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11/21/17
2448 Wed 22 Nov 2017 LESSON Contemplation: Humility!Incredible Monasteries of the World,Bringing Nature to Life…,Easy Stomach Crunch Exercises,The farmers, belonging to 184 farmers organisations across India, have come to Delhi after a more than 10,000 kilometers long march organized by the umbrella organization All India Kisan Sangharsh Coordination Committee (AIKSCC). All but admitting that Google is engaged in censorship, Eric Schmidt, executive chairman of Google’s parent company Alphabet, announced that Google will create algorithms designed to “de-rank” web sites such as RT and Sputnik on its news delivery services.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 3:38 pm

2448 Wed 22 Nov 2017 LESSON



Jaga Chand (@JagaChand) | Twitter


twitter.com/JagaChand




Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)
-doesnt-know-bsp-is-a-movement … “We alone can challenge and defeat
the casteist, communal and pro-capitalist BJP! Get ready!” Behanji’s
clarion call to BSP workers to liberate the country from the clutches of
fascist rule.


“We
alone can challenge and defeat the casteist, communal and
pro-capitalist BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths (Private) Limited!

Maha
Mayawati’s clarion call to the Sarvajan Samaj i.e., Cadres of all
societies in general and BSP Cadres in particular to liberate the
country from the clutches of fascist rule.


https://www.reddit.com/…/modi_is_literally_hitler_and_bjp_…/


“We alone can challenge and defeat the casteist, communal and
pro-capitalist BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths (Private) Limited!


Maha Mayawati’s clarion call to the Sarvajan Samaj i.e., Cadres of all
societies in general and BSP Cadres in particular to liberate the
country from the clutches of fascist rule.
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) is literally Hitler and BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) is fascist


“Veggie Madhya Pradesh CM bans eggs in anganwadis, to be
felicitated”. Turns out some non-BJP states too don’t provide eggs in
midday meals
BJP ruled “BMC has banned sale of meat for four
days during the Jain festival of Paryushan”. Turns out it happens every
year since 1994 after a resolution by Congress govt in 1994. The ban
duration was increased to 4 days in 2011, again by a Congress-NCP govt.
Compulsory national anthem in Maharashtra movie theaters introduced by Congress-NCP govt
Prohibition in Gujarat - it was the Congress govt which enacted The Bombay Prohibition Act, 1949.
Cow slaughter is banned in 23 States, most of them non-BJP
“Ministry of Home Affairs cancels FCRA licences of 8,975
associations”, but in 2012, a total 4138 NGOs had their FCRA license
cancelled because of similar violations
“Criticising government can be sedition in Maharashtra now“, however the guidelines were actually prepared by Cong-NCP govt

but hey, Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) is literally Hitler and BJP is the majority appeasing,
fascist party. And if it turns out that it was done by Congress, goal
posts are shifted


From “Fascist rule is here again; Thums Up! Thums Up!” to “Arey,
it’s not about BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) or the Congress”


1. [”Veggie Madhya Pradesh CM bans eggs in anganwadis, to be…
reddit.com

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/cong-leaders-a…/1/639138.html
BJP, RSS of turning India into neo-fascist
Hitting out at RSS and BJP, some Congress
leaders today accused them of turning India into a “neo-fascist” state
and questioned whether they will give up their idea of a Hindu Rashtra
if they believe in the Constitution.

Speaking during a national seminar
Contribution of Dr Ambedkar, was a
neo-fascist state targeting Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi).


Hailing of Ambedkar by RSS (Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks)/ BJP (Brashatachar
Jiyadhs Psychopaths) Private Limited outfits of the saffron
organisations were always opposed to the
ideology of the Chief architect Constitution
.

Today we are a neo-fascist Indian state. Fascism
developed after Second World War is known as neo-fascism.

He noted BJP is the “only party” talking about Ambedkar without subscribing to his ideology.

He
also noted the ruling party saying that purchasing Ambedkars house in
London is not “sufficient”, but there is a need to follow his ideology.


Ambedkar believed in “removing contradictions” from the country. how
RSS/BJP believing in inequalities will not be able to do justice to the
Ambedkar’s ideology.

Those who claim they believe in Constitution,
cannot say they will give up the idea of a stealth, shadowy, discriminatory hinutva cult rashtra.

Ambedkars ideology is the “only hope” for people in the
current political context and said the same shall remain “relevant”
until there are inequalities in the country.


Cong leaders accuse BJP, RSS of turning India into neo-fascist
indiatoday.intoday.in

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/cong-leaders-a…/1/639138.html
BJP, RSS of turning India into neo-fascist
Hitting out at RSS and BJP, some Congress
leaders today accused them of turning India into a “neo-fascist” state
and questioned whether they will give up their idea of a Hindu Rashtra
if they believe in the Constitution.

Speaking during a national seminar
Contribution of Dr Ambedkar, was a
neo-fascist state targeting Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi).


Hailing of Ambedkar by RSS (Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks)/ BJP (Brashatachar
Jiyadhs Psychopaths) Private Limited outfits of the saffron
organisations were always opposed to the
ideology of the Chief architect Constitution
.

Today we are a neo-fascist Indian state. Fascism
developed after Second World War is known as neo-fascism.

He noted BJP is the “only party” talking about Ambedkar without subscribing to his ideology.

He
also noted the ruling party saying that purchasing Ambedkars house in
London is not “sufficient”, but there is a need to follow his ideology.


Ambedkar believed in “removing contradictions” from the country. how
RSS/BJP believing in inequalities will not be able to do justice to the
Ambedkar’s ideology.

Those who claim they believe in Constitution,
cannot say they will give up the idea of a stealth, shadowy, discriminatory hinutva cult rashtra.

Ambedkars ideology is the “only hope” for people in the
current political context and said the same shall remain “relevant”
until there are inequalities in the country.

https://www.theatlantic.com/…/fascism-populism-pres…/510668/


The votes are in, the people have spoken, and the result is ugly.
Merriam-Webster has warned that fascism could become 2016’s
most-searched term on its online dictionary—presumably with even more
searches than bigly.
Fascism was No. 3 last year, between socialism and racism, which is just where fascism began in the 1920s.

Ideological formation and the creation of a party with
quasi-military cadres. Talk of national humiliation, lost vigor, and the
failures of liberalism and democracy.
Entry of the party into national politics. Intimidation of rivals,
and planned acts of “redemptive violence” against suspect minorities and
radical rivals.
Arrival in government, often in alliance with conservatives.
Exercise of power, in concert with institutions and business. The
regime expands its control at home: restricting the press and democratic
processes, corporatizing business, and collectivizing the people.
Abroad, it asserts itself militarily.
Radicalization or entropy: Some fascists go down in a Götterdämmerung, but most die of boredom.


Fascism is in the running to be Merriam-Webster’s Word of the Year. But it’s not the right word for the current moment.
theatlantic.com

https://www.merriam-webster.com/d…/G%C3%B6tterd%C3%A4mmerung
Definition of Götterdämmerung

: a collapse (as of a society or regime) marked by catastrophic
violence and disorder; broadly : downfall the Götterdämmerung of
Communism


a collapse (as of a society or regime) marked by catastrophic violence and disorder; broadly : downfall… See the full definition
merriam-webster.com

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/downfall

downfall
play
noun

down·fall

\ˈdau̇n-ˌfȯl\
Popularity: Bottom 40% of words
Examples: downfall in a Sentence
Definition of downfall

1a : a sudden fall (as from power)b : a fall (as of snow or rain) especially when sudden or heavy

2 : something that causes a downfall (as of a person) gambling was his downfall

downfallen
play \-ˌfȯ-lən\ adjective

Examples of downfall in a Sentence

Their downfall was the result of several bad decisions.

Bad decision-making was their downfall.


a
sudden fall (as from power); a fall (as of snow or rain) especially
when sudden or heavy; something that causes a downfall (as of a person)…
See the full definition
merriam-webster.com

https://www.reddit.com/…/the_left_has_changed_the_definiti…/

The
left has changed the definition of “fascist/fascism” post 2009 to now
include “right wing” in all dictionaries, etc. Proof again why almost

See more

reddit.com

https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-differences-between-auth…

Totalitarianism

Authoritarian Governments

Fascism

World History

Comparisons

Politics

What are the differences between authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and fascism?

4 Answers

Cecilieaux Bois de Murier
Cecilieaux Bois de Murier, studied political science, journalist in Washington
Updated Aug 21

Totalitarianism
and Fascism are forms of authoritarianism, which is governance by an
authority without the option of questioning whatever the authority
orders. The distinctions between the three are mostly a matter of
political theory; applying these labels is usually done very loosely
and, in my opinion, badly.

An authoritarian
government is any ruling political unit in which the person or group in
power tells everyone else what to do, more or less without recourse.
Monarchies without parliament and in which the monarch actually rules,
as well as military governments and dictatorships of the left and the
right can all be correctly identified as authoritarian. Most workplaces
are authoritarian, too; the boss tells you what to do, or else.
Similarly, most families have an authoritarian streak, as do schools.
The basic idea is that what is done is not put to a vote: someone in
authority commands, others obey. Authoritarian governments, as you might
imagine, can cover a very wide range of power regimes.

Totalitarian
rule is called this because the power of those who govern extends to
every aspect of life and society; in other words, total rule. They tell
you what to say, what to think, where to live, what to study, where to
work, etc. Obviously, because of the difficulty of controlling large
populations minutely, no pure form of totalitarian government has ever
existed. However, Soviet Communism, German Nazism and Italian Fascism
attempted to be totalitarian, but for very different reasons.

All
of which brings us to Fascism, which is the historical movement of
Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy as a dictator from 1929 to 1943. The
word “fascism” comes from the Latin fasces, a bundle of rods tied
around an ax; the members of the movement conceived of themselves as a
tightly wound bundle of people who figuratively chopped down whatever
stood in the way of their ideas. These ideas included the revival of
Italy’s glory as the center of the Roman Empire. It was a nationalist
and ultra-conservative movement similar and allied to German Nazism and
Spanish Falangism, yet distinctly Italian.

Because
Fascism came to power first, its name became a shorthand for any
right-wing authoritarian regime and for the supporters of such rule. The
concept has also been twisted completely out of shape by rhetorical
abuse. For example, Reaganism and Thatcherism (USA and UK in the 1980s),
although ideologically in harmony with many fascist ideas, have been
called fascist even though they operated in a political environment in
which at least a pretense of democratic representation was maintained.

18.3k Views · 35 Upvotes

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Related QuestionsMore Answers Below

What’s the main difference between authoritarianism and totalitarianism?
Is Russia authoritarian or totalitarian?
What is the difference between totalitarianism and fascism?
Poland
is rolling back democracy, imposing authoritarian rule. How can the EU
tolerate this state of affairs? Will the EU defend democracy in …
What is the difference between fascism and neo-authoritarianism?

Gregory Norton
Gregory Norton, studied at Stanford Graduate School of Business
Answered Jun 16, 2016

The Wikipedia definition of authoritarianism is good “Authoritarianism is a form of government
characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms”
Authoritarianism could be Individualistic or Collectivist, depending on
what range of non-political freedoms exist. Singapore under Lee Kuan Yew
was authoritarian but Individualistic, there was a great deal of
individual and economic freedom.

Totalitarianism
is state-centric, Collectivist form of authoritarianism in which the
state acknowledges no limits to its authority and seeks to regulate all
aspects of public and private life including religious, artistic,
political, and economic activity. All individuals exist to serve the
state. As Mussolini (one of the originators of the idea) put it, “All
within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.”

Fascism
is more slippery. One part of it is a state-business partnership for
mutual benefit, with the state acting as senior and controlling partner.
A fascist regime is as totalitarian as it can be, given the culture and
legal traditions of the society. It may or may not be militaristic, and
may or may not be internationally aggressive. It may or may not assert
ethnic, national, or racial superiority. Some European political
observers considered the second Wilson administration to be fascist. In
popular usage, “fascist” means little more than “bad” and prone to
bullying.

6.3k Views · 4 Upvotes

Nathaniel Downes
Nathaniel Downes, A political writer with a focus on Soviet democratic models.
Answered Oct 21, 2016

The
term Authoritarianism was coined in 1859 as the establishment of order
through a central, elected, authority. Under an Authoritarian model,
uniform elections (not saying if they were fair elections, mind you)
must be held, and by holding them, all those who vote then agree to
abide by the decisions of the elected Authority. The Authority itself
had no power to implement these decisions, and passed them down to lower
bodies to handle the direct implementation.

Totalitarianism
was coined by the Italian fascists in 1926, “totalitario”, and was a
rejection of Authoritarianism. Under Totalitarianist systems, there was
no pretext of elections or rule by mandate, and only the elite had any
say over the system. Instead of submitting to an authority,
Totalitarians had “total representation of the nation and total guidance
of national goals” through dictates. Unlike Authoritatian systems,
which had a decision making body, and left implementation to smaller
groups, Totalitarian models used a single body to handle both decisions
and implementation.

On the surface it is easy
to claim that Fascism used Totalitarianism and Communism used
Authoritarianism, but in the real world we find that is not always the
case. The root difference was in both how each system claimed their
mandate, and how each system implemented decisions.

2.1k Views

Cem (Icy) Onur
Cem (Icy) Onur, brain jockey
Answered Mar 31, 2014
Very, very simplified:

Authoritarianism:
State rules and decides on everything, but some social and economic
institutions exist that are not under governmental control.

Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism. Nothing exists but the government.

Fascism
brings ultra-nationalism to the mix; with a hint of racism. All fascist
governments are authoritarian, but not all authoritarian governments
are fascists. This part would get a bit muddy depending on whose
definition you stick to. I like Umberto Eco’s definition as I can
picture Hitler’s doctrines with them easily.

Definitions of fascism
8.3k Views · 9 Upvotes
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PERFECT HUMAN BEING BRAIN is creation of millions of gods.

A Buddhist Monk explained Pancasila i.e., five precepts thus:

I do not want to be killed by other living beings, so I will not kill any living beings.

I do not want others to steal my things, so I will refrain from stealing.

I do not want others to lie to me, so I will refrain from telling lies.

I do not want my wife/husband to be taken by others, so I will refrain from sexual misconduct.

I will refrain from taking intoxicant drinks, Because I may violate all the above precepts.

When,
I told this to an intelligent man, he asked me to repeat the same and
started noting them in his diary and at the end he put my name. Then I
told him that these are the teachings of the Buddha. But he said that it
was told to him by me, so he put my name.


Answer
(1 of 5): Totalitarianism and Fascism are forms of authoritarianism,
which is governance by an authority without the option of questioning
whatever the…
quora.com
Dear brothers and sisters, Jaibheem to all.
We,
the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes and
Religious Minorities, are able to secure our rights guaranteed under the
Constitution of India due to the incessant struggle and matchless
sacrifice of Babasaheb Dr. Bheemrao Ambedkar. But the caste-prejudiced
governments did not implement these rights to the benefit of our people.
As the result, despite the provisions of Constitution, our
socio-economic condition remained worst as before. Hence, Babasaheb
advocated us to form the government on our own by getting united under
one political platform and one leadership. In this direction, he
contemplated to launch the Republican Party of India during his
life-time. But he, perhaps, did not know that he would die so early even
before he could bring his plans into action. He could not complete the
task which was later on completed by Manyawar Kanshi Ram Saheb.

We need to become ruling class if we want to form a casteless society – Saheb Kanshi Ram

About Bahujan Samaj Party



Bahujan Samaj Party
(BSP) or Majority People’s Party is one of the only five prominent national
political parties of India, which is the largest democracy of the world.
Brief Introduction :
The ideology of the
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is “Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation”
of the “Bahujan Samaj “, which comprises of the Scheduled Castes (SCs), the
Scheduled Tribes (STs), the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Religious
Minorities such as Sikhs, Muslims, Christians, Parsis and Buddhists and account
for over 85 per cent of the country’s total population.
The people belonging to
all these classes have been the victims of the “Manuwadi” system in the country
for thousands of years, under which they have been vanquished, trampled upon
and forced to languish in all spheres of life. In other words, these people
were deprived even of all those human rights, which had been secured for the
upper caste Hindus under the age-old “Manuwadi Social System”. 

Among the great persons
(Mahapurush) belonging to “Bahujan Samaj”, who fought courageously and with
commitment against the brutal and oppressive Manuwadi system, for providing a
level playing field to the downtrodden to help move forward in their lives with
“self-respect” and at par with the upper castes Hindus, especially Baba Saheb
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar’s socio-political campaign later proved to be very
effective in this direction.
Though the contributions
of leaders of the downtrodden communities like Mahatma Jyotiba Phule,
Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj, Narayana Guru and Periyar E. V. Ramaswami have
been immense in the fight against the obnoxious Manuwadi system, but the
struggle of Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, who was born in Scheduled Caste
community, and that of Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji later proved to be greatly
effective and pregnant with far-reaching consequences.
Besides waging a
spirited campaign against the Manuwadi Social System, Dr. Ambedkar instilled
consciousness among not only the Dalits, but also among those belonging to
other backward groups, which continue to be victimised and trampled under this
oppressive and unjust Manuvadi Social System.
By virtue of his pivotal
role in the framing of the Indian Constitution, these groups were given a
number of rights in the Constitution on a legal basis to lead a life of dignity
and self-respect. But he was fully conscious of the fact that these exploited
sections of the society would not be able to get the full legal rights as long
as the governments would remain dominated by the Manuwadi persons and parties.
That’s why Dr. Ambedkar,
during his lifetime, had counseled the “Bahujan Samaj” that if they wanted to
fully enjoy the benefits of their legal rights, as enshrined in the
Constitution, they would have to bond together all the Bahujan groups on the
basis of unity and fraternity, bring them on a strong political platform and
capture the “Master Key” of political power. This was to be the modus operandi
for the formation of Bahujan Governments at the Centre and in States. Only such
governments could enforce all the constitutional and legal rights of the
“Bahujan Samaj” and provide opportunities to its People to move forward in all
spheres of life besides enabling them to lead a life of “self-respect”.
Keeping in view this
observation and advice of Dr. Ambedkar, respected Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji
founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), with the help of his associates, on
April 14, 1984. For many years while he enjoyed good health, he prepared the
“Bahujan Samaj” to secure the “master key” of political power, which opens all
the avenues for social and economic development.
However, being a
diabetic and host of other serious ailments, his health did not permit him to
lead an active political life for too long. On December 15, 2001, Manyawar
Kanshi Ram Ji, while addressing a mammoth rally of the BSP at the Lakshman Mela
Ground in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh on the banks of the river Gomti, declared
Kumari (Miss) Mayawati Ji, then the lone Vice-President of the Party, as his
only political heir and successor.
Moreover, on September
15, 2003, Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji’s health suffered a serious setback, and the
entire responsibility of the Party fell on the shoulders of Bahan (Sister)
Kumari Mayawati Ji. Later, on September 18, 2003, the Party, through a
consensus and in keeping with its Constitution, made her its National
President.
Being the National
President of a National Party, Kumari Mayawati Ji in her address sought to
assure that “I would like to make aware people of the country that my Party,
the BSP, is committed to not only improving the socio-economic conditions of
people belonging to the “Bahujan Samaj” but also of the poor among the upper
caste Hindus, small and medium farmers, traders and people engaged in other
professions.
But people of the
Manuwadi mindset, even if they are in different fields of life, are acting
under a conspiracy to project the image of the BSP as if it is confined to
championing the cause of Dalits alone and is opposed to the upper castes Hindus
and other sections of the society. Also, the BSP has nothing to do with the
issues of national interest. However, on the basis of facts, I can say with
firmness and conviction that all such talks are a bunch of lies, baseless and
devoid of facts and are nothing else more than a slanderous campaign of the
status quoits Manuwadi forces. The policies, objectives and ideology of the BSP
are crystal clear and attuned to the welfare of the entire country and its vast
population.
On the basis of its
ideology, the BSP wants to sound the death-knell of the “Manuwadi Social
System” based on the ‘Varna’ (which is an inequality social system) and
striving hard and honestly for the establishment of an egalitarian and
“Humanistic Social System” in which everyone enjoys JUSTICE (social, economic
and political) and EQUALITY (of status and of opportunity) as enshrined in the
PREAMBLE of the Constitution.
Further, our Party
Constitution very clearly states that “the chief aim and objective of the Party
shall be to work as a revolutionary social and economic movement of change with
a view to realise, in practical terms, the supreme principles of universal
justice, liberty, equality and fraternity enunciated in the Constitution of
India.”
Such a social system is
wholly in the overall interest of the Country and all sections of the society
too. If, in this missionary work of “Social Transformation”, people of the
upper castes (Hindus) shed their Manuwadi mindset and join hands with the
Bahujan Samaj, our Party, with all due respect and affection would embrace
them. Such people will be given suitable positions in the Party organisation in
accordance with their ability, dedication and efficiency, and there would be no
distinction between them and those belonging to the Bahujan Samaj. Also they
will be fielded as Party candidates in the parliamentary and assembly
elections, and if our government is formed, they will also be given ministerial
berths.
These are not hollow
talks because the BSP in the past, during the three successive governments, had
implemented all such promises. In Uttar Pradesh, Ms. Mayawati government was
formed four times, and on each occasion, upper castes people were inducted in
the Council of Ministers. Even an upper caste person was appointed to an
all-important post of Advocate General. They were given the Party ticket for
Lok Sabha and Assembly elections and also nominated to the Parliament’s Upper
Chamber i.e. Rajya Sabha and state Legislative Councils.
In addition, upper caste
people have been given high posts in the Party organisation. For example, Mr.
Satish Chandra Mishra was nominated to the Rajya Sabha and also was made
national general secretary of the Party. In similar fashion, other castes of
the Upper Castes (Hindus) were promoted.
Thus, keeping in view
all these facts, it would be injudicious and fallacious to hold that the BSP
works for the welfare of a particular group or section. Yes, the Party does
give priority to those sections, which have been ignored and scorned all along
by the Manuwadi governments in all spheres of life. In addition, the BSP has
always contributed positively to all issues pertaining to the welfare of the
Country. The BSP has always taken an unequivocal stand on issues of the
Country’s welfare and never compromised on the issues related to the interest
of the country whenever the need arose.
Aims and Objectives
The chief aim and
objective of the party shall be to work as a revolutionary social and economic
movement of change with a view to realise, in practical terms, the supreme
principles of universal justice, liberty, equality and fraternity enunciated in
the Constitution of India, to be followed by State in governance, and in
particular summed up in the following extract from the Preamble of the
Constitution.
We, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA,
having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SECULAR
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
Justice, social, economic and political;
Liberty
 of thought, expression,
belief, faith and worship;
Equality
 of status and
opportunity; and promote among them all
Fraternity
 assuring the dignity of
the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;”
The Party shall regard
its ideology as a movement for ending exploitation of the weaker sections and
suppression of the deprived through social and economic change in keeping with
the above stated chief aim, and its political activity and participation in
governance as an instrument of furthering such a movement and bringing in such
a change.
This being the chief aim
of the Party, the strategy of the Party in public affairs will be governed by
the following general principles:
1. That all citizens of
India being equal before law are entitled to be treated as equal in true sense
and in all matters and all walks of life, and where equality does not exist it
has to be fostered and where equality is denied it has to be upheld and fought
for.
2. That the full, free,
uninhibited and unimpeded development of each individual is a basic human right
and State is an instrument for promoting and realising such development;
3. That the rights of
all citizens of India as enshrined in the Constitution of India and subject to
such restrictions as are set out in the Constitution, have to be upheld at all
costs and under all circumstances;
4. That the provisions
of the Constitution requiring the State at Center and in States to promote with
special care and protect the socio-economic interests of the weaker sections of
the society denied to them for centuries, have to upheld and given practical
shape in public affairs as a matter of prime most priority.
5. That economic
disparities and the wide gaps between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’ must not
be allowed to override the political principle of “one man, one vote, one vote,
one value” adopted by our republic.
6. That unless political
empowerment is secured for the economically deprived masses they will not be
able to free themselves from the shackles of economic and social dependence and
exploitation.
In particular and
without prejudice to the generality of the aims stated above the Party will
work specially towards the following objectives:
1. The Scheduled Castes,
the Scheduled Tribes, the other Backward Castes, and the minorities, are the
most oppressed and exploited people in India. Keeping in mind their large
numbers, such a set of people in India is known as the Bahujan Samaj. The Party
shall organise these masses.
2. The party shall work
for these down trodden masses to
 -
a.
 to remove their
backwardness;
b.
 to fight against their
oppression and exploitation;
c.
 to improve their status
in society and public life;
d.
 to improve their living
conditions in day to day life;
2. The social structure
of India is based on inequalities created by caste system and the movement of
the Party shall be geared towards changing the social system and rebuild it on
the basis of equality and human values. All those who join the party with the
commitment to co-operate in this movement of social change shall be ingratiated
into the fold of the Party.
Towards the furtherance
of the above noted aims and objectives the organisational units of Party as
designated in this constitution, shall be empowered to:-
1. purchase, take on lease or otherwise acquire, and maintain, moveable or
immovable property for the Party and invest and deal with monies of Party in
such a manner as may from time to time be determined;
2. raise money with or
without security for carrying out any of the aims and objectives of the Party;
3. to do all other
lawful things and acts as are incidental or conducive to the attainment of any
of the aforesaid aims and objectives,
Provided that none of
these activities will be undertaken without the express approval of the
National President.

आओ चलें उन्नति एवं सत्य की ओर!

आओ चलें उन्नति एवं सत्य की ओर!

Non-political
Routes: When Manyawar Kanshi Ram Saheb decided to revive the
Ambedkarite movement, the movement was almost extinct. People had almost
forgotten about the movement. Kanshi Ram Saheb made a deep study as to
the conditions which caused the failure of Ambedkarite movement. He saw
that most of the followers of Babasaheb were out of the movement.  He
started probing the reasons which led to the discontinuation of the
movement followed by the death of Babasaheb Ambedkar. He, after a
thorough study, understood that the failure of Ambedkarite movement was
caused due to the lack of ‘non-political routes’ among the Bahujan Samaj
and hence, he decided to strengthen the non-political routes to create
the ‘non-purchasable leadership’. He realized that only that society
with strong non-political routes would produce the ‘non-purchasable’
missionary leaders. Thus he decided to prepare the non-political routes
of the society by preparing the educated employees and youths. Before
launching the Bahujan Samaj Party, he started the BAMCEF and DS-4 to
prepare the educated employees and youth from among the SC/ST/OBCs and
Religious Minorities. He devoted the best part of his life to strengthen
the non-political routes of Bahujan Samaj.
Importance
of Cadre Camps: Maha Mayawati Ji  joined the Ambedkarite movement when
Kanshi Ram Saheb was organizing the employees under the banner of
BAMCEF. Seeing my dedication to the movement and capabilities, he
started encouraging her. But the senior members could not tolerate it.
They began opposing Saheb arguing, “How can you project a most junior
person ignoring seniors like us? If you continue to project her too
much, we will leave the organization”. Kanshi Ramji replied them sternly
saying, “If you are thinking to leave tomorrow, it is better for you to
leave today itself. Why postpone it?” All these old members, who are
mostly from Maharashtra and Punjab, left the movement even before Saheb
launched BSP. They went out of BAMCEF and formed their own BAMCEF
outfit. They had even got it registered. Today there are several outfits
of BAMCEF and nobody knows how many outfits are there. Our people have
not gone with them. These seniors went alone and remained alone, but the
people and workers have remained with the movement. Nobody got
disturbed over their exit. Do you know why the workers and people did
not follow those old members?
Those
were the honest people who were solidly prepared by Manyawar Kanshi Ram
Saheb through cadre camps. Cadrization is the only way to prepare
missionary workers and society. Saheb, with his team of missionary
cadres, was able to create new leadership. He went on to start DS-4 and
finally BSP on April 14, 1984. The workers and society remained with the
movement only because they were prepared through the means of
cadrization. Saheb had rejuvenated the Ambedkarite movement only by
conducting cadres.
Warning
to Elders: Maha Mayawti Ji  have been telling you to build the party
organization by preparing the workers through cadre camps. But you are
more interested in conducting public rallies, meetings and programs. You
are yet to understand the fact that workers cannot be created by
conducting public programs. There are many things which cannot be told
in the public meetings. Workers cannot be prepared ideologically in
public meetings. We can sustain the movement only by preparing the young
generation through cadre camps. I am seeing an unhealthy development
with old members of our party. They are interchanging their posts among
themselves to prevent the entry of others and new blood into the
movement. This kind of attitude of old workers will lead to stagnation.
This is not good from the viewpoint of party’s progress. She  strictly
warn you to change this unhealthy habit. If you do not prepare the
younger generation, our movement will end gradually. We must have a
minimum of 50% young and educated members in every level of party’s
organization. If you, the old leaders, do not accommodate the younger
generation into the party, she will have to take strict action against
you.
As
dreamt by Babasaheb Dr. Ambedkar, Manyawar Kanshi Ram Saheb launched
the political party, namely, Bahujan Samaj Party on April 14, 1984.  We,
by following the footsteps of our ancestors and guidance of Manyawar
Kanshi Ram Saheb, are able to form our own government for four times in
Uttar Pradesh in the past. As the result, we are able to improve the
socio-economic condition of our people in Uttar Pradesh. We are able to
secure the constitutional rights of our people. We are also able to
build memorials, statues and parks in the honor of our ancestors. But we
could not succeed to form our government in other states. As the
result, atrocities against our people are continuing unabatedly.
Exploitation of the poor has not been ended.
Tampering
of EVMs by BJP :  Our failure to form our own government in other
states has helped the BJP to defeat us in Uttar Pradesh. They found that
BSP is strong only in UP and not in other states and hence they thought
that if they could finish us in UP, BSP will die a natural death in all
other states. That is how they focused their entire strength to defeat
us in UP. However, they could not win through fair means. They had to
resort to fraudulent way of tampering the electronic voting machines
(EVMs) to defeat us.
BJP
and company had used the EVMs in 2014 itself to win the General
Election. We thought that it was the mandate against the scams-ridden
and scandals-tainted rule of Congress. But the election results of the
five states held in March 2017 have exposed the EVM scandal of BJP. They
could not win in Punjab, Uttarkhand, Goa and Manipur. In Goa and
Manipur, Congress party got lead over the BJP. But BJP leaders have
managed the other MLAs form their governments. In Uttarkhand, it was the
internal quarrel of the Congress that gave a lead to the BJP. In
Punjab, the anti-incumbency factor of Akali Dal gave the victory to
Congress. BJP, being the partner of Akali Dal, lost the election. In all
the above four states, they did not tamper with the EVMs and the
results were on the expected lines. But in Uttar Pradesh, nobody
expected that BJP would get such a huge margin of victory. The senior
bureaucrats of UP, who are usually the first to know the results in
advance, were making preparations to welcome the BSP Government. They
were utterly surprised when the results were announced. I, seeing the
trend of results late in the morning, went to the press and exposed the
EVM fraud. Later on, we also launched nation-wide struggle against the
fraud of EVMs and legal battle to get the VVPAT incorporated with EVMs.
Thus, we are confronting the BJP at every step.
BJP
Mischief in Saharanpur: It is to be understood that we are the only one
who are challenging the RSS agenda of BJP rulers during the past three
years. Be it the death of Rohit Vemula in Hyderabad University, attack
against SC/STs in Una of Gujarat, Vyapam scandal of Madya Pradesh or
lynching of Muslims in Dadri, I vehemently opposed and exposed them in
the Rajya Sabha.  Hence, the BJP leaders had been hatching plans to
choke our voice. They are planning to isolate BSP from other communities
and limit us only to Dalits. That is why they managed to create clashes
between SC/STs and the Jat community in Saharanpur. They are also able
to use a SC/ST organization in their conspiracy. I have clearly
understood the game-plan of BJP behind the Saharanpur clashes. I decided
to expose them in the Parliament. When I gave the notice to speak on
the Saharanpur issue in the Rajya Sabha on July 18, 2017, they were
afraid that their mischief would get exposed and hence they did not
allow me to speak. Even the ministers also joined the chorus to prevent
my speech. I went to the Parliament to give voice to the aspirations of
people and find redresses to their woes. The issue of Sabbirpur in
Saharanpur is a very serious one in which a Dalit was killed, several
others were injured and their houses were burnt. If I am not allowed to
do justice to my aggrieved people and not able to protect them, why
should I remain in the Parliament? BJP people may try to silence me. But
I, being Babasaheb’s daughter and Kanshi Ram Saheb’s disciple, cannot
be silenced by anyone. I decided to resign my Rajya Sabha membership as
Babasaheb Ambedkar did in 1951. I, after quitting the Rajya Sabha seat,
have also decided to tour the whole country to prepare our people and
strengthen our movement in every state. We must put an end to all kinds
of exploitations by forming our government.- said Maha Mayawati Ji.
Have
Faith in the Success of our Movement: The BJP has become strong not
because of its own strength, but because of the failure of other
parties. Presently, you may be thinking that we can succeed if we join
the UPA / Congress and other parties. These parties are in such pitiable
conditions that they cannot be of any use to us. We must achieve the
success on our own strength without depending on any other party. In
fact, only we can challenge and defeat the casteist, communal and
pro-capitalist BJP. Other than BSP, no other party has got the
determination and morality to challenge BJP. Do not lose your faith in
the success of our movement. Do not lose your heart in the face of odd
situations. Our ancestors had faced much more tough situations, but they
did not lose heart. Babasaheb Ambedkar and Manyawar Kanshi Ramji were
neither disappointed nor did they get discouraged when they faced severe
challenges and setbacks. Look at me. Have you ever seen me
disheartened, sad and disappointed? Every tough situation has made me
tougher and made me to move ahead with greater determination. When I
took over the charge of party’s president post, I had faced toughest
time of my life. Our old leaders such as Phulsingh Barayya and Davuram
Ratnakar betrayed the movement by playing in the hands of other parties.
But I was not disappointed. I carried ahead the movement all alone. I
always enjoyed my work. You must also do your work with great joy. Do
not think that success brings us joy. On the other hand it is the joy
that brings us success. We must carry our struggles with great
celebration and bliss. The present situation may look very critical and
depressing. But we can convert this situation to our advantage by our
determination and hard work.
Action Plan:
    •    Starting from September 18, 2017, Maha Mayawati Ji  will be having programs in Uttar Pradesh on every month of 18.
  
 •   She will also  be visiting other states of the country at least
once in a year to address the party workers. All these states have been
grouped in nine zones. These programs are not for the public. They are
only for the party workers of all levels – starting from state to booth
level. In these programs, she will be personally verifying the progress
of formation of committees. These programs are to be conducted in the
name of ‘Grand Conference of Workers’ (Karyakarthan ka Vishal
Mahasabha).
    •    The nine zones with states inherent and the dates of Behanji’s programs are as follows:
    •    Bhopal Zone (Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgad) – Dec. 12, 2017.
    •    Jaipur Zone (Rajastan, Gujarat) – Nov. 30, 2017.
    •    Nagpur Zone (Maharashtra, Telangana, AP, Orissa) – Dec. 10, 2017.
    •    Bangalore Zone (Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Kerala, Puducherry) – Nov. 26, 2017.
    •    Patna Zone (Bihar, West Bengal, Jarkhand) – Jan. 30, 2018.
    •    Delhi Zone – Jan. 28, 2018.
    •    Chandigad Zone(Chandigad, Punjab, Haryana) – Feb. 25, 2018.
    •    Kangada Zone (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh) – Feb. 27, 2018.
    •    Nova Zone – Uttarkhand -  March 4, 2018.

    •    The above programs will continue every year on the above dates without any change.
    •    You have to mobilize funds for the above programs and also for the elections on your own.
  
 •    Now that we are increasing the pace of our movement in a greater
speed, we must mobilize more funds to achieve greater success. Ours is a
self-respect movement. Self-respect movement can succeed only with
self-help. We are not taking funds from business houses and corporate
companies. Collecting money through membership is one source for us. Now
we must restart the collection of funds on my birthday every year as we
were doing earlier. With these two sources, we can manage our party
activities. Office-bearers of every state  declared their respective
contribution. Tamilnadu and Karnataka office-bearers declared to
contribute Rs. 25 lakh each. Kerala leaders declared Rs. 10 lakhs and
Puducherry leaders declared Rs. 2 lakhs. These funds must be collected
before Dec. 31 and deposited at the Central Office in the first week of
Jan. 2018. No receipt books to be printed. If it is printed, the
responsible persons will be expelled from the party. Funds must be
collected through registers in the name of Jankalyan Diwas. Similarly,
you must also deposit the membership money with the Central Office as
and when you enroll the members.
    •    Collection of funds on the
eve of my birthday must continue in future, whether I am alive or not.
It must become a tradition for the Bahujan Samaj to collect money for
running the movement.
With these words, I conclude my speech. Jaibheem, Jaibharath”.



Contemplation: Humility!
Incredible Monasteries of the World,Bringing Nature to Life…,Easy Stomach Crunch Exercises,The farmers, belonging to 184 farmers organisations across India, have
come to Delhi after a more than 10,000 kilometers long march organized
by the umbrella organization All India Kisan Sangharsh Coordination
Committee (AIKSCC).

All but admitting that Google is engaged in censorship, Eric Schmidt,
executive chairman of Google’s parent company Alphabet, announced that
Google will create algorithms designed to “de-rank” web sites such as RT
and Sputnik on its news delivery services.

Inline image 1

 

Humility
Humility
puts a hand out to nothing extra, but simply takes what’s there;
whether that is food or clothing or understanding. Sometimes there is a
lot available and sometimes only little. It doesn’t matter. Even when
you understand nothing, there is no worry, for in humility there is the
trust that if a person feels themselves to be a child of God, everything
will come anyway, at the right time.

What about the self?

Making
time for the self can save time for the self. We have to spend much
time earning to support ourselves and caring for other members of our
family. But what about the self? We are busy checking our children’s
thoughts, words and actions, what about your own. It is important to
make sure our thoughts, words and actions are what we would like our
loved ones to have. If the foundation is weak, is it sufficient to fill
up the cracks in the walls that continue to appear.

In your
dealings with others if there can be deeper communication, greater
accuracy and clarity, then think how much time can be can be saved. Our
thoughts are our closest companions.

Inner Freedom Meditation Experience


Experience the following thoughts one after the other:

I relax…
I release all tensions… 
I create a space of silence… 
I move towards my inner self, letting my thoughts gradually focus on the experience of peace…
For
a few moments I reflect on all the things that affect me, that have a
negative influence on me, the people, the situations; everything that
stops me from achieving a state of inner freedom…
Around me I visualize a luminous circle (circle of light); there is a great power of silence…
I feel protected inside this circle of subtle spiritual power… 
Nothing can take away my positivity, my inner peace, my strength and wisdom…
I can be free to think and feel what I choose. Internally I am free. I am not at the mercy of anyone or any situation…

 

Soul Sustenance


Experiencing the Stage of Being a Detached Observer
 

Experience the stage of being a detached observer by gradually creating the following thoughts: 
 

I
am aware of the present moment and of time… The whole world is out
there… I let go for a moment of what is happening around me… It is
as if the world continues to turn, but I have stopped for a few minutes
and turned into an observer… Mentally, I take a step back… I look
around me as if I were in the inside of a room… the room of my mind…
In this place, I can be with myself… at peace… calm… free… Here
I do not have pressures, or worries, or fears… Nothing and nobody can
influence me… I can think… see things as they really are… 

I
am sitting like an observer, seeing through two windows… These
windows are my eyes… I am not my eyes… I am aware of who is looking
through these eyes, a tiny sparkling star like energy, the soul… I am
different from everything I am seeing… I perceive that separation
between the observer and the observed… I observe the things that
surround me without judging, without analyzing… I simply observe,
remaining at peace with myself… 

I see this world as a stage of
a great unlimited theatre play… each human being is an actor, a soul
playing their own role via their physical body… I simply observe from
my inner room… things come and go… nothing is permanent… I do not
need to worry about anything or anybody… I let things be… flow… I
am at peace… calmed… I share this vibration of peace with all that
surrounds me. 

 

Message for the day 

The one who teaches others never makes time his teacher. 

Projection: When
the situation demands or forces us to change, we can usually bring
about a change. But rarely do we find ourselves changing before time and
being ready for the situations that are to come. So, we face a lot of
difficulty during the time we are facing a problem. 

Solution: We
need to have the simple aim to keep learning from everything that
happens. With this aim we will be able to learn and be ready even before
time forces us to change. Then we will be able to give the right
direction to others, too, at the right time. 

Incredible Monasteries of the World

They
are places of both physical beauty and spiritual significance. They are
ancient, with a rich history behind them. They are the monasteries of
the world and some of them are simply breathtakingly beautiful, with a
fascinating past to boot. These are the ones most worth visiting.

Thiksey Monastery
beautiful monasteries

This
monastery is located on top a hill in the Indus Valley, just East of
the Capital of Ladkah, India This monastery includes a temple known as
Lakhang Nyerma, dedicated to Goddess Dorje Chenmo. It used to be an
incredibly popular and important temple, but today it is mostly a ruin,
but still houses many sacred shrines, relics and valuable artifacts.
 
 
beautiful monasteries

 
Grigoriou Monastery
beautiful monasteries

This
monastery can be found on the South-West slope of Mount Athos in
Greece. It is dedicated to Saint Nicholas. Built during the 14th
century, it is considered as one of the most well organized cenobitic
monasteries. It usually serves as a home for about 70 monks. In 1779,
its walls were built and decorated.
 
Yumbulagang Monastery
beautiful monasteries

This
beautiful monastery can be found perched on a small hill, 9 km south of
Tsetang, Tibet. Yumbulagang, in Tibetan dialect means ‘Palace of mother
and son’. The monastery was built over 2000 years ago, destroyed and
rebuilt. The walls of this extraordinary monastery are adorned and
painted with murals of the early history of Tibet.
 
beautiful monasteries
 
Tibet Potala Palace
beautiful monasteries

The
Potala Palace is located on the Marpo Ri Hill, Tibet Another amazing
monastery from Tibet, the Potala palace perches over 130 meters above
the Lhasa Valley, and rises another 170 meters on top of that. It is the
most monumental structure in all of Tibet. In ancient legends, there is
a sacred cave inside the palace which was used as a meditation retreat
by the emperor during the 7th century AD.
 
 
beautiful monasteries

 
beautiful monasteries

 
Tiger’s Nest Monastery
beautiful monasteries

You’ll
have to look way, way up to find this monastery, as it’s located about
3000 meters off the ground, on a high cliff in Paro Valley, Bhutan. This
is perhaps the most famous monastery in Bhutan. Hanging off a
precipitous cliff at 3,120 meters (10,240 ft), about 900 meters (3,000
ft) above the Paro valley, The name ‘Tiger’s Nest’ came from a legend
that a famous guru once flew over the Himalaya on the back of a tigress
during the 7th century. He then proceeded to meditate in a cave for 3
months before leaving. This cave is where the monastery was built, and
is said to be the origin of Buddhism in Bhutan. 
 
beautiful monasteries

 
Kye Monastery
beautiful monasteries

Another
monastery built close to the sky, this structure sits at an altitude of
4,116 meters (13,500 feet), in Spiti Valley, India. Dating back to 1000
AD, This is a very popular religious destination for Buddhists. During
its 1000 years, it has seen many attacks, (mostly by Mongols) but
survived them all. 
 
beautiful monasteries

 
Madonna Del Sasso Monastery
beautiful monasteries

This
beautiful renaissance-style monastery can be found in Locarno,
Switzerland, where it brightens the view of anyone visiting the town. It
was consecrated in 1487 on the spot where, legends say, the Holy Virgin
appeared before Brother Bartholomeo of the San Francesco Monastery 7
years previous. 
 
beautiful monasteries

 
Monastery of St. Martin
beautiful monasteries

This
monastery lies in the South of France, on Canigou Mountain (near the
Spanish border). This is one of the most incredible monuments in the
area and has a history that goes back to the middle ages, the 11th
century, to be exact. It was built by the Count of Cerdanya as atonement
for the murder of his own son. The monastery has been traditionally
housed with Benedicitine monks. 
 
beautiful monasteries

 
Hozoviotissa Monastery, Amorgos
beautiful monasteries

To
see this white and mysterious monastery, you will need to travel to the
isles of Amorgos, in Greece. This beautiful island is the home of this
famous monastery, built in the 11th century as an ode to the beauty of
Panagia - the Virgin Mary, who is also the protector of this island. 
 
beautiful monasteries

 
beautiful monasteries

Bringing Nature to Life…

Take
a deep breath and relax… Listen to the music while slowly scrolling
down these photos of gentle movement in the world. Pick one and stare
for a minute. Notice your breathing becoming easier, your head getting
quieter, and your mood lifting. Enjoy this quiet moment whenever you
need it.

 

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Easy Stomach Crunch Exercises

During
the summer when inclemet weather is upon us, it’s easy to stay home and
become lazy, letting our stomach grow. But with back aches, cramps, leg
and joint pain, making that belly bigger can be very uncomfortable.
Here are some exercises that are not only easy and simple, but can be
done inside the house so as to keep your belly tight and your health
problems down. Do it to reduce back pain, reduce belly fat, tighten your
belly muscles, and avoid joint pain. 

Pick a few to do for 20 minutes each day, and you’ll be feeling a lot better once summer turns up again!

alt

תרגיל לבטן

Opposite Contact

תרגיל לבטן

Plywood

תרגיל לבטן

Whole body crunch

תרגיל לבטן

Power strengthening of the Stomach

תרגיל לבטן

תרגיל לבטן



http://www.countercurrents.org/…/protesting-farmers-hold-t…/


The farmers, belonging to 184 farmers organisations across India, have
come to Delhi after a more than 10,000 kilometers long march organized
by the umbrella organization All India Kisan Sangharsh Coordination
Committee (AIKSCC). The farmers have come together basically on two
demands- freedom from debt and remunerative prices for farm produce.
They are holding a Kisan Mukti Sansad (Farmers’ Freedom Parliament) and
passed two bills encompassing the two demands.


More
than 3 lakh suicides in three decades and millions of other lives
ruined would qualify as a national disaster forcing the government to
tackle it all guns blazing in…
countercurrents.org

http://www.countercurrents.org/…/google-announces-moves-to…/
All but admitting that Google is engaged in censorship, Eric Schmidt,
executive chairman of Google’s parent company Alphabet, announced that
Google will create algorithms designed to “de-rank” web sites such as RT
and Sputnik on its news delivery services.


All
but admitting that Google is engaged in censorship, Eric Schmidt,
executive chairman of Google’s parent company Alphabet, announced that
Google will create algorithms designed to “de-rank” web …
countercurrents.org
Mobile numbers

AllNone
All

Ambikavathi919845359417
Anand Bhanteji919342175437
Anban919980901108
Ashok919449816045
Babu Jaiprakash919900705642
Babu Yagnesh919900467627
Baby Prabu Amar919242513103
Balu Dikaram919886378361
BAMCEF Amuratha919482504257
BAMCEF Banuprak919844955156
BAMCEF Bheemcha919035487536
BAMCEF CIL Murt919845972067
BAMCEF Dr Gajen919880595603
BAMCEF Dr Ravic919845459590
BAMCEF G Ullal919686453105
BAMCEF HANUMANT919945985869
BAMCEF Hennur L919343759849
BAMCEF Ilangova919739728629
BAMCEF Jayaseel919901880018
BAMCEF Manjunat919448612636
BAMCEF MV Rajai919986049752
BAMCEF Nagaraj919448357523
BAMCEF Rahulcha919036880833
BAMCEF Ramasamy919620185910
BAMCEF SHARAVAN919663224631
BAMCEF SHIV919845263857
BAMCEF SOMSEKAR919916069950
BAMCEF Sukumara919448895329
BAMCEF T Raja919740645893
BAMCEF Thiyagar919445007640
BAMCEF Vasudeva919886222892
BAMCEF Venugopa919449626486
Banandur Kempaiah919448485970
Banurekha919445366236
BEL Thiruvengad919449070011
Bodidatta Bhante919844433433
BSP Armstrong919840022230
BSP Ashok Kumar919415902760
BSP Ayyappa Ram919845871274
BSP Balu919341276264
BSP Bennifilm919841809215
BSP Bulla Subbharao919844041482
BSP Camera Murthy919880285671
BSP Chandrakanth919342577655
BSP Chandramohan919717122213
BSP Chengappa919448353132
BSP Chikkanna919880069518
BSP Dhanpal919480037574
BSP Dr Rahul919819336343
BSP Eashwar919980827264
BSP Ethiraj919449804040
BSP Gajender919845177314
BSP Gajendran GTRE919845177414
BSP Gangadhar919945608362
BSP Gopinath919448691707
BSP Gunasekhar919845103370
BSP Hanumantha919845604451
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11/14/17
2441 Wed 15 Nov 2017 LESSON Lessons From Gautama Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Digha Nikaya in 23) Classical English,23) Classical Afrikaans-Klassieke Afrikaans,3) Classical Albanian -Klasike Shqiptare,4) Classical Amharic -ጥንታዊ አማርኛ,5) Classical Arabic-الكلاسيكية الأمهرية 6) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,7) Classical Azerbaijani-Klassik azərbaycanlı
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 7:00 pm

2441 Wed 15  Nov 2017 LESSON

Lessons From Gautama Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Digha Nikaya

in 23) Classical English,23) Classical Afrikaans-Klassieke Afrikaans,3) Classical Albanian -Klasike Shqiptare,4) Classical Amharic -ጥንታዊ አማርኛ,5) Classical Arabic-الكلاسيكية الأمهرية

6) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,7) Classical Azerbaijani-Klassik azərbaycanlı

Have
you ever wondered why all the statues that you see of the Buddha show
him as calm, cool and smiling? Well, because Gautam Buddha had found the
secrets of life by discovering the harsh realities of life. He had his
ego completely annihilated and found the
beauty of present moments. To be calm and cool like him, you will have to take in a few of his observations about life. Here you go…
 


1. “Three things cannot be hidden: the sun, the moon and the truth.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

No matter how much
you try to conceal the truth, it will be known one day or the other.
It’s foolish to cover up lies because the truth reveals itself in the
most honest way.

2. “You will not be punished for your anger; you will be punished by your anger.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Anger is a lethal weapon. Apart from slaying the enemy, it also slays you. When you’re angry,
your words deceive you and they hurt others. Therefore, it’s advisable
to remain silent and not speak when something annoys you.

3. “You can search throughout the entire
universe for someone who is more deserving of your love and affection
than you are yourself, and that person is not to be found anywhere. You,
yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love
and affection.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

We
often expect to receive love and affection from others. In that
process, we start neglecting ourselves. We try too hard to get
attention. However, we forget that loving one’s own self comes before
loving others. You cannot love selflessly, until and unless you
understand yourself.


4. “We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.”Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life
The
message here is to think happy thoughts that will keep you happy
throughout the day. Being optimistic is better than having negative
thoughts. Seeing the glass half-full is a way better perspective than
seeing the glass half empty.

5. “You only lose what you cling to.”
Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Getting
attached to a thing is the biggest mistake we can make in our lives. It
is when we get too dependent on it that we start losing it.


6.
“Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no
matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your
own common sense.”Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Indeed
an enlightening quote! Here, Buddha wants us to learn from our own
experiences and not from the reviews of others. What suits one person
may not necessarily suit another.


7. “Physical charms attract the eyes, goodness attracts the mind.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Good
looks are an asset - however, a good character is an identity. It’s
completely wrong to judge someone only by their looks and not by their
character.


8.
“Just as on a rubbish heap swept up on a main road a purely fragrant,
delightful lotus might there spring up, even so amidst those rubbish
heaps (of men) does the savaka of the
Perfectly Enlightened One outshine in insight the blind puthujjana”Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Even
if you’re surrounded by filth, but you’re strong enough to resist the
bad, you will grow like a lotus in a mud lake. If you’re a student, with
hard work, you will outshine all other ordinary students.


9. “When you like a flower, you just pluck it. But when you love a flower, you water it daily.Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Buddha teaches us the difference between love and lust. In love, you nurture a relationship. In lust, you only satisfy your physical needs.

10. “A jug fills drop by drop.”
Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Starting
small is the mantra for finishing big. It doesn’t matter if your start
is a small attempt. If you keep at it steadily, you will achieve what
you want to one day.

11. “It is better to travel well than to arrive.”
Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Life
is one big journey and you’re a traveller. It’s better to live and
travel well, than thinking about the future and losing your peace of
mind. Living the fullest in the present is the best way to enjoy life,
rather than living in the past or the future.



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M
Digha Nikaya 9 Pottapada Sutta - About States of Consciousness Part 1

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Digha Nikaya

Digha Nikaya

The Digha Nikaya (”Collection of Long Discourses”) is the first of the five nikayas (collections) in the Sutta Pitaka. Some of the most commonly referenced suttas from the Digha Nikaya include the Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), which described the final days and death of the Buddha, the Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31) in which the Buddha discusses ethics and practices for lay followers, and the Samaññaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta
(DN 1) which describes and compares the point-of-view of Buddha and
other ascetics in India about the universe and time (past, present, and
future); and Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), which describe the benefits and practice of samatha meditation (calm meditation).


The Digha Nikaya consists of 34 discourses, broken into three vaggas (groups):
23) Classical Afrikaans
23) Klassieke Afrikaans

2441 Wo 15 Nov 2017 LES

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Digha Nikaya

Die Digha Nikaya (”Collection of Long Discourses”) is die eerste van die vyf nikayas (versamelings) in die Sutta Pitaka. Sommige
van die mees bekende suttas uit die Digha Nikaya sluit in die
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), wat die laaste dae en die dood van die
Boeddha, die Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31) beskryf waarin die Boeddha die
etiek en praktyke vir leke bespreek
volgelinge,
en die Samanaphaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1) wat die standpunt
van Boeddha en ander asketika in Indië oor die heelal en tyd (verlede,
hede en toekoms) beskryf en vergelyk;
en Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), wat die voordele en praktyk van samatha meditasie (kalm meditasie) beskryf.
Die Digha Nikaya bestaan ​​uit 34 diskoerse, verdeel in drie vaggas (groepe):
inhoud

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
Maha-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
Aflaai / Sien Engelse Vertaling
    
Oorspronklike Pali Weergawe

Silakkhandha-vagga

Die Afdeling Moraliteit (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) “The Great Net” of die universele net (van
die wêreld) waarin alle wesens soos vis en die 62 ketterse vorme van
spekulasie aangaande die wêreld en die self onderrig deur ander
onderwysers van die tyd gevang word.
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) “The Fruits of the Hermit Life”. Die Boeddha verduidelik aan koning Ajatasattu die voordele om by
die Boeddhistiese Orde aan te sluit en die lewe van die wêreld te
verwerp.
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Geboorte trots en sy val. ‘N Dialoog met Ambattha op kaste. Bevat verwysing na die legende van King Okkaka, die tradisionele stigter van die Sakya-stam.
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Dialoog met die Brahmin Sonadanda oor die eienskappe van die ware brahmin.
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Dialoog met die Brahmin Kutadanta veroordeel diere offer.
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Dialoog met Mahali op deva soos visie en gehoor en die bereiking van volle verligting.
    
Jaliya Sutta (7) Oor die aard van die lewensbeginsel in vergelyking met die liggaam.
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) ‘n Dialoog met die naakte asket Kassapa teen selfverlies.
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) ‘n Bespreking met Potthapada oor die aard van
die siel, waarin die Boeddha die vraag stel om irrelevant te wees en
nie bevorderlik te wees vir verligting nie.
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) ‘n Diskoers, toegeskryf aan Ananda, oor gedrag, konsentrasie en wysheid.
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) Die Boeddha weier om ‘n bhikkhu toe te laat om ‘n wonderwerk uit te voer. Verhaal van die monnik wat die devas (gode) besoek het om hulle te bevraagteken.
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Dialoog met die Brahmin Lohicca oor die etiek van onderrig.
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Oor die nutteloosheid van ‘n kennis van die Vedas as middel om metgeselskap met Brahma te bereik.
Maha-vagga

Die Groot Divisie (10 suttas)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) Die Sublieme Verhaal van die Boeddha Gotama en sy ses voorgangers; ook die diskoers op die Buddha Vipassi; sy afkoms van die Tusita-hemel tot aan die begin van sy missie.
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Op die ketting van oorsaak en teorieë van die siel.
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Die Groot Diskoers van die rekord van die oorgang van die Tathagata na Parinibbana.
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Die Groot Koning van Glorie. Die verhaal van ‘n vorige bestaan ​​van die Boeddha, as koning Sudassana. Vertel deur die Boeddha op sy sterfbed.
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Die Boeddha hou verband met die verhaal van die Yakkha Janavasabha aan die mense van Nadika.
    
Maha Govinda Sutta (19) Die hemelse musikant Pancasikha hou
verband met die verhaal van Maha Govinda aan die Boeddha, wat verklaar
dat hy self Maha Govinda was.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Die Devas van die Pure Abode en hul evolusie.
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Sakka, die heer van devas besoek die
Boeddha, en leer van hom dat alles wat ontstaan ​​het ook onderhewig is
aan ontbinding.
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Diskoers oor die vier groot meditasies, op die liggaam, gevoelens gedagtes en gemoedstoestande. Met ‘n kommentaar op die vier waarhede.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi betwis wedergeboorte / reïnkarnasie en beloning van aksies (kamma / karma) maar ervaar dit self.

Patika-vagga

Die Patika-afdeling (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Storie van die dissipel wat ander onderwysers
volg, want die Boeddha werk nie wonderwerke of leer die oorsprong van
dinge nie.
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) Die Boeddha bespreek ascetisme met die asketiese Nigrodha.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Die verhaal van die universele
koning, die korrupsie van morele en hul herstel, en die koms van die
toekoms Boeddha Metteya.
    
Agganna Sutta (27) ‘n Bespreking oor kaste, en ‘n uiteensetting
oor die ontstaan ​​van dinge (soos in Sutta 24) tot by die ontstaan
​​van die vier kaste.
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) ‘n Dialoog van die Boeddha met Sariputta,
wat die Onderrig van die Boeddha beskryf en sy geloof in hom beweer.
    
Pasadika Sutta (29) Die Delectable Discourse. Diskoers van die Boeddha op die perfekte en onvolmaakte onderwyser.
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Op die 32 punte van ‘n Groot Man.
    
Sigalovada Sutta (31) Die Sigala homily oor die pligte van die huiseienaar aan die ses klasse persone.
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Op die Vier Groot Konings en hul spel vir beskerming teen die kwaad.
    
Sangiti Sutta (33) Sariputta beskryf die beginsels van die Onderrig in tien numeriese groepe.
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta beskryf die leerstelling in tienvoudige reeks.



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3) Classical Albanian
3) Klasike Shqiptare

2441 Wed 15 Nov 2017 MËSIM

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Digha Nikaya

Digha Nikaya (”Koleksioni i Diskurse të gjata”) është i pari nga pesë nikayas (koleksionet) në Sutta Pitaka. Disa
nga suttet më të zakonshme të referuara nga Digha Nikaya përfshijnë
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), e cila përshkruan ditët e fundit dhe
vdekjen e Budës, Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31), në të cilën Buda diskuton
etikën dhe praktikat për shtrimin
ndjekësit,
dhe Samaññaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1), e cila përshkruan dhe
krahason pikëpamjen e Budës dhe asketëve të tjerë në Indi për universin
dhe kohën (e kaluara, e tashmja dhe e ardhmja);
dhe Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), të cilat përshkruajnë përfitimet dhe praktikën e meditimit samatha (meditim i qetë).
Digha Nikaya përbëhet nga 34 diskurse, të thyer në tri grupe (grupe):
përmbajtje

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
Maha-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
Shkarko / Shikoni përkthimin në anglisht
    
Versioni origjinal Pali

Silakkhandha-vagga

Divizioni lidhur me moralin (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) “Rrjeti i Madh” ose rrjeti universal (i
botës), në të cilin kapen të gjitha qeniet si peshqit dhe 62 format
heretike të spekulimeve në lidhje me botën dhe vetë mësohen nga mësuesit
e tjerë të kohës.
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) “Frutat e Jetës Hermit”. Buda shpjegon mbretit Ajatasattu përparësitë e bashkimit me Urdhrin Budist dhe heqjen dorë nga jeta e botës.
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Krenaria e lindjes dhe rënia e saj. Një dialog me Ambattha mbi kastën. Përmban referencë ndaj legjendës së mbretit Okkaka, themeluesit tradicional të fisit Sakya.
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Dialogu me Brahmin Sonadanda mbi karakteristikat e brahmanit të vërtetë.
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Dialogu me Brahmin Kutadanta që dënon sakrificën e kafshëve.
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Dialogu me Mahalin në deva si vizioni dhe dëgjimi dhe arritja e ndriçimit të plotë.
    
Jaliya Sutta (7) Për natyrën e parimit të jetës në krahasim me trupin.
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) Një dialog me asketin e zhveshur Kassapa kundër vetëvendosjes.
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) Një diskutim me Potthapada mbi natyrën e
shpirtit, në të cilën Buda thotë se pyetja është e parëndësishme dhe nuk
ndihmon në sqarimin.
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) Diskursi, i atribuar Anandës, mbi sjelljen, përqendrimin dhe urtësinë.
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) Buda refuzon të lejojë një bhikkhu të kryejë një mrekulli. Historia e murgut që vizitoi devasit (hyjnitë) për t’i pyetur ata.
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Dialogu me Brahmin Lohicca mbi etikën e mësimdhënies.
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Për kotësinë e një njohurie të Vedas si mjet për të arritur shoqërimin me Brahmin.

Maha-vagga

Divizioni i Madh (10 suttas)

    Maha-Padana Sutta (14) Historia Sublime e Buda Gotama dhe gjashtë paraardhësit e tij; gjithashtu Diskursin në Buda Vipassi; prejardhje nga qielli Tusita deri në fillimin e misionit të tij.
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Në Zinxhirin e Shkaktimit dhe teorive të shpirtit.
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Diskursi i Madh i shënimit të kalimit të Tathagata në Parinibbana.
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Mbreti i Madh i Lavdisë. Historia e ekzistencës së mëparshme të Budës, si Mbreti Sudassana. I thënë nga Buda në shtratin e vdekjes së tij.
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Buda e tregon historinë e yakkha Janavasabha tek populli i Nadikës.
    
Maha Govinda Sutta (19) Muzikanti qiellor Pancasikha tregon
historinë e Maha Govindës tek Buda, i cili thotë se ai vetë ishte Maha
Govinda.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Deva e banesës së pastër dhe evolucioni i tyre.
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Sakka, zotëria e devas viziton Budën dhe
mëson prej tij se çdo gjë që e ka origjinën është gjithashtu subjekt i
shpërbërjes.
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Diskutim mbi Katër Meditimet e Madhe, në trup, ndjenja mendimet dhe gjendjet e mendjes. Me një koment mbi Katër të Vërtetat.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi konteston rilindjen / rimarrjen dhe shpërblimin e veprimeve (kamma / karma), por e përvojon atë vetë.

Patika-vagga

Divizioni i Patikës (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Tregimi i dishepujve që ndjek mësuesit e tjerë, sepse Buda nuk bën mrekulli ose mëson origjinën e gjërave.
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) Buda diskuton asketizmin me Nigrodhën asketike.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Tregimi i mbretit universal,
korrupsioni i moralit dhe restaurimi i tyre, dhe ardhja e Budës Metteya
të ardhshme.
    
Agganna Sutta (27) Një diskutim mbi kastën dhe një ekspozitë mbi
origjinën e gjërave (si në Sutta 24) deri në origjinën e katër kasteve.
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) Një dialog i Budës me Sariputtën, i cili përshkruan Mësimdhënien e Budës dhe pohon besimin e tij në të.
    
Pasadika Sutta (29) Diskursi i këndshëm. Diskursi i Budës mbi mësuesin e përkryer dhe të papërsosur.
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Në 32 shenjat e një Njeriu të Madh.
    
Sigalovada Sutta (31) Sigala predikonte për detyrat e të zotit të shtëpisë në gjashtë klasat e personave.
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Për Katër Mbretërit e Madh dhe magjia e tyre për mbrojtje nga e keqja.
    
Sangiti Sutta (33) Sariputta përshkruan parimet e mësimdhënies në dhjetë grupe numerike.
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta përshkruan doktrinën në seri të dhjetëfishta.


https://www.youtube.com/watch…
New Ethiopian Classical Music - ቀበጥባጣ ወጣት


New Ethiopian Classical Music - ቀበጥባጣ ወጣት
youtube.com
4) Classical Amharic
4) ጥንታዊ አማርኛ

2441 እ. 15 ኖቬምበር 2017 ትምህርት

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">ዳጄ Nikaya

ዳጊ ናዚ (”የረጅም ጊዜ ንግግሮች ስብስብ”) በሶታ ፓፒካ ከሚገኙት አምስት ናኪዎች (ስብስቦች) ውስጥ የመጀመሪያው ነው. ከዱጋ
ናዚዎች በጣም የተለመዱ ሰሃቦች የቡድኑ ፓትሮልቫዳ ሱት (DN31) የመጨረሻውን ቀን እና ሞት የሚገልጹትን የ
Maha-ibinibbana Sutta (DN 16) አጠቃቀላትን ያጠቃልላል. በዚያ ላይ ግን ቡድሃ ስነ-ምግባሮችን እና
ድርጊቶችን
ተከታዮች,
እና የሳኡማን ፔፋላ (ዲን 2), ብራህማሃ ሰዋው (DN 1) ስለ ህዋና እና ስለ ጊዜ (የቀድሞ, የአሁንና
የወደፊቱን) ስለ ህንድ እና ስለ ሌሎች ባህሪያት የሚገልፀውን እና የሚያብራራውን እና ያነፃፅራል.
እና የፕሮቴስታንት ማሰላሰል ጥቅሞች እና ተግባራት የሚገልጹ (የረጋ ጸልት).
ዳጉ Nikaya 34 የተሰጡ ንግግሮችን ያካተተ በሶስት ቫጋግዶች የተገነባ ነው.
ይዘቶች

    ሲልኩሀንሀ-ቫጋ
    
ማህሃጋጋ
    
ፓቲካ-ቫጋ
    
የእንግሊዝኛ ትርጉምን አውርድ / ይመልከቱ
    
የመጀመሪያው የፐዪ ቨርዥን

ሲልኩሀንሀ-ቫጋ

ሥነ ምግባርን በተመለከተ ያለው ክፍል (13 ስታትስ)

    ብራህማሃ ሰዋው (1) “ታላቁ መረብ” ወይም ዓለማቀፉ መረብ (ዓለማቀፍ), እንደ ዓሣዎች ያሉን ፍጥረቶች
ሁሉ እና ስለ 62 ጊዜያዊ አስተሳሰብ እና ስለዚሁም በሌሎች ጊዜያት ለሌሎች አስተማሪዎች ስለሚያስተምረው የራዕማችን
አስተሳሰብ.
    
ሳማኒፋፋ ሱት (2) “የሂትሪት ህይወት ፍሬዎች”. ቡድሀ ለንጉስ ካስታታቱ የቡድሂስት ትዕዛዝን አባል መሆን እና የአለምን ሕይወት መተው ጥቅም አለው.
    
አምባታ ቁርአን (3) የትውልድ ሀረግ እና መውደቅ. በሟችነት ከአምባተ ተነጋገሩ. የኪካ ጎሳ ባህላዊ መሥራች የሆነውን የንጉስ ኦካካ አፈ ታሪክ መጥቀሻን ይዟል.
    
ሶላዳ ዱንሳ (4) ከብራህማን ሶናዳንዳ ከእውነተኛው ብልህ ባህሪ ጋር የተደረገ ውይይት.
    
ካታታንታ ሱት (5) ከበሽታ ኩታታታታን ጋር የተደረገውን የእንስሳት መስዋዕትን ያወግዛል.
    
መሐሊ ሱታ (6) እንደ ማህሌይ ራዕይ እና መስማት እንዲሁም እንደ ሙሉ መገለጥ መድረስ.
    
ጄሊያ ሱት (7) ስለ ሰውነት አንፃር ሲነፃፀር በተፈጥሮ ህግ መሰረት.
    
ካሳፒያሀና ሳተታ (8) ራሱን ራሰ-ንገሲ ከማድረግ እራቃዊው ካሳፓ ጋር የሚደረግ ውይይት.
    
ፐተፓዳ ሱትራ (9) ከፓትፓዳ ጋር የተደረገ ውይይት በቅዱስ መንፈሱ ላይ የተወያየበት, ቡድሃው ጥያቄው ዋጋ የሌለው እና ለዕውቀት ብቁ አይደለም.
    
ሱሃ ሳት (ዲና Nikaya) (10) ለኑና, በአኗኗር, በትኩረት እና በጥበባቸው የተሰራ ንግግር ነው.
    
ክዋደሃ ሱትሕ (11) ቡድሀ አንድ ተዓምር ተአምር እንዲያከናውን አይፈቅድም. ወደ አላህ ለመጉላተል (አማልክቶች) የጠየቀ መነኩሴ ታሪክ.
    
Lichicca Sutta (12) የማስተማር ሥነ ምግባርን በተመለከተ ከብራህሙ ሎኪካ ጋር መነጋገር.
    
ቲቫጄጃ ሱትባ (13) ስለ ቬዳ ማወቅ ከእባቡ ጋር ያለው ግንኙነት ከብራራ ጋር ወዳጅነት ለመመሥረት ነው.

ማህሃጋጋ

ትልቁ ክፍል (10 ስታትስ)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) የቡድሃው ጎዱና እና የስድስቱ ቀዳሚዎቹ ታሪክ የቡድሀ ቪፒሲ ንግግሮች; ከቱሳ ሰማይ ወደ ተልኮ ተልእኮው እስከሚጀምርበት ጊዜ ድረስ.
    
Maha nidana Sutta (15) በመሰንበቻ ሰንሰለት እና በነፍስ ንድፈ ሃሳቦች ላይ.
    
ታላቁ ፓንያ-ፓሚናባ ሰታር (16) ታላቁ የቲታካን መዘክር ለፓሪናባና ስለመዘገቡት ታላቁ ንግግር.
    
ማህሃ ደሳሳ ሳተታ (17) ታላቁ የክብር ንጉሥ. ስለ ቡድሃ ቀድሞ የነበረ የንጉስ ታሪክ, እንደ ንጉሥ ዳሳሳ ንጉሥ. በቡድል በሞቱ አልጋ ላይ ተናገረ.
    
ጃቫሳባህ ሳታ (18) ቡድሀ የያከካ ጃቫሳባህን ታሪክ ለናዲካ ሕዝብ ይናገራል.
    
መሃ ጎኖኛ ሱትካ (19) ሰማያዊው ሙዚቀኛ ፓንሻሺሃ መሀው ጎቪንዳን ከቡድሃ ታሪክ ጋር በማያያዝ እርሱ እርሱ ማህዋቪንዳ እንደሆነ ይናገራል.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) The Pure Abode ባህር እና የዝግመተ ለውጥ አማራጮች.
    
ሳክካፒሳህ ሱትባ (21) የሰካኪ ጌታ (ሰ.ዐ.ወ) ቡድሀን ጎበኘው እና ከእሱ የመጣ ማንኛውም ነገር መበታተን እንደነበረ ይማራል.
    
መሐመድ Satipatthana Sutta (22) በአራቱ ታላላቅ ልምምዶች, በአካል, በስሜቶች እና በአዕምሮ ደረጃ ላይ የተደረገው ንግግር. ስለ አራቱ ሐቆች አስተያየት በመስጠት.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi እንደገና መወለድን / ዳግም መወለድን እና የድርጊቶችን ሽልማት (ካማ / ካርማ) ይከራከራል ነገር ግን እራሱን ይመለከታሉ.

ፓቲካ-ቫጋ

ፓቲካ ክፍል (11 ስታትስ)

    ፓቲካ ሱት (24) ቡዱክ ሌሎች ተዓምራትን ስለማይሠራ ወይም ስለ ሌሎች ነገሮች ስለማስተማር ሌላ መምህራን የሚከተል ደቀመዝሙር ታሪክ.
    
ኡድቡከኪካሳሕነህ ሰንዳ (25) Buddhaማከ ተቀኔኬቲክ ከትክክለኛው የኒግሮዳ ትምህርት ጋር ያብራራል.
    
ካክቻትቲሺሃሃ ሳውታ (26) የአለማቀፍ ንጉሠ ነገስታት, የሞራል ስብዕና እና የተሃድሶ መበላሸት, እና የወደፊቱ ቡድሀ መምጣትን መምጣት.
    
አጌጋንሳ ስተዳ (27) ስለ ወፍጮዎች እና ስለአዱስ ነገሮች መጀመር (በሱሳ 24 ላይ እንደሚታየው) እስከ አራቱ መጫወቻዎች መነሻነት.
    
ሰፓስታዳኒ ሱት (28) የቡድሃ ውይይት የዞንፑተታ የቡድሃን ትምህርት የሚያብራራ እና በእሱ ላይ እምነት እንዳለው ይገልጻል.
    
ፓሳዲካ ሱት (29) በጣም ደስ የሚል ንግግር. ስለ ፍፁም እና ፍጹም ያልሆነ አስተማሪ ላይ የቡድዩ ንግግር.
    
ላካካን ሱት (30) በታላቁ ሰው 32 ምልክቶች ላይ.
    
ሲጋሎቮዳ ሰታ (31) የሲጋላ ኸጣብ በቤቱ ባለቤቶች የቤት ስራዎች ላይ ለስድስት የሰዎች ክፍፍል ያቀርባል.
    
(32) በአራቱ ግዛቶች እና ከክፉ ጥበቃ ለመከላከል አሻገራቸው.
    
ዚሪቲ ሰት (33) ሶላይተታ የማስተማሪያ መርሆችን በአሥር የምድብ ቡድኖች ይዘረዝራል.
    
ዱሳተህ ሱት (34) ጽንፈህ ዶክትሪን በአሥር ተከታታይ ስብስቦች ያብራራል.



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5) Classical Arabic
5) الكلاسيكية الأمهرية

2441 الأربعاء 15 نوفمبر 2017 ليسون

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">ديغا نيكايا

ديغا نيكايا (”مجموعة من الخطابات الطويلة”) هو الأول من نيكاياس خمسة (مجموعات) في سوتا بيتاكا. بعض
من الأكثر شيوعا سوتاس المشار إليها من ديغا نيكايا تشمل مها-بارينيبانا
سوتا (دن 16)، الذي وصف الأيام الأخيرة والموت من بوذا، سيغالوفادا سوتا
(دن 31) الذي يناقش بوذا الأخلاق والممارسات لوضع
(دن
2)، براهماغالا سوتا (دن 1) الذي يصف ويقارن وجهة نظر بوذا وغيرها من
الزهد في الهند حول الكون والوقت (الماضي والحاضر والمستقبل).
و بوتابابادا سوتا (دن 9)، والتي تصف فوائد وممارسة التأمل ساماثا (التأمل الهدوء).
يتكون ديغا نيكايا من 34 الخطابات، مقسمة إلى ثلاثة فاغاس (مجموعات):
محتويات

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
مها-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
تحميل / عرض الترجمة الإنجليزية
    
النسخة بالي الأصلي

Silakkhandha-vagga

أما الشعبة المعنية بالأخلاقيات (13 سوتاس)

    براهماجالا سوتا (1) “الشبكة العظيمة” أو الشبكة العالمية (من
العالم)، التي يتم فيها القبض على جميع الكائنات مثل الأسماك و 62 أشكال
الهرطقة من التكهنات حول العالم وذاتيا تدرس من قبل المعلمين الآخرين في
ذلك الوقت.
    
سامانافالا سوتا (2) “ثمار حياة الهرميت”. يشرح بوذا للملك أجاتاساتو مزايا الانضمام إلى النظام البوذي والتخلي عن حياة العالم.
    
أمباتا سوتا (3) فخر الولادة وسقوطها. حوار مع أمباتيا على الطائفة. يحتوي على إشارة إلى أسطورة الملك أوكاكا، المؤسس التقليدي لعشيرة ساكيا.
    
سوناداندا سوتا (4) حوار مع البراهمة سوناداندا على خصائص البراهمة الحقيقية.
    
كوتادانتا سوتا (5) حوار مع البراهمة كوتادانتا يدين التضحية الحيوانية.
    
ماهالي سوتا (6) حوار مع ماهالي على ديفا مثل الرؤية والسمع وتحقيق التنوير الكامل.
    
جاليا سوتا (7) على طبيعة مبدأ الحياة بالمقارنة مع الجسم.
    
كاساباسيهانادا سوتا (8) حوار مع كاسابا عارية الزاهد ضد الذات التوفي.
    
بوتهابادا سوتا (9) مناقشة مع بوتهابادا على طبيعة الروح، التي بوذا تنص على أن المسألة غير ذات صلة ولا تفضي إلى التنوير.
    
سوبها سوتا (ديغنا نيكايا) (10) خطاب، نسب إلى أناندا، حول السلوك والتركيز والحكمة.
    
كيفادا سوتا (11) بوذا يرفض السماح للبيكخو لأداء معجزة. قصة الراهب الذي زار ديفاس (الآلهة) لاستجوابهم.
    
لوهيكا سوتا (12) حوار مع براهمة لوهيكا على أخلاقيات التدريس.
    
تيفيجيا سوتا (13) على جدوى معرفة الفيدا كوسيلة لتحقيق الرفقة مع براهما.
مها-vagga

قسم كبير (10 سوتاس)

    مها-بادانا سوتا (14) قصة سامية من بوذا غوتاما وأسلافه الستة. أيضا الخطاب حول بوذا فيباسي؛ هبوطه من السماء توسيتا إلى بدء مهمته.
    
مها نيدانا سوتا (15) على سلسلة من الضرب والنظريات الروح.
    
مها-بارينيبانا سوتا (16) الخطاب الكبير من سجل تمرير تاثاجاتا إلى بارينيبانا.
    
مها سوداسانا سوتا (17) ملك العظيم المجد. قصة وجود سابق لبوذا، الملك سوداسانا. قال من قبل بوذا على وفاته السرير.
    
جانافاسابها سوتا (18) بوذا يتصل قصة ياخها جانافاسابها لشعب ناديكا.
    
مها غوفيندا سوتا (19) الموسيقار السماوي بانكاسيخا يتصل قصة مها جوفيندا لبوذا، الذي يقول انه هو نفسه مها جوفيندا.
    
مها-سمايا سوتا (20) ديفاز من دار نقية وتطورها.
    
ساكابانها سوتا (21) ساكا، رب ديفا يزور بوذا، ويتعلم منه أن كل ما ينشأ هو أيضا عرضة للحل.
    
مها-ساتيباتانا سوتا (22) الخطاب على تأملات كبيرة أربعة، على الجسم، والمشاعر الأفكار وحالات العقل. مع تعليق على أربع حقائق.
    
باياسي سوتا (23) النزاعات باياسي ولادة جديدة / التناسخ ومكافأة الإجراءات (كاما / الكرمة) ولكن يختبر ذلك بنفسه.

Patika-vagga

قسم باتيكا (11 سوتاس)

    باتيكا سوتا (24) قصة التلميذ الذي يتبع المعلمين الآخرين لأن بوذا لا يعمل المعجزات أو تعليم أصل الأشياء.
    
أودومباريكاسيهانادا سوتا (25) يناقش بوذا الزهد مع نيغرودها الزهد.
    
كاكافاتيسيهانادا سوتا (26) قصة الملك العالمي، فساد الأخلاق وترميمها، ومجيء المستقبل بوذا ميتيا.
    
أغانا سوتا (27) مناقشة حول الطائفة، ومعرض على أصل الأشياء (كما هو الحال في سوتا 24) وصولا الى أصل الطبقات الأربعة.
    
سامباسادانيا سوتا (28) حوار بوذا مع ساريبوتا، الذي يصف تدريس بوذا ويؤكد إيمانه به.
    
باساديكا سوتا (29) الخطاب ديلكتابل. خطاب بوذا على الكمال والمعلم ناقصة.
    
لاكخانا سوتا (30) على 32 علامات رجل عظيم.
    
سيغالوفادا سوتا (31) سيغالا العظة على واجبات رب الأسرة إلى ست فئات من الأشخاص.
    
أتاناتيا سوتا (32) على الملوك الأربعة الكبرى ونوباتهم للحماية ضد الشر.
    
سانجيتي سوتا (33) ساريبوتا يحدد مبادئ التدريس في عشر مجموعات العددية.
    
داسوتارا سوتا (34) ساريبوتا يحدد العقيدة في سلسلة عشرة أضعاف.



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Relaxing Armenian music with duduk


• Hovern enkan - A cool breeze is blowing - Gevorg Dabagian 0:01 - 4:31 • Amen aravot - Every morning - Gevorg Dabagian…
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6) Classical Armenian
6) դասական հայերեն

2441 Չոր 15 Նոյ 2017 ԴԱՍ

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Դիգա Նիկայա

The Digha Nikaya («Հավաքածուների երկար հավաքածու») առաջին հինգ nikayas (հավաքածուներ) է Sutta Pitaka. Digha
Nikaya- ի ամենատարածված ուղեցույցներից մի քանիսը ներառում են
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), որը նկարագրում է Բուդդայի վերջնական
օրերը եւ մահը, Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31), որտեղ Բուդդան քննարկում է
էթիկայի եւ պրակտիկայի մասին
հետեւորդներ
եւ Samaññafala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1), որը նկարագրում եւ
համեմատում է Բուդդայի եւ Հնդկաստանի այլ ասպեկտների տեսակետը տիեզերքի եւ
ժամանակի մասին (անցյալ, ներկա եւ ապագա);
եւ Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), որոնք նկարագրում են սամաթայի խորհուրդը (հանգիստ խոհեր):
Digha Nikaya- ն բաղկացած է 34 դիսկուրսներից, որոնք բաժանված են երեք վագգաների (խմբերի).
Բովանդակություն

    Սիլակհանդա-վագգա
    
Maha-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
Բեռնել / դիտել անգլերեն թարգմանությունը
    
Original Pali տարբերակը

Սիլակհանդա-վագգա

Բարոյականության մասին բաժինը (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) «Մեծ ցանցը» կամ համաշխարհային ցանցը, որում
բռնում են բոլոր ձուկները, ինչպես ձկան եւ մյուս ժամանակաշրջանի այլ
ուսուցիչների կողմից ուսուցանվող աշխարհին վերաբերող շահարկումների 62
գաղափարական ձեւերը:
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) «Հերմիտի կյանքի պտուղները»: Բուդդան բացատրում է թագավոր Ահաթաթաթուն Բուդդիստական ​​հրամանին միանալու եւ աշխարհի կյանքից հրաժարվելու առավելությունները:
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Ծնունդը հպարտություն եւ անկում: Ամբատթայի հետ երկխոսություն կաստակի մասին: Պարունակում է Սաքսի կլանի ավանդական հիմնադիր Օկկակաի լեգենդի մասին:
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Երկխոսություն Brahmin Sonadanda- ի հետ `ճշմարիտ բրահմինի բնութագրիչներով:
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Երկխոսություն Brahmin Kutadanta- ի հետ, դատապարտելով կենդանիների զոհաբերությունը:
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Երկխոսություն Mahali- ի հետ, դեւայի տեսիլքի եւ լսողության պես եւ լիարժեք լուսավորության ձեռքբերում:
    
Ջալյա Սուտտա (7) Կյանքի սկզբունքի բնույթով, մարմնի համեմատ:
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) Քեսապա մերձեցման հետ երկխոսություն ինքնասպանությունների դեմ:
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) Խոսքը Potthapada- ի հետ հոգու բնության մասին,
որի մասին Բուդդան ասում է, որ հարցը անտեղի է եւ ոչ թե նպաստող
լուսավորություն:
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) Քննարկում, որը վերաբերում է Անանդային, վարքի, համակենտրոնացման եւ իմաստության մասին:
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) The Buddha հրաժարվում է թույլ bhikkhu կատարել հրաշք: Մահմեդի պատմությունը, ով այցելել էր դավաններին (աստվածներին), հարցականի տակ դնելու համար:
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Երկխոսություն Brahmin Lohicca- ի ուսուցման էթիկայի մասին:
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Վեդասի գիտելիքի անարդյունավետության մասին, որպես Brahma- ի հետ ընկերակցությանը հասնելու միջոց:
Maha-vagga

The Large Division (10 suttas)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) Բուդդա Գոթմանի եւ նրա վեց նախորդների գերագույն պատմությունը. ինչպես նաեւ Բուդդա Վիպասսի մասին զրույցը. նրա ծագումը Տուսիտայի երկնքից մինչեւ իր առաքելության մեկնարկը:
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Կախարդության շղթայի եւ հոգու տեսությունների մասին:
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Տաթագաթայի Փարինիբբանայի անցնելու մասին արձանագրության մեծ ելույթը:
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Փառքի Մեծ Թագավորը: Բուդդայի նախկին գոյության պատմությունը, որպես Սուդասան թագավոր: Բուդդայի խոսքով, մահվան մահճակալում:
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Բուդդա պատմում է Յակհա Յանավասաբայի պատմությունը Նադիկայի ժողովրդին:
    
Մահա Գովինդա Սուտտա (19) Երկնային երաժիշտ Պանկասխա պատմում է Մահա
Գովինդայի պատմությունը Բուդդա, որը հայտարարում է, որ ինքն էր Մահա
Գովինդան:
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Մաքուր բնակավայրի Devas եւ դրանց էվոլյուցիան:
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Սաքկա, դավոսի տերը այցելում է Բուդդա եւ
սովորում է նրան, որ ամեն ինչ, որ ծագում է, նույնպես ենթակա է լուծարման:
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Զրույցը չորս Մեծ Մեդիտացիաների մասին, մարմնի վրա, զգացմունքների մտքերն ու մտքի վիճակները: Մեկնաբանելով Չորս ճշմարտությունները:
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi վեճերը վերածնունդը / reincarnation &
պարգեւատրում գործողությունների (kamma / karma), բայց դա զգում է իրեն:

Patika-vagga

The Patika Division (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Աշակերտի պատմությունը, ով հետեւում է մյուս
ուսուցիչներին, քանի որ Բուդդան չի աշխատում հրաշքներ կամ սովորեցնում է
իրերի ծագումը:
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) The Buddha քննարկում asceticism հետ ասացվածքի Nigridha.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Համընդհանուր թագավորի պատմությունը,
բարոյականության կոռուպցիան եւ դրանց վերականգնումը եւ ապագայի Բուդդա
Մետտայի գալուստը:
    
Agganna Sutta (27) Քաստի մասին քննարկում եւ բաների ծագման մասին ցուցադրություն (ինչպես Sutta 24-ում) `չորս կրեդիտների ծագումը:
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) Բուդդայի երկխոսությունը Sariputta- ով, որը նկարագրում է Բուդդայի ուսմունքը եւ հաստատում է իր հավատը:
    
Պասադիկա Սուտտա (29) The Delectable Discourse. Բուդդայի ելույթը կատարյալ եւ անկատար ուսուցչի վրա:
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Մեծի 32 նշանների վրա:
    
Սիգալովադա Սուտտան (31) Սիգալան հպարտանում է մարդկանց վեց դասերին տանտիրոջ պարտականությունների վրա:
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Չորրորդ Մեծ Թագավորության եւ նրանց հեգնանքով, չարիքից պաշտպանվելու համար:
    
Սանգիթի Սուտտա (33) Սարիփուտտան դասավանդում է տասը թվային խմբերի ուսուցման սկզբունքները:
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta ուրվագծում վարդապետությունը տասնապատիկ շարքի.



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2441 Çar 15 Noyabr 2017 DERS

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Digha Nikaya

Digha Nikaya (”Uzun Məsləhətlər toplusu”) Sutta Pitaka-da beş nikayanın (kolleksiyaların) birincisi. Digha
Nikayadan ən çox istinad edilən bəzi suttalar Buddanın son günlərini və
ölümünü təsvir edən Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), Buddanın etikası və
tətbiqləri müzakirə etdiyi Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31)
ardıcılları
və Samañnaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1), Hindistanda Buddha və
digər astsetiklərin nöqteyi-nəzərini kainat və zaman (keçmiş, indiki və
gələcək) ilə müqayisə edir;
və samatha meditasiyasının faydalarını və təcrübəsini təsvir edən Potthapada Sutta (DN 9).
Digha Nikaya, üç vaggaya (qruplara) bölünmüş 34 söhbətdən ibarətdir:
İçindəkilər

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
Maha-vagqa
    
Patika-vagqa
    
İngilis dili tərcüməsi yükləyin
    
Orijinal Pali versiyası

Silakkhandha-vagga

Ahlaka dair bölmə (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) Balıq kimi bütün canlıları və dünyanın digər
müəllimləri tərəfindən öyrədilmiş dünyadakı spekülasiyaya dair
spekülasyonların 62 fəlsəfi formasını tutan “Böyük Net” və ya universal
şəbəkə.
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) “Hermit Həyatının Meyvələri”. Budda King Ajsatattuya Buddist Sifarişinə qoşulma və dünyanın həyatından imtina üstünlüklərini izah edir.
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Doğum və qürur gururu. Ambatta ilə caste haqqında dialoq. Sakya qəbiləsinin ənənəvi qurucusu Kral Oxkanın əfsanəsinə istinad edir.
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Brahmin Sonadanda ilə əsl brahmin xüsusiyyətləri ilə dialoq.
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Brahmin Kutadantan ilə heyvanlar qurbanlarını qınayır.
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Görmə və eşitmə və tam maariflənmə bacarığı kimi Mahali ilə dialoq.
    
Jaliya Sutta (7) Bədənə nisbətən həyat prinsipi xarakteri haqqında.
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) Çıplak ascetic Kassapa ilə özünü öldürmə qarşı dialoq.
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) Buddanın məsələni alakasız və maarifləndirməyə imkan vermədiyi ruhun təbiəti ilə Potthapada ilə müzakirə.
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) Ananda davranışları, konsentrasiyası və hikməti ilə əlaqəli bir söz.
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) Buddha bhikhunun bir möcüzə göstərməsinə icazə verməyini istəmir. Onları soruşmaq üçün devasları (tanrılar) ziyarət edən keşişin hikayəsi.
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Brahmin Lohicca ilə dialoq.
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Vedaların biliklərinin Brahma ilə ünsiyyətə gəlməsi vasitəsi kimi faydasız olması.
Maha-vagqa

Böyük Şöbə (10 suttas)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) Buddha Gotama və onun altı sələfinin ən böyük hekayəsi; həmçinin Buddha Vipassi haqqında söhbət; onun Tusita cənnətindən onun vəzifəsinin başlanmasına qədər çıxması.
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Kəsin zənciri və ruhun nəzəriyyəsi.
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Tathagata’nın Parinibbana geçişinin böyük bir söylemi.
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Şöhrətin Böyük Kralı. Buddanın əvvəlki varlığının hekayəsi, King Sudassana kimi. Buddan onun ölüm yatağında söylədilər.
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Buddha yakkha Janavasabha’nın hekayəsini Nadika xalqına aid edir.
    
Maha Govinda Sutta (19) Səmavi musiqiçi Pancasikha, Maha Govinda
ilə Maha Govinda olduğunu ifadə edən Buddanın hekayəsini izah edir.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Pure Abode Devas və onların inkişafı.
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Deva lordu Sakka Buddanı ziyarət edir və ondan öyrənir ki, başlayan hər şey də həll olunsun.
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Dörd Böyük Meditasiyalara, bədənə, duyğuların düşüncələrinə və düşüncələrinə dair söhbət. Dörd həqiqət haqqında bir şərh ilə.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi, yenidən doğma / reenkarnasyon və
hərəkətlərin mükafatlandırılması (kamma / karma) ilə qarşılaşır, ancaq
özünü yaşayır.

Patika-vagqa

The Patika Division (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Digər müəllimləri təqib edən şagirdin hekayəsi, çünki Budda möcüzə yaratmır və ya şeylərin kökünü öyrədir.
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) The Buddha ascetic Nigridha ilə astsetizm müzakirə edir.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Ümumdünya kralın hikməti, əxlaqın pozulması və bərpası və gələcək Buddha Metteya gəlməsi.
    
Agganna Sutta (27) Kast üzərində müzakirə və əşyaların mənşəyi
haqqında bir sərgi (Sutta 24 kimi) dörd kastonun mənşəyinə qədər aşağı
salındı.
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) Buddha Tədrisini təsvir edən və onun imanını təsdiqləyən Sariputta ilə dialoq.
    
Pasadika Sutta (29) The Delectable Discourse. Mükəmməl və imperfect müəllimə Buddan söhbət.
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Böyük bir adamın 32 qeydində.
    
Sigalovada Sutta (31) The Sigala şəxsən altı şagirdlərin ev sahibinin vəzifələri haqqında.
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Dörd Böyük Padşahlar və onların pisliyindən qorunmaq üçün onların sehrinə.
    
Sangiti Sutta (33) Sariputta Tədrisin prinsiplərini on ədədi qrupda təsvir edir.
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta on dəfə qatdakı doktrinasını əks etdirir.


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http://www.thehindu.com/…/why-abba-must…/article20376164.ece


[Seeding is just one of the many barriers that the ABBA has created in
the smooth functioning of the PDS. The ABBA requires that family members
be enrolled for Aadhaar and correct seeding. At the time of purchase,
the ABBA requires power supply, a functional PoS machine, mobile and
Internet connectivity, State and Central Identities Data Repository
(CIDR) servers to be ‘up’, and for fingerprint authentication to be
successful.

What most people don’t realise is that the ABBA
has no role in reducing corruption. If the ABBA helps reduce corruption,
it might be worth fixing these failures. Quantity fraud is the practice
of cheating on quantities sold. Neither seeding nor the ABBA can stop
quantity fraud. In a survey in Jharkhand, dealers continue to swindle
people by cutting up to a kg of their grain entitlement despite
successful ABBA authentication. Identity fraud, for example in the form
of duplicate ration cards, only requires Aadhaar-seeding; the ABBA is
unnecessary. Two caveats on seeding: it can be foolproof against
identity fraud only in a universal system. More seriously, it raises
privacy issues.
Further, in Aadhaar’s rulebook for example, an
elderly person asking a neighbour to fetch their grain would count as
identity fraud. In fact, it is flexibility that is lost when the ABBA is
made mandatory.]

http://www.thehindu.com/…/why-abba-must…/article20376164.ece

OPINION

Why ABBA must go

Reetika Khera

NOVEMBER 13, 2017 00:00 IST
UPDATED: NOVEMBER 13, 2017 03:33 IST

Aadhaar-based Biometric Authentication does nothing in the battle against graft — there are better alternatives

In a sickening way, October 2017 was like October 2002.


Fifteen years ago, in Rajasthan’s Baran and Udaipur districts, there
was a spate of starvation deaths. The government of the time made up
fanciful stories to deny that the deaths had anything to do with hunger
or government failure.

In October 2017, the death of an
11-year-old Dalit child, Santoshi Kumari, of Jharkhand, was widely
reported. She had been pleading with her mother to give her rice as she
slipped into unconsciousness and lost her life. The government insists
that she had malaria but in video testimonies, her mother, Koyli Devi,
says she had no fever. After Santoshi’s death, more hunger deaths have
been reported, of which at least one, Ruplal Marandi, is related to the
government’s Aadhaar experiment.

The starvation deaths in 2002
became the springboard for positive action on many fronts, which
included the passing of judicial orders and even political action. Since
then, there has been a perceptible improvement in programmes of social
support including, but not limited to, the Public Distribution System
(PDS). In Baran, it led to a recognition of the vulnerability of the
Sahariyas — a tribal community in Baran — and a special PDS package
consisting of free pulses and ghee being announced.

Similar
action is required today. Instead, the government remains in denial. The
Food Ministry in Delhi issued an order in late October that is silent
on the crucial issue of reinstating wrongly cancelled ration cards and
makes token concessions (with no guarantee of implementation).

Targets and the reality


For months, the Central government has been insisting on 100% Aadhaar
“seeding” across schemes such as the PDS, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) and pensions. Seeding refers to the
practice of entering Aadhaar numbers for each household member on the
ration card. It is a pre-requisite for the Aadhaar-based Biometric
Authentication (ABBA) system, the practice of using an electronic point
of sale (PoS) machine to authenticate each transaction. The government
has made seeding and the ABBA mandatory in the PDS. As explained below,
the distinction between seeding and the ABBA is important.

In
their zeal to achieve 100% Aadhaar-seeding targets, some field
functionaries just deleted the names of those who did not submit Aadhaar
details. Others waited till the deadline and then struck off names. The
government claims that all of these were “fake”, detected due to
Aadhaar, thus saving crores of rupees. Santoshi’s family was one such
example. According to the State Food Minister, their ration card was
cancelled in July because they failed to seed it with Aadhaar.

Exclusions are not savings


Some people blame the aggrieved for failing to seed Aadhaar. But many
of them are unaware of the seeding requirement. When pensions in
Jharkhand suddenly stopped for many pensioners, they had no idea why. No
one had told them about Aadhaar. In some cases, the middlemen had
seeded it wrongly. Others still had tried repeatedly and failed. Seeding
is not as simple as it sounds.

Seeding is just one of the many
barriers that the ABBA has created in the smooth functioning of the PDS.
The ABBA requires that family members be enrolled for Aadhaar and
correct seeding. At the time of purchase, the ABBA requires power
supply, a functional PoS machine, mobile and Internet connectivity,
State and Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) servers to be ‘up’,
and for fingerprint authentication to be successful.

Ruplal
Marandi’s family passed the first two hurdles, enrolment and seeding,
but was tripped at the last stage by the ABBA. For no fault of his own,
the Marandi family was excluded from the PDS. His daughter told
journalists that he had died of hunger as the family could not collect
rations because of a biometric mismatch at the PDS shop.

There is
enough evidence to show that the ABBA does not work. The Finance
Ministry’s latest Economic Survey, based on micro-studies, reports high
biometric failure rates.

In Rajasthan, government data for the
past year show that around 70% of cardholders are able to use the system
successfully. The rest have either been tripped up by one of the ABBA
hurdles or, less likely, they did not attempt to buy PDS grain. In
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, the ABBA’s poster child States, it is used
to disburse MGNREGA wages and pensions: biometric failure rates are
between 8 and 14%. In some months, one in four pensioners returns
empty-handed.

A case against ABBA

What most people don’t
realise is that the ABBA has no role in reducing corruption. If the ABBA
helps reduce corruption, it might be worth fixing these failures.
Quantity fraud is the practice of cheating on quantities sold. Neither
seeding nor the ABBA can stop quantity fraud. In a survey in Jharkhand,
dealers continue to swindle people by cutting up to a kg of their grain
entitlement despite successful ABBA authentication. Identity fraud, for
example in the form of duplicate ration cards, only requires
Aadhaar-seeding; the ABBA is unnecessary. Two caveats on seeding: it can
be foolproof against identity fraud only in a universal system. More
seriously, it raises privacy issues.

Further, in Aadhaar’s
rulebook for example, an elderly person asking a neighbour to fetch
their grain would count as identity fraud. In fact, it is flexibility
that is lost when the ABBA is made mandatory.

Thus, each month,
people are being forced to cross five meaningless hurdles in the form of
electricity, functional PoS, connectivity, servers and fingerprint
authentication in order to have access to their ration. Failing any one
hurdle even once causes anxiety in subsequent months. Think of the ATM
running out of cash, post-demonetisation, just when it was your turn.
The resultant anxiety defeats the very purpose of such forms of social
support. Failure in consecutive months leads to people giving up
entirely. They stop trying. States such as Rajasthan were planning to
treat such households as dead or non-existent.

The ABBA must be
withdrawn immediately from the PDS and pensions in favour of alternative
technologies such as smart cards. This will allow us to keep the baby
(offline PoS machines with smart cards) and throw out the bathwater
(Internet dependence and biometric authentication).

If the
government continues to insist on the ABBA, there is only one conclusion
that can be drawn. That it is actively trying to sabotage the PDS,
which, quite literally, is a lifeline for the poor.

Reetika Khera is Associate Professor (Economics) at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Peace Is Doable


Aadhaar-based Biometric Authentication does nothing in the battle against graft — there are better alternatives
thehindu.com

http://indianexpress.com/…/supreme-court-diminished-judici…/

Supreme Court, diminished
The judiciary has created a crisis of institutional credibility for itself

Written by Pratap Bhanu Mehta |

Published:November 14, 2017 12:39 am


The Supreme Court of India is facing its worst crisis of credibility
since the Emergency. With an occasional exception, the quality of the
court’s reasoning, the inconstancy of its judgment, the abdication of
its constitutional role in some cases, and its overreach in others, are
already denting its authority. But the institutional crisis that the
Supreme Court has now created for itself will puncture more holes in the
authority that it so valiantly tried to exert. It will also create the
conditions under which it will be easier to legitimise diluting judicial
independence.

The current crisis was occasioned by an order
passed by Justice J Chelameswar to constitute a five-judge bench in a
petition filed by CJAR that demanded that a SIT be constituted to look
into an alleged corruption scandal pertaining to a case involving a
medical college. There are two issues: Can the chief justice be part of
the hearing, since the scandal allegedly implicates a judgment the CJI
wrote, even though he has not been named in the FIR? Second, could a
constitution bench be constituted bypassing the chief justice in
violation of the current procedure through which such benches are
constituted? This is not the place to recount the ugly sequence of
events that transpired. But consider the different ways in which the
judiciary has now rendered itself vulnerable.

First, there is the
vulnerability that arises from the CBI itself. There are issues of
corruption in the courts. The judiciary has failed to find a mechanism
to deal with allegations of corruption within its ranks. Every justice
in the court needs to be above suspicion. But a lot of care needs to be
exercised so that the anti-corruption measures taken do not undermine
the independence of the judiciary. This is not a very popular thing to
say, but we should also consider the possibility that the threat of
being investigated by the CBI, or speculative naming (or suggestion in a
CBI report), can itself also be an instrument of seeking recusals or
undermining the independence of judges, as is sometimes done with other
government officials. This subtle institutional challenge to the
judiciary is not outside of the realm of possibility. More than the
conduct of Justices Misra and Chelameswar, the judiciary will have to
think of how it will deal with instances where the Chief Justice of
India or other justices becomes hostage to possible CBI innuendo.


The challenge of fighting corruption in the judiciary will be this: How
do you do this in a way that does not make the judiciary vulnerable to
implicit blackmail and leads to undermining its independence? But a
clamour for reforms that undermine independence in the name of
accountability will be a natural consequence of the current chain of
events.
It is precisely because such a danger looms that the
judiciary’s conduct needs to be above board. And here, the judiciary has
made itself doubly vulnerable. A court carves out its authority by the
compelling character of its reasoning on behalf of constitutional
values.
We have had a succession of chief justices who have failed
to exercise intellectual leadership and the present chief justice is no
exception. It is not difficult to understand the chief justice’s
consternation. He has not been named in an FIR, and the prospect of a
CJI’s integrity being questioned on the basis of an unaccountable CBI is
not a prospect we should relish. He was also institutionally humiliated
by one of his brother justices, who disregarded existing court
procedure and appointed a constitutional bench. But notwithstanding
this, this is clearly a chief justice who seemed not to understand the
concept of conflict of interest. He let his consternation on a
procedural matter get the better of his judgment in a cringingly
unbecoming way. He also gave the impression of not giving counsel a
proper hearing. In the way he has constituted benches, he has also shown
deep distrust in the capabilities of his senior colleagues. By setting
himself up as a judge in his own cause and setting up a bench whose
composition looks arbitrary, he has undermined the authority of the
judiciary.

But Justice Chelameswar’s order setting up a
five-judge bench also made the judiciary vulnerable. Surely, there were
better ways of securing the recusal of the chief justice and setting up a
bench in a way that did not depart from existing court procedure or
humiliate the chief justice. The danger is that the pursuit of justice
and the need to project virtue often results in a grandstanding in its
own right. Rather than build a robust judicial consensus, judges project
their own individual heroism.

Between a chief justice who does
not recognise conflict of interest, and justices who think the only
recourse is public grandstanding, the judiciary will not be able to
survive. Many learned counsel have defended Justice Chelameswar’s move
by invoking Article 142 that gives judges the power to do whatever it
takes to secure justice. But the use of Article 142 has also become a
sign of immense judicial indiscipline, where judges can easily ride
roughshod over other procedural proprieties.

Taken together, both
the chief justice’s and the judge’s conduct highlights one obvious
fact: There is no Supreme Court left any more. In expanding its powers,
the Supreme Court first replaced the rule of law with the rule of the
court (they are not the same thing); now the rule of court has been
replaced with the anarchic will of individual judges. The Supreme Court
has effectively ended an institution. There is no real command structure
left. On procedural matters, whether it is protocols for appointing
judges, or handling conflicts of interest, the court is all over the
place.

Communication between judges seems to have broken down to
the point where the senior leadership of the court is incapable of
getting together and coming up with common sense procedural solutions to
cases like this. The distrust amongst judges, as evident in the ways
benches are being constituted, seems extraordinarily high. And the sense
of injured virtue amongst individual judges seems to be trumping any
consideration of the reputation of the judiciary as a whole.


There are lots of legal nuances to the case at hand. But the court’s
loss of external credibility combined with internal anarchy does not
bode well for Indian democracy. Instead of becoming a constitutional
lodestar in our turbulent times, the court has itself become a
reflection of the worst rot afflicting Indian institutions.

The writer is vice-chancellor, Ashoka University. Views are personal


Peace Is Doable


The judiciary has created a crisis of institutional credibility for itself
indianexpress.com

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OPINION

This is the gravest crisis the judiciary and the legal profession have ever faced in India
The events of November 10 in the Supreme Court show its unwillingness
to even address the most basic questions of institutional integrity.

by Alok Prasanna Kumar
Published Yesterday · 06:30 pm

This is the gravest crisis the judiciary and the legal profession have ever faced in India


November 10, 2017, witnessed a gross and unconscionable abuse of power
by the Chief Justice of India, Justice Dipak Misra, unparalleled in the
history of the Supreme Court of India. As other commentators have
pointed out (here, here, here and here) it is, if not the lowest, then
certainly one of the lowest points in the history of an institution that
ordinary citizens of India look up to. The credibility of the
institution, built up over several decades, already under stress in the
last few years, crumbled in two hours of high drama. It is important to
remember how we got here, why the Chief Justice of India’s actions are
so unpardonable and why things may never be the same again.

Sequence of events
The immediate sequence of events leading up to the events of November
10, 2017 are detailed here, but some more background is needed to
understand it fully. The story really starts with the Central Bureau of
Investigation’s arrest of a hawala operator who led them eventually to a
retired judge of the Orissa High Court, IM Quddusi who, it was claimed,
had taken money from a medical college with a promise to help them get a
favourable judgement from the Supreme Court on the question of
permissions to admit students for the 2017-’18 academic year from the
Medical Council of India.

The Campaign for Judicial
Accountability and Reforms led by Prashant Bhushan and later, Kamini
Jaiswal, filed a petition asking for a Supreme Court monitored
supervision of this ongoing investigation into possible judicial
corruption. On Thursday, a bench led by Justice J Chelameswar directed
that a Constitution bench be formed of five senior-most judges to deal
with Jaiswal’s petition. The order said that the bench should consist of
the five senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. But on Friday, this
order was nullified by a fresh Constitution bench led by Misra and a new
bench set up by him.

The medical college in question, run by
Prasad Education Trust, had approached the Supreme Court earlier this
year in a case which was heard by a bench of Misra, Justice Amitava Roy
and Justice AM Khanwilkar. It cannot be missed that both Justices Roy
and Khanwilkar were also on the “Constitution Bench” that Misra set up
on Friday.

It is true that the names of Misra or his two
colleagues on the bench are not mentioned in the first information
report filed by the CBI. But we must remember that according to the
judgement of the Supreme Court of India in K Veeraswami v Union of
India, no complaint can be made against a judge of the Supreme Court
without the written permission of the Chief Justice of India, and if the
complaint is about the Chief Justice of India, then permission has to
be obtained from such judge or judges of the Supreme Court as the Union
Government sees fit. The CBI thus could not, by itself, have named any
Supreme Court judge in the FIR, without the government taking the
requisite permissions.

The alleged offence of bribery of a public
official does not actually name a specific public official yet. The
investigations have not made any progress on the involvement of any
sitting Supreme Court judge, yet. It is public knowledge that the writ
petition filed by the other accused, for permission, was heard by Misra,
Roy and Khanwilkar on July 26 and an order was passed on August 1,
asking for a fresh decision to be taken regarding permission denied to
petitioner colleges. Crucially, it was heard as part of a batch of
matters challenging decisions of the Union Government and the committee
overseeing the functioning of the Medical Council of India in respect of
permission given to medical colleges.

The obvious questions
arise: Would it not be the most logical thing to do to include the above
judges in the ongoing investigation, after going through the proper
procedures? Does this not warrant an inquiry into the functioning of the
Supreme Court? Is it not reasonable to investigate if the alleged
bribery in the Prasad Education Trust case was a one-off or could there
be more such cases? Would it not have advisable for Misra to have
welcomed such a probe as it would have once and for all cleared all
controversy?

These questions have no answers and thanks to Misra’s actions on Friday, the truth looks further away than ever.


While Chelameswar’s orders early listing of the petitions by CJAR and
Kamini Jaiswal and reference to the Constitution Bench of five
senior-most judges were debatable, they did not per se cause any
prejudice to anyone, and may have been warranted to ensure that justice
was not only done but seen to be done.

Natural justice
The
Chief Justice of India, like the Chief Justice of any High Court is the
“Master of the Rolls” – the judge with the power to decide the roster of
the court: who hears which case and when. This was never in dispute.
The “order” passed by the “Constitution Bench” reiterating the legal
position makes no reference to the facts which prompted these
proceedings. The writ petition was filed given that Misra’s conduct was
in question and, when it came to a judicial inquiry about the same, he
cannot be allowed to be a judge in his own cause. This cardinal
principle of natural justice, the cornerstone of any independent and
impartial judiciary, and one which courts in common law jurisdictions
have recognised for over 400 years was violated with impunity. While the
order cites case-law and precedent to assert his powers as a master of
the rolls, it does not, even in passing, address the argument made by
Prashant Bhushan and the petitioners that Misra, as Chief Justice of
India, should have recused from hearing this case.

Misra also
deliberately avoided including any of the next six senior-most judges in
the “Constitution Bench” he set up, suggesting that he had either no
faith in his fellow judges to be neutral and impartial in this matter or
he feared any neutrality and impartiality in this matter. Neither bodes
well for the judiciary.

There have been past instances where the
Chief Justice’s conduct was in question before the concerned High Court
or the Supreme Court. A writ of quo warranto was filed in the Madras
High Court alleging that the then Chief Justice S Ramachandra Iyer had
given a wrong date of birth and should have retired earlier. He was
forced to resign before the case was decided but the case was listed and
heard before another judge without any interference on his part.
Likewise, all the four so-called judges’ cases did not feature the Chief
Justice of India since the powers of the office were in question, and
it may be recalled that Justice AR Dave had to recuse from the bench
hearing the challenge to the National Judicial Appointments Commission,
as he had become part of the commission whose validity has been
challenged.

Uncertain future
On matters of integrity and
accountability, the judiciary has always asked the public to trust them.
Judges appoint judges. Judges decide whether judges face any
consequences for misconduct. Judges decide whether judges have committed
an impeachable offence. Judges decide whether judges will be named in a
criminal offence. At all times, the claim has been raised that the
institution of the judiciary is too precious, too fragile and too
important to allow anyone but judges to safeguard it. What Misra’s
actions show is that judges don’t trust other judges to safeguard the
institution of the judiciary, and more importantly, the public cannot
trust the judges to safeguard the institution either.

Just as
shameful is the role of several advocates who had gathered in Court No 1
of the Supreme Court on Friday. They had nothing to do with the case
and represented no parties. They, including some executive members of
the Supreme Court Bar Association, behaved in a despicable manner – all
in the defence of a judge trying desperately to hold on to his authority
in the face of serious questions on his integrity. Whatever may have
been the merits of Justice Chelameswar choosing to hear the case and
referring it to a Constitution bench, it was incumbent upon Misra’s
bench to have not permitted advocates to disparage him thus in open
court and show such open disrespect to their colleagues.

This is
the gravest crisis the judiciary and the legal profession have ever
faced in India. Both have been beset by problems, big and small over the
years. What the events of Friday show is the institution’s
unwillingness to even address the most basic questions of institutional
integrity. It would be a mistake to see this as just Misra exceeding his
powers as the Chief Justice of India. He had the help and support of
several judges on the bench. He had the active connivance of members of
the Bar with many years of standing in the profession. How can the
public possibly retain any shred of faith in the honesty and neutrality
of the judiciary when the highest judicial body and the highest judicial
authority does something like this?

Alok Prasanna Kumar is
Senior Resident Fellow, Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy. He is also a
Member of the Executive Committee of the Campaign for Judicial
Accountability and Reforms.


The
events of November 10 in the Supreme Court show its unwillingness to
even address the most basic questions of institutional integrity.
scroll.in

[But
more astonishing is the amount of money involved. Collectively, the
amount claimed as agricultural income was Rs 84,742 crore (average
amount per assessee Rs 19.lakh) in 2010. If that made you gasp, watch
the amount declared for 2011. It jumped to (hold your breath) Rs
19,971,098 crore (Rs 3,040 lakh average per assessee) in 2011. It did
not stop at this level. It climbed further to Rs 67,431,358 crore
(average Rs 8,300 lakh) in 2012.
The collective amount for the three
years comes to an astounding Rs 86,486,197 crore (Rs 865 lakh crore).
It is astounding, because the GVA (gross value added) for the country
was only Rs 8,546,552 crore, Rs 9,084,369 crore and Rs 9,727,490 for
2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. The total GVA for the three years
together comes to Rs 27,358,411 crore.
What this means is that the
total agricultural income filed with the IT authorities was three times
the total GVA for the three years. If only 2011 and 2012 are taken into
account, agricultural income declared was almost 5 times the GVA for
those two years. Preposterous! That effectively means that agricultural
income was even greater than India’s GDP or GVA! Unbelievable!]

India’s farms report income greater than our GDP! Target them in the war on black money
The opposition is baying for the government’s blood over demonetisation
and GST. The first is done and over with. But its effects are not yet
over. The second has been modified to assuage large sections of the
population.

RN Bhaskar


RN Bhaskar

The
opposition is baying for the government’s blood over demonetisation and
GST. The first is done and over with. But its effects are not yet over.
The second has been modified to assuage large sections of the
population.

The government continues to insist that
demonetisation will help curb black money. Maybe it will. The money that
has been put into bank accounts (since very few of high value notes got
‘impounded’ or cancelled by the government) will help the government
track down accounts which saw a surge in deposits. That will enable the
tax authorities to track down the sources of these deposits.


According to media reports, attributed to highly placed tax authorities,
more than Rs 2 lakh was deposited in over 60 lakh bank accounts
post-demonetisation. The total amount involved is over Rs 7.34 lakh
crore. These accounts are now under scrutiny.

RELATED NEWS
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Judiciary’s independence can’t be at mercy of CBI or police: Supreme Court
Gawahati High Court rejects APSC chairman’s bail plea
8 lakh or 60 lakh?


That may be so. However, there are good reasons to believe that the
Finance Ministry could haul up bigger fish by just scrutinizing some 8
lakh accounts, instead of pursuing 60 lakh accounts.

These are
the people who submitted agricultural income tax returns in 2011-2013
(see chart alongside). Watch the table closely. The total number of
returns filed and which showed agricultural income surged from 425,085
in 2011, to 656,944 in 2011. This number climbed further in 2012 to
812,426 in 2012.

Capture

But more astonishing is the
amount of money involved. Collectively, the amount claimed as
agricultural income was Rs 84,742 crore (average amount per assessee Rs
19.lakh) in 2010. If that made you gasp, watch the amount declared for
2011. It jumped to (hold your breath) Rs 19,971,098 crore (Rs 3,040 lakh
average per assessee) in 2011. It did not stop at this level. It
climbed further to Rs 67,431,358 crore (average Rs 8,300 lakh) in 2012.


The collective amount for the three years comes to an astounding Rs
86,486,197 crore (Rs 865 lakh crore). It is astounding, because the GVA
(gross value added) for the country was only Rs 8,546,552 crore, Rs
9,084,369 crore and Rs 9,727,490 for 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively.
The total GVA for the three years together comes to Rs 27,358,411
crore.

What this means is that the total agricultural income
filed with the IT authorities was three times the total GVA for the
three years. If only 2011 and 2012 are taken into account, agricultural
income declared was almost 5 times the GVA for those two years.
Preposterous! That effectively means that agricultural income was even
greater than India’s GDP or GVA! Unbelievable!

But that is what
the numbers say. Some taxmen tried to pass this off as data-entry
errors. But that is implausible. This is because any income over Rs 20
lakh has to be fed into the income tax servers directly by the
assessees. If the figures are wrong, the assessees should be hauled up
and penalised for wrongful entries. The entries should then be cancelled
and treated as null and void. Else, they should be prosecuted and fined
for concealment of income. Neither has happened. The Finance Ministry
is silent about this. So are the income tax authorities.

In fact,
the income tax on such declarations could be large enough to account
for almost 100 years of total taxes collected. That could actually make
Prime Minister Modi’s plan for giving money back to tax payers a
reality.

The genesis

The genesis of these discoveries lies
in a series of accidents. The first figure that emerged was a
mind-boggling amount of Rs 2,000 lakh crore. This was almost two and a
half times the Rs 865 lakh crore given in the table alongside. This
figure emerged in an affidavit filed by a retired Income Tax (IT)
officer — Vijay Sharma.

He had filed an RTI (Right to
Information) request with the income tax department for the amounts
declared as agricultural income. He claimed that he had indicated an
exponential increase in agricultural income from 2004 to 2013, touching a
total of almost Rs 2,000 lakh crore for 6.57 lakh individual assessees
in 2011. He then asked for the top 100 names of the people who had filed
such returns.

His RTI request was denied. He then decided to
file a public interest litigation (PIL) petition with the Patna High
Court in Bihar. This matter was duly reported by media in March 2016.
The court was supposed to hear the petition in April in that year
itself. But the courts, too, have been silent on this matter.


Almost simultaneously, the income tax department gave out a different
set of figures (see table 1) which was dutifully reported by the media.


At the same time, thanks to the PIL before Patna High Court, the CBDT –
on 10 March 2016 — sent out a circular to all its officers to verify
details (LETTER F.NO.DGIT(S)/DIT(S)-3/AST/PIL MATTER/AGRICULTURAL
INCOME/97/2015-16) A copy of this letter can be downloaded here. It
confirmed that there had been a surge in agricultural-income returns. It
also attempts to suggest a way to wriggle out of this mess.


And this brings us back to demonetisation. Remember, demonetisation
involved just Rs 15.4 lakh crore. The total currency in circulation is
under Rs 20 lakh crore. And Rs 865 lakh crore was many times these
levels.

Why agricultural income?

Of course, the one
question that automatically arises is – why is the focus on agricultural
income so crucial? The reason is simple. Agricultural income is tax
exempt, provided it is declared as agricultural income with the tax
authorities. That has given rise to several theories. Someone possibly
tipped off some of the most powerful people in India during 2010.
Maybe, there was an amnesty scheme round the corner. Maybe, there was an
assurance that no questions would be asked. But that is all pure
speculation. But the numbers that appeared in the media, and through the
tax authorities could not have been speculation. One cannot imagine
the entire country getting into a speculative mood simultaneously, all
of a sudden.

The tax-free nature of agricultural income has made
this the favourite method many politicians are said to use to convert
their illegally gotten wealth into legitimate income. That is why
agriculture is often referred to as a laundromat. Some of the
politicians have disclosed figures that defy reasoning. Even if the
most productive field were to be used for growing the most lucrative
crop, incomes of those levels would just not be possible.

Sadly,
the income tax department – and the Finance Ministry – have kept silent
on scrutinizing these returns. More painfully, even the judiciary has
not asked questions. Had it done so, the PIL filed by Sharma would have
been heard, and the truth would have come out. One way or the other,
the ghost of huge agricultural incomes would have been put to rest.

Strangely, even the opposition parties have chosen to stay quiet about this.

I call this a collusive silence. Nothing makes sense for now.


So we return to the question everyone has been asking. Will
demonetisation root out black money? Maybe, yes. But only if the
problem of agricultural income is addressed first.

(The author is Consulting Editor with Moneycontrol)

Peace Is Doable

http://www.hindustantimes.com/…/story-ftqgJmHeeYpT1kxZkH9Vp…


[Tewari further said, “We would like to inform the government that
there is a certain timetable to the Parliament. It is structured in a
manner whereby the budget, monsoon and winter sessions can happen. What
is it that the government is so scared of that it is running away from
convening Parliament?” he asked.]

http://www.hindustantimes.com/…/story-ftqgJmHeeYpT1kxZkH9Vp…

Hold winter session of Parliament immediately: Congress tells PM Modi, BJP
The Congress-led opposition plans to raise issues like demonetisation,
GST, the Kashmir situation, and the Doklam standoff with China.

INDIA Updated: Nov 13, 2017 23:33 IST

HT Correspondent
Hindustan Times, New Delhi

The Congress asked the BJP-led government if it was scared of facing the opposition on issues such as note ban and GST.
The Congress asked the BJP-led government if it was scared of facing the opposition on issues such as note ban and GST.


The Congress demanded on Monday that the BJP-led NDA government
immediately convene the winter session of Parliament, asking if it was
scared of facing the opposition on issues such as note ban and the Goods
and Services Tax (GST).

“Why is the BJP government not convening
the winter session of Parliament? We would like to ask Prime Minister
Narendra Modi if the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs (CCPA)
has met. What are its recommendations? And if it has not met, why so?”
asked Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari.

He said assembly elections should not become “an excuse” for the government in “running away from facing” Parliament.

The government had considered calling a short session after the second phase of polling in Gujarat ends on December 14.


Tewari further said, “We would like to inform the government that there
is a certain timetable to the Parliament. It is structured in a manner
whereby the budget, monsoon and winter sessions can happen. What is it
that the government is so scared of that it is running away from
convening Parliament?” he asked.

The Congress-led opposition
plans to raise issues such as the anniversary of demonetisation, how it
impacted the economy, the “completely failed” implementation
of the GST, the situation in Jammu and Kashmir, and the Doklam standoff with China.

Peace Is Doable


The
Congress-led opposition plans to raise issues like demonetisation, GST,
the Kashmir situation, and the Doklam standoff with China.
hindustantimes.com

comments (0)
2440 Tue 14 Nov 2017 LESSON Tripitaka in 23) Classical English,94) Classical Tajik-Шветсия классикӣ,95) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,96) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,97) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,98) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,99) Classical Ukrainian -Класична українська,100) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو 101) Classical Uzbek- klassik o’zbek,102) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,103) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,104) Classical Xhosa- IsiXhosa isiXhosa,105) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש 106) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,107) Classical Zulu- I-Classical Zulu,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 5:55 pm


2440 Tue 14  Nov 2017 LESSON

Tripitaka

in 23) Classical English,94) Classical Tajik-Шветсия классикӣ,95) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,96) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,97) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,98) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,99) Classical Ukrainian -Класична українська,100) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
101) Classical Uzbek- klassik o’zbek,102) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,103) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,104) Classical Xhosa- IsiXhosa isiXhosa,105) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

106) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,107) Classical Zulu- I-Classical Zulu,


The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”),
or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which
form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and
the
paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together
constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The
Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the
texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the
Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although
only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this
collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
   
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the
daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained
monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained
    nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also
    includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a
    detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to
    maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual
    community.
Sutta Pitaka
    The
    collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few
    of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of
    Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are
    available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):

        Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
        Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
        Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
        Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
        Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
            Khuddakapatha
            Dhammapada
            Udana
            Itivuttaka
            Sutta Nipata
            Vimanavatthu
            Petavatthu
            Theragatha
            Therigatha
            Jataka
            Niddesa
            Patisambhidamagga
            Apadana
            Buddhavamsa
            Cariyapitaka
            Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
            Petakopadesa (  ”   ”  )
            Milindapañha (  ”   ”  )

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    The
    collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles
    presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a
    systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the
    nature of mind and matter.


illustration,art,vertical,nature,tree,outdoors,people,printhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5790/

Silk Roads Sites in TajikistanAssumption Cathedral and Monastery of the town-island of Sviyazhsk (Russian Federation)




http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5790/
Silk Roads Sites in Tajikistan


UNESCO World Heritage Centre
whc.unesco.org

94) Classical Tajik

94) Шветсия классикӣ

2438 окт 12 Nov 2017 Дараҷа

Tipitaka

Тититака (Паллик, “се” + “питака”, “асп”),
ё Pali canon, маҷмӯи матнҳои ибтидоии Pali аст, ки
ки дар бораи дину мазҳаб ва мазҳаби ҳанафӣ Тититака ва
матнҳои порчаҳои порнографӣ (тафсирҳо, рӯзномаҳо ва ғайра) якҷоя бо матни пурраи матнҳои классикии Theravada.

Дар бораи мо
Пи-пиан як ҷисми зиёди адабиёт аст: тарҷумаи англисӣ
матнҳо ба ҳазорҳо саҳифаҳои чопшуда илова мекунанд. Аксари (вале на ҳама)
Канон аллакай дар давоми сол дар забони англисӣ чоп шудааст. Гарчанде
Ин танҳо як фраксияи хурди ин матнҳо дар ин вебсайт дастрас аст
ҷамъоварӣ метавонад ҷои хубе бошад.

Се қисмҳои Tipitaka инҳоянд:

Виня Питака
    
Ҷамъоварии матнҳо оид ба қоидаҳои рафтори ҳаррӯзаи идоракунии
рӯзона дар ҳудуди Сангаро - ҷамоати биҳиштҳо (репрессияҳо) ва bhikkhunis
    
нусхабардорӣ). Бештар аз рӯйхати қоидаҳо, Vinaya Pitaka низ бештар
    
Ҳикояҳои пас аз пайдоиши ҳар як қоида, таъмин намудани а
    
Чорабинии муфассали ҳалли Будда ба савол оиди чӣ гуна аст
    
ҳамоҳангии коммуналӣ дар дохили як рӯҳияи калон ва гуногун
    
ҷомеа.
Ситта Питака
    
Дар бораи мо
    
ҷамъоварии сутунҳо, ё феҳристҳо, ки ба Буддо ва чанд нафаре дода шудааст
    
аз шогирдони наздиктаре, ки таълимоти асосии марказиро дар бар мегирад
    
Буддизм аст. (Бештар аз як ҳазор сайти sutta мебошанд
    
ки дар ин саҳифа дастрас аст.) Саттҳо аз панҷ ниқоб (ҷамъоварӣ) тақсим мешаванд:

        Digha Nikaya - “ҷамъоварии тӯлонӣ”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - “ҷамъоварии миёна”
        
Саммита Никила - “ҷамъоварии гурӯҳӣ”
        
Ангушара Никаа - “ҷамъоварии минбаъда”
        
Ходдаки Никия - “маҷмӯи матнҳои хурд”:
            
Куддаппафа
            
Даммулада
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Сутта Нипата
            
Лантанаватт
            
Петаватту
            
Тирагатон
            
Therigatha
            
Ҷатака
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Буддои
            
Кариёапитака
            
Nettippakarana (танҳо дар нашрияи Бурмеси Тититакаро дохил карда шудааст)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Абхиёамма Питака
    
Дар бораи мо
    
ҷамъоварии матнҳо, ки дар он принсипҳои асосие,
    
ки дар Sutta Pitaka муаррифӣ шудаанд, аз нав кор мекунанд ва аз нав ташкил карда мешаванд
    
чаҳорчӯби системавӣ, ки метавонанд ба тафтишот истифода шаванд
    
табиати фикр ва мавзӯъ.



South Indian culture refers to the culture of the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana…
youtube.com


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EdZB84k5dsc
amazing fact about tamil culture


Facts about tamil natrajar temple….for more facts visit www.amazingfact.in
youtube.com

http://www.tamilnation.co/culture/index.htm



தமிழ்த் தேசியம்




TAMIL culture:
the Heart of
Tamil National Consciousness





Art



Architecture



Sculpture



Dance


Music


Cuisine


Caste


Women


Nadesan Satyendra



“There is no doubt that the culture of the Tamils belongs to
the great and immortal treasures of the world’s civilisation…”  Dr. Kamil.V. Zvelebil



“.. It is the fight for national
existence which sets culture moving and opens to it the doors of
creation…
It is at the heart of national consciousness that international
consciousness lives and grows. And this two-fold emerging is ultimately
the source of all culture…”

Frantz Fanon at the
Congress of Black African Writers, 1959

“..மொழியும் கலையும் கலாசாரமும் வளம் பெற்று வளர்ச்சியும் உயர்ச்சியும்
அடையும பொழுதே தேசிய இனக் கட்டமைப்பு இறுக்கம் பெறுகின்றது. பலம்
பெறுகின்றது. மனித வாழ்வும் சமூக உறவுகளும் மேன்மை பெறுகின்றது. தேசிய
நாகரிகம் உன்னதம் பெறுகின்றது..”

Velupillai Pirabakaran

 ”I do not want my
house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be stuffed. I want
the cultures of all lands to be blown about my house as freely as
possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any of them. Mine is not
a religion of the prison house. It has room for the least among God’s
creatures, but is proof against the insolent pride of race, religion or
colour..”
Mahatma Gandhi




What is Tamil culture? The attempt
to define, often results in sweeping
generalisations - and sweeping generalisations end up as meaningless clichés.

In early 1996, in the Tamil Circle, a series of articles written by C.Kumarabharathy of
Wellington, New Zealand looked at Tamil culture from the standpoint of an expatriate Tamil
in an emerging post modern world. His reflections
provided food for thought.



“..We tend to think (implicitly), that culture is embodied in Bharatha Natyam, Film Songs,
Films, Dramas and having thus externalised “Culture”, we then send our children
to ’study’ them. This way, parents ‘make up’ for their supposed lack of culture, by the
alleged accomplishments of the children. It is generally, not clear to us, that behaviour,
our conflicts and relationships also form the bedrock of culture. The dance and songs are
external manifestations of this inwardness…”

The external manifestations of Tamil culture may be found in the songs and dances, in
the cuisine and dress forms, in the customs and rituals of the Tamil people. But, as
always, the external and the internal go together. The earliest literature that we have in
Tamil, the Eight Anthologies,
was itself classified into two main groups: ‘internal’ (aham) and ‘external’ (puram).


Ernest
Gellner remarks:


“Definitions of culture…. in the anthropological rather than the normative
sense, are notoriously difficult and unsatisfactory. It is probably best to approach this
problem by using this term without attempting too much in the way of formal definition,
and looking at what culture does.” (Professor Ernest Gellner, Cambridge
University - Nations and Nationalism, Basil Blackwell, 1983)

“…culture consists in the way analogies are drawn between
things; in the way certain thoughts are used to think others; in figure of speech, in
which a term is transferred to something it does not literally apply to… Culture
consists in the images that make imagination possible, in the media with which we mediate
experience. All the artefacts we make and the relationships we enter into, have in that
sense ‘cultural’ consequences, for they give form and shape to the way we think about
other artefacts, other relationships…”

If culture is the distilled essence of the way of life of a people, then, in the case
of the Tamil people, the distillation process has covered a time span of more than two
thousand years. And, today, the Tamil people, living in many lands and across distant seas
acquire strength from the richness of their own cultural heritage - not only because that
that culture has something to do with their own roots and their way of life but also
because they believe that that culture has a significant contribution to make to the
world.


Five decades ago, Czech
Professor Dr. Kamil.V. Zvelebil writing in
‘Tamil Culture’ made an appeal under the heading “The Tamil
Contribution to World’s Civilisation”. He said:



“There is no doubt that the culture of the Tamils belongs to the
great and immortal treasures of the world’s civilisation.

From my own experience,
however, I can say that even those who claim to have a wide outlook and deep education,
both Indians and Europeans, are not aware of this fact. And it is the task of the Tamils
themselves, and of those sympathetic mlecchas who try to interpret Tamil culture, to
acquaint the world’s cultural public with the most important contributions of Tamil
culture to the world’s civilisation.

As far as literary works are concerned, it is necessary before all to make them
accessible to a wide public of readers by means of artistic translations into the worlds
great languages; with regard to works of arts and architecture, it is necessary to make
them a common treasure of the world with the help of publications giving detailed and
perfect reproductions. This may be achieved through the UNESCO as well as through the work
of individual scholars and local Institutions; this should also be one of the main tasks
of the Academy of Tamil Culture.

The following works of art and literature are among the most remarkable contributions
of the Tamil creative genius to the world’s cultural treasure and should be familiar to
the whole world and admired and beloved by all in the same way as the poems of Homer, the
dramas of Shakespeare, the pictures of Rembrandt, the cathedrals of France and the
sculptures of Greece:

1. The ancient Tamil lyrical poetry compiled in ‘The Eight Anthologies’; this poetry is so
unique and vigorous, full of such vivid realism and written so masterfully that it can be
compared probably only with some of the pieces of ancient Greek lyrical poetry;

2. The Thirukural, one of the great books of the
world, one of those singular emanations of the human heart and spirit which preach
positive love and forgiveness and peace;

3. The epical poem
Cilappathikaram, which by
its “baroque splendour’, and by the charm and magic of its lyrical parts belongs to
the epic masterpieces of the world;

4. The school of
Bhakti both
Vaishnava
and Saiva, which is one of those most sincere
and passionate efforts of man to grasp the Absolute; and its supreme literary expression
in the works of
Manikkavasagar,
Tirugnana
Sambandar
,
Nammalwar and
Andal.


5. The philosophical system of
Saiva Sidhdhantha,
a system, which may be ranked among the most perfect and cleverest systems of human
thought;

6. The South Indian bronzes of the Chola period,
those splendid and amazing sculptures belonging to the best creations of humanity,

7. The Dravidian temple architecture, of which the
chief representatives are perhaps the temples of
Tanjore,
Chidambaram and
Madurai.

These seven different forms of contribution without which the
world would be definitely less rich and less happy, should engage the immediate attention
of all who are interested in Tamil culture; they should all dedicate their time and
efforts to make known (and well and intimately known) to the whole of the world these
heights of Tamil creative genius.” (Tamil Culture - Vol. V, No. 4. October,
1956)

To those contributions listed by Professor Zvelbil, may be added the Classical
Dance of the Ancient Tamils - the Bharatha Natyam
and the poetic works of 
Maha Kavi
Subramaniya Bharathy
and Kaviyarasu Kannadhasan, which
are
being recognised today as ranking with the best in the world. 

Professor Kamil Zvelebil’s words in 1956 that
“it is the task of the Tamils themselves… to acquaint the world’s cultural public
with the most important contributions of Tamil culture to the world’s civilisation”,
continue to retain their power to influence and inspire more than forty years later.


And, today, the internet and the world wide web have rendered that task,
hopefully, less difficult. The “Pongal-2000″ Project of the Institute of Asian Studies (Madras),
the Institute for
Indology and Tamil Studies of the University of Cologne
and the University of
California-Berkeley and Project Madurai
launched by Dr.Kalyanasundaram, serve as
examples of that which can be achieved on the web. 


But culture is not something from top to down.



 ”…I don’t believe culture can be done top down. You have to
have a really energetic, organic and powerful culture and to do that, the
only way is bottom up. If you try to encourage creativity through camps,
workshops and courses, you will get only technicians because that is how you
train technicians, not thinkers…”Cultivating culture from the bottom up, Lung Ying-tai,
2004

Again, Partha Chatterjee has pointed out the dilemma faced by the
nationalist:


“Nationalism denied the alleged inferiority of the colonised people; it also
asserted that a backward nation could ‘modernise’ itself while retaining its cultural
identity. It thus produced a discourse in which, even as it challenged the colonial claim
to political domination, it also accepted the very intellectual premises of ‘modernity’ on
which colonial domination was based. How are we to sort out these contradictory elements
in nationalist discourse?.. how does one accept what is valuable in another’s culture
without losing one’s own cultural identity?”. (Partha Chatterjee, Nationalist Thought & the Colonial World - A
Derivative Discourse
- UNU & Zed, 1986)

How does one accept what is valuable in another’s culture without losing one’s own
cultural identity? The cultural identity of a people and their political freedom go hand
in hand.

Frantz Fannon was right to point out in the
Reciprocal Bases of National Culture and the Fight for
Freedom

“The nation is not only the
condition of  culture, its fruitfulness, its continuous renewal, and
its deepening. It is also a necessity. It is the fight for national
existence which sets culture moving and opens to it the doors of
creation. Later on it is the nation which will ensure the conditions
and framework necessary to culture. The nation gathers together the
various indispensable elements necessary for the creation of a
culture, those elements which alone can give it credibility,
validity, life and creative power. In the same way it is its
national character that will make such a culture open to other
cultures and which will enable it to influence and permeate other
cultures. A non-existent culture can hardly be expected to have
bearing on reality, or to influence reality.”


It is only in freedom that the exchange between different cultures will remain
voluntary and not enforced.
In the longer term, it is true that the growth of
nationalism will lead to a voluntary pooling of sovereignties, in a regional, and
ultimately in a world context - but the crucial element must remain the voluntariness
of the process.


“Nationalism is first and foremost a state of mind, an act
of consciousness .. the mental life of man is as much dominated by an ego-consciousness as
it is by a group consciousness. Both are complex states of mind at which we arrive through
experiences of differentiation and opposition, of the ego and the surrounding world, of
the we group and those outside the group .

It is a fact often commented upon that this growth of nationalism
and of national sectionalisms happened at the very same time when international relations,
trade, and communications were developing as never before; that local languages were
raised to the dignity of literary and cultural languages just at the time when it seemed
most desirable to efface all differences of language by the spread of world languages.

This view overlooks the fact that that very growth of nationalism all over the earth,
with its awakening of the masses to participation in political and cultural life, prepared
the way for the closer cultural contacts of all the civilisations of mankind, at the same
time separating and uniting them.” (Hans Kohn: The Idea of
Nationalism
, A Study of its Origins and Background. New York. 1944)

The effort to acquaint the world of the important
contributions of Tamil culture, is not the expression of an exaggerated nationalism.
At the same time, we are not unmindful of Thomas Macaulay and
his notorious efforts at cultural imperialism
.



“The languages of Western Europe civilised Russia. I cannot doubt
that they will do for the Hindoo what they have done for the Tartar
… We must at present do our best to form a class who may be
interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of
persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions,
in morals, and in intellect.”
Thomas Macaulay - Minute on Indian Education,
1835

Frantz Fannon’s words in
Racism
and Culture
are apposite



 ”…nations that
undertake a
colonial war
have no concern for the confrontation of cultures. War is a
gigantic business and every approach must be governed by this datum. The
enslavement, in the strictest sense, of the native population is the prime
necessity…It is not possible to enslave men without logically making them
inferior through and through. And racism is only the emotional, affective, sometimes
intellectual explanation of this inferiorization…”


Tamil
culture is a culture of great antiquity and it has made, and will continue to make, a rich
contribution to world civilisation. That is not to say that Tamils do not need to address the
evils of the caste system that has divided
them
as a people. They do. And it is not to say that Tamils do not need to address
the evils perpetuated on women in their society.
They do. Professor
Hart was right to
point out in the Forum on Brahminism & the Tamil Nation

“..Yes, of course Brahmins have had their own political agenda to
push. They have been responsible for many things that I feel are
entirely unconscionable. But is this any different from the other
high castes? I have heard many many stories of high non-Brahmin castes
killing and abusing Dalits. You can’t blame the Brahmins for this. In
fact, the most pernicious example of the caste system was in the
Tamil areas of Sri Lanka, where there are virtually no Brahmins and never have been….Tamil culture has not suffered because of one group. It
has suffered because of the caste system and
because of its treatment of
women
… Let’s promote inter caste marriage,
let’s get rid of dowry
and give women independence and self-respect, and above all, let’s
avoid a victimization complex which only plays into the hands of those
who have a vested interest in continuing the inequities that exist in
Tamilnad. If every Brahmin were to disappear from Tamilnad, the Dalits
and others who are exploited would
benefited not one iota…”  


Tamils have gained, and continue to
gain, by their interaction with other peoples and other cultures - particularly those of
the Indian sub continent. No people are an island unto themselves. Chauvinism
does not advance the culture of a people. The words of the Tamil poet Kanniyan Poongundran in
Purananuru
(Poem 196), written two thousand years, serve as a useful
reminder of the truth of that which Frantz Fannon wrote - “..It is at the heart of national consciousness that international
consciousness lives and grows. And this two-fold emerging is ultimately
the source of all culture…”.






To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life’s good comes not form others’ gift, nor ill
Man’s pains and pains’ relief are from within.   
Death’s no new thing; nor do our bosoms thrill
When Joyous life seems like a luscious draught.   
When grieved, we patient suffer; for, we deem
This much - praised life of ours a fragile raft   
Borne down the waters of some mountain stream
That o’er huge boulders roaring seeks the plain   
Tho’ storms with lightnings’ flash from darken’d skies
Descend, the raft goes on as fates ordain.   
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise ! -
We marvel not at greatness of the great;
Still less despise we men of low estate.

- English Translation by Rev.
G.U.Pope in Tamil Heroic Poems:







Definitions of Culture - John H. Bodley
Topical: Culture consists of everything on a
list of topics, or categories, such as social
organization, religion, or economy
Historical: Culture is social heritage, or
tradition, that is passed on to future generations
Behavioral: Culture is shared, learned human
behavior, a way of life
Normative: Culture is ideals, values, or rules
for living
Functional: Culture is the way humans solve
problems of adapting to the environment or living
together
Mental: Culture is a complex of ideas, or
learned habits, that inhibit impulses and distinguish
people from animals
Structural: Culture consists of patterned and
interrelated ideas, symbols, or behaviors
Symbolic: Culture is based on arbitrarily
assigned meanings that are shared by a society



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95) Classical Tamil
95) செம்மொழி தமிழ்

2440 TUE 14 நவ 2017 லெஸ்சன்

Tipitaka

திபிக்டாக்கா (பாலி டி, “மூன்று”, + பட்டுகா, “கூடை”),
அல்லது பாலி கேனான், இது முதன்மை பாலி மொழி நூல்களின் தொகுப்பாகும்
த்ரவாடா புத்தமதத்தின் கோட்பாட்டு அடித்தளமாக அமைகிறது. திபிட்டா மற்றும்
பராகுவானிய பாலி நூல்கள் (வர்ணனைகள், நாளிதழ்கள், முதலியன) ஒன்றாகச் சேர்ந்து தெய்வராடா நூல்களின் முழு உடலமைப்பாகவும் உள்ளன.

தி
பாலி கேனான் என்பது ஒரு பரந்த இலக்கியம்: ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்பு
நூல்கள் ஆயிரக்கணக்கான அச்சிடப்பட்ட பக்கங்களுக்கு வரை சேர்க்கின்றன. பெரும்பாலான (ஆனால் அனைத்து இல்லை)
கேனான் ஏற்கனவே ஆண்டுகளில் ஆங்கிலத்தில் வெளியிடப்பட்டுள்ளது. என்றாலும்
இந்த நூல்களில் ஒரு சிறிய பகுதி மட்டுமே இந்த வலைத்தளத்தில் கிடைக்கிறது
சேகரிப்பு தொடங்க ஒரு நல்ல இடம் இருக்க முடியும்.

திப்புடகாவின் மூன்று பிரிவுகளும் பின்வருமாறு:

வினயா பிடாக்கா
    
Sangha க்குள் தினசரி விவகாரங்களை நிர்வகிக்கும் நடத்தை விதிகள் பற்றிய தொகுப்பு - பைக்கஸ் சமூகம் (ஆட்கடத்தல்) மற்றும் பைக்ஹூனிஸ்
    
சந்நியாசிகள்). வெறுமனே விதிகள் பட்டியலை விட, வினயா பிடாக்காவும் கூட
    
ஒவ்வொரு ஆட்சியின் தோற்றத்துக்கும் பின்னால் உள்ள கதைகள் அடங்கும், ஒரு
    
கேள்விக்கு பதில் புத்தரின் தீர்வு பற்றிய விரிவான கணக்கு
    
ஒரு பெரிய மற்றும் வேறுபட்ட ஆவிக்குள்ளான இனவாத இணக்கத்தை பராமரிக்க
    
சமூகம்.
சுட்டா பிடாக்கா
    
தி
    
புத்தர் மற்றும் ஒரு சிலருக்குக் கூறப்படும் சுடர்கள், அல்லது சொற்பொழிவுகளின் தொகுப்பு
    
அவரது நெருங்கிய சீடர்கள், அனைத்து மத்திய போதனைகள் அடங்கும்
    
தேரவாடா புத்தமதம். (ஆயிரம் க்கும் மேற்பட்ட சத்தா மொழிபெயர்ப்புகள்
    
இந்த வலைத்தளத்தில் கிடைக்கும்.) சுடசுகள் ஐந்து நிக்காக்களால் (தொகுப்புகள்) பிரிக்கப்படுகின்றன:

        டிகா நிகாயா - “நீண்ட சேகரிப்பு”
        
மஜ்ஜிஹிமா நிகாயா - “நடுத்தர நீளம் சேகரிப்பு”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “குழுவாக சேகரிக்கப்பட்ட தொகுப்பு”
        
அங்கட்டுரா நிகாயா - “மேலும்-காரணமான சேகரிப்பு”
        
குடுக நிக்காயா - “சிறிய நூல்களின் தொகுப்பு”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
தமம்பாதா
            
உதான
            
Itivuttaka
            
சுட்டா நிப்பாடா
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
ஜடாகா
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
புத்தவம்ஷா
            
கரியாபிதாகா
            
நெட்டிப்பகாரன (டிபிகாக்கின் பர்மிய பதிப்பில் மட்டுமே உள்ளடக்கப்பட்டது)
            
பெட்ரோக்கோபாடா (”")
            
மிலிடப்பன்ஷா (”")

அபிதாம்மா பிடாக்கா
    
தி
    
நூல்களின் தொகுப்பு, இதில் அடிப்படை கோட்பாடுகள் உள்ளன
    
சுத்தா பிட்டாகாவில் வழங்கப்பட்ட ஒரு மறுசீரமைப்பு மற்றும் மறுசீரமைப்பு செய்யப்பட்டது
    
திட்டமிடப்பட்ட கட்டமைப்பானது ஒரு விசாரணைக்கு பயன்படுத்தப்படலாம்
    
மனது மற்றும் பொருளின் தன்மை.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Andhra_Pradesh

Culture of Andhra Pradesh



  1. Culture of Andhra Pradesh state in India has many aspects to it.

    Andhra Pradesh’s cultural history can be summarised under the
    sections of Art, Architecture, Literature, Cuisine, Clothing, Religion /
    Philosophy and Language.

    Hanuman and Ravana in Tholu Bommalata, the shadow puppet tradition of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Contents

    Religion and philosophy

    These
    contributions can be classified into four distinct eras. Ancient Hindu
    traditions of Andhra Pradesh, Medieval Buddhist traditions, Modern
    Islamic-Hindu fusion traditions and the currently emerging
    Hindu-Christian fusion traditions. Dharanikota, Nagarjuna Konda
    monasteries and the associated literary contributions stand as a
    testaments to Andhra Pradesh’s central role in the evolution of Ashokan
    Buddhism. Tirupati, the associated religious traditions of Lord Venkateswara as a personification of the merger of various Shivite and Vaishavite Hindu traditions stands as a testament to the rich and progressive religious-philosophical schools of Andhra Pradesh. The contributions of Andhra Religious traditions to Bhakti Movement (Fusion movement for Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist Traditions) inspired numerous world-renowned modern secular philosophers like Jiddu Krishnamurti
    to draw on this rich and progressive intellectual tradition of religion
    and philosophy. A living history of this rich tradition is daily
    visible in the lives of the people of this region and historic snap
    shots are frozen into stone at various times on the walls of these
    temples: http://www.templenet.com/andhra.html. Telugu arts and literature are an embodiment of this vibrant philosophical tradition.

    Andhra Pradesh is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important figure is, Sant Yogi Potuluri Veerabrahmam was a Viswa Brahmin that even had a Brahmin, Sudhra, Harijan and Muslim disciples.[1] Fisherman Raghu was also a Sudra.[2] Sant Kakkayya was a chura (cobbler) Harijan saint.

    Several important Hindu modern-day saint are from Andhra Pradesh. These include Nimbarka who founded Dvaitadvaita, Mother Meera who advocated Indian independence and Aurobindo Mission, Sri Sathya Sai Baba and Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji.

    His Holiness Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji was born on 25 December
    1947 in Kattubadipalem village, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh.

    Pilgrimages in Andhra


    Sacred Tirumala Temple

    Tirupati or Tirumala
    is a very important pilgrimage for Hindus throughout India. It is the
    richest pilgrimage center in World. Its main temple is dedicated to the
    god Venkateswara.

    Simhachalam is another very popular pilgrimage of national importance. Simhachalam is said in mythology to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha, who rescued Prahlada from abusive father Hiranyakasipu.

    Srisailam is another center is national importance. It is dedicated mainly to Lord Shiva. It is one of the locations of the various Jyotirlingams. The Skanda Purana
    has a chapter called “Srisaila Kandam” dedicated to it, which points to
    the ancient origin. This is confirmed also by the fact that Tamil
    saints of the past millennia have sung praises of this temple. It is
    said that Adi Sankara visited this temple and at that time he composed his “Sivananda Lahiri“. Shiva’s sacred bull Vrishabha is said to have performed penance at the Mahakali temple till Shiva and Parvati appeared before him as Mallikarjuna and Brahmaramba. The temple is one of the 12 hallowed jyotirlingas; Lord Rama himself installed the Sahasralinga, while the Pandavas lodged the Panchapandava lingas in the temple courtyard.

    Harikatha

    Harikatha
    (lit. “stories of the Lord”), otherwise called Katha Kalakshepa is a
    form of Hindu religious discourse, also known as Katha (storytelling)
    format, in which the story teller explores a religious theme, usually
    the life of a saint or a story from an Indian epic.

    Harikatha was originated in Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh even now along with Burra katha. Haridasus going round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival. Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu with his Kavyas and Prabandhas has made Harikatha a special art form.

    Festivals

    Cultural institutions

    Andhra Pradesh has many museums, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, the Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow and Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada, which has a nice collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery, and inscriptions.

    Other cultural elements


    Kondapalli toys at a house in Vijayawada

    Bapu’s paintings, Nanduri Subbarao’s Yenki Paatalu (Songs on/by a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya’s songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), banks of river Godavari, Dudu basavanna (The ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranti) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is known for originating stone craft, carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering.

    Architecture

    There
    are two distinct and rich architectural traditions in Andhra Pradesh.
    The first traces back to the building of the city of Amaravathi under
    Satavahanas. This unique style of architecture emphasises the use of
    intricate and abstract sculpture with inspiration from religious themes.
    The second tradition draws on the enormous granite and lime stone
    reserves of the region and is reflected in the various temples and forts
    built over a very long period of time.

    Literature

    Main article: Telugu literature

    As an ancient language, Telugu has a rich and deep literary culture. Nannaya, Tikkana, Yerrapragada, Srinatha, Molla (poet), and Tarikonda Venkamamba
    made Telugu language “The Italian of the East” - lingua franca for
    religious, musical composition and philosophy. The contributions of Charles Phillip Brown, Vemana, Sri Sri (writer) and Viswanatha Satyanarayana
    made Telugu a vibrant and evolving modern language. The contributions
    of various Telugu/Tamil/Sanskrit grammarians to the formalisation of
    English Grammar gave Telugu Literary traditions a truly global reach.

    Telugu literature is highly influenced by Sanskrit literature and Hindu scriptures. Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great epic Mahabharatha into Telugu. Bammera Potana is another great poet from vontimitta (kadapa dist) famous for his great classic Sri Madandhra Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of ‘Sri Bhagavatam’ authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya derived the present Telugu script (lipi) from the old Telugu-Kannada script. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya wrote and also made the famous statement : “Desha Bhashalandu Telugu lessa
    meaning “Telugu is the sweetest amongst all Indian languages”.
    Philosophical poems by Yogi-Vemana are quite famous. Modern writers
    include Jnanpith Award winners Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. Revolutionary poets like SriSri and Gaddar are popular.

    Cuisine

    Main article: Andhra cuisine


    Mango Pickle Home Made Style

    Andhra Pradesh culinary traditions are some of the richest in the
    world. Bandhar Laddu, Avakaya, Gongura, Pulusu, pappu charu, jonna kudu,
    bobbattu, kaza, arisa ..etc. draw on the spices, fruit and vegetable
    harvests of the region. Various sauces and ancient bread making
    techniques that use a very diverse and rich variety of pulses are a
    testament to ancient Telugu culinary innovation. It is rumored that
    Roman king Nero lamented Romans paying more to the Chili farmers of
    Andhra Pradesh than to Roman treasury as taxes during the effort to
    rebuild Rome after the great fire. It is documented that he banned all
    imports from Andhra Pradesh during Rome rebuilding era. Andhra Pradesh
    spice traders and their ancient global trading traditions are considered
    the precursors to modern option-and-derivatives pricing models for
    commodities. Rich wine making traditions are evident in the Taati kallu
    and Etha Kallu produced by the region to this day.

    The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is reputedly the spiciest of all Indian cuisine. There are many variations to the Andhra cuisine depending on caste, geographical regions, traditions etc. Pickles and chutneys, called pachadi in Telugu
    are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of
    pickles and chutneys are unique to the state. Chutneys are made from
    practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals, and roselle (Gongura). The mango pickle Aavakaaya is probably the best known of the Andhra pickles.

    Rice is the staple food
    and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled
    and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu) or dosas.

    Meat, vegetables, and greens
    are prepared with different masalas into a variety of strongly flavored
    dishes.The Indian Cuisine has its unique style and tradition.

    Performing arts

    Annamayya, Tyagaraja, Kuchipudi summarise the rich artistic traditions of Andhra Pradesh. Contributions of Annamacharya and Tyagaraja
    to the “grammar of sound” made Telugu language the preferred language
    of composition for Carnatic Music and made Andhra Pradesh the mother of
    all modern music. Their influence not only on Carnatic but global
    classical music and the organisation of sound as a medium of emotional
    resonance has no parallel in human history. Kuchipudi
    as a refinement of the ancient art of Bharathanatyam, and in the
    context of the unique religious and cultural traditions of Andhra
    Pradesh stands on par with all the great global traditions of Classical
    Dance.

    Dance

    Main article: Kuchipudi

    Kuchipudi, the traditional dance of Andhra Pradesh

    Jayapa Senani (Jayapa Nayudu) is the first person who wrote about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh.[3]
    Both Desi and Margi forms of dances have been included in his Sanskrit
    treatise ‘Nritya Ratnavali’. It contains eight chapters. Folk dance
    forms like Perani, Prenkhana, Suddha Nartana, Carcari, Rasaka, Danda
    Rasaka, Shiva Priya, Kanduka Nartana, Bhandika Nrityam, Carana Nrityam,
    Chindu, Gondali and Kolatam are described. In the first chapter the
    author deals with discussion of the differences between Marga and Desi,
    Tandava and lasya, Natya and Nritta. In the 2nd and 3rd chapters he
    deals with Angi-kabhinaya, Caris, Sthanakas and Mandalas. In the 4th
    Chapter Karnas, angaharas and recakas are described. In following
    chapters he described the local dance forms i.e. Desi Nritya. In the
    last chapter he deals with art and practice of dance.

    Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; however women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state’s best-known classical dance forms of Andhra Pradesh. The various dance forms that existed through the states’ history are Chenchu Bhagotam, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Dhimsa, and Kolattam.

    Music

    Bobbili Veena is from Andhra Pradesh

    The state has a rich musical heritage. Many legends of the Carnatic music including two among Trinity of Carnatic music (Thyagaraja and Syama Sastri) were of Telugu descent. Other composers include Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadasu.

    Folk songs are also popular in the rural areas of the state.

    Movies

    Main article: Telugu Cinema

    Costume

    Andhra
    Pradesh is home to some of the finest historical cloth making/fashion
    and dying traditions of the world. Its rich cotton production, with its
    innovative plant dye extraction history stand next to its diamond
    mining, pearl
    harvesting and jewelry traditions to form an impressive fashion
    tradition that has stood the test of time. The ancient Golconda mine is
    the mother of the numerous legendary gems such as the Koh-i-Noor and Hope Diamond.
    Andhra Pradesh had a virtual monopoly in the global jewelry industry
    till 1826 (founding of the diamond mines in Rhodesia- Africa) and eight
    of the 10 most valuable jewelry pieces on earth today trace their
    history back to Andhra Pradesh. Langa-Voni (Half saree), Sarees made in
    Kalamkari, Bidri, Nirmal paintings, fascinating weaves from Pochampalli,
    Gadwal, Venkatagiri are the result of this time tested (3000 year)
    fashion tradition. Vaddaanam, Aravanke, Kashulahaaram, Buttalu and
    various standard gold jewelry designs are fine examples of this
    continuously evolving ancient tradition.

    References


  2. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2008-11-29.

  3. “Stories of Bhaktas - Fisherman Raghu - www.telugubhakti.com”.

  4. Ntitya Ratnavali http://www.telugupeople.com/discussion/article.asp?id=111
96) Classical Telugu
96) క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

2440 TUE 14 Nov 2017 లెసన్

Tipitaka

ది టిపిటకా (పాలి టి, “మూడు,” + పిట్టాకా, “బాస్కెట్”),
లేదా పాలి కానన్, ప్రాధమిక పాలి భాషా గ్రంధాల సేకరణ
తెరవాడ బౌద్దమతం యొక్క సిద్ధాంత పునాదిని ఏర్పరుస్తుంది. ది టిపిటకా మరియు
పారాకోనానికల్ పాలి గ్రంథాలు (వ్యాఖ్యానాలు, గ్రంథాలు, మొదలైనవి) కలిసి శాస్త్రీయ తెరరడ గ్రంథాల యొక్క పూర్తి భాగం.

ది
పాలి కానన్ అనేది సాహిత్యంలోని ఒక విస్తారమైన భాగం: ఆంగ్ల అనువాదంలో
పాఠాలు వేల సంఖ్యలో ముద్రిత పేజీలను కలిగి ఉంటాయి. చాలా (కానీ అన్ని కాదు) యొక్క
కానన్ ఇప్పటికే సంవత్సరాల్లో ఆంగ్లంలో ప్రచురించబడింది. అయితే
ఈ వచనంలోని చిన్న భాగం మాత్రమే ఈ వెబ్సైట్లో అందుబాటులో ఉంది
సేకరణ ప్రారంభించడానికి ఒక మంచి ప్రదేశం.

టిపిటాకా యొక్క మూడు విభాగాలు:

వినయ పిటకా
    
Sangha లోపల రోజువారీ వ్యవహారాలపై ప్రవర్తన నియమావళికి సంబంధించి
పాఠాలు సేకరించడం - భిక్షస్ (ఆర్డినడ్ సన్యాసులు) మరియు భిక్ఖునిస్ సమాజం
    
సన్యాసినులు). నియమాల జాబితాకే కాకుండా, వినాయ పిటకా కూడా చాలా ఎక్కువ
    
ప్రతి నియమం యొక్క మూలం వెనుక ఉన్న కథలను కలిగి ఉంటుంది, ఇది ఒక
    
ప్రశ్నకు బుద్దుడి పరిష్కారం యొక్క వివరణాత్మక ఖాతా
    
ఒక పెద్ద మరియు విభిన్న ఆధ్యాత్మిక లోపల మత సామరస్యాన్ని సంరక్షించడానికి
    
సంఘం.
సుత్త పిటాకా
    
ది
    
బుద్ధుడికి మరియు కొంతమందికి ఆపాదించబడిన సంతకాలు, లేదా సంభాషణల సేకరణ
    
తన సన్నిహిత శిష్యుల యొక్క అన్ని కేంద్ర బోధనలను కలిగి ఉంది
    
తెరవాడ బౌద్ధమతం. (వెయ్యి కంటే ఎక్కువ సుత్త అనువాదాలు ఉన్నాయి
    
ఈ వెబ్ సైట్ లో లభ్యమవుతుంది.) సుటాలు ఐదు నికెలలో (సేకరణలు) విభజించబడ్డాయి:

        దిఘా నికాయ - “సుదీర్ఘ సేకరణ”
        
మజ్జిమ నికాయా - “మధ్య నిడివి సేకరణ”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “గుంపు సేకరణ”
        
అంగటార నికాయ - “మరింత-కారణాల సేకరణ”
        
ఖుడ్కా నికాయ - “చిన్న గ్రంధాల సేకరణ”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
ఉదాన
            
Itivuttaka
            
సుత్తా నిపాత
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
జాతక
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
నట్టిపకరాణ (టిపిటాకా యొక్క బర్మీస్ ఎడిషన్లో మాత్రమే చేర్చబడింది)
            
పెటాకోపెడా (”")
            
మిలిందాపంచ (”")

అభిధమ్మ పిటకా
    
ది
    
గ్రంధాల సేకరణలో అంతర్లీన సిద్దాంత సూత్రాలు
    
సుత్త పిటాకా లో సమర్పించబడినవి ఒక పునర్నిర్మాణం మరియు పునర్వ్యవస్థీకరించబడ్డాయి
    
విచారణకు వర్తింపజేసే క్రమబద్ధమైన ఫ్రేమ్వర్క్
    
మనస్సు మరియు పదార్థం యొక్క స్వభావం.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism_in_Thailand

    Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school, which is followed by 93.6 percent of the population. Buddhism in Thailand has also become integrated with folk religion[1] as well as Chinese religions from the large Thai Chinese population.[2] Buddhist temples in Thailand are characterized by tall golden stupas, and the Buddhist architecture of Thailand is similar to that in other Southeast Asian countries, particularly Cambodia and Laos, with which Thailand shares cultural and historical heritage.

    Buddhism is believed to have come to what is now Thailand as early as 250 BCE, in the time of Indian Emperor Ashoka. Since then, Buddhism has played a significant role in Thai culture and society. Buddhism and the Thai monarchy has often been intertwined, with Thai kings historically seen as the main patrons of Buddhism in Thailand. Although politics and religion were generally separated
    for most of Thai history, Buddhism’s connection to the Thai state would
    increase in the middle of the 19th century following the reforms of King Mongkut, that would lead to the development of a royally backed sect of Buddhism and increased centralization of the Thai Sangha under the state.

    Thai Buddhism is distinguished for its emphasis on short term ordination for every Thai man and its close interconnection with the Thai state and Thai culture. The two official branches, or Nikayas, of Thai Buddhism are the royally backed Dhammayuttika Nikaya and the larger Maha Nikaya.

    Contents

    Historical background


    Thai depiction of Maitreya Bodhisattva. 8th century CE

    Early traditions

    Some scholars believe that Buddhism must have been flowing into Thailand from India at the time of the Indian emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire and into the first millennium after Christ.[3] During the 5th to 13th centuries, Southeast Asian empires were influenced directly from India and followed Mahayana Buddhism. The Chinese pilgrim Yijing noted in his travels that in these areas, all major sects of Indian Buddhism flourished.[4] Srivijaya to the south and the Khmer Empire to the north competed for influence and their art expressed the rich Mahāyāna pantheon of bodhisattvas.
    From the 9th to the 13th centuries, the Mahāyāna and Hindu Khmer Empire
    dominated much of the Southeast Asian peninsula. Under the Khmer
    Empire, more than 900 temples were built in Cambodia and in neighboring
    Thailand.

    After the decline of Buddhism in India, missions of Sinhalese monks gradually converted the Mon people and the Pyu city-states from Ari Buddhism to Theravāda and over the next two centuries also brought Theravāda Buddhism to the Bamar people, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, where it supplanted previous forms of Buddhism.[5] Theravada Buddhism was made the state religion only with the establishment of the Sukhothai Kingdom in the 13th century.[6]

    13th–19th centuries


    Thai novice monks

    The details of the history of Buddhism in Thailand from the 13th to
    the 19th century are obscure, in part because few historical records or
    religious texts survived the Burmese destruction of Ayutthaya, the capital city of the kingdom, in 1767. The anthropologist-historian S. J. Tambiah, however, has suggested a general pattern for that era, at least with respect to the relations between Buddhism and the sangha
    on the one hand and the king on the other hand. In Thailand, as in
    other Theravada Buddhist kingdoms, the king was in principle thought of
    as patron and protector of the religion (sasana) and the sangha, while
    sasana and the sangha were considered in turn the treasures of the
    polity and the signs of its legitimacy. Religion and polity, however,
    remained separate domains, and in ordinary times the organizational
    links between the sangha and the king were not close.[6]


    Replica of Ashok pillar
    at Wat Umong in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 13th century. Shows the
    establishment of Buddhism by Lanna Dynasty’s King Mangrai in northern
    Thailand

    Among the chief characteristics of Thai kingdoms and principalities
    in the centuries before 1800 were the tendency to expand and contract,
    problems of succession, and the changing scope of the king’s authority.
    In effect, some Thai kings had greater power over larger territories,
    others less, and almost invariably a king who sought successfully to
    expand his power also exercised greater control over the sangha. That
    control was coupled with greater support and patronage of the
    ecclesiastical hierarchy. When a king was weak, however, protection and
    supervision of the sangha also weakened, and the sangha declined. This
    fluctuating pattern appears to have continued until the emergence of the
    Chakri Dynasty in the last quarter of the 18th century.[6]

    Modern era


    Buddhist monk chants paritta to a group of Siamese women in 1900.

    By the 19th century, and especially with the coming to power in 1851 of King Mongkut, who had been a monk
    himself for twenty-seven years, the sangha, like the kingdom, became
    steadily more centralized and hierarchical in nature and its links to
    the state more institutionalized. As a monk, Mongkut was a distinguished
    scholar of Pali Buddhist scripture. Moreover, at that time the
    immigration of numbers of monks from Burma was introducing the more
    rigorous discipline characteristic of the Mon sangha. Influenced by the
    Mon and guided by his own understanding of the Tipitaka, Mongkut began a
    reform movement that later became the basis for the Dhammayuttika order
    of monks. Under the reform, all practices having no authority other
    than custom were to be abandoned, canonical regulations were to be
    followed not mechanically but in spirit, and acts intended to improve an
    individual’s standing on the road to nirvana but having no social value
    were rejected. This more rigorous discipline was adopted in its
    entirety by only a small minority of monasteries and monks. The Mahanikaya
    order, perhaps somewhat influenced by Mongkut’s reforms but with a less
    exacting discipline than the Dhammayuttika order, comprised about 95
    percent of all monks in 1970 and probably about the same percentage in
    the late 1980s. In any case, Mongkut was in a position to regularize and
    tighten the relations between monarchy and sangha at a time when the
    monarchy was expanding its control over the country in general and
    developing the kind of bureaucracy necessary to such control. The
    administrative and sangha reforms that Mongkut started were continued by
    his successor. In 1902 King Chulalongkorn (Rama V, 1868–1910) made the
    new sangha hierarchy formal and permanent through the Sangha Law of
    1902, which remained the foundation of sangha administration in modern
    Thailand.[6]
    While Buddhism in Thailand remained under state centralization in the
    modern era, Buddhism experienced periods of tight state control and
    periods of liberalization depending on the government at the time.

    Influences

    See also: Thai folklore


    Detail of the entrance gate of Wat Phra That Lampang Luang

    Three major forces have influenced the development of Buddhism in Thailand. The most visible influence is that of the Theravada school of Buddhism, imported from Sri Lanka.
    While there are significant local and regional variations, the
    Theravada school provides most of the major themes of Thai Buddhism. By
    tradition, Pāli is the language of religion in Thailand. Scriptures are recorded in Pāli, using either the modern Thai script or the older Khom
    and Tham scripts. Pāli is also used in religious liturgy, despite the
    fact that most Thais understand very little of this ancient language.
    The Pāli Tipiṭaka
    is the primary religious text of Thailand, though many local texts have
    been composed in order to summarise the vast number of teachings found
    in the Tipiṭaka. The monastic code (Pātimokkha) followed by Thai monks is taken from the Pāli Theravada Canon.

    The second major influence on Thai Buddhism is Hindu beliefs received from Cambodia, particularly during the Sukhothai Kingdom.
    Hinduism played a strong role in the early Thai institution of
    kingship, just as it did in Cambodia, and exerted influence in the
    creation of laws and order for Thai society as well as Thai religion.
    Certain rituals practiced in modern Thailand, either by monks or by
    Hindu ritual specialists, are either explicitly identified as Hindu in
    origin, or are easily seen to be derived from Hindu practices. While the
    visibility of Hinduism in Thai society has been diminished
    substantially during the Chakri Dynasty, Hindu influences, particularly shrines to the god Brahma, continue to be seen in and around Buddhist institutions and ceremonies.


    A bhikkhu chants evening prayers inside a monastery located near the town of Kantharalak, Thailand

    Folk religion—attempts to propitiate and attract the favor of local spirits known as phi—forms
    the third major influence on Thai Buddhism. While Western observers (as
    well as Western-educated Thais) have often drawn a clear line between
    Thai Buddhism and folk religious practices, this distinction is rarely
    observed in more rural locales. Spiritual power derived from the
    observance of Buddhist precepts and rituals is employed in attempting to
    appease local nature spirits. Many restrictions observed by rural
    Buddhist monks are derived not from the orthodox Vinaya, but from taboos derived from the practice of folk magic. Astrology, numerology, and the creation of talismans
    and charms also play a prominent role in Buddhism as practiced by the
    average Thai—practices that are censured by the Buddha in Buddhist texts
    (see Digha Nikaya 2, ff).

    Additionally, more minor influences can be observed stemming from contact with Mahayana
    Buddhism. Early Buddhism in Thailand is thought to have been derived
    from an unknown Mahayana tradition. While Mahayana Buddhism was
    gradually eclipsed in Thailand, certain features of Thai Buddhism—such
    as the appearance of the bodhisattva Lokeśvara
    in some Thai religious architecture, and the belief that the king of
    Thailand is a bodhisattva himself—reveal the influence of Mahayana
    concepts.

    Budai, Wat Don Phra Chao, Yasothon, Thailand

    The only other bodhisattva prominent in Thai religion is Maitreya, often depicted in Budai form, and often confused with Phra Sangkajai (Thai: พระสังกัจจายน์),
    a similar but different figure in Thai Buddhist folklore. Images of one
    or both can be found in many Thai Buddhist temples, and on amulets as
    well. Thai may pray to be reborn during the time of Maitreya, or
    dedicate merit from worship activities to that end.

    In modern times, additional Mahayana influence has stemmed from the presence of Overseas Chinese
    in Thai society. While some Chinese have “converted” to Thai-style
    Theravada Buddhism, many others maintain their own separate temples in
    the East Asian Mahayana tradition. The growing popularity of Guanyin, a form of Avalokiteśvara, may be attributed to the Chinese presence in Thailand.

    Government ties

    While Thailand is currently a constitutional monarchy, it inherited a strong Southeast Asian tradition of Buddhist kingship
    that tied the legitimacy of the state to its protection and support for
    Buddhist institutions. This connection has been maintained into the
    modern era, with Buddhist institutions and clergy being granted special
    benefits by the government, as well as being subjected to a certain
    amount of government oversight. Part of the Coronation of the Thai monarch includes the king proceeding to the chapel royal (the Wat Phra Kaew) to vow to be a “Defender of the Faith” in front of a chapter of monks including the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.[citation needed]

    In addition to the ecclesiastic leadership of the sangha, a
    secular government ministry supervises Buddhist temples and monks. The
    legal status of Buddhist sects and reform movements has been an issue of
    contention in some cases, particularly in the case of Santi Asoke,
    which was legally forbidden from calling itself a Buddhist
    denomination, and in the case of the ordination of women attempting to
    revive the Theravada bhikkhuni lineage have been prosecuted for attempting to impersonate members of the clergy.[citation needed]

    To obtain a passport for travel abroad, a monk must have an official letter from Sangha Supreme Council
    granting the applicant permission to travel abroad; Buddhist monk
    identification card; a copy of House/Temple Registration; and submit any
    previous Thai Passport or a certified copy thereof.[7]

    In addition to state support and recognition—-in the form of formal
    gifts to monasteries made by government officials and the royal family
    (for example, Kathin)—-a
    number of special rights are conferred upon Buddhist monks. They are
    granted free passage on public transportation, and most train stations
    and airports have special seating sections reserved for members of the
    clergy. Conversely, ordained monastics are forbidden from standing for
    office or voting in elections.

    Calls for state establishment

    In
    2007, calls were made by some Thais for Buddhism to be recognized in
    the new national constitution as a state religion. This suggestion was
    initially rejected by the committee charged with drafting the new
    constitution.[8]
    This move prompted a number of protests from supporters of the
    initiative, including a number of marches on the capital and a hunger
    strike by twelve Buddhist monks.[9] Some critics of the plan, including scholar and social critic Sulak Sivaraksa,
    have claimed that the movement to declare Buddhism a national religion
    is motivated by political gain, and may be being manipulated by
    supporters of ousted Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.[9]

    The Constitution Drafting Committee later voted against the special
    status of Buddhism, provoking the religious groups. The groups condemned
    the Committee and the constitution draft.[10] On August 11, Sirikit,
    the Queen of Thailand, expressed her concern over the issue. According
    to her birthday speech, Buddhism is beyond politics. Some Buddhist
    organizations announced a halt to the campaigns the next day.[11]

    Government service

    No
    law directly prohibits a member of the Buddhist institutions, such as a
    monk, a novice and a nun, from being a candidate in an examination for
    recruitment of government officers. Though both the Council of Ministers and the Sangha Supreme Council,
    the supervising body of the Thai Buddhist communities, have ordered
    such prohibition on grounds of appropriateness, according to the
    Memorandum of the Cabinet’s Administrative Department No. NW98/2501
    dated 27 June 1958 and the Order of the Sangha Supreme Council dated 17
    March 1995.[12]

    Elections

    The
    members of the Buddhist community and the communities of other
    religions are not entitled to elect or be elected as a holder of any
    government post. For instance, the 2007 constitution of Thailand disfranchises “a Buddhist monk, a Buddhist novice, a priest or a clergy member” (Thai: “ภิกษุ สามเณร นักบวช หรือนักพรต”).[13]

    The Sangha Supreme Council also declared the same prohibition, pursuant to its Order dated 17 March 1995.[14] At the end of the Order was a statement of grounds given by Nyanasamvara, the Supreme Patriarch. The statement said:

    The members of the Buddhist community are called samaṇa, one who is pacified, and also pabbajita,
    one who refrains from worldly activities. They are thus needed to
    carefully conduct themselves in a peaceful and unblamable manner, for
    their own sake and for the sake of their community. … The seeking of
    the representatives of the citizens to form the House of Representatives
    is purely the business of the State and specifically the duty of the
    laity according to the laws. This is not the duty of the monks and
    novices who must be above the politics. They are therefore not entitled
    to elect or be elected. And, for this reason, any person who has been
    elected as a Representative will lose his membership immediately after
    becoming a Buddhist monk or novice. This indicates that the monkhood and
    noviceship are not appropriate for politics in every respect.[14]

    When a monk or novice is involved in or supports an election of any
    person…, the monk or novice is deemed to have breached the unusual
    conduct of pabbajita and brought about disgrace to himself as
    well as his community and the Religion. Such a monk or novice would be
    condemned by the reasonable persons who are and are not the members of
    this Religion. A pabbajita is therefore expected to stay in
    impartiality and take a pity on every person…without discrimination.
    Moreover, the existence of both the monks and the Religion relies upon
    public respect. As a result, the monks and novices ought to behave in
    such a way that deserves respect of the general public, not merely a
    specific group of persons. A monk or novice who is seen by the public as
    having failed to uphold this rule would then be shunned, disrespected
    and condemned in various manners, as could be seen from many examples.[14]

    Under the NCPO

    Buddhism in Thailand came under significantly higher state control following the 2014 coup d’état. After seizing power the military junta, the National Council for Peace and Order
    (NCPO), set up a National Reform Council with a religious committee led
    by former Thai senator Paiboon Nititawan and former monk Mano Laohavanich. The calls for reform were spearheaded by right-wing activist monk Phra Buddha Issara, who had close ties with junta leader Prayut Chan-o-Cha,[15] and was known for leading the protests in Bangkok that led to the coup.[16][17][18]

    State influence over several aspects of Thai Buddhism increased under the NCPO. The NCPO has proposed requiring temples to open their finances to the public[19] and requiring monks to carry smart cards to identify their legal and religious backgrounds.[20][21] The junta’s new constitution also states that the Thai government is to directly support Theravada Buddhism specifically.[22][23]

    In 2016, Phra Buddha Issara requested the Department of Special Investigation (DSI) investigate the assets of Thailand’s leading monks, the Sangha Supreme Council.[16][24] This resulted in an alleged tax evasion scandal against Somdet Chuang, the most senior member of the council who was next in line to become Supreme Patriarch. Although prosecutors eventually decided not to charge Somdet Chuang,[25]
    the incident postponed his appointment and led to a change in the law
    that allowed the Thai government to bypass the Sangha Supreme Council
    and appoint the Supreme Patriarch directly.[26][27] This allowed the ruling junta to effectively handpick Thailand’s Supreme Patriarch.[28][29][26] In 2017, Somdet Chuang’s appointment was withdrawn, with a monk from the Dhammayuttika Nikaya appointed instead. The appointment was made by King Rama X, who chose the name out of one of five given to him by NCPO leader Prayut Chan-o-Cha.[30][26][28]

    In February 2017, the junta used article 44, a controversial section in the interim constitution, to replace the head of the National Office of Buddhism with a DSI official.[31]
    The DSI official, Pongporn Pramsaneh, vowed to reform Thailand’s more
    than 40,000 temples by forcing them to open their finances to the
    public. However, in August 2017, the junta removed him from the post
    after religious groups called on the government to fire him because of
    his reform plans.[32]

    Ordination and clergy


    A Buddhist monk reciting prayers in Thailand.


    Buddhist monk receiving food from villagers


    The funeral pyre at Wat Chedi Luang, Chiang Mai, for Chan Kusalo, the patriarch of northern Thailand

    Like in most other Theravada
    nations, Buddhism in Thailand is represented primarily by the presence
    of Buddhist monks, who serve as officiants on ceremonial occasions, as
    well as being responsible for preserving and conveying the teachings of
    the Buddha.

    During the latter half of the 20th century, most monks in Thailand began their careers by serving as temple boys (Thai: เด็กวัด dek wat, “children of the wat“).
    Temple boys are traditionally no younger than eight and do minor
    housework. The primary reason for becoming a temple boy is to gain a
    basic education,
    particularly in basic reading and writing and the memorization of the
    scriptures chanted on ritual occasions. Prior to the creation of
    state-run primary schools in Thailand, village temples served as the
    primary form of education for most Thai boys. Service in a temple as a
    temple boy was a necessary prerequisite for attaining any higher
    education, and was the only learning available to most Thai peasants.
    Since the creation of a government-run educational apparatus in
    Thailand, the number of children living as temple boys has declined
    significantly. However, many government-run schools continue to operate
    on the premise of the local village temple.

    Boys now typically ordain as a sāmaṇera or novitiate monks (Thai: สามเณร samanen, often shortened to nen Thai: เณร). In some localities, girls may become sāmaṇerī. Novices live according to the Ten Precepts but are not required to follow the full range of monastic rules found in the Pātimokkha. There are a few other significant differences between novices and bhikkhus.
    Novices often are in closer contact with their families, spending more
    time in the homes of their parents than monks. Novices do not
    participate in the recitation of the monastic code (and the confessions
    of violations) that take place on the uposatha
    days. Novices technically do not eat with the monks in their temple,
    but this typically only amounts to a gap in seating, rather than the
    separation observed between monks and the laity. Novices usual ordain
    during a break from secular schooling, but those intending on a
    religious life, may receive secular schooling at the wat.


    Child monks in Thailand

    Young men typically do not live as a novice for longer than one or two years. At the age of 20, they become eligible to receive upasampada,
    the higher ordination that establishes them as a full bhikkhu. A novice
    is technically sponsored by his parents in his ordination, but in
    practice in rural villages the entire village participates by providing
    the robes, alms bowl, and other requisites that will be required by the
    monk in his monastic life.

    Temporary ordination is the norm among Thai Buddhists. Most young men traditionally ordain for the term of a single vassa or rainy season (Thai phansa).
    Those who remain monks beyond their first vassa typically remain monks
    for between one and three years, officiating at religious ceremonies in
    surrounding villages and possibly receiving further education in reading
    and writing (possibly including the Khom or Tai Tham alphabets
    traditionally used in recording religious texts). After this period of
    one to three years, most young monks return to lay life, going on to
    marry and begin a family. Young men in Thailand who have undergone
    ordination are seen as being more suitable partners for marriage;
    unordained men are euphemistically called ‘unripe’, while those who have
    been ordained are said to be ‘ripe’. A period as a monk is a
    prerequisite for many positions of leadership within the village
    hierarchy. Most village elders or headmen were once monks, as were most
    traditional doctors, spirit priests, and some astrologists and fortune
    tellers.[citation needed]

    Monks who do not return to lay life typically specialize in either
    scholarship or meditation. Those who specialize in scholarship typically
    travel to regional education centers to begin further instruction in
    the Pāli language and the scriptures, and may then continue on to the
    major monastic universities located in Bangkok.
    The route of scholarship is also taken by monks who desire to rise in
    the ecclesiastic hierarchy, as promotions within the government-run
    system is contingent on passing examinations in Pāli and Dhamma studies.[citation needed]

    The Thai tradition supports laymen to go into a monastery, dress and
    act as monks, and study while there. The time line is based on threes,
    staying as a monk for three days, or three weeks, or three months or
    three years, or example of three weeks and three days. This retreat is
    expected of all male Thai, rich or poor, and often is scheduled after
    high school. Such retreat brings honor to the family and blessings
    (merit) to the young man. Thai make allowances for men who follow this
    practice, such as holding open a job.[citation needed]

    Controversies

    The Thai media often reports on Buddhist monks behaving in ways that
    are considered inappropriate. There have been reports of sexual assault,
    embezzlement, drug-taking, extravagant lifestyles, even murder.
    Thailand’s 38,000 temples, populated by 300,000 monks, are easy targets
    for corruption, handling between US$3 to 3.6 billion yearly in
    donations, mostly untraceable cash.[33]
    In a case that received much media attention, Luang Pu Nen Kham
    Chattiko was photographed in July 2013 wearing Ray-Ban sunglasses,
    holding a Louis Vuitton bag full of US dollars, and “…was later found
    to be a trafficker of methamphetamines, an abuser of women and the lover of a pregnant fourteen-year-old.”[34]

    There have been cases when influential monks were persecuted and
    jailed by the Thai government, through verdicts later declared moot or
    subject of controversy. The most well-known case in Thailand is that of
    Phra Phimontham, the then abbot of Wat Mahadhatu, well known in Thailand for having introduced the Burmese Satipatthana meditation method to Thailand. In 1962, during the Cold War, he was accused of collaboration with Communist rebels and being a threat to national security, and was fully defrocked
    and jailed. In fact, the government persecuted him because of his
    political views and promotion of changes in the Sangha. Phra Phimontham
    had a strong pro-democratic stance, which did not agree with the regime
    of that time, and the palace. Furthermore, Phra Phimontham was part of
    the Maha Nikaya fraternity, rather than the Dhammayuttika fraternity, which the government and monarchy historically have preferred. Phra Phimontham was likely to become the next Supreme Patriarch.[35][36] For this reason, his treatment has been described by Thai scholars as a ’struggle between patriarchs’ (Thai: ศึกสมเด็จ), referring to the political objective to disable him as a candidate.[37]
    After four years, when the country changed its government, Phra
    Phimontham was released from prison when a military court decided he had
    not been involved in collaboration with communists after all.
    Afterwards, he ordained again and eventually regained his former status,
    though he continued to be discredited.[38][39][35]

    Buddhadasa Bhikkhu was subject to similar allegations from the Thai government, and so was Luang Por Phothirak, the founder of Santi Asoke.
    Luang Por Pothirak was eventually charged of altering the Vinaya and
    defrocked. A recent example is Phra Prajak Kuttajitto, an environmentalist monk critical of government policies, who was arrested and defrocked.[35]

    In 1999[40][41] and again in 2002,[42][43] Luang Por Dhammajayo, the then abbot of Wat Phra Dhammakaya,
    was accused of charges of fraud and embezzlement by the Thai media and
    later some government agencies when donations of land were found in his
    name. Wat Phra Dhammakaya denied this, stating that it was the intention
    of the donors to give the land to the abbot and not the temple, and
    that owning personal property is common and legal in the Thai Sangha.[44][45][46] Widespread negative media coverage at this time was symptomatic of the temple being made the scapegoat for commercial malpractice in the Thai Buddhist temple community[47][48] in the wake of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[49][50] The Sangha Supreme Council declared that Luang Por Dhammajayo had not broken any serious offenses against monastic discipline (Vinaya).[51] In 2006, the Thai National Office for Buddhism cleared the Dhammakaya Foundation and Luang Por Dhammajayo of all accusations[52] when Luang Por Dhammajayo agreed offer all of the disputed land to the name of his temple.[53]

    In March 2016, Thai police formally summoned then Acting Supreme
    Patriarch Somdet Chuang Varapunno, after he refused to answer direct
    questions about his vintage car, one of only 65 made. The car was part of a museum kept at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
    in Bangkok, but has now been seized by police investigating possible
    tax evasion. The Somdet reportedly transferred ownership of the vehicle
    to another monk after the scandal broke. He refused to answer police
    questions directly, insisting that written questions be sent to his
    lawyer. He did say that the car was a gift from a follower.[54]

    Analysts from different news outlets have pointed out that the
    actions of the Thai government towards Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen may have
    reflected a political need to control who should be selected as the next
    Supreme Patriarch, since the Somdet had already been proposed as a candidate by the Sangha Supreme Council. Selecting him would mean a Supreme Patriarch from the Maha Nikaya fraternity, rather than the Dhammayuttika fraternity, which historically has always been the preferred choice by the Thai government and the monarchy.[36]
    In fact, Somdet Chuang’s nomination was postponed and eventually
    withdrawn after the Thai government changed the law in December 2016 to
    allow King Vajiralongkorn to appoint the Supreme Patriarch directly,
    with Prime Minister Prayuth O Chan-o-cha countersigning, leading to the appointment of a monk from the Dhammayuttika fraternity instead.[55][56] The Thai government cited several reasons for this, including the car.[57][58]
    At the end of the same year, however, prosecutors decided not to charge
    Somdet Chuang, but to charge his assistant-abbot instead, and another
    six people who had part in importing the vintage car.[59]
    In February 2016, in a protest organized by the National Centre for the
    Protection of Thai Buddhism, a Red Shirt-oriented network, the example
    of Phra Phimontham was also cited as demands were made for the Thai
    government to no longer involve itself with the selection of the next
    leader of the Sangha.[60][61]

    Reform movements

  • The Dhammayuttika Nikaya (Thai: ธรรมยุตนิกาย) began in 1833 as a reform movement led by Prince Mongkut, son of King Rama II of Siam.
    It remained a reform movement until passage of the Sangha Act of 1902,
    which formally recognized it as the lesser of Thailand’s two Theravada
    denominations.[62]
    Mongkut was a bhikkhu under the name of Vajirañāṇo for 27 years
    (1824–1851) before becoming King of Siam (1851–1868). In 1836 he became
    the first abbot of Wat Bowonniwet Vihara.
    After the then 20-year-old prince entered monastic life in 1824, he
    noticed what he saw as serious discrepancies between the rules given in
    the Pāli Canon
    and the actual practices of Thai bhikkhus and sought to upgrade
    monastic discipline to make it more orthodox. Mongkut also made an
    effort to remove all non-Buddhist, folk religious, and superstitious elements which over the years had become part of Thai Buddhism.[63] Dhammayuttika monks were expected to eat only one meal a day (not two) that was to be gathered during a traditional alms round.
  • The Dhammakaya Movement is a Thai Buddhist tradition which was started by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro in the early 20th century.[64] The tradition is revivalist in nature and practices Dhammakaya meditation.
    The movement opposes traditional magical rituals, superstition, folk
    religious practices, fortune telling and giving lottery numbers, and
    focuses on an active style of propagating and practicing meditation.
    Features of the tradition include teaching meditation in a group,
    teaching meditation during ceremonies, teaching meditation
    simultaneously to monastics and lay people, teaching one main meditation
    method and an emphasis on lifelong ordination.[38]
  • The Santi Asoke (Thai: สันติอโศก “Peaceful Asoka“)
    or Chao Asok (”People of Asoka”) was established by Phra Bodhirak after
    he “declared independence from the Ecclesiastical Council (Sangha) in
    1975″.[65]
    Santi Asoke has been described as “a transformation of the “forest
    monk” revival of [the 1920s and 1930s]” and “is more radical [than the
    Dhammakaya Movement] in its criticism of Thai society and in the details
    of its own vision of what constitutes a truly religiomoral community.”[64]
  • The Sekhiya Dhamma Sangha are a group of activist monks focusing on
    modern issues in Thailand (i.e.,deforestation, poverty, drug addiction,
    and AIDS). The group was founded in 1989 among a growth of Buddhist
    social activism in Thailand in the latter half of the 20th century.
    While criticized for being too concerned and involved with worldly
    issues, Buddhist social activists cite duty to the community as
    justification for participation in Engaged Buddhism[66]

Position of women


Although women in Thailand traditionally cannot ordain as bhikkhuni, they can choose to take part in quasi-monastic practices at temples and practice centers as maechi.

Unlike in Burma and Sri Lanka, the bhikkhuni
lineage of women monastics was never established in Thailand. Women
primarily participate in religious life either as lay participants in
collective merit-making rituals or by doing domestic work around
temples. A small number of women choose to become maechi, non-ordained religious specialists who permanently observe either the Eight or Ten Precepts.
Maechi do not receive the level of support given to bhikkhu and their
position in Thai society is the subject of some discussion.

Recently, there have been efforts to attempt to introduce a bhikkhuni
lineage in Thailand as a step towards improving the position of women
in Thai Buddhism. The main proponent of this movement has been Dhammananda Bhikkhuni.[67] Unlike similar efforts in Sri Lanka, these efforts have been extremely controversial in Thailand.[68]
Women attempting to ordain have been accused of attempting to
impersonate monks (a civil offense in Thailand), and their actions have
been denounced by many members of the ecclesiastic hierarchy.

In 1928 a secular law was passed in Thailand banning women’s full ordination in Buddhism. Varanggana Vanavichayen became the first female monk to be ordained in Thailand in 2002.[69] Some time after this the secular law was revoked. On 28 February 2003,[70] Dhammananda Bhikkhuni received full monastic ordination as a bhikkhuni of the Theravada tradition in Sri Lanka, making her the first modern Thai woman to receive full ordination as a Theravada bhikkhuni.[71][72][73] She is Abbess of Songdhammakalyani Monastery, the only temple in Thailand where there are bhikkhunis.[74] It was founded by her mother, Voramai, a Mahayana bhikkhuni, in the 1960s.[67]

No one denies that men and women have an equal chance to attain
enlightenment. In Mahayana Buddhism, practised in Taiwan, mainland
China, Hong Kong and Tibet, female ordinations are common, but in
countries that adhere to the Theravada branch of the religion, such as
Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Myanmar, women were banned from becoming
ordained about eight centuries ago, “for fear that women entering
monastic life instead of bearing children would be a disruption of
social order”, according to Kittipong Narit, a Buddhist scholar at
Bangkok’s Thammasat University.[34]

Most objections to the reintroduction of a female monastic role hinge
on the fact that the monastic rules require that both five ordained
monks and five ordained bhikkhunis be present for any new bhikkhuni
ordination. Without such a quorum, critics say that it is not possible
to ordain any new Theravada bhikkhuni. The Thai hierarchy refuses to
recognize ordinations in the Dharmaguptaka
tradition (the only currently existing bhikkhuni ordination lineage) as
valid Theravada ordinations, citing differences in philosophical
teachings and (more critically) monastic discipline.

See also

References


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  • “Sangha Act set to pass”. The Nation. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-31.

  • PCL., Post Publishing. “Somdet Phra Maha Muniwong new Supreme Patriarch”. Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2017-02-09.

  • “Thai junta replaces director of Buddhism department with policeman”. Reuters India. Retrieved 24 March 2017.

  • Tanakasempipat, Patpicha; Niyomyat, Aukkarapon (29 August 2017). “Thailand’s Buddhism chief removed after pressure from religious groups”. Reuters. Retrieved 29 August 2017.

  • Fifield, Anna (2015-05-15). “Hardliner tries to reform Thailand’s Buddhist monks behaving badly”. Washington Post. Retrieved 16 May 2015 – via The Guardian.

  • “Thai TV anchor turned monk fights for women’s right to be ordained”. South China Morning Post. 2015-05-10. Retrieved 21 May 2015.

  • Scott 2009, p. 39–41.

  • McCargo 2012, p. 638.

  • Fuengfusakul, Apinya (1998). ศาสนาทัศน์ของชุมชนเมืองสมัยใหม่: ศึกษากรณีวัดพระธรรมกาย [Religious Propensity of Urban Communities: A Case Study of Phra Dhammakaya Temple] (in Thai). Buddhist Studies Center, Chulalongkorn University. pp. 101–2.

  • Newell, Catherine Sarah (2008-04-01). Monks, meditation and missing links: continuity, “orthodoxy” and the vijja dhammakaya in Thai Buddhism (PhD diss.). London: Department of the Study of Religions School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

  • พระพิมลฯผจญมารคดีประวัติศาสตร์วงการสงฆ์ [Phra Phimontham confronts the devil: A historical case in the world of the Sangha]. Kom Chad Luek. Thailand: The Nation Group. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 20 August 2016.

  • “‘I Will Never Be Disrobed’ says Thai abbot of Dhammakaya Temple”, and “Between Faith and Fund-Raising”, Asiaweek 17 September 1999

  • David
    Liebhold (1999) Trouble in Nirvana: Facing charges over his
    controversial methods, a Thai abbot sparks debate over Buddhism’s future
    Time Asia 28 July 1999 [2]

  • Yasmin Lee Arpon (2002) Scandals Threaten Thai Monks’ Future SEAPA 11 July 2002 [3]

  • Controversial monk faces fresh charges The Nation 26 April 2002

  • “Frequently Asked Questions – Dhammakaya Foundation”. Dhammakaya Foundation. Retrieved 2016-12-11.

  • Newell, Catherine Sarah (2008). Monks, meditation and missing links: continuity, “orthodoxy” and the vijja dhammakaya in Thai Buddhism (Ph.D.). University of London: Department of the Study of Religions, School of Oriental and African Studies. p. 139.

  • PR Department Team (19 December 1998). เอกสารชี้แจงฉบับที่ 2/2541-พระราชภาวนาวิสุทธิ์กับการถือครองที่ดิน [Announcement 2/2541-Phrarajbhavanavisudh and land ownership]. www.dhammakaya.or.th (in Thai). Patumthani: Dhammakaya Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 March 2005.

  • Wiktorin, Pierre (2005) De Villkorligt Frigivna: Relationen mellan munkar och lekfolk i ett nutida Thailand (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International) p.137 ISSN 1653-6355

  • Julian Gearing (1999) Buddhist Scapegoat?: One Thai abbot is taken to task, but the whole system is to blame Asiaweek 30 December 1999 [4]<

  • Bangkokbiznews 24 June 2001 p.11

  • Matichon 19 July 2003

  • Udomsi,
    Sawaeng (2000). “รายงานการพิจารณาดำเนินการ กรณีวัดพระธรรมกาย
    ตามมติมหาเถรสมาคม ครั้งที่ ๓๒/๒๕๔๑” [Report of Evaluation of the
    Treatment of the Case Wat Phra Dhammakaya — Verdict of the Supreme
    Sangha Council 32/2541 B.E.]. วิเคราะห์นิคหกรรม ธรรมกาย [Analysis of Disciplinary Transactions of Dhammakaya] (in Thai). Bangkok. pp. 81–85. ISBN 974-7078-11-2.

  • Bangkok Post 23 August 2006

  • “Thailand | Thai court spares founder of Dhammakaya”. Buddhist Channel. 2006-08-23. Retrieved 2016-05-01.

  • Cochrane, Liam (2016-03-29). “Thailand’s head monk to be summoned by police over luxury Mercedes-Benz”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Sydney. Retrieved 30 March 2016.

  • สัมภาษณ์สด เจ้าคุณประสาร-ส.ศิวรักษ์ แก้พรบ.สงฆ์ [Live interview with Chao Khun Prasarn and S. Sivaraksa about amending the Monastic Act]. New TV (in Thai). 27 December 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2017.

  • “Somdet Phra Maha Muneewong appointed new supreme patriarch”Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. The Nation. 7 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.

  • Tanakasempipat, Patpicha; Kittisilpa, Juarawee; Thepgumpanat, Panarat (2016-04-22). Lefevre, Amy Sawitta, ed. “Devotees at Thai temple give alms to tens of thousands of Buddhist monks”. Reuters. Retrieved 2016-08-20.

  • “Men-at-alms”. 2016-04-02. Retrieved 2016-08-20.

  • เลื่อนสั่งคดีครั้งแรก รถโบราณสมเด็จช่วง [First hearing vintage car Somdet Chuang postponed]. Kom Chad Luek. The Nation Group. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.

  • McCargo 2012.

  • Wongcha-um, Panu (5 February 2016). “Thai monks protest against state interference in Buddhist governance”. Channel News Asia. Mediacorp Pte Ltd. Retrieved 2016-08-28.

  • Buddhism in Contemporary Thailand,
    Prof. Phra Thepsophon, Rector of Mahachulalongkorn Buddhist University.
    Speech at the International Conference on Buddhasasana in Theravada
    Buddhist countries: Issue and The Way Forward in Colombo, Sri Lanka,
    January 15, 2003, Buddhism in Thailand, Dhammathai – Buddhist
    Information Network

  • Ratanakosin Period, Buddhism in Thailand, Dhammathai – Buddhist Information Network

  • Marty, Martin E.; Appleby, R. Scott, eds. (1994). Fundamentalisms observed (Pbk. ed., 2. [Dr.]. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 668. ISBN 978-0-226-50878-8.

  • Sanitsuda Ekachai. “The Man behind Santi Asoke”. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2010.

  • Cantwell, Cathy; Kawanami, Hiroko, eds. (2001). Religions in the Modern World (Pbk., 2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-415-45891-7.

  • Willis, Jan (2013-01-21). “Building a Place for the Theris”. Lion’s Roar. Retrieved 21 Apr 2015.

  • Kurz, Sopaporn (2007-07-22). “Bhikkhuni says she is glum on future of ordination”. The Nation. The Buddhist Channel. Retrieved 21 Apr 2015.

  • Sommer, PhD, Jeanne Matthew. “Socially Engaged Buddhism in Thailand: Ordination of Thai Women Monks”. Warren Wilson College. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2011.

  • Kristin Barendsen. “Ordained at Last”. Archived from the original on February 6, 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2008.

  • archive.org:“Ordained at Last by Kristin Barendson”. Archived from the original on 2004-02-06. Retrieved 2010-11-19.

  • สุวิดา แสงสีหนาท, นักบวชสตรีไทยในพระพุทธศาสนา พลังขับเคลื่อนคุณธรรมสู่สังคม, ศูนย์ส่งเสริมและพัฒนาพลังแผ่นดินเชิงคุณธรรม, 1999, page 45-6 (in Thai)

  • Gemma Tulud Cruz (May 14, 2003). “Bhikkhunis: Ordaining Buddhist Women”. National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved September 25, 2014. She had to be ordained in Colombo, Sri Lanka…

    1. David N. Snyder, Ph.D. “Who’s Who in Buddhism”. Retrieved May 17, 2008.

    Sources

    • McCargo, Duncan (2012), “The Changing Politics of Thailand’s Buddhist Order”, Critical Asian Studies, Routledge, 44 (4), doi:10.1080/14672715.2012.738544, ISSN 1467-2715
    • Scott, Rachelle M. (2009), Nirvana for Sale? Buddhism, Wealth, and the Dhammakāya Temple in Contemporary Thailand, Albany: State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1-4416-2410-9

    Further reading

  • Buswell, Robert E., ed. (2004). “Thailand”, in Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 830–836. ISBN 0-02-865718-7.
  • Jerryson, Michael K. (2012). Buddhist Fury: Religion and Violence in Southern Thailand. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-979329-7.
  • Kabilsingh, Chatsumarn (1991). Thai Women in Buddhism. Parallax Press. ISBN 0-938077-84-8.
  • Tambiah, Stanley (1970). Buddhism and the Spirit Cults in North-East Thailand. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09958-7.
  • McCargo, D (2009). Thai Buddhism, Thai Buddhists and the southern conflict, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 40 (1), 1-10
  • McCargo, D (2012). The changing politics of Thailand’s buddhist order, Critical Asian Studies 44 (4), 627-642
  • Terwiel, B.J. (May 1976). “A Model for the Study of Thai Buddhism”. Journal of Asian Studies. 35 (3): 391–403. doi:10.2307/2053271. JSTOR 2053271.
  • Na-rangsi, Sunthorn (2002). “Administration of the Thai Sangha” (PDF). The Chulalongkorn Journal of Buddhist Studies. 1 (2): 59–74. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2012.
  • https://www.bangkokpost.com/lifestyle/social-and-lifestyle/1356703/thai-culture-goes-digital


    Thai culture goes digital

    https://www.bangkokpost.com/…/135…/thai-culture-goes-digital
    Thai culture goes digital

    Please credit and share this article with others using this link:https://www.bangkokpost.com/…/135…/thai-culture-goes-digital. View our policies at http://goo.gl/9HgTd and http://goo.gl/ou6Ip. © Post Publishing PCL. All rights reserved.
    Thai art and culture now available on a phone. (Photos courtesy of
    Fine Arts Department) Visiting historical museums and official cultural
    websites in Thailand was boring in the past, but not anymore….

    Please credit and share this article with others using this link:https://www.bangkokpost.com/…/135…/thai-culture-goes-digital. View our policies at http://goo.gl/9HgTd and http://goo.gl/ou6Ip. © Post Publishing PCL. All rights reserved.


    Visiting
    historical museums and official cultural websites in Thailand was
    boring in the past, but not anymore. In accordance with the government’s
    Thailand 4.0 policy, the Ministry of Culture has upgraded art and
    cultural learning sources, with Culture…
    bangkokpost.com

    97) Classical Thai
    97) ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก

    2440 TUE 14 พ.ย. 2017 บทเรียน

    พระไตรปิฎก

    พระไตรปิฎก (ปาลีที “สาม” + พิคากา “ตะกร้า”),
    หรือ Pali canon คือชุดของภาษาหลักของภาษาบาลีซึ่ง
    เป็นรากฐานหลักของพระพุทธศาสนาเถรวาท พระไตรปิฎกและ
    (พงศาวดาร, ฯลฯ ) ร่วมกันเป็นร่างที่สมบูรณ์ของตำราเถรวาทคลาสสิก


    บาลีแคนนอนเป็นวรรณกรรมที่กว้างใหญ่: แปลภาษาอังกฤษเป็นภาษาอังกฤษ
    ข้อความเพิ่มได้ถึงหลายพันหน้าพิมพ์ มากที่สุด (แต่ไม่ใช่ทั้งหมด) ของ
    Canon ได้รับการตีพิมพ์เป็นภาษาอังกฤษเป็นเวลาหลายปีแล้ว แม้ว่า
    มีเพียงส่วนเล็ก ๆ ของตำราเหล่านี้ที่มีอยู่ในเว็บไซต์นี้เท่านั้น
    คอลเลกชันอาจเป็นจุดเริ่มต้นที่ดี

    สามส่วนของ Tipitaka คือ:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    การเก็บรวบรวมตำราเกี่ยวกับหลักธรรมในการกำกับดูแลกิจวัตรประจำวันภายในภิกษุณี - ชุมชนของภิกษุสงฆ์และพระภิกษุสงฆ์
        
    แม่ชี) ไม่ใช่แค่กฎกติกาเท่านั้นที่ Vinaya Pitaka
        
    รวมถึงเรื่องราวเบื้องหลังต้นกำเนิดของแต่ละกฎการให้ a
        
    รายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับวิธีแก้ปัญหาของพระพุทธเจ้าต่อคำถาม
        
    รักษาความสามัคคีของชุมชนภายในจิตวิญญาณที่มีขนาดใหญ่และหลากหลาย
        
    ชุมชน.
    Sutta Pitaka
        

        
    การเก็บรวบรวมบทเทศน์หรือวาทกรรมโดยพระพุทธเจ้าและอีกสองสามข้อ
        
    ของสาวกที่สนิทที่สุดของเขาซึ่งประกอบด้วยคำสอนส่วนกลางทั้งหมดของ
        
    พุทธศาสนาเถรวาท (แปลสุลต่านมากกว่าหนึ่งพันคำ
        
    มีอยู่ในเว็บไซต์นี้) บทประพันธ์แบ่งออกเป็นห้ากลุ่ม (กลุ่ม) nikayas:

            Digha Nikaya - “คอลเลกชันยาว”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “คอลเลกชันขนาดกลาง”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “กลุ่มการเก็บรวบรวม”
            
    พระนครศรีอยุธยา - “สะสมเพิ่มเติม”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “ชุดของตำราเล็ก ๆ น้อย ๆ “:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    ชาดก
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    พุทธวงศ์
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettippakarana (รวมเฉพาะในฉบับภาษาพม่าของพระไตรปิฎก)
                
    เพชรบูรณ์ (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    อภิสิทธิ์พิทากา
        

        
    คอลเลกชันของตำราที่หลักการพื้นฐานต้นแบบ
        
    นำเสนอใน Sutta Pitaka ถูกนำมาใช้ใหม่และจัดระเบียบใหม่ไว้ใน a
        
    กรอบระบบที่สามารถนำมาประยุกต์ใช้กับการตรวจสอบได้
        
    ลักษณะของจิตใจและสสาร

    http://www.turkishculture.org/music/classical-31.htm


    TURKISH CLASSICAL MUSIC

    Western
    influence had already begun to be felt in Ottoman music towards the
    middle of the 19th century. These increased towards the end of the
    century, and led to efforts to change Ottoman music from monodic to
    polyphonic.

    With the declaration of the republic in 1923, Cemal Reşid (REY), who
    was then studying music in Europe, returned to Turkey and began to teach
    at a music school established in Istanbul. At the same time, a number
    of talented young people were sent by the republic to various cities in
    Europe to study music. After they returned to Turkey, the group that
    would later be called ‘Türk Beşleri’ (The Turkish Five) and which
    prepared the groundwork for Modern Polyphonic Turkish Music, emerged.
    The common aim of the group was to use the traditional themes of
    traditional Turkish music together with the values of Western classical
    music that they had studied to produce a new polyphonic structure. In
    later stages, every composer who amed at a more contemporary sound
    interpreted the colours and mystery of popular melody in his own way,
    and instead of merely treating well-known popular melodies they began to
    achieve syntheses by means of abstraction.

    The Turkish Five consisted of; Cemal Reşit REY, Ulvi Cemal ERKİN,
    Hasan Ferit ALNAR, Ahmet Adnan SAYGUN and Necil Kazım AKSES. Later,
    others produced and are still producing works in the same field,
    including; Nuri Sami KORAL, Kemal İLERİCİ, Ekrem Zeki ÜN and Bülent
    TARCAN of the second generation, Sabahattin KALENDER, Nevit KODALLI,
    Ferit TÜZÜN, İlhan USMANBAş, Bülent AREL and İlhan MİMAROĞLU of the
    third, and Muammer SUN, Cenan AKIN, Cengiz TANÇ, Kemal SÜNDER, İlhan
    BARAN, Yalçın TURA and Ali Doğan SİNANGİL of the fourth. An increasing
    number of other composers after that last generation continue to write
    works. The current number has now reached around 60.

    Source: Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism


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    98) Classical Turkish
    98) Klasik Türk

    2440 Tue 14 Kasım 2017 DERS

    Tipitaka

    Tipitaka (Pali ti, “üç,” + pitaka, “sepet”),
    veya Pali canon, birincil Pali dil metinlerinin koleksiyonudur;
    Theravada Budizm’in doktrin temelini oluşturmaktadır. Tipitaka ve
    paracanonik Pali metinleri (yorumlar, tarih yazanları, vb.) birlikte klasik Theravada metinlerinin bütününü teşkil eder.


    Pali canon geniş bir edebiyat gövdesidir: İngilizce çeviri
    metinler binlerce basılı sayfaya kadar ekleyin. Çoğu (ancak hepsi değil)
    Canon, yıllardır İngilizce olarak zaten yayınlandı. olmasına rağmen
    Bu metinlerin sadece küçük bir kısmı bu sitede mevcuttur;
    Koleksiyon başlatmak için iyi bir yer olabilir.

    Tipitaka’nın üç bölümü vardır:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Sangha’daki günlük meseleleri yöneten davranış kurallarına ilişkin
    metinlerin toplanması - bikik’te (vasiyetnameli rahipler) ve bikikimler
    (vasiyetnameler)
        
    rahibeler). Vinaya Pitaka, sadece bir kurallar listesi değil, aynı zamanda
        
    her kuralın kökeninin ardındaki hikayeleri içerir;
        
    Buda’nın çözümünün ayrıntılı hesabı nasıl sorulacağı sorusuna
        
    toplumsal uyumun geniş ve çeşitli bir maneviyat içinde korunması
        
    topluluk.
    Sutta Pitaka
        

        
    Buda’ya ve bir kaç kişiye atfedilen suttalar veya söylemlerin toplanması
        
    En yakın öğrencilerinden, tüm merkez öğretilerini içeren
        
    Theravada Budizmi. (Birden fazla binlerce sutta tercüme vardır.
        
    Bu suttalar beş nikayaya bölünmüştür (koleksiyonlar):

            Digha Nikaya - “uzun koleksiyon”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “orta boy koleksiyon”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “gruplanmış koleksiyon”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “daha ileri kalitede koleksiyon”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “küçük metinler koleksiyonu”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettippakarana (yalnızca Tipitaka’nın Burma sürümünde yer almaktadır)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        

        
    temel doktriner ilkelerin bulunduğu metinlerin toplanması
        
    Sutta Pitaka’da sunularak yeniden düzenlenip bir
        
    bir soruşturma için uygulanabilir sistematik çerçeve
        
    Zihin ve maddenin doğası.

    http://www.ukraine.com/culture/

    Ukraine.com - Ukraine Channel



    Since Ukraine is geographically located between Europe and Asia, much of
    its culture exhibits both Eastern and Western influences. Over the
    years it has been invariably influenced by movements such as those
    brought about during the Byzantine Empire and the Renaissance. Today,
    the country is somewhat culturally divided with the western regions
    bearing a stronger European influence and the eastern regions showing a
    strong Russian influence.


    It is interesting to note that Communist rule in Russia
    had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine. During the
    late 1920s and early 1930s, the Soviet authorities began enforcing the
    socialist realism art style in Ukraine. This style dictated that all
    artists and writers glorify the Soviet Regime with their talents.
    However, it wasn’t long before the Soviet Union collapsed and artists
    and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted.
    Unfortunately the collapse of the union also brought about a decrease in
    government subsidies. Writers chose to emulate the styles used in the
    11th and 13th centuries, while artists expanded their horizons trying new techniques, subject matters and styles.


    Ukrainian culture is richly embedded in ancient traditions. Even today
    many historical songs such as the dumy and the playing of the kobza –
    which was popular during the 16th century – is still enjoyed. However, music
    has also come a long way since then and Polissia magic pop and Kolomiya
    rap have gained popularity. The culture scene has also seen a
    resurgence of Cossack songs and song poetry. There are also a number of cultural festivals such as the Tavriya Games which are most popular.


    The Ukrainian people also enjoy their culture in the form of traditional
    dances and dance games. Many of these originated in rural Cossack
    villages and some of the oldest dances can be traced back to ancient
    cults. Traditionally many of these dances were performed only by males
    or females, but today both sexes sometimes mix and enjoy the dance
    together. Appreciation for these dances is usually kept alive by Ukrainian dance troupes.


    Many people do not know that the tradition of the Easter egg had it’s
    beginnings in the Ukraine. In times gone by (and still sometimes today)
    these eggs were drawn on with wax to create patterns. Dye was then added
    to give the eggs their delightful colors – the dye not affecting the
    wax coated parts of the egg. Once the whole egg was dyed, the wax was
    removed leaving only the colorful pattern. The tradition is thousands of
    years old and predates the arrival of Christianity in the country.
    While Christian interpretations of this practice abound, many Ukrainians
    still believe that the egg has immense power and releases the earth
    from the restraints of winter. Even the designs have meaning and the
    eggs are usually given as gifts or used as decorations.


    Ukrainians celebrate a number of holidays, namely Christmas, Easter,
    Whitsuntide, New Years and Ivana Kupala (St John’s Eve). They also hold
    a festival every autumn to celebrate the end of the harvest. While some
    of these festivals are celebrated world wide, Ukrainians have their
    very own way of observing them. Ukrainian culture is very interesting
    and there is so much to say on the matter that it cannot be discussed
    fully here. The best way to find out more is to visit the country and
    learn from the locals.


    99) Classical Ukrainian

    99) Класична українська

    2440 TUE 14.11.2010 УРОК

    Типітака

    Тіпітака (Паліті, “три”, “Пітака”, “кошики”),
    або Палі канон, являє собою сукупність первинних текстів мови Палі, які
    складають доктринальний фундамент буддизму Тіравади. Типітака і
    параканонічні тексти Палі (коментарі, літописи тощо) разом складають повне тіло класичних текстів Теревади.

    The
    Палі канон - це величезна кількість літератури: в англійському перекладі
    тексти додаються до тисяч друкованих сторінок. Більшість (але не всі)
    Канон уже кілька років публікується англійською мовою. Хоча
    лише невелика частка цих текстів доступна на цьому веб-сайті, це
    колекція може бути гарним місцем для початку.

    Три дивізії Типитака:

    Віная Пітака
        
    Збірник текстів, що стосуються правил поведінки, що регулює
    повсякденні справи всередині сангхи - спільноти бхікхусів (висвячених
    монахів) та бхікхуні (рукоположені
        
    черниці) Набагато більше, ніж просто список правил, також Віня Питака
        
    включає в себе історії походження кожного правила, забезпечуючи a
        
    докладний розповідь про рішення Будди питанням, як це зробити
        
    підтримувати комунальну гармонію в межах великого і різноманітного духовного
        
    спільнота
    Сутта Пітака
        
    The
        
    збір суттів або дискурсів, що відносяться до Будди та декількох
        
    з його найближчих учнів, що містять всі центральні вчення
        
    Теравадський буддизм. (Перекладено понад тисячу суттів
        
    доступні на цьому веб-сайті.) Сути діляться між п’ятьма нікавами (збірками):

            Діга Нікая - “довга колекція”
            
    Майжимі Нікія - “колекція середньої довжини”
            
    Самютта Ніка - “згрупована колекція”
            
    Ангутара Ніка - “далі-факторизована колекція”
            
    Худжак Ніка - це “збірка маленьких текстів”:
                
    Худдакапата
                
    Дхаммапада
                
    Удана
                
    Ітівтутка
                
    Сутта Ніпата
                
    Віманаватту
                
    Петаватту
                
    Терегата
                
    Терігата
                
    Джатака
                
    Ниддеса
                
    Патісамбідамагга
                
    Ападана
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Каріапітака
                
    Nettippakarana (включений тільки в бірманське видання Типітака)
                
    Петакопедеза (”")
                
    Міліндапанья (”")

    Абідхамма Пітака
        
    The
        
    збірник текстів, в яких лежать основні догматичні принципи
        
    представлені в Sutta Pitaka, переробляються і реорганізуються в a
        
    систематичні рамки, які можуть бути застосовані до розслідування в
        
    природа розуму і матерії.

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    100) Classical Urdu

    100) کلاسیکی اردو

    2440 نمبر 14 نومبر 2017 سبق

    Tipitaka

    ٹپکٹکا (پال تے، “تین،” + pitaka، “ٹوکری”)،
    یا پالی کینن، بنیادی پالی زبان نصوص کا مجموعہ ہے
    تھراواڈا بدھ مت کے نظریاتی بنیاد تشکیل دیں. ٹپکٹکا اور
    paracanonical پال متن (تبصرے، تعریف، وغیرہ) ایک ساتھ ساتھ کلاسیکی تھراوا متن کے مکمل جسم کا قیام.

    The
    پالی کینن ادب کا ایک وسیع جسم ہے: انگریزی ترجمہ میں
    ہزاروں طباعت شدہ صفحات تک متن شامل ہیں. سب سے زیادہ (لیکن سب نہیں)
    کینن پہلے سے ہی سالوں میں انگریزی میں شائع کیا گیا ہے. اگرچہ
    ان نصوصوں کا صرف ایک چھوٹا سا حصہ اس ویب سائٹ پر دستیاب ہے
    مجموعہ شروع کرنے کے لئے ایک اچھی جگہ ہوسکتی ہے.

    ٹپٹکا کے تین حصے ہیں:

    ونیا پٹاکا
        
    سنگھ کے اندر روزانہ معاملات کو منظم کرنے کے طریقوں سے متعلق مضامین کا مجموعہ - بھیکخس (مختار راہ) اور بھیکخونیز (کمیونٹی)
        
    نون). صرف قوانین کی ایک فہرست سے زیادہ، Vinaya Pitaka بھی
        
    ہر قاعدہ کی اصل کے پیچھے کی کہانیاں شامل ہیں، ایک فراہم کرنے میں
        
    کس طرح کے سوال کے بوہھا کے حل کا تفصیلی اکاؤنٹ
        
    بڑے اور متنوع روحانی کے اندر سماجی ہم آہنگی برقرار رکھو
        
    برادری.
    سوٹا پٹاکا
        
    The
        
    سوٹ کا مجموعہ، یا حوصلہ افزائی، بھوہ اور چند افراد کو منسوب کیا گیا ہے
        
    ان کے قریبی شاگردوں میں سے، تمام مرکزی تعلیمات شامل ہیں
        
    تھراواڈا بدھ مت (ایک ہزار سے زائد سوٹ ترجمہ ہیں
        
    اس ویب سائٹ پر دستیاب ہے.) سوٹ پانچ نکایوں (مجموعہ) میں تقسیم کیے گئے ہیں:

            دوگا نککا - “طویل مجموعہ”
            
    مججما نککا - “درمیانی لمبائی کا مجموعہ”
            
    سامیوتا نکیا - “گروپ گروپ”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “مزید فکسڈ مجموعہ”
            
    کھڈکا نککا - “چھوٹا سا نصوصوں کا مجموعہ”:
                
    کھڈکاپاٹا
                
    ڈھامپاڈا
                
    اڈانا
                
    اسیوٹکا
                
    سوٹ نیپتا
                
    ویمیماوٹھو
                
    پیٹراوٹھو
                
    تھراگاتھ
                
    تھریگاتھ
                
    جٹکا
                
    ندیسا
                
    پتیسلمھماگگا
                
    اپادانا
                
    بدھاما
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    نیٹپوکاکانا (صرف ٹپکٹکا کے برمی ایڈیشن میں شامل ہیں)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    ملندپنپن (”")

    ابھارہما پٹاکا
        
    The
        
    مضامین کا مجموعہ جس میں بنیادی عقیدہ اصول ہیں
        
    سوٹا پٹاکا میں پیش کیا گیا ہے اور پھر اس میں دوبارہ منظم کیا جاتا ہے
        
    ایک تحقیقاتی فریم ورک جو تحقیقات میں لاگو کیا جا سکتا ہے
        
    دماغ اور معاملہ کی نوعیت.



    https://www.advantour.com/uzbekistan/culture/music.htm

    Traditional Uzbek Music
    Uzbek Music

    Traditional Uzbek music has ancient sources. Folklore Uzbek music which came from the people is divided into many genres.


    Among them are lullabies and children’s songs as well as ritual,
    work, daily life songs, songs-dialogues, dancing and lyric fados.



    Uzbekistan musical instruments
    Uzbekistan musical instruments
    Uzbekistan musical instruments

    Classical Uzbek music is makom – a special musical genre, which is
    characterized by drawling touching performance. Many lines of the poets
    of the East (Jami, Navoi, Fuzuly, Hafiz, Uvaisi, Nadira, Mukimi Ogahi,
    etc.) were put to this music. The UNESCO has included “shashmakom”,
    traditional Uzbek and Tajik music in the List of masterpieces of oral,
    intangible cultural heritage of the mankind.


    The diversity of folk instruments also confirms the wealth of Uzbek
    musical tradition: bowed - gidjak, kobuz, setor and sato; fretted -
    dombra, dutar tanbur, ud and rubab; stringed hammered string - chang;
    wind-reed - sibizik, bulaman, surnay and koshnay; wind flute - nai and
    gadjir; brass - karnay; drums - doira, nagora,, chindaul, safail, koshuk
    etc.


    101) Classical Uzbek

    101) klassik o’zbek

    2440 TUE 14 Noyabr 2017 Dars

    Tipitaka

    Tipitaka (Pali ti, “uch,” + pitaka, “savat”),
    yoki Pali kanoni, asosiy Pali tilidagi matnlar to’plamidir
    Theravada buddizm ta’limotini tashkil etadi. Tipitaka va
    Paracanonical Pali matnlari (sharhlar, xronikalar va boshqalar) birgalikda klassik Theravada matnlarini to’liq tashkil etadi.

    Ushbu
    Pali kanonasi adabiyotning keng javharidir: inglizcha tarjimada
    matnlar minglab bosma nashrga qo’shiladi. Ko’p (lekin barchasining) ko’pi
    Kanon allaqachon ingliz tilida nashr etilgan. Garchi
    ushbu matnlarning faqat kichik qismini ushbu veb-saytda topishingiz mumkin
    to’plamni boshlash uchun yaxshi joy bo’lishi mumkin.

    Tipitakaning uchta bo’limi quyidagilardir:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Sxaxadagi kunlik ishlarni tartibga soluvchi qoidalarga tegishli
    bo’lgan matnlar to’plami - bxikhus (tanlangan monaxlar) va bxixxunlar
        
    rohiblar). Faqatgina qoidalar ro’yxatidan ham ko’proq, Vinaya Pitaka ham
        
    har bir qoidaning kelib chiqishi ortidagi hikoyalarni o’z ichiga oladi
        
    Buddani qanday hal qilish masalasiga oid batafsil hisobotini
        
    keng va turli xil ma’naviy jihatdan kommunal uyg’unlikni saqlash
        
    jamoa.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Ushbu
        
    Sulton to’plamlari yoki Buddaga va bir necha kishilarga tegishli so’zlashuvlar
        
    Uning barcha eng muhim ta’limotlarini o’z ichiga olgan eng yaqin shogirdlari
        
    Theravada buddizm. (Bir mingdan ziyod sutta tarjimasi bor
        
    Ushbu saytda beshta nikayalar (to’plamlar) o’rtasida bo’linadi:

            Digha Nikaya - “uzoq kollektsiya”
            
    Majjima Nikaya - “o’rta o’lchov to’plami”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “guruhlangan to’plam”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “keyinchalik aniqlangan to’plam”
            
    Xuddaka Nikaya - “kichik matnlar to’plami”:
                
    Xuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavattu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettippakarana (faqat Tipitakaning Birma nashriga kiritilgan)
                
    Petakopedia (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Ushbu
        
    asosiy tushunchalar asos bo’lgan matnlarni to’plash
        
    Sutta Pitakada namoyish etilgan va qayta ishlangan
        
    sistematik doirada tekshirish uchun qo’llanilishi mumkin
        
    ong va moddaning tabiati.

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    https://issuu.com/oivietnam/docs/oi_vietnam

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    Oi Vietnam Issue #1 (March 2013)  

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    residents, travellers and English speaking Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh
    City.
    Content includes travel, fashion, food, dining out and features
    about life and people in Ho Chi Minh City.


    102) Classical Vietnamese
    102) Tiếng Việt cổ điển

    2440 TUE 14 tháng 11 năm 2017 LESSON

    Tipitaka

    Kinh Tipitaka (Pali ti, “ba”, “pitaka”, “giỏ hàng”),
    hay Pali canon, là bộ sưu tập các bản văn nguyên bản tiếng Pali
    hình thành nên nền tảng giáo lý của Phật giáo Nguyên Thủy. Tipitaka và
    các kinh văn Pali (parakaninical pali) (các bài bình luận, biên niên
    sử, v.v.) cùng nhau tạo thành toàn bộ cơ thể của các văn bản cổ điển
    Theravada.

    Các
    Pali canon là một bộ sách rộng lớn: trong bản dịch tiếng Anh
    văn bản thêm lên đến hàng ngàn trang in. Hầu hết (nhưng không phải tất cả)
    Canon đã được xuất bản bằng tiếng Anh qua nhiều năm. Mặc dù
    chỉ có một phần nhỏ các văn bản này có sẵn trên trang web này, điều này
    bộ sưu tập có thể là một nơi tốt để bắt đầu.

    Ba bộ phận của Tipitaka là:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Bộ sưu tập các văn bản liên quan đến các quy tắc về công việc điều
    hành công việc hàng ngày trong Tăng đoàn - cộng đồng của các tỳ khưu và
    các tỳ khưu ni
        
    ni). Không chỉ đơn thuần là một quy tắc, Vinaya Pitaka cũng
        
    bao gồm các câu chuyện đằng sau nguồn gốc của mỗi quy tắc, cung cấp một
        
    giải thích chi tiết về giải pháp của Đức Phật cho câu hỏi làm thế nào để
        
    duy trì sự hài hòa của cộng đồng trong một tinh thần đa dạng và đa dạng
        
    cộng đồng.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Các
        
    tập hợp các kinh điển, hoặc các bài thuyết giảng, do Đức Phật và một số ít
        
    các môn đồ gần nhất của Ngài, chứa đựng tất cả các giáo lý trung tâm của
        
    Phật giáo Theravada. (Hơn một nghìn bản kinh là
        
    có trên trang web này). Các kinh điển được chia thành năm bộ nikayas (bộ sưu tập):

            Digha Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập dài”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - bộ sưu tập “trung bình”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập tập hợp”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập thực tế hơn”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “Bộ sưu tập các bài viết nhỏ”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Pháp pháp
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Kinh Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Trị liệu
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Phật pháp
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettippakarana (chỉ có trong ấn bản Miến Điện của Tipitaka)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Các
        
    tập hợp các văn bản trong đó các nguyên tắc cơ bản
        
    được trình bày trong Sutta Pitaka được làm lại và tái tổ chức thành một
        
    khuôn khổ có hệ thống có thể được áp dụng cho một cuộc điều tra về
        
    bản chất của tâm và vật chất.

    http://www.visitwales.com/things-to-do/attractions/castles-heritage

    Castles & Welsh heritage


    Whichever bit of Wales you head for, you’ll find yourself within easy
    distance of the world’s finest castles and awe-inspiring landmarks.
    There are over 600 of them, from Roman times to millionaires’ follies of
    the 19th century, making Wales the castle capital of Europe. Each has its special story.



    What would you like to do?


    Click on an icon below for more information




    Laugharne Castle in the snow, Carmarthenshire

    10 walks through history

    Come for heritage and scenery on these ten short walks on the Wales Coast Path.






    Ffestiniog & Welsh Highland Railways

    Steam trains of Wales

    A journey on board a narrow gauge steam train is the best way to enjoy the landscape of Wales






    Young boy and girl at Llancaiach Fawr

    Llancaiach Fawr

    The Neale family from Saffron Walden in Essex, visit Llancaiach Fawr Manor and discover what family life was like in 1645.







    Pembroke Castle

    Traditions and history

    All about the traditions and history of the Welsh nation.






    Medieval fantasy

    King Arthur’s Wales

    Plan your own early medieval adventure by visiting our ancient hill forts and standing stones.






    The River Dee passing under the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, Dee Valley

    Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

    The dramatic Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is an engineering marvel and a World Heritage Site.









    103) Classical Welsh

    103) Cymraeg Clasurol

    2440 TUE 14 Tach 2017 LESSON

    Tipitaka

    Y Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”),
    neu Pali canon, yw’r casgliad o destunau iaith cynradd Pali sydd
    yn ffurfio sylfaen athrawiaethol Bwdhaeth Theravada. Y Tipitaka a
    mae’r testunau Pali paracanyddol (sylwebaeth, cronelau, ac ati) gyda’i
    gilydd yn ffurfio corff cyflawn testunau Theravada clasurol.

    Y
    Corff canolog o lenyddiaeth yw canali Pali: yn cyfieithu Saesneg y
    mae testunau’n ychwanegu at filoedd o dudalennau printiedig. Y rhan fwyaf (ond nid pob un) o’r
    Mae Canon eisoes wedi’i gyhoeddi yn Saesneg dros y blynyddoedd. Er
    dim ond ffracsiwn bach o’r testunau hyn sydd ar gael ar y wefan hon, mae hyn
    gall casglu fod yn lle da i ddechrau.

    Y tair rhanbarth o’r Tipitaka yw:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Casgliad o destunau sy’n ymwneud â’r rheolau ymddygiad sy’n rheoli
    materion dyddiol yn y Sangha - cymuned bikkhus (mynachod ordeiniedig) a
    bhikkhunis (ordeiniwyd
        
    mynyddoedd). Yn llawer mwy na dim ond rhestr o reolau, y Vinaya Pitaka hefyd
        
    yn cynnwys y straeon y tu ôl i darddiad pob rheol, gan ddarparu a
        
    Rhowch fanylion manwl i ateb y Bwdha i’r cwestiwn o sut i
        
    cynnal cytgord gymunedol mewn ysbrydol mawr ac amrywiol
        
    cymuned.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Y
        
    casgliad o suttas, neu ddadleuon, sy’n cael eu priodoli i’r Bwdha ac ychydig
        
    o’i ddisgyblion agosaf, yn cynnwys holl ddysgeidiaeth canolog
        
    Bwdhaeth Theravada. (Mae mwy na mil o gyfieithiadau sutta
        
    ar gael ar y wefan hon.) Mae’r suttas wedi’u rhannu ymhlith pum nikayas (casgliadau):

            Digha Nikaya - y “casgliad hir”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - y “casgliad hyd canol”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - y “casgliad grŵp”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - y “casgliad pellach”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - y “casgliad o destunau bach”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettippakarana (a gynhwysir yn unig yn rhifyn Burmese o’r Tipitaka)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Y
        
    casgliad o destunau lle mae’r egwyddorion athrawiaethol sylfaenol
        
    a gyflwynir yn y Sutta Pitaka yn cael eu hail-weithio a’u had-drefnu i mewn i
        
    Fframwaith systematig y gellir ei gymhwyso i ymchwiliad i’r
        
    natur meddwl a mater.

    http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/xhosa
    Inline image 1



    Culture of South Africa


    Xhosa

    The
    four major ethnic divisions among Black South Africans are the Nguni,
    Sotho, Shangaan-Tsonga and Venda. The Nguni represent nearly two thirds
    of South Africa’s Black population and can be divided into four distinct
    groups; the Northern and Central Nguni (the Zulu-speaking peoples), the
    Southern Nguni (the Xhosa-speaking peoples), the Swazi people from
    Swaziland and adjacent areas and the Ndebele people of the Northern
    Province and Mpumalanga. Archaeological evidence shows that the
    Bantu-speaking groups that were the ancestors of the Nguni migrated down
    from East Africa as early as the eleventh century.

    Language, culture and beliefs:

    The
    Xhosa are the second largest cultural group in South Africa, after the
    Zulu-speaking nation. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are
    variations, is part of the Nguni language group. Xhosa is one of the 11
    official languages recognized by the South African Constitution, and in
    2006 it was determined that just over 7 million South Africans speak
    Xhosa as a home language. It is a tonal language, governed by the noun -
    which dominates the sentence.

    Missionaries introduced the Xhosa
    to Western choral singing. Among the most successful of the Xhosa hymns
    is the South African national anthem, Nkosi Sikele’ iAfrika (God Bless Africa). It was written by a school teacher named Enoch Sontonga
    in 1897. Xhosa written literature was established in the nineteenth
    century with the publication of the first Xhosa newspapers, novels, and
    plays. Early writers included Tiyo Soga, I. Bud-Mbelle, and John Tengo Jabavu.

    Stories
    and legends provide accounts of Xhosa ancestral heroes. According to
    one oral tradition, the first person on Earth was a great leader called
    Xhosa. Another tradition stresses the essential unity of the
    Xhosa-speaking people by proclaiming that all the Xhosa subgroups are
    descendants of one ancestor, Tshawe. Historians have suggested that
    Xhosa and Tshawe were probably the first Xhosa kings or paramount
    (supreme) chiefs.

    The Supreme Being among the Xhosa is called uThixo or uQamata.
    As in the religions of many other Bantu peoples, God is only rarely
    involved in everyday life. God may be approached through ancestral
    intermediaries who are honoured through ritual sacrifices. Ancestors
    commonly make their wishes known to the living in dreams. Xhosa
    religious practice is distinguished by elaborate and lengthy rituals,
    initiations, and feasts. Modern rituals typically pertain to matters of
    illness and psychological well-being.

    The Xhosa people have
    various rites of passage traditions. The first of these occurs after
    giving birth; a mother is expected to remain secluded in her house for
    at least ten days. In Xhosa tradition, the afterbirth and umbilical cord
    were buried or burned to protect the baby from sorcery. At the end of
    the period of seclusion, a goat was sacrificed. Those who no longer
    practice the traditional rituals may still invite friends and relatives
    to a special dinner to mark the end of the mother’s seclusion.

    Male and female initiation in the form of circumcision is practiced among most Xhosa groups. The Male abakweta
    (initiates-in-training) live in special huts isolated from villages or
    towns for several weeks. Like soldiers inducted into the army, they have
    their heads shaved. They wear a loincloth and a blanket for warmth, and
    white clay is smeared on their bodies from head to toe. They are
    expected to observe numerous taboos (prohibitions) and to act
    deferentially to their adult male leaders. Different stages in the
    initiation process were marked by the sacrifice of a goat.

    The
    ritual of female circumcision is considerably shorter. The intonjane
    (girl to be initiated) is secluded for about a week. During this period,
    there are dances, and ritual sacrifices of animals. The initiate must
    hide herself from view and observe food restrictions. There is no actual
    surgical operation.

    Origins:

    Although
    they speak a common language, Xhosa people belong to many loosely
    organized, but distinct chiefdoms that have their origins in their Nguni
    ancestors. It is important to question how and why the Nguni speakers
    were separated into the sub-group known today. The majority of central
    northern Nguni people became part of the Zulu kingdom, whose language
    and traditions are very similar to the Xhosa nations - the main
    difference is that the latter abolished circumcision.

    In order to
    understand the origins of the Xhosa people we must examine the
    developments of the southern Nguni, who intermarried with Khoikhoi and
    retained circumcision. For unknown reasons, certain southern Nguni
    groups began to expand their power some time before 1600. Tshawe founded
    the Xhosa kingdom by defeating the Cirha and Jwarha groups. His
    descendants expanded the kingdom by settling in new territory and
    bringing people living there under the control of the amaTshawe.
    Generally, the group would take on the name of the chief under whom they
    had united. There are therefore distinct varieties of the Xhosa
    language, the most distinct being isiMpondo (isiNdrondroza).
    Other dialects include: Thembu, Bomvana, Mpondimise, Rharhabe, Gcaleka,
    Xesibe, Bhaca, Cele, Hlubi, Ntlangwini, Ngqika, Mfengu (also names of
    different groups or clans). 

    Unlike the Zulu and the Ndebele in
    the north, the position of the king as head of a lineage did not make
    him an absolute king. The junior chiefs of the various chiefdoms
    acknowledged and deferred to the paramount chief in matters of ceremony,
    law, and tribute, but he was not allowed to interfere in their domestic
    affairs. There was great rivalry among them, and few of these leaders
    could answer for the actions of even their own councillors. As they
    could not centralise their power, chiefs were constantly preoccupied
    with strategies to maintain the loyalties of their followers.

    The
    Cape Nguni of long ago were cattle farmers. They took great care of
    their cattle because they were a symbol of wealth, status, and respect.
    Cattle were used to determine the price of a bride, or lobola, and they
    were the most acceptable offerings to the ancestral spirits. They also
    kept dogs, goats and later, horses, sheep, pigs and poultry. Their chief
    crops were millet, maize, kidney beans, pumpkins, and watermelons. By
    the eighteenth century they were also growing tobacco and hemp.

    At
    this stage isiXhosa was not a written language but there was a rich
    store of music and oral poetry. Xhosa tradition is rich in creative
    verbal expression. Intsomi (folktales), proverbs, and isibongo
    (praise poems) are told in dramatic and creative ways. Folktales relate
    the adventures of both animal protagonists and human characters. Praise
    poems traditionally relate the heroic adventures of ancestors or
    political leaders.

    As the Xhosa slowly moved westwards in groups,
    they destroyed or incorporated the Khoikhoi chiefdoms and San groups,
    and their language became influenced by Khoi and San words, which
    contain distinctive ‘clicks’.

    Europeans who came to stay in South
    Africa first settled in and around Cape Town. As the years passed, they
    sought to expand their territory. This expansion was first at the
    expense of the Khoi and San, but later Xhosa land was taken as well. The
    Xhosa encountered eastward-moving White pioneers or ‘Trek Boers’ in the
    region of the Fish River. The ensuing struggle was not so much a
    contest between Black and White races as a struggle for water, grazing
    and living space between two groups of farmers. 

    Nine Frontier Wars
    followed between the Xhosa and European settlers, and these wars
    dominated 19th century South African History. The first frontier war
    broke out in 1780 and marked the beginning of the Xhosa struggle to
    preserve their traditional customs and way of life.  It was a struggle
    that was to increase in intensity when the British arrived on the scene.

    The
    Xhosa fought for one hundred years to preserve their independence,
    heritage and land, and today this area is still referred to by many as
    Frontier Country. 

    During the Frontier Wars, hostile chiefs forced
    the earliest missionaries to abandon their attempts to ‘evangelise’
    them. This situation changed after 1820, when John Brownlee founded a
    mission on the Tyhume River near Alice, and William Shaw established a
    chain of Methodist stations throughout the Transkei.

    Other
    denominations followed suit. Education and medical work were to become
    major contributions of the missions, and today Xhosa cultural
    traditionalists are likely to belong to independent denominations that
    combine Christianity with traditional beliefs and practices. In addition
    to land lost to white annexation, legislation reduced Xhosa political
    autonomy. Over time, Xhosa people became increasingly impoverished, and
    had no option but to become migrant labourers. In the late 1990s, Xhosa
    labourers made up a large percentage of the workers in South Africa’s
    gold mines.

    The dawn of apartheid in the 1940s marked more changes
    for all Black South Africans. In 1953 the South African Government
    introduced homelands or Bantustans, and two regions ‘Transkei and
    Ciskei’ were set aside for Xhosa people. These regions were proclaimed
    independent countries by the apartheid government. Therefore many Xhosa
    were denied South African citizenship, and thousands were forcibly
    relocated to remote areas in Transkei and Ciskei.

    The homelands were abolished with the change to democracy in 1994 and South Africa’s first democratically elected president was African National Congress (ANC) leader, Nelson Mandela, who is a Xhosa-speaking member of the Thembu people.

    104) Classical Xhosa
    104) IsiXhosa isiXhosa

    2440 UKUBA 14 Novemba 2017 ISIFUNDO

    Tipitaka

    I-Tipitaka (Pali ti, “emithathu,” + pitaka, “iibhasikiti”),
    okanye i-canon ye-Pali, kukuqokelela kweetekisi zeelwimi zasePalami eziphambili
    yakha isiseko semfundiso yeTheravada Buddhism. ITipitaka kunye
    imibhalo yeParaconicalical (iincwadana, imibhalo, njl. njl) kunye kunye neqela elipheleleyo leetekisi zeTheravada.

    I
    I-canon ye-Pali ibininzi leencwadi: ngokuguqulela isiNgesi
    iindinyana zongeza kumawaka amaphepha apapashwe. Uninzi (kodwa akusiyo yonke)
    I-Canon sele ishicilelwe ngesiNgesi malunga neminyaka. Nangona
    Iqhezu elincinci lale mibhalo iyafumaneka kule website, oku
    ukuqokelela kungaba yindawo efanelekileyo yokuqala.

    Amacandelo amathathu eTipitaka:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Ukuqokelela kweetekisi malunga nemithetho yokuziphatha elawula
    imicimbi yemihla ngemihla ngaphakathi kwe-Sangha - uluntu lwasebhikkhus
    (amagosa amiselweyo) kunye ne-bhikkhunis
        
    nondla). Kude ngaphezu kweluhlu lwemithetho, iVinaya Pitaka nayo
        
    iquka amabali emva komvelaphi wolawulo ngalunye, ukubonelela
        
    Inkcazo ecacileyo yesisombululo sikaBuddha kumbuzo wokuba njani
        
    kugcinana ngokuvisisana koluntu phakathi kwemeko enkulu kunye neyohlukeneyo yokomoya
        
    kuluntu.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    I
        
    ukuqokelela i-suttas, okanye iintetho, ezibangelwa uBuddha kunye nabambalwa
        
    kubafundi bakhe abasondeleyo, equle yonke imfundiso ephakathi
        
    UbuBuddha beTheravada. (Iinguqu ezingaphezu kwewaka ze-sutta ziguqulelwe
        
    ziyafumaneka kule website.) I-suttas yahlula phakathi kwama-nikayas amahlanu (iqokelelo):

            I-Digha Nikaya - “iqoqo elide”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “ukuqokelela ubude obuphakathi”
            
    I-Samyutta Nikaya - “iqoqo leqoqo”
            
    I-Anguttara Nikaya - “ukuqokelela okuqhubekayo”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “ukuqokelela kweetekisi ezincinane”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    I-Nettippakarana (ifakwe kuphela kwisiNgesi saseBurma seTipitaka)
                
    I-Petakopadesa (”")
                
    IMilindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    I
        
    ukuqokelelwa kweetekisi apho imigaqo-siseko yemfundiso
        
    esetyenziswe kwi-Sutta Pitaka yenziwa kwakhona kwaye ihlelwa kwakhona kwi-a
        
    isakhelo esimiselweyo esingasetyenziselwa uphando kulo
        
    uhlobo lwengqondo nomba.

    105) Classical Yiddish
    105) קלאסישע ייִדיש

    2440 טו 14 נאוועמבער 2017 לעסאַן

    Tipitaka

    די טייפּיטהאַ (פּאַלי טי, “דרייַ,” + פלייש, “קערב”),
    אָדער פּאַלי קאַנאָן, איז די זאַמלונג פון ערשטע פּאַלי שפּראַך טעקסץ וואָס
    פאָרעם די דאָקטרינאַל יסוד פון טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם. די טיפּפי און
    די פּאַראַקאַנאַניקאַל פּאַלי טעקסץ (קאָממונאַריעס, כראָניקלעס, אאז”ו
    ו) צוזאַמען קאַנסטאַטוט די גאַנץ גוף פון קלאסישע טהעראַוואַדאַ טעקסץ.

    די
    פּאַלי קאַנאָן איז אַ וואַסט גוף פון ליטעראַטור: אין ענגליש איבערזעצונג די
    טעקסטן לייגן אַרויף צו טויזנטער פון געדרוקט בלעטער. רובֿ (אָבער ניט אַלע) פון די
    קאַנאָן האט שוין ארויס אין ענגליש איבער די יאָרן. כאָטש
    בלויז אַ קליין בראָכצאָל פון די טעקסטן זענען בנימצא אויף דעם וועבזייַטל, דאָס
    זאַמלונג קענען זיין אַ גוט פּלאַץ צו אָנהייבן.

    די דריי דיוויזשאַנז פון די Tipitaka זענען:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    די זאַמלונג פון טעקסטן וועגן די כּללים פון פירונג גאַווערנינג די
    טעגלעך ענינים אין די סאַנגהאַ - די קהל פון בהיקקהוס (אָרדיינד מאָנקס)
    און בהיקכיניס (אָרדיינד
        
    נאַנז). פיל מער ווי בלויז אַ רשימה פון כּללים, די ווינייַיאַ פּיטאַקאַ אויך
        
    כולל די געשיכטע הינטער דער אָנהייב פון יעדער הערשן, פּראַוויידינג אַ
        
    דיטיילד חשבון פון די בודאַ לייזונג צו די קשיא פון ווי צו
        
    טייַנען כלל האַרמאָניע ין אַ גרויס און דייווערס רוחניות
        
    קהילה.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    די
        
    זאַמלונג פון סאַטאַס, אָדער דיסקאָורסעס, אַטריביאַטאַד צו די בודאַ און אַ ביסל
        
    פון זיין קלאָוסאַסט תלמידים, מיט אַלע די הויפט לערנונגען פון
        
    טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם. (מער ווי 1,000 סאַטאַ איבערזעצונגען זענען
        
    בנימצא אויף דעם וועבזייַטל.) די סאַטאַס זענען צעטיילט צווישן פינף ניקייאַס (זאַמלונגען):

            Digha Nikaya - די “לאַנג זאַמלונג”
            
    מאַדזשדזשהימאַ ניקאַדזשאַ - די “מיטל-לענג זאַמלונג”
            
    סאַמויטאַ ניקאַדזשאַ - די “גרופּט זאַמלונג”
            
    אַנגוטטאַראַ ניקייַאַ - די “ווייַטער-פאַקטאָרעד זאַמלונג”
            
    כודאַקאַ ניקאַדזשאַ - די “זאַמלונג פון קליין טעקסץ”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    דהאַממאַפּאַדאַ
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    וויכטיקייט
                
    פּעטאַוואַטטהו
                
    טהעראַגאַטהאַ
                
    טהעריגאַטהאַ
                
    דזשאַטאַנאַ
                
    נידז
                
    הצלחה
                
    Apadana
                
    בודדהאַמסאַמאַ
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    נעטטיפּפּאַקאַראַנאַ (אַרייַנגערעכנט בלויז אין די בורמעסע אַדישאַן פון די טיפּיטהאַ)
                
    פּעטאַקאָפּאַדעסאַ (”")
                
    מילינדאַפּ () “

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    די
        
    זאַמלונג פון טעקסטן אין וואָס די אַנדערלייינג דאָקטרינאַל פּרינציפּן
        
    דערלאנגט אין די סאַטטאַ פּיטאַקאַ זענען ריווערקט און ריאָרגאַנייזד אין אַ
        
    סיסטעמאַטיק פריימווערק וואָס קענען זיין געווענדט צו אַ ויספאָרשונג אין די
        
    נאַטור פון גייַסט און ענין.

    106) Classical Yoruba

    106) Yoruba Yoruba

    2440 TUE 14 Oṣu kọkanla 2017 Ọkọ

    Tipitaka

    Tipitaka (Pali ti, “mẹta,” + pitaka, “agbọn”),
    tabi Canon Pali, ni gbigba awọn ọrọ ede Gẹẹsi akọkọ ti
    bẹrẹ ipilẹṣẹ ẹkọ ti Theravada Buddhism. Tipitaka ati
    awọn ọrọ odi ti parakanonical (awọn asọtẹlẹ, awọn itan, ati be be lo) papọ jẹ ẹya pipe ti awọn ọrọ Theravada lasan.

    Awọn
    Pali Canon jẹ ẹya ara-iwe ti o tobi: ni itumọ ede Gẹẹsi
    awọn ọrọ fi kun si ẹgbẹẹgbẹrun awọn oju iwe ti a tẹjade. Ọpọ (ṣugbọn kii ṣe gbogbo) ti
    Canon ti tẹlẹ ṣe atejade ni ede Gẹẹsi lori awọn ọdun. Biotilejepe
    nikan ida diẹ ninu awọn ọrọ wọnyi wa lori aaye ayelujara yii, eyi
    gbigba le jẹ aaye ti o dara lati bẹrẹ.

    Awọn ipin mẹta ti Tipitaka ni:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Awọn gbigba awọn ọrọ nipa awọn ofin ti iwa ti o n ṣakoso awọn
    igbesi aye ojoojumọ laarin Sangha - agbegbe ti awọn bhikkhus (awọn
    alakoso ti a ti paṣẹ ati bhikkhunis)
        
    Awọn ifiranṣẹ). Pelu diẹ sii ju awọn akojọ awọn ofin lọ, Vinaya Pitaka tun
        
    pẹlu awọn itan lẹhin ibẹrẹ ti ofin kọọkan, pese a
        
    alaye ti o jẹ alaye ti Buddha ká ojutu si ibeere ti bi o si
        
    ṣetọju isokan ni awujọ laarin ẹmi nla ti o yatọ
        
    agbegbe.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Awọn
        
    gbigba ti awọn suttas, tabi awọn apejuwe, ti a sọ si Buddha ati awọn diẹ
        
    ti awọn ọmọ-ẹhin rẹ to sunmọ julọ, ti o ni gbogbo awọn ẹkọ pataki ti
        
    Awọn Buddhist Theravada. (Ọpọlọpọ awọn iyatọ sutta jẹ
        
    wa lori oju-iwe ayelujara yii.) Awọn suttas ti pin si awọn mẹẹdọta marun (awọn akopọ):

            Digha Nikaya - “gbigba pipẹ”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - awọn “agbedemeji ipari”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “akojọpọ akojọpọ”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - awọn “afikun-factored collection”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - awọn “gbigba awọn ọrọ diẹ”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dajudaju
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Aabo oju-iwe
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyambaka
                
    Nettippakarana (eyiti o wa ninu Tipitaka ti Burmese nikan)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Awọn
        
    gbigba ti awọn ọrọ inu eyiti awọn agbekalẹ doctrine doctrinal ti o wa labẹ
        
    gbekalẹ ni Sutta Pitaka ti wa ni atunṣe ati tunṣe sinu sinu
        
    ilana ti aifwyita ti a le lo si iwadi kan sinu
        
    iseda ti okan ati ọrọ.

    comments (0)
    11/13/17
    2440 Tue 14 Nov 2017 LESSON Tripitaka in 23) Classical English,94) Classical Tajik-Шветсия классикӣ,95) Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,96) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,97) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,98) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,99) Classical Ukrainian -Класична українська,100) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو 101) Classical Uzbek- klassik o’zbek,102) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,103) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,104) Classical Xhosa- IsiXhosa isiXhosa,105) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש 106) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,107) Classical Zulu- I-Classical Zulu
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 7:43 pm



    http://www.zulu-culture.co.za/


    Zulu Culture


     
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    The Resource

    The
    bulk of both the text and the graphics in these pages has been
    extracted from the book ‘Zulu - People of Heaven’ (ISBN 0 620 20663 2)
    by kind permission of Uli von Kapff PO Box 3777, Cape Town 8000, Tel/Fax: (+27) 21 534 2092. This website design by Warthog Web Design.


    Recommended Accommodation in Zululand

    Go to the Pelican CollectionWe recommend The Pelican Collection
    - twelve eminently affordable 3/4/5 star graded guest houses and bed
    and breakfasts in St. Lucia and Mtubatuba - very convenient for all
    Zululand cultural attractions and the Greater St. Lucia Wetland
    Park/Marine Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage site.


    The Zulu People

    Of all the sub-Saharan Bantu people, the Zulus are the most well
    known. They arose in the late 18th century from the hundreds of small
    clans occupying the northern regions of kwaZulu-Natal on the eastern
    seaboard of South Africa. There was always a struggle between the clans
    for grazing rights and conflict was commonplace but took the form of
    shouted insults and some assegai throwing.


    Zululand - home of Warthog Web Design

    Zulu culture by Warthog Website DesignThis
    changed with Shaka, an illegitimate son of a local chief, evicted, with
    his mother from his own clan. Shaka was born in 1787 and grew to be
    strong and fearless. He changed tactics and developed the short
    stabbing spear. Conflicts now assumed a deadly nature and Shaka swept
    all before him. He was contemporaneous with Napoleon and finally
    conquered a far greater area.

    The Zulus then came in to contact with the white man and suffered
    reverses at his hands, firstly with the Voortrekkers and some thrty
    years later, against the British. At each engagement, their warriors
    proved to be brave soldiers.

    The nation was then broken up and some Zulus assisted both the
    Boers and the English during the Boer War of 1899 - 1902. Promises of
    emancipation made to them by the British were not honoured and a growing
    resentment grew during the years between union (1910) and the advent of
    the Afrikaner Nationalists in 1948.

    After secession from the Commonwealth in 1960, the Zulus joined with
    other black groups in the struggle against apartheid until the first
    democratic elections in 1994.

    This short treatise is designed as a short introduction to these exciting people.


    107) Classical Zulu

    107) I-Classical Zulu

    2440 TUE 14 Nov 2017 ISIFUNDO

    I-Tipitaka

    I-Tipitaka (Pali ti, “emithathu,” + pitaka, “amabhasikidi”),
    noma i-canon ye-Pali, iqoqo lamathekisthi elimi lokuqala lwe-Pali okuyinto
    yakha isisekelo semfundiso seTheravada Buddhism. I-Tipitaka futhi
    imibhalo yamaPaacanonical kaPain (amazwana, imibhalo, njll) ndawonye yakha umzimba ophelele wezincwadi zakudala zeTheravada.

    I
    I-canon ye-Pali iyinhlangano enkulu yezincwadi: ngesiNgisi translation the
    imibhalo ingeza ezinkulungwaneni zamakhasi aphrintiwe. Iningi (kodwa hhayi yonke) ye-
    I-Canon ishicilelwe kakade ngesiNgisi ngaphezu kweminyaka. Noma kunjalo
    ingxenyana encane yale mibhalo iyatholakala kulewebhusayithi, lokhu
    ukuqoqwa kungaba indawo enhle yokuqala.

    Izigaba ezintathu zeTipitaka ziyizi:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Ukuqoqwa kwamatheksthi ngokuphathelene nemithetho yokuziphatha
    elawula izindaba zansuku zonke ngaphakathi kwe-Sangha - umphakathi
    we-bhikkhus (amakhokithi amisiwe) ne-bhikkhunis (amisiwe
        
    izinduna). Okungaphezu nje kohlu lwemithetho, iVinaya Pitaka nayo
        
    kufaka izindaba ngemuva kwemvelaphi yombuso ngamunye, ukunikeza a
        
    akhawunti eningiliziwe yesisombululo sikaBuddha kumbuzo wokuthi ungayithola kanjani
        
    silondoloze ukuvumelana komphakathi ngaphakathi kwezinto ezinkulu ezingokomoya
        
    umphakathi.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    I
        
    iqoqo le-suttas, noma izinkulumo, ezibhekiswe kuBuddha nabambalwa
        
    wabafundi bakhe abasondelene nabo, equkethe zonke izimfundiso eziphakathi
        
    I-Theravada Buddhism. (Izinguquko ezingaphezu kwenkulungwane sutta ziyi
        
    itholakale kule website.) Ama-suttas ahlukaniswe phakathi kwama-nikayas amahlanu (amaqoqo):

            Digha Nikaya - “iqoqo elide”
            
    I-Majjhima Nikaya - “iqoqo elide eliphakathi”
            
    I-Samyutta Nikaya - “iqoqo eliqoqiwe”
            
    I-Anguttara Nikaya - “ukuqoqwa okuqhubekayo”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “ukuqoqwa kwamatheksthi amancane”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    I-Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    I-Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    I-Nettippakarana (ifakwe kuphela kuyi-Burmese edition ye-Tipitaka)
                
    I-Petakopadesa (”")
                
    I-Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    I
        
    ukuqoqwa kwamatheksthi lapho izimiso ezisemqoka ezifundiswa khona
        
    okwethulwa eSutta Pitaka kusetshenziselwa kabusha futhi kulungiswe kabusha a
        
    uhlaka oluhlelekile olungasetshenziswa ekuphenyweni ku
        
    isimo sengqondo nendaba.

    comments (0)
    11/12/17
    2439 Mon 13 Nov 2017 LESSON Tripitaka in 23) Classical English,87) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,88) Classical Somali -Soomaali qowmiyadeed,89) Classical Spanish - Español clásico,90) Classical Sundanese -Sunda Klasik,91) Classical Swahili,92) Classical Sundanese,93) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 9:03 pm


    2439 Mon 13 Nov 2017 LESSON

    Tripitaka

    in 23) Classical English,87) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,88) Classical Somali -Soomaali qowmiyadeed,89) Classical Spanish - Español clásico,90) Classical Sundanese -Sunda Klasik,91) Classical Swahili,92) Classical Sundanese,93) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk

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