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36 -Sun 11 Apr 2021 LESSON 3638 Buddha-Sasana-The History of the Buddha Gem Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda- Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of Natural Food and Fearlessness for humans to attain Nibbana for creation of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe” in 117 Classical Languages White Home, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru, Prabuddha Bharat International.
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36 -Sun 11 Apr 2021 LESSON 3638 Buddha-Sasana-The History of the Buddha Gem



Kushinara
Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda- Free Online Analytical Research and Practice
University for “Discovery of Natural Food and Fearlessness for humans to attain Nibbana
for creation of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe” in 117
Classical Languages



White Home,
Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru,
Prabuddha Bharat International.




Friends

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Friends

The Buddha
From what is dear, grief is born,
from what is dear, fear is born.
For someone freed from what is dear
there is no grief
– so why fear?
From what is loved, grief is born,
from what is loved, fear is born.
For someone freed from what is loved,
there is no grief
– so why fear?
From delight, grief is born,
from delight, fear is born.
For someone freed from delight
there is no grief
– so why fear?
From sensuality, grief is born,
from sensuality, fear is born.
For someone freed from sensuality
there is no grief
– so why fear?
From craving, grief is born,
from craving, fear is born.
For someone freed from craving
there is no grief
– so why fear?
Dhammapada 212-216


Verse 212. The Outcome Of Endearment



From endearment grief is born,
from endearment fear,
one who is endearment-free
has no grief - how fear.


Explanation: From endearment arises sorrow. From endearment
fear arises. For one free of endearment, there is no sorrow. Therefore,
how can there be fear for such a person?

Verse 213. Sorrow And Fear Arise Due To Loved Ones



From affection grief is born,
from affection fear,
one who is affection-free
has no grief - how fear?


Explanation: From affection sorrow arises. From affection
fear arises. To one free of affection there is no sorrow. Therefore,
how can there be fear for such a person?

Verse 214. The Outcome Of Passion



From lustfulness arises grief,
from lustfulness springs fear,
one wholly free of lustfulness
has no grief - how fear?


Explanation: From passion arises sorrow. From passion fear
arises. To one free of passion there is no sorrow, In such a person
how can there be fear?

Verse 215. The Outcome Of Lust



From attachment grief is born,
from attachment fear,
one who is attachment-free
has no grief - how fear?


Explanation: From desire arises sorrow. From desire fear arises.
To one free of desire there is no sorrow. For such a person how can
there be fear?

Verse 216. Sorrow And Fear Arise Due To Miserliness



Out of craving grief is born,
out of craving fear,
one fully freed of craving
has no grief - how fear?


Explanation: From craving arises sorrow. From craving fear
arises. To one free of craving there is no sorrow. For such a person
how can there be fear?


Those
who are afraid when there should be no fear, and are not afraid when
there should be fear, such men, due to their wrong views go to woeful
states.
Dhammapada 317

Verse 317. Fear And Fearlessness In Wrong Places

They are afraid where fear is not
but where is fear are unafraid,
so by embracing evil views
beings go to an evil birth.

Explanation: There are some who are afraid of what they should
not fear. There are also some who are not afraid of what they should
really fear. They, all, who embrace false beliefs go to woeful states.

The
thought would occur to me: ‘Is this that fear & terror coming?’
Then the thought occurred to me: ‘Why do I just keep waiting for fear?
What if I were to subdue fear & terror in whatever state they come?’
So when fear & terror came while I was walking back & forth, I
would not stand or sit or lie down. I would keep walking back &
forth until I had subdued that fear & terror. When fear & terror
came while I was standing, I would not walk or sit or lie down. I would
keep standing until I had subdued that fear & terror. When fear
& terror came while I was sitting, I would not lie down or stand up
or walk. I would keep sitting until I had subdued that fear &
terror. When fear & terror came while I was lying down, I would not
sit up or stand or walk. I would keep lying down until I had subdued
that fear & terror.
Bhaya-bherava Sutta
Life Changing Buddha Quotes On Fear | Quotes In English
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Life Changing Buddha Quotes On Fear | Quotes In English
List of Buddhists - Wikipedia

Search domain

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Buddhistshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Buddhists

Rulers
and monarchs. Anawrahta (1015-1078),

Statue of King Anawrahta in front of the DSA


Pagan plains today



Ruins of the old Pagan Palace
Burmese nobles partaking in equestrian sports
Pagan commander Aung Zwa in the service of Sithu II
Pagan’s prosperous economy built over 10,000 temples.


Ruins of Pagan
The Htilominlo Temple


Thingyan New Year’s festivities

Myazedi inscription in the Burmese script


in Pyu

in Mon
in Pali
Modern Burmese alphabet. The Old Burmese script did not have cursive features, which are hallmarks of the modern script.
Frescoes of Buddhist Jataka stories at a Pagan temple

Statute of Vishnu at the Nat-Hlaung Kyaung Temple

Ananda Temple’s Kassapa Buddha – South facing
Kakusandha Buddha – North facing
Koṇāgamana Buddha – East facing
Gautama Buddha – West facing
Mt. Popa, home of the pantheon of nats
Design of 19th century Mandalay Palace followed its Pagan era predecessors

Evolution of the Burmese stupa: Bawbawgyi Pagoda (7th century Sri Ksetra)
Bupaya (pre-11th century)
The Lawkananda (pre-11th century)
The Shwezigon (11th century)
The Dhammayazika (12th century)
The Mingalazedi (13th century)

“One-face”-style Gawdawpalin Temple (left) and “four-face” Dhammayangyi Temple
founder of the Pagan Kingdom and
credited with introducing Theravada Buddhism there and reintroducing it
in Ceylon; Ashoka (304-232 BC), Mauryan Emperor of ancient India, and
the first Buddhist ruler to send Buddhist missionaries outside of India
throughout the Old World (阿育王)

http://factsanddetails.com/india/History/sub7_1a/entry-4110.html

ASHOKA (304-236 B.C.): HIS RULE, KALINGA AND THE SPREAD OF BUDDHISM








ASHOKA



Ashoka and his two queens at Sanchi


Emperor Asoka (born 304 B.C.,ruled 274-236 B.C.) was
arguably the greatest ruler in Indian history and was the man who
ensured Buddhism success as a world religion. After Asoka conquered the
kingdom of Kalinga, in one of most important battles in the history of
the world, near the Brubaneswar airport in the state of Orissa, he was
so appalled by the number of people that were massacred (perhaps 100,000
or more) he converted himself and his kingdom to Buddhism and sent
Buddhist missionaries to the four corners of Asia to spread the
religion. The wheel Asoka used to symbolize his conversion to Buddhism
is the same one pictured on India’s flag today. H.G. Wells, a noted
historian as well as science fiction writer, wrote: “Amidst the tens of
thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history … the
name of Ashoka shines, and shines almost alone, a star.”


As the leader of the Maurya Empire Ashoka unified all
of the subcontinent except the southern tip and put all of India under
unified control for the first time. An early convert to Buddhism, his
regime was remembered for its sectarian tolerance, as well as for
remarkable administrative, legal, and cultural achievements. Under
Ashoka, Buddhism was widely propagated and spread to Sri Lanka and
Southeast Asia. Many Buddhist monuments and elaborately carved cave
temples found at Sarnath, Ajanta, Bodhgaya, and other places in India
date from the reigns of Ashoka and his Buddhist successors.


According to PBS: Ashoka “ruled over a territory
stretching from the northern Himalayas into peninsular India and across
the widest part of the subcontinent. Known for his principles of
non-violence and religious tolerance, Ashoka modeled himself as a
cakravartin, the Buddhist term for a “universal ruler,” whose rule was
based on the principle of dharma or conquest not by war but
righteousness. To advance this principle, Ashoka had edicts based on the
dharma carved on rocks, pillars, and caves throughout his kingdom and
sent emissaries abroad to disseminate his views.” [Source: PBS, The
Story of India, pbs.org/thestoryofindia]


Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts from The
Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “ The Mauryan emperor Ashoka (272–231
B.C.), a great military leader, conquered a large part of India. As a
reaction to the horrors of war, he converted to Buddhism. To bring the
Buddha’s teachings to his people, Ashoka built stupas throughout his
kingdom. He also introduced a system of writing, which had been absent
in India since the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization. When the
Mauryan dynasty came to an end in the second century B.C., India was
once again divided into smaller kingdoms. However, Buddhism continued to
spread, and with it the building of stone stupas and meeting halls.
<> [Source: Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts, The Art of
South, and Southeast Asia, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York]


Websites and Resources on Buddhism: Buddha Net buddhanet.net/e-learning/basic-guide ; Religious Tolerance Page religioustolerance.org/buddhism ; Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Internet Sacred Texts Archive sacred-texts.com/bud/index ; Introduction to Buddhism webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro ;
Early Buddhist texts, translations, and parallels, SuttaCentral suttacentral.net ;
East Asian Buddhist Studies: A Reference Guide, UCLA web.archive.org ; View on Buddhism viewonbuddhism.org ;
Tricycle: The Buddhist Review tricycle.org ;
BBC - Religion: Buddhism bbc.co.uk/religion ;
Buddhist Centre thebuddhistcentre.com; A sketch of the Buddha’s Life accesstoinsight.org ;
What Was The Buddha Like? by Ven S. Dhammika buddhanet.net ;
Jataka Tales (Stories About Buddha) sacred-texts.com ;
Illustrated Jataka Tales and Buddhist stories ignca.nic.in/jatak ;
Buddhist Tales buddhanet.net ; Arahants, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas by Bhikkhu Bodhi accesstoinsight.org ; Victoria and Albert Museum vam.ac.uk/collections/asia/asia_features/buddhism/index



Ashoka and the Maurya Empire



Ashoka visiting Ramagrama stupa, from Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern gateway


The Maurya empire reached its zenith under Ashoka (273
and 232 B.C.)., who conquered most of the Indian subcontinent and then
made Buddhism the state religion. The grandson of Chandragupta, Ashoka
inscribed edicts Buddhist tenants on pillars throughout India,
downplayed the caste system and tried to end expensive sacrificial
rites.


According to PBS: His “exemplary story remains popular
in folk plays and legends across southern Asia. The emperor ruled a vast
territory that stretched from the Bay of Bengal to Kandahar and from
the North-West Frontier of Pakistan to below the Krishna River in
southern India. The year 261 B.C. marks a turning point in Ashoka’s
reign when, in part to increase access to the Ganges River, he conquered
the east coast kingdom of Kalinga. By Ashoka’s account, more than
250,000 people were killed, made captive or later died of starvation.
Feeling remorseful about this massive suffering and loss, the emperor
converted to Buddhism and made dharma, or dhamma, the central foundation
of his personal and political life…To some historians, the edicts
unified an extended empire, one that was organized into five parts
governed by Ashoka and four governors. After his reign, Ashoka has
become an enduring symbol of enlightened rule, non-violence, and
religious tolerance. In 1950, the Lion Capital of Ashoka, a sandstone
sculpture erected in 250 B.C., was adopted as India’s official emblem by
then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. [Source: PBS, The Story of
India, pbs.org/thestoryofindia]


Ashoka and his predecessors and descendants created the
largest ever Indian empire—stretching from present-day Myanmar (Burma)
to Afghanistan and Sri Lanka. Ashoka is regarded as the first leader to
conquer the world “in the name of religion and universal peace.” Ashoka
established a stable kingdom that lasted for over a hundred years and
was supported by land taxes and trade duties, Trade expanded,
agriculture produced bountiful harvests and new roads were buily to
facilitate the movement of goods. One road extended all the way from
Taxila in modern-day Pakistan to Tamralipti, the main port at the Ganges
Delta.


Contacts established with the Hellenistic world during
the reign of Ashoka’s predecessors served him well. He sent
diplomatic-cum-religious missions to the rulers of Syria, Macedonia, and
Epirus, who learned about India’s religious traditions, especially
Buddhism. India’s northwest retained many Persian cultural elements,
which might explain Ashoka’s rock inscriptions–such inscriptions were
commonly associated with Persian rulers. Ashoka’s Greek and Aramaic
inscriptions found in Kandahar in Afghanistan may also reveal his desire
to maintain ties with people outside of India. [Source: Library of
Congress]


Ashoka and Spread of Buddhism


Under Ashoka, Buddhism was widely propagated and spread
to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Many Buddhist monuments and
elaborately carved cave temples found at Sarnath, Ajanta, Bodhgaya, and
other places in India date from the reigns of Ashoka and his Buddhist
successors. Ashoka sent Buddhist missionaries to the four corners of
Asia to spread the religion, led pilgrimages to all the Buddhist sacred
places, repaired old shrines, stupas and built new ones. he was a
tolerant ruler. He did not campaign against Brahmanism (Hinduism) he
just derided some of the Hindu ceremonies and sacrifices as wasteful. To
further the influence of dharma, he sent his son, a Buddhist monk, to
Sri Lanka, and emissaries to countries including Greece and Syria.


The conversion process from Hinduism and Buddhism was
easy in many places because Buddhism borrowed so many ideas and
doctrines from Hinduism. When Asoka converted to Buddhism he simply
changed Hindu stupas representing Mount Meru into Buddhist stupas that
also represented Mt. Meru.


Buddhism appealed to merchants and took hold primarily
in urban areas. Before its final decline in India, Buddhism developed
the popular worship of enlightened beings (heavenly Bodhisattvas),
produced a refined architecture (stupas or shrines) at Sanchi and
sculpture (Gandharara reliefs 1-400 AD) on the geographical fringes of
the Indian civilization. [Source: World Almanac]


Buddhism and Jainism had a profound impact on Indian
and Hindu culture. They discouraged caste distinctions, abolished
hereditary priesthoods, made poverty a precondition of spirituality and
advocated the communion with the spiritual essence of the universe
through contemplation and meditation.


Ashoka’s Pillars and Edicts


Ashoka placed rocks and stone pillars engraved with
morally uplifting inscriptions on the sides of public roads to demarcate
and define his kingdom. It was long thought they carried Buddhist
messages but although some mentioned the idea of dharma they dealt
mostly with the secular matters such as building wells, establishing
rest houses for travelers, planting trees and founding medical services.
Many of the commemorative stones pillars—at least 18 rocks and 30
stone pillars— he erected are still standing.


Ashoka’s inscriptions chiseled on rocks and stone
pillars located at strategic locations throughout his empire–such as
Lampaka (Laghman in modern Afghanistan), Mahastan (in modern
Bangladesh), and Brahmagiri (in Karnataka)–constitute the second set of
datable historical records. According to some of the inscriptions, in
the aftermath of the carnage resulting from his campaign against the
powerful kingdom of Kalinga (modern Orissa), Ashoka renounced bloodshed
and pursued a policy of nonviolence or ahimsa, espousing a theory of
rule by righteousness. His toleration for different religious beliefs
and languages reflected the realities of India’s regional pluralism
although he personally seems to have followed Buddhism (see Buddhism).
Early Buddhist stories assert that he convened a Buddhist council at his
capital, regularly undertook tours within his realm, and sent Buddhist
missionary ambassadors to Sri Lanka. [Source: Library of Congress *]


Throughout his kingdom, the emperor inscribed laws and
injunctions inspired by dharma on rocks and pillars, some of them
crowned with elaborate sculptures. Many of these edicts begin “Thus
speaks Devanampiya Piyadassi [Beloved of the Gods]” and counsel good
behavior including decency, piety, honoring parents and teachers and
protection of the environment and natural world. Guided by this
principle, Ashoka abolished practices that caused unnecessary suffering
to men and animals and advanced religious toleration.

Ashoka’s Accession


The grandson of Chandragupta, Ashoka reportedly had to
show he was willing to murder 99 rival brothers before he was allowed t
claim the throne.


According to the Purdnas, Bindusara ruled for 25
years, whereas the Pali books assign to him a reign of 27 or 28 years.
Assuming the correctness of the former, Bindusara must have died about
272 B.C., when he was succeeded by one of his sons, named
Ashokavardhana or Ashoka, who had served his period of apprenticeship
as Viceroy both at Taxila and Ujjain. [Source: “History of Ancient
India” by Rama Shankar Tripathi, Professor of Ancient Indian History and
Culture, Benares Hindu University, 1942]


The Ceylonese accounts represent him ( Ashoka) as
wading through a pool of blood to the throne, for he is said to have
made short work of all his brothers, 99 in number, except his uterine
brother, Tisya. This story is doubted by many scholars, who detect an
allusion to the existence of his brothers in Rock Edict V. But,
although the epigraphic evidence is inconclusive, as, it simply
mentions Ashoka’s solicitude for the harems of his brothers, we may
well believe that the Southern version is exaggerated. Presumably, the
monks were interested in emphasising the dark background of his early
career to show how A 4 oka, the monster of cruelty, was turned into the
most gentle sovereign after he had come under the influence of the
merciful teachings of the Buddha. This much, however, may be accepted
as a fact that Ashoka had to reckon against his eldest brother, Susima
or Sumana, before he could establish his claim to the throne. That the
succession was disputed is also indicated by the interval of three or
four years between Ashoka’s accession and coronation, which may,
therefore, be dated circa 269 or 268 B.C.


Agam Kuan is an important archaeological site in Patna.
Its name means unfathomable well and it is widely believed to be
associated with Ashoka. It is said that the Agam Kuan was part of king
Ashoka’s hell chambers and used for purposes of torture. Apparently,
fire used to emanate from the well and offenders were thrown into this
fiery well. A legend says that it is the site where emperor Ashoka
killed his 99 brothers by throwing them into the well. His aim was to be
the master of the throne of the Mauryan empire. Devotees throw flowers
and coins into this well as it is considered auspicious.




Ashoka’s Wives and Family


Various sources mention five consorts of Ashoka: Devi,
Karuvaki, Asandhimitra, Padmavati, and Tishyarakshita). Kaurvaki is the
only queen of Ashoka known from his own inscriptions: she is mentioned
in an edict inscribed on a pillar at Allahabad. The inscription names
her as the mother of prince Tivara, and orders the royal officers to
record her religious and charitable donations. [Source: Wikipedia


According to the Mahavamsa, Ashoka’s chief queen was
Asandhimitta, who died four years before him. It states that she was
born as Ashoka’s queen because in a previous life, she directed a
pratyekabuddha to a honey merchant (who was later reborn as Ashoka).
Some later texts also state that she additionally gave the
pratyekabuddha a piece of cloth made by her. These texts say one day
Ashoka mocked Asandhamitta was enjoying a tasty piece of sugarcane
without having earned it through her karma. Asandhamitta replied that
all her enjoyments resulted from merit resulting from her own karma.
Ashoka then challenged her to prove this by procuring 60,000 robes as an
offering for monks. At night, the guardian gods informed her about her
past gift to the pratyekabuddha, and next day, she was able to
miraculously procure the 60,000 robes. An impressed Ashoka makes her his
favourite queen. , and even offers to make her a sovereign ruler.
Asandhamitta refuses the offer, but still invokes the jealousy of
Ashoka’s 16,000 other wives. Ashoka proves her superiority by having
16,000 identical cakes baked with his royal seal hidden in only one of
them. Each wife is asked to choose a cake, and only Asandhamitta gets
the one with the royal seal. The Trai Bhumi Katha claims that it was
Asandhamitta who encouraged her husband to become a Buddhist, and to
construct 84,000 stupas and 84,000 viharas.


According to Mahavamsa, after Asandhamitta’s death,
Tissarakkha became the chief queen. The Ashokavadana does not mention
Asandhamitta at all, but does mention Tissarakkha as Tishyarakshita.
The Divyavadana mentions another queen called Padmavati, who was the
mother of the crown-prince Kunala.


According to the Sri Lankan tradition, Ashoka fell in
love with Devi (or Vidisha-Mahadevi), as a prince in central India.
After Ashoka’s ascention to the throne, Devi chose to remain at Vidisha
than move to the royal capital Pataliputra. According to the Mahavmsa,
Ashoka’s chief queen was Asandhamitta, not Devi: the text does not talk
of any connection between the two women, so it is unlikely that
Asandhamitta was another name for Devi. The Sri Lankan tradition uses
the word samvasa to describe the relationship between Ashoka and Devi,
which modern scholars variously interpret as sexual relations outside
marriage, or co-residence as a married couple.


Tivara, the son of Ashoka and Karuvaki, is the only of
Ashoka’s sons to be mentioned by name in the inscriptions. According to
North Indian tradition, Ashoka had a son named Kunala.[23] Kunala had a
son named Samprati. The Sri Lankan tradition mentions a son called
Mahinda, who was sent to Sri Lanka as a Buddhist missionary; this son is
not mentioned at all in the North Indian tradition. The Chinese pilgrim
Xuanzang states that Mahinda was Ashoka’s younger brother (Vitashoka or
Vigatashoka) rather than his illgetimate son. The Divyavadana mentions
the crown-prince Kunala alias Dharmavivardhana, who was a son of queen
Padmavati. According to Faxian, Dharmavivardhana was appointed as the
governor of Gandhara. The Rajatarangini mentions Jalauka as a son of
Ashoka. According to Sri Lankan tradition, Ashoka had a daughter named
Sanghamitta, who became a Buddhist nun.


Perry Garfinkel wrote in National Geographic: “As
Buddhism migrated out of India, it took three routes. To the south,
monks brought it by land and sea to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. To the
north, they spread the word across Central Asia and along the Silk Road
into China, from where it eventually made its way to Korea and Japan. A
later wave took Buddhism over the Himalaya to Tibet. In all the
countries, local customs and cosmologies were integrated with the
Buddhist basics: the magic and masks of demon-fighting lamas in Tibet,
the austerity of a Zen monk sitting still as a rock in a perfectly raked
Japanese garden. Over centuries Buddhism developed an inclusive style,
one reason it has endured so long and in such different cultures. People
sometimes compare Buddhism to water: It is still, clear, transparent,
and it takes the form and color of the vase into which it’s poured.”
[Source: Perry Garfinkel, National Geographic, December 2005]

Battle of Kalinga


The Battle of Kalinga in the 260s B.C. was fought India
between the Maurya Empire under Ashoka and the state of Kalinga, an
independent feudal kingdom located on the east coast, in the present-day
state of Odisha. It included one of the largest and bloodiest battles
in Indian history. The conflict was the only major war Ashoka engaged in
after his accession to the throne and the battle marked the close of
empire building and military conquests of ancient India that began with
Maurya king Bindusara. The death and destruction caused by the battle is
said to have led to Ashoka decision to adopt Buddhism. [Source:
Wikipedia]


The war was completed in the eighth year of Ashoka’s
reign, according to his own Edicts of Ashoka, probably in 262 B.C. The
battle took place after a bloody battle for the throne following the
death of his father, Ashoka prevailed and conquered Kalinga – but the
consequences of the savagery changed Ashoka’s views


According to PBS: “The Battle of Kalinga, an east coast
kingdom in modern Orissa, marked a turning point in the rule of the
Mauryan emperor, Ashoka the Great (c. 269–233 B.C.). In about 261 B.C.,
Ashoka fought a bloody war for the kingdom, a conquest he records in the
thirteenth and most important of his Fourteen Rock Edicts. In the
edict, he numbered the conflict’s casualties and prisoners at more than
200,000 and expressed remorse for this massive loss of life and freedom.
He renounced war for conquest through righteousness, dharma: “They
should only consider conquest by dharma to be a true conquest, and
delight in dharma should be their whole delight, for this is of value in
both this world and the next.” Dharma became the organizing principle
of Ashoka’s personal and public life and shaped his policies of
non-violence and religious tolerance. [Source: PBS, The Story of India,
pbs.org/thestoryofindia]


Ramesh Prasad Mohapatra wrote in “Military History of
Orissa”: “No war in the history of India as important either for its
intensity or for its results as the Kalinga war of Ashoka. No wars in
the annals of the human history has changed the heart of the victor from
one of wanton cruelty to that of an exemplary piety as this one. From
its fathomless womb the history of the world may find out only a few
wars to its credit which may be equal to this war and not a single one
that would be greater than this. The political history of mankind is
really a history of wars and no war has ended with so successful a
mission of the peace for the entire war-torn humanity as the war of
Kalinga.”


Dhauligiri (or Dhauli, eight kilometers miles from
Bhubaneswar) is where the Battle of Kalinga was fought. Situated by Daya
Stream, the main attraction are the rock edicts and Peace Pagoda, or
Dhauli Shanti Stupa, a large white stupa made in collaboration with the
Japanese. From the top of the hill on which the stupa stands one can
scan the famous battle field. On the rock there is an inscription of an
elephant, the symbol of Buddha, reputedly placed there by Ashoka himself


Kalinga and the Background of the Battle


Kalinga is mentioned in the ancient scriptures as
Kalinga the Braves (Kalinga Sahasikha). During the 3rd century B.C. the
Greek ambassador Megasthenes in his tour of India had mentioned about
the military strength of the Kalinga army of about one lakh which
consisted of 60 thousand soldiers, 1700 horses and thousands of
elephants. Kalinga was also powerful in the naval force. The vast
military strength of Kalinga was the cause of jealousy for the Magadha
empire. According to the historians the Magadha Emperor Ashoka invaded
Kalinga in 261 B.C. Nearly one lakh soldiers lost their lives in the
Kalinga War and one and half lakh soldiers were captured.


During Ashoka’s invasion the capital of Kalinga was
Toshali near Dhauli. The vast wealth, military power and the maritime
activities of the Kalinga was the cause of jealousy for the Magadha
empire. Though both Emperor Chandragupta Maurya and Bindusar wanted to
conquer Kalinga, neither ventured a war with Kalinga.


After the death of Ashoka, the Great Kharavela became
the emperor of Kalinga. He was the monarch of the Chedi Dynasty. The
inscription found in the Elephant Caves of Khandagiri and Udaigiri
mountains near Bhubaneswar describes in detail the reign of Emperor
Kharavela.


Kalinga did not have a king at the time of the battle as
it was culturally run without any. The reasons for invading Kalinga
were both political and economic. Kalinga was a prosperous region
consisting of peaceful and artistically skilled people. Known as the
Utkala, they were the first from the region who traveled offshore to the
southeast for trade. For that reason, Kalinga had important ports and a
powerful navy. They had an open culture and used a uniform civil code.


Kalinga was under the rule of the Nanda Empire until
the empire’s fall in 321 B.C. Ashoka’s grandfather Chandragupta Maurya
had previously attempted to conquer Kalinga, but had been repulsed.
Ashoka set himself to the task of conquering the newly independent
empire as soon as he felt he was securely established on the throne.
Kalinga was a strategic threat to the Maurya empire. It could interrupt
communications between Maurya capital Pataliputra and Maurya possessions
in central Indian peninsula. Kalinga also controlled the coastline for
the trade in bay of Bengal.

Impact of the Battle of Kalinga



Ashoka’s Lion Pillar on the way to the Dhauli Giri


Ashoka was shocked by the bloodshed and felt that he
was the cause of the destruction. The whole area of Kalinga was
plundered and destroyed. Some of Ashoka’s later edicts state that about
150,000 people died on the Kalinga side and an almost equal number of
Ashoka’s army, though legends among the Odia people – descendants of
Kalinga’s natives – claim that these figures were highly exaggerated by
Ashoka. According to their legends, Kalinga armies caused twice the
amount of destruction they suffered. Thousands of men and women were
deported from Kalinga and forced to work on clearing wastelands for
future settlement.

The war and led Ashoka to pledge to never again wage a war of conquest.
Ashoka, Rock Edict No. 13 reads: “Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Priyadarsi,
conquered the Kalingas eight years after his coronation. One hundred and
fifty thousand were deported, one hundred thousand were killed and many
more died (from other causes). After the Kalingas had been conquered,
Beloved-of-the-Gods came to feel a strong inclination towards the
Dharma, a love for the Dharma and for instruction in Dharma. Now
Beloved-of-the-Gods feels deep remorse for having conquered the
Kalingas.


The Battle of Kalinga prompted Ashoka, already a
non-engaged Buddhist, to devote the rest of his life to ahimsa
(non-violence) and to dharma-vijaya (victory through dharma). Following
the conquest of Kalinga, Ashoka ended the military expansion of the
empire and began an era of more than 40 years of relative peace,
harmony, and prosperity.


The Battle of Kalinga took place during eighth year of
Ashoka’s reign. Rama Shankar Tripathi wrote: “We have ventured the
surmise elsewhere that the power of the Nandas extended to this region,
and hence it must have asserted its independence in the confusion
accompanying their overthrow, or during the disturbed reign of
Bindusara. Thus, the task of recovering it fell to the lot of Ashoka.
The Kalinga people offered stubborn resistance, for we learn from R.
E. XIII that in the conflict no less than “one hundred and fifty
thousand persons were captured, one hundred thousand were slain, and
many times that number died,” perhaps of privation and pestilence. But
nothing availed them, and their country was ruthlessly pillaged and
conquered.” [Source: “History of Ancient India” by Rama Shankar
Tripathi, Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Benares Hindu
University, 1942]

Extent of Ashoka’s Empire


It is well known that Kalinga was the only conquest of
Ashoka. But he had inherited an enormous empire from his predecessors,
and its limits may be fixed with tolerable accuracy. On the north-west,
it certainly extended to the Hindu Kush, for there is every reason to
believe that he retained the four satrapies of Aria (Herat), Arachosia
(Kandahar), Gedrosia (Baluchistan), and Paropanisadas (Kabul valley),
which were ceded to his grand-father by Selcukos Nikator. That
Southern Afghanistan and the frontier regions continued to form part of
Ashoka’s vast realm is clear from the findspots of his rock-edicts in
Shahbazgarhi (Peshawar district) and Mansehra (Hazara district), as also
from the evidence of Xuanzang who refers to the existence, of Ashokan
Stupas in Kafiristan (Kapisa) and Jalalabad. [Source: “History of
Ancient India” by Rama Shankar Tripathi, Professor of Ancient Indian
History and Culture, Benares Hindu University, 1942]


Further, the inclusion of Kashmir is deposed by the
Chinese pilgrim, Xuanzang. It may be interesting to add here that the
foundation of Srlnagar is ascribed to Ashoka, who is also credited with
having built numerous Stupas and Caitjas in the valley. The
inscriptions of Ashoka at Girnar and Sopara (Thana district)
definitively point to his jurisdiction over Saurastra and the
south-western regions. Besides, we also know from the Junagadh rock
inscription of Rudradaman that Yavanaraja Tusaspa 1 was Ashoka’s
Viceroy in Saurastra.


In the north, Ashoka’s authority extended up to the
Himalaya mountains. This is apparent from his edicts, which have been
found at Kalsi (Dchradun district), Rummindei and Nigliva (Nepalese
Tarai). Tradition also attributes to Ashoka the foundation of
Lalitapatart in Nepal, where he went with his daughter Carumatl and
her husband Devapala Ksatriya.


Eastwards, Bengal was comprised within his empire.
Xuanzang noticed several Ashokan Stupas in the different parts of
Bengal, and according to legends Ashoka went as far as Tamralipti
(Tamluk) to see his son and daughter off to Ceylon. Kalinga, which was
the only conquest of the Emperor, was, of course, included. Here he
got two edicts inscribed — one at Dhauli (Puri district) and the other
at Jaugada (Ganjam district). The inclusion of Bengal in the Mauryan
Empire further receives some confirmation from the Mahasthan (Bogra
district) Pillar Inscription, engraved in Brahmi characters of the
Mauryan period.


Towards the south, Ashoka’s rock inscriptions have
been discovered in Maski and Iragudi in the Nizam’s dominions, and
Chitaldroog district in Mysore. Beyond this, there were the independent
kingdoms of the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, and the
Keralaputras (R. E. if).


Lastly, the edicts contain references to some of the
towns 6f the empire, viz,, Bodhgaya, Taksasila (Taxila), Tosali,
Samapa, Ujjayini, Suvarnagiri (Songir or Kanakagiri), Isila, Kau6ambi,
Pataliputra. All these evidences indicate that the empire extended from
the Hindu-Kush in the north-west to Bengal in the east; and from the
foot of the mountains in the north to the Chitaldroog district in the
south. It also comprised the two extremities of Kalinga and Saurastra.
Indeed, it was of such imposing dimensions that Ashoka was fully
justified in saying “mahalake hi vijitam”, i.e., “vast is my empire”
(R. E. XIV). No king in ancient India was ever master of such extensive
territories.

Government and Society Under Ashoka


The administrative system under Ashoka remained more or
less the same as in the time of Chandragupta Maurya. It was an
absolute benevolent monarchy, and Ashoka laid special stress upon the
paternal principle of government. In the second Kalinga Edict he says:
“All men are my children, and just as I desire for my children that
they may enjoy every kind of prosperity and happiness both in this world
and in the next, so also do I desire the same for all men.” As before,
there was a council of Ministers (Parisad) to advise and help the
Emperor in the business of the state (R. E. Ill and VI). [Source:
“History of Ancient India” by Rama Shankar Tripathi, Professor of
Ancient Indian History and Culture, Benares Hindu University, 1942]


Ashoka continued also the system of Provincial
Administration. The important provinces were each under a prince of the
blood royal (Kumara). We learn from the edicts that Taxila, Ujjayini,
Tosali (Dhauli), and Suvarnagiri (Songir) were such scats of viceroyalty
during Ashoka’s reign. Sometimes, however, trusted feudatory chiefs
were appointed to the exalted viceregal offices, as is proved by the
case of Raja Tusaspa, the Yavana, who had his capital at Girnar.
Presumably, the Viceroys had their own ministers (. Amaiyas). At any
rate, it was against the latter that the people of Taxila revolted in
the time of Bindusara. The minor provinces were under governors,
perhaps the Rajukas of the edicts.


Ashoka introduced a number of administrative
innovations for good governance. He created the new office of
Dbamma-Mabamdtas for the temporal and spiritual weal of his subjects.
They were to look after the interests of the different religious groups
and the distribution of charities, and also to mitigate the rigours
of justice by securing reduction in penalties or release from
imprisonment on the ground of age or numerous progeny, and by
preventing any undue harassment. He allowed the Vativedakas (Reporters)
to inform him about urgent public matters at all times wherever he may
be (R.E. VI). Ashoka granted to the Rajukas, “set over many hundred
thousands of people”, independence in the award of honours and
punishments datnde) in order that they might discharge their duties
confidently and fearlessly. They were, however, expected to maintain
uniformity in penalties as well as in judicial procedure. Lastly, the
Emperor released prisoners on the anniversary of his coronation (P.E.
V), and gave three days’ respite to those sentenced to death (P.E. IV).


We get some glimpses of society as constituted in
Ashoka’s time. It comprised religious orders like the Brahmanas,
Sramanas, and other Pasandas, among which the Ajlvikas and the
Nirgranthas (Jains) were the most prominent. These monks and ascetics
spread the truth as they conceived it, and promoted the cause of
learning by instruction and discussion. Besides, there were the
householders and curiously the edicts mention all the four divisions,
viz., Brahmanas; soldiers and their chiefs, corresponding to Ksatriyas;
Ibhyas or Vaisyas; and slaves and servants, i.e., Sudras. The people
were wont to perform many ceremonies to bring them good luck, and they
believed in the hereafter. Meat-eating must have undoubtedly been a
common feature of society, as appears from the comprehensive
regulations laid down by Ashoka for preventing slaughter of animals
(P.E. V). The “upper ten” perhaps practised polygamy, if the case of
Ashoka himself furnishes any analogy. The references to harems in R.E.
V would show that the segregation and restrictions upon the freedom of
women-folk were then not unknown. [Source: “History of Ancient India”
by Rama Shankar Tripathi, Professor of Ancient Indian History and
Culture, Benares Hindu University, 1942]

Ashoka’s Achievements and Reforms


His achievements were not only his victories of
“Dharma”, but also on his achievements in the domain of art and
architecture. Tradition credits him with the foundation of two cities,
Srinagar in Kashmir and Lalitpur (the third largest city of Nepal
after Kathmandu and Pokhara). . He also made, as noted by Faxian,
considerable additions to the grandeur of his palace and the
metropolis. He built a large number of Stupas throughout his far-flung
empire to enshrine the corporeal relics of the Buddha. After the
cremation of the Buddha’s remains his ashes were shared by eight
claimants, who each raised a Stupa over them. These were opened by
Ashoka, and, as the legend goes, he re-distributed the relics among
84,000 Stupas, which he himself built for the purpose. In addition,
Ashoka undertook the construction of Viharas or monasteries and
cave-dwellings for the residence of monks. Unfortunately, however, the
extant evidence of his building activities is very scanty.
[Source:“History of Ancient India” by Rama Shankar Tripathi, Professor
of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Benares Hindu University, 1942]


Ven. S. Dhammika wrote: The judicial system was
reformed in order to make it more fair, less harsh and less open to
abuse, while those sentenced to death were given a stay of execution to
prepare appeals and regular amnesties were given to prisoners. State
resources were used for useful public works like the importation and
cultivation of medical herbs, the building of rest houses, the digging
of wells at regular intervals along main roads and the planting of fruit
and shade trees. To ensue that these reforms and projects were carried
out, Ashoka made himself more accessible to his subjects by going on
frequent inspection tours and he expected his district officers to
follow his example. To the same end, he gave orders that important state
business or petitions were never to be kept from him no matter what he
was doing at the time. The state had a responsibility not just to
protect and promote the welfare of its people but also its wildlife.
Hunting certain species of wild animals was banned, forest and wildlife
reserves were established and cruelty to domestic and wild animals was
prohibited. The protection of all religions, their promotion and the
fostering of harmony between them, was also seen as one of the duties of
the state. It even seems that something like a Department of Religious
Affairs was established with officers called dharma Mahamatras whose job
it was to look after the affairs of various religious bodies and to
encourage the practice of religion. [Source: “Edicts of King Ashoka:
An English Rendering” by Ven. S. Dhammika, Buddhist Publication Society,
Kandy Sri Lanka, 1993]

Ashoka’s Personal Religion



Ashoka rock edict in Gujarat


It is said that in the 3rd century B.C., the great
Emperor Ashoka was sent to Ujjain by his father Bindusara to subdue an
uprising. He was injured and was treated by Buddhist monks, the king’s
first encounter with Buddhism, a religion he later converted India.
Ashoka appears to have never renounced the world, nor ever became a
monk, as suggested by some scholars on the authority of the Divjavadana
and of I-tsing, Ashoka’s pilgrimages to Sarnath, where the Buddha first
“turned the wheel of the Law,” and to Kushinagar,where Buddhists
believe Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death, are not
mentioned in his inscriptions.


Ashoka’s link with Buddhism is mainly associated with
Kalinga. He himself declares in R.E. XIII that “directly after the
conquest of the Kalihgas, the Beloved of the gods became zealous in the
pursuit of dharma, love for dharma, and teaching of dharma.” Rama
Shankar Tripathi wrote: Sometimes it is doubted if he was a Buddhist,
but his attachment to Buddhism is apparent from authentic traditions
as well as cpigraphic evidence. In the Bhabru edict he professes
devotion to the Buddhist Trinity — the Buddha, the dharma, and the
Samgha — and recommends both the Order and the laity certain sections
from the Buddhist scriptures for their recitation and meditation.


In the minor pillar edict at Sarnath and its variants,
Ashoka speaks almost as the Defender of the Faith, prescribing
penalties for any attempts to create schisms in the church. He also
performed pilgrimages to Buddhist holy places like Bodhgaya (R. E.
VIII) and Lumbini (M. P. E.), and abolished sacrifices and amusements
which involved the slaughter of innocent animals (R. E. I.). Lastly, we
learn from traditions that Ashoka built a large number of Stupas to
enshrine the relics of the Buddha, originally deposited in eight such
structures; and to further the cause of Buddhism and settle the canon
the Emperor convoked a council, too, under the leadership of
Moggaliputta Tissa. [Source: “History of Ancient India” by Rama Shankar
Tripathi, Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Benares Hindu
University, 1942]

Tolerance of Religion in Ashoka’s Empire


Though Ashoka had himself embraced Buddhism, he was by
no means an intolerant zealot. On the contrary, he bestowed due honours
and patronage on all the sects then prevailing. He granted
cavedwellings to the Ajivikas, and inculcated the virtues of liberality
and seemly behaviour towards the votaries of different creeds —
Brahmanas, Sramanas, Nirgranthas, etc. He believed that the followers of
all sects aimed at “restraint of passions and purity of heart,” and,
therefore, he desired that they should reside everywhere in his empire
(R. E. VII). Above all, he exhorted his subjects to exercise
self-control, be “bahuSruta,” i.e., have much information about the
doctrines of different sects, and avoid disparaging any faith merely
from attachment to one’s own, so that there may be a growth in mutual
reverence and toleration (R. E. XII). Truly, these are lofty
sentiments, which may bring solace even to the modern distracted world.
[Source: “History of Ancient India” by Rama Shankar Tripathi, Professor
of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Benares Hindu University, 1942]


Owing to this catholicity Ashoka did not seek to
impose his personal religion upon the people. Indeed, nowhere in his
edicts does he mention the chief characteristics of Buddhism, to wit,
the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, and the goal of Nirvana. The
“Dharma”, which he presents to the world is, so to say, the essence or
sara of all religions. He prescribes a code of conduct with a view to
making life happier and purer. He laid great stress on obedience and
respect for parents, preceptors, and elders. Liberality and proper
treatment of Brahmanas, relations, friends, the aged, and the
distressed, were highly commended. Ashoka defines the “Dharma” as
comprising charity, compassion, truthfulness, purity, saintliness.
self-control, gratitude, steadfastness, and so on. Negatively, it is
freedom from sin, which is the outcome of anger, cruelty, pride), and
jealousy. These ate points common to all religions, and so Ashoka can
hardly be accused of utilising his vast resources as sovereign in the
interests of any particular creed. To him, therefore, goes the credit
of first conceiving the idea of a universal religion, synonymous with
Duty in its broadest sense. [Source: “History of Ancient India” by Rama
Shankar Tripathi, Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture,
Benares Hindu University, 1942]


Ashoka did not, however, give to all the current
religious practices and beliefs the stamp of his recognition. In
pursuance of the principle of non-injury to sentient beings, he did not
hesitate to suppress entirely the performance of sacrifices
accompanied with the slaughter of animals (R. E. I). This may have
meant a real hardship to some of his people, who believed in their
efficacy, but Ashoka was not prepared to make any compromise on this
cardinal doctrine. He also condemned certain ceremonies as trivial,
vulgar, and worthless. Mostly they were performed by womenfolk on
occasions of births, deaths, marriages, journeys, etc. According to
Ashoka, true ceremonial consisted of proper conduct in all relations of
life. Similarly, he tried to change the popular idea of gifts and
conquests. He declares that there is no such gift as dharma-d&na,
which consists of “proper treatment of slaves and servants, obedience
to mother and father, liberality to friends, companions, relations,
Brahmana and Sramana ascetics, and abstention from slaughter of living
creatures for sacrifice”

Ashoka Promotion of Buddhism and the Third Buddhist Council




Ashoka propagated the “Dharma” with the zeal and
earnestness of a missionary, and he claims in Minor Rock Edict I that
as a result of his strenuous exertions for a year, indeed for more than
a year, “human beings who were unmixed were caused to be mixed with
gods throughout Jambudvlpa.” He achieved this extraordinary success on
account of his well-planned measures. He exhibited “spectacles” of
celestial chariots, luminous balls of fire, and elephants, representing
the kinds of bliss, which the virtuous enjoyed in heaven. He believed
that these shows would attract people to the path of righteousness. He
himself gave up pleasure-tours, consisting of hunting and other
diversions, and substituted for them “ dharmaja tras” to foster dharma
and a spirit of liberality in’ the country by his precept and personal
example. [Source: “History of Ancient India” by Rama Shankar Tripathi,
Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Benares Hindu
University, 1942]


Ashoka embarked on a programme of benevolent
activities to relieve the distress of man and beast. We have already
referred to his prohibition of sacrificial slaughter, and R. E. I
further says that he gradually eliminated the non-vegetarian items from
the royal menu. All Samajas, involving meat-eating, dancing, music,
etc., were strictly stopped. Similarly, P. E. V. mentions certain
regulations which he prescribed in order to restrict the killing and
mutilation of animals. He gave largess to ascetics, the poor, and the
oppressed; and he employed superior officers (Mukhas) for supervising
his charities as well as those of his queens and the princes. According
to R. E. II, Ashoka instituted “medical treatment” of two kinds — one
for human beings and the other for the lower creation — in his
dominions and in those of his frontier neighbours.


One of the notable events, which took place in the
17th year of Ashoka’s coronation, was the convocation of the third
Buddhist council to resolve the differences between the various sects of
Buddhism. It met at Pataliputra (near present-day Patna) and after
nine months’ deliberations the issues were decided in favour of the
Sthaviras (an early Buddhist school).


Buddhism Spreads Out of India


At the conclusion of the Third Buddhist Council, the
council leader organised and dispatched evangelical missions to distant
lands. For instance, Majjhantika went to Kashmir and Gandhara, Majjhima
led the party to the Himalaya country, Mahadeva was deputed to
Mahisamandala (Mysore), Sona and Uttara to Suvarnabhumi (Burma),
Mahadharmaraksita and Maharaksita were sent to Maharastra and the
Yavana country respectively, and Ashoka’s son Mahendra, who had become a
monk, was sent along with others to Lanka (Ceylon). Subsequently the
Emperor’s daughter, Samghamitra, is said to have taken there a branch
of the sacred Bodhi Tree. The propagation and promotion of Buddhism in
Ashoka’s time must have largely been due to the zeal and perseverance
of these indefatigable missionaries. [Source: “History of Ancient India”
by Rama Shankar Tripathi, Professor of Ancient Indian History and
Culture, Benares Hindu University, 1942]


Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts from The
Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: ““In the first century A.D., the
Kushans, nomadic warriors from Central Asia, conquered the ancient
Gandharan region (which includes parts of modern Pakistan and
Afghanistan) and much of northern India. Different styles of art emerged
from the two Kushan capitals, one in the Peshawar area of Gandhara and
the other at Mathura further southeast in India. The Gandharan style
adapted forms from late Hellenistic and Roman art, perhaps a legacy of
Alexander the Great’s successors in the area, but largely because the
major trade routes from the Roman Empire to India and China passed
through the region, bringing peoples and ideas from the West. [Source:
Steven M. Kossak and Edith W. Watts, The Art of South, and Southeast
Asia, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York <>]


“In Andhra, on the southeastern coast of India, the
Ikshvaku kingdom (A.D. 1st– 3rd century) prospered through the exchange
of goods from local ports on the sea routes to Rome. There, as in
Gandhara, Buddhist merchants and devotees financed the building of
stupas decorated with narrative stone reliefs depicting the Buddha in a
distinctive fashion. Andhran Buddhist art influenced the art styles of
Sri Lanka and images of the Buddha in Andhran style have been found in
Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia. By the end of this period, Buddhism
was spreading along the silk route to China and later to Korea and
Japan. Along with written accounts of the Buddha’s teachings (called
sutras), monks and merchants carried small portable works of art—mainly
sculptures of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, and shrines—which greatly
influenced early Chinese and Central Asian Buddhist sculpture. <>


The Chinese monk Fa-hsien ventured as far west as India
around A.D. 400 to study Buddhism. He traveled from Xian to the west
overland and cross into India over Himalayan passes and sailed back to
China on route that took him through present-day Indonesia. The the
spread of Buddhism—a peaceful process in itself—periodically met with
hostility. In China, in A.D. 842, the Tang Emperor Wuzong began to
persecute foreign religions. Some 4,600 Buddhist monasteries were
annihilated, priceless works of art were destroyed, and about 260,000
monks and nuns were forced to return to lay life.


Hindu Revival and the Death of Buddhism in India



Khalsi Ashoka rock edict


Centuries after took hold in India Hinduism made a
comeback in India namely at Buddhism’s expense. Vedic traditions were
combined with the worship of a multitude of indigenous gods (seen as
manifestations of Vedic gods), the caste system was reintroduced and
Buddhism gradually disappeared. Before its final decline in India,
Buddhism developed the popular worship of enlightened beings (heavenly
Bodhisattvas), produced a refined architecture (stupas and shrines) at
Sanchi. By the 11th century Buddhist had disappeared from India. . The
Muslim invasions may have played a role in its demise there


The Gupta Empire (A.D. 320 to 647) was marked by the
return of Hinduism as the state religion. The Gupta era us regarded as
the classical period of Hindu art, literature and science.
After Buddhism died out Hinduism returned in the form of a religion
called Brahmanism (named after the caste of Hindu priests). Vedic
traditions were combined with the worship of a multitude of indigenous
gods (seen as manifestations of Vedic gods). The Gupta king was
worshiped as a manifestation of Vishnu, and Buddhism gradually
disappeared. The caste system was reintroduced. Brahmans held great
power and became wealthy landowners, and a great many new-castes were
created, in part to incorporate the large number of foreigners that
moved into the region.


Buddhism all but disappeared from India by the A.D. 6th
century. Attempts to reform Hinduism only led to new sects that still
follow the basic tenets of the Hindu mainstream. During medieval times,
when Hinduism was influenced and threatened by Islam and Christianity,
there was a movement toward monotheism and away from idolatry and the
caste system. The cults of Rama and Vishnu grew in the 16th century out
of this movement, with both deities being regarded as supreme gods. The
Krishna cult, known for its devotional chants and song meetings,
highlighted Krishna’s erotic adventures as a metaphor for the
relationship between mankind and God. [ World Religions edited by
Geoffrey Parrinder, Facts on File Publications, New York]


Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons



Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times
of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Ministry of
Tourism, Government of India, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian,
National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time,
Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly,
The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books,
websites and other publications.

Last updated September 2020














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    Proposed programmes to be conducted by


    Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

    1. Hundred articles to be written in various magazines about Bada Bhanteji
    2. Scholarships for poor students
    3. Temporary Pabbajja courses in different parts of Prabuddha Bharat
    4. Animals’ welfare programme
    5. Sanghadana offering in various monasteries in different parts of Prabuddha Bharat
    6. Distribution of hundred Buddha statues
    7.Plantation of fruit bearing trees and awareness programmes about hunger and environment
    8. Ghamma books to be distributed on a large scale including online
    9. Dhamma outreach programme at least in 100 schools and colleges and other instutions including online.
    10. Dhamma talks in different Classical Languages (online)
    11.Distribution of Tarpaulin to poor people during rainy season
    12. Alms-round programme at Gandhinagar, Bengaluruand other areas in Bengaluru
    13. Dhammayatra to various villages and towns.
    14. Bodhiyatra to Buddhist holy places
    15. Renovation of viharas existing in remote areas
    16. Starting Ambulance services
    17. Renovation of at least hundred homes for the needy
    18. Renovation of Bada Bhanteji museum at MBS Bengaluru
    19. Life story museum of Bada Bhanteji in every Mahabodhi centres
    20.
    International Buddhist Conference to develop Buddha Sasana which will
    include participation of monks from Prabuddha Bharat and abroad
    21.Free Medical camps
    22. Sangha Dana in Buddhist holy places on special occassions like full moon days
    23.Meditation retreats for both monks and lay devotees
    24. Spreading awareness about BADA BHANTE
    25. Postal stamp to be made in Bada Bhanteji’s name by Central Government
    26. A souvenir dedicated to Bada Bhanteji
    27. Seminars in Universities and Colleges including at least 100 lectures as Acharya Buddharakkhita Dhamma Talk Series
    28. To build a Buddha’s atatue and put up a portrait of Bada Bhanteji at Mahabodhi Burns hospital
    29. Installation of Bada Bhanteji’s portrait at NIMHANS Campus, Sakalvara
    30. Interfaith religious conference
    31. To translate the ‘Sayings of Bada Bhante’ book in different languages including online
    32. At
    least one volume of Pali Tipitaka to be translated and published in
    different Classical languages in Prabuddha Bharat under Tipitaka
    Grantamala Project including online
    33. Reprinting Bada Bhanteji’s books which are out of stock  including online
    34. To start Mahabodhi Prakriti Vihara in Kethohali near Bengaluru
    35. To accept Ashoka Dhammaduta Buddha Vihara in KGF and develop and run
    36. To renovate Sevakshetra building and rename it as ACARYA BUDDHARAKKHITA BHAVAN
    37. TO START TRUELIFE MAHABODHI HOSPITALS IN BENGALURU DURING THIS YEAR AS DEDICATION TO BADA BHANTEJI
    38. A 100 KANNADA DHAMMA LECTURES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF KARNATAKA IN THE NAME OF BADA BHANTEJI
    39. HONOURING OF AT LEAST HUNDRED OLD DEVOTEES WHO HAD RENDERED SERVICES IN THE EARLIER DAYS OF MAHABODHI
    40. TO ORGANISE TIPITAKA CHANTING
    41. BUDDHIST SITES TOUR IN KARNATAKA
    42. To send Bhikkus for Dhammaduta to different parts of Prabuddha Bharat
    43. To
    institute annual awards in the name of Bada Bhanteji for monks and lay
    people who render selfless service to Buddha Sasana
    44. A Calender and greeting card dedicated to Bada Bhanteji
    45. Civara dana to atleast 100 Bhikkus
    46. Eye operation for the poor
    47. To start PhD, MA and BA programmes under Mahabodhi Research Center
    48. Visit to jails for giving Dhamma talks
    49. To write a small book for school students about the life of Bada Bhanteji
    50. Health check-up programmes in schools
    51. To name small circle in front of Mahabodhi in Bengaluru as Ven. Acarya Buddharakkhita Circle
    52. Chanting for pregnant women at hospitals
    53. Samyak Dristi Buddha Vihar to be dedicated in the name of Bada Bhanteji in UP, Saranath-To be built by Ven.Kusaladhammo
    54. Design of a website dedicated to Bada Bhanteji - www.buddharakkhita.com
    55.
    Audio cassetes containing Bada Bhanteji’s talks to be obtained specially
    from USA and also here locally and all to be digitised
    56. This year Bhikku Upasampada in Mahabodhi to be dedicated to Bada Bhanteji
    57. A 100 portrait of Bada Bhanteji to be distributed in different insitutions in Prabuddha Bharat
    58. Honouring of Covid warriors
    59. To distribute 100 Bodhi saplings
    60. Pilgrimage to Odisha
    61. Pali language speaking workshop
    Proposed programmes to be conducted by
    Mahabodhi Dhammaduta Vihara
    1. Plantation of fruit bearing trees, awareness program about hunger an environment in the name of Bada bhanteji
    2. Meditation retreat for both monks and lay devotees
    3. Awareness about meditation amongst the Lay community
    4. One day meditation course in every month

    Proposed programme to be conducted at

    Mahabodhi Mysore

    1. Release of Souvenir book of Bada Bhanteji

    2. Release of Sarvamitra magazine

    3. Release of ‘Carla Home Times’

    4. Reprinting and releasing  - LIFE OF THE BUDDHA

    5. Dhammapada memorising competition

    6. One day residential meditation retreat once a month in Classical Kannada

    7. Life of the Buddha story telling competition

    8. Webinar on the life story of Bada Bhanteji and his services - by Mettaloka ex-students

    9. Panel discussion on - ‘Growth of Buddhism in Karnataka’ - with monks, professors and public

    10. Meditation retreat for professors and lecturers in Mysore University

    11. Meditation retreat for Police department in Mysore

    12. Meditation camp for children

    13. Pabbajja course for children during Buddha Jayanti

    14. Dana service at Beggars’ Rehabilitation Home every full moon day

    15. Hospital dana service PK TB & Chest diseases Hospital (PK Sanitorium)

    16. Completion of Book ‘AT THE LOTUS FEET OF THE BUDDHA’ and quiz competition for children

    17. Plantation of fruit bearing trees in collaboration with the Forest Department, Aranya Bhavan, Mysore

    18. Meditation training for homeless people at Jyothinagar, Mysore

    19. Special meditation for teachers on the second Saturday of every month

    20. Distribution of ‘Life of the Buddha’ book to 400 children including Online

    21.Moral Education (introducing ‘Life of Buddha’ in schoolsunder regular time table)

    22. Dhamm talks and meditation programmes at orphanage

    23. Animal welfare programmes

    24. Leadership training programme ( To build good leaders for Mahbodhi to carry out Bada Bhanteji’s vision.

    25. Expansion of humanitarian services (Old age home in Mysore)

    26. Diksha programme in Mysore

    27. Pilgrimage o Buddhist holy places (children and staff)

    28. Renovation of Ven.Acarya Buddharakkhita Auditorium

    29.
    Renovation of kitchen and pantry setup donated in the name of Bada
    Bhanteji on his birth anniversary by Mr. Pala and Ms. Jutta

    30. New carpets for the Dhamma Hall sponsored by Nagsen Dhoke and family donated in the name of Bada Bhanteji

    31. Setting up of new liberary - Ven. Acarya Buddharakkhita Library

    32.
    Introducing celebration of annual Thanks Giving Day in our calender
    (Thanks giving to Bada Bhanteji, venerable monks, donors, sponsors,
    parents and staff)


    Proposed programmes to be conducted at
    Mahabodhi Lumbini Vihara
    1. Night long Paritta Chanting on 26th March 2021
    2. Dana Service Programmes on every Full Moon day & News Moon Day for 1 rear
    3. Blood Donation Camps (Once in 6 months)
    4. Meditation Teaching Programme for students on every Full Moon Day & New Moon Day for 1year
    5. Construction of Buddha Dhatu Stupa, merits dedicated to Bada Bhanteji
    6. Construction of Bodhi mantapa, merits dedicated to Bada Bhanteji



    Proposed programmes to be conducted at
    Mahabodhi Hyderabad
    1. Translation of Pali Tipitaka in Tekugu (st least 3 books)
    2. Meditation retreats for both monks nad laity
    3. Nightlong Paritta chanting dedicated to benefit of all sentient beings
    4.
    Mahabodhi Hyderabad Sangharama, on the completion of construction this
    year, will be named after Bada Bhanteji as ‘Ven Acharya Buddharakkhita
    Sangharma’.
    5. Dhamma talk series in univesities, colleges and various organisations
    6. Dana service at orphanage, hospials and animal shelters

    Proposed programmes to be conducted at
    Mahabodhi Bodhgaya
    1. Inauguration of the new Buddha Stupa, merits shared in the name of Bada Bhanteji
    2. Paritta Chanting for World Peace and Harmony (Twice a month under Holy Bodhi Tree)
    3. Meditation Class
    4. Groceries Distribution to Poor and needy persons in Buddhagaya
    5. Sanghadana (Once a Month)
    6. Charecter Building Camp for children (once a week)
    7. Hospital Dana Service at Buddhagaya Medical Centre
    8. 3 Dyas Buddha Jayanti programme


    Proposed programmes to be conducted by

    Mahabodhi Diyun

    1. Construction of an Auditoriumin the name of Bada Bhanteji

    2. Establishment of a new centre at Itanagar

    3. Distribution of photo frames (Life of the Buddha) to 50 village monastries

    4. Dhamma camp for children

    5. Dhamm preaching and meditation programmes in the villages

    6. Plantation of 300 fruit bearing trees

    7. Old Age Home project at Mudoi

    8. 10-Free Medical Camps in  remote villages

    9. To Honour elderly momks and lay devotees who contributed in the preservation of Buddha Sasana in Arunachal Pradesh

    10. Distribution of 10 Lord Buddha statues to different villages

    11. Painting of special events in the life of Bada Bhanteji

    12. Distribution of water filters to at least 100 poor families

    13. Publish Magazine in the name of Bada Bhanteji by monks and students of runachal Pradesh

    14. Organise Seminars on the Dhammapada/Preservation of Dhamma

    15. Free distribution of notebooks, stationery and study material at villages

    16. Build a statue of Bada Bhanteji at Mahabodhi Diyun

    17. Build Seema Temple at Mahabodhi centre, Diyun

    18. Distribution of Bada Bhanteji’s books in 50 monasteries

    19. Dhamma based personality development workshops in 20 schools

    20. Organise 3 blood donation camps

    21. Provide 15 Ven.Acharya Buddharakkhita scholarships to boys residing in the hostels from deserving background

    22. Organise a drama on the life of Bada Bhanteji

    23. Distribution of 9000 candles to the monasteries

    24. Provide medical support for surgeries to the most deserving people

    25. Ordination od 20 new novices



    Proposed programmes to be conducted by



    Mahabodhi Namsai

    1. Offering Ayu (Life)dana to animals every full moon day

    2. Plantation of Fruit Bearing trees including Dwarf Trees

    3. Renovation of old monasteries at different villages

    4. Drugs and de-addiction awareness programmes in nearby villages

    5. Distribution of mosquito nets

    6. Food distribution in hospitals

    7. Visiting Rehabilitation Centre at Lathao

    8. Dhamma talks and workshop programmes at -

    a) Mahabodhi Monastery, Namsai

    b) Namsai monastery

    c) Tengapani monastery

    9. Painting and essay writing competetion

    10. Sanghadana in monasteries around namsai

    11. Dhamma Tour to Buddhist holy places

    12. Teaching basic meditation in Govt. Schools

    13. Writing articles on Bada Bhanteji

    14. Distribution of essential school supplies to the needy children GUPS, Old Ningroo

    15. Making drinking water pots for stray animals and birds in summer

    16. Alms round in 30 villages (each village per day)

    17. Seminars in the name of Bada Bhanteji

    18. Special chanting on full moon and new moon day in the name of Bada Bhanteji

    19. Cleaning and painting of old stupas.

    Proposed programmes to be conducted by

    Mahabodhi Deomali


    1. Dana offering in 5 different monasteries

    2. Distribution of 50 Buddha statues

    3. Online Dhamma talks

    4. Distribution of 100 mats to needy people

    5. Renovation of temple.

    6. Renovation of 30 houses

    7. 5 Medical camps

    8. Visiting 20 villages and conducting awareness programmes

    9. Vivara dana in 8 monasteries

    10. Eye operation for the poor

    11. Health check-up programmes in 4 schools

    12. Distribution of Bodhi saplings

    13. Distribution of pens, notebooks, tec., to 100 poor students

    14. Scholarships for 10 poor students

    15. Distribution of Life of Buddha painting frames to 3 monasteries




    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K74nU7vwj4E
    The History of the Buddha Gem

    Among
    the most distinct changes in the Sasana, as the flower of the Sasana
    evolved from its early stages, was an increasing demand for sunlight, an
    enhancement of the first Gem and Refuge. The attitude toward the Buddha
    and the concept of buddhahood experienced embellishment and elaboration
    in almost all of Asia, and would in turn trigger further doctrinal
    changes. I speculate that the primary driving force was the seemingly
    universal human proclivity of latching onto objects of veneration and
    making them bigger than life, as is found in most of the world’s
    religions and in modern celebrity worship. Yet, although the Buddha Gem
    grew, its basic function remained the same.
    We
    have seen that the Buddha endorsed, during his life, veneration of
    himself, of his qualities, of the example of his life and Awakening and
    of his teachings. The function of such veneration is inspiration, the
    opening of hearts to his influence. The practice of veneration of the
    Buddha was initially defined in terms of quite modest conventional
    cultural means of respect, through recitation of the qualities of the
    Buddha, through pilgrimage to the four sites associated with his life,
    through the distribution of his relics among various lay communities for
    future veneration.
    The
    Buddha recognized that he had attained rare qualities and put himself
    forward as someone to emulate, not as a deity or a messenger of God, but
    as an Awakened human. To appreciate his clarity about this, it should
    be borne in mind that in India people rather casually attributed
    divinity to that which is venerated: to brahmins, to famous ascetics, to
    cows, sometimes to trees and tothe fires in people’s hearths,62 but the
    Buddha never claimed this honor for himself. Nonetheless he would
    frequently have been naïvely regarded in his culture as divine during
    his life and have been accorded the supernatural powers that are, in
    fact, mentioned in the early discourses, powers like jumping up and
    touching the sun.63
    The
    physical mainstay of veneration from the earliest days is anjali, a
    ubiquitous expression of respect or greeting in Indian culture often
    taking the form of prostrations, applied from earliest times to venerate
    the living Buddha and also the Sangha. Remarkably, this Indian gesture
    was carried into every land I am aware of in which Buddhism has taken
    root. No culture seems to have chosen either to abandon it according to
    local custom, nor to substitute for it an indigenous expression, such as
    a wave, a salute, a nod or a hearty hand clasp. Its adoption in
    Christian prayer speaks faintly of some not yet fully understood
    instance of ancient cross-breeding in distant lands.64
    An
    early enhancement of this practice of veneration concerns the burial
    mounds (stupas), used to inter the Buddha’s relics after his death and
    implicitly authorized, as we saw in Chapter 3, for the laity before his
    death. These became a primary symbol of the Buddha and were venerated as
    such in the early centuries and became a particular hallmark of the
    Dharmaguptaka sect, to the extent of infiltration into monastic
    practice: That sect’s monastic code includes many rules for proper
    behavior around stupas. This practice was further encouraged by Emperor
    Ashoka when he reportedly redistributed the original relics to thousands
    of locations throughout his empire. Stupas of increasingly imposing
    design and size were constructed, sometimes even by embedding an older
    stupa within a newer, to produce the cetiyas of South Asia and
    eventually the pagodas of East Asia. Along with the proliferation of
    stupas came an endorsed means of increasing the availability of relics
    through creating replicas that “count as” genuine relics of the Buddha,
    and of supplementing these with relics of conveniently deceased
    arahants.
    Starting
    in the first century BCE, statuary representations of the Buddha in
    South Asia, but with possibly Greek roots, gave a more personal and
    portable object toward which to direct one’s veneration for the First
    Gem. Such statues are striking in their aura of inspiring calm, leading
    one to experience what it might have been like to sit in the presence of
    the living Buddha. As if personally to enact befriending the Buddha,
    adherents began to make offerings to these statues of light, water,
    incense, flowers and/or food, then to bow to such statues, a practice
    that would ruffle the feathers of early European explorers to no end,
    who would see in it idol worship of graven images pure and simple. A
    further step in the long process of elaboration was reached in the
    actual attribution of miraculous properties, such as the bringing
    protection or good fortune, to the Buddha statue, to the stupa/pagoda or
    to the relics. It is common among Burmese Buddhists today, for
    instance, to attribute such properties to the “power of the Buddha” that
    inheres in such an object once it is properly consecrated by monks so
    as to “count as” the Buddha.
    Beginning
    apparently in the early Mahasanghika sect, then in the Sarvastivadin
    sect and taking off among the Mahayanists, the Buddha himself became
    larger than life. The Jataka stories from the centuries after the death
    of the Buddha traced his previous lives as a bodhisattva, one who has
    vowed to become a buddha in a future life. The view arose of the Buddha
    living out a prearranged mission on earth, through an early vow to
    someday become a buddha. It was said that he was born in his final life
    with the marks of a great man, such as webbed toes and fingers, and that
    he was in fact stepping into the footprints of buddhas who preceded
    him, who realized the same things and who taught the same Dharma.
    In
    an influential Mahayana sutra the Buddha is presented as a cosmic being
    who had came to earth as a kind of cosmic ruse to instruct mankind in
    the form of a man:
    “In
    all the worlds the heavenly and human beings and asuras all believe
    that the present Shakyamuni Buddha, after leaving the palace of the
    Shakyas, seated himself in the place of practice not far from the city
    of Gaya and there attained anuttara-samyak-sambodhi [complete perfect
    Awakening]. But good men, it has been immeasurable, boundless hundreds,
    thousands, ten thousands, millions of nayutas of kalpas since I in fact
    attained Buddhahood.”65
    In
    fact, he has been teaching and training disciples, bodhisattvas, for
    many eons and continues doing so presently, only pretending to be born
    and die as a human for a brief period.66 The discerning reader will have
    surmised that the person of the Buddha is becoming step by step more
    exalted.
    With
    his new level of exaltation came a greater level of Awakening, now
    qualitatively different from that of the mere arahants. In the Mahayana
    movement bodhisattvas became those who like the Buddha in his previous
    lives aspired to buddhahood rather than to mere arahantship. Such
    bodhisattvas began to appear and sometimes reappear as major characters
    in the Mahayana sutras, each typically embodying one particular
    outstanding character trait or another, for instance, Avalokiteshvara of
    many arms to represent compassion, Manjushri wielding a sword to cut
    through delusion to represent wisdom, Samantabhadra atop his multitusked
    elephant to represent virtuous action, and Maitreya with an appointment
    to become the next Buddha on earth. The Buddha now gained companions
    with whom to share altars and pagodas; sometimes these companions even
    displaced him in the zeal of adherents. In China Avalokiteshvara became
    Guan Yin, a female figure, and Maitreya was identified with an
    historical chubby monk and became the Happy Buddha (-to-be). In Tibet,
    Avalokiteshvara came to be re-garded as the person of the Dalai Lama,
    returning life after life.
    Many
    buddhas were envisioned of similar disposition to ours, dispersed over
    many realms throughout the universe. Once the Shakyamuni Buddha became
    disassociated from his human embodiment, then it seemed that one exalted
    buddha could pretty much be swapped with another. In Chinese Pure Land
    the role of Shakyamuni was largely assumed by Amitabha Buddha, the chief
    resident of a non-earthly realm (the Pure Land), who makes space for
    those on earth who aspire to join him in their next life. Meanwhile back
    on earth, monks were apparently living rightly because the world did
    not lack for Awakened ones, but in the Mahayana lands these were often
    referred to as buddhas in their own right rather than simply as
    arahants.
    It
    should be noted that although veneration of the Buddha Gem took on
    radical new forms, some of which are capable, for various reasons, of
    raising skeptical modern eyebrows two by two, the original function of
    this veneration seems seldom to have been violated, and may often have
    been enhanced. The function of such veneration is inspiration, the
    opening of hearts to the influence of the Buddha (or a reasonable
    surrogate).
    Triple Gem of Buddhism Explained | Buddhism Basics Episode 01
    Buddhism Insider
    10 subscribers
    This
    video explains Triple gems of Buddhism and exactly this is a starter
    video for Buddhism. If you need to get started learning Buddhism this is
    the best video. Understanding the Triple Gem of Buddhism will help you
    to build a good foundation for learning Buddhism.
    Which are
    1. Buddha
    2. Damma
    3. Sangha
    We take concepts from Theravada Buddhism books. We guarantee that we deliver concepts 100% accurately.
    In this channel, we will educate the people who have the willingness to learn Buddhism.
    Disclaimer:
    This channel is not governed by any Governmental organization,
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    correct awareness about Theravada Buddhism.
    Also, we never try to change people’s religions. We educate people about Lord Buddha’s Teachings to make a better world.
    We
    respect the Buddhist Monks, Buddhist Nuns, Buddhist Laymen, Buddhist
    Laywomen who have put a tremendous effort into preserving the Lord
    Budda’s teachings for more than 2500 years.
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    Triple Gem of Buddhism Explained | Buddhism Basics Episode 01

  • https://www.ethnologue.com/guides/how-many-languages

    How many languages are there in the world?

    7,117 languages are spoken today.

    That number is
    constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about the world’s
    languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves are in
    flux. They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities whose lives are
    shaped by our rapidly changing world. This is a fragile time: Roughly
    40% of languages are now endangered, often with less than 1,000 speakers
    remaining. Meanwhile, just 23 languages account for more than half the
    world’s population.

    When a just
    born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the baby,
    after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language
    known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language
    /Magadhi Prakrit,Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),Classical Pāḷi which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living speices have their own naturallanguages for communication. 116 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com



    in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,


    02) Classical Chandaso language,



    03)Magadhi Prakrit,
    04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

    05) Classical Pāḷi,

    06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

    07) Classical Cyrillic
    08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

    09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
    10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
    11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
    12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,


  • 13) Classical Assamese-ধ্ৰুপদী অসমীয়া
    14) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
    15) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
    16) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,

    17) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,

    18) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
    19) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,

  • 20) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
    21) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

    22) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,
    23) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

    24) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

    25) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

    26) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,



    27) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština


    28) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

    29) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
    30) Classical English,Roman,
    31) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

    32) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

    33) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
    34) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen
    ,
    35) Classical French- Français classique,
    36) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,
    37) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
    38) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
    39) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
    40) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
    41) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
    42) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

    43) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
    44) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

    45) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
    46) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
    47) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

    48) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
    49) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,
    50) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,
    51) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
    52) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
    53) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
    54) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
    55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
    56) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

    57) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,


  • 58) Classical Kinyarwanda


    59) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,



    60) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),
    61) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
    62) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
    63) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

    64) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,
    65) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
    66) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

    67) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
    68) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
    69) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
    70) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

    71) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
    72) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
    73) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

    74) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

    75) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

    76) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
    77) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

    78) Classical Odia (Oriya




    79) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
    80) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی

    81) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
    82) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,

    83) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
    84) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,

    85) Classical Russian-Классический русский,

    86) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
    87) Classical Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्
    88) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
    89) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
    90) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
    91) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
    92) Classical Sindhi,
    93) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
    94) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,

    95) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

    96) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,

    97) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
    98) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
    99) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,

    100) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
    101) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
  • 102) Classical Tamil-102) கிளாசிக்கல் தமிழ்


  • 103) Classical Tatar


    104) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
    105) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
    106) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,


    107) Classical Turkmen


    108) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
    109) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو





    110) Classical Uyghur,




    111) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z,


    112) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ,


    113) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,


    114) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

    115) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש



    116) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,

    117) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu


    comments (0)
    04/09/21
    35 -Sat 10 Apr 2021 LESSON 3638 Buddha-Sasana-Cross-fertilizationTaking Flight on Another Worldtechnology/helicopter/#Deployment-Buddhist Emperor Asoka
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
    Posted by: site admin @ 7:38 pm

    35 -Sat 10  Apr 2021 LESSON 3638 Buddha-Sasana-Cross-fertilizationTaking Flight on Another Worldtechnology/helicopter/#Deployment-Buddhist Emperor Asoka


    Friends
    Cross-fertilization

    Innovations
    once introduced into individual traditions often spread laterally from
    one tradition to another, much as a dance craze or a disease, such as
    the Jitterbug, the Macarena or the Spanish flu, readily jumps over
    national borders. The Jataka tales, stories of the previous lives of the
    Buddha, originated (with a couple of exceptions) in the centuries after
    the Buddha, at least partially under the cross-breeding influence of
    non-Buddhist traditions, waltzing through Buddhist traditions so widely
    that they can be regarded as part of the common heritage of all of
    Buddhism. The parallel development of various Abhidharmas are indicative
    of a form of cross-fertilization, a kind of Buddhist Foxtrot, that also
    encompassed schools of Brahmanism, particularly by the second century
    BCE the highly categorialVaiśeṣika school, andprobably came under the
    influence of the early Indian grammarians.57
    Similarly,
    the Mahayana Jitterbug spread readily from one pre-Mahayana sect to
    another, as most scholars now agree. As a result, within a single
    Sarvastivada or even early Theravada monastery some monks would take to
    this new craze and others would not. This apparently entailed little
    discord, since the Vinaya, historically much less susceptible to the
    effects of cross- fertilization or evolution than the Dharma, tended to
    ensure harmonious relations within sanghas. However, the incipient craze
    may have been nipped in the bud in Sri Lanka through the intervention
    of King Voharikatissa in the early third century.58 But throughout much
    of the Buddhist world this was a craze that was here to stay and
    gradually some devotees began to self-identify as Mahayanists, even
    though a self-identified Mahayana monastery would not exist in India
    until relatively late, and the earliest inscriptions that make use of
    the word “Mahayana” date from the sixth century CE.
    With
    the Mahayana movement and with the rise of scholarship at large
    monastic institutions, Sanskrit by default became the common language of
    Buddhism in northern India in support of a broader dissemination and
    livelier interchange of ideas. Meanwhile the southern lands of Sri Lanka
    and adjacent areas of Southern India, somewhat isolated removed from
    this rich intellectual world of Northern India geographically and
    linguistically, had fewer opportunities for cross-fertilization.
    As
    China seems to have fallen heir to much of what was published in
    Northern India in the first millennium CE, the Chinese took a particular
    selective interest in the Mahayana teachings and much of the
    philosophical thought that continued to flow out of the Indian
    universities. Due to the tenuous communication between India and China,
    Chinese Buddhists, anxious to gain access to additional Buddhist texts,
    dispatched a series of pilgrims, fifty-four that we know about between
    the third and the eleventh century, to make the perilous journey over
    the Silk Road back into India to learn Indian languages, to acquire
    texts and to have a look around.61 In China major translation projects
    were set up to make these texts accessible, often headed by Indian or
    Central Asian scholar-monks who had ventured into Chinese territory.
    hybrids
    of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, with Confucianism dictating
    ethical norms, with Taoism harmonizing and naturalizing and with
    Buddhism working on mental cultivation. Ch’an/Zen, for instance,
    exhibits all three influences. From China a Sinicized Buddhism would
    penetrate the remaining chopstick-wielding world: Korea, Japan and
    Vietnam.
    What
    of the fragile flower that once thrived on the slopes of the lush
    Ganges Valley in ancient times? How have its descendants fared in the
    thin soil on the Steppes of Central Asia? Have they endured the harsh
    winters of northern China or Mongolia? Do they still blossom as
    brightly? Or has the whirlwind of Buddhist history scattered their
    petals and uprooted them? Has the Sasana survived in its full integrity
    and authenticity?
    #SMB​ BUDDHA SASANA# MAGHAPUJA#
    SMB BUDDHA SASANA JAYA BUNENG BLITAR
    133 subscribers
    #SMB​ BUDDHA SASANA#VIHARA​ BUDDHA SASANA JAYA#BLITAR​#

    youtube.com
    #SMB BUDDHA SASANA# MAGHAPUJA#
    #SMB BUDDHA SASANA#VIHARA BUDDHA SASANA JAYA#BLITAR#


    https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/#Deployment

    NASA Logo

    https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/#                                                                                                               

    Retired as Senior  Manager from
    Aircraft Research and Design Center (ARDC) HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics
    Ltd. Bengaluru, India. Designed 100 seat aircraft using Integrated
    Product Development concept. Earlier worked in all the four line
    services. repaired, serviced and overhauled all instruments of aircraft.
    With such an experience wish to be part of all activities of NASA
    including the Moon, Saturn and MARS landing.    


    Quick Facts


    Artist's concept of the Mars Helicopter

    View, download and interact with the Ingenuity 3D model.
    Name Ingenuity
    Main Job A technology demonstration to test the first powered flight on Mars. The helicopter rode to Mars attached to the belly of the Perseverance rover.
    Launch July 30, 2020, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida
    Landed Feb. 18, 2021, Jezero Crater, Mars
    Length of Mission A 30-day period, with one or more test flights
    Fact Sheet | Press Kit


    Taking Flight on Another World

    Mars Helicopter with Perseverance rover in the background

    The
    Mars Helicopter, Ingenuity, is a technology demonstration to test
    powered flight on another world for the first time. It hitched a ride to
    Mars on the Perseverance rover.
    Once the rover reaches a suitable “helipad” location, it will release
    Ingenuity to perform a series of test flights over a 30-Martian-day
    experimental window beginning in early April.

    For the first
    flight, the helicopter will take off a few feet from the ground, hover
    in the air for about 20 to 30 seconds, and land. That will be a major
    milestone: the very first powered flight in the extremely thin
    atmosphere of Mars. After that, the team will attempt additional
    experimental flights of incrementally farther distance and greater
    altitude. After the helicopter completes its technology demonstration,
    Perseverance will continue its scientific mission.


    Watch Online

    Tune in on Monday, April 12 at 12:30 a.m. PDT / 3:30 a.m. EDT

    Live Broadcast: Mars Helicopter First Test Flight Results
    A livestream confirming Ingenuity’s first flight is targeted to begin
    around 3:30 a.m. EDT Monday, April 12, on NASA Television.


    Latest News

    MORE BLOGS ›


    MORE NEWS AND VIDEOS ›


    Get the latest weather report on Mars

    Upcoming Events

    Date Title Channel Can I ask questions?
    April 12
    12:30 a.m. PDT /
    3:30 a.m. EDT
    Live Broadcast: Mars Helicopter First Test Flight Results
    Channels that will carry the live broadcast include:

    YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Twitch, and NASA App.
    Watch on YouTube
    NASA

    Ask questions via #MarsHelicopter
    April 12
    8 a.m. PDT /
    11 a.m. EDT
    News Briefing: Mars Helicopter Post-Flight
    Channels that will carry the live broadcast include:
    YouTube and Facebook.
    Watch on YouTube
    NASA JPL

    Ask questions via #MarsHelicopter
    April 15

    1 p.m. PDT /
    4 p.m. EDT
    Taking Flight: How Girls Can Grow Up to be Engineers - Chart Your Path! Join Webinar
    NASA JPL

    Ask questions via chat
    April 22

    1 p.m. PDT /
    4 p.m. EDT
    Taking Flight: How Girls Can Grow Up to be Engineers - Find Internships and Other Opportunities Join Webinar
    NASA JPL

    Ask questions via chat
    April 29

    1 p.m. PDT /
    4 p.m. EDT
    Taking Flight: How Girls Can Grow Up to be Engineers - Get Your Ideas Off the Ground! Join Webinar
    NASA JPL

    Ask questions via chat

    *Schedule is preliminary and subject to changes. All news briefings will be broadcast and streamed on NASA TV and this page.

    ARCHIVED RECORDINGS ›

    Activities for Kids

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    MORE
    PROFILES

    Proposed programmes to be conducted by

    Mahabodhi Deomali


    1. Dana offering in 5 different monasteries

    2. Distribution of 50 Buddha statues

    3. Online Dhamma talks

    4. Distribution of 100 mats to needy people

    5. Renovation of temple.

    6. Renovation of 30 houses

    7. 5 Medical camps

    8. Visiting 20 villages and conducting awareness programmes

    9. Vivara dana in 8 monasteries

    10. Eye operation for the poor

    11. Health check-up programmes in 4 schools

    12. Distribution of Bodhi saplings

    13. Distribution of pens, notebooks, tec., to 100 poor students

    14. Scholarships for 10 poor students

    15. Distribution of Life of Buddha painting frames to 3 monasteries















    comments (0)
    04/08/21
    34 -Fri 9 Apr 2021 LESSON 3638 Buddha-Sasana-Evolution-100% Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the fraud EVMs with micro chips where the software and the source code are kept hidden from the eyes of the voters undemocratically after the results are declared. Already voters were complaining that if any button is pressed it has gone to the Lotus symbol of the BJP. Now BSP’s Social Transformation Movement followed by Buddha, Emperor Ashoka to plant fruit, vegetable Bearing trees and plants all over the country to to make humans to cultivate their food as other living beings to overcome hunger the worst illness.-balconygarden-8-dwarf-vegetables-grow-small-urban-garden-home-remedies-to-stop-loose-motions
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
    Posted by: site admin @ 7:03 am

    34 -Fri 9 Apr 2021 LESSON 3638 Buddha-Sasana-Evolution-100%
    Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and
    company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the
    fraud EVMs with micro chips where the software and the source code are
    kept hidden from the eyes of the voters undemocratically after the
    results are declared. Already voters were complaining that if any button

    is pressed it has gone to the Lotus symbol of the BJP. Now BSP’s Social
    Transformation Movement followed by Buddha, Emperor Ashoka to plant
    fruit, vegetable  Bearing trees and plants all over the country to to
    make humans to cultivate their food as other living beings to overcome
    hunger the worst illness.-balconygarden-8-dwarf-vegetables-grow-small-urban-garden-home-remedies-to-stop-loose-motions


    tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️tipitaka (pali canon theravada) ☸️

    Friends
    Evolution

    A
    combination of variation and natural selection has produced over many
    centuries many established varieties of Buddhism. Variation arises at
    other times by adopting alternative understandings – at worst erroneous
    interpretations of traditional teachings, and at best insightful
    products of great minds – able to shape a Buddhism more effective in a
    regional culture, or to streamline certain practices or understandings.
    Evolution is typically driven by the pressures of human nature, of local
    cultural and environmental factors and occasionally of external
    intervention, such as governmental decrees.
    Early
    differences in interpretation are found in the varying codifications of
    a formalization of Buddhist philosophy called the Abhidharma (Sanskrit,
    or Abhidhamma in Pali, meaning higher teaching), which developed rather
    independently but in parallel in many of the early sects and took their
    final forms after the time of Emperor Ashoka. The Abhidharma projects
    sometimes became highly speculative and other early sects abstained from
    an Abhidharma project altogether, including a Sautrantika (Sutta Only)
    sect thatbranched off of the Sarvastivada. This gave rise to differing
    ontological stances on ultimate existence. The Theravada Abhidhamma
    project continued long after the canonical Abhidhamma was closed.
    Difference in Abhidharma contributed to the disagreements among various
    sects.
    Starting
    in the first century BCE or the first century CE and continuing for a
    few centuries thereafter, monks in India and later in Central Asia began
    composing texts that were most often based on the model of the early
    discourses, but that were generally longer and mythically fortified.
    Examples were the apocryphal Prajnaparamita Sutras, Lotus Sutra, Flower
    Ornament Sutra and so on. This was the beginning of the Mahayana
    movement, whose scriptures echoed a number of common doctrinal themes.
    As if this were not enough, the first millennium CE in northern India
    seems also to have been an era of very liberal thinking, of free
    Buddhist inquiry, the era of the great scholar-monks, Nagarjuna,
    Shantideva, Vasubandhu, and others, and the era of the great Buddhist
    monastic universities where they lived, studied and taught, most
    famously Nalanda, which brought thousands of students and teachers
    together in one place or another to discuss and debate the whole
    spectrum of Buddhist and non-Buddhist thought, both orthodox and modern.
    I picture this era as much like what developed much later in the
    Western post- Enlightenment intellectual milieu or in beatnik coffee
    shops of the 1950’s, in which almost any philosophical proposition was
    worthy of discussion or debate.
    In
    China, the Sasana was suddenly propelled into a radically different
    culture that placed new selective evolutionary pressures on it, much as
    if flower seeds were propagated by wind or defecating birds to a region
    of distinctive conditions of wind, soil or water, or, for that matter,
    if a flock of penguins were to come into contact with a colony of humans
    for many generations: the tradition either evolves or perishes. With
    much colder weather, clothing and housing, the basic requisites of
    monks, would have to be more substantial. This was a land whose cultural
    life was largely rooted in Confucianism and Taoism, which included a
    very strong ethical code governing every aspect of life, from the
    behavior of the emperor to familial relations, which had a basis of high
    literacy and intellectual astuteness, and which had a particular
    appreciation for the cycles and beauty of nature. Here the family was
    valued highly and there was no previous tradition of wandering
    mendicants. The Chinese way of thinking has been called synthetic where
    the Indian is analytic. The emperors were divine. There was much more
    social mobility than in India; a farmer’s son could, through passing
    government examinations, become employed in the government system and be
    eventually promoted to become a minister to the emperor.
    China
    was culturally about as far from India as possible, and so in China the
    Sasana evolved under quite novel influences. First, the Chinese
    popularized those scriptures and philosophical treatises appearing at
    the mouth of the Silk Road that most appealed to Chinese tastes, giving
    Chinese Buddhism a distinctive quality through a first round of natural
    selection.
    For
    instance, the long obscure Pure Land Sutras from India seem to have
    gone viral in China. China developed its own schools and ordination
    lineages, such as Ch’an and T’ien Tai (Zen and Tendai in Japan), each
    generally on the basis of a particular transmitted Mahayana scripture.
    Then China’s own indigenous scriptural corpus developed, such as the
    rather unique poetry and koan collections found in the Zen school that
    bear a much clearer affinity to Taoist literature than to anything found
    in Indian Buddhism.
    We will have occasion to look at some of these Chinese adaptations as our discussion progresses.
    Those
    of us in the West who are trying to understand the ongoing historical
    process of assimilating Buddhism into the Land of the Fork, do well to
    consider the perhaps even more monumental ancient passage of Buddhism
    from India to the Land of the Chopstick.
    The
    forces at work in both transitions make it clear that the Sasana, the
    living Dharma, is more than a systematic association of like-minded
    people; it is a culture, a system of values, symbols,
    conceptualizations, behaviors and taboos and rites that define a
    people.56 As such the entry of Buddhism into an alien culture, even when
    welcomed into that culture, can be a dramatic event, a clash of
    cultures requiring cultural realignment on both sides as Buddhism
    settles into its new home, where Buddhism seems repeatedly to prove
    itself a major civilizing force, even while Buddhism is also bent and
    reshaped by the local folk culture.
    Dwitiy buddha sasana | व्दितीय बुध्द शासन । Dhamma Talk by S.N. Goenka guruji
    VIPASSANA - DHAMMA
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    Proposed programmes to be conducted by

    Mahabodhi Namsai

    1. Offering Ayu (Life)dana to animals every full moon day

    2. Plantation of Fruit Bearing trees including Dwarf Trees

    3. Renovation of old monasteries at different villages

    4. Drugs and de-addiction awareness programmes in nearby villages

    5. Distribution of mosquito nets

    6. Food distribution in hospitals

    7. Visiting Rehabilitation Centre at Lathao

    8. Dhamma talks and workshop programmes at -

    a) Mahabodhi Monastery, Namsai

    b) Namsai monastery

    c) Tengapani monastery

    9. Painting and essay writing competetion

    10. Sanghadana in monasteries around namsai

    11. Dhamma Tour to Buddhist holy places

    12. Teaching basic meditation in Govt. Schools

    13. Writing articles on Bada Bhanteji

    14. Distribution of essential school supplies to the needy children GUPS, Old Ningroo

    15. Making drinking water pots for stray animals and birds in summer

    16. Alms round in 30 villages (each village per day)

    17. Seminars in the name of Bada Bhanteji

    18. Special chanting on full moon and new moon day in the name of Bada Bhanteji

    19. Cleaning and painting of old stupas.


    https://balconygardenweb.com/8-dwarf-vegetables-grow-small-urban-garden/




    10 Dwarf Vegetables to Grow in a Small Urban Garden

    Guest post by Natalie Miller from Gardeners Oakleigh Park

    If
    you have a very limited space but want to grow fresh vegetables then
    look out for these 10 dwarf vegetables. You can easily grow them in
    small potted gardens.

    Unfortunately,
    not everybody who is eager to grow plants on their own is blessed with a
    spacious and fruitful garden. Many people give up on the gardening
    hobby, just because they think they cannot have a garden in their small
    homes in urban areas. Please, do not make their mistake. Even if you
    live in a little urban home or apartment, there is always a way for you
    to have a lovely garden – take dwarf vegetables for example. These
    miniature veggies grow in smaller size but are equally tasty and healthy
    as their full-sized varieties. Growing dwarf

    Growing dwarf
    vegetables has become very popular recently, so their seeds are
    available both on-line and in most garden centers. If you are able to
    provide appropriate conditions for the larger duplicates, but simply
    lack garden space, opt for the following dwarf varieties and you will be
    able to enjoy an adorable but also sustainable urban garden.

    Also Read: How to Make an Urban Vegetable Garden

    1. Cherry Tomatoes


    Cherry tomatoes are one of the most suitable vegetables for
    containers. You can easily grow them in small to medium sized containers
    and even in the hanging baskets. The yield is high and they don’t take
    much space too.

    Also Read: How to Grow Cherry Tomatoes in Hanging Baskets

    2. Cauliflower


    There are many dwarf cauliflower varieties available that you can
    grow in pots in your small garden for higher yield. Learn how to grow cauliflower in pots here.
    Besides cauliflowers, you can also grow other brassicas. Dwarf
    varieties of cabbage and broccoli can be grown in containers quite
    easily.

    3. Baby artichokes


    The difference between the full-sized artichokes and the dwarf
    kind is that the little artichokes actually do not have a choke. You can
    eat the whole of them if you just peel their external layer of leaves.

    4. Baby Eggplants


    You can grow any eggplant varieties in containers in a small
    garden but a few dwarf eggplant varieties like round mauve eggplant,
    little finger eggplant, casper eggplant and baby eggplant produce small
    and tasty fruits in a little space.

    5. Dwarf carrots


    This type of carrots can be produced all year and are a bit
    sweet. You can choose to plant one or several varieties in your small
    garden. Select between round, white or French carrots. If you prefer to
    eat tender and sweeter carrots, go for the French ones that are perfect
    in combination with other dwarf vegetables. White carrots grow bigger –
    around 5 inches and the round variety has a stronger carrot taste.

    6. Green beans


    The dwarf French beans “haricot verts” are very appealing in many
    European countries and the USA because they are very flavorful and easy
    to grow even in pots. Thinner and tender than the ordinary green beans,
    these baby green beans can really bring some life to your balcony.

    Also Read: How to Grow Cluster Beans.

    7. Dwarf Lettuce


    A couple of dwarf lettuce varieties are available in the markets.
    The iceberg, salad bowl, the Red Royal oak leaf, little gem and green
    leaf sorts can be produced year-round and do not require much space,
    which makes them an excellent choice for small urban gardens.

    8. Baby green onion


    The dwarves of the green onion just taste like chives and can also be grown all year round.

    Also Read: How to Grow Green Onions in Water

    9. Dwarf Avocado


    These tiny avocados have no seed and reach not more than 3 inches
    in length and just an inch in width. Also called cocktail avocados,
    they do not require any special gardening skills to be grown and are
    suitable for container gardening.

    Also Read: How to Grow an Apple Tree in a Pot

    10. Scallopini


    This hybrid is available in dark green and yellow varieties and
    its season is from May through October. Scallopini is a crossbreed
    between scallop and zucchini and its flavor does not differ from the
    taste of its larger alternatives.

    The number of miniature
    vegetables that you can grow in even the tiniest potted gardens is
    constantly increasing. Smaller alternatives to the common garden
    vegetables are selected by plenty of urban gardeners who know no
    boundaries and are eager to bring some greenery in their city homes.
    Take care of them by choosing some of the mentioned veggies to plant and
    grow by yourself and be proud of your lovely garden in the city.

    Pin it



    If you have a very limited space but want to grow fresh vegetables then look out for these 10 dwarf vegetables. You can easily grow them in small potted gardens.




    Natalie monochrome

    https://parenting.firstcry.com/articles/home-remedies-to-stop-loose-motions-diarrhoea/

    16 Home Remedies To Stop Loose Motions (Diarrhoea)



    Home Remedies To Stop Loose Motions



    Last Updated on

    We all experience (rather suffer) from bouts of loose motions every
    now and then. Whatever the reason, loose motions are unpleasant and can
    make your life miserable. Usually, loose motions or diarrhoea is not a
    cause of worry. It is the body’s response to the disorders in the
    gastrointestinal system, and if you have diarrhoea, you will have to
    make frequent trips to the toilet for a couple of days. However, the
    condition can worsen and become chronic owing to bacterial or viral
    infection. The common symptoms of loose motion symptoms include
    abnormally watery stools, bloating, nausea, and abdominal cramping. It
    can result in dehydration and weakness. Simple home remedies can prove useful in battling diarrhoea and keeping the body and tummy healthy.


    What Can Cause Loose Motions?


    When you have diarrhoea, you may make trips to the toilet 4 to 5
    times a day, and this problem may last for more than a couple of days.
    However, if you have loose motions for over a week, it can be worrisome
    and would require immediate medical attention. Several factors can
    contribute to the onset of loose motions. Some of the common causes of
    loose motions are:

    • Bacteria like E.coli, salmonella, campylobacter present in contaminated water and foods can cause loose motions.
    • Viral infections like viral hepatitis, herpes simplex virus, norovirus, and rotavirus can trigger loose motions.
    • Irritable bowel syndrome due to stress can trigger the condition of loose motions.
    • Some individuals are intolerant to certain foods or specific
      ingredients in foods. Their incapability to digest them can prompt loose
      motions. For example, people who are intolerant to lactose can
      experience loose motions on consuming milk or additional dairy products.
      Similarly, individuals can be intolerant to fructose in fruits.
    • At times, intestinal issues like inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s
      disease, celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, or gallbladder disease can
      become a reason for loose motions.
    • Altered immune function or tumours can cause loose motions.
    • Hereditary disorders like cystic fibrosis can be another cause of loose motions.
    • Consuming unpasteurized or raw milk can negatively impact the digestive system which may lead to diarrhoea.
    • Malnutrition or deficiency of nutritious food can also be responsible for loose motions.
    • Taking certain medicines like antibiotics can have a laxative effect which can trigger loose motions.


    Effective Home Remedies for Loose Motions


    Usually, loose motions or diarrhoea is not a serious problem and may
    resolve on its own. However, it is bothersome owing to its irritable
    symptoms. Recurrent loose motions can lead to severe dehydration as the
    body tends to lose essential nutrients, and this could be dangerous for
    your health. Some natural remedies for loose motions include:


    1. Yoghurt


    Yoghurt


    Consuming plain yoghurt is one of the best ways to deal with loose motions.



    ADVERTISEMENT

    Ingredients

    • A bowl of plain yoghurt

    Directions


    • Eat a bowl of plain yoghurt.
    • You can sprinkle some salt or pepper if required.

    How Often You Should Take

    You can consume it 2 or 3 times every day for a week.


    Why This Will Work



    ADVERTISEMENT

    Yoghurt contains a good quantity of probiotics (the good bacteria)
    which play a significant role in keeping the gut healthy. They fight the
    loose motion-causing bad bacteria. Yoghurt possesses live cultures that
    produce lactic acid, that line the intestines and kill the nasty
    bacteria. Consumption of yoghurt also supports better digestion by
    creating a healthy environment for microorganisms in the
    gastrointestinal tract.


    2. Apple Cider Vinegar


    It can be a wonderful remedy for loose motions. Apple cider vinegar may also provide relief from stomach pain.



    ADVERTISEMENT

    Ingredients


    • A glass of lukewarm water
    • Two teaspoons apple cider vinegar
    • A teaspoon of honey

    Directions


    ADVERTISEMENT

    • Take a glass of lukewarm water and add apple cider vinegar to it.
    • Add honey for flavour.
    • Mix well and drink right away.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can drink this mixture twice a day for a few days.



    ADVERTISEMENT

    Why This Will Work

    Apple cider vinegar acts as a natural antibiotic which helps destroy
    the harmful organisms present in the intestine and soothes the irritated
    colon lining. Its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties shield
    the digestive system from soreness and infection. The pectin content
    aids in bulking up the stool and balancing the pH levels in the stomach,
    thus restoring regularity.


    3. Coconut Water


    Coconut Water


    This refreshing beverage is a potent remedy for loose motions.
    Drinking coconut water is no doubt good for health, but it can also cure
    and prevent loose motions.


    Ingredients


    Directions


    • You don’t have to do anything in particular to make this drink. Buy coconut water and drink it fresh.

    How Often You Should Take

    You can consume this once or twice daily until you get better.

    Why This Will Work

    Coconut water contains electrolytes like potassium and sodium which
    can help restore the electrolyte balance of the body. It helps replenish
    the lost fluids in the body and boosts blood circulation. Its
    exceptional chemical composition does not only rehydrate, but also
    provides essential nutrients like amino acids, fatty acids, Vitamin C,
    magnesium, and enzymes which in turn promote stronger immunity.



    4. Bananas


    Eat raw bananas if you have loose motions. Consuming bananas is tried and tested remedy for diarrhoea and you will feel better soon.

    Ingredients


    • A banana
    • One cup yogurt

    Directions

    • You can eat a banana.
    • If you don’t like to eat raw banana, you can prepare a smoothie by blending an unripe banana with yogurt.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can eat 2 -3 bananas or consume the banana and yoghurt smoothie twice a day for a couple of days.

    Why This Will Work


    The pectin content in bananas facilitates the absorption of fluids in
    the intestines which helps bulk up the stool. Bananas are also rich in
    potassium, which when consumed, can replenish the lost fluids in the
    body, thus diminishing the requirement of intravenous fluids or oral
    rehydration solutions.


    5. Cumin Water


    Cumin Water


    This popular spice can prove very beneficial in providing relief from loose motions.


    Ingredients

    • A cup of water
    • One teaspoon of cumin seeds

    Directions

    • Grab a saucepan and add water to it.
    • Add the cumin seeds and bring the water to a boil.
    • Allow it to simmer for a few minutes.
    • Strain the water and drink when it cools.

    How Often You Should Take

    You can consume this solution three to four times every day.


    Why This Will Work

    The antiseptic properties of cumin can assist in eliminating the
    damaging bacteria in the gut and settling the irritated bowels. It can
    rehydrate the body and help in keeping the body temperature normal. The
    high potassium content in it also helps balance and maintain the
    electrolyte levels in the body.



    6. Ginger


    According to Ayurveda, ginger can be an effective home remedy for loose motions which happen due to indigestion.

    Ingredients

    • Two teaspoons of ginger juice (freshly extracted)
    • A teaspoon of honey

    Directions


    • Mix ginger juice and honey.
    • Consume it directly.
    • You can also blend ginger juice in a cup of lukewarm water and drink it.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can try this remedy three or four times daily.


    Why This Will Work


    Ginger has antibacterial properties which attack the harmful
    pathogens that trigger loose motions. It can lessen food stagnation and
    stimulate abdominal enzymes that improve proper digestion. It can relax
    stomach muscles and soothe distressed intestines.



    7. Lemon Juice


    Lemon Juice


    Lemon juice works wonder for treating loose motions.

    Ingredients


    • Half a lemon
    • A glass of water
    • A teaspoon of sugar
    • A pinch of salt

    Directions


    • Squeeze the juice of half a lemon in a glass of water.
    • Add the sugar and salt and mix well.
    • Drink fresh.

    How Often You Should Take

    You can drink lemon juice two or three times daily for best results.


    Why This Will Work


    Lemon juice has high anti-inflammatory and acidic properties which
    can both calm the sore intestines and restore the body’s pH balance. It
    also possesses minerals like magnesium and potassium which may help make
    up for the body’s lost nutrients.


    8. Turmeric


    This useful spice can work well to resolve the annoying problem of loose motions.


    Ingredients



    Directions

    • Add the turmeric powder in warm water.
    • Stir well and drink right away.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can drink turmeric water two to three times daily.


    Why This Will Work

    Turmeric’s antibiotic property can improve the symptoms of loose
    motions by fighting bacteria in the intestines. It also has
    anti-inflammatory properties and is high in antioxidants, which can
    promote healthy digestion.



    9. Chamomile Tea


    Chamomile Tea


    Chamomile tea is a popular beverage and drinking it can provide relief from loose motion to adults.


    Ingredients


    • A cup of water
    • Two teaspoons of chamomile tea
    • Honey

    Directions


    • Pour a cup of water in a saucepan and bring it to a boil.
    • Add chamomile tea and allow it to simmer for a few minutes.
    • Strain and let it cool.
    • Add honey and consume immediately.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can drink this tea for about three times a day.


    Why This Will Work


    Chamomile had antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties which
    can ease abdominal pain and help prevent loose motions. It can relieve
    inflammation and relax the abdominal muscles to promote proper
    functioning of the digestive system.





    10. Buttermilk


    This healthy drink can be instrumental in bringing the digestive system back on track.


    Ingredients


    • A glass of fresh buttermilk
    • Salt or pepper to taste

    Directions


    • Drink a glass of fresh buttermilk, chilled if possible.
    • You can add a little salt or a pinch of pepper if you don’t like plain buttermilk.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can drink buttermilk three times a day for a couple of days.


    Why This Will Work


    Buttermilk is a good source of probiotics which is the friendly
    bacteria that can eradicate the bad bacteria from the intestines. It can
    also soothe the intestines and aid digestion.



    11. Blueberry Tea


    Blueberry Tea


    It is a popular home remedy for tummy problems and should provide you relief from diarrhoea as well.


    Ingredients


    • Two teaspoons of blueberry root powder
    • A cup of warm water
    • Honey

    Directions


    • Add blueberry root to a mug of hot water. You can also use a tea bag.
    • Let it steep for about 8 to 10 minutes.
    • Strain the water and add honey.
    • Mix well and drink it warm.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can drink this tea at least three times every day.


    Why This Will Work


    Blueberries contain antioxidants like anthocyanins and polyphenols
    which can positively impact the digestive system and combat the problem
    of loose motions. The anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of
    blueberries can help fight destructive pathogens, reduce abdominal pain,
    and alleviate the symptoms of loose motions.



    12. Fenugreek Seeds


    Fenugreek seeds can immensely benefit in battling loose motions.


    Ingredients


    • Two teaspoons of fenugreek seeds
    • A glass of water

    Directions


    • Soak the fenugreek seeds in water for about 15 minutes.
    • Grind them to a fine paste and mix in a glass of water to consume.
    • You can also reduce dried fenugreek seeds to powder using a blender.
    • Add the powder to a glass of water and drink.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can drink it two or three times every day for a few days, preferably on an empty stomach.


    Why This Will Work


    Fenugreek seeds are high in mucilage which assists in adding bulk to
    the stool and treating loose motions. The antibacterial and anti-fungal
    properties of fenugreek kill infection-causing microbes and promote
    better digestion.



    13. Mint and Honey


    Mint and Honey


    This combination can prove advantageous for combating the problem of loose motions.


    Ingredients


    • A teaspoon of mint juice (freshly extracted)
    • A teaspoon of lemon juice (freshly extracted)
    • Honey
    • A glass of warm water

    Directions


    • Blend the lemon juice, mint juice, and honey together.
    • Add this mix to a glass of lukewarm water and stir properly.
    • Drink while warm.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can take this preparation twice every day for best results.


    Why This Will Work


    Mint and honey together can reduce inflammation and calm the abdomen,
    thus easing the irritable symptoms of loose motions. Their
    antibacterial properties help regulate digestion by engaging the harmful
    pathogens responsible for digestive complications.



    14. Cinnamon and Honey


    This recipe is highly recommended for the loose motions.


    Ingredients


    • Half a teaspoon of cinnamon powder
    • Honey
    • A cup of lukewarm water

    Directions


    • Add the cinnamon powder and honey to a cup of warm water.
    • Stir well and consume right away.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can try this remedy for two to three times a day for a couple of days.


    Why This Will Work


    The blend of cinnamon and honey can help in killing the harmful
    bacteria in the intestines that cause loose motions. It can activate the
    digestive enzymes to promote the well-being of the digestive system.
    Its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties can help lessen the
    symptoms that usually accompany loose motions.



    15. Drumstick Leaves


    Drumstick Leaves


    This herb can significantly reduce the discomfort of an upset tummy.


    Ingredients


    • A teaspoon of juice of drumstick leaves
    • Honey

    Directions


    • Mix the juice of drumstick leaves and honey properly.
    • Consume immediately.
    • You can also incorporate dried drumstick leaves in your day-to-day diet.

    How Often You Should Take


    You can do this once daily.


    Why This Will Work


    Drumsticks are not only nutritious but also have antimicrobial and
    antioxidant properties that can help treat a troubled tummy. It can help
    tackle gut issues by clearing toxins from the body and providing
    respite from digestive problems like nausea, abdominal pain, and gas.



    16. Oat Bran


    Oat bran can also work for treating a disturbed tummy.


    Ingredients


    • Half a cup of oat bran
    • Water

    Directions


    • Pour enough water in a saucepan and heat it on medium flame.
    • Add oat bran and cook till it absorbs the water (about 2 minutes).

    How Often You Should Take


    You can eat this twice daily.


    Why This Will Work


    Oat bran is rich in fibre and nutrients like magnesium, potassium,
    and calcium. These nutrients help in bulking the watery stools and
    restoring the electrolytes balance in the body.



    What Foods Should You Eat While Suffering From Diarrhoea?


    Some foods that you should consume while suffering from diarrhoea include:



    1. Pomegranates


    It can suitably hydrate the body and its astringent properties can help treat loose motions.



    2. Bananas


    Banana


    Bananas contain starch which can make the stool firm. Bananas are high in potassium which can improve digestion and cure loose motions.



    3. Sugar Syrup


    Having a cup of sugar syrup can fight the symptoms of loose motions.



    4. White Rice


    Plain white rice is high in carbohdydrates and can be easily
    digested. Rice is binding in nature, which means that it can help firm
    up the loose stools. When suffering from diarrhoea, you should eat plain
    rice or rice with chicken broth. Avoid biryani or masala rice.



    5. Guavas


    Guavas also have astringent properties that can prove effective in dealing with loose motions.



    6. Carrots


    Carrot


    Eating carrots can
    bring about immediate relief from loose motions as it contains pectin.
    You can either eat steamed carrots or drink a glass of
    fresh carrot juice.



    7. BRAT Diet


    Following a BRAT diet – bananas, rice, apples, and toast – can also help provide relief from diarrhoea.



    8. Strawberries


    Strawberries


    The high fibre content in strawberries can bulk up the watery stools and enhance the functioning of the digestive system.



    9. Sago


    Sago or tapioca seeds can be valuable in providing some relief from diarrhoea. Soak them in water before drinking it.



    10. Bottle Gourd Juice


    Bottle Gourd Juice


    This water vegetable can prove advantageous when suffering from loose
    motions. Drinking its fresh juice can help retain proper hydration
    levels in the body.



    11. Mashed Potatoes


    Including starchy foods like boiled potatoes can add weight to the
    stools and refuel the body with adequate energy as the body tends to
    absorb nutrients from starchy foods. Potatoes are a great comfort food
    but they are also high in potassium. You can boil them and have them in
    the mashed form. Add a little salt and eat. Your tummy will feel better.



    Tips to Prevent Loose Motions


    Follow these tips to prevent loose motions. After all, prevention is better than cure!


    • Ensure that you consume hygienic and healthy food.
    • Incorporate fibre-rich foods in your daily diet. You can eat foods like peas, broccoli, and bananas.
    • Try and identify foods that you are allergic to and avoid consuming them.
    • Drink plenty of water and healthy beverages to stay hydrated. And drink clean, boiled water.
    • Limit excessive intake of alcohol and caffeine.
    • Wash your hands often to prevent bacterial and viral infections from spreading.


    FAQs



    1. What Foods Should I Avoid During Loose Motions?


    You may want to avoid dairy products like cottage cheese and cheese
    while suffering from diarrhoea. Also, avoid spicy and greasy foods, raw
    vegetables, fish, meat, processed foods, etc.



    2. Which Juices Can Treat Diarrhoea?


    Juices extracted from carrots, oranges, pomegranates, and bottle gourd can help treat diarrhoea.


    Home remedies are an inexpensive and natural way to treat loose
    motions in no time. Furthermore, they don’t have any side effects. So
    the next time you feel sick in your stomach, do consider trying some of
    these remedies. You will feel better soon. However, do consult a doctor
    if the problem persists for long.

    comments (0)
    04/07/21
    33 -Thu 8 Apr 2021 LESSON 3637 Buddha-Sasana-Propagation -100% Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the fraud EVMs with micro chips where the software and the source code are kept hidden from the eyes of the voters undemocratically after the results are declared. Already voters were complaining that if any button is pressed it has gone to the Lotus symbol of the BJP. Now BSP’s Social Transformation Movement followed by Buddha, Emperor Ashoka to plant fruit, vegetable Bearing trees and plants all over the country to to make humans to cultivate their food as other living beings to overcome hunger the worst illness.
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
    Posted by: site admin @ 4:57 am

    33 -Thu 8 Apr 2021 LESSON 3637 Buddha-Sasana-Propagation
    -
    100%
    Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and
    company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the
    fraud EVMs with micro chips where the software and the source code are
    kept hidden from the eyes of the voters undemocratically after the
    results are declared. Already voters were complaining that if any button

    is pressed it has gone to the Lotus symbol of the BJP. Now BSP’s Social
    Transformation Movement followed by Buddha, Emperor Ashoka to plant
    fruit, vegetable  Bearing trees and plants all over the country to to
    make humans to cultivate their food as other living beings to overcome
    hunger the worst illness.


    Friends

    Chunar
    sandstone is deeply associated with the third-century BCE Mauryan
    emperor Ashoka, who was a great patron of Buddhism and its arts. Ashoka
    raised freestanding columns carved from Chunar sandstone throughout his
    vast empire upon which were inscribed edicts along with planting fruit
    bearing trees all over the country to feed the hungry as it is the worst
    illness as said by the Buddha. In an effort to associate herself with
    one of the greatest figures from Buddhist history, Mayawati similarly
    erected dozens of Chunar sandstone columns on the grounds of her
    monuments hoping that fruit bearing trees will be planted all over the
    country as Ashoka did.
    Small Fruit Production
    UK Extension Plant Professionals
    35 subscribers
    Rick Durham goes over what home owners need to know about growing small fruits in your back yard.
    to
    plant fruit, vegetable Bearing including trees and plants all over the
    country to to make humans to cultivate their food as other living beings
    to overcome hunger the worst illness. to plant fruit, vegetable Bearing
    trees and plants all over the country to to make humans to cultivate
    their food as other living beings to overcome hunger the worst illness
    with pictures and videos



    Friends

    Propagation

    As
    Buddhism spread geographically through India and into neighboring
    landsit began differentiating itself along geographical lines, in small
    ways, much as
    linguistic
    dialects tend to distinguish themselves over time until eventuallythey
    will become mutually unintelligible, yet functionally similar
    languages.There also seems to have been an occasional schism, or a split
    in a localsangha whereby one group of monks went off in a huff, over
    issues of Dharmaor Vinaya or perhaps personalities, and would no longer
    deal with theremaining monks, probably in the end with much the same
    result asgeographical dispersion.52 The result was a growing set of
    sects – at one pointmeasured at eighteen in number – of distinct
    identity, generally with a distincthomeland but at the same time with
    considerable geographical overlap,especially in the cities. With time,
    each sect committed its scriptures to palmleaf, generally in its local
    vernacular.
    For
    instance, the Mahāsāṃghika were based largely to the east in
    Magadha.They are associated with the Second Council, roughly one hundred
    years afterthe Buddha in Vaiśālī in the land of the Vijjians, as one
    party in a dispute thatresulted in a schism in the Sangha over issues
    of Vinaya. The territory of theSthaviravada (precursor of the Theravada)
    centered around Avanti in westernIndia. Eventually this sect would
    expand to the south and through missionarieswould reach the Island of
    Ceylon, where it survives to this day and from whereit would spread into
    Southeast Asia. Pali, in which Theravada scriptures arepreserved, may
    have been the language of Avanti. The Dharmaguptaka sectarose in the
    Greek kingdom of Gandhara. It was known for its practice ofpagoda
    worship and its Vinaya even contains an extended set of regulation
    forbehavior around pagodas. Its scriptures were recorded in Gandhari
    andSanskrit.53 Its early territorial expansion was unmatched as it
    spread intoCentral Asia and along the Silk Road, and was probably the
    first sect to reachChina. Its Vinaya is still in use throughout East
    Asia.54
    The
    propagation of the Sasana was reportedly given its first really big
    boostthrough the very early missionary zeal of Emperor Ashoka (304–232
    BCE),55who sent missions to various places within and beyond his empire –
    to SriLanka, to Kashmir, to Persia and as far as the Mediterranean.
    With timeBuddhism spread westward across what is now northern Pakistan
    andAfghanistan into Persia and Central Asia, southward and eastward
    throughSoutheast Asia and island-hopping as far as Java. From Central
    Asia it spreadin both directions along the Silk Road, eastward into
    China in the first centuryCE, from whence with time it would gain the
    bulk of its adherents.
    There
    is some tenuous speculation of the influence of the Buddha-Sasana on
    earlyChristianity at the far western end of the Silk Road. In the eighth
    centuryBuddhism become firmly established in Tibet through Kashmir. In
    recentyears the Sasana has spread over much of the world outside Asia
    from almostevery sect through Asian diaspora. The growth in literacy and
    communicationsin recent times has also sometimes allowed Buddhism to
    precede qualifiedsandals-on-the-ground Buddhist teachers in extending
    the influence ofBuddhist philosophy and life into uncharted lands.
    The
    great variety of people from the most diverse regions traveling hither
    andfro along the Silk Road and producing an ample trickle of Buddhists
    at theeastern end, eventually made China heir to almost every sect or
    latermovement and philosophical school of Buddhism active in India or
    elsewhere,such that the early sects no longer retained their individual
    identities except toinject their own characteristic scriptural teachings
    into the Chinese mix. Ashistory marches on, the West is now
    experiencing a repeat of this process asvirtually every form of Buddhism
    found in Asia is adding its characteristicheritage to the Western mix.
    Buddhism
    eventually largely died out in India, in the regions west of India
    andin Indonesia and Malaysia, where it has been largely supplanted by
    Islam andHinduism. The only early (that is, pre-Mahayana) sect that has
    retained itsearly identity is the Theravada of Southern Asia.
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    https://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/ars/13441566.0044.006/–monumental-pride-mayawatis-memorials-in-lucknow?rgn=main;view=fulltext
    Monumental Pride: Mayawati’s Memorials in Lucknow
    Over
    the past decade, dozens of large-scale architectural memorials
    commemorating social reformers associated with Prabuddha Bharat’s
    historically oppressed “untouchable” (SC/ST) castes have been built
    throughout Uttar Pradesh. The memorials were commissioned by the state’s
    former chief minister, Mayawati, herself a Aboriginal Awakened
    Scheduled Caste .

    Analyzes
    intersections of politics, caste, gender, and visibility at two of her
    memorials in Lucknow—the Ambedkar Memorial and the Prerna Kendra (a
    crematory memorial). Specifically, the forms and decoration of the
    memorials highlight the absence of earlier SC/ST leaders and present
    Mayawati as their legitimate political heir.

    Especially
    in commemorative architecture (monuments, memorials, historic markers,
    museums), we learn whose histories are legitimate, which narratives are
    superfluous (or symbolically omitted), or which images are embraced as
    part of our official, national accounts of origins and destiny. We learn
    who is allowed to speak for history, who is allowed to speak for “us,”
    and whose voices will always be considered marginal to the main event.

    —Margaret E. Farra



    The
    past few years have witnessed radical additions to the built
    environment of Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), India’s largest and most populous
    state. Dozens of large-scale architectural memorials—enshrining
    narrative bronze friezes and monumental bronze and marble statues of
    social reformers associated with the historically oppressed SC/ST
    (Awakened Aboriginal formerly “the so called untouchable”) caste—have
    been built in the state capital of Lucknow and in Noida, outside Delhi.
    These cities are now also punctuated by statues that stand sentinel at
    crowded intersections, outside government office buildings, and by the
    side of interstate highways, with smaller cement statues throughout the
    state’s rural areas. The memorial buildings and statues were
    commissioned by Mayawati (born 1956), herself a Awakened Aboriginal
    Scheduled Caste, during her four terms as the U.P. chief minister
    between 1995 and 2012. Mayawati’s memorials are the most conspicuous
    expression of establishing SC/ST visibility in her state. Others include
    renaming districts and prominent buildings to honor SC/ST heroes. The
    sheer number of the memorials, coupled with their monumental scale,
    arguably make Mayawati the single most prolific architectural patron in
    India since the British Raj commissioned New Delhi in 1911.

    The
    cast of characters in Mayawati’s sculptural programs includes notable
    SC/STs and those who championed the rights of Prabuddha Bharat’s
    subalterns. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar (1891–1956), the Awakened Aboriginal
    Scheduled Caste founder of the modern anti-caste movement and writer of
    the constitution, is the best-known public figure in the statue cycles
    (fig. 1). Others include Jyotirao Phule (1827–1890), a campaigner for
    the education of women and awakened aboriginal castes, and the Buddha,
    who preached against casteism and whose teachings many SC/STs have
    consequently adopted. Statues of Mayawati and Kanshi Ram (1934–2006),
    her mentor and predecessor in the Bajujan Samaj Party (BSP), are given
    pride of place in the memorials and often are duplicated several times
    at each site. With the monuments’ scale, their recognizable
    architectural forms and decoration, and the ubiquity of the dalit
    statues, Mayawati’s commissions have made an indelible mark on Uttar
    Pradesh’s urban fabric.

    1.
    Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. Bronze sculpture in front of the Ambedkar stupā,
    Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Prateek Sthal (Ambedkar
    Memorial), Lucknow

    The
    memorials aim to empower SC/ST/OBCs through twin strategies, which
    Manuela Ciotti refers to as “presence in space,” and “presence in time,”
    both of which have been denied to the SC/ST/OBC community for
    centuries. While the former offers visibility, the latter presents an
    illustrious dalit history, in which its members may take pride and
    aspire to a better future. When criticized for such flagrant
    expenditures, Mayawati consistently asserts that the memorials fulfill a
    vital social role and give hope and pride to her community. As one
    Scheduled caste member of Mayawati’s cabinet remarked, “The statues
    have given SC/ST/OBCs a place in the history of this country, nobody can
    change that.”SC/ST/OBC

    Drawing
    from Foucault’s work on the relationship between space and power,
    Margaret E. Farrar remarks that those in power construct and reiterate
    social, political, and economic power structures in the built
    environment. The situation is circular: power shapes space and vice
    versa. Space legitimizes and ennobles some groups and excludes,
    denigrates, and silences others. Commemorative architecture is supremely
    exclusive and visually amplifies messages of communal belonging or
    segregation. For centuries in India, SC/ST/OBCs have been denied a
    presence in space and time, both literally and symbolically. This
    spatial and historical exclusion then perpetuates SC/ST/OBC social
    marginalization, inside and outside the community. It is therefore not
    surprising that the territorial claiming of physical space and marking
    it with SC/ST/OBC historical figures—thereby visually demanding that
    they are recognized—is an integral component of Mayawati’s radical brand
    of SC/ST/OBC assertion.

    The
    sprawling Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Prateek Sthal
    (hereafter referred to by its popular name, the Ambedkar Memorial) with
    its monumental Ambedkar stupā (figs. 1, 2) and the Bahujan Samaj Prerna
    Kendra (hereafter, Prerna Kendra; fig. 3), both in Lucknow, are
    Mayawati’s most politically meaningful architectural commissions. The
    Prerna Kendra is unique in that it is a funerary memorial that enshrines
    Kanshi Ram’s cremated ashes. In commissioning her predecessor’s
    memorial, Mayawati was participating in a well-established Indic
    performance of legitimating political authority. As with her other
    architectural commissions, the Ambedkar Memorial and Prerna Kendra’s
    formal and decorative programs, statues, and frieze cycles, as well as
    the commemorative rituals held at the sites, work in concert to unite
    dalits in a singular “imagined community” and establish Mayawati as
    their rightful charismatic leader. Images and text present Mayawati as
    the political heir to the most celebrated figures in Awakened Aboriginal
    SC/ST history, designating Ambedkar, Kanshi Ram, and Mayawati as
    charismatic leaders by referring to models of Indic kingship and linking
    Mawayawati to more recent examples of gendered authority. I employ the
    term “charismatic leader” in accordance with Max Weber’s definition:


    a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is
    set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural,
    superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities.
    These are such as are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are
    regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them,
    the individual is treaded as a leader….What is alone important is how
    the individual is actually regarded by those subject to the charismatic
    authority, by his “followers” or “disciples.”
    2. Ambedkar Memorial, Lucknow
    3. Bahujan Samaj Prerna Kendra (Prerna Kendra), Lucknow

    Significantly,
    Weber suggests that what matters most is that followers believe a
    leader possesses exceptional characteristics—not that he or she actually
    possesses them. Like many leaders who seek to convince their followers
    of their extraordinariness, Mayawati announces her unique and
    exceptional powers through monumental public art with straightforward
    messages and meaningful, archaized styles.

    Also
    pertinent for understanding the artworks in the Ambedkar Memorial and
    the Prerna Kendra are Weber’s notions about how charisma may be
    transmitted (“the routinization of charisma”) from one leader to
    another. These include designation by the previous charismatic leader
    and being descended from him. Mayawati explicitly references the former
    and implicitly suggests the latter in the statues and friezes in her
    buildings. Weber also cites support—followers’ lavish donations and
    gifts—as a marker of an individual’s charismatic authority, which has
    parallels in institutions of traditional Prabuddha Bharatic kingship.
    Mayawati has been the recipient of extravagant gifts from her
    constituents, a fact that is highlighted in her commissions.

    It
    is not surprising that Mayawati has invested so heavily in a
    politically charged visual culture and performances of her own charisma.
    When she first ran for office, she was an unlikely candidate as chief
    minister. While she was not the first Scheduled Caste chief minister in
    Prabuddha Bharat, she was the first woman from her community to hold the
    office as well as the youngest in the state. Coupled with her
    extravagant public displays of wealth and acceptance of gifts from her
    community, Mayawati’s prolific memorial building activity has
    consistently garnered her both national criticism and praise. The
    SC/ST/OBC community itself is divided in its support of her building
    programs. Many SC/ST/OBCs to whom I spoke at her sites unanimously and
    enthusiastically supported her and echoed her rhetoric of the necessity
    of her community building program. Both factions have received ample
    media exposure.

    The
    SC/ST/OBC movement and Mayawati’s political career have been the
    subject of several recent studies. Nicholas Jaoul[13] and Gary Michael
    Tartakov examine emerging trends in SC/ST/OBC visual culture,
    particularly the increasing prevalence of Ambedkar statues in rural
    Uttar Pradesh. They did not consider Mayawati’s monumental urban
    statues, presumably because this now statewide phenomenon was only in
    its nascent stages during the time of their fieldwork. Focusing her
    analyses on its architectural form and location, Maxine Loynd cogently
    argues that the Prerna Kendra was created as an intimate, exclusive
    SC/ST/OBC communal space, quite different from the Ambedkar Memorial.
    However, Loynd’s study does not consider the building’s mortuary roles
    and is silent on the subject of its decorative program, whose thematic
    content highlights Mayawati’s political lineage and charisma. Thus, a
    critical study of these two buildings, their statues, and friezes within
    her wider political agenda has yet to be undertaken. Before turning to
    the memorials themselves, it is pertinent to first briefly consider
    SC/ST/OBC history and key figures esteemed by the community with whom
    Mayawati visually associates through her commissions.

    (Re)Claiming SC/ST/OBC History and Asserting Communal Presence

    SC/ST/OBC—derived
    from the Sanskrit and Marathi word meaning “ground down, crushed,
    destroyed”—is an inclusive term that members of India’s various lowest
    castes have used to refer to themselves since the early twentieth
    century. Rebuking the Gandhian term harījān (people of God) as
    patronizing, Ambedkar defiantly adopted and popularized SC/ST/OBC.
    Historically Awakened Aboriginal SC/ST/OBCs’ hereditary occupations,
    which in Hinduism are associated with caste, have been characterized by
    literal and ritual pollution. For generations, members of various
    SC/ST/OBC groups were in contact with corpses (removing dead humans and
    animals, working with leather, and butchering); served as sweepers; and
    performed other menial jobs. This pollution is popularly regarded as
    contagious, leading to forced SC/ST/OBC segregation in their areas of
    habitation (predominantly in slums), at religious sites, and at water
    sources. SC/ST/OBCs had no recourse or means to better themselves; until
    the mid-twentieth century, education was largely denied to them.
    Numerous social schemes have been implemented since Indian independence
    in 1947 to rectify this, such as reservations for dalits in schools,
    universities, government jobs, and political offices. Perhaps the
    greatest single public triumph for the community was the 1997 democratic
    election of SC/ST K. R. Narayanan as president ( but not allowing a
    SC/ST to become the Prime Minister as it is really poewerful than the
    President’s post) of Prabuddha Bharat. However, while such concessions
    and appointments have markedly improved the SC/ST/OBcs’ opportunities
    for upward social and financial mobility, they remain among the poorest
    and most socially marginalized people in the nation.

    Sources
    differ on the roots of this discrimination and precisely how long it
    has been in effect. chitpavan brahmanical texts dating to the first
    millennium BCE outline the various hindutva cult castes and note the
    existence of those outside of the order, who are thus “aboriginal
    awakened the so called untouchable.” However, since Ambedkar’s campaigns
    dating from the 1930s to 1950s, communal pride and assertiveness has
    grown steadily. A key factor has been the creation of SC/ST/OBC
    “presence in time” and the construction of an alternative dalit history,
    which presents the community as the former possessors of wealth,
    positions of power, and education—the very qualities popular history
    denies them. According to these new trajectories, in the ancient past,
    kṣhatryǎs (rulers and warriors of the Hindu caste system) and the
    foreigners from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Northern Europe, Western
    Germeny, South Russia, Western Europe, Hungary chitpavan brahmans
    divested SC/ST/OBCs of their lofty positions by treachery and relegated
    them to the lowest social positions. Whether or not these ancient
    histories are true is not the point. Explanation, pride, and hope are.
    These alternative histories offer the community a reason for their
    present subaltern status, a group of role models, and by extension, a
    hope that they may achieve equality, if not regain their former status.

    The
    BSP has made concerted efforts to increase SC/ST/OBC awareness of key
    historical community members of whom they can be proud. Figures from the
    ancient past include sages such as Valmiki (who himself was an
    aboriginal Awakened Scheduled Caste), the author of the Ramayana. More
    recent notable figures include female SC/ST/OBC martial heroes
    (viranganī) martyred during the 1857 rebellion against the British. The
    most celebrated contemporary SC/ST/OBC heroes are Ambedkar, Kanshi Ram,
    and Mayawati. In fact, Mayawati worked closely with Kanshi Ram to
    fashion her charismatic public image and promote her qualifications to
    lead the community by visually associating her with both Ambedkar and
    Kanshi Ram.

    Mayawati’s
    memorial commissions are key strategies in the visual articulation of
    her political lineage from these two male dalit leaders and her claims
    to charismatic authority. Her buildings and statues are metaphorical
    lighthouses and visual rallying points, from which the BSP is able to
    mobilize the community to vote for their candidates, who then will
    demand more rights and better opportunities on the dalits’ behalf. These
    messages are amplified through a scale that is larger than life;
    through construction from costly, durable materials that are
    historically associated with royalty and political authority; and
    finally, through historically meaningful styles.

    The
    tradition of public memorialization through sculptures and public
    buildings in India began with the British, who installed bronze and
    marble images of the imperial family and high-ranking Raj civil servants
    and commissioned buildings such as museums and railway stations in
    their honor. After independence, colonial statues were largely removed
    and replaced by ones depicting nationalist heroes, particularly freedom
    fighters such as Gandhi, the Raṇī of Jhansi, and Bhagat Singh. Public
    buildings were also renamed, but in honor of figures who were almost
    exclusively from the higher castes, thereby effectively excluding
    SC/ST/OBCs from Indian postcolonial history and public memorial space.
    In the early 1960s, Ambedkar joined his upper-caste nationalist cohorts
    when two public bronze statues of him were erected, one in Mumbai, the
    other in front of the National Parliament in New Delhi.

    These
    two statues established an Ambedkar iconography: dressed in a suit,
    tie, and glasses, and holding one hand up with the index finger
    punctuating the air. The Mumbai statue added the Indian constitution,
    tucked under Ambedkar’s lowered arm, inscribed with “Bharat” (Prabuddha
    Bharat) to ensure its meaning (see fig. 1). Both Mayawati’s statues and
    the smaller-scale cement statues dalits install in their villages and
    slums are based on these models.

    Since
    Mayawati first came to office in the mid-1990s, public
    SC/ST/OBCstatues, particularly those of Ambedkar, have increased
    exponentially. Today in Lucknow, Ambedkar has a more conspicuous public
    presence than Gandhi does. At the main intersection of Hajarat Ganj, a
    fashionable historic shopping district, an older statue of Gandhi has
    been joined by a larger and newer Ambedkar companion statue across the
    street. Such visual one-upping was surely not unintentional. In fact,
    this is a trope in Mayawati’s commissions, expressed through scale and
    text. Gandhi and Ambedkar clashed on several occasions over the issue of
    caste; while opposing inequality, Gandhi maintained that there were
    social and cultural benefits to the system. Ambedkar campaigned for its
    abolition. While Gandhi is popularly honored as the father of the
    nation, SC/ST/OBC activists such as Ambedkar, Kanshi Ram, and
    particularly Mayawati have publically denounced him on the basis that he
    did nothing to improve their situation. In memorializing notable
    figures from her own community through buildings and statues, and
    renaming districts after them, Mayawati was subscribing to and
    amplifying performances of autonomy established by the independent
    nation.

    Iconographies of Androgyny

    … it is remarkable that woman is never imagined as an active, sexual being within this discourse on nationalism.

    Mayawati’s
    commissions established iconographies for Kanshi Ram’s and her own
    images as well (fig. 4). Kanshi Ram is dressed in a casual suit, and
    Mayawati has cropped hair; a plain, loose-fitting shalwaar kameez;
    chunky sandals; a prominent wristwatch; and a handbag at her side. Her
    simple, unadorned appearance depicts her as unfussy and androgynous. The
    message conveyed is that she is fully capable of negotiating the
    male-dominated political arena. Her distinctly unfeminine appearance
    also highlights her unmarried status, and by extension, her complete
    dedication to the betterment of her community, which she confirms when
    questioned about her marital status.

    4.
    Mayawati and Kanshi Ram flank a frieze that depicts them inaugurating
    the Ambedkar statue. Bronze sculptures, Ambedkar stupā, Ambedkar
    Memorial

    Neither
    Mayawati’s public identity nor her self-promotion of it through
    monumental images is unique within the visual culture of Indian
    politics, and there were well-established models available to her all
    over India. Among these, as Sikata Banerjee documents, are women in the
    Hindutva movement who, like Mayawati, present themselves as celibate,
    masculine, and martial to participate in the masculine world of Hindu
    nationalism. The most common trope of female politician in India is the
    asexual widow, such as Vijayraje Scindia. Like Mayawati, hindutva cult
    nationalist women and hndutva widows who have entered politics wear
    plain clothing and minimal jewelry and makeup. Perhaps Mayawati’s
    androgynous dress and physique as well as her statues bear the closest
    resemblance to those of Jayalalitha Jayaram, the former actress and
    chief minister of Tamil Nadu, who entered politics and began promoting
    herself through public art a few years before Mayawati. In many regards,
    the two politicians have similar careers. Both have backgrounds that do
    not recommend them for Prabuddha Bharatian politics (Mayawati as a
    awakened aboriginal Scheduled and Jayalalitha ex. awakened aboriginal
    SC converted as Iyengar by Ramanujar as a former film heroine, a
    profession widely regarded as immoral for women in Prabuddha Bharat).
    Both claim to have remained unmarried so that they can dedicate
    themselves to their political parties. As will be discussed further, two
    prominent tropes in Jayalalitha’s and Mayawati’s artistic commissions
    are their descent from their male political mentors and their
    conspicuous political promotion, which announce their charismatic
    authority.

    Tamil
    Nadu has a well-established history of male actors who enter into
    political careers. As Preminda Jacob states in her work on the art of
    cinema and political advertisements in the state, one of the typical
    means by which actors-turned-politicians promote themselves is through
    monumental banners and cutouts (outlines of figures) that are
    stylistically based on film advertisements. Since the 1980s, Jayalalitha
    has commissioned more banners and cutouts, which are larger and display
    more overt political symbolism, than any other politician in the state.
    Her public image and political advertisements certainly have served her
    well; Jayalalitha has achieved incredible success, attaining landslide
    victories in state elections on three occasions. She and her
    advertisements are well publicized in the Indian media, and Mayawati
    surely is familiar with them.

    Another
    significant factor to the deconstruction of Mayawati’s public image is
    that in the 1990s Jayalalitha’s promotional images shifted dramatically
    in their depictions, changing from her wholesome and feminine film roles
    to a distinctly androgynous appearance. She now appears in the banners
    and cutouts with her hair in a tight bun and her fleshy physique
    concealed in a conservatively draped sari and cape. To shift public
    focus from her film career, in which her success hinged on her
    sexuality, to her charismatic authority, Jayalalitha desexed herself. In
    so doing, she likely provided a model for Mayawati. However, as is
    typical of Mayawati’s commissions, they surpass their models. The Tamil
    banners and cutouts are two-dimensional and ephemeral. They are
    constructed of plywood, supported by bamboo scaffolding, and displayed
    only for a few weeks. In contrast, Mayawati commissions buildings and
    statues of durable, luxury materials to convey her wealth and ensure
    both their permanence and their patron’s public memory.

    While
    awakened aboriginal converted as Iyengar by Ramanujan Jayalalitha’s
    androgyny may be attributed to her desire to distance herself from her
    film-star past in an effort to be taken seriously as a politician,
    Mayawati had different, yet equally compelling reasons to publically
    desex herself. In her analysis of gender among scheduled castes,
    Eva-Maria Hardtman draws attention to the fact that the few
    aboriginal-caste Prabuddha Bharatian women who rise to positions of
    political power are subject to intense moral scrutiny by the media, male
    members of their own political parties, and the entertainment industry.
    There is far less speculation about the morality of Indian high- and
    middle-caste female politicians (unless they are former film stars) or
    male politicians, whatever their caste. All Aboriginal Awakened , the so
    called Untouchables have popularly been considered impure and their
    touch defiling which is not true as they are Buddhists Scheduled Caste
    women have the added stigma of being widely considered immoral and
    promiscuous.

    Hardtman
    cites the late Scheduled Caste outlaw-turned-politician Phoolan Devi
    and Mayawati as examples. Among the multiple atrocities committed
    against the former was being gang-raped on several occasions and paraded
    naked, which were then exposed in a book and internationally
    best-selling film, Bandit Queen, without her permission. Phoolan Devi
    denounced the film in particular, likening it to being raped again. In
    1996 a male politician publically accused Mayawati of engaging in a
    long-term affair with Kanshi Ram that resulted in a secret love child.
    The accusation received widespread coverage in the Indian media for
    several months. It cannot be coincidental that photographs of Mayawati
    taken until 1997 show her with shoulder-length hair pulled back into a
    ponytail, wearing a pastel-pink shalwaar kameez or occasionally a sari,
    and gold jewelry. About a year after the accusation, Mayawati cropped
    her hair and has since appeared exclusively in a shapeless,
    cream-colored shalwaar kameez, which is how she is immortalized in her
    statues. Phoolan Devi and Mayawati are both also well known for their
    public cursing and for addressing upper-caste males in the derogatory
    third-person, tu—behaviors associated with low-caste males in India. It
    would appear that for these two dalit female politicians, androgyny and
    the adoption of stereotypically low-caste masculine behaviors were
    protective responses to having their private lives and morality the
    subject of public consumption.

    Mayawati as Kanshi Ram’s Charismatic Political Heir

    Mayawati
    was born into the chamar jatī, one of the lowest dalit subcastes, whose
    members have historically been tanners. Positive accounts of Mayawati’s
    biography emphasize her dedication to her studies at a young age and
    her academic success; her higher degrees include a law degree (LLB). In
    1977, she was studying for her civil service examinations when she met
    Kanshi Ram, who was establishing the BSP at the time. Kanshi Ram groomed
    Mayawati as a party leader, and in 2001, at a large rally in Lucknow,
    he named her as his successor as president of the BSP (fig. 5). When he
    suffered a paralyzing stroke in 2004, he convalesced at Mayawati’s home
    in Delhi while she personally cared for and fed him. When he died in
    2006, as per the tenets of his will, he was cremated in a Buddhist
    ritual, and Mayawati personally lit his funeral pyre.

    In
    both hindutvaism and Buddhism, performance of the last rites is the
    final responsibility of a father’s eldest son and heir. By taking on
    this central and traditionally male role in Kanshi Ram’s funeral,
    Mayawati challenged gender discrimination and decisively established
    herself as the heir of Kanshi Ram. Her action also suggested a more
    intimate, familial descent from the founder of the party and, by
    extension, her inheritance of his charismatic authority through two
    well-established paths: designation by the previous leader or descent
    from him. Kanshi Ram’s cremated ashes were placed in an urn, which was
    processed in a cortege through Lucknow and which Mayawati personally
    installed under bronze statues of the two of them in the Prerna Kendra.
    These two acts—Kanshi Ram’s announcement that Mayawati was his successor
    and her performance of his last rites—irrefutably established her as
    his heir apparent. The two occasions are also among the most popular
    subjects in the bronze friezes in Mayawati’s memorials.

    5. Kanshi Ram announcing Mayawati as his successor. Bronze frieze, sculpture gallery, Ambedkar Memorial

    That
    Kanshi Ram specified that he receive his last rites according to
    Buddhist tradition is also significant. Although neither he nor Mayawati
    formally converted to the faith, Buddhism has been politically and
    religiously associated with the SC/ST/OBC movement since Ambedkar’s
    highly public conversion in 1956. Adding another layer to dalit
    alternative history, Ambedkar asserted that members of India’s lowest
    castes were Buddhists who had been ostracized for not accepting
    hindutvauism. Since Ambedkar’s conversion, the faith has undergone a
    profound revival among dalits, who seek to cast off the stigma of their
    low status and shun the system that degraded them for centuries. As
    several dalit Buddhists noted during conversations with me, they
    subscribe to Ambedkar’s claims and view their conversion as a
    reconversion to the faith and a reclaiming of their history. Due to the
    SC/ST/OBC revival of Buddhism; its associations with Ambedkar, the
    founder of the modern SC/ST/OBC movement; and Ambedkar’s assertions that
    dalits were previously Buddhists, Mayawati’s SC/ST/OBC memorials quote
    liberally from ancient Indian Buddhist monuments. Ultimately the
    neo-Buddhist style of Mayawati’s memorials makes a SC/ST/OBC “presence
    in time” visual.
    “A Modern-day Female Ashoka”: Claiming SC/ST/OBC Space and Establishing a Dalit Style of Architecture

    All
    of Mayawati’s sculptures are executed by Ram and Anil Sutar, a
    father-and-son, Noida-based team. Ram Suthar graduated at the top of his
    class from one of India’s most prestigious art schools, the Sir
    Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art, in 1953. Significant to the work he
    would later do for Mayawati, during the 1950s, Ram Sutar served as
    modeler for the Department of Archaeology in Aurangabad and restored
    sculptures in the Ellora and Ajanta caves, which familiarized him with
    ancient Indian Buddhist art. Since he established his own studio in
    1959, Ram Sutar’s national fame has grown steadily. He has been
    commissioned to cast and carve statues and friezes of a diverse range of
    public and mythological figures throughout India. Sutar is best known
    for his bust of Gandhi, which has been recast multiple times and which
    the government of India has given to numerous countries. In 1995 Sutar
    was awarded the prestigious Padmashri medal.

    Mayawati
    doubtlessly chose the Sutars for their reputation as the most
    celebrated sculptors to work in a large scale and for the realism,
    dynamism, and quality materials that characterize their work. That the
    Sutars are well known for their sculptures of Hindu subjects and
    high-caste leaders was probably also attractive. Their past work
    associated Mayawati and her community with the establishment and the
    galaxy of national heroes. By retaining their services, she effectively
    communicated that now dalits too have access to the finest quality
    materials and the most sought-after artists to memorialize their heroes.

    She
    was an active agent in the construction and dissemination of her public
    image. The Sutars and Jay Kaktikar, Mayawati’s chief architect,
    discussed building and decorative styles and their associations with her
    at great length. She then became highly involved in the design and
    planning of her commissions. While in office, she frequently toured the
    building sites from the air in her private helicopter. Her commissions
    certainly have kept the artists in her employ busy. Both Kaktikar and
    the Sutars work exclusively for her. When Mayawati first retained the
    Sutars’ services in the early 2000s, they only employed twenty-four
    full-time workers in their foundry, and they only worked during the day.
    When I met the Sutars in August 2011, when Mayawati was still in
    office, to keep up with her commissions, they had increased their
    workforce to one hundred during the day and another one hundred at
    night. Their foundry was open twenty-fours a day, seven days a week.
    Still, they were backlogged with work for Mayawati.

    It
    was not only the rate of her commissions that kept her artists busy, it
    was their quality. Kaktikar recounts that Mayawati insisted that her
    projects be constructed with an aim toward permanence. Her great concern
    was that after her tenure, her non-SC/ST/OBC successors would raze what
    she had built. Her fears were certainly well founded. Throughout India
    memorial statues of Ambedkar and other dalit icons are routinely
    vandalized—toppled, defaced, or garlanded with rows of shoes, with the
    aim of insulting them. Only months after she was voted out of office in
    2012, statues of Mayawati and Ambedkar were decapitated in Lucknow. In
    an attempt to ensure that Uttar Pradesh was not subjected to further
    visual programs to erase the dalits from Lucknow’s built environment,
    Kaktikar worked with thicker than usual slabs of stone, and the Sutars
    cast Mayawati’s statues and friezes with extra thick bronze.

    Mayawati
    and Kaktikar devised an instantly recognizable style for her
    architectural commissions through their formal and decorative programs
    and construction material. Patron and architect perfectly understood the
    sociopolitical need not only to build but also to claim space and
    territorially mark it through a sectarian style of architecture.
    Mayawati’s buildings draw heavily from ancient Indian Buddhist
    architecture, as exemplified by sites such as the Great Stupa at Sanchi
    (circa first century BCE). Kaktikar notes that he and Mayawati intended
    to appropriate this style. Her buildings are not pastiches. Rather than
    recreating facsimiles of ancient Buddhist structures, Kaktikar combined
    select features from notable Indian buildings to associate his patron
    and her community with politically legitimizing models.

    The
    construction materials are uniform light-pink and red sandstone from
    Karuli, Rajasthan, and buff-colored sandstone from Chunar, Uttar
    Pradesh. As with all of her commissions, Mayawati’s choice of materials
    was well informed and meaningful. Red sandstone and white marble have
    been the preeminent building materials for royal and government
    structures in North India since the fourteenth-century Khilji Sultan
    Ala-ud-din’s commission of the Alai Darwaza at the Qutub complex in
    Delhi. Following the Khiljis, other Delhi Sultanates, the Mughals,
    several Rajput dynasties, the British, and finally the independent
    nation of India employed these building materials for their political
    structures. Light-pink sandstone is frequently substituted for white
    marble. Mayawati’s use of these materials brings her into the visual
    language of North Indian rulership.

    Chunar
    sandstone is deeply associated with the third-century BCE Mauryan
    emperor Ashoka, who was a great patron of Buddhism and its arts. Ashoka
    raised freestanding columns carved from Chunar sandstone throughout his
    vast empire upon which were inscribed edicts along with palnting fruit
    bearing trees all over the country to feed the hungry as it is the worst
    uillness as said by the Buddha. In an effort to associate herself with
    one of the greatest figures from Buddhist history, Mayawati similarly
    erected dozens of Chunar sandstone columns on the grounds of her
    monuments hoping that fruit bearing trees will be planted all over the
    country as Ashoka did (fig. 6). Her pillars are not facsimiles of the
    Ashokan pillars. While the former are constructed exclusively of
    sandstone and present a variety of animals, upturned lotuses, and wheels
    on their capitals, Mayawati’s pillars are more uniform. Their bronze
    capitals are capped by wheels borne on the backs of four addorsed
    elephants. Here, the elephants carry polysemic meanings: they are
    symbols of Indic authority; are associated with Ashoka, as they are
    featured on several of his capitals; and are the BSP party symbol. These
    messages also are carried by the dozens of life-size, carved stone
    elephants that punctuate the grounds of Mayawati’s buildings. The
    Ashokan pillars were erected singly, but Mayawati’s are in clusters.
    Furthermore, Kaktikar notes that, per Mayawati’s orders, her columns are
    slightly taller than Ashoka’s. The association between Mayawati and
    Ashoka has not been lost on her community. Biku Chandra Ma, a Buddhist
    monk at the Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Gomti Buddha Vihar, a monastic
    residence in Lucknow (commissioned by Mayawati), proudly asserted:
    “Mayawati is just like a modern-day female Ashoka.” Perhaps the message
    she seeks to deploy through the abundance, more permanent material of
    bronze, and superior height of her pillars is not simply that she is
    like the great emperor, but that she has in fact surpassed him.

    6.
    Bronze sculptures of SC/ST/OBC heroes and chunar sandstone pillars,
    outside Mayawati’s Rashtriya SC/ST/OBC Prerna Sthal in Noida

    In
    likening herself to great leaders from Prabuddha Bharat’s ancient past,
    Mayawati again subscribes to popular performances of charismatic
    authority in recent Prabuddha Bharatian politics. Jawaharlal Nehru,
    India’s first prime minister, is also known to have emulated Ashoka as a
    model of Indic sovereignty. He chose icons such as the Ashokan lion
    capital and the wheel to represent the new independent nation. More
    recently, in 1995, Jayalalitha erected numerous banners and cutouts of
    herself surrounded by eminent ancient Tamil leaders at the World Tamil
    Conference in Thanjavur. In several banners, she appeared next to the
    most celebrated Chola emperor, Raja Raja I (reigned 985–1015 CE) and
    images of his monumental Brihadeshvara temple. Like Mayawati’s
    “Ashokan” pillars, Jayalalitha’s visual propaganda focused on an ancient
    leader’s monument that signified his glorious rule, constructed a
    fictive lineage, and presented her own rule as a revival of a Golden
    Age.

    The
    exterior parameters of Mayawati’s architectural commissions are bound
    by sandstone railings whose forms and low reliefs of chaitya arches are
    appropriated from the vedikas (stupā railings) at ancient Buddhist sites
    such as Sanchi (fig. 7). Because the first phase of construction at the
    Sanchi Stupa was a Mauryan commission, Mayawati’s railings further her
    Ashokan associations. Like the pillars, the railings are not copied
    exactly from their original sources. While ancient Buddhist vedikas
    offer detailed reliefs of a variety of subjects associated with
    Buddhism, those at Mayawati’s sites are largely devoid of carvings.
    Representations of yakshīs (fertile nymphs) and other figures from the
    Buddhist pantheon and scenes from the jatakas would be inappropriate at
    the Ambedkar Memorial and the Prerna Kendra. While informed tangentially
    by Buddhism, the faith and its architectural styles are employed in the
    service of politics in Mayawati’s commissions. These are not sites
    built to honor the Buddha. It could even be argued that their ultimate
    function is not to honor Ambedkar or Kanshi Ram, but Mayawati.

    The Ambedkar Memorial and the Prerna Kendra

    The
    Ambedkar Memorial complex is Mayawati’s largest and most ambitious
    commission. Completed in 2008 at an estimated cost of seven billion
    rupees, the site spans more than twenty-five acres and is enclosed by a
    vedika-like fence. It is located at the bottom of a hill, next to the
    Gomti river and beside a flyover, a strategic location that ensures its
    visibility. The vast, open, granite-lined courts, which are kept
    scrupulously clean; prominent ticket booths; and monumental entrance
    gates invite visitors inside. As they travel through, visitors can read
    about each structure, figures depicted in the statues, and the BSP, and
    gaze at images of Mayawati inaugurating the complex in the brochures
    that are given with the entrance tickets.

    There
    is also an open-air sculpture gallery, whose walls are adorned with
    high-relief bronze narrative friezes depicting key events from the
    political careers of Kanshi Ram and Mayawati. In one, they stand side by
    side on a stage as Kanshi Ram addresses the assembled, cheering,
    flag-waving crowd. The accompanying Hindi inscription informs viewers
    that on December 15, 2001, at Lakshman Mela Ground in Lucknow, Kanshi
    Ram, the founder of the BSP, named Mayawati as his successor (see fig.
    5). Another frieze depicts Mayawati feeding cake to a convalescing
    Kanshi Ram; the inscription states that this happened on the occasion of
    his seventieth birthday at Batra Hospital in Delhi (fig. 8) . The
    figures are flanked by plants and diminutive statues of the Buddha,
    again associating Kanshi Ram and Mayawati with Ambedkar and the faith
    adopted by so many of their community members.

    8.
    Mayawati feeding birthday cake to a sick Kanshi Ram at the Batra
    Hospital in Delhi. Bronze frieze, sculpture gallery, Ambedkar Memorial

    These
    friezes establish a highly personal, parental relationship between
    Kanshi Ram and Mayawati. The frieze depicting the rally maps Mayawati’s
    inheritance of Kanshi Ram’s charisma via his designation, while the
    frieze of her feeding him suggests that she received his charisma via
    hereditary descent. Significantly, during Jayalalitha’s campaign for
    office in the early 1990s, she commissioned cutouts and banners that
    placed her next to her political mentor, the much-loved Tamil
    politician, MGR, whose promotion of Jayalaltiha’s career paralleled
    Kanshi Ram’s promotion of Mayawati. During her campaign, Jayalalitha was
    depicted attending to MGR like a dutiful daughter, again mapping the
    transference of charisma from one political generation to the next. It
    is also worth noting that it remains difficult for women to rise to
    positions of political authority in South Asia. Thus, nearly all female
    politicians are initiated into politics by elder male relatives,
    particularly husbands or fathers. Mayawati and Jayalalitha are notable
    exceptions, and both use public art to create necessary fictive lineages
    from their male mentors.

    The
    high degree of detail and photorealism displayed by the friezes and
    their brief, concise text recall photographs and their text captions in
    newspapers. If, as Roland Barthes argues, a photograph operates as a
    “certificate of presence,” proving that what it depicts happened and who
    it depicts existed, newspaper photographs and their captions are
    ultimate certificates of presence. Mayawati, whose political and
    personal life is so frequently the subject of media scrutiny, is surely
    aware of the power of this form of presentation for its believability.
    The newspaper format allows her to convey in the most convincing format
    that certain events occurred and that others did not. The presentation
    of Mayawati as a nurturing, attentive child who feeds her enfeebled, yet
    smiling father was probably intended to convey an additional message
    about the nature of their relationship. Several high-ranking male
    members of the BSP have publically accused Mayawati of wielding undue
    influence over Kanshi Ram and holding him hostage in her house after his
    stroke.The newspaper-photograph-like presentation of the frieze showing
    her feeding him “proves” otherwise.

    The
    Ambedkar Memorial is dominated by a monumental stupā, measuring
    approximately two hundred feet in height. As with the pillars and
    vedekās, the Ambedkar stupā appropriates from, but is not a copy of, any
    specific Indian monument. The most striking difference between the
    Great Stupa at Sanchi, and the Ambedkar stupā is that while the former
    is comprised of solid hemispherical masses that cannot be entered, the
    latter is architectural, with a domed central chamber. The Ambedkar
    stupā’s four prominent directional entrances create an imposing,
    palatial structure. They are accessed by monumental staircases arranged
    in the form of a lotus blossom, a prominent symbol in Buddhist
    art.Significantly, the only way to view the stupā’s lotus plan is from
    the air, which is Mayawati’s exclusive vantage point.

    The
    exterior of the Ambedkar stupā references a glorious ancient dalit past
    through the appropriation of ancient Indian stupā form and decoration,
    including blind chandrashala arches (see fig. 7), a monumental
    chandrashala-arched entrance, and a harmikā (square planned fence on top
    of stupās). The stupā form has additional, more immediate significance
    for the dalit community, beyond its antiquity: Ambedkar was cremated and
    his ashes interred in the Chaitya Bhoomi stupā at Dadar Choupati,
    Mumbai.

    The
    interior of the Ambedkar stupā is dominated by a twenty-seven-foot-high
    bronze statue in the round of a seated Ambedkar (fig. 9). Inscribed at
    the base of the sculpture is the phrase, “My life struggle is my
    message.” Ambedkar never said this; Mayawati devised the phrase,
    considering it more appropriate than his more famous, somewhat militant
    galvanizing slogan, “Educate, Organize, Agitate!” Mayawati’s phrase
    likely is also a rebuttal to the popular Gandhian phrase, “My life is my
    message.” Here, the emphasis is on how Ambedkar struggled and overcame
    (more so than Gandhi), thereby providing a communal model.
    9.
    Bronze sculpture of Bhimrao Ambedkar; the base is inscribed “My life
    struggle is my message.” Ambedkar stupā, Ambedkar Memorial

    Mayawati
    intended the Ambedkar statue to be modeled on the sculpture of Abraham
    Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.[50] The reference is
    apt. Ambedkar, who was a lawyer, wrote the Indian constitution, and
    Lincoln, also a lawyer, amended the American constitution to extend
    rights to all (male) citizens, including African Americans, after the
    Civil War. Ambedkar frequently likened Indian dalits to African
    Americans and viewed Lincoln as a champion of the rights of the
    subalterns in his own nation. Mayawati herself received her LLB and is
    also an admirer of Lincoln; she sought to link the founder of her
    movement to a well-known international figure and make the SC/ST/OBCs’
    struggle universal.

    The
    central statue is ringed by high-relief bronze friezes on the
    surrounding walls that depict key events from Ambedkar’s life. In one,
    he sits at a desk, pen in hand, writing the constitution (fig. 10). He
    is flanked by a map of Prabuddha bharat, over which is inscribed
    “Bharat,” and a table bearing a Buddha statue and an Ashokan lion
    capital, which Ambedkar and Nehru promoted as the national icon of
    independent Prabuddha Bharat. If the iconography is unclear, a Hindi
    inscription informs the viewer of the events depicted. In another
    frieze, the viewer is again informed in text and image that Ambedkar is
    presenting the constitution to President Rajendra Prasad (fig. 11). They
    are surmounted by the Ashokan lion capital and the circular-planned
    Indian Parliament House, which crowns the three figures like an
    honorific umbrella. The bronze friezes within the stupā also reference
    Ambedkar’s religious conversion. Wearing monastic robes, Ambedkar stands
    next to an enshrined image of the Buddha with a monk on the other side
    (fig. 12). The accompanying inscription informs us that in Nagpur, on
    October 14, 1956, Ambedkar converted to Buddhism.

    10. Ambedkar drafting the Indian constitution. Bronze frieze, Ambedkar stupa, Ambedkar Memorial

    11.
    Ambedkar presenting the Indian constitution to President Rajendra
    Prasad beneath an Ashokan lion capital and the Parliament House. Bronze
    frieze, Ambedkar stupā, Ambedkar Memorial

    12. Ambedkar converts to Buddhism. Bronze frieze, Ambedkar stupā, Ambedkar Memorial

    Moving
    in a clockwise direction—the established direction for progressing in
    Buddhist monuments and thus the logical direction in the Ambedkar
    stupā—the penultimate frieze offers an aerial view of the sprawling
    memorial complex (the way Mayawati would view the site from her
    helicopter), with inscriptions naming each structure. An eleven-foot
    sculpture in the round of Mayawati stands beside the frieze, emphasizing
    her role as patron. The cycle concludes with eleven-foot sculptures in
    the round of Mayawati and Kanshi Ram that flank and gesture toward a
    bronze frieze of the Ambedkar sculpture enshrined within the stupā (see
    fig. 4). The inscriptions inform us that Sushrī (Most Honorable)
    Mayawati, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, laid the foundation for the
    stupā on August 15, 1995. In publically laying the memorial’s
    foundation, Mayawati was again participating in an established
    expression of her charisma, in what Sara Dickey terms Indian
    “person-centered politics.” Participating in public cornerstone-laying
    ceremonies amid much fanfare is a common means by which an Indian
    politician spreads awareness of his or her “person.” The date of the
    ceremony is also significant, as it was the anniversary of both
    Ambedkar’s birthday and Indian Independence Day during Mayawati’s first
    year in office.

    The
    centrally located Ambedkar statue and the friezes highlight Ambedkar’s
    various achievements. Ultimately, they link him to Mayawati, whose
    agency in the construction of the very site in which all these
    sculptures are housed, is underscored at the end of the cycle. Mayawati
    stands with Kanshi Ram by the bronze frieze depicting the Ambedkar
    statue, thereby visually mapping the lineage of SC/ST/OBC political
    power from Ambedkar to Kanshi Ram and finally to herself.

    Mayawati
    also uses the Ambedkar stupā as a stage for performing her political
    lineage from Ambedkar. In addition to commencing construction at the
    site on Ambedkar’s birthday and personally laying its foundation stone,
    Mayawati annually holds ceremonies for Ambedkar’s birthday at the
    complex. During these events, Mayawati, who is accompanied by throngs of
    party officials, Buddhist monks, and constituents from throughout the
    state, publically garlands the main Ambedkar statue and delivers
    speeches before it.

    Built
    between 2003 and 2005, the Prerna Kendra is a very different type of
    structure. The Ambedkar Memorial is open, sprawling, and of a monumental
    scale. By contrast, the far smaller Prerna Kendra is woven into the
    dense urban fabric of upper-middle-class apartments and shops in a
    residential area across Lucknow. With its high, battered surrounding
    walls, which block visibility from the street, and discreet entrance,
    the Prerna Kendra is evocative of a fortress. The form of the Ambedkar
    stupā is based on ancient Indian stupās. The formal inspiration for the
    105-foot-tall steep pyramidal Prerna Kendra was another well-known
    Buddhist pilgrimage site, the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya. The most
    important Buddhist pilgrimage site, the temple marks the site of the
    Buddha’s enlightenment, again linking dalits to their Buddhist past and a
    wider international Buddhist community.

    The
    intended audiences of the Ambedkar Memorial and the Prerna Kendra are
    also different. With its entrance fees and well-run infrastructure, the
    Ambedkar Memorial was intended as public space for members of the upper
    and middle castes as well as dalits; there Mayawati broadcasts versions
    of dalit history, the achievements of her community members, and her own
    charisma to the widest possible audience. The Prerna Kendra’s entrance
    is discreet, the building’s form is largely obscured by its high outer
    walls, and the site is frequently closed. It is therefore far less
    inviting to non-community members.

    Mayawati
    inaugurated the Prerna Kandra in 2005 during a Buddhist ritual
    performed by monks. Media coverage of the event noted her benevolence to
    the monks; she gave them large sums of money, fruit, and umbrellas. In
    demonstrating such largesse, she again used her architectural commission
    as a stage to perform her political legitimacy. Not only did she ally
    with the Buddhist monks, most of whom are former dalits, she reminded
    all that the faith is deeply associated with dalit activism. Moreover,
    in showing such magnanimity, Mayawati was subscribing to a
    well-established tradition in Indian rulership: generous support of
    religious organizations and their monastic members.

    Inscriptions
    on a pyramidal marble block on the ground floor offer excerpts from
    Kanshi Ram’s will that state he wanted Mayawati to light his pyre and
    his ashes to be enshrined in the Prerna Kandra. The will also specifies
    that Kanshi Ram wanted Mayawati’s cremated remains to be enshrined at
    the site, which will thus transform the Prerna Kendra into a political,
    dynastic funerary memorial.

    In
    weaving prominent dalit memorials into a land that had denied the
    community a presence in space, Mayawati demanded to be recognized.
    Weaving dalit corporeal remains into Lucknow’s urban fabric was an even
    more assertive gesture. Her sculptural and architectural memorials
    suggest permanence and, by extension, the irreversible betterment of her
    community. By interring their ashes in the Prerna Kandra, Kanshi Ram
    and Mayawati themselves are symbolically eternally present and are
    always leading their community toward an ever better future. Mayawati
    was voted out of office in early 2012, but her successor Akhilesh Yadav
    has affirmed that the new government will not disturb the dalit
    memorials. This is hardly surprising, given that Mayawati vowed on
    several occasions that there would be major dalit protests and communal
    unrest if her memorials were destroyed.[55] Her threat was put to the
    test immediately after her and Ambedkar’s statues were vandalized; as
    she had predicted, her community members retaliated by peacefully
    demonstrating and blocking roads in Lucknow. Images have power, and
    Mayawati intends to ensure that their messages will be heard for as long
    as possible.

    Kanshi
    Ram and Mayawati surely would have been aware of the long history and
    potentially legitimizing messages of funerary memorials in India. In
    addition to stupās, there are several other types of South Asian
    funerary memorials. In Islamic India, rulers commissioned lavish,
    monumental tombs for their late fathers. The formal and decorative
    programs and construction materials of the Indo-Islamic tombs helped
    their royal patrons project their own public identities.[56] Rajput and
    Maratha kings similarly memorialized their predecessors through
    cenotaphs (chatrīs) with politically charged forms and decoration.[57]
    By installing Kanshi Ram’s ashes in the Prerna Kendra, Mayawati
    appropriated an established royal Indic practice of architectural
    memorialization. Similar to performing a father’s funerary rites,
    commissioning his memorial is a legitimizing act in India that
    irrefutably establishes dynastic lineage and the transference of
    political authority from one generation to the next. Thus, in the Indic
    context, a funerary memorial is an index not only of absence (of the
    memorialized deceased) but also of presence and legitimate power (of the
    memorial’s heir and patron).

    Like
    those of many other notable examples of Indian funerary architecture,
    the Prerna Kendra’s ultimate message appears to refer more to its patron
    than the one memorialized. Perhaps even more than the Ambedkar stupā,
    the sculptural program at the Prerna Kendra asserts Mayawati’s charisma
    and ability to lead her party. As noted in a lengthy inscription at the
    site, the urn with Kanshi Ram’s cremated ashes is contained in a marble
    plinth located in the center of the main chamber on the second floor.
    The plinth supports three bronze monumental statues in the round. A
    life-sized Ambedkar is elevated above flanking eighteen-foot statues of
    Kanshi Ram and Mayawati. The triangular composition, with Ambedkar’s
    raised position, once again visually reiterates the lineage of
    charismatic leadership in dalit politics.

    The
    walls of the Prerna Kendra’s chambers, which are spread over three
    floors, are lined with bronze friezes that feature episodes from
    Mayawati’s life, with an emphasis on major events in her political
    career. Over the three levels of the Prerna Kendra, the friezes’
    narrative unfolds in a clockwise direction. Mayawati first appears,
    uncharacteristically in a sari, on a frieze with an inscription noting
    that it marks her fiftieth birthday and wishing her congratulations. She
    then appears with her family in a group portrait as a child (fig. 13);
    she studies for her exams with a Buddha image on her bookshelf; she is
    sworn in as chief minister (fig. 14); she dines with high-ranking
    members of government while in close conversation and laughing (fig.
    15), clearly accepted by and completely at ease in these circles of
    power. The friezes also depict Mayawati’s major architectural
    commissions, again calling attention to her prolific building activity,
    which has made dalit public presence conspicuous, material, and
    permanent.

    13. Mayawati (second right) with her parents and siblings. Bronze frieze in the Prerna Kendra. Photograph by Arthur Dudney

    14.
    Mayawati being sworn in as chief minister of Uttar Pradesh for the
    third time. Bronze frieze, Prerna Kendra. Photograph by Arthur Dudney
    15.
    Mayawati and the Indian vice president share a meal at the chief
    minister’s house in Lucknow. Bronze frieze, Prerna Kendra. Photograph by
    Arthur Dudney

    15.
    Mayawati and the Indian vice president share a meal at the chief
    minister’s house in Lucknow. Bronze frieze, Prerna Kendra. Photograph by
    Arthur Dudney

    Despite
    the fact that the Prerna Kendra houses his ashes, Kanshi Ram himself
    makes few appearances in its friezes. When he is depicted, it is during
    key events that validate Mayawati’s political power: when he publically
    declared her as his successor, and when she cared for him during his
    illness as if she were his child. In fact, Kanshi Ram appears most
    frequently in the friezes as a corpse and as cremated ashes. Mayawati
    first mourns over her mentor’s corpse, she lights his pyre, she places
    the cremated ashes on an altar before the Buddha and finally in the
    Prerna Kendra (figs. 16, 17). The funerary friezes all carefully record
    in Hindi that Kanshi Ram’s last rites were done in accordance with his
    wishes.

    16.
    Mayawati overseeing preparations of Kanshi Ram’s corpse for his
    cremation. Bronze frieze in the Prerna Kendra. Photograph by Arthur
    Dudney
    17.
    Mayawati helps with the preparations of Kanshi Ram’s corpse: “In
    accordance with his wishes, Mayawati oversees everything.” Bronze frieze
    in the Prerna Kendra. Photograph by Arthur Dudney

    The
    final frieze in the program presents Mayawati in one of her most
    controversial and well-documented performances of charismatic authority
    (fig. 18). She is well known and frequently criticized for allowing
    herself to be festooned with colossal garlands made from countless one
    thousand rupee notes. Each garland has an estimated value of between
    $500,000 to $2 million. Since 2010, Mayawati has accepted these money
    garlands, which the BSP claims represent donations from party members,
    at public events like political rallies and celebrations of Kanshi Ram’s
    birthday. In what have become iconic media images, she appears flanked
    by aides who hoist the cumbersome money garland over her shoulders.
    Mayawati raises one arm and holds her hand in a gesture that parallels
    the one displayed by the Ambedkar statues she commissions, again
    visually linking these two political figures.


    18. Mayawati is draped with a mala (garland) made of one thousand rupee
    notes on the occasion of Kanshi Ram’s birthday and the twenty-fifth
    anniversary of the BSP, for which she organized a public rally in
    Lucknow. Photograph by Arthur Dudney

    Mayawati’s
    detractors sharply criticize such performances as vulgar and
    inappropriate, particularly because she claims to represent the poorest
    and most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Moreover, when she
    accepted the garlands, she was chief minister of one of the poorest
    states in the nation. Mayawati herself has remained silent on the
    subject of the money garlands. However, it is worth considering that,
    because dalits historically have been denied access to vast sums of
    money and political authority, their chosen representative’s conspicuous
    display of both undeniably announces their assertion of their power and
    defiance in the face of criticism.

    In
    her performances of such conspicuous displays of wealth Mayawati again
    draws from models of ancient Indic kingship, which are being revived by
    democratically elected politicians. Weber observed followers’ donations
    of large sums of cash and luxury items as recognition of their leaders’
    charisma.[59] Beyond signifying Mayawati’s wealth and charismatic
    authority, the money garlands are metonyms that signify the prosperity
    her community members may now legitimately claim through her leadership.
    In models of traditional Indic kingship, the ruler’s body and his state
    were to an extent conflated. It was therefore a royal responsibility to
    appear in public “in the beauty and dazzle of his person,”[60] to amass
    wealth, and stage awesome performances of conspicuous consumption to
    convey the well-being of the state. Established in ancient India, royal
    acts of conspicuous displays of wealth continued to hold currency into
    the colonial period. The practice is enjoying a resurgence under
    Jayalalitha[61] and Mayawati. Indian media frequently covers the
    spectacular decorations and gifts Jayalalitha’s supporters bestow upon
    her during public appearances: her route to the venue is bedecked with
    illuminated triumphal arches, her footpath strewn with flowers and the
    air perfumed. After mounting a lavishly decorated stage, she is given
    gold coins, reminiscent of performances of support by subjects to their
    kings, and a silver-plated scepter, a traditional symbol of kingship in
    India.[62] Mayawati has claimed that she amasses her personal wealth on
    behalf of her community, making her ostentatious displays of wealth
    symbols of dalit pride and empowerment.[63]

    That
    the frieze cycle at the Prerna Kendra concludes with this iconic image
    of Mayawati’s power, wealth, and charisma is fitting. As with the
    statues and friezes in the Ambedkar stupā, those in the Prerna Kendra
    laud the achievements of previous dalit leaders and activists, but
    ultimately map a trajectory to Mayawati as their rightful heir. Her
    money garlands announce her charisma and the upward mobility she secures
    for her community. As with other aspects of her commissions—scale,
    semantic content of the inscriptions, durability of materials, and
    overall cost—her money-garland frieze surpasses its models.
    Conclusion

    Monuments
    ensure that the memories of those they commemorate and their patrons
    remain. They thus possess enormous potential for communal mobilization,
    empowerment, and pride. The Nawabs of Awadh left their impress on
    Lucknow’s visual landscape through their imambaras (congregation halls
    for Shia commemoration ceremonies for Muharram) and the Rumi Darwaza.
    The British are remembered in Lucknow through their Residency and
    several government buildings. Mayawati’s memorials now join these sites,
    as well as the Taj Mahal, on the official website of the U.P. State
    Tourist Board, indicating that they are worth visiting by those seeking
    permanent, visual traces of the state’s history.[64]

    Whatever
    her ultimate political fate and enduring legacy, Mayawati has given
    dalits an equitable share in the urban fabric of one of India’s largest
    cities. In Lucknow, dalits now have their own monumental spaces, defined
    by a communal style of architecture, spaces where they can be ennobled
    by the BSP’s version of their history. Mayawati announces messages of
    dalit pride and empowerment through a visual language that is at once
    recognizably authoritative and unique to the dalit experience. She
    claims to speak for her community. In flaunting her command of the very
    best materials and artistic skill as well as her lavish displays of
    personal wealth, she participates in well-established acts of
    upper-class privilege and entitlement.

    It
    is too soon to assess how successful Mayawati’s commissions will be for
    her community. Will they persuade more members of the non-dalit Indian
    public to accept the historical figures they commemorate, such as
    Ambedkar, as national heroes? To return to Farrar, it remains to be seen
    if, through Mayawati’s memorials, dalits actually will be granted a
    legitimate history and their voices thus will cease to be “considered
    marginal to the main event.” Surely the greatest mark of their success
    would be if they could actually alter the quotidian realities of living
    community members.

    It
    appears that Mayawati’s memorials failed in what may have been their
    patron’s greatest aim—to secure her continued leadership of Uttar
    Pradesh. Perhaps, in the end, her commissions announced her wealth too
    well. Her political opponents claim that she focused on her memorials at
    the cost of more immediate needs—for example, land reform and grooming
    other dalits for leadership. One political commentator alleged,
    “Mayawati only made statues. That is her only achievement.”

    Although
    for now Mayawati has been divested of her political power, there is
    wide speculation that she has designs on becoming the prime minister of
    India. It is worth considering what impact this would have on the built
    environment of New Delhi.

    Author’s
    note: All photographs were taken by the author unless otherwise stated.
    Those not taken by the author have been reproduced with the
    photographer’s permission. I would like to thank Rebecca M. Brown and my
    two blind reviewers at Ars Orientalis for their careful reading of
    earlier drafts of this essay and for making thoughtful comments and
    suggestions.
    May be an image of outdoors and monument
    May be an image of outdoors and text that says
    May be an image of 4 people and monument
    May be an image of 1 person, monument and text that says
    May be an image of indoor
    May be an image of monument and indoor
    May be an image of indoor and monument
    May be an image of 3 people
    May be an image of 3 people, monument and text that says
    May be an illustration of indoor
    May be an image of monument
    May be an image of sculpture and monument
    May be an image of 2 people and sculpture

    May be an image of 6 people and text that says

    May be an image of 2 people and text that says

    May be an image of 2 people

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    May be an image of 1 person

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    May be an image of 3 people and people smiling

    May be an image of 1 person

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    May be an image of 7 people

    May be an image of 3 people and people smiling

    May be an image of 2 people and people smiling

    May be an image of 2 people

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    May be an image of 10 people and people smiling

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    The Buddha said that “hunger is the worst kind of illness” and “the gift of food is the gift of life.”



    Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make Prabuddha Bharat Buddhist)



    Now
    All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
    Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)



    People have started returning back to their original home Buddhism.

    Proposed programmes to be conducted by

    Mahabodhi Diyun

    1. Construction of an Auditoriumin the name of Bada Bhanteji

    2. Establishment of a new centre at Itanagar

    3. Distribution of photo frames (Life of the Buddha) to 50 village monastries

    4. Dhamma camp for children

    5. Dhamm preaching and meditation programmes in the villages

    6. Plantation of 300 fruit bearing trees

    7. Old Age Home project at Mudoi

    8. 10-Free Medical Camps in  remote villages

    9. To Honour elderly momks and lay devotees who contributed in the preservation of Buddha Sasana in Arunachal Pradesh

    10. Distribution of 10 Lord Buddha statues to different villages

    11. Painting of special events in the life of Bada Bhanteji

    12. Distribution of water filters to at least 100 poor families

    13. Publish Magazine in the name of Bada Bhanteji by monks and students of runachal Pradesh

    14. Organise Seminars on the Dhammapada/Preservation of Dhamma

    15. Free distribution of notebooks, stationery and study material at villages

    16. Build a statue of Bada Bhanteji at Mahabodhi Diyun

    17. Build Seema Temple at Mahabodhi centre, Diyun

    18. Distribution of Bada Bhanteji’s books in 50 monasteries

    19. Dhamma based personality development workshops in 20 schools

    20. Organise 3 blood donation camps

    21. Provide 15 Ven.Acharya Buddharakkhita scholarships to boys residing in the hostels from deserving background

    22. Organise a drama on the life of Bada Bhanteji

    23. Distribution of 9000 candles to the monasteries

    24. Provide medical support for surgeries to the most deserving people

    25. Ordination od 20 new novices





    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=CXOoKS5grXU

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=LjLrz0JiUeg

    https://groups.google.com/g/soc.culture.arabic/c/ih7-BUo78Vc?pli=1

    Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda- Free Online Analytical …
    Search domain sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?m=20190517sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?m=20190517
    gobbling
    the Master Key by Murderers of democratic institutions and Master of
    diluting institutions (Modi) by tampering the fraud EVMs with its
    software and the source code kept hidden to the eyes of voters and
    candidates have become emboldened to commit atrocities on SC/ST/
    OBCS/Religious minorities. Therefore 99.9% All Awakened Aboriginal

    Hindus’Tantrum: Sid Harth - Google Groups
    Search
    domain
    groups.google.com/d/topic/soc.culture.arabic/ih7-BUo78Vchttps://groups.google.com/d/topic/soc.culture.arabic/ih7-BUo78Vc
    This
    chip would give ‘fixed’ results on the EVM screen. In other words,
    whatever the voters’ preference, the control unit would display numbers
    as per the hacker’s plan. Mr Gonggrijp is a prominent campaigner for
    election transparency and verifiability, and his technical opinion
    appears to have clinched the

    Murderer of democratic
    institutions (Modi) has not revealed the microchip its software and
    source code of EVM which is kept hidden from the voters

    Free Online Analytical Research … - Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda
    6
    days ago — committed now as said by Zaidi. Electronic voting machines.
    EVM is not tamper- free & needs rectification : Swamy to Delhi HC

    Free Online Analytical Research … - Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda
    machine
    to tamper with it. India uses about 1.4m electronic voting machines in
    each general election. ‘Dishonest totals’. A video posted on the  …

    SOS e Voice For Justice & SOS e Clarion of Dalit
    A:
    It would be easy to program a dishonest EVM or EVM component so that
    the … The electronic voting machines are safe and secure only if the
    source code used … But saving democracy is more critical than saving
    election costs or gain in efficiency. … Does not hiding information
    about land crimes , in itself also a crime ?

    Imagehttps://indianexpress.com › india
    EVM fraud? Roll out VVPATs, only way to silence doubting politicians …
    21-Mar-2017
    — Calling for a quick rollout of the Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (
    VVPAT) machines in all polling stations across the …

    Imagehttps://www.scribd.com › document
    Web results
    Book Democracy at Risk 2010 | Electronic Voting | Electoral Fraud
    Democracy
    at Risk! Can we trust our Electronic Voting Machines? Copyright @ GVL
    Narasimha Rao 2010. All rights reserved. Published in 2010 by …

    How many languages are there in the world?

    • 7,117 languages are spoken today.

      That number is
      constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about the world’s
      languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves are in
      flux. They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities whose lives are
      shaped by our rapidly changing world. This is a fragile time: Roughly 0%
      of languages are now endangered, often with less than 1,000 speakers
      remaining. Meanwhile, just 23 languages account for more than half the
      world’s population.

      When a just
      born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the baby,
      after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language
      known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language
      /Magadhi Prakrit,Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),Classical Pāḷi which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living speices have their own naturallanguages for communication. 116 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com

      in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
      02) Classical Chandaso language,

      03)Magadhi Prakrit,

      04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),


      05) Classical Pāḷi,

      06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

      07) Classical Cyrillic
      08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

      09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
      10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
      11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
      12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,



    • 13) Classical Assamese-ধ্ৰুপদী অসমীয়া

      14) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
      15) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
      16) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,

      17) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
      18) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
      19) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
    20) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
    21) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

    22) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,
    23) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

    24) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

    25) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

    26) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,




    27) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština


    28) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

    29) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
    30) Classical English,Roman,
    31) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

    32) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

    33) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
    34) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen
    ,
    35) Classical French- Français classique,
    36) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,
    37) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
    38) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
    39) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
    40) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
    41) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
    42) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

    43) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
    44) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

    45) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
    46) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
    47) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

    48) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
    49) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,
    50) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,
    51) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
    52) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
    53) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
    54) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
    55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
    56) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

    57) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,

    • 58) Classical Kinyarwanda


      59) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,




      60) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),
      61) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
      62) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
      63) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

      64) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,
      65) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
      66) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

      67) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
      68) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
      69) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
      70) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

      71) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
      72) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
      73) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

      74) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

      75) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

      76) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
      77) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

      78) Classical Odia (Oriya




      79) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
      80) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی

      81) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
      82) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,

      83) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
      84) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,

      85) Classical Russian-Классический русский,

      86) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
      87) Classical Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्
      88) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
      89) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
      90) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
      91) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
      92) Classical Sindhi,
      93) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
      94) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,

      95) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

      96) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,

      97) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
      98) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
      99) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,

      100) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
      101) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
    • 102) Classical Tamil-102) கிளாசிக்கல் தமிழ்




    103) Classical Tatar


    104) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
    105) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
    106) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,


    107) Classical Turkmen


    108) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
    109) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو






    110) Classical Uyghur,




    111) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z,


    112) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ,


    113) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,


    114) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

    115) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש


    116) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,

    117) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu







    comments (0)
    04/06/21
    32 - Wed 7 Apr 2021 LESSON 3637 Buddha-Sasana-The History of the Sasana-100% Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the fraud EVMs with micro chips where the software and the source code are kept hidden from the eyes of the voters undemocratically after the results are declared. Already voters were complaining that if any button is pressed it has gone to the Lotus symbol of the BJP.
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
    Posted by: site admin @ 4:24 am


    32 - Wed 7 Apr 2021 LESSON 3637 Buddha-Sasana-The History of the Sasana-100%
    Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and
    company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the
    fraud EVMs with micro chips where the software and the source code are
    kept hidden from the eyes of the voters undemocratically after the
    results are declared. Already voters were complaining that if any button
    is pressed it has gone to the Lotus symbol of the BJP.


    No photo description available.


    May be an image of 1 personNo photo description available.No photo description available.May be an image of 11 people and people smilingNo photo description available.No photo description available.No photo description available.May be an image of 1 personMay be an image of 1 personNo photo description available.May be an image of 1 personNo photo description available.No photo description available.No photo description available.No photo description available.May be an image of 1 personNo photo description available.No photo description available.No photo description available.May be an image of 1 personMay be an image of 1 personNo photo description available.No photo description available.

    https://uni5.co/index.php/en/awareness-blog/amudha-surabi-unconditional-everlasting-compassion-and-service-manimekalai-tamil-epic-message-on-buddha-poornima-2016.html

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    https://www.youtube.com/watch… surabi - unconditional, everlasting compassion and service - Manimekalai Tamil epic message on Buddha PoornimaAmudha surabi - unconditional, everlasting compassion and service

    மாரனை வெல்லும் வீர நின் அடி

    தீ நெறிக் கடும்பகை கடிந்தோய் நின் அடி

    பிறர்க்கு அறம் அருளும் பெரியோய் நின் அடி

    துறக்கம் வேண்டாத் தொல்லோய் நின் அடி

    எண் பிறக்கு ஒழிய இறந்தோய் நின் அடி

    கண் பிறர்க்கு அளிக்கும் கண்ணோய் நின் அடி

    தீ மொழிக்கு அடைத்த செவியோய் நின் அடி

    வாய்மொழி சிறந்த நாவோய் நின் அடி

    நரகர் துயர் கெட நடப்போய் நின் அடி

    உரகர் துயரம் ஒழிப்போய் நின் அடி

    வணங்கல் அல்லது வாழ்த்தல் என் நாவிற்கு அடங்காது

    போதி நீழல் பொருந்தித் தோன்றும்

    நாதன் பாதம் நவை கெட ஏத்தி

    குடிப்பிறப்பு அழிக்கும்

    விழுப்பம் கொல்லும்

    பிடித்த கல்விப் பெரும்புணை விடூஉம்

    நாண் அணி களையும்

    மாண் எழில் சிதைக்கும்

    பூண் முலை மாதரொடு புறங்கடை நிறுத்தும்

    பசிப்பிணி என்னும் பாவி

    அது தீர்த்தோர்

    இசைச் சொல் அளவைக்கு என் நா நிமிராது!!!

    ஆற்றுநர்க்கு அளிப்போர் அறவிலை பகர்வோர்

    ஆற்றா மாக்கள் அரும்பசி களைவோர் மேற்றே உலகின் மெய்நெறி வாழ்க்கை

    மண் திணி ஞாலத்து வாழ்வோர்க்கு எல்லாம்

    உண்டி கொடுத்தோர் உயிர் கொடுத்தோரே!!!

    These are the lines from the great Tamil epic Manimekalai.



    She praises the truth after getting the amudha surabi.



    Manimekalai was the only daughter born to Kovalan and his beloved love Madhavi in Poompuhar.



    Kovalan was killed by Pandiya in Madurai. His wife Kannagi also took samadhi after his assassination.



    When
    Madavi heard this tragedy she could not bear the sorrow and took
    spiritual shelter under a Buddist monk Aravana adikal in Poompuhar. He
    made her to overcome the sorrow with the facts of impermanence of life
    through Buddha’s life and teachings. Research says that Madhavi must
    have already been spiritually initiated in early years towards Buddism.



    She
    also donated all her property to poor people in presence of Aravana
    adikal and became a nun to shed her bad karma by service. She also made
    her damsel daughter 18 year old Manimekalai to become a nun.



    Poet
    Seethalai saathanar says that when people in Poompuhar heard that
    Madhavi made Manimekalai as a Buddist nun they suffered like losing a
    precious gem in midst of dark ocean.



    Manimekalai
    started her spiritual journey and she was already been exposed to
    reality of tragic life through her mother’s life pattern with Kovalan.



    She
    went to Manipallavam Island - Rameshwaram and met many Buddist monks.
    On Vaikasi Poornima - Buddha Poonima day she was given the initiation
    with service through food. Symbolically she was 



    given
    a bowl called ‘’Amudha surabhi'’. This symbolizes the everlasting
    compassion to all who suffer. Our mind is the real amudha surabi. It
    must have the attitude to serve others with selfless nature.



    With
    that bowl Manimekalai came to Poompuhar, started feeding orphans, poor,
    handicap people and taught human values to prisoners and directed them
    to the path of ahimsa and darma.



     Manimekalai
    with her mother was directed to go to Vanji - modern Kodungaloor where
    she prayed to Kannagi and Kovalan in their tomb at Devi shrine. She also
    met Kovalan’s Kannagi’s fathers who were monks in Sankhya vihar.



    She
    took many spiritual lessons and she was given a great property share by
    the fathers. With that she was directed to scholar rich Kanchipuram for
    higher studies and social work. She started the ‘’amudha surabi ara
    kattalai'’ - organization through which she served many.



    With
    the devotion to TRUTH through a tutor when we serve selflessly we can
    shed the bad karma and free from all unwanted bondages. Madhavi and
    Manimekalai were the real samples for this concept of cleansing a bad
    karma through selfless service.



    Today is Buddha poornima the day Manimekalai got akshaya pathram - amudha surabi.



    This is our mind with real selfless, unconditional compassion.



    Feeding
    in sense has many meaning in Uni5 system. It can be food - body level,
    emotional support - mind level, intelligence - intellect level and
    making one aware about life in awareness level. Any one level service is
    required on this Earth to mankind. Please do it!



    With regards.,



    DR.M.Madeswaran



    Buddha Poornima day.


    Manimegalai Full Story in Tamil | மணிமேகலை கதை | Aimperum Kappiyangal | GokulakrishnanGokulakrishnan153 subscribers
    தமிழில் எழுதப்பட்ட ஐம்பெருங்காப்பியங்களில்இரண்டாவதாக அமைவது மணிமேகலை.சிலப்பதிகாரத்திற்கு அடுத்ததாக இலக்கிய அழகில் பெருமைவாய்ந்தது மணிமேகலை.இக்காப்பியத்தை இயற்றியவர் சீத்தலைச் சாத்தனார். இக்காப்பியத்தின் தலைவி, மணிமேகலை, சிலப்பதிகாரத்தின் கோவலன் மற்றும் மாதவியின் மகளாவாள். கோவலனின் துயர மரணத்திற்குப் பிறகு மாதவி இல்லற வாழ்வில் ஈடுபாடின்றி புத்த துறவியாக மாறுகிறாள்.தன் மகள் மணிமேகலையையும் ஒரு புத்தத் துறவியாகவே வளர்த்தாள்.மணிமேகலையும் அவளுடைய தோழியும் பூப்பறிக்கச் சென்றிருந்தபோது, உதயகுமரன் என்ற சோழ மன்னன் மணிமேகலையின் மீது காதல் மயக்கம் கொண்டு அவள் எங்கு சென்றாலும் விடாமல் துரத்துகிறான்.அதன்பிறகு பல இன்னல்களை சந்தித்து,மணிமேகலை எவ்வாறு உதயகுமரனிடமிருந்து தப்பித்தாள்,எவ்வாறு முழு புத்த துறவியாக மாறுகிறாள் என்பதே மணிமேகலை காப்பியத்தின் கதை.மணிமேகலை வலியுறுத்திக் கூறும் தலைமையான அறம்: மண்டிணி ஞாலத்து வாழ்வோர்க் கெல்லாம் உண்டி கொடுத்தோர் உயிர்கொடுத் தோரே.பொருள்:உலகில் வாழ்கின்றவர்களுக்கெல்லாம் உணவு கொடுத்தவர்கள் உயிர் கொடுத்தோராவர்.வாரத்திற்கு ஒருமுறை உங்கள் 10 நிமிடங்களை ஒதுக்குங்கள்,தெரியாதவற்றை தெரிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்.Please Subscribe and Share With Your Family and Friends.Facebook:

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    04/04/21
    30 - Mon 4 Apr 2021 LESSON 3637 Buddha-Sasana-The History of the Sasana - ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE (EVM)-ALL APRIL DUCK FOOLS -அனைத்து ஏப்ரல் வாத்து முட்டாள்கள் If ballot papers are used the just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lunching, anti national traitors, practising hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion stupidity against 99.9% all aboriginal awakened societies the foreigners chitpavan brahmins kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern Europe, Western Germany, South Russia, Western Europe, Hungary for their greed for money and power gobble the master key by tampering the fraud EVMs through the own mother’s flesh eaters, slaves of slaves, stooges, boot lickers, chamchas, chelas the Mad murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) Omit shah who omit their opponents only to serve their Sarvajan Samaj masters will get only 0.1% votes with ballot papers
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
    Posted by: site admin @ 8:25 am

    30 - Tue 6 Apr 2021 LESSON 3637 Buddha-Sasana-The History of the Sasana -The History of the Sasana-100% Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the fraud EVMs after the results are declared.


    Friends

    https://tenor.com/view/ramdev-amit-shah-vomit-gif-19627284
    Ramdev Amit GIF - Ramdev Amit Shah GIFs
    ELECTRONIC
    VOTING MACHINE (EVM)-ALL APRIL DUCK FOOLS -அனைத்து ஏப்ரல்வாத்து
    முட்டாள்கள்

    100% Masks, 100% Votes in fraud EVMs, 100% success for BJ(P)Ltd. and company, 100 % defeat for all their opponents who will talk about the fraud EVMs after the results are declared.
     

    If ballot papers are used Even manusmriti will be rewritten
    for Discovery of Aboriginal Awakened One Societies Universe for the
    welfare, happiness, peace for all societies and for them to attain
    Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal as enshrined in the marvelous, modern
    Constitution with full freedom, equality, liberty, and fraternity
    exposing the just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one
    terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lunching, anti national
    traitors, practising hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion stupidity against
    99.9% all aboriginal awakened societies foreigners kicked out from Bene
    Israel, Tibet, Africa Eastern Europe, Western Germany, Northern
    Europe,South Russia, Hungary parliamentarians,
    executives,judges, cheating election commissioners and the PRESSTITUTE
    media for their greed for money and power gobble the master key by
    tampering the fraud EVMs through the own mother’s flesh eaters, slaves
    of slaves, stooges, boot lickers, chamchas, chelas the Mad murderer of
    democratic institutions (Modi) Omit shah who omit their opponents only
    to serve their Sarvajan Samaj masters will get only 0.1% votes with
    ballot papers.

    99.9%
    All Aboriginal Awakened Societies are aware of the fact that they are
    the masters of producing their food like all other living beings like
    the birds, animal etc.,to overcome hunger which is the worst illness as
    said by the Awakened One with Awareness, the Buddha. Human beings are
    capable of growing dwarf, plants for growing vegetables and fruits.

    Car
    me chor EVM That proves that the Danda is used by just 0.1% foreigners
    kicked our from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Northern Europe, Western
    Germany, South Russia, Western Europe, Hungary chitpavan brahmins of
    Roedy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) use these Dandas in their shakas, Bevakoof
    Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJ(P) Ltd, Congi are all chitpavan brahminised
    organisations including the communists.

    Omit
    shah and the Mad murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) have
    declared the result before the votes are counted to omit all their
    opponents as they keep tampering the fraud EVMs to gobble the Master
    Key. Until these EVMs are replaced with Ballot Papers this loot will
    continue. But 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened Societies (Sarvajan Samaj)
    are least bothered because they are aware Hunger is the worst Illness
    said Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness. Birds, Animals and all
    other living species naturally get their food unlike human beings where
    the farmers produce all sorts of grains. During Emperor Ashoka’s rule
    fruit bearing trees were all over the country. Now we can plant dwarf
    fruit and vegetable every where so that grains, vegetables, fruits,
    greens etc., could be exchanged with out depending on anyone and lead a
    happy and peaceful life like other living species.



    https://tenor.com/view/jancokinaja-okay-gif-12974877
    Jancokinaja Okay GIF - Jancokinaja Okay GIFs

    13) Classical Assamese-ধ্ৰুপদী অসমীয়া13) ধ্ৰুপদী অসমীয়া

    ইলেক্ট্ৰনিক ভোটিং মেচিন (ইভিএম)-সকলো এপ্ৰিল ডাক ফুল -அனைத்து ஏப்ரல்வாத்து முட்டாள்கள்


    100% মাস্ক, প্ৰৱঞ্চনাৰ ইভিএমত 100% ভোট, বিজে(পি)লিমিটেড আৰু কোম্পানীৰ বাবে 100% সফলতা, ফলাফল ঘোষণা হোৱাৰ পিছত প্ৰৱঞ্চনাৰ ইভিএমৰ বিষয়ে কথা পাতিব তেওঁলোকৰ সকলো বিৰোধীৰ বাবে 100% পৰাজয়।

    যদি বেলট পেপাৰ ব্যৱহাৰ কৰা হয় তেন্তে আনকি মনুস্মৃতিসকলো সমাজৰ কল্যাণ, সুখ, শান্তিৰ বাবে আৰু তেওঁলোকে সম্পূৰ্ণ স্বাধীনতা, সমতা, স্বাধীনতা আৰু ভ্ৰাতৃত্বৰ সৈতে বিস্ময়কৰ, আধুনিক সংবিধানত সন্নিবিষ্ট তেওঁলোকৰ অন্তিম লক্ষ্য হিচাপে চিৰন্তন আনন্দ প্ৰাপ্ত কৰাৰ বাবে বিশ্বৰ মাত্ৰ 0.1% অসহিষ্ণু, হিংসাত্মক, উগ্ৰপন্থী, এক নম্বৰ সন্ত্ৰাসবাদীৰ বাবে পুনৰ লিখা হ’ব। , কেতিয়াবা শ্বুটিং, জনতাৰ মধ্যাহ্নভোজন, দেশবিৰোধী বিশ্বাসঘাতক, ঘৃণা, খং, ঈৰ্ষা, ভ্ৰান্তি ৰক্ষা কৰা, ৯৯.৯% ৰ বিৰুদ্ধে ভ্ৰান্তি সৃষ্টি কৰা সকলো আদিবাসী জাগ্ৰত সমাজবিদেশীয়ে বেইন ইজৰাইল, তিব্বত, আফ্ৰিকা পূৱ ইউৰোপ, পশ্চিম জাৰ্মানী, উত্তৰ ইউৰোপ, দক্ষিণ ৰাছিয়া, হাংগেৰীৰ সাংসদ, কাৰ্যবাহী, বিচাৰক, প্ৰৱঞ্চনা কাৰী নিৰ্বাচন আয়ুক্ত আৰু প্ৰেষ্টিটইউটিইউটি মিডিয়াৰ পৰা ধনৰ লোভৰ বাবে প্ৰৱঞ্চনা কৰা আৰু ইভিএমৰ মালিকৰ মাংস ৰক্ষাকাৰী মাকৰ দ্বাৰা মাষ্টৰ মাংস ৰক্ষা কৰা মাকৰ মাংস ৰক্ষা ৰ খাবলৈ প্ৰেছটিটইউটিইউটি মিডিয়াৰ পৰা উলিয়াই দিয়া সকলো আদিবাসী জাগ্ৰত সমাজৰ বিদেশীসকলক বেইন ইজৰাইল, তিব্বত, আফ্ৰিকা পূৱ ইউৰোপ, পশ্চিম জাৰ্মানী, উত্তৰ ইউৰোপ, দক্ষিণ ৰাছিয়া, হাংগেৰীৰ সাংসদ, প্ৰৱঞ্চনাকাৰী নিৰ্বাচন আয়ুক্ত আৰু প্ৰেষ্টিটইউটিইউটি মিডিয়াৰ পৰা ধনৰ লোভৰ বাবে প্ৰৱঞ্চনা কৰা আৰু প্ৰেষ্টিটইউটে মিডিয়াৰ পৰা উলিয়াই দিয়া সকলো আদিবাসী জাগ্ , দাস, ষ্টুজ, বুট লিকাৰ, চামচা, চেলাছ গণতান্ত্ৰিক প্ৰতিষ্ঠানৰ উন্মাদ হত্যাকাৰী (মোডী) ওমিত শ্বাহ যি কেৱল তেওঁলোকৰ সৰ্বজন সমাজ ৰ মাষ্টাৰসকলক সেৱা কৰিবলৈ তেওঁলোকৰ বিৰোধীসকলক বাদ দিয়ে তেওঁলোকে বেলট পেপাৰসহ মাত্ৰ 0.1% ভোট লাভ কৰিব।
    99.9% সকলো আদিবাসী জাগ্ৰত সমাজে এই বিষয়ে অৱগত যে তেওঁলোকে চৰাই, জন্তু আদিৰ দৰে আন সকলো জীৱৰ দৰে তেওঁলোকৰ খাদ্য উৎপাদন কৰাত নিপুণ, ভোক দূৰ কৰিবলৈ যিহৈছে সজাগতা, বুদ্ধৰ সৈতে জাগ্ৰত ৱানৰ দ্বাৰা কোৱা ৰখা আটাইতকৈ বেয়া ৰোগ। মানুহে বামুণ, পাচলি আৰু ফল খেতিৰ বাবে উদ্ভিদ খেতি কৰিবলৈ সক্ষম।
    কাৰ মে চোৰ ইভিএম যি প্ৰমাণ কৰে যে দাণ্ডা মাত্ৰ 0.1% বিদেশীয়ে ব্যৱহাৰ কৰে যি আমাক বেইন ইজৰাইলৰ পৰা লাথি মাৰিছিল, তিব্বত, আফ্ৰিকা, উত্তৰ ইউৰোপ, পশ্চিম জাৰ্মানী, দক্ষিণ ৰাছিয়া, পশ্চিম ইউৰোপ, হাংগেৰী চিত্তপাৱন ব্ৰাহ্মণ ৰোডি স্বয়ম সেৱক (আৰএছএছ)ৰ হাংগেৰী চিত্তপাৱন ব্ৰাহ্মণসকলে এই দণ্ডবোৰ তেওঁলোকৰ শাকাত ব্যৱহাৰ কৰে, বেভাকুফ ঝুথে চাইকোপেথচ (বিজে(পি) লিমিটেড, কংগী হৈছে কমিউনিষ্টসহ সকলো চিত্ৰপৱন ব্ৰাহ্মণ সংগঠন।


    ওমিত শ্বাহ আৰু গণতান্ত্ৰিক প্ৰতিষ্ঠানসমূহৰ উন্মাদ হত্যাকাৰীয়ে (মোডী) ভোট গণনা কৰাৰ আগতে তেওঁলোকৰ সকলো বিৰোধীক বাদ দিবলৈ ফলাফল ঘোষণা কৰিছে কিয়নো তেওঁলোকে মাষ্টাৰ কী কঢ়িয়াই নিয়াৰ বাবে প্ৰৱঞ্চনাৰ ই ভি এমবোৰ তছনছ কৰি আছে। যেতিয়ালৈকে এই ই ভি এমবোৰ বেলট পেপাৰৰ সৈতে সলনি কৰা নহয় তেতিয়ালৈকে এই লুণ্ঠন অব্যাহত থাকিব। কিন্তু 99.9% সকলো আদিবাসী জাগ্ৰত সমাজ (সৰ্বজন সমাজ) আটাইতকৈ কম চিন্তিত কিয়নো তেওঁলোক অৱগত যে ভোক হৈছে আটাইতকৈ বেয়া ৰোগ, বুদ্ধ দ্য এৱেকন্সড ৱান উইথ এৱাৰনেকয়। চৰাই, জন্তু আৰু আন সকলো জীৱিত প্ৰজাতিয়ে প্ৰাকৃতিকভাৱে মানুহৰ বিপৰীতে তেওঁলোকৰ খাদ্য প্ৰাপ্ত কৰে য’ত কৃষকসকলে সকলো ধৰণৰ শস্য উৎপাদন কৰে। সম্ৰাট অশোকৰ শাসনকালত ফল যুক্ত গছ গোটেই দেশতে আছিল। এতিয়া আমি প্ৰতিটো ঠাইতে বামুণ ফল আৰু পাচলি ৰোপণ কৰিব পাৰোঁ যাতে শস্য, পাচলি, ফল, সেউজীয়া আদি যিকোনো লোকৰ ওপৰত নিৰ্ভৰ কৰি বাহিৰৰ সৈতে বিনিময় কৰিব পাৰি আৰু আন জীৱিত প্ৰজাতিৰ দৰে সুখী আৰু শান্তিপূৰ্ণ জীৱন যাপন কৰিব পাৰি।





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    17) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,17) শাস্ত্রীয় বাংলা- কাসিকাল বাংলা,

    ইলেক্ট্রনিক ভোটিং মেশিন (ইভিএম) - সমস্ত এপ্রিল হাঁস মূর্খ -அஅஅத்து ஏஏ்ரல்ாத்து மு்்டா்கள்

    100% মাস্ক, জালিয়াতির ইভিএমগুলিতে 100% ভোট, বিজে (পি) লিমিটেডের জন্য 100% সাফল্য। এবং কোম্পানী, তাদের সকল প্রতিপক্ষের জন্য 100% পরাজিত যারা ফলাফলের পরে প্রতারণা ইভিএম সম্পর্কে কথা বলবে।

    যদি ব্যালট পেপারগুলি ব্যবহার করা হয় তবেও মনুষ্যমরিটি কল্যাণ, সুখ, সমস্ত সমাজের জন্য কল্যাণ, সুখ, শান্তি জন্য শান্তি মহাবিশ্বের আবিষ্কারের জন্য পুনর্লিখন করা হবে এবং তাদের জন্য অবিশ্বাস্য, আধুনিক সংবিধানের সাথে তাদের চূড়ান্ত লক্ষ্য হিসাবে অনন্ত সুখ অর্জন করা হবে। , সমতা, স্বাধীনতা, এবং ব্রেটুনিটি মাত্র 0.1% অসহিষ্ণু, সহিংস, জঙ্গি, বিশ্বের এক নম্বর সন্ত্রাসী, শুটিং, ভিড় লঞ্চিং, জাতীয় বিশ্বাসঘাতক, ঘৃণা, রাগ, ঈর্ষান্বিত, অনুশীলন অনুশীলন, রাগ, ঈর্ষান্বিত, 99.9% এর বিরুদ্ধে বিভ্রম মূঢ়তা, সমস্ত আদিবাসী জাগ্রত সোসাইটি বিদেশীরা বেন ইজরায়েল, তিব্বত, আফ্রিকা পূর্ব ইউরোপ, পশ্চিমা জার্মানি, উত্তর ইউরোপ, দক্ষিণ রাশিয়া, হাঙ্গেরি সংসদীয় সংসদীয়, নির্বাহী, বিচারক, প্রতারণার নির্বাচন কমিশনার এবং প্রেসটিউটের মিডিয়া অর্থের জন্য তাদের লোভের জন্য প্রেসটি ইন্সপটিউট মিডিয়া থেকে বিরত থাকুন নিজের মায়ের মাংসের ভোজনের মাধ্যমে জালিয়াতি ইভিএম, ক্রীতদাসদের দাস, স্টোগ, বুট lickers, chamchas, পাগল হত্যাকারী chelas এফ ডেমোক্র্যাটিক ইনস্টিটিউশন (মোদি) অমিত শাহ যিনি তাদের প্রতিপক্ষকে তাদের সারভজান সমাজ মাস্টার্স পরিবেশন করতে নিষিদ্ধ করেন, কেবল ব্যালট পেপারগুলির সাথে মাত্র 0.1% ভোট পাবেন।

    99.9% সমস্ত আদিবাসী জাগানো সমাজগুলি এই বিষয়টি সম্পর্কে সচেতন যে তারা তাদের খাদ্য উৎপাদনের মাস্টার, পাখি, পশু ইত্যাদির মতো অন্যান্য সমস্ত জীবন্ত প্রাণী যেমন, ক্ষুধা কাটিয়ে উঠতে পারে যা সচেতনতার সাথে জাগ্রত একের দ্বারা বলা হয়, বুদ্ধ। মানুষ গাছের ক্রমবর্ধমান সবজি এবং ফল জন্য গাছপালা বৃদ্ধি করতে সক্ষম হয়।

    কার আমাকে সিএইচওআর ইভিএম প্রমাণ করে যে ডান্ডা কেবলমাত্র 0.1% বিদেশীকে ব্যবহার করা হয় যা আমাদের বেন ইজরায়েল, তিব্বত, আফ্রিকা, উত্তর ইউরোপ, পশ্চিমা জার্মানি, দক্ষিণ রাশিয়া, পশ্চিম ইউরোপ, হাঙ্গেরি চিটপান ব্রাহ্মিনের হাঙ্গেরি চিটপান ব্রাহ্মণ (আরএসএস) এই ব্যবহার করে তাদের শাকাসে ডান্ডাস, বেভাকুফ জহোতে সাইকোপ্যাথস (বিজে (পি) লিমিটেড, কনংটি কমিউনিস্টসহ সব চিতাপান ব্রাহ্মণযুক্ত সংগঠন।

    ওমিত শাহ ও গণতান্ত্রিক প্রতিষ্ঠানের মাদক খুনী (মোদি) এর ফলাফল ঘোষণা করেছেন যে ভোটগুলি যদি তাদের সকল বিরোধীদের বাদ দেওয়ার আগে ভোট গণনা করা হয়, কারণ তারা জালিয়াতি ইভিএমগুলিকে ঘিরে রাখে। এই ইভিএম পর্যন্ত ব্যালট পেপারগুলির সাথে প্রতিস্থাপিত না হওয়া পর্যন্ত এই লুটটি চলবে। কিন্তু 99.9% সমস্ত আদিবাসী জাগানো সমাজের (সারভজান সমাজ) কমপক্ষে বিরক্তিকর কারণ তারা সচেতন হ’ল ক্ষুধা সবচেয়ে খারাপ অসুস্থতা জানায়, বৌদ্ধরা সচেতনতার সাথে জাগ্রত হয়। পাখি, প্রাণী এবং অন্যান্য সমস্ত জীবিত প্রজাতি স্বাভাবিকভাবেই তাদের খাদ্যের মতো মানুষকে পায় যেখানে কৃষকরা সব ধরণের শস্য তৈরি করে। সম্রাট অশোকের শাসনামলে ফলের জন্মের সময় সারা দেশে ছিল। এখন আমরা ফুর্তি ও উদ্ভিজ্জকে প্রত্যেকের মধ্যে রোপণ করতে পারি যাতে শস্য, শাকসবজি, ফল, সবুজ শাকসবজি ইত্যাদি, কারো উপর নির্ভর করে, এবং অন্যান্য জীবন্ত প্রজাতির মতো সুখী ও শান্তিপূর্ণ জীবনযাপন করতে পারে।

    https://tenor.com/view/modi-troll-malayalam-gif-kerala-gif-16359702
    Modi Troll GIF - Modi Troll Malayalam GIFs

    70) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,70) ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം-

    ഇലക്ട്രോണിക് വോട്ടിംഗ് മെഷീൻ (ഇവിഎം) - ഏപ്രിൽ താറാവ് വിഡ് s ികളായിരിക്കുക - തക്കത്രിക

    100% മാസ്കുകൾ, തട്ടിപ്പ് ഇവിഎമ്മുകളിൽ 100% വോട്ടുകൾ, ബിജെ (പി) ലിമിറ്റഡിനായി 100% വിജയം. കമ്പനികൾ പ്രഖ്യാപിച്ചതിനുശേഷം വഞ്ചന ഇവികളെക്കുറിച്ച് സംസാരിക്കുന്ന അവരുടെ എല്ലാ എതിരാളികൾക്കും കമ്പനി 100% പരാജയപ്പെടുന്നു.

    ബാലറ്റ് പേപ്പറുകൾ ഉപയോഗിച്ചാൽ മസ്ക്രിറ്റി പോലും മാസ്മ്രിറ്റിയെ മാറ്റിയെഴുതുകയാണെങ്കിൽ, ക്ഷേമത്തിനും സന്തോഷത്തിനും, എല്ലാ സമൂഹങ്ങൾക്കും പ്രപഞ്ചം, അവർ അത്ഭുതകരമായ, ആധുനിക, എല്ലാ സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യത്തോടെയും , സമത്വം, സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം, സാഹോദര്യം എന്നിവ വെറും 0.1%, അക്രമാസക്തമായ, തീവ്രവാദികൾ, എപ്പോഴും ഷൂട്ടിംഗ്, ജനക്കൂട്ടം, വിരുദ്ധ, വിരുദ്ധ വിരുദ്ധ വിഡ് id ിത്തം എന്നിവ 99.9 ശതമാനത്തിൽ നിന്ന് ആരംഭിച്ചു സൊസൈറ്റികൾ ബെനെ ഇസ്രായേലിൽ നിന്ന് പുറത്താക്കിയത് ബെന്ന ഇസ്രായേലിൽ നിന്നും പശ്ചിമ ജർമ്മനി, വടക്കൻ യൂറോപ്പ്, തെക്കൻ റഷ്യ, ഹംഗറി പാർലിയമെന്റ് കമ്മീഷണർ, എക്സിക്യൂട്ടറീസ്, ജഡ്ജിമാർ, വഞ്ചന മാധ്യമങ്ങൾ സ്വന്തം അമ്മയുടെ മാംസം കഴിക്കുന്നവർ, അടിമകളുടെ അടിമകൾ, സ്റ്റൂജുകൾ, ബൂട്ട് ഡേജർ, ചാമ്ചസ്, ചേലാസ്, ചേലാസ് എന്നിവ എഫ് ജനാധിപത്യ സ്ഥാപനങ്ങൾ (മോദി) എതിരാളികൾ അവരുടെ സർവ്വാജൻ സമാജ് മാസ്റ്റേഴ്സിനെ സേവിക്കാൻ മാത്രം ഒഴിവാക്കുന്ന ഷാ ഒഴിവാക്കും ബാലറ്റ് പേപ്പറുകൾ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് 0.1% വോട്ടുകൾ മാത്രമേ ലഭിക്കൂ.

    99.9% എല്ലാ ആദിവാസി ഉണരാനാകാത്ത സൊസൈറ്റികളും പക്ഷികൾ, മൃഗങ്ങൾ മുതലായവയെപ്പോലെ തന്നെ ഭക്ഷണം ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിന്റെ മാസ്റ്റേഴ്സ്, അത് വിശകലനം ചെയ്യുന്നതാണ്, അത് വിശകലനം ചെയ്യുന്നു, ബുദ്ധൻ. പച്ചക്കറികളും പഴങ്ങളും വളർത്താൻ കുള്ളൻ, സസ്യങ്ങൾ, സസ്യങ്ങൾ എന്നിവയ്ക്ക് പ്രാപ്തമാണ് മനുഷ്യർക്ക് കഴിവുണ്ട്.

    കാർ എന്നെ കാർ, ടിബറ്റ്, ആഫ്രിക്ക, പടിഞ്ഞാറൻ യൂറോപ്പ്, വെറും 0.1%, വെറും 0.1%, വെസ്റ്റ് ജർമ്മനിയിൽ നിന്ന് പുറത്താക്കി എന്ന് തെളിയിക്കുന്നു, വെസ്റ്റേൺ സ്വാം സേവാക്സ് (ആർഎസ്എസ്) ഇവ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നു ദണ്ഡങ്ങൾ തങ്ങളുടെ ശാക്കയിലെ ദണ്ഡന്മാർ, ബെവകൂഫ് ജൂത്ത് സൈക്കോപാത്ത് (ബിജെ (പി) ലിമിറ്റഡ്, കമ്മ്യൂണിസ്റ്റുകൾ ഉൾപ്പെടെയുള്ള ചിത്പാവൻ ബ്രാഹ്മണ സംഘടനകളാണ്.

    മാസ്റ്റർ കീയെ ഗോബ്ലിംഗ് ചെയ്യാൻ വഞ്ചന ഇവിഎമ്മുകളെ തട്ടിക്കൊണ്ടുപോകുന്നതിനാൽ ജനാധിപത്യ സ്ഥാപനങ്ങളുടെ (മോദി) വിഡ്. ഈ ഇവിഎമ്മുകൾ ബാലറ്റ് പേപ്പറുകൾ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് മാറ്റിസ്ഥാപിക്കുന്നതുവരെ ഈ കൊള്ള തുടരും. എന്നാൽ 99.9% എല്ലാ ആദിവാസി ഉണരാനാകാത്ത സൊസൈറ്റികളും (സർവാജൻ സമാജ്) ഏറ്റവും വിഷമിക്കേണ്ടതില്ല, കാരണം അവർക്ക് വിശപ്പുണ്ടാകരുന്നത് ഏറ്റവും മോശം രോഗമാണ് ഏറ്റവും മോശം രോഗം. പക്ഷികൾ, മൃഗങ്ങൾ, മറ്റെല്ലാ ജീവജാലങ്ങൾ എന്നിവ സ്വാഭാവികമായും അവരുടെ ഭക്ഷണം മനുഷ്യരെ എല്ലാത്തരം ധാന്യങ്ങളും ഉൽപാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നു. അശോകന്റെ ഭരണം ഫലം കായ്ക്കുന്ന മരങ്ങൾ മുഴുവൻ രാജ്യത്തുടനീളം ആയിരുന്നു. ധാന്യങ്ങൾ, പച്ചക്കറികൾ, പഴങ്ങൾ, പച്ചിലകൾ തുടങ്ങിയ എല്ലാ ജീവജാലങ്ങളെയും ആശ്രയിച്ച് ഇപ്പോൾ നമുക്ക് കുള്ളൻ പഴങ്ങളും പച്ചക്കറികളും നടാം.



    https://tenor.com/view/modiji-bhangra-dance-happy-celebrate-gif-17569464
    Modiji Bhangra GIF - Modiji Bhangra Dance GIFs