Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
From Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University in
 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal
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LESSON 3369 Sun 31 May 2020 Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org At WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka State PRABUDDHA BHARAT Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness To build a simple Buddhist shrine
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 5:19 pm

LESSON 3369 Sun 31 May 2020
Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU)
For
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
At
WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Magadhi Karnataka State
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
To build a simple Buddhist shrine
image.jpeg

https://www.wikihow.com/Create-a-Simple-Buddhist-Shrine
To build a simple Buddhist shrine.

How to Create a Simple Buddhist Shrine

Author Info


|
Reader-Approved


| References


Updated: March 24, 2020




Are you Buddhist and haven’t gotten around to making a shrine? This article will show you how to build a simple Buddhist shrine.

Steps


  1. 1
    Choose a stable place to set the shrine. (Some people
    use a whole room.) It may be a table or a shelf, but be sure to have it
    at least above head level based on the usual use of the room.


  2. 2
    Make a stand or shelf to support the objects. A
    simple start is a wooden stand with three levels. This will be the main
    surface of the shrine, so you may want to put some effort into this.[1]

  3. 3
    Place the objects onto the shrine. First you will
    need an image of the Buddha. You can have as many as you like. This will
    go on the topmost level of the shrine. It is considered ‘bad etiquette’
    to place the Buddha (or Buddhas) lower than any other image in the same
    room.[2]
    In the place of an image of Buddha, a mantra written on a piece of
    paper or similar is perfectly acceptable, and preferred in the Jōdo Shinshū (Pure Land) tradition of Buddhism and in Nichiren
    Buddhism. Some buddhist schools recommend certain standardized
    arrangements of images for their lay members, in Japan often as
    triptychs with the main Buddha surrounded by either bodhisattvas, dharma
    guardians or lineage masters. This is not necessary, even after
    Japanese standards, and Chinese-Taiwanese Buddhism is usually less
    standardized when it comes to home shrines.

  4. 4
    If a suitable Buddha image simply cannot be obtained, a picture of Buddha’s relics, a stūpa , a Buddhist holy book, a bodhi leaf or picture of the Buddha’s footprints may be acceptable.

  5. 5
    On the next level, you may place an image of a Buddhist teacher like the Dalai Lama or a small statue of the Chinese Bùdài (the Laughing Buddha, considered to be a manifestation of Buddha Maitreya.)
    Two guardian images may be an idea to consider: Either the ‘lion-dogs’
    common at the entrance of South Asian monasteries or two
    dharmapalas/vidyarajas you feel familiar with (Chinese, Japanese and
    Tibetan Buddhists doesn’t use exactly the same palas, and for persons
    into Tibetan Buddhism or Shingon there may be reasons to choose
    carefully).

  6. 6
    Place offerings on the lowest level or, if you wish, a Buddhist scripture or a bowl of water. Some find a bell or singing bowl on a cushion useful.[3]

  7. 7
    Traditional offerings include candles, flowers, incense, fruit or food. However, it is not what you offer that is important: it is that it is done sincerely with a pure heart.[4]
    Since Buddhist monastics aren’t allowed to eat after lunchtime, food,
    fruit and dairy offerings traditionally – and for symbolic reasons –
    occur in the morning or shortly before lunchtime. Offerings of water,
    non-dairy beverages, candles, flowers and incense may, however, occur at
    other times of the day.

  8. 8
    Place a small stūpa on the supporting surface of the shrine, if you wish. You can make a simple stūpa with a small pile of stones. There is no need to go out and buy a costly gold one; that defeats the purpose of Buddhism.

  9. 9
    It is traditional to change the offering water every morning, however, the old water should never go to waste.
    Use it to water a plant or something. A new cup or bowl should be used
    for this purpose: glass or crystal is preferable, because the clarity of
    the water represents clarity of the mind. Some Buddhist schools use two
    water bowls: ‘drinking’ water and ‘washing’ water. It is far from wrong
    to let flowers remain even after withering has begun: The flowers serve
    to remind you of impermanence.

  10. 10
    If you wish, you may offer incense at the shrine when you recite morning ceremony. Touch the tip to your forehead, then light it. See warning.


Community Q&A

  • Question
    Which would best time in the Morning Offering water before Sunshine?
    Community Answer
    The exact time (i.e., 4am or
    6:30am) are not what’s important. One should wake up early enough to
    have time to think about the purpose of one’s life. When you wake up
    try to think that I have been in meditation and that your Lama (or the
    Dalai Lama or Amitabha, Tara or any Bodhidattva) is seated on a lotus on
    the crown of your head. Think that today I will pray to help all
    sentient beings even if it is just by being kind, compassionate and
    generous to those with whom I come in contact. Then rise and go to your
    shrine. You could light a stick of incense and think; To the Buddha,
    Dharma and Sangha, I make this offering. Then continue by offering your
    seven (or 1 or 2 . . .) water bowls, etc
  • Question
    The statue I got is holding an empty bowl. Is there anything that I am supposed to put in this bowl?
    Max Thunderman
    Community Answer
    It’s your choice whether you want to put anything in there or not, but usually it’s left clean/empty.
  • Question
    Can I use a picture of Buddha instead of a statue for the top of my shrine?
    Community Answer
    Yes, that is absolutely fine. If
    you’d like, you could write “BUDDHA” on a piece of crumpled-up loose
    leaf paper; you’d still be fine. It really does not matter what the
    shrine looks like, but rather what it is about for you.
  • Question
    Is it wrong to have shelves with books and items underneath my shrine?
    Community Answer
    No, that’s not wrong, but it might be a nice idea to try to focus the books and items on your pursuit of Dharma.
  • Question
    Must I always pray in the morning?
    Community Answer
    It depends on what kind of Buddhist you are, but a short “om mani padme hum” is traditional.
  • Question
    For how long should a food offering be left
    on the shrine at home? How should the food offering be discarded? Can
    anyone eat a food offering?
    Community Answer
    Leave it for a few hours. Do not
    let it go bad! Food can be offered to guests, animals, the hungry or
    just offered to Buddhahood and eaten. It is sinful to discard food.
    Anyone can eat the food. Before a meal you offer the food to the Buddha,
    then you eat it. The principle is the same for altars and everything
    else.
  • Question
    Can I use other flowers instead of a lotus?
    Community Answer
    Yes. Flowers symbolize the causes,
    while fruits symbolize the effects. They play a part in reminding
    practitioners of the truth of cause and effect, which most refer to as
    Karma.
  • Question
    Can I continue to present my offerings to the shrine and meditate regularly when I am having my menstrual period?
    Community Answer
    Yes, of course. Buddhism has no restrictions on this.
  • Question
    Can I use a picture of the buddha instead of a statue?
    Community Answer
    Yes, you can.
  • Question
    What do the three statues in front of Buddha represent?
    Community Answer
    They represent the past Buddha, present Buddha and the next Buddha.

Show more answers

Ask a Question






Video






Tips

  • Yellow, white, orange, red, and blue are recommended colours of decoration.
  • Everything on the shrine also has a symbolic meaning. Flowers and fruit for example illustrate the law of karma.
  • What matters is sincerity, not the shrine itself. It would be
    better if you didn’t have a shrine and were very sincere in cultivating
    virtue than if you had a shrine and wasted time going through the
    formalities of making it look pretty.
  • Some Buddhists is to have cushions near their shrine to sit on
    while meditating. Decorated Indian cushion covers are favoured
    considerably. Some prefer a meditation stool or a tightly stuffed zafu.
  • The supporting surface of the shrine isn’t really something that you must put a lot of effort into.
  • You should set aside a symbolic day once a month or so to clean
    the shrine of dust, and perhaps once a year to clean it thoroughly. In
    East Asia the days before new moon is a widespread shrine cleaning time.
  • If you are unable to create levels, make sure any statues of
    Buddha are not directly on the floor because this can be thought
    disrespectful.[5]

Warnings




  • If you do intend on burning incense or candles, consider the flammability of the covering of the shrine.
  • Candles and incense should never be allowed to burn unattended. Consider electric candles or lamps.
  • Avoid cheap, low-quality incense. It is generally manufactured
    in Asia where safety standards are comparatively low and can contain
    unsafe chemicals.





Things You’ll Need



  • A Buddha or Bodhisattva image or statue.
  • A water bowl
  • Flowers/incense/fruit/electric candles.
  • A photograph or image of your own Buddhist teacher, if you have one.
  • A selection of small stones

About This Article


wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of
our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article,
31 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time.
Together, they cited 7 references.
450 votes - 91%

Co-authors: 31
Updated: March 24, 2020

Views: 219,903

Categories: Buddhism
Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 219,903 times.

Did this article help you?

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Click a star to add your vote

Co-authors: 31
Updated: March 24, 2020

Views: 219,903

WB

Walter Brink

Feb 29


“This site has illuminated what I can put on my shrine to guide me to fulfillment.”





Last updated: May 29, 2020, 01:10 GMT







World Population
58,032,339Births this year
78,926Births today
24,363,366Deaths this year
33,135Deaths today
33,668,973Net population growth this year
45,791Net population growth today

while World 24,363,366 Deaths this year COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:2,729,859










Coronavirus Cases:
6,149,436 Deaths 370,494

Government & Economics
$ 3,123,754,954Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 2,137,028,612Public Education expenditure today
$ 972,671,400Public Military expenditure today
32,585,076Cars produced this year
62,409,060Bicycles produced this year
103,753,838Computers produced this year
Society & Media
1,109,471New book titles published this year
98,777,994Newspapers circulated today
138,438TV sets sold worldwide today
1,346,422Cellular phones sold today
$ 60,339,056Money spent on videogames today
4,574,847,620Internet users in the world today
54,305,262,170Emails sent today
1,426,752Blog posts written today
161,075,777Tweets sent today
1,489,838,068Google searches today
Environment
2,154,306Forest loss this year (hectares)
2,900,278Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
14,975,772,327CO2 emissions this year (tons)
4,970,972Desertification this year (hectares)
4,056,470 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment
this year
Food
843,387,573Undernourished people in the world
1,693,968,103Overweight people in the world
757,789,053Obese people in the world
6,353People who died of hunger today
$ 119,895,353Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA
today
$ 39,273,104Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA
today
Water
1,805,004,148Water used this year (million L)
348,817Deaths caused by water related
diseases
this year
800,723,340People with no access to
a safe drinking water source
Energy
96,964,434Energy used today (MWh), of which:
82,541,601- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
14,601,998- from renewable sources (MWh)
607,583,960,142 Solar energy striking Earth today
19,887,384Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,507,308,934,796Oil left (barrels)
15,719Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,095,631,901,599Natural Gas left (boe)
57,665Days to the end of natural gas
4,316,165,086,079Coal left (boe)
148,833Days to the end of coal
Health
5,377,273Communicable disease deaths this year
201,735Seasonal flu deaths this year
3,148,500Deaths of children under 5 this year
17,613,061Abortions this year
128,030Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,829,727HIV/AIDS infected people
696,328Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
3,401,948Deaths caused by cancer this year
406,300Deaths caused by malaria this year
3,144,607,463Cigarettes smoked today
2,070,694Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,036,000Deaths caused by alcohol this year
444,187Suicides this year
$ 165,707,791,272Money spent on illegal drugs this year
559,153Road traffic accident fatalities this year



Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19

  • 1. Comoros,
  • 2. North Korea, 
  • 3. Yemen,
  • 4. The Federated States of Micronesia,
  • 5. Kiribati,
  • 6. Solomon Islands,
  • 7. The Cook Islands,
  • 8. Micronesia,
  • 9. Tonga,
  • 10. The Marshall Islands Palau,
  • 11. American Samoa, 
  • 12. South Georgia
  •  13. South Sandwich Islands.
  • 14.Saint Helena.

    Europe

    15. Aland Islands
    16.Svalbard

  • 17. Jan Mayen Islands

  • 18. Latin America

    19.Africa

    20.British Indian Ocean Territory

    21.French Southern Territories
    22.Lesotho

  • 23.Oceania

  • 24.Christmas Island
    25. Cocos (Keeling) Islands

  • 26. Heard Island

  • 27. McDonald Islands

    28. Niue
    29. Norfolk Island
    30. Pitcairn
    31. Solomon Islands
    32. Tokelau
    33. United States Minor Outlying Islands
    Wallis and Futuna Islands

  • Tajikistan,
  • Turkmenistan,
  • Tuvalu,
  • Vanuatu

  • The number of deaths in the world in the last 3 months of 2020

          3,14,687 : Corona virus

          3,69,602 : Common cold

          3,40,584 : Malaria

         3,53,696 : suicide

         3,93,479 : road accidents

         2,40,950 : HIV

         5,58,471 : alcohol

         8,16,498 : smoking

      11,67,714: Cancer

     Then COVID-19 is not dangerous

    The
    purpose of the PRESSTITUTE media campaign is to settle the trade war,
    to reduce financial markets to prepare the stage of financial markets
    for mergers and acquisitions or  to sell Treasury bonds to cover the
    fiscal deficit in them Or to  Panic created by Pharma companies to sell
    their products like sanitizer, masks, medicine etc.

    including
    all the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parlimentarians,
    Legislators,Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Political ruling and opposition Party
    members, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Election Commission members
    PRESSTITUTE Media persons who were not affected by COVID-19 not wearing
    face masks but still alive  and who are more deadliest than COVID-19

Do not
Panic & don’t kill yourself with unecessary fear. This posting is
to balance your news feed from posts that caused fear and panic.

 33,38,724
People are sick with COVID-19 Coronavirus at the moment, of which
32,00,000 are abroad. This means that if you are not in or haven’t
recently visited any foreign country, this should eliminate 95% of your
concern.

If you do contact COVID-19 Coronavirus, this still is not a cause for panic because:

81% of the Cases are MILD

14% of the Cases are MODERATE

Only 5% of the Cases are CRITICAL

Which means that even if you do get the virus, you are most likely to recover from it.

Some
have said, “but this is worse than SARS and SWINEFLU!”  SARS had a
fatality rate of 10%, Swine flu 28% while COVID-19 has a fatality rate
of 2%

Moreover, looking at the ages of those who are dying of
this virus, the death rate for the people UNDER 55 years of age is only
0.4%

This means that: if you are under 55 years of age and don’t
live out of India - you are more likely to win the lottery (which has a 1
in 45,000,000 chance)


  • Let’s take one day ie 1 May as an example when Covid 19 took lives of 6406 in the world.
    On the same day:

    26,283 people died of Cancer

    24,641 people died of Heart Disease

    4,300 people died of Diabetes

    Suicide took 28 times more lives than the virus did.

    Mosquitoes
    kill 2,740 people every day, HUMANS kill 1,300 fellow humans every day,
    and Snakes kill 137 people every day. (Sharks kill 2 people a year)

    SO DO THE DAILY THINGS TO SUPPORT YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM , PROPER HYGIENE AND DO NOT LIVE  IN FEAR.

    Join to Spread Hope instead of Fear.

    The Biggest Virus is not Corona Virus but Fear!

  • ”Pain is a Gift
    Instead of avoiding it,
    Learn to embrace it.
    Without pain,
    there is no growth”

    SHARE TO STOP PANIC

All are Happy, Well, and Secure having calm, quiet, alert, attentive that is Wisdom and equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts
with a clear understanding that everything is changing!


Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness

Fear What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is
not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of
existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend
on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

“When one
has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds
pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and
appreciates them, one is free of fear.


How COVID-19 Kills: The New Coronavirus Disease Can Take A Deadly Turn






February 14, 20201:07 PM ET
3-Minute Listen

“>


A doctor wearing a face mask looks at a CT image of a lung of a patient at a hospital in Wuhan, China.

AFP via Getty Images

Updated on March 17 at 6:43 p.m. ET:

Thousands
of people have now died from COVID-19 — the name for the disease caused
by the coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China.

According to the World Health Organization, the disease is relatively mild in about 80% of cases.

What does mild mean?

And how does this disease turn fatal?

The first symptoms of COVID-19 are pretty common with respiratory illnesses — fever, a dry cough and shortness of breath, says Dr. Carlos del Rio,
a professor of medicine and global health at Emory University who has
consulted with colleagues treating coronavirus patients in China and
Germany. “Some people also get a headache, sore throat,” he says.
Fatigue has also been reported — and less commonly, diarrhea. It may
feel as if you have a cold. Or you may feel that flu-like feeling of
being hit by a train.

The Coronavirus Outbreak
What you should know

Subscribe to Goats and Soda’s newsletter for a weekly update on the outbreak.

Doctors say these patients with milder symptoms should check in
with their physician to make sure their symptoms don’t progress to
something more serious, but they don’t require major medical
intervention.

But the new coronavirus attacks the lungs, and in
about 20% of patients, infections can get more serious. As the virus
enters lung cells, it starts to replicate, destroying the cells,
explains Dr. Yoko Furuya, an infectious disease specialist at Columbia University Irving Medical Center.

“Because
our body senses all of those viruses as basically foreign invaders,
that triggers our immune system to sweep in and try to contain and
control the virus and stop it from making more and more copies of
itself,” she says.

But Furuya says that this immune system response to this
invader can also destroy lung tissue and cause inflammation. The end
result can be pneumonia. That means the air sacs in the lungs become
inflamed and filled with fluid, making it harder to breathe.

Del Rio says that these symptoms can also make it harder for the
lungs to get oxygen to your blood, potentially triggering a cascade of
problems. “The lack of oxygen leads to more inflammation, more problems
in the body. Organs need oxygen to function, right? So when you don’t
have oxygen there, then your liver dies and your kidney dies,” he says.
Lack of oxygen can also lead to septic shock.

The most severe
cases — about 6% of patients — end up in intensive care with multi-organ
failure, respiratory failure and septic shock, according to a February report from the WHO.
And many hospitalized patients require supplemental oxygen. In extreme
cases, they need mechanical ventilation — including the use of a
sophisticated technology known as ECMO
(extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), which basically acts as the
patient’s lungs, adding oxygen to their blood and removing carbon
dioxide. The technology “allows us to save more severe patients,” Dr.
Sylvie Briand, director of the WHO’s pandemic and epidemic diseases
department, said at a press conference In February.

Many of the
more serious cases have been in people who are middle-aged and elderly —
Furuya notes that our immune system gets weaker as we age. She says for
long-term smokers, it could be even worse because their airways and
lungs are more vulnerable. People with other underlying medical
conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes or chronic lung disease,
have also proved most vulnerable. Furuya says those kinds of conditions
can make it harder for the body to recover from infections.

“Of course, you have outliers — people who are young and otherwise previously healthy who are dying,” Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told NPR’s 1A
show. “But if you look at the vast majority of the people who have
serious disease and who will ultimately die, they are in that group that
are either elderly and/or have underlying conditions.”

Estimates
for the case fatality rate for COVID-19 vary depending on the country.
But data from both China and Lombardy, Italy, show the fatality rate
starts rising for people in their 60s. In Lombardy, for instance, the
case fatality rate for those in their 60s is nearly 3 percent. It’s
nearly 10 percent for people in their 70s and more than 16 percent for
those in their 80s.

Del Rio notes that it’s not just COVID-19 that can bring on
multi-organ failure. Just last month, he saw the same thing in a
previously healthy flu patient in the U.S. who had not gotten a flu
shot.

“He went in to a doctor. They said, ‘You have the flu —
don’t worry.’ He went home. Two days later, he was in the ER. Five days
later, he was very sick and in the ICU” with organ failure, del Rio
says. While it’s possible for patients who reach this stage to survive,
recovery can take many weeks or months.

In fact, many
infectious disease experts have been making comparisons between this new
coronavirus and the flu and common cold, because it appears to be
highly transmissible.

“What this is acting like — it’s
spreading much more rapidly than SARS [severe acute respiratory
syndrome], the other coronavirus, but the fatality rate is much less,”
Fauci told 1A. “It’s acting much more like a really bad influenza.”

What
experts fear is that, like the flu, COVID-19 will keep coming back year
after year. But unlike the flu, there is no vaccine yet for the
coronavirus disease.

Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

1. Dasa raja dhamma



2. kusala.



3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana
4. priyavacana

 5. artha cariya

 6. samanatmata



7. Samyutta Nikayaarya



” or



“ariyasammutideva

8. Agganna Sutta

9. Majjima Nikaya

10. arya” or “ariya

11.sammutideva

12. Digha Nikaya

13. Maha Sudassana

14. Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma

15. Canon Sutta

16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka

17. Iddhipada

18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma

19. Brahmavihàra

20. Sangahavatthu

21. Nathakaranadhamma

22. Saraniyadhamma

23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha

24. dukkha

25. anicca

26. anatta

27. Samsara

28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,

Kutadanta Sutta

Chandagati

Dosagati

Mohagati

Bhayagati

Yoniso manasikara

BrahmavihàraSangahavatthu

Nathakaranadhamma

SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya

Dithadhammikattha

Mara

Law of Kamma

Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya

Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

Assamedha


Sassamedha




Naramedha


Purisamedha




Sammapasa


Vajapeyya


Niraggala

Sila

Samadhi

Panna

Samma-sankappa

Sigalovada Sutta

Brahmajala Sutta

Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta
dhammamahamatras

https://www.reddit.com/r/Buddhism/comments/4iksij/i_want_to_live_in_a_buddhist_templemonastery_does/


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05/29/20
LESSON 3368 Sat 30 May 2020 Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org At WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka State PRABUDDHA BHARAT Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness To build a simple Buddhist shrine
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 5:28 pm

LESSON 3368 Sat 30 May 2020
Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU)
For
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
At
WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Magadhi Karnataka State
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
To build a simple Buddhist shrine

https://www.wikihow.com/Create-a-Simple-Buddhist-Shrine
To build a simple Buddhist shrine.

How to Create a Simple Buddhist Shrine

Author Info


|
Reader-Approved

| References


Updated: March 24, 2020




Are you Buddhist and haven’t gotten around to making a shrine? This article will show you how to build a simple Buddhist shrine.



Steps


  1. 1
    Choose a stable place to set the shrine. (Some people
    use a whole room.) It may be a table or a shelf, but be sure to have it
    at least above head level based on the usual use of the room.


  2. 2
    Make a stand or shelf to support the objects. A
    simple start is a wooden stand with three levels. This will be the main
    surface of the shrine, so you may want to put some effort into this.[1]

  3. 3
    Place the objects onto the shrine. First you will
    need an image of the Buddha. You can have as many as you like. This will
    go on the topmost level of the shrine. It is considered ‘bad etiquette’
    to place the Buddha (or Buddhas) lower than any other image in the same
    room.[2]
    In the place of an image of Buddha, a mantra written on a piece of
    paper or similar is perfectly acceptable, and preferred in the Jōdo Shinshū (Pure Land) tradition of Buddhism and in Nichiren
    Buddhism. Some buddhist schools recommend certain standardized
    arrangements of images for their lay members, in Japan often as
    triptychs with the main Buddha surrounded by either bodhisattvas, dharma
    guardians or lineage masters. This is not necessary, even after
    Japanese standards, and Chinese-Taiwanese Buddhism is usually less
    standardized when it comes to home shrines.

  4. 4
    If a suitable Buddha image simply cannot be obtained, a picture of Buddha’s relics, a stūpa , a Buddhist holy book, a bodhi leaf or picture of the Buddha’s footprints may be acceptable.

  5. 5
    On the next level, you may place an image of a Buddhist teacher like the Dalai Lama or a small statue of the Chinese Bùdài (the Laughing Buddha, considered to be a manifestation of Buddha Maitreya.)
    Two guardian images may be an idea to consider: Either the ‘lion-dogs’
    common at the entrance of South Asian monasteries or two
    dharmapalas/vidyarajas you feel familiar with (Chinese, Japanese and
    Tibetan Buddhists doesn’t use exactly the same palas, and for persons
    into Tibetan Buddhism or Shingon there may be reasons to choose
    carefully).

  6. 6
    Place offerings on the lowest level or, if you wish, a Buddhist scripture or a bowl of water. Some find a bell or singing bowl on a cushion useful.[3]

  7. 7
    Traditional offerings include candles, flowers, incense, fruit or food. However, it is not what you offer that is important: it is that it is done sincerely with a pure heart.[4]
    Since Buddhist monastics aren’t allowed to eat after lunchtime, food,
    fruit and dairy offerings traditionally – and for symbolic reasons –
    occur in the morning or shortly before lunchtime. Offerings of water,
    non-dairy beverages, candles, flowers and incense may, however, occur at
    other times of the day.

  8. 8
    Place a small stūpa on the supporting surface of the shrine, if you wish. You can make a simple stūpa with a small pile of stones. There is no need to go out and buy a costly gold one; that defeats the purpose of Buddhism.

  9. 9
    It is traditional to change the offering water every morning, however, the old water should never go to waste.
    Use it to water a plant or something. A new cup or bowl should be used
    for this purpose: glass or crystal is preferable, because the clarity of
    the water represents clarity of the mind. Some Buddhist schools use two
    water bowls: ‘drinking’ water and ‘washing’ water. It is far from wrong
    to let flowers remain even after withering has begun: The flowers serve
    to remind you of impermanence.

  10. 10
    If you wish, you may offer incense at the shrine when you recite morning ceremony. Touch the tip to your forehead, then light it. See warning.



Community Q&A

  • Question
    Which would best time in the Morning Offering water before Sunshine?
    Community Answer
    The exact time (i.e., 4am or
    6:30am) are not what’s important. One should wake up early enough to
    have time to think about the purpose of one’s life. When you wake up
    try to think that I have been in meditation and that your Lama (or the
    Dalai Lama or Amitabha, Tara or any Bodhidattva) is seated on a lotus on
    the crown of your head. Think that today I will pray to help all
    sentient beings even if it is just by being kind, compassionate and
    generous to those with whom I come in contact. Then rise and go to your
    shrine. You could light a stick of incense and think; To the Buddha,
    Dharma and Sangha, I make this offering. Then continue by offering your
    seven (or 1 or 2 . . .) water bowls, etc
  • Question
    The statue I got is holding an empty bowl. Is there anything that I am supposed to put in this bowl?
    Max Thunderman
    Community Answer
    It’s your choice whether you want to put anything in there or not, but usually it’s left clean/empty.
  • Question
    Can I use a picture of Buddha instead of a statue for the top of my shrine?
    Community Answer
    Yes, that is absolutely fine. If
    you’d like, you could write “BUDDHA” on a piece of crumpled-up loose
    leaf paper; you’d still be fine. It really does not matter what the
    shrine looks like, but rather what it is about for you.
  • Question
    Is it wrong to have shelves with books and items underneath my shrine?
    Community Answer
    No, that’s not wrong, but it might be a nice idea to try to focus the books and items on your pursuit of Dharma.
  • Question
    Must I always pray in the morning?
    Community Answer
    It depends on what kind of Buddhist you are, but a short “om mani padme hum” is traditional.
  • Question
    For how long should a food offering be left
    on the shrine at home? How should the food offering be discarded? Can
    anyone eat a food offering?
    Community Answer
    Leave it for a few hours. Do not
    let it go bad! Food can be offered to guests, animals, the hungry or
    just offered to Buddhahood and eaten. It is sinful to discard food.
    Anyone can eat the food. Before a meal you offer the food to the Buddha,
    then you eat it. The principle is the same for altars and everything
    else.
  • Question
    Can I use other flowers instead of a lotus?
    Community Answer
    Yes. Flowers symbolize the causes,
    while fruits symbolize the effects. They play a part in reminding
    practitioners of the truth of cause and effect, which most refer to as
    Karma.
  • Question
    Can I continue to present my offerings to the shrine and meditate regularly when I am having my menstrual period?
    Community Answer
    Yes, of course. Buddhism has no restrictions on this.
  • Question
    Can I use a picture of the buddha instead of a statue?
    Community Answer
    Yes, you can.
  • Question
    What do the three statues in front of Buddha represent?
    Community Answer
    They represent the past Buddha, present Buddha and the next Buddha.

Show more answers

Ask a Question






Video






Tips

  • Yellow, white, orange, red, and blue are recommended colours of decoration.
  • Everything on the shrine also has a symbolic meaning. Flowers and fruit for example illustrate the law of karma.
  • What matters is sincerity, not the shrine itself. It would be
    better if you didn’t have a shrine and were very sincere in cultivating
    virtue than if you had a shrine and wasted time going through the
    formalities of making it look pretty.
  • Some Buddhists is to have cushions near their shrine to sit on
    while meditating. Decorated Indian cushion covers are favoured
    considerably. Some prefer a meditation stool or a tightly stuffed zafu.
  • The supporting surface of the shrine isn’t really something that you must put a lot of effort into.
  • You should set aside a symbolic day once a month or so to clean
    the shrine of dust, and perhaps once a year to clean it thoroughly. In
    East Asia the days before new moon is a widespread shrine cleaning time.
  • If you are unable to create levels, make sure any statues of
    Buddha are not directly on the floor because this can be thought
    disrespectful.[5]

Warnings




  • If you do intend on burning incense or candles, consider the flammability of the covering of the shrine.
  • Candles and incense should never be allowed to burn unattended. Consider electric candles or lamps.
  • Avoid cheap, low-quality incense. It is generally manufactured
    in Asia where safety standards are comparatively low and can contain
    unsafe chemicals.






Things You’ll Need



  • A Buddha or Bodhisattva image or statue.
  • A water bowl
  • Flowers/incense/fruit/electric candles.
  • A photograph or image of your own Buddhist teacher, if you have one.
  • A selection of small stones


About This Article


wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of
our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article,
31 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time.
Together, they cited 7 references.
450 votes - 91%

Co-authors: 31
Updated: March 24, 2020

Views: 219,903

Categories: Buddhism
Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 219,903 times.

Did this article help you?


WB

Walter Brink

Feb 29


“This site has illuminated what I can put on my shrine to guide me to fulfillment.”



Last updated: May 29, 2020, 01:10 GMT







World Population
57,291,738Births this year
105,919Births today
24,052,444Deaths this year
44,467Deaths today

33,239,294Net population growth this year
61,452Net population growth today

while World 24,052,444 Deaths this year COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:2,579,534










Coronavirus Cases:
5,904,397 Deaths 361,998

Government & Economics
$ 4,167,147,403Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 2,850,944,715Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,297,749,829Public Military expenditure today
32,164,650Cars produced this year
61,608,306Bicycles produced this year
102,439,445Computers produced this year

Society & Media
1,095,237New book titles published this year
132,074,989Newspapers circulated today
185,092TV sets sold worldwide today
1,799,807Cellular phones sold today
$ 80,662,245Money spent on videogames today
4,573,020,164Internet users in the world today
72,592,560,989Emails sent today
1,906,462Blog posts written today
215,300,220Tweets sent today
1,990,840,685Google searches today


Environment
2,126,812Forest loss this year (hectares)
2,863,264Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
14,784,377,329CO2 emissions this year (tons)
4,907,531Desertification this year (hectares)
4,004,700 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment
this year (tons)


Food
843,341,291Undernourished people in the world
1,693,878,330Overweight people in the world
757,650,767Obese people in the world
8,513People who died of hunger today
$ 160,631,765Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA
today
$ 52,626,956Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA
today



Water
1,781,825,479Water used this year (million L)
344,367Deaths caused by water related
diseases
this year
800,773,754People with no access to
a safe drinking water source

Energy
130,212,666Energy used today (MWh), of which:
110,844,374- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
19,608,892- from renewable sources (MWh)
815,919,036,541 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
26,706,589Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,507,493,925,563Oil left (barrels)
15,721Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,095,668,566,436Natural Gas left (boe)
57,667Days to the end of natural gas

4,316,221,083,284Coal left (boe)
148,835Days to the end of coal

Health
5,308,686Communicable disease deaths this year
199,150Seasonal flu deaths this year
3,108,341Deaths of children under 5 this year
17,388,190Abortions this year
126,397Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,824,860HIV/AIDS infected people
687,447Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
3,358,557Deaths caused by cancer this year
401,118Deaths caused by malaria this year
4,226,819,064Cigarettes smoked today
2,044,283Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,022,786Deaths caused by alcohol this year
438,521Suicides this year
$ 163,594,205,058Money spent on illegal drugs this year
552,021Road traffic accident fatalities this year



Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19

  • 1. Comoros,
  • 2. North Korea, 
  • 3. Yemen,
  • 4. The Federated States of Micronesia,
  • 5. Kiribati,
  • 6. Solomon Islands,
  • 7. The Cook Islands,
  • 8. Micronesia,
  • 9. Tonga,
  • 10. The Marshall Islands Palau,
  • 11. American Samoa, 
  • 12. South Georgia
  •  13. South Sandwich Islands.
  • 14.Saint Helena.

    Europe

    15. Aland Islands
    16.Svalbard

  • 17. Jan Mayen Islands

  • 18. Latin America

    19.Africa

    20.British Indian Ocean Territory

    21.French Southern Territories
    22.Lesotho

  • 23.Oceania

  • 24.Christmas Island
    25. Cocos (Keeling) Islands

  • 26. Heard Island

  • 27. McDonald Islands

    28. Niue
    29. Norfolk Island
    30. Pitcairn
    31. Solomon Islands
    32. Tokelau
    33. United States Minor Outlying Islands
    Wallis and Futuna Islands

  • Tajikistan,
  • Turkmenistan,
  • Tuvalu,
  • Vanuatu

  • The number of deaths in the world in the last 3 months of 2020

          3,14,687 : Corona virus

          3,69,602 : Common cold

          3,40,584 : Malaria

         3,53,696 : suicide

         3,93,479 : road accidents

         2,40,950 : HIV

         5,58,471 : alcohol

         8,16,498 : smoking

      11,67,714: Cancer

     Then COVID-19 is not dangerous

    The
    purpose of the PRESSTITUTE media campaign is to settle the trade war,
    to reduce financial markets to prepare the stage of financial markets
    for mergers and acquisitions or  to sell Treasury bonds to cover the
    fiscal deficit in them Or to  Panic created by Pharma companies to sell
    their products like sanitizer, masks, medicine etc.

    including
    all the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parlimentarians,
    Legislators,Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Political ruling and opposition Party
    members, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Election Commission members
    PRESSTITUTE Media persons who were not affected by COVID-19 not wearing
    face masks but still alive  and who are more deadliest than COVID-19

Do not
Panic & don’t kill yourself with unecessary fear. This posting is
to balance your news feed from posts that caused fear and panic.

 33,38,724
People are sick with COVID-19 Coronavirus at the moment, of which
32,00,000 are abroad. This means that if you are not in or haven’t
recently visited any foreign country, this should eliminate 95% of your
concern.

If you do contact COVID-19 Coronavirus, this still is not a cause for panic because:

81% of the Cases are MILD

14% of the Cases are MODERATE

Only 5% of the Cases are CRITICAL

Which means that even if you do get the virus, you are most likely to recover from it.

Some
have said, “but this is worse than SARS and SWINEFLU!”  SARS had a
fatality rate of 10%, Swine flu 28% while COVID-19 has a fatality rate
of 2%

Moreover, looking at the ages of those who are dying of
this virus, the death rate for the people UNDER 55 years of age is only
0.4%

This means that: if you are under 55 years of age and don’t
live out of India - you are more likely to win the lottery (which has a 1
in 45,000,000 chance)


  • Let’s take one day ie 1 May as an example when Covid 19 took lives of 6406 in the world.
    On the same day:

    26,283 people died of Cancer

    24,641 people died of Heart Disease

    4,300 people died of Diabetes

    Suicide took 28 times more lives than the virus did.

    Mosquitoes
    kill 2,740 people every day, HUMANS kill 1,300 fellow humans every day,
    and Snakes kill 137 people every day. (Sharks kill 2 people a year)

    SO DO THE DAILY THINGS TO SUPPORT YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM , PROPER HYGIENE AND DO NOT LIVE  IN FEAR.

    Join to Spread Hope instead of Fear.

    The Biggest Virus is not Corona Virus but Fear!

  • ”Pain is a Gift
    Instead of avoiding it,
    Learn to embrace it.
    Without pain,
    there is no growth”

    SHARE TO STOP PANIC

All are Happy, Well, and Secure having calm, quiet, alert, attentive that is Wisdom and equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts
with a clear understanding that everything is changing!


Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness

Fear What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is
not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of
existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend
on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

“When one
has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds
pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and
appreciates them, one is free of fear.

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/02/14/805289669/how-covid-19-kills-the-new-coronavirus-disease-can-take-a-deadly-turn


How COVID-19 Kills: The New Coronavirus Disease Can Take A Deadly Turn




“>


A doctor wearing a face mask looks at a CT image of a lung of a patient at a hospital in Wuhan, China.

AFP via Getty Images

Updated on March 17 at 6:43 p.m. ET:

Thousands
of people have now died from COVID-19 — the name for the disease caused
by the coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China.

According to the World Health Organization, the disease is relatively mild in about 80% of cases.

What does mild mean?

And how does this disease turn fatal?

The first symptoms of COVID-19 are pretty common with respiratory illnesses — fever, a dry cough and shortness of breath, says Dr. Carlos del Rio,
a professor of medicine and global health at Emory University who has
consulted with colleagues treating coronavirus patients in China and
Germany. “Some people also get a headache, sore throat,” he says.
Fatigue has also been reported — and less commonly, diarrhea. It may
feel as if you have a cold. Or you may feel that flu-like feeling of
being hit by a train.

The Coronavirus Outbreak
What you should know

Subscribe to Goats and Soda’s newsletter for a weekly update on the outbreak.

Doctors say these patients with milder symptoms should check in
with their physician to make sure their symptoms don’t progress to
something more serious, but they don’t require major medical
intervention.

But the new coronavirus attacks the lungs, and in
about 20% of patients, infections can get more serious. As the virus
enters lung cells, it starts to replicate, destroying the cells,
explains Dr. Yoko Furuya, an infectious disease specialist at Columbia University Irving Medical Center.

“Because
our body senses all of those viruses as basically foreign invaders,
that triggers our immune system to sweep in and try to contain and
control the virus and stop it from making more and more copies of
itself,” she says.

But Furuya says that this immune system response to this
invader can also destroy lung tissue and cause inflammation. The end
result can be pneumonia. That means the air sacs in the lungs become
inflamed and filled with fluid, making it harder to breathe.

Del Rio says that these symptoms can also make it harder for the
lungs to get oxygen to your blood, potentially triggering a cascade of
problems. “The lack of oxygen leads to more inflammation, more problems
in the body. Organs need oxygen to function, right? So when you don’t
have oxygen there, then your liver dies and your kidney dies,” he says.
Lack of oxygen can also lead to septic shock.

The most severe
cases — about 6% of patients — end up in intensive care with multi-organ
failure, respiratory failure and septic shock, according to a February report from the WHO.
And many hospitalized patients require supplemental oxygen. In extreme
cases, they need mechanical ventilation — including the use of a
sophisticated technology known as ECMO
(extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), which basically acts as the
patient’s lungs, adding oxygen to their blood and removing carbon
dioxide. The technology “allows us to save more severe patients,” Dr.
Sylvie Briand, director of the WHO’s pandemic and epidemic diseases
department, said at a press conference In February.

Many of the
more serious cases have been in people who are middle-aged and elderly —
Furuya notes that our immune system gets weaker as we age. She says for
long-term smokers, it could be even worse because their airways and
lungs are more vulnerable. People with other underlying medical
conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes or chronic lung disease,
have also proved most vulnerable. Furuya says those kinds of conditions
can make it harder for the body to recover from infections.

“Of course, you have outliers — people who are young and otherwise previously healthy who are dying,” Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told NPR’s 1A
show. “But if you look at the vast majority of the people who have
serious disease and who will ultimately die, they are in that group that
are either elderly and/or have underlying conditions.”

Estimates
for the case fatality rate for COVID-19 vary depending on the country.
But data from both China and Lombardy, Italy, show the fatality rate
starts rising for people in their 60s. In Lombardy, for instance, the
case fatality rate for those in their 60s is nearly 3 percent. It’s
nearly 10 percent for people in their 70s and more than 16 percent for
those in their 80s.

Del Rio notes that it’s not just COVID-19 that can bring on
multi-organ failure. Just last month, he saw the same thing in a
previously healthy flu patient in the U.S. who had not gotten a flu
shot.

“He went in to a doctor. They said, ‘You have the flu —
don’t worry.’ He went home. Two days later, he was in the ER. Five days
later, he was very sick and in the ICU” with organ failure, del Rio
says. While it’s possible for patients who reach this stage to survive,
recovery can take many weeks or months.

In fact, many
infectious disease experts have been making comparisons between this new
coronavirus and the flu and common cold, because it appears to be
highly transmissible.

“What this is acting like — it’s
spreading much more rapidly than SARS [severe acute respiratory
syndrome], the other coronavirus, but the fatality rate is much less,”
Fauci told 1A. “It’s acting much more like a really bad influenza.”

What
experts fear is that, like the flu, COVID-19 will keep coming back year
after year. But unlike the flu, there is no vaccine yet for the
coronavirus disease.

Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

1. Dasa raja dhamma



2. kusala.



3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana
4. priyavacana

 5. artha cariya

 6. samanatmata



7. Samyutta Nikayaarya



” or



“ariyasammutideva

8. Agganna Sutta

9. Majjima Nikaya

10. arya” or “ariya

11.sammutideva

12. Digha Nikaya

13. Maha Sudassana

14. Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma

15. Canon Sutta

16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka

17. Iddhipada

18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma

19. Brahmavihàra

20. Sangahavatthu

21. Nathakaranadhamma

22. Saraniyadhamma

23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha

24. dukkha

25. anicca

26. anatta

27. Samsara

28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,

Kutadanta Sutta

Chandagati

Dosagati

Mohagati

Bhayagati

Yoniso manasikara

BrahmavihàraSangahavatthu

Nathakaranadhamma

SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya

Dithadhammikattha

Mara

Law of Kamma

Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya

Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

Assamedha


Sassamedha




Naramedha


Purisamedha




Sammapasa


Vajapeyya


Niraggala

Sila

Samadhi

Panna

Samma-sankappa

Sigalovada Sutta

Brahmajala Sutta

Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta
dhammamahamatras

https://www.reddit.com/r/Buddhism/comments/4iksij/i_want_to_live_in_a_buddhist_templemonastery_does/

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05/28/20
LESSON 3367 Fri 29 May 2020 Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org At WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka State PRABUDDHA BHARAT Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 3:50 am
LESSON 3367 Fri 29 May 2020
Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU)
For
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
From
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
At
WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Magadhi Karnataka State
PRABUDDHA BHARAT
Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness




Last updated: May 29, 2020, 01:10 GMT







World Population
57,291,738Births this year
105,919Births today

24,052,444Deaths this year

44,467Deaths today

33,239,294Net population growth this year

61,452Net population growth today

while World 24,052,444 Deaths this year COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:2,579,534










Coronavirus Cases:
5,904,397 Deaths 361,998


Government & Economics
$ 4,167,147,403Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 2,850,944,715Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,297,749,829Public Military expenditure today
32,164,650Cars produced this year
61,608,306Bicycles produced this year
102,439,445Computers produced this year


Society & Media
1,095,237New book titles published this year
132,074,989Newspapers circulated today
185,092TV sets sold worldwide today
1,799,807Cellular phones sold today
$ 80,662,245Money spent on videogames today
4,573,020,164Internet users in the world today
72,592,560,989Emails sent today
1,906,462Blog posts written today
215,300,220Tweets sent today
1,990,840,685Google searches today



Environment
2,126,812Forest loss this year (hectares)
2,863,264Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
14,784,377,329CO2 emissions this year (tons)
4,907,531Desertification this year (hectares)
4,004,700 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment
this year (tons)



Food
843,341,291Undernourished people in the world
1,693,878,330Overweight people in the world
757,650,767Obese people in the world
8,513People who died of hunger today
$ 160,631,765Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA
today
$ 52,626,956Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA
today



Water
1,781,825,479Water used this year (million L)
344,367Deaths caused by water related
diseases
this year
800,773,754People with no access to
a safe drinking water source

Energy
130,212,666Energy used today (MWh), of which:
110,844,374- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
19,608,892- from renewable sources (MWh)
815,919,036,541 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
26,706,589Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,507,493,925,563Oil left (barrels)
15,721Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,095,668,566,436Natural Gas left (boe)

57,667Days to the end of natural gas

4,316,221,083,284Coal left (boe)

148,835Days to the end of coal

Health
5,308,686Communicable disease deaths this year
199,150Seasonal flu deaths this year
3,108,341Deaths of children under 5 this year
17,388,190Abortions this year
126,397Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,824,860HIV/AIDS infected people
687,447Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
3,358,557Deaths caused by cancer this year
401,118Deaths caused by malaria this year
4,226,819,064Cigarettes smoked today
2,044,283Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,022,786Deaths caused by alcohol this year
438,521Suicides this year
$ 163,594,205,058Money spent on illegal drugs this year
552,021Road traffic accident fatalities this year



Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19

  • 1. Comoros,
  • 2. North Korea, 
  • 3. Yemen,
  • 4. The Federated States of Micronesia,
  • 5. Kiribati,
  • 6. Solomon Islands,
  • 7. The Cook Islands,
  • 8. Micronesia,
  • 9. Tonga,
  • 10. The Marshall Islands Palau,
  • 11. American Samoa, 
  • 12. South Georgia
  •  13. South Sandwich Islands.
  • 14.Saint Helena.

    Europe

    15. Aland Islands
    16.Svalbard

  • 17. Jan Mayen Islands

  • 18. Latin America

    19.Africa

    20.British Indian Ocean Territory

    21.French Southern Territories
    22.Lesotho

  • 23.Oceania

  • 24.Christmas Island
    25. Cocos (Keeling) Islands

  • 26. Heard Island

  • 27. McDonald Islands

    28. Niue
    29. Norfolk Island
    30. Pitcairn
    31. Solomon Islands
    32. Tokelau
    33. United States Minor Outlying Islands
    Wallis and Futuna Islands

  • Tajikistan,
  • Turkmenistan,
  • Tuvalu,
  • Vanuatu

  • The number of deaths in the world in the last 3 months of 2020

          3,14,687 : Corona virus

          3,69,602 : Common cold

          3,40,584 : Malaria

         3,53,696 : suicide

         3,93,479 : road accidents

         2,40,950 : HIV

         5,58,471 : alcohol

         8,16,498 : smoking

      11,67,714: Cancer

     Then COVID-19 is not dangerous

    The
    purpose of the PRESSTITUTE media campaign is to settle the trade war,
    to reduce financial markets to prepare the stage of financial markets
    for mergers and acquisitions or  to sell Treasury bonds to cover the
    fiscal deficit in them Or to  Panic created by Pharma companies to sell
    their products like sanitizer, masks, medicine etc.

    including
    all the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parlimentarians,
    Legislators,Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Political ruling and opposition Party
    members, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Election Commission members
    PRESSTITUTE Media persons who were not affected by COVID-19 not wearing
    face masks but still alive  and who are more deadliest than COVID-19


Do not
Panic & don’t kill yourself with unecessary fear. This posting is
to balance your news feed from posts that caused fear and panic.

 33,38,724
People are sick with COVID-19 Coronavirus at the moment, of which
32,00,000 are abroad. This means that if you are not in or haven’t
recently visited any foreign country, this should eliminate 95% of your
concern.

If you do contact COVID-19 Coronavirus, this still is not a cause for panic because:

81% of the Cases are MILD

14% of the Cases are MODERATE

Only 5% of the Cases are CRITICAL

Which means that even if you do get the virus, you are most likely to recover from it.

Some
have said, “but this is worse than SARS and SWINEFLU!”  SARS had a
fatality rate of 10%, Swine flu 28% while COVID-19 has a fatality rate
of 2%

Moreover, looking at the ages of those who are dying of
this virus, the death rate for the people UNDER 55 years of age is only
0.4%

This means that: if you are under 55 years of age and don’t
live out of India - you are more likely to win the lottery (which has a 1
in 45,000,000 chance)

  • Let’s take one day ie 1 May as an example when Covid 19 took lives of 6406 in the world.
    On the same day:

    26,283 people died of Cancer

    24,641 people died of Heart Disease

    4,300 people died of Diabetes

    Suicide took 28 times more lives than the virus did.

    Mosquitoes
    kill 2,740 people every day, HUMANS kill 1,300 fellow humans every day,
    and Snakes kill 137 people every day. (Sharks kill 2 people a year)

    SO DO THE DAILY THINGS TO SUPPORT YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM , PROPER HYGIENE AND DO NOT LIVE  IN FEAR.

    Join to Spread Hope instead of Fear.

    The Biggest Virus is not Corona Virus but Fear!

  • ”Pain is a Gift
    Instead of avoiding it,
    Learn to embrace it.
    Without pain,
    there is no growth”

    SHARE TO STOP PANIC

  • All are Happy, Well, and Secure having calm, quiet, alert, attentive that is Wisdom and equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts
    with a clear understanding that everything is changing!


    Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness

    Fear What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
    quotes teach us about fear?

    Trade your fear for freedom.

    “Even death is
    not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

    “The whole secret of
    existence is to have no fear.

    Never fear what will become of you, depend
    on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

    “When one
    has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds
    pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and
    appreciates them, one is free of fear.

    Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

    1. Dasa raja dhamma

    2. kusala.

    3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana
    4. priyavacana

     5. artha cariya

     6. samanatmata

    7. Samyutta Nikayaarya

    ” or

    “ariyasammutideva
    8. Agganna Sutta
    9. Majjima Nikaya
    10. arya” or “ariya
    11.sammutideva
    12. Digha Nikaya
    13. Maha Sudassana

    14. Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma

    15. Canon Sutta

    16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka

    17. Iddhipada

    18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma
    19. Brahmavihàra
    20. Sangahavatthu
    21. Nathakaranadhamma
    22. Saraniyadhamma

    23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha
    24. dukkha
    25. anicca
    26. anatta
    27. Samsara

    28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,
    Kutadanta Sutta
    Chandagati
    Dosagati
    Mohagati
    Bhayagati
    Yoniso manasikara
    BrahmavihàraSangahavatthu
    Nathakaranadhamma
    SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya
    Dithadhammikattha
    Mara
    Law of Kamma
    Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya
    Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

    Assamedha

    Sassamedha


    Naramedha

    Purisamedha


    Sammapasa

    Vajapeyya

    Niraggala

    Sila

    Samadhi

    Panna

    Samma-sankappa

    Sigalovada Sutta

    Brahmajala Sutta

    Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta
    dhammamahamatras



    31. Solomon Islands

    https://giphy.com/gifs/rhode-island-7E2PtN8mGZUqJSEeVV

    rhode island GIF

    Friends

    SOLOMON ISLANDS: Exploring remote island of Logha 🏝️, scenic views! (Pacific Ocean)
    Vic Stefanu - Amazing World Videos
    189K subscribers
    SUBSCRIBE: https://www.youtube.com/c/VicStefanu
    - Let’s go to the Pacific Ocean and let’s visit Logha (or Loga) which
    is a remote island of the Solomon Islands located within the Western
    Province. We are going to explore the island by walking around it,
    admire the views of the islands and the volcano (Kolobangara) and
    finally we are going to visit the small Dominican monastery and church
    built in the heart of the island.
    The
    Solomon Islands, a nation of hundreds of islands in the South Pacific,
    has many WWII-era sites. Guadalcanal, a province and one of the
    archipelago’s largest islands, honors fallen Allied soldiers at its U.S.
    War Memorial. Guadalcanal is also home to the nation’s capital,
    Honiara, whose bustling Central Market showcases the islands’ produce
    and traditional handicrafts.
    Vic Stefanu, vstefanu@yahoo.com.
    Explore Solomon Islands
    Hotels
    Things to Do
    Restaurants
    Travel Forums
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    Explore Solomon Islands
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    Restaurants in Honiara
    Most of the fully serviced restaurants in Honiara are in Hotel restaurants. Here are some of the recommendations.
    5 items
    Essential Solomon Islands
    Go Play
    Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences.
    Guadalcanal American Memorial
    43 Reviews
    Bonegi I and II
    89 Reviews
    Marovo Lagoon
    43 Reviews
    Honiara Central Market
    100 Reviews
    Vilu War Museum
    57 Reviews
    Solomon Islands Memorial Garden
    46 Reviews
    Tenaru Falls
    24 Reviews
    Mbonege Beach
    50 Reviews
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    23 Reviews
    Kennedy Island
    13 Reviews
    A mix of the charming, modern, and tried and true.
    Uepi Island Resort
    165 Reviews
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    168 Reviews
    Heritage Park Hotel Honiara
    393 Reviews
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    372 Reviews
    Coral Sea Resort & Casino
    80 Reviews
    Tavanipupu Island Resort
    96 Reviews
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    46 Reviews
    Imagination Island
    39 Reviews
    Tetepare Island Eco-lodge
    34 Reviews
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    51 Reviews
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    Can’t-miss spots to dine, drink, and feast.
    The Ofis Solomon Islands
    61 Reviews
    The Bamboo Bar Cafe
    104 Reviews
    Hakubai Japanese Restaurant
    116 Reviews
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    134 Reviews
    Coral Sea Resort & Casino
    87 Reviews
    Market Street Kitchen
    26 Reviews
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    Taj Mahal indian restaurant
    73 Reviews
    Club Havannah
    34 Reviews
    Mambo Juice!
    27 Reviews
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    by Dan Morris for Life Begins At Meet the hidden paradise of the South
    Pacific, an archipelago of 992 unspoilt tropical islands. Feel the
    freedom of adventure above and below the sea and take i
    From the Forums

    26. anatta

    https://giphy.com/gifs/AcquaLete-h5jENMUAFlJxz0YDMk

    Yoga Keep GIF by Acqua Lete

    Friends

    No Self, Selflessness (Anatta/Anatman) & the Five Aggregates
    Mindah-Lee Kumar (The Enthusiastic Buddhist)
    34.4K subscribers
    The
    concept of no self or selflessness (also known as anatta or anatman in
    Buddhism) can sometimes be confusing. If there is no self, then who or
    what is experiencing our present reality? The Buddha taught that there
    are five aggregates that constitute a living being; however, to solely
    identify with these is to rob ourselves of knowing our true nature which
    isn’t defined by these five phenomena.
    In
    this video, I explain in detail what these five aggregates (khandhas or
    skandhas) are and how the Buddha’s teachings of no self serves as a
    liberating reminder that our thoughts, feelings and perceptions are not
    to be taken so seriously; that instead there is a way to live in this
    world with a greater lightness of being.
    CONNECT WITH ME HERE:
    Membership site for more teachings and support:
    Suttas used in this video:
    “Gaddula
    Sutta: The Leash (2)” (SN 22.100), translated from the Pali by
    Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November
    2013,
    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipita….
    “Bahuna
    Sutta: To Bahuna” (AN 10.81), translated from the Pali by Thanissaro
    Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November 2013,
    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipita….
    “‘When
    you know for yourselves…’: The Authenticity of the Pali Suttas”, by
    Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 23 April 2012,
    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/au….
    Category
    Education
    The Concept of Anatta or Not Self
    Buddha, the Founder of Buddhism
    by Jayaram V
    There
    are three different views of the ego or Self. The first is the belief
    in Self as the soul-entity. The second is the view of the Self based on
    conceit and pride. The third is the Self as a conventional term for the
    first-person singular as distinct from other persons. The Self or “I”
    implicit in “I walk” has nothing to do with illusion or conceit. It is a
    term of common usage that is to be found in the sayings of the Buddha
    and arahants. — Discourse on the Ariyavasa Sutta.
    Anatta
    or the Not-Self is a very important concept of Buddhism, which
    distinguishes it from other religions such as Hinduism and Jainism. In
    the following discussion, we discuss the concept of Anatta in Buddhism,
    its importance to the Eightfold Path and the meditative practices of
    Buddhism, and its possible origins in ancient India before the Buddha.
    Anatta means
    Anatta
    is the Pali or the crude version of the Sanskrit word, Anatma, meaning
    Not-Self. It is also often called the Non Self or No Self. Anatta refers
    to the absence of Self (ana + atma). Anatta also means objective
    reality or what is not Self or what is other than the Self. Anatta
    represents all that exists outside the Self or other than the Self.
    The
    roots of Anatta or Anatma are not in Buddhism or in the teachings of
    the Buddha, but in the ascetic traditions of Hinduism and Jainism of
    ancient India. It is also not specific to Buddhism only. The Buddha made
    it popular by making it the central aspect of his teachings. In the
    belief systems of ancient India, especially those of Hinduism and
    Jainism, Anatta represented the objective or perceptual aspect of the
    existential reality. It also represented the outward approach or the
    perceptual, mindful approach to achieve liberation, in contrast to the
    inward, witness approach or the withdrawal approach to experience the
    subjective Self (Atma or Atman).
    Anatta as Not-self
    The
    Buddha taught the nonexistence of eternal Souls in the beings. He held
    that the eternal Self was an illusion, a notion or a formation of the
    mind. It had no basis in reality. According to him, the world was bereft
    of a soul (or God), and so was the case with the microcosm of any
    living being. It was neither possible nor believable that an eternal,
    imperishable and stable soul could exist anywhere or in any being, when a
    mere observation showed that beings were subject to change, aging,
    decay and death. All sentient beings, and even the objects were in the
    process of becoming and changing from one state to another.
    The
    only Self that made sense to him was the objective self, which could be
    identified with a name and form and possessed a physical Self, and
    which was made up of the mind and body. The physical self, or beingness
    (Anatta or Not-self), was neither eternal nor imperishable nor
    subjective, but was a part of the objective reality (anatta) only, which
    could be objectified as a person, but could still be subjectively
    viewed in its entirety as well as in its parts. Thus, the Anatta was a
    formation, created by the aggregates of thoughts, memories, desires,
    expectations, compassion, attachment, illusion and egoism. It was
    temporary, perishable and changeable. Beyond that objective reality of
    Anatta, there was nothing else such as a permanent, unchanging, eternal
    Self.
    As
    part of his teaching, the Buddha discouraged speculation upon any
    phenomena, which were not part of the perceptual reality. Accordingly,
    he discouraged questions and speculation upon the nature of the
    transcendental Self or God. He also avoided speculation upon the nature
    of Anatta reality, whether it was real or illusory, just as he avoided
    elaborating the state of Nirvana because it too was outside the
    boundaries of ordinary human experience.
    In
    a sermon delivered to his first five disciples (Samyutta-Nikaya 22.59),
    the Buddha provided a clear reasoning in favor of his No-Self argument
    and advised them to renounce all sense of ownership and possessiveness
    to end attachment, suffering and the process of becoming. He told them
    the following.
    “O
    monks, the well-instructed noble disciple, seeing thus, gets wearied of
    form, gets wearied of feeling, gets wearied of perception, gets wearied
    of mental formations, gets wearied of consciousness. Being wearied he
    becomes passion-free. In his freedom from passion, he is emancipated.
    Being emancipated, there is the knowledge that he is emancipated. He
    knows: ‘birth is exhausted, lived is the holy life, what had to be done
    is done, there is nothing more of this becoming.’”
    On
    another occasion, as recorded in the same text, he explained the
    concept of Anatta to another disciple. When he was asked what Anatta
    meant, he replied thus.
    “Just
    this, Radha, form is not the Self (anatta), sensations are not the Self
    (anatta), perceptions are not the Self (anatta), assemblages are not
    the Self (anatta), consciousness is not the Self (anatta). Seeing
    thusly, this is the end of birth, the Brahman life has been fulfilled,
    what must be done has been done.”
    In
    short, what the Buddha meant was that the body was not the (eternal)
    Self, the mind was not the Self, the feelings were not the Self, or
    anything possessed by them was not the Self. The notion of Self, the
    belief that something was mine or yours, was a mere illusion, which
    arose from the coming together of aggregates and the formation of a
    personality and its consciousness. The consciousness itself was a
    formation of thoughts, feelings, emotions, sensations, memory, reason
    and intelligence. By observing them and understanding their movements,
    one could resolve suffering and attain peace and equanimity.
    Anatta as the objective reality
    Anatta
    means not only Not-self but also the objective or the perceptual
    reality which we experience through the mind and the body. It is the
    reality, which is not the Self or other than the Self or has no relation
    whatsoever with the Self. Whether the Self exists or not is immaterial.
    Whatever the mind and body experiences including the world in which
    they reside constitute the Anatta or the Anatta reality.
    atta and anatta The Anatta, objective and the Atma, subjective realities
    The
    religions of India fall into Atma and Anatma traditions. They are also
    referred to as Asti (Is) and Nasti (Is not). Hinduism and Jainism are
    Atmic traditions. They believe in the existence of eternal souls and in
    their subjective reality, which is pure, transcendental, self-existing,
    indefinable, indescribable, indestructible, all knowing, and infinite.
    The souls are also beyond the mind and senses. Hence, they cannot be
    experienced in the wakeful state.
    The
    soul or the Self cannot be experienced in deep sleep state also since
    the mind remains covered in tamas when a person is asleep. It can be
    experienced only when the mind and the senses are fully withdrawn and
    absorbed in the contemplation of the Self. Since, it is subjective, the
    Self cannot be objectified by any means, except notionally or
    theoretically for our study and understanding.
    In
    contrast, Buddhism is a non-atmic tradition. It does not believe in the
    pure subjective reality which can exist without any relationship to our
    experience of the world. If it is, it serves no purpose in resolving
    our suffering, because our suffering does not arise from the unknown
    Self, but from the known world. It is the source of karma and the cause
    of our suffering.
    The Anatta strategy
    Because
    of their fundamental doctrinal differences, Buddhism and Hinduism
    follow divergent strategies to deal with human suffering. Buddhism
    relies upon Anatta reality and Hinduism upon the Atma reality. Hence
    they fundamentally differ with regard to their methods to discipline the
    mind and body and cultivate discernment to achieve liberation. Buddhism
    relies upon the outward, mindfulness strategy to see the objects of the
    mind, the body and the world with greater clarity and intelligence to
    identify the causes of bondage and suffering, while Hinduism recommends
    the inward, contemplative and restful approach in which the mind and
    body are withdrawn from the objective reality and silenced to experience
    self-absorption (Samadhi).
    While
    Hinduism aims to shut down the mind and body from the causes of
    suffering, Buddhism attempts to face them and understand them with the
    Anatta approach or strategy, by accepting the objective reality as the
    starting point for the practice of the Eightfold Path. It is a
    confrontational approach, but true to the teachings of the Buddha, with
    gentleness, compassion and nonviolence. With right perception, right
    thinking and right views, it dwells upon the known rather than the
    unknown, and looks for solutions within the human experience rather than
    outside it. The Buddhists do not believe that there can be a subjective
    reality which is independent of the being or beyond the mind and
    senses. Even if it exists, there is no proof that it is the cause of
    suffering.
    Existential
    suffering is produced by the existence of things and causes or the
    objective reality. Logically, it is better to begin with the known
    rather than the unknown to resolve existential suffering, and look for
    viable solutions in the current reality of the present moment rather
    than in some metaphysical notion of an inexplicable state that cannot
    humanly be experienced when the mind is active and awake. The Buddhists,
    therefore, remain wide awake and mindful of their suffering as well as
    their goal of Nirvana. They may renounce the worldly life, but do not
    escape from it.
    The
    Four Noble truths unambiguously trace human suffering to the
    existential reality (Anatta) in which beings are caught. Anatta is
    amorphous. When people become involved with it through their senses,
    they develop desires and become bound to the cycle of births and deaths.
    Anatta is alluring enough to consume our attention and involvement.
    However, it is also like a honey-trap, which binds the beings to
    Samsara, or the cycle of births and deaths. When people cling to the
    world and its objects through attraction and aversion, they become bound
    to the mortal world and invite suffering into their lives. By engaging
    in desire-ridden actions, they incur karma and thereby become bound to
    the cycle of births and deaths.
    With
    this understanding, the Buddha advised monks to observe the objective
    reality (Anatta) with mindfulness and discernment to see how it caused
    desires and attachments and produced suffering. This was in sharp
    contrast to the approach followed in Hinduism and Jainism where the
    emphasis was upon withdrawing from the objective reality and remaining
    focused on the Self to experience the purely subjective, omniscient
    state of the transcendental Self.
    Buddhism
    wholeheartedly accepts the Anatta approach, without any ambivalence,
    and urges its followers to face the reality rather than engaging in
    speculations about it, or shutting down their minds and senses to it. It
    is a very practical, psychoanalytical and down to earth religion, which
    relies upon intelligence (Buddhi) rather than divine intervention to
    deal with the problems and the suffering people face. It firmly holds
    that one cannot resolve suffering by escaping from it or putting the
    mind to sleep, but by becoming more aware, awake and mindful of its
    causes and avoiding all possible mistakes that lead to them by right
    living on the Eightfold Path. One may speculate upon the Self and its
    reality, but it is an intellectual effort or an elitist approach, which
    does not mitigate suffering other than giving some people the smug
    satisfaction that they engaged their minds in higher thinking.
    Anatta as impermanence
    The
    Buddha taught not only the Not-self approach to observe oneself but
    also the impermanence of the personality. He advised his followers not
    to identify themselves with their names and forms (nama rupa) or their
    Anatta reality, but become aware of the different aspects of their minds
    and bodies to know how they produced suffering. By knowing that they
    were mere aggregates of mental and physical objects and understanding
    the objective reality (anatta) within them and around them, they could
    overcome their desires and clinging and come to terms with their
    suffering and their seeking and striving.
    In
    Buddhist parlance, every living being is just like a river, which is
    ever changing. Since it flows continuously, one may outwardly see the
    same river, with the same twists and turns. However, it is never the
    same because its water is continuously replaced by the water flowing
    from behind. Over a long period, the river itself may change course, or
    dry up completely, due to the changes in the climate or environment.
    Our
    consciousness is similar to the river, and our bodies are similar to
    the earth which supports the rivers. Just as the rivers, our
    consciousness is always in a state of flux, moving and changing. When a
    monk realizes that change and impermanence characterize our existence,
    he is no more troubled by what happens to him, what changes in him or
    what he gains or loses. He becomes equal to the happenings in his mind
    and body as well as in the world. Having discerned the truth about
    himself and the world, he attains peace and equanimity, which in
    Buddhism, is called the state of Nirvana.
    From
    the teachings of the Buddha we understand that if you study the
    individual components of a being and if you separate each of them, you
    will realize that nothing exists beyond them, which is permanent and
    stable. The personality or the beingness is like a bubble. It is an
    aggregate of many individual components, which are held together by
    desires and essential nature. If you separate them, can you say that the
    individual still exists?
    The
    notion of Self is not only an illusion but also an obstacle to the
    realization of Nirvana or knowing the truth about oneself. A person or
    his beingness is created by the aggregates of memories, feelings,
    perceptions, emotions, etc. Depending upon which of them the person
    chooses to define himself, the person becomes distinguished or acquires
    distinctive traits and characteristics which separate him from the rest.
    If
    those choices or components are changed, a different personality
    emerges from the same person. We know from experience that people do not
    hold the same thoughts or feelings or emotions always. Hence, they act
    differently in different circumstances and remain unpredictable. The
    same happens when a person loses his mind or suffers from amnesia. He
    becomes a different person with a different personality. From an
    existential point of view, the objective Self (self-image) is one’s own
    creation or formation. It is an objective reality which can be
    perceived, altered, influenced or silenced.
    Anatta as emptiness
    The
    essence of Anatta is emptiness. Anatta is the objective experience of
    the formation and aggregation of things. Nothing is permanent there and
    nothing there lasts forever. It is like the clouds in the sky or the
    colors that manifest before the sunset. It exists as long as the mind
    and the senses exist. When the personality is dissolved, the Anatta
    which is dependent on it also dissolves. Sister Khema 1 explains the
    Anatta state from the perspective of Nirvana in the following words.
    “The
    Non-Self is experienced through the aspect of impermanence, through the
    aspect of unsatisfactoriness, and through the aspect of emptiness.
    Empty of what? The word ‘emptiness’ is so often misunderstood because
    when one only thinks of it as a concept, one says ‘what do you mean by
    empty?’ Everything is there: there are the people, and there are their
    insides, guts and their bones and blood and everything is full of stuff —
    and the mind is not empty either. It’s got ideas, thoughts and
    feelings. And even when it doesn’t have those, what do you mean by
    emptiness? The only thing that is empty is the emptiness of an entity.
    There is no specific entity in anything. That is emptiness. That is the
    nothingness. That nothingness is also experienced in meditation. It is
    empty, it is devoid of a specific person, devoid of a specific thing,
    devoid of anything which makes it permanent, devoid of anything which
    even makes it important. The whole thing is in flux. So the emptiness is
    that. And the emptiness is to be seen everywhere; to be seen in
    oneself. And that is what is called anatta, non-Self. Empty of an
    entity. There is nobody there. It is all imagination. At first that
    feels very insecure.”
    Share This
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    hinduwebsite.com



    The Concept of Anatta or Not-Self in Buddhism
    This
    essay is about the concept of Anatta or Not-self in Buddhism and its
    implication and importance in the practice of Buddhist Dhamma


    32. Tokelau

    https://tenor.com/view/tokelau-gif-5350797
    Tokelau Flag GIF - Tokelau GIFs


    Tokelau



    Culture Name

    Tokelauan

    Orientation


    Identification.

    “Tokelau” means “north-northeast.” Its people
    also identify themselves by their atoll villages: Atafu, Fakaofo, and
    Nukunonu.


    Location and Geography.

    Three unbroken rings of coral with a combined land area of somewhat over
    four square miles (ten square kilometers) lie along a 93 mile (150
    kilometers) northwest– southeast axis, separated from each other by
    37 to 56 miles (60 to 90 kilometers) of open sea.


    Demography.

    The population is about 1,700. An additional estimated five thousand
    reside overseas, mainly in New Zealand.


    Linguistic Affiliation.

    Tokelauan is a Polynesian language. Older people are bilingual in Samoan,
    which was introduced with Christianity in the 1860s; younger people are
    more apt to be bilingual in English through their schooling.


    Symbolism.

    Homeland atolls are the preeminent symbols, denoting both place and
    ancestry.

    History and Ethnic Relations


    Emergence of the Nation and National Identity.

    As a culturally distinctive dependency of New Zealand, Tokelau is a
    nation. After sixty years as a British protectorate and then a colony
    ruled with “benign neglect,” in 1948 Tokelau became
    “a part of New Zealand” and its people became New Zealand
    citizens. Most people want to retain that status, which combines
    considerable local political autonomy with substantial external support.


    Ethnic Relations.

    Virtually all residents are of Tokelauan ancestry. In New Zealand,
    Tokelauans are a minority population among other Pacific Islanders, Maori,
    and persons of Asian and European ancestry. Many conscientiously maintain
    aspects of their culture.

    Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

    The villages are densely peopled and like small rural towns in character.
    Public buildings under the aegis of the village are the meeting house and
    the church. Public amenities under the control of the
    administration/public service are the dispensary/hospital, school, and
    administration compound that houses the communications center (formerly
    the two-way radio), the village cooperative store, and offices for
    administrative and elected officers. Dwelling houses are rectangular
    single-room structures on raised coral-filled foundations and aligned with
    the straight heavily traveled footpaths. Until the 1970s, the houses were
    open constructions of local timber and pandanus-leave thatch, with plaited
    coconut frond blinds that could be lowered against wind and rain. Now the
    houses are more closed, built of imported lumber, concrete, and corrugated
    iron, sometimes with louvered glass windows. They are still, however,
    carpeted with mats plaited from pandanus and/or coconut leaves, upon which
    the occupants sit and lounge. Other furnishings are rolled-up sleeping
    mats, locked wooden boxes containing clothing and other personal
    belongings, and miscellaneous chairs, tables, and bedsteads. Separate
    cookhouses, still constructed of local materials, may be adjacent to, or
    more likely, distant from dwelling houses.

    Food and Economy


    Food in Daily Life.

    Fish and coconuts are abundant; other local foods are seasonal or scarce.
    Stores stock imported food, mainly rice, flour, and sugar.


    Basic Economy.

    Traditional economic activities center on the land, reef, lagoon, and
    sea. Fishing is

    Tokelau


    Tokelau

    strictly a subsistence activity, pursued with ingenuity backed by
    extensive knowledge. Coconuts rarely are harvested for uses other than
    subsistence since public service employment became the main source of
    cash. Handicrafts are more often produced as gifts than for cash.


    Land Tenure and Property.

    Aside from a small portion of land used for communal purposes, all land
    is held by cognatic kin groups and managed by persons with recognized
    positions within those groups. Village houses are occupied and managed by
    kin group women; men manage and harvest plantation lands. Virtually
    everyone has rights to land and to a share of the produce from the land.
    Most people are members of more than one kin group and many receive
    produce from four or more.


    Commercial Activities.

    All entrepreneurial activities are closely scrutinized by the Councils in
    each village.


    Division of Labor.

    A major division exists between salaried public service employees who
    have job qualifications and wage-earning public service employees who do
    not. The distinction between paid and unpaid work has been partially
    eroded by village management of aid projects, for which all village
    workers are paid. Age determines who does what, who directs, and who
    labors.

    Social Stratification


    Classes and Castes.

    An egalitarian ethic overrides differentials in wealth among a growing
    elite whose education and experience qualify them for better-paid
    employment or positions. They contribute generously to village and family
    enterprises and avoid ostentatious displays of affluence.

    Political Life


    Government.

    The New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs administers Tokelau,
    delegating certain powers to the three village-elected Faipule, who rotate
    as “head” of Tokelau during their three-year terms.


    Leadership and Political Officials.

    Councils of elderly men and/or representatives of kin groups control the
    villages and direct village activities through the elected Pulenuku
    (”mayor”).


    Social Problems and Control.

    Persons are reprimanded in communal venues by their elders and peers for
    minor misdemeanors and are brought before local courts for more serious
    ones.

    Social Welfare and Change Programs

    Development programs proliferate, supported by New Zealand and by
    international, regional, and other aid.

    Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

    Organizations of able-bodied men, adult women, and competing
    “sides” are long-standing village institutions, as are
    several church associations. Clubs and youth groups are less permanent.

    Gender Roles and Statuses


    Division of Labor by Gender.

    The adage that men “go”—fishing and
    harvesting—and women “stay”—managing the
    family—has been compromised by widespread public service
    employment. Both men and women work in skilled jobs; most unskilled
    workers are men.


    Relative Status of Women and Men.

    Complementary equity predicated on sister-brother relationships has been
    compromised by Christian ideology and money.

    Performers from the Tokelau Islands wear traditional dress as they attend the South Pacific Arts Festival.


    Performers from the Tokelau Islands wear traditional dress as they
    attend the South Pacific Arts Festival.

    Marriage, Family, and Kinship


    Marriage.

    Virtually all residents enter into sanctified, lifelong monogamous
    unions. Individual choice is constrained by kin group exogamy.


    Domestic Unit.

    The pattern is an uxorilocal, often expanded nuclear family, in line with
    the adage that women “stay” and men “go.”


    Inheritance.

    All offspring inherit rights from both parents.


    Kin Groups.

    Members of each cognatic kin group reside throughout the village and
    interact regularly.

    Socialization


    Child Rearing and Education.

    Infant care is indulgent. Children are closely disciplined and precisely
    instructed in increasingly complex tasks.


    Higher Education.

    All children attend village primary and secondary schools; many continue
    their schooling abroad.

    Etiquette

    Deference and obedience to one’s elders and restraint between
    cross-sex siblings is expected. Physical aggression is abhorred.

    Religion


    Religious Beliefs.

    Protestant and Catholic congregations practice a fundamentalist,
    puritanical form of Christianity.


    Religious Practitioners.

    Protestant pastors, deacons, and lay preachers and Catholic priests,
    catechists, and elders direct their respective congregations.


    Rituals and Holy Places.

    Churches are cherished sites with frequent masses and services.


    Death and the Afterlife.

    A short wake, church service, and burial are followed by evenings of
    mourning and ended by a feast. Unusual events and encounters may be
    attributed to ghost spirits. The dead are fondly remembered.

    Medicine and Health Care

    Western curative and preventive medicine has long been available. The
    hospital is normally the first resort. Local therapists mainly use
    massage.

    Secular Celebrations

    Numerous commemorative days and other celebrations feature feasts,
    competitions, parades, and entertainment.

    The Arts and Humanities


    Literature.

    Oral narratives may be fictional stories or recountings of the past.


    Graphic Arts.

    Women work in fiber, and men work in wood.


    Performance Arts.

    Poetry, music, and dance are combined in old and new group compositions.


    https://tenor.com/view/rebirth-statue-tuesday-night-gif-15833124
    Rebirth Statue GIF - Rebirth Statue TuesdayNight GIFs

    youtube.com/watch?v=0H9HuI

    BUDDHA SAMSARA
    MUSIC: “SAMSARA DAVA” BY NIRANJANA SWAMI
    Category
    Film & Animation
    BUDDHA SAMSARA
    MUSIC: “SAMSARA DAVA” BY NIRANJANA SWAMI
    youtube.com


    What Does “Samsara” Mean in Buddhism?




    The Beginningless Cycle of Repeated Birth, Mundane Existence and Dying Again





    Man Rising From the Ashes, Energy, Aura, Power, Reincarnation

    gremlin / Getty Images












    In Buddhism, samsara is often defined as the endless cycle of birth,
    death, and rebirth. Or, you may understand it as the world of suffering
    and dissatisfaction (dukkha), the opposite of nirvana, which is the condition of being free from suffering and the cycle of rebirth. 





    In literal terms, the Sanskrit word samsara means “flowing on” or “passing through.” It is illustrated by the Wheel of Life and explained by the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.
    It might be understood as the state of being bound by greed, hate, and
    ignorance, or as a veil of illusion that hides true reality. In
    traditional Buddhist philosophy, we are trapped in samsara through one
    life after another until we find awakening through enlightenment.





    However, the best definition of samsara, and one with more modern applicability may be from the Theravada monk and teacher Thanissaro Bhikkhu


     ”Instead of a place, it’s a process: the tendency to keep
    creating worlds and then moving into them.” And note that this creating
    and moving in doesn’t just happen once, at birth. We’re doing it all the
    time.”


    Creating Worlds



    We aren’t just creating worlds; we’re also creating ourselves. We
    beings are all processes of physical and mental phenomena. The Buddha
    taught that what we think of as our permanent self, our ego,
    self-consciousness, and personality, is not fundamentally real. But,
    it’s continually regenerated based on prior conditions and choices. From
    moment to moment, our bodies, sensations, conceptualizations, ideas and
    beliefs, and consciousness work together to create the illusion of a
    permanent, distinctive “me.” 


    Further, in no small extent, our “outer” reality is a projection of
    our “inner” reality. What we take to be reality is always made up in
    large part of our subjective experiences of the world. In a way, each of
    us is living in a different world that we create with our thoughts and
    perceptions. 





    We can think of rebirth, then, as something that happens from one
    life to another and also something that happens moment to moment. In
    Buddhism, rebirth or reincarnation is not the transmigration of an individual soul to a newly born body (as is believed in Hinduism), but more like the karmic conditions
    and effects of life moving forward into new lives. With this kind of
    understanding, we can interpret this model to mean that we are “reborn”
    psychologically many times within our lives. 





    Likewise, we can think of the Six Realms
    as places we may be “reborn” into every moment. In a day, we might pass
    through all of them. In this more modern sense, the six realms can be
    considered by psychological states. 





    The critical point is that living in samsara is a process. It is
    something we’re all doing right now, not just something we’ll do at the
    beginning of a future life. How do we stop?


    Liberation From Samsara



    This brings us to the Four Noble Truths. Very basically, the Truths tell us that:


    1. We are creating our samsara;
    2. How we are creating samsara;
    3. That we can stop creating samsara;
    4. The way to stop is by following the Eightfold Path




    The Twelve Links of Dependent Origination describe the process of dwelling in samsara. We see that the first link is avidya,
    ignorance. This is ignorance of the Buddha’s teaching of the Four Noble
    Truths and also ignorance of who we are. This leads to the second link,
    samskara, which contains the seeds of karma. And so on.


    We can think of this cycle-chain as something that happens at the
    beginning of each new life. But by a more modern psychological reading,
    it is also something we’re doing all the time. Becoming mindful of this
    is the first step to liberation.


    Samsara and Nibbana



    Samsara is contrasted with nirvana. Nirvana is not a place but a state that is neither being nor non-being.





    Theravada Buddhism understands samsara and nirvana to be opposites. In Mahayana Buddhism,
    however, with its focus on inherent Buddha Nature, both samsara and
    nirvana are seen as natural manifestations of the empty clarity of the
    mind. When we cease to create samsara, nirvana naturally appears;
    nirvana, then, can be seen as the purified true nature of samsara. 



    However you understand it, the message is that although the
    unhappiness of samsara is our lot in life, it is possible to understand
    the reasons for it and the methods for escaping it. 


    10 Famous and Tallest Statues of Lord Buddha in India
    Buddhism
    as a religion originated in the eastern part of Indian Subcontinent,
    Gautama Buddha is the primary figure in Buddhism. In most Buddhist
    traditions, Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the Supreme Buddha and
    worshiped in the form of statue, Here is the list of top 10 tallest
    statues of Lord Buddha in India, Few more are Prakriti Bhavan Buddha
    Statue in West Bengal,Lord Buddha statue in Agartala.
    Tathagata Tsal – 39 m
    Buddha
    Park of Ravangla in South Sikkim host the tallest status of Lord Buddha
    in India, constructed between 2006 and 2013 and Ravangla is part of the
    Himalayan Buddhist Circuit.
    Dhyana Buddha Statue – 38.1
    Dhyana
    Buddha statue in Amaravathi is the second tallest status of Buddha in
    India in sitting posture, situated on the banks of Krishna river of
    Andhra Pradesh.
    Clement Town Buddha Statue – 31 m
    Mindroling Monastery Buddha
    A
    103 feet (31 m) high statue of Buddha is dedicated to the Dalai Lama is
    situated in Clement Town Monestry, the highest Mindroling Monestry in
    the world. Also a large Tibetan settlement and the World’s Largest
    Stupa, of the re-established Mindroling Monastery from Tibet, is
    situated in Clement Town.
    Great Buddha, Bodhgaya – 25 m
    The
    Great Buddha Statue is one of the major Buddhist tourist attraction in
    Bodhgaya with 25 m (82 ft) high in meditation pose. Great Buddha is
    possibly the largest Buddha statue in meditation pose built in India
    with the mix of sandstone blocks and red granite.Image
    source:Dollsofindia
    Standing Buddha, Sarnath
    One
    of the main attractions of Sarnath is the 80 ft high Standing statue of
    Lord Buddha, located on the premises of Thai Buddha Vihar in Sarnath.
    The standing statue of Sarnath is one of the country’s tallest standing
    statue of Lord Buddha.
    Monolith Buddha Statue, Hyderabad
    Hussain-Sagar-Lake
    The
    Buddha Statue of Hyderabad stands in an island in the middle of the
    Hussain Sagar lake and is the world’s tallest monolith statue of Gautama
    Buddha. Hussain Sagar is an artificial lake and the statue of standing
    Buddha in abhya mudra
    Reclining Buddha, Kushinara
    sleeping-statue-of-buddha
    Kushinara
    is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Buddhists believe
    Gautama Buddha attained Parinibbana after his death. The reclining
    Nibbana statue of the Buddha is inside the Parinibbana Stupa is 6.10
    metres long and is made of monolith red sand stone.
    Metteyya Awakened One With Awareness Ladakh
    Golden-Metteyya Awakened One With Awareness
    Metteyya
    Awakened One With Awareness statue is 32 metre tall statue near Diskit
    Monastery in the Nubra Valley of Ladakh. Diskit Monastery also known as
    Deskit Gompa is the oldest and largest Buddhist monastery in Ladakh.
    Belam Caves Buddha, Andhra Pradesh
    Belam-Caves-Buddha-Statue
    A
    giant Buddha Statue near a hillock near the Belum Caves of Andhra
    Pradesh,the cave is the second largest cave in Indian subcontinent and
    known for its stalactite and stalagmite formations. The area of cave
    known as Meditation hall was used by Buddhist
    Samanadipa Monks
    Lord Buddha Statue, Tawang
    Huge
    and Magnificent statue of Lord Buddha with 26 feet high is situated
    inside the main Tawang Monastery, the largest monastery in India and
    second largest in the world. Tawang Monastery is one of the Mindblowing
    Buddhist Monasteries in India.
    Ajanta Caves Buddha, Aurangabad
    The
    Ajanta Caves are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments include
    paintings and sculptures which are masterpieces of Buddhist religious
    art. A statue of a reclining Buddha carved on the wall of the ancient
    Buddhist rock temple in Ajanta Caves near Aurangabad.
    Maitreya Buddha, Kushinara
    The
    Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness Project international organisation
    and the UP State Government have worked together to set up to construct
    a 152 metre (500 ft) statue of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness
    in Kushinara of Uttar Pradesh and also the area surrounding the
    Project. Recenlty the project scope has changed to a smaller statue of
    the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness in Kushinara and a 45 metre
    (150 ft) statue of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness in
    Bodhgaya, Bihar.
    Photo: Travelogy India
    Ladakh
    is known as the land of monasteries. Out of the numerous monasteries,
    Diskit Monastery, is the oldest and the largest Buddhist monastery in
    the Nubra Valley. It was founded in the 14th century and is located at
    an altitude of 3,142 meters. And ironically enough, it faces Pakistan!
    What Is It?
    The
    monastery is based in the Diskit village that is a 3-hour drive through
    rugged, harsh roads from Leh city. And while I was on my way to the
    monastery, I crossed the Khardung pass, which is known for being the
    highest motorable road of the world. But what is iconic about the
    monastery is that it houses the biggest and oldest Buddha statue, one
    that is 106 feet tall!
    The Monastery
    Bang
    opposite the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness statue, perched atop a
    hill is the Diskit monastery. I had to descend the statue elevation,
    and take my car that drove me to the foot of the monastery. It’s just a
    10 minute drive from the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness statue
    I
    wanted to visit the prayer hall mainly, and was asked to climb ‘some’
    stairs, to get to it. After what seemed like a hundred stairs, I managed
    to climb my way to the door of the prayer hall! I took about 5 stops to
    breathe (and of
    course, get a picture!)


    33. United States Minor Outlying Islands

    28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,

    comments (0)
    05/27/20
    LESSON 3366 Thu 28 May 2020 Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org At WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka State PRABUDDHA BHARAT Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Fear What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness quotes teach us about fear? Trade your fear for freedom. “Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
    Posted by: site admin @ 11:31 pm
    LESSON 3366 Thu 28 May 2020
    Free Online Analytical Insight Net for Discovery of Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness Universe ( FOAINDMAOAU)
    For
    The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
    From
    KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
    in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
    Through
    At
    WHITE HOME
    668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
    Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
    Magadhi Karnataka State
    PRABUDDHA BHARAT

    Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness

    Fear What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
    quotes teach us about fear?

    Trade your fear for freedom.

    “Even death is
    not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

    “The whole secret of
    existence is to have no fear.

    Never fear what will become of you, depend
    on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

    “When one
    has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one finds
    pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these feelings and
    appreciates them, one is free of fear.

    ”Pain is a Gift
    Instead of avoiding it,
    Learn to embrace it.
    Without pain,
    there is no growth

    what is gained by practicing concentration.reply is, “Nothing!”

    “However ,
    what is lost is
    Anger,Anxiety,Depression,Insecurity,Fear of Old Age and Death.

    ”The
    right to life, meaningless without the right to livelihood, has been
    suspended by invoking the Disaster Management Act which does not empower
    the kind of sweeping restrictions now in place

    anicca

    These three basic facts of all existence are:

    Impermanence or Change (anicca)
    Suffering or Unsatisfactoriness (dukkha)
    Not-self or Insubstantiality (anattaa).

    The Fact of Impermanence

    Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness

    The
    perceiving of impermanence, bhikkhus, developed and frequently
    practiced, removes all sensual passion, removes all passion for material
    existence, removes all passion for becoming, removes all ignorance,
    removes and abolishes all conceit of “I am.”

    Just
    as in the autumn a farmer, plowing with a large plow, cuts through all
    the spreading rootlets as he plows; in the same way, bhikkhus, the
    perceiving of impermanence, developed and frequently practiced, removes
    all sensual passion… removes and abolishes all conceit of “I am.”

    — SN 22.102

    It
    would be better, bhikkhus, if an uninstructed ordinary person regarded
    this body, made of the four great elements, as himself rather than the
    mind. For what reason? This body is seen to continue for a year, for two
    years, five years, ten years, twenty years, fifty years, a hundred
    years, and even more. But of that which is called mind, is called
    thought, is called consciousness, one moment arises and ceases as
    another continually both day and night.

    — SN 12.61

    Aniccaa vata sa”nkhaaraa — uppaada vaya dhammino
    Uppajjitvaa nirujjhanti — tesa.m vuupasamo sukho.

    — Mahaa-Parinibbaana Sutta (DN 16)[1]

    The Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness explains:

    The
    five aggregates, monks, are anicca, impermanent; whatever is
    impermanent, that is dukkha, unsatisfactory; whatever is dukkha, that is
    without attaa, self. What is without self, that is not mine, that I am
    not, that is not my self. Thus should it be seen by perfect wisdom
    (sammappa~n~naaya) as it really is. Who sees by perfect wisdom, as it
    really is, his mind, not grasping, is detached from taints; he is
    liberated.

    — SN 22.45

    The
    Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness gives five very striking similes
    to illustrate the ephemeral nature of the five aggregates. He compares
    material form to a lump of foam, feeling to a bubble, perception to a
    mirage, mental formations to a plantain trunk (which is pithless,
    without heartwood), and consciousness to an illusion, and asks: “What
    essence, monks, could there be in a lump of foam, in a bubble, in a
    mirage, in a plantain trunk, in an illusion?”

    Continuing, the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness says:

    Whatever
    material form there be: whether past, future, or present; internal or
    external; gross or subtle; low or lofty; far or near; that material form
    the monk sees, meditates upon, examines with systematic attention, he
    thus seeing, meditating upon, and examining with systematic attention,
    would find it empty, he would find it insubstantial and without essence.
    What essence, monks, could there be in material form?

    The Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness speaks in the same manner of the remaining aggregates and asks:

    What essence, monks, could there be in feeling, in perception, in mental formations and in consciousness?

    — SN 22.95

    Thus
    we see that a more advanced range of thought comes with the analysis of
    the five aggregates. It is at this stage that right understanding known
    as insight (vipassanaa) begins to work. It is through this insight that
    the true nature of the aggregates is grasped and seen in the light of
    the three characteristics (ti-lakkhana), namely: impermanence,
    unsatisfactoriness, and no-self.

    It
    is not only the five aggregates that are impermanent, unsatisfactory,
    and without self, but the causes and conditions that produce the
    aggregates are also impermanent, unsatisfactory, and without self.
    This point the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness makes very clear:

    Material
    form, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness, monks,
    are impermanent (anicca). Whatever causes and conditions there are for
    the arising of these aggregates, they, too, are impermanent. How monks,
    could aggregates arisen from what is impermanent, be permanent?

    Material
    form… and consciousness, monks, are unsatisfactory (dukkha); whatever
    causes and conditions there are for the arising of these aggregates,
    they too are unsatisfactory. How, monks, could aggregates arise from
    what is unsatisfactory be pleasant or pleasurable?

    Material
    form… and consciousness, monks, are without a self (anattaa);
    whatever causes and conditions there are for the arising of these
    aggregates, they, too are without self. How, monks, could aggregates
    arise from what is without self be self (attaa)?

    The
    instructed noble disciple (sutavaa ariyasaavako), monks, seeing thus
    becomes dispassionate towards material form, feeling, perception, mental
    formations and consciousness: Through dispassion he is detached;
    through detachment he is liberated; in liberation the knowledge comes to
    be that he is liberated, and he understands: Destroyed is birth, lived
    is the life of purity, done is what was to be done, there is no more of
    this to come [meaning that there is no more continuity of the
    aggregates, that is, no more becoming or rebirth].

    — SN 22.7-9, abridged

    The
    Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness speaks of three kinds of illusion
    or perversions (vipallaasa, Skt. viparyaasa) that grip man’s mind,
    namely: the illusions of perception, thought, and view (sa~n~naa
    vipallaasa; citta vipallaasa; di.t.thi vipallaasa).[2] Now when a man is
    caught up in these illusions he perceives, thinks, and views
    incorrectly.

    He
    perceives permanence in the impermanent; satisfactoriness in the
    unsatisfactory (ease and happiness in suffering); self in what is not
    self (a soul in the soulless); beauty in the repulsive.

    He
    thinks and views in the same erroneous manner. Thus each illusion works
    in four ways (AN 4.49), and leads man astray, clouds his vision, and
    confuses him. This is due to unwise reflections, to unsystematic
    attention (ayoniso manasikaara). Right understanding (or insight
    meditation — vipassanaa) alone removes these illusions and helps man to
    cognize the real nature that underlies all appearance. It is only when
    man comes out of this cloud of illusions and perversions that he shines
    with true wisdom like the full moon that emerges brilliant from behind a
    black cloud.

    The
    aggregates of mind and body, being ever subject to cause and effect, as
    we saw above, pass through the inconceivably rapid moments of arising,
    presently existing, and ceasing (uppaada, .thiti, bha”nga), just as the
    unending waves of the sea or as a river in flood sweeps to a climax and
    subsides. Indeed, human life is compared to a mountain stream that flows
    and rushes on, changing incessantly (AN 7.70) “nadisoto viya,” like a
    flowing stream.

    Heraclitus,
    that renowned Greek philosopher, was the first Western writer to speak
    about the fluid nature of things. He taught the Panta Rhei doctrine, the
    flux theory, at Athens, and one wonders if that teaching was
    transmitted to him from India.

    “There
    is no static being,” says Heraclitus, “no unchanging substratum.
    Change, movement, is Lord of the Universe. Everything is in a state of
    becoming, of continual flux (Panta Rhei).”

    He
    continues: “You cannot step twice into the same river; for fresh waters
    are ever flowing in upon you.” Nevertheless one who understands the
    root of the Dhamma would go a step further and say: The same man cannot
    step twice into the same river; for the so called man who is only a
    conflux of mind and body, never remains the same for two consecutive
    moments.”[3]

    It
    is said that through insight meditation (vipassanaa) one sees things as
    they really are (yathaabhuutam) and not as they appear to be. Viewing
    things as they really are implies, as we discussed above, seeing the
    impermanent, unsatisfactory, and no-self nature of all conditioned and
    component things. To such a meditative disciple of the Matteyya Awakened
    One with Awareness the “world” is not the external or the empirical
    world, but the human body with its consciousness. It is the world of the
    five aggregates of clinging (pa~nca upaadaanakkhandaa). It is this that
    he tries to understand as impermanent, unsatisfactory, and without self
    or soul. It is to this world of body and mind that the Matteyya
    Awakened One with Awareness referred to when he said to Mogharaaja,
    “Ever mindful, Mogharaaja, see the world as void (su~n~na); having given
    up the notion of a self [underlying it] — so may one overcome death
    (Maara); The King of Death sees not one who thus knows the world” (Sutta
    Nipaata).

    “Material body is not self, feeling is
    not self, perception is not self, mental formations are not self,
    consciousness is not self. Then what self do selfless deeds affect?”

    The
    Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness, reading the thought of the monk’s
    mind, said, “The question was beside the point” and made the monk
    understand the impermanent, unsatisfactory, and non-self nature of the
    aggregates.

    “It
    is wrong to say that the doer of the deed is the same as the one who
    experiences its results. It is equally wrong to say that the doer of the
    deed and the one who experiences its results are two different
    persons,”[4] for the simple reason that what we call life is a flow of
    psychic and physical processes or energies, arising and ceasing
    constantly; it is not possible to say that the doer himself experiences
    results because he is changing now, every moment of his life; but at the
    same time you must not forget the fact that the continuity of life that
    is the continuance of experience, the procession of events is not lost;
    it continues without a gap. The child is not the same as an adolescent,
    the adolescent is not the same as the adult, they are neither the same
    nor totally different persons (na ca so na ca a~n~no, — Milinda Pa~nho).
    There is only a flow of bodily and mental processes.

    There
    are three types of teachers, the first one teaches that the ego or the
    self is real now as well as in the future (here and hereafter); the
    second one teaches that the ego is real only in this life, not in the
    future; the third one teaches that the concept of an ego is an illusion:
    it is not real either in this life or in the hereafter.

    The
    first one is the eternalist (sassatavaadi); the second one is the
    annihilationist (ucchedavaadi); the third one is the Matteyya Awakened
    One with Awareness who teaches the middle way of avoiding the extremes
    of eternalism and annihilationism. (Here the middle way is the doctrine
    of dependent arising, or causal conditioning — Paticca Samuppaada).

    ..He
    then hears the Perfect One expounding the teaching for the removal of
    all grounds for “views,” of all prejudices, obsessions, dogmas, and
    biases, for the stilling of all processes, for the relinquishment of all
    substrata of existence, for the extirpation of craving, for dispassion,
    cessation, extinction. He then thinks, “I shall be annihilated, I shall
    be destroyed! No longer shall I exist!” Hence he grieves, is depressed
    and laments; beating his breast, he weeps, and dejection befalls him.
    Thus, bhikkhus, is there anxiety about realities.

    — MN 22

    To this, the only authentic answer is:

    Since
    in this very life a tathaagata (in this case generally understood as a
    human being in the widest sense) is not to be regarded as existing in
    truth, in reality, is it proper for you to assert: “as I understand the
    doctrine taught by the Exalted One, insofar as a bhikkhu has destroyed
    the aasavas [life’s “intoxicants” or passions] he is broken up and
    perishes when body is broken up, he exists not after death.”?

    — SN 22.85

    For
    the categorical relation of mind and matter (or “name and form,” naamaa
    ruupam, as implied in the foregoing formulation), the following
    statement of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness is the most
    adequate and also the best-known in connection with our subject:

    It
    would be better, bhikkhus, for the unlearned worldling to regard this
    body, built up of the four elements, as his self rather than the mind.
    For it is evident that this body may last for a year, for two years, for
    three, four, five or ten years… or even for a hundred years and more.
    But that which is called thought, or mind, or consciousness,
    continuously, during day and night, arises as one thing, and passes away
    as another thing.

    — SN 12.61

    According
    to the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness, the person reaping the
    fruits of good and bad actions (in a future life) is neither the same
    one who has committed these actions nor a different one. The same
    principle applies to the structural identification of a person in any
    other respect and circumstance, in the stream of one single physical
    life.

    The
    Buddhist refutation of both these extremes finds classical expression in
    the following words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness:

    This
    world, O Kaccaayana, generally proceeds on a duality, of the “it is”
    and the “it is not.” But, O Kaccaayana, whoever perceives in truth and
    wisdom how things originate in the world, for him there is no “it is
    not” in this world. Whoever, Kaccaayana, perceives in truth and wisdom
    how things pass away in the world, for him there is no “it is” in this
    world.

    — SN 12.15

    What
    is that duality? It is eye, which is impermanent, changing,
    becoming-other, and visible objects, which are impermanent, changing,
    and becoming-other: such is the transient, fugitive duality [of
    eye-cum-visible objects], which is impermanent, changing, and
    becoming-other. Eye-consciousness too is impermanent. For how could
    eye-consciousness arisen by depending on an impermanent condition be
    permanent? The coincidence, concurrence, and confluence of these three
    factors which is called contact and those other mental phenomena arising
    as a result are also impermanent. (The same formula is applied to the
    other sense-organs and the consciousnesses named after them.)

    — SN 35.93

    It is in view of the impermanence and insubstantiality of consciousness that Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness has declared:

    Better
    were it bhikkhus that the uneducated many-folk should conceive this
    four-element-made body, rather than citta, to be soul. And why? The body
    is seen to persist for a year, for two, three, four, five, ten or
    twenty years, for a generation, even for a hundred years or even for
    longer, while that which is called consciousness, that is mind, that is
    intelligence, arises as one thing, ceases as another, both by day and
    night.

    — SN 12.61


    “Do
    you see, O bhikkhus, such a soul-theory in the acceptance of which,
    there would not arise grief, lamentation, suffering, distress, and
    tribulation?”

    “Certainly not, Sir.”

    “Good,
    O bhikkhus, I too, O bhikkhus, do not see a soul-theory, in the
    acceptance of which there would not arise grief, lamentation, suffering,
    distress, and tribulation.”

    — MN 22

    There
    is no single treatise on the characteristic of impermanence either in
    the Tipi.taka or its commentaries, and so we shall have to bring
    together passages from a number of sources. We may also bear in mind
    that the Buddha does not confine descriptions of a general nature such
    as this to the observed alone, but extends them to include the observer,
    regarded as actively committed in the world he observes and acting on
    it as it acts on him, so long as craving and ignorance remain
    unabolished. “That in the world by which one perceives the world
    [loka-sa~n~nii] and conceives concepts about the world [loka-maanii] is
    called ‘the world’ in the Ariyas’s Discipline. And what is it in the
    world with which one does that? It is with the eye, ear, nose, tongue,
    body, and mind” (SN 35.116/vol. iv, 95). That same world “is being worn
    away [lujjhati], that is why it is called ‘world’ [loka]” (SN 35.82/vol.
    iv, 52). That impermanence is not only appropriate to all of any arisen
    situation but also to the totality of all arisen situations:

    “Bhikkhu,
    there is no materiality whatever… feeling… perception…
    formations… consciousness whatever that is permanent, everlasting,
    eternal, not subject to change, that will last as long as eternity.”

    Then
    the Blessed One took a small piece of cowdung in his hand he told the
    bhikkhu: “Bhikkhu, if even that much of permanent, everlasting, eternal
    individual selfhood [attabhaava], not subject to change could be found,
    then this living of a life of purity [brahmacariya] could not be
    described as for the complete exhaustion of suffering [dukkhakkhaya].”

    — SN 22.96/vol. iii, 144

    And again:

    “Bhikkhus,
    I do not dispute with the world [the ‘world’ in the sense of other
    people], the world disputes with me: no one who proclaims the True Idea
    [dhamma] disputes with anyone in the world. What wise men in the world
    say there is not [natthi], that I too say there is not; and what wise
    men in the world say there is [atthi], that I too say there is… Wise
    men in the world say there is no permanent, everlasting, eternal
    materiality not subject to change, and I too say there is none. [And
    likewise with the other four categories.] Wise men in the world say that
    there is impermanent materiality that is unpleasant and the subject to
    change, and I too say there is that.”

    — SN 22.94/vol. iii, 138-9

    The Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness’s last words were:

    Handa
    daani bhikkhave aamantayaami vo: vayadhammaa sa”nkhaaraa, appamaadena
    sampaadetha — Indeed, bhikkhus, I declare to you: All formations are
    subject to dissolution; attain perfection through diligence.

    — DN 16/vol. ii, 156

    A little earlier he had said:

    Has
    it not already been repeatedly said by me that there is separation,
    division, and parting from all that is dear and beloved? How could it be
    that what is born, come to being, formed and is liable to fall, should
    not fall? That is not possible.

    — DN 16/vol. ii, 144

    There are, besides these, countless passages where this exhortation is variously developed, from which only a few can be chosen.

    Bhikkhus, when a man sees as impermanent the eye [and the rest], which is impermanent, then he has right view.

    — SN 35.155/vol. iv, 142

    Bhikkhus,
    formations are impermanent, they are not lasting, they provide no real
    comfort; so much so that that is enough for a man to become
    dispassionate, for his lust to fade out, and for him to be liberated.

    — AN 7.62/vol. iv, 100

    What
    is perception of impermanence? Here, Aananda, a bhikkhu, gone to the
    forest or to the root of a tree or to a room that is void, considers
    thus: “Materiality is impermanent, feeling… perception…
    formations… consciousness is impermanent.” He abides contemplating in
    this way impermanence in the five “categories affected by clinging.”

    AN 10.60/vol. v, 109

    What
    is perception of impermanence in the world of all [all the world]?
    Here, Aananda, a bhikkhu is humiliated, ashamed, and disgusted with
    respect to all formations.

    — AN 10.60/vol v, 111

    Perception
    of impermanence should be maintained in being for the elimination of
    the conceit “I am,” since perception of not-self becomes established in
    one who perceives impermanence, and it is perception of not-self that
    arrives at the elimination of the conceit “I am,” which is extinction
    [nibbaana] here and now.

    — Ud. Iv, 1/p.37

    And
    how is perception of impermanence maintained in being and developed so
    that all lust for sensual desires [kaama], for materiality [ruupa], and
    for being [bhava], and also all ignorance are ended and so that all
    kinds of the conceit “I am” are abolished? “Such is materiality, such
    its origin, such its disappearance; such is feeling,…, perception,…
    formations,… consciousness, such its origin, such its disappearance.”

    — SN 22.102/vol. iii, 156-7

    Here,
    bhikkhus, feelings… perceptions… thoughts [vitakka] are known to
    him as they arise, known as they appear present, known as they
    disappear. Maintenance of this kind of concentration in being conduces
    to mindfulness and full awareness… Here a bhikkhu abides contemplating
    rise and fall in the five categories affected by clinging thus: “Such
    is materiality, such its origin, such its disappearance, [and so with
    the other four].” Maintenance of this kind of concentration conduces to
    the exhaustion of taints [aasava].

    — DN 33/vol. iii, 223

    When
    a man abides thus mindful and fully aware, diligent, ardent, and
    self-controlled, then if a pleasant feeling arises in him, he
    understands “This pleasant feeling has arisen in me; but that is
    dependent not independent. Dependent on what? Dependent on this body.
    But this body is impermanent, formed, and dependently originated. Now
    how could pleasant feeling, arisen dependent on an impermanent, formed,
    dependently arisen body, be permanent? In the body and in feeling he
    abides contemplating impermanence and fall and fading and cessation and
    relinquishment. As he does so, his underlying tendency to lust for the
    body and for pleasant feeling is abandoned.” Similarly, when he
    contemplates unpleasant feeling, his underlying tendency to resistance
    [pa.tigha] to the body and unpleasant feeling is abandoned; and when he
    contemplates neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling his underlying tendency to ignorance of the body and of that feeling is abandoned.

    — SN 36.7/vol. iv, 211-2

    When
    a bhikkhu abides much with his mind fortified by perception of
    impermanence, his mind retreats, retracts, and recoils from gain, honor,
    and renown, and does not reach out to it, just as a cock’s feather or
    strip of sinew thrown on a fire retreats, retracts, and recoils and does
    not reach out to it.

    — AN 7.46/vol. iv, 51

    When
    a bhikkhu sees six rewards it should be enough for him to establish
    unlimitedly perception of impermanence in all formations. What six? “All
    formations will seem to me insubstantial; and my mind will find no
    relish in the world of all [all the world]; and my mind will emerge from
    the world of all [from all the world]; and my mind will incline towards
    extinction; and my fetters will come to be abandoned; and I shall be
    endowed with the supreme state of a recluse.”

    — AN 6.102/vol. iii, 443

    When
    a man abides contemplating impermanence in the bases for contact [the
    eye and the rest], the outcome is that awareness of repulsiveness in
    contact is established in him; and when he abides contemplating rise and
    fall in the five categories affected by clinging, the outcome is that
    awareness of repulsiveness in clinging is established in him.

    — AN 5.30/vol. iii, 32

    Fruitful
    as the act of giving is… yet it is still more fruitful to go with
    confident heart for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma and of the Sa”ngha
    and undertake the five precepts of virtue… Fruitful as that is… yet
    it is still more fruitful to maintain loving-kindness in being for only
    as long as the milking of a cow… Fruitful as that is… yet it is
    still more fruitful to maintain perception of impermanence in being for
    only as long as the snapping of a finger.

    — AN 9.20/vol. 392-6 abbr.

    Better a single day of life perceiving how things rise and fall than to live out a century yet not perceive their rise and fall.

    — Dhp 113

    It is impossible that a person with right view should see any formation as permanent.

    — MN 115/vol. iii, 64

    Lastly, a Sutta passage emphasizes a special relation with faith (saddhaa).

    Materiality
    [and the rest] is impermanent, changing, becoming other. Whoever
    decides about, places his faith in, these dhammas in this way is called
    mature in faith [saddhaanusaari]. He has alighted upon the certainty of
    rightness… Whoever has a liking to meditate by test of experiment with
    understanding upon these dhammas is called mature in the true idea
    [dhammaanusaari]. He has alighted upon the certainty of rightness…
    Whoever has a liking to meditate by test of experiment with
    understanding upon these dhammas is called mature in the true idea
    [dhammaanusaari]. He has alighted upon the certainty of rightness…

    — SN 25.1-10/vol. iii, 225 f.

    The Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness replied, “Any such river can be halted


    with the dam of mindfulness. This is why he called mindfulness the flood


    stopper. With wisdom you can close the flood gates.”










    Undertake



    work while staying indoors, have to do our work and we have to take


    care of the society. Sleep and get up early morning. Follow the curfew


    then the work of All Aboriginal Awakened Societies can be done. Train


    the parents to teach their children to wash their clothes, take bath and


    iron their clothes.
    We

    can practice concentration  in different postures of the body with our

    family members in smaller groups of five-seven within families.

    We



    have to remember Voice of All Aboriginal Awakened Societies in spirit.


    Educate them in English and own mother tongue and also all the 116


    classical languages of the world using https://translate.google.com.














    Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness teachings on










    When the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness was asked















    “Chaos is inherent in all compounded things. Strive on with diligence.”





    “To be idle is a short road to death and to be diligent is a way of life; foolish people are idle, wise people are diligent.”

    “I never see what has been done; I only see what remains to be done.”






    “Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”






    “It



    is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the



    victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by angels or by



    demons, heaven or hell.”





    “It is better to travel well than to arrive.”





    “Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”





    “The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.”





    “There



    is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates



    people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up



    pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a



    sword that kills.”





    “Thousands



    of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the



    candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being



    shared.”





    “We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.”





    “What we think, we become.“





    Thoughts and ideas go further through action.





    “A jug fills drop by drop.”



    “An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.”

    “Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through compassion.



    This is an unalterable law.”







    “Have compassion for all beings, rich and poor alike; each has their suffering. Some suffer too much, others too little.”



    “Holding on to anger is



    like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else;




    you are the one who gets burned.”



    “In a controversy the



    instant we feel anger we have already ceased striving for the truth, and



    have begun striving for ourselves.”





    “Teach



    this triple truth to all: A generous mind, kind speech, and a life of



    service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.”





    “To understand everything is to forgive everything.”







    “You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.”

    Health


    A healthy mind and body empower us for life.





    “Every human being is the author of his own health or disease.”



    “Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship.”



    “The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the



    past, worry about the future, or anticipate troubles, but to live in



    the present moment wisely and earnestly.”



    “To enjoy good health, to bring true happiness to one’s family, to



    bring peace to all, one must first discipline and control one’s own



    mind. If a man can control his mind he can find the way to Awakenment



    with Awareness and all wisdom and virtue will naturally come to him.”





    “To keep the body in good health is a duty … otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.”



    “Without health life is not life; it is only a state of languor and suffering an image of death.”

    Life and Living


    Life is a journey and wisdom is the North Star.





    “He



    who experiences the unity of life sees his own Self in all beings, and



    all beings in his own Self, and looks on everything with an impartial




    eye.”



    “Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life.”



    “Just as treasures are



    uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom



    appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze



    of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the guidance of




    virtue.”



    “Life is suffering.”

    “The foot feels the foot when it feels the ground with bare foot.”





    “There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.”



    “To live a pure unselfish life, one must count nothing as one’s own in the midst of abundance.”



    “When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky.”







    “You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself.”





    “Your work is to discover your work and then with all your mind to give yourself to it.”

    Compassion,Connection, and Unity


    We have an impact, and we’re worth it.





    “All



    things appear and disappear because of the concurrence of causes and




    conditions. Nothing ever exists entirely alone; everything is in



    relation to everything else.”





    “Ambition is like compassion, impatient both of delays and rivals.”





    “Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two.”





    “You



    can search throughout the entire universe for someone who is more



    deserving of your compassion and affection than you are yourself, and



    that person is not to be found anywhere. You yourself, as much as



    anybody in the entire universe deserve your love and affection.”





     Mind, Thought, and Thinking

    Our thoughts shape us, and the world around us.





    “All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?”





    “An



    insincere and evil friend is more to be feared than a wild beast; a



    wild beast may wound your body, but an evil friend will wound your



    mind.”



    “Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no



    matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your




    own common sense.”



    “He is able who thinks he is able.”





    “It is a man’s own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.”

    “The mind is everything. What you think you become.”




    “Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.”



    “We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.”







    Personal Development

    Master yourself.




    “Do not overrate what you have received, nor envy others. He who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.”



    “The virtues, like the Muses, are always seen in groups. A good principle was never found solitary in any breast.”



    “To conquer oneself is a greater task than conquering others.”





    “Virtue is persecuted more by the wicked than it is loved by the good.”



    “We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.”

    Self-Reliance


    Don’t let yourself down.




    “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.”



    “Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others.”

    Speech


    Choose your words carefully.





    “A



    dog is not considered a good dog because he is a good barker. A man is



    not considered a good man because he is a good talker.”


    “Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.”

    “The tongue like a sharp knife … Kills without drawing blood.”


    “The wise ones fashioned speech with their thought, sifting it as grain is sifted through a sieve.”



    “Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.”

    Truth


    It’s all around us.


    “In



    the sky, there is no distinction of east and west; people create




    distinctions out of their own minds and then believe them to be true.”

    “There are only two mistakes one can make along the road to truth; not going all the way, and not starting.”



    “Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.”










    Current World Population

    COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:2,498,730

    Last updated: May 28, 2020, 04:33 GMT







    56,962,487 Births this year
    160,466 Births today

    23,914,216 Deaths this year

    67,367 Deaths today

    while World 23,914,216 Deaths this year COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:2,498,730










    Coronavirus Cases:5,792,253 Deaths 357,467

    All are Happy, Well, and Secure having calm, quiet, alert, attentive that is Wisdom and
    equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts
    with a clear understanding that everything is changing!



    Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19



    • 1. Comoros,
    • 2. North Korea, 
    • 3. Yemen,
    • 4. The Federated States of Micronesia,
    • 5. Kiribati,
    • 6. Solomon Islands,
    • 7. The Cook Islands,
    • 8. Micronesia,
    • 9. Tonga,
    • 10. The Marshall Islands Palau,
    • 11. American Samoa, 
    • 12. South Georgia
    •  13. South Sandwich Islands.
    • 14.Saint Helena.

      Europe

      15. Aland Islands
      16.Svalbard

    • 17. Jan Mayen Islands


    • 18. Latin America

      19.Africa

      20.British Indian Ocean Territory


      21.French Southern Territories
      22.Lesotho

    • 23.Oceania

    • 24.Christmas Island
      25. Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    • 26. Heard Island

    • 27. McDonald Islands

      28. Niue
      29. Norfolk Island
      30. Pitcairn
      31. Solomon Islands
      Tokelau
      United States Minor Outlying Islands
      Wallis and Futuna Islands

    • Tajikistan,
    • Turkmenistan,
    • Tuvalu,
    • Vanuatu



    Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

    1. Dasa raja dhamma

    2. kusala.

    3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana
    4. priyavacana

     5. artha cariya

     6. samanatmata

    7. Samyutta Nikayaarya

    ” or

    “ariyasammutideva
    8. Agganna Sutta
    9. Majjima Nikaya
    10. arya” or “ariya
    11.sammutideva
    12. Digha Nikaya
    13. Maha Sudassana

    14. Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma

    15. Canon Sutta

    16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka

    17. Iddhipada

    18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma
    19. Brahmavihàra
    20. Sangahavatthu
    21. Nathakaranadhamma
    22. Saraniyadhamma

    23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha
    24. dukkha
    25. anicca
    26. anatta
    Samsara
    Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,
    Kutadanta Sutta
    Chandagati
    Dosagati
    Mohagati
    Bhayagati
    Yoniso manasikara
    BrahmavihàraSangahavatthu
    Nathakaranadhamma
    SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya
    Dithadhammikattha
    Mara
    Law of Kamma
    Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya

    Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

    Assamedha

    Sassamedha


    Naramedha

    Purisamedha


    Sammapasa

    Vajapeyya

    Niraggala

    Sila

    Samadhi

    Panna

    Samma-sankappa

    Sigalovada Sutta

    Brahmajala Sutta

    Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta
    dhammamahamatras

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    Life on Pitcairn Island - home of the descendants of the mutineers from HMS Bounty
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    BRITAIN’S TREASURE ISLANDS - MINI-DOCUMENTARIES
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    Overview of the UK Overseas Territories https://youtu.be/gl9As81DiDE
    Filming the Britain’s Treasure Islands TV documentary series https://youtu.be/W2_yNNE-mCw
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    Mini-documentaries about each of the UK Overseas Territories
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    Mini-documentaries about specific subjects on particular UK Overseas Territories
    Ascension Island – natives and aliens https://youtu.be/F0xMAIFgPg4
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    Life on Tristan da Cunha – the World’s Most Remote Inhabited Island https://youtu.be/n4ElF8awm90
    Tristan da Cunha – the Monster Mice of Gough Island https://youtu.be/wT14Q7pZJzo
    Falkland Islands – Jimmy the ex-whaler https://youtu.be/alaCe4LbWyo
    British Indian Ocean Territory – coconut crabs https://youtu.be/JCkNSWz-IDc
    British Indian Ocean Territory – seabirds https://youtu.be/quksfCDxbGE
    British Indian Ocean Territory – underwater https://youtu.be/cTJd_WW_NHI
    Pitcairn Islands – Henderson Island’s wildlife https://youtu.be/6jK3As_VAjc
    Life on Pitcairn Island – home of the descendants of the mutineers from HMS Bounty https://youtu.be/vPZHzfRXzjA
    Mini-documentaries about systematic wildlife groups across all of the UK Overseas Territories
    Terrestrial Invertebrates of the UK Overseas Territories https://youtu.be/16AuBMsI_GY
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    Plants of the UK Overseas Territories https://youtu.be/JimYKMzLaqY
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    Overview mini-documentaries
    Conservation Lessons of the UKOTs https://youtu.be/8VIK87Gd134
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    25. anicca
    The Four Thoughts–Impermanence

    Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche
    237K subscribers
    In
    this short teaching, Mingyur Rinpoche discusses the second of the four
    common foundational practices, also called the four thoughts. These
    practices help us understand our true nature and develop wisdom that can
    end suffering. They aid in seeing and ending our negative habitual
    patterns. The second thought, impermanence, helps to make our mind less
    rigid and fixed as we realize that everything in the world is always
    changing.

    This video includes subtitle captions in English, German, and Spanish.

    You can discuss this teaching in the Monthly Teachings Forum of learning.tergar.org under the topic The Four Thoughts – Impermanence.
    Video length: 5 Minutes
    Reflection Questions

    How might realizing that things are not as fixed and permanent as we think help us to be happier?
    Have you found meditation on impermanence to be helpful in your life, and if so, how?

    To
    learn more about meditation or about Mingyur Rinpoche and his
    teachings, please visit the Tergar Meditation Community online at
    http://learning.tergar.org.

    The Three Basic Facts of Existence
    I. Impermanence (Anicca)
    with a preface by
    Nyanaponika Thera
    © 2006
    See also The Three Basic Facts of Existence III: Egolessness (Anattaa), The Wheel Publication No. 202/203/204
    Contents

    Preface
    Motto
    Words of the Buddha
    The Fact of Impermanence (Piyadassi Thera)
    Aniccam: The Buddhist Theory of Impermanence (Bhikkhu Ñanajivako)
    A Walk in the Woods (Phra Khantipalo)
    The Buddhist Doctrine of Anicca (Impermanence) (Y. Karunadasa)
    Anicca (Impermanence) According to Theravada (Bhikkhu Ñanamoli)

    Preface

    If
    we contemplate even a minute sector of the vast range of life, we are
    faced with such a tremendous variety of life’s manifestations that it
    defeats description. And yet three basic statements can be made that are
    valid for all animate existence, from the microbe up to the creative
    mind of a human genius. These features common to all life were first
    found and formulated over 2500 years ago by the Buddha, who was rightly
    called “Knower of the Worlds” (loka-vidu). They are the Three
    Characteristics (ti-lakkha.na)
    of all that is conditioned, i.e., dependently arisen. In English
    renderings, they are also sometimes called Signs, Signata, or Marks.

    anicca

    These three basic facts of all existence are:

    Impermanence or Change (anicca)
    Suffering or Unsatisfactoriness (dukkha)
    Not-self or Insubstantiality (anattaa).

    The
    first and the third apply to inanimate existence as well, while the
    second (suffering) is, of course, only an experience of the animate. The
    inanimate, however, can be, and very often is, a cause of suffering for
    living beings: for instance, a falling stone may cause injury or loss
    of property may cause mental pain. In that sense, the three are common
    to all that is conditioned, even to what is below or beyond the normal
    range of human perception.

    Existence
    can be understood only if these three basic facts are comprehended, and
    this not only logically, but in confrontation with one’s own
    experience. Insight-wisdom (vipassanaa-pa~n~naa) which is the ultimate
    liberating factor in Buddhism, consists just of this experience of the
    three characteristics applied to one’s own bodily and mental processes,
    and deepened and matured in meditation.

    To
    “see things as they really are” means seeing them consistently in the
    light of the three characteristics. Ignorance of these three, or
    self-deception about them, is by itself a potent cause for suffering —
    by knitting, as it were, the net of false hopes, of unrealistic and
    harmful desires, of false ideologies, false values and aims of life, in
    which man is caught. Ignoring or distorting these three basic facts can
    only lead to frustration, disappointment, and despair.

    Hence,
    from a positive as well as a negative angle, this teaching on the Three
    Basic Facts of Existence is of such vital importance that it was
    thought desirable to add here more material to those brief expositions
    that had already appeared in this series.

    Beginning
    with the present volume on Impermanence, each of the Three
    Characteristics will receive separate treatment by different authors and
    from different angles, with a great variety of approach.

    Each
    of these three publications will be concluded by an essay of the late
    Venerable Ñanamoli Thera, in which all important canonical source
    material on the respective Characteristic is collected, systematized,
    and discussed. These tersely written articles merit close study and will
    be found very helpful in the analytical as well as meditative approach
    to the subject. Regrettably, the premature death of the venerable author
    prevented him from writing a fourth article planned by him, which was
    to deal with the interrelation of the Three Characteristics.

    These
    three articles of the Venerable Ñanamoli were originally written for
    the Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, and the first one, on Anicca, appeared in
    Volume I, p. 657ff., of that work. For kind permission to reproduce
    these articles, the Buddhist Publication Society is much obliged to the
    Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopaedia, Dr. G. P. Malalasekera, and to the
    publishers, the Department of Cultural Affairs, Colombo.

    — Nyanaponika.
    Motto

    Whatever IS will be WAS.

    — Bhikkhu Ñanamoli

    The
    decisively characteristic thing about this world is its transience. In
    this sense, centuries have no advantage over the present moment. Thus
    the continuity of transience cannot give any consolation; the fact that
    life blossoms among ruins proves not so much the tenacity of life as
    that of death.

    — Franz Kafka

    The Fact of Impermanence

    Words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness

    The
    perceiving of impermanence, bhikkhus, developed and frequently
    practiced, removes all sensual passion, removes all passion for material
    existence, removes all passion for becoming, removes all ignorance,
    removes and abolishes all conceit of “I am.”

    Just
    as in the autumn a farmer, plowing with a large plow, cuts through all
    the spreading rootlets as he plows; in the same way, bhikkhus, the
    perceiving of impermanence, developed and frequently practiced, removes
    all sensual passion… removes and abolishes all conceit of “I am.”

    — SN 22.102

    It
    would be better, bhikkhus, if an uninstructed ordinary person regarded
    this body, made of the four great elements, as himself rather than the
    mind. For what reason? This body is seen to continue for a year, for two
    years, five years, ten years, twenty years, fifty years, a hundred
    years, and even more. But of that which is called mind, is called
    thought, is called consciousness, one moment arises and ceases as
    another continually both day and night.

    — SN 12.61

    The Fact of Impermanence
    by Piyadassi Thera

    “Impermanent,
    subject to change, are component things. Strive on with heedfulness!”
    This was the final admonition of the Buddha Gotama to his disciples.

    And when the Buddha had passed away, Sakka, the chief of the deities, uttered the following:

    Impermanent are all component things,
    They arise and cease, that is their nature:
    They come into being and pass away,
    Release from them is bliss supreme.

    Aniccaa vata sa”nkhaaraa — uppaada vaya dhammino
    Uppajjitvaa nirujjhanti — tesa.m vuupasamo sukho.

    — Mahaa-Parinibbaana Sutta (DN 16)[1]

    Even
    up to present times, at every Buddhist funeral in Theravada countries,
    this very Pali verse is recited by the Buddhist monks who perform the
    obsequies, thus reminding the congregation of the evanescent nature of
    life.

    It
    is a common sight in Buddhist lands to see the devotees offer flowers
    and light oil lamps before a Buddha image. They are not praying to the
    Buddha or to any “supernatural being.” The flowers that fade and the
    flames that die down, speak to them of the impermanency of all
    conditioned things.

    It
    is this single and simple word Impermanence (anicca) which is the very
    core of the Buddha’s teaching, being also the basis for the other two
    characteristics of existence, Suffering and No-self. The fact of
    Impermanence means that reality is never static but is dynamic
    throughout, and this the modern scientists are realizing to be the basic
    nature of the world without any exception. In his teaching of dynamic
    reality, the Buddha gave us the master key to open any door we wish. The
    modern world is using the same master key, but only for material
    achievements, and is opening door after door with amazing success.

    Change
    or impermanence is the essential characteristic of all phenomenal
    existence. We cannot say of anything, animate or inanimate, organic or
    inorganic, “this is lasting”; for even while we are saying this, it
    would be undergoing change. All is fleeting; the beauty of flowers, the
    bird’s melody, the bee’s hum, and a sunset’s glory.

    Suppose
    yourself gazing on a gorgeous sunset. The whole western heavens are
    glowing with roseate hues; but you are aware that within half an hour
    all these glorious tints will have faded away into a dull ashen gray.
    You see them even now melting away before your eyes, although your eyes
    cannot place before you the conclusion which your reason draws. And what
    conclusion is that? That conclusion is that you never, even for the
    shortest time that can be named or conceived, see any abiding color, any
    color which truly is. Within the millionth part of a second the whole
    glory of the painted heavens has undergone an incalculable series of
    mutations. One shade is supplanted by another with a rapidity which sets
    all measurements at defiance, but because the process is one to which
    no measurements apply,… reason refuses to lay an arrestment on any
    period of the passing scene, or to declare that it is, because in the
    very act of being it is not; it has given place to something else. It is
    a series of fleeting colors, no one of which is, because each of them
    continually vanishes in another.

    — Ferrier’s Lectures and Remains Vol. I, p. 119, quoted in Sarva-dorsana-Sangraha, London, p. 15

    All
    component things — that is, all things which arise as the effect of
    causes, and which in turn give rise to effects — can be crystallized in
    the single word anicca, impermanence. All tones, therefore, are just
    variations struck on the chord which is made up of impermanence,
    suffering (unsatisfactoriness), and no-self nor soul — anicca, dukkha,
    and anattaa.

    Camouflaged,
    these three characteristics of life prevail in this world until a
    supremely Enlightened One reveals their true nature. It is to proclaim
    these three characteristics — and how through complete realization of
    them, one attains to deliverance of mind — that a Buddha appears. This
    is the quintessence, the sum total of the Buddha’s teaching.

    Although
    the concept of anicca applies to all compounded and conditioned things,
    the Buddha is more concerned with the so-called being; for the problem
    is with man and not with dead things. Like an anatomist who resolves a
    limb into tissues and tissues into cells, the Buddha, the Analyzer
    (Vibhajjavaadi), analyzed the so-called being, the sankhaara pu~nja, the
    heap of processes, into five ever-changing aggregates, and made it
    clear that there is nothing abiding, nothing eternally conserved, in
    this conflux of aggregates (khandhaa santati). They are: — — material
    form or body; feeling or sensation; perception; mental formations;
    consciousness.

    The Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness explains:

    The
    five aggregates, monks, are anicca, impermanent; whatever is
    impermanent, that is dukkha, unsatisfactory; whatever is dukkha, that is
    without attaa, self. What is without self, that is not mine, that I am
    not, that is not my self. Thus should it be seen by perfect wisdom
    (sammappa~n~naaya) as it really is. Who sees by perfect wisdom, as it
    really is, his mind, not grasping, is detached from taints; he is
    liberated.

    — SN 22.45

    Naagarjuna
    only echoes the words of the Buddha when he says: When the notion of an
    Aatman, Self or Soul cease, the notion of ‘mine’ also ceases and one
    becomes free from the idea of I and mine (Maadhyamika-Kaarikaa, xviii.2)

    The
    Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness gives five very striking similes
    to illustrate the ephemeral nature of the five aggregates. He compares
    material form to a lump of foam, feeling to a bubble, perception to a
    mirage, mental formations to a plantain trunk (which is pithless,
    without heartwood), and consciousness to an illusion, and asks: “What
    essence, monks, could there be in a lump of foam, in a bubble, in a
    mirage, in a plantain trunk, in an illusion?”

    Continuing, the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness says:

    Whatever
    material form there be: whether past, future, or present; internal or
    external; gross or subtle; low or lofty; far or near; that material form
    the monk sees, meditates upon, examines with systematic attention, he
    thus seeing, meditating upon, and examining with systematic attention,
    would find it empty, he would find it insubstantial and without essence.
    What essence, monks, could there be in material form?

    The Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness speaks in the same manner of the remaining aggregates and asks:

    What essence, monks, could there be in feeling, in perception, in mental formations and in consciousness?

    — SN 22.95

    Thus
    we see that a more advanced range of thought comes with the analysis of
    the five aggregates. It is at this stage that right understanding known
    as insight (vipassanaa) begins to work. It is through this insight that
    the true nature of the aggregates is grasped and seen in the light of
    the three characteristics (ti-lakkhana), namely: impermanence,
    unsatisfactoriness, and no-self.

    It
    is not only the five aggregates that are impermanent, unsatisfactory,
    and without self, but the causes and conditions that produce the
    aggregates are also impermanent, unsatisfactory, and without self. This point the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness makes very clear:

    Material
    form, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness, monks,
    are impermanent (anicca). Whatever causes and conditions there are for
    the arising of these aggregates, they, too, are impermanent. How monks,
    could aggregates arisen from what is impermanent, be permanent?

    Material
    form… and consciousness, monks, are unsatisfactory (dukkha); whatever
    causes and conditions there are for the arising of these aggregates,
    they too are unsatisfactory. How, monks, could aggregates arise from
    what is unsatisfactory be pleasant or pleasurable?

    Material
    form… and consciousness, monks, are without a self (anattaa);
    whatever causes and conditions there are for the arising of these
    aggregates, they, too are without self. How, monks, could aggregates
    arise from what is without self be self (attaa)?

    The
    instructed noble disciple (sutavaa ariyasaavako), monks, seeing thus
    becomes dispassionate towards material form, feeling, perception, mental
    formations and consciousness: Through dispassion he is detached;
    through detachment he is liberated; in liberation the knowledge comes to
    be that he is liberated, and he understands: Destroyed is birth, lived
    is the life of purity, done is what was to be done, there is no more of
    this to come [meaning that there is no more continuity of the
    aggregates, that is, no more becoming or rebirth].

    — SN 22.7-9, abridged

    It
    is always when we fail to see the true nature of things that our views
    become clouded; because of our preconceived notions, our greed and
    aversion, our likes and dislikes, we fail to see the sense organs and
    sense objects in their respective and objective natures, (aayatanaana.m
    aayatana.t.ta.m) and go after mirages and deceptions. The sense organs
    delude and mislead us and then we fail to see things in their true
    light, so that our way of seeing things becomes perverted (vipariita
    dassana).

    The
    Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness speaks of three kinds of illusion
    or perversions (vipallaasa, Skt. viparyaasa) that grip man’s mind,
    namely: the illusions of perception, thought, and view (sa~n~naa
    vipallaasa; citta vipallaasa; di.t.thi vipallaasa).[2] Now when a man is
    caught up in these illusions he perceives, thinks, and views
    incorrectly.

    He
    perceives permanence in the impermanent; satisfactoriness in the
    unsatisfactory (ease and happiness in suffering); self in what is not
    self (a soul in the soulless); beauty in the repulsive.

    He
    thinks and views in the same erroneous manner. Thus each illusion works
    in four ways (AN 4.49), and leads man astray, clouds his vision, and
    confuses him. This is due to unwise reflections, to unsystematic
    attention (ayoniso manasikaara). Right understanding (or insight
    meditation — vipassanaa) alone removes these illusions and helps man to
    cognize the real nature that underlies all appearance. It is only when
    man comes out of this cloud of illusions and perversions that he shines
    with true wisdom like the full moon that emerges brilliant from behind a
    black cloud.

    The
    aggregates of mind and body, being ever subject to cause and effect, as
    we saw above, pass through the inconceivably rapid moments of arising,
    presently existing, and ceasing (uppaada, .thiti, bha”nga), just as the
    unending waves of the sea or as a river in flood sweeps to a climax and
    subsides. Indeed, human life is compared to a mountain stream that flows
    and rushes on, changing incessantly (AN 7.70) “nadisoto viya,” like a
    flowing stream.

    Heraclitus,
    that renowned Greek philosopher, was the first Western writer to speak
    about the fluid nature of things. He taught the Panta Rhei doctrine, the
    flux theory, at Athens, and one wonders if that teaching was
    transmitted to him from India.

    “There
    is no static being,” says Heraclitus, “no unchanging substratum.
    Change, movement, is Lord of the Universe. Everything is in a state of
    becoming, of continual flux (Panta Rhei).”

    He
    continues: “You cannot step twice into the same river; for fresh waters
    are ever flowing in upon you.” Nevertheless one who understands the
    root of the Dhamma would go a step further and say: The same man cannot
    step twice into the same river; for the so called man who is only a
    conflux of mind and body, never remains the same for two consecutive
    moments.”[3]

    It
    should now be clear that the being whom for all practical purposes we
    call a man, woman, or individual, is not something static, but kinetic,
    being in a state of constant and continuous change. Now when a person
    views life and all that pertains to life in this light, and understands
    analytically this so-called being as a mere succession of mental and the
    bodily aggregates, he sees things as they really are (yathaabhuutam).
    He does not hold the wrong view of “personality belief,” belief in a
    soul or self (sakkaaya di.t.thi), because he knows through right
    understanding that all phenomenal existence is causally dependent
    (pa.ticca-samuppanna), that each is conditioned by something else, and
    that its existence is relative to that condition. He knows that as a
    result there is no “I,” no persisting psychic entity, no ego principle,
    no self or anything pertaining to a self in this life process. He is,
    therefore, free from the notion of a microcosmic soul (jiivaatma) or a
    macrocosmic soul (paramaatma).

    It
    is said that through insight meditation (vipassanaa) one sees things as
    they really are (yathaabhuutam) and not as they appear to be. Viewing
    things as they really are implies, as we discussed above, seeing the
    impermanent, unsatisfactory, and no-self nature of all conditioned and
    component things. To such a meditative disciple of the Matteyya Awakened
    One with Awareness the “world” is not the external or the empirical
    world, but the human body with its consciousness. It is the world of the
    five aggregates of clinging (pa~nca upaadaanakkhandaa). It is this that
    he tries to understand as impermanent, unsatisfactory, and without self
    or soul. It is to this world of body and mind that the Matteyya
    Awakened One with Awareness referred to when he said to Mogharaaja,
    “Ever mindful, Mogharaaja, see the world as void (su~n~na); having given
    up the notion of a self [underlying it] — so may one overcome death
    (Maara); The King of Death sees not one who thus knows the world” (Sutta
    Nipaata).

    The
    sum total of the philosophy of change taught in Buddhism is that all
    component things that have conditioned existence are a process and not a
    group of abiding entities, but the changes occur in such rapid
    succession that people regard mind and body as static entities. They do
    not see their arising and their breaking up (udaya-vaya), but regard
    them unitarily, see them as a lump or whole (ghana sa~n~naa).

    It
    is very hard, indeed, for people who are accustomed to continually
    think of their own mind and body and the external word with mental
    projections as wholes, as inseparable units, to get rid of the false
    appearance of “wholeness.” So long as man fails to see things as
    processes, as movements, he will never understand the anatta (no-soul)
    doctrine of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness. That is why people
    impertinently and impatiently put the question:

    “If
    there is no persisting entity, no unchanging principle, like self or
    soul what is it that experiences the results of deeds here and
    hereafter?”

    Two
    different discourses (MN 109; SN 22.82) deal with this burning
    question. The Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness was explaining in
    detail to his disciples the impermanent nature of the five aggregates,
    how they are devoid of self, and how the latent conceits “I am” and
    “mine” cease to exist. Then there arose a thought in the mind of a
    certain monk thus: “Material body is not self, feeling is
    not self, perception is not self, mental formations are not self,
    consciousness is not self. Then what self do selfless deeds affect?”

    The
    Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness, reading the thought of the monk’s
    mind, said, “The question was beside the point” and made the monk
    understand the impermanent, unsatisfactory, and non-self nature of the
    aggregates.

    “It
    is wrong to say that the doer of the deed is the same as the one who
    experiences its results. It is equally wrong to say that the doer of the
    deed and the one who experiences its results are two different
    persons,”[4] for the simple reason that what we call life is a flow of
    psychic and physical processes or energies, arising and ceasing
    constantly; it is not possible to say that the doer himself experiences
    results because he is changing now, every moment of his life; but at the
    same time you must not forget the fact that the continuity of life that
    is the continuance of experience, the procession of events is not lost;
    it continues without a gap. The child is not the same as an adolescent,
    the adolescent is not the same as the adult, they are neither the same
    nor totally different persons (na ca so na ca a~n~no, — Milinda Pa~nho).
    There is only a flow of bodily and mental processes.

    There
    are three types of teachers, the first one teaches that the ego or the
    self is real now as well as in the future (here and hereafter); the
    second one teaches that the ego is real only in this life, not in the
    future; the third one teaches that the concept of an ego is an illusion:
    it is not real either in this life or in the hereafter.

    The
    first one is the eternalist (sassatavaadi); the second one is the
    annihilationist (ucchedavaadi); the third one is the Matteyya Awakened
    One with Awareness who teaches the middle way of avoiding the extremes
    of eternalism and annihilationism. (Here the middle way is the doctrine
    of dependent arising, or causal conditioning — Paticca Samuppaada).

    All
    theistic religions teach that the ego survives after death in some way
    or other, and is not annihilated. The materialist’s concept is that the
    ego is annihilated at death. The Buddhist view is that there is no ego,
    or anything substantial, or lasting, but all things conditioned are
    subject to change, and they change not remaining the same for two
    consecutive moments, and that there is a continuity but no identity.

    So
    long as man cherishes the idea of the lasting self or ego it will not
    be possible for him to conceive the idea that all things are
    impermanent, that there is, in reality, an arising and a ceasing of
    things (samudaya dhamma, vaya dhamma, — Satipa.t.thaana sutta). The
    understanding of the anatta doctrine, which is exclusively Buddhist, is
    indispensable in the understanding of the four noble truths and the
    other principal tenets of Buddhism.

    The
    people of the world today mark the changing nature of life. Although
    they see it, they do not keep it in mind and act with dispassionate
    discernment. Though change again and again speaks to them and makes them
    unhappy, they pursue their mad career of whirling round the wheel of
    existence and are twisted and torn between the spokes of agony. They
    cherish the belief that it is possible to discover a way of happiness in
    this very change, to find a center of security in this circle of
    impermanence. They imagine that although the world is uncertain they can
    make it certain and give it a solid basis, and so the unrelenting
    struggle for worldly improvement goes on with persevering effort and
    futile enthusiasm.

    History
    has proved again and again and will continue to prove that nothing in
    this world is lasting. All things when clung to fail. Nations and
    civilizations rise, flourish, and die away as waves upon the ocean,
    yielding place to new, and thus the scrolls of time record the passing
    pageant, the baseless vision, and the fading flow that is human history.
    Notes

    1.

    In the Mahaa-Sudassana Suttanta (Diigha-Nikaaya), this verse is
    ascribed to the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness himself; in the
    Mahaa Sudassana Jaataka (No. 95), it is ascribed to the Bodhisatta, in
    his rebirth as King Mahaa-Sudassana. In the Theragaathaa (v. 1159),
    Mahaa Moggallaana Arahant recites it, after mentioning (in v. 1158) the
    passing away of Saariputta Arahant that preceded his own only by two
    weeks.
    2.
    AN 4.49 — see Anguttara Nikaaya: An Anthology, Part I (The Wheel No. 155-158), p. 86.
    3.
    A.K. Rogers, A Student’s History of Philosophy, London, 1920, p. 15.
    4.

    In the ms. this quote is followed by the parenthetical citation
    “(Anguttara, ii. 70).” Perhaps this is a typo? PTS page A ii 70 (AN
    4.62-63) does not contain this passage. A better reference may be SN
    12.46. — ATI ed.

    Aniccam: The Buddhist Theory of Impermanence
    An Approach from the Standpoint of Modern Philosophy[1]

    by Bhikkhu Ñanajivako

    “Is the eye… the shape… visual consciousness, permanent or impermanent?”

    “Impermanent, reverend sir.”

    “But is what is impermanent, anguish or happiness?”

    “Anguish, reverend sir.”

    “Is
    it right to regard that which is impermanent anguish, and liable to
    alteration as ‘This is mine, this am I, this is my self’?”

    “No, reverend sir.”[2]

    Insights
    and discoveries revealed to human minds 2500 years ago, at the time of
    the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness (or even several centuries
    before that time), may have caused deep and revolutionary effects in the
    evolution of existing world views, no less important than the
    discoveries of Galileo and Copernicus have been for the eventual
    collapse of the world-view of medieval Christian civilization. These
    latter discoveries, which mark the outset of modern civilization, have
    become so much a part of commonplace or general information that they
    can be imparted to children in the lowest grades of elementary
    education, and are normally absorbed by them without difficulty.

    The
    idea of impermanence and of ceaseless change, due to the never-ending
    “chain” of causes and effects (the subject which we are attempting to
    approach in its Buddhist version of aniccam) has, in its broad meaning,
    become one of our stereotyped and oversimplified truisms, reduced, both
    in its formal and substantial significance, to a mere rudiment of
    conventional word-meaning. As such, it may still have impressed us on
    the level of nursery rhymes and even of some grammar-school classics in
    the history of literature. (If I had to choose a deeper adequation[3]3
    founded on a modern poet’s more complex philosophical intuition, I would
    not hesitate to select the lines from T.S. Eliot’s Quartets;

    Ash on an old man’s sleeve
    Is all the ash the burnt roses leave
    Water and fire succeed
    The town, the pasture and the weed.)

    We
    might hope to rediscover the original significance and historical
    purport of such truisms only if we were to look for them purposively,
    guided by some subjective impressions of individual or particular cases,
    and by the consequences of their concrete application in actual
    scientific or philosophical theories. This is what I am about to hint at
    in a few examples.

    One:
    As a young teacher, when for the first time I tried to explain to
    children of about twelve years of age the biological process of growing
    cabbages and potatoes, my emphasis on the importance of dung (I did not
    use the technical term “fertilizer”) happened to be so impressive that
    the next day a mother came to complain against my “direct method” and
    “drastic naturalism” in visual teaching. Her child had been so affected
    by my discourse as to develop an acute loathing against food. Thus I was
    impressed how easily our most commonplace truisms about the laws of
    nature — whose discovery, once upon a time, may have been treated and
    even punished as revolutionary by respectable and authoritative social
    institutions — can still reveal themselves unexpectedly in their full
    overpowering force to the fresh and innocent minds of new generations.

    Two:
    In my own generation of teenagers, between the two wars in Europe, the
    deadlock between science and religion was so complete that secondary
    school curricula were bound to provoke in our minds an unavoidable
    crisis of conscience. Teachers on the whole were totally involved in
    this struggle of convictions, keen to win us over to one side or the
    other. The side of science against religion was normally the stronger.
    Since that time religion, defeated in Europe, has become more and more a
    prohibited fruit, and has therefore acquired a new attractive force for
    juvenile minds. This is true not only in the eastern parts of Europe,
    since science is far from being a privilege of Communism. An
    anti-scientific tendency in Europe (”continental”) philosophy has even
    become predominant, on account of the moral catastrophe which still
    preoccupies the minds of our generation beyond any other problem of
    “man’s position in the universe.”

    The
    central issue in this conflict between science and religion, at least
    from our youthful bias at that time, was of course the problem of
    anattaa (”no-soul”), to express it by the corresponding Buddhist term.
    Laws governing processes of causes and effects were, however,
    scientifically explained — or at least so understood by our unripe
    minds, under the impression of the open dispute between science and
    (Christian) religion. The explanations were not yet in terms of the
    scientific equivalent to a pure anicca-vaado (theory of impermanence),
    which would imply a denial of the underlying material substantiality of
    the world. Instead of that, explanations given to us at that time still
    followed the classical Greek pattern of mechanistic materialism or
    static atomism, which was the closest to the Buddhist understanding of
    the uccheda-vaado (theory of destruction), whose believers are described
    in Pali texts in the following terms:

    …He
    then hears the Perfect One expounding the teaching for the removal of
    all grounds for “views,” of all prejudices, obsessions, dogmas, and
    biases, for the stilling of all processes, for the relinquishment of all
    substrata of existence, for the extirpation of craving, for dispassion,
    cessation, extinction. He then thinks, “I shall be annihilated, I shall
    be destroyed! No longer shall I exist!” Hence he grieves, is depressed
    and laments; beating his breast, he weeps, and dejection befalls him.
    Thus, bhikkhus, is there anxiety about realities.

    — MN 22

    To this, the only authentic answer is:

    Since
    in this very life a tathaagata (in this case generally understood as a
    human being in the widest sense) is not to be regarded as existing in
    truth, in reality, is it proper for you to assert: “as I understand the
    doctrine taught by the Exalted One, insofar as a bhikkhu has destroyed
    the aasavas [life’s “intoxicants” or passions] he is broken up and
    perishes when body is broken up, he exists not after death.”?

    — SN 22.85

    The
    logical possibility of such an answer is excluded by the premise. The
    same premise, however, excludes also the opposite, affirmative,
    possibility. (We shall return to this problem, as understood by
    contemporary philosophy, in section Five.)

    Is
    important to underline here that, on the same premise, uccheda-vaado,
    or simply the materialistic belief in a substantial “destruction” of any
    form of being, is the extreme opposite of any authentic nihilism in
    ontology and epistemology (theory of being and theory of knowledge).
    Only an explicitly idealistic philosophy, “looking upon the world as a
    bubble, as a mirage” (Dhp 170) can be nihilistic in some respect, while
    uccheda-vaado as a “theory of destruction” necessarily presupposes an
    existentially rooted belief in material substance.

    It
    was just in this sense, in the midst of the battle-ground between
    science and religion, and on the eve of a world war, that the children
    of the first half of the 20th century had to face the fatality of a
    physical and moral destruction, scientifically and infallibly
    precalculated, as experience was about to prove. Yet just over the edge
    of our intellectual horizon was dawning a time, for science at least, of
    acquiring a completely different position vis-a-vis the problem of
    impermanence and relativity as affecting the deepest subatomic structure
    of the world — a position considerably closer to the Buddhist idea of
    aniccam.

    Three:
    Since 1927, Bertrand Russell’s book, An Outline of Philosophy, has been
    widely quoted as one of the best popular presentations of the radical
    change in the scientific world-view stemming from Einstein’s theory of
    relativity and of the resulting development of nuclear physics. I shall
    try to elicit from Russell’s statements, as far as the present draft of
    pointers to our essential problem may permit, the rejection of the
    substance-view by modern science, because it is the rejection of the
    substance-view that constitutes the core of the Buddhist anicca-vaado as
    a foundation (at least in the ti-lakkha.nam scheme) of both dukkham and
    anattaa.

    To
    start with, let us define the idea of physical “substance” by means of
    its basic description and philosophical implication has stated in the
    Sutta-pi.takam sources. The problem of substance, as defined by
    scientific (lokaa-yatam) theories at the time of the Buddha, finds its
    classical formulation, categorial delimitation and solution in concise
    terms in his concluding answer to Kevaddho:

    Where do earth, water, fire, and wind; long and short; fine and coarse; pure and impure, no footing find?

    Where is it that both name and form die out, leaving no trace behind?

    When intellection (vi~n~naanam) ceases they all cease, too.

    DN 11

    For
    the categorical relation of mind and matter (or “name and form,” naamaa
    ruupam, as implied in the foregoing formulation), the following
    statement of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness is the most
    adequate and also the best-known in connection with our subject:

    It
    would be better, bhikkhus, for the unlearned worldling to regard this
    body, built up of the four elements, as his self rather than the mind.
    For it is evident that this body may last for a year, for two years, for
    three, four, five or ten years… or even for a hundred years and more.
    But that which is called thought, or mind, or consciousness,
    continuously, during day and night, arises as one thing, and passes away
    as another thing.

    — SN 12.61

    Now, let us get a few quotations from Bertrand Russell.[4] First, as regards substance-matter, he says:

    In
    former days, you could believe it on a philosophical ground that the
    soul is a substance and all substances are indestructible… But the
    notion of substance, in the sense of a permanent entity with changing
    states, is no longer applicable to the world.

    A
    wave in the sea persists for a longer or shorter time: the waves that I
    see dashing themselves to pieces on the Cornish coast may have come all
    the way from Brazil, but that does not mean that a “thing” has traveled
    across the Atlantic; it means only that a certain process of change has
    traveled.

    [Einstein’s
    theory of relativity] has philosophical consequences which are, if
    possible, even more important. The substitution of space-time for space
    and time has made the category of substance less applicable than
    formerly, since the essence of substance was persistent through time,
    and there is now no one cosmic time.

    We
    found that matter, in modern science, has lost its solidity and
    substantiality; it has become a mere ghost haunting the scenes of its
    former splendor… The notion of matter, in modern physics, has become
    absorbed into the notion of energy.

    We
    cannot say that “matter is the cause of our sensations.”… In a word,
    “matter” has become no more than a conventional shorthand for stating
    causal laws concerning events.

    Thus
    we are committed to causation as an a priori belief without which we
    should have no reason for supposing that there is a “real” chair (or any
    thing) at all.

    Next,
    as regards the theory of events, we note that the idea of fixed and
    static elements of “matter” has been replaced by that of undeterminable
    “events” corresponding to the quantum electrodynamic field theory in
    nuclear physics, which comes very close to the conception of a
    non-physical but purely phenomenological idea of dhammaa, implied in its
    primitive significance by kha.nika-vaado, or theory of momentariness,
    of the Abhidhamma-pi.takam. (This latter aspect, explicitly
    philosophical, will be sketched in Five, below.) Of this Russell writes:

    Everything
    in the world is composed of “events.”… An “event” is something
    occupying a small finite amount of space-time… Events are not
    impenetrable, as matter is supposed to be; on the contrary, every event
    in space-time is overlapped by other events.

    I
    assume that every event is contemporaneous with events that are not
    contemporaneous with each other; this is what is meant by saying that
    every event lasts for a finite time… Time is wholly relational.

    Space-time order, as well as space-time points, results from the relations between events.

    Compare
    with this last statement, and with those that follow, the assertion of
    Buddhaghosa in Atthasaalini: “By time the sage described the mind, and
    by mind described the time.”

    Lastly, Russell says of mental events:

    An important group of events, namely percepts, may be called “mental.”

    Mentality is an affair of causal laws, not of the quality of single events, and also, mentality is a matter of degree.

    What
    is mind?… Mind must be a group of mental events, since we have
    rejected the view that it is a single simple entity such as the ego was
    formerly supposed to be… Its constitution corresponds however to “the
    unity of one ‘experience.’”

    As
    a result of these considerations, Russell concludes that “first of all,
    you must cut out the word ‘I’: the person who believes is an inference,
    not a part of what you know immediately.”

    Finally,
    the logical possibility of an uccheda-vaado (theory of destruction)
    “heresy” is explicitly eliminated even on this level of merely
    scientific considerations: “Is a mind a structure of material units? I
    think it is clear that the answer to this question is in the negative.”

    We
    can conclude this survey by accepting without any further reserve
    Russell’s statement: “The problems we have been raising are none of them
    new, but they suffice to show that our everyday views of the world and
    of our relations to it are unsatisfactory.”

    Four:
    Recently, field theory, as a replacement for the abandoned substance
    theory in physics, has found increasing application — at least as a
    hypothetical analogy — in other spheres of scientific thought, and even
    more in philosophical speculations limited to possible (and sometimes to
    impossible) extensions of “special sciences.” Its application to
    parapsychology is of particular interest, for the extension of the
    subject in which we are interested is beyond the strictly physical
    sphere of being.

    It
    is Gardner Murphy who has given us the most consequent and exclusive
    elaboration of a parapsychological analogy of field theory, as far as I
    know. A summarized recapitulation of his thesis is as follows:

    The
    action of living matter on living matter is never a case of single cell
    acting only on single cell. The structural whole or field is always
    involved. The field principle may hold in psychics as well as in
    physics, and a psychic field may extend backwards and forwards in time
    as well as onwards in space. The question, “Does personality survive
    death?” is therefore in Murphy’s view not a reasonable question to ask.
    If any psychical activity survives, it will become an aspect of
    different fields and will thus take on new qualities and new structural
    relationships. It is evident that for him “all personal activities are
    constantly changing context and interacting with those of others, and it
    may be that each one becomes part of the cosmic process.”[5]

    Another
    worker in the field of parapsychology, C. G. Broad, investigating The
    Mind and Its Place in Nature from the standpoint of a possible
    “survival” of the “PSI component,” draws the conclusion, from the same
    basic analogy with physics, that “we need no longer suppose that,
    although a surviving PSI component may be bodiless, it is necessarily
    unextended and unlocalized, for we are nowadays well accustomed to such
    phenomena as electro-magnetic fields which cannot be called bodies in
    the ordinary sense but which still have structure and definite
    properties and dispositions. We must not think of it (i.e., of the
    surviving PSI-component) as something on which an experience makes an
    impression as a seal does on a ball of wax. On the contrary, such a
    substanceless theory implies a greater degree of survival than the mere
    persistence of an inactive PSI component.”[6]

    Exponents
    of the same parapsychological theory also maintain that their
    hypothesis might offer a more adequate basis for explanation of
    subconscious phenomena investigated by psychoanalysis, particularly
    Jung’s archetypes, than the initial Freudian attempts, which have been
    characterized since the first as a scientifically untenable Platonic
    analogy with “pigeon holes” as the basic structure of the soul.

    All
    these more or less ad hoc analogies with the field theory in physics
    can be brought down as well to an earlier metaphysical hypothesis,
    formulated on a broader philosophical basis already by William James, in
    his Pluralistic Universe (1909).[7] Speaking of the structure of “our
    inner life,” James says:

    Every
    bit of us at every moment is part and parcel of a wider self… May not
    you and I be confluent in a higher consciousness, and confluently
    active there, though we now know it not?… The analogies with… facts
    of psychical research, so called, and with those of religious
    experience, establish… a decidedly formidable probability in favor [of
    the following pluralistic hypothesis:]

    Why
    should we envelop our many with the “one” that brings so many poisons
    in its train?… [instead of accepting] along with the superhuman
    consciousness the notion that it is not all-embracing; the notion, in
    other words, that there is a God, but that he is finite, either in power
    or in knowledge, or in both at once.

    This
    is exactly the basic distinction between the Vedaantic and the Buddhist
    conception of God, or gods, implying also the reason why James, in some
    respects, was in favor of a polytheistic conception, as a “result of
    our criticism of the absolute,” in the same context.

    Five:
    Such adaptation of hypotheses borrowed ad hoc from heterogenous fields
    of science could and should be ultimately verified and explained only by
    proper philosophical investigation, using autonomous methods and
    established on its own, purely anthropological ground. Since the
    beginning of the 20th century this has indeed been done, always more
    clearly and explicitly. The results have been considerable, at least as
    far as the problem of our primordial concern is involved: the human
    value aspect of aniccam, its fundamental significance in connection with
    both dukkham and anattaa.

    The
    proper philosophical attitude was defined, not as pertaining to the
    physical but rather to the historical world-view, as early as the end of
    the 19th century, by Wilhelm Dilthey, founder of the modern philosophy
    of culture:

    The
    final pronouncement of the historical world-view is that human
    accomplishment of every sort is relative, that everything is moving in
    process and nothing is stable.

    And
    yet this historical orientation has not maintained a position of
    predominant importance in 20th century European philosophy. The most
    prominent philosopher of culture in the middle of this century, Karl
    Jaspers, in discussing the priority of the question “What is man?” (As
    formulated by Kant) points out that this priority “does not mean that
    the knowledge of being is to be replaced by the knowledge of man. Being
    still remains the essential, but man can approach it only through his
    existence as a man,” i.e., through his historicity.[8]

    Following
    Edmund Husserl, who established the most widely adopted logical and
    epistemological platform for European or continental philosophy in this
    century, the problem of being has acquired and sustained a role of
    central importance. In order to avoid its gross misunderstanding it is
    necessary, especially from our Buddhist standpoint, to note that
    Husserl’s basic postulate, “Back to the things themselves,” does not in
    any way imply a substantialist meaning of “things” in the classical,
    physically oriented ontology or theory of being, which has been rejected
    by modern physics. The significance of “being” has been radically
    changed with the achievement of a deeper insight into both its physical
    and historical structure. This is revealed very clearly in the analysis
    of being by Nicolai Hartmann who, more than Husserl and his closer
    followers, concentrated on implications of the ontological problem in
    the natural sciences.

    In
    this respect the standpoint of A.N. Whitehead in Anglo-American
    philosophy comes closest to that of N. Hartmann. Russell’s theory of
    infinitesimal “space-time events” was not much more than an attempt to
    reduce to a pale rationalized scheme Whitehead’s metaphysical conception
    of “actual occasions” and “throbbing actualities,” understood as
    “pulsation of experience” whose “drops” or “puffs of existence” guided
    by an internal teleology in their “concrescence” (analogous to the
    Buddhist sa”nkaaraa in karmic formations) join the “stream of existence”
    (bhava”nga-soto).

    The
    core of the abhidhammo conception of the “stream of existence” consists
    in its “theory of momentariness” kha.nika-vaado. Its modern analogy has
    found its first and best formulation in plain terms in the philosophy
    of William James, especially in his essay “Does ‘Consciousness’ Exist?,”
    where the “stream of consciousness” or “stream of thinking” (which,
    “when scrutinized, reveals itself to consist chiefly of the stream of my
    breathing”) is elicited from his basic theory of “pure experience,”
    defined as “the instant field of the present… this succession of an
    emptiness and fullness that have reference to each other and are of one
    flesh” — succession “in small enough pulses,” which “is the essence of
    the phenomenon.” In the same connection, as “the result of our criticism
    of the absolute,” the metaphysical and metapsychical idea of a “central
    self” is reduced by James to “the conscious self of the moment.”[9]

    The
    well-known Buddhist thesis of “no-self” (anattaa), or of a soul-less
    psychology, is based on the same background of the “theory of
    momentariness.”

    This
    is also one of the points — and the most significant one — on which the
    philosophical conception of James coincides with Bergson.
    Terminologically at least, Bergson’s designation of the same “stream” as
    “flux du vecu,” the word “vecu” (”lived”) seems to come closest to the
    meaning of the Pali bhava”ngo, suggesting the “articulated” (a”ngo)
    texture of life-experience.

    In
    Husserl’s interpretation, “things” are simply taken to mean “whatever
    is given,” that which we “see” in consciousness, and this “given” is
    called phenomenal in the sense that it “appears” to our consciousness.
    The Greek word “phenomenon” does not necessarily indicate that there is
    an unknown thing behind phenomena (as in Kant’s philosophy or in the
    Vedaanta), or a “back-stage” being, as Nietzsche ironically exposed it.
    From our standpoint, it is important to emphasize that Husserl’s
    phenomenological method “is neither deductive nor empirical, but
    consists in pointing to what is given and elucidating it.”[10] It
    claims, in other words, to be yathaa-bhuutam, or “adequate to [actual]
    being.”

    The
    analysis of the original meaning of the Greek term “phenomenon” has
    been performed in masterly fashion by Martin Heidegger.[11] The word
    “phenomenon” (from the verb phainesthai, “let see,” which is similar to
    the Pali ehi-passiko) has two meanings relevant for philosophy. The
    first is “to show itself,” the second, “to seem as.” Contemporary
    phenomenological philosophy uses it in the first sense, as “merely
    letting something be seen, letting entities be perceived.” The secondary
    meaning, indicating something which seems to “remain hidden, or which
    relapses or gets covered again, or shows itself only ‘in disguise,’”
    points to the historical process of constructing theories and “views”
    (Greek doxa, Sanskrit dristi, Pali di.t.thi) by which the primordially
    “uncovered” phenomena are rather concealed again, or kept in disguise.

    The
    same basic idea is adopted by Nicolai Hartmann: “That a being is ‘in
    it-self’ means to say that it exists actually and not only for us…
    Being-in-itself does not need to be proved, it is given as the world
    itself is given.”[12] Hartmann’s most valuable contribution, however, is
    his entrance into the profound analysis of what was above called the
    secondary meaning of the philosophical term “phenomenon.” His analysis
    distinguishes “spheres” and “levels” of being: Broadly, there are two
    primary spheres, designated as real and ideal being. In the sphere of
    the real, four structural levels are distinguished: matter, life,
    consciousness, and mind.

    In
    contexts eliciting such statements, it appears more and more obvious,
    from a Buddhist standpoint, how closely the meaning of the term
    phenomenon, as used in contemporary philosophy, approximates the basic
    meaning of dhamma in the abhidhamma theory. (The last instance quoted
    from Hartmann may remind us even more specifically of the khandhaa
    structures.)

    However,
    beyond the possibility of extending this analogy of phenomenon as
    disclosure of “being-in-itself” understood as a process, it is felt more
    and more by several contemporary European philosophers (just as was the
    case in the original Buddhist counterpart) that the ontological purport
    of being, thus understood as phenomenon or dhammo, must still be
    limited by a critical principle of essentially deeper significance. This
    principle has found its first — and until now its clearest — logical
    formulation in the caatu-ko.tikam (tetralemma) rule by the Buddha, as he
    regularly applies it to the avyaakataani or “not-designated” problems,
    or “dialectical antinomies”[13] of speculative thought: “Neither being,
    nor non-being, nor both being-and-non-being, nor
    neither-being-nor-non-being” can express the existential purport and
    content of human reality. The word “being,” or any other derivate from
    the verb “to be,” cannot adequately express the immediate intuition
    (vipassanaa) of existence, or the essence of actuality (as paramattho).

    This
    deficiency of the basic ontological term “being” has been subtly
    analyzed by Heidegger in his Introduction to Metaphysics. Yet with him
    the philosophy of existence (or human actuality) has taken a prevalently
    ontological direction (as a phenomenological analysis of being). It has
    become a philosophy of our human being-in-the-world, and consequently a
    philosophy of “anguish” or dukkham, even though it was soon felt that
    this ontological turning does not, and cannot, adequately reflect either
    the primordial motives or the ultimate scope of existential thinking.
    Without entering into the historical background of such inner
    divergences in contemporary philosophy, I should like to point out a few
    symptomatic objections which can be compared in their radically
    anti-ontological attitude with the principle of the Matteyya Awakened
    One with Awareness as formulated above.

    According
    to the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness, the person reaping the
    fruits of good and bad actions (in a future life) is neither the same
    one who has committed these actions nor a different one. The same
    principle applies to the structural identification of a person in any
    other respect and circumstance, in the stream of one single physical
    life.

    The
    French philosopher Gabriel Marcel, discussing the problem of the
    structural unity of human personality, comes (at least on the basic
    level) to the conclusion that “the relation between my body and myself
    cannot be described as either ‘being’ or ‘having’: I am my body and yet I
    cannot identify myself with it.”[14] “Existing” does not mean being an
    object. On this supposition, Marcel develops his critical analysis of
    the two inadequate extreme terms of existence in his main work, Being
    and Having.

    Another
    representative of the same trend in French philosophy, Jean Wahl, seems
    to approximate more nearly the actual meaning of the Buddha’s
    avyaakataani (specified above), not from formal logical or even
    linguistic considerations, but rather out of an essentially congenial
    understanding of the deeper problem: “We are concerned with questions
    which, strictly speaking, belong to solitary meditation and cannot be
    subjects of discourse.”[15]

    Nicolas
    Berdyaev, an explicitly religious philosopher close to the same group,
    has given one of the clearest formulations of the point under
    discussion:

    “The
    problem which faces us is: Is being a product of objectification? Is
    not the concept of being concerned with being qua concept, does being
    possess existence at all?… Why is ontology impossible? Because it is
    always a knowledge of objectifying existence. In an ontology the idea of
    being is objectified and an objectification is already an existence
    which is alienated in the objectification. So that in ontology — in
    every ontology — existence vanishes… It is only in subjectivity that
    one may know existence, not in objectivity. In my opinion, the central
    idea has vanished in the ontology of Heidegger and Sartre.”[16]

    In
    agreement with Dilthey’s principle, quoted above, establishing the
    historical world-view of the cultural sciences independently from the
    scientific investigation of essentially objective physical nature,
    Heidegger has limited his inquiry on “time as the horizon for all
    understanding of being.” Against that background, he has criticized and
    abandoned the old substantialist ontology. For him, “temporality is the
    very being of human reality.” The relation time-mind, as quoted above
    from Buddhaghosa’s Atthasaalini, is for Heidegger also exhaustive for
    both terms. And yet Berdyaev, like the other anti-ontologist
    philosophers mentioned here, criticizes even this essential turning in
    contemporary “anthropological ontology,” as at least a partial failure
    to understand authentic existential experience: “As a man Heidegger is
    deeply troubled by this world of care, fear, death, and daily dullness.”
    Despite this, and beyond that sincerity, his philosophy “is not
    existential philosophy, and the depth of existence does not make itself
    felt in it.”[17]

    The
    reason for this was stated clearly and explicitly by Karl Jaspers, who
    was the first to criticize and abandon the ontological position in
    contemporary European philosophy, at the same time that Heidegger
    undertook his essential reform of its fundamental conception. In the
    view of Jaspers, “the ideal followed by ontologies is the perfectioning
    of the rational structure of the objectified world. Technical sciences
    have to help us bring about engineered existences.” Jaspers was, from
    the very beginning of his philosophical critique (about 1930), extremely
    aware of the danger of such scientific technicalization of human
    existence: “As an attempt to bind us to objectified being, ontology
    sublates freedom.” In his view, it is only “as potential existence that I
    am able to lift myself up from bondage. My chains will thus become the
    material of being…” The opposite way of an “engineered” civilization
    will transform me into a slave of that “material” and this actually is
    the typical form of suffering, of dukkham, by which “man in the modern
    age” is oppressed.[18]

    In
    his advanced years, Jaspers has discovered the Buddhist philosopher
    Naagaarjuna as one of the most congenial minds,[19] while Heidegger,
    when reading D.T. Suzuki’s Essays on Zen Buddhism, confessed that this
    was exactly what he had tried to express all his life long.

    Six:
    It was doubt of the material substance of the world which, to a
    considerable extent, provoked the problem of verifying the very idea of
    being, of the “selfhood” of the world, both in its exterior aspect and
    in that which is interior to the human being-in-the-world. What “doubt”
    was at the outset of critical philosophy in the period of its
    substantialist and objectifying orientation (following Descartes),
    disappointment, the “unsatisfactoriness” of the world, has become for
    the actual, subjectively oriented or introverted, humanistic philosophy
    of existence.

    One
    of the best expressions of this turning can be found in some of the
    statements of Gabriel Marcel, who, by the way, defines his religious
    philosophy as a “doctrine of hope.” Its basic postulate is that
    philosophy must be “transobjective, personal, dramatic, indeed tragic.
    ‘I am not witnessing a spectacle’; we should remind ourselves of this
    every day.”[20] The Buddhist implication of this basic attitude may be
    pursued still further in the earlier formulation by Kierkegaard: “Life
    is a masquerade… Your occupation consists in preserving your hiding
    place… In fact you are nothing; you are merely a relation to others,
    and what you are, you are by virtue of this relation… When the
    enchantment of illusion is broken, when existence begins to totter, then
    too does despair manifest itself as that which was at the bottom.
    Despair itself is a negativity, unconsciousness of it is a new
    negativity… This is the sickness unto death.”[21]

    It
    is only by abandoning the attitude of fascination for the “spectacle”
    of the statically staged “Being” of the world that man becomes
    sufficiently movable that he is fit to plunge into the stream of
    existence, no longer attached to some stage-prop or “remainder.” Is only
    then that he can really start swimming along that stream of sa.msaaro,
    realizing that it is pure and simple aniccam or impermanent flux, and
    that he can eventually become aware of the advantage of “crossing” it.

    This
    is the point which contemporary European philosophy seems to be about
    to realize. It is essential for this realization that the principles of
    aniccam and dukkham be inseparably reconnected through the intuition of
    their immediate interaction. In the actual situation, it will no longer
    even be necessary to deduce explicitly the idea of anattaa as the
    dynamic resultant of the confrontation of the first two principles. Just
    like aniccam, anattaa has already become a truism for most Europeans,
    whom a standardized mental training, both scientific and philosophical
    has carried beyond the God and Soul dogma.[22] The phantom of the
    Western version of a materialistic uccheda-vaado is likewise about to be
    dispelled. The critical missing link has only been between impermanence
    (aniccam) and suffering (dukkham). Due to the objectifying nature of
    scientific thinking, this link could never be revealed by a philosophy
    of nature subservient to science, not even of the type of Russell’s
    popular literary criticism quoted above. It is obvious that only an
    existential experience of dukkham, suffering or “anguish,” could bring
    about this realization.

    Today
    we have to thank, for this realization, the catastrophic results and
    further consequences, still being suffered, of two world wars in the
    20th century. That is why a new philosophy, already nascent on the eve
    of the Second World War, has emerged in Europe explicitly as a
    philosophy of conscience rather than of mere consciousness. It should
    appear equally obvious that in such a philosophy there is no longer any
    place for the stubborn false dilemma: philosophy or religion. This last
    problem, which concerns “philosophical faith,” is more important for
    Buddhism than for any other religion. It has found its best diagnostical
    expression in several essays of Karl Jaspers, from which we extract a
    few hints:

    It
    is questionable whether faith is possible without religion. Philosophy
    originates in this question… Man deprived of his faith by the loss of
    his religion is devoting more decisive thought to the nature of his own
    being… No longer does the revealed Deity upon whom all is dependent
    come first, and no longer the world that exists around us; what comes
    first is man, who, however, cannot make terms with himself as being, but
    strives to transcend himself… The unsheltered individual gives our
    epoch its physiognomy… [Formerly] the authority of the church
    sheltered him and sustained him, gave him peace and happiness… Today
    philosophy is the only refuge for those who, in full awareness, are not
    sheltered by religion.[23]

    Obviously,
    “faith” is here no longer understood as a belief in any revelation, but
    as reasonable trust in a qualified spiritual guide whose moral and
    intellectual capacities have to be carefully tested in each single case
    by a sound and mature criterion (apa.n.nako dhammo) such as was
    established by the Buddha in his critical discourses on religion,
    Apa.n.naka-suttam and Ca.nki-suttam (MN 60 and 95), in order to exclude
    empty and blind transmission of religious traditions “as a basket handed
    over from one to the other,” or in “a string of blind men.” “One
    oneself is the guardian of oneself; what other guardian could there be?”
    (Dhp 160)

    Jean-Paul
    Sartre is another philosopher who, though himself not religious,
    realizes the tremendous importance of the religious problem from the
    bias of our critical age, and still more specifically from the bias of
    the deepest metaphysical implications of the idea of aniccam, as
    non-substantiality, undermining the scientific foundation of 19th
    century materialism: The tragic situation of human reality in the world
    consists in the fact that due to his karmic “freedom” man “is not what
    he is, man is what he is not.” This statement, whose implications have
    scandalized many conservative Christian minds, nevertheless corresponds
    to the gist of St. Augustine’s thought as rendered by Jaspers out of a
    different deeply religious concern with the undeniable facticity of the
    same existential situation: “I am myself, but I can fail myself. I must
    put my trust in myself, but I cannot rely on myself.”[24]

    As
    for Sartre, his first deduction from this basic realization of
    anicca-anattaa is that as such “man is a useless passion.” “Human
    reality is the pure effort to become God without there being any given
    substratum for that effort… Desire expresses this endeavor…
    Fundamentally man is the desire to be.” As such, he is always only a
    “project” — ceaselessly “catapulted” from the past to the future (as
    Ortega y Gasset has formulated it), without a natural possibility of
    finding poise in his own present. This is the tragedy of his
    “temporalization,” whose ultimate meaning is aniccam. This is how “the
    existence of desire as a human fact is sufficient to prove that human
    reality is a lack.” How, then, is a possibility of ultimate escape or
    “liberation” conceivable? It is because human reality “is a being such
    that in its being, its being is in question in the form of a project of
    being.” On this basis only, “We can ascertain more exactly what is the
    being of the self: it is value.”[25]

    He
    who wants to delve deeper into such possibilities, it would seem,
    should follow the advice of Gabriel Marcel or of Berdyaev, and try to
    cross beyond the possibilities expressed in any philosophy of being. The
    Buddhist fitting, or “raft,” though considerably larger in its basic
    frame, is readily adaptable to their explicit requirements: “Neither
    being, nor non-being, nor both being-and-non-being, nor
    neither-being-nor-non-being.”
    Notes

    1.
    This essay is a reprint from “Main Currents in Modern Thought,” Vol. 27, No. 5, 1971, revised and enlarged by the author.
    2.

    MN 146 and several other texts. Quotations from Pali suttas are
    adapted mainly from the Pali Text Society’s editions of the Translation
    Series. References in the text are to the Majjhima-nikaayo (MN),
    Diigha-nikaayo (DN), Sa.myutta-nikaayo (SN), Dhammapadam (Dhp).
    3.
    Adequation: (obsolete) The act of equalizing or making equal or commensurate [OED, 2nd ed.] — ATI ed.
    4.

    Quotations from An Outline of Philosophy, 3rd impression. London,
    Allen and Unwin, 1941, pp. 309, 290, 304, 294, 290, 5, 287, 288, 289,
    291, 292, 296, 297, 11, 300, 14.
    5.

    Quoted according to R. Heywood, The Sixth Sense, an Inquiry into
    Extra-Sensory Perception, London, Pan-books, 1959, pp. 205-210.
    6.

    See also his book, Religion, Philosophy, and Psychical Research,
    London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1953, and R. Heywood, op. cit., pp.
    219-222.
    7.

    The following quotations are from Classic American Philosophers,
    General Editor M.H. Fisch, New York, Applenton-Century-Crofts, 1951, pp.
    163, 164.
    8.
    K. Jaspers, The Great Philosophers, ed. By R. Hart-Davis, London, 1962, p. 320.
    9.
    Quotations from Classic American Philosophers, op. cit., pp. 160, 155, 161, 163 n.
    10.
    Cf. I.M. Bochenski, Contemporary European Philosophy, Univ. of California Press, 1961, p. 136 (also for bibliography).
    11.

    The English translation of his main work, Being and Time, was
    published by Harper, New York, 1962. My references are from the 7th
    German ed., Tübingen, M. Niemeyer Verlag, 1953, pp. 28 ff.
    12.
    Cf. Bochenski, op. cit., p. 215.
    13.

    An astonishingly close analogy between the formulation of the four
    antinomies of the dialectical reason by Kant and the same basic
    structure of the four groups of “views” (di.t.thi) in the
    Brahma-jaala-suttam (DN 1) has been singled out in my papers,
    “Dependence of punar-bhava on karma in Buddhist philosophy,” and “My
    Approach to Indian Philosophy,” in Indian Philosophical Annuals, vols. I
    and II, 1965, 1966, under my lay name Chedomil Velyachich.
    14.
    Cf. Bochenski, op. cit., p. 183.
    15.
    Jean Wahl, A Short History of Existentialism, N.Y., The Philosophical Library, 1949, p. 2.
    16.

    N. Berdyaev, The Beginning and the End, Harper Torchbooks, 1957, p.
    92. See also discussion contained in J. Wahl’s book (note 15, above).
    17.
    Op. cit., pp. 116 f.
    18.

    K. Jaspers, Philosophie, 2nd ed. Berlin, Springer, 1948, pp. 814,
    813. Man in the Modern Age is the title of one of Jaspers’ books in
    English translation (London, 1959).
    19.

    In his history of The Great Philosophers, the chapter on Naagaarjuna
    is not included in the selection quoted above (note 8) in English
    translation.
    20.
    Cf. Bochenski, op. cit., p. 183.
    21.

    Cf. A Kierkegaard Anthology, edited by R. Bretall, Princeton Univ.
    Press, 1951, p. 99 (from Either-Or) and p. 346 (from The Sickness Unto
    Death).
    22.

    Cf. Julian Huxley, Religion without Revelation, London, Watts, 1967,
    an analysis characteristic for the necessary elimination of elements
    which an up-to-date definition of religion should not any longer
    postulate as essential.
    23.
    Man in the Modern Age, p. 142 ff., and The Great Philosophers, p. 221.
    24.
    Cf. The Great Philosophers, p. 200.
    25.
    J.-P. Sartre. Being and Nothingness, London, Methuen, 1966, pp. 615, 576, 565, 87, 92.

    A Walk in the Woods
    by Phra Khantipalo

    Come
    with me for a walk in the woods. It is hot, silent, and nearly midday
    but there are patches of shade here and there where we may sit. Around
    us trees of forty years are only twenty feet high, so great is the
    struggle to survive. Many die young and never mature. You can see their
    young skeletons being relentlessly devoured by the termites. Taller
    trees are scattered here and there, battered survivors of a continuous
    fight for life. Many of their limbs have been torn off in sudden monsoon
    squalls, or else they have rotted away by fungus and disease and
    finally fallen off. You see that “sawdust” about this tree? Its top will
    soon fall as some grub is eating away its heartwood. Look over there at
    that young tree all askew — its roots have been attacked by some
    predator and so it has been blown over. And there, do you see that large
    tree, its bark covered with mud-plaster? The termites are under that
    gnawing away its green wood and when they succeed in ringing it all
    round then, in a single day, all its leaves will turn yellow and sixty
    years of growth comes to an end.

    Above
    us, young leaves of translucent green match their brilliance against
    the startling blue sky. Even these young tender leaves are full of
    holes, delicacies for the great beetles that bumble about in the evening
    air. Lower down these trees, the more mature leaves are ragged and lend
    to the forest a threadbare look. Though they must be tough still it
    seems they are the food of some insect. Here and there you can see at
    the base of branches and round the lower parts of the trees yellow
    leaves hanging, stiffly awaiting, as it were, the executioner who will
    come as a breath of wind and bring them down. Parted, they are disjoined
    forever — one changing process from another changing process. They fall
    with a crash among the undergrowth. There they join hundreds of
    thousands which fell before them and litter all the ground with a
    crackly layer of decay. But they do not just decay slowly at their own
    speed. Their decay is quickened by a myriad of ants, termites, worms,
    and funguses, all ready for food and fighting to get it, a fearsome
    underground jungle in miniature.

    A
    bird calls and is still. Far away the bells on the necks of the
    water-buffalo at work in the rice-fields jingle. Insects drone by. You
    see, insects are always either looking for food or avoiding becoming the
    food of others. A breeze sways the trees and a huge round wasps’ nest
    at the top of a slender sapling looks most insecure. Danger! Flies hum
    and buzz, perching on a bamboo swinging in constant motion. Cicadas
    tick, click, and whir far and near as though they were counting the
    seconds of their own — and everyone else’s — lives. Seconds and minutes
    fly into days and months towards death. A ground lizard darts for its
    prey, catches it and chews the living insect with great relish. Another
    death in this round where death goes unremarked because it is
    everywhere.

    Ants
    swarm everywhere in lines, parties or armies, in all shapes and sizes,
    according to their species. They play a great part in the change of this
    forest for they are the scavengers. They have only to scent death and
    they will be there ready to undertake the dismemberment of the corpse.
    Sometimes it is still alive. No decay is uninteresting to them, it is
    their livelihood and they are always busy for beings never cease
    decaying and dying.

    Spiders
    too are found in great variety, all of them ready to pounce on and bite
    to death unwary small creatures that become entangled in their
    shimmering webs. They hang them, iridescent in the sunlight everywhere
    and it is a wonder that anything can fly and yet escape them. But even
    spiders do not escape death, usually from the stings of their enemies,
    the hunting wasps. Though the swaying bough of bamboo is most graceful
    it has been marked as part of this menacing world by a spider’s web hung
    among its leaves. And bamboos are cut down by men for their usefulness.
    Everything, the beautiful and the ugly is subject to impermanence.

    Clouds
    pass across the sky bringing coolness to us here below. Their shapes
    change from minute to minute. Not even one second the same. They look
    very solid yet we know how insubstantial they are. They are just like
    this present time… changing… changing…

    Look
    over here in the forest, a pile of ashes and a few burnt-out logs
    rotting away, and look: here is another older heap nearly dispersed. And
    other piles are round about with occasional carved wooden posts set in
    the ground, all smoldering. What are they? These mark the ends of men
    and women. This forest at the back of the Wat[1] is used for cremation.
    Some days, if you go in the late afternoon you will find a group of
    villagers, and a very simple open-topped coffin. Everyone can see the
    body there clothed as he or she died and looking, as corpses do unless
    interfered with, quite repulsive. The day of cremation is the day on
    which the person died, or the very next day at the latest. Change sets
    in fast and hideously in a body kept in the hot countries. A big pile of
    logs has been made and without ceremony and with no pretentious
    solemnity the coffin is hoisted on top. Bhikkhus having viewed the
    corpse are then asked to chant and some gifts are given and dedicated
    for the good of the dead man. Then without more ado paraffin is splashed
    over the pile and it is set alight. Some stay to see it burn. You can
    soon see the body roasting through the flames when the thin-walled
    coffin has burnt out… until amidst the embers there are only some
    charred pieces of bone… “Aniccaa vata sankaaraa…”

    Now
    the sun, “the eye of the day,” has changed his position, or we have
    changed ours and our short walk in the woods is nearly over. What have
    we seen that does not pass away? Even though I may say that I look out
    of the windows of my hut every day and see the same trees, how near to
    truth is this? How can the trees be the same? They are steadily changing
    they are unstable and certain to come to an end in one way or another.
    They have had a beginning and they must have an end.

    And
    what about this “I” who sees these trees, the forest, the burning
    ground and so on? Permanent or impermanent? Everyone can answer this
    question, for we have seen the answer in the forest. When “I” feel
    depressed and look at the trees they seem stark, ugly moth-eaten
    specimens. But when “I” am glad and look upon them, see, how beautiful
    they are! If, while on our walk, we looked only at the impermanence “out
    there,” now is the time to bring the lesson home to the heart.
    Everything that I am is impermanent, unstable, sure to change and
    deteriorate.

    If
    impermanence meant change all the time towards better and happier
    states how excellent our world would be! But impermanence is allied with
    deterioration. All compounds break down, all made things fall to
    pieces, all conditioned things pass away with the passing of those
    conditions. Everything and everybody — that includes you and me —
    deteriorates, ages, decays, breaks up, and passes away. And we, living
    in the forest of desires, are entirely composed of the impermanent. Yet
    our desire impels us not to see this, though impermanence stares us in
    the face from every single thing around. And it confronts us when we
    look within — mind and body, arising and passing away.

    So
    don’t turn on the TV, go to the pictures, read a book, seize some food,
    or a hundred other distractions just to avoid seeing this. This is the
    one thing really worth seeing, for one who fully sees it in himself is
    Free.

    — The Jewel Forest Monastery
    Sakhon Nakorn, Siam
    Notes

    1.
    Wat is the Thai word for a Buddhist monastery.

    The Buddhist Doctrine of Anicca (Impermanence)
    by Y. Karunadasa, Ph.D. (London)

    The
    Buddhist doctrine of anicca, the transitoriness of all phenomena, finds
    classical expression in the oft-recurrent formula: Sabbe sankhaaraa
    aniccaa, and in the more popular statement: Aniccaa vata sankhaaraa.
    Both these formulas amount to saying that all conditioned things or
    phenomenal processes, mental as well as material, that go to make up the
    sa.msaaric plane of existence are transient or impermanent. This law of
    impermanence is not the result of any kind of metaphysical inquiry or
    of any mystical intuition. It is a straightforward judgment arrived at
    by investigation and analysis, and as such its basis is entirely
    empirical.

    It
    is in fact for the purpose of showing the insubstantiality and
    impermanence of the world of experience that Buddhism analyzes it into a
    multiplicity of basic factors. The earliest attempts at explaining this
    situation are represented in the analysis into five khandas, twelve
    aayatanas, and eighteen dhaatus. In the Abhidhamma we get the most
    detailed analysis into eighty one basic elements, which are introduced
    by the technical term, dhammaa. These are the basic factors into which
    the empiric individuality in relation to the external world is
    ultimately analyzed. They purport to show that there does not exist a
    “unity,” “substance,” “atta,” or “jiiva.” In the ultimate analysis the
    so-called unity is a complex of factors, “one” is really “many.” This
    applies to both mind and matter equally. In the case of living beings
    there is no soul or self which is immortal, while in the case of things
    in general there is no essence which is ever-perduring.

    These
    basic factors, according to Buddhism, do not imply an absolute unity
    (ekatta). They are not fractions of a whole, but a number of co-ordinate
    ultimates. Although real they are not permanent. Nor are they mutually
    unconnected. As such they do not imply a theory of absolute separateness
    (puthutta) either. A good example of this kind of world-view is that of
    Pakudha Kaccaayana, who seeks to explain the composition of the world
    with reference to seven eternally existing and mutually unconnected
    substances. This reduces the world to a concatenation of separate and
    discrete entities, with no inter-connection, with no inter-dependence.
    The Buddhist view of existence does not amount to such an extreme, for
    according to Buddhism the basic factors are inter-connected with laws of
    causation and conditionality. Thus the Buddhist doctrine of
    impermanence is based both on analysis and synthesis. It is through
    analysis that the empirical world is reduced to a multiplicity of basic
    factors, and it is through causality that they are again synthesized.

    That
    existence does not consist of an eternal substance, mental or material,
    but is composed of a variety of constantly changing factors is the
    conclusion that can be drawn from the analysis into khandhas, aayatanas,
    dhaatus, and dhammas. On the impermanence of the five khandhas that
    make up the empiric individuality, we find this statement in the
    Sa.myuttanikaaya: “There is no materiality whatever, O monks, no
    feeling, no perception, no formations, no consciousness whatever that is
    permanent, ever-lasting, eternal, changeless, identically abiding for
    ever.” Then the Blessed One took a bit of cowdung in his hand and he
    spoke to the monks: “Monks, if even that much of permanent,
    ever-lasting, eternal, changeless individual selfhood [attabhaava],
    identically abiding for ever, could be found, then this living of a life
    of purity [brahmacariya] for the complete eradication of Ill
    [dukkhakkhaya] would not be feasible” (SN 22.96).

    What
    is revolutionary about the Buddhist doctrine of impermanence is that it
    is extended to include everything, including consciousness, which is
    usually taken to be permanent, as the soul or as one of its qualities.
    The Majjhima Nikaaya records how Bhikkhu Saati misunderstood Buddha’s
    teaching to mean that consciousness is a permanent entity, which passes
    from one existence to another, like the niraasraya vi~n~naana of the
    Upanisads. This led the Buddha to formulate the well-known principle:
    A~n~natra paccayaa natthi vi~n~naanassa sambhavo — There is no arising
    of consciousness without reference to a condition. This is further
    explained to mean that consciousness comes into being (sambhoti) in
    dependence on a duality.

    What
    is that duality? It is eye, which is impermanent, changing,
    becoming-other, and visible objects, which are impermanent, changing,
    and becoming-other: such is the transient, fugitive duality [of
    eye-cum-visible objects], which is impermanent, changing, and
    becoming-other. Eye-consciousness too is impermanent. For how could
    eye-consciousness arisen by depending on an impermanent condition be
    permanent? The coincidence, concurrence, and confluence of these three
    factors which is called contact and those other mental phenomena arising
    as a result are also impermanent. (The same formula is applied to the
    other sense-organs and the consciousnesses named after them.)

    — SN 35.93

    It is in view of the impermanence and insubstantiality of consciousness that Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness has declared:

    Better
    were it bhikkhus that the uneducated many-folk should conceive this
    four-element-made body, rather than citta, to be soul. And why? The body
    is seen to persist for a year, for two, three, four, five, ten or
    twenty years, for a generation, even for a hundred years or even for
    longer, while that which is called consciousness, that is mind, that is
    intelligence, arises as one thing, ceases as another, both by day and
    night.

    — SN 12.61

    Because
    of its acceptance of this law of universal impermanence, Buddhism
    stands in direct opposition to sassatavaada or eternalism, which usually
    goes hand in hand with aatmavaada, i.e., belief in some kind of
    immortal soul. The Brahmajaala Sutta of the Diighanikaaya alone refers
    to more than ten varieties of eternalism, only to refute them as
    misconceptions of the true nature of the empirical world. But this
    refutation of eternalism does not lead to the acceptance, on the part of
    Buddhism, of the other extreme, namely ucchedavaada or annihilationism,
    which usually goes hand in hand with materialism. The
    Buddhist refutation of both these extremes finds classical expression in
    the following words of the Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness:

    This
    world, O Kaccaayana, generally proceeds on a duality, of the “it is”
    and the “it is not.” But, O Kaccaayana, whoever perceives in truth and
    wisdom how things originate in the world, for him there is no “it is
    not” in this world. Whoever, Kaccaayana, perceives in truth and wisdom
    how things pass away in the world, for him there is no “it is” in this
    world.

    — SN 12.15

    This
    statement of the Buddha refers to the duality (dvayataa) of existence
    (atthitaa) and non-existence (natthitaa). These are the two theories of
    eternalism and annihilationism which find expression in many forms in
    various types of religion and philosophy. The former implies belief in a
    permanent and changeless substance or entity, whether it is conceived
    as a plurality of individual souls as in Jainism, or as a monistic
    world-soul as in Vedaanta, or as a deity of some kind as in most of the
    theistic religions. The latter, on the other hand, implies a belief in
    the temporary existence of separate souls or personalities which are
    entirely destroyed or dissolved after death. A good example of this kind
    of philosophy is the one advocated by Ajita Kesakambali which finds
    mention in the Saama~n~naphala Sutta.

    In
    contrast, according to Buddhism, everything is the product of
    antecedent causes and therefore of dependent origination
    (pa.ticca-samuppanna). These causes themselves are not ever-lasting and
    static, but simply antecedent aspects of the same ceaseless becoming.
    Every event is the result of a concatenation of dynamic processes
    (sankhaara). Neither Being nor non-Being is the truth. There is only
    Becoming, happening by way of cause, continuity without identity,
    persistence without a persistent substance. “He who discerns origin by
    way of cause he discerns the Dhamma, he who discerns the Dhamma he
    discerns origin by way of cause.”

    Thus
    by accepting the theory of causation and conditionality, Buddhism
    avoids the two extremes of sabba.m atthi (everything is) and sabba.m
    natthi (everything is not) and advocates sabba.m bhavati, “everything
    becomes,” i.e., happens by way of cause and effect. It is also because
    of this theory that Buddhism could avoid the two extremes of niyativaada
    (determinism) and ahetu-appaccaya-vaada (indeterminism). According to
    the former everything is absolutely pre-determined, according to the
    latter everything happens without reference to any cause or condition.
    According to both there is no room for free will and as such moral
    responsibility gets completely ruled out. By its theory of causation
    Buddhism avoids both extremes and establishes free will and moral
    responsibility.

    The
    second basic characteristic of the world of experience, namely dukkha
    (unsatisfactoriness) is but a logical corollary arising from this law of
    universal impermanence. For the impermanent nature of everything can
    but lead to one inescapable conclusion: As everything is impermanent,
    they cannot be made the basis of permanent happiness. Whatever is
    transient is by that very fact unsatisfactory — yad anicca.m ta.m
    dukkha.m. Since every form of sa.msaaric existence is impermanent, it is
    also characterized by unsatisfactoriness. Thus the premise: “sabbe
    sankhaaraa aniccaa” leads to the conclusion: “sabbe sankhaaraa dukkhaa.”

    As
    indicative of a general characteristic of phenomena, the term dukkha
    should not be understood in a narrower sense to mean only pain,
    suffering, misery, or sorrow. As a philosophical term it has a wider
    connotation, as wide as that of the term anicca. In this wider sense, it
    includes deeper ideas such as imperfection, unrest, conflict, in short,
    unsatisfactoriness. This is precisely why even the states of jhaana,
    resulting from the practice of higher meditation and which free from
    suffering as ordinarily understood, are also included in dukkha. This is
    also why the characterization dukkha is extended even to matter
    (ruupa). The Visuddhi-magga of Buddhaghosa recognizes these wider
    implications of the term when it explains it as three-fold, namely
    dukkha-dukkha (dukkha as suffering), vipari.naama-dukkha (dukkha as
    change), and sankhaara-dukkha (dukkha as conditioned state).

    As
    a direct and necessary corollary of this fact of dukkha, we come to the
    third basic characteristic of all phenomena, namely anatta, which finds
    expression in the well-known statement: Sabbe dhammaa anattaa. For the
    unsatisfactory nature of everything should lead to this important
    conclusion: If everything is characterized by unsatisfactoriness,
    nothing can be identified as the self or as a permanent soul (attaa).
    What is dukkha (by that very fact) is also anatta. What is not the self
    cannot be considered as I am (ahan ti), as mine (maman ti), or as I am
    that (asmii ti).

    According
    to Buddhism the idea of self or soul is not only a false and imaginary
    belief, with no corresponding objective reality, but is also harmful
    from an ethical point of view. For it produces such harmful thoughts of
    I, me, and mine, selfish desires, attachments, and all other unwholesome
    states of mind (akusalaa dhammaa). It could also be a misery in disguise to one who accepts it as true:

    “Do
    you see, O bhikkhus, such a soul-theory in the acceptance of which,
    there would not arise grief, lamentation, suffering, distress, and
    tribulation?”

    “Certainly not, Sir.”

    “Good,
    O bhikkhus, I too, O bhikkhus, do not see a soul-theory, in the
    acceptance of which there would not arise grief, lamentation, suffering,
    distress, and tribulation.”

    — MN 22

    This
    brings into relief the close connection between the Buddhist doctrine
    of impermanence and Buddhist ethics: If the world of experience is
    impermanent, by that very fact it cannot be made the basis of permanent
    happiness. What is not permanent (anicca) and therefore what is
    characterized by unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) cannot be considered as the
    self (anatta). And what is not the self (atta) cannot be considered as
    one’s own (saka) or as a haven of security (taa.na).
    For the things that one gets attached to are constantly changing. Hence
    attachment to them would only lead to unrest and sorrow. But when one
    knows things as they truly are (yathaabhuuta.m), i.e., as anicca,
    dukkha, and anatta, one ceases to get agitated by them, one ceases to
    take refuge in them. Just as attachment to things is to get fettered by
    them, even so detachment from them is to get freed from them. Thus in
    the context of Buddhist ethics, the perception of impermanence is only a
    preliminary step to the eradication of all cravings, which in turn has
    the attainment of Nibbaana as its final goal.

    It
    will thus be seen that the Buddhist doctrine of anicca, on which is
    also based the doctrine of dukkha and anatta, can rightly be called the
    very foundation of the whole edifice of Buddhist philosophy and ethics.
    This explains why the Buddha has declared that the very perception of
    this fact, namely that whatever comes into existence is also subject to
    dissolution (ya.m ki~nci samudaya-dhamma.m sabba.m ta.m nirodhadhamma.m)
    is indeed the very arising of the stainless Eye of the Doctrine
    (dhamma-cakkhu).
    The Theory of Momentariness

    The
    Buddhist doctrine of impermanence, as explained in the canonical texts,
    does really amount to a theory of momentariness, in the sense that
    everything is in a state of constant flux. This becomes clear from a
    passage in the Anguttara Nikaaya (AN 3.47), where the three
    sankhata-lakkha.nas (the characteristics of that which is compounded)
    are explained. Here it is said that that which is sankhata (compounded)
    has three fundamental characteristics, namely uppaada (origination),
    vaya (dissolution), and .thitassa a~n~nathatta (otherwiseness of that
    which is existing). From this it follows that the Buddhist doctrine of
    change should not be understood in the ordinary sense that something
    arises, exists for some time in a more or less static form, and
    dissolves. On the contrary, the third characteristic, i.e., .thitassa
    a~n~nathatta shows that between its arising and cessation, a thing is
    all the time changing, with no static phase in between. Thus the
    Buddhist doctrine of change does really amount to a theory of universal
    flux.

    As
    far as the application of this theory of change is concerned, there is
    nothing to suggest that early Buddhism had made any distinction between
    mind and matter. However, some schools of Buddhism, notably the
    Mahaasaanghikas, Vaatsiiputriyas, and Sammitiiyas, while recognizing the
    momentary duration of mental elements, assigned a relative permanence
    to matter. Others, such as the Sarvaastivaadins, Mahiisaasakas, and
    Sautraantikas objected to introducing any such distinction and declared
    that all elements of existence, mental as well as material, are of
    momentary duration, of instantaneous being.
    The Theory of Moment (ksa.na-vaada)

    In
    the various schools of Buddhism the early Buddhist doctrine of change
    came to be explained on the basis of a formulated theory of moments.
    This theory is based on the three sankhata-lakkha.nas which we referred
    to earlier. It is in fact on the interpretation of the third sankhata-lakkha.na,
    namely .thitassa a~n~nathatta that the different schools of Buddhism
    differ widely, as if to justify the very meaning conveyed by these two
    words.

    The
    Vaibhaasika School of Buddhism interpret sthityanyathaatva (= .thitassa
    a~n~nathatta) as jarataa, postulate another characteristic called
    sthiti, and thus increase the number of sankhata-lakkha.nas to four: (i)
    jaati (origination), (ii) sthitii (existence), (iii) jarataa (decay),
    (iv) anityataa (extinction). All elements, mental as well as material,
    characterised by them are sa.mskrta (= sankhata). Only aakaasa (space)
    and Nirvaana escape from their inexorable sway. At every moment (ksa.na)
    all mental and material elements are affected by them. A moment is
    defined as the time during which the four characteristics accomplish
    their operation. The Vaibhaasikas also maintain that these
    characteristics are not only distinct from, but also as real as the
    things which they characterize — showing thereby a strong predilection
    to naive realism. And in keeping with this theory, it is also claimed
    that they are in turn characterized by secondary characteristics
    (anulaksa.nas).

    The
    Sautraantika School of Buddhism does not agree with this interpretation
    of the Vaibhaasikas. In their view, the four characteristics apply not
    to one but to a series of momentary elements: “The series itself is
    called sthiti (subsistence), its origin is called jaati, its cessation
    is vyaya, and the difference in its preceding and succeeding moments is
    called sthityanyathaatva” (Abhidharmakosa, III, 78). A momentary
    element, so they argue, cannot have a phase called sthiti or jarataa,
    for whatever that originates has no time to subsist or decay but to
    perish. They also point out that these four characteristics are mere
    designations with no objective reality. They criticize the recognition
    of secondary characteristics on the ground that this would lead to the
    fallacy of infinite regress (anavasthaa). For if the four
    characteristics require a set of secondary characteristics to account
    for their origination, etc., then these secondary characteristics will
    in turn require another set of secondary characteristics to account for
    their origination, etc., and in this manner the process could be
    stretched indefinitely. This problem does not arise — so runs the
    argument — if the characteristics are not recognized as real as the
    things they characterize.

    How
    the Theravaadins developed the doctrine of impermanence, and how they
    interpreted the sankhata-lakkha.nas could be understood clearly when the
    subject is unfolded against this background.

    The
    most striking feature of the Theravada theory is that the fact of
    momentariness is explained in quite a different way: Each dhamma
    (element of existence) has three moments, namely uppaadakkha.na, the moment of origination; .thitikkha.na, the moment of subsistence; and bhangakkha.na,
    the moment of cessation. These three moments do not correspond to three
    different dhammas. On the contrary, they represent three phases — the
    nascent, the static, and cessant — of one “momentary” dhamma. Hence the
    statement that dhammas are momentary means that a given dhamma has three
    momentary phases or stages. It arises in the first moment, subsists in
    the second moment, and perishes in the third moment.

    Like
    the Sautraantikas, the Theravaadins too accept the fact that a
    momentary dhamma has no phase called jarataa or decay. According to the
    argument of both schools, the attribution of jarataa, which implies some
    kind of change or transformation, to a momentary dhamma is to accept
    pari.naamavaada, according to which the essence, the substance remains
    the same while its modes undergo change. Change, as it came to be
    finally defined in the schools of Buddhist logic, is not the
    transformation of one and the same dhamma from one stage to another, but
    the replacement of one momentary dhamma by another. The following
    argument in the Abhidharmakosa, which is directed against the
    Vaibhaasikas who admit jarataa of one momentary dhamma, clarifies this
    situation: “But how can you speak of jarataa or change in respect of one
    momentary dhamma? What is called jarataa or change is the
    transformation or dissimilarity between two stages. Is it possible to
    say that a dharma becomes different from itself. If it remains unchanged
    it cannot be another. If it is transformed it is not the same.
    Therefore the transformation of one dhamma is not possible”
    (Abhidharmakosa, III, 56).

    Hence
    the Sautraantikas and the Theravaadins apply the characteristic of
    jarataa only to a series of momentary dhammas. In their opinion what is
    called jarataa is the difference between the preceding and the
    succeeding moments of a series. There is, however, this difference to be
    noted: Unlike the Sautraantikas, the Theravaadins do not deny the
    static phase (.thiti) of a momentary dhamma. The Theravada argument in
    support of their accepting the static phase is as follows: It is true
    that a dhamma that originates should also cease to exist. But before it
    could cease to exist, there should be at least a moment when it turns
    towards its own cessation (nirodhaabhimukhaavatthaa). It is this moment
    when a dhamma is facing its own cessation that we call the static phase.
    The logic of this argument is that a dhamma that arises cannot cease to
    exist at the same time, for otherwise existence and non-existence would
    become co-existent!

    One
    logical development of this theory of moments is the denial of motion.
    For, if all the elements of existence are of momentary duration, they
    have no time to move. In the case of momentary elements, wherever
    appearance takes place there itself takes place disappearance
    (yatraivotpattih tatraiva vinaasah). In keeping with this theory, motion
    is given a new definition. According to this definition, motion has to
    be understood, not as the movement of one material element from one
    locus in space to another (desaantara-sa.mkraant), but as the appearance
    of momentary elements in adjacent locations (desaantarotpatti),
    creating a false picture of movement. The best example given in this
    case is the light of the lamp. The so-called light of the lamp, it is
    argued, is nothing but a common designation given to an uninterrupted
    production of a series of flashing points. When the production changes
    place one says that the light has changed. But in reality other flames
    have appeared in another place.
    Anicca (Impermanence)
    According to Theravada
    by Bhikkhu Ñanamoli

    According to the Theravada, anicca is the first of what are often called in Buddhist literature the “Three Characteristics” (ti-lakkha.na) or the “General Characteristics” (saama~n~na-lakkha.na). Anicca is usually treated as the basis for the other two, though anattaa, the third, is sometimes founded on dukkha alone.

    The normal English equivalent for anicca is “impermanent.”
    Derivations

    The
    adjective anicca (impermanent) is derived in modern etymology from the
    negative prefix a- plus nicca (permanent: cf. Vedic Sanskrit nitya from
    prefix ni- meaning “onward, downward”). The Paramatthama~njuusaa
    (commentary to the Visuddhimagga) and also the Poraana-Tiikaa (one of
    the three commentaries to the Abhidhammatthasa”ngaha) agree that
    “Because it denies everlastingness, it is not permanent, thus it is
    impermanent” (na niccan ti anicca.m: VisA. 125). The Vibhaavinii-Tikaa
    and Sankhepava.n.nanaa (the other two commentaries to the Abhs.) prefer a
    derivation from the negative prefix an- plus root i to go: “Cannot be
    gone to, is un-approachable, as a permanent, everlasting state, thus it
    is impermanent” (… na iccam, anupagantabban ti aniccam).
    Definitions

    Principal
    definitions given in the Sutta Pi.taka are as follows. “‘Impermanent,
    impermanent’ it is said, Lord. What is impermanent?” — “Materiality
    [ruupa] is impermanent, Raadha, and so are feeling [vedanaa] and
    perception [sa~n~naa] and formations [sankhaara] and consciousness
    [vi~n~naa.na]” (SN 23.1).
    This statement is summarized by a Canonical commentary thus: “What is
    impermanent? The five categories [khandha] are impermanent. In what
    sense impermanent? Impermanent in the sense of rise and fall
    [udaya-vaya]” (Ps. Aanaapaanakathaa/vol. i, 230). Again, “All is
    impermanent. And what is the all that is impermanent? The eye is
    impermanent, visual objects [ruupaa]… eye-consciousness… eye contact
    [cakku-samphassa]… whatever is felt [vedayita] as pleasant or
    unpleasant or neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant, born of eye-contact
    is impermanent. [Likewise with the ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind]”
    (SN 35.43/vol. iv, 28) or, quite succinctly, “All formations are
    impermanent” (MN 35/vol. i, 230) and “Whatever is subject to origination
    [samudaya] is subject to cessation [nirodha]” (MN 56/vol. i, 380). The
    Canonical commentary adds “Materiality [etc.] is impermanent in the
    sense of exhaustion [khaya]” (Ps. ~Naa.nakathaa/vol. i, 37).

    For
    reasons given below, impermanence in strict Abhidhamma treatment
    appears, along with continuity (santati), etc., only as one of the
    secondary (derivative) constituents of the materiality category (see
    e.g., Dhs. & 645), of which the commentary says “Impermanence of
    materiality has the characteristic of complete break-up. Its nature is
    to make instances of materiality subside. It is manifested as their
    exhaustion and fall. Its footing is materiality that is completely
    breaking up” (Vis. Ch. XIV/p.450). A section of the Vibha”nga, however,
    which does not follow the strict Abhidhamma method, extends impermanence
    to the highest kinds of heavenly existence, beyond those with
    fine-materiality (ruupa) to the immaterial (aruupa) where there is
    perception only of infinity of space, infinity of consciousness,
    nothingness, or reduced perception of nothingness
    (Dhammahadaya-Vibha”nga).

    The
    commentaries of Acariya Buddhaghosa elaborate the Sutta definitions
    further, distinguishing between “the impermanent and the characteristic
    of impermanence. The five categories are the impermanent. Why? Because
    their essence is to rise and fall and change, and because, after having
    been, they are not. But the characteristic of impermanence is their
    state of rise and fall and alternation, or it is their
    mode-transformation [aakaara-vikaara] called non-being after having
    been” (Vis. Ch. XXI/p. 640); again “The eye [etc.,] can be known as
    impermanent in the sense of its non-being after having been; and it is
    impermanent for four reasons as well; because it has rise and fall,
    because it changes, because it is temporary, and because it denies
    permanence” (VbhA. 41; cf. MA. ad, MN 22/vol. ii, 113), and “Since its
    destiny is non-being and since it abandons its natural essence because
    of the transmission [of personal continuity] to a new state of being [on
    rebirth], it is ’subject to change,’ which is simply synonymous with
    its impermanence” (VbhA. 49).
    Treatment in the Suttas and Commentaries

    Having
    dealt with derivations and definitions, we can now turn to the Suttas
    and commentaries again in order to see how this subject is handled
    there; for in this article we shall be mainly concerned with quotations,
    leaving discussion to other articles.

    But
    at this point, it is convenient to approach the doctrine of
    impermanence first from the point of view of it as a description of what
    actually is (yathaa-bhuuta), leaving till later the point of view of it
    as a basis for evaluation and judgment, which is the reason and
    justification for the description.

    Impermanence
    is observable empirically and is objectively and publicly evident,
    always if looked for, and from time to time forcing itself upon our
    notice. Externally it is found in the inconstancy of “things,” which
    extends even to the periodical description of world-systems (see e.g.,
    MN 28; SN 15.20; AN 7.62); and in one self it can be observed, for
    instance, in the body’s inadequacy (aadiinava) because it ages, is prone
    to sickness, dies, and gradually decays after death (see MN 13); life
    is short (AN 7.70). But “it would be better for an untaught ordinary man
    to treat as self [attaa] this body, which is constructed upon the four
    great entities [mahaa-bhuuta], then cognizance [citta]. Why? Because
    this body can last one year, two years,… even a hundred years; but
    what is called ‘cognizance’ and ‘mind’ [mano] and ‘consciousness’ [vi~n~naa.na]
    rises and ceases differently through night and day, just as a monkey
    ranging through a forest seizes a branch, and, letting that go, seizes
    another” (SN 12.61/vol. ii, 94.5).

    Nevertheless
    observance of empirical impermanence might not alone suffice for the
    radical position accorded by the Buddha to this characteristic. This is
    established, however, by discovery, through reasoned attention, of a
    regular structure in the subjective-objective process of its occurrence:
    “This body [for example] is impermanent, it is formed [sa.nkhata], and
    it is dependently-arisen [pa.ticca-samuppanna]” (SN 36.7/vol. iv, 211;
    cf. SN 22.21/vol. iii, 24). Here, in fact, three aspects are
    distinguished, three necessary and interlocking constituents of
    impermanence, namely (1) change, (2) formation (as “this, not that,”
    without which no change could be perceived), and (3) a recognizable
    pattern in a changing process (also called “specific conditionality”
    (idapaccayataa), which pattern is set out in the formula of dependent
    origination (pa.ticca-samuppaada). We shall take these three aspects in
    order.
    (1)

    There
    is no single treatise on the characteristic of impermanence either in
    the Tipi.taka or its commentaries, and so we shall have to bring
    together passages from a number of sources. We may also bear in mind
    that the Buddha does not confine descriptions of a general nature such
    as this to the observed alone, but extends them to include the observer,
    regarded as actively committed in the world he observes and acting on
    it as it acts on him, so long as craving and ignorance remain
    unabolished. “That in the world by which one perceives the world
    [loka-sa~n~nii] and conceives concepts about the world [loka-maanii] is
    called ‘the world’ in the Ariyas’s Discipline. And what is it in the
    world with which one does that? It is with the eye, ear, nose, tongue,
    body, and mind” (SN 35.116/vol. iv, 95). That same world “is being worn
    away [lujjhati], that is why it is called ‘world’ [loka]” (SN 35.82/vol.
    iv, 52). That impermanence is not only appropriate to all of any arisen
    situation but also to the totality of all arisen situations:

    “Bhikkhu,
    there is no materiality whatever… feeling… perception…
    formations… consciousness whatever that is permanent, everlasting,
    eternal, not subject to change, that will last as long as eternity.”

    Then
    the Blessed One took a small piece of cowdung in his hand he told the
    bhikkhu: “Bhikkhu, if even that much of permanent, everlasting, eternal
    individual selfhood [attabhaava], not subject to change could be found,
    then this living of a life of purity [brahmacariya] could not be
    described as for the complete exhaustion of suffering [dukkhakkhaya].”

    — SN 22.96/vol. iii, 144

    And again:

    “Bhikkhus,
    I do not dispute with the world [the ‘world’ in the sense of other
    people], the world disputes with me: no one who proclaims the True Idea
    [dhamma] disputes with anyone in the world. What wise men in the world
    say there is not [natthi], that I too say there is not; and what wise
    men in the world say there is [atthi], that I too say there is… Wise
    men in the world say there is no permanent, everlasting, eternal
    materiality not subject to change, and I too say there is none. [And
    likewise with the other four categories.] Wise men in the world say that
    there is impermanent materiality that is unpleasant and the subject to
    change, and I too say there is that.”

    — SN 22.94/vol. iii, 138-9

    Impermanence, it is pointed out in the commentaries, is not always evident unless looked for.

    The
    characteristic of impermanence does not become apparent because, when
    rise and fall are not given attention, it is concealed by continuity…
    However, when continuity is disrupted by discerning rise and fall, the
    characteristic of impermanence becomes apparent in its true nature.”

    — Vis. Ch. xxi/p. 640

    “When
    continuity is disrupted” means when continuity is exposed by
    observation of the perpetual alteration of dhammas as they go on
    occurring in succession. For it is not through dhammas’ connectedness
    that the characteristic of impermanence becomes apparent to one who
    rightly observes rise and fall, but rather the characteristic becomes
    properly evident through their disconnectedness, [regarded] as if they
    were iron darts.”

    — VisA. 824
    (2)

    This
    leads us to the second of the three aspects, that of the formation
    mentioned above; for to be impermanent is to have a beginning and an
    end, to have rise and fall. “Bhikkhus, there are three formed
    characteristics of the formed: arising is evident and fall is evident
    and the alteration of what is present [.thitassa a~n~nathattam] is
    evident” (AN 3.47/vol. i, 152). And one who p