG consumer connections.

4    Dismal ratio between gas dealers and consumers in the state, is badly affecting adequate supply of LPG cylinders on ground.

5    Oil companies have  to expedite the process of allotting gas dealership and every block should have at least one dealer for smooth LPG distribution.

NO ALTERNATIVE

6    It is difficult to use other energy sources, like biogas, solar energy, etc as a substitute to LPG due to reasons like cost and availability.

7    The price of cooking gas (LPG) has been hiked by Rs. 11.42 per cylinder, following the government’s decision to raise the commission paid to the dealers. The hike came within weeks of the government deciding to restrict supply of subsidised cooking gas to six cylinders     per household in a year.

8    The Oil Ministry had issued orders raising commission paid to LPG dealers from Rs. 25.83 per 14.2-kg cylinder to Rs. 37.25.

9    For the consumer, subsidised LPG in Delhi will now cost Rs. 410.42 per cylinder, up from Rs. 399. Non-subsidised cylinder to now cost Rs. 921

10    Petrol and diesel prices too may go up marginally as the Oil Ministry considers raising dealers’ commission by at least 23 paise and 10 paise a litre respectively

11    After LPG crisis, more power cuts to haunt people. It is an unfortunate decision by the government and PDD to announce a new curtailment schedule at a time when examinations are going on. On one hand government is talking about improving the education sector,     while on the other hand it announced curtailment schedule even after knowing the problems faced by the people due to LPG crisis. How can a student study when there is so much curtailment especially in unmetered areas? Also we can’t use handy gas now because it is     difficult to get handy gas refilled due to new LPG policy announced by the government. With Darbar move just round the corner people living in this so called “paradise on earth” will continue to reel under darkness this winter too. Meanwhile, the government has no         moral courage to get back power projects from NHPC.

Rise in prices including that of LPG as anti-people, SC/ST/OBC/MINORITIES & POORER AMONG THE NON-MAJORITY PEOPLE are for Dhukka Nirodha.

SOLUTION:

Dhukka Nirodha

THROW OUT THE PRESENT DARBAR
AT THE CENTRE AND ALL THE STATES AND HAND OVER THE MASTERKEY TO BSP FOR
EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH TO ALL SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY FOR PEACE,
WELFARE AND HAPPINESS.

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10/19/12
20X12 Saturday LESSON 728 திபிதக மூன்று கூடைகள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY- VOICE OF SARVAJAN Dhukka LPG crisis worsening -Ration card registration centres go the ‘extra mile’SOLUTION:Dhukka Nirodha
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Posted by: @ 4:23 pm

20X12 Saturday LESSON 728  திபிமூன்று கூடைள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 393 Jatilabrahmana
Vatthu-One Does Not Become A Brahmin Merely By Birth-VOICE OF SARVAJAN Dhukka LPG crisis worsening - Ration card registration centres go the ‘extra mile’ SOLUTION:Dhukka Nirodha


Verse 393. One Does Not Become A Brahmin Merely By Birth

By birth one is no brahmin,
by family, austerity.
In whom are truth and Dhamma too
pure is he, a Brahmin’s he.

Explanation: One does not become a brahmin by one’s matted
hair. Nor does one become a brahmin by one’s clan. Even one’s
birth will not make a brahmin. If one has realized the Truth., has
acquired the knowledge of the Teaching, if he is also pure, it is
such a person that I describe as a brahmin.


Dhammapada Verse 393
Jatilabrahmana

Vatthu

Na jatahi na gottena
na jacca hoti brahmano
yamhi saccanca
1 dhammo2 ca
so suci so ca brahmano.

Verse 393: Not by wearing matted hair, nor by
lineage, nor by caste, does one become a brahmana; only he who realizes the
Truth and the Dhamma is pure; he is a brahmana.


1. sacca: the Four Noble Truths.

2. dhamma : the nine Transcendentals, viz., the
four Maggas, the four Phalas and Nibbana.


The Story of Jatila, the Brahmin

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (393) of this book, with reference to Jatila,
a brahmin ascetic who wore matted hair.

Once, a brahmin ascetic thought
to himself that the Buddha called his disciples ‘brahmanas’ and that he being a
brahmin by birth should also be called a ‘brahmana’. Thinking thus, he went to
see the Buddha and put forward his view. But the Buddha rejected his view and
said, “O brahmin, I do not call one a brahmana because he keeps his hair
matted or simply because of his birth; I call one a brahmana only if he fully
comprehends the Four Noble Truths.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 393: Not by
wearing matted hair, nor by lineage, nor by caste, does one become a
brahmana; only he who realizes the Truth and the Dhamma is pure; he is
a brahmana.

VOICE OF SARVAJAN

Dhukka

LPG crisis worsening

To increase the cap on subsidized cooking gas cylinders.

Dismal ratio between gas dealers and consumers in the state, is badly affecting adequate supply of LPG cylinders on ground.

Oil companies have  to expedite the process of allotting gas
dealership and every block should have at least one dealer for smooth
LPG distribution,

The verification process as per the new LPG policy has become
cumbersome, with people made to wait for hours together in queues to
update their LPG consumer connections.

Chief Minister must “personally monitor” the situation
and the government must decide to urge the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
and UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi to increase the quota of subsidized
LPG cylinders.

A group of ministers from the state must meet PM  and apprise
him about the situation with regard to the new LPG policy,

Minister for Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution (CAPD) has to confirm this.

State government must be concerned about the problems that people are facing due to new LPG policy.

 The issue of LPG must be personally taken up with 
the Prime Minister and ask for special concession for the people.

There is no shortage of LPG in the state.However due to verification process people are not able to get cooking gas.

With new LPG policy coming into effect, LPG consumers  are facing lot of problems.As the number of LPG cylinders to be given to a consumer at subsidized
rates has been fixed at six refills per year, the people are bound to
face multiple problems. After consuming six cylinders, a consumer has to
pay non-subsidized rate of LPG cylinders which will be fixed by Oil
Companies keeping in view fluctuating crude oil prices.


People suffer


This refers to the news “After LPG crisis, more power cuts to haunt
people.” It is an unfortunate decision by the government and PDD to
announce a new curtailment schedule at a time when examinations are
going on. On one hand government is talking about improving the
education sector, while on the other hand it announced curtailment
schedule even after knowing the problems faced by the people due to LPG
crisis. How can a student study when there is so much curtailment
especially in unmetered areas? Also we can’t use handy gas now because
it is difficult to get handy gas refilled due to new LPG policy
announced by the government. With Darbar move just round the corner
people living in this so called “paradise on earth” will continue to
reel under darkness this winter too. Meanwhile, the government has no
moral courage to get back power projects from NHPC.


LPG crisis

Sir,

In the wake of LPG crises, the common man seems
to be on the cross roads. It is very unfortunate
and disgusting to see old aged persons waiting in
long queues for hours in the open to get the gas
documents verified.

It is duty of the Govt to utilize its resources
and authority to make the verification process
and the LPG distribution system easy and smooth.

In the absence of the home delivery system, let
the concerned administration ask the LPG dealers
to open more and more distribution centres
(outlets) in order to give some respite to the
common man. Keeping in view the LPG crises the
administration needs to be vigilant to curb any
attempt of illegal black marketing of Gas
cylinders

While a subsidised LPG cylinder will cost somewhere around Rs 430, the
cost of non-subsidised cylinder would be more than double the price of a
subsidised cylinder and a consumer is entitled to only six LPG
cylinders a year.


NO ALTERNATIVE

Volunteers
pointed out that it is difficult to use other energy sources, like
biogas, solar energy, etc as a substitute to LPG due to reasons like
cost and availability.

LPG cylinder price hiked, non-subsidised cylinder to now cost Rs. 921


The price of cooking gas (LPG) has been hiked by Rs.
11.42 per cylinder, following the government’s decision to raise the
commission paid to the dealers. The hike comes within weeks of the
government deciding to restrict supply of subsidised cooking gas to six
cylinders per household in a year.

The Oil Ministry had yesterday issued orders raising commission paid to LPG dealers from Rs. 25.83 per 14.2-kg cylinder to Rs. 37.25, government officials said.

For the consumer, subsidised LPG in Delhi will now cost Rs. 410.42 per cylinder, up from Rs. 399. Officials said the commission paid on market price or non-subsidised LPG too has been raised by Rs. 12.17 to Rs. 38 per cylinder. Accordingly, a non-subsidised LPG cylinder price will go up from Rs. 883.5 to Rs. 921.5.


Petrol and diesel prices too may go up marginally as the Oil Ministry
considers raising dealers’ commission by at least 23 paise and 10 paise a
litre respectively.


Viewing the rise in prices including that of LPG as “anti-people”, MAJORITY PEOPLE CONSISTING SC/ST/OBC/MINORITIES AND POORER AMONG THE NON-MAJORITY PEOPLE  will hold a nation-wide protest during which they will also raise the issue of scams that have
hit the government.

Ration card registration centres go the ‘extra mile’

Franchisees charge exorbitant fees for collecting bio-metric details in B’lore

The bribery bug seems to have bitten the online registration for ration cards in the city.

This
time the fleecing of applicants is not by any government agency, but by
franchisees (photo bio service centres), which have been entrusted with
the task of taking photographs and collecting fingerprint and other
bio-metric details of the ration card seekers.  

The official
website (www.ahara.kar.nic.in) of the Department of Food, Civil Supply
and Consumer Affairs says the fee for taking the photographs and
bio-metric details has been fixed at Rs 20 for upto four members of a
family and Rs 5 for each additional member.

A reality check showed that these centres, mostly cyber cafes, were taking the applicants for a ride.

In
some centres, the card seekers are being charged Rs 50 to Rs 100,
irrespective of the number of family members.  A resident
of Chandra Layout (Bangalore West) was forced to pay Rs 50 when she
went to give bio-metric details at the photo centre, even though there
are only two members in her family.

“When I told them about the
fee fixed by the department, the cyber cafe owner said they are
collecting a higher fee because they have to pay more to the
government,” . Other residents of the area faced similar
problems. They too had to pay “extra” to ensure that biometric details
are taken properly.

The operator at a service centre on
Kaggadasapura main road (Bangalore East) said they were collecting Rs 10
per person to record biometric details, irrespective of what the
department had prescribed.

A resident of the area,
said some people had paid Rs 100, even though the number of family
members was limited to four.

A service centre in Yeshwantpur
(Bangalore North) is charging Rs 30 as minimum fee. Another centre in
Ejipura (Bangalore South) is collecting Rs 10 for each additional member
of the family with a size more than four.

M C Gangadhar, Deputy
Director (Procurement and Distribution) of the Department of Food,
Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs told that the deputy
directors of the respective zones had been made responsible for the
irregularities at the service centres in their jurisdiction.

The
public may lodge complaints with the deputy directors. The list of the
service centres under each zone is available on the department website
as well as at the nearest ration shops, he said.

Gangadhar said
if the service centre owners were found guilty, the password given to
them would be immediately disabled and another service centre would be
selected.

The food department has identified 160 service centres in the city.

There
are a total of 765 such service centres across the State, including
those in the jurisdiction of select gram panchayats, taluk offices and
offices of the deputy directors of the department for recording
bio-metric details.

As many as 31 lakh people from across the
State, including seven lakh from Bangalore, have applied for new ration
cards and bio-metric details will be collected before delivery of the
cards.

SOLUTION:

Dhukka Nirodha

THROW OUT THE PRESENT DARBAR AT THE CENTRE AND ALL THE STATES AND HAND OVER THE MASTERKEY TO BSP FOR EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH TO ALL SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY FOR PEACE, WELFARE AND HAPPINESS.

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19X12 Friday LESSON 727 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 392 Sariputtatthera Vatthu-Honour To Whom Honour Is Due
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Posted by: @ 2:52 am

19X12 Friday LESSON 727  திபிமூன்று கூடைள் up a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 392 Sariputtatthera
Vatthu-Honour To Whom Honour Is Due

Verse 392. Honour To Whom Honour Is Due

From whom one knows the Dhamma
by Perfect Buddha taught
devoutly one should honour them
as brahmin sacred fire.

Explanation: If a seeker after truth were to learn the Word
of the Enlightened One from a teacher, that pupil must pay the Teacher
due respect, like a brahmin paying homage assiduously and with respect
to the sacrificial fire.


Dhammapada Verse 392
Sariputtatthera
Vatthu

Yamha dhammam vijaneyya
sammasambuddhadesitam
sakkaccam tam namasseyya
aggihuttamva brahmano.

Verse 392: If from somebody one should learn
the Teaching of the Buddha, he should respectfully pay homage to that teacher,
as a brahmin worships the sacrificial fire.


The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (392) of this book, with reference to the
Venerable Sariputta.

The Venerable Sariputta was born
of brahmin parents of Upatissa village; that was why he was named Upatissa. His
mother was Sari. His very close friend was Kolita, another brahmin youth, son of
Moggali. Both the youths were searching for the right doctrine, which would lead
them to liberation from the round of rebirths, and both of them had a great
desire to enter a religious Order. First, they went to Sancaya, but they were
not satisfied with his teaching. Then they wandered all over Jambudipa looking
for a teacher who would show them the way to the Deathless, but their search was
fruitless. After some time, they parted company but with the understanding that
the one who found the true dhamma first should inform the other.

About that time, the Buddha
arrived at Rajagaha with a company of bhikkhus, including Thera Assaji, one of
the group of the first Five Bhikkhus (Pancavaggis). While Thera Assaji was on an
alms-round, Upatissa saw the thera and was very much impressed by his noble
countenance. So Upatissa respectfully approached the thera and asked who his
teacher was, what doctrine his teacher taught, and also briefly to explain the
doctrine to him. Thera Assaji then told Upatissa about the arising of the Buddha
and about his sojourn at the Veluvana monastery in Rajagaha. The thera also
quoted a short stanza connected with the Four Noble Truths.

The verse runs thus:

Ye dhamma hetuppa bhava
tesam hetum tathagato aha
tesanca yo nirodho
evam vadi maha samano.

It means:

The Tathagata has declared the
cause and also the cessation of all phenomena which arise from a cause. This
is the doctrine held by the Great Samana.

When the verse was only half-way
through, Upatissa attained Sotapatti Fruition.

As promised, Upatissa went to his
friend Kolita to inform him that he had found the true dhamma. Then the two
friends, accompanied by two hundred and fifty followers, went to the Buddha who
was then at Rajagaha. When they arrived at the Veluvana monastery, they asked
permission to enter the Buddhist Order, and both Upatissa and Kolita, together
with their two hundred and fifty followers, were admitted as bhikkhus. Upatissa,
son of Sari, and Kolita, son of Moggali, then came to be known as Sariputta and
Moggallana. Soon after their admission to the Order, the Buddha expounded to
them a dhamma and the two hundred and fifty bhikkhus attained arahatship; but
Moggallana and Sariputta attained arahatship only at the end of seven days and
fifteen days respectively. The reason for the delay in their attainment of
arahatship was that they had made a wish for Chief Discipleship, which required
much more striving to achieve perfection.

The Venerable Sariputta always
remembered that he had been able to meet the Buddha and attain the Deathless
through the Venerable Assaji. So, he always paid obeisance in the direction
where his teacher was and he always went to bed with his head lying in the same
direction. Other bhikkhus who were staying with him at the Jetavana monastery
misinterpreted his actions and said to the Buddha, “Venerable Sir! The
Venerable Sariputta still worships the various directions, viz., the East, the
South, the West, the North, the Nadir and the Zenith, as he has done before as a
brahmin youth; it seems as if he has not yet given up his old beliefs.” The
Buddha sent for the Venerable Sariputta and Sariputta explained to the Buddha
that he was only paying obeisance to his teacher, the Venerable Assaji, and that
he was not worshipping the various directions. The Buddha was satisfied with the
explanation given by the Venerable Sariputta and said to the other bhikkhus,
“Bhikkhus! The Venerable Sariputta was not worshipping the various
directions; he was only paying obeisance to his teacher and benefactor, through
whom he had attained the Deathless. It is quite right and proper for him to pay
homage to such a teacher.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 392: If from
somebody one should learn the Teaching of the Buddha, he should
respectfully pay homage to that teacher, as a brahmin worships the
sacrificial fire.

comments (0)
10/17/12
18X12 Thursday LESSON 726 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 391 Mahapajapatigotami Vatthu-The Well-Restrained Is Truly A Brahmin Fight class/caste with capital-Majority people entrepreneurs repose faith in capital over quota-Position of Majority People consisting SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and poorer among the Non-Majority People in biodiversity conservation debated
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Posted by: @ 10:06 pm

18X12 Thursday LESSON 726  மூன்று கூடைள் திபிup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 391 Mahapajapatigotami
Vatthu-The Well-Restrained Is Truly A Brahmin
Fight class/caste with capital-Majority people entrepreneurs repose faith in capital over quota-Position of Majority People consisting SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and
poorer among the Non-Majority People in biodiversity conservation
debated

Verse 391. The Well-Restrained Is Truly A Brahmin

In whom there is no wrong-doing
by body, speech or mind,
in these three ways restrained,
that one I call a Brahmin True.

Explanation: If an individual is well guarded in body, speech
and in mind, and has done no wrong in these three areas, who is well
restrained, I call that person a true brahmana - the noble saint.


Dhammapada Verse 391
Mahapajapatigotami
Vatthu

Yassa kayena vacaya
manasa natthi dukkatam
samvutam tihi thanehi
tamaham brumi brahmanam.

Verse 391: Him I call a brahmana who does no
evil in deed or word or thought, who is restrained in these three respects.


The Story of Theri Mahapajapati Gotami

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (391) of this book, with reference to Theri
Mahapajapati Gotami.

Mahapajapati Gotami was the
stepmother of Gotama Buddha. On the death of Queen, seven days after the birth
of Prince Siddhattha, Mahapajapati Gotami became the chief queen of King
Suddhodana. At that time, her own son Nanda was only five days old. She let her
own son be fed by a wet-nurse, and herself fed Prince Siddhattha, the future
Buddha. Thus, Mahapajapati Gotami was a great benefactor to Prince Siddhattha.

When Prince Siddhattha returned
to Kapilavatthu after the attainment of Buddhahood, Mahapajapati Gotami went to
see the Buddha and requested that women should also be allowed to enter the
Buddhist Order as bhikkhunis; but the Buddha refused permission. Later, King
Suddhodana died after attaining arahatship. Then, while the Buddha was
sojourning at the Mahavana forest near Vesali, Mahapajapati, accompanied by five
hundred ladies, came on foot from Kapilavatthu to Vasali. They had already
shaven their heads and had put on the dyed robes. There, for a second time,
Mahapajapati requested the Buddha to accept women in the Buddhist Order. The
Venerable Ananda also interceded on her behalf. So, the Buddha complied, with
the proviso that Mahapajapati abides by eight special conditions (garudhammas).
Mahapajapati undertook to observe the garudhammas as required, and the Buddha
admitted her into the Order. Thus, Mahapajapati was the first to be admitted to
the Order of the Bhikkhunis. The other women were admitted to the Order after
her by the bhikkhus as instructed by the Buddha.

In course of time, it came to the
minds of some bhikkhunis that Mahapajapati Gotami had not been properly admitted
as a bhikkhuni because she did not have a preceptor; therefore, Mahapajapati
Gotami was not a true bhikkhuni. With this thought in their mind, they stopped
doing sabbath (uposatha) ceremonies and vassa (pavarana) ceremonies with her.
They went to the Buddha and posed the problem of Mahapajapati Gotami not having
been properly admitted to the Order of bhikkhunis as she had no preceptor. To
them the Buddha replied, “Why do you say so? I myself gave the eight
garudhammas to Mahapajapati and she had learnt and practised the garudhammas as
required by me. I myself am her preceptor and it is quite wrong for you to say
that she has no preceptor. You should harbour no doubt whatsoever about an
arahat.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 391: Him I call
a brahmana who does no evil in deed or word or thought, who is
restrained in these three respects.

Fight class/caste with capital

Majority people entrepreneurs repose faith in capital over quota

Majority People Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MPCCI), entrepreneurs from across the country raised the slogan of Fight class/caste with capital’ and welcomed partnerships with big corporates and industries along with financial assistance and reservation.

People who have been long deprived of economic and social rights  need reservation to grow.They need ample business opportunities to prove their merit. In this regard, allowing FDI in all the countries will open a number of avenues for people belonging to scheduled castes. tribes,Other Backward Castes, Minoritires and the poorer among the Non-Majority people too.”

The modern trade system offered equal opportunities to all depending on  their skills contrary to the traditional trade system where all powers and money were vested in the hands of one Non-Majority Caste. The old system promotes casteism while the new system will allow everyone to grow.

All the members of MPCCI must work hard to create business opportunities for its members and provide a national platform for knowledge exchange.

Position of Majority People consisting SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and poorer among the Non-Majority People in biodiversity conservation debated

Do Majority People, the most marginalised section of society, figure in the narrative of biodiversity conservation? Are they excluded like it is in the contemporary hierarchical  Non-Majority society? What is their status vis- a-vis tribals and traditional forest-dwellers whose rights have been protected by the recent Forest Right Act ?

A side event organised at a corner of the ongoing COP-11 here on Monday by the National Campaign on Majority People Human Rights (NCMPHR) threw up interesting facets of the issue.

Majority People struggle

In a paper on Majority People movements and the political economy of biodiversity conservation, he said pressure on conserving biodiversity on Majority People has to be considered as a struggle against exclusion. Such struggles are indeed able to regulate common-pool resource and preserve the biodiversity. “However these efforts also remain outside the domain of current biodiversity conservation as the existing legal and economic implication of such conservation model is linked to economic value of natural resources. The impact of the destruction of biodiversity is not equally applicable to all.

With the Biological Diversity Conservation Act of 2002 weighing everything in terms of economic value and allowing destruction of biodiversity for economic purposes, the Majority Peoples’ position on biodiversity conservation has become legally questionable.

The current debates on biodiversity conservation could be considered as market debate within the “unequal development” paradigm.

“Hence, the Majority People position has to challenge both biodiversity conservation and development angles”.
The position of tribals was comparatively better after the Forest Rights Act, but whether they enjoyed the fruits of law was debatable.

Looking at the impact of climate change and biodiversity loss on such communities, It is  brought out how Majority People constituting more than 85 per cent of the population and living in vulnerable areas, landless and dependent on natural resources would be the worst-affected.

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10/16/12
17X12 Wednesday LESSON 725 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verses 389 and 390 Sariputtatthera Vatthu-Verse 389. Harm Not An Arahat-Verse 390. An Arahat Does Not Retaliate-Homemade Rat and Mice Spray Repellent
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17X12 Wednesday LESSON 725  மூன்று கூடைள் திபிup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verses 389 and 390 Sariputtatthera
Vatthu-Verse 389. Harm Not An Arahat-Verse 390. An Arahat Does Not Retaliate-Homemade Rat and Mice Spray Repellent

Verse 389. Harm Not An Arahat

One should not a brahmin beat
nor for that should He react.
Shame! Who would a Brahmin beat,
more shame for any should they react.

Explanation: No one should strike a brahmana - the pure saint.
The brahmana who has become a victim must refrain from attacking the
attacker in return, or show anger in return. Shame on him who attacks
a brahmana; greater shame on him who displays retaliatory anger.


Verse 390. An Arahat Does Not Retaliate

For brahmin no small benefit
when mind’s aloof from what is dear.
As much he turns away from harm
so much indeed does dukkha die.

Explanation: To the brahmana, the act of not returning hate
is not a minor asset - it is a great asset, indeed. If, there is in
a mind which usually takes delight in hateful acts, there is a change
for the better, it is not a minor victory. Each time the violent mind
ceases, suffering, too, subsides.

Dhammapada Verses 389 and 390
Sariputtatthera

Vatthu

Na brahmanassa pahareyya
nassa muncetha brahmano
dhi brahmanassa hantaram
tato dhi yassa muncati.

Na brahmanasse’ tadakinci seyyo
yada nisedho manaso piyehi
yato yato himsamano nivattati
tato tato sammatimeva dukkham.

Verse 389: One should not strike a brahmana; a
brahmana should not get angry with his assailant; it is shameful to strike a
brahmana; it is more shameful to get angry with one’s assailant.

Verse 390: For a brahmana there is no benefit
at all if he does not restrain from anger to which his mind is prone. Inasmuch
as one desists from the intention to harm, to that extent dukkha ceases.


The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at the Jetavana
monastery, the Buddha uttered Verses (389) and (390) of this book, with
reference to the Venerable Sariputta.

The Venerable Sariputta was often
praised by many people for his patience and forbearance. His pupils usually said
of him thus: “Our teacher is a man of great patience and extreme endurance.
If he is abused or even beaten by others, he does not lose his temper but
remains calm and composed.” As this was often said of the Venerable
Sariputta, a brahmin holding wrong views declared to the admirers of Sariputta
that he would provoke the Venerable Sariputta into anger. At that moment, the
Venerable Sariputta, who was on his alms-round, appeared on the scene; the
brahmin went after him and hit him hard on his back with his hand. The thera did
not even look round to see who was the person that attacked him, but proceeded
on his way as if nothing had happened. Seeing the magnanimity and great
fortitude of the noble thera, the brahmin was very much shaken. He got down on
his knees at the feet of the Venerable Sariputta, admitted that he had
wrongfully hit the thera, and asked for pardon. The brahmin then continued,
“Venerable Sir, should you forgive me, kindly come to my house for
alms-food.”

In the evening, other bhikkhus
reported to the Buddha that the Venerable Sariputta had gone for alms-food to
the house of a brahmin who had beaten him. Further, they observed that the
brahmin was sure to get bolder and he would soon be assaulting other bhikkhus
also. To those bhikkhus, the Buddha replied, “Bhikkhus, a true brahmana
does not beat another true brahmana; only an ordinary man or an ordinary brahmin
would beat an arahat in anger and ill will. This ill will should be eradicated
by Anagami Magga.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
follows:

Verse 389: One should
not strike a brahmana; a brahmana should not get angry with his
assailant; it is shameful to strike a brahmana; it is more shameful to
get angry with one’s assailant.


Verse 390: For a
brahmana there is no benefit at all if he does not restrain from anger
to which his mind is prone. Inasmuch as one desists from the intention
to harm, to that extent dukkha ceases.



Whether you are looking to protect your garden or house from mice and
rats, natural and chemical products can help deter mice and rats from
interacting with your household.


High-frequency Sound to Get Rid of Rats

Many find it inhumane to
kill the rodents in traps, so they turn to alternative repellents.
Homemade spray repellents are an ideal alternative to rodent traps. They
work to repel the rodents through scent, without harming the animals.


Instructions Peppermint

  • 1

    Saturate several cotton balls with peppermint oil.

  • 2

    Place the cotton balls in places where the mice have been known to go.

  • 3

    Change the cotton balls after a couple of days, replacing
    them with fresh ones. Peppermint leaves may be laid around as a
    substitute for the peppermint oil.


  • Hot Pepper Spray

    • 4

      Fill a bucket with 1 gallon of water. Add 1 tbsp. hot sauce and ¼ cup dish soap to the bucket.

    • 5

      Stir the ingredients thoroughly with a long-handled spoon. Transfer a portion of the mixture into an empty spray bottle.

    • 6

      Spray the mixture onto floors, countertops and other areas
      where mice and rats have been known to go. Store the remaining mixture
      in a container with a lid.

    Ammonia

    • 7

      Fill several small dishes with ammonia. You can use plastic soda bottle caps for a disposable container.

    • 8

      Place the containers of ammonia in areas where the mice and
      rats go. If you have small children or pets, do not place the ammonia
      containers where they can get to them.

    • 9

      Leave the ammonia containers in the area for several days.
      The mice and rats will not drink the ammonia; rather, the smell of the
      ammonia alone will keep them away.


    Numerous
    manufacturers sell products that they claim use high-frequency sounds to
    get rids of rodents, insects and some pets. Some of these products
    operate off electricity, while others are solar-powered. In general,
    this concept is attractive to homeowners because it does not require
    killing the creature, nor does it require handling hazardous materials.
    Yet, there are issues involved with high-frequency sound to get rid of
    rats that you should consider.


    Sound and Electronic Devices. Although mice are easily
    frightened by strange or unfamiliar noises, they quickly become accustomed to
    regularly repeated sounds and are often found living in grain mills or
    factories and other noisy locations. Ultrasonic sounds, those above the range
    of human hearing have very limited use in rodent control because they are
    directional and do not penetrate behind objects. Also, they lose their
    intensity quickly with distance. There is little evidence that sound of any
    type will drive established mice or rats from buildings because they rapidly
    become accustomed to the sound.



    comments (0)
    10/15/12
    16X12 Tuesday LESSON 724 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 388 Annatarabrahmana Pabbajita Vatthu-He Who Had Discarded All Evil Is Holy-Natural Ways to Repel Mosquitoes
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    Posted by: @ 4:18 pm

    16X12 Tuesday LESSON 724 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகTIPITAKA
    from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 388 Annatarabrahmana Pabbajita Vatthu-He Who Had Discarded All Evil Is Holy-Natural Ways to Repel Mosquitoes


    Verse 388. He Who Had Discarded All Evil Is Holy

    By barring-out badness a ‘brahmin’ one’s
    called
    and one is a monk by conduct serene,
    banishing blemishes out of oneself
    therefore one’s known as ‘one who has left home’.

    Explanation: One who has got rid of sinful action is called
    brahmana. One of serene senses is called samana. A person is called
    pabbajita because he has done away with all his faults.

    Note: brahmano, samano, pabbajito: a brahmin, a monk a wandering
    ascetic. These are all categories of priests in the religious landscape
    of the Buddha’s day. They pursued a multitude of religious paths.
    Here the Buddha explains who a real priest, monk or a brahmin is.



    Dhammapada Verse 388
    Annatarabrahmana Pabbajita Vatthu

    Bahitapapoti brahmano
    samacariya
    1 “samano” ti vuccati
    pabbajayamattano malam
    tasma “pabbajito
    2” ti vuccati.

    Verse 388: Because he has discarded evil he is
    called a ‘brahmana’; because he lives calmly he is called a ’samana’; and
    because he gets rid of his impurities he is called a ‘pabbajita’.


    1. samacariya: lit., living calmly, i.e.,
    practising for eradication of moral defilements.

    2. pabbajita: one who leaves the household life
    for the homeless life of a recluse; in Buddhism it means one who has given up
    the impurities of the household life to become a bhikkhu.


    The Story of a Brahmin Recluse

    While residing at the Jetavana
    monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (388) of this book, with reference to a
    brahmin ascetic.

    Once there was a brahmin ascetic
    in Savatthi. One day, it occurred to him that the Buddha called his disciples
    pabbajita bhikkhus and since he also was a recluse, he should also be called a
    pabbajita. So he went to the Buddha and posed the question why he should not be
    called a pabbajita. The Buddha’s answer to him was this: “Just because
    one is a recluse one does not automatically become a pabbajita; a pabbajita must
    have other qualifications also.”

    Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
    follows:

    Verse 388: Because he
    has discarded evil he is called a ‘brahmana’; because he lives calmly
    he is called a ’samana’; and because he gets rid of his impurities he
    is called a ‘pabbajita’.

    At the end of the discourse the brahmin attained Sotapatti Fruition.

    Most effective tips for eradication of mosquitoes




    To know how to deal with mosquitoes, you must understand them, their
    habits and their habitats. Then, look around to see why they’re after
    you. You may live in a swampy area where standing water is the perfect
    breeding ground for mosquitoes - or you may be doing or wearing
    something to attract the pests, such as wearing perfumes when you’re
    outdoors.

    Mosquitoes prey on us because they need the protein from our blood to
    produce their eggs. They zero in on us like a fighter plane because they
    locate us by our body temperatures. With the blood they gather from us,
    female mosquitoes may produce up to 3,000 eggs during their lifetime.

    The worldwide havoc that mosquitoes wreak each year is devastating. In
    some parts of Africa, a child dies from a mosquito bite every 30 seconds
    — and in the United States, encephalitis, dog heartworm and malaria
    affect the population each year at an alarming rate.

    There are ways to discourage and even kill mosquitoes before they invade
    your space and body. Various techniques, including plants and lotions
    can help, as can ridding your area of objects and spaces that harbor the
    perfect breeding ground for these dreadful blood bandits.


    Natural Ways to Repel Mosquitoes

    Products
    are readily available on the shelves that can repel
    mosquitoes, but many may contain toxic chemicals. For whatever reason,
    some people are allergic to these ingredients - and they may be
    detrimental for certain conditions like pregnancy.

    Natural products are the best way to avoid mosquitoes.
    These include

    cedar oil, rosemary oil, citronella oil and eucalyptus
    oil. All of these plant oil derivatives can be found online or at many
    health food stores. Be aware that these products must be applied to the
    skin more often than those containing DEET.


    Best Tips to Repel Mosquitoes Before They Bother You

    To prevent mosquitoes from choosing your area as a habitat, you can:

    • Remove all standing water from around your home. Beware of old
      tires and other discarded containers such as wading pools, cups, buckets
      and barrels.

    • Use mosquito nets around bedding. Mosquitoes are most active at night, so protect yourself while you sleep.

    • Repair window and door screens. Choose screens made from a finely-woven mesh.

    • Mosquitoes are attracted to lights, so don’t turn the bright ones on too early.

    • Fill tree holes with sand or mortar.

    • Mosquitoes need water to lay their eggs and breed. If you can
      remove or prevent stagnant water, mosquitoes will have to go elsewhere.


    Plants That Repel Mosquitoes

    Planting mosquito-repelling bushes and
    herbs around your house is a natural way to prevent mosquitoes from
    invading your area - and your body.

    Some of the most effective plants that you can find at almost any home and garden store or online are:

    • Citronella Grass -
    •  A tropical plant that’s harvested for repellant sprays and citronella
      candles can be effective if you live in a tropical climate. If not, you
      can purchase products made from citronella oil.

    • Rosemary -


    • You
      may use this herb to provide an interesting flavor to dishes you
      prepare, but rosemary can also repel mosquitoes. Since they’re mostly a
      tropical plant, you can place them in pots around your deck or patio and
      bring them inside during winter months.

    • Mosquito Plants -
    • Gardeners’ Notes:

      Rating Author Comment
      Positive LolaMarigolda On Feb 1, 2012, LolaMarigolda from Glen Saint Mary, FL wrote:

      Mosquitoes
      tend to flock to me. I can pull off a few leaves, crush them and then
      rub them over my arms and legs and the bugs leave me alone. Depending
      on your location, best results are obtained via the method I described.

      Finding one in this area is a major pain as they go fast, but we are now
      to the point that we are going to start some cuttings off the current
      plant (and get those into our greenhouse).

      Positive dyzzypyxxy On Sep 22, 2011, dyzzypyxxy from Sarasota, FL (Zone 9b) wrote:

      Such
      pretty foliage and a lovely scent, it’s worth it even if it doesn’t
      keep bugs away. But, I have had some success with rubbing the crushed
      leaves on my ankles and arms, then tuck the leaves in my hatband. I
      think you must crush the leaves to release enough citronella to keep
      bugs away.

      This year my huge plant will produce enough cuttings to plant a whole
      border along the side of the screened pool - maybe that will deter the
      no-see-ums from coming through the screen.

      Positive kristindarin On Jun 21, 2011, kristindarin from Wake Forest, NC wrote:

      It
      was purchased this year to help my 2 kids from getting numerous bites.
      I placed it at their swing set and we have no bits. Waiting to cut
      parts to make new plants.

      Positive XxMissMexX On Jun 17, 2011, XxMissMexX from Hopkins, MN wrote:

      I
      bought one of these plants this spring and am happy to see that you can
      make cuttings for it, like spider plants. Also interesting were the
      ways to use it as a repellent - crushing the leaves, brewing a mix - as
      my daughter is unfortunately very reactive to mosquito bites and I hate
      spraying her down with chemicals. I will probably start some cuttings
      today!

      Positive kotori83 On May 26, 2011, kotori83 from San Antonio, TX wrote:

      I’ve
      grown citronella plants for years now. I don’t rely on it to repel
      insects, I rely on it to smell simply divine. I live in San Antonio, so
      it grows very well in the heat of our summers, however during the winter
      they surely die unless brought inside. I grow my citronella in
      thoroughly cleaned 5 gallon paint buckets with coconut substrate (same
      stuff I use for all my reptiles)… and they love it, probably because
      coconut drains very well and its pH neutral.

      About this plant and cats:

      I can comment on its toxicity to felines however I know for a fact it
      does not repel them in any way whatsoever, I regularly find cats
      sleeping on my porch lying under the shade of the citronella plants.

      Positive muttlover On May 7, 2011, muttlover from Quincy, IL (Zone 5b) wrote:

      I
      try to buy this every year as an annual outside potted plant. It does
      not overwinter in IL unless you take it inside and I have cats who might
      eat this poisonous plant. I don’t think it works as a deterrent to
      mosquitos (at least not my tough skeeters) but it’s nice and vining and
      has interesting foliage and survives a shady porch. The only thing is -
      I have to buy it early from a plant nursery because it gets sold out
      around here really fast.

      Positive erjeffery On May 6, 2011, erjeffery from Baton Rouge, LA (Zone 9b) wrote:

      A
      tough plant, I have this in the ground beside my garage and carport in
      partial sun/shade. It endures dry ground and inattention well. It
      grows tall (2-3 ft.) and will fall over if not staked. I can’t vouch
      for mosquito-repellant properties, but the smell is terrific and strong,
      with a slightly more bitter fragrance than lemon scented geraniums.
      Plant this where you sit outside in the evenings or when it rains - the
      scent alone is worth the effort.

      Neutral tcgch On Jun 27, 2010, tcgch from Rowlett, TX wrote:

      When
      I bought this plant it was big, healthy and smelled great. Now not so
      much. I have it planted outside by the pool. It gets sun until noon then
      shade the rest of the day. I water regular. Have other plants planted
      around it and they are doing fabulous. The Mosquito plant (citronella
      Plant) however has turned brown, leaves are falling off and looks very
      sick. Please help, I really want this plant to survive. It may or may
      not repell, but it smells really good. Any advise?

      Positive bsimpson1972 On Jun 26, 2010, bsimpson1972 from Chicago, IL (Zone 6a) wrote:

      One
      of “Grandma’s houseplants”, that everyone should have! Give it lots of
      light, water and food and it will thrive. Pinching is essential, if you
      want a bushy plant. Stake it, if necessary. One of the easiest
      houseplants, one can have.

      Negative gpr1 On Dec 4, 2009, gpr1 from Denton, TX wrote:

      My
      vet advises this plant is poisonous to cats. I had hoped to over-winter
      my two huge citronella pot plants in her atrium-like waiting room, but
      she said, “Absolutely not, because it is poisonous to cats.”

      Positive mrs_colla On Nov 18, 2009, mrs_colla from Marin, CA (Zone 9b) wrote:

      I saw an old decrepid plant, ready to give up, and took a little piece of it and plunked it in the ground.
      The thing grew like heck! I had to prune it so much, I finally gave it away. It grows too big in the ground.
      But, it can live with not too much water, it blooms all summer and never gets sick or bugged.
      If you have room for it, or the lust to prune several times a season, go ahead and plant it.

      Positive angsaidso On May 29, 2009, angsaidso from Owego, NY wrote:

      Just
      an FYI … you can actually grow cutrtings from this plant by tossing
      them in a cup of water!! I have rooted numerous cuttings by clipping
      them off the stems of the plant at an angle and just tossing them in
      water. They take a while to get going, but once they go, they grow VERY
      long roots and take off in soil right away. :-) Easier than having them
      rot in a pot, but you have a longer wait. They also do not wilt up or
      lose leaves during this process either. :-)

      As for mosquitoes, I don’t know if it works or not. I was given this
      plant when it got too big for my neighbor to deal with. It is growing in
      a gallon pot inside (I live in NYS) and grows all year long. But I do
      let it dry out pretty good between waterings.

      Peace ~ Ang

      Positive Shweetie30 On Apr 16, 2009, Shweetie30 from Mableton, GA wrote:

      Smells
      wonderful! Just purchased this plant today for the first time at a
      local plant sale. The lady who sold it to me said to use it in your
      sugar bowl. Put a couple of leaves in the sugar bowl, add some sugar,
      then another leaf or two, and keep layering it. Supposedly it will give a
      delightful flavor to your sugar!

      Positive dimar7a On Feb 20, 2009, dimar7a from Quincy, MA wrote:

      we
      love this plant.i,m not sure if it repels bugs,but it smells great. we
      have had this plant for 3 years now.I have cutting,s going in a vase now
      for spring. I also put cuttings in the garden during the summer,they do
      great. have never had a problem with them taking over.also does not
      flower very often,but the foliage and sent is why i grow them

      Positive olesagegrouse On Feb 16, 2009, olesagegrouse from Casper, WY wrote:

      I’ve
      had a citronella scented geranium (in a container) for eight years now,
      can readily testify to its virtues as an insect repellant. Fresh
      leaves, slightly macerated, have been placed on inside windowsills, kept
      mosquitos at bay even when leaves dried out. When working in the yard,
      I macerate leaves, rub them on arms and back of neck: flying, biting
      critters stay away!
      Fire ants, when visiting Puerto Rico every winter, were AWFUL at times!
      One summer, I placed several citronella leaves in a small jar of cider
      vinegar, let it “brew” in hot sun for several weeks. Took it to P.R.,
      would rub feet/ankles with it before going into “fire ant country”,
      NEVER got bitten thereafter.
      My plant’s cut back to 5 inches in height every fall, cuttings started
      then in deep styrofoam cups. When several inches tall, pinching back
      begins. By June, plants are lovely little bushes that have just
      bloomed, or are about to.
      To have a true “bug deterrant”, it MUST BE the citronella, NOT the
      lemon-scented! There IS a differance in cultivars and what they’re ment
      to do.

      Positive capejafreem On Feb 16, 2009, capejafreem from Hyannis, MA wrote:

      I’ve
      grown this plant on my deck, on Cape Cod, for many years. I don’t
      count on it to repel insects, but I do rely on it to offer a delightful
      refreshing scent as I brush past it. In the fall, I cut the plant back
      and root the cuttings. Mother and babies survive in a sunny window, so
      that by the following spring I have our new supply of fragrant and
      pretty plants to beautify our deck.

      Positive joy112854 On Feb 16, 2009, joy112854 from Crestview, FL wrote:

      Last
      Spring I bought two of these and two geraniums, as I live in hot and
      humid Florida where mosquitoes frequent. I placed one of the four in
      each corner of my 12 x 30 decks in pots. I didn’t have any problems
      with the mosquitos as long as I stayed on the deck. As far as being
      hard to kill, that is not so, they grew really well all Spring and
      Summer, I did not get any blooms, just foilage. Come winter, they died.
      I will again buy four more to add to my deck this Spring/Summer again.
      joy112854

      Neutral steadycam3 On Feb 15, 2009, steadycam3 from Houston Heights, TX (Zone 9a) wrote:

      Today
      February 14, 2009 I saw these plants for sale at Wal-Mart here in
      Houston. Citronella geranium. Ive never grown them but used citronella
      oil as a child to repel mosquitoes so I was curious.

      Positive JaxFlaGardener On Apr 24, 2008, JaxFlaGardener from Jacksonville, FL (Zone 8b) wrote:

      I’m
      growing this plant in sandy soil in mostly sun. In my climate, it has
      shown no sign of becoming invasive. In fact, it seems to be struggling a
      bit, but has returned again this spring and is currently flowering. I
      enjoy brushing up against the leaves and releasing the scent when I am
      in the area where it is planted. If you want it to repel mosquitoes,
      you probably need to stir up the odor by moving the plant around, or
      brushing against it, or crushing a few of the leaves (as was suggested
      above). That would help get the light citronella odor moving around in
      the air.

      Jeremy

      Positive vader_fan On Mar 28, 2008, vader_fan from Austin, TX wrote:

      I
      love the scent. Mine don’t grow well, they are pretty much the same
      size as when I bought them months ago. I’m sure it’s user error as I am
      not the best gardner in the world. I do bring them in when I have
      guest over and “squish” them a little to bring out the scent then put
      them back outside… they are also effective at removing grease smells
      for seafood smells if you put them in the kitchen a couple of days.

      Positive Kieferkk On Nov 18, 2007, Kieferkk from La Marque, TX wrote:


      I have had several of these plants, but none of them ever looked like
      the first one I bought. It had the shape of a small Christmas tree and
      it really smelled good. All of the other plants I got at large
      hardware stores,were called “Citrosa” as if someone had developed
      these plants themselves. They were more open than the first tightly
      packed plant that I had. I usuall take concentrated garlic caps to ward
      off mosquitos, but when I forget, I could always take a few leaves to
      rub on me, and they would go away. I have had some last outside in a
      5gal bucket into the third year. I used cloning powder and gel to get
      new plants. A branch broke off so I stuck it in the pot and it took off.
      I think that lack of good care and getting root bound has caused my
      plants to die on me. I found the website for a supplier of organic
      plant supplies that I use to put on my plants years ago, and now I
      believe that this won’t happen again. Gardens Alive! Laweranceburg
      Indiana. Between citrosa plants and lemongrass,the bugs leave me alone;
      that is all I use.

      Negative eldn829 On May 27, 2007, eldn829 from Harrisburg, PA wrote:

      This
      plant takes over if you don’t keep on top of it. My suggestion is to
      keep it potted. You can’t kill it…I’ve been trying for two years.

      Positive NacMacFeegle On Apr 14, 2007, NacMacFeegle from Springfield, VA (Zone 6b) wrote:

      It’s
      a great scented plant. The dried leaves go well in potpurri. As for
      its mosquito repelling nature- I think it highly depends on whether YOU
      are more appetizing to the mosquito than this plant is disgusting to the
      bug. Allow me to explain: I had one on the side table to my adirondack
      chair on my patio in VA. I could sit in the chair and get eaten alive
      as if the plant was invisible. When my parents were visiting my father
      sat there all day and not one bite. Mom says that at home the bugs go
      after him and not her- but clearly they prefer me to him. So yes, it
      REPELS mosquitos just like a watch repels water- doesn’t mean you can
      wear the watch swimming ;-)

      Positive Tnkmcclain On Sep 23, 2006, Tnkmcclain from Tulsa, OK wrote:

      I
      LOVE this plant. I will be the first to admit that, as for a mosquito
      repellent, it fails miserably. But I bought one 2 years ago, and it’s
      lovely. I read that they are sometimes used as bonsai. I can see why.
      Mine is potted,and has lived outside in the Summer, and inside in the
      Winter. I am thrilled to finally find out about planting the cuttings.
      I would love them all over my house. They smell fresh and lemoney to
      me. Get past the “insect repellent”, they are beautiful, aromatic house
      plants, or an interesting addition to your outside potted (I recommend
      potted) garden.

      Positive soulbloom On Aug 18, 2006, soulbloom from Richmond, VA wrote:

      I
      will give this plant a positive even though it doesn’t work as
      advertised. Mosquitoes probably laughed at me when I proudly introduced
      them to my backyard. I’ve sat two large plants on both sides of me
      while I was sitting and a mosquito still landed on me. I don’t feel too
      let down cus the mosquitoes around here don’t really respond to much
      repellant unless its in excess. I do like the smell and shape of this
      plant however. Its strong and everyone always ask what it is when they
      see or smell it.

      Negative Larabee On Oct 20, 2004, Larabee from Houston, TX wrote:

      Don’t
      buy this plant to keep the mosquitos away, like I did. It won’t work.
      I even got bitten up while I was potting this plant! I keep it by my
      back door but it really doesn’t repel bugs at all.

      That said, it’s easy enough to care for and the leaves are unusual
      enough that they add interest to my container herb garden, so I won’t
      get rid of it. But I wouldn’t buy it again.

      Positive rosiespics On Aug 24, 2004, rosiespics from Fairfax, VA wrote:

      This
      is actually my sister’s experience using the mosquito plant to drive
      away the bugs. My sister lives in Hong Kong and people mostly do not
      install screens for their windows.

      Before my sister got the plant, she reported that “I would not have been
      able to sleep through the night in summer without the AC on and the
      windows closed because of the mosquitoes. Now I have no problem with
      sleeping with windows open.”


      Positive egstewart1 On Jul 15, 2004, egstewart1 from Beaufort, SC wrote:

      I
      purchased a small plant this year, so far it seems to be working to
      keep the giatn mosquito population down on my patio. The plant soes seem
      to be turning brown around the edges though so I moved to more shade
      and I will see how it does. I’m going to try a cutting and put pne on my
      front porch, will comment if and when I get results.

      Negative CatskillKarma On Jul 8, 2004, CatskillKarma from West Kill, NY wrote:

      I
      have never had any trouble finding this plant at nurseries here in the
      Catskills–perhaps because we have an incredible number of bugs. For
      years I kept a plant hanging near my front door every summer, purchasing
      a new one each year. It has never thrived, whether it was a wet year or
      a dry year, hot or cool. Nor did it do anything to reduce the insect
      population near the door. Other pelargoniums do better–the
      nutmeg-scented flourished last year, and the rose-scented varieties also
      seem happy.

      Neutral ccranford On Jun 2, 2004, ccranford from Plainview, AR wrote:

      I
      had seen these 3 plants at a local nursery and didn’t buy them. They
      were 3.99 each and didn’t know anything about them. Later I got to
      thinking about it and decided I really did want them, so I sent my
      husband to get them today. He bought them for 2.00 each. I came to
      this web site to check them out and see positive output about them. I
      am excited to get them in the ground. We live at the lake and have lots
      of mosquitos. I feel like I made a really great purchase after I see
      the comments here. I will report on them later.

      Positive sg_sunny On Mar 2, 2004, sg_sunny wrote:

      I
      don’t see any seeds so I’ve tried to do stem-cutting. I cut the top
      5-10cm off and pot it in soil. I did it for 3, 2 survived and is
      growing well. Soaking the stem in water before potting in soil didn’t
      work as the ends get rotted. I watered the soil thoroughly, especially
      in Singapore’s hot hot hot weather.

      Neutral Trish70 On Dec 8, 2003, Trish70 from Eccles, WV wrote:

      I bought 2 small plants in spring of 2003 and planted them in a medium pot.
      They have really grown very well,I brought the pot in before the first
      frost, and it took off even more .It grew to about 2feet tall and for no
      reason its starting to die. I have watered with miricle grow and
      keeping my fingers crossed.
      Its not completely dead but any suggestiond is gladdly appreciated.I
      love the scent it gives and the beautiful green foligue. Its a very hard
      plant to find so i dont want to loose it. thanks to any one who can
      help
      Trish

      Positive babycake On Jul 29, 2003, babycake wrote:

      I
      have one plant outside my door, in my garden. The scent is wonderful,
      and I haven’t had any bugs all summer. Heavy rains this spring created
      an abundant mosquito population and I havn’t been bitten once. The
      plant was bought at 1 foot high; is now 5 feet and climbing.

      Positive creekperson On Jul 18, 2003, creekperson from East Liverpool, OH wrote:

      I
      bought this plant and was given a free sample of “OFF” that is made
      from this plant. It works, not only the lotion but the plant itself. I
      put the plant under a lamp on the deck of my pool and no mosquitos (or
      other bugs) came around, and we all know what a light brings outside out
      night.

      The plant has taken off so well, it’s 2 times the size it was in 4 weeks. I would buy more but can’t find them now.

      Neutral CaraRose On Jun 5, 2003, CaraRose wrote:

      I
      just contacted my local garden shop. They said that any of the scented
      geraniums (which is what this is) will repel insects because of the high
      concentration of essential oils. She suggested that anyone have trouble
      finding this species also try “Snowflake” because the plant’s leave get
      very large.

      Positive Citrosa On Apr 21, 2003, Citrosa wrote:

      I
      have had great success with this plant. I plant them every year and the
      mosquitos run for the hills. My only problem is the plant are getting
      harder to find each year.

      Positive redhen On Apr 17, 2003, redhen from Weatherby Lake, MO (Zone 5b) wrote:

      I
      bought two of these last summer and put on my patio. They do seem to
      work. I brought them in the house this winter and they took off, they
      also made the room smell great!

      Positive tkm0904 On Apr 17, 2003, tkm0904 wrote:

      I
      got this as a small little plant approx. 6 mos ago. Now it is big
      & bushy (been repotted twice & actually needs it again.) I’m
      afraid if I put it in the ground it would grow into a great big tree.
      It really does work to keep the mosquitos away & I just love the
      smell of it. When I water & spray the leaves it becomes especially
      fragrant.

      Positive lupinelover On Jan 19, 2003, lupinelover from Grove City, OH (Zone 6a) wrote:

      The
      foliage of this is very aromatic. It can be used as an insect
      repellent, or in cooking; it gives off a wonderful citrus flavor.
      Flowering is uncommon due to viruses, but as more plants are grown using
      tissue-propagation, the chances of flowering increase, allowing seeds
      to form.

      Seed will not come true to the named cultivar, varying amounts of scent and leaf-shape will occur.

      Regional…

      This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

      Meridianville, Alabama
      Mobile, Alabama
      Orange Beach, Alabama
      Clarksville, Arkansas
      Little Rock, Arkansas
      Morrilton, Arkansas
      Amesti, California
      Brea, California
      Castro Valley, California
      Laguna West-lakeside, California
      Sacramento, California
      San Anselmo, California
      Sand City, California
      Solana Beach, California
      Stockton, California
      Yosemite Lakes, California
      Brandon, Florida
      Coral Springs, Florida
      Country Club, Florida
      Glen Saint Mary, Florida
      Gulf Gate Estates, Florida
      Haverhill, Florida
      Jacksonville, Florida
      Keystone Heights, Florida
      Pembroke Pines, Florida
      Rockledge, Florida
      Seminole, Florida
      Mableton, Georgia
      Phillipsburg, Georgia
      Rest Haven, Georgia
      Honolulu, Hawaii
      Kailua, Hawaii
      Kihei, Hawaii
      Chicago, Illinois
      Jacksonville, Illinois
      Long Beach, Indiana
      Wichita, Kansas
      Old Jefferson, Louisiana
      Cambridge, Massachusetts
      Hyannis, Massachusetts
      Quincy, Massachusetts
      Hopkins, Minnesota
      Canton, Mississippi
      Scotch Plains, New Jersey
      , New York
      Binghamton, New York
      Utica, New York
      Chapel Hill, North Carolina
      Vale, North Carolina
      Wake Forest, North Carolina
      Calcutta, Ohio
      Lafayette, Ohio
      Massillon, Ohio
      Edmond, Oklahoma
      Lotsee, Oklahoma
      Beaufort, South Carolina
      Forestbrook, South Carolina
      North Augusta, South Carolina
      Swansea, South Carolina
      Knoxville, Tennessee
      Austin, Texas (2 reports)
      Barton Creek, Texas
      Conroe, Texas
      Corpus Christi, Texas
      Denton, Texas
      Houston, Texas (3 reports)
      Huntsville, Texas
      La Marque, Texas
      Paige, Texas
      Round Rock, Texas
      Rowlett, Texas
      San Antonio, Texas (2 reports)
      Santa Fe, Texas
      East Highland Park, Virginia
      Springfield, Virginia
      Kalama, Washington
      Bolivar, West Virginia
      Eccles, West Virginia
      Antelope Hills, Wyoming
    • These plants are attractive and can be purchased online - although some
      garden stores may carry them. There is disagreement on whether these
      plants actually repel mosquitoes, but it’s worth a try.

    • Catnip -

      Picture of catnip plants.

      Picture of catnip plant.



    • It’s
      the same herb used to stuff those little cat toys and it can also be
      planted around your deck or patio. Some claim that it’s better than DEET
      for repelling mosquitoes.

    • Marigolds -


    • marigold




      11


      marigold picture
      Red/Yellow
      Marigolds
      marigold picture
      Maroon/Yellow
      Marigolds
      marigold picture
      Orange
      Marigolds
      marigold picture
      Orange/Yellow
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Yellow
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Red/Yell/Orange
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Light Red/Yellow
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Yellow/Red
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Maroon
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Red
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Bright Orange
      Marigolds

      marigold picture
      Other
      Marigolds
    • These colorful little flowers produce a scent that naturally repels
      mosquitoes. Plant them between your garden plants as they’ll also
      protect them from other types of insects.

    Planting herbs and certain plants in your yard and garden is a great way to beautify your area while repelling pesky mosquitoes.


    Other Methods to Repel Mosquitoes

    Some other ways to repel mosquitoes include:

    • Exercise indoors when mosquitoes are prevalent. Mosquitoes hone
      in on body temperature — and it automatically rises when you exercise.

    • Avoid salty foods and those containing high amounts of potassium.

    • Don’t wear dark clothing when in a mosquito-infested area.

    • Don’t wear lotions or perfumed products that contain floral fragrances.

    Just because a product is natural doesn’t mean it’s safe, so be sure that you know if you’re sensitive to it before using.

    Keep Mosquitos Away…with Plants.

    The leaves of the following must be crushed to release the aroma. Otherwise mosquitoes can’t smell them.


    • * Horsemint has a scent similar to
      citronella and  grows wild in most of the Eastern United States, from
      Mexico, Texas up to Minnesota to Vermont. It is partial to sandy soils
      and will grow in USDA Zones 5-10.
    • * Marigold is a sun-loving annual used by organic gardeners to keep aphids away.
    • * Citronella Geranium (Also called
      mosquito plant) A genetically engineered geranium hybrid, easily grown
      as a potted plant. The jury is out on its mosquito repellent
      effectiveness. But, since it’s attractive, it can’t hurt.
    • * Agastache Cana is another form of mosquito plant.
      Its common names include Texas hummingbird mint, bubblegum mint, giant
      hyssop, or giant hummingbird mint. It’s usually hardy in USDA Zones
      5a-9a.
    • * Catnip is one of the most powerful
      mosquito repellant plants. Recent studies have shown that it is ten
      times more effective than DEET at repelling mosquitoes. Crush a few
      leaves and rub on your skin and clothing to enhance the effect.

    Another plant, ageratum, contains coumarin. But don’t rub it on your skin.

    If you’re a gardener who disrupts swarms of mosquitoes every time you step foot into your garden, try incorporating some of these plants/herbs:

    • •    Citronella
    • •    Rosemary (crush this and rub on your skin for protection outside of the garden, too)
    • •    Lemongrass
    • •    Lemon Thyme
    • •    Lavender (questionable)
    • •    Basil
    • •    Thyme
    • •    Penny royal garlic
    • •    Rue



    How to Grow a Pest Repellent Herb Garden

    1. 1
      Look out for the specific qualities of herbs that repel insects.
      When selecting herbs, you should be looking for herbs that contain
      phenols, naphthalene, pyrethrum and citronella. All of these chemical
      components are replicated synthetically or derived naturally in quite a
      number of commercially available products that repel pests.

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    2. 2
      Select your herbs.
      The following herbs are good choices to begin with. Each herb shown here
      is accompanied by an explanation of its pest repellent qualities:

      • Wormwood, southernwood [Artemisia sp.] - lovely silvery, bushy appearance that repels moths, intestinal worm, slugs, and flies.[1]
      • Rue [Ruta graveolens] - repels cats.[2] It is also good for controlling fleas and Japanese beetle.[3]
      • Tanacetum genus (pyrethrum, tansy, feverfew) - repels moths, flies, ants, mice, mosquitoes, cockroaches, mites and bedbugs. Tansy is a strong herb suitable for growing around doorways to act as an insect deterrence.[4] Pyrethrum is great made into a spray. Feverfew (pictured) is a good insect repellent and is also used for treating insect bites.[5] The fact that feverfew is usually pest-free says something positive about its pest abilities.[6]
      • Lavender - repels flies, silverfish fleas; add to sachets and hang in the wardrobe.[7] Santolina (Cotton Lavender) has the strongest insect repellent properties and can be mixed with English lavender in sachets.[8]
      • Mint - repels flies, fleas, mice, rats and ants. Mountain mint rubbed on pants can deter chiggers and ticks.[9] An endangered mint plant from Florida, Disceranda frutescens, has been found to be a very powerful insect repellent; try and grow some![10]
      • Catnip - mosquitoes. It is even said that the essential oil in catnip, nepetalactone, is 10 times more effective than DEET![11]
      • Thyme - deters insect pests and also helps with preventing musty odours; use in sachets, both flowers and leaves.[12]
      • Lemongrass - contains citronella - run the long grassy leaves and stalk on the skin to repel mosquitoes.[13]
      • Basil - fly and mosquito repellent; grow near outdoor eating areas.[14]
      • Sage - deters a variety of insects. Hang dried bundles in the house and at doorways.[15]
    3. 3
      Design your pest-repellent garden.
      Make a design that will ensure an attractive herbal arrangement in your
      garden, as well as easy access for harvesting. You may choose to
      deliberately design a herb garden space; or you may choose to plant the
      herbs here and there throughout your garden, as space and design wishes
      permit. Take care with mint - it is probably best planted in a pot to
      cure its tendency to spread across your garden. Planting in pots is also
      fine and is especially useful when you would like the move the plants
      to different areas of the garden. And don’t forget the value of growing
      these herbs near your outdoor entertaining area - this will add extra
      punch to the work being done by your citronella candles!

    4. 4
      Harvest and use.
      There are numerous ways to use the plants. These are just a few
      suggestions; it is likely you will come up with many more of your own:

      • Harvest, dry and use in sachets for drawers, wardrobes, storage boxes etc.
      • Harvest, dry and use hanging from curtain rods in the laundry, kitchen area or from clothes hanging rods.
      • Keep live herbs growing in pots near doorways to discourage the
        entrance of pests such as flies and mice; plant mint near any areas of
        the house where you feel mice might be tempted to enter (and seal any
        holes!).
      • Plant rue near a garden bed that you don’t want cats messing about
        in; be careful though, as some plants do not tolerate the presence of
        rue (e.g., basil).
      • Make water-based sprays - follow a suitable recipe.

      photo

      Mosquito Catcher Plant

      A rare plant, whose flowers are like containers in which mosquitoes
      and insects are trapped. It was one of the plants displayed at the
      vast collection - display and sale - at the Siolim Festival of Plants
      and Flowers, a three-day affair which began today i.e. August 25,
      2012. One of my friends reminded me that it is called the
      “pitcher” plant…. the flower resembles a pitcher.

    comments (0)
    10/14/12
    15X12 Monday LESSON 723 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 387 Anandatthera Vatthu-The Buddha Shines Day And Night
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    15X12 Monday LESSON 723 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 387 Anandatthera Vatthu-The Buddha Shines Day And Night

    Verse 387. The Buddha Shines Day And Night

    The sun is bright by day,
    the moon enlights the night,
    armoured shines the warrior,
    contemplative the Brahmin True.
    But all day and night-time too
    resplendent does the Buddha shine.

    Explanation: The sun shines during the day. The moon beams
    at night. The warrior glows only when he has his armour on. The brahmana
    shines when he is concentrated on contemplation. All these people
    have various times to shine. But the Buddha is radiant all day and
    all night through his Enlightenment.




    Dhammapada Verse 387
    Anandatthera Vatthu

    Diva tapati adicco
    ratti mabhati candima
    sannaddho khattiyo tapati
    jhayi tapati brahmano
    atha sabbamahorattim
    buddho tapati tejasa.

    Verse 387: By day shines the sun; by night
    shines the moon; in regalia shines the king; in meditation shines the arahat;
    but the Buddha in his glory shines at all times, by day and by night.


    The Story of Thera Ananda

    While residing at the Pubbarama
    monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (387) of this book, with reference to the
    Venerable Ananda.

    It was the full moon day of the
    seventh month (Assayuja) when King Pasenadi of Kosala came to visit the Buddha.
    The king was then resplendent in his full royal regalia. At that time, Thera
    Kaludayi was also present in the same room sitting at the edge of the
    congregation. He was in deep mental absorption (jhana), his body bright and
    golden. In the sky, the Venerable Ananda noticed that the sun was setting and
    the moon was just coming out, both the sun and the moon radiating rays of light.

    The Venerable Ananda looked at
    the shining splendour of the king, of the thera, and of the sun and the moon.
    Finally, the Venerable Ananda looked at the Buddha and he suddenly perceived
    that the light that was then radiating from the Buddha far surpassed the light
    shining from the others. Seeing the Buddha in his glory and splendour, the
    Venerable Ananda immediately approached the Buddha and burst forth, “O
    Venerable Sir! The light that shines forth from your noble body far surpasses
    the light from the king, the light from the thera, the light from the sun and
    the light from the moon.”

    To him the Buddha spoke in verse
    as follows:

    Verse 387: By day
    shines the sun; by night shines the moon; in regalia shines the king;
    in meditation shines the arahat; but the Buddha in his glory shines at
    all times, by day and by night.

    for

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    10/13/12
    14X12 Sunday LESSON 722 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Dhammapada Verse 386 Annatarabrahmana Vatthu-Who Is Contemplative And Pure Is A Brahmin
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    Vatthu-Who Is Contemplative And Pure Is A Brahmin


    Verse 386. Who Is Contemplative And Pure Is A Brahmin

    Seated stainless, concentrated,
    who’s work is done, who’s free of taints,
    having attained the highest aim,
    that one I call a Brahmin True.

    Explanation: He is given to concentrated contemplation. He
    is free of all blemishes - the dust that defiles a being. He sits
    in solitude. All his spiritual tasks and obligations are done. He
    has reached the highest goal. That person I describe as a brahmana.



    Dhammapada Verse 386
    Annatarabrahmana
    Vatthu

    Jhayim viraja’ masinam
    katakicca’ manasavam
    uttamattha’ manuppattam
    tamaham brumi brahmanam.

    Verse 386: Him I call a brahmana, who dwells
    in seclusion practising Tranquility and Insight Meditation and is free from
    taints (of moral defilements); who has performed his duties, and is free from
    moral intoxicants (asavas) and has reached the highest goal (arahatship).


    The Story of a Certain Brahmin

    While residing at the Jetavana
    monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (386) of this book, with reference to a
    brahmin.

    One day, a brahmin thought to
    himself, “Gotama Buddha calls his disciples ‘brahmana’. I also am a brahmin
    by caste. Shouldn’t I also be called a brahmana?” So thinking, he went to
    the Buddha and posed this question. To him the Buddha replied, “I do not
    call one a brahmana simply because of his caste; I only call him a brahmana, who
    has attained arahatship.”

    Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
    follows:

    Verse 386: Him I call
    a brahmana, who dwells in seclusion practising Tranquility and Insight
    Meditation and is free from taints (of moral defilements); who has
    performed his duties, and is free from moral intoxicants (asavas) and
    has reached the highest goal (arahatship).

    At the end of the discourse the brahmin attained Sotapatti Fruition.


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    10/12/12
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    VatthuVerse 385. The Unfettered Person Is A Brahmana


    The Unfettered Person Is A Brahmana

    For whom is found no near or far,
    for whom’s no near or far,
    free of fear and fetter-free,
    that one I call a Brahmin True.

    Explanation: To him there is no further shore. To him there
    is no near shore. To him both these shores are non-existent. He is
    free of anxiety and is freed of bonds. That person I describe as a
    Brahmana.






    Dhammapada Verse 385
    Mara

    Vatthu

    Yassa param aparam va
    paraparam na vijjati
    Vitaddaram visamyuttam
    tamaham brumi brahmanam.

    Verse 385: Him I call a brahmana who has for
    him neither this shore (i.e., the sense-bases) nor the other shore (i.e., the
    sense objects), and who is undistressed and free from moral defilements1.


    1. ‘This shore’ and ‘the other shore’
    are used in the sense of the internal and the external ayatanas. The internal
    ayatanas are the sense bases, viz, the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the
    body and the mind; the external ayatanas are the sense objects, viz., visible
    object, sound, odour, taste, touch and mind-object.

    For a true Brahmana (i.e., arahat) there is
    neither ‘this shore’ nor ‘the other shore’ which means that the senses of the
    arahat are calmed, and his passions extinguished.


    The Story of Mara

    While residing at the Jetavana
    monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (385) of this book, with reference to Mara.

    On one occasion, Mara came to the
    Buddha disguised as a man and asked him, “Venerable Sir, You often say the
    word ‘param’. What is the meaning of that word?” The Buddha, knowing that
    it was Mara who was asking that question, chided him, “O wicked Mara!
    The words ‘param’ and ‘aparam’ have nothing to do with you. ‘Param’ which means
    ‘the other shore’ can be reached only by the arahats who are free from moral
    defilements.”

    Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
    follows:

    Verse 385: Him I call
    a brahmana who has for him neither this shore (i.e., the sense-bases)
    nor the other shore (i.e., the sense objects ), and who is
    undistressed and free from moral defilements.
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    12X12 Friday LESSON 720 மூன்று கூடைகள் திபிதகup a levelTIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org- Dhammapada Verse 384 Sambahulabhikkhu Vatthu-Cultivate Concentration
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    Dhammapada Verse 384 Sambahulabhikkhu
    Vatthu-
    Cultivate Concentration

    Verse 384. Cultivate Concentration

    When by the twofold Dhamma
    a Brahmin’s gone beyond
    all the bonds of One-who-Knows
    have wholly disappeared.

    Explanation: When the brahmana - the seeker after the truth
    - has understood the two states of concentration and insight through
    and through, then in that person who knows these, all fetters wane,
    diminish and fade




    Dhammapada Verse 384
    Sambahulabhikkhu
    Vatthu

    Yada dvayesu dhammesu
    paragu hoti brahmano
    athassa sabbe samyoga
    attham gacchanti janato.

    Verse 384: When the brahmana is
    well-established in the two dhammas (i.e., the practice of Tranquillity and
    Insight Meditation), then, in that knowing one, all fetters are destroyed.


    The Story of Thirty Bhikkhus

    While residing at the Jetavana
    monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (384) of this book, with reference to thirty
    bhikkhus.

    On one occasion, thirty bhikkhus
    came to pay homage to the Buddha. The Venerable Sariputta, seeing that time was
    ripe and proper for those bhikkhus to attain arahatship, approached the Buddha
    and asked a question, solely for the benefit of those bhikkhus. The question was
    this: “What are the two dhammas?” To this the Buddha replied, “Sariputta!
    Tranquillity and Insight Meditation are the two dhammas.”

    Then the Buddha spoke in verse as
    follows:

    Verse 384: When the
    brahmana is well-established in the two dhammas (i.e., the practice of
    Tranquillity and Insight Meditation), then, in that knowing one, all
    fetters are destroyed.

    At the end of the discourse all
    the thirty bhikkhus attained arahatship.

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