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01/31/17
2125 Wed 1 Feb 2017 LESSONS Wishing a very Happy Birthday to Navaneetham Chandrasekharan and all born on 1st February an auspicious month for the success of Techno, Politico, Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement of DR BR Ambedkar, Manyawar Kanshiram and Ms Mayawati of BSP! May all be Happy, Well and Secure!! May all live long!!! May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and an Equanimity Mind with a Clear Understanding that everything is Changing!!!! Mayawati said, we consider ourselves as a movement first and political party later.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 6:29 pm


2125 Wed 1 Feb 2017


LESSONS

Wishing
a very Happy Birthday to Navaneetham Chandrasekharan and all born on
1st February an auspicious month for the success of Techno, Politico,
Socio Transformation and Economic  Emancipation Movement of DR BR
Ambedkar, Manyawar Kanshiram and Ms Mayawati of BSP!

May all be Happy, Well and Secure!!

May all live long!!!

May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and an Equanimity Mind with a  Clear Understanding that everything is Changing!!!!



Mayawati said, we consider ourselves as a movement first and political party later.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3w6y1PNo78&list=RDX3w6y1PNo78#t=17
bahujan samaj party song mission 2017

Mayawati said, we consider ourselves as a movement first and political party later.

http://www.budsas.org/ebud/whatbudbeliev/229.htm


The Awakened One with Awareness had gone beyond all worldly affairs, but still gave advice on good government.

The
Awakened One with Awareness came from a warrior caste and was naturally
brought into association with kings, princes and ministers. Despite His
origin and association, He never resorted to the influence of political
power to introduce His teaching, nor allowed His Teaching to be misused
for gaining political power. But today, many politicians try to drag
the Awakened One with Awareness’s name into politics by introducing Him
as a communist, capitalist, or even an imperialist. They have forgotten
that the new political philosophy as we know it really developed in the
West long after the Buddha’s time. Those who try to make use of the good
name of the Buddha for their own personal advantage must remember that
the Buddha was the Supremely Awakened One who had gone beyond all
worldly concerns.

There
is an inherent problem of trying to intermingle religion with politics.
The basis of religion is morality, purity and faith, while that for
politics is power. In the course of history, religion has often been
used to give legitimacy to those in power and their exercise of that
power. Religion was used to justify wars and conquests, persecutions,
atrocities, rebellions, destruction of works of art and culture.

When
religion is used to pander to political whims, it has to forego its
high moral ideals and become debased by worldly political demands.

The
thrust of the Awakened One with Awareness Dhamma is not directed to the
creation of new political institutions and establishing political
arrangements. Basically, it seeks to approach the problems of society by
reforming the individuals constituting that society and by suggesting
some general principles through which the society can be guided towards
greater humanism, improved welfare of its members, and more equitable
sharing of resources.

There
is a limit to the extent to which a political system can safeguard the
happiness and prosperity of its people. No political system, no matter
how ideal it may appear to be, can bring about peace and happiness as
long as the people in the system are dominated by greed, hatred and
delusion. In addition, no matter what political system is adopted, there
are certain universal factors which the members of that society will
have to experience: the effects of good and bad Cause and Effect , the
lack of real satisfaction or everlasting happiness in the world
characterized by dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and
anatta (egolessness). To the Awakened One with Awareness, nowhere in
Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of
Brahama.

Although
a good and just political system which guarantees basic human rights
and contains checks and balances to the use of power is an important
condition for a happy in society, people should not fritter away their
time by endlessly searching for the ultimate political system where men
can be completely free, because complete freedom cannot be found in any
system but only in minds which are free. To be free, people will have to
look within their own minds and work towards freeing themselves from
the chains of ignorance and craving. Freedom in the truest sense is only
possible when a person uses Dhamma to develop his character through
good speech and action and to train his mind so as to expand his mental
potential and achieve his ultimate aim of awakenment.

While
recognizing the usefulness of separating religion from politics and the
limitations of political systems in bringing about peace and happiness,
there are several aspects of the Awakened One with Awareness’s teaching
which have close correspondence to the political arrangements of the
present day. Firstly, the Awakened One with Awareness spoke about the
equality of all human beings long before Abraham Lincoln, and that
classes and castes are artificial barriers erected by society. The only
classification of human beings, according to the Buddha, is based on the
quality of their moral conduct. Secondly, the Awakened One with
Awareness encouraged the spirit of social -co-operation and active
participation in society. This spirit is actively promoted in the
political process of modern societies. Thirdly, since no one was
appointed as the Buddha’s successor, the members of the Order were to be
guided by the Dhamma and Vinaya, or in short, the Rule of Law. Until
today very member of the Sangha is to abide by the Rule of Law which
governs and guides their conduct.

Fourthly,
the Awakened One with Awareness encouraged the spirit of consultation
and the democratic process. This is shown within the community of the
Order in which all members have the right to decide on matters of
general concern. When a serious question arose demanding attention, the
issues were put before the monks and discussed in a manner similar to
the democratic parliamentary system used today. This self-governing
procedure may come as a surprise to many to learn that in the assemblies
of Awakened One with Awareness 2,500 years and more ago are to be found
the rudiments of the parliamentary practice of the present day. A
special officer similar to ‘Mr. Speaker’ was appointed to preserve the
dignity of the Parliamentary Chief Whip, was also appointed to see if
the quorum was secured. Matters were put forward in the form of a motion
which was open to discussion. In some cases it was done once, in others
three times, thus anticipating the practice of Parliament in requiring
that a bill be read a third time before it becomes law. If the
discussion showed a difference of opinion, it was to be settled by the
vote of the majority through balloting.

The
Awakened One with Awareness approach to political power is the
moralization and the responsible use of public power. The Awakened One
with Awareness preached non-violence and peace as a universal message.
He did not approve of violence or the destruction of life, and declared
that there is no such thing as a ‘just’ war. He taught: ‘The victor
breeds hatred, the defeated lives in misery. He who renounces both
victory and defeat is happy and peaceful.’ Not only did the Awakened One
with Awareness teach non-violence and peace, He was perhaps the first
and only religious teacher who went to the battlefield personally to
prevent the outbreak of a war. He diffused tension between the Sakyas
and the Koliyas who were about to wage war over the waters of Rohini. He
also dissuaded King Ajatasattu from attacking the Kingdom of the
Vajjis.

The
Awakened One with Awareness discussed the importance and the
prerequisites of a good government. He showed how the country could
become corrupt, degenerate and unhappy when the head of the government
becomes corrupt and unjust. He spoke against corruption and how a
government should act based on humanitarian principles.

The
Awakened One with Awareness once said, ‘When the ruler of a country is
just and good, the ministers become just and good; when the ministers
are just and good, the higher officials become just and good; when the
higher officials are just and good, the rank and file become just and
good; when the rank and file become just and good, the people become
just and good.’(Anguttara Nikaya)

In
the Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta, the Awakened One with Awareness said
that immorality and crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred,
cruelty, could arise from poverty. Kings and governments may try to
suppress crime through punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes
through force.

In
the Kutadanta Sutta, the Awakened One with Awareness suggested economic
development instead of force to reduce crime. The government should use
the country’s resources to improve the economic conditions of the
country. It could embark on agricultural and rural development, provide
financial support to entrepreneurs and business, provide adequate wages
for workers to maintain a decent life with human dignity.

In
the Jataka, the Awakened One with Awareness had given to rules for Good
Government, known as ‘Dasa Raja Dharma’. These ten rules can be applied
even today by any government which wishes to rule the country
peacefully. The rules are as follows:

1) be liberal and avoid selfishness,
2) maintain a high moral character,
3) be prepared to sacrifice one’s own pleasure for the well-being of the subjects,
4) be honest and maintain absolute integrity,
5) be kind and gentle,
6) lead a simple life for the subjects to emulate,
7) be free from hatred of any kind,
8) exercise non-violence,
9) practise patience, and
10) respect public opinion to promote peace and harmony.

Regarding the behavior of rulers, He further advised:

-
A good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and
discriminate between one particular group of subjects against another.

- A good ruler should not harbor any form of hatred against any of his subjects.

- A good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if it is justifiable.

-
A good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be
enforced. It should not be enforced just because the ruler has the
authority to enforce the law. It must be done in a reasonable manner and
with common sense. — (Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta)

In
the Milinda Panha,it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent,
immoral, improper, unable and unworthy of kingship, has enthroned
himself a king or a ruler with great authority, he is subject to be
tortured‚ to be subject to a variety of punishment by the people,
because, being unfit and unworthy, he has placed himself unrighteously
in the seat of sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and
transgress moral codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is
equally subject to punishment; and moreover, to be censured is the
ruler who conducts himself as a robber of the public.’ In a Jataka
story, it is mentioned that a ruler who punishes innocent people and
does not punish the culprit is not suitable to rule a country.

The
king always improves himself and carefully examines his own conduct in
deeds, words and thoughts, trying to discover and listen to public
opinion as to whether or not he had been guilty of any faults and
mistakes in ruling the kingdom. If it is found that he rules
unrighteously, the public will complain that they are ruined by the
wicked ruler with unjust treatment, punishment, taxation, or other
oppressions including corruption of any kind, and they will react
against him in one way or another. On the contrary, if he rules
righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His Majesty.’ (Majjhima
Nikaya)

The
Awakened One with Awareness’s emphasis on the moral duty of a ruler to
use public power to improve the welfare of the people had inspired
Emperor Asoka in the Third Century B.C. to do likewise. Emperor Asoka, a
sparkling example of this principle, resolved to live according to and
preach the Dhamma and to serve his subjects and all humanity. He
declared his non-aggressive intentions to his neighbors, assuring them
of his goodwill and sending envoys to distant kings bearing his message
of peace and non-aggression. He promoted the energetic practice of the
socio-moral virtues of honesty, truthfulness, compassion, benevolence,
non-violence, considerate behavior towards all, non-extravagance,
non-acquisitiveness, and non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious
freedom and mutual respect for each other’s creed. He went on periodic
tours preaching the Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook works of
public utility, such as founding of hospitals for men and animals,
supplying of medicine, planting of roadside trees and groves, digging of
wells, and construction of watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly
forbade cruelty to animals.

Sometimes
the Awakened One with Awareness is said to be a social reformer. Among
other things, He condemned the caste system, recognized the equality of
people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic conditions,
recognized the importance of a more equitable distribution of wealth
among the rich and the poor, raised the status of women, recommended the
incorporation of humanism in government and administration, and taught
that a society should not be run by greed but with consideration and
compassion for the people. Despite all these, His contribution to
mankind is much greater because He took off at a point which no other
social reformer before or ever since had done, that is, by going to the
deepest roots of human ill which are found in the human mind. It is only
in the human mind that true reform can be effected. Reforms imposed by
force upon the external world have a very short life because they have
no roots. But those reforms which spring as a result of the
transformation of man’s inner consciousness remain rooted. While their
branches spread outwards, they draw their nourishment from an unfailing
source — the subconscious imperatives of the life-stream itself. So
reforms come about when men’s minds have prepared the way for them, and
they live as long as men revitalize them out of their own love of truth,
justice and their fellow men.

The
doctrine preached by the Awakened One with Awareness is not one based
on ‘Political Philosophy’. Nor is it a doctrine that encourages men to
worldly pleasures. It sets out a way to attain Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal. In other words, its ultimate aim is to put an end to craving
(Tanha) that keeps them in bondage to this world. A stanza from the
Dhammapada best summarizes this statement: ‘The path that leads to
worldly gain is one, and the path that leads to Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal(by leading a religious life)is another.’

However,
this does not mean that Awakened One with Awareness cannot or should
not get involved in the political process, which is a social reality.
The lives of the members of a society are shaped by laws and
regulations, economic arrangements allowed within a country,
institutional arrangements, which are influenced by the political
arrangements of that society. Nevertheless, if a Buddhist wishes to be
involved in politics, he should not misuse religion to gain political
powers, nor is it advisable for those who have renounced the worldly
life to lead a pure, religious life to be actively involved in politics.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j8Hqc3OKnf4&index=10&list=RDX3w6y1PNo78
Jo Kuch Bhi Diya He Ambedker Ne Diya Hai - “Kashi Ram ke Geet” from Dr Bhim Rao Ambedker Misson Geet

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJwVozQl-PE&index=11&list=RDX3w6y1PNo78
Samrat Ashok Ji Amar Rahe - “Kashi Ram ke Geet” from Dr Bhim Rao Ambedker Misson Geet

bahujan samaj party song mission 2017
jai bhim
youtube.com
BSP SUPREMO MAYAWATI BAHAN KO AANE DO
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hux_dJR4IDU
मिसन 2017 !! BSP SONG !! बहन जी को आने दो !! आरक्षण बचाओ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6PcVOe0Uqk


BSP MISSION 2017 - Behenji Mayawati Song



comments (0)
2124 Tue 31 Jan 2017 LESSONS http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56871903.cms Kumari Mayawati School-teacher-turned politician, Mayawati has many ‘firsts’ under her name. She was the first chief minister of Uttar Pradesh to complete a full term of five years in office. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/55844050.cms? DEMONetisation won’t hit BSP campaign, says Mayawati http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56202024.cms BJP targeting me because I am a SC and opposed DEMONetisation: Mayawati. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56563462.cms Only BSP can stop BJP from coming to power: Mayawati https://www.instructables.com/id/Real-Time-IoT-Poll-Tracking-Display/ Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display https://duckduckgo.com/… As the EVMs were tampered gobble the Master Key by Congress, BJP, SP and all their allies which are vultures of a father flock together to feed on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies except Ms Mayawati’s BSP Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display will never be introduced. RSSised Modi is Trumpised and Trump is RSSised.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 9:03 am


2124 Tue 31 Jan 2017


LESSONS





http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56871903.cms


Kumari Mayawati School-teacher-turned politician, Mayawati has many
‘firsts’ under her name. She was the first chief minister of Uttar
Pradesh to complete a full term of five years in office.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/55844050.cms?

DEMONetisation won’t hit BSP campaign, says Mayawati

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56202024.cms

BJP targeting me because I am a SC and opposed DEMONetisation: Mayawati.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56563462.cms

Only BSP can stop BJP from coming to power: Mayawati



https://www.instructables.com/id/Real-Time-IoT-Poll-Tracking-Display/

Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display

https://duckduckgo.com/…


As the EVMs were tampered gobble the Master Key by Congress, BJP, SP
and all their allies which are vultures of a father flock together to
feed on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies except Ms
Mayawati’s BSP Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display will never be
introduced.
RSSised Modi is Trumpised and Trump is RSSised.



http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56871903.cms


Kumari Mayawati School-teacher-turned politician, Mayawati has many
‘firsts’ under her name. She was the first chief minister of Uttar
Pradesh to complete a full term of five years in office.

She was also the youngest woman chief minister of a state, when she first took the office on 3 June, 1995.


She is also among the three chief ministers of the state to have
assumed office for four times and the only woman chief minister to do so
in Uttar Pradesh.

She stormed back to power in 2007 assembly
elections winning absolute majority with the support of Brahmins,
Thakurs, Muslims and members of other backward classes, the first by any
party since 1991 in Uttar Pradesh.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/55844050.cms?

DEMONetisation won’t hit BSP campaign, says Mayawati


LUCKNOW: Urging voters of Uttar Pradesh to teach a lesson to the
Bharatiya Janata Party in the UP assembly polls, Bahujan Samaj party
chief Mayawati said, “Bring BJP down to fourth position in UP polls and
teach them a lesson.” Referring to Modi’s post-DEMONetisation speeches
in Ghazipur and Agra, Mayawati said, “After Modi decided to go ahead
with DEMONetisation, he ridiculed his opponents over how they would hold
public rallies and fight elections. I want to tell the Modi that there
would be no adverse impact of DEMONetisation on BSP as we consider
ourselves as a movement first and political party later.

She
accused the BJP and Modi of deceiving the poor of the country. “You have
compelled everyone to become a fakir and ‘kangaal’ (penniless) by not
fulfilling poll promises you made during 2014 Lok Sabha elections,”
Mayawati said, addressing a crowd that was large given the inclement
weather.

“Modi is feeling threatened and apprehends wipe-out in
the Hindi heartland and to divert public attention he has resorted to
DEMONtisation without any preparation,” said Mayawati and alleged even
25% of the poll promises made by the BJP in 2014 Lok Sabha polls were
not fulfilled.

“BJP leaders are sourcing crowds from other states
for their parivartan yatra and have a crowd of ticket seekers but this
tactic will not work in polls,” she said. She further told the party
workers that the BJP after Ayodhya, is focusing on Varanasi and Mathura.


“In UP, there is jungle raaj and is no rule of law. Mafia and corrupt
are calling the shots. Most of the development work shown today was
started by BSP whether it is Lucknow Metro or Lucknow-Agra Expressway.
If voted to power, we will lodge FIRs which were not lodged,” Mayawati
said, adding cases of illegal possession of land owned by or given to
SC/STs will be dealt with strongly. “Appointments made by this
government would also come under scanner as also media expenses incurred
by this government, and strict action will be taken,” she said.


Mayawati said Congress was in power for a long time but did nothing for
benefit of SC/STs. “Congress, BJP, RSS and SP will use all the possible
resources and tactics to divide your society,” she said and added that
Congress did not implement recommendations of Mandal Commission or give
Bharat Ratna to Babasaheb while BJP had started an agitation against the
commission report.

“In 1989, when BSP had 3 MPs in Lok Sabha,
the then PM VP Singh sought our support. We decided to support on three
conditions—Bharat Ratna for Babasaheb, implementation of Mandal
Commission report and not allowing BJP to implement its Ayodhya agenda.
BJP withdrew support from VP Singh government, which proves they are
against Ambedkar,” said Mayawati, accusing Modi of getting his caste
included in the list of OBCs in 1994 following implementation of
recommendations of Mandal Commission.

“You must learn to gauge
the chaal (move), charitra (character), chehra (face), neeti (policy)
and niyat (intention) of political parties like the BJP and company,”
said Mayawati.

“Political parties like BJP, Congress and similar
parties may give the SC/ST/OBC and people from religious minorities
senior post in the organization. They may make you CM face or PM face.
But, even then the CMs and PMs of these parties would ultimately work as
bonded labourers for their party bosses,” said the BSP chief.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56202024.cms

BJP targeting me because I am a SC and opposed DEMONetisation: Mayawati.


BSP chief Mayawati on Tuesday said that Modi was deliberately
targeting her since she was a SC and opposed the DEMONetisation scheme.


Mayawati said the BJP can’t see a SC having the master key to power,
especially in UP where assembly elections are due. Maintaining that all
the money was deposited in party’s and Anand’s bank account within
rules, Mayawati said that the money which is being talked about was
collected at her Delhi’s party’s office in August itself.

“This
was well before demonetisation scheme came into play,'’ she said.
Mayawati said that the money had to be evaluated before depositing in
the bank account. “We got late in depositing the money. It could be
deposited in the bank only in November,'’ she clarified. “My brother
Anand Kumar has been doing business for the many years. He also
deposited money as per rules,'’ she added.

Mayawati said that a
similar exercise was carried out by other parties, which, however, are
not being targeted. “If Modi is so honest, why isn’t he disclosing the
bank transactions made by BJP 10 months before the note ban came into
effect,'’ she asked.

The BSP chief accused the BJP of resorting
to arm-twisting and trying to bargain with her. “I am always been
targeted whenever elections are round the corner,'’ the Mayawati said.
She said that even the Taj Heritage Corridor and disproportionate asset
case against her was framed by the BJP just before the 2004 Lok Sabha
elections.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/56563462.cms

Only BSP can stop BJP from coming to power: Mayawati


LUCKNOW: BSP chief Mayawati on Sunday accused the opposition parties
including BJP, SP and Congress of being in collusion to transfer votes
to each other and stop her party from coming to power in UP.


“Only BSP, not a SP-Congress combine, which was capable of stopping the
saffron party from coming to power in UP in 2017 and them dampening
BJP’s prospects in 2019 Lok Sabha elections,” Mayawati said.


Mayawati said that the opposition was making efforts to ensure that BSP
gets restricted to her core SC/ST vote base and no other community gets
associated with her party. She particularly slammed the BJP of
deliberately targetting her and her family members over money deposited
in bank accounts. Mayawati said that all this showed the deperation of
BJP to malign her with a political agenda. But such allegations, she
claimed, would only help her party to grow stronger and emerge
victorious in the forth coming assembly election.

The BSP boss said that while she was being targetted, many other big politicians were spared by the Modi.


She also attacked the BJP dispensation of running schemes on the agenda
of RSS and then linking them with nationalism to prevent it from facing
criticism. “In fact, the schemes like DEMONetisation was brought in to
facilitate those close to BJP,” Mayawati charged.

She also
accused the BJP of using the money power to manage opinion polls and
divert people’s attentions from its failure. “BJP and Modi should
understand that they can only manage opinion polls but not the actual
result in poll bound states,” she said, adding that Janta will usher in
`Burey Din’ for BJP just like in Bihar. “People will also not fall in
the trap of the BJP through its forthcoming union budget,” she said.


School-teacher-turned politician, Mayawati has many ‘firsts’ under her name.
timesofindia.indiatimes.com

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Comment


https://www.instructables.com/id/Real-Time-IoT-Poll-Tracking-Display/

Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display

To
distract ourselves from the anxiety of this interminable election
season we have to decide to channel our angst into a project that
displays the results from an aggregated election polling site in
real-time. This IoT connected project retrieves the latest polling data
from the polling aggegator site FiveThirtyEight.com (which will
correctly predict the election outcome of 5 states in 2017 and 543 Lok
Sabha seats in 2019), and displays the current net liklihood of winning
for the major political parties on a 4-digit 7-segment numerical
display.


Step 1: Hardware

Hardware

converter.jpg7segment.jpg


The hardware components for this project are:

We have to  chose the Adafruit Huzzah board to control this project because it
combines simple WiFi access using the ESP8266 with Arduino IDE
compatibility and enough I/O pins to run the LEDs, switch and 7-segment
display. Additionally, it’s inexpensive and Adafruit provides some nice
libraries and code examples to show how to use various protocols to access data over the Internet.

The
logic level converter was necessary because the Huzzah operates at 3.3V
and the 7-Segment display operates at 5V. Sometimes, you can trigger
5V logic with a lower voltage input, but we can  find the display wouldn’t
work without the converter.

The slide switch allows the user to toggle the view between tall parties, as desired.

As
the EVMs were tampered gobble the Master Key by Congress, BJP, SP and
all their allies which are vultures of a father flock together to feed
on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies except Ms Mayawati’s
BSP
Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display will never be introduced.

The CEC said that entire EVMs will be replaced only in 2019.

The
ex CJI had committed a grave error of judgemnet by ordering that the
EVMs to be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the Ex CEC
Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores which is nothing when
compared to Rs 3000 crores of a statue of an anti reservation leader by
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) and a same amount for
Shivaji.

It is the duty of the CEC and CJI to see that Ballot Papers are used till the entire EVMs were totally replaced.

Central
and State governments selected by these EVMs must be dissolved and go
for fresh polls with Ballot Papers ans CEC must take initiative to
introduce
Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display for transparency in elections.



https://duckduckgo.com/…


As the EVMs were tampered gobble the Master Key by Congress, BJP, SP
and all their allies which are vultures of a father flock together to
feed on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies except Ms
Mayawati’s BSP Real-Time IoT Poll Tracking Display will never be
introduced.
RSSised Modi is Trumpised and Trump is RSSised.

comments (0)
01/30/17
2123 Mon 30 Jan 2017 LESSONS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCGl0HDgMY8&list=RDpCGl0HDgMY8#t=0 WAH JI WAH DHANYA KANSHIRAM - (Hindi Song) https://www.youtube.com/watch… BJP, Congress, SP and their allies Jathi Familywadi parties (JFP) which are vultures of a feather flock together to feed on the bodies of sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 2:25 am


2123 Mon 30 Jan 2017


LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCGl0HDgMY8&list=RDpCGl0HDgMY8#t=0

WAH JI WAH DHANYA KANSHIRAM - (Hindi Song)

https://www.youtube.com/watch…


BJP, Congress, SP and their allies Jathi Familywadi parties (JFP) which
are vultures of a feather flock together to feed on the bodies of
sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCGl0HDgMY8&list=RDpCGl0HDgMY8#t=0



http://media.photobucket.com/…/me…/Elephant/walk/B.gif.html…


UP will reject ‘bhrastachari’ Congress, ‘gundachari’ SP and
“Sarvanashini” BJP (Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths) since they are all Jathi
Familywadi parties (JFP) vultures of a feather flock together feeding
on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj voters.
They ahve looted looted Rs. lakhs of crores during their regime.


“Gundachari is the one who has sold Uttar Pradesh in the hands of the
goons…it is the Samajwadi Party. The cycle now is punctured and with
one wheel SP and the other congress and has the hand of the corrupt and
the goons are sitting on it. The goon is riding the cycle and he is
holding the hand of the corrupt. So, there is no need of such people in
Uttar Pradesh.

Mayawati’s BSP Elephant’s majestic walk is attracting the Sarvajan Voters.

Uttar Pradesh will be voting for a new state assembly in a seven-phase election between February 11 and March 8.


walking elephant gif photo: Elefant elephant walking animated alphabet gif B.gif


WAH JI WAH DHANYA KANSHIRAM - (Hindi Song)


On Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) the upcoming five state
assembly elections would confirm that his popularity is no more.

After DEMONitisation the people lost faith in him.


As Punjab goes to polls on February 4, the Congress a sinking boat, as
it has lost its identity. Nobody knows the colour,form and intention of
this party.

In order to save itself, the Congress along with SP
is resorting to Fashion show, beauty contest, catwalk etc., while the
RSS governor of Megalaya running young womens’ club and Katirar saying
that Smiriti Irani is more beautiful than Priyanka Gandhi and people
simply rush up to see her.

This is how the BJP. Congress, SP and
their allies which are vultures of a feather flock to gether to feed on
the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj and for the sake of votes they disrespect
the women of this mother land.

The BSP’s supremo Ms Mayawti will
not only become of the CM of UP but also the next PM of Prabuddha
Bharath to implement the Modern Constitution for Sarvajan Hitay
Sarvajan Sukhaya ie., for the welfare , happiness and peace for all
societies including the honour of women.

The Congress party
allied with the Left in West Bengal for its survival and then taking
advantage of the Samajwadi Party (SP) feud, allied with it as well in
Uttar Pradesh.

Congress, at first, badmouthed the SP in UP, but after seeing the conflict within the party, allied with them.

Now Modi and the Congress with their allies were struggling for power in a similar way as a fish does without water.


Punjab wants happiness and not SADness as the Chief Minister never
worked for Punjab. They want change for the welfare of the poor, the
farmers, the villages.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…


BJP, Congress, SP and their allies Jathi Familywadi parties (JFP) which
are vultures of a feather flock together to feed on the bodies of
sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies. They all have their own manifesto
which do not want to implement what is there in our Modern Constitution
by way of distributing the wealth of the country to reach all societies.
They want to give alms to the voters by way of freebees instead to
giving free education and employment for them to earn with self respect,
dignity and honour.

Ms Mayawati’s BSP does not have any manifesto promising freebees but our Modern Constitution will be implemented at all cost.


http://indianexpress.com/…/cant-seek-votes-in-name-of-reli…/


Supreme Court earlier ruled that “religion, race, caste, community or
language would not be allowed to play any role in the electoral process”
and that election of a candidate would be declared null and void if an
appeal is made to seek votes on these considerations.

BJP has promised to bring a solution to the Ram Mandir issue in its manifesto for the Uttar Pradesh assembly polls.


If they are talking about constitutional solution to the Ram
Janmabhumi/ Babri issue if that is the case then where was this
constitutional solution when you broke the Masjid.

Like a snake
charmer who gathers people by saying that he will let the snake fight
the mangoose and collect money and after the show without letting it to
happen he will slowly move from that spot. During elections BJP does
the same jumla.


The third class will include religious and spiritual leaders, often engaged by candidates to mobilise their followers.
indianexpress.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
WAH JI WAH DHANYA KANSHIRAM - (Hindi Song)


Geet Sangeet Gayak- Anirudh Shewale(Anil) (09823368332)


https://www.youtube.com/watch…

Singer-Member of Lalit Kala Academic of India, and BSP’S National Singer Kishor Kumar “Pagla”


Singer-Member of Lalit Kala Academic of India, and BSP’S National Singer Kishor Kumar “Pagla”

comments (0)
01/28/17
2122 Sun 29 Jan 2017 LESSONS http://www.ndtv.com/…/live-bsp-chief-mayawati-addresses-a-p… Remember what Napolean has said: “I can face two battalions but not two scribes ” Today the PRESSTITUTE media that serves only the urban readers are selfish. People do not buy newspapers but they are loyal users of Internet Facebook, WhatsAPP, Twitter, Youtube SMS and are the scribes mentioned by Napolean and are the owners of Journalism. But the media are chamchas, chelas, slaves , boot-lickers and own mothers flesh eaters of Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi). If any one goes against him IT raids will be conducted on him. Uttar Pradesh polls: BJP manifesto draws flak from political rivals-http://www.thehinducentre.com/…/commenta…/article5951429.ece http://muslimmirror.com/eng/ambedkar-and-nationalsim http://www.tribuneindia.com/…/mayawati-s-muslim…/356157.html BSP supremo Mayawati’s major minority push by fielding a little more than a hundred Muslim candidates will give her the desired results in line with what she got in the 2007 elections by engineering the SC/ST-Brahmin combination. She is following what Dr BR Ambedkar wished to give more seats to minorities and less to the majority people for real justice.http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/ BJP (Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths) remotely controlled by just 1% intolerant, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded chitpawan brahmin psychopaths of RSS (Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks ) for their stealth, shadowy, discriminatory hindutva cult rashtra are themselves the top terrorists of the world. America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 9:25 pm


2122 Sun 29 Jan 2017


LESSONS

Uttar Pradesh polls: BJP manifesto draws flak from political rivals


BSP supremo Mayawati’s major minority push by fielding a little more
than a hundred Muslim candidates will give her the desired results

America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World



http://www.ndtv.com/…/live-bsp-chief-mayawati-addresses-a-p…

Remember what Napolean has said: “I can face two battalions but not two scribes “
Today the PRESSTITUTE media that serves only the urban readers are
selfish. People do not buy newspapers but they are loyal users of
Internet Facebook, WhatsAPP, Twitter, Youtube SMS and are the scribes
mentioned by Napolean and are the owners of Journalism. But the media
are chamchas, chelas, slaves , boot-lickers and own mothers flesh eaters
of Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi). If any one goes against
him IT raids will be conducted on him.

Uttar Pradesh polls: BJP manifesto draws flak from political rivals


Trashing the manifesto as another attempt to hoodwink the people of
Uttar Pradesh, BSP chief Mayawati said the party which failed to fulfil
its earlier promises has no moral right to bring a document of pledge.


After gobbling the Master by tampering the EVMs Murderer of demoratic
institutions (Modi) has shown total insensitivity and behaved
irresponsibly in almost three years.

“After failing to fulfil the
‘achche din’ promise made during the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, BJP has
no moral right to bring out this manifesto…it is another attempt to
hoodwink people of the state,” she told mediapersons after release of
the document by BJP chief Amit Shah. he has brought Bhuri din with his
Demonitisation where hundreds of people died in his QUEUE INDIA
MOVEMENT, while his remote controller RSS claimed that people who died
in the queue were patriots and sacrificed their lives (Balidhan) for
their stealth, shdowy, discriminatory hindutva cult rashtra.

“BJP
and Modi had made a slew of promises and allurements to the people of
the country and Uttar Pradesh as well like bringing achche din, but now
they are not even on the agenda of the Centre Mayawati claimed. The
promises made in the manifesto on Saturday are hollow, she added.


Manifesto is a bundle of lies and it was out to rake up the Ram temple
issue once again to hide its shortcomings.EC must take action against
BJP which is violating the model code of conduct in the name of
religion.

The manifesto has no mention of how many labourers and
workers lost jobs and suffered due to theDEMONitasation, the BJP chief
is promising setting up of task force to deal with mining mafia but
maximum illegal mining takes place in BJP-ruled states like
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.

These states does not
have task force for the purpose in these states launched any campaign
against the mining mafia.The BJP manifesto is a “document of lies” based
on false promises aimed at misleading the people

.All the Bahuth
Jiyadha psychopaths (BJP) ruled state are non-developing states.In BJP
Modi bluffed that he is a OBC though he is from Gandhi’s caste and a
tea seller for the sake of power and money while many of the tea sellers
are really poor.

People are clever now and will not fall for
gimmicks of uneducated RSS (Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks).Sarvajan i.e., all
societies including SC?STs/ OBCs/ Muslims and Upper castes are happy
together…They trust each other and respect each other under Ms
Mayawat’s BSP.

In a huge outreach to the Muslim community, which
forms 18 per cent of the state, the BSP has given tickets to 97 Muslim
candidates.

The Ansari family is having considerable influence
in about 20 assembly constituencies in Ghazipur, Mau, Azamgarh, Ballia
and Varanasi.

Modi in 2014 had promised a lot in the Lok Sabha
elections in UP. He had said that he wanted to provide electricity to
all the people of Uttar Pradesh, he said we will do a lot in 20 days and
30 days.

In 2014, he had promised that he will bring all the
black money from the foreign countries and deposit Rs 15 Lakhs in every
citizens bank account.

The BJP, Congress, SP and their allies
which are vultures of a feather that flock together and feed on the
bodies of the Sarvajan Samaj Voters have plundered the country since
Independence.

BJP has its own manifesto, instead of implementing the Modern Constitution.


Only the 1st rate athmas (souls) must get educated and hold all the top
posts in Central, State and PSUs as they are the only meritorious
people on the earth who can perform.

2nd rate souls have to rule this country.

3rd rate souls must do business and trade.

4th rate souls must serve all the above


The Aboriginal Inhabitants (SC/STs) have no souls so that they could do
anything they wished to do and the women are not equal to men.


Also poke their dirty nose in other dish promising to press for taking
forward its view on the triple talaq in the Supreme Court.

“The
party is firm on the RSSised Ram temple issue…efforts will be made to
ensure that Ram temple is constructed under the constitutional
provisions and also RSS says irrespective of constitutional provision
they will go ahead and build the RSSised temple.

Madhav


Now Bhagwan Bharose. Lord Ram, please forgive them and bless them with
good sense, else they will declare you also as antinational.

Citizen


EC open your eyes ask the parties/leaders to publish the Revenue and
Expenses for their manifesto promises along with candidates assets for
the last 5/10/15 years on the bill boards so that voters can take a
better decisions to vote or reject their proposals Jaihind.

Anoop Gupta

Worst news paper ever

Indian express and The hindu ..
Nation is watching ur activities..
Jo bo rhe ho khud bhi whi paoge… dont think people fool… u ignorant
fools… there was so much to discuss on the menifesto…. thats y no
one reads u…
Go get some air… Keep dreaming u guys will not get
any gift from Modiji to write acticles in favour of him… bt u fools
must know truth prevails…
Thats y BJP is winning in every corner of the country..


Koi padhta bhi h kya itna ghathiya article… sudhar jao aur sach
likho… presstitutes…. tum logo ko kewal ram mandir dikha menifesto
me …. common …. u loosers…. bjp will win for sure… u loosers
will do vidhwavilap i know…. aur haa ram mandir mudda is not back it
was also in previous menifesto… u ignorant fools… go get ur lessons
ready… or leave ur rotten journalism right now …. u fools .. haha
common

Karthik Reddy

Is this porkiExpress ?

can be PM and an IITian can be CM.bjp is not the party of king where son will rule after father or mother.


Bahujan
Samaj Party chief Mayawati is addressing a press conference ahead of
the five-phase Uttar Pradesh assembly elections, scheduled for February
11.
ndtv.com





http://www.thehinducentre.com/…/commenta…/article5951429.ece

http://muslimmirror.com/eng/ambedkar-and-nationalsim

http://www.tribuneindia.com/…/mayawati-s-muslim…/356157.html


BSP supremo Mayawati’s major minority push by fielding a little more
than a hundred Muslim candidates will give her the desired results in
line with what she got in the 2007 elections by engineering the
SC/ST-Brahmin combination. She is following what Dr BR Ambedkar wished
to give more seats to minorities and less to the majority people for
real justice.

The trend is visible more in the highly polarised
western Uttar Pradesh, where Mayawati has fielded Muslims on 50 of the
140 seats going to polls in the first two phase.

The Sarvajan
Samaj i.e., all societies are happy with the policy of Sarvajan Hitay
Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for the welfare, happiness and peace for all
societies.

Country’s top terrorists RSS and BJP have to be banned
to achieve the desired objective of DR Ambedkar and Ms Mayawati to save
this country.

Ambedkar and Nationalsim

April 15, 2016 in Featured, Indian Muslim, Viewpoints | 0 Comment
Ambedkar and Nationalsim By Irfan Engineer


Even those political parties that have systematically tried to
undermine Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar’s agenda – of equality, social justice,
fraternity and liberty – are, for political gains, celebrating his
125th birth anniversary. They are invoking Babasaheb only to appropriate
him and enlist him as a supporter of their political objectives which
he was in fact opposed to! Scholarship of the Hindu nationalists was
never the best, but that it would be so abysmal is surprising to many.
Or, is it that they are deliberately trying to use Babasaheb to say
exactly what the Hindu nationalists want knowing well that Babasaheb was
in fact opposed to the agenda of the Hindu nationalists?

To call
Babasaheb himself as a “nationalist” or a “patriot” would be less than
the truth. Babasaheb was a liberal democrat who stood for the principles
of liberty, equality and fraternity along with social justice. In his
book “Pakistan or the Partition of India” (Dr. Ambedkar, 1990),
Babasaheb examines the issue of Partition dispassionately and
rationally, and not from the nationalist perspective. In the said book,
Babasaheb interrogates the Muslim case for Pakistan and the Hindu case
against Pakistan. In the 1946 edition of the book, Babasaheb added Part V
giving his views on the subject in Chapter XIII and XIV. He examines
the case of Canada, South Africa, N. Ireland and Switzerland, analyzes
the religio-racial-ethnic-linguistic conflicts in these countries and
the ways in which they were managing these conflicts with appropriate
systems and governance structures. He then arrives at the conclusion
that the interests of the minorities would be better served if they do
not demand a separate state but safeguards within governance structure
of the country. Note that Babasaheb is concerned with the “interest of
the minorities” and not interest of the “nation”.

In his Address
delivered at the Session of the All India Scheduled Castes Federation
held in Bombay (as it was then called) on May 6, 1945 (Dr. Ambedkar,
1989) Babasaheb supports the principle of self-determination of and
wrote, “I am not against Pakistan, I believe it is founded on principle
of self-determination, which it is now too late to question. I am
prepared to give them the benefit of the principle…”. However, Babasaheb
was for united India as he felt that his proposals would be accepted by
the Muslims in preference to Pakistan as they would provide them with
better security. A nationalist’s position would be rejecting any
proposal for partition of the country and the principle of
self-determination would amount to a sacrilege and an “anti-national”
act! Mere utterance of the word “self-determination” invites lynching
from the Hindu nationalist mobs!

Babasaheb’s proposals were in
brief, weightage in representation of minorities in legislatures as well
as in the executive. He writes, “Majority rule is untenable in theory
and unjustifiable in practice. A majority community may be conceded a
relative majority of representation but it can never claim an absolute
majority”. Babasaheb did not want representation of the majority
community in the legislature to be so large as the enable the majority
to establish its rule with the help of the small minorities. For,
according to Babasaheb, the legislative majority in India was communal
majority, unlike in U.K. where, by and large the people followed a
common religion and spoke a common language. Forget the principle of
weightage, any affirmative action to ensure that minorities do not fall
behind and are not discriminated would invite opprobrium and charge of
“minority appeasement” from the Hindu nationalists. If there is no
weightage in representation and separate electorates for minorities in
the Constitution of India, it is not because Babasaheb was in principle
against it, but because Sardar Patel, chair of the Advisory Committee on
Minorities and Fundamental Rights of the Constituent Assembly,
successfully persuaded the minorities to give up the demand of separate
electorates (and rightly so). Minorities that were left behind after the
partition felt that they should invoke the good will of the majority
community (Constituent Assemble Debates, Vol. V (14-8-1947 to
30-8-1947), 2003, Pp 198-200).

Babasaheb’s views on Nationalism and Hindu Raj:


Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) chief Mohan Bhagwat has claimed that
Babasaheb believed in the ideology of the Sangh and had called its
workers symbols of social unity and integrity. He also said Ambedkar
wanted to adopt the saffron flag of the RSS as the national flag of
India. This is far from truth. Babasaheb was strongly opposed to Hindu
religion and located untouchability and caste based hierarchies in Hindu
religion. That is why he administered vow to 3 lakh followers who
converted with him from Hinduism to Buddhism in which they repeated
along with Babasaheb that they would not have any faith in Brahma,
Vishnu, Maheshwara, Rama, Krishna and that they renounced Hinduism.


Babasaheb denounces not only Muslim nationalism of Jinnah, he writes
that the whole world was decrying against the evils of nationalism and
seeking refuge in international organization (Dr. Ambedkar, 1990, pp.
352-53). According to Babasaheb, Indians were only a people, not a
nation and further opines that there was nothing to be ashamed of if
they were not and would not become a nation (Dr. Ambedkar, 1990, p.
353). The RSS on the other hand believes that Hindu nation is ancient
and its origin went as far back as 2000 years and even more. How could
Hindu Raj or Hindu Rashtra be a nation? Hindu society according to
Babasaheb was undemocratic and that millions of shudras and non-Brahmins
and millions of untouchables were suffering worst consequences of the
undemocratic character of Hindu society (Dr. Ambedkar, 1990, p. 356).


Whereas RSS wants to establish a Hindu Rashtra, Babasaheb thought it
would be a greatest calamity for this country as it was a menace to
liberty, equality and fraternity and it should be prevented at any cost
(Dr. Ambedkar, 1990, p. 358). The lower orders in the Hindu society
shared the plight of the majority of Muslims as far as social, economic
and political needs were concerned and Babasaheb felt that they should
all come together in a common cause to defend the human rights which the
high caste had denied them for centuries (Dr. Ambedkar, 1990, p. 359).

Lip service to Babasaheb:


Pushing the undemocratic agenda of Hindu Rashtra aggressively, the
ruling dispensation is still trying to appropriate Babasaheb and their
strategy in doing so is to build grand monuments and claim that they had
built more monuments than the Congress. Grand monuments of Babasaheb
appease a section of dalit politicians representing the aspirational neo
dalit elite on one hand and mesmerize the oppressed, deprived and
discriminated dalit masses but cannot address their real issues.
Monuments of brick and mortar cannot speak the mind of Babasaheb and
cannot conscientize the dalits to carry on the struggle for equality,
social justice and dignity. The statues, busts and brick and mortar
monuments blunt the conscience of dalits and rob their icons.


They build grand monuments and undermine the principle of liberty,
equality, fraternity and social justice which is ingrained in the
Constitution of India which Babasaheb so painstakingly drafted and then
steered through the Constituent Assembly. Those who are building Grand
monuments of Babasaheb are also lynching those whose views they do not
approve of even in court premises under the watch of police and no
action is taken against anyone. Against the principles of liberty, they
are forcing certain slogans down the throat of unwilling. They are
creating new hierarchies in the name of nationalism and forcing the
country to accept the privileges of neo-nationalists who during freedom
were with the colonial power, and excluding others from equal
citizenship creating neo-untouchables. The neo-untouchables are
erstwhile un-co-opted sections of dalits, adivasis, sections of the
OBCs, minorities, women, farmers and workers of the country.
Extra-judicial and extra-legal networks of violence are deployed to
undermine the rule of law and spout hate speeches coupled with liberal
dose of violence against the neo-untouchables.

The Congress too
paid only lip service to Babasaheb during their rule. Dalits were as
oppressed, discriminated and faced violence in their daily lives, be it
Tsundur carnage in AP, Belchi in Bihar, Bhagalpur blindings, denial of
access to dalits to drinking water wells and access to government
infrastructures. Congress too co-opted a section of dalit leaders with
crumbs of welfare schemes even while discriminating against dalits.


We all the democratic minded citizens of India will have to come
together in the struggle to democratize our culture carry on Babasaheb’s
mission of defending democracy and march towards equality and social
justice.

Our Unrepresentative ‘Representative Democracy’


Making a case for Proportional Representation mechanism as opposed to
the incumbent First-Past-the-Post electoral system followed in India,
Indrajit Roy argues that institution of PR mechanisms for
candidate-selection is likely to reduce several of the injustices
associated with the majoritarianism promoted by the FPTP mechanism.
Furthermore, if bolstered by a scheme of substantive representation for
members of underprivileged communities, such as Dalits, Adivasis,
Extremely Backward Classes and the Ajlaf and Arzal Muslims, PR
mechanisms would inaugurate a new era of ‘transformational politics’ for
millions of Indians. One way to do this, as envisaged by Dr Bhim Rao
Ambedkar, could be to introduce the provision of exclusive electorates
for specific ‘caste clusters’ within the PR system. This would entail
the creation of multi-member constituencies with differentiated
electoral rolls based on the ‘caste cluster’ with which voters identify.


As we justifiably celebrate the ‘world’s largest democracy’ going to
the polls, we should perhaps spare a thought for its representativeness.
Governments in India have only occasionally commanded the confidence of
the majority of the electorate. For instance, despite 60 per cent of
the Indian population not wanting it, the United Progressive Alliance
formed the government in 2009. In the past, its chief adversary the
National Democratic Alliance also formed the government under similar
circumstances. As of today, less than 20 per cent (95 of 543 MPs) of the
members of Country’s national Parliament, the apex institution of our
democracy, can claim to possess the confidence of the majority of voters
in their respective constituencies. Nearly three-quarters of all MPs
(402 of 543) were elected by 30-50 per cent of the voters in their
constituencies. Can we really call ourselves a representative democracy
when the overwhelming majority of our legislators are not elected by a
majority of the voters in their constituencies?

These unjust
outcomes make a mockery of democratic ideals of popular sovereignty.
They are the result of the First Past the Post (FPTP) mechanism of
candidate selection that we follow in our country today. The principle
of ‘winner takes all’ entailed in this mechanism means that all
candidates have to do to win elections is to skillfully manage their
constituencies and ensure that their rivals do not secure as many votes
as they do. This often involves buying out rival candidates and/or
ensuring that dummy candidates are nurtured in order to ‘eat into’ the
votes of serious contenders. Most political parties engage in such
tactics although it is probable that the more established and wealthy
the party is, the better it can manipulate voters and manage
constituencies.

We need to initiate a conversation about
candidate selection mechanisms that are more representative of the
diversity of political opinion in this country. In particular, we
urgently need to discuss mechanisms through which members of exploited
and oppressed classes and communities are able to wield substantive
political influence. Political mechanisms that enable members of these
classes and communities to translate their imagination of social justice
into reality are the need of the hour, and Indians should not shy away
from discussing these frankly.

Proportional Representation: Long overdue?


In an important 2006 paper titled ‘Electoral Institutions and the
Politics of Coalitions: Why Some Democracies Redistribute More than
Others’ and published in the American Political Science Review,
political scientists Torben Iversen and David Soskice attribute the
redistributive policy orientation of the European continental
democracies to their early institutionalisation of proportional
representation mechanisms. These mechanisms — and there are several —
conduced to political coalitions between the middle and working classes,
enabling redistribution from the rich to the poor. The PR mechanism
enabled different social groups to coalesce around their own political
organisations, without the possibilities of these organisations being
split and rendered ineffective. No matter how small or weak, they found
representation in the political institutions. By contrast, the FPTP
mechanisms of candidate selection in the Anglo-American democracies
conduced to political coalitions between the upper and middle classes,
stymying the prospects of any redistribution from the rich to the poor.
These findings have considerable implications for us in India. They help
us understand why no significant redistributions in favor of the poor
have occurred, excepting half-hearted implementation of social
protection interventions and affirmative action schemes.

Exclusion vs Coalition


Under the present FPTP mechanism, the legislative majorities commanded
by victorious political parties result from skilful management of seats
rather than from their genuine representativeness of the respective
constituencies. This enables elected representatives to omit the demands
of those who are known (or thought) to have voted for their rivals
without being held accountable for these omissions. This results in the
arbitrary implementation of social protection schemes and affirmative
action policies. A great deal of influence resides in the person of the
sole candidate declared elected. Such a candidate is likely to not enjoy
the confidence of the majority of the voters in a given constituency.
Beneficiaries of schemes and policies are selected by politicians with a
view to furthering patron-client relationships, which prevents either
political parties or politicians from addressing the underlying causes
of poverty.

On the other hand, PR mechanisms entail multi-member
constituencies. There is no one winner. Rather, political parties (and
affiliated politicians) share the polity in accordance with the votes
polled. What matters is political parties’ responsibility to their
constituents, rather than their ability to manipulate electors.
Political parties cannot remain content with mobilising a plurality in
their favor, but must strive to increase their vote share. To do this,
they cannot limit their actions to making patently unsustainable
promises to their constituents, but actually keep as many of those
promises as they possibly can. They are more likely to try and build
political coalitions that encompass as wide sections of their respective
constituencies as possible. Given the sheer numbers of the poor in
India, any widely-encompassing coalition inevitably includes them within
their ambit. Such coalitions are then more likely to ensure that
tax-funded redistributive programs are affected so as to benefit the
entire population, including those who may be unable to pay taxes for a
variety of reasons.

FPTP mechanisms are inherently
politician-centric, while PR mechanisms tend to be more party-centric.
For this reason, politicians contesting under FPTP mechanisms emphasise
their individual ability to ‘get things done’ for this or that group.
They find it more efficient to ‘target’ goods to supporters and
potential supporters, since all they really need to do is to secure a
simple majority. Instead of strengthening citizens’ access to public
goods, they are content with making discretionary allocations from their
budgets that are directed towards ‘key’ constituencies as gifts and
munificence. Our notorious Member of Parliament Local Area Development
Scheme (MPLADS) and Member of Legislative Assembly Constituency
Development Fuund (MLACDF) are a case in point. The incentives under PR
systems are different: political parties try to maximise the coverage of
public goods so as to enhance their support among the population. The
larger the support they can muster, the greater their control over the
constituency. While this makes the allocation of discretionary largesse
difficult (given the large number of competing constituents), it does
incentivise politicians and their parties to ensure that public goods
are available to citizens without additional costs.

Majoritarianism vs. Social Justice


The FPTP mechanism belongs to the family of candidate-selection
mechanisms that are correctly called ‘majoritarian’. This mechanism
enables politicians to completely ignore the opinions and interests of
scattered political minorities. PR mechanisms, on the other hand, are
more representative of these political minorities and allow them a voice
in the legislative institutions. In a society such as ours, where class
divisions are based on variables such as caste, ethnicity and religion,
PR mechanisms are more likely to produce a more representative polity
than the FPTP mechanism. However, PR mechanisms by themselves cannot be
expected to mitigate against the centuries of injustice that members of
the marginalised communities have undergone. They would need to be
bolstered by safeguards for social minorities, particularly SC/STs,
Adivasis, so-called ‘lower’ Shudras (categorised as Extremely Backward
Class in several States) and marginalised communities from among the
Muslims.

These safeguards would have to be more substantive than
the existing policy of ‘reservation’ of seats for members of SC/ST and
Adivasi communities. While the ‘reservation’ of seats enables members of
these communities to be elected to legislative institutions, it does
not necessarily safeguard the interests of SC/STs and Adivasis as such.
The reason for this lies again in the electoral rules governing the
‘reservation’. SC/ST and Adivasi representatives of ‘reserved’
constituencies are elected by all the registered voters of those
constituencies rather than by SC/STs and Adivasis alone. This rule of
electing candidates for ‘reserved’ constituencies was agreed upon under
the terms of the Poona Pact between Ambedkar and Gandhi in 1932. Against
Ambedkar’s well-reasoned proposal of separate constituencies for
SC/STs, wherein SC/STs would vote exclusively for SC/STs in elections,
Gandhi refused to countenance any move that would entail a political
separation between SC/STs and Hindus. With a deadlock confronting him,
Ambedkar had no choice but to accept the unjust rules pertaining to
electing candidates for ‘reserved’ constituencies.

Even where
SC/STs are numerically preponderant, they have been unable to derive
substantial benefits from this system on account of the extraordinary
social disabilities they continue to face. SC/ST and Adivasi candidates
amenable to the privileged classes among privileged communities are
induced to contest elections against those Dalits who are better likely
to be representative of the poorer classes from both privileged caste
and SC/ST backgrounds. Such sponsored candidates are able to ‘win’
easily given the minimal requirements of the FPTP mechanism described
above. Not for nothing did Kanshi Ram, the founder of the Bahujan Samaj
Party, deride this rule as one that bred stooges (chamchas) of the
privileged communities rather than ensuring substantive representation
for SC/STs.

The institution of PR mechanisms for
candidate-selection is likely to reduce several of the injustices
associated with the majoritarianism promoted by the FPTP mechanism.
Furthermore, if bolstered by a scheme of substantive representation for
members of underprivileged communities, such as SC/STs, Adivasis,
Extremely Backward Classes and the Ajlaf and Arzal Muslims, PR
mechanisms would inaugurate a new era of ‘transformational politics’ for
millions of Indians. One way to do this, as envisaged by Dr Bhim Rao
Ambedkar, could be to introduce the provision of exclusive electorates
for specific ‘caste clusters’ within the PR system. This would entail
the creation of multi-member constituencies with differentiated
electoral rolls based on the ‘caste cluster’ with which voters identify.
Provisions for mandatory representation of members of marginalised
communities would ensure that they are not penalised for their numerical
weakness. The PR mechanism would provide the overarching framework
within which the representative character of the electoral procedure
would be nurtured and strengthened. This dual innovation — PR mechanism
coupled with a scheme of differentiated electorates for members of
underprivileged communities— will take us one step closer to bringing
about the fair and just polity that the founders of our republic
envisaged.

The unrepresentative character of India’s
parliamentary democracy is and will continue to be a major institutional
impediment to any ‘transformational politics’. The diversity of
political opinion in India, especially those of the underprivileged,
exploited and oppressed classes and communities, will remain ignored and
suppressed. If our claim of being the world’s largest democracy has to
have substance, we need to interrogate the complacence with which most
politicians, activists and academics have accepted and internalised this
unrepresentative character. It has resulted in the near-complete
dominance of the polity by two political parties which between them do
not command even the majority of votes of the electorate. The
fratricidal jousts between these two parties pass for ideological
debates. What remains ignored is the growing levels of inequality and
the continued denial of social justice to millions of our people.


These elections are an opportunity for India’s political parties to
make a difference by reaffirming their commitment to the principle of
justice enshrined in the preamble of our Constitution. It is an
opportunity for them to move beyond sterile posturing over secularism
and development and strive to link these substantively with the demands
of social justice. The New India is an India of social equality, social
dignity and social justice. Any talk of ‘transformational politics’
without respecting these imaginations, aspirations and assertions is
akin to the noise emanating from empty vessels.

(Indrajit is at
the University of Oxford where he is completing a manuscript on ‘Restive
Subjects: The Politics of the Poor’. His core intellectual interests
lie in investigating the political sociology of economic transition with
a special focus on the ‘emerging markets’ India, Brazil and South
Africa.)


Making
a case for Proportional Representation mechanism as opposed to the
incumbent First-Past-the-Post electoral system followed in India,
<b>Indrajit Roy</b> argues that institution of PR mechanisms
for candidate-selection is likely to reduce…
thehinducentre.com|By Indrajit Roy

http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/


BJP (Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths) remotely controlled by just 1%
intolerant, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
chitpawan brahmin psychopaths of RSS (Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks ) for their
stealth, shadowy, discriminatory hindutva cult rashtra are themselves
the top terrorists of the world.

America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World


A US-based risk management and consulting company has put the Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in its category of ‘Threat Group’ and called it
“a shadowy, discriminatory group that seeks to establish a hndutva cult
rashtra.”

Terrorism Watch & Warning provides intelligence,
research, analysis, watch and warning on international terrorism and
domestic terrorism related issues; and is operated by OODA Group LLC
that helps clients identify, manage, and respond to global risks and
uncertainties while exploring emerging opportunities and developing
robust and adaptive strategies for the future.

The RSS was
banned in 1948 following the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi by an
chitpawan brahmin as the owners of RSS member, Nathuram Godse.


Violence as ‘Group Activities’ for the RSS, “Violence has been a
strategy for the Sangh movement against minority groups. Stealth shadowy
discriminatory hindutva cult has been clear about the need for
violence, particularly communal riots. The Sangh has incited rioting to
cause further chasms between religions, and thus a further separation of
religions, and to rally the Hindu community around the philosophy of
hindutva cult.”

The Terrorism Watch & Warning database
contains over 1,00,000 Open source intelligence (OSINT) excerpts from
1999 to present on terrorism and security related issues, attack
database of over 10,000 attacks, original terrorism analysis, terrorism
document repository, Homeland Security Fact Sheets and profiles over 500
Terrorist/Threat Groups.

http://www.abplive.in/…/uttar-pradesh-elections-bjps-legal-…

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/…/articlesh…/49943534.cms


KOLKATA: Claiming that the activists of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
(RSS) have been indicted in at least 13 terror cases across India,
former Maharashtra inspector general of police S M Mushrif on Thursday
described the BJP’s ideological mentor as India’s number one terrorist
organisation.

“RSS activists have been chargesheeted in at least
13 cases of terror acts in which RDX has been used. If organisations
like Bajrang Dal are taken into the account, then the number of such
cases goes up to 17,” Mushrif said at an event in Kolkata.

“The
RSS is India’s number one terrorist organisation, there is no doubt on
this,” said Mushrif, referring to the 2007 Mecca Masjid bombing in
Hyderabad, the 2006 and 2008 Malegaon blasts in Maharashtra and the 2007
Samjhauta Express bombings among others.

During elections they
attempt to provoke violence by raking up issues such as Triple Talaq,
Removal of reservation, RSSIse Ram Temple, RSSised anti-reservationist
Sardar patel statue and RSSised Shivaji statue costing Rs 3000 crores
each.But not for replacing the entire EVMs which costs Rs 1600 crores
according to ex CEC Sampath because of which the ex CJI had committed a
grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs should be replaced in
a phased manner. Only 8 out of 543 lok Sabha 2014 were replaced. This
helped Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) to gobble the Master
Key. Henve without any fear he is indulging in issues like the
DEMONItisation anti reservation etc.,
The present CEC says taht
only in 2019 the entire EVMs will be replaced. Till such time he never
ordered for Ballot Papers to be used which helped BSP of Ms Mayawati ti
win majority seats in UP Panchayat elections.

It is the duty of
all people for democracy, liberty, freedom, equality and fraternity as
enshrined in our Modern Constitution including the present CJI to
dissolve all Central and State governments selected by these fraud EVMs
and go for fresh elections with Ballot Papers till entire EVMs were
replaced.

And to initiate legal action on BJP and RSS for their terrorist activities.And also ban these outfits.


A
US-based risk management and consulting company has put the Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in its category of ‘Threat Group’ and called it
“a…
assam123.com

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2121Sat 28 Jan 2017 LESSONS http://www.thecitizen.in/index.php/NewsDetail/index/11/9745/RSS-In-Search-of-a-Pedigree-That-It-Does-Not-Have RSS: In Search of a Pedigree That It Does Not Have-http://www.outlookindia.com/magazine/story/bhimraos-sharp-arrow/291692 25 August 2014 National Ambedkar’s view Bhimrao’s Sharp Arrow-Sardar Patel and Dr Ambedkar
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 3:29 am


2121 Sat 28 Jan 2017


LESSONS


Sardar Patel and Dr Ambedkar

http://www.outlookindia.com/magazine/story/bhimraos-sharp-arrow/291692


25 August 2014
National

Ambedkar’s view


Bhimrao’s Sharp Arrow

http://www.thecitizen.in/index.php/NewsDetail/index/11/9745/RSS-In-Search-of-a-Pedigree-That-It-Does-Not-Have

RSS: In Search of a Pedigree That It Does Not Have




MOHAN GURUSWAMY

Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)’s  construction began on building a colossal statue of RSSised Sardar
Vallabhbhai Patel on an inland
island called Sadhu Bet facing the Narmada Dam.


Planned at a cost of about Rs.3000 crores and to stand 182 meters (597
feet) tall, this Chinese made bronze statue would be the tallest in the
world to beat the Buddha’s statue in China which is at present the
tallest. There is no doubt that this statue when completed would become a

major place of political worship like the Rajghat and Indira Gandhi
memorial in New Delhi.


But beyond tourist commerce there is another reason driving for this
project. It is to give the RSS a genealogy it doesn’t have.


Manufactured genealogy is a recurring feature of our history.
Pre-Islamic invaders from Central Asia like the Hepthalites (White Huns)
and Ahir Gatae from the region extending from Bactria to present day
Xinjiang conquered a good part of northern part and established
kingdoms.


The greatest of these invaders was Kanishka, whose realm stretched
from Turfan in the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang to Pataliputra on the Gangetic
Plain. Kanishka was of Turushka or Turkestani origin. These new rulers,
some of whom were Buddhists, were quickly absorbed into Hindu society
and were made Agnikula Rajputs (family of the Fire God), others got more
extravagant genealogies deriving from the sun and moon, hence
Suryavanshi and Chandravanshi Rajputs. In this manner the integrity of
the chitpawan brahminical varna system was preserved.


The chitpawan brahmin dominated RSS’s government in Maharashtra has embarked on
building another gigantic statue, this one of RSSised Chhatrapati Shivaji. This
is not without some irony as the varna of the Marathas is even now a
contested issue, some arguing for their being of the Kshatriya varna,
and others for their being of Kunbi peasant origins.


This issue was the subject of antagonism between the  chitpawan brahmins and
Marathas, dating back to the time of Shivaji. When it was time for
Shivaji’s coronation in 1674, the chitpawan brahmins of Poona baulked stating that
the Bhonsle’s were not Kshatriyas. The legend has it that a chitpawan brahmin
priest from Banaras, Gaga Bhatta, on receiving a generous payment
performed the ceremony.


The Chathrapati’s genealogy now showed that the Bhonsles were a branch
of the highly respected Sisodias of Mewar, the Kshatriyas of the purest
Rajput clan. Whatever might have been his caste antecedents, Shivaji
undoubtedly was one of Country’s greatest kings. His achievements didn’t
need a manufactured genealogy.


The ultra nationalist RSS is still in search of a genealogy that will
connect it to the nationalist movement that won the country its freedom.


The truth is that the contemporary writings and speeches of RSS leaders
have a very different story to tell. These leaders showed little
enthusiasm for the anti-British struggle. Though the founder of the RSS,
Dr. BR Hedgewar had an early association with the Congress and other
nationalist movements like Bhagat Singh and Chandrashekhar Azad’s
Hindustan Republican Association, he left it all behind to found the
RSS.


He also stopped his followers from the nationalist path. In fact a later
Sarsanghchalak, BR Deoras, wrote approvingly of how“Dr.Hedgewar saved
him and others from the path of Bhagat Singh and his comrades.” With the
death of Dr.Hedgewar in 1940, the RSS lost all interest in freedom. Its
new leader MS Golwalkar drew inspiration from Adolf Hitler’s ideology
of race purity. Paradoxically Golwalkar also admired Jews for
“maintaining their religion, culture and language.”


Golwalkar’s focus was on religion, racial purity and exclusion. Freedom
was to be left to lesser mortals like Gandhiji and his Congress. He
wanted the RSS to be involved only in “routine work.”


In the words of Golwalkar: “There is another reason for the need of
always remaining involved in routine work. There is some unrest in the
mind due to the situation developing in the country from time to time.
There was such unrest in 1942. Before that there was the movement in
1930-31. At that time many other people had gone to Doctorji (Hedgewar).
This ‘delegation’ requested Doctorji that this movement (Congress) will
give independence and Sangh should not lag behind. At that time, when a
gentleman told Doctorji that he was ready to go to jail, Doctorji said:
‘Definitely go. But who will take care of your family then?’ That
gentlemen told- ‘he has sufficiently arranged resources not only to run
the family expenses for two years but also to pay fines according to the
requirements.’ Then Doctorji said to him-’if you have fully arranged
for the resources then come out to work for the Sangh for two years.’
Golwalkar’s point was crystal clear. Dharam came before Dharma.


The BJP leadership is very keen to project the RSS as a component of the
freedom struggle. The BJP finds it embarrassing that the RSS - to which
the top leadership as well as the overwhelming majority of the cadre of
the BJP belong -was not a part of the freedom movement. The RSS lacks
the courage to categorically state that it did not participate in the
freedom struggle because its ideology prevented it from doing so.


There is the well-known concocted story of how the RSS tried to lionize
Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s role in the 1942 movement. This ended up in a
huge fiasco when it was discovered that Vajpayee actually made a
confessional statement disassociating himself from the event at his
hometown Bateshwar. In this confessional he wrote: “Ten or twelve
persons were in the Forest Office. I was at a distance of 100 yards. I
did not render any assistance in demolishing the government building.
Thereafter, we went to our respective homes.” Clearly this was leading
nowhere.


Hence the RSS is trying to attach themselves the legacy of RSSised Vallabhbhai
Patel, to get a leg into the nationalist movement. They forget that it
was Sardar Patel who had banned the RSS after learning that its workers
were distributing sweets to celebrate Gandhiji’s assassination.


In the run up to the 2014 elections Modi displayed his lack of
knowledge of history or willingness to distort it by saying that the
Congress Party wanted Patel to be the first PM. The fact is that
Jawaharlal Nehru became the President of the Congress in 1946, after
Maulana Azad was dissuaded from offering himself on the basis of the
system of rotation that the Congress informally followed. Patel was
never in the run. Given Nehru’s overwhelming popularity, even if Patel
contested Nehru would have defeated him.


Both, LK Advani and Narendra have tried to create a fissure between
Nehru and Patel. They seem to be confused between dissent and
dissidence. Dissent is a genuine difference of opinion, and there were
many between Nehru and Patel, as should be between two independent
minded individuals. Dissidence is a result of competing ambitions.


On this Patel was clear. He wrote: “It was, therefore, in the fitness of
things that in the twilight preceding the dawn of independence he
(Nehru) should have been our leading light, and that when country was
faced with crises after crises, following the achievement of our
freedom, he should have been the upholder of our faith and the leader of
our legions.” Patel tellingly added: “Contrary to the impression
created by some interested persons and eagerly accepted in credulous
circles, we have worked together as lifelong friends and colleagues,
adjusting ourselves each other’s advice as only those who have
confidence in each other can.”


Now the RSS is trying to make Sardar Patel its own. In this modern
version of the RSS’s history it tries to give itself an indirect lineage
deriving from RSSised Sardar Patel. The colossal statue is supposed to rewrite
its history. But it will only end up as a parvenu wanting in patriotism
when it mattered most


But Modi won’t know all this. History is not his forte, or else
he would not think that Alexander died on the west bank of the Ganges!




(Mohan Guruswamy, a scholar from Harvard, is a well known political commentator)

http://www.outlookindia.com/magazine/story/bhimraos-sharp-arrow/291692


25 August 2014
National

Ambedkar’s view


Bhimrao’s Sharp Arrow



Anticipating majoritarianism’s danger, Ambedkar advocated safeguards for SC/STs






Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar always feared that the Hindus,
specifically the caste Hindus, whom he often addressed with the cold
appellation—Touchables—would gang up communally, pose as a political
majority, and run away with what he called the ‘title deeds’ of
democ­racy. The usage of this heaped category that lumps close to 65 per
cent of the subcontinent’s population (52 per cent obcs plus the rest
of the privileged dwija/twice-born communities), problematic though it
is, indicates a shift from an earlier, more nuanced position Ambedkar
held in 1931. That was when he saw the various jatis belonging to the
four varnas—Shudra, Vaishya, Kshatriya, brahmin—as “a gradation of
castes forming an ascending scale of reverence and a des­cen­ding scale
of contempt”, a system he believed “gives no scope for the growth of
that sentiment of equality and fraternity so essential for a democratic
form of government”.


A lot had
changed from 1931 to 1945, but Ambedkar was still smarting
from the defeat inflicted on him by the blackmail fast his principal
adversary, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, undertook in Poona in 1932. Till
the success at the Round Table Conference in 1931, Ambedkar was coasting
along. With the Mahad Satyagraha (1927) and stellar performances in the
Bombay Legislative Council behind him, he had come to be seen as the
distinctive voice of the Untouchables. He consistently argued that the
Untouchables should not be clubbed with Touchable Hindus. This
position—echoed previously by Panditar Iyothee Thass (1845-1914), the
radical Tamil Buddhist thinker—was first articu­lated by Ambedkar during
his submission to the South borough Franchise Commis­sion in 1919,
where
he submitted that the Untouchables formed “a separate element in
Country’s social life”, and hence were a social minority.  “That was
Ambedkar’s first political statement.”


After eight years, when Ambedkar led 3,000 SC/STs to drink water from
a tank in Mahad maintained with public funds, and thus establish “the
norm of equality”, the obduracy of the caste Hindus and Gandhi’s
conspicuous silence on the thirst of the Untouchables for equality made
him arrive at a conclusion historians of the Left, Right, Congress and
Subaltern Studies have refused to acknowledge: “The satyagraha movement
started by Gandhi was backed by the people as it was against foreign
domination. Our struggle is against the mass of caste Hindus and
naturally we have little support from outside.” All his life, Ambedkar
identified the Hindus (which translated into the brahmin-baniya
Congress) as the principal adversaries of SC/STs in the social and
political field.





Despite all efforts to keep him out of the Constituent Assembly, Jogendranath Mandal got him elected.

Yet, Ambedkar convinced the British to accept the fact
that Untouchables deserved separate electorates and the double vote.
This was granted by the Communal Award of August 16, 1932. What did this
entail? The Scheduled Castes were to have their own electorates and
exclusi­vely choose their representati­ves. Additi­onally, they would
have a second vote—to choose who among the Tou­chables would be the
least inimical to them. Untouchables, regarded habitually by Touchables
as lesser humans unfit for association, needed such protection if they
were to be treated as equal. Democ­racy, premised on ‘one person one
vote’, needed to be modified to suit the subcontinental context composed
of multiple minorities. Ambedkar was making an immense moral demand of
the Hindus: for the crime of practising untouchability over centuries,
Hindus will not be allo­wed to vote for Untou­chables for 10 years. But
the Scheduled Castes will have a say in choosing who among the Hindus
could possibly be their friend. This was a modest price he was seeking
of Touchables who owed an unrepayable debt for generations of slavery
and dehumanisation of 15 per cent of the population whose very shadow
they were afraid of.


After Gandhi stymied this scheme, Ambedkar faced one electoral
humili­ation after another. He found it impossible to get
self-respecting, independent SC/STs into legislatures. Several times,
his own defeat was inevitable. In fact, his election to the Constituent
Assembly required a miracle.


Padma-award-friendly court historians and Films Division-style propaganda by the likes of Shyam Benegal (his Sam­vidhan
series for Doordarshan) would have us believe that it was at Gandhi’s
benevolent and large-hearted suggestion that Ambedkar was made chairman
of the drafting committee of the Constitution. The truth is every effort
was made to ensure that Ambedkar did not even enter the Constituent
Assembly. In the 1946 elections to the provincial assemblies, Ambedkar’s
Scheduled Caste Federation suffered crushing defeats. The
first-past-the-post (FPTP) system led to only pliable SC/STs—‘Harijans’—being elected from reserved constituencies. In the
July 1946 elections to the Constituent Assembly, then Bombay prime
minister B.G. Kherat engineered Ambed­kar’s defeat at Vallabhbhai
Patel’s behest. Jogendra­nath Mandal, SCF leader from Bengal, stepped in
to get Ambedkar elected to the Constituent Assembly from Bengal where
Mandal had forged an alliance with the Muslim League.





Lasting legacy Dalits in Mumbai on his 51st death anniversary



It was at this juncture that, unsure of his place and role in the
Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar prepared a memorandum in March 1947: States and Minorities: What are Their Rights and How to Secure them in the Constitution of Free India.
This ‘Constitution of the United States of India’ offe­red a unique
solution so that a communal majority did not wear the garb of political
majority. The minorities—Muslims, SC/STs or Sikhs—if they were not to be
“crushed and overwhel­med by the communal majority”—ought to have
greater representation in a legislative body than their actual share in
the population.



Had Ambedkar’s formula been accepted, we wouldn’t have had the aberration of a party with 31% voteshare winning.

States and Minorities echoed Ambedkar’s
presidential address to the SCF in 1945, where he said: “In our country, the
majority is not a political majority. In this country, the majority is born; it
is not made. That is the difference between a communal majority and a
political majority.” He offered a prescient formula to thwart the
communal majority from claiming a political majority. In the Central
Assembly, the Hindus, who form 54.68 per cent of the population, should
get 40 per cent representation; Muslims with 28.5 per cent should get 32
per cent; Scheduled Castes with their 14.3 per cent should get 20 per
cent; 1.16 per cent  Christians 3 per cent; 1.49 per cent Sikhs 4
per cent; and 0.05 per cent Anglo-Indians 1 per cent. In Bombay, the
Hindus, who are 76.42 per cent of the population, should get 40 per cent
representation in the legislature; Muslims, 9.98 per cent of the
population, 28 per cent; 9.64 per cent Scheduled Castes, 28 per cent,
and so on. The minorities must get representation positively
disproportionate to their ratio in population while for the majority
community it is capped at 40 per cent. That is, less should have more,
and more should have less. Where Hindus were outnumbered, like in
pre-partition Punjab, Muslims comprising 57.06 per cent would get 40 per
cent representation; Hindus at 22.17 per cent, 28 per cent, and so
forth. This formula could well have even prevented Partition.

This is because Ambedkar believed “majority rule is untenable in
theory and unjustifiable in practice. A majority community may be
conceded a relative majority of representation but it can never claim an
absolute majority”. In Thoughts on Linguistic States (1955),
he says, “It would be enough to have plural member constituencies (of
two or three) with cumulative voting in place of the system of
single-member constituency embodied in the present Constitution.”


Had the FPTP system been modified according to Ambed­kar’s formula,
we would not have had the gross statistical aberration in the 2014
general election: with just 31 per cent of the total voteshare (not the
share of the total population), the BJP won 282 Lok Sabha seats. No
party ever has won so many seats with so less a voteshare. The Hindus
have ganged up communally. In the 2007 Gujarat election, Muslims at 9
per cent of the population could elect only five MLAs (2.7 per cent) to
the 182-member assembly. In 2012, only two got elected. For 25 years
now, Gandhi’s Gujarat has not elected a single Muslim to the Lok Sabha.
The ‘Gujarat model’ Ambe­dkar feared is now being experimented with in
Uttar Pradesh. Caste has found a perfect fit with parliamentary
democracy.


Had Ambedkar had his way, someone like Narendra Modi would have found
it difficult to get elected even to a pancha­yat. And we would not have
had Amit Shah’s mug staring at us from every hoarding in the capital.




(Anand is publisher, Navayana.)

https://www.thequint.com/opinion/2015/10/31/sardar-patel-and-dr-ambedkar-allies-or-foes


Sardar Patel and Dr Ambedkar


Dr
BR Ambedkar and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the BJP and the
government’s latest totems. A few days ago, Murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi)  commissioned Patel’s statue at Kevadia in Gujarat,
which is billed
as being the tallest in the world.But not for Ambedkar.

Meanwhile, Hardik Patel, who has rapidly become somewhat of a rather
painful pinprick for the BJP, continues to agitate for scrapping the
system of reservations altogether, or to accede to his demand for the
Patel quota. While the celebrations and commemoration is on today, he,
presently behind bars for arson and vandalism, and his supporters are
raring to play a disruptive role.

Thus, in this perplexing crucible, it would be worthwhile to
delve into the tomes of history and see whether both the icons –
Ambedkar and Patel – saw eye-to-eye on caste and reservations
.

Did You Know?

  • Sardar Patel and Dr Ambedkar strongly differed on reservation and caste.
  • They sparred over this in the Constituent Assembly Debates.
  • Ambedkar wanted to protect SC/ST rights via quotas in education and employment.
  • Patel
    felt quotas “quotas are anti-national”.

  • The Constituent Assembly Debates,
    which took place from 9 December 1946 to 24 January 1950, provide the
    richest source of material for pursuing this inquiry. This is because
    reservations, which are now enshrined in the Constitution as a part of
    the fundamental right to equality and non-discrimination, were one of
    the most hotly debated issues.

    On 24 January 1947, the Advisory Committee on Rights of
    Citizens, Minorities, and Tribal and Excluded Area was set up, with
    Patel as the head, and Ambedkar a member of one of the sub-committees,
    the one on Fundamental Rights. On one hand, the Committee was clear that
    the scourge of the caste-system and all the oppression it brought in
    its wake has to be eradicated, and there must be constitutional and
    legal safeguards to ensure that discrimination and practice of
    untouchability in any form was disposed of in the trashcans of history.

    Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the
    Constituent Assembly, but he also had a very determined agenda – to
    safeguard the rights of SC/STs and ensure that their continued
    subjugation was brought to an end, even if it required a persistent and
    ‘combative’ approach. He was in no doubt that it would not be possible
    without securing political and economic rights – that is, through quotas
    in public education and employment. Therefore, he proposed that the
    government must set aside, by prescription, a certain percentage of
    posts for the backward and depressed classes.

    Patel, on the other hand, and many members of the Congress,
    predominantly upper-castes, especially KM Munshi and Pandit Thakur Das
    Bharghava, were vehemently opposed to this. Munshi and Bharghava
    insisted that the SC/STs were part of Hinduism, and they should eschew
    their demands for quotas and separate electorates, because that would
    make them stand out as separate, thereby causing a schism in the Hindu
    community and polity.


    Ambedkar, who had demanded separate electorates for guaranteeing equal
    opportunities in political representation resolutely pressed ahead. He
    did so in spite of being forced on the backfoot by Gandhi to accede to
    the Poona Pact of 1932 (which considerably diluted the stakes of the Scheduled Castes).


    At this moment, one could perhaps pause and wonder who all Patel had in
    mind while insisting that the reality of centuries of slurs, torture,
    and abject deprivation be ‘forgotten’? Just because Ambedkar and a few
    other SC/STs, whose tales of overcoming seemingly insurmountable
    barriers are legion, had made their way to the Constituent Assembly ?
    Also, doesn’t his stance resonate exactly with what Hardik and his
    cohorts are demanding – that economic status should be the sole
    criterion for deciding upon reservations?






    Enforced Civility towards Determination and “Merit”?

    Today,
    in any discussion or debate on reservations, “merit” is bound to
    feature. Demands that it should be the only criterion for opening doors
    to opportunities in both education and employment are rampant. By merit,
    those who oppose reservations, mean ‘performance’ – in terms of
    examination scores and professional accomplishments. They fervently
    believe that any other factor – social discrimination and exclusion –
    which have a significant bearing on an individual or a group’s
    performance in certain spheres, must be left at the wayside.

    In this context, historian Christophe Jaffrelot’s seminal treatise
    on Ambedkar’s battle against untouchability provides illuminating
    insights into how he could even make it to the Constituent Assembly in
    the first place. It assumes all the more significance because of late,
    there have been consistent efforts to “whitewash” Ambedkar – scrub him clean of his SC/ST identity
    and present him as a shining constitutional scholar and statesman
    (which he undoubtedly was) only. Efforts are also underfoot to present
    him as someone who is given more respect than he deserves, and someone who hugely benefited from Gandhi and Patel’s magnanimity. These have come mostly from the BJP, whose Arun Shourie heaped scorn on Ambedkar.

    Here, one needs to read Jaffrelot, who shows how the Indian National Congress scuttled his election
    to the Constituent Assembly, and Patel, who always maintained a cordial
    demeanour, did have a hand in it. Ultimately it was Jogendra Nath
    Mandal, a SC leader from Bengal, who later went on to become
    Pakistan’s first Law Minister, who helped him get elected.

    Thus,
    as the BJP and its allies surge ahead, Hardik rages on, and the Congress
    clambers on to the criticism bandwagon, a travel into the past rakes up
    some revelatory truths.


    http://www.asianage.com/…/cm-drops-letter-banning-religious…

    Maharashtra CM drops letter banning religious photos in govt offices

    State government employees’ union has strongly protested actions being taken against the officer.


    Mumbai: Chief minister Devendra Fadnavis has ordered the withdrawal of a
    letter by the state rural development department banning religious
    pictures in government offices after meeting Shiv Sena ministers. But
    the said letter is based on a government circular issued in June 2002.


    The Asian Age has copies of the 2002 circular as well as the recent
    letter issued by the department reiterating the former’s contents. But
    overlooking the 2002 circular, the government has sought explanation
    from the concerned desk officer who issued the guidelines afresh earlier
    this month. The state government employees’ union has strongly
    protested actions being taken against the officer, against whom a show
    cause notice was served today. The desk officer, A.V. Warkade, was asked
    to give his explanation in writing by his superiors. When contacted by
    The Asian Age, Mr Warkade however refused to talk. “I am not authorised
    to speak to media,” he said.

    On Friday morning, Mr Fadnavis
    ordered an inquiry into the said letter sent sent by Mr Warakade on
    January 4 of this year. “Any pictures of Gods, as well as religious
    festivals, writing slogans in government offices is not permitted under
    government rule and according to the Constitution,” stated the letter.
    The ruling Shiv Sena party strongly objected the letter reaching its
    peak on Thursday when Shiv Sena chief Uddhav Thackeray raised the issue
    in his political rally as well.

    However, the issue of the letter
    was not a manifestation of a single man’s whim. In a government circular
    of rural development ministry from 2002, a copy of which is in
    possession of The Asian Age, clearly instructed their employees not to
    post any religious pictures in offices.

    However, Mr Warakade
    issued the letter in his capacity as a desk officer, after receiving it
    from the Chief Minister’s Office (CMO). Maharashtra Cast Tribe
    Government Employees Welfare Union as well as Secular Movement
    Organisation had sent the letters to CMO demanding issuance of
    instructions on religious pictures in government offices.

    When
    asked if blaming the officer was justified, Shiv Sena leader and
    Industry Minister Subhash Desai said, “There is no issue of
    generalisation. Be it circular from 2002 or 1947. This rule was not in
    actual implication, then why pushing it now? It is an emotional issue
    for us and till we are in the government we will never allow officers to
    disrespect emotions of Hindus.”

    The State Government Employees
    Union has also showed their discontent for taking actions against the
    officer. The union’s general secretary G.D. Kuthe said, “The officer
    shall not be punished as the letter was sent with good intentions. Union
    will see that there won’t be an injustice.”


    asianage.com


    Once The EC had passed orders to drape all the BSP symbols Elephant in the last assembly elections for ‘level playing ground’. But noe the same order is not passed to drape the cycles the symbol of SP or its ally Congress’s Hand. The BJP’s lotus symbol must also be draped and in Maharashtra gods pictures must not be displayed because most of the gods or either sitting or standing on Lotus which is the symbol of BJP and also the national flower Lotus must be frozen for level playing ground.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CMUetmPJdI0
    Abki Baar BSP Ki Sarkar

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2cYDoMgXNM
    BSP का विदेश में भी बजा डंका, ऑस्ट्रेलिया के अप्रवासी भारतीयों ने की मायावती को जीताने की अपील


    Abki Baar BSP Ki Sarkar

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiQjbMFsY0o
    सच्चे भीम सिपाही का क्या है फर्ज । Bheem Mission Song by Haryanvi Bhim


    ●► Subscribe on YouTube:http://www.youtube.com/c/BAHUJANSAMAAJ ●►Like on Facebook:https://ww…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6augYgq_Eg
    सपना को दिया मुँह तोड़ जवाब । Manjeet Mehra Song for Sapna Nalayak | Bheem Jagran Jhajjar


    सपना को दिया मुँह तोड़ जवाब । Manjeet Mehra Song for Sapna Nalayak | Bheem Jagran Jhajjar ●► Subscribe…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZRXne2LMe8
    कैलाश खेर का बहुजन समाज पार्टी के लिए गाना । BSP UP


    comments (0)
    01/27/17
    2120 Fri 27 Jan 2017 LESSONS The urban oriented PRESSTITTUE media attempt to isolate BSP will fail. It will be a rude shock to the Jathi Familywadi Party and the media as the Social media is more powerful catering to the entire sarvajan Samaj whose only leader is Mayawati waiting in the wings to return to power on the time-tested Sarvajan Samaj including SC.STs/OBCs/Minorities/Upper Castes combination.
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
    Posted by: @ 2:18 am


    2120 Fri 27 Jan 2017


    LESSONS



    The
    urban oriented PRESSTITTUE media attempt to isolate BSP will fail. It
    will be a rude shock to the Jathi Familywadi Party and the media as the
    Social media is more powerful catering to the entire sarvajan Samaj
    whose only leader is Mayawati waiting in the wings to return to power on
    the time-tested Sarvajan Samaj including SC.STs/OBCs/Minorities/Upper
    Castes combination.

    With the Jathi Familywadi Party (JFP)the SP
    on poor law and order and focusing on the its failure during the 2013
    Muzaffarnagar riots which left more than 60 persons dead and thousands
    homeless, the BSP is a serious challenger to the BJP (Bahuth Jiyadha
    Psychopaths ) and the SP (JFP) as SP-Congress tie-up will only help the
    BJP by dividing votes and that Mayawati’s BSP remained their best bet.


    “The coming together of the SP-Congress is nothing but an attempt by
    both sides to piggyback each other in the face of certain electoral
    defeat,” Naseemuddin Siddiqui, the tallest Muslim leader of the BSP,
    said. Siddiqui scoffed at the “winnability prospects” of the alliance.


    “The Congress leadership has surrendered before the SP in a bid to
    garner a few seats but it has failed the aspirations of the Muslim
    voters,” Mayawati thundered.


    Murderer
    of democratic institutions (Modi) Of The Nation (MOTN) polls forecast
    in his favour is conducted by PRESSTITUTE Media thus called by the BJP
    (Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths) but for the sake of money. They cater to
    only the urban voters.

    Napolean had said that “I can face two battalions but not two scribes”.

    Now
    such loyal scribes are found in the Social Media including WhatsApp,
    Facebook, twitter, Youtube etc. who have become the owners of Journalism
    and the nation.

    Their political opinion poll which clearly shows that Modi’s days are numbered.


    So who will win 2019? 

    The
    results of the assembly polls in five states, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab,
    Uttarakhand, Goa and Manipur will, of course, provide some indication.


    Mayawati’s
    inclusive politics having paid off at the hustings, the BSP now has the
    Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including SC/STs, Muslims and upper
    castes—cutting across communities—as its audience…. The people of UP
    tasted the fruits of identity politics. What they had was real
    development electricity infrastructure and safety from criminal
    elements. …task for Mayawati the as monarch in 2007 she had acted with
    the overwhelming mandate.

    This was not tolerated by Congress,
    BJP, SP and their allies which are Jathi Familywadi Parties (JFP) all
    serving for their own families welfare and happiness ignoring their
    communities who selected them.

    Mayawati who became eligible for next PM of Prabuddha Bharath was defeated by the JFP by tampering the EVMs in their favour.

     ”We have reached a stage where people are demanding hundred per cent
    deployment of paper audit trail machine. Our plan is that by 2019, the
    whole country will be covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget
    for this has been committed now,” Zaidi said

    It has been proved
    any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered as  EVMs are continued to be
    attacked by activists in various media and
    judicial fora on account of  lack of transparency.

    But he has not ordered for Ballot Papers to be used till the entire EVMs were replaced

    Now for the UP Assembly elections only in 20 constituencies the EVMs are being replaced.

    http://indianexpress.com/…/up-panchayat-polls-bsp-back-to-…/
    In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost all the seats in
    UP because of these EVMs. But after some months BSP won with thumping
    majority with paper ballot system.

    http://www.advocatekhoj.com/lib…/judgments/announcement.php…
    the Ex CJI sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
    ordering that the EVMs will be replaced in a phased manner as suggested
    by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in
    the entire replacement of the EVMs. Only in 8 out of 543 seats were
    replaced in 2014 Lok Sabha elections which helped the Murderer of
    democratic institutions (Modi) to gobble the Master Key.

    After that all state elections are using the very same EVMs that helped the BJP or Congress and their allies getting selected.


    The CJI and CEC must order for paper ballot system till entire EVMs
    were replaced. And also order for dissolving the Central and state
    governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh elections with paper
    ballot system.

    The next general elections are due in 2019.


    Were an election held today, the BSP would
    get  a
    comfortable majority in the Lok Sabha and making it less dependent on
    allies.


    Modi’s popularity ratings have also shown a
    remarkable down slide:  who polled just 1 per cent of the votes.

    The
    whole Nation  believe that DEMONetisation did not curb black money and 
    helped the economy. Rs 15 Lakhs as promised by Modi was not not
    deposited in the bank accounts of all the citizens of the nation. That
    is a solid 100 per cent who did not endorse Modi’s
    DEMONetisation move without proper planning. DEMONetisation
    had caused more pain than gain that killed many innocent people in
    Modi’s QUEUE INDIA MOVEMENT. And as an insult to the injured The
    Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) of just 1% intolerant, militant, violent,
    shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded cannibal chitpawan
    brahmins psychopaths claimed that people who died in queue were patriots
    who sacrificed (Balidhan) for their stealth, shadowy discriminatory
    hindutva cult rashtra.

    Such is the downfall  that Modi has
    been rated as the worst the country has had so far with a slaogan

    Jab
    Nehru, Lal Bahadur Sashtri, Indira, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzari Lal Nanda,
    Moraji Desai, VP Singh, IK Gujral, Deve Gowda, Man Mohan Singh ko aane
    dhiya ab Bhenji ko aane do.


    Modi’s
    DEMONetisation exercise and his other initiatives made him super-fool.
    100 per cent thought that his performance has been worst.

  • After
    almost a
    wash-out of the Winter Session in the Parliament due to DEMONisation,
    100 per cent still believe that it was  NDA and UPA’s fault for the
    Parliament
    stalemate as they were vultures of a feather that flock together feeding
    on the bodies of the Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies voters.
  • Modi, as leader of NDA, is the most unpopular in the country, with 29 state chief ministers, the
    three most unpopular-Nitish Kumar in Bihar, Mamata Banerjee in Bengal and RSS Arvind Kejriwal who initially opposed EVMs then favoured when it was tampered in his favour in Delhi-are all from UPA parties.


    Rahul
    Gandhi redux: His popularity have
    waned because of his anthar palti.(summersault). He said nathuram godse
    the murderer of Gandhi belonged to RSS and later he backed out. He said
    he had evidence of the corruption of Modi and then became silent. He
    asked if it was a sin to have a brahmin Shila Dixit  as CM of UP when
    they could be as PMs. Now is just a 2nd partner of Jathi Familywadi
    Party.

    Who are the Others? It’s obviously
    advantage BSP, with an increase of hundred percentage points the BSP’s fortunes continue to plummet. 

    99 per cent of the voters still think that former Chief Minister Ms Mayawati will be the best person to lead Prabuddha Bharath.


    Now the CEC and CJI must order for dissolution of Central and State
    governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh polls with paper
    ballots till the entire EVMs are replaced as we have reached a stage
    where people are demanding hundred per cent deployment of paper audit
    trail machine. And asthe plan is that by 2019, the whole country will be
    covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget for this has been
    committed now as said by Zaidi.

    comments (0)
    01/25/17
    2119 Thu 26 Jan 2017 LESSONS Wishing all a Happy Constitution Day http://www.igovernment.in/…/2019-general-elections-have-pap… 2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system. It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered. Mayawati, Ignored By Media, Is Way Ahead In Campaigning
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
    Posted by: @ 3:58 pm


    2119 Thu 26 Jan 2017


    LESSONS



    68th Happy Republic Day 2017

    Happy-Republic-Day-Images-wallpapers


    https://images.duckduckgo.com/iu/?u=http%3A%2F%2F4.bp.blogspot.com%2F-ietojLNn-GQ%2FUuKsQt7LGdI%2FAAAAAAAABr4%2FXlc1YHPRGqk%2Fs1600%2Fgg.jpg&f=1


    republic day animated gifs

    Republic day animated gifs




    https://drambedkarbooks.com/…/dr-b-r-ambedkar-on-republic-…/

    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on Republic Day (26th January)


    Mayawati, Ignored By Media, Is Way Ahead In Campaigning Mayawati,

    SP, Congress, BJP and their allies are all now Jathi Familywadi Parties
    (JFP) Vultures of a feather that flop together on feeding on the bodies
    of Sarvajan Voters.

    2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs

    Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

    It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.

    https://drambedkarbooks.com/…/dr-b-r-ambedkar-on-republic-…/

    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on Republic Day (26th January)


    “On 26th January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of
    contradictions. In politics, we will have equality and in social and
    economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value.
    How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How
    long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life?
    If we continue to deny it for long, we
    will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril. We must
    remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment else those who
    suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of democracy which
    this Constituent Assembly has so laboriously built up.”


    “I feel that the constitution is workable, it is flexible and it is
    strong enough to hold the country together both in peacetime and in
    wartime. Indeed, if I may say so, if things go wrong under the new
    Constitution, the reason will not be that we had a bad Constitution.
    What we will have to say is that Man was vile.”

    “There is no
    nation of Indians in the real sense of the world, it is yet to be
    created. In believing we are a nation, we are cherishing a great
    delusion. How can people divided into thousand of castes be a nation?
    The sooner we realise that we are not yet a nation, in a social and
    psychological sense of the world, the better for us.”

    “The third
    thing we must do is not be content with mere political democracy. We
    must note that our political democracy can not last unless there lies at
    the base of it social democracy. What does social democracy mean? It
    means a way of life which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as
    the principles of life.”

    “Independence is no doubt a matter of
    joy. But let us not forget that this independence has thrown on us
    greater responsibilities. By independence, we have lost the excuse of
    blaming the British for anything going wrong. If hereafter things go
    wrong, we will have nobody to blame except ourselves. There is a greater
    danger of things going wrong. Times are fast changing.”

    “Our object in framing the Constitution is rally two-fold:

    (1) To lay down the form of political democracy, and


    (2) To lay down that our ideal is economic democracy and also to
    prescribe that every Government whatever is in power shall strive to
    bring about economic democracy. The directive principles have a great
    value, for they lay down that our ideal is economic democracy.”


    “On
    26th January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions.
    In politics, we will have equality and in social and economic
    structure, continue to deny the principle of one man …


    http://www.igovernment.in/…/2019-general-elections-have-pap…


    2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs

    Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

    It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.

    Mayawati, Ignored By Media, Is Way Ahead In Campaigning


    http://indianexpress.com/…/need-constitutional-amendment-m…/


    “We have reached a stage where people are demanding hundred per cent
    deployment of paper audit trail machine. Our plan is that by 2019, the
    whole country will be covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget
    for this has been committed now,” Zaidi said while addressing an
    international seminar today.

    “The Commission, with certain
    additional resources, can undertake the exercise of (holding)
    simultaneous elections in future. But there are two pre-conditions.
    “One, there should be an amendment in the Constitution through a process
    of political consensus and we will need some additional resources in
    terms of EVMs (electronic voting machines), etc,” Zaidi said.

    Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

    It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.

    http://www.igovernment.in/…/2019-general-elections-have-pap…

    2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs

    Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

    It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.

    http://indianexpress.com/…/up-panchayat-polls-bsp-back-to-…/
    In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost all the seats in
    UP because of these EVMs. But after some months BSP won with thumping
    majority with paper ballot system.

    http://www.advocatekhoj.com/lib…/judgments/announcement.php…
    the Ex CJI sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
    ordering that the EVMs will be replaced in a phased manner as suggested
    by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in
    the entire replacement of the EVMs. Only in 8 out of 543 seats were
    replaced in 2014 Lok Sabha elections which helped the Murderer of
    democratic institutions (Modi) to gobble the Master Key.

    After that all state elections are using the very same EVMs that helped the BJP or Congress and their allies getting selected.

    In UP elections only in 20 constituencies the EVMs are being replaced.


    The CJI and CEC must order for paper ballot system till entire EVMs
    were replaced. And also order for dissolving the Central and state
    governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh elections with paper
    ballot system.
    The next general elections are due in 2019.


    The paper audit trail machine or Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail
    (VVPAT) was first introduced by the Commission in 2013 in order to
    enhance transparency in the polls process and increase electorate’s
    confidence that their vote goes without error to their desired
    candidate.

    Once the vote is polled, the VVPAT linked EVM
    immediately takes a printout and it is preserved for later use to tally
    in case there is a dispute in the final result.

    Zaidi, who was
    speaking on the topic ‘Leveraging Technology for Transparent and
    Credible Elections’, stressed that secrecy of voters will be zealously
    preserved.

    For e-postal ballot, Zaidi said a “safe technology” has been developed and it is being “validated and tested currently….”


    Zaidi said the EC has always marched along with technology despite
    challenges coming its way like “controversies and opposition raised by
    political parties and activists” while introducing EVMs as replacement
    of the paper ballot system.

    He said despite these results, the
    EVMs “continued to be attacked by activists in various media and
    judicial fora on account of alleged lack of transparency”.


    “According to these activists, a voter does not get any physical
    evidence whether his voting has gone to the intended candidate. This in
    turn has led to introduction of paper audit trail machines after an
    order of Supreme Court in 2013,” he said.

    The CEC said VVPAT machines hence acted to resolve the queries and clarifications sought by people in this regard.


    He added that “not a single” dispute has been reported from the country
    vis-a-vis VVPAT usage in polls and the EC has deployed more than 20,000
    such paper audit trail machines till now.

    While moving forward in this direction, the CEC said the most important thing to be kept in mind was the security of the data.
    When the BJP was in opposition even the RSS favoured Paper Ballots but
    after it came to power they prefer EVMs and gave tickets to RSS cadres
    in support of its hindutva rashtra.

    Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths
    continue to harass the voters because they are not bothered about their
    votes as long as the EVMs are there to select them.

    And also the
    Congress, SP, BJP and all their allies are vultures of a feather that
    flock together feeding on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj voters.


    BJP is using Religion for votes without any action being taken. RSS a
    non political party says reservation should be removed which is against
    our Modern Constitution. Again no action is being taken. EVMs were
    tampered in favour of Murdererof democratic institutions (Modi)


    Now the CEC and CJI must order for dissolution of Central and State
    governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh polls with paper
    ballots till the entire EVMs are replaced as we have reached a stage
    where people are demanding hundred per cent deployment of paper audit
    trail machine. And asthe plan is that by 2019, the whole country will
    be covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget for this has been
    committed now as said by Zaidi.


    The CEC said that such a proposal requires amendments in the Constitution through a process of “political consensus”.
    Mayawati, Ignored By Media, Is Way Ahead In Campaigning Mayawati, four-time Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and chief of Bahujan
    Samaj Party (BSP)- she feels that the media in favour of
    “the high-flying glamour boys” (Akhilesh Yadav and Rahul Gandhi).

    It is correct that the structuring and last-minute reworking of the
    tie-up between Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav and Congress No 2 Rahul
    Gandhi grabbed them an inordinate amount of media space. “Dilli ki media
    koh sirf cream polish samajh mein aati hai” (Delhi media only
    understands cream and polish or elitist fate) said a senior BSP leader,
    in a rather delightful dismissal. Others like him say that while the
    media has obsessed over the alliance which hopes to be the BJP’s giant
    killer, the facts on the ground are being ignored.

    Though
    the Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths referred the RSSISED media as
    PRESSTITUTES they are not ashamed. They are enjoying the freedom of
    press and expression as enshrined in our modern constitution whose chief
    architect is Dr BR Ambedkar. They must be booked for practicing
    untouchability for practicing social boycott.
    Nepolian had said that ” I can face two battalions but not two scribes
    “. Such scribes are the ones in social media who are really powerful
    journalists. The urbanite media scribes are corrupt. IT raid follows if
    it goes against congress SP BJP and their allies which are vulchers of a
    feather that flock together along with the media feeding on the bodies
    of Sarvajan Samaj voters who are calm, quiet, alert, attentive and
    having equanimity minded with a clear understanding that everything is
    changing including the central and state governments selected by the
    fraud EVMs with the support of urban media.

    1. There are 73
    assembly constituencies where Muslims form more than 30 percent of the
    electorate, while in another 70 assembly constituencies, Muslims are
    between 20 and 30 percent of the voters. The BSP says that it has
    started work in all these constituencies much before the other parties.
    Mayawati has extensively campaigned in these constituencies and was
    first off the block announcing a record number of Muslim candidates - 97
    for a total of 403 seats (She is putting up 86 SC/ST candidates).
    Mayawati stops her public meetings if the azaan rings out, calling
    worshippers to pray.

    2. Her party’s leaders say that Mayawati spurned an alliance
    with the Congress as the party has not been in power in UP for more than
    27 years. The Congress’s performance in the Lok Sabha elections
    underscored its relegation to a bit player. Mayawati told two senior
    Congress emissaries that while her loyal Jatav (Scheduled castes ) vote
    is transferable and could help back Congress candidates, the 10 percent
    vote that the Congress still manages will not support her candidates, so
    she simply does not see any advantage to the alliance. “Behen-ji does
    not need fancy foreign or local strategists. We know our people and they
    crave the most basic thing: law and order, which will allow economic
    opportunity for all,” said senior BSP leader Satish Mishra in a jibe at
    Congress strategist Prashant Kishor and Steve Jarding, a public policy
    professor at Harvard who advises Akhilesh Yadav on his campaign.

    3. Mayawati feels that the media, which these days she’s
    extra-careful not to call manuwadi (elitist) as she did in the past,
    does not give her enough play and air time. However, she believes the UP
    voter is listening carefully to her speeches and dismissal of the Yadav
    family fight and soap opera as a Noora Kushti (a rigged fight).
    Mayawati feels that the family feud, which was political centerstage for
    weeks, was masterminded by her canniest and most persistent opponent,
    Mulayam Singh, to combat anti-incumbency against his son.

    4. The BSP feels that its vote share will increase because the
    section of SC/STs who voted for the BJP in 2014 is now disillusioned.
    Apart from the Jatavs, the BJP won swathes of the SC/ST vote during the
    Modi wave, resulting in its huge yield of 73 of 80 parliamentary seats.
    But with the Modi wave showing some ebbing, as shown in the Delhi and
    Bihar elections, and the restrictive beef laws brought in to the
    BJP-ruled states of Haryana and Maharashtra, the UP SC/STs are
    reportedly upset with the BJP (SC/STs are beef-eaters and are heavily
    employed in tanneries).

    5. The BSP has calculated that the UP SC/ST is politically
    hyper-aware after the assault on SC/STs in Una last year and the suicide
    of Rohith Vemula at his Hyderabad university. Amit Shah, BJP President,
    has given tickets to SC/STs but they are inconspicuous in campaign
    material which is heavily tilted towards the BJP’s traditional upper
    caste base. This has delighted Mayawati who loses no opportunity to mock
    “Modi’s use and throw approach” at her hugely attended rallies. “Modi
    ke toh achhe din aa gaye, UP koh kya mila? (Good times for Modi, but how
    has UP benefited)?” You made him PM, he took away your money” she
    thunders to huge applause, referencing the PM’s demonetisation drive.

    6. Mayawati makes no qualms about her ambitions to eventually be
    Prime Minister and directly attacks Modi at her meetings. She also rubs
    in the fact that if she wins, she will be present as Chief Minister in
    Lucknow to ensure that the dabang (daring lawless) are kept in check.
    “Will Modi stay in Lucknow? He does not even stay in Delhi,” she tells
    crowds to mock Modi’s frequent foreign trips.

    7. Mayawati has also cut back on her much-discussed aloof and
    arrogant demeanour after several high-value defections from the BSP to
    the BJP. She makes time to meet every block leader and is in constant
    touch with far-flung karyakartas (workers). Gone is the earlier hauteur,
    replaced with an oft-repeated public vow of not building any more
    monuments to herself. When Mayawati said this in public for the first
    time last year, it shocked BSP leaders who now point to it as her
    ability to adapt and read the voters’ mind. Says a BSP leader, “Is the
    media so colour blind? You keep projecting Kejriwal, Nitish Kumar, now
    even Yadav Junior as challengers to Modi but not a woman who has been UP
    Chief Minister four times? Mayawati is truly a symbol of empowerment
    and the majority of the voters see her like that. Our voters are silent,
    they are diffident but they know how to press the button. The path to
    Delhi is only through UP and only through Dalits and Muslims and Behenji
    has time on her side.”

    The two common threads that can be discerned in the different campaigns
    for Uttar Pradesh is that all parties have gone back to basics of
    vote-bank politics with a topping of Vikaas (development) in order to
    garner the young voter who is the majority. So to appeal to the floating
    youth vote, jobs and freebies such as pressure cookers and smart phones
    are tumbling around. The second is that it’s the entire opposition
    versus Narendra Modi and his demonetisation narrative.

    So “Apni behen, bahar ka PM” (our sister versus an outsider PM) is the
    BSP chant, while Akhilesh Yadav and Rahul Gandhi are being offered as
    “Baahri versus apne ladkey” (our boys versus the outsider). It does seem
    at this point that Shah has made a tactical error in not declaring a
    presumptive Chief Minister and putting the entire onus on Modi. If the
    BJP loses, the entire blame from currently irate and smarting BJP
    leaders who have been ignored will fall on Shah and Modi.

    BSP leaders say that the lack of a Chief Ministerial candidate from the
    BJP and the consolidation of the Dalits and Muslims in favour of
    Mayawati make her position impregnable. Ask if the alliance between SP
    and Congress will net them Muslim votes and BSP leaders say that’s a
    media-bred fallacy as the Muslims have made up their minds for Behen-ji.
    Then the litany of complaints of blackouts and inadequate coverage is
    trotted out.

    There is a certain amount of truth to the BSP’s complaint. Mayawati,
    unlike Akhilesh Yadav who is affable and ever-smiling, does get
    negligible press. Senior BSP leaders say Sonia Gandhi keeps the press at
    arm’s length, yet gets great coverage. BSP leaders feel a double
    standard is applied to Mayawati and their party.

    (Swati Chaturvedi is an author and a journalist who has worked with The
    Indian Express, The Statesman and The Hindustan Times.)



    http://www.gifbin.com/985037


    SP, Congress, BJP and their allies are all now Jathi Familywadi Parties
    (JFP) Vultures of a feather that flop together on feeding on the bodies
    of Sarvajan Voters.


    Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths, Congress and their allies are indulging in
    Fashion shows, Beauty Contest and Cat walk for their Vote Bank. such as


    “Priyanka Gandhi, whom the Congress is projecting as their star
    campaigner for UP Assembly election, is not as pretty as people claim”.

    “The BJP has prettier faces than Priyanka,”


    “We have Smriti Irani, who more beautiful than Priyanka. There is a
    crowd wherever she goes. Irani is also a far better speaker than
    Priyanka,” said Katiyar.

    Instead of showing respect to our Modern
    Constitution by maintaining status quo the Psychopaths demolished a
    place of worship of other religion and claim

    “irrespective of the apex court’s decision, temple will be built in Ayodhya no matter what it takes”


    Severe action must be taken against who practice hatred, anger,
    jealousy, violence, delusion which is defilement of the mind that is
    madness requiring treatment in a mental asylum with Vipassana Meditation
    until they get cured of their mental illness.

    But Sharad Yadav,
    stirred a controversy of electoral vote. “Ballot paper ke bare mein
    samjhane ki zarurat hai…i.e., there must be an awakening on the use of
    Ballot paper instead of EVMs until they are entire replaced.

    http://indianexpress.com/…/need-constitutional-amendment-m…/


    “We have reached a stage where people are demanding hundred per cent
    deployment of paper audit trail machine. Our plan is that by 2019, the
    whole country will be covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget
    for this has been committed now,” Zaidi said while addressing an
    international seminar today.

    “The Commission, with certain
    additional resources, can undertake the exercise of (holding)
    simultaneous elections in future. But there are two pre-conditions.
    “One, there should be an amendment in the Constitution through a process
    of political consensus and we will need some additional resources in
    terms of EVMs (electronic voting machines), etc,” Zaidi said.

    Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

    It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.

    http://www.igovernment.in/…/2019-general-elections-have-pap…

    2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs

    Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

    It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.

    http://indianexpress.com/…/up-panchayat-polls-bsp-back-to-…/
    In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost all the seats in
    UP because of these EVMs. But after some months BSP won with thumping
    majority with paper ballot system.

    http://www.advocatekhoj.com/lib…/judgments/announcement.php…
    the Ex CJI sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
    ordering that the EVMs will be replaced in a phased manner as suggested
    by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in
    the entire replacement of the EVMs. Only in 8 out of 543 seats were
    replaced in 2014 Lok Sabha elections which helped the Murderer of
    democratic institutions (Modi) to gobble the Master Key.

    After that all state elections are using the very same EVMs that helped the BJP or Congress and their allies getting selected.

    In UP elections only in 20 constituencies the EVMs are being replaced.


    The CJI and CEC must order for paper ballot system till entire EVMs
    were replaced. And also order for dissolving the Central and state
    governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh elections with paper
    ballot system.

    The next general elections are due in 2019.


    The paper audit trail machine or Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail
    (VVPAT) was first introduced by the Commission in 2013 in order to
    enhance transparency in the polls process and increase electorate’s
    confidence that their vote goes without error to their desired
    candidate.

    Once the vote is polled, the VVPAT linked EVM
    immediately takes a printout and it is preserved for later use to tally
    in case there is a dispute in the final result.

    Zaidi, who was
    speaking on the topic ‘Leveraging Technology for Transparent and
    Credible Elections’, stressed that secrecy of voters will be zealously
    preserved.

    For e-postal ballot, Zaidi said a “safe technology” has been developed and it is being “validated and tested currently….”


    Zaidi said the EC has always marched along with technology despite
    challenges coming its way like “controversies and opposition raised by
    political parties and activists” while introducing EVMs as replacement
    of the paper ballot system.

    He said despite these results, the
    EVMs “continued to be attacked by activists in various media and
    judicial fora on account of alleged lack of transparency”.


    “According to these activists, a voter does not get any physical
    evidence whether his voting has gone to the intended candidate. This in
    turn has led to introduction of paper audit trail machines after an
    order of Supreme Court in 2013,” he said.

    The CEC said VVPAT machines hence acted to resolve the queries and clarifications sought by people in this regard.


    He added that “not a single” dispute has been reported from the country
    vis-a-vis VVPAT usage in polls and the EC has deployed more than 20,000
    such paper audit trail machines till now.

    While moving forward in this direction, the CEC said the most important thing to be kept in mind was the security of the data.


    When the BJP was in opposition even the RSS favoured Paper Ballots but
    after it came to power they prefer EVMs and gave tickets to RSS cadres
    in support of its hindutva rashtra.

    Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths
    continue to harass the voters because they are not bothered about their
    votes as long as the EVMs are there to select them.

    And also the
    Congress, SP, BJP and all their allies are vultures of a feather that
    flock together feeding on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj voters.


    BJP is using Religion for votes without any action being taken. RSS a
    non political party says reservation should be removed which is against
    our Modern Constitution. Again no action is being taken. EVMs were
    tampered in favour of Murdererof democratic institutions (Modi)


    Now the CEC and CJI must order for dissolution of Central and State
    governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh polls with paper
    ballots till the entire EVMs are replaced as we have reached a stage
    where people are demanding hundred per cent deployment of paper audit
    trail machine. And asthe plan is that by 2019, the whole country will be
    covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget for this has been
    committed now as said by Zaidi.


    Gif Bin is your daily source for funny gifs

    LikeShow More Reactions
    Comment

    Bahujan
    Samaj Party’s manifesto is our Modern Constitution which is for
    distribution of the wealth equally among all sections of the society.
    With the best governance of Mayawati, she became eligible to be the next
    PM of Prabuddha Bharath. This was not tolerated by the Congress, BJP,
    SP and their allies so the EVMs were tampered in favour of SP in UP and
    for the Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi).They are all vultures
    of a feather that flock together feeding on the bodies of Sarvajna
    Samaj voters.They all believe in brahmin as 1st rate atoms (souls) and
    Kashatria,vysia, shudra as 2nd, 3rd and 4th rate souls. And the ati
    Shudra Aboriginal Inhabitants (ST/STs) have no soul at all so that they
    can do whatever they liked to do. But the Buddha never believed in any
    soul. He said all are equal. Therefor Dr BR Ambedkar returned back to
    his own home along with millions of people and the process continues for
    Sarvajna Hitay Sarvajna Sukhaya i.e., for welfare, happiness and peace
    for all societies.

    https://vimeo.com/26778755

    http://www.ndtv.com/…/up-elections-2017-the-ides-of-march-i…

    The Ides Of March In Uttar Pradesh Election: Superstition Taken Seriously


    CM of UP, the dreaded vicissitudes of an election are strong
    influencers. Sultanpur is where he began his campaign five years ago,
    establishing it as a good luck charm. And astrologers prescribe disha
    shool, demarcating Tuesday as an unfortunate choice to travel West.
    Hence, Go East, young man, it was.

    Results for this election will
    be disclosed on March 11 - beware, the Ides of March. And superstition
    is not taken lightly in Uttar Pradesh’s politics. Congress leaders
    believe that if the state president gets the office white-washed or
    freshly painted, it’s game over in the next election for him or her. At
    the Lucknow office, party workers reel off the stats: Mahavir Prasad in
    1992, ND Tiwari in 1995, Salman Khurshid in 2012 and Rita Bahuguna Joshi
    - now with the BJP - in 2012.

    In the Ballia district of Eastern
    Uttar Pradesh, people are convinced that if a politician pays tribute to
    freedom fighter Chittu Pandey, who led the Quit India movement in this
    area, disaster strikes. Indira Gandhi unveiled his statue about six
    months before she was killed, Rajiv Gandhi garlanded it a few months
    before he was assassinated, and Zail Singh had a heart attack a few days
    after he offered flowers at the memorial

    Congress leader and
    Rajya Sabha MP Pramod Tiwari bathes with a different-coloured soap each
    day and then wears an outfit of the same hue. No mix and match. “White
    on Mondays, green on Wednesdays and white again on Fridays, and if you
    are wearing a white kurta-pyjama, you can wear a jacket of the preferred
    colour,” he advised.

    But the pin-up of all superstition in Uttar
    Pradesh’s politics is that whoever visits Noida, satellite city to
    Delhi, can write off returning to power. ND Tiwari and Veer Bahadur
    Singh were voted out within a month of their entering Noida in the late
    80s. It is why Mulayam Singh, then Chief Minister, refused to visit the
    area in 2006 when it was reeling from the discovery of the bones and
    skulls of little children discovered in a drain in Nithari. In 2002,
    Rajnath Singh, as Chief Minister, inaugurated a flyover linking Noida
    and Delhi - but ensured that he stayed on Delhi’s side of the
    border.Akhilesh Yadav, who has abjured the city entirely.

    All the above are “Choo mantra kaali” politicians who never see truth as truth and untruth as untruth.


    A
    short 3d animated film about an unusual day in the life of a person who
    believes in superstitions . Animation and everything else (besides
    music) by : - Asaf…
    vimeo.com|By SuperstitionAnimation

    comments (0)
    01/24/17
    2118 Wed 25 Jan 2017 LESSONS Wishing all a Happy Lunar Year of the Rooster! May we awaken to the crow of the Rooster!http://www.igovernment.in/…/2019-general-elections-have-pap… 2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system. It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered. http://indianexpress.com/…/need-constitutional-amendment-m…/ “We have reached a stage where people are demanding hundred per cent deployment of paper audit trail machine. Our plan is that by 2019, the whole country will be covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget for this has been committed now,” Zaidi said while addressing an international seminar today. “The Commission, with certain additional resources, can undertake the exercise of (holding) simultaneous elections in future. But there are two pre-conditions. “One, there should be an amendment in the Constitution through a process of political consensus and we will need some additional resources in terms of EVMs (electronic voting machines), etc,” Zaidi said.
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
    Posted by: @ 9:05 pm


    2118 Wed 25 Jan 2017


    LESSONS

    http://www.igovernment.in/…/2019-general-elections-have-pap…




    Wishing all a Happy Lunar Year of the Rooster! May we awaken to the crow
    of the Rooster!


    http://media.photobucket.com/…/med…/morningrooster.gif.html…

    Wishing all a Happy Lunar Year of the Rooster! May we awaken to the crow of the Rooster!


    How do we know we have awakened as an arhat?
    We can only answer meaningfully through our understanding.


    Arhathood arises from the full understanding and experience of the 4
    noble truths. Once we become streamwinners, or even as aspirants to
    streamwinning, we are able to see the true, as well as subtle, nature of
    suffering. The world may be appearances, but it is what lies below
    these appearances that bait and bully us into acting in a way that
    perpetuates our suffering.

    As long as we neither understand nor
    accept that craving is at the root of suffering, we will look for all
    the wrong explanations and rationalizations for suffering. Science and
    medicine may be able to describe the nature of suffering, even cure
    certain aspects and delay others, but the suffering of the mind­rooted
    in greed, hate and delusion­ will always haunt us as long as we are
    unawakened.
    With our worldly knowledge, we may study the nature of
    suffering, or even analyze what we see as the causes of suffering. We
    may gaze deep into the nature of suffering, but we only see suffering
    staring back at us. We cannot exorcise all the demons of suffering, or
    even tame any of them, as long as we are rooted in spiritual ignorance.

    Meaning of life


    The first two noble truths­ suffering and its arising (through craving)
    – clearly describe the true meaning of life. We can take “meaning” here
    as referring to the value of life. When we understand that life is
    nothing but “suffering” (dukkha) because it is impermanent,
    unsatisfactory and beyond our control (it has no abiding essence), we
    see the value of such an understanding.

    The full meaning of life
    is formulated in the teaching on dependent arising, which is rooted in
    ignorance, and through ignorance we create our own virtual reality that
    invariably ends in suffering. Dependent arising comprises these two
    noble truths, describing by means of conditionality (causes and effects)
    the meaning of life.

    Then, when we reflect deeper, we will see
    that because life is impermanent, it is precious to us: we value life.
    This is, in fact, the basis for moral virtue: it is founded on the value
    and respect for life because it is so fragile. Yet, it is precious
    because it is our only means of getting out of suffering, of awakening
    to true reality.

    The purpose of life

    The third noble truth
    here (following the practice model) is the path leading to the end of
    suffering, that is, the noble eight­fold path, constituting the 3
    trainings of moral virtue, mental concentra­tion and wisdom. Having
    clearly understood the nature and arising of suffering, we are ready to
    work towards its ending, or rather, to take the path to the ending of
    suffering.

    We must now apply our under­standing into action, to
    tame and refine our body and speech so that they do not distract our
    mental culti­vation. Then, we calm and clear our mind to direct it
    towards seeing true reality, which brings us the insight wisdom to free
    us from the grasp of ignorance and craving.

    The total freedom
    from ignorance and craving – more fully, the destruction of the 3 karmic
    roots of greed, hate and delusion – is called Eternal Bliss, the fourth
    and last of the noble truths (according to the practice model) [see
    previous paragraph].

    Eternal Bliss is neither a place nor a
    state. It is just a word we use to refer to when all suffering ends with
    the destruction of greed, hate and delusion. It is like the
    exting­uishing of fire, or the quenching of thirst. That fire or the
    thirst does not go any­where; neither of them arise any more (as long as
    we are quenched). Eternal Bliass, how­ever, is the final quenching; it
    needs to be done only once.

    The last two noble truths deal with
    the path to the ending of suffering, and the total ending of suffering
    itself, that is, Eternal Bliss. While the first two truths deal with the
    meaning of life, these last two deal with the purpose of life. Based on
    our under­standing of the meaning of life through dependent arising, we
    can now reverse the cycle, or break any of the vital links in the
    chain, and bring on the dependent ending of suffering with the
    uprooting of ignorance and craving.

    Attaining arhathood


    This is the arhat’s review knowledge, that is, a retrospect­ive
    know­ledge. This is the “recollected mental image obtained in
    concen­tra­tion, or to any inner experience just passed, as for
    instance, an absorption or a supra­mun­dane path, or fruition of the
    path, etc.

    We re­mind­ ourself to keep to our practice, instead
    of anticipating or measuring its progress. If we need to ask whether we
    have progressed or not, the likely answer is that we have not! True
    practitioners only dili­gent­ly and joyfully practice. As we live our
    lives diligently, over an extended period, we are able to joyfully
    notice that we have invariably not faltered in the smallest challenge to
    our moral virtue, or mental concentration, or wisdom. We live confident
    in the fact that we have always, without exception, lived in the spirit
    and the letter. This is sufficient for us to rejoice in that we have
    attained the supreme goal.


    LikeShow More Reactions
    Comment

    http://www.igovernment.in/…/2019-general-elections-have-pap…

    Bahuth
    Jiyadha Psychopaths continue to harass the voters because they are not
    bothered about their votes as  long as the EVMs are there to select
    them.

    Yet the Congress, SP, BJP and all their allies are vultures
    of a feather that flock together feeding on the bodies of Sarvajan
    Samaj voters.

    BJP is using Religion for votes without any action
    being taken. RSS a non political party says reservation should be
    removed which is against our Modern Constitution. Again no action is
    being taken. EVMs were tampered in favour of Murdererof democratic
    institutions (Modi) though

    /2019-general-elections-have-pap…

    2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs

    Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

    It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.

    In
    the 2014 Lok Sabha elections Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost all the seats in UP
    because of these EVMs. But after some months BSP won with thumping
    majority with paper ballot system.

    the Ex CJI sathasivam had
    committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs will be
    replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath because
    of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in the entire replacement of the
    EVMs. Only in 8 out of 543 seats were replaced in 2014 Lok Sabha
    elections which helped the Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) to
    gobble the Master Key.

    After that all state elections are using the very same EVMs that helped the BJP or Congress and their allies getting selected.

    In UP elections only in 20 constituencies the EVMs are being replaced.

    The
    CJI and CEC must order for paper ballot system till entire EVMs were
    replaced. And also order for dissolving the Central and state
    governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh elections with paper
    ballot system.

    “We have reached a stage where people are
    demanding hundred per cent deployment of paper audit trail machine. Our
    plan is that by 2019, the whole country will be covered by paper audit
    trail machines. The budget for this has been committed now,” Zaidi said
    while addressing an international seminar today.

    The next general elections are due in 2019.

    The
    paper audit trail machine or Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)
    was first introduced by the Commission in 2013 in order to enhance
    transparency in the polls process and increase electorate’s confidence
    that their vote goes without error to their desired candidate.

    Once
    the vote is polled, the VVPAT linked EVM immediately takes a printout
    and it is preserved for later use to tally in case there is a dispute in
    the final result.

    Zaidi, who was speaking on the topic
    ‘Leveraging Technology for Transparent and Credible Elections’, stressed
    that secrecy of voters will be zealously preserved.

    For e-postal ballot, Zaidi said a “safe technology” has been developed and it is being “validated and tested currently….”

    Zaidi
    said the EC has always marched along with technology despite challenges
    coming its way like “controversies and opposition raised by political
    parties and activists” while introducing EVMs as replacement of the
    paper ballot system.

    He said despite these results, the EVMs
    “continued to be attacked by activists in various media and judicial
    fora on account of alleged lack of transparency”.

    “According to
    these activists, a voter does not get any physical evidence whether his
    voting has gone to the intended candidate. This in turn has led to
    introduction of paper audit trail machines after an order of Supreme
    Court in 2013,” he said.

    The CEC said VVPAT machines hence acted to resolve the queries and clarifications sought by people in this regard.

    He
    added that “not a single” dispute has been reported from the country
    vis-a-vis VVPAT usage in polls and the EC has deployed more than 20,000
    such paper audit trail machines till now.

    While moving forward in this direction, the CEC said the most important thing to be kept in mind was the security of the data.

    /need-constitutional-amen…

    With paper ballot system simultaneous polls could be conducted till entire EVMs are replaced.
    2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs | igovernment.in
    New
    Delhi, Feb 24 (PTI) Polling for 2019 general elections will be
    conducted through paper trail-based electronic voting machines to
    “enhance transparency”. Chief…
    igovernment.in


    New
    Delhi, Feb 24 (PTI) Polling for 2019 general elections will be
    conducted through paper trail-based electronic voting machines to
    “enhance transparency”. Chief…
    igovernment.in

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pOpE93B1l84

    Akka Mayawati

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whcsgeXjlAE
    tamilnadu bsp

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESP6mfS5xqg
    BSP Supremo - Mayawati ji (The Iron Lady of India)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D40pqmmJM_I
    Rajneeti: नीला झंडा आसमां में फिर है लहराना….BSP New Campaign Video Song

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=521LTq3RrYw
    Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) Bahan ji ka Alha बहन जी का आल्हा video

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBaIrJPy03Y
    Mayawati woos Muslims at Lucknow rally

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKO7YvnErqw
    Workers on big numbers coming in Mayawati’s Lucknow Rally

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FtHBkv0W00
    Asaduddin Owaisi Openly Declare Supported By Mayawati For U P Elections Must See 2017


    BSP Tamil Nadu


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6M2RcHkuKiU
    Mayawati song BSP ka Raaj hoga

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIdARBHr06I
    Bsp New Song 2017 नहीं चाही चूड़ी कंगना

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBQpKgI_JTA
    kailash kher song- हाथी का बटन दबाव नीला परचम लहराव

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QndkyfW-KOQ
    B.S.P JAI BHIM LAGE JAB NARA

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JmXhELvBBhw
    बहुजन समाज पार्टी बरेली सुनील सागर

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZRXne2LMe8
    कैलाश खेर का बहुजन समाज पार्टी के लिए गाना । BSP UP

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6augYgq_Eg
    सपना को दिया मुँह तोड़ जवाब । Manjeet Mehra Song for Sapna Nalayak | Bheem Jagran Jhajjar

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUnEWJZHytw
    सतपाल तंवर , सपना चौधरी पर आग बबूल । Jhajjar Bheem Jagran

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvGkr8zL2LU
    10 साल के बच्चे का क्रान्तिकारी भीम Song । Manjeet Kumar Haryanvi Rap

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Chod do gulami yaro - Rahul Anvikar (AWAAZ INDIA TV)

    http://indianexpress.com/elections/need-constitutional-amendment-more-resources-for-simultaneous-polls-cec-4489483/


    http://tipitaka.org/






    http://bestanimations.com/Holidays/Thankyou-01-june.gif

    comments (0)
    MAYAWATI SONG : बहन हमारी भारत कि शान है
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: @ 1:14 am

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSK80pQZn9Y
    Ideal Bahujan Song 4
    Singer- Kishor Kumar “Pagla” Member of Lalit Sangeet Kala Natya Academy


    Singer- Kishor Kumar “Pagla” Member of Lalit Sangeet Kala Natya Academy

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXRhzqaQ3N4

    Ideal Bahujan Song Listen Must
    Singer-Member of Lalit Kala Academic of India, and BSP’S National Singer Kishor Kumar “Pagla”


    Singer-Member of Lalit Kala Academic of India, and BSP’S National Singer Kishor Kumar “Pagla”
    youtube.com

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9Imzv3z23A
    MAYAWATI SONG : बहन हमारी भारत कि शान है


    Bsp

    Mission up 2017 bsp

    http://zeenews.india.com/…/senior-samajwadi-party-leader-am…

    Senior Samajwadi party leader Ambika Chowdhary joins

    Lucknow: Senior Samajwadi Party (SP) leader and former minister in the
    state government Ambika Chowdhary on Saturday switched allegiance to the
    Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP).

    See more

    Senior
    Samajwadi Party (SP) leader and former minister in the state government
    Ambika Chowdhary on Saturday switched allegiance to the Bahujan Samaj
    Party (BSP).
    zeenews.india.com


    comments (0)
    01/23/17
    2117 Tue 24 Jan 2017 LESSONS http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/mayawati-criticises-mohan-bhagwats-remarks-on-quota-regime-1220435 Mayawati Criticises Mohan Bhagwat’s Remarks on Quota Regime Mayawati Criticises Mohan Bhagwat’s Remarks on Quota RegimeEVIDENCE BEFORE THE SOUTHBOROUGH COMMITTEE ON FRANCHISE- Mohan Bagwat’s RSS is not a registered Political Party either. But puts only the 1% intolerant, volent, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded cannibal horrororist chitpawan brahmins as candidates in UP and all other states for his stealth,shadowy, discriminatory hindutva cult rashtra.
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: @ 10:08 pm





    2117 Tue 24 Jan 2017


    LESSONS



    Mayawati Criticises Mohan Bhagwat’s Remarks on Quota Regime

    New
    Delhi: BSP supremo Ms Mayawati today attacked RSS chief Mohan
    Bhagwat’s statement on review of quota regime and threatened a
    nationwide protest against the Narendra Modi government if it “toed” the
    line of the Sangh leader.

    “If
    the Narendra Modi government tries to toe the line of Bhagwat, if it
    tries to tamper with the humanitarian provision of reservation as
    enshrined in the Constitution, then BSP will launch a nation-wide mass
    agitation which will prove costly to the government,” she said at a
    press conference in New Delhi.

    The
    former Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister said the RSS wants to push the
    Dalits and the downtrodden back into the “dark ages of exploitation”
    against which B R Ambedkar had to struggle and framed a Constitution
    based on humanitarian considerations.

    She
    claimed Mr Bhagwat’s remarks have created a lot of anguish among the
    Dalits and the backwards. “But so far neither the Narendra Modi
    government nor the BJP have come out openly to reject the demand of the
    RSS for which the BSP criticises them in strongest possible words.”

    She “warned” the government of a nation-wide stir if it takes any step in favour of the RSS chief’s demand.

    “We
    did the same during the rule of Atal Bihari Vajpayee government when it
    tried to end reservation in the garb of Constitution review. The then
    government was forced to withdraw its agenda,” she said.

    She
    said BSP is concerned on the issue of review of the reservation policy
    as the reins of the PM Modi government are in the hands of the RSS.

    “The
    government can any time definitely do something in one way or the other
    to tamper with the arrangement of reservation. Therefore, we will keep a
    vigil on the issue,” she said.

    Dubbing
    BJP and Congress as “extremely casteist”, Ms Mayawati said the two have
    done little to improve the condition of the Dalits and the backwards in
    the last several years.

    RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat’s statement on review of quota regime.
    Who
    is he to poke his dirty nose in others dish. He is a dropout and not a
    constitutional expert and has no business to talk of reservation
    enshrined in the Modern Constitution of the Chief Architect Dr BR
    Ambedkar who made reservations as a compromise for separate electorate.


    https://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/01/27/27th-january-in-dalit-history-dr-ambedkar-before-southborough-commission-fight-for-separate-electorate/#more-2714


    27th January in SC/ST History – Dr Ambedkar before Southborough Commission: Fight for separate electorate


    27 January 1919: Dr. Ambedkar
    submitted a memorandum and gave evidence before the Southborough
    Commission. The memorandum was attached as a supplementary in the
    commissions report.

    In the examination of Dr. Ambedkar‘s
    views the commission found that he had un-mistakenly presented the
    division of Hindu society into touchables and untouchables. If a
    particular community had a majority of votes in a constituency, there
    was no need for that community to have separate communal representation.
    If the untouchables had a majority of votes in a particular
    constituency, he would not ask for communal representation. It was
    because they were in a minority and would always remain so on a uniform
    franchise that he asked for separate representation. He was opposed to
    any system under which the representatives of the depressed classes were
    drawn from other classes. His justification for asking for a low
    qualification for franchise was that as a result of being untouchable,
    the untouchables had no property; they could not trade because they
    could not find customers. He remembered a case in which a
    Mahar
    caste woman was taken to the police court for selling watermelons. In
    the mills in the Bombay Presidency the untouchables were not yet allowed
    to work in the weaving department: in one case an untouchable did work
    in the weaving department of a mill saying that he was a Mohammedan, and
    when found out, he was severely beaten. The definition of an
    “untouchable” as a person, who would cause pollution by his touch, was a
    satisfactory one for electoral purposes. It was not the case that some
    castes were considered to be untouchable in some districts and touchable
    in others.

    In the whole Bombay Presidency there was
    one B.A. and 6 or 7 matriculates among the depressed classes. The
    proportion of those who were literate in English was very small, but not
    much smaller than in the case of the backward classes. The depressed
    classes especially the Mahars and the Chamars, were fit to exercise the
    vote. He would also give them the votes by way of education. He could
    find at least 25 or more men amongst them who had passed the 6th or the
    7th Standards of a High School, and, although the number was not large,
    the 9 seats which he suggested for the depressed classes could be filled
    from amongst them. Such a candidate in practical matters would be as
    good as a graduate although the latter might be able to express himself
    better.

    He suggested large constituencies for the
    depressed classes’; if such large constituencies had been accepted for
    the Mohammedans he did not see why they were not practicable in the case
    of the depressed classes.

    In order to obtain the required number of
    seats for the depressed classes he would reduce the number of seats
    suggested by Government for the Mohammedans, from 38 to 10. This
    reduction was justifiable, as on the population basis the Mohammedans
    were only entitled to 20 per cent of the seats. He did not consider the
    Congress League Pact as binding on all.

    In the evidence he piointed out that
    Untouchables were persons to whom certain rights of citizenship had been
    denied. For instance, it was the right of every citizen to walk down
    the street, and if a man were prevented from doing so, even temporarily,
    it was an infringement of his right. Whether a man was prevented from
    exercising his rights by law or social custom, made very little
    difference to him. Government had recognised custom and persons
    belonging to the untouchable classes were not employed in Government
    service.

    His view was that British rule in India
    was meant to provide equal opportunities for all, and that in
    transferring a large share of the power to popular assemblies,
    arrangements should be made whereby the hardships and disabilities
    entailed by the social system should not be reproduced and perpetuated
    in political institutions. As regards the exact position at present, he
    admitted that, for instance, at the Parel school which was meant for the
    depressed classes, there were many higher-caste pupils, who came there
    because it was a good school. Similarly as a professor he, being a
    member of a depressed class, had pupils of all classes and found no
    difficulty in dealing with his higher caste pupils. If the untouchable
    classes were recognized by Government by the grant of seats, their
    status would be raised and their powers would be stimulated. He was not
    very particular about the number of their seats; all he wanted was
    something adequate.

    Dr. Ambedkar

    British parliament had first passed the Government of India Act, 1919 on the recommendation of Southborough Commission to which Dr. Ambedkar submitted
    the memorandum (glimpses above) and raised the issue of right to vote
    and adequate representation. After this the British Government
    constituted “Simon Commission” in the year 1928 and send to India to
    review the provisions. Simon Commission promised to consider the demands
    of the rights of this class sympathetically. M K Gandhi immediately
    sensed that untouchables shall have their share in independent India,
    which can destabilise the supremacy of Arya Brahmins. Gandhi and his
    congress immediately gave a call of “Simon go Back” and Lathi Charge was
    carried out under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai.

    EVIDENCE BEFORE

    THE SOUTHBOROUGH COMMITTEE ON FRANCHISE

    ______________________________________________________________________

     

    Examined
    on: 27th January 1919

    From
    the Report of the Reforms Committee (Franchise) Vol. II, 1919
      

     

    The
    Committee was constituted as under: The Rt. Hon. Lord Southborough, G
    .c.b., g.c.v.o., g.c.m.c.

    (Chairman).

    Sir
    Frank G. Sly,
    k.c.s.l, I.C.S. Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan. The Hon’ble Babu Surendranath Banerjea. The Hon’ble Mr. M. N. Hogg. W. M. Hailey, Esq., c.s.I, c.i.e., I.C.S. The
    Hon’ble Mr. Srinivasa Sastri (Not present on 25-1-1919

    and
    27-1-1919). And the following added members : L. C. Crump, Esq., l.c.s. K. Natarajan, Esq. P. C. Tallents, Esq., l.c.s. (Secretary).

    EVIDENCE
    BEFORE THE SOUTHBOROUGH COMMITTEE

    WRITTEN
    STATEMENT

     


    The most difficult and the most momentous question of Government (is) how to transmit the
    force of individual opinion and preference into public action. This is the crux of popular
    institutions.” So says Professor A. B. Hart. But this is only half the definition of popular
    Government. It is therefore necessary to emphasize the other
    half which is equal if not more in importance. As the
    Government is the most important field for the exercise of individual capacities, it is in
    the interest of the people that no person as such should be denied the opportunity of
    actively participating in the process of Government. That is to say popular Government is
    not only Government for the people but by the people. To express the same in a different way, representation of opinions by itself is not
    sufficient to constitute popular Government. To cover its true meaning it requires personal representation as well. It is
    because the former is often found without the latter that the Franchise Committee has to
    see in devising the franchises and constituencies for a popular Government in India, it
    provides for both, i.e., representation of opinions and representation of persons. Any
    scheme of franchise and constituency that fails to bring this about fails to create a
    popular Government.

    2.
    Success in this task will ultimately depend upon the accuracy of the de facto conception of the society which is to be given the
    popular form of Government. De facto India was well portrayed by Lord Dufferin when he described it as a. .
    .


    Population composed of a large number of distinct
    nationalities, professing various religions, practising diverse rites, speaking different languages, while many of them… still further separated from one another by discordant prejudices, by conflicting sources of usages, and
    even antagonistic material interests. But perhaps the most patent characteristic of our
    Indian cosmos is its division into two mighty political communities as distant from each other as the poles apart—On the one hand the
    Hindus—with their elaborate caste distinctions—on the other hand, the Mohammedans—with their social equality. To
    these must be added a host of minor nationalities most of them numbering
    millions—almost as widely differentiated from one
    another by ethnological or political distinctions as are the
    Hindus from the Mohammedans, such as Sikhs, with their warlike habits and traditions and their enthusiastic religious beliefs, the Rohillas, the Pathans, the Assamese, the Baluchis and other
    wild and martial tribes on our frontiers, the hill men dwelling in the folds of the
    Himalayas, our subjects in Burma, Mongol in race and Buddhist
    in religion, the Gonds, Mhars,
    Bheels and other non-Aryan people in the centre and south of
    India, and the enterprising Parsees, with their rapidly developing manufactures and commercial interests. Again, amongst these
    numerous communities may be found, at one and the same moment, all the various stages of civilization through which mankind has passed from the pre-historic ages to the present
    days.”

    3.
    Englishmen have all along insisted that India is unfit for representative Government
    because of the division of her population into castes and creeds. This does not carry
    conviction with the advanced wing of Indian politicians. When they say that there are also
    social divisions in Europe as there are in India they are amply supported by facts. The
    social divisions of India are equalled, if not outdone, in a country like the United
    States of America. Corresponding to those in the former, we
    have in the latter men bonded together in a criminal conspiracy and trust or combinations
    that prey upon the public. Not only are there political sub-divisions but also industrial,
    scientific, and religious associations, differing in their aims and their attitudes towards each other.
    Apart from political parties
    with diverse ends, social sets, cliques and gangs we find in the United States of America
    more permanent divisions of the population such as the Poles, Dutch, Swedes, Germans,
    Russians, etc., each with its own language, religious and moral codes and traditions. If
    social divisions unfit a country for representative
    Government, it should unfit the United States of America as much as India. But if with all
    the social divisions, the United States of America is fit for representative Government, why not India ? Ask the
    Indian politicians, so entrenched, it is difficult to
    dislodge them, and show that the social divisions of India are of a different kind or
    grant them their contention. Without these two there is no third alternative possible.

    4.
    In my opinion their contention cannot be granted for the social divisions of India do matter in politics. How they matter can be best
    shown by understanding when they don’t matter. Men live in a community by virtue of the
    things they have in common. What they must have in common in order to form a community are
    aims, beliefs, aspirations, knowledge, a common understanding;
    or to use the language of the Sociologists, they must be
    like-minded. But how do they come to have these things in common or how do they become
    like-minded? Certainly, rot by sharing with another, as one would do in the case of a piece of cake. To cultivate
    an attitude similar to others or to be like-minded with others is to be in communication
    with them or to participate in their activity. Persons do not become like-minded by merely
    living in physical proximity, any more than they cease to be like-minded by being distant
    from each other. Participation in a group is the only way of being like-minded with the
    group. Each group tends to create its own distinctive type of like-mindedness,
    but where there are more groups than one to be brought into political union, there would
    be conflict among the differently like-minded. And so long
    as the groups remain isolated the conflict is bound to continue and prevent the harmony of
    action. It is the isolation of the groups that is the chief evil. Where the groups allow
    of endosmosis they cease to be evil. For endosmosis among the groups makes
    possible a resocialization of once socialized attitudes. In place of the old, it creates a
    new like-mindedness, which is
    representative of the interests, aims, and aspirations of all the various groups
    concerned. Like-mindedness is essential for a harmonious life, social or political and, as
    has just been shown, it depends upon the extent of communication, participation or
    endosmosis. Applying this test to the divisions in India, we must pronounce upon them as
    constituting an obstacle in the path of realizing a harmonious political life.

    5.
    The groups or divisions each with its set like-mindedness
    that are sure to be in conflict may be given as follows :

    (1)
    Hindus ;

    (2)
    Mohammedans;

    (3)
    Christians;

    (4)
    Parsees,

    (5)
    Jews, etc.

    Except
    the Hindus the rest of the divisions are marked by such complete freedom of communication
    from within that we may expect their members to be perfectly like-minded with respect to
    one another. Regarding the Hindus, however, the analysis must be carried on a little
    farther. The significant fact about the Hindus is that before they are Hindus they are
    members of some caste. The castes are so exclusive and isolated that the consciousness of
    being a Hindu would be the chief guide of a Hindu’s activity towards
    non-Hindu. But as against a Hindu of a different caste his caste-consciousness would be
    the chief guide of activity. From this, it is plain that as between
    two Hindus, caste-like-mindedness is more powerful than the like-mindedness due to their both being Hindus. Thus
    from within the Hindus, as from without, there is likely to be a conflict of like-minded
    persons. There are some who argue that this conflict runs through
    the whole gamut of the caste system.
    But this is protesting too much. From the point of view of communication the Hindus, in spite of castes, divide themselves into two significant
    groups—the touchables and the untouchables. The
               touchables have enough communication between them to enable us
    to say that the conflict of like-mindedness
    so far as they are concerned is not much to be dreaded. But there is a real difference and
    consequent conflict between the like-mindedness of the
    touchables and the untouchables. Untouchability is the
    strongest ban on the endosmosis between them. Their complete isolation
    accounts for the acuteness of the difference of like-mindedness.

    The
    real social divisions of India then are :

    (1)
    Touchable Hindus.

    (2)
    Untouchable Hindus.

    (3)
    Mohammedans.

    (4)
    Christians.

    (5)
    Parsees.

    (6)
    Jews.

    6.
    It will not do good to ignore these real divisions in devising a system of policy, if the
    policy is to take the form of popular Government. But if the success of popular Government
    depends upon how well the constituencies and franchises transmit the social forces and how well they secure personal
    representation; we must first study the form which the
    conflict between these groups will assume in an election.

    7.
    In a territorial constituency, which will group together voters
    belonging to the above groups, a majority of votes will
    declare a candidate to be a representative for the constituency in question. Now the
    question arises : is such a candidate, a true representative
    of the groups, covered by the territorial
    constituency ? Is he a true mirror of the mind of the
    constituency ? Is he a representative of all the interests
    in the constituency ? To be concrete,
    will a Hindu candidate represent Mohammedan interests ? At
    this stage it must be recalled that the various divisions described above are held
    together by a community of interests which are non-secular
    or purely religious. We cannot say that each division is held together by a community of
    interests which are secular or material. If so, then for secular purposes the groups will
    be broken up. From the point of view of material interests, there are no such people as
    Mohammedans, Parsees, Hindus, etc. There will be in each of these groups landlords,
    labourers, capitalists, free traders, protectionists, etc., each of the groups having
    community of interests which are material will be composed of Hindus, Mohammedans, Parsees, etc. Consequently, a Hindu
    candidate can very well represent the material interests of the Mohammedans and vice versa. There is thus no conflict of material
    interest in the main among the communities as such. If we suppose that religious interests
    in future will occupy a subordinate place in the affairs of men, the secular interests of
    a group can be well represented by a candidate from another group.

    8.
    From this point of view a territorial constituency will be sufficient for a popular Government. A little more
    consideration will show that it will be sufficient for only one-half the definition of
    popular Government. How true it is, will be shown presently.
    In an electoral fight between the various groups in a territorial constituency the voters
    will discriminate in favour of a candidate with whom they are in sympathy. But with whom
    they will be in sympathy is determined for them in advance. Given two candidates belonging
    to different groups but purporting to represent the same interest, the voters will mart their votes on the person belonging to the same community.
    Any group yielding a large number of electors will have its own candidate elected. This
    discrimination on the part of the voters, though it may not leave unrepresented the
    interests of the members of the minor groups, leaves them without any chance of personal
    representation.

    9.
    To those who are busy in devising schemes for the proper and
    adequate representation of interests and opinions dilating
    on the importance of personal representation is likely to seem idle. But personal
    representation is not therefore unimportant. In recent times
    Government for the people has claimed more attention
    than Government by the people “. In fact there are instances to show that Government for the people
    can exist in the best sense of the phrase without there being a Government by the people.”.
    Yet all political theorists will unanimously condemn such a form of Government. And the
    why of it is important to know. It will be granted that each kind of association, as it is an educative environment, exercises a formative
    influence on the active dispositions of its members. Consequently, what one is as a person
    is what one is as associated with others. A Government for the people, but not by the
    people, is sure to educate some into masters and others into subjects; because it is by the reflex effects of association that one
    can feel and measure the growth of personality. The growth of personality
    is the highest aim of society. Social arrangement must
    secure free initiative and opportunity to every individual
    to assume any role he is capable of assuming provided it is socially desirable. A new rule
    is a renewal and growth of personality. But when an association—and a Government is after all an association—is such that in it
    every role cannot be assumed by all, it tends to develop the personality of the few at the
    cost of the many—a result scrupulously to be avoided in
    the interest of Democracy. To be specific, it is not enough to be electors only. It is
    necessary to be lawmakers; otherwise who can be lawmakers
    will be masters of those who can only be electors.

    10.
    Territorial constituencies are therefore objected to, and rightly,
    on the ground that they do nothing to prevent this absurd
    outcome. They erroneously suppose that electors will vote on
    the programmes of the candidates without any regard for their persona. As a matter of
    fact, the electors before they are electors are primarily members of a group. The persona
    of the candidates does matter with them. Naturally,
    therefore, as members of a group they prefer the candidate who belongs to their group to
    another candidate who does not belong to their group though both of them claim to
    represent the same interest. As a result of this preference the electors of a large group are destined to rise to a higher position of becoming
    eventual lawmakers, while the electors of a smaller group for no fault of theirs are
    doomed to a lower position of remaining electors. One crux of popular Government is the
    representation of interests and opinions. The other crux is
    personal representation. Territorial constituencies fail to create popular Government
    because they fail to secure personal representation to members of minor groups.

    11. If this is a correct analysis
    as to how the social divisions operate to the prejudice of the political life of some
    communities, never was a more improper remedy advocated to meet the situation than
    proportional representation. Proportional representation is
    intended to give proportionate representation to views. It presupposes that voters vote
    for a candidate because of his views and not because of his persona. Proportional
    representation is ill suited for the purpose in hand.

    12.
    We have therefore two possible methods of meeting the situation:
    either to reserve seats in plural constituencies for those
    minorities that cannot otherwise secure personal representation or grant communal
    electorates. Both have their usefulness. So far as the representation of the Mohammedans
    is concerned, it is highly desirable that they should participate in a general election
    with seats reserved for them in plural constituencies. The angularity of the division that separates the Hindus and Mohammedans is already sharp and
    communal representation, it may be urged, sharpens it the
    more. Communal election, however, seems to be a settled fact, so far as the Mohammedans
    are concerned and nothing is likely to alter it, even though alteration is likely to be
    beneficial.

    13.
    But this argument is mainly intended to concern itself with the representation of the
    Hindus in general, and of the untouchable Hindus in particular. The discussion of the
    representation of the Hindus may be best introduced by a quotation which expresses the newer consciousness that has arisen in the
    various Hindu groups. It is said :

    “A
    community may claim representation only on the ground of separate interests which require
    protection. In India, such interests are of three kinds only :
    either they arise out of religious antipathies which are pretty strong in India, or out of
    the backward state of a community in educational matters, or out of the socio-religious disabilities to which a community may be
    subject. Confining ourselves to the Hindu communities there are certain communities who,
    besides being very backward,
    are suffering under a great social tyranny. The untouchable
    classes must have their own men in the Council
    Hall to fight for the redress of their grievances. The non-Brahmins
    as a class are subjected to the social and intellectual domination
    of the Brahmin priesthood and may therefore rightly advocate separate
    representation.”

    14.
    From this it will be seen that the-
    new consciousness among the Hindus while acknowledging the separate interests of the
    untouchables does not accept the position that the touchable
    Hindus form a group by themselves. The new consciousness insists on dividing the touchable
    group into Brahmins and non-Brahmins each with its own
    separate interests. Separate electorates or reserved seats
    in mixed electorates are demanded for the three groups in which the Hindus are divided.
    Before dealing with the problems of the representation of the untouchables something will be said on the question of the Brahmins
    and non-Brahmins.

    15.
    That the non-Brahmins are backward in educational
    matters cannot be said in any way to be their special
    interest. It is the general interest of all even of those
    Brahmins who are educationally backward. “The intellectual and social domination of
    the Brahmins is not a matter that affects the non-Brahmins alone. It affects all and it is therefore the interest of all. What remains then
    as a special interest for the non-Brahmins to require their protection ?

    The
    case for separate representation for non-Brahmins fails because they cannot prove to have
    a common non-Brahmin interest.

    16.
    But do they fail to secure personal representation ? This
    can be best shown by reference to figures—

     

    Group
    1

     

     

    Group
    11

     

    Caste
    of Local Board voters

    No.
    of voters for the Local Boards of the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur and Dharwar

    Total
    population of the three districts

    No.
    of voters for the Local Boards of the districts of Ratnagiri
    and Kolaba

    Total
    population of the two districts

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    Brahmins

    4,600

    85,739

    4,477

    89,786

    Lingayats

    12,730

    933,123

    ….

    ,…

    Marathas

    1,074

    255,526

    3,667

    446,077

    Mahars

    22

    196,751

    33

    138,738

    Mohammedans

    661

    295,838

    1,169

    106,273

    Others
    Total ..

    4,241

    1,065,821

    2,837

    1,016,930

     

    23,328

    2,832,798

    12,183

    1,797,804

     

    Reducing
    the above figures to the basis of a thousand we have the following interesting result:

     

    Group
    1

    Group
    11

    Names
    of Castes

    Proportion
    of population of a caste to every thousand of the population covered

    Proportion
    of
      voters of a caste to every thousand of the
    population of the same caste

    Proportion
    of voters of a caste to every thousand of voters

    Proportion
    of population of a caste to every thousand of the population covered

    Proportion
    of voters of a caste to every thousand of the population of the same caste

    Proportion
    of voters of a caste to every thousand of voters

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    Brahmins

     30.2

    53.7

    197-2

    50-8

    49-8

    367-4

    Lingayats

     329.4

    13-6

    545-7

     

     

     

    Marathas

     90.2

    4-2

    46-0

    248-8

    8-2

    300-9

    Mahars

     69.5

    0-1

    0-9

    74-5

    0-2

    2-7

    Mohammedans

     104.4

    2-2

    28-3

    59-2

    10-9

    95-9

    Others

     376.2

    3-9

    181-3

    562-2

    2.,8

    232-8

    So
    arranged, the conclusions to be drawn from these figures are highly important.

    (1)
    The Brahmins, given a uniform franchise for all, though a small minority so far as numbers are concerned becomes a majority so far as the total of
    voters is concerned as is the case in Group II.

    (2)
    Though with an uniform franchise the non-Brahmin communities
    like the Lingayats and Marathas do not fail to figure on the voters’ list, the proportion
    of their voters to their population is insignificant as compared with the proportion which
    the Brahmin voters bear to the Brahmin population.

    17.
    The proportion of the Brahmins to their voters is really extravagant. It is justified
    neither by faith in them nor by their own numbers. The Lingayats though they can
    legitimately complain that the proportion of their voters is small will succeed in securing personal representation. The Marathas though larger in
    numbers than the Brahmins, besides the very small proportion of their voters suffer on the
    voters’ list and very likely will fail to secure personal representation for themselves.

    So
    argued, the case for special provision of the Marathas can be sustained and should
    be admitted.

    18.
    The question is in what form the provision should take. In my opinion such provision instead of taking the form of separate electorates of
    reserved seats should take the form of a low-pitched franchise. The franchise for the non-Brahmin should be lower than that for the Brahmin. By this
    arrangement the Marathas would
    improve their position on the voters’ list and the altogether favoured position of the
    Brahmin would be equalized. It is in the interest of all that the Brahmin should not play
    such a preponderant part in politics as he has been doing hitherto. He has exerted a
    pernicious influence on the social life of the country and it is in the interest of all
    that his pernicious influence should be kept at a minimum in politics. As he is the most
    exclusive he is most anti-social.

    19.
    Even the authors of the report on constitutional reforms are not in favour of a limited or
    uniform franchise. They say, We consider that the
    limitations of the franchise, which it is obviously desirable to make as broad as
    possible, should be determined rather with reference to practical difficulties than to any
    prior considerations as to the degree of education or amount
    of income which may be held to constitute a qualification. It is possible that owing to
    unequal distribution of population and wealth it may be necessary to differentiate the
    qualifications for a vote not merely between provinces, but between different parts of the
    same province (P. 147)
    To this I should like to add that we should differentiate the qualifications for a vote
    not merely between provinces or parts thereof but between communities of the same
    province. Without this differentiation some communities with a small but wealthy or
    educated population will secure more votes than a large community consisting of poor and
    uneducated members. Uniformity in franchise should be dispensed with. An important result
    will be that communal representation or reservation of seats for some non-Brahmin
    communities who are now clamouring for it would be avoided.

    20.
    The untouchables are usually regarded as objects of pity but they are ignored in any
    political scheme on the score that they have no interests lo protect. And yet their
    interests are the greatest. Not that they have large property to protect from
    confiscation. But they have their very persona
    confiscated. The socio religious disabilities have
    dehumanised the untouchables and their interests at stake are therefore the interests of
    humanity. The interests of property are nothing before such primary interests.

    21.
    If one agrees with the definition of slave as given by Plato, who defines him as one who
    accepts from another the purposes which control his conduct,
    the untouchables are really slaves. The untouchables are so socialized as never to
    complain of their low estate. Still less do they ever dream of trying to improve their
    lot, by forcing the other classes to treat them with that common respect which one man
    owes to another. The idea that they have been born to their lot is so ingrained in their
    mind that it never occurs to them to think that their fate is anything but irrevocable.
    Nothing will ever persuade them that men are all made of the same clay, or that they have
    the right to insist on better treatment than that meted out to them.

    22.
    The exact description of the treatment cannot be attempted. The word untouchable is an
    epitome of their ills and sufferings. Not only has untouchability
    arrested the growth of their personality but also it comes in the way of their material
    well being. It has also deprived them of certain civil rights. For instance, in Konkan the untouchables are prohibited from using the public
    road. If some high caste man happens to cross him, he has to be out of the way and stand
    at such a distance that his shadow will not fall on the high caste man. The untouchable is
    not even a citizen. Citizenship is a bundle of rights such as (1) personal liberty, (2)
    personal security, (3) rights to hold private property, (4) equality before law, (5) liberty of conscience, (6) freedom of opinion and
    speech, (7) right of assembly, (8) right of representation in a country’s Government and (9) right to hold office under the State. The
    British Government by gradual growth may be said to have conceded these rights at least in
    theory to its Indian subjects. The right of representation and the right to hold office
    under the State are the two most important rights that make up citizenship. But the untouchability of
    the untouchables puts these rights far beyond their reach. In a few places they do not
    even possess such insignificant rights as personal liberty
    and personal security, and equality before law is not always assured to them. These are
    the interests of the untouchables. And as can be easily seen they can be represented by
    the untouchables alone. They are distinctively their own interests and none else can truly
    voice them. A free trade interest can be voiced by a Brahmin, a Mohammedan or a Maratha equally well. But none of
    these can speak for the interests of the untouchables because they are not untouchables.
    Untouchability constitutes a definite set of interests which the untouchables alone can
    speak for. Hence it is evident that we must find the untouchables to represent their
    grievances which are their interests and, secondly, we must find them in such numbers as
    will constitute a force sufficient to claim redress.

    23.
    Now, will a general territorial electorate provided for the
    adequate return of the untouchables to the law-making body ?
    Referring back to the figures we find that the untouchables (represented in the table by the Mahars), though they formed
    69.4 in every thousand of the population, did not claim even a voter from their class.
    Under such circumstances it is impossible for them to elect their
    own man in a general
    electorate. On the other hand they must despair of any votes being cast by the touchable Hindus for
    an untouchable candidate. The gradation of castes produces a
    certain theological basis which cuts the untouchables both ways : in
    the minds of the lower orders it creates a preference for the higher orders while it creates a contempt for the lower orders in the minds of the higher
    orders. Thus the ascending scale of preference and the descending scale of hatred and
    contempt beggars the untouchables both ways. Without giving a single vole to the
    untouchables the touchables are sure to make a large draft
    on the already meagre voting strength of the untouchables.

    24.
    So situated, the untouchables with the largest interests at stake will be the greatest
    sufferers in a general territorial electorate. To give them an opening, special provision
    shall have to be made for their adequate representation. But before a scheme can be outlined it is necessary to see how much is the untouchable population in the Bombay Presidency. The Census Report for the Bombay
    Presidency for the year 1911 gives the following figures for
    castes which cause pollution “:

     

    Bhungis

    93,691

    Chamars,
    Mochis, Machigars

    306,478

    Sochis,
    Mhars, Holiyas Dheds

    1,470,992

    Mangs,
    Madigs

    274,037

    Total

    2,145,193

    To
    this must be added the Dhors amounting to

    13,506

    TOTAL
    UNTOUCHABLES

    2,158,699

     

     The following figures give the distribution of the
    untouchables by districts:

     

    District

    Total
    population 1911

    Total
    Hindu population

    Total
    untouchable Population

    Percentage of untouchables to the total population

    Percentage of untouchables to the
    Hindu population

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    British
    Districts (exclu ding Aden).-

    19.628,477

    14,920,267

    1,627,980

    8

    10.9

    1.
    Bombay City

    979,445

    664,042

    89,052

    9

    11.6

    Northern
    Division ..

    3,685,383

    3,117,263

    245,050

    6.6

    7.8

    2.
    Ahmadabad

    827,809

    693,155

    78,869

    10

    11.4

    3.
    Broach

    306,717

    192,935

    22,390

    7

    11.6

    4.
    Kaira

    691,744

    598,164

    41,497

    5.9

    6.9

    5.
    Panch Mahals

    332,695

    274,339

    14,410

    4

    5

    6.
    Surat

    654,109

    571,745

    36,509

    5.6

    6

    7.
    Thana

    882,309

    786,925

    50,010

    5.6

    6

    Central
    Division ..

    6,387,064

    5,998.828

    7,73,184

    12

    13

    8.
    Ahmednagar

    945,305

    855,676

    116,929

    12

    13.6

    9.
    Khandesh (East) . .

    1,034,886

    902,131

    112,391

    10.8

    .12

    10.
    Khandesh (West) . .

    580,723

    474,200

    36,809

    6

    7.7

    11.
    Nasik

    905,030

    843,705

    97,740

    10.7

    11

    12.
    Poona

    1,071,512

    991,725

    113,118

    12.4

    13.3

    13.
    Satara

    1,081,278

    1,028,176

    144,688

    13

    14

    14.
    Sholapur

    768,330

    703,215

    125,063

    16.7

    18

    Southern
    Division..

    5,061,150

    4,502,708

    385,470

    7.6

    8.5

    15.
    Belgaum

    943,320

    817,797

    83,199

    8.8

    10.1

    16.
    Bijapur

    862,973

    757,542

    80,501,

    9

    10.6

    17.
    Dharwar

    1,026,005

    872,885

    52.540

    5

    6

    18.
    Kanara

    430,548

    383,624

    10,767

    2.4

    2.9

    19.
    Kolaba

    594,156

    560,266

    51,108

    8.5

    91

    20.
    Ratnagiri

    1,203,638

    1,110,594

    107,354

    8.9

    9.7

    Sind (British
    Districts)

    3,513,435

    837,426

    135,224

    3.8

    16

     

    25. The total population of the Bombay
    Presidency by the Census of 1911 (British districts only) is
    19,626,477. Of this the untouchable population is 1,627,980 or 8 per
    cent of the total. Assuming for the present the Bombay Legislative Council to consist of
    100 elected members, the untouchables should have 8
    representatives to represent them in the Council. If we
    distribute one representative to every 200,000 of the people
    (which is just the ratio of 100 representatives to the 20 millions of the population), then the untouchables can by right claim 8 representatives to
    themselves. But the untouchables
    of the Bombay Presidency may be allowed to elect 9 members in all. The election of one
    additional member will be justified later on.

    26.
    Allowing them to elect 9 members, the constituencies which
    are to elect them should be as follows:

    The
    various districts of the Presidency except the City of
    Bombay and the Province of Sind
    should be grouped together on a linguistic basis as follows:

     

     

    I. Gujarathi-speaking districts II. Marathi-speaking
    districts III. Kaparese-speaking districts

     

     

     

     

     

    1. Ahmedabad

     78,969 1. Thana

     50,010 1. Dharwar   52.540

     

    2. Broach

     22,390 2. Kolaba

     51,108 2. Bijapur   80,503

     

    3. Kaira

     41,497 3. Ratnagiri

     107,354  3.
    Belgaum   83,199

     

    4. Panch Mahals

     14,410 4. Ahmednagar

     116,929  4.
    Kanara   10,758

     

    5. Surat

     36,509 5. KhandeshWest

     36,809

     

     

    6. Khandesh East.

     112,391

     

     

    7. Satara

     144,738

     

     

    8. Poona

     148,118

     

     

    9. Nasik

     96,740

     

     

    10. Sholapur

     129,063

     

    should elect:

     

     

     

    Language District

    Population in
    each district

    Population in  Number of constitency     the
    constituency

    Number of representatives to be elected by the constituency

    1 2

    3

    4 5

    6

     

     

     

     

    Bombay City

    89,052

    89,052 1

    1

     1. Ahmedabad

    78,869

     

     

    2. Broach I. Gujarathi  3. Kaira

    22,390 41,497

    193,675 11

    1

    1 4. Panch Mahals

    14,410

     

     

     5. Surat

    36,509.1

     

     

     1. Thana

    50,010

     

     

     

    2. Kolaba

    51,108

     

    208,472 III

    1

     

    3. Ratnagiri

    107,354

     

     

     

     

    4. Ahmednagar

    116,929

     

     

     

    11. Marathi

    5. Khandesh East 6. Khandesh West

    112,391 36,809

     

    363,869 IV

    2

     

    7. Nasik

    97,740

     

     

     

     

    8. Satara

    144,688

     

     

     

     

    9. Poona

    133,118

     

    406,869 V

    2

     

    10. Sholapur

    129,063

     

     

     

     

    1. Belgaum

    83,199

     

     

    III. Kanarese

    2. Bijapur 3. Dharwar

    80,501  52,540

    227,007 VI

     

     

    4. Kanara

    10,767

     

     

    Sind

    135,224

    135,224 VII

    1

    Total number
    of representatives to be elected by the untouchables

    of the Presidency.

     

                       

     

     

    These
    9 elected members should form a constituency to elect one member from among themselves to represent the untouchables of this
    Presidency in the Imperial Legislative Council.

    28.
    It may be objected that though 8 representatives are not in excess to the untouchable
    population it may be in excess to the voting strength of untouchables. That the
    untouchables are a poor community and that under the same franchise they yield per
    thousand a smaller proportion of voters than other communities is a fact. But if the grave
    position of the untouchables is admitted instead of
    restricting their number of representatives, the aim should be to increase the number of
    their voters, i.e., we must aim at lowering the franchise so
    far as the untouchables are concerned.

    29.
    What the franchise should be is a very important question. There is a line of argument which urges that franchise should be given to those only who can be expected to make an intelligent use
    of it. As against this view it can be said in the words of Prof.
    L. T. Hobhouse that it is true that
    the success of democracy depends on the response of voters to the opportunities given
    them. But conversely the opportunities must be given in order to call forth the response.
    The exercise of popular Government is itself all education.
    enfranchisement itself may precisely be the stimulus needed
    to awaken interest
       The ballot alone
    effectively liberates the quiet citizen from the tyranny of the shouter
    and the wire-puller. An impression of existing inertness alone is not a sufficient reason
    for with-holding responsible
    Government or restricting the area of suffrage.” Taking into consideration that
    suffrage is an education and that there are groups with unequal distribution of wealth and
    education among them and that these groups are not sympathetically
    like-minded, the authors of the reports rightly argue that the case for uniformity of
    franchise cannot be sustained.

    30.
    But in the case of the untouchables there are as few reasons
    for curtailing the number of their representatives, as the reasons for widening their
    electorate are many. If under a given franchise the untouchables do not muster strong as
    electors, it is not their fault. The very untouchability attached
    to their person is a bar to their moral and material progress. The principal modes of
    acquiring wealth are trade, industry or service. The untouchables can engage in none of
    these because of their untouchability. From an untouchable trader no Hindu will buy. An
    untouchable cannot be engaged in lucrative service. Military service had been the monopoly
    of the untouchables since the days of the East India
    Company. They had joined the Army in such large numbers that the Marquis Tweedledale in his note which he submitted to the Indian Army
    Commission of 1859 wrote.
      It should never be forgotten that India was conquered
    with the help of the low-caste men.”. But after the
    mutiny when the British were able to secure soldiers from the ranks of
    the Marathas, the position of the low-caste men who had been
    the prop of the Bombay Army became precarious, not because the Marathas
    were better soldiers but because their theological bias prevented them from serving under
    low-caste officers. The prejudice was so strong that even the non-caste British had to
    stop recruitment from the untouchable classes. In like manner, the untouchables are
    refused service in the Police Force. In a great many of the
    Government offices it is impossible for an untouchable to get a place. Even in the mills a
    distinction is observed. The untouchables are not admitted in Weaving Departments of the
    Cotton Mills though many of them are professional weavers. An instance at hand may be
    cited from the school system of the Bombay Municipality. This most cosmopolitan city ruled
    by a Corporation with a greater freedom than any other Corporation in India has two
    different sets of schools . one for the children of touchables
    and the other for those of the untouchables., This in itself is a point worthy of note. But there is something yet more
    noteworthy. Following the division of schools it has divided its teaching staff into untouchables and touchables. As the untouchable teachers
    are short of the demand, some of the untouchable schools are manned by teachers from the touchable class. The heart-killing fun of it is that if there
    is a higher grade open in untouchable school service, as there is bound to be because of a
    few untouchable trained teachers, a touchable teacher can be thrust into the grade. But if
    a higher grade is open in the touchable school service, no untouchable teacher can be
    thrust into that grade. He must wait till a vacancy occurs
    in the untouchable service !!! Such is the ethics of the
    Hindu social life. Under it if the untouchables are poor,
    the committee, it may be hoped, will not deny them representation because of their small
    electoral roll but will see its way to grant them adequate representation to enable the
    untouchables to remove the evil conditions that bring about their poverty. At present when
    all the avenues of acquiring wealth are closed, it is unwise to require from the
    untouchables a high property qualification. To deny them the opportunities of acquiring
    wealth and then to ask from them a property qualification is to add insult to injury. Just
    what sort of franchise and just what pitch are required to produce sufficient voting
    strength from the untouchables ? In absence of data, I leave
    it to the Committee to decide. It would be better to pitch the franchise so low as to
    educate into political life as many untouchables as possible. They are too degraded to be
    conscious of themselves. I only wish to emphasize that in deciding upon the representation of the untouchables the
    Committee looking to their interests at stake will not let the extent of the electorate
    govern the number of representatives, but will rather let the number
    of representatives govern the extension of the electorate.

    31.
    In this connection it would not be improper to remind the Committee of Lord Morley who is reported to have said that the object of Government
    was that the Legislative Councils should represent truly and effectively with reasonable
    approach to the balance of real social forces, the wishes and needs of the communities
    concerned. This could not be done by Algebra, Arithmetic,
    Geometry or Logic, but by a wide outlook. He saw no harm as
    to a compromise that while numbers should be the main factor
    in determining the extent of representation modifying causes might influence the number of
    representatives” It is therefore proposed that the untouchables
    of the Bombay Presidency should be allowed to elect 9 members through the constituencies made up as above.
    These 9 members will further form a constituency to elect one member from among themselves
    to represent the untouchables in the Imperial Legislative Council leaving 8 members to
    represent the untouchables in the Bombay Legislative
    Council.

    32.
    Besides communal electorates there are other schemes in the field for the representation of the
    untouchables. It would not be proper to close this statement without a word of comment on
    those Schemes.

    33.
    The Congress has denied communal representation except in
    the case of Mohammedans and it also denies the extensive use
    of nomination ‘, the only way then left open to the
    untouchables is to fight in a general electorate. Now this is as it should be if all were
    equally free to fight. To educate the untouchables by Shahtras into pro-touchables and
    the touchables into anti-untouchables and then to propose
    that the two should fight out at an open poll is to betray signs of mental aberration or a
    mentality fed on cunning. But it must never be forgotten
    that the Congress is largely composed of men who are by
    design political Radicals and social Tories. Their chant is that the social
    and the political are two distinct things having no bearing on each other. To them the
    social and the political are two suits and can be worn one
    at a time as the season demands. Such a psychology has to be laughed at because it is too
    interested to be seriously taken into consideration either for acceptance or for
    rejection. As it pays to believe in it, it will die a hard
    death. Starting from this unnatural premise the Congress activities have been quite
    natural. Those who attend the Congress do not care to attend the National Social
    Conference held in the same pandal. In fact those who attend
    the Congress had once started a campaign to refuse the use of the pandal to the Conference
    which was once refused the pandal in the city of Poona, the roosting place of the intelligentsia of our
    Presidency, As the Congress is a non-national or antinational body, its views on communal
    electorates are worthy of no serious consideration.

    34.
    The moderates in their separate meeting have been more kindly than just. They proposed the reservation of seats for
    backward communities in plural constituencies. They have not specified the number of seats
    for the untouchables. But the general sense of many enlightened moderates and others
    kindly inclined is that one or two representatives of the untouchables in the Legislative Council would suffice. It is impossible
    to agree with these gentlemen though they are entitled to gratitude for this much
    sympathy. One or two representatives of the untouchables are as good as having none.

    A
    Legislative Council is not an old curiosity shop. It will be
    a Council with powers to make or mar the fortunes of society. How can one or two
    untouchables carry a legislative measure to improve their
    condition or prevent a legislative measure worsening their
    state ? To be frank, the untouchables cannot expect much
    good from the political power to be given over to the high
    caste Hindus. Though the power may not be used against the untouchables and one cannot be altogether sure of this, it may not be used for their
    betterment. A Legislative Council may be sovereign to do anything it likes, but what it
    will like to do depends upon its own character. The English Parliament, we may be certain,
    though it is sovereign to do anything, will not make the
    preservation of blue-eyed babies illegal. The Sultan will
    not, though he can, change the religion of Mohammed just as the Pope will not, though he
    can, overthrow the religion of Christ. In the same way legislature, mainly composed of
    high caste men, will not pass a law removing untouchability,
    sanctioning inter-marriages,
    removing the ban on the use of public streets, public temples, public schools; in short, cleansing the person of the untouchables. This is
    not because they cannot, but chiefly because they will not. A legislature is the product
    of a certain social condition and its power is determined by
    whatever determines society. This is too obvious to be denied. What may happen in future
    can be guessed from what has happened in the past. The high caste men in the Council do
    not like any social question being brought before the legislature, as may be seen from the fact of the Resolution introduced by the
    Honourable Mr. Dadabhoy in 1916 in the Imperial Legislative
    Council. That it was adversely criticized by many who claimed to evince some interest in
    the untouchables is too well known to need repetition. But what is not well known is that
    though the resolution was lost the mover was not pardoned; for
    the very moving of such a nasty resolution was regarded as a sin. At a subsequent election
    the mover had to make room for the Honourable Mr. Khaparde,
    who once wrote in an article : “Those who work for the
    elevation of the untouchables are themselves degraded.”.

    Isn’t
    this sympathy of the higher castes for the untouchables, sympathy with a vengeance ?

    35.
    Those who tell that one or two members would suffice for the untouchables fail to grasp
    the true import of political right. The chief import of a political
    right though technically summed up in the power to vote does
    lie either in voting upon for laws or for those who make
    laws; neither does it consist in the right to speak for or
    against a certain measure nor in being able to say
    yea or nay upon roll-call;
    to be able to put into a ballot-box a piece of paper with a number
    of names written thereon is an act which, like those mentioned above, of itself possesses no value which stamps it as inherently superior to many of the most ordinary
    transactions of daily life. They
    are educative but as much as any transaction is. The chief significance of suffrage or a political
    right consists in a chance for active and direct participation in the regulation of the
    terms upon which associated life shall be sustained. Now the terms upon which the
    associated life between the touchables
    and untouchables is carried on today are the most ignominious to the former and highly detrimental
    to the latter. To make effective the capacities of a people there must be the power to fix the social conditions
    of their exercise. If the conditions are too obdurate. it is in the interest of the untouchables as well as of the touchables that the conditions should
    be revised. The untouchables must be in a position to influence the revision. Looking to
    the gravity of their interests, they should get their representation as proposed in
    proportion to their population. One or two is only kind but neither just nor sufficient.
    As Lord Morley says in an earlier quotation, needs not
    numbers should govern the extent of representations.’.

    36.
    Recently there is brought into the forefront a rival scheme for the representation of the
    untouchables by the Depressed Class Mission. The scheme is known as co-option. The scheme
    proposes that the representatives of the untouchables should be nominated by the co-option
    of the elected members of the Council. Whether one should laugh or cry at the solicitude
    of the Mission for the untouchables it is rather difficult to decide. To cry is to believe
    that such a silly scheme would ever be adopted. The best way is to laugh it out. From the
    scheme can be easily seen that what is sometimes called benevolent interest in others may
    be an unwilling mask for an attempt to dictate to them what their good shall be, instead
    of an endeavour to agree with them so that they may seek and find the good of their own
    choice. The Mission, it must be said, was started with the intention of improving the
    condition of the Depressed Classes by emancipating them from the social tyranny of their high caste masters. But the Mission has fallen on such
    bad times that it is forced to advocate a scheme by which its wards or their representatives will be bounden slaves of their
    past masters. The masters and the mission have thus met and evolved
    a scheme which will keep the Depressed classes eternally depressed without any hope of
    deliverance. Such tactics do not deceive the untouchables
    ignorant as they are; much less will they deceive the
    Franchise Committee. From another point of view the scheme
    of the Mission is unacceptable. It is aggravating to see the Mission proposing a scheme
    for the representation of the untouchables while persistently refusing to admit an
    untouchable in its governing council. Interested and
    officious as it is. its scheme must be rejected.

    37.
    Nomination even though by Government in itself to be preferred to the former kind of
    nomination, is to be objected to from the standpoint of the untouchables. Apart from
    restricting the freedom of the representatives it fails to give political education which
    is the urgent need of all communities, much more of the
    untouchables.

    38.
    At this stage we must consider the argument against communal representation. The first
    argument raised by the authors of the report is to the
    effect that the history of self-government among the
    nations who have developed it is decisively against
    communal representation. But on an earlier page the authors say that the difference of
    caste and creeds must be taken into account as
    presenting a feature of Indian Society which is out of harmony with the ideas on which
    elsewhere in the world representative institutions rest” (page 97). In writing the
    former the later analysis of the situation must have vanished from their minds, else we
    must say that the authors could hold two opposing views at the same time. Presented in
    juxtaposition, the authors must be expected to agree to communal representation on the score of an exceptional remedy required to meet an
    exceptional situation.

    39.
    Another and chief argument against communal representation is that it will perpetuate social divisions. The fun of it is that those who uphold the social divisions are the loudest in their
    expression of this adverse argument. The committee will
    please note that those who are the opponents of communal representation on this score are
    also the staunchest opponents of Mr. Patel’s Inter-Caste Marriage Bill
    as a caste-breaking bill. The sincerity of those who bring forward this argument is
    seriously to be doubted. But as even the authors of the report have put it as a second
    count against communal representation, this particular argument must be met if possible.

    Does
    communal representation perpetuate social divisions ? If you
    look upon communal representation as making electoral Colleges
    of social divisions, the criticism may be said to be valid.
    This is true only if it is presupposed that the divisions are no real divisions and that they don’t matter. This is as false a pre-supposition
    as that of inviting India which is made when it is said that Englishmen are unsocial.
    Communal Representation is a device to ward off the evil effects of the divisions. To those who, while agreeing to this
    particular benefit of communal representation, object to it on the score that it perpetuates the
    divisions it can be shown that there is another perspective from which it can be said that communal representation instead of perpetuating the social divisions is one of
    the ways of dissolving them.

    40.
    While communal electorates will be co-terminus
    with social divisions their chief effect will be to bring together men from diverse castes
    who would not otherwise mix together into the Legislative Council. The Legislative Council will thus become a new cycle of participation in which the
    representatives of various castes who were erstwhile isolated and therefore anti-social will be thrown into an associated life. An active participation
    in an associated life, in its turn, will not leave unaffected the dispositions and
    attitudes of those who participate. A caste or a religious group to day is a certain
    attitude. So long as each caste or a group remains isolated its attitude remains
    fossilized. But the moment the several castes and groups begin to have contact and co-operation with one another the resocialization
    of the fossilized attitude is bound to be the result. If the Hindus become resocialized with regard to their attitude towards Mohammedans, Christians, etc., and the Mohammedans,
    Christians, etc., become resocialized with regard to their attitudes towards the Hindus,
    or the touchable Hindus with regard to the untouchables,
    caste and divisions will vanish. If caste is an attitude and it is nothing else, it must
    be said to be dissolved when that particular attitude symbolizing the caste is dissolved.
    But the existing set attitude representing the diverse
    castes and groups will be dissolved only if the diverse groups meet together and take part in a common activity. Such changes of disposition and
    attitudes will not be ephemeral but will, in their turn influence
    associated life outside the Council Hall. The more opportunities are created for such conjoint
    activities the better. The resocialization will
    then be on a larger scale and bring about a speedier end of caste and groups. Thus those
    who condemn communal representation on the score of perpetuating the existing divisions
    will welcome it, on reflection, as a potent solvent for
    dissolving them.

    41.
    The importance and necessity of communal and adequate representation of untouchables is beyond question. The depth of emotion with which the untouchables speak on this topic must have been easily gauged when the untouchables of
    the Madras Presidency told Mr. Montague that there would be
    bloodshed if Home Rule for India was not accompanied by
    communal representation to the untouchables. The authors of the Report however are actuated
    by a faith in the intelligentsia
    to effect all reforms for the elevation of the untouchables from permanent degradation and ostracism. They say they find the educated Indian organizing effort not for
    political ends alone but for various forms of public and social service.” As the authors have connived at the demands of the untouchables on this score it is but proper to investigate
    whether their faith is well grounded. On education and its social value the words of Joseph Addison are not too stale to be
    recalled. He said, There can be no greater injury to
    human society than that good Talents among men should be held Honourable to those who are
    endowed with them without any regard how they are applied. The Gifts of Nature and the
    Accomplishments of Art are valuable
    but as they are exerted in the interest of virtue or governed by the Rules of Honour, we
    ought to abstract our minds from the observation of an excellence in those we converse
    with, till we have taken some notice or received some good information of the Disposition
    of their Minds, otherwise they make us fond of those whom our reason and judgment will tell us we ought to abhor.”

    42.
    Statistics will show that the intelligentsia and the Brahmin caste are exchangeable terms.
    The disposition of the intelligentsia is a Brahmin disposition. Its outlook is a Brahmin
    outlook. Though he has learned to speak in the name of all,
    the Brahmin leader is in no sense a leader of the people. He is a leader of his caste at
    best, for he feels them as he does for no other people. It is not intended to say that
    there are no Brahmins who feel for the untouchables. To be
    just, there are a few more moderate and rational Brahmins who admit the frightful nature
    of the institution of untouchability in the abstract and
    perceive the dangers to society with which it is fraught. But the great majority of the
    Brahmins are those who doggedly deny the horrors of the
    system in the teeth of such a mass of evidence as never was brought to bear on any other
    subject and to which the experience of every day contributes its immense amount; who, when they speak of freedom, mean the freedom to oppress
    their kind and to be savage, merciless and cruel, and whose inalienable rights can only
    have their growth in the wrongs of the untouchables Their delicate gentility will neither
    bear the Englishmen as superior nor will it brook the untouchables as equal. I will not tolerate a man above me, and of those below
    none must approach too near sums up the true spirit
    of their social as well as political creed. Those who speak against the anti-social spirit
    of the Brahmin leaders are often cautioned that in their denunciation they do not pay
    sufficient regard to the existence of the first class of Brahmin leaders. This is no doubt
    the case. Noble but very rare instances of personal and pecuniary sacrifice may be found
    among them just as may be found to be tender in the exercise of their unnatural power.
    Still it is to be feared that this injustice is inseparable from the state of things with
    which humanity and truth are invoked to deal. The miserable state of the untouchables is
    not a bit more tolerable because some tender hearts are bound to show sympathy, nor can
    the indignant tide of honest wrath stand still because in its course it overwhelms a few who are comparatively innocent among a host of guilty.

    43.
    The trend of nationalism in India does not warrant us to believe that the few who are
    sympathetic will grow in volume. On the other hand it is the host of guilty that time is
    sure to multiply. With the growth of political agitation, the agitation for social reform
    has subsided and has even vanished The Prarthana Samaj, the Brahmo Samaj with their elevating influence have become things of the
    past. The future has few things like these in store. The
    growth of education if it is confined to one class, will not necessarily lead to
    liberalism. It may lead to the justification and conservation of class interest; and instead of creating the liberators of the down-trodden,
    it may create champions of the past and the supporters of the status quo. Isn’t
    this the effect of education so far? That it will take a new course in future ceteris paribus, there is no ground to believe. Therefore, instead
    of leaving the untouchables to the mercy of the higher castes, the wiser policy would be to give power to the untouchables themselves who are anxious,
    not like others, to usurp power but only to assert their natural place in society.

    44.
    This gigantic world war however motivated, has yielded what
    is known us the principle of self-determination which is to govern international relations
    of the future. It is happy to note that the pronouncement of the 20th August 1917 declared
    the application of the principle to India—a principle which enunciates the rule that every people must be free to
    determine the conditions under which it is to live. It would be a sign of imperfect
    realization of the significance of this principle if its application were restricted to
    international relations, because discord does not exist between nations alone, but there is also discord between classes from within a nation.
    Wittingly our Indian politicians in their political speeches and harangues hold to the de jure conception of
    the Indian people. By the de jure conception
    they conceive of the Indian people as by nature one and emphasize the qualities such as
    praiseworthy community of purpose and welfare, loyalty to public ends and mutuality of sympathy which accompany this unity. How the de jure and de facto conceptions conflict, it is hoped, the
    committee will not fail to realize. As an instance the
    following may be noted. The moral evil to the Indian people of their conquest and
    subjugation by the British is a theme which is very attractive to the Brahmin politicians,
    who never fail to make capital out of it. The moral evils were once portrayed by John
    Shore in his “Notes on Indian Affairs” written in
    1832. The late Honourable Mr. Gokhale once voiced the same
    feeling when speaking about the excessive costliness
    of the foreign agency “. He said :

    “There
    is a moral evil which, if anything, is even greater. A kind of
    dwarfing or stunting of the Indian race is going on under the present system. We must live
    all the days of our life in an atmosphere of inferiority and the tallest of us must bend, in order that the exigencies of the existing system may be satisfied. The upward impulse, if
    I may use such an expression, which every schoolboy at Eton and Harrow may feel, that he
    may one day be a Gladstone or Napoleon or a Wellington, and which may draw forth the best
    efforts of which he is capable is denied to us. The full height to which our manhood is capable of rising can never be reached by us
    under the present system. The moral elevation which every self-governing people feel cannot be felt by us. Our administrative and
    military talents must gradually disappear, owing to sheer disuse till at last our lot as
    hewers of wood and drawers of water in our own country. is stereotyped.”.

    45.
    I beg to invite the attention of the Committee whether these sentiments which have been
    voiced by a Brahmin (a noble Brahmin to be sure) to the disgrace of the British
    bureaucracy cannot be more fittingly voiced by the untouchables to the disgrace of the
    Brahmin oligarchy ? May it be said to the credit of the
    bureaucracy, that it has disproved the charge of being wooden and shown itself susceptible
    to feeling by proposing changes in the system of the Government which has dwarfed the
    personality of those for whom it was devised. But can the
    oligarchy claim anything half as noble? Their belief is that the Hindu social system has
    been perfected for all time by their ancestors who had the superhuman vision of all eternity
    and supernatural power for making infinite provision for
    future ages. This deep ingrained ethnocentrism has prevented
    a reconstruction of Hindu Society and stood in the way of a
    revision of vested rights for the common good. A farce of a
    conference for the removal of untouchability
    was enacted in March 1918 in Bombay. Doctor Kurtakoti, the Shankaracharya of Karvir fame,
    though promised to attend, left for Northern India just a
    day or two before the conference met, on some urgent business. Mr. Tilak is credited with a short speech at the
    conference which has for the good luck
    of Mr. Tilak remained unreported. But this was only lip sympathy shown to hoodwink the untouchables for when the draft of the proclamation
    removing untouchability was presented to Mr. Tilak. It is
    known on creditable evidence that he
    refused to honour it with his signature.

    46.
    Here is disclosed a patent disharmony within a nation and therefore
    a proper field for the application of the principle of
    self-determination, if the advanced classes are clamouring for its application to India and if the powers
    that be have sanctioned it, however partially, to ward off
    the future stunting and dwarfing of the Indian people, may not the untouchables with justice claim its benefit in their
    own interest? Admitting the necessity or self-determination for the
    untouchables communal representation cannot be withheld from them, for communal representation and self-determination are but two different, phrases
    which express the same notion.

    Supplementary Written Statement of Mr. Bhimrao R. Ambedkar.

    1.         
    The
    object of this supplement is primarily, to show how the scheme of representation which I have recommended for the untouchables “of the Bombay Presidency in my previous statement can be fitted into the scheme of representation proposed by
    the Government of Bombay for the
    composition of the Legislative Council.

    1. First
      I wish to propose certain changes in number of seats assigned by the Government to the various main constituencies. The several changes proposed
      are indicated in the following table :

     

     

    Distribution
    of Seats among

    By
    Govt

    By
    me

    (1)
    Zamindars and Jahagirdas of Sind

    1

    1

    (2)
    Sardars of Gujarat

    1

    1

    (3)
    Sardars of Deccan

    1

    1

    (4)
    Bombay University

    2

    2

    (5)
    Europeans

    4

    4

    (6)
    Sindh Hindus

    3

    4

    (7)
    Mohammedans

    18

    10

    (8)
    Six cities

    18

    17

    (9)
    Twenty-six Districts of the Presidency

    52

    60

    Total

    100

    100

     

    2.    
    As regards the method of election proposed for I, II,
    III, IV & V of the above constituencies, I agree with
    the Government.

    1. The
      Government has reserved 3 seats for the Sindh Hindus. I have
      proposed 4 for them, one of
      which should be earmarked for the untouchables of Sind to be
      filled by a communal electorate.
    2. For
      the 6 cities I have reserved 17 seats. Of this I propose
      that Bombay should be given 10. Of the 10 seats the untouchables of the
      city should be given I seat, also to be filled by a communal
      electorate.
    3. So
      far it is shown how the Sind untouchables and their fellows
      in Bombay can be provided for. In addition to these two seats the untouchables of the
      Presidency proper, excluding the city of Bombay, should be given 7 seats. The
      constituencies among which these 7 seats are to be distributed, I have indicated on page 7 of my previous statement. It is in this
      fashion that the 9 seats for the untouchables
      of the Presidency should be carved out. The Government of Bombay finds difficulty in
      defining the Depressed Classes.

    The
    difficulty is not a real difficulty, for, for all practical purposes the untouchables
    and the Depressed classes are
    the same. Knowing full well the degradation
    of the untouchables, the callousness of the Bombay Government is appalling. By refusing to make
    provision for the representation of the Depressed classes the Government have deliberately thrown
    the gravest of interests into the greatest of perils—a calamity which I am sure the Committee will avert.

    6.     Having taken out 7 seats from the 60, I propose to distribute the remaining 53 among
    the touchable population of the 26 districts as follows:

    I
    allow, though cannot quite agree with the Government, that
    the 7 districts of Sind should elect 14 members on
    the basis of 2 per district. But in the case of the 19 districts which are outside Sind
    £ feel that a two-member constituency
    will not suffice, principally because the touchable Hindu
    population is not homogeneous. In. order to satisfy the aspirations of the.
    subdivisions of the touchable Hindus
    we must at least in some cases give up the principle of a
    two-member constituency. [91 (2)] To distribute the 39 seats
    among the 19 districts in
    question I should first group
    the districts on linguistic basis as follows :
       

     

           Districts 

     

    Touchable Hindu Population

    (1)
    Ahmedabad

    614,286

    (2)
    Broach
                                                                 

    170,545

    (3)
    Kaira
                                                                
        

    556,667

    (4)
    Panch Mahals
                                            

    259,929

    (5)
    Surat
                                                         

    535,236

    Total

    21,36,663

                                       

    II
    marathi

     

    Touchable
    Hindu Population

    (1)
    Thana

    736,915

    (2)
    Kolaba

    509,158

    (3)
    Ratnagiri

    1,003,240

    (4)
    Ahmednagar

    738,747

    (5)
    Khandesh East

    789,740

    (6)
    Khandesh West

    437,391

    (7)
    Nasik

    745,965

    (8)
    Satara

    883,488

    (9)
    Poona

    858,607

    (10)
    Sholapur

    574,152

    Total

    72,77,403

     

    III
    kanarese

     

    Touchable
    Hindu Population

    (1)
    Belgaum

    734,598

    (2)
    Bijapur

    677,041

    (3)
    Dharwar

    820,345

    (4)
    Kanara

    372,857

    Total

    26,04,841

                                           

    Grand
    total of touchable Hindus in the 19 Districts concerned 12,018,907.

     

    Of
    the 39 seats to be distributed I should give 8 seats to the Gujarati
    23 to the Marathi and 8 to
    the Kanarese districts.

    The
    actual constituencies may be as under:

    Language
    District

    Population in each constituency

     

    Number
    of the constituency

    Number
    of representatives to be elected by the constituency

    1

    2

    3

    4

    I
    Gujarathi

    1. Ahmednagar

    614,286

    I

    2

    1. Broach 

    727,212

    II

    3

    1. Kaira
    1. Panch Mahals

    614,286

    III

    3

    1. Surat

    II
    Marathi

    1.
    Thana

    1,246,073

    IV

    4

    2.
    Kolaba

    3.
    Ratnagiri

    1,003,240

    V

    2

    4.
    Ahmednagar

    1,484,712

    VI

    3

    5.
    Nashik

    6.
    Khandesh East

    1,227,131

    VII

    3

    7.
    Khandesh West

    8.
    Satara

    883,488

    VIII

    *

    9.
    Poona

    858,607

    IX

    3

    10.Sholapur

    574,152

    X

    3

    III
    Kanarese

    1.
    Belgaum

    1,411,639

    XI

    4

    2.
    Bijapur

    3.
    Dharwar

    1,193,202

    XII

    4

    4.
    Kanara

     * No Figure is shown against the Satara district in
    the original.

     

    Total
    number of representatives for the 19 districts 39.

    The Principal advantage of such a grouping is that the demand of the Marathas and the Lingayats
    can be satisfied without resorting to communal representation. There is no sacredness
    about a district that can plead against transcending its
    boundaries for political purposes when such a transcending enables us to minimise the
    field for communal representation.

    8.
    I have differed from the Government of Bombay on the number
    of representatives to be given to the Mohamedans. Of the
    two bases, population and the Congress Scheme, the Government of Bombay have preferred the
    latter without even making a show of reasoning. In doing so they
    have contravened the most considered opinion of the authors of the Reforms Scheme who say
    that there is no basis other than that of negotiation for
    the proportion of Mohammedan representation fixed in the
    Congress League Scheme. It must be urged that looking to
    its composition the Congress is a body whose vicarious
    promises can never be binding on the vast population who have played no part in its
    deliberations.

    9.
    The Mohammedans of
    this presidency form 20 per cent of the total population. On the basis of population
    therefore, they are entitled only to 20 seats out of the 100 elective seats. But tempering
    population by need I think 24 seats ought to satisfy them. Any excess over this cannot be
    tolerated, as it will be at the cost of the other
    communities. Of these 24, the 7 districts of Sind on the basis of 2 per
    district will return 14 Mohammedans. The other 10 seats may be distributed as follows:

     

     

    Population

     

    No.
    of Representatives

    (1)
    Bombay City

     

    179,246

     

    2

    (2)
    Northern Division

     

    342,696

     

    2

    (3)
    Central Division

     

    367,509

     

    3

    (4)
    Southern Division

     

    457,997

     

    3

     

     

     

    Total

    10

     

    I
    should prefer linguistic grouping to divisional grouping
    even in the case of the Mohammedans. I fail to see how a
    Mohammedan from Thana can have any
    affiliation with a Mohammedan of Surat
    though both the districts come under the same division. To group together for political
    purposes people who are ethnically different is absurd

    Mr. Bhimrao R. Ambedkar called and examined

    Sir
    Frank Sly: He was a professor in the Sydenham College of Commerce.
    He graduated from the Elphinstone College, Bombay and was an M.A. of the Columbia University, New York. He was a Mahar
    by caste and his statement dealt largely with the depressed classes.

    So
    far as the Hindu community was concerned, he divided them into two
    classes, touchables and
    untouchables; a distinction which was unmistakable in
    practice and more convenient than a division by castes. He recognised also a distinction
    between Brahmins and non-Brahmins, but this was of less
    importance. The distinction between Brahmin and non-Brahmin
    would not make much difference as regards the attitude of
    voter to a candidate, but the distinction between touchable
    and untouchable would make a very great difference.

    He
    did not think there was any necessity for communal electorates for non-Brahmins as, if three-member constituencies were granted
    according to his supplementary statement, non-Brahmins
    would get some seats. From the figures in Para 16 of his
    written statement he intended to
    show that on a uniform property qualification, a community
    which might be in a minority with regard to population might be in
    a majority in respect of voting strength;
    some of the communities that he had mentioned might be minorities in the whole province, but
    majorities in particular districts. They should try to
    reduce the fever for communal representation as much as possible, and he therefore recommended three-member constituencies.

    He
    wanted a variation of the franchise for the untouchables; but, if constituencies with more than two members were adopted, the lowering of the franchise became a matter of
    less importance. In the case of a small constituency, for instance, the Marathas,
    it might be desirable to group
    them.

    If
    a particular community had a majority of votes in a constituency,
    there was no need for that
    community to have separate communal representation. If the untouchables had a majority of votes in
    a particular constituency, he would not ask for communal representation. It was because they were in a minority and would always remain so on a
    uniform franchise that he asked for separate representation. His justification for asking
    for a low franchise was that as a result of being untouchable, the untouchables had no
    property; they could not trade because they could not find
    customers. He remembered a case in which a Mahar woman was taken to the police court for
    selling watermelons. He was not aware of the conditions outside the Bombay Presidency. In
    the mills in the Bombay Presidency the untouchables were
    not yet allowed to work in the weaving department: in one
    case an untouchable did work in the weaving department of a mill saying that he was a Mohammedan, and when found out, he was severely
    beaten. The definition of an
    untouchable as a
    person, who would cause pollution by his touch, was a
    satisfactory one for electoral purposes. It was not the case that some castes were considered to be untouchable in some districts
    and touchable in others.

    According
    to his classification the untouchables amounted to about 8 per
    cent of the population, but he had proposed 9 seats which would make about 9 per cent. These seats should be filled by separate communal election.

    He
    was aware that the untouchable in his present state of development was in no way qualified to give a
    responsible vote. In the whole Bombay Presidency there were one B.A.
    and 6 or 7 matriculates among the
    depressed classes. The proportion of those who were literate in English was very small,
    but not much smaller than in the case of the backward classes. The depressed classes especially the Mahars and the Chamars, were fit to exercise
    the vote. He would also give them the votes by way of education. He could find at least 25 or more men amongst them who had passed
    the 6th or the 7th Standards
    of a High School, and, although the number was not large, the 9 seats which he suggested for the
    depressed classes could be filled from amongst them. Such a candidate
    in practical matters would be as good as a graduate although the latter might be
    able to express himself better.

    He
    was opposed to any system under which the representatives
    of the depressed classes were drawn from other classes. Representation by missionaries, for
    instance, would not be representation in any real sense of the word.

    He
    suggested large constituencies for the depressed classes’; if such large constituencies had been accepted for the Mohammedans he did not see why
    they were not practicable in
    the case of the depressed classes.

    In
    order to obtain the required number of seats for the
    depressed classes he would reduce the number of seats
    suggested by Government for
    the Mohammedans, from 38 to
    10. This reduction was justifiable,
    as on the population basis the Mohammedans were only entitled to 20 per cent of the seats. He did not consider the Congress League
    Pact as binding on all.

    Mr.
    Hailey: Untouchables were persons to whom certain
    rights of citizenship had been denied.
    For instance, it was the right of every citizen to walk
    down the street, and if a man were prevented from doing so, even temporarily, it was an infringement of his right. Whether a man was prevented from exercising his
    rights by law or social custom, made very little difference
    to him. Government had recognised custom and persons belonging io the untouchable classes
    were not employed in Government service.

    He
    suggested the lowering of the franchise qualification in. She case of the depressed
    classes, as it should be the object of the Government to
    improve the lot of the community.

    From
    an examination of the Census Report he would say that the
    problem of touchable and non-touchable
    existed in Sind, as although the greater proportion of the
    population there were Mohammedans, there were also Hindus. If special provision was going
    to be made for the Hindus in Sind, he did not see why special
    provision should not be made for the depressed classes also.

    Mr.
    Banerjee: The depressed classes would be able to find 9 men
    who were able to speak English and who could represent their cause in the Council. The 6th standard was the class below the
    matriculation, and a man who
    had passed the 6th standard would be able to follow the debates in the Council. They had
    about 25 persons who had passed that standard.

    For
    political purposes there would be no difficulty in defining the
    depressed classes, who were the same as the untouchables. No one who was not a member of a
    depressed class would think of trying to make himself out to be such, though such a thing
    might occur in the case of the backward classes.

    He
    would accept 8 representatives as the minimum for the depressed classes, and they should
    be elected. Nominated representative would not be in a position adequately to represent
    their interests.

    Mr.
    Crump: He had no experience of the problem and conditions
    of the untouchable classes in Sind, and could not say anything with regard to the
    statement that there was only one such class, viz., the Bhangis, there- His information
    was that the total Hindu population in Sind was 837,426, and the total of the untouchable
    classes was 135,224.

    Mr.
    Natarajan: His view was that
    British rule in India was meant to provide equal opportunities
    for all, and that in transferring a large share of the
    power to popular assemblies, arrangements should be made
    whereby the hardships and disabilities entailed by the social system should not be
    reproduced and perpetuated in political institutions. As regards the exact position at
    present, he admitted that, for instance, at the Parel school which was meant for the depressed classes, there
    were many higher-caste pupils, who came there because it was a good school. Similarly as a
    professor he, being a member of a depressed class, had pupils of all classes and found no
    difficulty in dealing with his higher caste pupils. If the untouchable classes were recognized by Government by the grant of
    seats, their status would be raised and their powers would be stimulated. He was not very
    particular about the number of their seats; all he wanted
    was something adequate.

     

    The
    following persons were called and examined at Bombay
    between 24 January 1919 and 31 January 1919:

    (1) L. C. Crump, Esq., I.C.S. representing the
    Government of Bombay (24 January 1919).

    (2)
    The Hon’ble Major C. Fernandez,
    M. D. I. M. S. (Temporary) (24 January
    1919).

    (3)
    The Rev. Cannon D. L. Joshi, representing the Bombay Indian
    Christian (Protestant) Association (24 January 1919).

    (4)
    Lieut. Colonel H.A.J. Gidney, I.M.S. (Retired),
    representing the Anglo-Indian
    Empire League (Bombay Branch) (25 January 1919).

    (5)
    Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy,
    BART (25 January 1919).

    (6)
    W. A. Haig Brown, Esq.,
    representing the Bombay Branch of the European Association
    (25 January 1919).

    (7)
    Mr. D. D. Sathaye, representing the Bombay National Union
    (25 January 1919).

    (8)
    The Hon’ble Mr. M. A. Jinnah (25 January 1919).

    (9)
    Mr. C. N. Wadia,
    representing the Bombay Millowners’ Association (27 January
    1919).

    (10)
    Mr. V. R. Shinde (27 January
    1919).

    (11)
    Mr. K.R. Koregawkar, representing the Maratha
    Aikyecchu Sabha (27 January
    1919).

    (12)
    The Hon’ble Mr. M. A. Jinnah (27 January 1919).

    (13)
    Mirza Ali Muhamad Khan (27 January 1919).

    (14)
    Bhimrao R. Ambedkar Esq. (27
    January 1919).

    (15)
    The Hon’ble Mr. V. J. Patel
    (28) January 1919).

    (16)
    The Hon’ble Sahib Hiralal Desaibhai
    Desai (28 January 1919).

    (17)
    The Hon’ble Mr. Chunilal V. Mehta
    (28 January 1919).

    (18)
    A. B. Latthe, Esq. (28
    January 1919).

    (19)
    The Hon’ble Mr. R. P. Paranjpye (28 January 1919).

    (20)
    Mr. V. R. Kothari, representing the Deccan Ryots’ Association (28 January 1919).

    (21) Messrs. Umar Sobhani and S. G. Banker,
    representing the Bombay Home Rule League (29 January 1919).

    (22)
    H. N. Apte Esq.,
    representing the Deccan Sabhn, Poona
    (23 January 1919).

    (23)
    N. C. Kelkar Esq. (29 January 1919).

    (24)
    The Hon’ble Mr. D. V. Belvi (29 January 1919).

    (25)
    Rao Bahadur Thakorram Kapilram (29 January
    1919).

    (26)
    N. M. Joshi Esq., Member of the Servants of India Society (30 January 1919).

    (27)
    The Hon’ble Rao Bahadur Venkatesh Srinivas Naik (30 January
    1919).

    (28)
    Pandit R. Chikodi (30 January 1919).

    (29)
    The Hon’ble Mr. S. J. Gillum and Sir Thomas Birkett, Kt., representing the Bombay Chamber of Commerce (30 January
    1919).

    (30)
    Mr. Ambalal Sarabhai with
    Mr. Kasturbhai Lalbhai, Dalpatbhai representing the Ahmadabad Millowners’
    Association (30 January 1919).

    (31)
    Devidas Madhavji Thakersey, Esq., representing the Bombay
    Native Piece-goods Merchants Association (30 January 1919)

    (32)
    The Hon’ble Mr. Ghulam Hussain
    Hidayatulla (31 January 1919).

    (33)
    Mr. B. V. Jadhav (31 January
    1919).

    (34)
    The Hon’ble Sir Pazulbhoy Currimbhoy, Kt., C.I.E. (31 January 1919).

    (35)
    H. P. Mody Esq. (31 January
    1919).

    (36)
    Sardar V. N. Mutalik representing the Inamdars’
    Central Association, Sarara (31 January 1919).





    27 January 1948: Sixth session for one day of consituent assembly on 27 Jan 1948.

     

    27 January 1967: With the
    facilitation of Nanak Chand Rattu (Personal Secretary of Dr. Ambedkar)
    Savita Ambedkar (wife of Dr. Ambedkar) got the help from then Home
    Minister Shri Y B Chavan, Lt Governor and Deputy Commissioner and then
    she was permitted to enter the Bunglow at 26 Alipore Road, New Delhi
    (currently Parinirvan Bhoomi) – the residence of Dr. Ambedkar
    [1].

    After the death of Dr. Ambedkar
    on the intervening night of 5th and 6th December 1956, Savita Ambedkar
    had stayed in the Bunglow at 26 Alipore road where her husband (Dr.
    Ambedkar) breathed the last till 1967. One Madan Lal Jain had purchased
    the bunglow in 1966 and allowed her to stay in the rooms already in her
    possession. Madan Lal quietly moved an application in the court to evict
    her. And on 20 January 1967 when she went to Alwar district, Madan Lal
    Jain and his son-in-law entered the premises with three bailiffs and 20
    muslce men and forcilbly opened the rooms and a big store room taking
    bunch of keys from Mohan Singh, her servant, who was listening, at ease,
    the radio programme.

    On 27 January 1967 with the facilitation
    of Nanak Chand Rattu she got the help from Home Minister Shri Y B
    Chavan, Lt Governor and Deputy Commissioner. Consequently she was
    permitted to enter the premises and have access to rooms in her
    possession. The worst was that Madan Lal Jain and his the men had
    removed countless precious documents and important parpers, nicely kept
    in several racks of the big store room and recklessly dumped in an open
    yard opposite the shed in a shameful manner, not realizing the
    importance of these. In addition the store room had contained
    manuscripts of Dr. Ambedkar’s  several wirtings which at that time were
    unpublished. But many of them were destroyed and reduced to waste paper
    due to the reckless handling and rain the same night.

    Subsequently the papers were taken into
    the custody by the custodian of the High Court of Delhi. Then these were
    transferred to the Administrative General of the Government of
    Maharashtra. Later Shri J B Bansod, an Advocate from Nagpur, filed a
    suit against the Government in the High Court at Nagpur making a simple
    request seeking permission from court to allow him to publish the
    unpublished writings of Dr. Ambedkar or to direct the Government to
    publish the same. Government then formed a committee called as Dr.
    Babasaheb Ambedkar Source Material Publication Committee and appointed
    Vasant Moon as the Officer on Special Duty. The work of Dr. Ambedkar
    then got publilshed due to the unrelenting hard work of Vasant Moon. But
    alas! much of the work cannot see the light of the day as it was lost
    between 20 and 27 January 1967.

     

    27 January 2000: The then President of India K R Narayanan praised the Constitution of India.

    In an address in the central hall of the
    parliament to mark the golden jubilee of the Indian republic and the
    constitution, asked whether “it is the constitution that has failed us
    or we who have failed the constitution”. The president was responsing
    criciallty to the appointment of a commission “to comprehensively review
    the Constitution of India in the light of the experience of the past 50
    years and to make suitable recommendations.” Unlike the presidential
    speech at the opening of parliament, President Narayanan’s golden
    jubilee address as not written for him by the government of the day. It
    represented an autonomous presidential perspecgive. Widely reported and
    much discussed in print and the electronic media, the speech deepened
    and accelerated a national debate on the constitution that the NDA
    government’s action had provoked.  In his address, The President praised
    the work of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
    on the Indian constitution and cautioned against attempts to change its
    basic structure, concurring with Dr. Ambedkar’s preference for
    accountability and responsibility over the stability of the
    government[2].

    The context of the above incident is that
    the then NDA government under Atal Bihari Vajapyee considering to
    appoint a commission to review the Consitution of India.

    [1] Nanak Chand Rattu, Last Few Years of Dr. Ambedkar,  book

    [2] Full text of the President’s golden
    jubilee speech is given in Seminar, magazine issue 487, March 2000, pg
    88-90. Accounts of debate surrounding the speech are given, inter alia,
    in Asian Age, newspaper, 28 January 2000.


    Mohan Bagwat’s RSS is not a registered Political Party either. But
    puts only the 1% intolerant, volent, militant, shooting, lynching,
    lunatic, mentally retarded cannibal horrororist chitpawan brahmins as
    candidates in UP and all other states for his stealth,shadowy,
    discriminatory hindutva cult rashtra.

    For violating the
    Constitution he and his avathars must be booked and treated in mental
    asylum for their hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion which are defilement
    of mind and madness till they are totally treated with Vipassana
    Mediatation.

    They are attempting to instigate SC/STs/Minorities
    of the Sarvajan Samaj as they are terrorists having belief in violence
    to win elections.

    A US-based risk management and consulting
    company has put the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in its category of
    ‘Threat Group’ and called it “a shadowy, discriminatory group that
    seeks to establish a Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu Nation.”

    Terrorism
    Watch & Warning provides intelligence, research, analysis, watch and
    warning on international terrorism and domestic terrorism related
    issues; and is operated by OODA Group LLC that helps clients identify,
    manage, and respond to global risks and uncertainties while exploring
    emerging opportunities and developing robust and adaptive strategies for
    the future

    http://www.hindustantimes.com/…/story-EqYMsbzYbhDOtNgocROfN…

    Ban RSS, India’s no 1 terror organisation: Former Maharashtra cop

    comments (0)
    01/22/17
    2116 Mon 23 Jan 2017 LESSONS from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)http://www.gifbin.com/981533 Mayawati says alliance with Samajwadi (Familywadi) Party will not help Congress in Uttar Pradesh- http://zeenews.india.com/…/senior-samajwadi-party-leader-am… Senior Samajwadi party leader Ambika Chowdhary joins
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