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2222 Tue 09 May 2017 LESSON Tipitaka-Therigatha-Subha: The Goldsmith’s Daughter Manimekalai Transcript of Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai The desecration of Buddhist temples in South India http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/thig/thig.13.05.than.html in 01) Classical English,92) Classical Tamil- செம்மொழி தமிழ்,
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 5:53 pm


2222 Tue 09 May 2017 LESSON

Tipitaka-Therigatha-Subha: The Goldsmith’s Daughter

Manimekalai

Transcript of Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai

Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai

The desecration of Buddhist temples in South India

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/thig/thig.13.05.than.html

in 01) Classical English,92) Classical Tamil- செம்மொழி தமிழ்,
Tipitaka
Vinaya Pitaka
Sutta Pitaka
DN
MN
SN
AN
KN
Khp
Dhp
Ud
Iti
Sn
Abhidhamma

Khuddaka
Therigatha

Thig 13.5
PTS: Thig 339-367
Subha: The Goldsmith’s Daughter
translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
© 2000
“I was a child, with clean clothes,

when I first heard the Dhamma.

And within me, heedful,

was a break-through to the truth.

Then I arrived

at an enormous dissatisfaction

with all sensuality.

Seeing the danger

in self-identity,

I longed only

for renunciation.

Leaving my circle of relatives,

slaves, workers,

prosperous villages & fields,

delightful, enticing possessions,

I went forth,

abandoning not-insignificant wealth.

Having gone out through conviction

in the well-taught true Dhamma,

it wouldn’t be proper for me —

aspiring to nothingness —

having cast off gold & silver

to take them back.

Gold & silver

don’t buy Awakening,

don’t buy peace.

This (gold) isn’t proper for monks.

This isn’t noble wealth.

This is

greediness, intoxication,

delusion, bondage to dust,

suspicion, many troubles.

There’s no lasting stability here.

It’s to this extent that many, many men

— heedless, their hearts defiled —

opposing one another, create

conflicts, murder, bondage,

calamity, loss, grief, & lamentation.

Many misfortunes are seen

for those head-over-heels in sensuality.

So, my relatives:

Why do you, like enemies,

try to bind me to sensuality?

You know I’ve gone forth,

seeing the danger in sensuality.

Gold coin & bullion

can’t put an end to fermentations.

Sensuality is an enemy,

a murderer,

hostile, arrows & bonds.

So, my relatives:

Why do you, like enemies,

try to bind me to sensuality?

You know I’ve gone forth

with shaven head, wrapped in a patchwork cloak.

Leftover alms-scraps, gleanings,

a robe made from cast-off cloth:

That’s what’s proper for me —

the requisites of one with no home.

The great seers have rejected sensuality,

both human & divine.

Released are they, in the place of security.

Arrived are they, in unshakeable ease.

So may I not come into union

with sensuality, in which no shelter is found.

It’s an enemy, a murderer

— sensuality —

painful, like a mass of flame.

Greed:

an obstacle, fearful, threatened,

full of thorns,

very out-of-tune,

a great cause of delusion.

Sensuality:

a frightening attack,

like a snake’s head

in which fools delight —

blinded, run-of-the-mill.

Because many people in the world

are stuck in the mud of sensuality,

unknowing,

they don’t realize the end of birth & death.

Many people follow the path

to bad destinations

because of sensuality,

bringing disease on themselves.

Thus sensuality creates enemies.

It burns, is defiled.

It’s the bait of the world,

constraining, the bondage of death,

maddening, deceptive, agitating the mind.

It’s a net cast by Mara

for the defilement of living beings:

with endless drawbacks, much pain,

great poison,

giving little enjoyment, creating conflict,

drying up the good side (of the mind).

I, having caused much trouble like this

because of sensuality,

will not return to it,

as I always delight in Unbinding.

Doing battle with sensuality

in hopes of the cool state,

I will stay heedful, finding delight

in the ending of fetters.

I follow the path —

eightfold, straight,

griefless, stainless, secure —

over which great seers

have crossed.”

See this Subha, the goldsmith’s daughter,

standing firm in the Dhamma,

entering the imperturbable state,

doing jhana at the foot of a tree.

This is the eighth day of her going forth

confident, beautiful through the true Dhamma.

Trained by Uppalavanna,

she’s a three-knowledge woman

who’s left death behind;

freed from slavery, debtless,

a nun with developed faculties,

set loose from all ties,

her task done,

fermentation-free.

Sakka, lord of beings,

with his community of devas,

approaching her through supranormal power,

pays homage to her:

Subha the goldsmith’s daughter.

Notes: See MN 106. She has achieved restraint over her sense faculties, or that she has fully developed the faculties of conviction, persistence, mindfulness, concentration, and discernment. See. SN 48.10 and AN 4.37.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manimekalai

Manimekalai

Topics in Tamil literature

Sangam Literature
The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature
Silappatikaram    Manimekalai
Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi    Valayapathi
Kundalakesi   
Bhakthi Literature
Tevaram    Divya Prabandha
Tirumuṟai   
Tamil people
Sangam    Sangam landscape
Tamil history from Sangam literature    Ancient Tamil music
Manimekalai (Tamil: மணிமேகலை),by the poet Chithalai Chathanar, is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.Manimekalai is a poem in 30 cantos. Its story is a sequel to another of the Five Great Epics, Silappatikaram, and tells the story of the conversion from Jainism to Buddhism of the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi.

1 The Author and period of composition
2 The Epic
2.1 Setting
2.2 Notable characters
2.3 Disappearance of Kāveripattinam or Puhar
3 Buddhist School Affiliation
4 Survival of Text
5 Translations
6 Publishing in modern times
7 Criticism and Comparison
8 See also
9 References
10 Bibliography
The Author and period of composition

Was composed in the 6th century CE. According to Hikosaka (1989), Manimekalai was written between A.D. 890 and 950, an inference based on linguistic assessment.

The aim of the author, Cīttalai Cāttanār was to compare Buddhism favourably with the other prevailing religions in South India in order to propagate Buddhism. While exposing the weaknesses of the other contemporary Indian religions, he praises the Buddha’s Teaching, the Dhamma, as the most perfect religion.

The Epic

As a continuation of Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), this epic describes how Manimekalai, the beautiful daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi, follower of local deities later included in Hinduism, converts to Buddhism. According to the poem, Maṇimekalai studies the six systems of philosophy of Hinduism and other prevalent religions of the time and compares them to the teachings of the Buddha. She is most impressed with Buddhism which treats everyone equal with loving kindness and fraternity. Later, upon hearing doctrinal expositions from the Buddhist teacher Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, she becomes a dedicated Bhikkuni or Buddhist nun. Manimekhalai fully practices the Buddha’s teachings and attains the highest stage of Buddhist spiritual knowledge or attainment, i.e. she became an arhant. The Manimekhalai poem thus is an example of female spiritual empowerment within a culture wherein otherwise there were few options for women. Pandit Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) revealed more about Manimekalai as “Arachchelvi” (Female Arhant) and documented original poems written by Seeththalai Saththanar, which are not available in the Menimekalai edited by U.V. Swaminatha Iyer who allegedly left out some of the original poems.

The epic gives much information on the history of Tamil Nadu, Buddhism and its place during that period, contemporary arts and culture, and the customs of the times. The exposition of the Buddhist doctrine in the poem deals elegantly with the Four Noble Truths (ārya-satyāni), Dependent Origination (pratītyasamutpāda), mind (citta) and Buddhist practices like virtue (Śīla) and non-violence (ahimsa).

Setting

The poem is set in both the harbour town of Kāveripattinam, the modern town of Poompuhar in Tamil Nadu, and in Nainatheevu of NākaNadu, a small sandy island of the Jaffna Peninsula in modern Sri Lanka. The story runs as follows: The dancer-courtesan Manimekalai is pursued by the amorous Cholan prince Udyakumāran, but rather wants to dedicate herself to a religious celibate life. The sea goddess Manimegala Theivam or Maṇimekhalai Devī puts her to sleep and takes to the island Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). After waking up and wandering about the island Maṇimekalai comes across the Dhamma-seat, the seat on which Buddha had taught and appeased two warring Naga princes, and placed there by the God Indra. Those who worship it miraculously know their previous life. Manimekalai automatically worships it and recollects what had happened in her previous life. She then meets the guardian goddess of the Dhamma seat, Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā) who explains her the significance of the Dhamma seat and lets her acquire the magic never-failing begging bowl (cornucopia) called Amṛta Surabhi (”cow of abundance”), which will always provide food to alleviate hunger. The goddess also predicts that Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal in her native town will teach her more. Manimekalai then used the mantra which the sea goddess had given her and returns to Kāveripattinam, where she meets the Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, who expounds her the Buddha’s Teaching and advices her about the nature of life. She then becomes a Buddhist nun or Bhikkhuni and practices to rid herself from the bondage of birth and death and attain Nibbana.

Notable characters

Manimekalai - The daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi, who was born with bravery and virtues.
Udhayakumaran - The Chola King, who was mad in love with Manimekalai. He was a foolish king, who wanted things done only in the way he wanted them to be. He also had a thug life
Sudhamadhi - Manimekalai’s most faithful and trustworthy friend.
Manimekala - The sea goddess who protects the heroine.
Deeva Teelakai - Guardian Goddess of the Dhamma seat. She was born in the town of Puhar and got married to a merchant. Her husband once travels to trade. Even after so many days he didn’t return. Feared and worried that her husband might have died she tries to give away her life. (Not by suicide but by doing “sathiya paritchai” i.e. praying God to take away her life due to the death of her husband) Suddenly she hears a voice from the sky which says that her husband is alive and he  will come back. But Deeva Teelakai expresses her disinterest in a family life and her interest in spirituality. She then gets the Amirta Surabhi and was also guided by the voice to travel to the Dhamma seat and protect it until she meets her destiny.
Disappearance of Kāveripattinam or Puhar

The poem relates that the town Kāveripattinam or Puhār was swallowed up by the sea (i.e. destroyed by a tsunami or flood) due to the Cholan King not holding the annual Indra festival and thereby causing the wrath of the sea goddess Manimekalai. This account is supported by archeological finds of submerged ruins off the coast of modern Poompuhar. Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th century Buddhist monastery, a Buddha statue, and a Buddhapada (footprint of the Buddha) were also found in another section of the ancient city, now at Pallavanesvaram. The town of Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared in between the 3rd and the 6th century CE.

Buddhist School Affiliation

The work contains no direct references to Mahayana as propagated by Nagarjuna, etc., and appears to be a work of an early Buddhist, Sravakayana school such as the Sthavira or Sautrantika school. According to Aiyangar, the emphasis on “the path of the Pitakas of the Great One” (i.e. Tipitaka) and the exposition of Dependent Origination, etc., in Chapter 30, could suggest that it is work of the Sautrantika school. A.K. Warder instead suggests that the poem may be affiliated with Theravada school.

In the conclusion of the poem, Aravaṇa Aḍigal encourages full liberation from the three roots of evil—greed, hatred (rāga, dosa, moha). The final sentence of the poem states that Maṇimekhalai strove to rid herself of the bondage of birth. This emphasis on liberation from the defilements (kilesa), ending the cycle of birth, old age and death (samsara), and becoming an arahant, also suggests that the author of the poem was affiliated to an early Sravakayana Buddhist school.Aiyangar (p. 80) suggests that the Buddhist logic as expounded by Aravaṇa Aḍigal in Chapter 29 of the Maṇimekhalai antedates the logic of Dignāga and his school.

Survival of Text

The Manimekhalai is the only extant Tamil Buddhist literary work of what once was an extensive literature. The reason for its survival is probably its status as the sequel to the Silapathikaram or Sīlappadhikāram. Tamil Nadu produced many Buddhist teachers who made valuable contributions to Tamil, Pali  literature. Reference to their works is found in Tamil literature and other historical records. Lost Tamil Buddhist works are the poem Kuṇḍalakesī by Nāgaguttanār, the grammar Vīrasoliyam, the Abhidhamma work Siddhāntattokai, the panegyric Tiruppadigam, and the biography Bimbisāra Kadai.

Translations

The first translation of Manimekalai by R. B. K. Aiyangar, was published in Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting. Extracts of this were republished in Hisselle Dhammaratana’s Buddhism in South India. A more recent translation of the poem was done by Alain Daniélou with the collaboration of T.V. Gopala Iyer. There is also a Japanese translation by Shuzo Matsunaga, published in 1991.

Publishing in modern times

 
A palm leaf manuscript with ancient Tamil text
U. V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 CE) resurrected the first three epics of Tamil literature from appalling neglect and wanton destruction of centuries. He reprinted these literature present in the palm leaf form to paper books. Ramaswami Mudaliar, a Tamil scholar first gave him the palm leaves of Civaka Cintamani to study. Being the first time, Swaminatha Iyer had to face lot of difficulties in terms of interpreting, finding the missing leaves, textual errors and unfamiliar terms. He set for tiring journeys to remote villages in search of the missing manuscripts. After years of toil, he published Civaka Cintamani in book form in 1887 CE followed by Silapadikaram in 1892 CE and Manimekalai in 1898 CE. Along with the text, he added lot of commentary and explanatory notes of terms, textual variations and approaches explaining the context.

Criticism and Comparison

To some critics, Manimekalai is more interesting than Silappadikaram. The story of Manimekalai with all its superficial elements seems to be of lesser interest to the author himself whose aim was pointed toward spreading Buddhism. In the former, ethics and religious doctrine are central, while in the latter poetry and storyline dominate. Manimekalai also preaching the ideals of Buddhism as it downplays human interests in favor of supernatural features. The narration in akaval meter moves on in Manimekalai without the relief of any lyric, which are the main features of Silappadikaram. Manimekalai in puritan terms is not an epic poem, but a grave disquisition on philosophy. There are effusions in the form of a song or a dance, which style may not go well with western audience as they are assessed to be inspired on the spur of the moment. According to Calcutta review, the three epics on the whole have no plot and no characterization for an epic genre. The plot of Civaka Cintamani is monotonous and deficient in variety in strength and character and does not stand the quality of an epic.

https://prezi.com/imywnql1exsl/selections-from-therigatha-and-manimekhalai/
Transcript of Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai

Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai
Ambapali
She was found at the base of a mango tree (amba). She grew up to be very beautiful and graceful. Many princes desired to marry her, so she was made a state courtesan to avoid any disputes. Later in life she got the opportunity to serve the Buddha food; she decided to follow the Buddhist path and leave her position as courtesan.
Poem about impermanence
Contrast of past beauty (using similes) to her current old age.
“Fragrant as casket of perfumes, as full of sweet blossoms the hair of me. All with the waste of the years now rank as the odour of hare’s fur. Such and not otherwise runneth the rune, the word of the Soothsayer. (253)”
attained nirvana after saying these verses; became an arahant
Chapter 2
Rumors are going around that Madhavi won’t be participating in dances at the festival for Indra
her friend Vasantamala goes to talk to her about it
Madhavi embodied the ideals of a perfect courtesan: she had mastered the arts of dance, music, and sex, and also studied other skills
she talks about how her lover died, and she could not mourn him as a his wife did, since she was not an “honest woman”.
she came to Aravana Adigal in her sorrow, and he advocated to her the Buddhist way so she could have a way to escape from suffering (through the 4 truths and 5 rules of conduct)
she wants this to be her and her daughter’s way of life
doesn’t want Manimekhalai to be involved with the worldly charms of the courtesan life
Manimekhalai’s grandmother comes to know that she is surviving by the Temple of Heaven by begging and living as a Buddhist nun.
She goes to the prince, who was impressed by Manimekhalai’s beauty, and tells him to go and bring Manimekhalai back to the court and the family of the courtesans.
He goes and speaks to her (against custom) and asks why she is living that life.
She replies (she feels obliged to reply since he was her husband in a past life) that the human body is full of anguish and suffering, and she chose to renounce that kind of life (and worldly pleasures) and help others instead.
she goes into the temple and changes her appearance so the prince is left looking for her.
Chapter 18
Subha
She was a goldsmith’s daughter, and she was very beautiful. She was named Subha because she was thought of as ‘lucky’. She was introduced to Buddhism when a sage came to her town and spoke about the spiritual path.
Verses spoken after she reaches nirvana
about how worldly desires are bad and she chose to forsake them for the happiness she finds in the Buddhist path
As a goldsmith’s daughter, she was surrounded by gold and ornaments but she chose to leave them for the Way
reached nirvana on the eight day of learning to be a nun
Sumedha
Sumedha was the daughter of a king. She would go to hear the teachings of Buddhism as a child. When her parents chose to give her away to a prince, she decided she wanted to follow the path of Buddhism (’My duty lies not in the life of the house’). She cuts off her hair and leaves the house.
These versus are spoken after she becomes an arahant.
She describes her story
The man she was supposed to marry tries to entice her with the promise of a wealthy lifestyle, with jewels and riches, but she is relentless.
Also talks about how material wealth and desires are impermanent, and she has no need for that kind of life
“Like the poised heads of snakes prepared to dart. Like blazing torches…” Reference to snakes and fire in comparison to the instability of desire
Chapter 6
The goddess Manimekhala comes to Manimekhalai and advises her to go to the Temple of Heaven to protect her from the desires of the prince
Story: plot of land with wall around it, dedicated to the dead. Each corner was a gateway and pointed to the four cardinal directions. Has places to bury, cremate, or just leave the dead. There seems to be a special place for women who died to rejoin their husbands in death. The area is very creepy, with sounds and sights related to death (skulls, vultures, prayers, cries of kin). This is why it’s called the City of the Dead.
Shankalan accidentally entered the walls and a sorceress stole his soul. His mother Gotami asked the goddess of the city to give him his soul back. She said she couldn’t do it. She called upon the gods that reign the heavens, who also said they couldn’t do it. Gotami accepted her and her son’s fate. A temple was created next to the walls, called the Temple of Heaven.
Manimekhala took sleeping Manimekhalai to another island.
Important things that stood out
Manimekhalai: the ideal woman (courtesan vs. wife)
Chapters 2 and 18 - the ideal courtesan
master of different arts and skills (dance, music, sex)
dances publicly, aims to arouse passion, gets money until the man can has nothing more to give
“attract men with their charms and bind them with their arts” pg. 74
Chitrapati says they “play an essential part in a properly organized society.”
a courtesan deviating from her duty is scandalous (when Madhavi’s friend is talking to her and Chitrapati talking about courtesan life)
Chapters 2, 6 and 18 - the ideal wife
a devoted wife suffers when her husband dies (the wife of Madhavi’s lover)
they throw themselves in the funeral pyre of their husbands (the City of the Dead has a special place for these devoted women)
noble women from proud families have their chastity strictly guarded throughout their life; a husband is a wife’s god (Chitrapati talking to the prince)
It seems like it is no woman’s duty to devote herself to an ascetic life (Ambapali was a courtesan, Subha was the daughter of a goldsmith, Sumedha the daughter of a king)
Questions and Answers
What is the recurring theme?
The heroine deviates from her role in society to follow Buddhism, and forgo material/worldly pleasures (courtesan life, wealth and jewels)
What is normal to society and how does the text deviate from that?
Women have strict ideals (like those of the courtesan and the women of noble families). The texts depict women who chose to live their own (ascetic) lives even when society looked down upon them and did not approve of their actions.
It is interesting how Buddhism was respected, but not women devoting themselves to the Way.
Also interesting how the courtesans were a considered a disgrace to their society for choosing a spiritual life.
How is the heroine represented?
She is represented as strong and independent. All four of them had a strong desire to forsake worldly pleasure for their greater good. They end up choosing that path regardless of what people around them think.
Discussion!
What did you think?
Did anything stand out to you?
sources
Manimekhalai by Merchant-Prince
Therigata composed by Buddhist nuns
http://www.theravada-dhamma.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Sujata.gif
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTOgEFYZ_KInZrwBo3SlrCu9mHX17s46j98jcVd9iWCxEQX4jmW
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Jo7lJoQhtjw/SlfeZydeh_I/AAAAAAAAH0c/Mm0oV3ofrbM/s400/Ambapali.jpg
http://ancientindia07.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/buddha-statue-color443×386.gif
http://www.buddhisma2z.com/images/R/robes.jpg
Ambapali: pragalbha (mature in the art of love)
Manimekhalai, Subha, Sumedha: Mugdha

Ambapali (and Madhavi) could be proshitapathikas, because they felt loss for their lovers. None of the others would really fit into the naikas.
https://www.reddit.com/r/india/comments/2mfq5v/the_desecration_of_buddhist_temples_in_south_india/

The desecration of Buddhist temples in South India

In Kumbakaonam Nageswaran thirumanjana veedhi, there was a buddha statue called bagavarishi. The Nigandu says that Buddha was called by the name Vinayaka. In later periods many Buddha temples were converted as Vinayaka temples.

The Chinese traveller who visited Kancheepuram in 640 AD, has recorded that Kanchi was having hundred Buddha temples and thousand monks.

According to Ananatha nayinar (1932 ), in Kanchi Kacheeswar temple Buddha images were found in the foundation base of the gopuram. The lake on the west of the temple was called as Buththeri and the street as Buththeriththeru. But when I visited that temple those stones could not be identified. I could see Buddha images only in the pillars.

I visited Pallavapuram near Kanchi on 15.7.1946. Nearby in Kinikiluppai, a Buddha statue was found on the banks of a lake in the same village, I could find the base of the Buddha statue very near the Vinayaka temple. There was also a standing stone with Dharma Chakra. They had constructed Vinayaka temple by demolishing Buddha temple.

Mylai Seeni Venkatasamy has collected many more information in his book describing evidence of the existence of Buddha temples and the conversion of those temples into Jain or Hindu temples.

………..Originally Kamatchi amman temple was a Buddhist temple.There were many Buddha images in this temple. One of the images of Buddha, a 6 feet standing statue is now in the Chennai Museum. The statues of Buddha found in the temple tank could not be found now. Once I myself saw some other stone statues of Buddha in good condition in this temple. Later I found the same images broken into pieces.. Now I could not trace the same………

……….Manimehalai, Sambapathi, Tharadevi were the deivams worshipped by Buddhists in Tamil Nadu. Later these goddess were taken over by Hindus and renamed as Kali, Pidari and Throubathai. Researches say that the Annapoorani amman in Kamatchi Amman temple is actually Manimehalai, who attained Veeduperu at Kancheepuram and the Kamatchi Amman temple is actually Tharadeviamman temple belonging to Buddhists.




Selections from Therigatha and Manimekhalai
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RSS has always had an upper caste leadership and bias. In its existence of almost one century, it never had one ST or SC or OBC as its chief (Mirror image of CPI-Marxists). The only time it had a non-Brahmin chief was when Rajendra Singh (Raju Bhaiya) became its chief. And Rajendra Singh was a Dwija (Rajput).
Until recently, when the politically inspired project of SC/ST co-option began, RSS was consistently critical of Ambedkar. On February 6, 1950, just a few days after the Constitution was promulgated, RSS mouthpiece Organiser carried an article by Justice Sankar Subba Aiyar, titled ‘Manu Rules our Hearts’. Aiyar was explicit: ‘Even though Dr Ambedkar is reported to have recently stated in Bombay that the days of Manu have ended it is nevertheless a fact that the daily lives of Hindus are even at present day effected by the principles and injunctions contained in the Manusmriti.’

Anyone even remotely familiar with Manusmriti knows with what contempt it treats Sudras, SC/STs and women.

http://teckall.com/whatsapp-down-messaging-service-not-working-for-millions-of-users/

WhatsApp DOWN – Messaging Service NOT WORKING For Millions Of Users

May 6, 2017
WhatsApp DOWN – Messaging Service NOT WORKING For Millions Of UsersUnquestionably the popular instant messaging application WhatsApp is one of the best services for users to exchange messages worldwide. But, recently WhatsApp goes down and social media erupts as millions of users left ‘in turmoil’.


 

WhatsApp DOWN – Messaging Service NOT WORKING For Millions Of Users
WhatsApp is unquestionably one of the best services for users to exchange messages. According to company data, there are more than 1 billion active users monthly, more than 42 billion messages are sent each day and more than 1.6 billion photos shared (also per day).

If your Whatsapp has stopped working, find out that the fault is not on your side. The problem is worldwide and is affecting millions of users.

This Wednesday the Whatsapp messaging service started to have some flaws, getting even offline for millions of users. According to our tests, the service is not accessible via 3G/4G or Wi-Fi. We also tested the mobile version and the Web version as well without success.

The information that exists is that this failure is not affecting all users. The Down Detector site, which aggregates user complaints about services, reveals that at present there are some areas of the globe that are more affected than others.

According to reports, users are “in shock” because this is one of the main tools for exchanging messages. So far there is still no official information on what will happen to this service.

So, what do you think about this outage? Simply share your views and thoughts in the comment section below.

Source by techviral…

Tech permalink

92) Classical Tamil
92) செம்மொழி தமிழ்

    Tipitaka
        வினயா பிடாக்கா
        சுட்டா பிடாக்கா
        டிஎன்
        எம்.என்
        எஸ்என்
        ஒரு
        கே.என்
        Khp
        DHP
        உத்
        இதி
        sn
        அபிதம்மா

    Khuddaka
    Therigatha
    [தகவல் ஐகான்]

தோள் 13.5
பி.டி.எஸ்: தோக் 339-367
சுபா: தி கோல்ட்ஸ்மித் மகள்
பலி மூலம் மொழிபெயர்க்கப்பட்டது
தானீஸ்ரோரோ பிக்கு
© 2000

“நான் ஒரு குழந்தை, சுத்தமான உடைகள்,

நான் முதலில் தர்மம் கேட்ட போது.

எனக்குள்,

சத்தியத்திற்கு ஒரு இடைவெளி இருந்தது.

பிறகு நான் வந்தேன்

மகத்தான அதிருப்தி

எல்லா உணர்ச்சியுடனும்.

ஆபத்தை கவனித்துக்கொள்

சுய அடையாளத்தை,

நான் மட்டுமே ஏங்கினேன்

மறுப்புக்காக.

உறவினர்கள் என் வட்டத்தை விட்டு,

அடிமைகள், தொழிலாளர்கள்,

வளமான கிராமங்கள் & துறைகள்,

மகிழ்ச்சிகரமான, கவர்ச்சியூட்டும் உடைமைகள்,

நான் வெளியேறினேன்,

அற்பமான செல்வத்தை கைவிடுவதில்லை.

தண்டனை மூலம் வெளியே சென்றார்

நன்கு கற்றுக் கொண்ட உண்மை அறையில்,

அது எனக்கு சரியானதாக இருக்காது -

ஒன்றும் செய்ய விரும்பாத -

தங்கத்தையும் வெள்ளியையும் துறந்தார்கள்

அவற்றை மீண்டும் எடுக்க

தங்கம் & வெள்ளி

விழிப்புணர்வு வாங்க வேண்டாம்,

சமாதானத்தை வாங்காதே.

இந்த (தங்கம்) துறவிகள் சரியானது அல்ல.

இது உன்னத செல்வமாக இல்லை.

இது

பேராசை, போதை,

மாயை, தூசிக்கு அடிமை,

சந்தேகம், பல பிரச்சனைகள்.

இங்கே நிலையான நிலைத்தன்மை இல்லை.

இந்த அளவிற்கு இது பல, பல ஆண்கள்

- அவர்களுடைய இதயங்களைத் தீட்டுப்படுத்தாமல் -

ஒருவரையொருவர் எதிர்த்து நிற்கிறார்கள்

மோதல்கள், கொலை, அடிமைத்தனம்,

பேரழிவு, இழப்பு, துக்கம், மற்றும் புலம்பல்.

பல துரதிருஷ்டங்கள் காணப்படுகின்றன

உணர்ச்சிவசப்பட்டு அந்த தலை குனிந்து நின்று கொண்டிருந்தார்.

எனவே, என் உறவினர்கள்:

ஏன், எதிரிகள் போல்,

சிற்றின்பத்திற்கு என்னை பிணைக்க முயற்சி செய்கிறீர்களா?

நான் போயிருந்தேன்,

உணர்ச்சியைக் கண்டால் ஆபத்து.

தங்க நாணயம் & பொன்

நொதிகளுக்கு முற்றுப்புள்ளி வைக்க முடியாது.

உணர்திறன் ஒரு எதிரி,

ஒரு கொலைகாரன்,

விரோதம், அம்புகள் & பத்திரங்கள்.

எனவே, என் உறவினர்கள்:

ஏன், எதிரிகள் போல்,

சிற்றின்பத்திற்கு என்னை பிணைக்க முயற்சி செய்கிறீர்களா?

நான் போய்விட்டேன் என்று உனக்குத் தெரியும்

பளபளப்பான தலையில், ஒரு துணியால் உடுத்தியிருக்கும் மேலோட்டத்துடன்.

விட்டுக்கொடுப்பு,

நறுமணத் தைலத்தினால் செய்யப்பட்ட ஒரு வஸ்திரம்.

அது எனக்கு சரியானது -

இல்லையென்றே ஒரு கோரிக்கை.

பெரிய ஆவிகள்,

மனித மற்றும் தெய்வீக இருவரும்.

பாதுகாப்புப் பத்திரத்தில் அவர்கள் வெளியிடப்படுகிறார்கள்.

அவர்கள் வந்து சேரவில்லை.

எனவே நான் தொழிற்சங்கத்திற்கு வரக்கூடாது

எந்தவொரு புகலிடமும் இல்லை.

இது ஒரு எதிரி, ஒரு கொலைகாரன்

- உணர்ச்சித்தனம் -

வலியைப் போல், வலி ​​நிறைந்ததாக இருக்கிறது.

பேராசை:

ஒரு தடையாக, பயம், அச்சுறுத்தல்,

முள் முழு,

மிகவும் அவுட்-ட்யூன்,

மாயைக்கு ஒரு பெரிய காரணம்.

உணர்ச்சி மிகு:

ஒரு பயமுறுத்தும் தாக்குதல்,

பாம்பின் தலையைப் போல

இதில் முட்டாள்கள் மகிழ்ச்சி -

கண்மூடித்தனமான, ரன்-ன்-ஆலை.

ஏனெனில் உலகில் பலர்

செறிவு மண் சிக்கி,

அறிந்துகொள்வதைக்,

பிறப்பு மற்றும் மரணத்தின் முடிவை அவர்கள் உணரவில்லை.

பல மக்கள் பாதை பின்பற்ற

மோசமான இடங்களுக்கு

ஏனென்றால்,

தங்களைத் தாங்களே கொண்டு வருகின்றனர்.

இவ்வாறு உணர்ச்சிகள் எதிரிகளை உருவாக்குகின்றன.

அது எரிகிறது, தீட்டுள்ளது.

இது உலகின் தூண்டுதலாகும்,

கட்டுப்படுத்தி, மரண அடிமை,

சோகம், ஏமாற்றும் மனப்பான்மை.

இது மாராவின் நிகர நடிகர்

உயிர்களை அழிப்பதற்காக:

முடிவில்லா குறைபாடுகள், மிகவும் வலி,

பெரிய விஷம்,

சகிப்புத்தன்மை, மோதலை உருவாக்குதல்,

நல்ல பக்கத்தை (மனதில்) உலர்த்தும்.

நான், இது போன்ற மிகவும் சிரமங்களை ஏற்படுத்தியுள்ளது

ஏனென்றால்,

அதை திரும்ப மாட்டேன்,

நான் எப்பொழுதும் மகிழ்ச்சியடைகிறேன்.

உணர்ச்சியுடன் போராடுவது

குளிர் மாநில நம்பிக்கை,

நான் கவனமாக இருக்கிறேன், மகிழ்ச்சியைக் கண்டேன்

விலையுயர்வை முடிப்பதில்.

நான் பாதை பின்பற்ற -

எட்டு மடங்கு, நேராக,

துக்கமில்லாத, துருப்பிடிக்காத, பாதுகாப்பான -

எந்த பெரிய காட்சிகளைக் காட்டிலும்

கடந்துவிட்டன. “

இந்த சுபா, கோல்ஸ்மித்தின் மகள்,

தர்மம்,

அபாயகரமான மாநிலத்திற்குள் நுழைந்து,

ஒரு மரத்தின் அடிவாரத்தில் ஜானாவைச் செய்வது.

அவள் புறப்படுவதற்கு எட்டாம் நாள்

உண்மையான பக்தி மூலம் அழகான, நம்பிக்கை.

உபபாலவனால் பயிற்சி பெற்ற,

அவள் ஒரு மூன்று அறிவார்ந்த பெண்

யார் பின்னால் இறந்தனர்;

அடிமைத்தனம், கடன் இல்லாமல்,

வளர்ந்த ஆசிரியர்களுடன் ஒரு கன்னியாஸ்திரியாக,

அனைத்து உறவுகளிலிருந்தும் தளர்வான,

அவரது பணி முடிந்தது,

நொதித்தல் இல்லாத.

மனிதர்கள்,

தேவதாஸ் அவரது சமூகத்துடன்,

அவளுக்கு,

அவளுக்கு மரியாதை செலுத்துகிறது:

சுபா கோல்ஸ்மித்தின் மகள்.

குறிப்புகள்: MN 106 ஐப் பார்க்கவும். அவளுடைய திறனைப் பொறுத்தவரை அவள் தன்னையே கட்டுப்படுத்தியிருக்கிறாள், அல்லது அவர் முழுமையாக நம்பிக்கை, நிலைத்தன்மை, நெறிகள், செறிவு மற்றும் பகுத்துணர்வு ஆகியவற்றின் வளர்ச்சியை முழுமையாக வளர்த்திருக்கிறாள். பார்க்கவும். SN 48.10 மற்றும் AN 4.37.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manimekalai

மணிமேகலை

தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் தலைப்புகள்

மணிமேகலை (தமிழ்: மணிமேகலை), கவிஞர் சித்தலை சாத்தானால், தமிழ் இலக்கிய பாரம்பரியத்தின் படி, ஐந்து இலக்கியப் பண்பாடுகளில் ஒன்றாகும். மாமியேகாலை 30 கத்தோலிக்க கவிதைகள். அதன் கதையானது, ஐந்து கிரேட் எபிசிகளான சில்லாபிகாரம் என்பவரின் தொடர்ச்சியாகும். இது ஜைனலிசம் கொலாசன் மற்றும் மாதவியின் மகளின் புத்தமதத்திற்கு மாற்றமளிக்கும் கதையை சொல்கிறது.

    1 எழுத்தாளர் மற்றும் காலம்
    2 காவிய
        2.1 அமைத்தல்
        2.2 குறிப்பிடத்தக்க எழுத்துக்கள்
        2.3 காவேரிப்பட்டினம் அல்லது புஹார் காணாமல் போனது
    3 பெளத்த பள்ளி சேர்க்கை
    உரை 4 சர்வைவல்
    5 மொழிபெயர்ப்புகள்
    6 நவீன காலத்தில் பப்ளிஷிங்
    விமர்சனம் மற்றும் ஒப்பீடு
    8 மேலும் காண்க
    9 குறிப்புகள்
    10 நூல்கள்

எழுத்தின் எழுத்தாளர் மற்றும் காலம்
கி.மு. 6 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் இயற்றப்பட்டது. ஹிக்கோசகா (1989) படி, மணிமேகலை ஏ.டி. 890 மற்றும் 950 க்கு இடையில் எழுதப்பட்டது, மொழியியல் மதிப்பீட்டை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்ட ஒரு அனுமானம்.

பௌத்த மதத்தை பரப்புவதற்காக தென் இந்தியாவில் உள்ள மற்ற நிலப்பகுதிகளோடு பௌத்தத்தை பௌத்தத்தை ஒப்பிடுவதே எழுத்தாளரின் குறிக்கோள் சித்தாலாய் சாத்தானார். மற்ற சமகால இந்திய மதங்களின் பலவீனங்களை அம்பலப்படுத்துகையில், அவர் புத்தரின் போதனை, தர்மத்தை, மிகவும் பரிபூரண மதமாக புகழ்ந்துள்ளார்.
காவிய

சிலப்பதிகாரத்தின் தொடர்ச்சியாக (தமிழ்: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), இந்த காவியமானது எப்படி விவரிக்கப்படுகிறது என்பதை கொமெய்ன் மற்றும் மாதவியின் அழகான மகளான மணிமேகலை, பின்னர் உள்ளூர் தெய்வங்களின் பின்பற்றுபவர் பின்னர் இந்து மதத்தில் சேர்க்கப்பட்டார், புத்தமதத்திற்கு மாற்றினார். இந்த கவிதையின் படி, மாயம்கேமலை இந்து சமயத்தின் தத்துவத்தின் ஆறு முறைகளையும், பிற சமயங்களின் மற்ற மதங்களையும் படித்து அவற்றை புத்தரின் போதனைகளை ஒப்பிடுகிறார். எல்லோரும் அன்புள்ள தயவும், சகோதரத்துவமும் கொண்ட அனைவருடனும் பரிபூரணமாகக் கருதப்படும் புத்தமதத்தோடு அவள் மிகுந்த மகிழ்ச்சியடைந்தாள். பின்னர், பௌத்த ஆசிரியர் பிக்ஹு அர்வனா அஜிகல் என்ற கோட்பாட்டின் கோட்பாட்டின் போது, அவர் அர்ப்பணிக்கப்பட்ட பாகிக்கி அல்லது பௌத்த நர்னாக மாறினார். புத்தமதத்தின் போதனைகளை முழுமையாகக் கடைப்பிடித்த மனிமேகலை புத்தமத ஆன்மீக அறிவு அல்லது அடைவு மிக உயர்ந்த கட்டத்தை அடைகிறது, அதாவது, அவர் ஒரு அருமையானவராக ஆனார். மனிமேகலையின் கவிதையானது, ஒரு கலாச்சாரத்தில் பெண் ஆவிக்குரிய ஆற்றலுக்கான எடுத்துக்காட்டு ஆகும். பண்டிட் ஐயோடி தாஸ் (1845-1914) மானேமகலை பற்றி “அராச்செல்வி” (பெண் ஆஹந்த்) என்று மேலும் வெளிப்படுத்தினார். சீத்தாலே சத்தனர் எழுதிய அசல் கவிதைகளை ஆவணப்படுத்தினார், அவை யு.வி. சுவாமிநாத ஐயர் சில உண்மையான கவிதைகளை விட்டு வெளியேறினார்.

அந்த காலகட்டத்தில், தற்காலத்திய கலை மற்றும் பண்பாடு மற்றும் முறைகளின் பழக்கவழக்கங்கள் ஆகியவற்றின் போது தமிழ், புத்தமதம் மற்றும் அதன் வரலாற்றின் வரலாற்றில் இந்த காவியமானது மிகவும் தகவலை அளிக்கிறது. புத்தகத்தில் உள்ள புத்த கோட்பாட்டின் வெளிப்பாடானது, நான்கு நோபல் உண்மைகளை (அரிய-சய்யாணி), நம்பகமான பிறப்பிடம் (ப்ரதிதிசமுத்துப்பாடா), மனதில் (சித்த) மற்றும் பௌத்த நடைமுறை (நல்ல) மற்றும் அஹிம்சை (அஹிம்ஸா) போன்ற பௌத்த நடைமுறைகளுடன் நேர்த்தியாகச் சித்தரிக்கிறது.

அமைப்பை

தமிழ் நாட்டில் பூம்புகார் நவீன நகரமான கவேரிப்பட்டினம் மற்றும் நவீன ஸ்ரீலங்காவில் யாழ்ப்பாண தீபகற்பத்தின் சிறிய மணல் தீவு நாங்காதேவின் நயன்தேவ் ஆகிய இரண்டு இடங்களிலும் இந்த கவிதை அமைந்துள்ளது. இந்தக் கதை பின்வருமாறு இயங்குகிறது: நடனக் கலைஞரான மணிமேகலை அசோகர் சோழன் இளவரசன் உதயகுமாரனால் தொடர்கிறது, ஆனால் தன்னை ஒரு மதப்பிரிவு வாழ்க்கைக்கு அர்ப்பணிக்க விரும்புகிறார். கடல் தெய்வமான மணிமேகலா தெய்வம் அல்லது மாயேமலை தேவி அவளை தூக்கிக் கொண்டு தீவை மாயிலப்பல்லம் (நைனாதி) என அழைத்து செல்கிறார். தீவைப் பற்றி எழுந்து அலைந்துகொண்டிருக்கும்போதே மான்மிகலாய் தமன் சம்மேளனத்தில், புத்தர் இரண்டு போரிடும் நாக இளவரசர்களுக்கு போதித்தார், அங்கு அமர்ந்து, இந்திரன் கடவுளால் அங்கு அமர்ந்து கொண்டார். அதை வணங்குபவர்கள் அதிசயமாய் தங்கள் முந்தைய வாழ்க்கை தெரியும். மணிமேகலை தானாகவே அதை வணங்கிக்கொண்டு தனது முந்தைய வாழ்க்கையில் என்ன நடந்தது என்பதை நினைவூட்டுகிறது. தாமமா ஆசியின் முக்கியத்துவத்தை விளக்கும் தேமா-டீலக்காய் (தவி திலகா) தர்மத்தின் தெய்வத்தின் பாதுகாவலனின் தெய்வத்தை அவள் சந்திக்கிறாள், அத்துடன் மந்திரம் அன்றாமலிருக்கும் பிச்சைக் கிண்ணம் (கன்னைனோசோபியா) அமுர்த்த சுராபி (”பசுமை நிறைந்த” ), இது எப்பொழுதும் பசியைத் தணிக்க உணவு அளிக்கிறது. தன் சொந்த ஊரில் பிக்ஹு அரவான் ஆகிஜல் அவளை மேலும் கற்பிப்பார் என்று தேவியும் கணித்துள்ளார். மணிமேகாலை பின்னர் மந்திரங்களைப் பயன்படுத்தி கடல் தெய்வம் கொடுத்தார், கவேரிபட்டிணத்திற்குத் திரும்பினார், அங்கு அவர் பிக்ஹு அரவான் அஜிகல் சந்திக்கிறார், அவர் புத்தரின் போதனைகளை விளக்கிக் கூறுகிறார் மற்றும் வாழ்க்கைத் தன்மை பற்றி அவளுக்கு அறிவுரை கூறுகிறார். பின்னர் அவர் ஒரு பௌத்த நன்னன் அல்லது பைக்ஹுனி மற்றும் பிறப்பு மற்றும் இறப்பின் அடிமைத்தனத்திலிருந்து தன்னை விடுவித்து, நிபனாவை அடைவதற்கு பழக்கமளிக்கிறார்.

குறிப்பிடத்தக்க எழுத்துக்கள்

    மணிமேகலை - கோவலன் மற்றும் மாதவியின் மகள், அவர் துணிச்சலுடன், நல்லொழுக்கத்துடன் பிறந்தார்.
    உதயகுமாரன் - சோழ மன்னர், மணமகலாயுடன் காதல் கொண்டிருந்தார். அவர் முட்டாள் அரசராக இருந்தார், அவர் விரும்பிய விதத்தில் மட்டுமே செய்ய முடிந்தது. அவர் ஒரு கும்பல் வாழ்க்கை இருந்தது

    சுதாமடி - மணிமேகலை மிகவும் நம்பகமான மற்றும் நம்பகமான நண்பர்.

மணிமேகாலா - கதாநாயகியை பாதுகாக்கும் கடல் தெய்வம்.
    தேவா தேலாக்காய் - தர்மசாலாவின் கார்டியன் தெய்வம். அவள் புஹார் நகரத்தில் பிறந்தாள், ஒரு வியாபாரிக்கு திருமணம் ஆனார். அவரது கணவர் வர்த்தகம் செய்வதற்கு ஒருமுறை பயணம் செய்கிறார். பல நாட்களுக்கு பிறகு கூட அவர் திரும்பி வரவில்லை. அவரது கணவர் இறந்துவிட்டார் என்று பயந்தேன் மற்றும் கவலை அவள் வாழ்க்கையை விட்டு கொடுக்க முயற்சி. (தற்கொலை மூலம் ஆனால் “சத்திய பரிட்சை” செய்வதன் மூலம், தன் கணவரின் மரணத்தின் காரணமாக தனது உயிரை எடுத்துக் கொள்ளும்படி கடவுளை வேண்டிக்கொள்கிறாள்) திடீரென்று அவள் கணவன் உயிருடன் இருக்கிறாள் என்று சொல்கிற வானத்திலிருந்து ஒரு குரல் கேட்கிறது, அவன் திரும்பி வருவான். ஆனால் டீவா டீலாக்காய் ஒரு குடும்ப வாழ்வில் அவமதிப்பு மற்றும் ஆன்மீக விஷயங்களில் அவர் ஆர்வத்தை வெளிப்படுத்துகிறார். அவர் அமிர்த சரபியைப் பெறுகிறார். மேலும் அவர் அறையில் தங்குவதற்கு குரல் மூலம் வழிநடத்துகிறார், மேலும் அவள் விதியை சந்திக்கிற வரை அதைப் பாதுகாக்கிறார்.

காவேரிப்பட்டினம் அல்லது புஹர் காணாமல் போனது

சோழ மன்னர் வருடாந்திர இந்திரா பண்டிகை இல்லாததால், கவேரிப்பட்டினம் அல்லது புஹர் நகரம் (அதாவது சுனாமி அல்லது வெள்ளத்தால் அழிக்கப்பட்டது) நகரத்தை விழுங்கி விட்டது என்றும் இதனால் கடல் தேவதை மணமகலையின் கோபத்தை ஏற்படுத்துவதாகவும் இந்த கவிதை சொல்கிறது. நவீன பூம்புகார் கடற்கரையிலிருந்து நீரில் மூழ்கியிருக்கும் இடிபாடுகளின் தொல்பொருள் கண்டுபிடிப்புகளால் இந்த கணக்கு ஆதரிக்கப்படுகிறது. 4 ஆம், 5 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டு பௌத்த மடாலயம், புத்தர் சிலை, மற்றும் ஒரு புத்தபெட்டா (புத்தரின் அடி) ஆகியவற்றின் பழமையான இடிபாடுகள் பல்லவனேஸ்வரத்தில் இப்போது பண்டைய நகரத்தின் இன்னொரு பிரிவில் காணப்படுகின்றன. கவேரிப்பட்டினம் நகரம் கி.மு. மூன்றாம் மற்றும் 6 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டுகளில் காணாமல் போனதாக நம்பப்படுகிறது.

பெளத்த பள்ளி சேர்க்கை

நாகர்ஜுனாவின் பிரச்சாரத்தில் மஹாயானாவைப் பற்றிய நேரடி குறிப்பு எதுவும் இல்லை. ஆரம்பகால பௌத்த, சரவணாயா பள்ளி, ஸ்டாவிரா அல்லது சுடரங்கிகா பள்ளி போன்ற வேலைகளில் தோன்றுகிறது. ஐயங்கார் கூற்றுப்படி, “பெரியவரின் பீடகைகளின் பாதை” (அதாவது டிபிகாக்கா) மற்றும் பாடம் 30 இல் உள்ள நம்பகமான பிறப்பிடம் போன்றவற்றின் முக்கியத்துவம் ஆகியவற்றின் முக்கியத்துவம், அது சுவாரான்கி பாடசாலையின் வேலை என்று பரிந்துரைக்கலாம். ஏ.கே. வார்னர் பதிலாக கவிதை Theravada பள்ளி இணைக்கப்பட வேண்டும் என்று கூறுகிறது.

கவிதை முடிவில், அரவாணா அஜிகல் மூன்று விரல்களிலிருந்து, பேராசிரியர் (ராகா, டோசா, மோஹா) மூன்று வேட்களில் இருந்து முழு விடுதலைக்கு ஊக்கமளிக்கிறார். கவிதைகளின் இறுதி வாக்கியம், மன்மோகேலாய் பிறந்த அடிமைத்தனத்திலிருந்து தன்னை விடுவிக்க போராடினார். பிறப்பு, வயோதிகம் மற்றும் இறப்பு (சம்சரா) சுழற்சியை முடித்து, ஒரு அரராந்தியாக மாறுவதன் மூலம், கலகலப்பிலிருந்தும் (கிலீசா) இருந்து விடுபடுவதற்கும் இந்த முக்கியத்துவம் வலியுறுத்துகிறது, இந்த கவிதை எழுத்தாளர் ஆரம்பகால சரவணன் பெளத்த பாடசாலையுடன் இணைந்தார் என்று கூறுகிறார். .80) அன்வஞா அஜிகல் அத்தியாயம் 29 ல் மகாமண்டபத்தில் உள்ள பௌத்த தர்க்கம் டிக்னாகா மற்றும் அவரது பள்ளியின் தர்க்கத்தை முன்வைக்கிறது என்று கூறுகிறது.

உரை சர்வைவல்

ஒரு பெரிய பிரசுரமாக இருந்த ஒரே ஒரு பௌத்த இலக்கிய வேலை மட்டுமே மணிமேகலை. அதன் உயிர்வாழ்வதற்கான காரணம் ஒருவேளை சில்லாபிகாரம் அல்லது சில்லாபிகாரம் என்பதன் தொடர்ச்சியாக அதன் நிலைப்பாடு. தமிழ், பாலி இலக்கியங்களில் மதிப்புமிக்க பங்களிப்பு செய்த பல பௌத்த ஆசிரியர்களை தமிழ்நாடு உருவாக்கியது. தமிழ் இலக்கியத்திலும் மற்ற வரலாற்றுப்பதிவுகளிலும் அவர்களின் படைப்புகள் பற்றிய குறிப்பு காணப்படுகிறது. நாககட்டுனார், இலக்கண விராஸ்யியம், அபிதிமா வேலை சித்தன்டத்தொகை, பனிக்கிரி திருப்பாடுகம் மற்றும் வாழ்க்கை வரலாறு பிம்பிசாத் கடாய் ஆகியோரால் எழுதப்பட்டது.
மொழிபெயர்ப்பு
ஆர்.எம்.கே.ஐயங்கார் எழுதிய மணிமேகலையின் முதல் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு அதன் வரலாற்று அமைப்பில் மன்மையகேலில் வெளியிடப்பட்டது. தென்னிந்தியாவிலுள்ள ஹிஸெல்ல தர்மமாதான பௌத்தத்தில் இந்த நூல் மறுபடியும் வெளியிடப்பட்டது. கவிதையின் ஒரு மிக சமீபத்திய மொழிபெயர்ப்பு T.V. கோபாலா அய்யரின் ஒத்துழைப்புடன் அலன் டானியேலோவால் செய்யப்பட்டது. 1991 ல் வெளியிடப்பட்ட ஷுஜோ மாட்சுனாக்கால் ஜப்பானிய மொழிபெயர்ப்பு உள்ளது.

நவீன காலத்தில் வெளியிடப்படுகிறது
பண்டைய தமிழ் உரையுடன் பனை இலை கையெழுத்து

யு.எஸ். சுவாமிநாத ஐயர் (1855-1942) தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தின் முதல் மூன்று புனைகதைகளை பல நூற்றாண்டுகளாக புண்படுத்தாத மற்றும் புறக்கணிப்பு அழிவிலிருந்து உயிர்த்தெழுப்பினார். இந்த இலக்கியத்தை பனை இலை வடிவத்தில் காகித புத்தகங்களுக்கு மறுபதிப்பு செய்தார். ராமசுவாமி முதலியார், தமிழ் அறிஞர் முதலில் அவரை சிவாக்கா சிந்தமணியின் பனை இலைகளைக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்தார். முதல் முறையாக இருப்பது, சுவாமிநாத ஐயர், புரிந்துகொள்ளும் விதமாக, காணாமல் போன இலைகள், உரை பிழைகள் மற்றும் அறிமுகமில்லாத சொற்கள் ஆகியவற்றைக் கண்டறிவதில் சிக்கல்களை எதிர்கொள்ள வேண்டியிருந்தது. காணாமல் போன கையெழுத்துப் பிரதிகள் தேடுவதற்காக தொலைதூர கிராமங்களுக்கு அவர் பயணம் செய்தார். பல ஆண்டுகளுக்குப் பிறகு, அவர் சிவாக்கா சிந்தமணி புத்தகத்தை 1887 ஆம் ஆண்டில் வெளியிட்டார், பின்னர் 1892 ஆம் ஆண்டில் சில்லாபிகாரம் மற்றும் 1898 ஆம் ஆண்டில் மணிமேகலை ஆகியோர் எழுதினர். உரை சேர்த்து, அவர் கருத்துக்கள், உரை வேறுபாடுகள் மற்றும் சூழலில் விளக்கி அணுகுமுறைகள் நிறைய கருத்துக்கள் மற்றும் விளக்க குறிப்புகள் சேர்க்க.

விமர்சனம் மற்றும் ஒப்பீடு

சில விமர்சகர்களுக்கு, சிமபத்கிராமத்தைவிட மேனம்கலை மிகவும் சுவாரஸ்யமானது. புத்தமதத்தை பரப்புவதை நோக்கி சுட்டிக்காட்டியவர், அதன் மேலோட்டமான கூறுகளை கொண்ட மேனீம்கல்லின் கதை ஆசிரியருக்குக் குறைவாகவே ஆர்வமாக இருக்கிறது. முந்தைய காலத்தில், நெறிமுறைகள் மற்றும் மத கோட்பாடுகள் மையமாக இருக்கின்றன, அதே நேரத்தில் பிந்தைய கவிதைகள் மற்றும் கதைகள் ஆதிக்கம் செலுத்துகின்றன. மணிமேகலை மேலும் கொள்கைகளை பிரசங்கித்து வருகிறது
https://prezi.com/imywnql1exsl/selections-from-therigatha-and-manimekhalai/

திரிகாடா மற்றும் மணிமேகலை தேர்வுகளிலிருந்து எழுத்துக்கள்
திரிகாடா மற்றும் மணிமேகலை தேர்வு

Ambapali

ஒரு மாமர மரம் (அம்பு) அடிவயிற்றில் காணப்பட்டார். அவள் மிகவும் அழகாகவும் அழகாகவும் வளர்ந்தாள். பல இளவரசர்கள் அவளை திருமணம் செய்துகொள்ள விரும்பினர், எனவே எந்த விவாதங்களையும் தவிர்க்க அவள் ஒரு மாநில வக்கீல் ஆனார். பின்னர் வாழ்க்கையில் அவர் புத்தர் உணவு சேவை செய்ய வாய்ப்பு கிடைத்தது; அவர் பெளத்த பாதையைப் பின்பற்றுவதோடு, வர்ணனாக தனது நிலைப்பாட்டை முடிவெடுத்தார்.

கவிதை

அவரது தற்போதைய வயதுக்கு முந்தைய அழகு (சிமிலிஸைப் பயன்படுத்தி) மாறுபடும்.

“நறுமணமுள்ள பூக்கள் நிறைந்த பூக்கள் நிறைந்த பசும் புதர் செடிகளின் பூக்களில் நிறைந்திருந்தன.எல்லா வருஷங்களின் கழிவுகள் அனைத்தையும் இப்போது துணியால் உரசும் துர்நாற்றம் வீசுகிறது, அத்தகையது சோதனையின் சொற்பொழிவு அல்ல. (253) “
இந்த வசனங்களைப் பேசிய பிறகு நிர்வாணத்தை அடைந்தார்; ஒரு அரரான் ஆனார்

பாடம் 2

இத்ரா பண்டிகையில் நடனம் ஆடையில் மாதவி கலந்து கொள்ள மாட்டார் என்று வதந்திகள் பரவி வருகின்றன
அவளுடைய நண்பர் வனசமலாலா அதைப் பற்றி அவரிடம் பேசுவார்
மாத்வி ஒரு சரியான வக்கீலின் இலட்சியங்களைக் கொண்டிருந்தார்: அவர் நடனம், இசை மற்றும் பாலியல் கலைகளை மேற்கொண்டார், மேலும் பிற திறன்களைப் படித்தார்
அவள் காதலி எப்படி இறந்துவிட்டாள் என்பதைப் பற்றி அவள் பேசுகிறாள், அவள் ஒரு மனைவியாக அவரை துக்கப்படுத்தவில்லை, ஏனென்றால் அவள் “நேர்மையான பெண்” இல்லை.
அவளது வருத்தத்தில் அரவண அடிகலிடம் வந்தார். அவர் பௌத்த வழிமுறைக்கு வாதிட்டார், அதனால் அவளுக்கு துன்பத்திலிருந்து தப்பிக்க வழி கிடைத்தது (4 உண்மைகளும் 5 நடத்தை விதிகள் மூலம்)
அவள் இதுவும் அவளுடைய மகளின் வாழ்க்கை முறையையும் விரும்புகிறாள்
மனிமேகாலை வணங்குவதற்கான உலகின் அதிசயங்களோடு தொடர்பு கொள்ள விரும்பவில்லை
மனிமேகலையின் பாட்டியிடம் அவர் பௌத்த ஆலயத்தில் வாழ்கிறார் என்றும் ஒரு பௌத்த நர்னாக வாழ்ந்து வருகிறார் என்றும் தெரிந்துகொள்கிறார்.
மானேமகேலை அழகுபடுத்திய இளவரசனைப் பார்த்து, மானேமோகைக்கு நீதிமன்றத்திலிருந்தும், மரியாதைக்குரிய குடும்பத்தினரையும் அழைத்து வரும்படி சொல்கிறார்.
அவர் சென்று அவளிடம் பேசுகிறார் (வழக்கத்திற்கு மாறானவர்) அவள் ஏன் உயிரோடு இருக்கிறாள் என்று கேட்கிறார்.
அவர் பதில் கூறுகிறார் (அவர் கடந்த கால வாழ்க்கையில் தனது கணவர் என்பதால் பதில் சொல்ல கடமைப்பட்டிருப்பார்) மனித உடல் வேதனை மற்றும் துன்பம் முழு என்று, அவர் அந்த வகையான வாழ்க்கை (மற்றும் உலக இன்பம்) மறுத்து மற்றும் அதற்கு பதிலாக மற்றவர்களுக்கு உதவும் தேர்வு.
அவள் கோவிலுக்குள் சென்று தன் தோற்றத்தை மாற்றிக் கொண்டாள்.

பாடம் 18

சுபா
அவள் ஒரு கோல்டன் ஸ்மித்தின் மகள், அவள் மிகவும் அழகாக இருந்தாள். அவள் ‘அதிர்ஷ்டம்’ என்று நினைத்ததால் சுபா என்ற பெயரைப் பெற்றார். ஒரு முனிவர் தனது ஊருக்கு வந்தபோது ஆன்மீக பாதையைப் பற்றிப் பேசினார்.
அவர் நிர்வாணத்தை அடைந்த பிறகு பேசுகிறார்
உலகின் ஆசைகள் கெட்டவை என்பதைப் பற்றியும் பௌத்த பாதையில் அவர் அடைந்த மகிழ்ச்சிக்காக அவர்களை ஒதுக்கித் தள்ளுவதையும் தேர்ந்தெடுத்தார்
ஒரு தங்கத் தோழனின் மகள், தங்கம் மற்றும் ஆபரணங்களால் சூழப்பட்டாள், ஆனால் அவள் அவர்களை வழிநடத்துவதற்குத் தேர்ந்தெடுத்தாள்
ஒரு கன்னியாஸ்திரியாக கற்றல் எட்டு நாளில் நிர்வாணத்தை அடைந்தது
சுமேத
சுமேதா ஒரு ராஜாவின் மகள். பௌத்த மத போதனைகளை ஒரு குழந்தை என்று அவள் கேட்கப் போகிறாள். ஒரு இளவரசனுக்கு அவளை விட்டு செல்லும்படி பெற்றோர்கள் தீர்மானித்தபோது, பௌத்த மதத்தின் வழியை பின்பற்ற விரும்புவதாக அவர் முடிவு செய்தார். (’எனது கடமை வீட்டின் வாழ்வில் இல்லை’). அவள் முடி வெட்டிக்கொண்டு வீட்டை விட்டு வெளியேறினாள்.
அவர் ஒரு அரான்ட் ஆன பிறகு இந்த விவாதங்கள் பேசப்படுகின்றன.
அவள் கதையை விவரிக்கிறார்
அவள் திருமணம் செய்து கொள்ள வேண்டும் என்று நினைத்தேன், பணக்கார வாழ்க்கை வாழ்நாளின் வாக்குறுதியுடன், நகைகளையும், செல்வத்தையும் கொண்ட அவள், ஆனால் அவள் இடைவிடாமல் இருக்கிறாள்.
பொருள் செல்வங்களும் ஆசைகளும் எவ்வளவு அபரிமிதமாக இருக்கின்றன என்பதையும், அந்த வகையான வாழ்க்கைக்கு எந்த அவசியமும் இல்லை
“ஆட்டுக்குட்டிகளால் உண்டான பாம்புகளின் தலைகளைப் போலவும், எரிகிற அக்கினிப்போலவும் …” ஆணின் உறுதியற்ற நிலையில் பாம்புகள்

பாடம் 6

மனிமேகாலாவின் தெய்வம் மணிமேகலைக்கு வந்து, இளவரசனின் ஆசையிலிருந்து அவளை காப்பாற்றுவதற்காக பரலோக ஆலயத்திற்கு செல்லும்படி அறிவுறுத்துகிறார்
கதை: அதை சுற்றி சுவர் நிலத்தை சதி, இறந்த அர்ப்பணிக்கப்பட்ட. ஒவ்வொரு மூலையையும் ஒரு நுழைவாயில் மற்றும் நான்கு கார்டினல் திசைகளில் சுட்டிக்காட்டியது. புதைத்து வைக்கவும், தகனம் செய்யவும், இறந்தவர்களை விட்டுச்செல்லவும் இடங்களில் உள்ளது. இறந்தவர்களிடம் புருஷர்கள் மீண்டும் இணைவதற்கு இறந்த பெண்களுக்கு ஒரு சிறப்பு இடம் இருக்கிறது. இந்த இடம் மிகவும் பழமை வாய்ந்தது, சத்தம் மற்றும் காட்சிகள் (மண்டை ஓடு, கழுகுகள், பிரார்த்தனைகள், உறவினர்களின் அழுகை) ஆகியவற்றுடன். இது ஏன் டெட் நகரம் என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.
சங்காலான தற்செயலாக சுவர்களில் நுழைந்தார், சூனியக்காரர் தனது ஆன்மாவைத் திருடினார். அவரது தாயார் கோட்டமி நகரின் தெய்வத்தை அவரிடம் கேட்டார். அவர் அதை செய்ய முடியாது என்றார். அவர் வானங்களை ஆளப்போகிற தெய்வங்களை அழைத்தார், அவர்கள் அதைச் செய்ய முடியாது என்று சொன்னார்கள். கோட்டமி அவளையும் அவளுடைய மகனின் விதிகளையும் ஒப்புக்கொண்டார். சுவர்க்கத்தின் அருகில் ஒரு கோவில் அமைக்கப்பட்டிருந்தது, இது ஹெவன் கோயில் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டது.
மணிமேகாலா மற்றொரு தீவுக்கு மணமகலாய் தூங்கினாள்.
வெளியே நின்ற முக்கியமான விஷயங்கள்
மணிமேகலை: சிறந்த பெண் (வணக்கம், மனைவி)
அத்தியாயங்கள் 2 மற்றும் 18 - சிறந்த வணக்கம்
பல்வேறு கலை மற்றும் திறன்களின் மாஸ்டர் (நடனம், இசை, செக்ஸ்)
பகிரங்கமாக நடனம், ஆர்வத்தைத் தூண்டுவதை நோக்கமாகக் கொண்டது, மனிதன் கொடுக்க முடியாத அளவுக்கு பணம் சம்பாதிப்பது வரை பணம் சம்பாதிக்கிறார்
“மனிதர்களை கவர்ச்சியுடன் ஈர்த்ததுடன் அவற்றை அவர்களது கலைகளுடன் பிணைக்கும்” பக். 74

https://www.reddit.com/r/india/comments/2mfq5v/the_desecration_of_buddhist_temples_in_south_india/

தென்னிந்தியாவிலுள்ள புத்த கோவில்களின் தீர்த்தம்

    கும்பகோணம் நாகேஸ்வரன் திருமுருகன் வீதி, ஒரு பதா சிலை என்று பேகவரிஷி இருந்தது. புத்தர் விநாயகர் என்ற பெயரால் அழைக்கப்படுகிறார் என்று நிஜண்டு கூறுகிறார். பிற்பகுதியில் பல புத்த கோயில்கள் விநாயகர் கோவில்களாக மாற்றப்பட்டன.

    640 கி.மு. காஞ்சீபுரத்தை பார்வையிட்ட சீன பயணிகள், காஞ்சி புத்தர் கோவில்களையும் ஆயிரம் துறவிகளையும் கொண்டிருப்பதாக பதிவு செய்துள்ளது.

    அனனாத நாயனார் (1932) படி காஞ்சி கேசேஸ்வரர் ஆலயத்தில் புத்தர் சிலை கோபுரத்தின் அடித்தளத்தில் காணப்பட்டது. இந்த கோயிலின் மேற்கில் பட்ஹீத்ரி மற்றும் தெரு என அழைக்கப்படுகிறது. ஆனால் நான் அந்த ஆலயத்திற்கு வந்தபோது அந்தக் கற்கள் அடையாளம் காணப்படவில்லை. தூண்களில் மட்டும் புத்தர் படங்களை நான் பார்க்க முடிந்தது.

    காஞ்சி அருகே பல்லவபுரம் சென்றேன். அதே கிராமத்தில் ஒரு ஏரியின் கரையில் ஒரு புத்தர் சிலை காணப்பட்டது. கன்னிகுலப்புவில் உள்ள விநாயகர் கோயிலுக்கு அருகே புத்தர் சிலை அமைத்திருக்கிறேன். தர்மா சக்ராவுடன் நின்று கொண்டிருக்கும் ஒரு கல்லும் இருந்தது. அவர்கள் புத்தர் கோவில் இடித்துத் தள்ளி விநாயகர் கோவில் கட்டினார்கள்.

புத்தர் கோயில்களின் இருப்பு மற்றும் ஜெயின் அல்லது இந்து கோயில்களுக்கு மாற்றாக இந்த கோயில்களை மாற்றுவதற்கான சான்றுகளை விவரிக்கும் அவரது புத்தகத்தில் மயிலா சீனி வெங்கடாசாமி மேலும் பல தகவல்களை சேகரித்துள்ளார்.

http://awakeningbuddhistwomen.blogspot.in/2015/04/history-of-women-in-buddhism-indonesia_6.html


Sakyadhita: Awakening Buddhist Women
Sakyadhita: Awakening Buddhist Women

Monday, April 6, 2015

History of Women in Buddhism - Indonesia: Part 3

South Indian Bhikkhunī Manimekalai Travels to Java

Article author: Āyyā Tathālokā Bhikkhunī
Introduction to this segment: Tathālokā Bhikkhunī and Ādhimuttā Bhikkhunī

Image 1: Manimekalai distributing food to the needy
with her magic bowl. In contemporary South Indian
paintings, of which there are many as she continues
to be a legendary folk hero, she is almost always
depicted more in appearance like a modern Hindu
sannyāsinī than a Buddhist monastic.
This third post in our “History of Women in Buddhism” series records the dramatic and inspiring life story of a Buddhist woman saint, Manimekalai, second century South India’s Buddhist Mother Theresa.[1] It examines marks of the status and the mobility of ancient South and Southeast Asian Buddhist women monastics, their environmental and social justice ethics, their rights of self-determination, relationship with politics, and how Buddhism was proactively compared with regards gender issues and women’s rights to other faiths, doctrines and religions of the period.

This post especially coincides with the Sri Lankan Buddhist observance of Bak Poya on the full moon of April, the commemorative date of the Buddha’s visit to the Isle of Manipallavam aka Nagadipa, which figures so prominently in the life story of Manimekalai. 

Extracted from Ayyā Tathālokā’s paper “Light of the Kilis: Our Indonesian Bhikkhuni Ancestors,” it is part of the series leading up to the 14th Sakyadhita Conference in Borobudur, Indonesia. [Also: read the worthy historical places to visit and about the ancient terminology]

Part 3: South Indian Bhikkhuṇī Manimekalai Travels to Java



Image 2: Manimekalai book cover
Manimekalai (Maṇimēkalai, Tamil: மணிமேகலை), a highly-revered Tamil-Language Buddhist epic poem, is one of the five great epics of Tamil Literature, and the only one of the formerly-glorious collection of Tamil Buddhist writings of the period to survive.

The venerable Manimekalai’s life story was recorded and popularized between the second and third centuries CE.  From it, we recognize not only the international freedom of mobility of the early south Indian and island nations’ Buddhist bhikkhunīs (Skt: bhikṣuṇīs), but also the esteem which the greats among them held as leading monastic teachers, realized practitioners and saints.  


Image 3: Ancient Tamil epics on palm leaf text
Manimekalai, whose name means “girdle of maṇi-jewels,” was named after the Goddess of the Sea of the same name, Manimekhala Devi (known and beloved to Buddhists for her rescuing of the bodhisatta in the Mahājanaka Jātaka tale).[2]


 Image 4: Thai 6 Baht stamp celebrating
Magha Puja Day shows the sea goddess
Manimekhala (above right) rescuing the
bodhisatta (Buddha-to-be) Mahajanaka
from the raging Sea.
The human Manimekalai was born to a royal dancer along the coast of South India into a matriarchal line of royal dancers/courtesans. She, together with her mother-mentor, became students of the South Indian Buddhist teacher and sage Bhikkhu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, both entering the Buddhist Order, despite the people’s protest at the loss of their highly-valued entertainers.  When she came of age, the heir to the Chola empire, Prince Udaya-kumāra, wished to marry her (a proposal very hard for a dancer’s daughter to refuse). Despite her love for him due to his having been her spouse in several previous lives,  Manimekalai bravely chose to continue in her life of renunciation for the sake of “the bright light of knowledge,” and later was fully ordained as a Buddhist monastic.[3]

As with the life stories of many saints, her story contains abundant moral-bearing miracles.  In the course of her adventures, during which she too received divine assistance from the Sea Goddess in escaping the ongoing pursuit of the amorous prince, she found herself deserted on the sands of the Island of Manipallavam nearby its then famous Shrine of the Buddha’s Seat.


Image 5: Sri Lankan Kelaniya Temple painting of the Buddha appearing, in the fifth year of his ministry on Bak Poya April full moon, to end the dispute between two related Naga clans over the jeweled seat. Coming upon the seat, Manimekhalai chants, “Hail to the holy feet of him who rid the Nagas of their woes,” alluding to this incident.


Image 6: The former Sri Lanka president pays homage to the Nagadipa pagoda. The pagoda and shrine on the isle of Manipallavam aka Nainativu and also referred to as Nagatheevu, Nagadipa and Manithivu, is a location foremost in religious worship. To this day, both the island and  the presiding guardian goddess Amba Devi are associated in veneration with the visits of Manimekhalai and Kannaki to the island.

There she is said to have been guided by a deity to find a very special alms-bowl, the Amudhasurabhi, with a blessing upon it that it could share food out in alms to an infinite number of people.


Image 7: Actress depicting
Manimekhalai holding the
blessed alms bowl, from the
movie Amudhasurabhi
Back in the Tamil city of Puhar (also known as Kāveripattanam), putting the miraculous alms bowl to its blessed use, Manimekalai was granted a boon by the king who was much impressed by her piety and knowledge of Dharma.

She used this boon to request that he transform the prison into a public almsgiving hall, emphasizing the dharma of rehabilitation through giving support rather than giving punishment.  In this hall she shared food daily with all the needy of every kind, while also teaching the Dharma there.[4]

Later, when hearing of a drought-caused famine in Java (called Chava, Chavaka or Savaka-nadu in Tamil)[5] she travelled there to the capital of Nagapuram, where she taught the king Punyarāja, son of Bhūmicandra, both of whom she had past karmic affinities with. (The bowl that she had inherited had once, in the new king’s just-previous past life, belonged to Punyarāja).

By that time, Manimekalai’s fame had spread so far and wide that when they first met, the king’s minister recognized her immediately. Having heard about her in his travels abroad, he introduced her saying:
“There is none equal to this maiden in all of Jambudvipa. She [is] a nun of great piety and virtue that ha[s] come from Kāveripattanam, and possess[es] marvelous and miraculous powers.”[6]
Manimekalai’s teachings to Punyarāja on Java were on the social justice forms of benevolence and loving-kindness to all, focused on providing for the material well-being of all his people.[7] In these lines, she defines virtue (அறம் or sīla), as the human trait by which food, clothing and shelter are made available to all:
அறமெனப் படுவது யாதெனக்கேட்பின்
மறவாது இதுகேள் மன்னுயிர்க்கு எல்லாம்
உண்டியும் உடையும் உறையளும் அல்லது
கண்ட தில்லை.
“If one should ask what is the supreme form of charity, bear this carefully in mind that it is the maintenance of all living creatures with food and clothing and places to live in safety.”[8]

Image 8: The emblem of the
contemporary Manimekalai
Welfare Association on
Nainaitheevu (Manipallavam)
Island, where Manimekhalai
is still well remembered
Manimekalai’s teaching and her story emphasizes moral causality, and that virtuous or poor morality not only passes through lifetimes, but can also have profound environmental benefits or consequences observable in nature–a lesson enormously important to us today.[9]

She also taught fundamental Dharma teachings of insight into the impermanence and transitoriness of all material and emotional phenomena, the suffering of attaching to what is impermanent, and the non-self nature of all conditioned things.  Due to her developed abilities and realizations, she was able to clearly see and know the truths of karma and rebirth, and many of her realizations, strong decisions and actions, and teachings that appear in her epic biography are centered on these truths.

In her epic, she travels as a saint to the aforementioned Java, the island of Manipallavam off the coast of Sri Lanka, as well as traveling in her homeland of India. Numerous inscriptions from the second century BCE mention local bhikkhunīs along Indian trade routes and near active seaports with Indonesian connections. This, combined with the lack of a ban on sea voyages for Buddhist monastics (as compared to Jains), strongly suggests the travel and spread of both the male and female Buddhist monastic Sangha along both sea and land routes.


Image 9: Map of India showing Bodhgaya and Kalinga together with
the southern islands and northern tip of Sri Lanka, including Jaffna,
Dambakola Patuna and Nagadipa

In fact, the Buddhist shrine Manimekalai visited in northern Sri Lanka, is very close to the Jaffna port of Dambakola, traditionally held to be the arrival point of the famed Sanghamitta Theri to Sri Lanka from India.         

There was much Buddhist monastic travel and interchange recorded between these countries: India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and China. It is known that both the Indian and Sri Lankan bhikkhunīs were internationally active and mobile and undertook sea voyages for Dharmadhuta missionary Sangha activities, as these bhikkhunīs undertook two voyages to China for the sake of the dual ordination of Chinese bhikkhuṇīs, which was well recorded, and has been widely published in recent years. Sinhalese bhikkhunīs are also recorded as having traveled to both India and Tibet, and one queen turned bhikkhunī from Kalinga (whether Kalinga in Indonesia or Kalinga in India has not been verified) is recorded as having been ordained in Sri Lanka.


Image 10: Figures of Sanghamitta Therani’s arrival by ship at
the port of Dambukola at the temple of Sanghamitta, Jaffna  


Image 11: Dambakola Patuna, an ancient Sri Lankan port, where
Sangamitta Therani landed while conveying the Sri Maha Bodhi
tree sapling to Anuradhapura.   

When Manimekalai returned from her Dhamma missionary and foreign aid work to her Indian homeland, in disguise as a male ascetic, she studied and became a master of the various non-Buddhist popular religious and spiritual teachings, philosophies and practices of her time, much as the Buddha himself did before his great awakening.


Image 12: Manimekalai depicted in very clearly feminine saintly form with the all-giving bowl, blue lotuses and both the Hindu goddess and Buddhist pagoda shrines with which she is associated on the Isle of Nagadipa/Manipallavam. Again, note the tendencies in pre-modern art during the time of the centuries-long absence of the Bhikkhunī Sangha in India to portray her appearance as the then more familiar image of a sannyāsinī, rather than as a bhikkhunī.

Reflecting upon these teachings in light of the unique and salient points of the Buddha’s teaching, she finally attaining the ultimate transmission from her family preceptor and master teacher Aravaṇa Aḍigal.[10] A point is made here that the gendered dogmas and practices of other non-Buddhist religious traditions required her to adopt the male form in order to have full access to their teachings and practices — but not so for Buddhism — a main promotional point for early Buddhism as it was popularized in this South Indian classic from the early centuries CE.


Image 13: Ilango Adigal (இளங்கோ அடிகள், the “Prince Ascetic”), a 2nd century CE  monk and contemporary of Manimekhalai author Satthanar (சாத்தனார்), who is variously said to have narrated the story of Manimekhalai to Satthanar, or to have had Satthanar narrate the story to him.
The venerable Manimekalai lived the remainder of her life and passed away as a bhikkhunī, and although she lived several centuries after the Buddha, the most eminent title of Arachchelvi as for the awakened leading women disciples of the Buddha is used in her regard, as it was for the bhikkhunī/bhikṣuṇī arahats of yore.

__

All posts in the “History of Women in Buddhism - Indonesia” series:
Part 1: Introduction Twelve Javanese Sites Worthy of Interest: Monuments & Sites Related to Women in Buddhism & Bhikkhunīs
Part 2: Indonesian Bhikkhunīs & Women Ascetics: A Historical Introduction & Survey of Terminology
Part 3: South Indian Bhikkhunī Manimekalai Travels to Java
Part 4: International Buddhist Networking, Bhikkhunīs and Women’s Leadership in the 5th-7th Century Indonesian South Seas
Part 5: The Mystery Story of Devi Kili Suci ~ the 11th Century Vanishing Crown Princess Bhikkhunī Hermit & Her Selomangleng Goa Cave
Part 6: Bhrikutī & the Appearance of New Non-Bhikkhunī Forms of Women’s Asceticism in Buddhism
Part 7: Ardhanāriśvārī Ken Dedes & Gender in Ancient Indian Buddhism

Part 8: Gāyatrī Rājapatni: Queen, Bhikkhunī & the Prajñāpāramitā
Part 9: Tomé Pires Witness & the Beguines, change comes to the roles of women in religion in Indonesia
Part 10: Shedding Light on the Bhikkhunīs & the Great Founding Women of Borobudur (Sakyadhita Conference Presentation)

Image credits for Part 3:
Image 1: courtesy of Eluthu.com: http://eluthu.com/images/poemimages/f15/vzeln_158581.jpg.
Image 2: courtesy of Astralint.com: http://www.astralint.com/images/bookimage/9788189233372.jpg
Image 3: courtesy of Wikipedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manimekalai#/media/File:Tamil_palm_leaf3%7E300_AD.jpg
Image 4: courtesy of http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-novPpiJQw3w/U0jaOm0E70I/AAAAAAAAIJs/JY5sALxDNJE/s1600/scan0005.jpg
Image 5: courtesy of:  http://viyaasan.blogspot.com/2013/09/blog-post_715.html.
Image 6: courtesy of the Sri Lankan Columbo Page:  http://www.colombopage.com/archive_11/Jan18_1295294319CH.php
Image 7: courtesy of Chennai 365: http://chennai365.com/tamil/Events/Amudhasurabhi/.
Image 8: courtesy of: http://nayinai.com/sites/default/files/Mekalai-1.jpg.
Image 9: courtesy of: Chaminda Weerathunga
Image 10: courtesy of: Chaminda Weerathunga
Image 11: courtesy of the Visit Jaffna blogspot: http://visit-jaffna.blogspot.com/2011/12/top-10-places-to-visit-in-jaffna.html.
Image 12: courtesy of: http://viyaasan.blogspot.com/2013/09/blog-post_715.html.
Image 13: courtesy of Wikipedia Commons:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilango_Adigal#/media/File:Puhar-ILango.jpg.

Endnotes to Part 3:
[1] See Manimekhalai: the Dancer with the Magic Bowl by Merchant Prince Shattan (Chāttanār) 1989.
[2] See http://skn.ac.th/skl/project/chanok92/ki26.htm.
[3] Hisele Dhammaratana 2008 (online edition, 3. Bhikkhuni Manimekalai)
[4] In contemporary South Indian images, Manimekalai is almost always portrayed in orange robe, with high stacked hair and jewelry like a contemporary Indian sannyasini. See: http://dosa365.wordpress.com/2012/09/01/24/manimekalai/.
[5] On Manimekalai and the association between the lands of Java, Chava, Chavaka and Savaka-nadu see Chattergee 1933 (p 27), Nandakumar 1987 (p 7) and Kanakasabhai 1904 (p 11)
[6] Viswanatha 2009 (p 177). Viswanatha’s translation reads: “There is none equal to this maiden in all of Jambudvipa. She was a nun of great piety and virtue that had come from Kāveripattanam, and possessed marvelous and miraculous powers.”
[7] Rao 2007 (p 138)
[8] As translated by Dr. C.R. Krishnamurti in his “Tamizh Literature Through the Ages (தமிழ் இலக்கியம் - தொன்று தொட்டு இன்று வரை),” in 4. The Era of the Thamizh Epics - காப்பிய காலம், on the web: http://tamilnation.co/literature/krishnamurti/04epic.htm (accessed on 4 April 2015).
[9] This lesson of warning about human moral or immoral behavior having observable effects on nature, that is on the earth’s climate and weather, may have been a matter of belief or nonbelief in Manimekalai’s time, but seems easy to see and understand now, in our modern times.
[10] Rao 2007 (p 140)

Ayyā Tathālokā Bhikkhuṇī (sans diacritics Ayya Tathaaloka)


Ven. Tathālokā Bhikkhunī is an American-born Theravada bikkhunī, Buddhist monastic scholar and teacher. She is the co-founder of the non-profit NGO Dhammadharini (Women Upholding the Dhamma), the North American Bhikkhuni Association and Aranya Bodhi Hermitage, as well as a senior monastic advisor to Sakyadhita USA and the Alliance for Bhikkhunis. She was a recipient of the 2006 Outstanding Women in Buddhism Award and a presenting scholar at the 2007 International Congress on Buddhist Women’s Role in the Sangha on her special areas of scholarship: Bhikkhuni Sangha History and Bhikkhuni Vinaya.  Ayyā Tathālokā served as preceptor for the historically significant bhikkhuni ordinations held in Western Australia and in Northern California between 2009 and 2014. She is currently working with the Dhammadharini support foundation to establish a permanent monastery/vihara for the Dhammadharini Bhikkhuni Sangha in Northern California north of the San Francisco Bay Area (see dhammadharini.net).
Posted by Mariani at Monday, April 06, 2015
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Labels: Ayya Tathaaloka, Bhikkhunis, Bhiksunis, Female Buddhist Monastics, Female Buddhist Monks, History of Women in Buddhism, Sakyadhita Conferences, Tathālokā Bhikkhunī, Tathālokā Therī, Women in Buddhism

http://www.tamilnation.co/literature/manimekalai.htm

 

“To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life’s good comes not from others’ gift, nor ill
Man’s pains and pains’ relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !.”
- Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C

TAMIL LANGUAGE  & LITERATURE

Manimekalai of Cittalaic Cattanar
மணிமேகலை - சீத்தலைச்சாத்தனார்

“The Manimekhalai, one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature, gives us in the form of didactic novel full of freshness and poetry, a delightful insight into the ways of life, the pleasures, beliefs and philosophical concepts of a refined civilisation… In its clear accounts of the philosophical concepts of the time, the Manimekhalai presents the various currents of pre Aryan thought…. which gradually influenced the Vedic Aryan world… The society in which the action of the Manimekhalai takes has little to do with the Aryanised civilisation of the north which we know from Sanskrit texts…” Alan Danielou (translator) - Manimekhalai (The Dancer With the Magic Bowl)

M.D.Raghavan
Tamil Culture in Ceylon, a General Introduction, circa 1952

One of the finest jewels of Tamil poetry”, the epic poem Manimekalai by Poet Sathanar, 2nd century A.D., is unique for the deep spirituality and mysticism it unfolds against the historical and geographical background of South India and of adjacent Jaffna.

The death of her father, Kovalan, under tragic circumstances, weighs upon the mind of young Manimekala and she resolves on a life of renunciation. At every turn she is obstructed. Running through her life story are a set of counteracting forces — on the one hand is her passion to enter holy orders of a Buddhist bhikkuni and on the other, the infatuation of Udaya Kumaran, the Chola prince, to win her favours.

The first scene is laid in the garden of the capital city, Puhar, with Manimekala and her companion, Sutamati, gathering flowers. With all the daring of his princely rank, Udaya Kumaran gives vent to his deep love. Faced by a situation from which there is no escape, spiritual aid comes to her in the person of the Goddess Manimekalai, her guardian deity. The Goddess charms her to sleep, and while in a state of trance, spirits her away to the Island of Manipallavam,1 down South. Leaving her there, the Goddess gets back to Puhar, the Chola capital. Appearing before Prince Udaya Ku maran, she tells him of the unrighteousness of his conduct, unbecoming of a prince. The Goddess now appears to Sutamati in a dream and tells her of her flight to the Island of Manipallavam with Manimekala, and how the Goddess has set her on the road to spirituality.

Bewildered at her loneliness in strange surroundings Manimekala roams about the place until she comes upon the site hallowed by the visit of the Buddha. This was the site where according to legends, the Buddha landed and settled a growing strife between two warring Naga. Princes for a gem-set throne left to them by an ancestress. The episode of the Buddha’s visit to the Island of Nagadipa, where he preached a sermon of reconciliation between the two Naga princes, is sung in Buddhist legends of Ceylon, chronicled in Sinhalese Mahavamsa. Circumambulating the holy seat, and prostrating herself before it, memories of her past life miraculously dawns on her.

One of her righteous deeds in her past life, is here recounted. Lakshmi, as she was in her previous birth, comes upon a Buddhist Charana by name Sadhu Sakkaram flying across the air. As he landed, Lakshmi and her husband, Rahula, prostrated before the sage, and Lakshmi offered the sage food. The merit that she thus acquired gained for her the reward of acquiring nirvana, in her next birth, destined to live the life of a Bhikkuni. Rahula, her husband, was reborn as Prince Udaya Kumara. This accounts for his amorous advances to her.

 To release her from this attachment and to help her to fulfil the Karma, was the mission of Goddess Manimekalai who spirited her away to the Island of Manipallavam. In her past birth she was one of the three daughters of King Ravivarman and his Queen Amudapati, of Yasodharanagari. The other two daughters were Tarai and Virai, married to King Durjaya. On a certain day returning from a visit to the hills by the side of the Ganges, the royal party came upon Aravana Adigal, the great Buddhist saint.

The latter persuaded the king and his daughters, to worship the footprints of the Buddha in Padapankaja Malai of the Giridharakuta hills. The story of the footprints finds mention in these words : ” The Buddha stood on the top of the hill and taught his Dharma to all living beings, and as he preached in love, his footprints became imprinted on the hill, which thus got the name Padapankaja Malai (the Hill of the Lotus feet).” The king and his queens were advised to go and worship the sacred footprints. As a result of the merit thus acquired, the two daughters Virai and Tarai, were reborn as Sutamati and Madhavi.

To resume our story. Initiated in Buddha Dharma, the goddess prevails on Manimekala to complete her spiritual education by learning the teachings of other religious persuasions. Towards this end, she instructs her in a mantra the chanting of which would enable her to fly through the air, disguised as a hermit. With these pronouncements, the goddess again leaves her.

Walking about the place, Manimekala meets the goddess Tivatilaki who recounts her own experiences. ” On the high                      peak of Samanta Kuta, in the adjoining Island of Ratnadipa, there are the footprints of the Buddha. After offering worship to the footprints, I came to this Island long ago. Since then, I have remained here keeping guard over this seat under the orders of Indra. My name is Tiva-tilaki, the Light of the Island. Those who follow the Dharma of the Buddha strictly and offering worship to this Buddha seat will gain knowledge of their previous birth.”

” In front of this seat there is a little pond full of cool water overgrown with lotuses. From that pond will appear a never failing alms bowl, by name Amrita Surabhi (Endless Nectar). The bowl once belonged to Aputra and appears every year on the full moon day in the month of Rishabha, in the fourteenth asterism, the day on which the Buddha himself was born. That day and hour are near. That bowl will presently come into your hand. Food put into it by a pure one will be inexhaustible. You will learn all about it from Aravana Adigal, who lives in your own city.”

Circumambulating the pond, the bowl emerges from the water and reaches her hands. Delighted at this, Manimekala chants praises of the Buddha. The last line of the chant alludes to the Buddha’s services to the Nagas : ” Hail holy feet of Him who rid the Nagas of their woes.”

How the bowl found its way to Nagadipa is another story 2 Manimekala now flies back to Kaveripattinam. Meeting her mother and Sutamati, she recounts her experiences. All three go to the Sage Aravana Adigal. The sage narrates to her the story of the miraculous bowl. As the story ends, Manimekala dons the robes of a Bhikkuni and with the begging bowl in her hand, makes her way through the streets of the city.

The news reaches Prince Udaya Kumaran of Manimekala’s presence in her own Madurai and her attentions to the poor and forlorn. The prince goes to find her. Seeing her as a Bhikkuni, he asks her why she has taken to this austere life. She makes appropriate reply. Unable to resist the prince’s advances, she disguises herself as Kayasandigai, so as to escape his attentions. Meanwhile, Kanjanan, the husband of the real Kayasandigai, mistakes Manimekala in her disguise, as his wife. Manimekala does not respond to Kanjanan’s words. This infuriates Kanjanan, who suspects Udaya Kumaran to be his wife’s lover, and kills him.

Manimekala now continues in her wanderings and finally reaches Conjeeveram. Here she waits upon Aravana Adigal, who instructs her in Buddha Dharma. Manimekala from now settles herself to the dedicated life of a Buddhist Bhikkuni.

1 Of the character and functions of this Goddess, Paranavitana enlightens us : ” This Goddess appears in a number of Sinhalese and Pali works. Her chief job appears to be the guardianship of the sea.” Quoting Rajavaliya’ we are told, ” Viharamahadevi, the mother of Duttugemunu, who was offered by her father as a sacrifice to the sea Goddess, was brought ashore by this very Goddess at Magama in Ruhuna where she found her future husband.” (Paranavitana : Ceylon Literary Register, 1931).

That Manipallavam is an Island, is obvious from the reference in the Manimekalai to ” the sea girt land of Manipallavam,” the Island where ” stood the seat of the Buddha ” — the seat for which ” there appeared in contest two Naga kings from the Southern Regions each claiming the seat for himself.” This specific allusion to the gem-set seat and the Buddha appearing and making peace between the warring princes, make it abundantly clear that the Island meant is Nagadipa, or the Jaffna Peninsula itself, for at this time the name seems to have been extended to refer to the whole Peninsula as the Mahavamsa has it. Another                          pointer is the name Pallavam, Tamil for the sprout of a tree, the projecting top of the Peninsula thrusting itself into the sea, having all the look of the sprout of a tree. There is also the view that this idea may be at the back of the names of the later Pallavas bearing the suffix “ankura” meaning in Sanskrit, a sprout, in their surnames. (Rasanayagam, C.: Ancient Jaffna, p. 81).

2 Salli, the faithless wife of a Brahmin Appachikan, deserted her husband. She gave birth to a child whom she left by the wayside. Attracted by the cries of the child, it was looked after by a cow. In time, the child was adopted by a kind Brahmin. The child thus got the name Auputhiran — the cow’s son. The boy, as he grew up, denounced animal sacrifices. Matters came to a head one night when he rescued a cow consecrated for sacrifice the next morning. He was discarded by his adopted parents. Auputhiran fled to Madurai and took refuge in a pilgrims’ rest home. Touched by his charitable disposition to feed the poor, Saraswati bestowed on him the miraculous rice bowl, with which he fed man and beast. In time, Indra moved by his charities, appeared before Auputhiran and volunteered to grant him whatever boon he desired. ” What greater boon can you give me than the pleasure of feeding the hungry ” he replied. This curt reply displeased Indra. The land soon grew so fertile with seasonal rains, that the people had no more need for Auputhiran’s rice bowl. Seeing his mission in this land at an end, he decided to leave the country and took ship.

The ship weighed anchor at the uninhabited island of Manipallavam and sailed away without him. Thus stranded on the island, Auputhiran starved himself to death. Before he died, he deposited the bowl in a pond nearby with the prayer that it should appear once a year and come into the hands of the virtuous. His prayer was fulfilled in time on a particular Vesak day when Manimekala got possession of it.

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Last updated
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Manimekalai of Cittalaic Cattanar at Project Madurai - tscii - pdf - unicode
“The publication of the twin epics, SilappathikAram and MaNimEkalai  marked the commencement of the epic era  in Thamizh literature…. Manimekalai the other half of the twin epics represents the continuation of the sad saga of MAdhavi and her daughter, MaNimEkalai. Following the traumatic death of KOvalan and KaNNaki, MAdhavi withdrew herself from her artistic career and public life. KaNNaki’s chastity and fidelity had a very powerful impact on her moral outlook of life and its meaning. Her adoration of KaNNaki was so high that she always introduced MaNimEkalai as KaNNaki’s daughter. She repented the type of life she led upto that time and wanted to erase the memories of her unchaste family traditions from MaNi mEkalai’s mind. Her disenchantment towards life, in general, increased to such an extent that she joined the Buddhist monastry. She brought up MaNimEkalai in an environment free of transient worldly pleasures.

The prince fell in love with MaNimEkalai who was unable to reciprocate his love because of her mother’s influence. Ultimately MaNimEkalai went to the island of MaNipallavam, got ordained as a Buddhist monk and received the gift of a mystic box  capable of an eternal supply of food. Her ambition in life turned out to be the alleviation of the hunger of the poor and the needy. Her ascetic life and service to humanity elevated her to the status of an idol so that people worshipped her as MaNimEkalai, the God , after her death. In the following lines she defined virtue as the human trait by which food, clothing and shelter are made available to all:

அறமெனப் படுவது யாதெனக்கேட்பின்
மறவாது இதுகேள் மன்னுயிர்க்கு எல்லாம்
உண்டியும் உடையும் உறையளும் அல்லது
கண்ட தில்லை.

The author of MaNimEkalai (4835 lines), SAtthanAr finds the story much to his own liking and religious views. Unlike iLangO atikaL who remained unbiased in his narration of the life of KOvalan and KaNNaki, SAtthanAr did not hesitate to use MaNimEkalai’s story of renunciation to propagate Buddhist philosophy.”  Professor C.R. Krishnamurti on Manimekalai in  Thamizh Literature Through the Ages


 

Manimekalai - Dancer with Magic Bowl - Narrative in Tamil Epic (Second Century AD)  - Arputhrani Sengupta (Associate Professor, Dept. of History of Art, National Museum Institute, New Delhi, India)  “..When Manimekalai took decisions on her life, cognition and positive force set her on the path of knowledge. Born to be a courtesan, her decision to take the vow of chastity and charity is a daring innovation, which utilized creative power in the service of spiritual and social goals. By writing the epic Merchant Prince Shattan reproduced the narrative in a form that could be retained and retrieved. The Tamil epic Manimekalai has endured for nearly two millennia because of the innovation of Brahmi script derived from Aramaic, which enabled the reproduction of knowledge through writing for the benefit of society. The written reproduction provides the possibility of a broader reception and, more importantly, also of history, society and religion, and the opportunity for critical observation, since only a fixed text makes any kind of criticism possible…”

*Alan Danielou (translator) - Manimekhalai (The Dancer With the Magic Bowl)  July 1989 - “The Manimekhalai, one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature, gives us in the form of didactic novel full of freshness and poetry, a delightful insight into the ways of life, the pleasures, beliefs and philosophical concepts of a refined civilisation… Tamil is the main pre-Aryan language still surviving today…. The Manimekhalai calls into question many of our received ideas concerning ancient India as well as our interpretation of the sources of its present day religion and philosophy. In its clear accounts of the philosophical concepts of the time, the Manimekhalai presents the various currents of pre Aryan thought…. which gradually influenced the Vedic Aryan world… The society in which the action of the Manimekhalai takes has little to do with the Aryanised civilisation of the north which we know from Sanskrit texts…The Greek geographer, Ptolemy in the second century mentions the main ports of southern India and, in particular, Kaaveris Emporium, the Kaveripum-pattinam (or Puhar) of the Manimekhalai ..”

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Manimekalai
Dancer with Magic Bowl

Narrative in Tamil Epic (Second Century AD)

Arputhrani Sengupta (Associate Professor, Dept. of History of Art, National Museum Institute, New Delhi, India)
[BIO]

 

ABSTRACT

The question for us today is, how we can produce reproductions of knowledge that will guarantee optimal knowledge and, as a corollary, what do we consider optimal knowledge in contemporary processes. The narrative in the Tamil epic Manimekalai was chosen for the Conference for its striking qualities of innovation and reproduction. When Manimekalai took decisions on her life, cognition and positive force set her on the path of knowledge. Born to be a courtesan, her decision to take the vow of chastity and charity is a daring innovation, which utilized creative power in the service of spiritual and social goals. By writing the epic Merchant Prince Shattan reproduced the narrative in a form that could be retained and retrieved. The Tamil epic Manimekalai has endured for nearly two millennia because of the innovation of Brahmi script derived from Aramaic, which enabled the reproduction of knowledge through writing for the benefit of society. The written reproduction provides the possibility of a broader reception and, more importantly, also of history, society and religion, and the opportunity for critical observation, since only a fixed text makes any kind of criticism possible.

 


(fig. 1) Inscription in Brahmi on a pillar fragment with octagonal shaft, which identifies the donor as the perfumer Hamgha and his family, Amaravati Stupa, Early 2 nd century AD

 

SYNOPSIS

The literate period in South Asia dawned with the innovation of Brahmi script during the early Christian era. (fig. 1) Derived from Aramaic, Brahmi revolutionized communication in South Asia and introduced literature of a high caliber simultaneous in Tamil and Pali Sanskrit. To be human is to have language, but literature in Tamil and Sanskrit is singular in that literature in both languages appears suddenly for the first time.(1) The early texts, like the unprecedented visual arts of the time, are considered Buddhist but they present anthropologists and art historian with formidable problems of interpretation. Literature in particular is part of superstructure of a culture and when one starts suddenly from a clean slate, with no history or evolutionary process to refer to, contextual reading throws up questions more keenly about society, gender and race. Part of the interpretive struggle is to re-introduce history into cultural studies. In the new historicism, the narrative in the Tamil epic Manimekalai begins with the premise that art is not secured to a stable background and context is open to interpretation. Detailing, and the aesthetic engagement of feeling that arise from the narrative, are obviously from an encounter that is existential in experience. The possible date of Manimekalai is the 2 nd century AD and one of the questions is naturally, how does this work seem so contemporaneous to the Roman civilization? Yet, we are dealing here with analogies and synonyms, or as Lévi-Strauss would say, that ‘similar’ does not mean ‘the same’. The epic addresses relationship between literature and philosophy, art production and social production and the present narrative figures out, where the centers of interest might be.

The merchant Prince Shattan wrote the epic Manimekalai (The Girdle) in 30 long poems, which he presented to the Chera Prince Ilango Adigal, the author of the Tamil epic Shilapdikaram (The Anklet) of which this narrative is a sequel. The original manuscripts in Tamil were written on palm leaf in Brahmi.(2) The date of Manimekalai is close to 171 AD the date proposed by Ramachandra Dikshitar for Shilapadikaram. Svaminatharya culled Manimekalai from about a dozen manuscripts only in 1898 and a recent translation by Alain Danielou is the source for the analysis of the narrative.(3)

Imagination and language are part of the apparatus but a special set of circumstances and a unique blend of qualities were needed to bring Manimekalai into existence. The seemingly archaic tale of Manimekalai is a ‘Romance’, and we are dealing with the end-results of a long process of selection and ordering of what were in the first place oral narratives, artfully combined with life experience. The narrative contains a variety of other meanings, perhaps equally or more important, due to its obvious reference to Buddhist culture of the Kushana period synchronous with the Roman Empire.(4) The reference to Buddhist culture brings into sharp focus ambiguities afloat in the narrative: Tamil Nadu in the South curiously lacks a Buddhist material culture while the narrative in Tamil relates it vividly to art and architecture in the North and Northwest of India. First it implies that the Tamils of the Dravidian race once occupied the northern regions, rich in Buddhist art, bearing Brahmi inscriptions, and much later migrated to South India, which at the time of the Buddhist period might have been shunned generally as the “nether region”. Secondly, the writer seems to have set down the story for another group of people and to suit a new audience, with obvious variations and allusions to a culture alien to the southern peninsula, which he describes so minutely. However, no matter how distant or foreign the culture from which it emanates, myth and folktale, when combined with history, lends itself to the making of legends.(5)

 

Legend of Manimekalai

Manimekalai is a figure from the past reinvented, given a personality, mythologized and placed in a story that is supposed to elicit awe and reverence. Manimekalai, the ‘Dancer with the Magic Bowl’, is a legend that has elements of ‘myth’ that shade into ‘folktale’ in complicated ways. The poet Shattan asserts his ego centrifugally so that the world that surrounded him has been absorbed into the riveting story of Manimekalai, the beautiful daughter of courtesan Madhavi who took a vow of chastity and amid untold tribulations gained knowledge and power through the intervention of the goddess Manimekala and other divinities. She also received the gift of a magic bowl that produced perennial quantities of food to feed the destitute. Besides salvation to mankind, Manimekalai was destined to bring retribution for her parents Madhavi and Kovalan, whose love and betrayal with tragic consequences is dealt by Ilango Adigal in the epic Shilapdikaram.(6) Manimekalai too had her share of grief. In a previous life Manimekalai was Lakshmi, wife of Rahul, now Prince Udayakumara who was infatuated with her. Despite coming under the shadow of bondage brought by knowledge, Manimekalai could neither reciprocate Udayakumara’s love nor save his life due to a fate controlled by her past deeds.(7) Instead Manimekalai chose to serve humanity as a Buddhist nun and practiced severe self-denial to escape the chain of rebirth and thus reach the sublime state of selflessness. The story with the central motif of chastity and charity is interwoven with supernatural events, oracles and astral travel.

 

Oppositions and Contradictions

The ‘questions’ posed by Manimekalai are taken up from Shilapadikaram: betrayal and retribution connected to karma or past deeds as opposed to human nature; heroic sacrifice and chastity in an unending process that ceaselessly crosses and re-crosses geographical and tribal boundaries. According to Lévi-Strauss mythmakers seek to resolve all manner of contradictions or try to relate, one aspect of life to its opposite in a chain of ‘binary oppositions’- for example, youth and age, human and animal, culture and nature, life and death. These may be immediate and sensory, such as the Magic Bowl, central to the conflict between life and death, hunger and satiation, or extremely abstract, such as philosophical speculations. Ultimately Manimekalai overcomes the contradictions inherent in her corporeal self and reaches the void or sunya, the ‘absolute nothingness’.(8)

 

Sequence of Episode

The question of the narrative structure, the way in which episodes are put together to make a ‘story’ is a matter of importance for understanding the meaning of the narrative. The Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp identified a total of thirty-one episodes or ‘functions’ constituting the basic building-blocks of all Russian folktales that holds true in other cultures as well: these include Interdiction, Violation of Interdiction,(9) Villainy, Departure from Home on Quest, Dialogue with Magical Helpers,(10) Appearance of Villain, Flight, Pursuit, and Deliverance from Pursuit. Moreover, although few of the one hundred traditional stories analyzed by Popp contain all thirty-one of these ‘functions’, these episodes that appear in any particular tale always do so in the same order. The narrative in Manimekalai suggests that here too, although colored by the supernatural and digressions on religious discourse, the list of basic episodes is structured in a well-defined sequence.

 

Miraculous Interventions

When perused by Prince Udayakumara Manimekhalai enclosed herself in the crystal pavilion in Upavanam, ‘the garden’.(11) At first the Prince thought that Manimekalai was one among a number of portrait statues in the pavilion, but when he perceived her through the transparent walls, ‘Eros, a crocodile on his pennon, let fly his five flower darts, filling him with irresistible desire’. Goddess Manimekala, endowed with immense wisdom and knowledge of all things past and future, freed Manimekalai from imminent danger and conveyed Manimekalai by air to the isle of Manipallavam guarded by Tivatilakai.(12) In another instance, as Manimeklai slept behind the tall gate of the Champapati Sanctuary to the east of the Pillar Statue, she heard as in a dream the oracular statue reveal the tragic demise of Prince Udayakumara under the sword of Kayashandikai’s husband, a furious Vidhyadhra who was endowed with power to travel by air at will.(13)

 

The Magic Cup



(fig 2) The cup bearer (Aputra?), Gandhara, 1 st or 2 nd century AD

Manimekalai is one of the earliest literary masterpieces replete with mythical motifs interwoven with folktale, which at the same time seeks to explain the meaning of life, with vivid descriptions of human society and culture.(14) On her flight from home, Manimekalai was separated from her faithful companion Sutamati, who was from Bengal. On the island of Manipallavam the goddess Manimekhala taught Manimekhalai a magic formula, while Tivatilakai, the divine protector of the land presented Manimekhalai with a bowl, a marvelous vessel of perennial life. Manimekhalai later heard from Aravana Adigal how Aputra first received the divine bowl, known as ‘Cow of Abundance’ from the hands of Chinta, the goddess of knowledge.(15) In the hands of Manimekhalai life pours from the inexhaustible cup, to alleviate hunger in all directions. That is the wisdom for which Manimekalai meditated in great austerity and realized that - beside desire and fear, the supreme sacrifice is life; that loss of life is actually to gain life eternal. Central to sacrifice is the cup of life, a symbol of faith and immortality. Buddhist art actually depicts couples and individuals holding this cup of life. The recurrent theme is one of drinking from the magic cup, and a great level of unity is found in this type. The common themes fit together better if they are taken as variant elements in a similar category in the Golden Age of Buddhism during the Kushana period, which itself is just one structural feature of a larger design, which Worthen calls the ‘Myth of Replacement’.(16) In the grand structural scheme of the early Buddhist art, the motif of the magic vessel, like the cornucopia in the hands of the goddess in Gandhara, is the consecrated vessel, the joyous ‘begging bowl’ that transforms itself into a wish-fulfilling vessel in the hands of Manimekalai. The groups of recurrent ‘bundles’ of ideas constitute the complete paradigm of symbols and substitutes. These groups include the etymological importance of words significant to eternity and immortality, and the proper names of mythological characters, a feature from which all comparative mythology takes its departure in order to explain better the complexities of human destiny.(17)

 

Dream and Reality

Veneration of footprints was a symbol of apotheosis and certain sites such as Padma-pankaja-malai also known as Gridhra-kuta or Vulture Peak was a place of pilgrimage. Aravana Adigal is reported to have worshipped footprints of the Buddha in Rajghat (Varanasi or Benaras). In the epic, dream revelations and predictions, oracles and miraculous signs are part of everyday life. When Manimekalai came upon the ‘miraculous footprints of the wonder working Buddha’ on the lotus pedestal within a pavilion made of crystal panels in the Upavanam, she walked round the pedestal, keeping it on her right then prostrated as a mark of reverence. Then she suddenly remembered her past life as Lakshmi.(18) (fig.3)



(fig.3) Footprints of the Buddha, Amaravathi, 1 st or 2 nd century AD

Manimekalai also learnt from Aravana Adigal why she was named after Manimekala, goddess of the Ocean with powerful waves.(19) (fig 6) The narrative is a folktale in which the story is put together from mythic elements with the dual purpose of entertaining and pointing out some moral value: Manimekalai’s ancestor, a namesake of her grandfather and her father Kovalan, was shipwrecked in a shark-infested Ocean. He struggled for seven days in the waves of the bottomless sea and was lost like a ‘needle in a woolen rug’.(20) However, he had unfailingly practiced the five virtues and recognized the four truths, so when the moment approached for him to lose his life, a shudder ran through the carpet that bears Indra’s throne: Indra at once summoned goddess Manimekala and said ‘This Kovalan struggling in the sea for seven days has the same virtues as the Bodhisattva, the master of us all who, in the shade of the papal, practiced ascetic life. He must be delivered from danger, so that the ten rule of conduct (paramita) is observed in the world and the wheel of dharma goes on turning smoothly’.(21) Immediately goddess Manimekala guided him to the shore and saved Kovalan from certain death.



(fig.4) Sea goddess holding the cup of life in ‘Soul Saucer’, Gandhara, 1 st or 2 nd century AD

The Charanas or the sages who travel through the air, recounted this tale to his descendent Kovalan. Kovalan in gratitude wished his daughter to bear the name of the goddess, and the goddess on the night of her birth revealed to Madhavi that Manimekalai would lead a life of renunciation. Further, Manimekalai learnt from Aravana Adigal that when, by the will of the goddess and the curse of Indra, the city of Puhar was devoured by the sea, Kovalan and Madhavi fled to Kanchi for the love of Manimekalai.(22) The reason why the sea goddess devoured Puhar forms a narrative within narrative: Pilivalai, daughter of the Naga (of the serpent race), who on pilgrimage to the isle of Manuipallavam, entrusted her infant son by the Chola king Neduvel Killi, to Kamabala Chetty, a merchant in woolen blankets, whose vessel was the only one en-route to India to stop at the isle. Taking the child Chetty sailed for his homeland, but in the darkness of the night was shipwrecked near the shore. The king was distraught by the loss of his son and neglected the annual festival of Indra. Indra ordered Manimekala, the sea goddess to swallow up Puhar as it was predicted. [see note 14]

 

Skills of Courtesan

Manimekalai or ‘The Dancer with the Magic Bowl’ was destined by birth for art and pleasure and lived in a street where women of pleasure resided in a house of several floors with gilded balconies. She was accomplished like her mother Madhavi, who knew both kinds of dance, dances suitable for the royal palace and those for the common public, poems set to music, the art of dramatic posture (tukku) to empahsise the rhythm of the poetic meter, the various musical rhythms (tala), and how to play the harp (yal) tuned according to the various moods.(23) She knew by heart the poems chanted during the dances and had mastered the language of gesture (mudra), by which love (akam), virtue and glory (puram) are expressed.(24) She knew how to play the great drum and how to adjust the tightness of its skin to regulate the sound. She knew how to play the melodious flute, as also the art of playing ball, of preparing dishes according to recipes of the best cuisine as well as the preparation of scented powders of diverse colors, the manner of bathing in various seasons, the body’s sixty four positions in making love, the art of anticipating men’s desires, of speaking charmingly, of writing elegantly with the cut reed, of arranging magnificent bouquets of flowers according to their form and color, the choice of dress and jewels according to circumstances and the art of fashioning necklaces of precious pearls or precious stones. She had also studied astrology and the art of measuring time, and other similar sciences, the art of drawing and painting all of which, according to the books forms part of the métier of an accomplished courtesan.(25) Although accomplished in the arts and endowed with great beauty Manimekalai, to the amazement and distress of her mother and companions, left home to dedicate her life to charity and to attain the ‘bright light of knowledge’.(26) [see note 9]

 

Samkhya Cosmology

In the astrological religion the transmigration of souls is connected to karma, according to acquired merits and demerits, which to a large extent is controlled by the manner in which the soul descends at the time of birth through the various spheres or planets disposed in space. The ascent of the soul is likewise influenced by the music of the spheres that is controlled by the acquired merits and demerits. The soul ascends through a series of celestial spheres to reach the paradise of bliss or ‘world of light’ known as Dutita /Tushita loka. In Tushita loka perfect souls become deified immortals or reincarnate according to their acquired merit.Thus, incapable of attaining truth without the aid of that which is material, the soul will be guided by the ‘true’, though merely perceptible ‘lights’ (lumina vera) of the resplendent soul to the man made image, which reveals the ‘True Light’ (verum lumen) that is Buddha prior to Christ; and it will thus be raised, or rather ‘resurrected’ (surgi, resurgit), from terrestrial bondage even as Christ like Buddha is seen rising with flaming shoulders and a halo in ‘resurrectio vel Ascensio’ on a Gandhara sculpture.(27) The luminous Buddha with flaming shoulders ascending in radiant clouds depicted on the stele is a visual demonstration of the nature of the immortal in Samkhya Cosmology. (fig 5)



(fig 5) Immortal in the world of light, Gandhara, 1 st or 2 nd century AD

Yet this splendid but subtle piece of poetry is nothing as compared to the orgy of Neo-Platonic light metaphysics to which Buddhist theology abandons itself during the Kushana period (AD 1 st - 3 rd Century), when India was a confederation of states ruled by Scythic-Greeks. It is particularly evidenced in Buddhist art and literature where the whole material universe becomes ‘light’ composed of countless small ones as of so many suns so that man-made pillar, (throne) or natural (tree), including man dissolve in light, and become a symbol of that which is not physically perceptible. As a stepping ladder on the ascent to Heaven; the human mind, abandons itself to the radiance indicated by the spiraling discs of the planets or the sun disc that glows as a halo, long before it is adopted as Christian iconography.

 

Neo Platonic Doctrine

Both the celestial lights in the heavens and those that are produced by human artifice on earth are ‘images of the intelligible lights, and above all of True Light Itself’.(28) The epic speaks of the Bodhi Tree radiant with jewels, which is the symbol of knowledge attained by innumerable Buddhas, the ‘enlightened beings’. ‘Within the crystal pavilion, the miraculous footprints of the wonder-working Buddha on a lotus shaped pedestal shining with bright rubies’ are in reality verses that amount to a condensed statement of the whole theory of ‘anagogical’ illumination: On the sacred pedestal the jeweled footprints of the ‘wonder-working Buddha’ indicate that the physical ‘brightness’ of the work of art will ‘brighten’ the minds of the beholders by a spiritual illumination.(29) The divine pedestal in the crystal pavilion is identified as the work of Maya, the heavenly carpenter, ‘to remind men that only those actions accomplished for love’s sake with severe self-denial will succeed’. Maya is also the maker of the oracular ‘Pillar Statue’ in the Upavanam the garden, where ‘by the will of the Buddha, the Merciful and the Compassionate, …who dedicated his life to the protection of all living beings, the trees are always aglow in bloom’.(30)

 

Epicureanism and Stoicism

When Manimekalai embarks upon the study of religious dogmas with teachers of various sects, the recurring engagement with philosophy and religion is meant to clarify, inform and educate. The purpose of dissecting diverse creeds in detail is to finally proclaim the validity of Buddhist dogma.(31) The digressions on philosophy and religion make the epic a specialized tool of communication that tries to cut through the syncretism in religion and the eclecticism in the philosophy characteristic of this period. An interlude in Canto 27 is recognizably Hellenistic, a system with ethics supported by physics and epistemology. The treatment is a curious replay of the famous encounter between Epicureanism and Stoicism, translated as the persuasive argument of a drunkard with a naked Jain ascetic familiar in Syrian accounts. Although the kernel of wisdom is intact much has been understandably transformed in translation: An emaciated Jain monk, with a vessel of water hung from a loop of cord and ceaselessly waving a flywhisk to avoid hurting an insect walked naked. A drunkard hailed him, ‘Holy man! Come here so that I may bow before your lotus-like feet! Good monk, hear my words! Your life dwells in your body, which is but filth, but you do not suffer like those who live encased in hot clothes, which make them sweat. Come and share this sweet wine, there are no tiny beasts in the liquor secreted by the palm tree. My guru taught me that only those who get drunk on wine know ecstasy in this world, happiness in their next life, and eternal beatitude. You will see that drunkenness clears your mind. But if you find it more to your liking to fast rather than drink an honest cup of wine, then go your way!’(32)

In order to propound the Jain doctrine of Nirgrantha Manimekalai asks questions about Jainism. The answers given by a naked ascetic is a complex discourse that begs comparison with the Pythagorean theories and belief system.(33) Regarding religious belief, the Pillar Statue’s conversation with Manmekalai is of interest: “There are some who affirm that creator of all forms of life is a personal God who reigns over the world. Others think that the supreme being, himself without form, created all forms, Yet others affirm that only through the practice of self-denial and mortification, inflicting cruel suffering on our body, can we free ourselves of our bonds, and tread he path that leads to a world of everlasting delight. There are also others who say that the world is merely the result of the questionable celebrations of the practitioners of these various creeds. You will also hear the statement of those who affirm with authority that there are no gods, that the dead are not reborn, and that it is doubtful our virtuous deeds can acquire us merit. With your experience of transmigration and of retribution of our sins, you can tell them the story of your own life…”(34) Such speculations are well-known in Greek literature. The advent of Alexander marked the beginning of a new internationalism that paved the road to the Roman Empire. By uniting the Greek Mediterranean with Egypt and Syria,(35) the accomplished Hellenistic tradition was transformed by alien skills and ideas that eventually produced a logically restructured art and literature in the Indian sub-continent. To understand Roman art and culture within and beyond the borders of the empire, the essential aspects of Hellenic tradition, the Hellenistic mutation and the Hellenistic-Egyptian and Syrian tradition have to be separately viewed.(36)

 

Landscape withGardens of Delight

The narrative fixes the geography, while the landscape of the sacred domain bristles with extraordinary events. The river Kaveri rises from a sacred spring in Karnataka State that swells into a mighty river. The river maiden Kaveri flowed into the lap of the protective goddess Champu and her consort Champapati or Puhar, which was a famous city known popularly as Kaveripumpatinam.(37) According to mythology the Chola king Kantan (Skanda) entreated the sage Agastya for perennial water, upon which the sage overturned his pitcher from which River Kaveri flowed towards the sea in the east, close to where goddess Champu stood. The Goddess Champu abides in the shade of a thousand branched rose-apple tree and is conceived as divine protector of the ‘rose-apple’ continent called Navalan Tevu.(38) The epic describes cities surrounded by many gardens, one of which is called Lavanika-vanam, the Garden of Delights. It is reserved for the amusement of those belonging to the royal family and their companions. Within, there is a small lake, which can be filled and empties by machinery. The guards arrest trespassers.(39) Another pleasure garden, known as Oyyana-vanam, is set apart during the festival of Indra for celestial visitors, who alone have the right to enter. In the heavenly enclosure dwells Sampati, the noble vulture that lost its wings when it flew up to the sun. None of these gardens were accessible to the general population. However, the monasteries in Kanchi, surrounded by gardens were the permanent residences of monks who preached the holy doctrine of the Buddha. The ascetics who travel through the air sometimes stop there for a few moments of agreeable repose. (40)

 

Qualities Admired in the External World

The Tamil literature of the Sangam or Academy of the early Christian era may be divided broadly into Akam, or that which pertains to emotions connected to human experience, and Puram or that which involves courage and action. Manimekalai is Sangam literature that deals with skill both with Akam and Puram. We glean from the epic that a man’s ankle bracelet was a sign of noble deeds and that the king honored successful merchants with insignia of a golden flower and bestowed the title ‘Etthy’ as a mark of respect.(41) Prince Udayakumara, surrounded by his guard and chariots, rode majestically along the main avenue wearing a garland of tamarisk flowers, holding the reins of his splendid chariot gathered into his fist in the form of a flower bud. He had just managed to master the menacing elephant Kalavega with admirable courage. Without a trace of fear he had jumped onto his charger as fleet as air and reached the place where the maddened elephant rushed blindly through the city, heavy as a mountain, sowing panic in the streets of the bazaar and on the royal road blocked with wagons, drummers, beggars, and banners. The supervisor of the elephants did not know what to do. Like a ship in distress, the royal elephant had ejected his mahout in madness, his trunk rubbing the wound left by the goad to control him.

The simile of a ship gives a rare insight to the dangers of navigation so real that one can taste the spray of salt water as the sailor battles to regain control. The storm-tossed ship is presented in a way that is enduringly experiential and clearly the emotional response generated by the author gives the epic its cognitive value: ‘When a ship finds itself caught in a storm, its helmsman, perched on the raised bridge in the poop, trembles with fear lest the main mast fixed at the vessel’s center break off at the base, tearing away the ropes holding the sail, which, breaking loose and losing its tightness, begins to lash about with a furious flapping, finally tearing itself to shreds, so that the ship breaks adrift without any means of control, on an Ocean whose waves splash and drive in all directions.’(42)

 

Arts and Crafts

Reflected in the story of Manimekalai or the ‘Dancer with the Magic Bowl’ is the idea that literature is part of the superstructure and economics its base. The epic is rich and complex, dense and bursting with life, intellectual and cultural energy. A variety of crafts people practice their craft in their respective locality. The street of weavers made cloth so fine that it is difficult to distinguish the cross threads and dyed it in bright colors. The street of jewelers made mother-of-pearl bracelets; the street of those who made necklaces of precious stones, the street of the controllers who checked the gold content on the touchstone and owned houses of many floors. There are varied details of religious and everyday life, the arts and customs. In the ancient city of Puhar the visitors admired the stucco sculptures made by skilled craftsmen, representing all living beings, as well as the immaculate statues of the gods, similar to those that adorn the walls of the many storied buildings.(43) On the streets transvestites with pretty little upraised breasts, a slim figure and protuberant sex performed the Pedi dance. Brightly colored designs decorated their shoulders and breasts. They wore mother-of-pearl earrings and their short-skirt might be a girdled chiton of Greco-Roman derivation. Their mouth was painted bright coral red and they showed their beautiful white teeth. Their large shining eyes were slightly underlined and their black eyebrows were arched like the crescent moon in their curved brows. Their hands with red-dyed palms were like water lilies of Malabar.(44)

 

Narrative as a Network of Signs

The poet has interpreted the historical reality of his time so well that the epic is striking in its visual equivalent in the contemporary art of Gandhara, which is comparable only to Rome in its style, realism and innovative spatial organization and pictorial techniques. The visual force of street scenes, the interior of courtesans’ quarters, palatial architecture, the complex drama, funeral practices, costumes, manners and customs are integrated to create a fusion of realism and immediacy as was done on the Imperial Columns of Rome.

Canto 28 is a topographical painting in words that give a panoramic view of the city. However, the material culture, which is archaeologically untenable in the Indian subcontinent, is inexplicably Roman in its attributes.(45) The landscape and suburbs spreading outside the walls protecting many princely dwellings provide the backdrop as Manimekalai progressed on her way to the great city of Kanchi on her quest to seek Aravana Adigals to learn Buddhist dharma.(46) If we treat the narrative as a network of signs, some significant cultural markers clamor for close scrutiny: Groups of soldiers with their officers kept watch over the inner city, which was surrounded by a moat. (fig.6)



(fig 6) Cityscape, Sanchi Stupa, early 1 st century AD

Into the moat flowed, by means of underground pipes, the scented waste waters used to wash the tresses, or impregnated with perfumed oils that dissolve when bathing in luxurious dwellings, in which the baths mechanically filled and emptied as desired. Into the moat also flowed the perfumed waters used to spray the crowd during celebrations for the king’s birthday; the waters discharged when the basins of the public fountains were cleansed, impregnated with smoke from aloe wood and other aromatic woods used in rites; and the waters mixed with various perfumes, sprinkled for freshness on the floors of rich dwellings, the water used by heads of family who practice five virtues, to wash the sublime feet of ascetics.(47) Only water spreading a delightful fragrance flowed into the moat, so that the crocodiles and fish that disported there lost the usual nauseating smell. On the surface of the water floated large lotus, white water lilies and blue iris, turning the moat into the likeness of the multicolored bow of Indra.(48)

At the center of the fortification was a high gate surrounded by a tower of several floors, on which many flags were flying. Painted white and covered with frescoes, from afar it looked like a mountain of marble. It was through this high gate that Manimekalai entered Kanchi. The street of painters and musicians (panda), experts in vocal music and playing various instruments, who know the major and minor modes, as well as elocution and poetic meters and people who sound the conch, whose spiral winds to the right.(49) The street of dancers, expert in the two kind of dances, classical dance for the palace and dancing suitable for the public at large, that of experts who calculate time and announce it every natika (24 minutes). Further on was the street of the panegyrists, who composed eulogies of the king, which they declaimed standing or seated. There was also a quarter where the elephant drivers lived, who tamed recently captured animals and trained them with skill, and also a quarter for horsemen who teach the golden-collared horses to amble.(50) Manimekalai admired the artificial hills from which cascades fell by mechanical means; the parks whose trees laden with flowers inspired all with an overwhelming desire to go and relax there. There were pools with limpid water, hospices to welcome travelers, and monasteries for ascetics as well as vast palaces with golden domes, which in their splendor rivaled the seven temples built by Indra at Puhar.

The preparations for the festival of Indra provide a rare glimpse of royal protocol. In the presence of the kings of all the neighboring countries, the state officials were summoned to the palace for the proclamation of the opening of the festival of the thousand-eyed Indra. Around the sovereign stood, as was the custom, the five groups of high dignitaries who formed the royal council: the high priest, the captains of the army, the spies, and the ambassadors, followed according to rank, by the eight corps of officials, the tax collectors, the provincial governors, the treasury accountants, the palace servants, the representatives of the people and the officers of the various regiments. It was asserted that if the festival of Indra were not celebrated, the enraged Tyche would molest all the inhabitants.(51) The account has parallels in the political and structural organization as well as the concept of cities protected by Tyche familiar in Asia under Rome. (fig.7)



(fig.7) Protective Tyche-Hariti, Gandhara, 1 st or 2 nd century AD

This comparison is possible because of a coincidence of meaning derived from an approximate understanding of the other. It is in this sense that a mutual recognition is possible through cognition.

 

Transmission of Myth

One of the common traits in the mythic narrative is a philosophic or moral purpose. The narrative of Manimekalai preaches moral values of right conduct, self-sacrifice and salvation through self-realization. Allegoric interpretation, which began with Plato or certainly with the Neo-Platonists, insists that ‘myth is a didactic parable that adumbrates current metaphysical or moral concepts and that its personae are symbols of natural phenomena or moral categories’.(52) On another level of interpretation, the myth is invested with human motives, and its movements are diachronic. Hence, Manimekalai is an elaboration of history and the Buddha in its central focus is the apotheosis of idealized human beings. Just as myth may reinforce history, history may conversely become the raw material of the mythic imagination. If the historical time, unity of purpose and background are important, then fantasy and creative invention add to the narrative force of Manimekalai, which can be compared to the legendary stories found worldwide in cultures with ancient literary traditions, such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Rome. Often probability is stretched to fabulous limits as when goddess Manimekhala, the goddess of Ocean, transports Manimekkhalai to safety by air. Myths of glorification have commonly been used in similar ways, in a variety of cultures, to assert a sense of communal prestige. One famous example of deliberately fabricated historical myth is the Roman poet Virgil’s epic elaboration in the Aeneas, in which Venus shares her identity with goddess Manimekala. This must be viewed against the fact that there is no record of either literature or comparable arts in India prior to the Christian era. At the dawn of a new era the sub-continent was apparently a pristine paradise perched at the very end of the then known world. Innovations in Tamil and Sanskrit literature datable to the early Christian era are thus probably unsurpassed in history. They contain a landscape constructed by received knowledge, of travelers’ tale and of ‘family resemblance’, which serve to locate zones of identity and zones of discrepancy. Description of a crystal or glass pavilion, murals in stucco, wall painting and life-like sculpture in Manimekalai are proof of Mediterranean influence in India. This is confirmed by literary allusion to numerous Greeks in India identified as Yavana from Yavanapura or Alexandria. The Greek connection apparently included Pompeii, where an ivory statuette in early Buddhist style was recovered from a merchant’s house on the “via dell’ Abbondanza”. (fig.8)



(fig.8) Goddess Manimekala-Isis-Aphrodite in Sanchi style, Pompeii, 1 st century AD

Pompeii was buried under the ashes of Versuvious in 79 AD that set off tidal waves cutting off escape route. The Greek geographer Ptolemy in the 2 nd century AD mentions key ports, including Kaveri Emporium, the Kaveripumpattinam or Puhar, identified by Tamil texts as port city of South India. However, to identify Puhar as Pompeii might be far fetched except for their common fate and tantalizingly similar material culture.

Often myths and legends are connected to the idea that one can claim to own the land and human beings who lived therein through superiority of race, language and the performance of certain words. Native pride enacted through speeches, declarations and announcements are compelling. For instance, when the city Puhar was built, a vast plot of land was set apart for the dead. Four posterns at cardinal points gave access to it, the entrance with bright colored standard was reserved for the heavenly beings that draw nigh in their flying chariots, suspended in the air, immobile as a painting.(53) The walls of the next gate are decorated with frescoes, the work of skilled artists, representing rice paddies, sugarcane plantations, lakes and groves. Another entrance, with an upper floor appears naked and empty except for the spotless wash of white lime. In front of the fourth entrance stands a great statue of stucco and clay, representing the guardian of the cemetery with red lips and furious stare, holding a pointed spear and a long rope. If the subjectmatter is presented in ways that are of enduring cognitive and social interest, the historical time and background are as important as the fantasy and creative invention, which add to the narrative force.(54)

 

New History and Literary Narrative

The representational and expressive content of the epic are of enduring cognitive, moral, historical, and social interest. In the final analysis the critical role of story telling in New Historicism ought to move towards trust in mobility, not only in travel narratives but in the idea that culture itself is always moving from one place to another. And it is that extraordinary mobility of which India is a sublime example, which holds challenges in the years ahead in the reading of the narrative.(55) It is impossible to discover the place of origin of a widely distributed mythical motif. Mythical narratives, like folk stories, generally travel easily from one group of people to another. Of course, the myths may change in the process, and even within the same group changes may occur as myths are told and retold. There is certainty where zones of identity from literate tradition and the zones of discrepancies, which suggest incorporation of oral or a local body of myth. This happened for example in India, where cultural configuration of the Buddhist period displayed pronounced elements from Roman Asia.

The Transcultura International Institute, a group promoting strategies for acquiring mutual knowledge, met recently in Pondicherry.(56) The Institute’s key concern is to analyze the encounter between European and non-European cultures. Moussa Sow, from the Institut des Sciences Humaines, (Mali), who was one of the earliest members of the Transcultura team, speaking at Jawaharlal University, New Delhi, said that there had been interest in Mali and Senegal in Dravidian languages, particularly Tamil, and Tamil scholars went to these countries, and in exchange Africans came to India, probably without suspecting Senegal and Mali might be the bridge to a lost links with Carthage and Alexandria. Just as we have translations in the linguistic sense, we have  translations in the cultural sense. The desire to interpret is a desire to explain meanings anew, which serve to locate the zones of identity and the zones of discrepancies. It is this zone of identity and discrepancy that makes cultural studies so exciting. Umberto Eco, a member of the Transcultura, argues that that all colonization results in guilt, and anthropology is the symbol of that guilt.(57) The investigation of this narrative is an attempt to propitiate this guilt, the unstated yearning for a previously known topography that urges us to search for the shadow of memory in the landscape of myth, symbols, dream, perception and cognition, experience, facts and fantasy, being and becoming, the natural vision of the Northern Lights, the hidden order of the ideal and maps in the seas of changes and shifting dunes of context. As Susan Visvanathan rightly observed, semioticians work with any index. (fig. 9)

(fig. 9) Swags supported by putty in the manner of Rome, Gandhara, 1 st or 2 nd century AD)

The narrative in the Tamil epic Manimekalai was chosen for the Conference for its striking qualities of innovation and reproduction. When Manimekalai took decisions on her life, cognition and positive force set her on the path of knowledge. Born to be a courtesan, her decision to take the vow of chastity and charity is a daring innovation, which utilized creative power in the service of spiritual and social goals. By writing the epic Merchant Prince Shattan reproduced the narrative in a form that could be retained and retrieved. The Tamil epic Manimekalai has endured for nearly two millennia because of the innovation of Brahmi script derived from Aramaic, which enabled reproduction of knowledge through writing for the benefit of society. The written reproduction provides the possibility of a broader reception and, more importantly, also of history, society and religion, and the opportunity for critical observation, since only a fixed text makes any kind of criticism possible.

The heterogeneous nature of style and content of the Buddhist epic Manimekalai and the Buddhist art of India, datable between 1 st to the end of 2 nd century AD, is frankly a puzzle. Under what circumstances were so many choice and variegated narratives produced for the first time in the subcontinent? The answer will take us to the very foundation of India, where magnificent obsessions of human beings deposited wisdom and skills received from ancient civilizations. The transcultural path leading to these conclusions is embedded in the rich narratives of Buddhist art and literature of the new age that miraculously dawned simultaneously in the east and the west.

© Arputhrani Sengupta (Associate Professor, Dept. of History of Art, National Museum Institute, New Delhi, India)

ANMERKUNGEN

(1) Etymologically Brahmi claims its origin from Maha Brahma, the supreme godhead. Unlike the Tamil of the Dravidian race, Sanskrit is a member of the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages which fits the designation Ramance, deriving from the Latin phrase romanica loqui, ‘to speak in Roman fashion,’ which attests to the popular, rather than literary, origins of the language. Exemplifying the Pax Romana, Sanskrit known as the ‘language of the gods’, is a synthesis of Aramaic, Greek and Latin that echoes the Vedic revelation: Vasudhaiva kutumbakam - ‘the entire world is your family’. Sanskrit is a unique phenomenon of the ‘Day of the Pentacost’ (The Acts 2, 1-12) and belies its mythical antiquity in the remote past.

(2) Scientifically, Brahmi script cannot originate in two periods in time, as it is currently attributed first to “hang ‘Emperor Ashoka’ on the peg of Alexander the Great” in the 3 rd century BC, and the Kushana Brahmi of the 1 st century AD when the script actually evolved, with more than two centuries of literary wasteland in between. Brahmi left a legacy of an inscribed code of conduct on stone that always identified the inscriber, as ‘He who loves the name of God, the beloved of God’. The invocative formula points more firmly to the racial origins of the edicts, but Ashoka, believed to be the Emperor’s name is open to speculations. The word Ashoka has single occurrence in the edict and means ‘remover of sorrow’. The edict inscribed in Brahmi, like Buddhist art, is conspicuously absent in Tamil Nadu.

(3)Manimekkhalai. Merchant Prince Shattan, Tr. Alain Danielou, with collaboration of T. V. Gopala Iyer, Penguin Books India, 1989, 1993.

(4) Kushana are a Scythian tribe that formed an alliance with the Parthians in Persia, creating a buffer zone against the Romans in the northwestern region of the sub-continent by the middle of the first century B.C. The Kushana empire at its height stretched from the Ganges to the Oxus and in its western frontier flourished a distinct cultural tradition, that of Gandhra, now Pakistan. The Kushana kingdom was a confederation of states, where significant sculptural traditions evolved in Gandhara and Mathura. While the Gandhara sculpture in Greco-Roman style is anecdotal and portrays realistic observations of contemporary life, the Mathura school has the scale, style and symbolic mode of communication characteristic of the millennia old tradition of Egyptian art. However, it is in the material culture of Gandhara, that it is possible to see with clarity a synthesis of religious and artistic traditions.

(5) The author of Manimekalai is curiously in league with Apuleius who was born in Madauros (c.125 AD) in Carthage, a major port for trade that remained an intellectual capital, as large as Alexandria. Apuleius, after schooling in Madauros went to Athens to learn Greek and then on to Rome to study Latin. He was inducted into the mysteries of goddess Isis, which play a significant role in his writings. For the rest of his days in Cathage he was a teacher and public orator involved in the interpretation of Platonic philosophy.

(6)Shilapadikaram is also published by the Penguin.

(7) Transmigration of soul is connected to the concept of karma, and happens according to acquired merits and demerits.

(8) During the Indo-Greek period, the syncretism in religion and eclecticism in philosophy added much to the welter of deities (the deities have not acquired the identity of the Hindu pantheon as yet), which is a contribution of Neo-Platonism, Stoicism and other schools of thought including the Pythagorean Sect. The spiritual belief system, in both Buddhist and Jain, with reference to a hierarchy of being, emphasize the One, the Good at the summit, while on the other extreme we arrive at matter, the point at which being vanishes into nothingness.

(9) Danielou, p. 5. Interdict or authoritative prohibition is a sentence debarring a person or place from ecclesiastical functions and privileges. For instance, when a courtesan abandons her profession of dancer and prostitute, the entire city’s indignation is a cause for concern. Manimekalai was a courtesan by birth and Vasanatmala in the group was convinced that for a girl destined by birth for art and pleasure to become an ascetic and mortify herself was an impious act. However, Manimekalai acted in defiance of the laws of the city, her mother and her companions and studied religious dogmas with teachers of the various sects and later received the Buddhist dogma from Aravana Adigal in Kanchi, today a temple in city in Tamil Nadu.

(10) Danielou, p. 96. Prince Udayakumara, although spurned by Manimekalai pursued her relentlessly. The chase in dangerous terrain, which ultimately costs him his life, makes him the villain of the moment. Villainy in a sub-plot depicts how Vishakai, ‘of shining brow, pale as a drawing that has not yet been colored’, distraught by rumors of romance with her cousin Dharmadatta, left her house and went to the pilgrims’ hospice to ask the statue of the genie sculpted on the pillar what he could do to free her of the calumny caused by such rash gossip.

(11) Danielou, p.14, Prince Udayakumara was the son of a Chola king whose ‘white parasol was as bright as a moon’: a metaphoric allusion to justice and truth that prevailed in his kingdom.

(12) Tivatilakai (dvipa-tilaka) means ‘adornment of the island’, name of the Tyche or yakshi (protective female spirit) of the island Manipallavam. According to Stoicism the world is a living intelligent Being. Equally, air and fire are the media that activate matter, hence ‘artistic fire’ or ‘intelligent pneuma (wind)’ are important vehicles. The pneuma that permeates the whole cosmos gives inorganic structures their cohesion. When it occurs in other ratios, physics or the power of growth in plants and the soul in animals seem to have extended to aerial flight as an infinite continuum of matter set in an infinite void. ‘Physical’ or metaphysical doctrines had their effect on Stoic logic, a subject including grammar as well as various linguistic studies.

(13) Canto 21, Danielou, p.87. Manimekalai had transformed herself as Kayshandikai to escape from Prince Udayakumara, who continued to follow her, thus meeting his tragic end. Vidhyadhara is a spirit of the air that belongs to a cohort of heavenly beings similar to angels. In Kalingabodhi Jataka astral travel depended upon the ‘investiture of the body in the garment of contemplation’ (jhana vethanene). Even inanimate objects invested with spiritual force can take aerial flight. A famous account in Buddhist literature describes how a Buddha image took ‘flight through the air’ from India to Khotan to become the prototype for other images in Central Asia.

(14) The reason why the sea swallowed Pumpuhar (Puhar), a famous city mentioned in other early Tamil literature, is as follows: Pilivalai, daughter of the Naga of the Serpent Race, on pilgrimage to the isle of Manipallavam, entrusted her infant son by the Chola King Neduvel Killi, to Kambala Chetty, a merchant in woolen blankets, whose vessel was the only one en route to India to stop at the isle. Taking the child Chetty set sail for his homeland, but in the darkness of the night was shipwrecked near the shore. The king was distraught by the loss of his son and in his sorrow neglected the annual festival of Indra, which provoked the god’s fury. Indra ordered Manimekala, the sea goddess to swallow Puhar, as had been predicted.

(15) Canto 12-4. Chinta means imagination. The Egyptian cow goddess Isis-Hathor was known as the ‘Great Flood’; the sky goddess is also ‘The Cow of Abundance’, since she nourishes souls to all eternity.

(16) The mythic motif of the ‘begging bowl’ is incorporated in a Buddhist narrative: On the seventh week of meditation under Rajayatana tree, two merchants named Tapussa and Bhalikka came with their caravan from Ukkala country. Persuaded by a deity who was a relative, the merchants came forward to give Madhupindika (ball of honey) to the Buddha. The Lokapalas or the four regents of the earth came forward with four bowls of precious stones, which the Buddha refused. Finally he accepted four alms bowls of stone and then fused them into one. The two merchants vowed to be ‘Devacika Upasaka’, or loyalists of Buddha and Dharma.

(17) Etymologically Manimekala is girdle made of beads (mani-bead, mekala-girdle). The name personifies the sea goddess that girdles the whole universe. Besides mekala the co-existing goddess in the Buddhist pantheon identifies herself with other emblematic devices such as beaded necklace and a distinctive earring. Cultural similarities abound. The Egyptian Menat, or beaded necklace is emblematic of Isis-Hathor. In several depictions in Buddhist art the goddess is nude except for the girdle. Another name of great import is Amitabha Buddha. Etymologically, Amitabha means ‘of infinite radiance’ and ‘eternal life’. The appellation ‘Buddha’ denotes radiant or ‘enlightened’ being, illuminated with the immense light of the sun.

(18) Danielou, p.36-39, Canto 9.

(19) Manimekala, ‘the goddess of Ocean, solitary and distant, descended from heaven like a ray of light’. Her attributes are that of Stella Maris identified with Isis-Aphrodite, whose cult was spread widely by sailors during the Roman period.

(20) Carpet is culturally untenable in Tamil Nadu, and since the climate is hot, there is no requirement for woolen material. Reference to woolen carpets and merchants dealing in woolen blankets are intriguing.

(21) Danielou, p.151. The perfections (paramita) are generally considered as ten, sometimes reduced to eight or even six. These ten rules are: dana (charity), shila (purity of conduct), kshanti (patience), virya (courage), dhyana (meditation), prajna (intelligence), upaya (utilization of the proper means), pranadhana (dedication), bala (energy), jnana (knowledge).

(22) Events in the epics Shilapadikaram and Manimekalai took place in the three southern kingdoms, whose dynasties fade into prehistory. In the west, the kingdom of Chera (Kerala); to the east Chola or Cholamandala (Coramandel in the Madras region); and in the south, Pandya, whose capital was Madura. Pallavas of Parthian origin conquered South India via Maratha country and subdued Chera, Chola and Pandya and ruled their kingdom from Kanchi.

(23) The curved harp (yal) depicted in early Buddhist art is West Asian in origin. The 17 stringed makara yal had mythical crocodile head as terminal. The celestial musicians in Buddhist art are known as kinnora (male) and kinnori (female). The word is derived from kinnor (Aramaic), a type of harp on wooden frame. King David’s harp could have been either a kinnor or a nebel (‘skin bottle’) made of animal skin over a round sound box.

(24) The Tamil Sangam (Academy) literature of the early Christian era was categorized as akam (pertaining to love or emotion) and puram (pertaining to valor and action) and underwent rigorous quality control.

(25) Danielou, p. 2. A similar list is given in a commentary on the Kama Sutra, which needs to be compared with ancient Greek literature on the subject.

(26) The word Buddha also denotes ‘bright light of knowledge’,

(27) The Apocrypha record that St.Thomas converted Gondophares, the Kushana king of Taxila in about 42 AD to Christianity. The remarkable Christ-like Buddha image in Greco-Roman style datable to AD 1 st or 2 nd Century is in Musée Guimet, Paris. The Neo-Platonic concept of light is developed from Panofsky’s corresponding engagement in ‘Abbot Suger of St. Denis’, pp. 108-145.

(28) Panofsky, p.131 A metrical condensation of John the Scot’s lines, from which the lines ‘…ut eant per lumina vera/Ad verum lumen…’ are derived. Inscribed ‘BODDO’ in Greek, the iconography of the Buddha in the Kushana gold coin shows a standing figure inscribed within a double nimbus, identifying him with the invincible solar deity. If one should seek a prototype, Buddha, as Universal Monarch, has his right hand raised in a gesture of Adlocutio, a familiar posture of Roman emperors while addressing gatherings.

(29) Danielou, pp.9, 36-39. Illumination or enlightenment, which is developed step by step through symbols is known as the Upward-Leading Method.

(30) Danielou, p.33 There is no archaeological evidence of a pavilion made of crystal panels except the Buddhist stupa that have yielded crystal reliquaries that are globules of light.

(31) The earliest iconography of the Buddha in a Kushana gold coin (AD 1 st century) shows a standing figure inscribed within a double nimbus, identified as ‘BODDO’ in Greek. See note 28 aove.

(32) Danielou, p.10. In conclusion it is observed that the Jain monk may not be swayed from abstinence but there are many who let themselves be convinced by the word of the drunkard.

(33) Danielou, p.136. The Jain doctrine is Nirgrantha and the texts deal with ten main subjects: dharmastikaya (evolution), adharmastikaya (immutability), akaya/ akasha (space), kala (time), paramanu (the atom), karma (action and bonds created by good or evil deeds), and nirvana (release). The Jain worship Arhat Parameshti, the supreme prophet, before whom the ten sovereign gods, the Indras, bow. There are 42 Bhuvana-Indras, Regents of the Heavenly Worlds; 32 Viyantara Indras, Regents of the Spheres; 22 Kalpa-Indras, Regents of the Cosmic Cycles; the Spirirts of the Sun, the Moon etc.; Nara-Indra, the Regent of Men, Mrigendra, the Regent of Animals.

(34) Danielou, p.90

(35) Zeno (c.300 BC), the founder of Stoicism, though he worked in Athens, was of Phoenecian descent.

(36) Beardley, p. 71. Strabo, the Roman geographer was a Stoic (Geography I, i, 10; I, ii, 3). Stoics, like the poet Shattan of Manimekalai, approved the use of poems for moral teaching in school, conceiving poetry as a kind of allegorized philosophy and a vehicle superior to prose to conduct philosophic discourse of the highest truths.

(37) Patinam in Tamil denotes a city. The city of Kaveripumpatinam or Puhar is personified as Champapati, the consort of Goddess Champu, the Tyche of Kaveripumpatinam. According to literary sources the sea engulfed Kaveripumpatinam.

(38) Tevu is an island and Navalan Tevu suggests that the island had a considerable number of gifted orators or poets (Navalan - ‘gift of tongue’).

(39) Danielou, p.8

(40) Act 8:26-40. In the contemporary world we encounter astral travel when Philip, one of the apostles of Christ was taken by the Spirit from Jerusalem to the desert of Gaza, where he joined an Ethiopian in his chariot to explain the words of God. Once his task was done Philip was once again taken by the Spirit to Azotus, from where he traveled to Caesarea to continue teaching.

(41) Danielou, p. 97

(42) Danielou, p.14. In early Buddhist art the elephant is actually conceived as a huge vessel to transport the faithful to the shores beyond.

(43) Stucco is native to Egypt and a number of stucco reliefs of Alexandrian manufacture, contemporaneous to the Roman Empire, were found in Begram, Afghanistan. However, Debevoise attributes the origin of this stuccowork to the Nabataeans who as skilled caravan leaders were instrumental in the transmission of the Aramaic script widely. “Origin of Decorative Stucco”, American Journal of Archaeology. Vol XIV.1941. p.60.

(44) The Romans named Muziris and Nelcynda in Malabar, now Kerala on the southwest of the peninsula. Muziris had a temple dedicated to Augustus Caesar in the first century AD. The harbors in Malabar and Tamil Nadu functioned as a gateway to the lucrative commerce with Rome. The Periplus of the Eryhraean Sea (circa A.D.60) is a Greek text by an un-named merchant living in Egypt, which provides a detailed account of the trade across the Indian Ocean. Egypt was a key player in the trade with the Mediterranean world, and the Ethiopians settled in Barigaza (Bharuch or Broach on the Narmada River in Gujarat) and gained importance as intermediaries, like the Syrians, in the trade with Rome.

(45) However, a close encounter with Rome is confirmed by finds of Roman coins, Arretine ware and Greco-Roman jewelry as well as place names in Tamil Nadu: Madras - Sopatina / Masulipatam, Pondichery - Poduka, Karaikal - Camara and Cannanore - Naura.

(46) In canto 29, upon reaching the monastery in Kanchi Manimekalai found her mother Madhavai, her companions and Kovalan’s father, who after the death of his only son had renounced the world. It is speculated that Aravana Adigal is Nagarjuna, ‘Light of the Serpent’, a famous logician and teacher of Mahayana doctrine, who received the original teachings of the Buddha preserved by the king of the Nagas. Naga indicates a race that worshipped serpents and believed in transmigration so that a human or divine being could transform into a snake, as it is evidenced in Egyptian culture.

(47) Danielou, p. 141-142

(48) Pollitt, pp. 33-41. The originally austere Romans imported such luxury from Egypt, described by Pliny (N. H. XXXIV, 34) and others, such as Athenaeus (194A, 197C, V, 204E). It was conquered Asia which first sent luxury to Italy (Pliny, N.H. XXXIII, 148-50)

(49) p. 34

(50) Skilled performance by equestrians indicates a cultural configuration and a cultural diffusion that was assimilated even in the Buddhist art of India. In the Roman Empire it was a special honor to be raised to the status of the equestrian order. Upward mobility is indicated by members of the equestrian families in Carthage (‘Divine muse of Africa’) who sought to make careers for themselves in the Imperial administration or as officers in the army.

(51) Indra is identified as an Indo-Aryan deity and, although she figures prominently in literary allusions and art of the early historic period, Indra practically has no relevance to the practice of Hindu religion.

(52) Worthen, p.1

(53) Danielou, pp. 24-26. The imagery of a chariot suspended in the air has the pictorial virtuosity of a Roman cameo cut in Alexandria. Vivid descriptions of necropolis and funerary practices, although of great interest, are excluded here except to observe that Chakravala or the Circular Enclosure is the sphere where the gods live. In Tamil Nadu it approximates burial sites enclosed by circles of stone. Architecturally Chakravala is royal reliquary mound called Stupa, very similar to the funerary monument of Augustus Caesar in Rome, which proliferated in the subcontinent. S hudukattu-kottam or the city of the dead was a fearful place, where shaft burial peculiar to Egypt is also described as ‘narrow tombs sunk underground, whose doors are then walled up’. In Tamil the tomb is known as kal-arai or stone chamber.

(54) The explanation given, why Puhar was devoured by the Sea, is a masterful invention. by Pilivalai, daughter of the Naga race.

(55) The Bible, Luke XV, 11-12. The account of the ‘Prodigal Son’ in the Buddhist scripture Lotus Sutra (c.AD 50. Original in the collection of The British Museum Library), written on birch bark in cursive Aramaic script known as Kharosthi (written from right to left) of the Gandhara region (now part of Pakistan) offers fertile ground for transcultural studies. The ‘Prodigal Son’, a parable of Christ, is exclusive to the Gospel of Luke, which was written in Alexandria. St. Luke might have been bilingual, like Christ, who spoke in Aramaic his native tongue. The advent of Alexander marks the beginning of a new internationalism that paved the road for the Roman empire. By uniting the Greek Mediterranean with Egypt and Syria, the accomplished Hellenistic tradition was transformed by alien skills and ideas that eventually produced a logically restructured art and literature in the Indian sub-continent. To understand Roman art and culture within and beyond the borders of the empire, the essential aspects of Hellenic tradition, the Hellenistic mutation and the  Hellenistic-Egyptian and Syrian tradition have to be viewed separately.

(56) This international team is the brainchild of Alain le Pichon who is at the University of Paris.

(57) Susan Visvanathan, ‘Strategies for acquiring mutual knowledge’, The Hindu, Tuesday, November 8, 2005, p.11 The report is on Eco’s position, as the chairperson of the Delhi proceedings, at the Alliance Française and the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Visvanathan is a novelist and teaches sociology at JNU.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Manimekkhalai. Merchant Prince Shattan , Tr. Alain Danielou, with collaboration of T. V. Gopala Iyer (Penguin Books India, 1989, 1993)

Beardsley, Manroe C. Aesthetics: From Classical Greece to the Present. A Short History (The Macmillian Company, New York, 1966)

Eco, Umberto, Symbol in Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (Bloomington, Indiana, U.P., 1984)

Knox, Robert, Amaravati: Buddhist Sculpture from the Great Stupa (The British Museum, London, 1992)

Panofsky, Erwin, Meaning in the Visual Arts, Doubleday Anchor Books (New York, 1955)

Pollitt, J. J. The Art of Rome: c.753 BC-337 AD (Sources & Documents in the History of Art Series, Edited by H. W. Janson, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, 1966)

Worthen, Thomas D., The Myth of Replacement: Stars, Gods, and Order in the Universe (The University of Arizona Press, Tucon, 1991)

Ed. Sarayu Doshi, India and Greece: Connections and Parallels, Marg Publications, Bombay, 1985

5.1. Innovation and Reproduction in Literature. The Narrative

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For quotation purposes:
Arputhrani Sengupta (New Delhi, India): Manimekalai. Dancer with Magic Bowl. Narrative in Tamil Epic (Second Century AD). In: TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften. No. 16/2005. WWW: http://www.inst.at/trans/16Nr/05_1/sengupta16.htm
Webmeister: Peter R. Horn     last change: 23.3.2006    

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manimekalai_(1959_film)

Manimekalai 1959.jpgManimekalai (1959 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Manimekalai

Directed by    V. S. Raghavan
Produced by    V. S. Narayanan
Written by    Epic
Elangovan (Dialogues)
Starring    T. R. Mahalingam
P. Bhanumathi
Music by    G. Ramanathan
Cinematography    Pachu
Edited by    V. S. Rajan
Distributed by    Sekhar Art Film Enterprises
Release date
9 April 1959
Language    Tamil
Manimekalai is a Tamil film starring T. R. Mahalingam and P. Bhanumathi.[1] The film was released in the year 1959.

Production

The film is based on the epic Manimekalai from one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. It narrates the moving chronicle of chastity, charity and compassion that marked the life of Manimekalai, the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi. Written around the 2nd century A.D. and set against a Buddhist backdrop, the story is an enlightening mirror of the society and culture of the time in Southern India and Sri Lanka.[2] The story is set in both the harbour town of Kaveripoompattinam, the modern town of Poompuhar in Tamil Nadu and in Manipallavam the mordern day Nainatheevu of Nāga Nadu, a small sandy island of the Jaffna Peninsula in modern Sri Lanka.

Plot

Manimekalai (P. Bhanumathi) is the daughter of Madhavi (Sandhya) and Kovalan, grows up to a beautiful woman. Since, her grandmother Chitrapathi (T. V. Kumudhini) and mother Madhavi being renowned courtesans, Manimekalai too learns from them and is accomplished in music and dance. While Madhavi is deeply disturbed by Kovalan’s cruel death and glowing reports of Kannagi’s chastity bring about changes in her moral outlook, withdrawing from the life of a courtesan, she brings up her daughter in an atmosphere of renunciation and spirituality.

Prince Udhaya Kumaran (T. R. Mahalingam) is smitten by Manimekalai’s bewitching beauty and professes his love for her. However, destiny had other plans for Manimekalai. The sea Goddess Manimekalai, carries her away from Kaveripoompattinam to the southern island of Manipallavam in Naga Nadu. Manimekalai wakes up from her trance and is mystified at the alien surroundings. While wandering about the island Maṇimekalai comes across the Dharma-seat, the seat on which Buddha had taught and appeased two warring Naga princes, and placed there by the God Indra. Those who worship it miraculously know their previous life. Manimekalai automatically worshiped it and recollects what has happened in her previous life. She comes to a place sanctified by Buddha, and in flash, revelations of her earlier birth dawn on her. She learns that Udaya Kumaran was her husband in her previous birth. Goddess Manimekalai teaches her the art of astral travel and the secret of metamorphosing herself into another being.

Goddess Tivatilakai (Deeva-Teelakai or Dvīpa Tilakā) appears now before Manimekalai and inculcates in her the doctrines of Buddhism. Following the instructions of the Goddess, Manimekalai goes around a pond from the middle of which a bowl emerges and places itself on Manaimekalai’s outstretched hands. This is the Amudhasurabhi (cow of abundance), the cornucopia that would never deplete which will always provide food to alleviate hunger. The goddess Tivatilakai also predicts that Bhikshu Aravaṇa Aḍigal in her native town will teach her more. Manimekalai then used the mantra which the sea goddess had given her and flies back to Kaveripoompattinam, Manimekalai reunites with Madhavi and narrates to her all that had transpired.

They meet Sage Aravana Adigal (Serukalathur Sama) who informs them the history of the mystic Amudhasurabhi and expounds her the Buddha’s Teaching and advices her about the nature of life. Manimekalai now takes to feeding the poor and needy with her magic bowl. The king who had earlier viewed her with suspicion now perceives her innate divinity and agrees to her proposal to turn the prison to a hall of charity where Buddhist monks could meditate and establish a hospice for the poor.

Prince Udhaya Kumaran continues to pursue Manimekalai, despite her avowed spiritual inclinations to dedicate herself to a religious celibate life. In an effort to ward of his unwelcome advances, Manimekalai takes up the form of Kayachandika, an accursed Yaksha. Kayachanika’s husband Kanjanan believes that Manimekalai is his wife who has been cured of her illness, and when he finds Udhaya Kumaran stalking her, kills him in fury.

Surmounting several hurdles that come in her way, Manimekalai learns the sacred tenets of various religions and finally takes up the sacred orders of Buddhist nun or Bhikshuni, spending the rest of her life in Kanchipuram and practices to rid herself from the bondage of birth and death and attain Nirvana.[3]

Cast

Actor    Role
T. R. Mahalingam    Prince Udhaya Kumaran
P. Bhanumathi    Manimekalai
N. S. Krishnan   
T. A. Madhuram   
Kaka Radhakrishnan   
Serukalathur Sama    Aravana Adigal
O. A. K. Thevar   
C. S. Pandiyan   
Sandhya    Madhavi
G. Sakunthala   
T. V. Kumudhini    Chitrapathi
Crew

Producer: V. S. Narayanan
Production Company: Sekhar Art Film Enterprises
Director: V. S. Raghavan
Music: G. Ramanathan
Lyrics: Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass, A. Maruthakasi, Kambadasan & Kannadasan
Story: Epic
Screenplay: Elangovan
Dialogues: Elangovan
Art Direction: K. P. Sangkaran Kutty
Editing: V. S. Rajan
Choreography: Madhavan
Cinematography: Pachu
Stunt: None
Dance: Bangalore T. C. Sundaramoorthy (Folk dances), Padma & Nirmala
Soundtrack

The music was composed by G. Ramanathan. Lyrics were by Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass, A. Maruthakasi, Kambadasan & Kannadasan. Singers are T. R. Mahalingam & P. Bhanumathi . Playback singers Seerkazhi Govindarajan, Thiruchi Loganathan, V. T. Rajagopalan, M. L. Vasanthakumari, P. Leela, Radha Jayalakshmi, N. L. Ganasaraswathi, T. V. Rathinam, A. P. Komala & K. Abhayam.

The song Kanngalin Vennilave by starring T. R. Mahalingam and P. Bhanumathi is the only duet song by the duo still very popular.

No.    Song    Singers    Lyrics    Length (m:ss)
1    Kanngalin Vennilave    T. R. Mahalingam & P. Bhanumathi    Kambadasan    03:04
2    Pazahangkaala Thamizharin Vaazhkai Nilai    M. L. Vasanthakumari & N. L. Ganasaraswathi   
03:25
3    Unnai Kaana Enggum    T. R. Mahalingam    A. Maruthakasi    03:59
4    Avaniyil Pudhu Araneriye    Thiruchi Loganathan & N. L. Ganasaraswathi    A. Maruthakasi    03:26
5    Inbam Inbam Inbam Indha Ulaginile    P. Bhanumathi    A. Maruthakasi    03:43
6    Inge Vaa Sorgam Paar    P. Leela & K. Abhayam    Kambadasan    04:07
7    Aandavan Thamizhanada    T. R. Mahalingam    Kannadasan    02:28
8    Raajaa Nee Thoongalaamaa    T. V. Rathinam    Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass    02:20
9    Varuga Varuga Sugumaaraa    P. Leela, Radha Jayalakshmi & A. P. Komala    A. Maruthakasi    03:05
10    Unda Naali Uduttha Naanku Mulam    Seerkazhi Govindarajan    Kambadasan    02:54
11    Ulagame Oru Sirachchaalai    P. Bhanumathi    Kambadasan    02:48
12    Adikkudhu Adikkudhu Unnai Kannda    V. T. Rajagopalan & T. V. Rathinam    Thanjai N. Ramaiah Dass    03:09
13    Aanndavan Padaippinile Naan Kannda    T. R. Mahalingam    A. Maruthakasi    03:01
14    Manadhai Kavarndha Mangai Varuvaalo    Seerkazhi Govindarajan & Radha Jayalakshmi    A. Maruthakasi    04:06
15    Vandhaayaa Magale Vandhaayaa    G. Ramanathan    N. S. Chidambaram    04:16
16    Aadhaaram Unnai Allaaal    P. Bhanumathi    Kambadasan    04:31
17    Thillana Music    P. Bhanumathi

http://www.lakehouse.lk/mihintalava/gaya07.htm

                
                 
                    

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Ancient Buddhist links between
Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka

Lakshman JAYAWARDANE in Chennai

THE Palk Strait which lies between Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan land masses, is seen as a divider, separating two different distinct ethnicities, religions, cultures and political entities. But there was a phase in history, between the early years of the Christian era and the 14th century, when Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka enjoyed very close ties, thanks to a shared interest in Buddhism.

At that time, the Palk Strait was not seen as a divider. Then Buddhism was a bridge between Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu. The land of the Tamils has been called Tamilakum, which means a land where the language Tamil is spoken.

Tamilakum was a region which had the north-east Ventcata hill or the Tiruppati hill, the southern part of the modern Andhra Pradesh, as its northern border, Kanniya Kumari or Cape Comerin as the southern border, the bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea as its eastern and western borders respectively.

The ancient Tamilakum encompassed modern Kerala too. Tamilakum was actually located in the southern part of the Indian peninsula. Present Tamil Nadu State is much smaller than the Tamilakum.

Now Tamil Nadu is the only land where the language Tamil is spoken. At present Tamil country is famous as Tamil Nadu. According to Historians, Buddhism began to make an impact on Tamil Nadu only in the 4th century AD.

Buddhism flourished in Tamil Nadu in Two phases. (1) The early years of Pullava rule (400-650 AD) (2) The Chola period (mid 9th to early 14th century AD). Buddhism had then enjoyed a very remarkable popularity in the Tamil soil.

Although Buddhism has almost extinct from Tamil Nadu, it has contributed a great deal to the enrichment of Tamil culture and has exerted a significant influence, both directly and indirectly, on the Tamil religious and spiritual consciousness, present as well as past.

It has expressed itself in exquisite artistic forms and given an enduring colour and richness to Tamil culture as a whole. It has exerted a profound influence on the existing religious and social institutions, language and literature as well as on art and architecture.

The fascinating story of the historical links - Golden threads between Buddhism in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka was narrated by Dr. Shu Hikosake Director Professor of Buddhism, Institute of Asian Studies in Madras in his book “Buddhism in Tamil Nadu a new Perspective.”

Dr. Hikosaka’s study is based on his doctoral dissertation submitted          to the University of Madras. In the conclusion he explains: “Thus Buddhism remained orphaned in all spheres without proper patronage and encouragement.

The Buddhist monks looked for greener pastures in the neighbouring countries. They found propitious soil in Ceylon and South East Asian countries. A comparative study of the development of Buddhism in Tamil Nadu and the neighbouring countries clearly shows the fact that when Buddhism was in decline in Tamil Nadu, it witnessed tremendous growth in the neighbouring countries.

The monks of Tamil Nadu, who had left from their native land, have contributed a great deal for the growth of Buddhism abroad. In this sense we may say that the Tamil Buddhist genius was not destroyed but sublimated in another direction where it has grown with fresh vigour and vivacity.”

The earliest inscriptions in Tamil Nadu belong to the third century BC. They are written in Brahmi character of the time, on the walls of          the natural caves in the Tamil districts of Madura, Ramnad and Tirnnelveli. They are of considerable interest to students of South Indian Buddhism.

It is learnt from these Brahmi inscriptions which palaeographically belong to 3rd century BC that Buddhism had come into Tamil Nadu even then. It was to Asoka and his son Mahinda that the introduction of Buddhism into Tamil Nadu may be attributed.

Epigraphical evidence seems to confirm this statement. In his Rock-Edict No. 3, Asoka says that his Dharma Vijaya prevailed in the border kingdoms of the Colas, Pandyans and at Tambapanni. But it was his son Mahinda who was responsible for the introduction of Buddhism in Tamil Nadu.

In this task, he was helped by Maha Aritta, a nephew of the Sri Lankan king Devanampiyatissa. Mahinda is said to have erected seven viharas at Kaveripattinum while he was on his way to Sri Lanka.

Some Indian scholars are of the opinion that Aritta or Maha-Aritta might have lived in the caves of the village of Arittapatti in Madura, which is in Tamil Nadu. According to Dr. Hikosaka Buddhism might have gone to Sri Lanka from Tamil Nadu, contrary to the general impression.

“Taking all evidence into account, we may fairly conclude that Mahendra and the Buddhist missionaries who went to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) could have embarked for the island from the East coast of the Tamil country. So, it is quite probable that the Tamil country received Buddhism directly through missionaries of Asoka.

Buddhism might have gone to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) from Tamil Nadu by sea-route, a route by which one can reach Ceylon (Sri Lanka) easily. Since there existed close cultural affinities between Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and the Tamil country from time immemorial, the Buddhist activities in India could have easily influenced in some way or other the Buddhism of Ceylon (Sri Lanka)” says Dr. Hikosaka.

It is interesting and appropriate to investigate the interactions of Buddhist monastic centres between Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu. The remains of a Buddhist monastery excavated at Kaveripattinum which could be assigned to the fourth century, are believed to be the earliest archaeological relics of Buddhism in Tamil Nadu.

During the Pallava period, Tamil Nadu boasted of “outstanding Buddhist monks who had made remarkable contributions to Buddhism thought and learning. A Buddhist writer Buddhadatta or Thera Buddhaatta as he is called lived during the time of Accyutarikkanta, Kalabra ruler of the Cola-nadu.

Under the patronage of this ruler, Buddhadatta wrote many books. In his book Vinayaviniccaya, he says that due to the patronage of this king he was able to compose this work.

In the Abhidhammaratara he gives a glowing account at Kaveripattinum, Uragapuram, Bhutamangalam and Kanchipuram and the Mahavihara at Ceylon (Sri Lanka). While he was at Sri Lanka, he composed many Buddhist works such as Uttara-viniccaya Ruparupa Vibhaga Jinalankara etc. Buddhaghosha, contemporary of Buddhadatta composed many Buddhist commentaries.

Buddhaghosha is a Tamil monk, who made a remarkable contribution to Buddhism in Sri Lanka. He stayed and studied Buddhist precepts at Mahavihara in Anuradhapura. The Visuddhimagga was the first work of Buddhaghosha which was written while he was in Ceylon.

According to Mahavamsa, it is a summary of the three Pitakas together with the commentary. When Buddhaghosha had been staying at Granthakara Pirivena at Anuradhapura, he completed his task of rendering Sinhalese commentaries of Tripitakas into Pali.

After a considerable period of religious service in Sri Lanka, he returned to Tamil Nadu. After Buddhaghosha, the important Theravada monk from the Tamil country was Dhammapala. Dhammapala lived in the Mahavihara at Anuradhapura.

He composed paramathadipani which was a commentary on Buddhaghosha’s work on Khuddaka Nikaya and Paramathamanjusa, which was a commentary on Buddhaghosha’s Visuddhimagga. A close study of the three Buddhist monks viz Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosha and Dhammapala shows that Tamil Buddhists were closely associated with the Sri Lankan Buddhists around the 5th century AD.

The interaction between Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan monks finds mention in “Manimekalai”. The 6th century Tamil Buddhist work Manimekali by Sattanar, is perhaps the most famous of the work done in Tamil Nadu. It is a work expounding the doctrines and propagating the values of Buddhism.

The interaction between Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan monks finds mention in “Manimekalai” which is set in the Tamil towns of Kaveipumpattinam Kanchi and Vanchi.

There is mention about the presence of wondering monks of Sri Lanka in Vanchi, which was the capital of the Chera Kings of Tamil Nadu. The Chinese traveller, Tsuan Tsang, wrote that there were around 300 Sri Lankan monks in the monastery at the Southern sector of Kanchipuram.

                     
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http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5545;year=2016;volume=58;issue=2;spage=229;epage=232;aulast=Somasundaram

Manimekalai: The ancient Buddhist Tamil epic, its relevance to psychiatry
Ottilingam Somasundaram, AG Tejus Murthy
Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Mental Health, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication    10-Jun-2016
 
        
   Abstract        
This article refers to materials of psychiatric interest found in the Manimekalai written by the 2nd Century CE Buddhist poet Sathanar. From the early description of a wandering psychotic in the streets of Pukar, the ancient maritime capital of the Cholas it is opined that this description fits that of present-day schizophrenia. A drunkard making fun of a Jain monk and a cross-dressed individual are also found in the same streets. Manimekalai’s request to the Chola king to convert the prison to a place of piety with Buddhist monks is mentioned. Lord Buddha’s teachings on the compassionate way of life are presented.

Keywords: Buddhism, history, psychiatry, schizophrenia

How to cite this article:
Somasundaram O, Tejus Murthy A G. Manimekalai: The ancient Buddhist Tamil epic, its relevance to psychiatry. Indian J Psychiatry 2016;58:229-32

How to cite this URL:
Somasundaram O, Tejus Murthy A G. Manimekalai: The ancient Buddhist Tamil epic, its relevance to psychiatry. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 May 8];58:229-32. Available from: http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2016/58/2/229/183788

   Introduction        

There are numerous notions relating to mental illness and mental health in Manimekalai, the Tamil Buddhist epic of the post-Sangam era of Tamil literature. This period is renowned for the publication of the eight anthologies and 10 lyrics and also the 18 didactical works including Thirukkural. All these works are totally secular with few references to the pre-Aryan Gods of Lord Shiva, Murugan, and Kortravai. The Buddhist poet Sathanar’s epic Manimekalai in the late 2nd century C.E. or the early third century broke new grounds by describing the teachings of Lord Buddha for the 1st time in Tamil. It is remarkable that he gathered this information in Pali language, the language in which Lord Buddha himself preached to the common people in their mother tongue. He has described the prevailing five religions in Tamil land along with the logic and the practice of the Buddha’s faith in the various cantons of the poem; a few centuries before the Chinese travelers Fa Hien and Huang Tsang. In spite of his realistic allusions to the Vedic religion, Sathanar disapproves the caste system and rituals like cow sacrifice. This could be found in the personage of Aaputhiran.

A very apt description of a schizophrenia subject is to be found when Manimekalai goes to the Uvavanam (Flower garden) along with her companion Sudhamathi to collect flowers for stringing a garland. This incident occurs in one of the streets of the Chola capital city of Pukar.[1] This maritime capital was an important center where many Vihars were founded by Mahendhir, Emperor Ashoka’s close relative. In this Uvavanam, Lord Buddha’s sacred feet (peedigai) were worshiped in a crystal palace.

Manimekalai meets a drunkard who makes the following jibe at a Jain monk:

“Welcome saint. I prostrate before thy flowery feet!

Oh! Our savior hear my appeals!

Your life entering your dirty body,

Will grieve like those shut up in unventilated dungeon!

Our leader has shown this that gives by itself

Bliss during this birth! And deliverance in the coming birth!

The sweet toddy matured in the palm of lush green branches!!

Is there killing in this? Oh! Saint of true austerity!

Consume it and get convinced!

Manimekalai encounters a mad man on her way to the flower garden:

Shoulders adorned with garland of pink “alari,”

Neck adorned with a garland of bad odoured “erukkam” flower,

Twigs of the mighty tree has he gathered to hold together

Tatters on his person, his entire body is smeared with white paste of ash

And sandal,

Talks he with others in a senseless blabber,

He cries, he falls, he blurts, he shouts,

He worships, he bellows, he gets up. He twists, he circles,

He turns, he moves to a corner and lies down, he shouts,

And picks up quarrel with his shadow,

And verily behind the mad young man, who is hapless and functionless,

The people stand around and gape at his tragedy.

Then, a hermaphrodite’s dance (paedi koothu) is watched by other interested spectators:

The dancer had a curly beard and dark hair!

Coral red mouth and pearl-white teeth!

Bright wide eyes with red lines!

And wearing garland made of white conch shell,

Dark low eye brows and crescent moon forehead

Fair hand like kantal and upright tender breasts!

Wide alkul and fair lean hip!

Wearing a skirt! Drawings on his shoulders

He was enacting a kuttu

Performed by Kaman son of him who measured the earth,

In the street of Conakar of Vanan-Asura king.

We will pay special attention to the description of the vagrant lunatic. Could this description be considered compatible with that of a subject with schizophrenia? The answer is a difficult one, with no clear consensus among psychiatrists.

I would argue that the description fits with that given in the DSM V for schizophrenia:

Delusions
Hallucinations
Disorganized speech
Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
Negative symptoms (i.e., diminished emotional expression or avolition).

No. (3) is definitely present and probably nos. (1) and (2) also.

Dr. Femi Oyebode, Professor of Psychiatry and Consultant Psychiatrist at the National Centre for Mental Health at Birmingham, UK – an authority on literature and psychiatry, in a personal communication was kind enough to give his views on this:

“I think we must assume that this a description of psychosis
There is no straightforward description of mood or affect although some commentators might argue that “twisting,” “circling,” “turning,” and “crying” are examples of joyous and/or sad behavior. My own view is that the actual words in Tamil may help to determine whether these are simply unusual behaviors with a motor component and that “crying” is merely a term for shouting out
The rest of the description in my view is characteristic of vagrant psychotics as can still be seen in Africa and I am sure in parts of Asia too. In contemporary terminology, I think untreated hebephrenic schizophrenia is the most appropriate diagnosis.”

Professor Emeritus N.N. Wig of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Chandigarh, India, had this to say:

“In the current diagnostic systems, it will probably be considered a psychotic illness. In my view, it may not be very proper to try to give a more precise contemporary label with the available information.”

Professor Sarada Menon of the Madras Medical College said in her opinion: “The subject i.e. the madman in Manimekalai could be diagnosed as a chronic  untreated psychotic with comorbid illness.”

From the information provided, it could be assumed that this description of schizophrenia as conceived today is one of the earliest if not the earliest in the history of world psychiatry.

It is very difficult to assume whether schizophrenia, as it is conceived today as a mental illness, existed in various ancient cultures. We are not quite sure whether the disorder existed in the past. Historians are divided on the subject. They feel that the disorder is of recent origin,[2] but Lewis affirms that the disorder is an ancient one.[3] According to Freedman, Kaplan, and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (1976) “as early as 1400 B.C., a Hindu fragment from the Ayurveda, a condition is brought on by devils in which the afflicted is gluttonous, filthy, walks about naked, has lost his memory, and moves about in an uneasy manner.”[4] Youseff and Youseff allude to the existence of schizophrenia in the medieval Islamic culture that dates back to the 6th–7th century A.D.[5] The masterly descriptions of Tom O’ Bedlam by Shakespeare in 16th century refer to many of the homeless schizophrenia patients belonging to the Bedlam period of 13th century Britain. Most of their appearance, behavior, and thinking have been depicted in his “King Lear” as Tom O’ Bedlam.[6]

I heard myself proclaimed

And by the happy hallow of a tree

Escaped the hunt. No port is free, no place

That guard and most unusual vigilance

Does not attend my making. While I may’ scape

Act 2, Scene 3, Lines 1–12

Hearing imaginary voices is another hallmark of serious mental illness, well known to the laity:

EDGAR: The foul fiend haunts poor Tom in the voice of a nightingale

Hopdance cries in Tom’s belly for two white herring

Croak not black angel; I have no food for thee

Act 3, Scene 6, Lines 32–35

The descriptions of the behavior and appearance of the drunkard, the madman, and the hermaphrodite appeal to the psychiatrists of today; and the scenarios are not very different from that of the mentally ill in the metropolitan cities of today.

   Prison Reform by Manimekalai        

The situations prevailing in the prisons of the Chola days have not escaped the scrutiny of the compassionate youthful Buddhist protagonist. Another remarkable achievement by Manimekalai is the conversion of the prison at Pukar to a place of piety. She makes a request in this regard to the Chola King Mavan Killi:

Asked the King

“How shall we then help thee in this regard?”

The tender girl replied

“Demolish the jail and erect there instead

A house of charity. Long live thou!”

The king released the prisoners and there, as Manimekalai desired, to enable them of great penance for higher achievements, he built an enclave for charities with the royal levy.

   The Way of Life        

Buddhism is more of an ethical system enjoining practical rules of morality than a system of religion. The Buddha did not profess to expound the relation of God to man nor did he discuss questions concerning the nature of God or soul. He wanted his disciples to aim at purity in thought, word, and deed. He laid special stress on the virtues of truthfulness, reverence, and respect for animal life.[7],[8]

Sathanar, through the mouth of Aravana Adigal, espouses the esoteric logic in Canto 29 and ethics of life in Canto 30 when he initiates Manimekalai in the ways of Buddhism, and she starts ascetic life.

Mathew Arnold is rather narrow when he talks of “the light of Asia”; it should have been “the light of the World.”

   Post Script        

It is exactly 60 years since Professor MV Govindaswamy and Professor SK Ramachandra Rao of the National Institute of Mental Health, Bangalore, India, innovatively introduced the study of Indian philosophy including Buddhism to the postgraduate curriculum of psychiatry in India. It is only proper that we should remember their services to the Indian psychiatry in particular and World psychiatry at large.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   Bibliography        

Guruswamy G, Srinivasan S (1993). Manimekalai – Retold in English. Dr. U.V Swaminatha Aiyar Library, Besant Nagar, Madras-90.

Pandian P. (1989). Manimekalai. The South India Saiva Siddhanta Works Publishing Society, Tinnelvelly, Limited, Madras-18.

Ramasubramian V. T. (2010). Manimekalai (in Tamil). Poompuhar Publications, Broadway, Chennai-1.

Paramasivandam A. M. (1974). Sathanar (in Tamil). Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu.

Sreenivenkatasamy, M. (1940). Buddhism and Tamil (in Tamil). Shanbaga Publications, Pondy Bazaar, Madras.

Lakshmi Holmstrom (1996) Silappadikaram – Manimekalai. Orient Longman, Madras-02.

 
   References        

1.   
Somasundaram O. The Indian lunacy act, 1912: The historic background. Indian J Psychiatry 1987;29:3-14. 
[PUBMED]   
2.   
Hare E. Schizophrenia as a recent disease. Br J Psychiatry 1988;153:521-31. 
   
3.   
Lewis ND. History of nosology and the evolution of the concepts of schizophrenia. In: Hoch PH, Zubbin J, editors. Psychopathology of Schizophrenia. London: Grune & Stratton; 1966. 
   
4.   
Freedman AC, Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. New York: Williams & Wilkins; 1976. 
   
5.   
Youssef HA, Youssef FA. Evidence for the existence of schizophrenia in medieval Islamic society. Hist Psychiatry 1996;7:55-62. 
   
6.   
Ottilingam S. The psychiatry of King Lear. Indian J Psychiatry 2007;49:52-5. 
[PUBMED]   
7.   
Ramachandra Rao SK. Development of Psychological Thought in India. Bangalore: Kavyalaya 1962, Surama Prakashana; 2012. 
   
8.   
Ramachandra Rao SK. Elements of Early Buddhist Psychology. Bangalore;1957, Surama Prakashana; 2012. 
   
 

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Religion in ancient Tamil country
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The Sangam period in Tamilakam (c. 200 BCE to 200 CE) was characterized by the coexistence of many religions: Hinduism , Buddhism and Jainism alongside the ethnic religions of the Tamil people . The monarchs of the time practiced religious tolerance and openly encouraged religious discussions and invite…   More…
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Criticism of Buddhism
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Criticism of Buddhism has taken numerous different forms, including that its practitioners act in ways contrary to Buddhist principles or that those principles systemically marginalize women. There are many sources of criticism both ancient and modern, stemming from other religions, the non-religious, and other Buddhist…   More…
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Buddhism in the Maldives
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Buddhism in the Maldives was the predominant religion at least until the 12th century CE. It is not clear how Buddhism was introduced into the islands. Archaeology Western interest in the archaeological remains of early cultures on the Maldives began with the work of H. C. P. Bell , a British commissioner of the Ceylon Civil Servi…   More…
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Buddhism in Malaysia
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Kek Lok Si , or “Temple of Sukhāvatī “, in Penang , Malaysia Buddhism is the second largest religion in Malaysia , after Islam , with 19.2% of Malaysia’s population being Buddhist although some estimates put that figure up to 21.6% when combined with Chinese religions. Buddhism in Malaysia is mainly practised by the ethnic Malaysia…   More…
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Kandarodai
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Kandarodai ( Tamil : கந்தரோடை , Kadiramalai Tamil : கதிரமலை or Kandurugoda - literal Sinhala translation of Kadiramalai Sinhalese : කදුරුගොඩ ) a small hamlet and archaeological site of Chunnakam town is a suburb in Jaffna District , Sri Lanka . Known as Kadiramalai (from Kudiramalai) in the ancient period, the area s…   More…
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History of Buddhism in India
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Mahabodhi Temple before restoration, Bodh Gaya , 1780s’ Rock-cut Lord Buddha Statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle of Visakhapatnam district in Andhra Pradesh. Ancient Buddhist monasteries near Dhamekh Stupa Monument Site, Sarnath Devotees performing puja at one of the Buddhist…   More…
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Dalit Buddhist movement
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The Dalit Buddhist movement (dubbed as Navayana by certain Ambedkarites ) is Buddhist revival movement in India . It started in the 19th century, and received its most substantial impetus from B. R. Ambedkar ’s call for the conversion of Dalits to Buddhism , in 1956, to escape a caste -based society that consider…   More…
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Chinese Buddhism
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① Buddhist monks at Jintai Temple in Zhuhai , Guangdong , mainland China . ② Brahma Palace of the Buddhist Vatican (梵宫) in Wuxi , Jiangsu , mainland China, has become a focus of Chinese Buddhist and other East Asian Buddhist schools. ③ A government-approved Buddhist house church (居士林 jūshìlín), part of a wider…   More…
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Buddhism in Sri Lanka
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According to the Mahavamsa , the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura , Sri Lanka (around 140 BCE.). Avukana Buddha statue from 5th century Gilded bronze statue of the Tara Bodhisattva , from the Anuradhapura period (8th century) Bronze statue of Avalokiteśvara . Sri Lanka , ca. 750. 80-foot World’s tallest statue of walking B…   More…
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Buddhism in Cambodia
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Buddhism in Cambodia is currently a form of Theravada Buddhism . Buddhism has existed in Cambodia since at least the 5th century, and in its earlier form was a type of Mahāyāna Buddhism . Theravada Buddhism has been the Cambodian state religion since the 13th century (except during the Khmer Rouge period )…   More…
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Tamils
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The Tamil people ( Tamil :  தமிழர் , tamiẓar (singular)   , or Tamil :  தமிழர்கள் , tamiẓarkaḷ (plural)   ), also known as Tamilians , Tamilans , or simply Tamils , are an ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu , the Indian Union territory of Puducherry , or the No…   More…
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Buddhism in Denmark
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Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in Denmark with approximately 30,000 members. History In the 19th century, knowledge about Buddhism was brought back from expeditions that explored the Far East but interest was mainly from authors, Buddhologists and philologists . In 1921, Dr. Christian F. Melbye…   More…
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Tamil language
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Tamil ( English pronunciation: ; தமிழ் ; Tamiḻ ; ;   pronunciation   ) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka , and also by the Tamil diaspora , Sri Lankan Moors , Burghers , Douglas , and Chindians . Tamil is an official language of two countries, Sri Lanka and Singapore . It has officia…   More…
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Sri Lankan Tamils
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Sri Lankan Tamils ( Tamil :  இலங்கை தமிழர் , ilankai tamiḻar   also Tamil :  ஈழத் தமிழர் , īḻat tamiḻar   ) or Ceylon Tamils , also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil , are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka . According to anthropological and archaeological evidence, Sri Lankan Tamils ha…   More…
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Sri Lankan Tamil Dramas
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Introduction After the independence of Sri Lanka in 1948, Sri Lankan Tamil dramas started to develop in Tamil populated areas and in Colombo. Sri Lankan Tamil dramas can be categorized by regional identities. Jaffna , Colombo , Batticaloa , Mannar and Hill country are some of the regions which have developed dramas in…   More…
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Tamil literature
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Sage Agastya , Chairman of the first Tamil Sangam , Madurai , Pandiya Kingdom. Statue in Tamil Thai temple, Karaikudi , Tamil Nadu. Tamil literature ( Tamil : தமிழ் இலக்கியம் ) refers to the literature in the Tamil language . Tamil literature has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than two thousand years. The oldest ex…   More…
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Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil
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The Tamil language has absorbed a large number of Indo-Aryan , Prakrit , Pali and Sanskrit , loanwords ever since the early 1st millennium CE, when the Sangam period Chola kingdoms became influenced by spread of Jainism , Buddhism and early Brahmanism . Many of these loans are obscured by adaptions to Tamil pho…   More…
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History of Buddhism
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The History of Buddhism spans from the 5th century BC to the present; which arose in the eastern part of Ancient India , in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar , India ), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama . This makes it one of the oldest religions practiced today. The religion evolved a…   More…
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Timeline of Buddhism
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The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Buddhism from the birth of Gautama Buddha to the present. Timeline of events Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions (ca. 450 BCE – ca. 1300 CE)   450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE   India Early Sangha       Mahāsāṃghika Mahāyān…   More…
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Outline of Buddhism
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Dharmacakra , symbol of the Dharma, the Buddha’s teaching of the path to enlightenment The following outline is provided as an overview of, and topical guide to, Buddhism: Buddhism ( Pali / Sanskrit : बौद्ध धर्म Buddha Dharma) is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices…   More…
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Tamil Jain
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Mel Sithamur Jain Math , the residence of Laxmisena Tamil Jains ( Tamil Samaṇar , Nayiṉār , from Prakrit samaṇa “wandering renunciate”) are Tamils from Tamil Nadu , India, who practice Digambara Jainism (Tamil Camaṇam ). They are a microcommunity of around 85,000 (around 0.13% of the population of Tamil Na…   More…
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Manimekalai
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Manimekalai ( Tamil : மணிமேகலை ), by the poet Chithalai Chathanar , is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition. Manimekalai is a poem in 30 cantos. Its story is a sequel to another of the Five Great Epics, Silappatikaram , and tells the story of the conversion from Jainism to Buddhi…   More…
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Tamil Nadu
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Tamil Nadu (Tamil pronunciation: IPA : ;   pronunciation   ; Tamiḻ Nāṭu ; literally ‘The Land of Tamils’ or ‘Tamil Country’) is one of the 29 states of India . Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducher…   More…
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Tamil-Brahmi
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Tamil-Brahmi , or Tamili , is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language . These are the earliest documents of a Dravidian language, and the script was well established in the Chera and Pandyan states, in what is now Tamil Nadu , Kerala , Andhra Pradesh and Sri Lanka . Inscriptions have been found on…   More…
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Tamil Canadians
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Tamil Canadians are Canadians of Tamil ethnic origins mostly from India and Sri Lanka . From a population of fewer than 150 Tamils in 1983, it has become one of the largest visible minority population groups within the Greater Toronto Area . In the 1991 census, Tamils were the fastest-growing ethnic group in the city. Canada’s…   More…
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British Tamil
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British Tamils ( Tamil : பிரித்தானியத் தமிழர் ) are British people of Tamil origin. Migration of significant numbers of Tamils to the United Kingdom (UK) started with labour migrants in the 1940s. These were joined by students moving to the UK for education in the 1970s, and by refugees fleeing the Sri Lankan Civil War in th…   More…
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History of Tamil Nadu
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The region of Tamil Nadu , in the southeast of modern India , shows evidence of having had continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE.  Throughout its history, spanning the early Upper Paleolithic age to modern times, this region has coexisted with various external cultures. The Tamil region has remained…   More…
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Buddhism in the Philippines
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Buddhism is a minor religion in the Philippines . The Main Altar of a Buddhist Temple in Masangkay Street, Tondo, Manila . Loanwords with Buddhist context appear in languages of the Philippines . Archaeological finds include Buddhist artifacts. The style are of Vajrayana influence. Shingon Buddhist…   More…
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Tamil inscriptions in the Malay world
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A number of medieval inscriptions written in Tamil language and script that have been found in Southeast Asia and China, mainly in Sumatra and peninsular Thailand. These texts arose directly from trade links between south India and certain parts of Southeast Asia and China, which involved the residence in those reg…   More…
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Tamil numerals
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A milestone which uses both Tamil and Indo-Arabic Numerals (Tanjore Palace Museum). Modern Tamil numerals featured on a 100 Mauritian rupee note. Tamil numerals ( Tamil : தமிழ் எண்கள், இலக்கங்கள் ), refers to the numeral system of the Tamil language used officially in Tamil Nadu and Singapore , as well as by the other…   More…
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Tamil Americans
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Tamil Americans ( தமிழ் அமெரிக்கர் ) are Americans who are of Tamil ethnic origins, mostly from India and Sri Lanka and other diasporic centers such as Canada and the United Kingdom. Demographics The New York City Metropolitan Area , including Central New Jersey , as well as Long Island and Staten Island in New Y…   More…
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Tamil diaspora
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The Tamil diaspora refers to descendants of the Tamil immigrants who emigrated from their native lands to other parts of the world. They found primarily in Sri Lanka , Malaysia , Singapore , South Africa , Réunion , Mauritius , Europe , North America , and parts of the Caribbean . Early migrations Many of Tamil emigrant…   More…
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Thiriyai
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Thiriyaya or Tiriyai ( Sinhalese : තිරියාය Thiriyaya, Tamil : திரியாய் tiriyāy) is a small village in the eastern Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka and is an old seaport of the Jaffna Kingdom . It is situated about 25 miles north of Trincomalee town through Nilaveli . Thiriyai is among the ancient Tamil villages of the district an…   More…
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Tamil Sangams
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The Tamil Sangams or Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past. Scholars believe that these assemblies were originally known as kooṭam or “gathering,” which was also a name for Madurai . Three assemblies are described. The legend h…   More…
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Tamil Indonesians
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Tamil Indonesians are persons of Tamil ancestry living in Indonesia. Majority of them live in Medan in North Sumatra while there are small community in other parts of the country such as Jakarta , Aceh , Riau and Riau Islands . It is estimated that there are around 25,000 PIOs/NRIs living in Indonesia of which the Indian expatriat…   More…
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Tamil Malaysians
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Tamil Malaysians , also known as Malaysian Tamils , are people of full or partial Tamil descent who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia . They make up over 90% of the Malaysian Indian populations in Malaysia. Although the bulk of the migration happened during the British colonial period , there were establish…   More…
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Tamil cuisine
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Tamil Nadu is famous for its deep belief that serving food to others is a service to humanity, as it is common in many regions of India . The region has a rich cuisine involving both traditional vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Rice , legumes and lentils are used extensively and flavor is achieved by the blend…   More…
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The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature
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The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature ( Tamil : ஐம்பெரும்காப்பியங்கள் Aimperumkāppiyaṅkaḷ) are five large narrative Tamil epics according to later Tamil literary tradition, namely Cilappatikāram , Manimekalai , Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi , Valayapathi and Kuṇṭalakēci . The first mention of the “Aimperu…   More…
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Tamilakam
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Tamiḻakam (Home of Tamil), ( Tamil : தமிழகம், Tamiḻakam), refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people . Tamilakam covered today Tamil Nadu , Kerala , Puducherry , Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Traditional accounts and Tholkāppiyam referred these territories…   More…
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Tamils in Pakistan
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There is a small community of Tamils in Pakistan . Some Muslim Tamils migrated from the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu , and settled in Karachi after the independence in 1947. These Muslim Tamils have integrated with the Urdu speaking Muhajir community. Although there also some Tamils that have been since early 20t…   More…
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Sinhalese New Year
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Sinhalese New Year , generally known as Aluth Avurudda ( Sinhalese : අලුත් අවුරුද්ද ) in Sri Lanka, is a Sri Lankan holiday that celebrates the traditional Lunar New Year of the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka . It is a major anniversary celebrated by not only the Sinhalese people but by most Sri Lankans . The timing of the Sinhala N…   More…
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Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka
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Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are Tamil people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka . They are also known as Hill Country Tamils , Up-Country Tamils or simply Indian Tamils . They are partly descended from workers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work in coffee , tea and rubber plantations. Some also migr…   More…
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Tamil Australians
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Tamil Australians refers to Australians with a Tamil background. It includes people who speak Tamil , those whose ancestors were Tamil or those who identify with Tamil culture . Demographics Murugan Temple, Sydney Saivaite Temple, Perth There are no exact figures for the number of Tamil Australians but according to the 2011…   More…
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Tamil Germans
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Tamil German or German Tamizhar refer to the German citizens of Tamil ethnic origins mainly from Sri Lanka , India and Malaysia apart from other parts of the world. Tamil migration to Germany which was mainly composed of Higher Education and Labor migrants increased in the late 1980s and onwards mainly due to the escalatio…   More…
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Tamil New Zealanders
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Tamil New Zealanders are New Zealand citizens and residents of Tamil ethnicity or ancestry. An estimated number of 3000 Tamils currently reside in the country. The 2013 New Zealand census found 732 people usually resident who identified as Sri Lankan Tamil, and 303 as Indian Tamil. Notable Tamil personali…   More…
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Singapore Tamils
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Singapore Tamils refers to Tamil community living in Singapore, who came from South India and Sri Lanka. Singapore is home to about 500,000 Tamilians. Singapore has emerged as the most preferred destination among migrants from Tamil Nadu. A study has revealed that 410,000 of the 2.2 million Tamil Nadu diaspora were resi…   More…
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List of Tamil people
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This is a list of notable Tamil people . Entries on this list are demonstrably notable by having a linked current article or reliable sources as footnotes against the name to verify they are notable and define themselves as Tamil. This list also includes emigrant Tamils and could be taken as a list of famous Tamils. Kings an…   More…
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Skanda (Buddhism)
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Skanda , also known as Wei Tuo ( Chinese : 韋馱 ), is a Mahayana bodhisattva regarded as a devoted guardian of Buddhist monasteries who guards the Buddhist teachings. He is also sometimes called in the Chinese tradition “Hufa Weituo Zuntian Pusa”, meaning “Honored Dharma Protector Skanda Bodhisatt…   More…
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Education in ancient Tamil country
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Education was considered important in Ancient Tamizhagam as they considered the mind of the uneducated to be an “abode of darkness”. The period of acquiring knowledge was during youth. The rulers and aristocrats of ancient Tamilakam were always conscious of their duties to their country. They consider…   More…
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Demographics of Tamil Nadu
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According to the 2011 census, the total population stood at 72,147,030, with 36,137,975 males, 36,009,055 females, a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, literacy rate of 80.09%, 10.51% of the population below seven years and a population density of 555. Distribution of population across districts As per details fr…   More…
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Kartikeya
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Kartikeya ( IAST : Kārttikēya ), also known as Murugan , Skanda , Kumara , Vishakha , or Subramaniyam , is the Hindu god of war. He is the son of Parvati and Shiva , brother of Ganesha , and a god whose life story has many versions in the mythologies of Hinduism . An important deity found all over the Indian su…   More…
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Oru Paisa Tamilan
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Oru Paisa Tamilan was a Tamil language weekly magazine, which was published and edited by Iyothee Thass , a Dalit activist. It started its publication on 9 June 1907 in Royapettah . It was later renamed simply as Tamilan (Thamizhan). It ceased publication in 1934. Publications Thass revived Tamil Buddhis…   More…
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Iyothee Thass
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C. Iyothee Thass (20 May 1845 – 1914) was a prominent Paraiyar and anti-caste activist and a practitioner of Siddha medicine who is regarded as a pioneer of the Dravidian Movement . He famously converted to Buddhism and called upon the Paraiyars to do the same, arguing that this was their original religion. He also foun…   More…
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Religion in Sri Lanka
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Map of Sri Lanka, showing majority religions by D.S. Divisions , according to 2011 census. Sri Lanka ‘ s population practices a variety of religions . As of the 2011 census 70.19% of Sri Lankans were Theravada Buddhists , 12.6% were Hindus , 9.7% were Muslims (mainly Sunni ) and 7.4% Christians (6.1% Roman C…   More…
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Chithalai Chathanar
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Sattanar or Chithalai Sathanar ( Tamil : சாத்தனார் , cītalai cāttanār) was the Tamil poet who composed the epic Manimekalai . Etymology Pronounced Sa-tha-naar, the name is derived from ( Tamil : சாத்து , sāttu) meaning Buddhist monk. Applying this principle to the name Maturai Kulavāṇikan Cāttan, the author of Manimek…   More…
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Anuradhapura period
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The Anuradhapura period was a period in the history of Sri Lanka of the Anuradhapura Kingdom from 377 BC to 1017 AD. The period begins when Pandukabhaya , King of Upatissa Nuwara moved the administration to Anuradhapura , becoming the kingdom’s first monarch. Anuradhapura is heralded as an anc…   More…
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Avalokiteśvara
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Avalokiteśvara holding a lotus flower. Nālandā , Bihar , India , 9th century CE. Avalokiteśvara ( Sanskrit : अवलोकितेश्वर, “Lord who contemplates”, Khmer : លោកេស្វរៈ, Tibetan : སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ ,  Wylie : spyan ras gzigs, THL : Chenrézik) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas . This bodhisatt…   More…
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Kulakkottan
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Kulakkottan ( Tamil : குளக்கோட்டன் ) was an early Chola king and descendant of Manu Needhi Cholan who was mentioned in chronicles such as the Yalpana Vaipava Malai and stone inscriptions like Konesar Kalvettu . His name Kulakkottan means Builder of tank and temple. He was son of Vararamatevan who said to ha…   More…
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Tamil culture
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Tamil culture is the culture of the Tamil people . Tamil culture is rooted in the arts and ways of life of Tamils in India , Sri Lanka , Malaysia , Singapore and across the globe. Tamil culture is expressed in language , literature , music , dance , theatre , folk arts , martial arts , painting , sculpture , architect…   More…
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Hinduism in Tamil Nadu
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Hinduism in Tamil Nadu dates back to 5th century BC finding literary mention in Sangam literature . The total number of Tamil Hindus as per 2011 Indian census is 63,188,168 which forms 87.58% of the total popualation of Tamil Nadu. Hinduism is the major religion in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The religious…   More…
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Makkal Osai
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The Makkal Osai ( Tamil : மக்கள் ஓசை ; “The People’s Voice”) is a Tamil daily newspaper based in Malaysia , one of only three Tamil-language dailies in the country, alongside the Malaysia Nanban and the Tamil Nesan . Overview The Makkal Osai was founded in 1981 as the Tamil Osai (the Tamil’s Voice), which ceased operation…   More…
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Vaddukoddai Resolution
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Vaddukoddai Resolution was adopted on 14 May 1976 in Pannakam near Vaddukoddai , Northern Province , Sri Lanka it called for the creation of an independent Tamil Eelam by the Tamil United Liberation Front under the leadership of S. J. V. Chelvanayakam and it fought Sri Lankan parliame…   More…
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Kanchipuram
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Kānchipuram otherwise known as Kānchi ( kāñcipuram ; Tamil : காஞ்சிபுரம் ; ) is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu , 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai  – the capital of Tamil Nadu. The city covers an area of 11.605 km (4.481 sq mi) and had a population of 164,265 in 2001. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipu…   More…
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Brahmic scripts
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The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems . They are used throughout the Indian Subcontinent , Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia , and were once used in Japan , and are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India . They are used by languages of several language families: Indo-Eur…   More…
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Sacred language
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A sacred language , ” holy language ” (in religious context) or liturgical language is a language that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. Concept A sacred language is often the language which was spoken (and written) in the society in which a religion’s sacred texts wer…   More…
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Tamil Mauritian
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Tamil Mauritians are the descendants of Tamil migrants to Mauritius . The original immigrants from Tamil were craftsmen and tradesmen, and arrived when Mauritians was ruled by France . The island nation has a Tamil population of 115,000. Most were brought by the British from Tamil Nadu after 1727 to serve as labourers on the su…   More…
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Karuṇā
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Karu ṇ ā (in both Sanskrit and Pali ) is generally translated as compassion . It is part of the spiritual path of both Buddhism and Jainism . Buddhism Karu ṇ ā is important in all schools of Buddhism. For Theravāda Buddhists, dwelling in karu ṇ ā is a means for attaining a happy present life and heavenly rebirth. For Mahāyāna Buddhist…   More…
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Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism
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Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism is a political ideology which combines a focus upon Sinhalese culture and ethnicity with an emphasis upon Theravada Buddhism , which is the majority belief system of most of the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka . It mostly originated in reaction to the colonisation of Sri Lanka by the British E…   More…
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Sangh
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The term Sangh or Sangha means an assembly or congregation. The usage of the term includes: Sangha (Buddhism) , the monastic community in Buddhism Sangha, an alternative term for the Jain community Sangh Parivar , a group of Indian Nationalist Organizations Tamil Sangams , a legendary literary assembly…   More…
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Tamil Seychellois
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Tamil-Seychellois are people of Tamil ethnic origins living in the island nation of Seychelles . Their population is roughly estimated to 4000, making them one of the island’s significant minorities. History Tamil immigrants arrived in Seychelles as early as 1770, and the Tamils were among the first settlers to the ori…   More…
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Anti-Brahminism
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Anti-Brahminism or Anti-Manuvaad is an ideology that protests against prejudice and discrimination directed towards Dalits and women by the brahmanical system. It holds Manu Smriti , the book of legal codes which justifies ritual pollution and patriarchy , as the ideological text of Brahminism. History Early criticism against B…   More…
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Black July
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Black July ( Tamil : கறுப்பு யூலை , translit.   Kaṟuppu Yūlai ; Sinhalese : කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti- Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983. The riots began as a “response” to a deadly ambush on 23 July 1983 by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , a Tamil militant group , that kille…   More…
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Three Crowned Kings
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The Three Crowned rulers , or the Three Glorified by Heaven , or World of the Three , primarily known as Moovendhar, refers to the triumvirate of Chola , Chera and Pandya who dominated the politics of the ancient Tamil country, Tamilakam , from their three countries or Nadu of Chola Nadu , Pandya Nadu (present day Madurai…   More…
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04/29/17
2212 Sat 29 Apr 2017 LESSON Tipitaka The Pali Canon Let us correct this Google Translation using https://translate.google.com in all languages we know. in 1) Classical English,79) Classical Samoan- Samoa Tuai,-80) Classical Samoan-81) Classical Scots Gaelic-Класична руски,82) Classical Serbian- Класична српска,83) Classical Sesotho- Classic Sesotho,-84) Classical Shona, 85) Classical Sindhi-Classical سنڌي) Classical Sinhala-86)සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,87) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,88) Classical Slovenian-Klasični slovenski,89) Classical Somali- Qadiimiga ah Soomaali,90) Classical Spanish- Clásico Español,91) Classical Sudanese- Klasik Sunda,92) Classical Swahili-Classical Kiswahili,93) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,94) Classical Tajik-Tajik классикӣ,95) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,96) Classical Telugu-క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,97) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,98) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,99)Classical Ukrainian- Класична українська,
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 6:14 am
2212 Sat 29 Apr 2017 LESSON

Tipitaka

The Pali Canon

Let us correct this Google Translation using https://translate.google.com in all languages we know.


in 1) Classical English,
79) Classical Samoan- Samoa Tuai,-80) Classical Samoan-81) Classical Scots Gaelic-Класична руски,82) Classical Serbian- Класична српска,83) Classical Sesotho- Classic Sesotho,-84) Classical Shona,
85) Classical Sindhi-Classical سنڌي) Classical Sinhala-86)සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,87) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,88) Classical Slovenian-Klasični slovenski,89) Classical Somali- Qadiimiga ah Soomaali,90) Classical Spanish- Clásico Español,91) Classical Sudanese- Klasik Sunda,92) Classical Swahili-Classical Kiswahili,93) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,94) Classical Tajik-Tajik классикӣ,95) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,96) Classical Telugu-క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,97) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,98) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,99)Classical Ukrainian- Класична українська,



http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html







The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka,
“baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language
texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The
Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation
the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of
the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although
only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website,
this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis
(ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya
Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule,
providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of
how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual
community.
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha
and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings
of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are
available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):

Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles
presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a
systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the
nature of mind and matter.



For further reading




79) Classical Samoan
79) Samoa Tuai

2209 faaipoipo 26 Ape 2017 LESONA

Ia tatou faasaʻo lenei Faaliliuga Google faaaogaina https://translate.google.com
i gagana uma ua tatou iloa.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
O le tuufaatasiga Pali
© 2005
Tagai foi Sutta Faasino Upu; Faaliliuga e Faaliliu

    Vin
    
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    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
Iti
    
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f
    
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Thig
    
Nm
    
Miln

O
le Tipitaka (Pali Ti, “tolu,” + pitaka, “ato”), po o Pali le
tuufaatasiga, o le aoina o autu tusitusiga gagana Pali e fausia ai le
faavae o aoaoga faavae o Theravada putisiga.
O le Tipitaka ma le paracanonical tusitusiga Pali (faamatalaga, tala i
nofoaʻiga, ma isi) faatasi aofia ai le tino atoa o le uluaʻi tusitusiga
Theravada.

O
le Pali le tuufaatasiga o se tino o tusitusiga tele: i le faaliliuga
faa-Peretania o le mau faaopoopo e oo atu i le faitau afe o itulau
lolomiina.
O le tele (ae le uma) o le ua uma ona lomia faasalalau i le tuufaatasiga i le gagana Peretania i le tausaga. E ui lava na o se vaega itiiti o nei tusitusiga o loo maua i luga o
lenei website, o lenei aoina e mafai ona avea o se nofoaga lelei lea e
amata ai.

O le vaega e tolu o le Tipitaka o le:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
O
le tuufaatasiga o tusitusiga e faatatau i le tulafono o le amio pulea
ai le mataupu i aso taitasi i totonu o le Sangha - o le nuu o le
bhikkhus (faauuina au puta) ma bhikkhunis (faauuina taupou).
sili atu nai lo na o se lisi o tulafono faafoe, le Vinaya Pitaka aofia
ai foi le tala i tua le amataga o le pulega taitasi, e tuuina atu se
tala auiliili o le vaifofo o le Buddha i le fesili i le auala e
faatumauina le felagolagomai communal i totonu o se nuu faaleagaga tele
ma le eseese.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Le
aoina o suttas, po o aoaoga, e faatatau i le Buddha ma nai o lona
latalata soo, o loo i ai aoaoga autu uma o Theravada putisiga.
(E sili atu i le tasi le afe e maua faaliliuga sutta i lenei website.) Ua vaevaeina suttas i nikayas lima (aoina):

        Digha Nikaya - le “aoina umi”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - le “aoina ogatotonu-umi”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - le “aoina faavasegaina”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - le “aoina isi-factored”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - le “aoina itiiti tusitusiga”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (e aofia ai na o le lomiga Burmese o le Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
O le tuufaatasiga o tusitusiga i ai le mataupu faavae faaleaoaoga
faavae autu tuuina atu i le Sutta Pitaka ua reworked ma toe faatulagaina
i se faavaa faiga e mafai ona faaaogaina i se suesuega i totonu o le
natura o le mafaufau ma le mataupu.

Mo le faitauina o isi

    O fea e mafai ona ou maua se kopi o le tuufaatasiga atoatoa Pali (Tipitaka)? (E Masani ona Fesiligia Fesili)
    
Tala atu o le Tipitaka: O Se Field Taiala i Post-canonical Lomiga Pali
    
ofoina Pali Language Fesoasoani mo Suesuega sootaga ia e mafai ona aoga i tamaiti aoga Pali o tulaga uma.
    
Tusitaulima o Pali Lomiga, e ala i Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Atalii, Ltd., 1994). O se taiala, i se faiga lomifefiloi, e ala i le tuufaatasiga Pali,
faatasi ai ma faamatalaga auiliili o le faailo autu i le tuufaatasiga.
    
O se Iloiloga o le Pali tuufaatasiga, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Lomiga faasalalau lotu Puta Aualofa, 1975). O se taua “roadmap” ma le otootoga o le tuufaatasiga Pali. Loo i ai se faasino upu e sili ona lelei lisiina suttas igoa.
    
Taiala i Tipitaka, U Ko faataatia e ia, ed. (Delhi: Lomiga Sri Satguru, 1990). O le isi otootoga e sili ona lelei o le Tipitaka, o loo i aotelega o le tele o suttas taua.
    
Lotu Puta Dictionary, e Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: lotu Puta Society Lomiga faasalalau, 1980). A tusitaulima masani o upu taua ma le manatu i Theravada putisiga.

80) Classical Samoan

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 LEASAIN

Leig seo dhuinn a cheartachadh Google Eadar-theangachadh a ‘cleachdadh https://translate.google.com
anns a h-uile cànan fhios againn.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Tha an Canan Pali
© 2005
Faic cuideachd Sutta clàr-innse; Eadar-theangachaidhean le Translator

    Vin
    
Dn
    
MN
    
Sn
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
ud
    
Iti
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
NM
    
Miln

Tha
Tipitaka (Pali Ti, “trì,” + pitaka, “basgaidean”), no Pali canon, ‘S e
cruinneachadh de bhun-Pali cànan theacsaichean a tha a’ cruthachadh an
teagasgail bunait Theravada Buddhism.
Tha Tipitaka agus an paracanonical Pali teacsaichean (bheachdail,
eachdraidh, etc.) còmhla gabhar iomlan corp Theravada teacsaichean
clasaigeach.

Tha
Pali canon ‘S e buidheann mhòr de litreachas: ann an eadar-theangachadh
Beurla Cuir na teacsaichean suas ri mìltean de printed pages.
As (ach chan eil a h-uile) de Canan mar-thà air a bhith a ‘foillseachadh ann am Beurla thairis air na bliadhnaichean. Ged nach robh ach beag bloigh de na teacsaichean sin a tha ri
fhaotainn air làrach-lìn seo, a ‘chruinneachadh seo a bhith na àite math
airson tòiseachadh.

Tha trì roinnean-feachd de na Tipitaka tha:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Tha
an cruinneachadh de theacsaichean a thaobh riaghailtean giùlain
riaghlaidh làitheil cùisean taobh a-staigh Sangha - coimhearsnachd
bhikkhus (shocrachadh manaich) agus bhikkhunis (shocrachadh
cailleachan-dubha).
Fada a bharrachd na dìreach liosta de na riaghailtean, a ‘Vinaya
Pitaka cuideachd a’ gabhail a-steach nan sgeulachdan air cùl an tùs gach
riaghailt, a ‘toirt cunntas mionaideach air a’ Buddha a ‘fuasgladh air
a’ cheist ciamar a chumail coitcheann taobh a-staigh co-sheirm mòr
spioradail agus eadar-mheasgte a ‘choimhearsnachd.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Tha
an cruinneachadh de suttas, no discourses, air a chur an Buddha agus
beagan a fhaisge dheisciopuil, anns a bheil a h-uile meadhan teagasg
Theravada Buddhism.
(Còrr is mìle sutta eadar-theangachaidhean rim faighinn air
làrach-lìn seo.) Tha an suttas air an roinn am measg còig nikayas
(chruinneachaidhean):

        Digha Nikaya - an “fada chruinneachadh”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - an “meadhan-dh’fhaid chruinneachadh”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - an “buidhnean chruinneachadh”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “an tuilleadh factored-chruinneachadh”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - a “chruinneachadh de theacsaichean beag”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (a-steach a-mhàin ann an Burmese deasachadh den ‘Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Tha an cruinneachadh de theacsaichean anns a bheil am
bun-phrionnsabalan teagasgail a thoirt seachad ann an Sutta Pitaka tha
ath-obrachadh agus ath-eagrachadh a-steach eagarach frèam a ghabhas a
chur ri rannsachadh nàdar inntinn agus air a ‘chùis.

Airson tuilleadh leughaidh

    Càite am faigh mi leth-bhreac den iomlan Pali canon (Tipitaka)? (Bitheanta Ceist)
    
Seachad air an Tipitaka: A Achaidh Stiùireadh a ‘Phuist-Canonical Pali Litreachas
    
Pali Cànain Sgrùdadh Aids tabhann ceanglaichean a dh’fhaodadh a bhith feumail do Pali oileanaich a h-uile ìre.
    
Leabhar-làimhe nan Pali Taghaidh, le Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons Eta, 1994). Iùl, ann an riochd faclair, tro Pali canon, le tuairisgeul mionaideach air na prìomh chomharraidhean-tìre ann an Canon.
    
An Mion-sgrùdadh air an Pali Canan, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Foillseachaidh Society, 1975). An sheachanta “mhapa-rathaid” agus dealbh-iomaill na Pali chanan. Tha sàr-amais suttas liosta le ainm.
    
Leabhar-iùil Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Another Sònraichte dealbh-iomaill an Tipitaka, geàrr-chunntasan anns a bheil mòran de cudromach suttas.
    
Buddhist Dictionary, le Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Foillseachaidh Society, 1980). A classic leabhar-làimhe cudromach a thaobh bun-bheachdan agus ann an Theravada Buddhism.


81) Classical Scots Gaelic
81) Classical Gàidhlig

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 LEASAIN

Leig seo dhuinn a cheartachadh Google Eadar-theangachadh a ‘cleachdadh https://translate.google.com
anns a h-uile cànan fhios againn.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Tha an Canan Pali
© 2005
Faic cuideachd Sutta clàr-innse; Eadar-theangachaidhean le Translator

    Vin
    
Dn
    
MN
    
Sn
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
ud
    
Iti
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
NM
    
Miln

Tha
Tipitaka (Pali Ti, “trì,” + pitaka, “basgaidean”), no Pali canon, ‘S e
cruinneachadh de bhun-Pali cànan theacsaichean a tha a’ cruthachadh an
teagasgail bunait Theravada Buddhism.
Tha Tipitaka agus an paracanonical Pali teacsaichean (bheachdail,
eachdraidh, etc.) còmhla gabhar iomlan corp Theravada teacsaichean
clasaigeach.

Tha
Pali canon ‘S e buidheann mhòr de litreachas: ann an eadar-theangachadh
Beurla Cuir na teacsaichean suas ri mìltean de printed pages.
As (ach chan eil a h-uile) de Canan mar-thà air a bhith a ‘foillseachadh ann am Beurla thairis air na bliadhnaichean. Ged nach robh ach beag bloigh de na teacsaichean sin a tha ri
fhaotainn air làrach-lìn seo, a ‘chruinneachadh seo a bhith na àite math
airson tòiseachadh.

Tha trì roinnean-feachd de na Tipitaka tha:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Tha
an cruinneachadh de theacsaichean a thaobh riaghailtean giùlain
riaghlaidh làitheil cùisean taobh a-staigh Sangha - coimhearsnachd
bhikkhus (shocrachadh manaich) agus bhikkhunis (shocrachadh
cailleachan-dubha).
Fada a bharrachd na dìreach liosta de na riaghailtean, a ‘Vinaya
Pitaka cuideachd a’ gabhail a-steach nan sgeulachdan air cùl an tùs gach
riaghailt, a ‘toirt cunntas mionaideach air a’ Buddha a ‘fuasgladh air
a’ cheist ciamar a chumail coitcheann taobh a-staigh co-sheirm mòr
spioradail agus eadar-mheasgte a ‘choimhearsnachd.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Tha
an cruinneachadh de suttas, no discourses, air a chur an Buddha agus
beagan a fhaisge dheisciopuil, anns a bheil a h-uile meadhan teagasg
Theravada Buddhism.
(Còrr is mìle sutta eadar-theangachaidhean rim faighinn air
làrach-lìn seo.) Tha an suttas air an roinn am measg còig nikayas
(chruinneachaidhean):

        Digha Nikaya - an “fada chruinneachadh”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - an “meadhan-dh’fhaid chruinneachadh”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - an “buidhnean chruinneachadh”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “an tuilleadh factored-chruinneachadh”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - a “chruinneachadh de theacsaichean beag”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (a-steach a-mhàin ann an Burmese deasachadh den ‘Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Tha an cruinneachadh de theacsaichean anns a bheil am
bun-phrionnsabalan teagasgail a thoirt seachad ann an Sutta Pitaka tha
ath-obrachadh agus ath-eagrachadh a-steach eagarach frèam a ghabhas a
chur ri rannsachadh nàdar inntinn agus air a ‘chùis.

Airson tuilleadh leughaidh

    Càite am faigh mi leth-bhreac den iomlan Pali canon (Tipitaka)? (Bitheanta Ceist)
    
Seachad air an Tipitaka: A Achaidh Stiùireadh a ‘Phuist-Canonical Pali Litreachas
    
Pali Cànain Sgrùdadh Aids tabhann ceanglaichean a dh’fhaodadh a bhith feumail do Pali oileanaich a h-uile ìre.
    
Leabhar-làimhe nan Pali Taghaidh, le Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons Eta, 1994). Iùl, ann an riochd faclair, tro Pali canon, le tuairisgeul mionaideach air na prìomh chomharraidhean-tìre ann an Canon.
    
An Mion-sgrùdadh air an Pali Canan, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Foillseachaidh Society, 1975). An sheachanta “mhapa-rathaid” agus dealbh-iomaill na Pali chanan. Tha sàr-amais suttas liosta le ainm.
    
Leabhar-iùil Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Another Sònraichte dealbh-iomaill an Tipitaka, geàrr-chunntasan anns a bheil mòran de cudromach suttas.
    
Buddhist Dictionary, le Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Foillseachaidh Society, 1980). A classic leabhar-làimhe cudromach a thaobh bun-bheachdan agus ann an Theravada Buddhism.

82) Classical Serbian

82) Класична српска


2209 Мон 26 Јул 2017 ЛЕКЦИЈА

Хајде да исправимо ову Гоогле Транслатион користећи хттпс://транслате.гоогле.цом
на свим језицима знамо.

хттп://ввв.аццесстоинсигхт.орг/типитака/индек.хтмл
типитака
Пали канон
© 2005
Погледајте такође сутта Индекс; Транслатионс би Преводилац

    вин
    
ДН
    
, МН
    
С.Н.
    

    
кн

    КХП
    
ДХП
    
уд
    
ити
    
сн
    
вв
    
пв
    
тхаг
    
þиг
    
нм
    
Милн

Типитака
(пали ти, “три” + Питака, “корпе”), или пали канон јесте збирка
основних језику пали текстовима који чине доктринарну основу тхеравада
будизма.
Типитака и парацаноницал Пали текстови (коментари, хронике, итд) заједно чине комплетан корпус класичних тхеравадских текстова.

Пали канон је огромна збирка литературе: у енглеском преводу текстови додати до хиљада штампаних страна. Већина (али не сви) од Цанон је већ објављен на енглеском језику током година. Иако је само мали део тих текстова су доступни на овом сајту, ова колекција може бити добро место за почетак.

Све три дивизије Типитаке су:

Винаиа питака
    
Збирка
текстова који се односе на правила понашања који регулишу дневне
послове у оквиру сангхе - заједница монаха (Заређени монаси) и бхиккхуни
(рукоположени НУНС).
Много више од пуког листе правила, Винаиа питака садржи приче које
стоје иза порекла свако правило, пружајући детаљан извештај о Будином
решења на питање како да се одржава комунални хармонију унутар великог и
разноврсног духовне заједнице.
sutta питака
    
Збирка
сутта, или говора, приписује Буде и неколико његових најближих ученика,
који садржи све централне учења тхеравада будизма.
(Више од хиљаду преводи сутта су доступне на овом сајту.) Сутте су подељени између пет никаиас (збирке):

        Дигха никаиа - је “дуго колекција”
        
Мађђхима никаиа - је “колекција средње дужине”
        
Самиутта никаиа - је “груписани колекција”
        
Ангуттара никаиа - је “даља-урачуна колекција”
        
Кхуддака никаиа - је “наплата малих текстова”:
            
Кхуддакапатха
            
Дхаммапада
            
удана
            
Итивуттака
            
sutta нипата
            
Виманаваттху
            
Петаваттху
            
Тхерагатха
            
Тхеригатха
            
Ðатака
            
ниддесе
            
Патисамбхидамагга
            
Ападана
            
Буддхавамса
            
Царииапитака
            
Неттиппакарана (укључен само у бурмански издању Типитаке)
            
Петакопадеса ( “”)
            
Милиндапанха ( “”)

Абхидхамма питака
    
Збирка текстова у којима се преради и преуредио основни доктринарни
принципи представљени у Сутта питаки у системски оквир који се може
применити на истрагу природе ума и материје.

За даље читање

    Где могу наћи копију комплетне пали канона (Типитака)? (Често постављана питања)
    
Иза Типитаке: А Фиелд Гуиде то пост-канонског Пали књижевности
    
Пали Језик студија Сида нуди линкове који могу бити корисни за пали студенте сваког нивоа.
    
Хандбоок оф Пали књижевности, би Сомапала Јаиавардхана (Коломбо: Карунаратне & Сонс, Лтд., 1994). Водич, у речнику форми, путем пали канона, са детаљним описима главних знаменитости у Цанон.
    
Анализа пали канона, Расел Веб, изд. (Канди: Буддхист Публицатион Социети, 1975). Незаобилазан “мапа пута” и приказ пали канона. Садржи одличну индекс листинг сутте по имену.
    
Водич за Типитаке, У Ко Лаи, ед. (Делхи Шри Сатгуру Публикације, 1990). Још један одличан приказ Типитаке, који садржи резиме многим важним суттама.
    
Буддхист Дицтионари, би Нианатилока махатхера (Канди: Буддхист Публицатион Социети, 1980). Класичан приручник важних термина и појмова у тхеравада будизма.

83) Classical Sesotho
83) Classic Sesotho

2209 ba chata 26 Apr 2017 | Thuto

A re ke re lokisa ena Translation Google ho sebelisa https://translate.google.com
ka lipuo tsohle re tseba.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
Sheba hape Sutta Index; Liphetolelo tse ke Translator

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
sn
    
AN
    
kn dostupnost

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
Iti
    
sn
    
VV
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
NM
    
Miln

The
Tipitaka (Pali bartltt, “tse tharo,” + pitaka, “libaskete”), kapa Pali
libukeng, ke pokello ea Pali litemana tsa mathomo puo eo theha motheo
thuto ea bolumeli tsa Theravada Bobuddha.
The Tipitaka le paracanonical Pali litemana tse (litlhaloso, matsatsi,
joalo-joalo) hammoho etsa ka sehlopha se feletseng sa classic Theravada
litemana tse.

The
Pali libukeng e le ‘mele oa le leholo la lingoliloeng: phetolelong
English litemana tsa eketsa ho fihlela ho likete tse maqephe a
hatisitsoeng.
Ho fetisisa (empa eseng kaofela) ya Canon e se e hatisitsoeng ka Senyesemane ho theosa le lilemo. Leha feela karoloana e nyenyane ea litemana tsena di a fumaneha websaeteng ena, pokello ena e ka ba sebaka se molemo ho qala ho.

Lihlopha tse tharo tsa Tipitaka ke tsena:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
The
pokello ea litemana tse amang melao ea boitšoaro se busang le litaba
tsa letsatsi le letsatsi ka hara Chopra - baahi ba bhikkhus (hlomamisoa
baitlami) le bhikkhunis (hlomamisoa baitlami).
Haholo ho feta feela lethathamo la melao, e Vinaya Pitaka e boetse e
akarelletsa lipale ka mor’a ka tšimoloho ea e mong le e busa, ho fana ka
tlaleho e qaqileng ea tharollo Buddha e le potso ea kamoo ho ka ho
boloka tumellanong kopanetsweng ka hare ho mokhatlo o moholo le tse
fapa-fapaneng tsa moea.
Sutta Pitaka
    
The
pokello ea suttas, kapa ka lipuo, ngotsoe ke Buddha le tse seng kae ba
barutuoa ba hae ba haufi-ufi, tse nang le lithuto tsohle bohareng
Theravada Bobuddha.
(More feta sekete liphetolelo tse sutta di a fumaneha websaeteng ena.) The suttas li aroleloa nikayas tse hlano (likoleke):

        Digha Nikaya - the “telele pokello”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - the “bohareng-bolelele pokello”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - the “hlophisitsoe pokello”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - the “ka ho eketsehileng-factored pokello”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - the “pokello ea litemana tsa banyenyane”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (kenyelleditswe feela khatiso Seburmese tsa Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
The pokello ea litemana tsa seo melaometheo thuto hlahiswa ka Sutta
Pitaka li sebelisa hape le hlophisoa bocha ka moralo wa ho
hlophisitsoeng hore li ka sebelisoa ho batlisisoa ka sebopeho sa kelello
le taba.

Bakeng sa ho bala ka ho eketsehileng

    Nka fumana kopi ea Bibele e feletseng ea Pali libukeng (Tipitaka)? (Asked Frequently Potso)
    
Ka nģ’ane ho Tipitaka: A Guide Field ho Post-mangolo a halalelang a Pali Literature
    
Pali Language Tsa Sehlooho se Ithutoang Aids fana maqhama hore a ka ba le thuso ho Pali liithuti tsa mong le e mong boemong ba.
    
Handbook tsa Pali Literature, ke Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A motataisi, ka har’a dikishinari foromo, ka Pali libukeng, le tlhaloso e qaqileng ea lifika tse khōlō ka Canon.
    
E Analysis tsa Pali Canon, Russell Webb, Ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Khatiso Society, 1975). E bohlokoa haholo “roadmap” le kemiso ea Pali libukeng. Na le index ea khabane ka ho fetisisa thathamisa suttas ka lebitso.
    
Tataisa ho Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, Ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). kemiso e mong o babatsehang oa Tipitaka, e nang le kakareso tsa suttas tse ngata tsa bohlokoa.
    
Buddhist Dictionary, ke Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Khatiso Society, 1980).
A buka ea khale ea mantsoe a bohlokoa le likhopolo tsa ka Theravada Bobuddha.


84) Classical Shona

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 CHIDZIDZO

Ngationei kugadzirisa izvi Google Translation vachishandisa https://translate.google.com
mumitauro zvose zvatinoziva.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
Onawo Sutta Index; Translations kubudikidza Mushanduri

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
ifori
    
Sn
    
ndima
    
Portuguese
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Numbers
    
Miln

The
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “matatu,” + pitaka, “matengu”), kana Pali
seakafuridzirwa, ndiye kuunganidzwa chikuru Pali mutauro magwaro izvo
zvinoumba redzidziso nheyo Theravada chiBuddha.
The Tipitaka uye paracanonical Pali ndima (kutaura, yaMakoronike,
etc.) pamwe chete vanoumba mutumbi wakakwana dzenhoroondo Theravada
ndima.

The Pali seakafuridzirwa imvura muviri mabhuku: mushandurudzo Chirungu magwaro wedzera kusvika zviuru mapeji akadhindwa. Most (asi kwete vose) the Canon watopiwa rakabudiswa muna Chirungu kwemakore. Kunyange chete chiduku chakapatsanurwa kwemagwaro aya anowanikwa
website iyi, muunganidzwa ichi kunogona kuva nzvimbo yakanaka kutanga.

The matatu Mapoka Tipitaka vari:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
The
muunganidzwa zvinyorwa pamusoro mitemo yomufambiro vedare iri ezuva
mukati Sangha - the nenzanga bhikkhus (akagadzwa mamongi) uye bhikkhunis
(akagadzwa nemasisita).
Kupfuura kungoziva mazita mitemo, Vinaya Pitaka kunosanganisirawo
nyaya shure kwakabva nomumwe ushe, ichipa tsanangudzo nhoroondo Buddha
anogadzirisa mubvunzo sei kuramba zvaiita zvinoenderana mukati guru uye
vakasiyana-siyana munharaunda pakunamata.
Sutta Pitaka
    
The
muunganidzwa suttas, kana hurukuro, zvakabatanidzwa Buddha uye
vashomanana vevadzidzi vake vepedyo, rine zvose nechepakati dzidziso
Theravada chiBuddha.
(Vanopfuura chiuru sutta shanduro dzinowanikwa website iyi.) The suttas vakakamurwa pakati nikayas shanu (kuunganidza):

        Digha Nikaya - the “muunganidzwa refu”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - the “pakati-urefu muunganidzwa”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - the “dzikarongwa muunganidzwa”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - the “mberi-factored muunganidzwa”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - the “kuunganidzwa zvishoma magwaro”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (vaisanganisira chete muchiBurmese reShanduro Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
The muunganidzwa zvinyorwa umo redzidziso misimboti zvinokonzera chiri
Sutta Pitaka vari reworked uye kurongwazve kuva hurongwa hune kuti
zvinogona kushandiswa imwe feya hunhu mupfungwa uye nyaya.

Uchida kuverenga

    Kupi Ndinogona kuwana kopi rakakwana Pali seakafuridzirwa (Tipitaka)? (Inowanzobvunzwa Mubvunzo)
    
Mhiri Tipitaka: Munda Guide to Post-dzakafuridzirwa Pali Literature
    
Pali Language Study Aids anopa Links kuti zvingabatsira Pali vadzidzi ose chechetere.
    
Handbook of Pali Literature, rakanyorwa Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A Nhungamiri, muna muduramanzwi chimiro, kuburikidza Pali
seakafuridzirwa, pamwe zvakawanda kurondedzerwa mikuru varipo vari
Canon.
    
An Analysis of Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: yechiBhudha Publication Society, 1975). An kuvapo “roadmap” uye pepa iri Pali seakafuridzirwa. Rine rakanakisisa indekisi yataura suttas nezita.
    
Vatungamira Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Chimwe kwazvo pepa rehurukuro riri Tipitaka, ine nokupeta pakati suttas dzakawanda dzinokosha.
    
MuBhudha Dictionary, rakanyorwa Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: yechiBhudha Publication Society, 1980). A klassiske bhuku yematemu zvinokosha uye pfungwa Theravada chiBuddha.


85) Classical Sindhi
85)
Classical سنڌي

2209 اشوڪ 26 اپريل 2017 سبق

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سڀني ٻولين ۾ اسان کي خبر آهي.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
پالي ٻوليء کي توپ
© 2005
به Sutta انديڪس ڏسو؛ مترجم جي ترجمو

    Vin
    
DN
    
نفيسا
    
ڪپين
    
هڪ
    
kn-

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
خصوصي لڳاء
    
Iti
    
ڪپين
    
جھيڙي
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
Miln

هن
Tipitaka (پالي وق، “ٽي،” + pitaka، “کاريون”)، يا پالي ٻوليء کي توپ،
جنهن Theravada ٻڌ مت جي doctrinal بنياد بڻجي پرائمري پالي ٻوليء جي گورنر
حجاج بن جي جمع آهي.
هن Tipitaka ۽ paracanonical پالي گورنر حجاج بن (جائزن، تذڪرن، وغيره) گڏ classical Theravada حجاج جو مڪمل جسم constitute.

پالي ٻوليء کي توپ ادب جي هڪ وڏي جسم آهي: انگريزي ترجمي ۾ جي گورنر حجاج بن طباعت صفحن جي هزارين کي مٿي شامل. سڀ کان (پر نه سڀني) جي توپ جي اڳ ۾ ئي سالن کان انگريزي ۾ شايع ڪيو ويو آهي. جيتوڻيڪ فقط انهن حجاج جي هڪ ننڍڙي تعريف هن ويب سائيٽ تي موجود آهن، هن گڏ هڪ سٺو جاء شروع ڪري سگهجي ٿو.

جي Tipitaka جي ٽن ڌار ڌار آهن:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
جي
Sangha اندر روزانو ڪمن کي هلائڻ ٺاهيندا جي ضابطن بابت گورنر حجاج جي گڏ
ڪرڻ - bhikkhus جي برادري (لازم فقير) ۽ bhikkhunis (لازم بيراڳڻيون).
پري مٿيون اصول جي هڪ فهرست کان وڌيڪ، جي Vinaya Pitaka به هر راڄ جي
اصليت جي پويان ڳالهيون شامل آهن، ڪيئن هڪ وڏو ۽ قسمين قسمين روحاني ساٿ
اندر communal هم آهنگي برقرار رکڻ لاء جو سوال ڪرڻ جي مهاتما ٻڌ جي حل جو
هڪ تفصيلي حساب فراهم ڪرڻ.
Sutta Pitaka
    
suttas جي گڏ ڪرڻ، يا اھري، جي مهاتما ٻڌ ۽ سندس ويجھن شاگردن جي ٿورن سان منسوب، Theravada ٻڌ مت جي موڪليل مرڪزي تعليمات ۾ هجن. (. وڌيڪ هڪ هزار sutta ترجمو هن ويب سائيٽ تي موجود آهي) جڏهن ته suttas پنج nikayas (ٿري) مان جدا آهن:

        Digha Nikaya - جي “ڊگهي جمع”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - جي “وچين-ڊيگهه جمع”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - جي “مقتدر جمع”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - جي “وڌيڪ-factored جمع”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - جي “ٿورو حجاج جي جمع”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (رڳو Tipitaka جي برمي ڇاپي ۾ شامل ڪيو)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
حجاج بن جنهن ۾ Sutta Pitaka ۾ پيش ڪيو جو ھيٺيون doctrinal اصولن
reworked ۽ هڪ منظم فريم ورڪ آهي ته ذهن ۽ ڪم جي طبيعت ۾ هڪ راڻي کي لاڳو
ڪري سگهجي ٿو ۾ اترئين آهن جي گڏ ڪرڻ.

وڌيڪ پڙهڻ لاء

    مون کي مڪمل پالي توپ (Tipitaka) جي هڪ ڪاپي ڪٿي ڏسي سگهو ٿا؟ (ايف سوال)
    
پوسٽ-canonical پالي ادبي سنگت کي هڪ فيلڊ ھدايت: جي Tipitaka کان
    
پالي ٻوليء جو مطالعو Aids جوڙي ته هر سطح جي پالي ٻوليء جي شاگردن لاء مفيد ٿي سگهي ٿو پيش ڪري.
    
پالي ادبي سنگت جي Handbook، جي Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne ۽ سنز، لميٽيڊ، 1994 ع). هڪ سڌو، لغت روپ ۾، پالي ٻوليء کي توپ جي ذريعي، هن کي توپ ۾ اهم دنگ جي تفصيلي بيانن سان.
    
جي پالي ٻوليء کي توپ، رسل Webb، پٺيان هڪ ڇنڊڇاڻ. (Kandy: ٻڌ ڌرم جي سيڪيولر سوسائٽي، 1975 ع). هڪ indispensable “روڊ ميپ” ۽ پالي ٻوليء کي توپ جو خاڪو. مٿينء انڊيڪس نالي سان suttas فهرست تي مشتمل آهي.
    
Tipitaka، يو Ko ٿا رکون، پٺيان کي سڌو رستو ڏيکاريندو. (دهلي: سري Satguru پبليڪيشن، 1990 ع). جي Tipitaka جو ٻيو چڱو جو خاڪو، ڪيترن ئي اهم suttas جو خلاصو هجن.
    
ٻڌ ڌرم جي ڊڪشنري، Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: ٻڌ ڌرم جي سيڪيولر سوسائٽي، 1980 ع) جي. اهم اصطلاحن ۽ Theravada ٻڌ مت ۾ حوصله جي هڪ شاندار handbook.

86) Classical Sinhala
86) සම්භාව්ය සිංහල

2209 බදාදා 26 අප්රේල් 2017 පාඩම

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සියලු භාෂා ගැන අපි දන්නවා.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
පාලි ත්රිපිටකයේ
© 2005
මෙයද බලන්න සූත්රය දර්ශකය; භාෂා පරිවර්තක විසින් පරිවර්තන

    වින්
    
ඩී.එන්
    
MN
    
SN
    
ඒඑන්
    
කේ.එන්

    KHP
    
Dhp
    
UD
    
කාර්මික තාක්ෂණ ආයතනය
    
sn
    
විවි
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
nm
    
Miln

මෙම
Tipitaka (පාලි ti, “තුන” + පිටකයේ, “කූඩ”), හෝ පාලි ත්රිපිටකය, ථේරවාද
බුද්ධාගමේ මූලධර්ම පදනම පිහිටුවීමට වන අතර ප්රාථමික පාලි භාෂාව පෙළ එකතු
වේ.
මෙම Tipitaka සහ paracanonical පාලි ග්රන්ථ (අටුවාවවන් වංශකථා, ආදිය) එකට සම්භාව්ය ථෙරවාද පෙළ සම්පූර්ණ ශරීරය අතර වේ.

පාලි ත්රිපිටකයෙන් සාහිත්යය විශාල ශරීරය වේ: ඉංග්රීසි පරිවර්තනය දී පිටපත් මුද්රණය පිටු දහස් ගණනක් දක්වා එක් කරන්න. වසර ගණනාවක් පුරා ඉංග්රීසි දැනටමත් බොහෝ (නමුත් සියල්ලම නොවන) ත්රිපිටකයේ පල කර ඇත. මේ වැරදි කුඩා කොටසකි පමණක් මෙම වෙබ් අඩවියෙන් ලබා ගත හැකි වුවත්, මෙම එකතුව ආරම්භ කිරීමට හොඳ ස්ථානයක් විය හැක.

මෙම Tipitaka යන අංශ තුනක් ඇත:

විනය පිටකයේ
    
සංඝ
තුළ දෛනික කටයුතු පාලනය හැසිරීම නීති ගැන පෙළ එකතු - භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේලා
ප්රජා (පැවිදි) සහ භික්ෂුණීන් (පැවිදි භික්ෂුණී ද ඇතුලත් වුනි).
නීති හුදෙක් ලැයිස්තුවක් වඩා බෙහෙවින් වැඩි, විනය පිටකයේ එක් එක් පාලනය
සම්භවය පිටුපස කතා, විශාල හා විවිධ ආත්මික ප්රජාව තුළ ජාතීන් අතර සමගිය
පවත්වා ගැනීමට කෙසේ දැයි බුද්ධ විසඳුමක් සම්බන්ධයෙන් විස්තරාත්මක වාර්තාවක්
සපයන ඇතුළත් වේ.
පසේබුදු, පිටකයේ
    
සූත්ර එකතු, හෝ, කතිකාවන් ථෙරවාද බුදු දහම සියලු ප්රධාන ඉගැන්වීම් අඩංගු, බුදුන් සහ ඔහුගේ සමීපතම ගෝලයන් කිහිපයක් සිදුවී ඇත. (. එක් දහස් කට වඩා වැඩි පසේබුදු, පරිවර්තන මෙම වෙබ් අඩවිය ඔස්සේ ලබාගත හැකි) සුත්ර නිකායන් පහ (එකතු) අතර බෙදී ඇත:

        Digha නිකායේ - ඇති “දිගු එකතුව”
        
Majjhima නිකායේ - “මධ්යම-දිග එකතුව”
        
Samyutta නිකායේ - ඇති “වර්ගීකරණය කරනු එකතුව”
        
අංගුත්තර නිකායේ, - මෙම “තවදුරටත්-සාධකවලට එකතුව”
        
Khuddaka නිකායේ - “කුඩා පාඨ එකතුව”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
ධම්ම
            
උදාන
            
Itivuttaka
            
පසේබුදු, Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
ජාතක
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (පමණක් Tipitaka යන බුරුම සංස්කරණය ඇතුළත්)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

අභිධම්ම පිටකයේ
    
මෙම සූත්රය පිටකයේ ඉදිරිපත් යටින් පවතින මූලික ඉගැන්වීම් ප්රතිපත්ති මනස
හා පදාර්ථය ස්වභාවය පිළිබඳ පරීක්ෂණයක් සඳහා ඉල්ලුම් කළ හැකි බව ක්රමානුකූලව
රාමුවක් තුළට සකසන සහ ප්රතිසංවිධානය කරන විව්ධ එකතු.

තවදුරටත් කියවීම සඳහා

    කොහෙන්ද මම සම්පූර්ණ පාලි ත්රිපිටකයෙන් (Tipitaka) පිටපතක් සොයා ගත හැකි? (නිතර අසන ලද ප්රශ්නය)
    
ඒ ක්ෂේත්ර මාර්ගෝපදේශය පශ්චාත්-කැනෝනිකල් පාලි සාහිත්යය වෙත: මෙම Tipitaka ඔබ්බට
    
පාලි භාෂා අධ්යයන ඒඩ්ස් සෑම මට්ටමක පාලි ශිෂ්යයන්ට ප්රයෝජනවත් විය හැකි බව සබැඳි ඉදිරිපත් කරයි.
    
පාලි සාහිත්යය අත්පොත, සෝමපාල ජයවර්ධන (කොළඹ: කරුණාරත්න සහ පුත්රයෝ, සමාගම, 1994). ඒ මඟ පෙන්වීමක්, ශබ්ද කෝෂය ආකාරයෙන්, පාලි ත්රිපිටකයෙන් හරහා ත්රිපිටකයේ ප්රධාන සිද්ධස්ථාන සවිස්තරාත්මක විස්තර සමග.
    
පාලි ත්රිපිටකය, රසල් වෙබ්, සංස් ක විශ්ලේෂණය. (මහනුවර බෞද්ධ ප්රකාශන සමිතියේ, 1975). අනිවාර්ය “මාර්ග සිතියමක්” සහ පාලි ත්රිපිටකයෙන් දළ සැලැස්ම. විශිෂ්ට දර්ශකය නමින් සූත්ර ලැයිස්තුගත අඩංගු වේ.
    
Tipitaka, යූ ෙකෝ ගිහි, සංස් ගයිඩ් ටු. (දිල්ලි: ශ්රී Satguru ප්රකාශන, 1990). බොහෝ වැදගත් සූත්ර වල සාරාංශ අඩංගු Tipitaka තවත් විශිෂ්ට ලුහුඬු සටහන්,.
    
බෞද්ධ ශබ්ද කෝෂය, Nyanatiloka මහාථෙර (මහනුවර බෞද්ධ ප්රකාශන සමිතියේ, 1980) විසින්. ථෙරවාද බුදු දහම වැදගත් නියමයන් සහ සංකල්ප ඒ සම්භාව්ය අත්පොතක්.

87) Classical Slovak
87) Klasický slovenský

2209 St 26 Apr 2017 LEKCIA

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Tipitaka
Pali Canon
© 2005
Pozri tiež index Sutta; Preklady prekladateľa

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
Iti
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
Miln

Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “tri,” + pitaka, “koše”), alebo Pali kánon, je zbierka
primárnych Pali jazykových textov, ktoré tvoria doktrinálny základ
Theravada budhizmu.
Tipitaka a paracanonické texty Pali (komentáre, kroniky atď.) Spolu tvoria celé telo klasických textov Theravada.

Pali kánon je obrovský súbor literatúry: v anglickom preklade texty tvoria tisíce vytlačených stránok. Väčšina (ale nie všetky) kanála už bola publikovaná v angličtine v priebehu rokov. Hoci na tejto webovej stránke je k dispozícii len malá časť týchto textov, táto kolekcia môže byť vhodným miestom na začatie.

Tri divízie Tipitaka sú:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Zbierka
textov týkajúcich sa pravidiel správania, ktoré upravujú každodenné
záležitosti v Sanghe - spoločenstvo bhikkhus (vysvätených mníchov) a
bhikkhunov (vysvätených mníšok).
Viac ako iba zoznam pravidiel, Vinaya Pitaka zahŕňa aj príbehy, ktoré
sa nachádzajú za každým pravidlom a poskytujú podrobný popis Buddhovho
riešenia otázky, ako udržať spoločnú harmóniu v rámci veľkej a
rôznorodej duchovnej komunity.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Zbierka
sutt, alebo diskurzov, pripísaná Budhu a niekoľkým jeho najbližším
učeníkom, obsahujúcu všetky ústredné učenia Theravadského budhizmu.
(Na tejto webovej stránke je k dispozícii viac ako tisíc sutových prekladov.) Suttas je rozdelený do piatich nikaj (zbierok):

        Digha Nikaya - “dlhá zbierka”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “zbierka strednej dĺžky”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “skupinová zbierka”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “ďalšia kolekcia”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “zbierka malých textov”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (zahrnuté iba v barmskom vydaní Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Zbierka textov, v ktorých sú základné princípy doktríny prezentované v
Sutta Pitaka prepracované a reorganizované do systematického rámca,
ktorý možno použiť na vyšetrovanie podstaty mysle a hmoty.

Pre ďalšie čítanie

    Kde môžem nájsť kópiu úplného kánonu Pali (Tipitaka)? (Často kladené otázky)
    
Za tipitaka: poľná príručka pre post-kánonickú Pali literatúru
    
Pali jazykové študijné pomôcky ponúkajú odkazy, ktoré môžu byť užitočné pre študentov Pali na každej úrovni.
    
Príručka literatúry Pali od Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Sprievodca vo forme slovníka prostredníctvom kánonu Pali s podrobnými popismi hlavných orientačných bodov v kanáli.
    
Analýza Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: buddhistická publikačná spoločnosť, 1975). Nevyhnutnou “cestovnou mapou” a náčrtom kánonu Pali. Obsahuje výborný index suttas podľa mena.
    
Sprievodca Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, vyd. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Ďalší skvelý náčrt Tipitaka, obsahujúci súhrny mnohých dôležitých sutt.
    
Budhistický slovník od Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhistic Publishing Society, 1980). Klasická príručka dôležitých pojmov a konceptov v budove Theravada.

88) Classical Slovenian
88) Klasični slovenski

2209 sre 26 april 2017 LEKCIJA

Dovolite nam, popraviti to Google Prevod uporabo https://translate.google.com
v vseh jezikih vemo.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali Canon
© 2005
Glej tudi Sutta indeks; Prevodi prevajalec

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Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “tri”, + pitaka, “košaric”), ali Pali kanon, je zbirka
osnovnih jezikovnih besedil Pali ki tvorijo doktrinarni temelj
theravadskega budizma.
Tipitaka in paracanonical Pali besedila (komentarji, kronike, itd)
skupaj sestavljajo celotno telo klasičnih besedil theravadski.

Pali canon je obsežen sklop literature: v angleškem prevodu besedila dodate do tisoč natisnjenih strani. Večina (vendar ne vsi) Canon je že bilo objavljeno v angleškem jeziku v preteklih letih. Čeprav so le majhen del teh besedil na voljo na tej spletni strani, lahko ta zbirka je dober kraj za začetek.

Vsi trije oddelki v Tipitaka so:

vinaya Pitaka
    
Zbirka
besedil v zvezi s pravili ravnanja, ki urejajo vsakdanje zadeve znotraj
Sanghe - skupnost bhikkhus (posvečeni menihov) in bhikkhunis (posvečeni
redovnice).
Veliko več kot le seznam pravil, Vinaya Pitaka tudi zgodbe v ozadju
izvora vsako pravilo, ki zagotavlja podrobno poročilo o Buddhove rešitev
za vprašanje, kako ohraniti komunalnih harmonijo v veliko in raznoliko
duhovno skupnost.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Zbiranje
suttas ali diskurzov, pripisati Bude in nekaj njegovih najbližjih
učencev, ki vsebuje vse centralne nauke o theravadskega budizma.
(Več kot tisoč Sutta prevodi so na voljo na tej spletni strani.) V suttas so razdeljena na pet nikayas (zbirke):

        Digha Nikaya - za “dolgo zbiranje”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - za “zbiranje srednji dolžini”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - za “združena zbirka”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - za “nadaljnje-vključeno zbiranje”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - za “zbiranje malih besedil”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (vključen samo v burmanska izdaji Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Zbirka besedil, v katerih so temeljne doktrinarne načela,
predstavljena v Sutta Pitaka predelali in reorganizirali v sistematični
okvir, ki se lahko uporablja za preiskavo v naravi uma in materije.

Za nadaljnje branje

    Kje lahko najdem kopijo celotnega Pali kanona (Tipitaka)? (Pogosto zastavljena vprašanja)
    
Onstran Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-kanonični Pali literature
    
Pali Jezik Študija Aids ponuja povezave, ki so lahko koristne za Pali študente vseh ravneh.
    
Priročnik Pali literature, ki jo Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, doo, 1994). Vodnik v slovarju obliki prek Pali kanona, s podrobnimi opisi glavnih znamenitosti v Canonu.
    
Analiza Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Budistični Objava Society, 1975). Nepogrešljiv “načrt” in oris Pali kanona. Vsebuje odlično indeks seznamom suttas po imenu.
    
Vodnik za Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Še en odličen oris Tipitaka, ki vsebuje povzetke številnih pomembnih suttas.
    
Budistični slovar, ki ga Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Budistični Objava Society, 1980). Klasična priročnik pomembnih pojmov in konceptov v theravadskega budizma.

89) Classical Somali
89) Qadiimiga ah Soomaali

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 CASHARKA

Ha noo saxo Google Translation this isticmaalaya https://translate.google.com
Luqad walba dadka waannu og nahay.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali Canon The
© 2005
Sidoo kale eeg Sutta Index, Tarjumidda by Translator

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The
Tipitaka (ti Pali, “saddex,” + pitaka, “dambiilood”), ama Pali
xeerkoodu, waa ururinta qoraallada afka Pali hoose taas oo aasaas
caqiido of Theravada Budhiism.
The Tipitaka iyo qoraalka paracanonical Pali (faallooyin, taariikhda,
iwm) wada koobnaan jidhka dhamaystiran oo qoraalka Theravada classical.

Pali xeerkoodu waa hay’ad badan ee suugaanta, in turjumaad English qoraalka ku dar ilaa kun oo pages daabacan. Inta badan (laakiin dhammaantiin ma aha) ee Canon ee horay loo daabacay English sanadihii la soo dhaafay. Inkasta oo kaliya jajab yar oo qoraalo kuwaas oo laga heli karaa
website-kan, ururinta tani waxay noqon kartaa meel fiican si ay u
bilaabaan.

Saddexda kooxihii Tipitaka waa:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
The
ururinta ka mid ah qoraalka oo ku saabsan xeerarka ku dhaqanka ee
xukuma arrimaha maalin gudahood Sangha ah - bulshada ee bhikkhus
(suufiyadoodii amreen) iyo bhikkhunis (sooro amreen).
Dad badan oo kaliya liiska xeerarka, Pitaka Vinaya ayaa sidoo kale
waxaa ka mid ah sheekooyinka ka dambeeya asalka ah ee xukunka kasta,
bixinta account faahfaahsan ee xalka Buddha ee su’aasha ah ee sida si ay
u ilaaliyaan wada noolaanshaha la wadaago bulshada ballaaran oo kala
duwan ruuxiga ah gudahood.
Sutta Pitaka
    
The
ururinta suttas, ama Doodda, aaneeyey inay u Buddha iyo dhowr ka mid ah
xertiisa u dhow, oo ay ku jiraan dhammaan waxbarista dhexe ee Theravada
Budhiism.
(In ka badan kun iyo tarjumaadaha sutta waxaa laga heli karaa
website-kan.) Ka mid ah shan nikayas (ururinta) suttas The kala qaybsan
yihiin:

        Digha Nikaya - ka “ururinta dheer”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - ka “-dhererka dhexe ururinta”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - ka “ururinta isugu keenaa”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - ka “ururinta sii-isireeyo”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - ka “collection of qoraalka yar”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (ka mid ahaa oo kaliya in edition ka Burma ee Tipitaka ah)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
The ururinta ka mid ah qoraalka, taas oo mabaadi’da dahsoon caqiido
bandhigay Pitaka Sutta waxaa su’alaha iyo habayn galay qaab nidaamsan in
lagu saleyn karaa baaritaan lagu dabiiciga ah ee maskaxda iyo arrinta.

Waayo reading dheeraad ah

    Halkee ayaan ka heli kartaa nuqul ka mid ah dhameystiran Pali xeerkoodu (Tipitaka)? (Su’aal Badanaa La Is Weydiiyo)
    
Beyond Tipitaka: Hagaha Field Suugaanta Pali Post-qaadanin
    
Study Language Pali Aids bixisaa links laga yaabo in waxtar leh si ay ardayda Pali ee heer kasta.
    
Handbook of Suugaanta Pali, by Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Wiilasha, Ltd., 1994). guide A, qaab qaamuus, iyada oo xeerkoodu Pali ah, oo leh tilmaanta faahfaahsan oo ka mid ah dalka durkiya waaweyn ee Canon ah.
    
Falanqaynta An ah Canon Pali ah, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Publication Buddhist Society, 1975). An “roadmap” maarmaan iyo dulmar ah xeerkoodu Pali ah. Waxaa ku jira index fiican taxay suttas by magaca.
    
Hagaha Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). dulmar kale oo fiican oo ah Tipitaka ah, oo ay ku jiraan nuqulo kooban ka suttas badan oo muhiim ah.
    
Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Publication Buddhist Society, 1980). Buug classic of ah ereyada muhiimka ah iyo fikradaha in Theravada Budhiism.

90) Classical Spanish
90) Clásico Español

2209 mié 26 abr 2017 LECCIÓN

Corrija esta Traducción de Google mediante https://translate.google.com
En todos los idiomas que conocemos.

Http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
El Canon Pali
© 2005
Véase también Índice Sutta; Traducciones por Traductor

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El
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “tres”, + pitaka, “cestas”), o Pali canon, es la
colección primaria de textos de Pali que forman la base doctrinal del
Budismo Theravada.
El Tipitaka y los textos pali paracanónicos (comentarios, crónicas,
etc.) juntos constituyen el cuerpo completo de textos clásicos de
Theravada.

El canon de Pali es un vasto cuerpo de literatura: en la traducción al inglés los textos se suman a miles de páginas impresas. La mayoría (pero no todos) del Canon ya se ha publicado en inglés a lo largo de los años. Aunque sólo una pequeña parte de estos textos están disponibles en
este sitio web, esta colección puede ser un buen lugar para comenzar.

Las tres divisiones de Tipitaka son:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
La
colección de textos sobre las reglas de conducta que gobiernan los
asuntos cotidianos dentro de la Sangha - la comunidad de bhikkhus
(monjes ordenados) y bhikkhunis (monjas ordenadas).
Mucho más que meramente una lista de reglas, el Vinaya Pitaka también
incluye las historias detrás del origen de cada regla, proporcionando
una explicación detallada de la solución del Buda a la cuestión de cómo
mantener la armonía comunal dentro de una comunidad espiritual grande y
diversa.
Sutta Pitaka
    
La
colección de suttas, o discursos, atribuidos al Buda ya algunos de sus
discípulos más cercanos, que contienen todas las enseñanzas centrales
del budismo Theravada.
(Más de mil traducciones de sutta están disponibles en este sitio web.) Los suttas se dividen entre cinco nikayas (colecciones):

        Digha Nikaya - la “colección larga”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - la “colección de mediano plazo”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - la “colección agrupada”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - la “colección más-factored”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - la “colección de pequeños textos”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (incluido sólo en la edición birmana de Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
La colección de textos en la cual los principios doctrinales
subyacentes presentados en el Sutta Pitaka son reelaborados y
reorganizados en un marco sistemático que se puede aplicar a una
investigación sobre la naturaleza de la mente y la materia.

Para más información

    ¿Dónde puedo encontrar una copia del canon Pali completo (Tipitaka)? (Preguntas frecuentes)
    
Más allá de Tipitaka: Una guía de campo para la literatura post-canónica Pali
    
Pali Language Study Aids ofrece enlaces que pueden ser útiles para los estudiantes Pali de todos los niveles.
    
Handbook of Pali Literature, de Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Una guía, en forma de diccionario, a través del canon Pali, con descripciones detalladas de los principales hitos en el Canon.
    
Un análisis del Canon Pali, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). Una “hoja de ruta” indispensable y esbozo del canon Pali. Contiene un excelente índice listando suttas por su nombre.
    
Guía de Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Otro excelente esbozo del Tipitaka, que contiene resúmenes de muchos suttas importantes.
    
Diccionario budista, por Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). Un manual clásico de términos y conceptos importantes en el budismo Theravada.


91) Classical Sudanese
91) Klasik Sunda

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 palajaran

Hayu urang ngabenerkeun Google Tarjamahan ngagunakeun ieu https://translate.google.com
dina sakabéh basa urang nyaho.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
Tempo ogé Sutta Index; Translations ku Panarjamah

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The
Tipitaka (Pali Ti, “tilu” + pitaka, “baskets”), atanapi Pali kanon,
nyaéta kumpulan naskah basa Pali primér nu ngawangun pondasi doctrinal
tina Budha Theravada.
The Tipitaka sarta naskah paracanonical Pali (commentaries, hikayat,
jsb) babarengan mangrupakeun awak lengkep teks Theravada klasik.

The Pali kanon mangrupakeun awak vast pustaka: di tarjamah Inggris teks nambahkeun nepi ka rébuan kaca dicitak. Paling (tapi teu kabeh) nu Canon geus kungsi diterbitkeun dina basa Inggris leuwih taun. Sanajan ngan mangrupa pecahan leutik naskah ieu sadia dina ramatloka
ieu kempelan ieu tiasa janten tempat alus pikeun ngamimitian.

Tilu bagean tina Tipitaka téh:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Kumpulan
naskah ngeunaan aturan ngalaksanakeun jajahan urusan poéan dina Sangha -
komunitas bhikkhus (Monks ordained) jeung bhikkhunis (biarawati
ordained).
Jauh leuwih loba tibatan saukur daptar aturan, nu Vinaya Pitaka ogé
ngawengku carita balik asal unggal aturan, nyadiakeun akun nu detil rupa
leyuran Buddha nepi ka sual cara mertahankeun harmoni komunal dina
komunitas spiritual badag sarta rupa-rupa.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Kumpulan
suttas, atawa discourses, attributed ka Buddha sarta sababaraha sahiji
murid-murid pangdeukeutna, anu ngandung sagala ajaran sentral tina Budha
Theravada.
(Leuwih ti hiji sarébu tarjamahan sutta anu sadia dina ramatloka ieu.) The suttas dibagi diantara lima nikayas (kumpulan):

        Digha Nikaya - nu “kempelan panjang”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - nu “tengah-panjangna kempelan”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - nu “dikelompokkeun kempelan”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - nu “salajengna-factored kempelan”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - nu “kumpulan naskah saeutik”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
papadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (kaasup ukur dina édisi Burma tina Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Kumpulan naskah nu prinsip doctrinal kaayaan dibere dina Sutta Pitaka
anu reworked na dirombak kana kerangka sistimatis nu bisa dilarapkeun ka
panalungtikan kana alam pikiran jeung jirim.

Pikeun bacaan salajengna

    Dimana kuring bisa manggihan salinan tina Pali kanon lengkep (Tipitaka)? (Remen tanya Patarosan)
    
Saluareun Tipitaka: A Guide Lapang keur Post-canonical Pali Sastra
    
Pali Basa Study Aids nawarkeun Tumbu nu bisa jadi mangpaat pikeun siswa Pali di unggal tingkat.
    
Buku Panduan ngeunaan Pali Literatur, ku Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sakulawarga, Ltd., 1994). Hiji pituduh, dina formulir kamus, ngaliwatan Pali kanon, kalawan déskripsi lengkep tina ciri utama dina Canon.
    
Hiji Analisis di Palimanan Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Publikasi Budha Society, 1975). Hiji indispensable “roadmap” na outline tina Pali kanon. Ngandung hiji indéks unggulan Listing suttas ku ngaran.
    
Pituduh ka Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Cirebon: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). outline unggulan sejen tina Tipitaka, ngandung summaries loba suttas penting.
    
Budha Kamus, ku Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Publikasi Budha Society, 1980). Hiji Buku Panduan Palasik istilah penting jeung konsep di Budha Theravada.

92) Classical Swahili
92) Classical Kiswahili

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 SOMO

Hebu kurekebisha hii tafsiri ya Google kwa kutumia https://translate.google.com
katika lugha zote sisi kujua.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali Canon
© 2005
Tazama pia Sutta Index; Tafsiri kwa Translator

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Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “tatu,” + Pltaka, “vikapu”), au Pali canon, ni mkusanyiko wa
Pali maandiko ya lugha msingi ambazo ni msingi wa mafundisho ya
Theravada.
Tipitaka na paracanonical Pali maandiko (maoni, tarehe, nk) pamoja kuanzisha mwili kamili ya classical Theravada maandiko.

Pali canon ni mwili kubwa ya fasihi: katika tafsiri ya Kiingereza maandiko kuongeza hadi maelfu ya kurasa kuchapishwa. Zaidi (lakini si wote) ya Canon tayari kuchapishwa kwa lugha ya Kiingereza kwa miaka mingi. Ingawa tu sehemu ndogo ya maandishi haya ni inapatikana kwenye tovuti hii, ukusanyaji hii inaweza kuwa mahali pazuri pa kuanza.

mgawanyiko tatu za Tipitaka ni:

Vinaya Pltaka
    
ukusanyaji
wa maandiko kuhusu sheria ya maadili mema kuongoza shughuli za kila
siku ndani ya Sangha - jamii ya bhikkhus (aliyeteuliwa watawa) na
bhikkhunis (aliyeteuliwa watawa).
Mbali zaidi kuliko tu orodha ya sheria, Vinaya Pltaka pia ni pamoja na
hadithi nyuma ya asili ya kila utawala, kutoa maelezo ya kina ya
ufumbuzi wa Buddha kwa swali la jinsi ya kudumisha amani ya jumuiya
ndani ya jamii kubwa na tofauti ya kiroho.
Sutta Pltaka
    
ukusanyaji
wa suttas, au hotuba, ulitokana na Buddha na wachache wa wanafunzi wake
wa karibu, zenye mafundisho yote ya kati ya Theravada.
(Zaidi ya elfu moja tafsiri sutta zinapatikana kwenye tovuti hii.) Suttas ni kugawanywa kati ya nikayas tano (makusanyo):

        Digha Nikaya - “muda wa ukusanyaji”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “kati ya urefu wa ukusanyaji”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “makundi ukusanyaji”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “zaidi-factored ukusanyaji”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “mkusanyiko wa maandiko kidogo”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (pamoja tu katika toleo Kiburma ya Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pltaka
    
ukusanyaji wa maandiko ambao msingi kanuni mafundisho iliyotolewa
katika Sutta Pltaka ni reworked na utaratibu wa ndani ya mfumo utaratibu
unaoweza kutumika kwa uchunguzi hali ya akili na jambo hilo.

Kusoma zaidi

    Wapi ninaweza kupata nakala ya kamili Pali canon (Tipitaka)? (Yanayoulizwa Swali)
    
Zaidi ya Tipitaka: A Guide Field kwa baada ya canonical Pali Literature
    
Pali lugha kifani Ukimwi inatoa viungo ambayo inaweza kuwa na manufaa kwa Pali wanafunzi wa kila ngazi.
    
Kitabu cha Pali Fasihi, na Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd, 1994). mwongozo, katika kamusi ya fomu, kwa njia ya Pali canon, na maelezo ya kina ya alama kuu katika Canon.
    
Uchambuzi wa Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). lazima “mpango” na muhtasari wa Pali canon. Ina index bora orodha suttas kwa jina.
    
Maelekezo ya Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). muhtasari mwingine bora wa Tipitaka, zenye muhtasari wa suttas nyingi muhimu.
    
Wabuddha Dictionary, na Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). Kitabu classic ya maneno muhimu na dhana katika Theravada.


93) Classical Swedish
93) Klassisk svensk

2209 ons 26 april 2017 LESSON

Låt oss korrigera denna Google-översättning med https://translate.google.com
På alla språk vi vet

Http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali Canon
© 2005
Se även Sutta Index; Översättningar av översättare

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
EN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
Det jag
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
Miln

Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “tre” + pitaka, “korgar”), eller Pali canon, är samlingen av
primära Pali-språktexter som utgör den lägsta grunden för Theravada
Buddhism.
Tipitaka och paracanonical Pali-texterna (kommentarer, krönikor, etc.)
utgör tillsammans den fullständiga kroppen av klassiska
Theravada-texter.

Pali-kanonen är en stor litteratur: i engelsk översättning kompletterar texterna till tusentals tryckta sidor. De flesta (men inte alla) av Canon har redan publicerats på engelska under åren. Även om endast en liten del av dessa texter är tillgängliga på denna webbplats kan denna samling vara ett bra ställe att börja.

De tre divisionerna i Tipitaka är:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samlingen
av texter om de uppföranderegler som styr dagliga angelägenheter inom
Sangha - samhället av bhikkhus (ordinerade munkar) och bhikkhunis
(ordinerade nunnor).
Langt mer än bara en lista över regler innehåller Vinaya Pitaka också
berättelserna bakom varje regels ursprung och ger en detaljerad
redogörelse för Buddhas lösning på frågan om hur man behåller gemensam
harmoni inom ett stort och mångsidigt andligt samhälle.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Samlingen
av suttor, eller diskurser, tillskrivna Buddha och några av hans
närmaste lärjungar, som innehåller alla centrala lärdomar av Theravada
Buddhism.
(Mer än ett tusen sutta översättningar finns på denna webbplats.) Suttorna är uppdelade på fem nikayas (samlingar):

        Digha Nikaya - den “långa samlingen”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “längdsamlingen”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - den “grupperade samlingen”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - den “fördjupade samlingen”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “samling av små texter”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (ingår endast i den burmesiska upplagan av Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Samlingen av texter där de underliggande doktrinära principerna som
presenteras i Sutta Pitaka omarbetas och omorganiseras i en systematisk
ram som kan tillämpas på en undersökning av sinnets och materiens natur.

För vidare behandling

    Var hittar jag en kopia av den fullständiga Pali-kanonen (Tipitaka)? (Vanliga frågor)
    
Utöver Tipitaka: En fältguide till Post-canonical Pali Literature
    
Pali Language Study Aids erbjuder länkar som kan vara användbara för Pali-studenter på alla nivåer.
    
Handbook of Pali Literature, av Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). En guide, i ordboksform, genom Pali-kanonen, med detaljerade beskrivningar av de stora landmärkenna i Canon.
    
En analys av Pali Canon, Russell Webb, red. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). En oumbärlig “färdplan” och skiss över Pali-kanonen. Innehåller en utmärkt indexlista suttas med namn.
    
Guide till Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). En annan utmärkt skiss av Tipitaka, som innehåller sammanfattningar av många viktiga suttor.
    
Buddhistiska ordboken, av Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). En klassisk handbok om viktiga termer och begrepp i Theravada Buddhism.

94) Classical Tajik
94) Tajik классикӣ

2209 Чш 26 Март соли 2017 ДАРС

Биёед ба ин Google Translation истифода https://translate.google.com ислоҳ
Дар ҳамаи забонҳо мо медонем.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
буддоӣ
Дар Pali Canon
© 2005
Ҳамчунин нигаред ба Индекси Sutta; Тарҷумаҳо аз тарафи Мутарҷим

    VIN
    
Д.Н
    
М.Н.
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
UD
    
Iti
    
Sn
    
В.В.
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Н.М.
    
Miln

Дар
дини буддоӣ (Pali TI: «се», + pitaka, «сабад»), ё Pali CANON,
ҷамъоварии матнҳои ибтидоӣ забони Pali, ки таҳкурсии бардурӯғе аз
Theravada буддизм ташкил аст.
Дар дини буддоӣ ва матнҳои paracanonical Pali (тафсирҳои, Вақоеънома,
ва ғайра) дар якҷоягӣ мақоми пурраи матнҳои классикии Theravada ташкил
медиҳанд.

Дар
Pali CANON мақоми бузурги адабиёт аст: ба забони англисӣ тарҷума
кардани матнҳои илова кунед, то ба ҳазорҳо саҳифаҳои чоп карда мешавад.
Бештари (вале на ҳама) аз Canon аллакай ба забони англисӣ дар тӯли якчанд сол нашр шудааст. Ҳарчанд танҳо як њиссаи ками ин оятҳо дар бораи ин вебсайт дастрас мебошанд, ки ин ҷамъоварии метавонад ҷои хуб оғоз.

Се воҳидҳои аз дини буддоӣ мебошанд:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Ситонидани
матнҳои дар бораи қоидаҳои рафтори идоракунии корҳои ҳаррӯза дар дохили
Sangha - ҷомеаи bhikkhus (роҳибон муқаррар) ва bhikkhunis (роҳибаҳои
муқаррар).
Дур бештар аст аз танҳо як рӯйхати қоидаҳо, ки Vinaya Pitaka низ дар
бар мегирад, ки афсонаҳои паси пайдоиши ҳар як қоида, таъмини ҳисоби
муфассал ҳалли ин Буддо ба савол, ки чӣ тавр барои нигоҳ доштани
мувофиқи коммуналї дар доираи љомеа калон ва гуногун рӯҳонӣ.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Ситонидани
suttas, ё суханони, қоил ба Буддо ва андаке аз наздиктарин шогирдони
худ, ки дорои ҳамаи таълимоти марказии Theravada буддизм.
(Зиёда аз ҳазор тарҷумаҳо sutta дар ин сомона дастрас мебошанд.) Ин suttas байни панҷ nikayas (маҷмӯаҳо) тақсим мешавад:

        Digha Nikaya - ба «ҷамъоварии дароз»
        
Majjhima Nikaya - ба «ҷамъоварии миёна дарозии”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - ба «ҷамъоварии гурӯҳбандӣ”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - ба «ҷамъоварии минбаъд-инобат”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - ба «Маҷмӯаи матнҳои каме»:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (дохил танҳо дар таҳрири Мянмар аз дини буддоӣ)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Ситонидани матнҳои, ки дар он принсипҳои фиқҳӣ аслии пешниҳод дар
Sutta Pitaka доранд, коркард ва аз нав ба як доираи системавї, ки мумкин
аст ба тафтиши хусусияти ақлу масъала истифода бурда мешавад.

Барои хониши оянда

    Дар куҷо метавонам нусхаи пурраи Pali CANON (буддоӣ) пайдо кунам? (Саволи маъмулӣ)
    
Ғайр аз дини буддоӣ ба: роҳнамои саҳроӣ ба адабиёти Pali Post-каноникӣ
    
Pali ба забони тоҷикӣ барои омӯзиш СПИД пешниҳод пайвандҳоеро, ки мумкин аст муфид ба донишҷӯён Pali ҳар сатњи.
    
Дастур адабиёти Pali, аз тарафи Somapala Jayawardhana (Коломбо: Karunaratne & Писароне, Ltd., 1994). A дастур, дар шакли ба луғат, ба воситаи Pali CANON, бо тавсифи муфассали кӯҳ калон дар Canon.
    
Як Тањлили Pali Canon, Рассел Webb, ҚБ. (Kandy: Нашри буддоӣ Ҷомеаи, 1975). Як ивазнашаванда “харитаи роҳ” ва наќшањои дар Pali CANON. Дорои нишондињандаи аъло номбар suttas ном.
    
Дастур ба дини буддоӣ, U KO имондорони, ҚБ. (Деҳлӣ: Шри Satguru Интишорот, 1990). Боз як мусаввадаи аъло аз дини буддоӣ, ки дорои хулосаҳо бисёр suttas муҳим аст.
    
Буддоӣ Луғати, аз тарафи Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Ҷомеаи Нашри буддоӣ, 1980). Як дастури классикии шартҳои муҳим ва мафҳумҳои дар Theravada буддизм.


95) Classical Tamil
95) செம்மொழி தமிழ்

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 LESSON

இந்த Google மொழிபெயர்ப்பை https://translate.google.com மூலம் திருத்தலாம்
எல்லா மொழிகளிலும் எங்களுக்குத் தெரியும்.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
பாலி கேனான்
© 2005
சுட்டா குறியீட்டையும் காண்க; மொழிபெயர்ப்பாளர் மொழிபெயர்ப்புகள்

    வின்
    
டிஎன்
    
எம்.என்
    
எஸ்என்
    
ஒரு
    
கே.என்

    Khp
    
DHP
    
உத்
    
இதி
    
sn
    
vv
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
என்எம்
    
Miln

தீபதா
புத்தமதத்தின் கோட்பாட்டு அடித்தளத்தை உருவாக்குகின்ற முதன்மை பாலி மொழி
நூல்களின் தொகுப்பாகும் திபிகிட்டா (”பாலி டி”, “மூன்று”, + pitaka,
“கூடை”) அல்லது பாலி நியதி.
திபீடக மற்றும் பாராசோனான பாலி நூல்கள் (வர்ணனைகள், நாளிதழ்களும்,
முதலியன) ஒன்றாகச் சேர்ந்து தெய்வராடா நூல்களின் முழுமையான தொகுப்பாகும்.

பாலி
நியதி ஒரு பரந்த இலக்கிய சடங்காக உள்ளது: ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்புகளில்
நூல்கள் அச்சிடப்பட்ட ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பதிப்புகள் வரை சேர்க்கின்றன.
கேனான் என்ற பெரும்பாலான (ஆனால் அனைத்தையும் அல்ல) ஏற்கனவே ஆண்டுகளில் ஆங்கிலத்தில் வெளியிடப்பட்டுள்ளது. இந்த நூல்களில் ஒரு சிறிய பகுதி மட்டுமே இந்த வலைத்தளத்தில் கிடைக்கிறது என்றாலும், இந்த வசூல் தொடங்குவதற்கு ஒரு நல்ல இடம்.

திப்புட்காவின் மூன்று பிரிவுகளும் பின்வருமாறு:

வினயா பிடாக்கா
    
சின்காவுக்குள்
தினசரி விவகாரங்களை நிர்வகிப்பதற்கான நடத்தை விதிகள் பற்றிய நூல்கள்
சேகரிப்பு - பைக்கஸ் சமூகம் (ஆட்கடத்தல்) மற்றும் பைகூகூனிஸ்
(ஆட்கடத்தப்பட்ட கன்னியாஸ்திரி) சமூகம்.
வெறுமனே விதிகள் பட்டியலைக் காட்டிலும், வினயா பிட்டாகா ஒவ்வொரு
ஆட்சியினதும் தோற்றத்திற்குப் பின்னணியிலான கதைகளையும் உள்ளடக்கியது, ஒரு
பெரிய மற்றும் வேறுபட்ட ஆவிக்குரிய சமூகத்தில் இனவாத இணக்கத்தை எவ்வாறு
பராமரிப்பது என்ற கேள்விக்கு புத்தரின் தீர்வு பற்றிய விரிவான பதிலை
அளிக்கிறது.
சுட்டா பிடாக்கா
    
புத்தர்
மற்றும் தாரவாடா புத்தமதத்தின் மையப் போதனைகளைக் கொண்ட புத்தர் மற்றும்
அவரது நெருங்கிய சீடர்களில் சிலருக்குக் கூறப்பட்ட சத்துக்கள், அல்லது
சொற்பொழிவுகளின் தொகுப்பு.
(இந்த இணையத்தளத்தில் 1000 க்கும் மேற்பட்ட சதுர்த்த
மொழிபெயர்ப்புகள் கிடைக்கின்றன.) சத்துக்கள் ஐந்து நிக்காக்களால்
(தொகுப்புகள்) பிரிக்கப்படுகின்றன:

        டிகா நிகாயா - “நீண்ட சேகரிப்பு”
        
மஜ்ஜிஹிமா நிகாயா - “நடுத்தர நீளம் சேகரிப்பு”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “குழுவாக சேகரிக்கப்பட்ட தொகுப்பு”
        
அங்கட்டுரா நிகாயா - “மேலும்-காரணி சேகரிப்பு”
        
குடுக நிக்காயா - “சிறிய நூல்களின் தொகுப்பு”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
தமம்பாதா
            
உதான
            
Itivuttaka
            
சுட்டா நிப்பாடா
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
ஜடாகா
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
புத்தவம்ஷா
            
கரியாபிதாகா
            
நெட்டிப்பகாரன (டிபிக்காக்கின் பர்மிய பதிப்பில் மட்டுமே உள்ளடக்கப்பட்டது)
            
பெட்ரோக்கோபாடா (”")
            
மிலிடப்பன்ஷா (”")

அபிதாம்மா பிடாக்கா
    
சூட்டா பிடாக்காவில் முன்வைக்கப்பட்ட கோட்பாட்டு கோட்பாடுகள்
மறுபரிசீலனை செய்யப்பட்டு, ஒழுங்கமைக்கப்பட்ட ஒரு வடிவமைப்பிற்கு
மறுசீரமைக்கப்பட்டு, அவை மனது மற்றும் விஷயத்தின் இயல்பு பற்றிய
விசாரணைக்கு பயன்படுத்தப்படலாம்.

மேலும் படிக்க

    முழுமையான பாலி நியதி (Tipitaka) இன் நகலை எங்கு காணலாம்? (அடிக்கடி கேட்கப்படும் கேள்விகள்)
    
திப் பாட்டாவுக்கு அப்பால்: போஸ்ட் கேனானிக்கல் பாலி இலக்கியத்தில் ஒரு புலம் கையேடு
    
பாலி மொழி ஆய்வு உதவிகள் ஒவ்வொரு மட்டத்திலும் பாலி மாணவர்களுக்கு பயனுள்ளதாக இருக்கும் இணைப்புகள் வழங்குகிறது.
    
சோபல ஜயவர்தன (கொழும்பு: கருணாரட்னே & சன்ஸ், லிமிடெட், 1994) பாலி இலக்கியம் கையேடு. ஒரு வழிகாட்டி, அகராதி வடிவத்தில், பாலி நியதி மூலம், கேனான் முக்கிய அடையாளங்கள் விரிவான விளக்கங்கள்.
    
பாலி கேனான் ஒரு பகுப்பாய்வு, ரஸ்ஸல் வெப், பதிப்பு. (கண்டி: பௌத்த வெளியீட்டு சங்கம், 1975). ஒரு தவிர்க்க முடியாத “சாலை மாதிரியும்” மற்றும் பாலி நியதிக் குறிப்புகளும். ஒரு சிறந்த குறியீட்டு பட்டியல் சுடஸ் பெயரைக் கொண்டுள்ளது.
    
வழிகாட்டி டுபிகிட்டா, யூ கோ லே, எட். (டெல்லி: ஸ்ரீ சத்குரு பப்ளிகேஷன்ஸ், 1990). திப்புட்காவின் மற்றொரு சிறப்பம்சமாக, பல முக்கியமான சுடர்களின் சுருக்கங்களைக் கொண்டது.
    
பௌத்த அகராதி, Nyanatiloka Mahathera (கண்டி: பௌத்த பப்ளிக்ஷன் சொசைட்டி, 1980). தேரவாத புத்தமதத்தில் முக்கியமான விதிமுறைகளையும் கருத்தாக்கல்களையும் ஒரு சிறந்த கையேடு.

96) Classical Telugu
96) క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 లెసన్

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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
పాలి కానన్
© 2005
సూటా ఇండెక్స్ కూడా చూడండి; అనువాదకుని ద్వారా అనువాదాలు

    విన్
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
కెఎన్

    Khp
    
DHP
    
ఉద్
    
ఇతి
    
sn
    
VV
    
pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
ఎన్ఎమ్ల
    
Miln

థిరితాకా
(పాలి టి, “మూడు,” + పిట్టాకా, “బాస్కెట్”) లేదా పాలి కానన్, తెరవడ
బౌద్ధమతం యొక్క సిద్ధాంతపరమైన పునాదిని స్థాపించే ప్రాధమిక పాలి భాషా
గ్రంధాల సేకరణ.
టిపిటాకా మరియు పారానానానికల్ పాలి గ్రంథాలు (వ్యాఖ్యానాలు, రచనలు మొదలైనవి) కలిసి పూర్తిస్థాయిలో ఉన్న సంగీతం థెరరదా గ్రంథాలు.

పాలి నియమావళి విస్తారమైన సాహిత్య రూపం: ఆంగ్ల అనువాదంలో, వందల ముద్రిత పేజీలకు సంబంధించిన పాఠాలు ఉన్నాయి. కానన్ యొక్క చాలా (కానీ అన్ని కాదు) సంవత్సరాల ఇప్పటికే ఇంగ్లీష్ లో ప్రచురించబడింది. ఈ గ్రంథాలలో కొద్ది భాగం మాత్రమే ఈ వెబ్సైట్లో అందుబాటులో ఉన్నప్పటికీ, ఈ సేకరణ ప్రారంభించడానికి ఒక మంచి ప్రదేశం.

టిపిటాకా యొక్క మూడు విభాగాలు:

వినయ పిటకా
    
Sangha
లోపల రోజువారీ వ్యవహారాలపై ప్రవర్తన నియమాలకు సంబంధించి గ్రంధాల సేకరణ -
భైక్యుస్ (ఆర్డినల్డ్ సన్యాసులు) మరియు భిక్ఖునిస్ (ఆర్డినెన్స్
సన్యాసులు) సంఘం.
కేవలం నియమాల జాబితాకు మాత్రమే కాకుండా, వినయ పిటకా ప్రతి పాలన యొక్క
మూలానికి సంబంధించిన కథలను కూడా కలిగి ఉంది, పెద్ద మరియు విభిన్నమైన
ఆధ్యాత్మిక సమాజంలో మత సామరస్యాన్ని ఎలా నిర్వహించాలనే ప్రశ్నకు బుద్దుడి
పరిష్కారం యొక్క వివరణాత్మక ఖాతాను అందిస్తుంది.
సుత్త పిటాకా
    
బుద్ధుడికి
మరియు అతని సమీపంలోని కొంతమంది శిష్యులకు, తెరవాడ బౌద్దమతం యొక్క అన్ని
ప్రధాన బోధనలను కలిగి ఉన్నట్లు, సుట్టలు లేదా ఉపన్యాసాలు సేకరించడం.
(వెయ్యి కంటే ఎక్కువ సుత్తా అనువాదాలు ఈ వెబ్ సైట్ లో లభ్యమవుతాయి.) ఐదు నికాలు (కలెక్షన్స్) లలో suttas విభజించబడ్డాయి:

        దిఘా నికాయ - “సుదీర్ఘ సేకరణ”
        
మజ్జిమ నికాయ - “మధ్య నిడివి సేకరణ”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “గుంపు సేకరణ”
        
అంగటార నికాయ - “మరింత-కారణాల సేకరణ”
        
ఖుడ్కా నికాయ - “చిన్న గ్రంధాల సేకరణ”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
ఉదాన
            
Itivuttaka
            
సుత్తా నిపాత
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
జాతక
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
నట్టిపకరాణ (టిపిటాకా యొక్క బర్మీస్ ఎడిషన్లో మాత్రమే చేర్చబడింది)
            
పెటాకోపెడా (”")
            
మిలిందాపంచ (”")

అభిధమ్మ పిటాకా
    
సూటా పిటాకాలో సమర్పించబడిన అంతర్లీన సిద్దాంత సూత్రాలు
పునర్నిర్మించబడి, పునర్నిర్వచించబడ్డాయి, ఇది ఒక క్రమబద్ధమైన ప్రణాళికను
కలిగి ఉంటుంది, ఇది మనస్సు మరియు విషయం యొక్క స్వభావంపై విచారణకు
వర్తింపజేస్తుంది.

మరింత చదవడానికి

    పాలి కానన్ (టిపిటాకా) పూర్తి కాపీని నేను ఎక్కడ కనుగొనగలను? (తరచుగా అడిగే ప్రశ్న)
    
బియాండ్ ది టిపిటకా: ఎ ఫీల్డ్ గైడ్ టు పోస్ట్-కానానికల్ పాలి లిటరేచర్
    
పాలి భాష స్టడీ ఎయిడ్స్ ప్రతి స్థాయిలో ఉన్న పాలి విద్యార్థులకు ఉపయోగపడే కనెక్షన్లను అందిస్తుంది.
    
సోమపలా జయవర్ధన (కొలంబో: కరునారత్నే & సన్స్, లిమిటెడ్, 1994) చే హ్యాండ్బుక్ ఆఫ్ పాలి లిటరేచర్. ఒక మార్గదర్శిని, నిఘంటువు రూపంలో, పాలి నియమావళి ద్వారా, కానన్లోని ప్రధాన ఆనవాళ్ళ యొక్క వివరణాత్మక వివరణలతో.
    
యాన్ ఎనాలసిస్ ఆఫ్ ది పాలి కానన్, రస్సెల్ వెబ్, ed. (కండీ: బౌద్ధ ప్రచురణ సంఘం, 1975). ఒక అనివార్య “రహదారి” మరియు పాలి నియమాల ఆకారం. పేరుతో అద్భుతమైన ఇండెక్స్ లిస్టింగ్ సుటాస్ను కలిగి ఉంటుంది.
    
గైడ్ టు టిపిటాకా, యు కో లే, ed. (ఢిల్లీ: శ్రీ సత్గురు పబ్లికేషన్స్, 1990). టిపిటాకా యొక్క ఇంకొక సరిహద్దు, అనేక ముఖ్యమైన suttas సంగ్రహాలను కలిగి.
    
బౌద్ధ డిక్షనరీ, Nyanatiloka Mahathera ద్వారా (కింది: బౌద్ధ ప్రచురణ సంఘం, 1980). తెరవాడ బౌద్ధమతంలో ముఖ్యమైన పదాలు మరియు భావనల యొక్క ప్రామాణిక చేతిపుస్తకం.

97) Classical Thai
97) ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก

2209 พ. 26 เมษายน 2560 บทเรียน

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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
พระไตรปิฎกบาลี
© 2005
ดูเพิ่มเติมที่ Sutta Index; แปลโดยนักแปล

    วิน
    
DN
    
มินนิโซตา
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
Iti
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
Miln

พระไตรปิฎก (ไตรปิฎก, “สาม”, “+ pitaka”, “ตะกร้า”) หรือ Pali canon คือชุดหลักภาษาบาลีซึ่งเป็นรากฐานหลักของพระพุทธศาสนาเถรวาท พระไตรปิฎกและตำราภาษาบาลี (parakanonical paraliasical pali) (ข้อเขียนพงศาวดาร ฯลฯ ) เป็นส่วนประกอบของตำราเถรวาทคลาสสิก

คัมภีร์ภาษาบาลีเป็นวรรณกรรมที่กว้างใหญ่: ในการแปลภาษาอังกฤษข้อความเพิ่มขึ้นหลายพันหน้าพิมพ์ ส่วนใหญ่ (แต่ไม่ใช่ทั้งหมด) ของแคนนอนได้รับการตีพิมพ์เป็นภาษาอังกฤษเป็นเวลาหลายปีแล้ว แม้ว่าจะมีเพียงบางส่วนของข้อความเหล่านี้เท่านั้นที่มีอยู่ในเว็บไซต์นี้ แต่คอลเล็กชันนี้อาจเป็นจุดเริ่มต้นที่ดี

สามส่วนของ Tipitaka คือ:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
การเก็บรวบรวมตำราเกี่ยวกับหลักธรรมในการปฏิบัติกิจวัตรประจำวันภายในภิกษุสงฆ์ - ชุมชนของพระภิกษุสงฆ์และพระภิกษุสงฆ์ นอกเหนือจากกฎเกณฑ์เท่านั้น
Vinaya Pitaka
ยังรวมถึงเรื่องราวเบื้องหลังต้นกำเนิดของแต่ละกฎซึ่งจะอธิบายรายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับวิธีแก้ปัญหาของพระพุทธศาสนาต่อคำถามเกี่ยวกับวิธีรักษาความสามัคคีของชุมชนภายในชุมชนฝ่ายวิญญาณที่มีขนาดใหญ่และหลากหลาย
Sutta Pitaka
    
การรวบรวมพระธรรมเทศนาหรือวาทกรรมโดยพระพุทธเจ้าและสาวกที่ใกล้เคียงที่สุดซึ่งประกอบด้วยคำสอนกลางคำสอนทั้งหมดของพระพุทธศาสนาเถรวาท (แปลได้มากกว่าหนึ่งพันเล่มในเว็บไซต์นี้) บทคัดย่อจะถูกแบ่งออกเป็นห้ากลุ่ม (กลุ่มคอลเลกชัน):

        Digha Nikaya - “คอลเลกชันยาว”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “คอลเลกชันที่มีความยาวปานกลาง”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “กลุ่มการเก็บรวบรวม”
        
พระนครศรีอยุธยา - “การสะสมเพิ่มเติม”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “ชุดข้อความเล็ก ๆ น้อย ๆ “:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
วิมานวัฒน์
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
จาตะกะ
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (รวมเฉพาะในฉบับภาษาพม่าของพระไตรปิฎก)
            
เพชรบูรณ์ (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

อภิสิทธิ์พิทากา
    
การเก็บรวบรวมตำราที่หลักการพื้นฐานที่นำเสนอใน Sutta Pitaka
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    ฉันสามารถหาสำเนาของคัมภีร์ภาษาบาลี (Tipitaka) ได้จากที่ใด? (คำถามที่ถูกถามบ่อย)
    
นอกเหนือจากพระไตรปิฎก: คู่มือทุ่งเพื่อบัญญัติวรรณคดี Pali
    
ตัวช่วยการศึกษาภาษาบาลีมีลิงค์ที่อาจเป็นประโยชน์ต่อนักเรียนภาษาบาลีทุกระดับ
    
หนังสือคู่มือวลีภาษาปาลีโดยนายสมพลวยะวะรัตนะ (โคลัมโบ: การุ ณ ยรัตน์แอนด์ซัน จำกัด , 2537) คู่มือในรูปแบบพจนานุกรมผ่านคัมภีร์บาลีซึ่งมีคำอธิบายโดยละเอียดเกี่ยวกับสถานที่หลักในแคนนอน
    
การวิเคราะห์บทเพลงบาลีแคนนอนรัสเซลบ์เอ็ด (แคนดี้: พุทธสมาคมสิ่งพิมพ์ 1975) “แผนงานที่จำเป็น” และเค้าร่างของพระไตรปิฎกบาลี มีดัชนีที่ดีเยี่ยมในการแสดงพระสุนัตตามชื่อ
    
คู่มือการ Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990) อีกหนึ่งเค้าโครงที่ยอดเยี่ยมของพระไตรปิฎกซึ่งประกอบด้วยบทสรุปของบทคัดย่อที่สำคัญหลายอย่าง
    
พุทธพจนานุกรมโดย Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: สมาคมสิ่งพิมพ์ทางพุทธศาสนา, 1980) คู่มือคลาสสิกของคำศัพท์และแนวคิดที่สำคัญในศาสนาพุทธเถรวาท

98) Classical Turkish
98) Klasik Türk

2209 Çar 26 Nis 2017 DERS

Bu Google çevirisini https://translate.google.com adresini kullanarak düzeltelim.
Bildiğimiz tüm dillerde.

Http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali Canon
© 2005
Ayrıca bak: Sutta İndeksi; Çevirmen tarafından çeviriler

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Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “üç,” + pitaka, “sepet”) veya Pali canon, Theravada Budizm’in
öğreti temelini oluşturan birincil Pali dil metinlerinin
koleksiyonudur.
Tipitaka ve paracanonik Pali metinleri (yorumlar, tarih yazmaları,
vb.) Birlikte, klasik Theravada metinlerinin bütününü teşkil eder.

Pali kanon geniş bir literatür gövdesidir: İngilizce çeviride metinler binlerce basılı sayfa ekler. Canon’un çoğu (ancak hepsi değil) yıllar geçtikçe zaten İngilizce olarak yayınlandı. Bu metinlerin sadece küçük bir kısmı bu sitede mevcut olmasına rağmen, bu koleksiyon başlamak için iyi bir yer olabilir.

Tipitaka’nın üç bölümü vardır:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Sangha’daki
günlük meseleleri yöneten davranış kurallarına ilişkin metinlerin
toplanması - bikik’te (rahmetli rahipler) ve bikik’te (rahibeler).
Vinaya Pitaka, kuralların sadece bir listesinden çok, her bir kuralın
kökeninin ardındaki öyküleri de içeriyor ve Buda’nın geniş çaplı ve
farklı bir manevi topluluk içinde toplumsal uyumun nasıl sağlanacağı
sorusuna çözümünün detaylı bir dökümü sağlıyor.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Buda’ya
ve birkaç yakın öğrencisine atfedilen suttalar ya da söylemler
topluluğu, Theravada Budizm’in bütün merkez öğretilerini içermektedir.
(Bu web sitesinde birden fazla sutta tercümanı bulunmaktadır.) Suttalar beş nikayaya (koleksiyon) ayrılmıştır:

        Digha Nikaya - “uzun koleksiyon”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “orta boy koleksiyon”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “gruplanmış koleksiyon”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “daha ileri fikir verilen koleksiyon”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “küçük metinler koleksiyonu”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (yalnızca Tipitaka’nın Burma sürümünde yer almaktadır)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Sutta Pitaka’da sunulan temel doktriner ilkelerin yeniden düzenlenmesi
ve zihin ve maddenin doğasına ilişkin soruşturmaya uygulanabilecek
sistematik bir çerçeveye dönüştürülmesi metninin toplanması.

Daha fazla okumak için

    Pali canon’un (Tipitaka) bir kopyasını nerede bulabilirim? (Sıkça sorulan soru)
    
Tipitaka’nın Ötesinde: Post-Kanonik Pali Edebiyatı İçin Saha Rehberi
    
Pali Language Study Aids, her seviyedeki Pali öğrencilerine faydalı olabilecek bağlantıları sunar.
    
Somapala Jayawardhana tarafından Pali Edebiyat El Kitabı, (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Pali canon aracılığıyla, Canon’un en önemli simgelerinden ayrıntılı açıklamalar içeren, sözlük formundaki bir rehber.
    
Pali Canon’un Bir Analizi, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Budist Yayın Toplumu, 1975). Vazgeçilmez bir “yol haritası” ve Pali kanun taslağı. İsme göre suttaları listeleyen mükemmel bir dizin içerir.
    
Tipitaka Rehberi, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Birçok önemli suttanın özetlerini içeren Tipitaka’nın bir diğer mükemmel anahattı.
    
Budist Sözlüğü, Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Budist Yayın Toplumu, 1980). Theravada Budizminde önemli terim ve kavramların klasik bir el kitabı.

99)Classical Ukrainian
99) Класична українська

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

Давайте виправимо це Google Translation за допомогою https://translate.google.com на всіх мовах, ми знаємо.

© 2005
Дивіться також Sutta Index; переклади Перекладач

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Міннесота
    
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К.М.

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ити
    
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Мілна

Типитака
(Пали ти, «три» + Питак, «кошик»), або Pali канон, є збором первинних
текстів мови Пали, які утворюють доктринальні засади буддизму Тхеравади.
Типитака і paracanonical тексти палийского (коментарі, хроніка і т.д.) разом складають повне тіло класичних текстів тхеравада.

Pali канон є велика література: в англійському перекладі текстів додати до тисячі друкованих сторінок. Більшість (але не всі) Канон вже опубліковано англійською мовою протягом багатьох років. Хоча лише невелика частина цих текстів можна знайти на цьому сайті, ця колекція може бути хорошим місцем для початку.

Три підрозділи Типитака є:

Vinaya питаки
    
Колекція
текстів, що стосуються правил поведінки, що регулюють повсякденні
справи в рамках Сангхи - громада бхікшу (рукопокладених ченців) і
бхікшуні (рукопокладених черниць).
Набагато більше, ніж просто список правил, Vinaya Питак також включає в
себе історію позаду походження кожного правила, надаючи докладний звіт
про рішення Будди до питання про те, як зберегти общинне гармонію
всередині великого і різноманітного духовного співтовариства.
Сутта-пітака
    
Колекція
сутта або дискурсів, приписувана Будді і кілька його найближчих учнів,
що містить всі центральні вчення буддизму Тхеравади.
(Більше тисячі Сутта переклади доступні на цьому сайті.) Сутта розділені між п’ятьма nikayas (збірники):

        Дігх Nikaya - «довга колекція»
        
Маджхіма Nikaya - «Збірник середньої довжини»
        
Саньютта Nikaya - «згрупованих колекція»
        
Ангуттара Nikaya - «Додатковий-факторізуется колекція»
        
Кхуддака Nikaya - «Збірник маленьких текстів»:
            
кхуддакапатха
            
Дхаммапада
            
удана
            
ітівуттака
            
Сутта Nipata
            
віманаваттху
            
петаваттху
            
Тхерагатха
            
тхерігатха
            
Джатака
            
ніддеса
            
Патісамбідамагге
            
Apadana
            
Буддхавамса
            
чаріяпітака
            
Nettippakarana (входять тільки в бірманській виданні Типитака)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapanha ( “”)

Абхидхамма питаки
    
Колекція текстів, в яких основні доктринальних принципи, представлені в
Сутта питаки перероблені і реорганізовані в систематичну рамку, які
можуть бути застосовані до дослідження в природу розуму і матерії.

Для подальшого читання

    Де я можу знайти копію повного Pali канону (Tipitaka)? (Часті питання)
    
За Тіпітакі: Керівництво поля до пост-канонічної літературі Pali
    
Pali мова Навчальні посібники пропонують посилання, які можуть бути корисні для палийских студентів будь-якого рівня.
    
Довідник по палійской літературі, по Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Карунаратня & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Керівництво, в словникової формі, через Pali канон, з докладним описом основних визначних пам’яток в каноні.
    
Аналіз Пали Canon, Расселл Уебб, изд. (Канді: буддійський Publication Society, 1975). Неодмінною «дорожню карту» і план Пали канону. Містить відмінний показник лістинг суттю по імені.
    
Керівництво по Tipitaka, U До Lay, изд. (Нью-Делі: Шрі Сатгуру Publications, 1990). Інший відмінний план Типитаки, що містить короткий огляд багатьох важливих суттю.
    
Буддійський словник, автор Найанатілока Mahathera (Канді: буддійський Publication Society, 1980). Класичний довідник основних термінів і понять в буддизмі Тхеравади.


comments (0)
04/28/17
2212 Sat 29 Apr 2017 LESSON Tipitaka The Pali Canon Let us correct this Google Translation using https://translate.google.com in all languages we know. 100) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکل اردو) Classical Uzbek-101)Klassik o’zbek,102) Classical Vietnamese- Việt cổ điển,-103) Classical Welsh- Clasurol Cymru,104) Classical Xhosa-Classical isiXhosa,-105) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש) Classical Yoruba- -106)Classical Yorùbá,107) Classical Zulu-) Zulu Classical
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 4:37 pm
2212 Sat 29 Apr 2017 LESSON

Tipitaka

The Pali Canon

Let us correct this Google Translation using https://translate.google.com in all languages we know.


100) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکل اردو) Classical Uzbek-101)Klassik o’zbek,102) Classical Vietnamese- Việt cổ điển,-103) Classical Welsh- Clasurol Cymru,104) Classical Xhosa-Classical isiXhosa,-105) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש) Classical Yoruba- -106)Classical Yorùbá,107) Classical Zulu-) Zulu Classical


100) Classical Urdu

100) کلاسیکل اردو

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

ہمیں ہم جانتے ہیں تمام زبانوں میں https://translate.google.com استعمال کرتے ہوئے درست یہ گوگل ترجمہ کرتے ہیں.

© 2005
بھی سے Sutta انڈیکس دیکھو؛ مترجم کی طرف ترجمے

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ایک
    
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الدین
    
آئی ٹی آئی
    
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ینیم
    
Miln

Tipitaka
(پالی TI، “تین” + pitaka، “ٹوکری”)، یا پالی کینن، بنیادی پالی زبان نصوص
تھرواد بدھ مت کی نظریاتی بنیاد تشکیل جس کا مجموعہ ہے.
Tipitaka اور paracanonical پالی نصوص (تبصروں، تواریخ، وغیرہ) ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ کلاسیکی تھرواد تحریروں کے مکمل جسم کا قیام.

پالی کینن ادب کی ایک وسیع جسم ہے: میں انگریزی ترجمہ نصوص طباعت صفحات کی ہزاروں تک کا اضافہ. کینن (لیکن سب نہیں) سب سے پہلے سے ہی سالوں میں انگریزی میں شائع کی گئی ہے. ان نصوص میں سے صرف ایک چھوٹا سا حصہ اس ویب سائٹ پر دستیاب ہیں اگرچہ، اس مجموعہ کو شروع کرنے کے لئے ایک اچھی جگہ ہو سکتا ہے.

Tipitaka کی تین ڈویژنز ہیں:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
سنگھا
کے اندر روز مرہ کے معاملات گورننگ طرز عمل کے قوانین کے متعلق تحریروں کے
مجموعہ - bhikkhus (مقرر کیا راہبوں) اور bhikkhunis (مقرر کی راہباؤں) کی
کمیونٹی.
قواعد کا محض ایک فہرست سے کہیں زیادہ، Vinaya Pitaka بھی ہر حکمرانی کی
ابتدا کے پیچھے کہانیاں، ایک بڑے اور متنوع روحانی کمیونٹی کے اندر فرقہ
وارانہ ہم آہنگی برقرار رکھنے کے لئے کس طرح کے سوال کو بدھ کے حل کی ایک
تفصیلی اکاؤنٹ کی فراہم کرنے پر مشتمل ہے.
سے Sutta Pitaka
    
suttas،
یا خطبات کا مجموعہ ہے، بدھ اور ان کے قریبی شاگردوں میں سے چند ایک کی
طرف منسوب تھرواد بدھ مت کے تمام مرکزی تعلیمات پر مشتمل.
(ایک ہزار سے زائد سے Sutta ترجمہ اس ویب سائٹ پر دستیاب ہیں.) suttas پانچ nikayas (مجموعہ) میں تقسیم کیا جاتا ہے:

        Digha Nikaya - “طویل مجموعہ”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “درمیانی لمبائی مجموعہ”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “بانٹا مجموعہ”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “مزید-وجوہات مجموعہ”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “چھوٹی تحریروں کے مجموعہ”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana کی
            
Itivuttaka
            
سے Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (صرف Tipitaka کی برمی ایڈیشن میں شامل ہیں)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
نصوص جن میں سے Sutta Pitaka میں پیش بنیادی نظریاتی اصولوں پر reworked
اور دماغ اور معاملہ کی نوعیت کی تحقیقات پر لاگو کیا جا سکتا ہے کہ ایک
منظم فریم ورک میں دوبارہ سے منظم کر رہے ہیں کا مجموعہ.

مزید پڑھنے کیلئے

    مجھے مکمل پالی کینن (Tipitaka) کی ایک کاپی کہاں سے حاصل کر سکتے ہیں؟ (اکثر پوچھے گئے سوال)
    
پوسٹ وہیت پالی ادب کو ایک میدان گائیڈ: Tipitaka پرے
    
پالی زبان مطالعہ ایڈز لنکس ہر سطح کے پالی طالب علموں کے لئے مفید ہو سکتا ہے کہ پیش کرتا ہے.
    
پالی ادب کی ہینڈ بک، Somapala کی Jayawardhana طرف (کولمبو: سے Karunaratne اینڈ سنز لمیٹڈ، 1994). ایک رہنما، ڈکشنری شکل میں، پالی کینن کے ذریعے، کینن میں اہم نشانیان کی تفصیلی وضاحت کے ساتھ.
    
پالی کینن کے ایک تجزیہ، رسل ویب، ایڈ. (کینڈی: بدھ مت کی اشاعت سوسائٹی، 1975). پالی کینن کا ایک ناگزیر “روڈ میپ” اور خاکہ. نام سے suttas لسٹنگ ایک بہترین انڈیکس پر مشتمل ہے.
    
Tipitaka، یو Ko کی شوٹنگ جنگل کے ذریعے، ایڈ کرنے کے لئے گائیڈ. (دہلی: سری سے Satguru مطبوعات، 1990). Tipitaka کی ایک اور عمدہ خاکہ، بہت اہم suttas کے خلاصے پر مشتمل.
    
Nyanatiloka Mahathera طرف بدھ مت ڈکشنری (کینڈی: بدھ مت کی اشاعت سوسائٹی، 1980). تھرواد بدھ مت میں اہم اصطلاحات اور تصورات کا ایک کلاسک گٹکا.

101) Classical Uzbek
101) Klassik o’zbek

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

bizga, biz bilamiz barcha tillarda https://translate.google.com foydalanib, bu Google tarjimasi tuzatish qilaylik.

© 2005
Sutta Index Shuningdek qarang; Aylantirish Tarjimalar

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Tipitaka
(Päli ti, “uch” + pitaka, “savat”), yoki Päli canon, Theravada buddizm,
aqidaparast asosini tashkil birlamchi Päli til matnlar to’plami
hisoblanadi.
Tipitaka va paracanonical Päli matnlar (izoh, Solnomalar, va boshqalar) bilan birga klassik Theravada matnlar to’liq iboratdir.

Päli canon adabiyoti keng organi hisoblanadi: Ingliz tarjima matnlar bosilgan sahifalar minglab qadar qo’shing. (Emas, balki barcha) Canon eng allaqachon yillar davomida ingliz chop etildi. Bu matnlar faqat kichik bir qismi, bu veb-saytida mavjud bo’lsa-da, bu to’plam boshlash uchun yaxshi joy bo’lishi mumkin.

Tipitaka uch bo’linmalari bor:

vinaya Pitaka
    
Sangha
doirasida kundalik ishlarini boshqarishda qoidalari bo’yicha matnlar
to’plami - bhikkhus (farz rohiblar) va bhikkhunis (farz kohini) jamoasi.
qoidalarini shunchaki ro’yxatini ancha, vinaya Pitaka ham katta va
xilma-xil ma’naviy hamjamiyati doirasida kommunal uyg’unlikni saqlab
qolish uchun qanday savolga Butdaning hal batafsil hisobni taqdim, har
bir qoida kelib ortida hikoyalar ichiga oladi.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Theravada
buddizm Markaziy ta’limotlarini o’z ichiga Budda va uning eng yaqin
shogirdlaridan bir necha tegishli suttas, yoki aytish yig’ish,.
(Mingdan ortiq sutta Tarjimalar bu veb-saytida mavjud.) Suttas besh nikayas (to’plamlari) o’rtasida bo’linadi:

        Digha Nikaya - “uzoq yig’ish”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “o’rta metrajli to’plami”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “guruhlangan yig’ish”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “yanada-chetda to’plami”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - «kichik matnlar to’plami«:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (faqat Tipitaka ning Birma tahrirdagi kiritilgan)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Sutta Pitaka taqdim asosiy doktrinal asoslari aqli va materiya tabiati
yuzasidan tergov qilish uchun qo’llash mumkin bo’lgan sistematik
doirasida kirib qayta qayta ishlash va qayta tashkil bo’lgan matnlar
to’plami.

Mustaqil o’qish uchun

    Qayerda to’liq Päli Canon (Tipitaka) bir nusxasini topish mumkin? (Tez-tez so’raladigan savol)
    
Post-kanonik Päli Adabiyotga, shuningdek, mintaqa qo’llanma: Tipitaka Beyond
    
Päli Til Study OITS har darajasini Päli talabalar uchun foydali bo’lishi mumkin yo’nalishlarga taklif etadi.
    
(: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994 Kolombo) Somapala Jayawardhana tomonidan Päli adabiyoti qo’llanma. Canon yirik nuqtalarga batafsil ta’riflari bilan Päli Canon orqali lug’at shaklida bir hidoyat,.
    
Päli Canon tahlili, Rassell Uebb, ad. (Kandy: budda nashr jamiyati, 1975). Päli Canon ajralmas “yo’l xaritasi” va reja. nomi bilan suttas ro’yxati ajoyib katalog ichiga oladi.
    
Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ad uchun qo’llanma. (Dehli: Shri Satguru Nashrlar, 1990). ko’p muhim suttas özetlerini o’z ichiga Tipitaka yana bir ajoyib reja.
    
Nyanatiloka Mahathera tomonidan budda Dictionary, (Kandy: budda nashr jamiyati, 1980). Theravada buddizm muhim atamalar va tushunchalar bir klassik qo’llanma.




102) Classical Vietnamese
102) Việt cổ điển

Http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

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© 2005
Xem thêm Sutta Index; Bản dịch của Người dịch

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Kinh
điển Pali (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “basketkets”), hay Pali canon,
là bộ sưu tập các văn bản tiếng Pali nguyên thủy, tạo thành nền tảng
giáo lý của Phật giáo Theravada.
Sách Tạng (Tipitaka) và các kinh văn Pali (parakanonical paralium),
các bài viết, biên niên sử, vv. Cùng nhau tạo thành toàn bộ các văn bản
cổ điển Theravada.

Pali canon là một khối văn học rộng lớn: bằng tiếng Anh dịch các văn bản thêm lên đến hàng ngàn trang in. Hầu hết (nhưng không phải tất cả) của Canon đã được xuất bản bằng tiếng Anh qua nhiều năm. Mặc dù chỉ có một phần nhỏ các văn bản này có sẵn trên trang web này, bộ sưu tập này có thể là một nơi tốt để bắt đầu.

Ba bộ phận của Tipitaka là:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Bộ
sưu tập các văn bản liên quan đến các quy tắc về công việc điều hành
công việc hàng ngày trong Tăng đoàn - cộng đồng của các tỳ khưu và các
tỳ kheo ni.
Không chỉ đơn thuần là một quy tắc, Vinaya Pitaka còn bao gồm những
câu chuyện đằng sau nguồn gốc của mỗi quy tắc, cung cấp một bản tường
trình chi tiết về giải pháp của Đức Phật cho câu hỏi làm thế nào để duy
trì sự hài hòa của cộng đoàn trong một cộng đồng tinh thần rộng lớn và
đa dạng.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Việc
thu thập kinh điển, hay các bài thuyết giảng, do Đức Phật và một số đệ
tử thân cận của ngài, chứa tất cả những lời dạy trung tâm của Phật giáo
Nguyên Thủy.
(Có hơn một nghìn bản dịch tiếng Sutta trên trang web này). Các kinh điển được chia thành năm bộ nikayas (bộ sưu tập):

        Digha Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập dài”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - bộ sưu tập “trung bình”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập tập hợp”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập thực tế hơn”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “Bộ sưu tập các bài viết nhỏ”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Pháp pháp
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Kinh Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Trị liệu
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Phật pháp
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (chỉ có trong ấn bản Miến Điện của Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Bộ sưu tập các văn bản trong đó các nguyên tắc cơ bản được trình bày
trong Sutta Pitaka được làm lại và được tổ chức lại thành một khung hệ
thống có thể được áp dụng cho việc điều tra về bản chất của tâm và vật
chất.

Để đọc thêm

    Tôi có thể tìm thấy bản sao của kinh điển Pali (Tipitaka) ở đâu? (Câu hỏi Thường gặp)
    
Ngoài Tipitaka: Hướng dẫn hiện trường về văn học Pali theo văn học
    
Hỗ trợ Nghiên cứu Ngôn ngữ Pali cung cấp các liên kết có thể hữu ích cho học sinh Pali ở mọi trình độ.
    
Sổ tay Văn học Pali, bởi Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Một hướng dẫn, trong dạng từ điển, thông qua kinh điển Pali, với những miêu tả chi tiết về những điểm mốc chính của Canon.
    
Một phân tích của Canon Pali, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Hội Xuất bản Phật giáo, 1975). Một “lộ trình” không thể thiếu được và phác thảo của kinh điển Pali. Chứa một bảng chỉ số xuất sắc liệt kê các bài kinh theo tên.
    
Hướng dẫn Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Một phác thảo xuất sắc khác của Tipitaka, có chứa tóm lược của nhiều kinh điển quan trọng.
    
Từ điển Phật giáo, bởi Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Hội Xuất bản Phật giáo, 1980). Một cuốn cẩm nang cổ điển về các thuật ngữ và khái niệm quan trọng trong Phật giáo Theravada.


103) Classical Welsh
103) Clasurol Cymru

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

Gadewch i ni gywiro hyn Google Cyfieithu ddefnyddio https://translate.google.com ym mhob iaith y gwyddom.

© 2005
Gweler hefyd Mynegai Sutta; Cyfieithiadau gan Cyfieithydd

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Mae’r
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “tri,” + pitaka, “basgedi ‘), neu Pali canon, yn
casglu destunau iaith Pali sylfaenol sy’n ffurfio sylfaen athrawiaethol
Theravada Bwdhaeth.
Mae’r Tipitaka a’r testunau paracanonical Pali (sylwebaethau,
croniclau, ac ati) gyda’i gilydd yn ffurfio corff cyflawn o destunau
Theravada clasurol.

Mae’r
canon Pali yn gorff helaeth o lenyddiaeth: mewn cyfieithiad Saesneg y
testunau yn adio i filoedd o dudalennau wedi’u hargraffu.
Mae’r rhan fwyaf (ond nid pob un) o’r Canon eisoes wedi cael ei gyhoeddi yn Saesneg ar hyd y blynyddoedd. Er mai dim ond cyfran fechan o’r testunau hyn ar gael ar y wefan hon, gall y casgliad hwn fod yn lle da i ddechrau.

Mae tair adran y Tipitaka yw:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Mae’r
casgliad o destunau sy’n ymwneud â rheolau ymddygiad sy’n
llywodraethu’r materion dyddiol o fewn y Sangha - cymuned bhikkhus
(mynachod ordeiniedig) a bhikkhunis (lleianod ordeiniedig).
Llawer mwy na dim ond rhestr o reolau, y Vinaya Pitaka hefyd yn
cynnwys y straeon y tu ôl i’r tarddiad pob rheol gan ddarparu adroddiad
manwl o datrysiad y Bwdha i’r cwestiwn o sut i gynnal cytgord cymunedol
mewn cymuned ysbrydol fawr ac amrywiol.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Mae
casglu suttas, neu disgyrsiau, priodoli i’r Bwdha a rhai o’i
ddisgyblion agosaf, sy’n cynnwys yr holl ddysgeidiaeth canolog Theravada
Bwdhaeth.
(Mae mwy na mil o cyfieithiadau sutta ar gael ar y wefan hon.) Yr suttas yn cael eu rhannu ymhlith pum nikayas (casgliadau):

        Digha Nikaya - y “casgliad hir”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - y “casgliad canol-hyd”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - y “casgliad grwpio”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - y “casgliad ymhellach-ffactor”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - y “casgliad o destunau bach”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (yn cynnwys yn unig yn y rhifyn Byrma y Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Mae’r casgliad o destunau lle mae’r egwyddorion athrawiaethol
sylfaenol a gyflwynwyd yn y Sutta Pitaka yn cael eu hailwampio ac
had-drefnu i mewn i fframwaith systematig y gellir ei gymhwyso i
ymchwiliad i natur y meddwl a’r mater.

Ar gyfer darllen pellach

    Ble gallaf ddod o hyd i gopi o’r Pali canon cyflawn (Tipitaka)? (Cwestiwn a Ofynnir yn Aml)
    
Y tu hwnt i’r Tipitaka: Canllaw Maes i Lenyddiaeth Pali Ôl-canonaidd
    
Astudiaeth Iaith Pali Aids yn cynnig cysylltiadau all fod yn ddefnyddiol i fyfyrwyr Pali o bob lefel.
    
Llawlyfr Pali Llenyddiaeth, gan Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd, 1994). Canllaw, ar ffurf geiriadur, drwy’r Pali canon, gyda disgrifiadau manwl o’r prif dirnodau yn y Canon.
    
Dadansoddiad o Pali Canon, Russell Webb, gol. (Kandy: Cyhoeddiad Bwdhaidd Society, 1975). Mae anhepgor “map ffordd” ac amlinelliad o’r Pali canon. Yn cynnwys mynegai rhagorol rhestru suttas yn ôl enw.
    
Canllaw i Tipitaka, U Ko Lleyg, gol. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Cyhoeddiadau, 1990). amlinelliad ardderchog arall o’r Tipitaka, sy’n cynnwys crynodebau o lawer suttas pwysig.
    
Bwdhaidd Geiriadur, gan Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Cymdeithas Cyhoeddiad Bwdhaidd, 1980). Mae llawlyfr clasurol o dermau a chysyniadau pwysig yn Theravada Bwdhaeth.


104) Classical Xhosa
104) Classical isiXhosa

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

Makhe silungise le Translation Google usebenzisa https://translate.google.com ngazo zonke iilwimi siyazi.

© 2005
Bona kwakhona Sutta Index; Iinguqulelo ngu Translator

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I-Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “ezintathu,” + pitaka, “iingobozi”), okanye Pali mithetho, ke
kuqokelelwe iitekisi zolwimi lokuqala Pali ezenza isiseko imfundiso ka
Theravada ubuBhuda.
I Tipitaka kunye izicatshulwa paracanonical Pali (iikhomentari,
zemihla ngemihla, njalo njalo) kunye zenza umzimba epheleleyo
zezicatshulwa Theravada yamandulo.

I Pali Luhlu umzimba enkulu uncwadi: kuguqulelo IsiNgesi iitekisi zidibanisa amawaka amaphepha ashicilelweyo. Uninzi (kodwa ingengabo bonkel) loMthetho Canon sele sipapashiwe IsiNgesi kule minyaka. Nangona inxalenye encinane kuphela kwezi tekisi ziyafumaneka kule
website, le ingqokelela kunokuba ibe yindawo elungileyo onokuqala kuyo.

Loo maqela ezintathu Tipitaka zezi:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Ukuqokelelwa
lweetekisi ngokuphathelele imigaqo yokuziphatha elawula imicimbi
yemihla ngemihla ngaphakathi Sangha - uluntu bhikkhus (iimonki umiselwa)
kunye bhikkhunis (noonongendi umiselwa).
ngaphezulu lee nje uluhlu lwemithetho, i Vinaya Pitaka nayo iquka
amabali emva imvelaphi kolawulo ngamnye, ukunika ingxelo eneenkcukacha
isisombululo Buddha othi njani ukugcina ngokuvumelana zoluntu phakathi
koluntu oluninzi kwaye ntlobo ngokomoya.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Nokuqokelelwa
suttas, okanye iintetho, kwaziwe ukuba Buddha kunye abambalwa abafundi
bakhe, enazo zonke iimfundiso umbindi Theravada ubuBhuda.
(Ngaphezu eliwaka iinguqulelo sutta ziyafumaneka kule website.) Le suttas zahlulwe phakathi nikayas ezintlanu (ingqokelela):

        Digha Nikaya - i “collection elide”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - i “collection eliphakathi-ubude ‘
        
Samyutta Nikaya - i “collection zib”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - i “ukuqokelelwa ngakumbi-izinto”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - i “ukuqokelelwa iitekisi kangako”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (afakwe kuphela kuhlelo ngesiBurma i Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Ukuqokelelwa kweetekisi apho imigaqo engundoqo imfundiso thaca kwi
Sutta Pitaka le yasetyenzwa ngokutsha kwaye uhlelwe-sikhokelo
ocwangcisekileyo linokusetyenziswa uphando uhlobo engqondweni mbandela.

Ukuba ufuna ukufunda ngakumbi

    Ndingayifumana phi ikopi epheleleyo Pali ncwadi (Tipitaka)? (Umbuzo Ebuzwa)
    
Beyond the Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-ezingcwele Pali Literature
    
Pali Language Study Aids inika links ezinokuba luncedo kubafundi Pali zenqanaba zonke.
    
Handbook of Pali Literature, yi Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Isikhokelo, ekwimo kwisichazi-magama, ngokusebenzisa Pali ncwadi, kunye neenkcazo eneenkcukacha amahlandinyuka enkulu Canon.
    
Uhlalutyo Pali Canon, uRussell Webb, ile. (Kandy: Publication dha Society, 1975). An ‘imephu yendlela’ ebalulekileyo kunye Kukhangelwa Pali ncwadi. Iqulathe i index elihle obonisa suttas ngegama.
    
Guide to Tipitaka, U Ko Zibekeni, ile. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Enye inkcazelo ebalaseleyo i Tipitaka, equlathe Shwankathela suttas ezininzi ezibalulekileyo.
    
Dha Dictionary, yi Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Publication dha Society, 1980). Umqulu ezaziwa amagama abalulekileyo kwaye imiba Theravada ubuBhuda.



105) Classical Yiddish
105) קלאסישע ייִדיש

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

זאל אונדז ריכטיק דעם גוגל איבערזעצונג ניצן https://translate.google.com אין אַלע שפּראַכן מיר וויסן.

© 2005
זען אויך סוטטאַ אינדעקס; טראַנסלאַטיאָנס דורך טראַנסלאַטאָר

    ווין
    
דן
    
מן
    
סן
    
אַן
    
קן

    כפּ
    
דהפּ
    
אויס
    
יטי
    
סן
    
vv
    
PV
    
טהאַג
    
טהיג
    
נם
    
מילן

די
טיפּיטאַקאַ (פּאַלי איר, “דרייַ,” + פּיטאַקאַ, “קערב”), אָדער פּאַלי
קאַנאָן, איז דער זאַמלונג פון ערשטיק פּאַלי שפּראַך טעקסץ וואָס פאָרעם
די דאַקטראַנאַל יסוד פון טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם.
די טיפּיטאַקאַ און די פּאַראַקאַנאָניקאַל פּאַלי טעקסטן (קאַמאַנטעריז,
קראַניקאַלז, אאז”ו ו) צוזאַמען קאַנסטאַטוט די גאַנץ גוף פון קלאסישע
טהעראַוואַדאַ טעקסטן.

די
פּאַלי קאַנאָן איז אַ וואַסט גוף פון ליטעראַטור: אין ענגליש איבערזעצונג
די טעקסטן לייגן אַרויף צו טויזנטער פון געדרוקט בלעטער.
רובֿ (אָבער ניט אַלע) פון די קאַנאָן האט שוין געווען ארויס אין ענגליש איבער די יאָרן. כאָטש בלויז אַ קליין בראָכצאָל פון די טעקסטן זענען בנימצא אויף דעם
וועבזייַטל, דעם זאַמלונג קענען זיין אַ גוט פּלאַץ צו אָנהייבן.

די דרייַ דיוויזשאַנז פון די טיפּיטאַקאַ זענען:

ווינייַאַ פּיטאַקאַ
    
די
זאַמלונג פון טעקסטן וועגן די כּללים פון אָנפירן גאַווערנינג די טעגלעך
ענינים ין דער Sangha - די קהל פון בהיקכוס (אָרדיינד מאָנקס) און
בהיקכוניס (אָרדיינד נאַנז).
ווייַט מער ווי בלויז אַ רשימה פון כּללים, די ווינייַאַ פּיטאַקאַ אויך
כולל די מעשיות הינטער די אָנהייב פון יעדער הערשן, פּראַוויידינג אַ
דיטיילד חשבון פון דער בודאַ ס לייזונג צו די קשיא פון ווי צו טייַנען כלל
האַרמאָניע ין אַ גרויס און דייווערס רוחניות קהל.
סוטטאַ פּיטאַקאַ
    
די
זאַמלונג פון סוטטאַס, אָדער דיסקאָורסעס, אַטריביאַטאַד צו דער בודאַ און
אַ ביסל פון זייַן קלאָוסאַסט תלמידים, מיט אַלע די צענטראל לערנונגען פון
טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם.
(מער ווי איין טויזנט סוטטאַ איבערזעצונגען זענען פאַראַנען אויף
דעם וועבזייַטל.) די סוטטאַס זענען צעטיילט צווישן פינף ניקייַאַס
(זאמלונגען):

        דיגהאַ ניקייַאַ - די “לאַנג זאַמלונג”
        
מאַדזשדזשהימאַ ניקייַאַ - די “מיטן-לענג זאַמלונג”
        
סאַמיוטטאַ ניקייַאַ - די “גרופּט זאַמלונג”
        
אַנגוטטאַראַ ניקייַאַ - די “ווייַטער-פאַקטאָרעד זאַמלונג”
        
כודדאַקאַ ניקייַאַ - די “זאַמלונג פון קליין טעקסטן”:
            
כודדאַקאַפּאַטהאַ
            
דהאַממאַפּאַדאַ
            
ודאַנאַ
            
יטיוווטטאַקאַ
            
סוטטאַ ניפּאַטאַ
            
ווימאַנאַוואַטטהו
            
פּעטאַוואַטטהו
            
טהעראַגאַטהאַ
            
טהעריגאַטהאַ
            
דזשאַטאַקאַ
            
נידדעסאַ
            
פּאַטיסאַמבהידאַמאַגגאַ
            
אַפּאַדאַנאַ
            
בודדהאַוואַמסאַ
            
קאַרייאַפּיטאַקאַ
            
נעטטיפּפּאַקאַראַנאַ (ינקלודעד בלויז אין די בורמעסע אויסגאבע פון ​​די טיפּיטאַקאַ)
            
פּעטאַקאָפּאַדעסאַ ( “”)
            
מילינדאַפּאַñהאַ ( “”)

אַבהידהאַממאַ פּיטאַקאַ
    
די זאַמלונג פון טעקסץ אין וואָס די אַנדערלייינג דאַקטראַנאַל
פּרינציפּן דערלאנגט אין די סוטטאַ פּיטאַקאַ זענען ריווערקט און
ריאָרגאַנייזד זיך אַ סיסטעמאַטיש ראַם אַז קענען זיין געווענדט צו אַ
ויספאָרשונג אין די נאַטור פון מיינונג און ענין.

פֿאַר ווייַטער לייענען

    ווו קען איך געפינען אַ קאָפּיע פון ​​די גאַנץ פּאַלי קאַנאָן (טיפּיטאַקאַ)? (אָפֿט געשטעלטע פֿרעג)
    
ווייַטער פון די טיפּיטאַקאַ: אַ פֿעלד גייד צו פּאָסטן-קאַנאַנאַקאַל פּאַלי ליטעראַטור
    
פּאַלי שפּראַך לערנען אַידס Offers לינקס אַז קען זיין נוצלעך צו פּאַלי סטודענטן פון יעדער מדרגה.
    
האַנדבאָאָק פון פּאַלי ליטעראַטור, דורך סאָמאַפּאַלאַ דזשייַאַוואַרדהאַנאַ (קאָלאָמבאָ: קאַרונאַראַטנע & סאָנס, לטד, 1994). א פירער, אין ווערטערבוך פאָרעם, דורך די פּאַלי קאַנאָן, מיט דיטיילד דיסקריפּשאַנז פון די הויפּט לאַנדמאַרקס אין די קאַנאָן.
    
אַ אַנאַליסיס פון די פּאַלי קאַנאָן, רוססעלל Webb, עד. (קאַנדי: בודדהיסט פּובליקאַציע חברה, 1975). אַ ינדיספּענסאַבאַל “ראָאַדמאַפּ” און אַוטליין פון די פּאַלי קאַנאָן. כּולל אַ ויסגעצייכנט אינדעקס ליסטינג סוטטאַס דורך נאָמען.
    
גייד צו טיפּיטאַקאַ, ו קאָ לייגן, עד. (דעלי: סרי סאַטגורו אויסגאבעס, 1990). אן אנדער ויסגעצייכנט אַוטליין פון די טיפּיטאַקאַ, מיט סאַמעריז פון פילע וויכטיק סוטטאַס.
    
בודדהיסט ווערטערבוך, דורך ניאַנאַטילאָקאַ מאַהאַטהעראַ (קאַנדי: בודדהיסט פּובליקאַציע חברה, 1980).
א קלאַסיש האַנטבוך פון וויכטיק טערמינען און קאַנסעפּס אין טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם.

106) Classical Yoruba
106) Classical Yorùbá

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

Jẹ ki a se atunse yi Google Translation lilo https://translate.google.com ni gbogbo awọn ede ti a mọ.

© 2005
Wo tun Sutta Index; Ìtumọ nipa onitumo

    Vin
    
DN
    
Mi Ni
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
iti
    
SN
    
Vv
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
nm
    
Miln

The
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “meta,” + pitaka, “agbọn”), tabi Pali Canon, ni
gbigba ti awọn jc Pali ede ọrọ ti o dagba awọn doctrinal ipile ti
Theravada Buddism.
The Tipitaka ati awọn paracanonical Pali awọn ọrọ (commentaries, ọjọ, bbl) jọ je pipe ara ti kilasika Theravada ọrọ.

The Pali Canon ni a tiwa ni body ti litireso: ni English translation awọn ọrọ fi soke to egbegberun ti tejede ojúewé. Julọ (sugbon ko gbogbo) ti Canon ti tẹlẹ a ti atejade ni English lori awọn ọdun. Bó tilẹ jẹ pé nikan kan kekere ida ti awọn wọnyi ọrọ wa o si wa lori
aaye ayelujara yi, yi gbigba le jẹ kan ti o dara ibi lati bẹrẹ.

Awọn mẹta ipin awọn Tipitaka ni o wa:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Awọn
gbigba ti awọn ọrọ nipa awọn ofin ti iwa darí ojoojumọ àlámọrí laarin
awọn Sangha - awọn awujo ti bhikkhus (wü monks) ati bhikkhunis (wü, St).
Jina diẹ ẹ sii ju jo kan akojọ ti awọn ofin, awọn Vinaya Pitaka tun ni
awọn itan sile awọn Oti ti kọọkan ofin, pese alaye kan ti iroyin ti
awọn Buddha ká ojutu si ibeere ti bi o lati ṣetọju awujo isokan laarin
kan ti o tobi ati Oniruuru ẹmí awujo.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Awọn
gbigba ti awọn suttas, tabi discourses, Wọn si Buddha ati ki o kan diẹ
rẹ sunmọ awọn ọmọ-ẹhin, ti o ni gbogbo awọn aringbungbun ẹkọ ti
Theravada Buddism.
(Die e sii ju ẹgbẹrun sutta ogbufọ wa o si wa lori aaye
ayelujara yi.) Awọn suttas ti wa ni pin laarin marun nikayas
(collections):

        Digha Nikaya - awọn “gun gbigba”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - awọn “arin-ipari gbigba”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - awọn “ya gbigba”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - awọn “siwaju-factored gbigba”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - awọn “gbigba ti awọn kekere awọn ọrọ”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (to wa nikan ni Èdè Bumiisi àtúnse ti awọn Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Awọn gbigba ti awọn ọrọ ninu eyi ti awọn amuye doctrinal agbekale
gbekalẹ ninu awọn Sutta Pitaka ti wa ni reworked ati ki o sib sinu kan
ifinufindo ilana ti o le wa ni loo si ohun iwadi sinu iseda ti okan ati
ọrọ.

Fun siwaju kika

    Nibo ni mo ti le ri a daakọ ti awọn pipe Pali Canon (Tipitaka)? (Nigbagbogbo bi Ìbéèrè)
    
Ni ìha keji Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-oṣuwọn ilana Pali Literature
    
Pali Language Ìkẹkọọ Eedi nfun ìjápọ ti o le jẹ wulo lati Pali omo ti gbogbo ipele.
    
Amudani ti Pali Literature, nipa Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A guide, ni itumọ fọọmu, nipasẹ awọn Pali Canon, pẹlu alaye awọn apejuwe ti awọn pataki landmarks ni Canon.
    
Ohun Analysis ti awọn Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buda ikede Society, 1975). An indispensable “Roadmap” ati ìla ti awọn Pali Canon. Ni ẹya o tayọ Ìwé kikojọ suttas nipa orukọ.
    
Dari to Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Miran ti o tayọ ìla ti awọn Tipitaka, ti o ni kukuru ti ọpọlọpọ awọn pataki suttas.
    
Buda Dictionary, nipa Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buda ikede Society, 1980). A Ayebaye gede ti pataki ofin ati awọn agbekale ni Theravada Buddism.


107) Classical Zulu
107) Zulu Classical

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html

Ake ulungise lokhu Google Translation usebenzisa https://translate.google.com ngazo zonke izilimi siyazi.

© 2005
Bheka futhi Sutta Inkomba; Translations ngu Umhumushi

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
Kuyimi
    
sn
    
vv
    
pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
Miln

I
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “ezintathu,” + pitaka, “obhasikidi”), noma Pali
ezisohlwini lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli, kuba ukuqoqwa eyinhloko Pali
ematheksthi elulwimi akha isisekelo nezimfundiso ka Theravada
nobuBuddha.
I Tipitaka kanye paracanonical imibhalo Pali (imibono, zemihla
ngemihla, njll) ndawonye bakha yonke indikimba yezindlalifa classical
Theravada imibhalo.

Pali
njengeziyingxenye yohlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli umzimba enkulukazi
Temibhalo: e yesiNgisi imibhalo tente izinkulungwane amakhasi
asenyathelisiwe.
Iningi (kodwa hhayi bonke) we Canon isivele eyanyatheliswa ngesiNgisi eminyakeni. Nakuba kuphela ingxenye encane walemibhalo ayatholakala kule webhusayithi, leli qoqo ingaba yindawo enhle yokuqala.

Okwakufanele izigaba zezizwe ezintathu we Tipitaka yilezi:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Ukuqoqwa
namathekisthi aphathelene nemithetho yokuziphatha elawula izindaba
zansuku zonke ngaphakathi Sangha - emphakathini bhikkhus (izindela
sezizonke) kanye bhikkhunis (izindela sezizonke).
Ngaphezulu kakhulu kunalokho nje uhide lwemithetho, le Vinaya Pitaka
sihlanganisa izindaba ngemuva umsuka ekubuseni ngamunye, ukuhlinzeka
uthole ukulandisa okuningiliziwe isixazululo Buddha sika yombuzo
nendlela yokulondoloza ngokuvumelana ohlanganyelwe phakathi umphakathi
enkulu futhi ezihlukahlukene ezingokomoya.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Ukuqoqwa
suttas, noma izinkulumo, ashiwo Buddha kanye ambalwa babafundi bakhe
abaseduze, equkethe zonke izimfundiso ephakathi ye Theravada nobuBuddha.
(Engaphezu kweyodwa ayizinkulungwane sutta izinguqulo
ayatholakala kule webhusayithi.) I suttas zihlukaniswe phakathi nikayas
ezinhlanu (namaqoqo):

        Digha Nikaya - the “iqoqo eside”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - the “phakathi sobude iqoqo”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - the “iqoqo babeqoqana”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - the “iqoqo okwengeziwe-factored”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - the “iqoqo imibhalo kancane”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (kuhlanganisiwe kuphela edition yesiBurma Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Ukuqoqwa imibhalo lapho izimiso nezimfundiso ecashile evezwa Sutta
Pitaka kuthiwa reworked futhi kabusha ibe nohlaka kokuthi singasebenza
uphenyo ubunjalo kwengqondo ndaba.

Ngokufuna okuzayo

    Ngingalutholaphi ikhophi ephelele Pali uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli (Tipitaka)? (Umbuzo Evame Ukubuzwa)
    
Ngalé Tipitaka: Inkundla Umhlahlandela Thumela engamukelwa Pali nezincwadi zokufunda
    
Pali Ulimi Isifundo Izinsiza inikeza izixhumanisi ukuthi kungase kube usizo Pali abafundi wonke amazinga.
    
Handbook of Pali Literature, Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Umhlahlandlela, ngefomu isichazamazwi, ngokusebenzisa Pali
ezisohlwini lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli, ne incazelo eningiliziwe izimpawu
zendawo ezinkulu Canon.
    
Kuvele Ukuhlaziya Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Publication Buddhist Society ngaleso sikhathi, ngo-1975). Kuvele “roadmap” esisemqoka kanye uhlaka Pali njengeziyingxenye yohlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli. Iqukethe inkomba enhle kakhulu ukufakwa kuhlu suttas ngegama.
    
Umhlahlandlela Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Enye uhlaka omuhle Tipitaka, equkethe nezifinyezo suttas eziningi ezibalulekile.
    
Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Publication Buddhist Society, 1980). A bhukulwazi zakudala imigomo ebalulekile futhi imiqondo e Theravada nobuBuddha.

comments (0)
04/27/17
2211 Fri 28 Apr 2017 LESSON Tipitaka The Pali Canon Let us correct this Google Translation using https://translate.google.com in all languages we know. in 1) Classical English,51) Classical Kazakh- классикалық қазақстандық,52) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,,53) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,54) Classical Kurdish(Kurmanji)- Kurdish Classical (Kurmanji),55) Classical Kyrgyz- Классикалык Кыргыз,56) Classical Lao-ລາວຄລາສສິກ,57) Classical Latin-LVII) Classical Latin,58) Classical Latvian- Klasiskā latviešu,59) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių,60) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassik Lëtzebuergesch,61) Classical Macedonian-Класични Македонски,62) Classical Malagasy,63) Classical Malay,64) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,65) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Maltija,66) Classical Maori-Puāwaitanga Māori,67) Classical Marathi-शास्त्रीय मराठी,68) Classical Mongolian- Сонгодог монгол,69) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),70) Classical Nepali- शास्त्रीय नेपाली,71) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,72) Classical Pash- Classical Persian Classical Polish- Klasyczny polski,کلاسیک فارسی- کلاسیکي پښتو75) Classical Portuguese-Clássica Portuguesa,76) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,77) Classical Romanian-Clasicul românesc,78) Classical Russian-Классический ролик
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:09 pm
2211 Fri 28 Apr 2017 LESSON

Tipitaka

The Pali Canon

Let us correct this Google Translation using https://translate.google.com in all languages we know.

51) Classical Kazakh- классикалық қазақстандық,52) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,53) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,54) Classical Kurdish(Kurmanji)- Kurdish Classical (Kurmanji),55) Classical Kyrgyz- Классикалык Кыргыз,56) Classical Lao-ລາວຄລາສສິກ,57) Classical Latin-LVII) Classical Latin,58) Classical Latvian- Klasiskā latviešu,59) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių,60) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassik Lëtzebuergesch,61) Classical Macedonian-Класични Македонски,62) Classical Malagasy,63) Classical Malay,64) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,65) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Maltija,66) Classical Maori-Puāwaitanga Māori,67) Classical Marathi-शास्त्रीय मराठी,68) Classical Mongolian- Сонгодог монгол,69) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),70) Classical Nepali- शास्त्रीय नेपाली,71) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,72) Classical Pash-کلاسیکي پښتو73) Classical Persian
کلاسیک فارسی-74) Classical Polish- Klasyczny polski,75) Classical Portuguese-Clássica Portuguesa,76) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,77) Classical Romanian-Clasicul românesc,78) Classical Russian-Классический ролик

51) Classical Kazakh

51) классикалық қазақстандық

2209 Ср 26 Apr 2017 САБАҚ

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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Палийском
© 2005
Сутта көрсеткіш сондай-ақ, қараңыз; Аудармашы арқылы аудармалар

    Vin
    
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Tipitaka
(Пали Т.И., «үш», + pitaka, «Қоржын»), немесе Палийском, Тхеравады
буддизмнің доктринальных негізін қалыптастыру бастауыш пали тілінде
мәтіндерді жинау болып табылады.
Tipitaka және paracanonical Пали мәтіндер (және т.б. түсініктемелер,
хроника,) бірге классикалық Тхеравады мәтіндерді толық денесін құрайды.

Палийском әдебиеті кең органы болып табылады: Ағылшын аударма мәтіндер басып шығарылған беттер мыңдаған дейін қосыңыз. Ең (бірақ барлық емес) Canon қазірдің өзінде жылда ағылшын тілінде жарияланды. Осы мәтіндерді шағын бөлігі ғана осы веб-сайтында қол жетімді болғанымен, осы жинау бастау үшін жақсы орын болуы мүмкін.

Tipitaka үш бөлімшелері болып табылады:

Виная Pitaka
    
Сангхе
ішінде күнделікті істерін реттейтін мінез-құлық ережелерін қатысты
мәтіндерді жинау - бхиккху қоғамдастық (парыз монахтар) және bhikkhunis
(парыз монах әйелдер).
ережелерін ғана тізімін қарағанда әлдеқайда көп, Виная Pitaka,
сондай-ақ үлкен және алуан рухани қоғамдастық шеңберінде коммуналдық
татулықты қалай сұраққа Будданың шешу толық шотын қамтамасыз ету, әрбір
ережеге шыққан артта әңгімелер кіреді.
сутта Pitaka
    
suttas
жинау, немесе дискурстар, Тхеравады буддизм барлық орталық ілімдерін
бар, Будда және оның ең жақын шәкірттерінің бірнеше жатқызылған.
(. Астам бір мың сутта аудармалар осы веб-сайтында қол жетімді) suttas бес nikayas (жинақтар) арасында бөлінеді:

        ДН оның Мадджхиманикая - «ұзын жинау»
        
Majjhima оның Мадджхиманикая - «орташа ұзындығы жинағы»
        
Samyutta оның Мадджхиманикая - «топтастырылған жинау»
        
Anguttara оның Мадджхиманикая - «одан әрі-ескерілетін жинағы»
        
Khuddaka оның Мадджхиманикая - «кішкентай мәтіндерді жинау»:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Дхаммападе
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
сутта Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (тек Tipitaka туралы Бирма редакцияда енгізілген)
            
Petakopadesa ( «»)
            
Milindapañha ( «»)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Сутта Pitaka ұсынылған базалық доктринальных принциптері ақыл мен
мәселенің сипатына тергеу үшін қолданылуы мүмкін жүйелі аясында ішіне
қайта өңделіп, қайта ұйымдастырылған, онда мәтіндерді жинау.

одан әрі оқу үшін

    Қайдан толық Палийском (Tipitaka) көшірмесін табуға болады? (Жиі қойылатын сұрақ)
    
Post-канондық Пали әдебиетке Field нұсқаулығы: Tipitaka Beyond
    
Пали тілінде оқу құралдары әрбір деңгейдегі Пали студенттерге пайдалы болуы мүмкін сілтемелер ұсынады.
    
(: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994 Коломбо) Somapala Jayawardhana арқылы Пали әдебиеті анықтамалығы. Canon ең маңызды межелердің толық сипаттамасымен Палийском арқылы сөздік бағыттауыш түріндегі,.
    
Палийском, Рассел Webb, ЭД талдау. (Қанды: будда жариялау Қоғам, 1975). Таптырмайтын «Жол картасы» және Палийском жоспары. аты бойынша suttas листингілік тамаша индексі бар.
    
Tipitaka, U Ко жатып, бұйымдары нұсқаулық. (Дели: Шри Satguru Жарияланымдар, 1990). көптеген маңызды suttas қысқаша мазмұны бар Tipitaka Тағы тамаша құрылым.
    
Nyanatiloka Mahathera (: будда жариялау Қоғам, 1980 Қанды) арқылы будда сөздігі. Тхеравады буддизм маңызды терминдер мен ұғымдардың классикалық анықтамасы.


52) Classical Khmer
52) ខ្មែរបុរាណ

2209 ពុធ 26 មេសាឆ្នាំ 2017 មេរៀនទី

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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
សៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់
នេះបិដកបាលី
© 2005
សូមមើលផងដែរសន្ទស្សន៍សូត្រ; ប្រែសម្រួលដោយអ្នកបកប្រែ

    វិន
    
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នេះជាសៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់
(អង្គការតម្លាភាពបាលី “បី” + បិដក “ល្អី”)
ឬបាលីគឺជាបណ្ដុំនៃអត្ថបទជាភាសាបាលីបឋមដែលបង្កើតគ្រឹះគោលលទ្ធិនៃពុទ្ធសាសនាថេរវាទនេះ។
នេះជាសៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់និងអត្ថបទ paracanonical បាលី (អត្ថាធិប្បាយ,
កាលប្បវត្តិល) បានរួមគ្នាបង្កើតបានជារាងកាយពេញលេញនៃអត្ថបទបុរាណថេរវាទ។

បិដកបាលីជាធំនៃអក្សរសិល្ប៍: នៅក្នុងការបកប្រែភាសាអង់គ្លេសអត្ថបទនេះបន្ថែមរហូតដល់ទៅរាប់ពាន់នាក់នៃទំព័រដែលបានបោះពុម្ព។ ភាគច្រើន (ប៉ុន្តែមិនមែនទាំងអស់) នៃក្រុមហ៊ុន Canon បានត្រូវបានបោះពុម្ពរួចហើយនៅក្នុងភាសាអង់គ្លេសប៉ុន្មានឆ្នាំមកនេះ។ ទោះបីជាមានតែមួយភាគតូចនៃអត្ថបទទាំងនេះគឺអាចប្រើបាននៅលើគេហទំព័រនេះ, ការប្រមូលនេះអាចជាកន្លែងល្អមួយដើម្បីចាប់ផ្តើម។

ផ្នែកទាំងបីនៃសៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់គឺ:

វិន័យបិដក
    
ការប្រមូលផ្ដុំនៃអត្ថបទទាក់ទងនឹងច្បាប់នៃការប្រព្រឹត្ដគ្រប់គ្រងកិច្ចការប្រចាំថ្ងៃក្នុងរយៈពេលសង្ឃ
- សហគមន៍នៃ bhikkhus (ព្រះសង្ឃបានតែងតាំង) និង bhikkhunis
(ដូនជីបានតែងតាំង) នេះ។
គ្រាន់តែមកដល់ពេលនេះក្នុងបញ្ជីនៃច្បាប់មួយនេះផងដែររួមបញ្ចូលទាំងការវិន័យបិដករឿងរ៉ាវដែលនៅពីក្រោយក្បួនគ្នាជាប្រភពដើមនៃការ,

ការផ្តល់នូវគណនីលម្អិតនៃដំណោះស្រាយទៅនឹងសំណួររបស់ព្រះពុទ្ធអំពីរបៀបដើម្បីរក្សាការឃុំក្នុងសហគមន៍សុខដុមធំនិងខាងវិញ្ញាណចម្រុះនេះ។
សូត្របិដក
    
ការប្រមូលផ្ដុំនៃការសូត្រឬធម្មទេសនា,

កំណត់គុណលក្ខណៈព្រះពុទ្ធនិងមួយចំនួននៃពួកសិស្សជិតបំផុតរបស់គាត់ដែលមានការបង្រៀនកណ្តាលទាំងអស់នៃព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាថេរវាទ។
(បកប្រែជាសូត្រជាងមួយពាន់នាក់ដែលអាចរកបាននៅលើគេហទំព័រនេះ។ ) សូត្រគឺត្រូវបានចែកអោយមនុស្សប្រាំ Nikaya (ការប្រមូល):

        Digha Nikaya - “ការប្រមូលផ្ដុំជាយូរមកហើយ”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “ការប្រមូលផ្ដុំប្រវែងពាក់កណ្តាល”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “ការប្រមូលការដាក់ជាក្រុម”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “ការប្រមូលផ្ដុំបន្ថែមទៀត-កត្តា”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “ការប្រមូលផ្ដុំនៃអត្ថបទតិចតួច”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
សូត្រ Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (រួមបញ្ចូលតែប៉ុណ្ណោះនៅក្នុងការប្រកួតលើកភូមាពីសៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់នេះ)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

អភិធម្មបិដក
    
ការប្រមូលផ្ដុំនៃអត្ថបទដែលក្នុងនោះគោលការណ៍លទ្ធិមូលដ្ឋានបានបង្ហាញក្នុងសូត្របិដកត្រូវបានរៀបចំឡើងវិញទៅជានិងវិញប្រព័ន្ធមួយដែលក្របខ័ណ្ឌនេះអាចត្រូវបានអនុវត្តទៅការស៊ើបអង្កេតទៅក្នុងធម្មជាតិនៃចិត្តនិងបញ្ហានេះមួយ។

សម្រាប់ការអានបន្ថែមទៀត

    ដែលជាកន្លែងដែលខ្ញុំអាចរកឃើញច្បាប់ចម្លងនៃគម្ពីរបាលីពេញលេញ (សៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់) មួយ? (សំណួរដែលសួរជាញឹកញាប់)
    
លើសពីសៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់នេះ: មគ្គុទ្ទេវាលមួយដើម្បីអក្សរសាស្រ្តបាលីប៉ុស្តិ៍ផ្លូវការ
    
ជំនួយការសិក្សាភាសាបាលីផ្តល់នូវតំណភ្ជាប់ដែលអាចមានប្រយោជន៍ដល់សិស្សនិស្សិតកម្រិតគ្រប់បិដកសូត្រ។
    
សៀវភៅដៃនៃអក្សរសាស្រ្តបាលីដោយ Somapala Jayawardhana (កូឡុំបូ: Karunaratne និងកូន, Ltd, 1994) ។ មគ្គុទេសក៍មួយ, នៅក្នុងសំណុំបែបបទវចនានុក្រមតាមរយៈគម្ពីរបាលីជាមួយនឹងការរៀបរាប់លម្អិតនៃទីតាំងសំខាន់មួយនៅក្នុងក្រុមហ៊ុន Canon បាន។
    
ការវិភាគនៃបិដកបាលី, រ័សុលលោក Webb, ed ។ (Kandi: ផ្សព្វផ្សាយព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាសង្គមឆ្នាំ 1975) ។ មួយ “ផែនទីបង្ហាញផ្លូវ” មិនអាចខ្វះបាននិងគ្រោងនៃគម្ពីរបាលី។ មានសន្ទស្សន៍ល្អឥតខ្ចោះឈ្មោះសូត្រតាមឈ្មោះ។
    
សៀវភៅណែនាំសៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់, លោក U កូឡាយ, ed ។ (វដេលី: ស្រី Satguru បោះពុម្ពផ្សាយឆ្នាំ 1990) ។ គ្រោងនៃសៀវភៅពុទ្ធសាសនាពន្យល់ល្អមួយទៀតដែលជាសេចក្តីសង្ខេបនៃការសូត្រដែលមានសារៈសំខាន់ជាច្រើន។
    
ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាវចនានុក្រមដោយ Nyanatiloka Mahatheras (Kandi: សង្គមផ្សព្វផ្សាយព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា, 1980) ។ សៀវភៅបុរាណនៃការសំខាន់និងគំនិតលក្ខខណ្ឌក្នុងពុទ្ធសាសនាថេរវាទ។

53) Classical Korean

53) 고전 한국어

2209 수요일 2017 년 4 월 26 일 수요일

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우리가 알고있는 모든 언어로

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
팁 타카
팔리 캐논
© 2005
Sutta Index도 참조하십시오. 번역사에 의한 번역

    
    
DN
    
미네소타
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    

    
Iti
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
태그
    

    
Nm
    
밀른

Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,”+ pitaka, “baskets”) 또는 Pali canon은 Theravada 불교의 교리 적 토대를 구성하는 주요 Pali 언어 텍스트 모음입니다. Tipitaka와 paracanonical Pali 텍스트 (해설, 연대기 등)는 고전 Theravada 텍스트의 완전한 본문을 구성합니다.

팔리 캐논은 광대 한 문학 작품입니다. 영문 번역본에서이 텍스트는 수천 쪽의 인쇄 된 페이지를 더합니다. Canon의 대부분 (전부는 아니지만)은 이미 수 년 동안 영어로 출간되었습니다. 이 웹 사이트에서는이 텍스트 중 일부만을 사용할 수 있지만이 컬렉션은 시작하기에 좋은 장소입니다.

Tipitaka의 세 가지 부문은 다음과 같습니다.

비나 야 피타카
    
승가 (안수받은 승려)와 비구니 (비구니 수녀)의 공동체 인 Sangha 내의 일상 업무를 관장하는 행동 규칙에 관한 본문집. 단순한 규칙 목록 이상으로 Vinaya Pitaka는 크고 다양한 영적 공동체 내에서 공동의 조화를 유지하는 방법에 대한
질문에 대한 Buddha의 해결책에 대한 자세한 설명을 제공하면서 각 규칙의 근원 뒤에있는 이야기를 포함합니다.
수타 피타카
    
부처님과 그의 가장 가까운 제자 중 일부가 테라 베다 (Theravada) 불교의 모든 중심 가르침을 담고있는 suttas 또는 담론의 모음. (이 웹 사이트에서는 수천 개의 번역이 가능합니다.) sutta는 다섯 개의 니카야 (모음집)로 나뉘어져 있습니다.

        Digha Nikaya - “긴 컬렉션”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “중간 길이 컬렉션”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “그룹화 된 컬렉션”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “추가 요소 모음”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “작은 텍스트 모음”:
            
쿠드 다 카파타
            
담마 파다
            
우다 나
            
Itivuttaka
            
수타 니 파타
            
비마 나 밧투
            
Petavatthu
            
테라 가타
            
테리 가타
            
자타 카
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
아빠 다나
            
Buddhavamsa
            
카리 야피 타카
            
Nettippakarana (Tipitaka의 버마어 판에만 포함됨)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

아비 하마 마 피타카
    
수타 피타카 (Sutta Pitaka)에 제시된 근본적인 교리 원리가 재구성되고 마음과 물질의 본질에 대한 조사에 적용될 수있는 체계적인 틀로 재구성되는 본문 모음.

추가 읽기

    전체 팔리 캐논 (Tipi Taka)의 사본을 어디에서 찾을 수 있습니까? (자주 묻는 질문)
    
Tipitaka 너머 : 팔로 노 팔리 문학의 필드 가이드
    
Pali Language Study Aids는 모든 수준의 Pali 학생들에게 유용한 링크를 제공합니다.
    
Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo : Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994)의 Pali 문학 핸드북. 팔리 캐논 (Pali canon)을 통한 사전 형식의 안내서로, 캐논의 주요 랜드 마크에 대한 자세한 설명이 포함되어 있습니다.
    
Pali Canon의 분석, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy : 불교 출판 협회, 1975). 팔리 캐논의 필수적인 “로드맵”과 개요. sutta를 이름순으로 나열한 훌륭한 색인이 들어 있습니다.
    
Tipitaka 가이드, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi : Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). 많은 중요한 sutta의 개요를 포함하는 Tipitaka의 또 다른 우수한 개요.
    
불교 사전, Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy : Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). Theravada 불교에서 중요한 용어와 개념에 대한 고전적인 수첩.

54) Classical Kurdish(Kurmanji)

54) Kurdish Classical (Kurmanji)

2209 Wed, 26 Apr 2017 êsh

Bila ji me re vê Google wergeran bi bikaranîna https://translate.google.com lê agadar
Di hemû zimanan de em dizanin.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
Binêre Index Sutta; Wergerên destê Translator

    vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
ud
    
iti
    
sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
überlegt
    
thig
    
nm
    
Miln

The
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “sê,” + pitaka, “selik”), an jî Pali canon,
berhevkirina metnên seretayî zimanê Pali ku bingeha a doktrînal ên
Theravada Budîzm avakirina ye.
The Tipitaka û tekstên paracanonical Pali (şiroveyên, serpêhatiyan, û
hwd.) Bi hev re di bedenê bi temamî ji tekstên klasîk Theravada pêk
tînin.

The Pali canon bedena mezin yên wêjeya e: in English werger tekstên lê zêde bike ji bo bi hezaran pages çapkirin. Most (lê ne hemû) ji Canon hatiye jixwe di English sal bi sal weşandin. Tevî ku bi tenê beşeke biçûk ji van nivîsên li ser vê malperê de
berdest in, ev collection dikare bibe cihekî baş ji bo destpêkirina.

The sê cudahîyên ji Tipitaka in:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
The
collection of nivîsên li ser qaîdeyên peyrewa desthilat û karûbarên
rojane di nava Sangha - civaka ji bhikkhus (Rahîb tengî) û bhikkhunis
(rahîbeyan bianiya).
Niha bêtirî tenê lîsteya rêzikan, di Vinaya Pitaka jî di nav de
çîrokên li pey koka her serwerî, pêşkêşkirina bi hûrgulî yên çareseriyê
Buddha ya li ser pirsa ka ji bo parastina ahengek komunal di nava civatê
de mezin û cur bi cur giyanî ye.
Sutta Pitaka
    
The
collection of suttas, an jî gotinên wek, bi jîder, li Buddha û çend yên
herî nêzîk şagirtên wî, dihewînin, hemû hînkirinên navendî ya Theravada
Budîzm.
(More zêdeyî hezar dikarî wergerên di sutta li ser vê malperê de berdest in.) The suttas bi nav pênc nikayas (Paş) de dabeş:

        Digha Nikaya - ya “collection dirêj”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - ya “collection navîn-length”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - ya “collection kom”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - ya “collection bêhtir-hesabkirin”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - ya “collection of nivîsên kurt”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (di nav de bi tenê di çapa Burmese ji Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Berhevkirina tekstên ku di nav prensîbên a doktrînal bingehîn pêşkêş
di Sutta Pitaka bi reworked û birêxistin nav çarçoveya sîstematîk ku
dikare ji bo ku lêkolîneke li ser xwezayê ji hiş û madeyê Bûrsayê dan.

Ji bo xwendina zêdetir

    Ez dikarim li ku nisxeyek ji temam Pali canon (Tipitaka) peyde bikim? (Question tên Pirsîn)
    
Beyond li Tipitaka: A Guide Field ji bo Wêje Pali Post-canonical
    
Pali Ziman Mijar Aids offers links ku dikane kêrhatî be ji bo xwendekarên Pali ji her astê.
    
Handbook yên edebiyata Pali, destê Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A rêber, di forma ferhenga me de, bi riya Pali canon, bi ravekirinên berfireh yên qralîtîyê mezin di Canon.
    
An Analysis of the Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Bilawkirawe Budîst Society, 1975). An pęwîst “nexşeya rê” û outline ji Pali canon. Têda pêristek baş lîsta suttas by name.
    
Nasandina Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Munde Publications, 1990). Din jî diyarkirina baş ji Tipitaka, dihewînin, berbiçav, ya gelek suttas girîng e.
    
Budîst, ferheng, ji ​​aliyê Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Civak gel Budîst, 1980). A wêra klasîk ji alî girîng û têgehan li Theravada Budîzm.


55) Classical Kyrgyz
55) Классикалык Кыргыз

2209 Wed, 26 Apr 2017-бөлүм

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бардык тилдерде биз билебиз.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Трипитака
Pali Canon
© 2005
Кара Sutta Index; Котормочу тарабынан Translations

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
Уд
    
ички бөлүмдү жабуу
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Ж m
    
Милн

Трипитака
(Pali Ti, “үч” + pitaka, “себет”), же Pali канонду Theravada буддизм
окууларга пайдубалын түзгөн негизги Pali тилиндеги тексттердин
жыйындысы.
Трипитака жана paracanonical Pali тексттер (сереп, Жылнаама, ж.б.)
чогуу классикалык Theravada тексттерди толугу менен денени түзөт.

Pali канону адабият зор органы болуп саналат: кыргызча котормо тексттер беттен ми кошуу. Көпчүлүгү (бирок бардыгы эмес) канонуна байланыштуу буга чейин эле көп жылдар бою англис тилинде жарык көрдү. Бул интернет-сайтта берилген бул тексттерди аз гана үлүшү бар, бирок, бул чогултуу баштоо үчүн жакшы жер болот.

Трипитака үч бөлүмдөрү:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Аграгами
ичинде күндөлүк иштерин жөнгө салуучу жүрүш-туруш эрежелерин тиешелүү
тексттерди чогултуу - bhikkhus коомчулук (койгон монахтар) жана
bhikkhunis (койгон кечил).
эрежелердин эле тизмесине караганда алда канча көп, Vinaya Pitaka
ошондой эле чоң жана ар түрдүү рухий жамааттын ичинде коммуналдык
ынтымакты сактоого кантип пайда болгон деген суроого Будды чечүү жөнүндө
толугу менен камсыз кылуу, ар бир бийлик келип артында окуяларды
камтыйт.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Theravada
буддизм бардык борбордук окууларды камтыган Будда жана анын жакын бир
нече шакирттери таандык suttas же баяндамалар, чогултуу,.
(Дагы бир киши Sutta котормолордо бул сайтында жеткиликтүү.) Suttas беш nikayas арасында бөлүнөт (жыйнак):

        Digha Nikaya - “көп чогултуу”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “орто узундугу чогултуу”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “топторго чогултуу”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - “мындан ары-эске чогултуу”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “кичинекей тексттердин жыйындысы”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Удана
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (гана Трипитака боюнча Бирмалык жана толуктоолор киргизилген)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
акыл-эс жана заттын чыныгы жүзү иликтөө колдонулушу мүмкүн Sutta
Pitaka берилген негизги окууларга негиздери системалуу алкагында кирип
иштеп чыгуу жана кайрадан уюшулган турган тексттердин жыйындысы.

Өз алдынча окуу үчүн

    Кайдан толук Pali канонуна (Трипитака) бир нускасын табууга болот? (Суроо ар дайым)
    
Трипитака Beyond: Post канондук Pali адабияты үчүн талаа колдонмодо
    
Pali тил изилдөө жардам ар бир денгээлдеги Pali студенттер үчүн пайдалуу боло шилтемелер сунуш кылат.
    
Pali адабиятынын окуу куралы, Somapala Jayawardhana тарабынан (Коломбо: Karunaratne & уулдарын, Ltd., 1994). Канан негизги таанымал толук сыпаттама менен жол, сөздүк түрүндө, Pali канонуна аркылуу.
    
Pali Канан анализи, Рассел Webb, ред. (Канды: Буддизм Publication Society, 1975). Pali канонуна ажырагыс “жол картасынын” жана схема. аты менен аталып suttas сонун индекси камтыйт.
    
Трипитака, U Ko Лей, педагогдордун көрсөтмө. (Дели: Шри Бекчоро Publications, 1990). көптөгөн маанилүү suttas боюнча корутундуларын камтыган Трипитака дагы мыкты схема.
    
Буддизм Dictionary, Nyanatiloka Mahathera тарабынан (Канди: Буддизм Publication Society, 1980). Theravada буддизмде маанилүү терминдер жана түшүнүктөр классикалык колдонмо.


56) Classical Lao
56) ລາວຄລາສສິກ

2209 ພຸດ 26 ເມຍະ 2017 ບົດທີ

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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
ພາສາບາລີ Canon
© 2005
ເບິ່ງຍັງ Sutta Index; ການແປພາສາແປພາສາໂດຍ

    ເຫລົ້າ
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    KHP
    
Dhp
    
Ud
    
Iti
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
Milne

The
Tipitaka (ພາສາບາລີ ti, “ສາມ” + pitaka, “ກະຕ່າ”), ຫຼືພາສາບາລີ canon,
ເປັນການເກັບກໍາຂອງປະຖົມພາສາປາລີບົດເລື່ອງທີ່ປະກອບເປັນພື້ນຖານຫຼັກຄໍາສອນຂອງນິກາຍເຖຣະວາດສະຫນາພຸດໄດ້.
The Tipitaka ແລະ paracanonical ພາສາປາລີບົດເລື່ອງ (ຄໍາ, ພົງສາວະດານ,
ແລະອື່ນໆ) ຮ່ວມກັນປະກອບຂອງຮ່າງກາຍທີ່ສົມບູນຂອງຄລາສສິກນິກາຍເຖຣະວາດເທັກສຕິງ.

ພາສາບາລີ canon ແມ່ນເປັນກຸ່ມໃຫຍ່ຂອງວັນນະຄະດີ: ໃນການແປພາສາອັງກິດບົດເລື່ອງຕ່າງໆທີ່ເພີ່ມສູງເຖິງຫລາຍພັນຫນ້າພິມ. ສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ (ແຕ່ບໍ່ແມ່ນທັງຫມົດ) ຂອງ Canon ໄດ້ຮັບການຈັດພີມມາຢູ່ໃນພາສາອັງກິດໃນໄລຍະປີທີ່ຜ່ານມາ. ເຖິງແມ່ນວ່າພຽງແຕ່ເປັນອັດຕາສ່ວນຫນ້ອຍຂອງບົດເລື່ອງຕ່າງໆເຫຼົ່ານີ້ແມ່ນມີຢູ່ໃນເວັບໄຊທ໌ດັ່ງກ່າວນີ້,
ການເກັບກໍານີ້ສາມາດເປັນສະຖານທີ່ທີ່ດີເພື່ອເລີ່ມຕົ້ນການ.

ສາມພະແນກຂອງ Tipitaka ແມ່ນ:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
ເກັບກໍາຂໍ້ມູນຂອງບົດເລື່ອງຕ່າງໆທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບກົດລະບຽບການປະພຶດຂອງການຄຸ້ມຄອງກິດຈະການປະຈໍາວັນພາຍໃນ
Sangha ໄດ້ - ຊຸມຊົນຂອງ bhikkhus (ສົງແຕ່ງຕັ້ງ) ແລະ bhikkhunis
(ພິກຂຸຮັບການແຕ່ງຕັ້ງ) ໄດ້.
ໄກຫຼາຍກ່ວາພຽງແຕ່ບັນຊີລາຍຊື່ລະບຽບການ, ການ Vinaya Pitaka
ຍັງລວມເຖິງເລື່ອງທີ່ຢູ່ເບື້ອງຫລັງການກໍາເນີດຂອງແຕ່ລະກົດ,
ສະຫນອງບັນຊີລາຍລະອຽດຂອງການແກ້ໄຂພຣະພຸດທະເຈົ້າຄໍາຖາມຂອງວິທີການຮັກສາຄວາມສາມັກຄີຂອງຊຸມຊົນພາຍໃນຊຸມຊົນທາງວິນຍານຂະຫນາດໃຫຍ່ແລະຫຼາກຫຼາຍຊະນິດ.
Sutta Pitaka
    
ເກັບກໍາຂໍ້ມູນຂອງ
Sutta ຫລືສົນທະນາ,
ປະກອບກັບພຣະພຸດທະເຈົ້າແລະບໍ່ພໍເທົ່າໃດຂອງສານຸສິດກ່ຽວກັບປາລາວ,
ທີ່ມີທັງຫມົດສອນຂອງສູນກາງຂອງນິກາຍເຖຣະວາດສະຫນາພຸດ.
(ອ່ານຕໍ່ກ່ວາຫນຶ່ງພັນແປ Sutta ແມ່ນມີຢູ່ໃນເວັບໄຊທ໌ນີ້.) The Sutta ໄດ້ຖືກແບ່ງອອກໃນບັນດາຫ້າ nikayas (ເກັບ):

        Digha Nikaya - ການ “ການເກັບກໍາດົນນານ”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - ການ “ການເກັບກໍາເຄິ່ງກາງຂອງຄວາມຍາວປາ”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - ການ “ການເກັບກໍາຈັດ”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - ການ “ການເກັບກໍາເພີ່ມເຕີມ, ປັດໃຈ”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - ການ “ການເກັບກໍາຂອງບົດເລື່ອງຕ່າງໆເລັກນ້ອຍ”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (ລວມພຽງແຕ່ໃນສະບັບພະມ່າຂອງ Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
ເກັບກໍາຂໍ້ມູນຂອງບົດເລື່ອງຕ່າງໆທີ່ບັນດາຫຼັກການພຣະຄໍາພີ Doctrine
ທີ່ຕິດພັນນໍາສະເຫນີໃນ Sutta Pitaka
ກໍາລັງປັບປຸງໃຫມ່ແລະຈັດເຂົ້າໄປໃນໂຄງຮ່າງການເປັນລະບົບທີ່ສາມາດໄດ້ຮັບການນໍາໃຊ້ກັບການສືບສວນເຂົ້າໄປໃນລັກສະນະຂອງຈິດໃຈແລະບັນຫານີ້.

ສໍາລັບການອ່ານເພີ່ມເຕີມ

    ບ່ອນທີ່ຂ້າພະເຈົ້າສາມາດຊອກຫາສໍາເນົາຂອງສະບັບສົມບູນພາສາບາລີ canon (Tipitaka) ບໍ? (ຄໍາຖາມທີ່ຖາມເລື້ອຍໆ)
    
ນອກເຫນືອຈາກການ Tipitaka: A ຄູ່ມືພາກສະຫນາມກັບວັນນະຄະດີພາສາປາລີ Post-canonical
    
ພາສາບາລີພາສາການສຶກສາຊ່ວຍດ້ານສະຫນອງການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ທີ່ອາດຈະເປັນປະໂຫຍດກັບນັກສຶກສາພາສາບາລີຂອງແຕ່ລະຂັ້ນ.
    
Handbook of ວັນນະຄະດີພາສາປາລີໂດຍ Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd, 1994). A ຄູ່ມື, ໃນຮູບແບບຈະນານຸກົມ, ໂດຍຜ່ານພາສາບາລີ canon, ມີຄໍາອະທິບາຍລາຍລະອຽດຂອງສະຖານທີ່ທີ່ສໍາຄັນໃນ Canon.
    
ການວິເຄາະພາສາບາລີ Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). ເປັນສິ່ງທີ່ຂາດບໍ່ “ແຜນ” ແລະໂຄງການພາສາບາລີ canon. ປະກອບດ້ວຍດັດຊະນີທີ່ດີເລີດເມດ Sutta ໂດຍຊື່.
    
ຄູ່ມືກ່ຽວກັບ Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: ສີ Satguru Publications, 1990). ອີກປະການຫນຶ່ງ outline ທີ່ດີເລີດຂອງ Tipitaka, ມີສະຫຼຸບຂອງ Sutta ທີ່ສໍາຄັນຈໍານວນຫຼາຍ.
    
Buddhist Dictionary ໂດຍ Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: ສະມາຄົມພຸດທະສາ Publication, 1980). A ຄູ່ມືຄລາສສິກຂອງຂໍ້ກໍານົດທີ່ສໍາຄັນແລະແນວຄວາມຄິດໃນນິກາຍເຖຣະວາດສະຫນາພຸດ.

57) Classical Latin
LVII) Classical Latin


Sat Apr MMCCIX XXVI O MMXVII

Ne nobis hoc corrigere Number usura Google https://translate.google.com
per omnium linguarum histriones non scire.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Canon est Pali
© MMV
Vide etiam Sutta Index: In Latin Vulgate

    vIII
    
ad DN,
    
MN;
    
SN
    
A
    
KN,

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
ud
    
iti
    
sn
    
vV
    
pv
    
thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
miln

Et
Tipitaka (t Pali, “tria” + pitaka: “canistra”), Canon, sive Pali est
quod formare congeriem doctrinalium fundamenta primaria Pali lingua
texts ex Theravada Buddhismus.
Pali paracanonical Tipitaka et in locis (commentariis Paralipomenon c) Theravada Classical Texts simul totum corpus.

Canon ita constitutus est multitudo hominum in Pali litterae: in Latina translatione textuum typis addere usque millibus pages. Maxime (sed non omnes) de Canone esse iam editis Anglice super annis. Etsi haec non parva fraction of texts on this website praesto sint, haec collectio potest esse bonus locus ut satus.

Tipitaka tres partes sunt

Vinaya Pitaka
    
A collection of texts de rebus in cotidiana agendi regulas quae ad
gubernandum Sangha - the community of bhikkhus (ordinavit monachis) et
bhikkhunis (ordinavit nuns).
Sutta Pitaka
    
Suttas
collectio sive sermonibus de summa tribuenda Buddha paucos discipulos
praecipua continens doctrinae Theravada Buddhismus.
(Latin sutta Plus quam mille unum sunt available in hac website.) Quod suttas autem dividitur in quinque nikayas (collections)

        Digha Nikaya - in “collectio diu”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - in “medio-collectio longitudo ‘
        
Samyutta Nikaya - in “collatis collectio”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - in “collectio ultra-factored”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - in “collectio modicae texts ‘;
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (includitur in Burmese ex editione Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Quod collectio ex locis disceptemus, ubi Doctrinalia principia, quibus
in underlying Sutta Pitaka retractavit, incomposita non est in ratione
compage applicari potest ad quaestionem de animi natura et materia.

Adhuc enim Lectio

    Ubi possum invenire exemplum completum est Pali canonicus (Tipitaka)? (Frequenter Interrogata De Quaeritur)
    
Quam in Tipitaka: A Rector ut Post-canonicum Field Pali Books
    
Pali Language AIDS nexibus offert gradu studiosis utilis pali.
    
Pali De Literarum per Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons Ltd., MCMXCIV). A dux in dictionary forma, per Canon Pali, cum detailed descriptiones major ad terminos transtulerunt in Canon.
    
An Analysis de Pali Canon, Webb Cicero, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Latin: MCMLXXV). Haud neglegendum “roadmap” umbram imaginemque Pali ad Canonem formandum flagitatur. Index suttas quicquid sexus est optimum habet nomen.
    
Dux Tipitaka, Laicorum Ko U, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publishing, MCMXC). Alius Tipitaka forma excellentes, quibus magni momenti multorum summaria suttas.
    
Buddhist dictionary per Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Latin, MCMLXXX). A classic verba libri, et de momenti rationes in Theravada Buddhismus.

58) Classical Latvian

58) Klasiskā latviešu

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 NODARBĪBA

Ļaujiet mums atrisināt šo Google Translation izmantojot https://translate.google.com
visās valodās, mēs zinām.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali Canon
© 2005
Skatīt arī Sutta indekss; Tulkojumi tulkotājs

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    

    
KN

    Khp
    
DHP
    
UD
    
iti
    
Sn
    
Vv
    
pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
nm
    
Miln

Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “trīs,” + pitaka, “grozi”), vai Pali kanonu, ir kolekcija
primāro Pali valodas tekstiem, kas veido doktrinālajam pamatu Theravada
budisma.
Tipitaka un paracanonical Pali teksti (komentāri, hronikas, uc) kopā veido pilnīgu ķermeņa klasiskā Theravada tekstu.

Pali kanons ir lielākā organizācija literatūras: angļu tulkojumā teksti pievienot līdz tūkstošiem izdrukāto lapu. Lielākā daļa (bet ne visi) no Canon jau ir publicēts angļu gadu gaitā. Kaut arī ir pieejami tikai neliela daļa no šiem tekstiem šajā mājas lapā, šī kolekcija var būt laba vieta, kur sākt.

Trīs nodaļas no Tipitaka ir:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
No
tekstiem, kas attiecas uz profesionālās ētikas normas, kas regulē
ikdienas lietas ietvaros Sanga kolekcija - kopienai bhikkhus (ordinēti
mūkiem) un bhikkhunis (ordinēti mūķenes).
Daudz vairāk nekā tikai sarakstu noteikumiem, Vinaya Pitaka arī
stāstus aiz izcelsmi katra noteikuma, kas sniedz detalizētu atskaiti par
Budas risinājumu jautājumam par to, kā saglabāt komunālo harmoniju ar
lielu un daudzveidīgu garīgo kopienu.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Par
suttas jeb diskursiem savākšana, attiecina uz Budas un daži no viņa
tuvākajiem mācekļiem, kas satur visas centrālās mācības Theravada
budisma.
(Vairāk nekā viens tūkstotis sutta tulkojumi ir pieejami šajā
tīmekļa vietnē.) Par suttas ir sadalītas starp piecām nikayas
(kolekcijas):

        Digha Nikaya - “garais kolekcija”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - par “vidēja garuma kolekcija”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - par “grupēts kolekcija”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - uz “turpmāku-ņemti kolekcija”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - par “kolekcija maz tekstu”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (iekļauts tikai Birmas izdevuma Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
To tekstu, kura pamatā vienā otrā Sutta Pitaka Doktrīnā principi
pārstrādājis un reorganizēto sistemātiskā sistēmu, kas var tikt
piemērots ar izmeklēšanu prāta dabas un lietu kolekcija.

Plašāku

    Kur es varu atrast kopiju pilnīgu Pali kanonu (Tipitaka)? (Biežāk uzdotie jautājumi)
    
Ārpus Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-kanoniskās Pali literatūrā
    
Pali Valodu Mācību palīglīdzekļi piedāvā saites, kas var būt noderīga, lai Pali studentiem katrā līmenī.
    
Handbook of Pali literatūra, ko Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). Rokasgrāmata, vārdnīcā veidā, izmantojot Pali kanonu, ar detalizētu aprakstu par galvenajām orientierus Canon.
    
Analīze Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: budistu Izdošanas Society, 1975). Neaizstājams “ceļvedis”, un kontūru Pali kanona. Satur lielisku indeksu uzskaitot suttas pēc nosaukuma.
    
Ceļvedis Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, izd. (Deli: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Vēl viens lielisks izklāsts Tipitaka satur kopsavilkumus daudziem svarīgiem suttas.
    
Budistu Dictionary, ko Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandi: budistu Izdošanas Society, 1980). Klasisks Rokasgrāmata svarīgu terminu un jēdzienu Theravada budisma.

59) Classical Lithuanian

59) Klasikinė lietuvių

2209 Tr Bal 26, 2017 PAMOKA

Leiskite mums ištaisyti šią “Google” vertimas Naudodami https://translate.google.com
visomis kalbomis žinome.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali “Canon”
© 2005
taip pat žr Sutta puslapis; Vertimai pagal Vertėjas

    vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
S.
    

    
K.

    KHP
    
DHP
    
UD
    
iti
    
SN
    
vv
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
nm
    
Miln

Tipitaka
(pali TI “, trys,” + “pitaka” krepšeliai “), arba Pali kanonas, yra
pirminių Pali tekstų, sudarančių doktrinos pagrindą Theravada budizmo
kolekcija.
Tipitaka ir paracanonical Pali tekstų (komentarai, kronikos, ir tt) kartu sudaro užbaigtą kūną klasikinių Theravada tekstų.

Pali kanonas yra didžioji kūno literatūros: vertimas į anglų kalbą tekstus pridėti iki tūkstančių spausdintų puslapių. Dauguma (bet ne visi) į Canon jau buvo paskelbta anglų kalba per metus. Nors tik nedidelė dalis šių tekstų galima rasti šioje svetainėje, ši kolekcija gali būti gera vieta pradėti.

Trys skyriai Tipitaka yra:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Tekstų,
susijusių su elgesio taisykles, reglamentuojančias kasdienius reikalus
viduje Sangha kolekcija - iš bhikkhus (įšventintas vienuoliai) ir
bhikkhunis (įšventintas vienuolės) bendruomenė.
Kur kas daugiau nei vien tik iš taisyklių sąrašą, Vinaya Pitaka taip
pat apima istorijas už kiekvieno taisyklė kilmės, teikti išsamią
ataskaitą apie Budos tirpalą į klausimą, kaip išlaikyti bendruomenės
harmoniją per didelis ir įvairus dvasinės bendruomenės klausimą.
Sutta Pitaka
    

suttas ar diskursų kolekcija, priskirta Budos ir keletas jo artimiausių
mokinių, kurių sudėtyje yra visos centrines mokymus Theravada budizmo.
(Daugiau nei tūkstantis Sutta vertimai galima rasti šioje svetainėje. Lt) suttas yra padalinta tarp penkių nikayas (kolekcijų):

        Digha Nikaya - “ilgas kolekcija”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “Vidurio ilgio kolekcija”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - į “sugrupuoti kolekcija”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - į “toliau-atsižvelgta kolekcija”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - į “kolekcija mažai tekstų”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (įskaitant tik Birmos leidime Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Tekstų, kurioje pagrindinės pateikti į Sutta Pitaka doktrinos
principus perdarytas ir reorganizuota į sistemingai sistemą, kuri gali
būti taikomas tyrimą proto ir materijos prigimties kolekcija.

Tolesnio skaitymo

    Kur galiu rasti visą Pali kanono (Tipitaka) kopiją? (Dažniausiai užduodamas klausimas)
    
Be Tipitaka: A Field Turistinis vadovas po po kanoninio Pali literatūros
    
Pali Tyrimas AIDS siūlo nuorodos, kad gali būti naudinga Pali studentams kiekviename lygmenyje.
    
Vadovas Pali literatūros, kurią Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd, 1994). Vadovas, žodyną forma, per Pali kanono, su detaliais pagrindinių orientyrų CANON.
    
Kad, Pali kanonas analizė, Russellas Webb ED. (Kandis: budistų Leidinys draugija, 1975). Nepakeičiamas “planas” ir kontūrai iš Pali kanono. Sudėtyje yra puikus rodiklis aukcione suttas vardu.
    
Turistinis vadovas po Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delis: Šri Satguru Leidiniai, 1990). Dar vienas puikus planas iš Tipitaka, kurių sudėtyje santraukas daug svarbių suttas.
    
Budistų žodynas, kurį Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: budistų Leidinys draugija, 1980). Klasikinis vadovas svarbių terminų ir sąvokų Theravada budizmo.

60) Classical Luxembourgish

60) Klassik Lëtzebuergesch

2209 Tue 26 abr 2017 Lektioun

Loosst eis dat Google Iwwersetzung richteg benotzt https://translate.google.com
an alle Sproochen wëssen mir.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
D’PaliName Canon
© 2005
Kuckt och Sutta Index; Iwwersetzunge vun Iwwersetzer

    Vin
    
DN
    
Punktzuel
    
SN
    
AN
    
kN

    Khp
    
Dhp
    
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erëm ITI
    
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Thag
    
Thig
    
nm
    
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D’Tipitaka
(PaliName TI, “dräi,” + pitaka, “Kuerf”), oder PaliName Canon, ass
d’Kollektioun vun der Primärschoul Texter PaliName Sprooch déi Bräichte
Fëllement vun Theravada Buddhismus Form.
D’Tipitaka an der paracanonical PaliName Texter (Kommentare,
Chroniken, etc.) zesumme wor den komplett Kierper vun der klassescher
Theravada Texter.

D’PaliName
Canon ass e grousse Kierper vun Literatur: an englesch Iwwersetzung
d’Texter ze dausende vun gedréckt Säiten Artikel huet.
Meeschter (mä net all) vun der Canon huet schonn an Englesch iwwer d’Joer publizéiert ginn. Obwuel nëmmen enger Ëmwandlung vun dësen Texter op dëser Websäit
disponibel sinn, kann dës Kollektioun eng gutt Plaz fir Start ginn.

Déi dräi Divisioune vun der Tipitaka sinn:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
D’Kollektioun
vun Texter d’Regele vum Behuelen betreffend d’deeglech Affären am
Sangha Regéieren - d’Communautéit vun bhikkhus (geweit Mönche) an
bhikkhunis (geweit Nonnen).
Wäit méi wéi just eng Lëscht mat Regelen, déi Vinaya Pitaka ëmfaasst
och d’Geschichte hannert der Origine vun all Regel, eng detailléiert
Kont vum Buddha senger Léisung bei der Fro wéi déi Gemengerot Harmonie
bannent enger grousser Objeten geeschtege Communautéit ze erhalen.
Sutta Pitaka
    
D’Kollektioun
vun suttas, oder discourses, zougeschriwwen dem Buddha an e puer vun
sengem äerdnotste Jünger, all d’Mëtt Léier vu Theravada Buddhismus mat.
(Méi wéi dausend sutta Iwwersetzungen sinn op dëser Websäit
sinn.) D’suttas ënner fënnef nikayas ënnerdeelt sinn (Kollektiounen):

        Digha Nikaya - de “laang Kollektioun”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - de “Mëtt-Längt Kollektioun”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - de “gruppéiere Kollektioun”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - de “weider-factored Kollektioun”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - de “Kollektioun vun kleng Texter”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
APADANA
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (nëmmen am Birmanesch Editioun vun der Tipitaka abegraff)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
D’Sammlung vun Texter, an deer d’Basisdaten Bräichte mir am Sutta
Pitaka presentéiert Prinzipien gläich zwou sinn an ugefaangen an eng
systematesch Kader déi op eng Enquête an d’Natur vun de Sënn an egal
applizéiert gin kann.

Fir weider liesen

    Wou kann ech eng Kopie vun der komplett PaliName Canon (Tipitaka) fannen? (Dacks Gestallt Froen)
    
Doriwwer eraus d’Tipitaka: A Field Guide ze Post-kanonesch PaliName Literatur
    
PaliName Sprooch Sécuritéit Aids offréiert Linken déi bis PaliName Studenten vun all Niveau nëtzlech kann.
    
Handbuch vun PaliName Literatur, vun Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Jongen, Ltd., 1994). Eng guide, am Wierderbuch Form, duerch d’PaliName Canon, mat detailléiert vun der gréisser Äerdofplattung an der Canon.
    
Eng Analys vun der PaliName Canon, Russell Webb, Ed. (Kandy: buddhistesch Publikatioun Society, 1975). Eng onverzichtbar “feuille” an Profil vun der PaliName Canon. Enthält eng excellent Index Oplëschtung suttas vum Numm.
    
Guide ze Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, Ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publikatiounen, 1990). Aner exzellente Profil vun der Tipitaka, mat Zesummefaassungen vu ville wichtege suttas.
    
Buddhistesch schreiwen, vun Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: buddhistesch Publikatioun Society, 1980). Eng klassesch Handbuch vun wichteg Begrëffer a Konzepter an Theravada Buddhismus.


61) Classical Macedonian

61) Класични Македонски

2209 Сре 26 Апр 2017 година ЧАС

Дозволете ни да го исправите овој Google Преведувачки користење https://translate.google.com
на сите јазици што знаеме.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
На Пали Канон
© 2005
Видете исто така Сута индексот; Преводи од Преведувач

    Вин
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
НА
    
KN

    Khp
    
топланата
    
уд
    
iti
    
sn
    
вв
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
nm
    
Miln

На
Tipitaka (Пали ти “, три”, + pitaka “корпи”), или Пали Канон, е збир на
основниот јазик текстови Пали кои ја формираат основата на доктрината
на Theravada будизмот.
На Tipitaka и paracanonical Пали текстови (коментари, хроники, итн)
заедно ја сочинуваат целото тело на класична Theravada текстови.

На Пали Канон е голема количина на литература: англиски превод на текстови додаде до илјадници печатени страници. Повеќето (но не сите) од Canon веќе е објавена на англиски јазик во текот на годините. Иако само мал дел од овие текстови се достапни на овој веб-сајт, оваа колекција може да биде добро место за почеток.

Три поделби на Tipitaka се:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Колекцијата
на текстови во врска со правилата на однесување кои се регулира
секојдневно работи во Бразавил - заедницата на bhikkhus (ракоположен
монаси) и bhikkhunis (ракоположен калуѓерки).
Многу повеќе од само список на правила, Vinaya Pitaka исто така
вклучува и приказните зад потеклото на секоја власт, обезбедување
детална сметка за решение на Буда на прашањето за тоа како да се задржи
комунални хармонија во голема и разновидна духовна заедница.
Сута Pitaka
    
Собирањето
на suttas или дискурси, му се припишува на Буда и неколку од неговите
најблиски ученици, кои ги содржат сите централни учењата на Theravada
будизмот.
(Повеќе од илјада Сута преводи се достапни на оваа веб страница.) На suttas се поделени меѓу петте nikayas (збирки):

        Digha Nikaya - “долга колекција”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “собирање на средна должина”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - на “групирани колекција”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - на “дополнителни-констатирано колекција”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - “собирање на малку текстови”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Сута Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (вклучени само во Бурма издание на Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Собирањето на текстовите во кои основната доктрината принципи
презентирани во Сута Pitaka се преработил и реорганизирана во
систематска рамка која може да се примени на истрагата во врска со
природата на умот и материјата.

За натамошно читање

    Каде можам да најдам копија од комплетната Пали Канон (Tipitaka)? (Често поставувани прашања)
    
Надвор од Tipitaka: Водич поле на пост-канонско Пали литература
    
Пали јазик Студија СИДА нуди линкови кои можат да бидат корисни за Пали студентите на секое ниво.
    
Прирачник за Пали литература, со Somapala Jayawardhana (Коломбо: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd, 1994). Водич, во речникот форма, преку Пали Канон, со детални описи на главните знаменитости во Canon.
    
Анализа на Пали Канон, Расел Веб, ед. (Kandy: будистички Објавување општество, 1975). Неопходен “патоказ” и преглед на Пали Канон. Нуди одличен индекс на листата suttas по име.
    
Водич за Tipitaka, У Ко Леј, ед. (Делхи: Шри Satguru Публикации, 1990). Уште еден одличен преглед на Tipitaka, кои содржат резимеа на многу важни suttas.
    
Будистички речник, со Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: будистички Објавување општество, 1980). А класичен прирачник на важни термини и концепти во Theravada будизмот.


62) Classical Malagasy

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 LESONA

Aoka isika hanitsy izany Google Translation mampiasa https://translate.google.com
amin’ny fiteny rehetra fantatsika.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
Jereo koa Sutta Index; Anarana iombonana amin’ny Translator

    Vin
    
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MN
    
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AN
    
kn

    Khp
    
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îţi
    
Sn
    
and
    
PV
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
NM
    
Miln

Ny
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “telo,” + pitaka, “harona”), na Pali kanônan’ny, dia
ny fanangonana ny Kilonga teny Pali andinin-teny, izay mandrafitra ny
fotopampianarana fototry ny Bodisma Theravada.
Ny Tipitaka sy ny andinin-teny Pali paracanonical (-kevitra, Tantara,
sns) miaraka mamaritra ny vatana manontolo ny mpahay Theravada
andinin-teny.

Ny
Pali Canon dia be ny boky sy gazety vatana: fandikan-teny amin’ny teny
anglisy ny andinin-teny fanampiny mahatratra an’arivony pejy vita
pirinty.
Indrindra (fa tsy izy rehetra) ny Canon Efa navoaka tamin’ny teny anglisy nandritra ny taona maro. Na dia ampahany kely ihany kely ny andininy ireo dia hita ao amin’ny
tranonkala ity, famoriam-bola izany dia afaka ny ho toerana tsara
hanombohana.

Ny telo antokon’ny Tipitaka dia:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Ny
fanangonana ny lahatsoratra momba ny fitsipi-pitondran-tena mifehy ny
raharaha isan’andro ao anatin’ny Sangha - ny fiaraha-monina ny bhikkhus
(voatendry moanina) sy bhikkhunis (notendrena masera).
Mihoatra lavitra noho ny fotsiny ny lisitry ny fitsipika, ny Vinaya
Pitaka koa dia ahitana ny tantara ao ambadiky ny niandohan’ny fitsipika
tsirairay, manome ny tsirairay ny Buddha ny vahaolana ny fanontaniana ny
amin’ny fomba foana kaominina ao anatin’ny firindrana lehibe ara-panahy
sy ny fiaraha-monina hafa.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Ny
fanangonana ny suttas, na lahateny, heverina ho ny Bouddha sy
vitsivitsy mpianany tena akaiky azy, misy ny foibe fampianarana rehetra
ny Theravada Bodisma.
(Mihoatra ny arivo sutta fandikan-teny dia hita ao amin’ny
tranonkala ity.) Ny suttas dia nozarainy tamin’ny dimy nikayas
(rakitra):

        Digha Nikaya - ny hoe “Ho ela famoriam-bola”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - ny “Moyen-lavany fanangonana”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - ny “famoriam-bola antokony”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - ny “famoriam-bola bebe kokoa-factored”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - ny “famoriam-bola kely lahatsoratra”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
Jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettippakarana (tafiditra ihany ao amin’ny birmanina fanontana ny Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa ( “”)
            
Milindapañha ( “”)

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Ny famoriam-bola ny lahatsoratra izay ny fotopampianarana fototra
fitsipika aseho ao amin’ny Sutta Pitaka dia reworked ary hatsangana
indray ho any amin’ny rafitra maty paika izay azo ampiharina amin’ny
fanadihadiana ao an-toetry ny saina sy izany.

Raha mila mamaky teny

    Aiza no mety hahitako ny dika mitovy amin’ny Pali manontolo Canon (Tipitaka)? (Matetika nanontaniana Question)
    
Tany an-dafin’i Tipitaka: ny saha Torolalana ho an’ny Post-kanônika Pali Haisoratra
    
Fiteny Pali fitaovana fianarana dia manolotra rohy izay mety ho mahasoa ny Pali mpianatra ambaratonga rehetra.
    
Boky Momba Pali Haisoratra, nataon’i Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Zanaky, Ltd., 1994). Ny mpitari-dalana, teny amin’ny teny, amin’ny alalan’ny Pali
Canon, miaraka amin’ny tsipiriany ao amin’ny fari lehibe ao amin’ny
Canon.
    
Fanadihadiana iray mikasika ireo Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Bodista Publication Society, 1975). Tena ilaina “tondrozotra” sy ny drafitra ao amin’ny kanônan’ny Pali. Tena tsara dia ahitana lisitra Fanondroana suttas amin’ny anarany.
    
Torolalana ho Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru-boky, 1990). Drafitra iray hafa tsara dia tsara ny Tipitaka, mirakitra famintinana ny zava-dehibe maro suttas.
    
Bodista Dictionary, nataon’i Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Bodista famoahana Society, 1980). Ny boky mahazatra ny teny sy ny foto-kevitra manan-danja tao Theravada ny Bodisma.

63) Classical Malay

2209 Wed 26 Apr 2017 PENGAJARAN

Marilah kita membetulkan ini Terjemahan Google menggunakan https://translate.google.com
dalam semua bahasa yang kita tahu.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
Pali Canon
© 2005
Lihat juga Indeks Sutta; Terjemahan oleh penterjemah

    Vin
    
DN
    
MN
    
SN
    
AN
    
KN

    KHP
    
DHP
    
Ud
    
Iti
    
sn
    
Vv
    
Pv
    
Thag
    
Thig
    
Nm
    
Miln

The
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “tiga,” + Pitaka, “bakul”), atau Pali canon, adalah
koleksi utama teks bahasa Pali yang membentuk asas doktrin Theravada
Buddha.
The Tipitaka dan teks-teks paracanonical Pali (komentar, sejarah, dan
lain-lain) bersama-sama membentuk badan yang lengkap teks Theravada
klasik.

Pali
canon adalah sebuah badan luas sastera: dalam terjemahan Bahasa
Inggeris teks menambah sehingga beribu-ribu muka surat yang bercetak.
Kebanyakan (tetapi tidak semua) daripada Canon telah diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggeris selama ini.