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04/24/17
2208 Tue 25 Apr 2017 LESSON-Tipitaka
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:20 am
2208 Tue 25 Apr 2017 LESSON

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Tipitaka

Tipitaka

From Dhamma Wiki

Tipitaka is the name given to the Buddhist
sacred scriptures and is made up of two words; ti meaning ‘three’ and
pitaka meaning ‘basket.’ The word basket was given to these writings
because they were orally transmitted for some centuries (from about 483
BCE), the way a basket of earth at a construction site might be relayed
from the head of one worker to another. It was written on palm leaves in
the Pali language around 100 BCE. The three parts of the Tipitaka are
the Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Tipitaka was composed in the Pali
language and takes up more than forty volumes in an English
translation, roughly about 20,000 pages. It is the largest sacred book
of any of the great world religions.

It is also known as the Pali Canon since the language is in Pali and to better differentiate it from the Mahayana Tripitaka (only one letter difference).

Tipitaka1.jpg

The complete Tipitaka is 40 volumes long

Contents

Sutta Pitaka

Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Jataka
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (Burmese edition)
Petakopadesa (Burmese edition)
Milindapanha (Burmese edition)

Vinaya Pitaka

A. Mahavagga
in addition to rules of conduct and etiquette for the Sangha, this
section contains several important sutta-like texts, including an
account of the period immediately following the Buddha’s Awakening, his
first sermons to the group of five monks, and stories of how some of his
great disciples joined the Sangha and themselves attained Awakening.
B. Cullavagga
an elaboration of the bhikkhus’ etiquette and duties, as well as the
rules and procedures for addressing offences that may be committed
within the Sangha.

  • III. Parivara
    A recapitulation of the previous sections, with summaries of the rules
    classified and re-classified in various ways for instructional
    purposes.

Abhidhamma Pitaka

  • Dhammasangani (”Enumeration of Phenomena”). This book enumerates all the paramattha dhamma (ultimate realities) to be found in the world.
  • Vibhanga (”The Book of Treatises”). This book continues the analysis of the Dhammasangani, here in the form of a catechism.
  • Dhatukatha (”Discussion with Reference to the Elements”). A reiteration of the foregoing, in the form of questions and answers.
  • Puggalapannatti
    (”Description of Individuals”). Somewhat out of place in the Abhidhamma
    Pitaka, this book contains descriptions of a number of
    personality-types.
  • Kathavatthu
    (”Points of Controversy”). Another odd inclusion in the Abhidhamma,
    this book contains questions and answers that were compiled by
    Moggaliputta Tissa in the 3rd century BCE, in order to help clarify
    points of controversy that existed between the various early schools of
    Buddhism at the time.
  • Yamaka
    (”The Book of Pairs”). This book is a logical analysis of many concepts
    presented in the earlier books. In the words of Mrs. Rhys Davids, an
    eminent 20th century Pali scholar, the ten chapters of the Yamaka amount
    to little more than “ten valleys of dry bones.”
  • Patthana
    (”The Book of Relations”). This book, by far the longest single volume
    in the Tipitaka (over 6,000 pages long in the Siamese edition),
    describes the 24 paccayas, or laws of conditionality, through which the
    dhammas interact. These laws, when applied in every possible permutation
    with the dhammas described in the Dhammasangani, give rise to all
    knowable experience.

The Tipitaka on Dhamma Wiki

  • See the Pali Canon category link on the Main Page for large parts of the Tipitaka in English translation and also in the original Pali.

External links

comments (0)
04/23/17
2207 Monn 24 Apr 2017 LESSONS Milinda Panha
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:53 am
2207 Monn 24 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Milinda Panha

The
RSSised Google has totally disabled My gmail account: It appears they
are totally opposed to Buddhism and the Techno-Politico-Social
Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement. The Google supported
the fraud EVMs which selected the RSS/BJP in 2014 and te trend
continues. When E-filing to the Supreme Court is submitted on the
subject Google must also be included for punishment for their bias. Now I
am unable to create a new account:

Yahoomail and Outlook messages are more relied.

Please visit:
http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?q=mz0LQHb9KWo
for


http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?q=V-mi9mbI-Fc
for


http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?q=GQBWdV1sfxA
for

http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?ref=mashpedia&q=nxc-YZUp_lA
for



http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/miln/miln.intro.kell.html



Milindapañha: The Questions of King Milinda


(excerpts)


translated from the Pali by
John Kelly



Alternate translations: Horner | Olendzki


The Milindapañha, the eighteenth book of the Khuddaka Nikaya
(according to the Burmese version of the Pali canon), consists of 7
parts as shown below. The conclusion to the Milindapañha states that it
contains 262 questions, though in the editions available today only 236
can be found. Although not included as a canonical text in the
traditions of all the Theravadin countries, this work is much revered
throughout and is one of the most popular and authoritative works of
Pali Buddhism.

Composed around the beginning of the Common Era, and of unknown
authorship, the Milindapañha is set up as a compilation of questions
posed by King Milinda to a revered senior monk named Nagasena. This
Milinda has been identified with considerable confidence by scholars as
the Greek king Menander of Bactria, in the dominion founded by Alexander
the Great, which corresponds with much of present day Afghanistan.
Menander’s realm thus would have included Gandhara, where Buddhism was
flourishing at that time.

What is most interesting about the Milindapañha is that it is the
product of the encounter of two great civilizations — Hellenistic Greece
and Buddhist India — and is thus of continuing relevance as the wisdom
of the East meets the modern Western world. King Milinda poses questions
about dilemmas raised by Buddhist philosophy that we might ask today.
And Nagasena’s responses are full of wisdom, wit, and helpful analogies.

Contents of the Milindapañha:  

  • I. Background History
  • II. Questions on Distinguishing Characteristics (excerpts)

    Miln II.1.8: Characteristics of Attention and Wisdom {Miln 32-33}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing
    characteristic of attention, and what is the distinguishing
    characteristic of wisdom?”

    “Examination is the distinguishing characteristic of attention, and severing is the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom.”

    “How is examination the distinguishing characteristic of attention;
    and how is severing the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom? Give me
    an analogy.”

    “Do you know barley-reapers, your majesty?”

    “Yes, venerable sir, I know them.”

    “How, your majesty, do barley-reapers reap barley?”

    “Venerable sir, they take a sheaf of barley in the left hand, and
    take a sickle in the right hand, and they cut with the sickle.”

    Just as, your majesty, a
    barley-reaper takes a sheaf of barley in the left hand, takes a sickle
    in the right hand, and cuts the barley, even so, your majesty, does the
    spiritual aspirant take hold of the mind with attention, and cut off the
    defilements with wisdom. Indeed thus, your majesty, examination is the
    distinguishing characteristic of attention, and severing is the
    distinguishing characteristic of wisdom.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.1.14: Characteristic of Wisdom {Miln 39}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom?”

    “Previously, your majesty, I said ’severing is the distinguishing
    characteristic of wisdom,’ and now furthermore illuminating is the
    distinguishing characteristic of wisdom.”

    “How, venerable sir, is illuminating the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom?”

    “Wisdom arising, your majesty, dispels the darkness of ignorance,
    produces the illumination of insight, brings forth the light of
    knowledge, and makes manifest the noble truths; and further, the
    spiritual practitioner sees with complete understanding impermanence,
    unsatisfactoriness, and corelessness.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, a person might
    bring a lamp into a dark house, and with the lamp lit dispel the
    darkness, produce illumination, show the light, and make manifest forms,
    so too, your majesty, wisdom arising dispels the darkness of ignorance,
    produces the illumination of insight, brings forth the light of
    knowledge, and makes manifest the noble truths; and further, the
    spiritual practitioner sees with complete understanding impermanence,
    unsatisfactoriness, and corelessness.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.8: Characteristic of Contact {Miln 60}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, when mind consciousness arises, do contact and feeling also arise?”

    “Yes, your majesty, when mind consciousness arises, contact arises,
    feeling arises, perception arises, volition arises, applied thought
    arises, and sustained thought arises. And all these mental states arise
    with contact in the lead.”

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of contact?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of contact, your majesty, is touching.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as if, your majesty, two rams are
    butting each other, one of these rams is to be understood as the eye,
    and the other as a visual object, and the coming together of the two of
    them is contact.”

    “Give me another analogy.”

    Just as if, your majesty, two hands
    are clapping together, one of these hands is to be understood as the
    eye, and the other as a visual object, and the coming together of the
    two of them is contact.”

    “Give me another analogy.”

    Just as if, your majesty, two
    cymbals are striking together, one of these cymbals is to be understood
    as the eye, and the other as a visual object, and the coming together of
    the two of them is contact.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.9: Characteristic of Feeling {Miln 60}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of feeling?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of feeling, your majesty, is sensing; experiencing is also a distinguishing characteristic.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, some man might
    render the king a service, and the king, being well pleased, might repay
    the service, such that the man on account of this service is provided
    and endowed with the five cords of sensual pleasure. Then the man might
    think to himself: ‘In the past I rendered a service to the king, and now
    he has repaid me, on account of which I am experiencing feelings of one
    kind and another.’

    “Or just as, your majesty, some man having performed good actions, on
    the dissolution of the body, after death, would reappear in a happy
    destination, in the heavenly world, and there he would be provided and
    endowed with the five cords of sensual pleasure. Then the man might
    think to himself: ‘In the past I performed good actions, and now on
    account of this I am experiencing feelings of one kind and another.’ So
    too, your majesty, the distinguishing characteristics of feeling are
    sensing and experiencing.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.10: Characteristic of Perception {Miln 61}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of perception?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of perception, your majesty, is
    perceiving. What does one perceive? One perceives blue, yellow, red,
    white, and crimson. Thus, your majesty, the distinguishing
    characteristic of perception is perceiving.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, the king’s
    store-keeper, having entered the storehouse, might see the goods
    belonging to the king and would perceive blue, yellow, red, white and
    crimson. So too, your majesty, the distinguishing characteristic of
    perception is perceiving.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.11: Characteristic of Volition {Miln 61}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of volition?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of volition, your majesty, is
    intending; preparation is also a distinguishing characteristic.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, some man or
    other might prepare a poison and drink it himself, and make others drink
    it, then he and the others would become ill. Even so, your majesty, if
    some man here through volition intended some unwholesome deed, then on
    the dissolution of the body, after death, he would reappear in a state
    of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell. And
    those who follow his example would also on the dissolution of the body,
    after death, reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy
    destination, in perdition, in hell.

    “Also just as, your majesty, some man or other might mix together
    ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey and sugar and drink it himself, and make
    others drink it, then he and the others would be happy. Even so, your
    majesty, if some man here through volition intended some wholesome deed,
    then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he would reappear in a
    happy destination, in the heavenly world. And those who followed his
    example would also on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear
    in a happy destination, in the heavenly world. So too, your majesty,
    the distinguishing characteristics of volition are intending and
    preparation.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.12: Characteristic of Consciousness {Miln 62}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of consciousness?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of consciousness, your majesty, is cognizing.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, a
    city-superintendent sitting at the crossroads in the middle of the city
    could see a person coming from the eastern direction, could see a person
    coming from the southern direction, could see a person coming from the
    western direction, and could see a person coming from the northern
    direction, then indeed, your majesty, does a person cognize with
    consciousness a form he sees with the eye, cognize with consciousness a
    sound he hears with the ear, cognize with consciousness a scent he
    smells with the nose, cognize with consciousness a taste he savors with
    the tongue, cognize with consciousness a touch he feels with the body,
    and cognize with consciousness a mental state he cognizes with the mind.
    Indeed thus, your majesty, the distinguishing characteristic of
    consciousness is cognizing.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.13: Characteristic of Applied Thought {Miln 62}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of applied thought?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of applied thought, your majesty, is fixing one’s mind on an object.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, a carpenter
    might fix a well-prepared piece of wood into a joint, so too, your
    majesty, the distinguishing characteristic of applied thought is fixing
    one’s mind on an object.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.14: Characteristic of Sustained Thought {Miln 62}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of sustained thought?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of sustained thought, your majesty, is continual examination.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, when a gong is
    struck and continues resounding afterwards, indeed so the striking is to
    be understood as applied thought, and the continuance of the resounding
    as sustained thought.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

  • III. Questions for the Cutting Off of Perplexity (excerpts)

  • IV. Questions on Dilemmas
  • V. A Question Solved By Inference
  • VI. The Special Qualities of Asceticism
  • VII. Questions on Talk of Similes

Miln 3

Questions on Distinguishing Characteristics
(excerpt)
translated from the Pali by
John Kelly

Miln III.5.5: Transmigration and Rebirth   {Miln 71}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, is it so that one does not transmigrate[1] and one is reborn?”[2]

“Yes, your majesty, one does not transmigrate and one is reborn.”

“How, venerable Nagasena, is it that one does not transmigrate and one is reborn? Give me an analogy.”

Just as, your majesty, if someone
kindled one lamp from another, is it indeed so, your majesty, that the
lamp would transmigrate from the other lamp?”

“Certainly not, venerable sir.”

“Indeed just so, your majesty, one does not transmigrate and one is reborn.”

“Give me another analogy.”

“Do you remember, your majesty, when you were a boy learning some verse from a teacher?”

“Yes, venerable sir.”

“Your majesty, did this verse transmigrate from the teacher?”

“Certainly not, venerable sir.”

“Indeed just so, your majesty, one does not transmigrate and one is reborn.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Notes

1.
Sa”nkamati: to transmigrate, pass over.
2.
Pa.tisandahati: to be reborn, reincarnate, undergo reunion.

Miln III.5.6: Soul   [1] {Miln 71}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, is a soul to be found?”

The elder replied: “According to ultimate reality, your majesty, a soul is not to be found.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Note

1.
Vedaguu: a “knower,” permanent subject of experience, soul. Vedaguu
is an interesting word, originally a brahmanical term related to
mastery of the Vedas. The Buddha appropriated it to mean “one who has
attained highest knowledge,” i.e., synonymous with “arahant.” However,
as the PED notes: “A peculiar meaning of vedaguu is that of ’soul’ (lit. attainer of wisdom) at Miln 54 & 71.”

Miln III.5.7: Non-Release From Evil Deeds  {Miln 72}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, is there any being which transmigrates from one body to another?”

“Certainly not, your majesty.”

“If, venerable Nagasena, there is no-one who transmigrates from one
body to another, then would not one be released from evil deeds?”

“Yes, your majesty. If one is not reborn, then one would be released
from evil deeds. But indeed because one is reborn, your majesty, then
one is not fully released from evil deeds.”

“Give me an analogy.”

“Just as, your majesty, if some man were to steal the mangos of another, would this be an offense worthy of punishment?”

“Yes, venerable sir, it would be an offense worthy of punishment.”

“But, your majesty, since these mangos that he stole were not the
same mangos that the other had planted, why would it be punishable?”

“Venerable sir, they came into existence by means of those mangos that were planted, therefore it would be punishable.”

“Indeed just so, your majesty, it is by the deeds that one does in
this mind-and-body, lovely or unlovely, that one is reborn in another
mind-and-body, therefore one would not be fully released from evil deeds
.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Miln III.7.5: Simultaneous Arising in Different Places  {Miln 82-83}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, if someone passes away and is
reborn in the Brahma world, and if another passes away and is reborn in
Kashmir, which one takes the longer time, and which the shorter?”

“They are the same, your majesty.”

“Give me an analogy.”

“Your majesty, where is your town of birth?”

“There is a place called Kalasigama, there I was born.”

“How far away, your majesty, is Kalasigama from here?”

“About 200 yojana,[1] venerable sir.”

“How far away, your majesty, is Kashmir from here?”

“About 12 yojana, venerable sir.”

“Go on then, your majesty, think about Kalasigama.”

“I have thought about it, venerable sir.”

“Go on then, your majesty, think about Kashmir.”

“I have thought about it, venerable sir.”

“Which thinking took a long time, your majesty, and which a short time?”

“They were the same, venerable sir.”

“Just so, your majesty, if someone passes away and is reborn in the
Brahma world, and if another passes away and is reborn in Kashmir, they
happen in the same time.”

“Give me another analogy.”

“What do you think, your majesty, if two birds fly in the sky and one
sits in a high tree, and the other in a low tree; if these happen at
the same time, the shadow of which one would settle on the ground first,
and which one later?”

“They are the same, venerable sir.”

“Just so, your majesty, if someone passes away and is reborn in the
Brahma world, and if another passes away and is reborn in Kashmir, they
happen in the same time.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Note

1.
One yojana is approximately 12 kilometers (7 miles).

Miln III.7.8: Doing Evil Knowingly and Unknowingly  {Miln 84}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, for whom is the greater demerit,
one who knowingly does evil, or one who does evil unknowingly?”

The elder replied: “Indeed, your majesty, for him who does evil not knowing is the greater demerit.”

“In that case, venerable Nagasena, would we doubly punish one who is
our prince or king’s chief minister who not knowing does evil?”

“What do you think, your majesty, who would get burned more, one who
knowing picks up a hot iron ball, ablaze and glowing, or one who not
knowing picks it up?”

“Indeed, venerable sir, he who not knowing picks it up would get burned more.”

“Indeed, your majesty, in the same way the greater demerit is for him who does evil not knowing.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

comments (0)
04/21/17
2205 Sat 22 Apr 2017 LESSONS Kutadanta Sutta
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 4:24 pm
2205 Sat 22 Apr 2017 LESSONS

Kutadanta Sutta

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Kutadanta_Sutta


Thus have I heard:

The Blessed One once, when going on a tour through Magadha, with a
great multitude of the brethren, with about five hundred brethren, came
to a Brahman village in Magadha called Khanumata. And there at
Khanumata he lodged in the Ambalatthika pleasaunce.

Now at that time The Brahman K¬tadanta was dwelling at Kanumata, a
place teeming with life, with much grassland and woodland and water and
corn, on a royal domain presented him by Seniya Bimbisara the king of
Magadha, as a royal gift, with power over it as if he were the king.

And just then a great sacrifice was being got ready on behalf of
Kutadanta The Brahman. And a hundred bulls, and a hundred steers, and a
hundred heifers, and a hundred goats, and a hundred rams had been
brought to the post for the sacrifice.

Now The Brahmans and householders of Khanumata heard the news of
the arrival of the Samana Gotama. And they began to leave Khanumata in
companies and in bands to go to the Ambalatthika pleasaunce.

And just then Kutadanta The Brahman had gone apart to the upper
terrace of his house for his siesta; and seeing the people thus go by,
he asked his doorkeeper the reason. And the doorkeeper told him.

Then Kutadanta thought: ‘I have heard that the Samana Gotama
understands about the successful performance of a sacrifice with its
threefold method and its sixteen accessory instruments. Now I don’t know
all this, and yet I want to carry out a sacrifice. It would be well for
me to go to the Samana Gotama, and ask him about it.’

So he sent his doorkeeper to The Brahmans and householders of
Khanumata, to ask them to wait till he could go with them to call upon
The Blessed One.

But there were at that time a number of Brahmans staying at
Khanumata to take part in the great sacrifice. And when they heard this
they went to Kutadanta, and persuaded him, on the same grounds as The
Brahmans had laid before Sonadanda, not to go. But he answered them in
the same terms as Sonadanda had used to those Brahmans. Then they were
satisfied, and went with him to call upon The Blessed One.

And when he was seated there Kutadanta The Brahman told The
Blessed One what he had heard, and requested him to tell him about
success in performing a sacrifice in its three modes and with its
accessory articles of furniture of sixteen kinds.

‘Well then, O Brahman, give ear and listen attentively and I will speak.’

‘Very well, Sir,’ said Kutadanta in reply; and The Blessed One-spake as follows :–

‘Long ago, O Brahman, there was a king by name Wide-realm (Maha
Vijita), mighty, with great wealth and large property; with stores of
silver and gold, of aids to enjoyment, of goods and corn; with his
treasure-houses and his garners full. Now when King Wide-realm was once
sitting alone in meditation he became anxious at the thought: ” I have
in abundance all the good things a mortal can enjoy. the whole wide
circle of the earth is mine by conquest to possess. “twere well if I
were to offer a great sacrifice that should ensure me weal and welfare
for many days.”

‘And he had The Brahman, his chaplain, called; and telling him
all that he had thought, he said: “So I would fain, O Brahman, offer a
great sacrifice-let the venerable one instruct me how — for my weal and
my welfare for many days.”

‘Thereupon The Brahman who was chaplain said to the king: “the
king’s country, Sire, is harassed and harried. there are dacoits abroad
who pillage the villages and townships, and who make the roads unsafe.
Were the king, so long as that is so, to levy a fresh tax, verily his
majesty would be acting wrongly. But perchance his majesty might think:
‘I’ll soon put a stop to these scoundrels’ game by degradation and
banishment, and fines and bonds and death!’ But their license cannot be
satisfactorily put a stop to so. the remnant left unpunished would still
go on harassing the realm. Now there is one method to adopt to put a
thorough end to this disorder. Whosoever there be in the king’s realm
who devote themselves to keeping cattle and the farm, to them let his
majesty the king give food and seed-corn. Whosoever there be in the
king’s realm who devote themselves to trade, to them let his majesty the
king give capital. Whosoever there be in the king’s realm who devote
themselves to government service, to them let his majesty the king give
wages and food. then those men, following each his own business, will no
longer harass the realm, the king’s revenue will go up; the country
will be quiet and at peace; and the populace, pleased one with another
and happy, dancing their children in their arms, will dwell with open
doors.”

‘Then King Wide-realm, O Brahman, accepted the word of his
chaplain, and did as he had said. And those men, following each his
business, harassed the realm no more. And the king’s revenue went up.
And the country became quiet and at peace. And the populace, pleased one
with another and happy, dancing their children in their arms, dwelt
with open doors.

‘So King Wide-realm had his chaplain called, and said: “the
disorder is at an end. the country is at peace. I want to offer that
great sacrifice — let the venerable one instruct me how — for my weal
and my welfare for many days.”

Then let his majesty the king send invitations to whomsoever
there may be in his realm who are Kshatriyas, vassals of his, either in
the country or the towns ; or who are ministers and officials of his,
either in the country or the towns; or who are Brahmans of position,
either in the country or the towns; or who are householders of
substance, either in the country or the towns, saying: “I intend to
offer a great sacrifice. Let the venerable ones give their sanction to
what will be to me for weal and welfare for many days.”

‘Then King Wide-realm, O Brahman, accepted the word of his
chaplain, and did as he had said. And they each — Kshatriyas and
Ministers and Brahmans and householders — made alike reply: “Let his
majesty the king celebrate the sacrifice. the time is suitable, O king! ”

‘ Thus did these four, as colleagues by consent, become wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice.

‘King Wide-realm was gifted in the following eight ways: –

‘He was well born on both sides, on the mother’s side and on the
father’s, of pure descent back through seven generations, and no slur
was cast upon him, and no reproach, in respect of birth –

‘He was handsome, pleasant in appearance, inspiring trust, gifted
with great beauty of complexion, fair in color, fine in presence,
stately to behold –

‘He was mighty, with great wealth, and large property, with
stores of silver and gold, of aids to enjoyment, of goods and corn, with
his treasure-houses and his garners full –

‘He was powerful, in command of an army, loyal and disciplined,
in four divisions (of elephants, cavalry, chariots, and bowmen), burning
up, methinks, his enemies by his very glory –

‘He was a believer, and generous, a noble giver, keeping open
house, a welling spring whence Samanas and Brahmans, the poor and the
wayfarers, beggars, and petitioners might draw, a doer of good deeds –

He was learned in all kinds of knowledge –

He knew the meaning of what had been said, and could explain:
“this saying has such and such a meaning, and that such and such” –

‘He was intelligent, expert and wise, and able to think out things present or past or future –

‘And these eight gifts of his, too, became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice.

‘The Brahman his chaplain was gifted in the following four ways: –

‘He was well born on both sides, on the mother’s and on the
father’s, of pure descent back through seven generations, with no slur
cast upon him, and no reproach in respect of birth –

He was a student repeater who knew the mystic verses by heart,
master of the three Vedas, with the indices, the ritual, the phonology,
and the exegesis (as a fourth), and the legends as a fifth, learned in
the idioms and the grammar, versed in Lokayata (Nature-lore) and in the
thirty marks on the body of a great man –

‘He was virtuous, established in virtue, gifted with virtue that had grown great –

‘He was intelligent, expert, and wise; foremost, or at most the second, among those who hold out the ladle.’

‘Thus these four gifts of his, too, became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice.

‘And further, O Brahman, the chaplain, before the sacrifice had begun, explained to King Wide-realm the three modes:

‘Should his majesty the king, before starting on the great
sacrifice, feel any such regret as: “Great, alas, will be the portion of
my wealth used up herein,” let not the king harbor such regret. Should
his majesty the king, whilst he is offering the great sacrifice, feel
any such regret as: “Great, alas, will be the portion of my wealth used
up herein,” let not the king harbor such regret. Should his majesty the
king, when the great sacrifice has been offered, feel any such regret
as : “Great, alas, has been the portion of my wealth used up herein,”
let not the king harbor such regret.’

‘Thus did the chaplain, O Brahman, before the sacrifice had begun, explain to King Wide-realm the three modes.

‘And further, O Brahman, the chaplain, before the sacrifice
had-begun, in order to prevent any compunction that might afterwards, in
ten ways, arise as regards those who had taken part therein, said: “Now
there will come to your sacrifice, Sire, men who destroy the life of
living things, and men who refrain there from — men who take what has
not been given, and men who refrain there from — men who act evilly in
respect of lusts, and men who refrain there from — men who speak lies,
and men who do not — men who slander, and men who do not — men who
speak rudely, and men who do not — men who chatter vain things, and men
who refrain there from — men who covet, and men who covet not — men
who harbor ill will, and men who harbor it not — men whose views are
wrong, and men whose views are right. Of each of these let them, who do
evil, alone with their evil. For them who do well let your majesty
offer, for them, Sire, arrange the rites, them let the king gratify, in
them shall your heart within find peace.”

‘And further, O Brahman, the chaplain, whilst the king was
carrying out the sacrifice, instructed and aroused and incited and
gladdened his heart in sixteen ways: “Should there be people who should
say of the king, as he is offering the sacrifice: ‘King Wide-realm is
celebrating sacrifice without having invited the four classes of his
subjects, without himself having the eight personal gifts, without the
assistance of a Brahman who has the four personal gifts;’ then would
they speak not according to the fact. For the consent of the four
classes has been obtained, the king has the eight, and his Brahman has
the four, personal gifts. With regard to each and every one of these
sixteen conditions the king may rest assured that it has been fulfilled.
He can sacrifice, and be glad, and possess his heart in peace.”

‘And further, O Brahman, at that sacrifice neither were any oxen
slain, neither goats, nor fowls, nor fatted pigs, nor were any kinds of
living creatures put to death. No trees were cut down to be used as
posts, no Dabbha grasses mown to strew around the sacrificial spot. And
the staves and messengers and workmen there employed were driven neither
by rods nor fear, nor carried on their work weeping with tears upon
their faces. Whoso chose to help, he worked; whoso chose not to help,
worked not. What each chose to do, he did, what they chose not to do,
that was left undone. With ghee, and oil, and butter, and milk, and
honey, and sugar only was that sacrifice accomplished.

‘And further, O Brahman, the Kshatriya vassals, and the ministers
and officials, and The Brahmans of position, and the householders of
substance, whether of the country or of the towns, went to King
Wide-realm, taking with them much wealth, and said: “this abundant
wealth, Sire, have we brought hither for the king’s use. Let his majesty
accept it at our hands!”

‘ “Sufficient wealth have I, my friends, laid up, the produce of
taxation that is just. Do you keep yours, and take away more with you!”

‘When they had thus been refused by the king, they went aside,
and considered thus one with the other: “It would not beseem us now,
were we to take this wealth away again to our own homes. King Wide-realm
is offering, a great sacrifice. Let us too make an after-sacrifice!”

‘ So the Kshatriyas established a continual largesse to the east
of the king’s sacrificial pit, and the officials to the south thereof,
and The Brahmans to the west thereof, and the householders to the north
thereof. And the things given, and the manner of their gift, was in all
respects like unto the great sacrifice of King Wide-realm himself.

‘Thus, O Brahman, there was a fourfold co-operation, and King
Wide-realm was gifted with eight personal gifts, and his officiating
Brahman with four. And there were three modes of the giving of that
sacrifice. this, O Brahman, is what is called the due celebration of a
sacrifice in its threefold mode and with its furniture of sixteen
kinds!’

And when he had thus spoken, those Brahmans lifted up their
voices in tumult, and said: ‘How glorious the sacrifice, how pure its
accomplishment!’ But Kutadanta The Brahman sat there in silence.

then those Brahmans said to Kutadanta: ‘Why do you not approve the good words of the Samana Gotama as well-said?’

‘I do not fail to approve: for he who approves not as well-said
that which has been well spoken by the Samana Gotama, verily his head
would split in twain. But I was considering that the Samana Gotama does
not say: “Thus have I heard,” nor “Thus behooves it to be,” but says
only “Thus it was then,” or “It was like that then.” So I thought: “For a
certainty the Samana Gotama himself must at that time have been King
Wide-realm, or The Brahman who officiated for him at that sacrifice.
Does the venerable Gotama admit that he who celebrates such a sacrifice,
or causes it to be celebrated, is reborn at the dissolution of the
body, after death, into some state of happiness in heaven?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, that I admit. And at that time I was The Brahman who, as chaplain, had that sacrifice performed.’

‘Is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and less
troublesome, with more fruit and more advantage still than this?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be?’

‘The perpetual gifts kept up in a family where they are given specifically to virtuous recluses.

‘But what is the reason, O Gotama, and what the cause, why such
perpetual givings specifically to virtuous recluses, and kept up in a
family, are less difficult and troublesome, of greater fruit and greater
advantage than that other sacrifice with its three modes and its
accessories of sixteen kinds

‘To the latter sort of sacrifice, O Brahman, neither will the
Arahats go, nor such as have entered on the Arahat way. And why not?
Because at it beating with sticks takes place, and seizing by the throat
[42]. But they will go to the former, where such things are not. And
therefore are such perpetual gifts above the other sort of sacrifice.’

24. ‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult
and less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than
either of these?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be? “the putting up of a dwelling
place (Vihara) on behalf of the Order in all the four directions.’

‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and
less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than each
and all of these three?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be?’

He who with trusting heart takes a Buddha as his guide, and the
truth, and the Order — that is a sacrifice better than open largesse,
better than perpetual alms, better than the gift to a dwelling place.’

‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and
less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than all
these four?’

‘When a man with trusting heart takes upon himself the precepts
– abstinence from destroying life; abstinence from taking what has not
been given abstinence from evil; conduct in respect of lusts; abstinence
from lying words; abstinence from strong, intoxicating, maddening
drinks, the root of carelessness — that is a sacrifice better than open
largesse, better than perpetual alms, better than the gift of dwelling
places, better than accepting guidance.’

‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and
less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than all
these five?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be?’

‘this, O Brahman, is a sacrifice less difficult and less
troublesome, of greater fruit and greater advantage than the previous
sacrifices.’

** Several paragraphs are missing here about the Fruits of the
Life of a Recluse (See DN2), Going Forth, living easily contented and
virtuous, attaining the absorptions, mystic powers, insight knowledge,
and Arahantship, without which the next paragraph makes no sense.
(edited by Bhikkhu Pesala)

‘And there is no sacrifice man can celebrate, O Brahman, higher and sweeter than this.’

And when he had thus spoken, Kutadanta The Brahman said to The Blessed One .

‘Most excellent, O Gotama, are the words of thy mouth, most
excellent! just as if a man were to set up what has been thrown down, or
were to reveal that which has been hidden away, or were to point out
the right road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a light into
the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms —
just even so has the truth been made known to me in many a figure by the
venerable Gotama. I, even I, betake myself to the venerable Gotama as
my guide, to the Doctrine and the Order. May the venerable One accept me
as a disciple, as one who, from this day forth, as long as life
endures, has taken him as his guide. And I myself, O Gotama, will have
the seven hundred bulls, and the seven hundred steers, and the seven
hundred heifers, and the seven hundred goats, and the seven hundred rams
set free. to them I grant their life. Let them eat green grass and
drink fresh water, and may cool breezes waft around them.’

Then The Blessed One discoursed to Kutadanta The Brahman in due
order; that is to say, he spake to him of generosity, of right conduct,
of heaven, of the danger, the vanity, and the defilement of lusts, of
the advantages of renunciation. And when The Blessed One became aware
that Kutadanta The Brahman had become prepared, softened, unprejudiced,
upraised, and believing in heart, then did he proclaim the doctrine The
Buddhas alone have won; that is to say, the doctrine of sorrow, of its
origin, of its cessation, and of the Path. And just as a clean cloth,
with all stains in it washed away, will readily take the dye, just even
so did Kutadanta The Brahman, even while seated there, obtain the pure
and spotless Eye for the truth, and he knew: ‘Whatsoever has a
beginning, in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution.’

And then The Brahman Kutadanta, as one who had seen the truth,
had mastered it, understood it, dived deep down into it, who had passed
beyond doubt, and put away perplexity and gained full confidence, who
had become dependent on no other for his knowledge of the teaching of
the Master, addressed The Blessed One and said:

May the venerable Gotama grant me the favor of taking his to-morrow’s meal with me, and also the members of the Order with him.’

And The Blessed One signified, by silence, his consent. then The
Brahman Kutadanta, seeing that The Blessed One had accepted, rose from
his scat, and keeping his right towards him as he passed, he departed
thence. And at daybreak he had sweet food, both hard and soft, made
ready at the pit prepared for his sacrifice, and had the time announced
to The Blessed One: ‘It is time, O Gotama; and the meal is ready.’ And
The Blessed One, who had dressed early in the. morning, put on his outer
robe, and taking his bowl with him, went with the brethren to
Kutadanta’s sacrificial pit, and sat down there on the seat prepared for
him. And Kutadanta The Brahman satisfied the brethren with The Buddha
at their head, with his own hand, with sweet food, both hard and soft,
till they refused any more. And when The Blessed One had finished his
meal, and cleansed the bowl and his hands, Kutadanta The Brahman took a
low seat and seated himself beside him. And when he was thus seated The
Blessed One instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened Kutadanta
The Brahman with religious discourse; and then arose from his seat and
departed thence.

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04/20/17
2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:57 pm



2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.26.0.than.html


DN 26

PTS: D iii 58
Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor
translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu


Translator’s Introduction

The body of this sutta consists of a narrative illustrating the power of skillful action.

In the past, unskillful behavior was unknown among the human race. As
a result, people lived for an immensely long time — 80,000 years —
endowed with great beauty, wealth, pleasure, and strength. Over the
course of time, though, they began behaving in various unskillful ways.
This caused the human life span gradually to shorten, to the point where
it now stands at 100 years, with human beauty, wealth, pleasure, and
strength decreasing proportionately. In the future, as morality
continues to degenerate, human life will continue to shorten to the
point were the normal life span is 10 years, with people reaching sexual
maturity at five. “Among those human beings, the ten courses of action
(see AN 10.176)
will have entirely disappeared… The word ’skillful’ will not exist,
so from where will there be anyone who does what is skillful? Those who
lack the honorable qualities of motherhood, fatherhood,
contemplative-hood, & brahman-hood will be the ones who receive
homage… Fierce hatred will arise, fierce malevolence, fierce rage,
& murderous thoughts: mother for child, child for mother, father for
child, child for father, brother for sister, sister for brother.”
Ultimately, conditions will deteriorate to the point of a
“sword-interval,” in which swords appear in the hands of all human
beings, and they hunt one another like game. A few people, however, will
take shelter in the wilderness to escape the carnage, and when the
slaughter is over, they will come out of hiding and resolve to take up a
life of skillful and virtuous action again. With the recovery of
virtue, the human life span will gradually increase again until it
reaches 80,000 years, with people attaining sexual maturity at 500. Only
three diseases will be known at that time: desire, lack of food, and
old age. Another Buddha — Metteyya (Maitreya) — will gain Awakening, his
monastic Sangha numbering in the thousands. The greatest king of the
time, Sankha, will go forth into homelessness and attain arahantship
under Metteyya’s guidance.

The story, after chronicling the ups and downs of human wealth, life
span, etc., concludes with the following lesson on kamma and skillful
action.

…”Monks, live with yourself as your island,
yourself as your refuge, with nothing else as your refuge. Live with the
Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, with nothing else as
your refuge. [1]
And how does a monk live with himself as his island, himself as his
refuge, with nothing else as his refuge; with the Dhamma as his island,
the Dhamma as his refuge, with nothing else as his refuge? There is the
case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself —
ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with
reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of
themselves… mind in & of itself… mental qualities in & of
themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed &
distress with reference to the world. This is how a monk lives with
himself as his island, himself as his refuge, with nothing else as his
refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, with
nothing else as his refuge.

“Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own ancestral territory.
When you wander in your proper range, your own ancestral territory, you
will grow in long life, beauty, pleasure, wealth, & strength.

“And what constitutes a monk’s long life? [2]
There is the case where a monk develops the base of power endowed with
concentration founded on desire & the fabrications of exertion. He
develops the base of power endowed with concentration founded on
persistence… founded on intent… He develops the base of power
endowed with concentration founded on discrimination & the
fabrications of exertion. From the development & pursuit of these
four bases of power, he can stay (alive) for an aeon, if he wants, or
for the remainder of an aeon. This constitutes a monk’s long life.

“And what constitutes a monk’s beauty? There is the case where a monk
is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha,
consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself,
having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest
faults. This constitutes a monk’s beauty.

“And what constitutes a monk’s pleasure? There is the case where a
monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental
qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture &
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought &
evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he
enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born
of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought &
evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains
equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He
enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones
declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ With the
abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance
of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana:
purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This
constitutes a monk’s pleasure.

“And what constitutes a monk’s wealth? There is the case where a monk
keeps pervading the first direction [the east] — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around,
everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an
awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free
from hostility, free from ill will.

“He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
compassion… imbued with appreciation…

“He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around,
everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an
awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable,
free from hostility, free from ill will.

“This constitutes a monk’s wealth.

“And what constitutes a monk’s strength? There is the case where a
monk, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters &
remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release &
discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for
himself right in the here & now. This constitutes a monk’s strength.

“Monks, I don’t envision any other single strength so hard to overcome as this: the strength of Mara. [3] And the adopting of skillful qualities is what causes this merit to increase.” [4]

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.
This can also be translated as: “Live with mental qualities
(dhammas) as your island, mental qualities as your refuge, with nothing
else as your refuge.”
2.
Literally, “what is in a monk’s long life?” This appears to be an
idiomatic usage of the locative case. The commentary interprets this
idiom as meaning, what causes a monk’s long life, beauty, etc.
From this reading, it explains, for example, that a monk attracts wealth
if he develops the four sublime attitudes. While this is true, it seems
to cheapen the message of this passage.
3.
This last passage is related to the opening passage of the sutta,
in which the Buddha says, “Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own
ancestral territory. When one wanders in his proper range, his own
ancestral territory, Mara gains no opening, Mara gains no foothold. And
it is because of adopting skillful qualities that this merit increases.”
See also SN 47.6-7.
4.
This is the refrain repeated with each stage in the account of how
human life will improve in the aftermath of the sword-interval. Here,
“merit” seems to have the meaning it has in Iti 22:
“Don’t be afraid of acts of merit.” This is another way of saying what
is blissful, desirable, pleasing, endearing, charming — i.e., acts of
merit.

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2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta- Buddhism and politics
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:41 pm



2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta-
Buddhism and politics

Please watch:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQYjy2jfSfk


Published on Oct 27, 2014

Sariputta Sihanada Sutta - Dhamma Talk at Los Angeles Buddhist Vihara, Pasadena, California

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWjDqd8ueSc



Chakravarthi SinhaNada Sutta චක්‍රවර්ති සිංහනාද සූත්‍රය +122 Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Thero

Published on Jun 6, 2015

Chakravarthi
SinhaNada Sutta චක්‍රවර්ති සිංහනාද සූත්‍රය +122 Most Venerable
Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero - අතීපුජනීය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම ස්වාමීන්
වහන්සේ

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නා හිමි නා උයනේ අරියධම්
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අරියධම්ම Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero 2015 Niwanata Maga නිවනට මඟ -
අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි
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අරියධම්ම මහා හිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ මහා කම්මට්ඨානාචාර්ය, ත්‍රිපිඨකාචාර්ය අති
පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නහිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් මෙහෙයවන ලද ධර්ම
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මහා කම්මට්ඨානාචාර්ය, ත්‍රිපිඨකාචාර්ය අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නහිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් මෙහෙයවන ලද ධර්ම දේශනා
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https://samaggi-phala.or.id/tipitaka/cakkavatti-sihanada-sutta/





CAKKAVATTI SIHANADA SUTTA



Sumber : Sutta Pitaka Digha Nikaya V
Oleh : Lembaga Penterjemah Kitab Suci Agama Buddha
Penerbit : CV. Danau Batur – Jakarta, 1992


Demikian yang telah kami dengar:


  1. Pada suatu ketika Sang Bhagava berdiam di Matula dalam kerajaan
    Magadha. Ketika itu Sang Bhagava berkata kepada para
    bhikkhu: “Para bhikkhu.” Para bhikkhu menjawab: “Ya,
    bhante.” Kemudian Sang Bhagava berkata:”Para bhikkhu,
    jadikanlah dirimu sebagai pelita, berlindunglah pada
    dirimu sendiri dan jangan berlindung pada yang lain; hiduplah
    dalam dhamma sebagai pelitamu, dhamma sebagai pelindungmu dan
    jangan berlindung pada yang lain.

    Para bhikkhu, tetapi bagaimanakah seorang bhikkhu menjadi pelita
    bagi dirinya sendiri, sebagai pelindung bagi dirinya
    sendiri dan tidak berlindung pada yang lain?
    Bagaimana ia hidup dalam dhamma yang sebagai pelita
    bagi dirinya dan tidak berlindung pada yang lain?

    Para bhikkhu, dalam hal ini seorang bhikkhu mengamati tubuh
    (kaya) sebagai tubuh dengan rajin, penuh pengertian dan
    perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia. Seorang bhikkhu
    mengamati perasaan (vedana)… mengamati kesadaran (citta)…
    dan mengamati ide-ide (dhamma) sebagai dhamma dengan rajin,
    penuh pengertian dan perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia.

    Para bhikkhu, beginilah seorang bhikkhu menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada hal yang lain. Ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, ia menjadikan dhamma
    sebagai pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak
    berlindung pada yang lain.

    Para bhikkhu, jalanlah di lingkunganmu (gocara) sendiri, yang
    pernah dijalani oleh para pendahulumu. Jikalau kamu sekalian
    berjalan di tempat itu maka Mara tidak akan mendapat
    tempat untuk ditempati dan tidak ada tempat untuk
    dihancurkan. Sesungguhnya dengan mengembangkan
    kebaikan maka jasa-jasa bertambah-tambah.

  2. Para bhikkhu, pada zaman dahulu ada
    seorang maharaja dunia (cakkavatti) yang bernama
    Dalhanemi yang jujur, memerintah berdasarkan
    kebenaran, raja dari empat penjuru dunia, penakluk, pelindung
    rakyatnya, pemilik tujuh macam permata. Ketujuh macam permata
    itu adalah cakka (cakra), gajah, kuda, permata,
    wanita, kepala rumah tangga dan penasehat. Ia
    memiliki keturunan lebih dari seribu orang yang
    merupakan ksatriya-ksatriya perkasa penakluk musuh.
    Ia menguasai seluruh dunia sampai ke batas lautan, yang
    ditaklukkannya bukan dengan kekerasan atau dengan pedang tetapi
    dengan kebenaran (dhamma).
  3. Para bhikkhu, setelah banyak tahun, ratusan tahun dan ribuan
    tahun, Raja Dalhanemi memerintah seseorang dengan berkata:
    ‘Bilamana kau melihat Cakka permata surgawi (dibba
    cakka ratana) telah terbenam sedikit dan telah
    bergeser dari tempatnya, maka beritahukan hal itu
    kepadaku.”Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

    Setelah banyak tahun, ratusan tahun dan ribuan tahun, orang
    itu melihat bahwa Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit
    dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya. Setelah ia
    melihat kejadian ini, ia pergi menghadap Raja
    Dalhanemi dan melapor: ‘Maharaja, ketahuilah bahwa
    Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit dan telah
    bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya.’

    Para bhikkhu, Raja Dalhanemi memanggil putra yang tertua dan berkata:
    ‘Anakku, dengarkanlah, Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit
    dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya. Juga telah
    diberitahukan kepadaku: ‘Bilamana Cakka ratana
    surgawi dari maharaja dunia (cakkavatti) terbenam dan
    bergeser dari tempatnya, maka raja itu tidak akan
    hidup lama lagi’. Saya telah menikmati kenikmatan
    duniawi. Anakku, pimpinlah dunia ini sampai di batas lautan.
    Karena saya akan mencukur rambut serta janggutku, mengenakan
    jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi untuk
    menjadi pertapa.’

    Para bhikkhu, demikianlah setelah Raja Dalhanemi menyerahkan
    tahta kerajaan kepada putranya, ia mencukur rambut serta
    janggutnya, mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan
    kehidupan duniawi dan menjadi pertapa. Para hari
    ketujuh Cakka ratana surgawi lenyap.

  4. Kemudian seseorang menghadap raja dan melapor kepada beliau dengan berkata:
    ‘Raja, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa Cakka ratana surgawi telah lenyap!’

    Para bhikkhu, ketika raja mendengar kabar itu, ia menjadi sedih
    dan berduka cita. Lalu ia pergi menemui pertapa raja dan
    berkata: ‘Tuanku, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa
    Cakka ratana surgawi telah lenyap.’

    Setelah raja berkata demikian, pertapa raja menjawab: ‘Anakku,
    janganlah bersedih dan berduka cita karena tidak ada
    hubungan keluarga antara kau dan Cakka ratana
    surgawi. Tetapi anakku, putarlah roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Karena bila kau memutarkan roda
    kewajiban maharaja yang suci dan pada hari uposatha
    di bulan purnama kau membasuh kepalamu serta melaksanakan uposatha
    di teras utama pada tingkat atas istana, maka Cakka ratana
    surgawi akan muncul lengkap dengan seribu ruji, roda
    dan as serta bagian-bagian lain.’

  5. ‘Tetapi, Tuanku, apakah yang dimaksud dengan roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci itu?”Anakku, hiduplah dalam kebenaran;
    berbakti, hormati dan bersujudlah pada kebenaran,
    pujalah kebenaran, sucikanlah dirimu dengan
    kebenaran, jadikanlah dirimu panji kebenaran dan tanda kebenaran,
    jadikanlah kebenaran sebagai tuanmu. Perhatikan, jaga dan
    lindungilah dengan baik keluargamu, tentara, para
    bangsawan, para menteri, para rohaniawan, perumah
    tangga, para penduduk kota dan desa, para samana dan
    pertapa, serta binatang-binatang. Jangan biarkan
    kejahatan terjadi dalam kerajaanmu. Bila dalam kerajaanmu ada
    orang yang miskin, berilah dia dana. Anakku apabila para samana
    dan pertapa dalam kerajaanmu meninggalkan minuman
    keras yang menyebabkan kekurangwaspadaan dan mereka
    sabar serta lemah lembut, menguasai diri, menenangkan
    diri serta menyempurnakan diri mereka masing-masing,
    lalu selalu datang menemuimu untuk menanyakan
    kepadamu apa yang baik dan apa yang buruk, perbuatan baik dan
    perbuatan buruk, perbuatan yang pantas dilakukan dan yang tak
    pantas dilakukan, perbuatan yang bermanfaat dan yang
    tidak bermanfaat di masa yang akan datang; kau harus
    mendengar apa yang akan mereka katakan dan kau harus
    menghalangi mereka berbuat jahat serta anjurkanlah
    mereka untuk berbuat baik. Anakku inilah roda
    kewajiban maha raja yang suci.’

    ‘Baiklah, tuanku,’ jawab raja. Ia patuh melaksanakan roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Pada hari uposatha raja membasuh
    kepalanya dan melaksanakan uposatha di teras utama
    pada tingkat atas istana. Kemudian Cakka ratana
    surgawi muncul lengkap dengan seribu ruji, roda, as
    serta bagian-bagian yang lain. Ketika raja melihat
    kejadian ini ia berpikir: ‘Telah diberitahukan kepadaku bahwa
    raja yang melihat Cakka ratana surgawi yang muncul, maka ia
    menjadi Cakkavatti (maharaja dunia). Semoga saya menjadi
    penguasa dunia!’

  6. Para bhikkhu, kemudian raja bangkit dari tempat duduknya,
    membuka jubah dari bagian salah satu bahunya, dengan tangan
    kiri ia mengambil sebuah kendi dan dengan tangan
    kanannya ia memercikkan air pada Cakka ratana surgawi
    dengan berkata: ‘Berputarlah Cakka ratana. Maju dan
    taklukkanlah, Cakka ratana.’Para bhikkhu, kemudian Cakka ratana berputar
    maju ke arah daerah bagian Timur dan raja cakkavatti
    mengikuti Cakka ratana itu. Raja pergi bersama
    tentaranya, kuda-kuda, kereta-kereta, gajah-gajah dan
    pasukan. Di tempat mana pun Cakka ratana itu berhenti, di
    tempat itu pula raja penakluk bersama empat kelompok pasukannya
    tinggal. Kemudian semua raja yang merupakan musuh di
    daerah bagian Timur datang menemui cakkavatti dengan
    berkata: ‘Datanglah, Maharaja! Selamat datang,
    Maharaja! Semua ini milikmu, Maharaja! Pimpinlah
    kami, Maharaja!’ Raja Cakkavatti menjawab: ‘Kamu sekalian
    janganlah membunuh mahluk, jangan mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan, jangan berzinah, jangan berdusta dan jangan
    minum-minuman keras. Nikmatilah apa yang menjadi hak
    kamu sekalian.’ Semua raja-raja yang merupakan musuh
    di daerah bagian Timur menjadi taklukkan Cakkavatti.
  7. Para bhikkhu, kemudian Cakka ratana terjun ke dalam lautan
    timur dan muncul kembali setelah berputar maju ke arah daerah
    bagian selatan… (di sana terjadi seperti yang terjadi
    di daerah bagian timur. Demikian pula Cakka ratana
    terjun ke dalam lautan selatan dan muncul kembali
    serta berputar maju ke arah daerah bagian barat… ke
    arah daerah bagian utara… semua terjadi seperti yang
    terjadi di daerah bagian timur).Setelah Cakkaratana menaklukkan seluruh
    dunia hingga ke batas lautan, Cakka ratana kembali ke
    kota kerajaan dan diam, sehingga orang-orang
    berpikir bahwa Cakka ratana telah tetap tidak akan
    bergerak di depan gedung pengadilan di gerbang istana raja Cakkavatti.
    Cakka ratana menambah keagungan istana dengan berada
    di depan gerbang istana raja Cakkavatti.
  8. Para bhikkhu, demikian pula raja Cakkavatti kedua… raja
    Cakkavatti ketiga … raja Cakkavatti keempat … raja Cakkavati
    kelima … raja Cakkavatti keenam… dan raja Cakkavatti
    ketujuh setelah banyak tahun, setelah ratusan tahun
    dan setelah ribuan tahun, beliau memerintah seseorang
    dengan berkata: ‘Bilamana kau melihat Cakka ratana
    surgawi telah terbenam sedikit dan telah bergeser
    sedikit dari tempatnya, maka beritahukan hal itu
    kepadaku.”Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

    Setelah banyak tahun, setelah ratusan tahun, dan setelah ribuan
    tahun, orang itu melihat bahwa Cakka ratana telah terbenam
    sedikit dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya.
    Ketika melihat kejadian ini, ia pergi menghadap raja
    Cakkavatti dan melaporkan apa yang telah dilihatnya.

    Para bhikkhu, raja cakkavatti memanggil putranya yang tertua
    dan berkata: ‘Anakku, dengarkanlah, Cakka ratana surgawi
    telah terbenam sedikit dan telah bergeser sedikit
    dari tempatnya. Juga telah diberitahukan kepadaku:
    ‘Bilamana Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam dan
    bergeser dari tempatnya maka raja Cakkavatti tidak
    akan hidup lama lagi’. Saya telah menikmati kenikmatan
    duniawi, tibalah saatnya bagiku untuk mencari kebahagiaan surgawi.
    Anakku, pimpinlah dunia ini yang sampai di batas lautan.
    Karena saya akan mencukur rambut serta janggutku,
    mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    duniawi untuk menjadi pertapa.’

    Demikianlah setelah raja Cakkavatti menyerahkan tahta kerajaan
    kepada putranya, ia mencukur rambut dan janggutnya,
    mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    duniawi dan menjadi pertapa. Pada hari ketujuh
    setelah raja menjadi pertapa, Cakka ratana surgawi
    lenyap.

  9. Kemudian seseorang menghadap raja dan melapor kepada beliau
    dengan berkata: ‘Raja, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa Cakka
    ratana surgawi telah lenyap!’ Ketika raja mendengar
    berita ini ia menjadi sedih dan berduka cita, tetapi
    ia tidak pergi menemui pertapa raja untuk menanyakan
    roda kewajiban maharaja yang suci. Dengan idenya dan
    caranya sendiri ia memerintah rakyatnya dan rakyat
    yang diperintah seperti itu, yaitu cara yang berbeda
    dengan apa yang mereka ikuti dahulu, menjadi tidak sukses seperti
    apa yang mereka biasa capai di masa raja-raja terdahulu
    yang melaksanakan kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari
    seorang raja Cakkavatti.Para bhikkhu, kemudian para
    menteri, para pegawai istana, para pejabat keuangan,
    para pengawal dan penjaga serta orang-orang yang
    hidup dengan melaksanakan pembacaan mantra pergi menemui
    raja dan berkata: ‘Wahai raja, rakyatmu yang raja perintah
    berdasarkan idemu dan caramu sendiri, yang berbeda
    dengan cara-cara yang mereka ikuti dahulu tidak
    sukses seperti apa yang mereka biasa capai di masa
    raja-raja terdahulu yang melaksanakan kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Dalam kerajaan ini ada para menteri, para
    pegawai istana, para pejabat keuangan, para pengawal dan
    penjaga serta orang-orang yang hidup dengan
    melaksanakan pembacaan mantra — semua kami ini dan
    yang lain-lain — memiliki pengetahuan tentang
    kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari raja Cakkavatti. Apabila
    raja menanyakan hal itu kepada kami, maka kami akan
    menerangkannya.’
  10. Para bhikkhu, kemudian raja mempersilahkan para menteri dan
    orang-orang lainnya duduk, setelah itu raja bertanya kepada
    mereka tentang kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari raja
    cakkavatti. Mereka menerangkan hal itu kepada beliau.
    Ketika raja telah mendengar hal itu, beliau
    memperhatikan, menjaga dan melindungi rakyatnya
    dengan baik, tetapi ia tidak memberikan dana kepada
    orang-orang miskin. Karena ia tidak berdana kepada orang-orang
    miskin maka kemelaratan bertambah.Ketika kemiskinan telah
    meluas, seorang tertentu mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan kepadanya, perbuatan ini disebut mencuri.
    Ia ditangkap orang-orang dan ia dihadapkan kepada raja dan mereka
    berkata: ‘Raja, orang ini telah mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan kepadanya, perbuatan itu adalah mencuri.’

    Lalu raja bertanya sebagai berikut kepada orang itu: ‘Apakah
    benar bahwa kau telah mengambil barang yang tak diberikan
    kepadamu, dan dengan demikian kamu telah melakukan
    perbuatan yang disebut mencuri?’

    ‘Benar, raja.’

    ‘Mengapa kau melakukannya?’

    ‘Raja, saya tak memiliki sesuatu untuk mempertahankan hidupku.’

    Kemudian raja memberikan dana kepada orang itu dengan berkata:
    ‘Dengan dana ini kau dapat menyambung hidupmu,
    peliharalah orang tuamu, anak-anakmu dan istrimu.
    Kerjakanlah pekerjaanmu dan berdanalah selalu kepada para
    samana dan pertapa, karena perbuatan ini berpahala untuk
    terlahir kembali di alam surga.’

    ‘Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

  11. Para bhikkhu, kemudian ada orang lain mencuri. Ia ditangkap
    orang-orang dan mereka membawanya menghadap kepada raja,
    mereka berkata: ‘Raja, orang ini telah mencuri.’ Raja
    bertanya kepada orang itu dan beliau melakukan
    perbuatan yang sama seperti yang beliau lakukan
    kepada pencuri yang lalu, dengan memberikan dana
    kepada orang itu.
  12. Para bhikkhu, orang-orang mendengar bahwa bagi mereka yang
    mencuri mendapat dana dari raja. Karena mendengar hal ini
    mereka berpikir: ‘Marilah kita mencuri.’ Di antara
    mereka itu ada orang tertentu yang melakukannya.
    Orang ini ditangkap dan dibawa kehadapan raja. Raja
    bertanya kepada orang tersebut:
    ‘Apa sebab kau mencuri?’

    ‘Saya mencuri sebab tak dapat mempertahankan hidupku.’

    Namun raja berpikir: ‘Jika saya memberikan dana kepada siapa
    setiap orang yang mencuri maka pencuri akan bertambah banyak.
    Saya harus menghentikan perbuatan ini, ia harus
    diganjar dengan hukuman berat, yaitu kepalanya
    dipancung.’ Selanjutnya raja memerintah bawahannya
    dengan berkata:
    ‘Perhatikanlah, ikatlah tangan orang ini ke belakang tubuhnya
    dan ikatlah dengan kencang. Gunduli kepalanya dan bawalah dia
    berkeliling disertai genderang yang nyaring ke
    jalan-jalan, ke persimpangan-persimpangan jalan.
    Bawalah dia keluar melalui gerbang selatan dan
    berhentilah di selatan kota. Ganjarlah dia dengan
    hukuman terberat berat, yaitu kepalanya dipancung.’

    ‘Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang-orang itu dan mereka melaksanakan perintah itu.

  13. Para bhikkhu, pada waktu itu telah banyak orang yang mendengar
    bahwa orang yang mencuri dihukum mati. Karena telah
    mendengar hal ini maka beberapa orang tertentu
    berpikir: ‘Sekarang kitapun harus menyediakan pedang
    tajam dan orang-orang yang barangnya kita ambil
    dengan tanpa mereka berikan — perbuatan yang disebut
    mencuri — kita hentikan mereka dengan kepala mereka kita
    pancung.’Selanjutnya, mereka mempersenjatai diri mereka dengan
    pedang-pedang tajam, lalu mereka, pergi merampok di
    desa-desa, di kampung-kampung dan di kota-kota serta
    di jalan-jalan. Orang-orang yang mereka rampoki
    mereka bunuh dengan kepala dipancung.
  14. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang yang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas. Karena
    kemelaratan bertambah maka pencuri bertambah. Karena
    pencuri bertambah maka kekerasan berkembang dengan
    cepat. Disebabkan adanya kekerasan yang meluas maka
    pembunuhan menjadi biasa. Karena pembunuhan terjadi
    maka batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang,
    sehingga batas usia kehidupan pada masa itu adalah 80.000 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 40.000 tahun.Selanjutnya, di antara orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan 40.000 tahun ada yang mencuri.
    Pencuri ditangkap oleh orang-orang dan dia dihadapkan
    kepada raja. Orang-orang itu memberitahukan kepada raja
    dengan berkata: ‘Raja, orang telah mencuri.’

    Raja bertanya kepada orang itu: ‘Apakah benar bahwa kau telah mencuri?’

    ‘Tidak, raja,’ jawabnya. Dengan jawaban ini orang itu telah berdusta dengan sengaja.

  15. Demikianlah, karena dana-dana tidak diberikan kepada orang-orang
    yang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri … kekerasan
    … pembunuhan… hingga berdusta menjadi biasa. Karena
    berdusta telah menjadi biasa maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah
    40.000 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan
    anak-anak mereka hanya 20.000 tahun.Di antara orang-orang yang batas
    usia kehidupan 20.000 tahun ada orang yang mencuri.
    Ada orang tertentu yang melaporkan hal ini kepada
    raja: ‘Raja, ada orang yang mencuri’, demikianlah ia
    mengatakan kata-kata jahat tentang orang itu.
  16. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan kepada
    orang-orang miskin, maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah berkembang.
    Karena memfitnah berkembang maka batas usia kehidupan dan
    kecantikan manusia berkurang. Sehingga batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 20.000 tahun, akan
    tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka hanya 10.000
    tahun.Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan 10.000 tahun ada
    yang cantik dan ada yang buruk, sehingga mereka yang
    berparas buruk merasa iri terhadap yang berparas cantik.
    Akibatnya orang-orang yang berparas buruk ini berzinah
    dengan istri-istri tetangga mereka.
  17. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang-orang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah… berzinah
    berkembang. Karena perzinahan berkembang maka batas
    usia kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang,
    sehingga batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu
    adalah 10.000 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan
    anak-anak mereka hanya 5.000 tahun.Pada masa kehidupan dari orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan mereka hanya 5.000 tahun
    berkembang dua hal yaitu kata-kata kasar dan membual.
    Karena ke dua hal ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 5.000 tahun, akan
    tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka ada yang hanya
    2.500 tahun ada yang hanya 2.000 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 2.500
    tahun, iri hati dan dendam berkembang. Karena ke dua hal ini
    berkembang maka batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan
    manusia berkurang, sehingga batas usia kehidupan
    manusia pada masa itu adalah 2.500 tahun 2.000 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 1.000 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 1.000 tahun,
    pandangan sesat (miccha ditthi) muncul dan berkembang.
    Karena pandangan sesat ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan pada masa itu adalah
    1.000 tahun, akan tetapi anak-anak mereka hanya 500 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 500 tahun,
    ada tiga hal yang berkembang, yaitu: berzinah dengan
    saudara sendiri, keserakahan dan pemuasan nafsu.
    Karena tiga hal ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 500
    tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka ada yang 250 tahun dan ada yang hanya 200 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 250 tahun,
    hal sebagai berikut ini berkembang — kurang berbakti
    kepada orang tua, kurang hormat kepada para samana
    dan pertapa dan kurang patuh kepada pemimpin
    masyarakat.

  18. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah, karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang-orang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah…
    perzinahan… kata-kata kasar dan membual… iri hati dan
    dendam … pandangan sesat… berzinah dengan saudara
    sendiri, keserakahan dan pemuasan nafsu… hingga
    kurang berbakti kepada orang tua, kurang hormat
    kepada para samana dan pertapa dan kurang patuh kepada pemimpin
    masyarakat berkembang dan meluas. Karena hal-hal ini
    berkembang dan meluas maka batas usia kehidupan dan
    kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 250 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 100 tahun.
  19. Para bhikkhu, akan tiba suatu masa ketika keturunan dari manusia
    itu akan mempunyai batas usia kehidupan hanya 10 tahun.
    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 10 tahun, umur lima tahun bagi wanita
    merupakan usia perkawinan. Pada masa kehidupan
    orang-orang ini, makanan seperti dadi susu (ghee),
    mentega, minyak tila, gula dan garam akan lenyap. Bagi mereka
    ini, biji-bijian kudrusa akan merupakan makanan yang terbaik.
    Seperti pada masa sekarang, nasi dan kari merupakan
    makanan yang terbaik, begitu pula biji-bijian kudrusa
    bagi mereka. Pada masa orang-orang itu, sepuluh
    macam cara melakukan perbuatan baik akan hilang,
    sedangkan sepuluh macam cara melakukan perbuatan
    jahat akan berkembang dengan cepat, di antara mereka tidak ada
    lagi kata-kata yang menyebut tentang perbuatan baik — Siapa
    yang akan melakukan perbuatan baik? Di antara mereka
    tidak ada lagi rasa berbakti kepada orang tua, tidak
    ada lagi rasa menghormat kepada para samana dan
    pertapa serta tidak ada lagi kepatuhan kepada para
    pemimpin masyarakat. Kalau seperti sekarang orang-orang
    masih berbakti kepada orang tua, menghormat kepada para samana
    dan pertapa serta patuh kepada para pemimpin, namun pada
    masa orang-orang… yang batas usia kehidupan mereka
    hanya 10 tahun, rasa berbakti, hormat dan patuh tidak
    ada lagi.
  20. Para bhikku, di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 10 tahun tidak akan ada lagi (pikiran yang membatasi
    untuk kawin dengan) ibu, bibi dari pihak ibu, bibi
    dari pihak ayah, bibi dari pihak ayah yang merupakan
    istri dari kakak ayah atau istri guru. Dunia akan
    diisi oleh cara bersetubuh dengan siapa saja,
    bagaikan kambing, domba, burung, babi, anjing dan
    srigala.Di antara orang-orang ini saling bermusuhan yang kuat akan
    menjadi hukum, perasaaan yang benci yang hebat,
    dendam yang kuat serta keinginan membunuh dari ibu
    terhadap anaknya, anak terhadap ibunya, ayah terhadap
    anaknya, anak terhadap ayahnya, kakak terhadap
    adiknya, adik terhadap kakaknya dan seterusnya… Hal
    ini terjadi bagaikan pikiran dari para olahragawan yang menghadiri
    pertandingan, begitulah pikiran mereka.
  21. Para bhikku, bagi orang-orang yang batas kehidupan mereka
    10 tahun itu akan muncul suatu masa, yaitu munculnya pedang
    selama seminggu. Selama masa ini mereka akan melihat
    individu lain sebagai binatang liar: pedang tajam
    akan nampak selalu tersedia di tangan mereka dan
    mereka berpikir: ‘Individu ini adalah binatang liar.’
    Dengan pedang mereka saling membunuh.Sementara itu ada orang-orang
    tertentu yang berpikir: ‘Sebaiknya kita jangan
    membunuh atau kita tidak membiarkan orang lain membunuh
    kita. Marilah kita menyembunyikan diri ke dalam belukar, ke
    dalam hutan, ke cekungan di tepi sungai, ke dalam gua gunung
    dan kita hidup dengan akar-akaran atau buah-buahan di
    hutan.’ Mereka akan melaksanakan hal ini selama
    seminggu. Pada hari ke tujuh mereka keluar dari
    belukar, hutan, cekungan dan gua, mereka akan saling
    berangkulan dan akan saling membantu, dengan berkata:
    ‘O, kami masih hidup! Senang sekali melihat anda masih
    hidup!’

    Para bhikkhu, pada orang-orang itu akan muncul keinginan-keinginan
    sebagai berikut : ‘Karena kita melakukan cara-cara yang
    jahat, maka kita kehilangan banyak sanak saudara.
    Marilah kita berbuat kebajikan-kebajikan. Sekarang,
    kebajikan apakah yang dapat kita lakukan? Marilah
    kita berusaha untuk tidak melakukan pembunuhan. Itu
    merupakan perbuatan baik yang dapat kita lakukan.’ Mereka
    akan berusaha untuk tidak membunuh, hal yang baik ini mereka
    laksanakan terus. Karena melaksanakan kebajikan ini maka
    akibatnya batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan mereka
    bertambah. Bagi mereka yang batas usia hanya 10
    tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 20 tahun.

  22. Para bhikkhu, hal-hal seperti ini akan terjadi pada orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 20 tahun: ‘Sekarang,
    karena kita mengikuti dan melaksanakan kebajikan maka
    batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan kita bertambah.
    Marilah kita meningkatkan kebajikan kita. Marilah
    kita berusaha untuk tidak mengambil apa yang tidak
    diberikan, kita berusaha untuk tidak berzinah, kita berusaha
    untuk tidak berdusta, kita berusaha untuk tidak memfitnah, kita
    berusaha untuk tidak mengucapkan kata-kata kasar,
    kita berusaha untuk tidak membual, kita berusaha
    untuk tidak serakah, kita berusaha untuk tidak
    membenci, kita berusaha untuk tidak berpandangan
    sesat, kita berusaha untuk tidak melakukan tiga hal berikut,
    yaitu: tidak bersetubuh dengan keluarga sendiri, tidak tamak
    dan tidak memuaskan nafsu. Marilah kita berbakti kepada
    orang tua kita, kita menghormati para samana dan
    pertapa serta kita patuh kepada pemimpin masyarakat.
    Marilah kita selalu melaksanakan kebajikan-kebajikan
    ini.’Demikianlah mereka akan selalu melaksanakan kebajikan: tidak
    mengambil apa yang tidak diberikan… berbakti kepada ke
    dua orang tua, menghormat para samana dan pertapa serta
    patuh kepada pemimpin masyarakat. Karena mereka
    melaksanakan kebajikan-kebajikan itu, maka batas usia
    kehidupan anak-anak dan kecantikan manusia bertambah, sehingga mereka
    yang batas usia kehidupan hanya 20 tahun, akan tetapi batas
    usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka mencapai 40 tahun.
    Selanjutnya, bagi mereka yang batas usia kehidupan hanya
    40 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 80 tahun; …. anak-anak mereka mencapai
    160 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai 320 tahun;…
    anak-anak mereka mencapai 640 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai
    2.000 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai 4.000 tahun;… anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 8.000 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai
    20.000 tahun; anak-anak mereka mencapai 40.000 tahun; dan
    mereka yang pada masa itu hanya berbatas usia kehidupan
    40.000 tahun, akan tetapi anak-anak mereka akan mencapai
    batas usia kehidupan 80.000 tahun.
  23. Para bhikkhu, di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 80.000, maka usia perkawinan bagi wanita adalah
    pada usia 500 tahun. Pada masa orang-orang ini hanya
    akan ada tiga macam penyakit — keinginan, lupa makan
    dan ketuaan. Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini
    Jambudipa akan makmur dan jaya, desa-desa,
    kampung-kampung, kota-kota dan kota-kota kerajaan akan berdekatan
    satu dengan yang lain sehingga ayam jantan dapat terbang
    dari satu kota ke kota yang lain. Pada masa kehidupan
    orang-orang ini, Jambudipa — bagaikan avici — akan
    penuh dengan penduduk bagaikan hutan yang dipenuhi
    semak belukar. Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini,
    kota Baranasi yang kita kenal sekarang akan bernama
    Ketumati yang merupakan kota kerajaan yang besar dan
    makmur, berpenduduk banyak dan padat serta berpangan cukup.
    Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini, di Jambudipa akan terdapat
    84.000 kota dengan Ketumati sebagai ibu kota.
  24. Para bhikkhu, pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini di Ketumati,
    ibu kota kerajaan, akan muncul seorang raja Cakkavatti
    bernama Sankha, yang jujur, memerintah berdasarkan
    kebenaran, penguasa empat penjuru dunia, penakluk,
    pelindung rakyatnya dan pemilik tujuh macam permata,
    yaitu: cakka, gajah, kuda, permata, wanita (istri),
    kepala rumah tangga dan panglima perang. Ia akan memiliki
    keturunan lebih dari 1000 orang yang merupakan ksatriya-ksatriya
    digjaya, penakluk musuh-musuh. Ia akan menguasai dunia
    sampai ke batas lautan, tetapi ia menguasai dunia ini
    bukan dengan kekerasan atau dengan pedang melainkan
    dengan kebenaran.
  25. Para bhikkhu, pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini, di dalam
    dunia akan muncul seorang Bhagava Arahat Sammasambuddha
    bernama Metteyya, yang sempurna dalam pengetahuan dan
    pelaksanaannya, sempurna menempuh jalan, pengenal
    segenap alam, pembimbing manusia yang tiada taranya,
    yang sadar serta yang patut dimuliakan, yang sama
    seperti saya sekarang. Ia, dengan dirinya sendiri
    akan mengetahui dengan sempurna dan melihat dengan jelas alam
    semesta bersama alam-alam kehidupan para dewa, brahma, mara,
    serta para samana, para pertapa, para pangeran dan
    orang-orang lainnya, seperti apa yang saya tahu
    dengan sempurna dan lihat dengan jelas sekarang.
    Dhamma kebenaran yang indah pada permulaan, indah
    pada pertengahan dan indah pada akhir akan dibabarkan
    dalam kata-kata dan semangat, kehidupan suci akan dibina dan
    dipaparkan dengan sempurna dengan penuh kesucian, seperti yang
    saya lakukan sekarang. Ia akan diikuti oleh beberapa
    ribu bhikkhu sangha, seperti saya sekarang ini yang
    diikuti oleh beberapa ratus bhikkhu sangha.
  26. Para bhikkhu, Raja Sankha akan membangun kembali tempat suci
    yang pernah dibangun oleh Raja Maha Panada. Raja Sankha
    akan tinggal di tempat suci itu, tetapi tempat itu
    akan diberikannya sebagai dana kepada para samana,
    para pertapa, para pengembara, para pengemis dan
    mereka yang membutuhkan. Ia sendiri akan mencukur
    rambut dan janggut, mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    berumah tangga dan menjadi siswa dari Bhagava Arahat
    Sammasambuddha Metteyya. Setelah Raja Sankha
    meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi, ia akan hidup
    menyendiri dan dengan usaha sungguh-sungguh, tekad,
    penuh kewaspadaan berusaha mengusahai dirinya. Tidak lama kemudian
    ia akan mencapai tujuan yang merupakan cita-cita dari
    mereka yang meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi dan hidup
    sebagai pertapa. Masih dalam kehidupan dalam dunia
    ini, ia akan mencapai, mengetahui dan merealisasi
    tujuan akhir dari penghidupan suci.
  27. Para bhikkhu, jadikanlah dirimu sebagai pelita; berlindunglah
    pada dirimu sendiri dan jangan berlindung pada orang lain.
    Hiduplah dalam dhamma kebenaran yang sebagai
    pelitamu, dengan dhamma sebagai pelindungmu dan
    jangan berlindung pada yang lain.Para bhikkhu, tetapi bagaimana seorang
    bhikkhu menjadi pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada yang lain?

    Para bhikkhu, dalam hal ini, seorang bhikkhu mengamati tubuh
    (kaya) sebagai tubuh dengan rajin, penuh pengertian dan
    perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia. Seorang bhikkhu
    mengamati perasaan (vedana)… mengamati kesadaran (citta)…
    dan mengamati ide-ide (dhamma) sebagai dhamma dengan rajin penuh
    pengertian dan perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia.

    Para bhikkhu, beginilah seorang bhikkhu menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada yang lain. Ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai pelita
    bagi dirinya sendiri, ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada hal yang lain.

  28. Para bhikkhu, jalanlah di lingkunganmu sendiri, di mana para
    pendahulumu berjalan. Jikalau kamu sekalian berjalan di
    tempat itu maka usia akan bertambah, kecantikan akan
    bertambah, kebahagiaan akan bertambah, kekayaan akan
    bertambah dan kekuatan akan bertambah.Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud
    dengan usia? Dalam hal ini seorang bhikkhu
    mengembangkan Empat dasar kemampuan batin (iddhipada)
    dengan membangkitkan (chanda), semangat (viriya), kesadaran
    (citta), dan penyelidikan (vimamsa) tentang pelaksanaan, usaha
    dan meditasi. Dengan dikembangkannya Empat Iddhipada
    ini, maka bila ia menginginkan, ia dapat hidup selama
    satu kalpa (kappa) atau selama masa kappa di mana ia
    hidup. Inilah yang dimaksud dengan usia.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kecantikan? Dalam
    hal ini, seorang bhikkhu melaksanakan peraturan-peraturan
    moral (sila), mengendalikan dirinya sesuai dengan
    Patimokkha, sempurna dalam sikap dan tingkah laku; ia
    melihat bahaya sekalipun itu hanya merupakan
    kesalahan kecil dan ia menghindarkan diri dari
    kesalahan itu. Ia melatih diri dengan melaksanakan sila. Inilah
    yang dimaksudkan dengan kecantikan.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kebahagiaan? Dalam
    hal ini, seorang bhikkhu menjauhkan diri dari pemuasan nafsu,
    bebas dari pikiran-pikiran jahat, mencapai dan tetap
    berada dalam Jhana I dengan memiliki usaha untuk
    menangkap obyek (vitakka), obyek dikuasai (vicara),
    kegiuran (piti), kebahagiaan (sukha) dan ketenangan
    (viveka) batin. Dengan melenyapkan vitakka dan vicara
    ia mencapai dan tetap berada dalam Jhana II dengan diliputi
    kegiuran (piti), kebahagiaan (sukha) dan ketenangan (viveka)
    batin. Dengan melenyapkan piti ia mencapai dan tetap
    berada dalam Jhana III dengan diliputi kebahagiaan
    (sukha) dan ketenangan (viveka) batin. Dengan
    melenyapkan sukha ia mencapai dan tetap berada dalam
    Jhana IV dengan pikiran terpusat dan penuh ketenangan
    batin.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kekayaan? Dalam hal
    ini, seorang bhikkhu membiarkan batinnya diliputi oleh cinta
    kasih (metta) yang dipancarkannya ke satu arah, ke
    dua arah, ke tiga arah dan ke empat arah dari dunia.
    Jadi dengan demikian seluruh dunia, dari atas, bawah,
    sekeliling dan di seluruh penjuru dunia dipancarkan
    cinta kasihnya yang tanpa batas, yang mulia, tak
    terukur, yang bebas dari kebencian dan iri hati. Ia pun
    membiarkan dirinya diliputi dengan kasih sayang atau welas asih
    (karuna) … simpati (mudita) … dan keseimbangan batin
    (upekkha) yang dipancarkannya ke satu arah, ke dua
    arah, ke tiga arah dan ke empat arah dari dunia. Jadi
    dengan demikian seluruh dunia dipancarkan
    keseimbangan batinnya yang tanpa batas, yang mulia,
    tak terukur, yang bebas dari kebencian dan iri hati. Inilah
    yang dimaksud dengan kekayaan.

    Para bhikkhu apakah yang dimaksud dengan kekuatan? Dalam hal
    ini, seorang bhikkhu melenyapkan kekotoran batin (asava)
    sehingga pada kehidupan sekarang ini ia sendiri
    mencapai dan tetap berada dalam keadaan batin yang
    suci dan kebijaksanaan yang suci. Inilah yang
    dimaksud dengan kekuatan.

    Para bhikkhu, tidak ada kekuatan lain yang sulit sekali ditaklukkan
    selain kekuatan mara. Tetapi perbuatan baik (kusala)
    yang dikembangkan sendiri (hingga mencapai
    kearahatan) akan merupakan cara yang paling baik
    untuk menaklukkannya.”


Demikianlah yang diucapkan oleh Sang Buddha. Para bhikkhu menjadi
gembira setelah mendengar uraian Sang Bhagava.


http://www.thesangaiexpress.com/buddhism-and-politics-2/


Buddhism and politics

Thangjam Sanjoo Singh
(Contd from previous issue)
In
the Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta, the Buddha said that immorality and
crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty, could arise
from poverty. Kings and governments may try to suppress crime through
punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through force.
In
the Kutadanta Sutta, the Buddha suggested economic development instead
of force to reduce crime. The government should use the country’s
resources to improve the economic conditions of the country. It could
embark on agricultural and rural development, provide financial support
to entrepreneurs and business, and provide adequate wages for workers to
maintain a decent life with human dignity.
In the Jataka, the Buddha
had given to rules for Good Government, known as ‘Dasa Raja Dharma’.
These ten rules can be applied even today by any government which wishes
to rule the country peacefully. The rules are as follows:
a.    be liberal and avoid selfishness, maintain a high moral character,
b.    be prepared to sacrifice one’s own pleasure for the well-being of the subjects,
c.    be honest and maintain absolute integrity,
d.    be kind and gentle,
e.    lead a simple life for the subjects to emulate,
f.    be free from hatred of any kind, exercise non-violence, practise patience,
g.    and respect public opinion to promote peace and harmony.
Regarding the behaviour of rulers, He further advised:

A good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and
discriminate between one particular groups of subjects against another.
– A good ruler should not harbour any form of hatred against any of his subjects.
– A good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if it is justifiable.

A good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be
enforced. It should not be enforced just because the ruler has the
authority to enforce the law. It must be done in a reasonable manner and
with common sense. — (Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta)
In the Milinda
Panha, it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent, immoral,
improper, unable and unworthy of kingship, has enthroned himself a king
or a ruler with great authority, he is subject to be tortured‚ to be
subject to a variety of punishment by the people, because, being unfit
and unworthy, he has placed himself unrighteously in the seat of
sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and transgress moral
codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is equally subject
to punishment; and moreover, to be censured is the ruler who conducts
himself as a robber of the public.’ In a Jataka story, it is mentioned
that a ruler who punishes innocent people and does not punish the
culprit is not suitable to rule a country.
The king always improves
himself and carefully examines his own conduct in deeds, words and
thoughts, trying to discover and listen to public opinion as to whether
or not he had been guilty of any faults and mistakes in ruling the
kingdom. If it is found that he rules unrighteously, the public will
complain that they are ruined by the wicked ruler with unjust treatment,
punishment, taxation, or other oppressions including corruption of any
kind, and they will react against him in one way or another. On the
contrary, if he rules righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His
Majesty.’ (Majjhima Nikaya)
The Buddha’s emphasis on the moral duty of a ruler to use public power
to improve the welfare of the people had inspired Emperor Asoka in the
Third Century BC to do likewise. Emperor Asoka, a sparkling example of
this principle, resolved to live according to and preach the Dhamma and
to serve his subjects and all humanity. He declared his non-aggressive
intentions to his neighbours, assuring them of his goodwill and sending
envoys to distant kings bearing his message of peace and non-aggression.
He
promoted the energetic practice of the socio-moral virtues of honesty,
truthfulness, compassion, benevolence, non-violence, considerate
behaviour towards all, non-extravagance, non-acquisitiveness, and
non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious freedom and mutual
respect for each other’s creed. He went on periodic tours preaching the
Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook works of public utility, such
as founding of hospitals for men and animals, supplying of medicine,
planting of roadside trees and groves, digging of wells, and
construction of watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly forbade
cruelty to animals.
Sometimes the Buddha is said to be a social
reformer. Among other things, He condemned the caste system, recognized
the equality of people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic
conditions, recognized the importance of a more equitable distribution
of wealth among the rich and the poor, raised the status of women,
recommended the incorporation of humanism in government and
administration, and taught that a society should not be run by greed but
with consideration and compassion for the people. Despite all these,
His contribution to mankind is much greater because He took off at a
point which no other social reformer before or ever since had done, that
is, by going to the deepest roots of human ill which are found in the
human mind. It is only in the human mind that true reform can be
effected. Reforms imposed by force upon the external world have a very
short life because they have no roots. But those reforms which spring as
a result of the transformation of man’s inner consciousness remain
rooted. While their branches spread outwards, they draw their
nourishment from an unfailing source — the subconscious imperatives of
the life-stream itself. So reforms come about when men’s minds have
prepared the way for them, and they live as long as men revitalize them
out of their own love of truth, justice and their fellow men.
The
doctrine preached by the Buddha is not one based on ‘Political
Philosophy’. Nor is it a doctrine that encourages men to worldly
pleasures. It sets out a way to attain Nirvana. In other words, its
ultimate aim is to put an end to craving (Tanha) that keeps them in
bondage to this world. A stanza from the Dhammapada best summarizes this
statement: ‘The path that leads to worldly gain is one, and the path
that leads to Nibbana (by leading a religious life) is another.’
However,
this does not mean that Buddhists cannot or should not get involved in
the political process, which is a social reality. The lives of the
members of a society are shaped by laws and regulations, economic
arrangements allowed within a country, institutional arrangements, which
are influenced by the political arrangements of that society.
Nevertheless, if a Buddhist wishes to be involved in politics, he should
not misuse religion to gain political powers, nor is it advisable for
those who have renounced the worldly life to lead a pure, religious life
to be actively involved in politics.
(The writer is President of an NGO called Population Health Institute (PHI). He can be reached at thangjamsanjoo42@gmail.com)

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Dissolving Cataracts with Eye Drops Instead of Surgery?
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:36 am

https://www.aao.org/eye-health/news/dissolving-cataracts-with-eye-drops-instead-of-sur



Dissolving Cataracts with Eye Drops Instead of Surgery?



Written by: Dayle Kern

Aug. 06, 2015

The news has been buzzing with reports of a new eye drop that may one day allow for cataracts
to be treated without surgery. But don’t cancel that cataract surgery
consultation just yet. While this research may show initial promise, it
has yet to be tested in humans or approved for patient use.


Chinese and American scientists and ophthalmologists have found that a
natural chemical may stop the development of cataracts, the leading
cause of blindness worldwide. Named lanosterol, the chemical was found
to be missing in children who had developed a rare form of childhood
cataracts. In contrast, the chemical was found in their parents who did
not have the condition. The researchers developed an eye drop solution
made of lanosterol and tested the solution on dogs, rabbits and
synthetic cataracts developed in labs using cells from human lenses.
They found that the drops shrank cataracts significantly in all three
groups.


“If this treatment is successfully tested in humans and approved for
patient use, it could be a promising alternative for people living in
low-resource areas, where it is difficult to access cataract surgery,”
said Ravi D. Goel, M.D., a clinical spokesperson for the American
Academy of Ophthalmology and cataract surgeon at Wills Eye Hospital.
“However, it’s still too early to tell if these eye drops are a viable
treatment.”


The researchers are not yet sure of the exact mechanism by which
lanosterol causes the cataracts to shrink, nor do they know whether or
not there are any risks in using lanosterol clinically in human eyes.
It’s likely that this research will continue to evolve, so stay tuned!

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/297240.php

MNT home

Cataracts may be treatable with eye drops instead of surgery


Published:



Cataracts, a leading cause of blindness in humans, may one day be treatable with eye drops

instead of surgery.

senior eye]
Surgery to treat cataracts is not available to everyone. Treatment with eye drops could be a game changer.

In the journal Nature, a study led by the University of
California-San Diego (UCSD) shows how a solution containing a natural
steroid that can be given via eye drops decreased

cataracts in dogs.

The lenses in our eyes are made mostly of crystallin proteins that have two jobs to do - they

allow us to change focus and they keep the lens clear. Nobody knows exactly how they do this.

Cataracts is a condition that develops when the delicate structure of the crystallin proteins is

disrupted and they start to form clumps and make the lens cloudy.

The lens is also rich in a molecule called lanosterol that is an essential building block of many

important steroids in the body. Lanosterol is synthesized by an enzyme called lanosterol

synthase.

The researchers began to look into lanosterol because they found children with an

inherited form of cataracts had the same gene mutation that blocked lanosterol

synthase.

They had a hunch that perhaps in normal eyes, where lenses are enriched with lanosterol, it stops

the cataract-forming proteins from clumping.

Lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins

The researchers ran three sets of experiments, starting with lab cells and progressing to animals.

First, in human lens cells, the team found

lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins. They then
showed treatment with lanosterol reduced cataracts and increased lens
transparency in

rabbits.

Fast facts about cataracts

  • Cataracts account for 51% of world blindness
  • Most cataracts develop later in life
  • Risk factors include too much sun, diabetes, tobacco and alcohol.

Learn more about cataracts

And, finally, when they tested the lanosterol solution - both in injected and eye drop form - in

live dogs with cataracts, it had the same effect in reducing protein clumping as in the human lens

cells and the rabbits’ lenses: the cataracts reduced and lens transparency improved.

The researchers conclude:

“Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein

aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.”

Should lanosterol in the form of eye drops prove to be an effective treatment for cataracts in

humans, it could be a game changer.

Currently, the only way to treat cataracts is with surgery. But this is not an option that is

available to everyone. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in many countries there are

barriers that prevent patients accessing surgery, and so cataract remains the leading cause of

blindness.

The new study follows another recent success story reported by Medical News Today

where, after receiving an implanted bionic eye, an 80-year-old

man with age-related macular degeneration regained some visual function.



http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-23/cataracts-treated-with-eye-drops-in-future/6641418

ABC News

Cataracts could be treated with eye drops instead of surgery in future, study says



Posted




An eye drop tested on dogs suggests that cataracts,
the most common cause of blindness in humans, could one day be cured
without surgery, a study has said.

A naturally-occurring molecule
called lanosterol, administered with an eye dropper, shrank canine
cataracts, a team of scientists reported in Nature.

Currently the
only treatment available for the debilitating growths, which affect tens
of millions of people worldwide, is going under the knife.

While
surgery is generally simple and safe, the number of people who need it
is set to double in the next 20 years as populations age. And for many,
it remains prohibitively costly.

The chain of research leading to
the potential cure began with two children — patients of lead researcher
Kang Zhang of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China — from
families beset with a congenital, or inherited, form of the condition.

Dr
Zhang and colleagues discovered that his patients shared a mutation in a
gene critical for producing lanosterol, which the researchers suspected
might impede cataract-forming proteins from clumping in normal eyes.

In a first set of lab experiments on cells, they confirmed their hunch that lanosterol helped ward off the proteins.

In subsequent tests, dogs with naturally-occurring cataracts received eye drops containing the molecule.

After six weeks of treatment, the size and characteristic cloudiness of the cataracts had decreased, the researchers reported.

“Our
study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens
protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract
prevention and treatment,” the authors concluded.

Cataracts account for half of blindness cases worldwide.

“These
are very preliminary findings,” said J Fielding Hejtmancik, a scientist
at the US National Eye Institute, who wrote a commentary also published
in Nature.

“Before there are any human trials, the scientists
will probably test other molecules to see if they might work even
better,” he said.

AFP

http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/cataracts/news/20150722/success-in-dogs-points-to-first-nonsurgical-cataract-treatment#1

Drops Show Promise as Nonsurgical Cataract Treatment



Eye drops may offer new approach for research, expert says

By Dennis Thompson


HealthDay Reporter




WEDNESDAY, July 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) — Eyes clouded by cataracts may one day be treated with drops rather than surgery, a new animal study suggests.


Today, surgery is the only means of treating cataracts, the leading cause of blindness in the world. Doctors extract cloudy lenses and replace them with artificial lenses.


But researchers have discovered that an organic compound called lanosterol can improve vision by dissolving the clumped proteins that form cataracts,
said study lead author Dr. Kang Zhang, chief of ophthalmic genetics
with the Shiley Eye Institute at the University of California, San
Diego.


Eye drops containing lanosterol completely cleared the vision
of three dogs with naturally occurring cataracts after six weeks of
treatment. The drops improved vision for four other cataract-afflicted
dogs, according to findings published July 22 in the journal Nature.


“The results we have point to a new nonsurgical treatment of
cataracts that can be used for people who might have moderate cataracts
or do not have access to surgery,” Zhang said.


These findings “point to a new direction in cataract research,”
at a time when there’s huge pressure to come up with a better way of
treating cataracts, said Dr. J. Fielding Hejtmancik, a senior
investigator at the U.S. National Eye Institute (NEI).


The aging of the baby boom population is expected to fuel a
huge increase in cataracts, since most occur as part of the aging
process, Hejtmancik said.


It’s already occurring. Between 2000 and 2010, cases of
cataracts in the United States rose 20 percent, from 20.5 million to
24.4 million, according to the NEI. By 2050, that number is expected to
double to an estimated 50 million.


Cataract surgery is a safe and routine procedure, but demand
will rise dramatically. “You’re going to probably double your surgical
requirements within the next 10 years,” Hejtmancik said.


Lanosterol eye drops could provide a cheaper and easier
alternative for cataract treatment in many people, and perhaps prevent
cataracts in someone at risk for developing them, Zhang and Hejtmancik
said.

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/eye-drops-hold-promise-for-reversing-cataracts/



Eye drops hold promise for reversing cataracts



Last Updated Jul 28, 2015 6:47 PM EDT

More than 20 million Americans have cataracts, a leading cause of vision loss and blindness, and right now surgery is the only available option to correct the problem. But new research raises the hope that someday, cataracts could be cured with simple eye drops.

Cataracts
occur when the normally transparent lens of the eye gradually clouds
over due to an accumulation of proteins that malform and clump together.
The condition often develops as people get older; the National Eye Institute estimates that by the age of 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had surgery to remove one.

Now
researchers from the University of California, San Diego have
discovered a promising alternative to surgery: an eye drop that
effectively reversed cataracts in animal testing. Their findings are
published in the journal Nature.

Their work began with the cases of three children who had a
severe cataract condition that ran in their family. The scientists
sequenced the children’s genomes and identified a genetic mutation that
interfered with the production of lanosterol, a naturally occurring
steroid in the body. From that clue, they decided to test whether
lanosterol might have the ability to prevent or even eliminate
cataracts.

They tested it first in lab cultures, then in the
cataract lenses of rabbits, and finally on 7 dogs from 3 species (black
Labrador, Queensland Heeler and Miniature Pinscher ) who were suffering
from adult-onset cataracts, which can happen in canines as well as
humans.

For the dogs’ treatment, they sedated the animals and
injected lanosterol (100 mg)-loaded nanoparticles into the vitreous
cavity of the eye, the area behind the lens which is filled with a
gel-like substance called the vitreous humor. The treatment eyes then
received lanosterol in topical eye drops, one drop three times a day for
6 weeks.

“Treatment by lanosterol,” the researchers write,
“significantly decreased preformed protein aggregates both in vitro and
in cell-transfection experiments.”

dogs-cataract-study-310.jpg

Before and after photos showing dogs’ cataracts diminished after lanosterol treatment.

LING ZHAO ET. AL./NATURE

The
dogs who received the treatment showed notable improvement in their
cataracts, graded on a scale from zero (no cataract) to 3 (extensive
opacity of the entire lens).

“I was pleasantly surprised, even in
principle, this treatment should work,” one of the authors of the study,
Dr. Kang Zhang, professor of ophthalmology and chief of ophthalmic
genetics at UC San Diego, told CBS News.

Other scientists in the field were impressed by the results.

In
a commentary published in Nature to accompany the study, J. Fielding
Hejtmancik, of the Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch of the
National Eye Institute, suggested the research could lead to
non-surgical prevention and treatment of cataracts.

“The potential
for this finding to be translated into the first practical
pharmacological prevention, or even treatment, of human cataracts could
not come at a more opportune time,” he writes.

“This is a really
comprehensive and compelling paper - the strongest I’ve seen of its kind
in a decade,” Jonathan King, a molecular biologist at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology who researches cataract proteins, told Science
magazine. “They discovered the phenomena and then followed with all of
the experiments that you should do - that’s as biologically relevant as
you can get.”

Before testing can begin in humans, Zhang said the
team will need to check the toxicity of lanosterol, even though it is “a
product of our own body. Then we will need to formulate the drug as
the most efficient eye drop for a human trial.”

In a Nature podcast, Zhang said he and his colleagues hope to begin human trials within a year.


http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/these-eye-drops-shrunk-cataracts-dogs/

New Eye Drops Can Dissolve Cataracts With No Need For Surgery

A cataract is the clouding of the eye’s lens and accounts
for over half of all cases of blindness worldwide. Though cataracts can
be effectively treated with surgery, it’s costly and requires trained
surgeons. This is a problem for developing countries with poor health
systems. Drug treatments have the potential to be a game changer in
providing cheap and accessible treatment, but there are many hurdles. A
new study that used eye drops to shrink cataracts in dogs may have made
an important step in overcoming them.  



The vast majority of cataracts are age related,
but some can develop the condition as a result of an injury or a
genetic defect. Researchers became more interested in researching how
this defect led to cataracts. Professor Kang Zhang, from the University of California San Diego, and his research team studied two families who had children born with cataracts, known as congenital cataracts.



They found that those with congenital cataracts had
a mutation in the gene that produces a small molecule known as
lanosterol. The healthy version of this molecule usually prevents
cataract-causing proteins from clumping together. In the abnormal
version of this molecule, however, cataract-causing proteins caused
cloudiness in the eye’s lens.



Zhang and his research team went on to develop eye drops
that contained lanosterol as a drug treatment for cataracts. To test
whether the eye drops could reduce cataracts, researchers isolated
lenses from rabbits that had cataracts and placed them in a lanosterol
solution for six days. They found that this reduced cataract severity
and increased lens clarity.



“We went on to test the effect of the eye drops in dogs with
cataracts. We gave them eye drops twice a day for six weeks and found
it had reduced the effect of cataract severity,” Zhang explains to
IFLScience.





Eye drops dissolved cataracts in dogs. Image credit: Kang Zhang



The study, published in Nature, only
lasted for a few months, so the cataracts are likely to have reoccurred
after the drops stopped, Zhang says. He does, however, believe that the
eye drops could play an important role in the prevention of cataracts
in those showing early signs. The ultimate “goal” is to develop a cheap,
effective drug that can be widely used in low-resource settings.



Dr Manuel Datiles, a senior investigator and attending ophthalmologist at the National Eye Institute in the National Institutes of Health,
tells IFLScience that though eye drops have the potential to overcome a
number of limitations of surgery, they won’t be able to replace it yet.



“You cannot compare the improvements shown in this study
with surgery. With cataract surgery, you become 20 years old again; with
this one the lens is cleared up, but your vision can still be murky,”
he explains.



The study is quite important, Datiles says, as researchers
have discovered that a gene in a certain clinical pathway related to
cholesterol production caused cataracts. This is, however, only one of
the many pathways that can be used to alleviate cataracts.



“There are other drops that do the same thing but use
different pathways. This is why we need multifunctional anti-cataract
agents that work together across multiple pathways to clear the lens,”
Datiles says.



“There’s now scope to investigate how we can combine this drug with other ones to better improve treatment,” he adds.



According to Datiles, eye drops will become key in treating
cataracts, as surgery will not be able to cope with the growing needs of
the world’s aging population. There’s already a backlog in many
developing countries as clinics cannot cope with the demand for
surgeries and, as a result, many become blind, Datiles says.

http://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-developed-an-eye-drop-that-can-dissolve-cataracts-from-eyes


Scientists Have Developed an Eye Drop That Can Dissolve Cataracts



A whole lot better than surgery. 



BEC CREW

23 JUL 2015







Researchers in the US have developed a new drug that can be delivered
directly into the eye via an eye dropper to shrink down and dissolve
cataracts - the leading cause of blindness in humans. 


While the effects have yet to be tested on humans, the team from the
University of California, San Diego hopes to replicate the findings in
clinical trials and offer an alternative to the only treatment that’s
currently available to cataract patients - painful and often
prohibitively expensive surgery.

Affecting tens of millions of people worldwide, cataracts cause the
lens of the eye to become progressively cloudy, and when left untreated,
can lead to total blindness. This occurs when the structure of the
crystallin proteins that make up the lens in our eyes deteriorates,
causing the damaged or disorganised proteins to clump and form a milky
blue or brown layer. While cataracts cannot spread from one eye to the
other, they can occur independently in both eyes. 


Scientists aren’t entirely sure what causes cataracts, but most cases are related to age, with the US National Eye Institute reporting that
by the age of 80, more than half of all Americans either have a
cataract, or have had cataract surgery. While unpleasant, the surgical
procedure to remove a cataract is very simple and safe, but many
communities in developing countries and regional areas do not have
access to the money or facilities to perform it, which means blindness
is inevitable for the vast majority of patients.


According to the Fred Hollows Foundation,
an estimated 32.4 million people around the world today are blind, and
90 percent of them live in developing countries. More than half of these
cases were caused by cataracts, which means having an eye drop as an
alternative to surgery would make an incredible difference. 


The new drug is based on a naturally-occurring steroid called
lanosterol. The idea to test the effectiveness of lanosterol on
cataracts came to the researchers when they became aware of two children
in China who had inherited a congenital form of cataract, which had
never affected their parents. The researchers discovered that these
siblings shared a mutation that stopped the production of lanosterol,
which their parents lacked. 


So if the parents were producing lanosterol and didn’t get cataracts, but their children weren’t producing lanosterol and did
get cataracts, the researchers proposed that the steroid might halt the
defective crystallin proteins from clumping together and forming
cataracts in the non-congenital form of the disease.


They tested their lanosterol-based eye drops in three types of
experiments. They worked with human lens in the lab and saw a decrease
in cataract size. They then tested the effects on rabbits, and according to Hanae Armitage at Science Mag,
after six days, all but two of their 13 patients had gone from having
severe cataracts to mild cataracts or no cataracts at all. Finally, they
tested the eye drops on dogs with naturally occurring cataracts. Just
like the human lens in the lab and the rabbits, the dogs responded
positively to the drug, with severe cataracts shrinking away to nothing,
or almost nothing.


The results have been published in Nature.


“This is a really comprehensive and compelling paper - the strongest
I’ve seen of its kind in a decade,” molecular biologist Jonathan King
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) told Armitage.
While not affiliated with this study, King has been involved in
cataract research for the past 15 years. “They discovered the phenomena
and then followed with all of the experiments that you should do -
that’s as biologically relevant as you can get.”


The next step is for the researchers to figure out exactly how the
lanosterol-based eye drops are eliciting this response from the cataract
proteins, and to progress their research to human trials.

http://www.aoa.org/news/clinical-eye-care/could-eye-drops-be-an-alternative-treatment-to-cataract-surgery?sso=y

American

Could eye drops be an alternative treatment to cataract surgery?

Researchers have discovered a compound that reverses cataracts and is soluble enough to be used as eye drops, Science reports.



The research could be a stepping stone for research of future treatments.

If left untreated, cataracts can lead to blindness. The only
treatment is surgery to remove the lens, which is commonplace in the
United States but not available in many developing countries.

“Cataracts
in humans have been around as long as humans have been around, and this
is the first time in history that they’re using a nonsurgical approach
for their removal,” says Andrew Morgenstern, O.D., chair of AOA’s New
Technology Committee and a consultant with Booz Allen Hamilton whose
current assignment is with the Vision Center of Excellence at Walter
Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.

Crystallins
in our eyes work as chaperones to help prevent the clumping of
proteins, or aggregation of insoluble amyloids, that cause cataracts,
but crystallins can become overwhelmed as we age. Previous research had
shown that lanosterol, which belongs to a group of chemical compounds
called sterols, reversed cataracts. However, lanosterol was not
water-soluble enough to be included in an eye drop solution and had to
be injected into the eye.

In this new study, researchers tested 32 additional sterols,
focusing on Compound 29, which not only dissolved the amyloids in a lab
dish but also prevented the formation of new protein clumps.
Researchers then confirmed that Compound 29 reversed hereditary- and
age-related cataracts in mice and in human lens tissue removed during
cataract surgery.

Not an immediate option

One limitation of the study is that it was a mouse study, says Sue Lowe,
O.D., chair of the AOA Health Promotions Committee who practices in
Laramie, Wyoming. You can’t ask mice about their visual acuity.

“Every individual still interprets what they see differently,” she says.

Dr.
Lowe explains that a cataract might appear cloudy to the optometrist,
yet the patient says he or she can see well. On the other hand, another
patient may have a clearer-looking cataract, yet complain about poor
eyesight.

An animal model also means the research isn’t “going
anywhere fast,” Dr. Morgenstern says. But it could be a stepping stone
for research of future treatments.

The concept of eye drops as
cataract treatment isn’t new, Dr. Lowe says. A product was developed in
Russia using a compound called N-acetylcarnosine in eye drops to treat
cataracts. It’s available in the United States as a dietary supplement
but is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. It was
patented by the research team in Russia, where most of the studies have
been conducted.

Drs. Morgenstern and Lowe agree that cataract
surgery will likely remain the primary treatment in the United States,
but an eye drop that improves cataracts could be a boon to the
developing world, even if it doesn’t eliminate the cataract altogether.

“Sometimes
the best treatment you can get for a patient is an improvement and not
necessarily a complete cure,” Dr. Morgenstern says. “If you can take an
individual with a 20/200 cataract and you can get them to 20/40
best-corrected vision with a simple eye drop, that’s pretty amazing
stuff.”

The AOA follows all research and new technology closely,
including potential new cataract treatment. Although these eye drops are
an interesting development, more research is needed regarding their
influence on visual health. For more information or help for better
vision, please visit the AOA website.

http://www.livescience.com/51634-eyedrops-could-treat-cataracts.html

New Eyedrops Could Shrink Cataracts Without Surgery



comments (0)
2203 Fri 20 Apr 2017 LESSONS dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness). nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama. Anguttara Nikaya Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta Kutadanta Sutta Dasa Raja Dharma Milinda Panha Aṅguttara Nikāya — The discourses of one additional factor — Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly points out. But, after a huge delay. BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years
Filed under: General, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 2:35 am

2203 Fri 20 Apr 2017 LESSONS


dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness).


nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama.


Anguttara Nikaya


Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta


Kutadanta Sutta


Dasa Raja Dharma

Milinda Panha


Aṅguttara Nikāya
— The discourses of one additional factor —

Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly
points out. But, after a huge delay.

BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years

Correct translation of the word Dukkha, is ‘A wheel that turns and doesn’t sit on its hinge correctly’. Or a ’squeaky wheel’.

To think of the word ’suffering’ and how its used in our vernacular,
it conjures up images of hospital beds, extreme pain, wailing and
gnashing of teeth. Anyone who has had a little joy in life knows that
this is indeed not the case.

“Life is conditioned by” or “Life is permeated by” Dukkha. Namely, that
nothing is ultimately lasting or satisfactory - even if for a little
while it may be joyful, pleasant or joyless and unpleasant.

By practicing the eightfold path, and performing/cultivating skilful
acts will more often than not lead to a condition of ‘Sukkha’, or
relative joy and calm.


Meditating on this for a while, it’s rung truer. Life is
conditioned by things being a pain.


In knowing this underlying condition, that ultimately all things must
pass, and ultimately, nothing cognised through the six sense bases - or
the five aggregates of clinging - is truly lasting or satisfying, one
is able to be unhinged from the clinging (thirst, or Tanha) that causes
Dukkha.


https://archive.org/download/AnguttaraNikaya


Index of /35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/

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https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.gif


https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.gif

https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.pdf

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/bsp-to-fight-uttar-pradesh-urban-body-polls-on-party-symbol-after-22-years/articleshow/58262526.cms


https://de.pinterest.com/pin/549579960760335401/

“It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.”   ~ The Buddha [Cetana Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya]  ॐ lis:
Bellos colores:
:


Aṅguttara Nikāya
— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html


Aṅguttara Nikāya

— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]

The Aṅguttara Nikāya contains thousands
of short discourses, which have the particularity to be structured as
enumerations. It is divided into eleven sections, the first dealing with
enumerations of one item, the second with those of two items etc. The
Buddha, having never made use of writing, asked his listeners to be
attentive and to memorize his instructions. In order to make his words
as clear as possible and to facilitate this memorization, he often
presented his teaching in the form of enumerations.


Nipātas


1. Ekaka Nipāta        7. Sattaka Nipāta
2. Duka Nipāta        8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta
3. Tika Nipāta        9. Navaka Nipāta
4. Catuka Nipāta        10. Dasaka Nipāta
5. Pañcaka Nipāta        11. Ekādasaka Nipāta
6. Chakka Nipāta


——————oooOooo——————



1. Ekaka Nipāta

Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10) - word by word
There are five types of sense objects that overpower the mind of (most) human beings more than any others.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20) - word by word
The five dhammas that nourish most efficiently the five hindrances, and the five most effective ways to dispell them.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30) - word by word
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Adanta Vagga (AN 1.31-40) - enhanced translation
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Udakarahaka Suttas (AN 1.45 & 46) - enhanced translation
The difference between a clear mind and a muddy one.
Mudu Sutta (AN 1.47) - enhanced translation
A simile for a mind that’s pliant.
Lahuparivatta Sutta (AN 1.48) - enhanced translation
The Buddha, normally so adept at finding similes, is here at a loss.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55) - word by word
Practicing goodwill makes one worthy of gifts.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73) - word by word
What produces and what eliminates wholesome and unwholesome mental states.
Pamāda Suttas (AN 1.58-59) - enhanced translation
Nothing is so disadvantageous as this.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97) - word by word
The Buddha repetedly warns us against heedlessness.
Kāyagatāsati Vagga (AN 1.563-574) {excerpts} - enhanced translation
The Buddha speaks in high praise of the mindfulness directed to the body.
——————oooOooo——————


2. Duka Nipāta

Appaṭivāna Sutta (AN 2.5) - enhanced translation
How we ought to train ourselves if we wish to reach awakening.
Cariya Sutta (AN 2.9) - enhanced translation
What is it, after all, that guarantees harmony, politeness,
honesty, brotherhood in a word peace within a given society? The Buddha
explains here which are the two guardians of the world.
Ekaṃsena Sutta (AN 2.18) - enhanced translation
Here is one thing that the Buddha declares categorically.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32) - word by word
Here the Buddha relates Samatha with rāga and cetovimutti, and Vipassanā with avijjā and paññāvimutti.
——————oooOooo——————



3. Tika Nipāta

Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66) - word by word
In
this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only our
own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by others,
even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.
Sāḷha Sutta (AN 3.67) - enhanced translation
The advice given here is very similar to that given to the Kalamas.
Aññatitthiya Sutta (AN 3.69) - enhanced translation
The
three roots of the unwholesome are explained with their respectve
characteristic, the cause of their arising, and the way to bring about
their cessation.
Uposatha Sutta (AN 3.71) - enhanced translation
In this sutta, the Buddha defines how lay people should practice Uposatha and describes the different types of devas.
Sīlabbata Sutta (AN 3.79) - enhanced translation
Ānanda explains by which very simple creteria rites and rituals can be judged as beneficial or not.
Samaṇa Sutta (AN 3.82) - enhanced translation
Here are the three ascetics tasks of an ascetic.
Vajjiputta Sutta (AN 3.85) - enhanced translation
A
certain monk cannot train with so many rules. The Buddha explains him
how he can do without them, and it works out rather well.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90) - word by word
The Buddha defines the three trainings, i.e. adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā and adhipaññāsikkhā.
Accāyika Sutta (AN 3.93) - enhanced translation
Three urgent tasks of an ascetic which are like three urgent tasks of a farmer.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91) - word by word
Here the Buddha gives an alternate definition of adhipaññāsikkhā.
Paṃsudhovaka Sutta (AN 3.102) - few info·bubbles
In
this sutta, the Buddha compares the removal of mental impurities
through the practice to the work of a goldsmith. It is particularly
interesting, because it provides a gradual exposition of the impurities
one has to deal with during the practice, which gives an useful
reference.
Nimitta Sutta (AN 3.103) - few info·bubbles
Do
you find yourself nodding off or becoming overly agitated during your
meditation practice? This is a very useful discourse for the meditators
who wish to balance the two corresponding spiritual faculties of effort
and concentration, together with equanimity. Many of us would benefit
substantially from applying properly these instructions.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108) - word by word
Here
the Buddha explains what is singing and dancing in the discipline of
the noble ones, and then gives his instrunction regarding laughing and
smiling.
Atitti Sutta (AN 3.109) - enhanced translation
Three wrong things, of which many are unfortunately fond, that can never bring about satiety.
Nidāna Sutta (AN 3.112) - enhanced translation
Six causes, three wholesome and three unwholesome, to the arising of kamma.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164) - word by word
It is demonstrated here that the view according to which there is nothing wrong in being non-vegetarian is erroneous.
——————oooOooo——————



4. Catukka Nipāta

Yoga Sutta (AN 4.10) - enhanced translation
What the Buddha means when he talks about yoga and yogakkhema (rest from the yoke).
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha gives a definition of the sammappadhānas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 4.37) - enhanced translation
Four simple practices that make one incapable of falling away, right in the presence of Nibbāna.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41) - word by word
The
four types of concentration that the Buddha commends. It is quite
obvious here that no clear distinction is made between samādhi and
paññā.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha describes the fourfold distortion of saññā, citta and diṭṭhi.
Appamāda Sutta (AN 4.116) - simple translation
Four instances in which one should practice with assiduity.
Ārakkha Sutta (AN 4.117) - simple translation
Four things to be undertaken with assiduity, mindfulness while protecting the mind.
Mettā Sutta (AN 4.125) - enhanced translation
Here
the Buddha explains what kind of rebirth one who thoroughly practices
the four Brahmavihāras can expect, and the great advantage of being his
disciple.
Asubha Sutta (AN 4.163) - enhanced translation
The
four ways of practicing, according to the type of practice chosen and
the intensity or weakness of strengths and spiritual factulties.
Abhiññā Sutta (AN 4.254) - without translation
How the Noble Path works with the abhiññā pertaining to various dhammas as a guest-house welcoming various kinds of visitors.
Arañña Sutta (AN 4.262) - enhanced translation
What sort of person is fit to live in the wilderness?
——————oooOooo——————



5. Pañcaka Nipāta

Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.2) - without translation
Here the Buddha defines in detail what he calls the five
Sekha-balas (strenghs of one in training). This sutta is easily
understandable without requiring a parallel translation, if you refer to
the Satta saddhammā Formulae as will be suggested in the text. The Pali-English Dictionary is also available, just in case.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14) - word by word
Here are defined the five balas.
Samādhi Sutta (AN 5.27) - enhanced translation
Five uplifting knowledges that occur to one who practices the boundless concentration.
Akusalarāsi Sutta (AN 5.52) - enhanced translation
Speaking rightly, what should be called ‘accumulation of demerit’?
Abhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhāna Sutta (AN 5.57) {excerpt} - word by word
How to consider one’s own kamma.
Anāgatabhaya Sutta (AN 5.80) - enhanced translation
The
Buddha reminds the monks that the practice of Dhamma should not be put
off for a later date, for there are no guarantees that the future will
provide any opportunities for practice.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.89) - without translation
The
Buddha reminds us of five things that deteriorate the practice, which
for anyone wishing to progress in the training are nearly as important
to know about, remember and integrate into our lifestyles as the
knowledge of the five standard nīvaraṇas.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.90) - enhanced translation
Five attitudes that lead to the deterioration of the practice.
Sutadhara Sutta (AN 5.96) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Kathā Sutta (AN 5.97) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Āraññaka Sutta (AN 5.98) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Andhakavinda Sutta (AN 5.114) - enhanced translation
Five things that the Buddha exhorted his newly ordained monks to do.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.149) - without translation
Five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.150) - without translation
Another set of five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Vaṇijjā Sutta (AN 5.177) - enhanced translation
The Buddha specifies here five trades which should not be carried on by his lay followers, among which the business of meat.
Gihī Sutta (AN 5.179) - enhanced translation
In
this sutta, the Buddha gives greater precision about the way in which
the four usual sotāpattiyaṅgas have to be internalized in order to
constitute the proper conditions for sotāpatti.
Nissāraṇīya Sutta (AN 5.200) - enhanced translation
This sutta declines five types of nissāraṇas.
Yāgu Sutta (AN 5.207) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five advantages of eating rice-gruel.
Dantakaṭṭha Sutta (AN 5.208) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five reasons to use a tooth-cleaner.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209) - word by word
This
sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist traditions:
the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to perform any
melodic chanting.
Muṭṭhassati Sutta (AN 5.210) - enhanced translation
The disadvantages of falling asleep without proper sati and sampajañña, and the respective advantages of doing so with them.
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.241) - enhanced translation
Five dangers of duccarita (bad conduct) and five advantages of sucarita (good conduct).
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.245) - enhanced translation
Another sutta about the five dangers of duccarita and five advantages of sucarita.
Sivathika Sutta (AN 5.249) - enhanced translation
Five ways in which an ill-conducted person can be similar to a charnel ground where people throw dead bodies.
Puggalappasāda Sutta (AN 5.250) - enhanced translation
Here is a rare warning given by the Buddha about the dangers of placing confidence in anyone.
Rāgassa abhiññāya Sutta (AN 5.303) - enhanced translation
Five things to be practiced for the direct knowledge of rāga.
——————oooOooo——————



6. Chakka Nipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta (AN 6.14) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be unauspicious and one whose death will be auspicious.
Anutappiya Sutta (AN 6.15) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be remorseful and one whose death will be remorseless.
Maraṇassati Sutta (AN 6.20) - enhanced translation
This sutta explains in detail how to practice the mindfulness of death.
Sāmaka Sutta (AN 6.21) - few info·bubbles
Prompted
by the intervention of a deva, the Buddha reveals the six ageless ways
by which bhikkhus deteriorate in kusala dhammas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 6.22) - few info·bubbles
Six dhammas connected to non-deterioration. Another set of very useful dhammas for keen practitioners.
Himavanta Sutta (AN 6.24) - enhanced translation
Six qualities undowed with which a meditator would reportedly break into pieces the Himalayas.
Anussatiṭṭhāna Sutta (AN 6.25) - enhanced translation
This sutta defines what are the six subjects of recollection.
Sekha Sutta (AN 6.31) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the six dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
Nāgita Sutta (AN 6.42) - enhanced translation
While
dwelling in a forest grove, the Buddha speaks in praise of modesty,
contentment, unentanglement, and seclusion in the wilderness.
Dhammika Sutta (AN 6.54) - plain texts
In
this sutta, the word tathāgata is not used to designate the Buddha but
in the common sense, which allows us a better grasp of its meaning.
Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63) - plain texts
This
sutta provides an interesting systematic analysis of Kāma, Vedanā,
Saññā, Āsavā, Kamma and Dukkha. Each of these terms is defined and then
described witht the pattern of the four ariya-saccas.
Anavatthitā Sutta (AN 6.102) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anicca.
Atammaya Sutta (AN 6.104) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anatta.
Assāda Sutta (AN 6.112) - enhanced translation
How to eradicate the view of enjoyment, the view of self, and wrong view in general.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118) - word by word
It
is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six habits
without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the
satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.
——————oooOooo——————



7. Sattaka Nipāta

Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.11) - plain texts
Here are listed the seven anusayas.
Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.12) - enhanced translation
On abandoning the seven anusaya (obsessions or latent tendencies).
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.27) - enhanced translation
Seven perceptions that lead to the long-term welfare of the bhikkhus and prevent their decline.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.28) - enhanced translation
Seven points on which a bhikkhu in training may decline or not.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.29) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may decline or not.
Vipatti Sutta (AN 7.30) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her failure or success.
Parābhava Sutta (AN 7.31) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her ruin or prosperity.
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.49) - enhanced translation
Seven inner reflections that are well worth pursuing.
Nagaropama Sutta (AN 7.67) - plain texts with Pali Formulae
Here the Buddha uses an enlightening simile to explain how seven
good qualities that should be mastered by the trainee in order to be
successful work together to prevent the troops of Māra (ie. akusala
dhammas) from entering the fortress of the mind.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83) - word by word
Here is a very concise sevenfold instruction to discriminate what is the Teaching of the Buddha from what is not.
——————oooOooo——————



8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta

Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {excerpt} - word by word
The Buddha describes how Nanda, though being prey to fierce
sense desire, practices throroughly in accordance to his instructions.
This sutta contains a definition of satisampajañña.
Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) {excerpt} - word by word
Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.
Anuruddhamahāvitakka Sutta (AN 8.30) - few info·bubbles
Seven
wise thoughts which are truly worth understanding and remembering occur
to ven. Anuruddha. The Buddha comes to him to teach him the eighth,
endowed with which he will attain arahantship. The Buddha then explains
in detail the meaning of those thoughts.
Abhisanda Sutta (AN 8.39) - enhanced translation
Here are eight ways in which all serious disciples of the Buddha create much merit for themselves.
Duccaritavipāka Sutta (AN 8.40) - few info·bubbles
This sutta describes the kind of suffering which one undergoes owing to the non observance of the main precepts.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53) - word by word
The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.
Dīghajāṇu Sutta (AN 8.54) {excerpt} - plain texts
Among other things, the Buddha defines in this sutta what he means by generosity.
Vimokkha Sutta (AN 8.66) - enhanced translation
An explanation of the eight vimokkhas (liberations).
Parihāna Sutta (AN 8.79) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the eight dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
——————oooOooo——————



9. Navaka Nipāta

Nāga Sutta (AN 9.40) - plain texts
This sutta, colored with subtle humor, explains how a bhikkhu of
heightened mind is comparable to a solitary elephant, both of whom are
usually called Nāga.
Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41) {excerpt} - plain texts
Here saññā·vedayita·nirodha, the cessation of saññā and vedanā is presented as a ninth jhāna.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63) - word by word
What to do if one is not yet perfect in the five precepts.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64) - word by word
How to remove the five hindrances.
——————oooOooo——————



10. Dasaka Nipāta

Saṃyojana Sutta (AN 10.13) - plain texts
This very short sutta lists the ten saṃyojanas.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25) - word by word
This is the standard description of the practice on the ten kasiṇas.
Girimānanda Sutta (AN 10.60) - enhanced translation
In
order to help Girimānanda recovering from a grave illness, the Buddha
gives a great teaching reviewing ten types of very useful perceptions
that can be developped.
Kathāvatthu Sutta (AN 10.69) {excerpt} - plain texts
The Buddha reminds the bhikkhus what they should not talk about and what they should talk about.
Cunda Sutta (AN 10.176) - some info·bubbles
The buddha explains a deeper meaning of purity, in kāya, vācā and mana, not in rites or rituals and demonstrates that the former underlies the latter, whose inefficiency is made obvious.
——————oooOooo——————



11. Ekādasaka Nipāta

30/03/2555
Mettā Sutta (AN 11.15) - few info·bubbles
Eleven good results that come out of the practice of mettā.
——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf

BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years

By PTI | Updated: Apr 19, 2017, 06.00 PM IST
“There
is a need to work with renewed vigour and missionary zeal through a new
strategy to deal with new challenges before the BSP movement,”
Mayawati said.
LUCKNOW: The BSP today decided to contest the upcoming urban body elections on the party symbol after a gap of more than two decades and stressed on dealing with fresh challenges through a new strategy.

At a meeting of party leaders of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand convened by party supremo Mayawati,
detailed discussions were held on the issue of upcoming urban body
elections in the state, and it was decided that they will be contested
on the party symbol, said a statement issued here.

The
decision has been taken in view of the growth in people’s support in
urban areas as well, the release said.

“The party will try to give good results with the help of sarv samaj (entire society),” it said quoting the party chief.

The BSP has not fought the urban body polls
on party ticket after 1995 but today’s decision was taken following a
demand to this effect from its leaders who felt it was time to make the
party’s presence felt in the state.

Reviewing the
present political situation, Mayawati directed the leaders to increase
the BSP’s support base among the sarv samaj while facing new challenges,
the release said.

“There is a need to work with renewed
vigour and missionary zeal through a new strategy to deal with new
challenges before the BSP movement,” she said.

“Although
the BSP movement is on a solid footing in the state but ever since the
Assembly poll results which have not been in keeping with our hopes and
preparations, casteist and communal forces are upbeat and are spreading
rumours to demoralise our party workers,” the BSP chief said.


“To divert attention from EVM tampering, they are trying to mislead
the people through false propaganda,” she said, adding the manner in
which the BJP is working with the support of the RSS poses a risk to
democracy.

“If the Constitution and democracy are not kept
alive in true spirit, the doors to power will be closed for SC/STs and
backwards, and they will remain deprived forever,” she said.


http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-demolition-case-25-yrs-la…/

Sukla Sen sukla.sen@gmail.com [indiathinkersnet]
To foil-l
BCC indiathinkersnet@yahoogroups.com
Today at 14:53


[”Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly
points out. But, after a huge delay.

What, however, of significance here is the observation made by the
Supreme Court in the instant case: “In the present case, crimes which
shake the secular fabric of the Constitution of India have allegedly
been committed almost 25 years ago. The accused persons have not been
brought to book largely because of the conduct of the CBI in not
pursuing the prosecution of the aforesaid alleged offenders in a joint
trial, and because of technical defects which were easily curable, but
which were not cured by the state government”.
That’s perhaps the only silver lining of the dark clouds gathering
over the nation.]

I/II.
http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-demolition-case-25-yrs-la…/

Babri demolition case: 25 yrs later, LK Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi,
Uma Bharti face trial
Criminal conspiracy charges restored, trial moved from Rae Bareli to Lucknow

Written by Utkarsh Anand | New Delhi | Published:April 20, 2017 5:12 am

Uma Bharti on Wednesday (Source: Express Photo by Prem Nath Pandey)

Describing the demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya as “crimes which
shake the secular fabric of the Constitution of India”, the Supreme
Court Wednesday put senior BJP leaders L K Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi
and Union Minister Uma Bharti on a joint trial with ‘kar sevaks’ in
the 1992 case under various charges, including criminal conspiracy to
pull down the disputed structure.

The bench of Justices P C Ghose and Rohinton F Nariman said the
Supreme Court was convinced it must use its power under Article 142 to
do complete justice in the matter and club the trial of Advani and
others with scores of kar sevaks, who are being tried at a special
court in Lucknow, so that a judgment is delivered within two years.

“In the present case, crimes which shake the secular fabric of the
Constitution of India have allegedly been committed almost 25 years
ago. The accused persons have not been brought to book largely because
of the conduct of the CBI in not pursuing the prosecution of the
aforesaid alleged offenders in a joint trial, and because of technical
defects which were easily curable, but which were not cured by the
state government,” the bench said.
While reviving the criminal conspiracy charges against the senior
leaders of the BJP and shifting their trial from Rae Bareli, the court
also ordered restoration of charges against Rajasthan Governor Kalyan
Singh and eight others in connection with the case but exempted Kalyan
Singh from prosecution on account of the constitutional immunity he
enjoys as Governor.

[Video: Ready To Face Any Punishment On Babri Masjid Says Uma Bharti]

“Kalyan Singh, being the Governor of Rajasthan, is entitled to
immunity under Article 361 of the Constitution as long as he remains
Governor of Rajasthan. The Court of Sessions will frame charges and
move against him as soon as he ceases to be Governor,” the bench said
as it allowed a CBI appeal against the dropping of conspiracy charges
against the veteran BJP leaders.

Additional Sessions Judge (Ayodhya Matters) has been directed to frame
additional charges of criminal conspiracy against Advani, Joshi,
Bharti, Vinay Katiyar, Sadhvi Rithambara and Vishnu Hari Dalmia within
four weeks. Accepting submissions by senior lawyer Kapil Sibal and
advocate M R Shamshad, who represented Haji Mehboob, one of the
original petitioners in the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri title suit case, the
court also directed the sessions judge to conduct their trial on a
day-to-day basis from the current stage and finish it in two years
while allowing accused to recall crucial witnesses wherever required.
“There shall be no de novo (fresh) trial. There shall be no transfer
of the judge conducting the trial until the entire trial concludes.
The case shall not be adjourned on any ground except when the Sessions
Court finds it impossible to carry on the trial for that particular
date. In such an event, on grant of adjournment to the next day or a
closely proximate date, reasons for the same shall be recorded in
writing,” the bench held. Besides, the top court gave liberty to all
the parties, including the prosecution, complainants and witnesses, to
approach it directly if its “directions not being carried out, both in
letter and in spirit”.

Addition of conspiracy charges do not enhance the maximum punishment
of five years in jail, as prescribed under the alleged offences that
mainly related to promotion of enmity between different groups on the
ground of religion. But shifting of trial to a sessions judge take
away one right of appeal from the accused since the leaders were being
tried by a magisterial court in Rae Bareli and, therefore, they could
move the sessions court against the magistrate’s order at first
instance. Their appeal would now lie before the High Court.
There are two main FIRs registered in connection with the demolition —
one each in Lucknow and Rae Bareli. In Lucknow, the accused, chiefly
the kar sevaks, face charges of demolition whereas those in Rae
Bareli, including Advani and others, were being tried for allegedly
instigating the crowd through speeches.

Seeking a joint trial, the CBI had in October 1993 filed a
consolidated chargesheet against both set of accused at Lucknow but
the cases could not be clubbed for want of sanction from the High
Court before setting up a special court to try both FIRs as one case.
In 2001, the Allahabad High Court affirmed the decision that the
government’s notification was invalid due to lack of approval from the
High Court.

Since no new notification was issued by the state government after
this judgment, the Lucknow court dropped proceedings against 21
persons, which included Advani and Kalyan Singh. While Advani and
seven others continued to face trial at Rae Bareli where there was a
separate FIR against them for inciting the mob from a dais near the
site of the incident on December 6, 1992, 13 others, including Kalyan
Singh, were let off completely since no charges were pressed
separately against them at Rae Bareli after their exoneration in
Lucknow.

The CBI appealed against the HC order, and sought trial of all 21
accused under criminal conspiracy charges, apart from other offences.
Allowing the plea for a joint trial, the bench said that the evidence
for all these offences is almost the same and these offences,
therefore, cannot be separated from each other.

It maintained that the CBI’s failure to challenge the 2001 HC order on
invalidation of the notification on the joint trial “has completely
derailed the joint trial envisaged and has resulted in a fractured
prosecution going on in two places simultaneously based on a joint
chargesheet filed by the CBI itself”. The court turned down arguments
by senior advocate K K Venugopal, who appeared for Advani and Joshi,
that the court could not exercise its authority under Article 142 to
take away rights of a litigant when there are substantial provisions
on the particular subject.

“Article 142(1) of the Constitution of India had no counterpart in the
Government of India Act, 1935 and to the best of our knowledge, does
not have any counterpart in any other Constitution the world over. The
Latin maxim fiat justitia ruat cælum is what first comes to mind on a
reading of Article 142 — Let justice be done though the heavens fall,”
the bench said.

II.
http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-masjid-demolition-case-ay…/

Wheel of justice

Supreme Court order in the Babri demolition case holds out hope of
closure. Uma Bharti and Kalyan Singh must step down

By: Editorials | Updated: April 20, 2017 7:05 am

The apex court has ordered that the two separate trials related to the
demolition be bunched together and heard in the same court in Lucknow.

Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case. The possibility of due process leading to justice and
closure in one of the most seminal cases in India’s political history
seems within reach now, 25 years after the 16th century mosque at
Ayodhya was demolished by Sangh Parivar activists in the wake of the
rath yatra of the-then BJP chief L.K. Advani, shaming a nation and
setting powerful new political dynamics in motion. The Supreme Court’s
order on Wednesday sets back on track the judicial process and lays
down conditions to ensure that the trial is not delayed or compromised
further.

READ | A case each in Rae Bareli and Lucknow, now a joint trial

The apex court has ordered that the two separate trials related to the
demolition be bunched together and heard in the same court in Lucknow.
Splitting the accused into two groups and holding the trial in
different courts in different districts has been an important factor
in slowing down the judicial process. Significantly, the apex court
has restored the CBI’s charge of criminal conspiracy against the
accused facing trial in a Rae Bareli court on the relatively mild
charge of addressing an unlawful assembly.

This group, which includes Advani, senior BJP leader Murli Manohar
Joshi and Union Minister for Water Resources Uma Bharti, will now be
tried for conspiring to demolish the mosque. Kalyan Singh, Uttar
Pradesh chief minister at the time of the demolition, and now the
governor of Rajasthan, has been exempted on the ground of
constitutional immunity. Both Bharti and Singh, however, must
immediately step down in order to uphold the principle of propriety
and the dignity of the office they hold.

READ | Consensus in BJP core: Best if they stand trial, get acquitted

The two-judge bench has ordered daily hearings, sought a verdict in
two years, indicated that the trial judge should not be transferred
and ruled against the demand for a retrial. These directives should
have come earlier, but even if belatedly, they have revived hopes that
the perpetrators, and conspirators, of the heinous assault on the rule
of law and the edifice of secular India, will finally be punished.
Over 2,000 persons were reportedly killed in the nation-wide riots
that followed the demolition.

READ | ‘Let law take its course’: Congress guarded in its response to SC order
The events of December 6, 1992 in Ayodhya were the culmination of the
abdications of several institutions. The Supreme Court has initiated a
welcome process that carries within it a belated opportunity to
rectify this shameful record. When it begins, the trial will be
monitored closely, especially since the BJP is in government in
Lucknow and at the Centre. The quality of prosecution and the
cooperation of state agencies will be key to the smooth conduct of the
trial. At stake is not merely the fate of an important case, but the
ability, and willingness, of the constitutional republic to stay true
to its foundational principles.


Peace Is Doable

comments (0)
04/19/17
2201 Wed 18 2017 LESSON Source for adaptation and translation http://theravadin.wordpress.com/2010/08/28/the-yoga-sutra-a-handbook-on-buddhist-meditation/
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
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2201 Wed 18 2017 LESSON






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http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm



Main Page

Welcome to our yoga postures section. Here you will find



yoga moves that are broken down to the bare basics with colour photos



to match. We also have state of the art flash yoga animation technology that you can use to view these moves in full screen size, full colour and with full instruction.





Yogic exercises cater to the needs of each individual



according to his or her specific needs and physical condition. They



involve vertical, horizontal, and cyclical movements, which provide



energy to the system by directing the blood supply to the areas of the



body which need it most.

In yoga, each cell is observed, attended to, and



provided with a fresh supply of blood, allowing it to function smoothly.



The mind is naturally active and dynamic, while the innerself is



luminous. In this section we will give you plenty of yoga images and



instruction.



Breathing Pose
 
Arm Stretch
 
Kneeing Twist

Breathing Pose


The simple act of learning to control the breath





has a number of beneficial effects on your wellbeing, ranging from





increasing your energy, to improved relaxation into sleep. It purifies





the body by flushing away the gaseous by products of metabolism and will





also help you to remain calm in the face of the challenges that we





encounter in our everyday lives.

Control of the breath is an essential element in





the art of yoga. When bringing the air in to the abdomen, do not to puff





the stomach out, but pull the air into it while extending the inside





wall. By harnessing the power of the breath the mind can be stilled and





can be prepared for your Yoga practise.





Instruction Table Breathing Basics
1                              


   
Sit in a simple cross-legged position on



the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded



blanket under your buttocks. 


Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen 


Inhale



slowly through the nose feeling the breath filling the abdomen,



bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then the upper chest. 


Exhaling



softly feeling the breath leave the abdomen first, then the ribs and



lastly the upper chest. Observe the space at the end of the exhale
 
2                               


Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position




resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm.

Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.

Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama (Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .

Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.

Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .

Please visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t7WFq17NxWA&feature=player_embedded#at=24

 

The Virasana Arm/Shoulder Stretch


Hero Pose

The purpose of this pose is to help give the entire





body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It improves





strength and endurance and helps to control your breathing in





conjunction with the movements of the body.

It eases and stimulates the joints especially the





knees, ankles and shoulders. It reduces and alleviates backache and





improves the circulation of the entire body.





Instruction Table
1                        





Come in to a position on your hands and your 


knees with your knees together and your feet slightly wider than hip width apart. Your big 


toes & little toes pressing firmly into the floor
 
2                        





Push back with your hands & sit between your



buttocks on the floor, make sure you roll your calf muscles out wards so



your not sitting on them.
 
3                        


Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides.
 
4                        


Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders down.
 
5                        


Exhale lengthen out through the fingertips & turn your palms to the roof. Inhale stretch your arms overhead.
 
6                        


Interlock the fingers. Slowly exhaling turn the palms



towards the ceiling, and with a powerful push lift up from the belly



into your chest and shoulders.
 
7                        


Exhale bring your hands down in a smooth continuance motion….
 
8                        


Now bringing your arms interlocking behind your back



with straight arms, being careful not to roll the shoulders forward,



squeezing the shoulder blades together and opening the chest on the



front of the body.
 
9                        


Inhale hands back to the side


Repeat 2-3 more times

  Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vvG-lekx64I&feature=player_embedded

Kneeing Twist Pose

Regular practice of the kneeling twist pose





will aid in your ability to rotate the spine and upper torso more





effectively, while increasing the flexibility and strength in your back





and abdominal muscles. It also massages, stimulates and rejuvenates the





internal abdominal organs.

This pose is a good beginners pose and will get you ready for more advanced twists.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                              


   

Sit on your heals with your knees together, the tops of the feet




pressing firmly into the ground. Your head, shoulders, and hips should




be in one straight line.

Arms relaxed by the side keep your base firm by contracting your buttocks.

 
2                               


Inhale, extending the spine upwards, exhale twist around to the




right, placing your left hand on the outside of your right thigh,




turning the head in the direction of the twist, but keeping the head and




shoulders relaxed.

Take a few breaths here, keeping the stomach soft and the eyes soft.

Repeat on the other side

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=91MT6kmP7zo&feature=player_embedded

 

Triangle Pose
Tree
Warrior

The Triangle Pose

Triangle pose tones the leg muscles, spinal nerves and abdominal organs; it contributes towards a strong healthy lower back.

The triangle gives an excellent and complete stretch


throughout the entire body.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                


Align yourself in mountain pose. 


Continuing with your smooth


flowing breath
 
2                


Inhale deeply and jump your feet out landing approx



1.2-1.5m apart. your feet need to be in line and pointing forward at



right angles. Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they



are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of



your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead.
 
3                


Now turn your right foot out while keeping your hips to



the front, and turn your left foot in from 90 to 70 degrees, by pivoting



on your heel. Insure your right heel is in line with the instep of the



left foot.


This is important as it sets the base for this pose.
 
4                


The kneecaps and thighs are pulling up,



simultaneously pushing downward through your feet into the floor.



Inhale, extend the spine, exhale as you bend to the right, pushing out



from the hips, through the right arm…
 
5                


Taking your right hand to a comfortable position on your



leg, your left arm coming up to straight, moving down as far as



possible without turning the hips or torso. Keep the thighs firm and



rolling around towards the buttocks, moving the left hip back and open



the chest.
 
6                


Inhale, extend the neck and spine, exhale, turn your head to look up at your left hand.


Keep



your head, your buttocks and your heels in one straight line,not



looking down with you body, keep opening your whole body up.


Breathe easy.

Click here to view the Triangle pose

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tutu7aE2dBI&feature=player_embedded

The Tree Pose

This pose harnesses the powers of mental concentration, while




allowing you to calm the mind. It develops balance and stability, and




strengthens the legs and feet, also increasing flexibility in the hips




and knees.

The tree pose is a balance pose incorporating three lines of




energy, emitting from the centre outwards. One line proceeds down the




straight leg, one line extends up the spine and out the fingertips, and




the third moves outward through the bent knee.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                


  
Align yourself in mountain pose. 


Continuing with your smooth


flowing breath
 
2                


On your next inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto



your left foot. Exhale bend the right knee, and assisting with your



hand, place the sole of your right foot as high as possible into the



left inner thigh, with toes pointing down, steady yourself, and 


breathe easy.
 
3                


Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that



they are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle



of your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely



focused on the pose.
 
4                


Now bring your palms together in prayer



position. Keeping your eyes focused on a point in front of you, will



assist your balance.
 
5                


Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips. 


Keep working your right knee back and contracting your buttocks muscles in and down.


Feel your abdomen plane and hips facing straight ahead, while lifting out of the waist.

 
Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_V4gM4ExLI&feature=player_embedded< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />

The Warrior Pose


Virabhadra

The Warrior pose is




named after the mythic warrior-sage, Virabhadra. This challenging pose




strengthens the entire body while improving mental capacity and self




control.

It builds, shapes and tones the entire lower body. It tones the




abdominal section and helps to prevent, reduce and eliminate back pain.




The entire upper body -front and back- is worked and doing this pose




increases the capacity of the respiratory system.

To view in flash - click the image below




Instruction Table
1                




   
Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.
 
2                


Jump your feet sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your




ankles are below your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling




your knees and thighs up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet




firmly into the floor.


Visualise




an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your body,




dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the




centreline.

 
3                


Keep an awareness of this line as you turn your right



foot out to 90 degrees and turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure



the heel of your front foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips



facing forward.


If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.
 
4                


Inhale, an as you exhale bend your right



leg, pulling up with the outside and inside of the thigh to form a right



angle at the knee. Only go as low as you can with out turning your hips



off centre.


Ideally



you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming



vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through



the back leg into the floor.
 
5                


Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.

 

  Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PVX6hATjfk&feature=player_embedded

 
Mountain Pose
Prayer Pose
Shrug

Mountain Yoga Pose

The Mountain Pose is one of the most important poses in yoga. It is the start and finish point of all standing poses.

When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet,





and the body strong and still, like a mountain. This is a pose you can





practise in your daily life, practising to stand correctly will have a





profound influence on your physical and mental well being.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                 


   Moutain Pose 1

Stand with your feet hip width apart, so the outsides of the feet are almost parallel edged.

Press and spread the toes into the floor. Feel the weight of your




body distributed evenly through your feet, from the toes to the heels,




keep pressing firmly into the floor.

 
2                 


Moutain Posture 2
Lift the kneecaps up by contracting the front thigh



muscles, but not locking the backs of the knees. Pull up with the back



of the thighs, and activate the hip and buttocks to level the pelvis. 


 
 
3                 


Mountain Poses Back
Your hips should be directly over your knees, and your



knees over your ankles. This gives you a stable foundation and by



positioning the pelvis properly, keeps the spine healthy.
 
4                 


Now extend the spine, by slowly inhaling, lifting up




through the legs as you lift the ribcage, opening the chest and dropping




the shoulders down, extending the neck, keeping the jaw and eyes soft.

 
5                                                                              


    Bring the shoulder blades into the back, to support the ribcage. Breathe slowly and softly.

Keep your head directly over your shoulders, and look at eye level at a point in front of you.


Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bz1SWd-cihA&feature=player_embedded
 

The Prayer Pose

This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a




key movement to more advanced poses. This pose will teach you how to




push from under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle




group of the back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses.

It strengthens and aligns the upper body while




releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,




which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the




abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1                


   
Centre yourself in mountain pose and take a


few deep breaths here, breathing down into the abdomen, continuing the


breathing that you are now familiar with.
 
2                


Inhale, raise your arms to shoulder height and stretch them out in the opposite direction to each other 
 
3                


Now twist your arms from the shoulder and turning your palms upwards. Keep the body in a nice strong upright position
 
4                


Bring your arms out in front of you, pushing


your elbows firmly together and your fingers extending away from you,


while focusing on pulling your shoulder blades together..
 
5                


Continue squeezing the elbows together as you bring your palms together
 
6


Now bend at the elbow and take the forearms to vertical.


Keep pressing firmly with the palms and the elbows as you breathe the


arms upwards. With each exhale moving slightly higher.
Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This


movement will teach you how to push from under the shoulders and out of


the lats, the major muscle group of the back. A key movement in a lot of


yoga poses. This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a key


movement to more advanced poses.
 
Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9TPzR6-Kmc&feature=player_embedded

The Shoulder Shrug

The shoulder rotation is another pose which can be practiced anywhere and at any time.

It strengthens and aligns the shoulder region while





releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,





which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the





abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                


  
Align yourself in mountain pose. 


Continuing with your smooth


flowing breath
 
2                


As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.
 
3                


As you exhale, rotate the shoulders around 


by pushing up out of the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them 


in a full circle.
 
4                


Back down into mountain pose


Repeat 3 more times

  Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzWxM_W4DNA&feature=player_embedded

Lying Twist
Downward Dog
Seated Forward Bend

The Lying Basic Twist

Doing this pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

The lying twist is another pose which is very





simple yet extremely effective. This pose is soothing to the spine and





neck, and warms and frees the lower back and hips and it also improves





digestion and assists in toxin elimination.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                              


   

Come to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to




the side and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.

Move your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the




back and shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.

 
2                               


 

Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.

 

 
3                                


Inhale, keeping your knees and ankles together,



Exhale, rolling your knees to the right. Focus on keeping your arms



pressing out wards and your shoulders pushing firmly into the ground.



You may feel or hear your spine lengthening as it extends into the



correct alignment.


Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,
 
4                                


Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.

Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side

Please Visit:
 

The Downward Facing Dog


Adhomukha Svanasana

The downward yoga pose is





named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog stretching itself out.





This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in the legs





while strengthening and shaping the upper body. Dog pose Yoga Posture .





One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try





this one.

Holding this pose for a minute or longer will





stimulate and restore energy levels if you are tired. Regular practice





of this pose rejuvenates the entire body and gently stimulates your





nervous system.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1


Come up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip



width apart and the hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide



pressing firmly into the floor.
 
2


Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.
 
3


As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.
 
4


Now push the floor away from you hands, positioning your



body like an inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to



your shoulders to the hips. Straight arms and straight legs.


As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.


Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKx-LPTtvBQ&feature=player_embedded

The Seated Forward Bend


Paschimottanasana

The purpose of this pose is to give the entire back





of your body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It is





excellent for posture improvement and stimulates the internal organs as





well.

It adds in improved mental concentration and





endurance and helps to control and calm the mind. It relieves





compression while increasing the elasticity of the spine, it also





strengthens and stretches the hamstrings.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1


Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you. 






Move



the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the



top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your



legs.



2


Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.


Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.






Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you. 


Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.



3


Now take your strap around both feet. The



strap`s purpose is to keep the spine straight. This is very important.



Be aware the head is an extension of the spine, so keep it aligned



accordingly.






Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.



4


On your next exhale; come down the belt further while



maintaining the extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of



you will be able to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and



continuously. Don’t pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper



body.


Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.



5


Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, as



you lengthen, exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in



your vertebrae.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEhU1KqPyY4&feature=player_embedded

 

The Locust
The Bridge
Extended Child’s Pose

The Locust Pose


Salabhasana

The locus yoga posture is





named as such as it resembles the shape of the insect known as the





Locust. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in





the lower back while bringing flexibility to the upper back region.

When you first begin to practice this pose, your





legs may not move very far off the floor. Please continue and stay





positive as you will find your range will continue to improve the more





you practice. Learning to master this pose will hold you in good stead





for more advanced back bends.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1


Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with



your arms along side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your



knees and ankles together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and



down. Push your palms into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards,



contract the buttocks, and press the hips and pubis firmly into the



floor.
 
2


On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.

Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.

 
3


Extend the front of your body as you pull



the shoulder blades together, raising the head, the arms, and upper



torso away from the floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of



the chest and pushing down the lines of the arms.


Keep the legs working strongly.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhotDI-dqRE&feature=player_embedded

The Bridge Pose

The Bridge Pose is





a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps to promote a





healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and buttock muscles.





It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and





organs.

It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                                 


Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks, Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel. 


Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.
 
2                                


Inhale, and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly




into the floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the




shoulders and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are




comfortable with. 


Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.

 
3                                


Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind



you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them



contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the



breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.


This



pose stretches the whole front of the body, and brings mobility to the



spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of the ribcage and chest



area.

Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIvKigXK1mU&feature=player_embedded

The Extended Child’s Pose / Garbhasana

The Childs Yoga pose when





practiced regularly is very beneficial to your entire mind and body. It





helps to release the pressure on the spine while providing an entire





stretch through the upper body to the fingertips. It also aids in





strengthening and stretching the insides of the legs while massaging the





internal organs.

Breathing will becomes more efficient and your mind





will become clear. It also aids in improved mental processes and helps





to rejuvenate and energize the entire being.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                              


   
Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.
 
2                               


Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands



out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the



fingertips.
 
3                                


Place your forehead on the ground & buttocks



back to the heels. Work your pubis to the floor and strech the inner



thigh muscles. Focus on the breath.
 
4                                


Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it



forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.



Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the



slow controlled breathing.

  Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrA5mN-MW5U&feature=player_embedded

 
Standing Forward Bend
The Boat (beginners)

The Standing Forward Bend

This pose aids in digestion and is restorative. It





frees the rib cage allowing for improved breathing. It aids in mental





concentration and helps to revive mental and pysichal exhaustion. The





heartbeat is slowed and the lower back is strengthened and pressure is





removed from the lumbar region.

It increases flexibility while strengthening and





developing the hamstrings. It also helps to strengthen the feet and





ankles while realigning the entire body.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                              


   

Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your




arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

 
2                               


Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.
 
3                                


Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend forward,



continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and your base



nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the extension on the



stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting it. 


Take a few breaths here.
 
4                                


Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to




the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger




tips.






If




you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees and




keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not against




it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

 
5                                


Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.






Remember to keep the arches high.

Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUtawL5TmAE&feature=player_embedded

The Boat Pose

Doing the boat pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

Keep challenging yourself to stay in this pose





longer. If you find the stimulation of the midsection becoming intense,





just persist with it, knowing your mind has ultimate control over the





body.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                              


   
Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.


Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.
 
2                               


Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.
 
3                                


Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.



Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and



squeezing the shoulder blades together. 


Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with
 
4                                


Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,




opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This




will help your stability. Continue with the controlled breathing.

Feel the stimulation of the entire abdominal region, as you hold this pose for a few more breaths.

Advanced Variation of The Boat

Now bring your legs up to straight. Continue to keep your focus on that point in front of you.

Continue with the controlled breathing.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMJ9×8STzfA&feature=player_embedded


comments (0)
04/09/17
2191 Sun 9 Apr 2017 LESSONS Compile and complete translation of the Tipitaka-1) Classical English,8) Euskal Klasikoa,9) Класічная беларуская,10) শাস্ত্রীয় বাংলা,11) Klasična bosanski,12) Класически български,13) Català Classical,14) Classical Cebuano,15) Chakale Chichewa,16)古典中文(简体),17)古典中文(繁體),18) Corsican Classical,19) Klasična Hrvatska,20) Klasický český,
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 1:56 am

2191 Sun 9 Apr 2017 LESSONS

Compile and complete  translation of the Tipitaka-1) Classical English,8) Euskal Klasikoa,9) Класічная беларуская,10) শাস্ত্রীয় বাংলা,11) Klasična bosanski,12) Класически български,13) Català Classical,14) Classical Cebuano,15) Chakale Chichewa,16)古典中文(简体),17)古典中文(繁體),18) Corsican Classical,19) Klasična Hrvatska,20) Klasický český,21) Klassisk dansk



http://media.photobucket.com/user/auchan/media/tipitaka.jpg.html?filters[term]=tipitaka%20-%20kitab%20suci%20buddha&filters[primary]=images&filters[secondary]=videos&sort=1&o=2


tipitaka - kitab suci buddha photo: tipitaka buddha tipitaka.jpg


1) Classical English

compile and complete  translation of the Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

Welcome to Wikipitaka,


the Tipitaka that anyone can edit.

Right now, there are 3,219 suttas and articles.

Wikipitaka is an attempt to compile and complete an English translation of the Tipitaka,
the Buddhist sacred scripture, and its commentaries in order to enable
complete features of online text: searching, browsing, linking, instant
editing as well as looking up terms in an online dictionary.

The word Tipitaka means three boxes or baskets(pitakas) i.e. sections. The entire Buddhist canon is divided into three sections i.e.(1) Vinaya Pitaka : The Ethics/Moral codes. (2) Sutta Pitaka : The discourses of Buddha (mostly), this is the largest section. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka : The theoretical part and also the higher/ultimate meaning of Buddha’s ideas.

There are now 3,219 articles/pages in Wikipitaka and considering
the number of pdf files provided, the number of suttas in Wikipitaka is
even much more. It is now the largest collection of Theravada Buddhist
scriptures/suttas in English on internet providing an almost complete
picture of Theravada Buddhism. Also, for the purpose of maintaining
complete purity of Buddhist scriptures, obviating the loss of meaning in
translation, a Pali version is also provided in every section in the
very language spoken by Buddha & complete with original phonetics,
which is very useful for research & for the monks & meditation
practitioners. Please help us grow by contributing. See the To Do page for ideas. It really is easy to help once you get started!


The Buddha said:



A gift of Dhamma conquers all gifts.


Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Help us carry out this great mission, giving this great gift to the world, by sharing the profound Dhamma of the Buddha.

This is the excellent chance to make some Great Karma. By reading and sharing your insight with us, you have accumulated the perfection of wisdom (panna paramitta), for yourself as well as for the world.

“Completing the Tipitaka”


Simply pickup your Tipitaka or any of the scriptures at hand and
translate! You may help us transcribe some translations that available
in hardcopy, with proper citation, if you do not want to translate them
yourself. Please see To Do page for more ideas about how to help “completing the Tipitaka.”



http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Welcome!

There are plenty of things to do on this site so do overcome any natural hesitation you might have and please contribute.

The key is to realize that you do not need to come to the site with a complete, perfect article,
although that would be good. Small, and hopefully regular, activity is
excellent. If you can come regularly for half an hour and copy 4 pages
from Wikepedia, take out a few unnecessary links, correct a bit of
grammar, link 5 references to their full text, etc., you have given this
world a great gift.

This is very important because progress can be made only if there
are thousands of us doing it. If 2,000 of us donate half an hour a day
thats 500 hours work done a day, 8,000 bits of new information added,
10,000 references etc. Its only with the scaling up of collaborative
effort that this project becomes feasible.


http://media.photobucket.com/user/mrthant/media/tipitaka.jpg.html?filters[term]=tipitaka%20-%20kitab%20suci%20buddha&filters[primary]=images&filters[secondary]=videos&sort=1&o=0

tipitaka - kitab suci buddha photo: tipitaka tipitaka.jpg



8) Euskal Klasikoa

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

konpilatu eta Tipitaka itzulpena osoa

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Ongi Wikipitaka den,
Tipitaka Edozeinek editatu dezake.
Oraintxe bertan, 3.219 suttas eta artikulu daude.

bilaketa, bilaketa lotuz, berehalako edizio baita lineako hiztegi
batean, termino gora begira: Wikipitaka bildu saiakera eta Tipitaka du,
budista Scripturá sakratua, eta bere komentario itzulpen osoa ordena
testua online ezaugarri osoa gaitu da.

Hitza Tipitaka hiru kutxak edo saskiak (pitakas) adibidez ataletan esan nahi du. Etika / kode Moral: jakinarazi osoan budista canon hiru atal adibidez (1) Vinayak Pitaka banatuta. (2) Sutta Pitaka: Buda (batez ere) diskurtsoak, honek atalean handiena da. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: eskola teoriko eta, gainera, goi mailako / azken Buda ideiak esanahia.

Badira
orain 3.219 artikulu / Wikipitaka in orriak eta, betiere pdf
fitxategiak kopurua kontuan hartuta suttas kopuruaren Wikipitaka da,
nahiz eta askoz ere gehiago.
Orain
da Theravada budista Eskrituretako / Theravada budismoaren irudi ia
osoa ematen ingelesez suttas internet buruzko bildumarik handiena.
Era
berean, budista Eskrituretako garbitasuna osoa mantenduz, esanahia
galtzea itzulpen ere saihestu dute helburua, Pali bertsio bat ere egin
atalean guztietan ematen da ahozko Buda & original fonetika osoa,
eta hori oso erabilgarria ikerketarako da oso hizkuntzan &
fraideen & meditazio praktikatzen da. Mesedez laguntza hazten laguntzen digu. Ikus Do orria ideiak. Benetan erraza Hasteko behin laguntzeko!

Buda esan du:
Dhamma opari bat opari guztiak konkistatu.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Laguntza misio handi hau aurrera eramateko digu, munduko opari handi hori emanez, Budaren Dhamma sakona partekatuz.

Hau bikaina aukera Great Karma batzuk egiteko da. irakurtzen eta zure ikuspegi partekatzen gurekin con, jakinduria
(panna paramitta) perfekzioa metatutako duzu, zeuk, baita mundua da.
“Tipitaka osatzeak”

Besterik gabe bilketa zure Tipitaka edo Eskrituretako edozein esku eta itzul! itzulpenak
batzuk paperean eskuragarri dagoela transkribatu lagunduko digu
dezakezu, Aipatzeko egokia, ez baduzu haiek itzultzea yourself nahi.
Mesedez, ikusi orri Do nola lagundu buruzko ideia gehiago “Tipitaka osatzea”.

    Vinayak Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Ongi etorri!

Badira gauza gune honetako egiten hacerlo zalantzarik natural izan duzu eta egin ekarpena gainditzeko askorekin.

Gakoa da ez duzula behar, artikulu perfektua osoa batera Gunean etorri, nahiz eta hori ona izango litzateke konturatzeko. Txikia, eta, zorionez, erregular, jarduera bikaina da. aldizka etortzen bada, ordu erdi bat kopiatu Wikepedia 4 orriak, atera
batzuk alferrikako estekak, gramatika, link 5 beraien testu osoa, etab
erreferentziak pixka bat zuzentzeko, opari handi bat eman duzula mundu
honetan.

Hau oso garrantzitsua da aurrera egin ahal izango da delako daude digu milaka egiten bada bakarrik. Gutako 2.000 bada dohaintzan ordu erdiz, eguneko thats 500 ordu
lan egun bat egin, 8.000 informazio berria zatiak gehitu, 10.000
erreferentziak etab Bere bakarrik eskalatzeko elkarlanaren proiektu hori
bideragarria bihurtzen sortu.

    Hastapenak
merezi loturak gorria urdina ebaki eta itsatsi eta material
inportatzean beste gune egokia, beti dagoela copyright libreak izan
behar dute edo horiek aipatu behar diozu gogoratuta inflexio baitute da.
Jakina
Wikipedia material-iturri ona da, baina beste gune erabil daiteke,
baita esaterako Estatistikak [1] eta Tipitaka.tk sarbidea [2].
Gogoratu saiatu eta gorde gure estiloa estandarra eta pasarte bereizi jarri bereizi sub-orriak kalera. Argibideak nola kopiatu testua eta irudiak Wikipedia laguntza orritik ikusi.


9) Класічная беларуская

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

кампіляваць і поўны пераклад Типитаки

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Сардэчна запрашаем у Wikipitaka,
Типитаки, што кожны можа рэдагаваць.
Прама цяпер, ёсць 3219 сутраў і артыкулы.

Wikipitaka спроба сабраць і поўны пераклад Типитаки, будыйскага
свяшчэннага пісання, і яго каментары, з тым каб поўныя магчымасці онлайн
тэксту: пошук, прагляд, звязваючы, імгненнае рэдагаванне, а таксама
пошуку тэрмінаў у онлайн слоўніку.

Слова Типитак азначае тры скрынкі ці каша (pitakas), гэта значыць секцыі. Увесь Будыйскі канон падзелены на тры часткі, г.зн. (1) Виная Питака: Этыка / маральных кодаў. (2) Сутта Питак: Павучанні Буды (у асноўным), гэта самы вялікі раздзел. (3) Абхидхамма Питак: Тэарэтычная частка, а таксама тым вышэй / канчатковы сэнс ідэй Буды.

Ёсць
у цяперашні час 3219 артыкулы / старонкі ў Wikipitaka і прымаючы пад
увагу колькасць PDF-файлаў пры ўмове, колькасць Сутта ў Wikipitaka нават
нашмат больш.
У
цяперашні час гэта самая вялікая калекцыя Тхеравада будыйскіх пісанняў /
Сутта на англійскай мове на Інтэрнэце, якія забяспечваюць практычна
поўную карціну будызму Тхеравады.
Акрамя
таго, з мэтай падтрымання поўнай чысціні будыйскіх пісанняў,
пазбаўляючы страту сэнсу ў перакладзе, версія Палі таксама
прадастаўляюцца ў кожным раздзеле ў самым мове, на якой гаворыць Буда і ў
камплекце з арыгінальнай фанетыка, што вельмі карысна для даследаванняў
і
для манахаў і практыкаў медытацыі. Калі ласка, дапамажыце нам расці, спрыяючы. См рабіць старонку для ідэй. Гэта сапраўды вельмі проста, каб дапамагчы, як толькі вы пачалі!

Буда сказаў:
Падарунак Дхаммой перамагае ўсе падарункі.
Дхаммапада XXIV, 354

Дапамажыце нам выканаць гэтую вялікую місію, даючы гэты вялікі падарунак да свету, дзелячыся глыбокай Дхарма Буды.

Гэта выдатны шанец, каб зрабіць некаторую Great карму. Чытаючы і падзяляючы ваша разуменне з намі, вы назапасілі дасканаласць мудрасці (Панна paramitta), для сябе, так і для свету.
«Завяршэнне Типитака»

Проста пікап вашага Типитак або любой з пісанняў пад руку і перавесці! Вы
можаце дапамагчы нам расшыфроўваць некаторыя пераклады, якія даступныя ў
друкаваным выглядзе, з належнай цытатай, калі вы не хочаце, каб
перавесці іх самастойна.
См рабіць старонку для большай колькасці ідэй аб тым, як дапамагчы «завяршыць Tipitaka.»

    Vinaya Питака
    
Саньютта Nikaya
    
Ангуттара Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Питака

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Сардэчна запрашаем!

Ёсць шмат рэчаў, каб зрабіць на гэтым сайце, так што пераадолець любую
фізічную нерашучасць вы маглі б мець і, калі ласка, ўнесці свой уклад.

Ключ павінен разумець, што вам не трэба, каб зайсці на сайт з поўнай, дасканалай артыкулам, хоць гэта было б добра. Малыя, і, спадзяюся, рэгулярная актыўнасць цудоўная. Калі вы можаце прыйсці рэгулярна на працягу паўгадзіны і капіяваць 4
старонкі з Вікіпедыі, вымаюць некалькі непатрэбных спасылак, выправіць
трохі граматыкі, спасылка 5 спасылак на іх поўны тэкст і г.д., вы далі
гэтаму свету вялікі падарунак.

Гэта вельмі важна, таму што прагрэс можа быць дасягнуты толькі тады, калі ёсць тысячы з нас робіць гэта. Калі 2000 з нас ахвяруюць паўгадзіны ў дзень Thats 500 гадзін
праца зробленая ў дзень, 8000 біт новай інфармацыі дадалі, 10000
спасылак і г.д. Яго толькі з маштабаваннем да сумесных намаганняў, што
гэты праект стане магчымым.

    На
ранніх стадыях гэта каштуе канцэнтравацца на такарныя чырвоных спасылак
сініх шляхам выразання і ўстаўкі і імпарту матэрыялу з іншых адпаведных
сайтаў, заўсёды памятаць, што яны павінны быць абаронены аўтарскім
правам ці вы павінны спасылацца на іх.
Відавочна
Вікіпедыя з’яўляецца добрым крыніцай матэрыялу, але і іншыя сайты
могуць быць выкарыстаны таксама такія, як доступ да Insight [1] і
Tipitaka.tk [2].
Не забудзьцеся паспрабаваць і трымаць іх у наш стандартны стыль і пакласці асобныя праходы на асобныя падстаронак. Для атрымання інструкцый гл тэксту, як капіяваць і малюнкі з дапамогай старонкі Вікіпедыі.


10) শাস্ত্রীয় বাংলা

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

কম্পাইল এবং ত্রিপিটক সম্পূর্ণ অনুবাদ

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Wikipitaka স্বাগতম,
ত্রিপিটক যে কেউ সম্পাদনা করতে পারেন।
ঠিক এখন, সেখানে 3,219 suttas এবং নিবন্ধ আছে।

অনুসন্ধান, ব্রাউজিং, লিঙ্ক, তাত্ক্ষণিক সম্পাদনা সেইসাথে একটি অনলাইন
অভিধানে পদ আপ খুঁজছেন: Wikipitaka অর্ডার অনলাইন পাঠ্যের সম্পূর্ণ
বৈশিষ্ট্য সক্রিয় করার জন্য ত্রিপিটক, বৌদ্ধ পবিত্র শাস্ত্র, এবং তার
আলোচনা সম্পূর্ণ অনুবাদ কম্পাইল করার চেষ্টা এবং হয়।

শব্দ ত্রিপিটক তিন বক্স বা ঝুড়ি (pitakas) অর্থাত বিভাগে মানে। এথিক্স / নৈতিক কোড: সমগ্র বৌদ্ধ ক্যানন তিন বিভাগের অর্থাত (1) বিনয় Pitaka বিভক্ত করা হয়। (2) Sutta Pitaka: বুদ্ধ (বেশিরভাগই) এর ভাষণ, এই বৃহত্তম অধ্যায়। (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: তাত্ত্বিক অংশ এবং উচ্চতর / বৌদ্ধ ধারনা চূড়ান্ত অর্থ।

এখন
3,219 প্রবন্ধ / Wikipitaka মধ্যে পৃষ্ঠা আছে এবং প্রদত্ত পিডিএফ ফাইল
সংখ্যা বিবেচনা, Wikipitaka মধ্যে suttas সংখ্যা এমনকি অনেক বেশী।
এটা
এখন থেরাভেদা বৌদ্ধ ধর্মগ্রন্থ / থেরাভাদা বুদ্ধিজম অনুসারে প্রায়
সম্পূর্ণ ছবি প্রদানের ইন্টারনেটে ইংরেজিতে suttas বৃহত্তম সংগ্রহ করা হয়।
এছাড়াও,
বৌদ্ধ ধর্মগ্রন্থ সম্পূর্ণ বিশুদ্ধতা বজায় রাখার অনুবাদে অর্থ হারানোর
obviating উদ্দেশ্যে, একটি পালি সংস্করণ যে বিভাগে বুদ্ধ ও মূল
ধ্বনিবিজ্ঞান সঙ্গে সম্পূর্ণ, যা গবেষণার জন্য খুবই দরকারী দ্বারা উচ্চারিত
খুব ভাষায় প্রদান করা হয় &
সন্ন্যাসী ও ধ্যান অনুশীলনকারীদের জন্য। দয়া করে আমাদের সহায়তা অবদান বৃদ্ধি ঘটেছে। ধারনা পৃষ্ঠা কিছু দেখুন। এটা সত্যিই একবার আপনি শুরু করতে সহায়তা করার সহজ!

বুদ্ধ বললেন,
ধম্ম একটি উপহার সব উপহার conquers।
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

আমাদের এই মহান মিশন চালায়, বিশ্বের এই মহান দান দান, বুদ্ধের গভীর ধম্ম ভাগ করে সাহায্য করুন।

এই কিছু গ্রেট কর্মফল করতে চমৎকার সুযোগ। পড়া ও আমাদের সাথে আপনার অন্তর্দৃষ্টি ভাগ করার মাধ্যমে, আপনি নিজের
জন্য সেইসাথে বিশ্বের জন্য জ্ঞান (পান্না paramitta) এর পরিপূর্ণতা সঞ্চিত
হয়েছে।
“ত্রিপিটক সম্পূর্ণ করা”

কেবলমাত্র পিক হাতে আপনার ত্রিপিটক বা ধর্মগ্রন্থ যেকোন এবং অনুবাদ! আপনি
আমাদের যে হার্ডকপি পাওয়া কিছু অনুবাদের প্রতিলিপি সাহায্য করতে পারে
সঠিক তলব সঙ্গে যদি আপনি তাদের নিজেকে অনুবাদ করতে চাই না।
দয়া করে কিভাবে সাহায্য করবেন সে সম্পর্কে আরো ধারনা পৃষ্ঠা কিছু দেখুন “ত্রিপিটক সমাপ্তির।”

    বিনয় Pitaka
    
Samyutta নিকায়
    
Anguttara নিকায়
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

স্বাগত!

কিছু এই সাইটে কি তাই কোনো প্রাকৃতিক দ্বিধা আপনি থাকতে পারে এবং দয়া করে অবদান রাখতে পরাস্ত করবেন প্রচুর আছে।

কী বুঝতে পারছি যে আপনি যে যদিও ভাল হবে, একটি সম্পূর্ণ, নিখুঁত নিবন্ধ দিয়ে সাইটে আসার উল্লেখ করা প্রয়োজন হবে না হয়। ছোট, এবং আশা নিয়মিত, কার্যকলাপ চমৎকার। আপনি আধা ঘন্টার জন্য নিয়মিতভাবে আসা এবং Wikepedia থেকে 4 পৃষ্ঠাগুলি
কপি করতে পারেন,, কয়েক অপ্রয়োজনীয় লিঙ্ক খুঁজে নিতে ব্যাকরণ, লিঙ্ক
তাদের পূর্ণ টেক্সট, ইত্যাদি 5 রেফারেন্স একটি বিট সংশোধন, আপনি এই বিশ্বের
একটি মহান দান দিয়েছেন।

এটি খুবই গুরুত্বপূর্ণ কারণ উন্নতি শুধুমাত্র যদি আমাদের হাজার হাজার তা করছেন করা যেতে পারে। তাহলে আমাদের 2,000 আধা ঘন্টার দান একটি দিন না না 500 ঘণ্টা কাজ
একটি দিন কাজ, নতুন তথ্য 8,000 বিট শুধুমাত্র সহযোগীতা চেষ্টার এই
প্রকল্পের সম্ভবপর হয়ে স্কেলিং আপ সঙ্গে যোগ করেছেন, 10,000 রেফারেন্স
ইত্যাদি তার।

    প্রাথমিক
পর্যায়ে এটা নীল কাটা এবং আটকে এবং অন্য উপযুক্ত সাইট থেকে উপাদান
আমদানি, সব সময়ই চিন্তা করেন যে তারা কপিরাইটের মুক্ত হতে হবে অথবা আপনি
তাদের cite আবশ্যক দ্বারা লাল লিঙ্ক বাঁক উপর মনোযোগ মূল্য।
একথাও
ঠিক যে উইকিপিডিয়া উপাদানের একটি ভাল উৎস কিন্তু অন্যান্য সাইটের
পাশাপাশি যেমন অন্তর্দৃষ্টি [1] এবং Tipitaka.tk অ্যাক্সেস ব্যবহার করা
যেতে পারে [2]।
চেষ্টা করুন এবং তাদেরকে আমাদের মান শৈলী রাখা এবং পৃথক সাব পেজ সম্মুখের পৃথক প্যাসেজ লাগাতে ভুলবেন না। নির্দেশাবলী উইকিপিডিয়া সাহায্যের পাতা থেকে কিভাবে কপি করতে পাঠ এবং ছবি দেখুন।


11) Klasična bosanski

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

sastaviti i kompletan prevod Tipitake

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Dobrodošli u Wikipitaka,
Tipitake da svako može uređivati.
Trenutno, postoje 3.219 suttama i članaka.

Wikipitaka je pokušaj da se sastavi i kompletan prevod Tipitake,
budistički sveti Sveto pismo, i njegove komentare kako bi se omogućila
potpuna karakteristike online tekst: pretraživanje, pretraživanje,
povezivanje, instant uređivanje kao i tražim se termini online rječnik.

Riječ Tipitaka znači tri kutije ili korpe (pitakas) i.e. sekcije. Čitav budistički kanon je podijeljena u tri sekcije i.e. (1) Vinaya pitaka: Etika / moralne kodekse. (2) Sutta pitaki: diskursa Buddha (uglavnom), ovo je najveći sekciji. (3) Abhidhamma pitaka: Teoretski dio i viši / krajnji smisao Budine ideje.

Sada
postoje 3.219 članaka / stranica u Wikipitaka i s obzirom na broj PDF
datoteka pod uslovom, broj suttama u Wikipitaka je još mnogo više.
To
je sada najveća kolekcija theravadskog budističkih tekstova / suttama
na engleskom jeziku na internetu pruža gotovo potpunu sliku o theravada
budizma.
Također,
u svrhu održavanja potpune čistoće budističkih spisa, zaobilazeći
gubitak smisla u prevodu, a Pali verzija je također pruža u svakom
odjeljku u samom jeziku koji govori Buda i zajedno sa originalnim
fonetike, što je veoma korisno za istraživanje i
za monahe i meditacija prakse. Molim te, pomozi nam rasti doprinos. Pogledajte To Do stranica za ideje. To je zaista lako pomoći jednom kada počnete!

Buda je rekao:
A dar Dhamme osvaja sve poklone.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Pomozite nam obavljati ovu veliku misiju, dajući ovaj veliki dar na svijetu, dijeleći duboke Dhammi Bude.

Ovo je odlična prilika da se neke velike Karma. Čitanjem i dijeljenje uvid s nama, vi ste akumulirane savršenstvo mudrosti (panna paramitta), za sebe kao i za svijet.
“Završni Tipitake”

Jednostavno pickup svoj Tipitake ili na bilo koji spisa pri ruci i prevesti! Možete
nam može pomoći da prepisati neke prevode koji dostupan u štampanom, sa
odgovarajućim citata, ako ne želite da ih prevesti sebe.
Molimo pogledajte Da li stranica za više ideja o tome kako da pomogne “završetka Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya pitaka
    
samyutta nikāya
    
Anguttara nikāya
    
Abidhamma pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Dobrodošli!

Postoji mnogo učiniti na ovom sajtu tako se prevaziđu svako fizičko ustručavanja možete imati i molim te doprinijeti stvari.

Ključno je da se shvati da ne treba da dođu na sajt sa kompletnim, savršen članak, iako bi to bilo dobro. Mala, a nadamo se redovna, aktivnost je odličan. Ako možete redovno dolaze za pola sata i kopirati 4 stranice iz
Wikepedia, izvadite nekoliko nepotrebnih linkova, ispravi malo
gramatike, link 5 reference na svoj puni tekst, itd, vi ste dali ovaj
svet veliki dar.

Ovo je vrlo važno jer se napredak može postići samo ako postoje hiljade nas radi. Ukoliko 2.000 nama donirati pola sata dnevno thats 500 sati rad na
dan, 8.000 bita novih informacija dodao je, 10.000 referenci itd
Njegova samo uz skaliranje do zajedničkih napora da ovaj projekt postaje
moguće.

    U
ranim fazama vredi koncentrirajući se na paljenjem crvenog veze plave
rezanjem i lijepljenjem i uvoz materijala iz drugih odgovarajućih
stranicama, uvijek na umu da oni moraju biti autorsko pravo besplatno
ili morate ih navesti.
Očigledno
je da Wikipedia je dobar izvor materijala, ali drugih mjesta mogu se
koristiti i kao što su pristup Insight [1] i Tipitaka.tk [2].
Ne zaboravite kako bi zadržala ih našem standardnom stilu i staviti odvojene prolaza na odvojenim podstranica. Za upute pogledajte kako kopirati tekst i slike iz Wikipedia stranice pomoći.


12) Класически български

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

събира и пълен превод на Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Добре дошли в Wikipitaka,
на Tipitaka, че всеки може да редактира.
Точно сега, има 3,219 suttas и статии.

Wikipitaka е опит да се събира и пълен превод на Tipitaka будисткият
свещено писание, неговите коментари, с цел да се даде възможност на
цялостни функции на онлайн текст: търсене, сърфиране, свързващи,
мигновени редактиране, както и да вдига поглед термини в онлайн речник.

Думата Tipitaka означава три кутии или кошници (pitakas) т.е. секции. Цялата Будист канон е разделен на три секции т.е. (1) Виная Pitaka: В / морални кодове етика. (2) Sutta Pitaka: дискурсите на Буда (главно), това е най-голямата част. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: В теоретичната част, а също и по-високите / крайния смисъл на идеите на Буда.

В
момента има 3,219 статии / страници в Wikipitaka и като се има предвид
броя на PDF файлове при условие, броят на suttas в Wikipitaka е дори
много повече.
Сега
е най-голямата колекция на Тхеравада будистки писания / suttas на
английски език на интернет, които предоставят почти пълна картина на
Тхеравада будизма.
Също
така, с цел поддържане на пълна чистота на будистки писания, така че
няма загуба на смисъла в превода, версия Пали се предоставя и във всяка
точка в самия език, говорен от Буда и пълен с оригинални фонетиката,
което е много полезно за научни изследвания и
за монасите и медитация практикуващите. Моля, помогнете ни да расте, като допринася. Виж да се направи страница за идеи. Това наистина е лесно да се помогне, след като сте да започнете!

Буда е казал:
А подарък на Дамма победи всички подаръци.
Дхамапада XXIV, 354

Помогнете ни да извършат тази велика мисия, като този велик дар за света, чрез споделяне на дълбоката Дамма на Буда.

Това е отлична възможност да се направят някои големи Карма. С четене и споделяне на вашето прозрение с нас, които сте натрупали
съвършенството на мъдростта (Panna paramitta), за себе си, така и за
света.
“Завършване на Tipitaka”

Просто пикап си Tipitaka или някоя от писанията на една ръка разстояние и превежда! Може
да ни помогне да преписвам някои преводи, които предлагат на хартия, с
правилното цитиране, ако не искате да ги преведете сами.
Моля, вижте To Do страница за повече идеи за това как да се помогне на “завършване на Tipitaka”.

    Виная Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Добре дошли!

Има много неща за вършене в този сайт, така че правя преодолее всяко физическо колебание може да се наложи и моля да допринесе.

Ключът е да се осъзнае, че не е нужно да дойде на мястото с пълен, перфектна статия, макар че би било добре. Малки, и се надяваме, редовен, активността е отлично. Ако можете да се редовно за половин час и да копирате 4 страници от
Wikepedia, извадете няколко ненужни връзки, се коригира малко граматика,
сочат 5 препратки към пълния си текст и т.н., които сте дали този свят
голям подарък.

Това е много важно, защото може да бъде постигнат напредък, само ако има хиляди нас го правят. Ако 2000 от нас дари половин час на ден, този 500 часа работа на
ден, 8000 бита на нова информация, добавени, 10000 препратки и др
Нейните само с мащабирането на съвместните усилия на този проект става
възможно.

    В
ранните етапи струва си да се концентрира върху превръщането на червени
връзки сини, като го копирате и вносител материал от други подходящи
места, като винаги помня, че те трябва да са без авторски права или
трябва да ги цитирам.
Очевидно
Wikipedia е добър източник на материал, но други сайтове могат да се
използват както като например достъп до Insight [1] и Tipitaka.tk [2].
Не забравяйте да се опита да ги задържи за нашия стандарт стил и сложи отделни пасажи върху отделни подстраници. За инструкции видят текста как да копирате и изображения от помощната страница Уикипедия.


13) Català Classical

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

compilar i traducció completa del Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Benvingut a Wikipitaka,
Tipitaka que qualsevol pot editar.
En aquest moment, hi ha 3.219 suttas i articles.

Wikipitaka és un intent de compilar i traducció completa del Tipitaka,
la sagrada escriptura budista, i els seus comentaris per tal
d’habilitar les característiques completes de text en línia: recerca, la
navegació, la vinculació, edició instantània, així com mirant cap amunt
termes en un diccionari en línia.

La paraula Tipitaka significa tres caixes o cistelles (Pitakas) seccions és a dir. Tot el cànon budista es divideix en tres seccions, és a dir (1) Vinaya Pitaka: Els codis d’ètica / moral. (2) Sutta Pitaka: Els discursos de Buda (majoritàriament), aquesta és la secció més gran. (3) Abhidhamma: La part teòrica i també el significat superior / última de les idees de Buda.

En
l’actualitat hi ha 3.219 articles / pàgines en Wikipitaka i tenint en
compte el nombre d’arxius PDF que es proporcionen, el nombre de suttas
en Wikipitaka és encara molt més.
Ara
és la major col·lecció d’escriptures budistes Theravada / suttas en
anglès a Internet que ofereixen una imatge gairebé completa del budisme
Theravada.
A
més, amb el propòsit de mantenir la puresa completa de les escriptures
budistes, obviant la pèrdua del sentit de la traducció, una versió Pali
també es proporciona en cada secció en el mateix idioma parlat per Buda i
complet amb la fonètica originals, la qual cosa és molt útil per a la
investigació i
per als monjos i practicants de meditació. Si us plau, ens ajuden a créixer, contribuint. Veure la pàgina de tasques per fer per a les idees. És realment fàcil d’ajudar a una vegada a començar!

El Buda va dir:
Un regal de l’Dhamma venç tots els dons.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Ens ajuden a dur a terme aquesta gran missió, donant aquest gran regal per al món, compartint el profund Dharma del Buda.

Aquesta és l’excel·lent oportunitat de fer alguna cosa de gran Karma. En llegir i compartir el seu coneixement amb nosaltres, que hagi
acumulat la perfecció de la saviesa (panna paramitta), per si mateix,
així com per al món.
“Completar el Tipitaka”

Simplement recollir el seu Tipitaka o qualsevol de les escriptures a mà i traduir! Vostè
pot ajudar-nos a transcriure algunes traduccions que disponibles en
forma impresa, amb la deguda citació, si no voleu traduir per si mateix.
Si us plau, vegeu Per fer la pàgina per obtenir més idees sobre com ajudar a “completar el Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Piåaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Benvinguda!

Hi ha un munt de coses a fer en aquest lloc també ho fan superar
qualsevol vacil·lació naturals que pugui tenir i contribuir per favor.

La clau és adonar-se que no és necessari per arribar al lloc amb un article complet, perfecte, encara que això seria bo. Petita, i és d’esperar regular, l’activitat és excel·lent. Si vostè pot venir regularment durant mitja hora i copiar abril
pàgines de Wikepedia, treure un parell d’enllaços innecessaris, corregir
una mica de gramàtica, enllaç maig referències al seu text complet,
etc., que ha donat a aquest món un gran regal.

Això és molt important perquè es pot avançar només si hi ha milers de nosaltres fer-ho. Si ens donen 2.000 de mitja hora al dia, això és 500 hores de
treball fa un dia, 8.000 bits d’informació nova afegeixen, 10.000
referències, etc. És només amb l’ampliació d’esforç de col·laboració que
aquest projecte sigui factible.

    En
les primeres etapes val la pena concentrar-se en convertir enllaços
vermells blaus tallant i pegant i importació de material d’altres llocs
apropiats, recordant sempre que han d’estar lliures de drets d’autor o
ha citar-los.
Òbviament
Wikipedia és una bona font de material, però d’altres llocs es pot
utilitzar, així com l’accés a Insight [1] i Tipitaka.tk [2].
Recordi que ha de tractar de mantenir al nostre estil estàndard i posar passos separats en sub pàgines separades. Consulteu les instruccions en el text sobre la còpia i les imatges de la pàgina d’ajuda de Wikipedia.


14) Classical Cebuano

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

pagtipon ug bug-os nga hubad sa Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Welcome sa Wikipitaka,
ang Tipitaka nga bisan kinsa nga makahimo sa usba.
Karon, adunay 3.219 suttas ug mga artikulo.

Wikipitaka mao ang usa ka pagsulay sa pagtipon ug bug-os nga hubad sa
Tipitaka, ang Buddhist sagrado nga mga kasulatan, ug mga komentaryo
niini aron aron bug-os nga bahin sa online nga teksto: pagpangita,
basabasa, taytayan, instant pag-usab ingon man sa pagtan-aw sa mga
termino sa usa ka online dictionary.

Ang pulong Tipitaka nagpasabot sa tulo ka mga kahon o mga bukag (pitakas) pananglitan mga seksyon. Ang tibuok Buddhist kanon gibahin ngadto sa tulo ka mga seksyon pananglitan (1) Vinaya Pitaka: Ang Ethics / Moral code. (2) Sutta Pitaka: Ang mga pakigpulong sa Buddha (kasagaran), kini mao ang kinadak-ang seksyon. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: Ang theoretical bahin ug usab sa mas taas nga / katapusang kahulogan sa mga ideya ni Buddha.

Adunay
karon 3.219 artikulo / mga panid sa Wikipitaka ug nagpalandong sa
gidaghanon sa mga pdf file nga gihatag, ang gidaghanon sa mga suttas sa
Wikipitaka bisan mas labaw pa.
Kini
mao ang kinadak-ang koleksyon sa mga Budhistang Theravada kasulatan /
suttas sa Iningles sa internet sa paghatag og usa halos bug-os nga
hulagway sa Theravada Budhismo karon.
Usab,
alang sa katuyoan sa pagmintinar bug-os nga kaputli sa Buddhist
kasulatan, obviating sa pagkawala sa kahulogan sa paghubad, usa ka Pali
nga bersyon gihatag usab sa tanan nga seksyon diha sa pinulongan nga
gisulti sa Buddha & bug-os nga uban sa orihinal nga paglitok, nga
mao ang kaayo mapuslanon alang sa research &
alang sa mga monghe & pagpamalandong practitioners. Palihug sa pagtabang kanato nga motubo pinaagi sa paghatag. Tan-awa ang Aron ba pahina alang sa mga ideya. Kini gayud mao ang sayon ​​aron sa pagtabang sa higayon nga ikaw nagsugod!

Ang Buddha miingon:
Ang usa ka gasa sa Dhamma magmadaogon sa tanan nga mga gasa.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Tabangi kami sa pagdala sa niini nga dako nga misyon, sa paghatag
niini nga mahinungdanon nga gasa ngadto sa kalibutan, pinaagi sa
pagpakigbahin sa mga lawom nga Dhamma sa Buddha.

Kini mao ang labing maayo nga higayon sa paghimo sa pipila ka mga Dakong Karma. Pinaagi sa pagbasa ug sa pagpakigbahin sa imong hait nga salabotan
uban kanamo, ikaw natipon sa kahingpitan sa kaalam (panna paramitta),
alang sa imong kaugalingon ingon man alang sa kalibutan.
“Mokompleto sa Tipitaka”

Lamang pickup sa imong Tipitaka o sa bisan unsa sa mga kasulatan diha sa kamot, ug sa paghubad! Ikaw
mahimo nga motabang kanato sa transcribe pipila ka hubad nga anaa sa
hardcopy, uban sa husto nga citation, kon dili kamo buot sa paghubad
kanila sa imong kaugalingon.
Palihug tan-awa Aron ba panid alang sa dugang nga mga ideya kon unsaon sa pagtabang sa “pagkompleto sa Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Welcome!

Adunay daghang mga butang nga buhaton sa niini nga site mao nga sa
pagbuhat sa pagbuntog sa bisan unsa nga natural nga-ukon-ukon mahimo
kamo ug palihug makatampo.

Ang
yawe mao nga makaamgo nga kamo dili kinahanglan nga moadto sa dapit
uban sa usa ka bug-os nga, hingpit nga artikulo, bisan tuod nga mahimong
maayo.
Ang gagmay nga, ug malaumon regular, kalihokan mao ang labing maayo. Kon kamo regular alang sa katunga sa usa ka oras ug pagkopya 4 ka mga
panid gikan sa Wikepedia, gikan sa pipila ka wala kinahanglana nga mga
links, pagtul-id sa usa ka gamay sa gramatika, link 5 paghisgot sa ilang
bug-os nga nga teksto, ug uban pa, nga imong gihatag niini nga
kalibutan nga usa ka dakung gasa.

Kini mao ang importante kaayo tungod kay ang pag-uswag mahimo nga gihimo lamang kon adunay liboan kanato sa pagbuhat niini. Kon 2,000 kanato pagdonar tunga sa usa ka oras sa usa ka adlaw
thats 500 ka oras sa trabaho nga gibuhat sa usa ka adlaw, 8,000 tipik sa
bag-o nga impormasyon midugang, 10,000 nga mga pakisayran uban pa Ang
lamang sa ang-ang sa hiniusang paningkamot nga kini nga proyekto
mahimong mahimo.

    Sa
unang mga hugna kini mao ang bili sa pagtutok sa milingi pula nga
sumpay azul pinaagi sa pagputol ug pasting ug import nga materyal gikan
sa uban nga angay nga mga dapit, sa paghinumdom kanunay nga sila
kinahanglan nga copyright free o nga kamo kinahanglan gayud naghisgot
kanila.
Tin-aw
nga sa Wikipedya mao ang usa ka maayo nga tinubdan sa materyal apan ang
uban nga mga dapit mahimong gamiton ingon man sama sa Access sa Insight
[1] ug Tipitaka.tk [2].
Hinumdumi
aron sa pagsulay ug sa pagbantay sa kanila ngadto sa atong sumbanan
estilo ug gibutang lain nga mga tudling ngadto sa lain nga mga panid
sub.
Alang sa mga panudlo tan-awa ang kon unsaon sa pagkopya sa teksto ug mga larawan gikan sa Wikipedia panid tabang.


15) Chakale Chichewa

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

kulemba ndi kumasulira zonse pa Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Mwalandiridwa Wikipitaka,
ndi Tipitaka kuti aliyense akhoza kusintha.
Pakali pano, pali 3.219 suttas ndi nkhani.

Wikipitaka ndi kuyesa kulemba ndi kumasulira zonse pa Tipitaka, Abuda
malemba opatulika, zonena zake kuti athe mbali wathunthu Intaneti lemba:
amafufuza kusakatula, yolumikiza, kusintha yomweyo komanso adakweza
mawu mu Intaneti dictionary.

mawu Tipitaka zikutanthauza mabokosi atatu kapena madengu (pitakas) i.e. zigawo. The lonse Chibuda ovomerezeka lagawidwa m’magawo atatu i.e. (1) Vinaya Pitaka: The Ethics / Moral zizindikiro. (2) Sutta Pitaka: The nkhani za Buddha (makamaka), ili ndi gawo lalikulu kwambiri. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: The gawo ongolankhula komanso apamwamba / mtheradi tanthauzo la malingaliro Buddha a.

Pali
tsopano 3.219 nkhani / masamba Wikipitaka ndi kuganizira chiwerengero
cha owona kerala anapereka, chiwerengero cha suttas mu Wikipitaka
ngakhale zambiri.
Tsopano
ndi kusonkhanitsa waukulu wa Theravada Chibuda malemba / suttas mu
English pa intaneti akupereka chithunzi pafupifupi Theravada Chibuda.
Komanso,
ndi cholinga kupitiriza kukhala wangwiro wa Chibuda malemba, obviating
imfa tanthauzo la translation, Baibulo Pali nawonso anapereka lililonse
gawo mu chinenero kwambiri chonenedwa ndi Buddha & wathunthu
phonetics pachiyambi, umene uli wofunika kwambiri kufufuza &
kwa Chimonko & kutsatilidwa kusinkhasinkha. Chonde tithandizeni kukula mwa kuthandiza. Onani Kuti Kodi tsamba maganizo. Kwenikweni ndi zovuta kuthandiza kamodzi inu tiyambepo!

The Buddha anati:
A mphatso ya Dhamma amagonjetsa mphatso zonse.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Tithandizeni kugwira ntchito kwambiri, kupereka mphatso chachikuluchi dziko, powalalikira kwambiri Dhamma za Buddha.

Izi ndi mwayi kupanga ena Karma Wamkulu. Powerenga ndiponso kuuza kuzindikira wanu, inu anasonkhanitsa ungwiro wa nzeru (panna paramitta), wekha komanso dziko.
“Kumaliza Tipitaka”

Mwachidule bokosibode Tipitaka anu kapena aliyense wa malemba pa dzanja ndi kumasulira! Inu
zingatithandize transcribe Mabaibulo ena amene akupezeka hardcopy, ndi
tikalemba yake, ngati simukufuna kuti amasulire iwo nokha.
Chonde onani Kuti Kodi tsamba malingaliro zambiri za mmene mungathandizire “kumaliza Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Welcome!

Pali zinthu kuchita pa malo kotero kugonjetsa mukukayikira lachibadwa mwina muli ndi chonde mwaufulu.

Chofunika ndi kuzindikira kuti safuna kuti abwere ku malo ndi wathunthu nkhani, angwiro, ngakhale kuti zikanakhala bwino. Small, ndipo mwachiyembekezo zonse, ntchito kwambiri. Ngati mungathe zonse kwa theka la ola ndi kukopera tsamba 4 kuchokera
Wikepedia, atenge maulalo angapo zosafunika kukonza pang’ono galamala,
kugwirizana maumboni 5 malemba zonse, etc., mwandipatsa dziko lino
mphatso yaikulu.

Izi ndi zofunika kwambiri chifukwa patsogolo zikhoza kupangidwa kokha ngati pali masauzande a ife kuchita izo. Ngati 2,000 wa ife apereke theka la ola ndi tsiku thats maola 500
omwe akugwira ntchito tsiku, 8,000 Akamva zokhudza latsopano
anawonjezera, maumboni 10,000 etc. zake zokha ndi makulitsidwe mmwamba
khama migwirizano kuti ntchito imeneyi amakhala zotheka.

    Mu
magawo oyambirira ndi ofunika akupanga kutembenukira limasonyeza
wofiira buluu ndi kudula ndi pasting ndi yoti zinthu malo ena yoyenera,
Kukumbukira nthawi zonse kuti iwo athema kukhala kukopera mfulu kapena
muyenera tchulani iwo.
Mwachionekere
Wikipedia ndi gwero wabwino wa chuma koma malo ena angagwiritsidwe
ntchito komanso monga Access kuti Insight [1] ndipo Tipitaka.tk [2].
Kumbukirani kuti ndiyese kuwasunga kuti timalankhulira muyezo ndi kuika ndime osiyana kumtunda masamba osiyana boma. Malangizo kuona mmene kutengera mawu ndi zithunzi Wikipedia thandizo page.


16)古典中文(简体)

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

编译并完成翻译Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
欢迎来到Wikipitaka,
任何人都可以编辑的Tipitaka。
现在,有3,219个suttas和文章。

Wikipitaka是为了启用在线文本的完整功能:搜索,浏览,链接,即时编辑以及查找在线词典中的术语,而尝试编译和完成了Tipitaka的翻译,佛教神圣经文及其评论。

“Tipitaka”是指三个盒子或篮子(pitakas),即部分。整个佛教经典分为三个部分,即(1)Vinaya Pitaka:道德/道德规范。 (2)Sutta Pitaka:佛陀的话语(大多数),这是最大的部分。 (3)阿卜哈底罕·塔塔卡:佛教思想的理论部分以及更高/最终的意义。

Wikipitaka现在有3,219篇文章/页面,考虑到所提供的pdf文件数量,维基百科的suttas数量甚至更多。现在是互联网上提供几乎完整的上座佛教图片的Theravada佛教经典/ suttas最大的集合。此外,为了保持佛经的完整纯度,消除翻译意义的丧失,佛法所用语言的每个部分也提供了一个Pali版本,并且具有原始语音学功能,这对于研究&为僧人和冥想从业人员。请帮助我们成长贡献。请参阅待办事宜页面了解提示。一旦你开始,真的很容易帮助!

佛说:
佛法的礼物征服了所有礼物。
Dhammapada XXIV,354

帮助我们执行这个伟大的使命,通过分享佛教深刻的佛法,给这个伟大的礼物给世界。

这是制造一些伟大的事业的绝佳机会。通过阅读并与我们分享您的洞察力,您已经为自己以及世界积累了智慧(panna paramitta)的完美。
“完成Tipitaka”

只需拿起你的Tipitaka或手头的任何经文,翻译!如果您不想自己翻译,您可以帮助我们转录一些可用于硬拷贝的翻译,并提供适当的引用。请参阅待办事项页面了解更多关于如何帮助“完成Tipitaka”的想法。

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
阿比达姆·皮塔卡

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

欢迎!

在这个网站上有很多事情要做,所以你可以克服任何自然的犹豫,你可能会请贡献。

关键是要意识到,你不需要一个完整的,完美的文章来到这个网站,虽然这将是好的。小而有希望的活动是非常好的。如果您可以定期来半小时,并从维基百科复制4页,请删除一些不必要的链接,更正一些语法,链接5个参考文献等等,您给了这个世界一个伟大的礼物。

这是非常重要的,因为只有有成千上万的人才能取得进展。如果我们每天有两千个人捐一个小时,每天工作500小时,新增的信息就会增加8000个,参考文献数量有10,000个。这个项目只有在这个项目变得可行的同时,才能加大力度。

    在早期阶段,通过剪切和粘贴和从其他适当的网站导入材料,值得集中精力将蓝色链接变成蓝色,始终记住,它们必须是免版税的,或者您必须引用它们。显然,维基百科是一个很好的资料来源,但其他网站也可以使用,例如Access to Insight [1]和Tipitaka.tk [2]。记住尝试将它们保持在我们的标准风格,并将单独的段落放在单独的子页面上。有关说明,请参阅如何从Wikipedia帮助页面复制文本和图像。


17)古典中文(繁體)

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

編譯並完成翻譯Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
歡迎來到Wikipitaka,
任何人都可以編輯的Tipitaka。
現在,有3,219個suttas和文章。

Wikipitaka是為了啟用在線文本的完整功能:搜索,瀏覽,鏈接,即時編輯以及查找在線詞典中的術語,而嘗試編譯和完成了Tipitaka的翻譯,佛教神聖經文及其評論。

“Tipitaka”是指三個盒子或籃子(pitakas),即部分。整個佛教經典分為三個部分,即(1)Vinaya Pitaka:道德/道德規範。 (2)Sutta Pitaka:佛陀的話語(大多數),這是最大的部分。 (3)阿卜哈底罕·塔塔卡:佛教思想的理論部分以及更高/最終的意義。

Wikipitaka現在有3,219篇文章/頁面,考慮到所提供的pdf文件數量,維基百科的suttas數量甚至更多。現在是互聯網上提供幾乎完整的上座佛教圖片的Theravada佛教經典/ suttas最大的集合。此外,為了保持佛經的完整純度,消除翻譯意義的喪失,佛法所用語言的每個部分也提供了一個Pali版本,並且具有原始語音學功能,這對於研究&為僧人和冥想從業人員。請幫助我們成長貢獻。請參閱待辦事宜頁面了解提示。一旦你開始,真的很容易幫助!

佛說:
佛法的禮物征服了所有的禮物。
Dhammapada XXIV,354

幫助我們執行這個偉大的使命,通過分享佛教深刻的佛法,給這個偉大的禮物給世界。

這是製造一些偉大的事業的絕佳機會。通過閱讀並與我們分享您的洞察力,您已經為自己以及世界積累了智慧(panna paramitta)的完美。
“完成Tipitaka”

只需拿起你的Tipitaka或手頭的任何經文,翻譯!如果您不想自己翻譯,您可以幫助我們轉錄一些可用於硬拷貝的翻譯,並提供適當的引用。請參閱待辦事項頁面了解更多關於如何幫助“完成Tipitaka”的想法。

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
阿比達姆·皮塔卡

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

歡迎!

在這個網站上有很多事情要做,所以你可以克服任何自然的猶豫,你可能會請貢獻。

關鍵是要意識到,你不需要一個完整的,完美的文章來到這個網站,雖然這將是好的。小而有希望的活動是非常好的。如果您可以定期來半小時,並從維基百科複製4頁,請刪除一些不必要的鏈接,更正一些語法,鏈接5個參考文獻等等,您給了這個世界一個偉大的禮物。

這是非常重要的,因為只有有成千上萬的人才能取得進展。如果我們每天有兩千個人捐一個小時,每天工作500小時,新增的信息就會增加8000個,參考文獻數量有10,000個。這個項目只有在這個項目變得可行的同時,才能加大力度。

    在早期階段,通過剪切和粘貼和從其他適當的網站導入材料,值得集中精力將藍色鏈接變成藍色,始終記住,它們必須是免版稅的,或者您必須引用它們。顯然,維基百科是一個很好的資料來源,但其他網站也可以使用,例如Access to Insight [1]和Tipitaka.tk [2]。記住嘗試將它們保持在我們的標準風格,並將單獨的段落放在單獨的子頁面上。有關說明,請參閱如何從Wikipedia幫助頁面複製文本和圖像。


18) Corsican Classical

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

cumpilari e traduzzione cumpleta di u Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Welcome to Wikipitaka,
u Tipitaka chì qualchissia pò canciari.
Right avà, ci sò 3.219 suttas è articuli.

Wikipitaka hè una prova di cumpilari e traduzzione cumpleta di u
Tipitaka, u buddista, ghjè u sacru è u so cummenti in ordine per attivà i
funziunalità cumpleta di u testu in ligna: circhendu, abr, in rapportu,
riservatu mumentu oltri girannusi termini in un inglese online.

A parolla Tipitaka significa trè cartoni o di e sporte (pitakas) i.e. rùbbriche. U web buddista artìsticu hè spartuta nta tri parti i.e. (1) Vinaya Pitaka: L’Etica / Selinunte Campagna. (2) Sutta Pitaka: The AFFRANCHISSANTS di Buddha (suprattuttu), issu hè u sizzioni cchiù granni. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: A parti aperta e dinù i supiriuri / significato essential d ‘idei di Buddha.

Ci
sò avà 3.219 articuli / pagine in Wikipitaka e cunziddirannu lu nùmmaru
di i schedari in pdf quì, u numeru di suttas in Wikipitaka hè ancu
assai di più.

oramai u più grande, cullezzione di politica seguinu lu buddismu /
suttas in inglese nant’à Internet chì furnisce un ritrattu quasi
cumpleta di Buddismu seguinu.
Dinù,
di u scopu di fà valè cumpleta purezza, di politica, buddista,
obviating la perdita di sensu a traduzzione, una versione Pali hè dinù
disposti in ogni rùbbrica a la lingua assai parlatu da Buddha &
cumpleta cun fonetica uriginale, chì hè assai interessante per a ricerca
&
di l ‘moines & pulitichi meditazione. Pè aiutà à noi crisciri da lu Rinascimentu. Vede u To Do pagina di idee. Hè veru facile à aiutà una volta vi abbicinàrisi â!

The Buddha disse:
Un donu di Dhamma cunquista di tutti i rigali.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Aiutu à noi di purtà fora stu gran missione, à sente stu gran donu a lu munnu, da sparta i prufunna Dhamma di lu Buddha.

Stu hè u attore casu à fà qualchi Great Karma. Par leghje è à cuntà a vostra un’immersioni cun noi, voi avete
accumulate u perfettu di a saviezza (paramitta panna), per se accussì
comu di lu munnu.
“Cumplitendu u Tipitaka”

Simply truck u vostru Tipitaka, o ogni di i politica a manu, è traduire! Vi
pò aiutà à noi transcribe qualchi traduzioni chì disponibile in
hardcopy, incù tonu francese citation, s’è vo ùn vulete traduce elli
stessi.
Andate à vede a pagina di Do di più idee circa quantu à aiutà “cumplettani u Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Benvenuti!

Ci sò bundanza di e cose à fà nant’à stu situ cusì fari vìnciri ogni
tricatu tantu naturale vi putissi hannu è piacè cuntribuisce.

A chjave hè a ricanusciri chi voi ùn bisognu di vene à u situ incù una cumpleta, ‘articulu pirfettu, siddu chi saria bè. Picculu, è hopefully rigulari, attività hè attore. Sè tu pò veni rigulari di una meza ora è cupià 4 pagine da a
Wikepedia, pigghiari fora un pocu ligami micca necessariu, curregge un
pocu di grammatica, lea 5 referenze à a so testu piena, etc., v’aghju
datu stu munnu, un gran donu.

Stu hè assai impurtante perchè u prugressu pò esse fatta solu s’ellu ci sò millaie di noi fendu lu. Sè 2.000 di noi Donate una meza ora un ghjornu Cumming 500 ore u
travagliu fattu un ghjornu, 8000 pezzi di novu infurmazione aghjuntu,
10000 referenze etc. so solu incù i scaling resistance su sforzu cumunu
chì stu prughjettu diventa feasible francese.

    In
u principiu di volti hè valuri di curà u duni ligami russu, blu da
taglio e pasting è importateur materia da altri siti degne, sempre à dì
chì ùn bisogna esse unu copyright senza o vi tocca à elli citare.
Currispundenu
Wikipedia hè una bona surgente di a materia, ma altri siti pò ièssiri
usatu comu puru comu Access à Insight [1] e Tipitaka.tk [2].
Pensate à pruvà è li tene a nostra stile mudellu è messi risponde siparati nant’à e pagine francese sub siparati. Per instructions, vede u testu cumu à cupià è imagine da a pagina aiutu Wikipedia.


19) Klasična Hrvatska

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

sastaviti i potpuni prijevod Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Dobro došli u Wikipitaka,
Tipitaka da svatko može uređivati.
Upravo sada, postoji 3.219 suttas i članci.

Wikipitaka je pokušaj da se sastaviti i potpuni prijevod Tipitaka,
budističke Svetom pismu, i svojim komentarima kako bi se omogućilo
potpunu značajke online tekstu: pretraživanje, pregledavanje, povezuje,
trenutak za uređivanje kao gleda gore uvjete u online rječnik.

Riječ Tipitaka znači tri kutije ili košare (pitakas), tj sekcija. Cijela Budističko Canon je podijeljena u tri dijela tj (1): Vinaya Pitaka Etičko / moralnih kodova. (2) Sutta Pitaka: Diskursi Bude (uglavnom), to je najveći sekcija. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: Teoretski dio i viša / krajnje značenje Buddhinih ideja.

Sada
ima 3.219 članci / stranice u Wikipitaka te s obzirom na broj PDF
datoteka pod uvjetom, broj suttas u Wikipitaka još mnogo toga.
To
je sada najveći skup Theravada budistički spisi / suttas na engleskom
jeziku na internetu pruža gotovo potpunu sliku o theravada budizma.
Također,
u cilju održavanja potpunu čistoću budističkih spisa, otklanjajući
gubitak smisla u prijevodu, A Pali verzija je također predviđeno u svaki
dio u samom govora Bude i zajedno s originalnim fonetike, što je vrlo
korisno za istraživanje i
za redovnike & meditacije praktičara. Pomozite nam raste pridonoseći. Pogledajte učiniti stranicu za ideje. To je stvarno lako za pomoć nakon što započnete!

Buda je:
Dar Dhammi osvaja sve darove.
Dhammapada XXIV 354

Pomozite nam obavljati ovu veliku misiju, što ovaj veliki dar na svijetu, dijeleći duboku Dharmu Buddhe.

Ovo je odlična prilika da se neke velike Karma. Čitajući i dijeljenje Vaše uvid kod nas, nakupila savršenstvo mudrosti (panna paramitta), za sebe i za svijet.
„Dovršetak Tipitaka”

Jednostavno podizanje vaš Tipitaka ili bilo koji od spisa pri ruci i prevesti! Možda
nam pomoći prepisati neke prijevode koji dostupne u tiskanom obliku, uz
pravilnu citat, ako ne želite da ih prevesti sebe.
Molimo pogledajte Da li stranicu za nove ideje o tome kako pomoći „Dovršetak Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Dobrodošli!

Ima dosta stvari koje treba učiniti na ovim stranicama tako da ne
prevlada bilo koji prirodni oklijevanja možete imati i molim doprinose.

Ključ je shvatiti da ne morate doći do stranice s kompletnim, savršen članak, iako bi to bilo dobro. Mali, i nadamo se redovito, aktivnost je odličan. Ako možete doći redovito pola sata i kopirati 4 stranice iz Wikepedia,
iznijeti nekoliko nepotrebnih veza, ispraviti malo gramatike, link 5
reference na njihovoj cijeli tekst, itd, ako si učinio ovaj svijet
veliki dar.

To je vrlo važno jer može biti postignut napredak samo ako postoje tisuće nas to rade. Ako 2000 nas donirati pola sata dnevno taj 500 sati rad na dan,
8000 bita nove informacije dodaje, 10.000 reference itd Njegova samo uz
mjerilu od zajedničkih napora da se ovaj projekt postaje moguće.

    U
ranim fazama je vrijedno koncentriraju na okretanje crvenih veze plave
rezanjem i lijepljenjem i uvoz materijala iz drugih odgovarajućih
mjesta, uvijek imajući na umu da oni moraju biti autorsko besplatne ili
ih se mora navesti.
Očito
Wikipedia je dobar izvor materijala ali i druge web stranice mogu se
koristiti kao kao što je pristup Insight [1] i Tipitaka.tk [2].
Ne zaboravite probati i držati ih na naše standardne stilu i staviti odvojene odlomke na odvojenim podstranica. Upute vidjeti kako kopirati tekst i slike iz Wikipedije stranice za pomoć o.


20) Klasický český

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

sestavit a kompletní překlad Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Vítejte na Wikipitaka,
Tipitaka kterou může každý upravovat.
Právě teď tam jsou 3.219 suttas a články.

Wikipitaka je pokusem sestavit a kompletní překlad Tipitaka,
buddhistické Písma svatého a jeho komentáře s cílem umožnit úplné funkce
on-line text: vyhledávání, prohlížení, spojující, instant editaci
stejně jako vyhledávání výrazů v online slovníku.

Slovo Tipitaka znamená tři krabice nebo koše (pitakas), tj úseky. Celý Buddhistické Canon je rozdělena do tří částí, tj (1) Vinaya pitaky: etická / morálních kódy. (2) Sutta Pitaka: Projevy Buddhy (většinou), to je největší část. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: Teoretická část a také vyšší / konečný smysl Buddhových nápadů.

V
současné době existuje 3.219 články / stránek v Wikipitaka a vzhledem k
počtu souborů PDF za předpokladu, počet sutt v Wikipitaka je ještě
mnohem více.
To
je nyní největší sbírka Theravada buddhistické texty / sutt v
angličtině na internetu, které poskytují téměř úplný obraz Theravada
buddhismu.
Také
za účelem zachování úplné čistoty buddhistických písem, odstraňování
ztráty smyslu v překladu verze Pali jsou rovněž uvedeny v každém oddíle v
samotném jazyce mluvený Buddha & kompletní s původními fonetiku,
což je velmi užitečné pro výzkum a
pro mnichy a meditace praktiky. Prosím, pomozte nám rostou tím, že přispěje. Viz dělat stránky pro nápady. Je to opravdu jednoduché pomoci, jakmile začnete!

Buddha řekl:
Dar Dhammě dobývá všechny dárky.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Což nám pomáhá provádět tuto velkou misi, přičemž tento velký dar světu, sdílením hlubokou Dhammu Buddhy.

To je výborná šance, aby některé skvělé karmu. Čtením a sdílet svůj pohled s námi, jste nahromaděné dokonalost moudrosti (panna paramitta), pro sebe i pro celý svět.
„Dokončení Tipitaka“

Jednoduše pickup váš Tipitaka nebo některý z písem na dosah ruky a překládat! Můžete
nám pomoci přepsat některé překlady, které jsou k dispozici v tištěné
podobě, s řádnou citací, pokud nechcete, aby jim překládat sami.
Naleznete dělat stránky pro více nápadů o tom, jak pomoci „dokončení Tipitaka.“

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Vítejte!

Existuje spousta věcí, které se na tomto místě tak to překonat jakoukoli fyzickou zaváhání můžete mít i prosím přispět.

Klíčem k úspěchu je, aby si uvědomili, že nemusíte přijít na místo s kompletním, dokonalém článku, i když to by bylo dobré. Malý, a doufejme, že pravidelná aktivita je vynikající. Pokud můžete chodit pravidelně po dobu půl hodiny a kopírování 4
stránky z Wikepedia, uzavřít několik zbytečných odkazů, opravit trochu
gramatiky, odkaz 5 odkazů na jejich plné znění atd jste dali tento svět
skvělý dárek.

To je velmi důležité, protože pokrok lze provést pouze tehdy, pokud existují tisíce z nás to dělají. Jestliže 2000 z nás darovat půlhodinu denně, to je 500 hodin práci
denně, 8000 bitů nových informací dodala 10,000 odkazy atd svém pouze
se zvětšujících se společného úsilí, aby se tento projekt stává
proveditelné.

    V
časných stádiích je třeba soustředit se na soustružení červené odkazy
modré řezáním a vkládání a dováží materiál z jiných vhodných místech, a
to vždy na paměti, že musí být autorská práva zdarma nebo si je musí
uvést.
Je
zřejmé, Wikipedia je dobrým zdrojem materiálu, ale i další místa mohou
být také použity, jako je přístup k Insight [1] a Tipitaka.tk [2].
Nezapomeňte vyzkoušet a udržet je na našem jednotném stylu a dát oddělené průchody do samostatných podstránek. Pokyny viz způsob kopírování textu a obrázků z nápovědy stránce Wikipedie.


21) Klassisk dansk

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

kompilere og komplet oversættelse af Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Velkommen til Wikipitaka,
den Tipitaka som alle kan redigere.
Lige nu er der 3.219 Suttaer og artikler.

Wikipitaka er et forsøg på at samle og komplet oversættelse af
Tipitaka, den buddhistiske hellige skrifter, og dens kommentarer for at
give mulighed for fuldstændig funktioner i online-tekst: søgning,
browsing, linke, øjeblikkelig redigering samt se op vilkår i en online
ordbog.

Ordet Tipitaka betyder tre kasser eller kurve (pitakas) dvs. sektioner. Hele buddhistiske kanon er opdelt i tre sektioner dvs. (1) Vinaya Pitaka: De etiske / moralske koder. (2) Sutta Pitaka: De diskurser af Buddha (for det meste), dette er den største sektion. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: Den teoretiske del og også den højere / ultimativ betydning Buddhas ideer.

Der
er nu 3.219 artikler / sider i Wikipitaka og i betragtning af antallet
af pdf-filer forudsat, at antallet af Suttaer i Wikipitaka er endda
meget mere.
Det
er nu den største samling af Theravada buddhistiske skrifter / Suttaer
på engelsk på internettet giver en næsten komplet billede af Theravada
buddhismen.
Også,
med det formål at opretholde fuldstændig renhed af buddhistiske
skrifter, forebygger tab af mening i oversættelse, en Pali-version er
også i hvert afsnit i den meget sprog, der tales af Buddha & komplet
med originale fonetik, hvilket er meget nyttigt for forskning &
for munkene og meditation praktikere. Hjælp os med at vokse ved at bidrage. Se To Do side for idéer. Det er virkelig nemt at hjælpe, når du kommer i gang!

Buddha sagde:
En gave af Dhamma overvinder alle gaver.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Hjælp os med at udføre denne store opgave, at give denne store gave til verden, ved at dele den dybe Dhamma af Buddha.

Dette er den glimrende chance for at gøre nogle gode Karma. Ved at læse og dele din indsigt med os, har du oparbejdet perfektion af visdom (panna paramitta), selv såvel som for verden.
“Afslutning af Tipitaka”

Simpelthen afhentning din Tipitaka eller nogen af ​​skrifterne ved hånden og oversætte! Du
kan hjælpe os med at transskribere nogle oversættelser, som er
tilgængelige i papirform, med ordentlig citation, hvis du ikke ønsker at
oversætte dem selv.
Se To Do side for flere ideer om, hvordan man kan hjælpe “færdiggøre Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Velkommen!

Der er masser af ting at gøre på dette site så gør overvinde enhver fysisk tøven, du måtte have, og du bidrager.

Det centrale er at indse, at du ikke behøver at komme til stedet med en komplet, perfekt artiklen, selv om det ville være godt. Små, og forhåbentlig regelmæssig, aktivitet er fremragende. Hvis du kan komme regelmæssigt i en halv time og kopiere 4 sider fra
Wikepedia, tage et par unødvendige links, korrigere en smule grammatik,
link 5 referencer til deres fulde tekst osv, har du givet denne verden
en stor gave.

Dette er meget vigtigt, fordi der kan gøres fremskridt, hvis der er tusindvis af os gør det. Hvis 2.000 af os donere en halv time om dagen thats 500 timer
arbejde om dagen, 8.000 stumper af nye oplysninger tilføjede, 10.000
referencer etc. Dens kun med opskalering af kollaborativ indsats, at
dette projekt bliver muligt.

    I
de tidlige stadier er det værd at koncentrere sig om at vende røde
links blå ved at klippe og klistre og import af materiale fra andre
egnede steder, altid huske på, at de skal være copyright fri eller du
skal citere dem.
Naturligvis
Wikipedia er en god kilde til materiale, men andre steder kan bruges
såvel som adgang til Indsigt [1] og Tipitaka.tk [2].
Husk at forsøge at holde dem til vores standard stil og sætte separate passager på separate undersider. For vejledning se hvordan du kopierer tekst og billeder fra Wikipedia hjælpeside.

comments (0)
04/08/17
2190 Sat 8 Apr 2017 LESSONS- compile and complete translation of the Tipitaka-1) Classical English,2) Klassieke Afrikaans, 3) Albanian klasike,4) ክላሲካል አማርኛ, 5)العربية الكلاسيكية) դասական հայերեն 7) Klassik Azərbaycan
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 4:09 am

2190 Sat 8 Apr 2017 LESSONS

Compile and complete  translation of the Tipitaka-1) Classical English,2) Klassieke Afrikaans, 3) Albanian klasike,4) ክላሲካል አማርኛ, 5)العربية الكلاسيكية) դասական հայերեն 7) Klassik Azərbaycan2) Klassieke Afrikaans


http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

saam te stel en volledige vertaling van die Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Welkom by Wikipitaka,
die Tipitaka wat enigiemand kan wysig.
Op die oomblik is, is daar 3219 suttas en artikels.

Wikipitaka is ‘n poging om op te stel en volledige vertaling van die
Tipitaka, die Boeddhistiese heilige geskrif, en sy kommentare ten einde
volledige funksies van online teks in staat stel: soek, blaai, ‘n
skakel, direkte redigering asook opgekyk terme in ‘n aanlyn woordeboek.

Die woord Tipitaka beteken drie bokse of mandjies (pitakas) maw afdelings. Die hele Boeddhistiese kanon is in drie afdelings verdeel dit wil sê (1) Vinaya Pitaka: Die etiek / morele kodes. (2) Sutta Pitaka: Die diskoerse van Boeddha (meestal), dit is die grootste gedeelte. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: Die teoretiese deel en ook die hoër / uiteindelike betekenis van idees Boeddha se.

Daar
is nou 3219 artikels / bladsye in Wikipitaka en met inagneming van die
aantal pdf lêers voorsien, die aantal suttas in Wikipitaka is selfs nog
baie meer.
Dit
is nou die grootste versameling van Theravada Boeddhistiese geskrifte /
suttas in Engels op die internet bied ‘n byna volledige beeld van
Theravada Boeddhisme.
Ook
vir die doel van die handhawing van volledige suiwerheid van
Boeddhistiese geskrifte, die wegneem van die verlies van betekenis in
vertaling, ‘n Pali weergawe is ook voorsien in elke afdeling in die baie
taal wat deur Boeddha & kompleet met oorspronklike fonetiek, wat
baie nuttig vir navorsing &
vir die monnike en meditasie praktisyns. Help ons asseblief om te groei deur bydraende. Sien die To Do bladsy vir idees. Dit is regtig maklik om te help sodra jy begin!

Die Boeddha het gesê:
‘N Geskenk van Dhamma oorwin alle gawes.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Help ons uit te voer hierdie groot doel, gee hierdie groot geskenk aan
die wêreld, deur die deel van die diepgaande Dhamma van die Boeddha.

Dit is die uitstekende kans om ‘n paar Groot Karma maak. Deur lees en jou insig te deel met ons, het jy die volmaaktheid van
wysheid (Panna paramitta) opgehoopte, vir jouself sowel as vir die
wêreld.
“Die voltooiing van die Tipitaka”

Eenvoudig bakkie jou Tipitaka of enige van die geskrifte byderhand en vertaal! Jy
kan ons help om op skrif te stel sommige vertalings wat beskikbaar is
in hardekopie, met behoorlike verwysing, as jy nie wil hê dat hulle self
te vertaal.
Sien asseblief te doen vir meer idees oor hoe om te help “voltooiing van die Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Welkom!

Daar is baie van die dinge om te doen op hierdie site so doen oorkom
enige natuurlike huiwering wat jy mag hê en moet asseblief bydra.

Die
sleutel is om te besef dat jy nie nodig het om die perseel met ‘n
volledige, perfekte artikel te kom, hoewel dit sal goed wees.
Klein, en hopelik gereelde, aktiwiteit is uitstekend. As jy gereeld vir ‘n halfuur kan kom en ‘n afskrif 4 bladsye van
Wikepedia, neem ‘n paar onnodige skakels, reg te stel ‘n bietjie van
grammatika, skakel 5 verwysings na hul volle teks, ens, het jy hierdie
wêreld ‘n groot geskenk gegee.

Dit is baie belangrik, want vordering gemaak kan word slegs indien daar is duisende van ons doen dit. As 2000 van ons skenk ‘n halfuur per dag dis 500 ure se werk per
dag gedoen, 8000 stukkies nuwe inligting bygevoeg, 10000 verwysings ens
Die enigste met die verhoogde gebruik van gesamentlike poging wat
hierdie projek word haalbaar.

    In
die vroeë stadiums dit is die moeite werd om te konsentreer op die
draai rooi skakels blou deur te sny en plak en die invoer van materiaal
uit ander toepaslike terreine, altyd onthou dat hulle kopiereg moet vry
wees of jy moet hulle noem.
Dit
is duidelik dat Wikipedia is ‘n goeie bron van materiaal, maar ander
webwerwe kan sowel soos gebruik Toegang tot Insig [1] en Tipitaka.tk
[2].
Onthou om te probeer en hou hulle aan ons standaard styl en sit afsonderlike gedeeltes op afsonderlike sub bladsye. Vir instruksies sien die hoe om te kopieer teks en beelde uit Wikipedia help bladsy.

http://media.photobucket.com/user/muhammadtahya/media/Bacaalquran.gif.html?filters[term]=tipitaka%20-%20kitab%20suci%20buddha&filters[primary]=images&filters[secondary]=videos&sort=1&o=5
tipitaka - kitab suci buddha photo: kitab Bacaalquran.gif



3) Albanian klasike

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

përpilojnë dhe përkthimi i plotë i Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Mirë se vini në Wikipitaka,
Tipitaka se çdokush mund të modifikoni.
Tani për tani, nuk janë 3,219 suttas dhe artikuj.

Wikipitaka është një përpjekje për të hartuar dhe përkthimi i plotë i
Tipitaka, shkrimit të shenjtë budist shenjtë, dhe komentarëve të saj për
të mundësuar karakteristika të plotë të tekstit Online: kërkim,
shfletim, lidh, redaktimi menjëhershme si dhe duke kërkuar deri termat
në një fjalor online.

Fjala Tipitaka do të thotë tri kuti apo kosha (pitakas) dmth seksione. I tërë budiste kanuni është e ndarë në tre seksione dmth (1) Vinaya Pitaka: Etika / kodeve morale. (2) Sutta Pitaka: The diskurset e Budës (kryesisht), kjo është pjesa më e madhe. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: Pjesa teorike dhe gjithashtu më e lartë / kuptimi përfundimtar i ideve Buda.

Tani
ka 3,219 artikuj / faqe në Wikipitaka dhe duke pasur parasysh numrin e
dosjeve pdf dhënë, numri i suttas në Wikipitaka është edhe shumë më
tepër.
Ajo
tani është mbledhja më e madhe e Shkrimeve Theravada Buddhist / suttas
në anglisht në internet që ofrojnë një pamje pothuajse të plotë të
Budizmi Theravada.
Gjithashtu,
me qëllim të ruajtjes së pastërtisë të plotë të shkrimeve të shenjta
budiste, obviating humbjen e kuptimit në përkthim, një version Pali
është dhënë edhe në çdo seksion në gjuhë shumë të folur nga Buda &
plotë me fonetikë origjinale, e cila është shumë i dobishëm për kërkime
&
për murgjit dhe praktikuesit meditim. Ju lutemi të na ndihmojë të rritet duke kontribuar. Shih për të bërë faqe për ide. Me të vërtetë është e lehtë për të ndihmuar një herë ju merrni filluar!

Buda tha
Një dhuratë e Dhamma pushton të gjitha dhuratat.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Të na ndihmojë të kryer këtë mision të madh, duke i dhënë këtë dhuratë të madhe në botë, duke ndarë Dhamma thellë të Budës.

Kjo është shans i shkëlqyer për të bërë disa Karma Madhe. Duke lexuar dhe ndarjen njohuri tuaj me ne, ju keni grumbulluar
përsosjen e urtësi (paramitta Panna), për veten si dhe për botën.
“Plotësimi i Tipitaka”

Thjesht Pickup Tipitaka tuaj ose ndonjë nga shkrimet e shenjta në dorë dhe të përkthyer! Ju
mund të na ndihmojë të hedh në të pastër disa përkthimet që në
dispozicion në letër, me motivacionin e duhur, në qoftë se ju nuk doni
të përktheni vetë.
Ju lutem shikoni për të bërë faqe për më shumë ide se si për të ndihmuar “kompletimit të Tipitaka.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Mirë se vini!

Ka shumë gjëra për të bërë në këtë faqe kështu që të bëjë të kapërcyer
ndonjë hezitim natyrore ju mund të keni dhe ju lutem të kontribuar.

Çelësi
është që të kuptojnë se ju nuk keni nevojë për të ardhur në vend me një
artikull të plotë, i përkryer, edhe pse kjo do të ishte mirë.
Të vogla, dhe shpresojmë se rregullt, aktiviteti është e shkëlqyer. Në qoftë se ju mund të vijnë rregullisht për gjysmë ore dhe kopje 4
faqe nga Wikepedia, të marrë nga disa lidhjeve të panevojshme, të
korrigjuar një grimë e gramatikës, Lidhje 5 referenca në tekstin e tyre
të plotë, etj, ju keni dhënë këtë botë një dhuratë të madhe.

Kjo është shumë e rëndësishme sepse mund të bëhet progres vetëm nëse ka mijëra prej nesh ta bërë këtë. Nëse 2,000 prej nesh dhurojë një orë e gjysmë në ditë thats të 500
orë punën e bërë një ditë, 8000 BITS e informacionit të ri shtoi,
10,000 referenca etj e saj vetëm me përshkallëzimin e përpjekje
bashkëpunuese që ky projekt të bëhet e realizueshme.

    
fazat e hershme vlen përqëndruar në kthimin e lidhjeve të kuqe blu duke
i prerë dhe pasting dhe importon materiale nga vende të tjera të
përshtatshme, gjithnjë duke kujtuar se ata duhet të jenë të drejtës së
autorit falas ose ju duhet të përmendin ato.
Natyrisht
Wikipedia është një burim i mirë i materialit, por vende të tjera mund
të përdoret si dhe siç është qasja në Insight [1] dhe Tipitaka.tk [2].
Mos harroni të provoni dhe për të mbajtur ato të stilit tonë standarde dhe të vënë pasazhe të veçanta mbi sub faqe të veçanta. Për udhëzime të shihni se si të kopjoni tekst dhe imazhe nga faqja e ndihmës Wikipedia.

http://media.photobucket.com/user/rafystech/media/al-quran1.gif.html?filters[term]=tipitaka%20-%20kitab%20suci%20buddha&filters[primary]=images&filters[secondary]=videos&sort=1&o=7

tipitaka - kitab suci buddha photo: Al-Quran al-quran1.gif

4) ክላሲካል አማርኛ

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

ማጠናቀር እና Tipitaka ሙሉ ትርጉም

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Wikipitaka እንኳን በደህና መጡ,
የ Tipitaka ማንኛውም ሰው አርትዕ ማድረግ ይችላሉ.
አሁን ላይ, 3.219 suttas እና ርዕሶች አሉ.

ፍለጋ, አሰሳ, ማገናኘት, ፈጣን አርትዖት እንዲሁም በመስመር ላይ መዝገበ ቃላት አሻቅቦ አየና:
Wikipitaka አንድ ለመሰብሰብ ሙከራ እና የመስመር ላይ ጽሑፍ ሙሉ ባህሪያት ለማንቃት ሲሉ ውስጥ
Tipitaka, የቡዲስት ቅዱስ ጥቅስ, እና ሐተታዎችን መካከል ሙሉ ትርጉም ነው.

የሚለው ቃል Tipitaka ሦስት ሳጥኖች ወይም መሶብ (pitakas) ማለትም ክፍሎች ማለት ነው. የ የሥነ ምግባርና / የሥነ ኮዶች: መላው የቡዲስት ቀኖና ሦስት ክፍሎች ማለትም (1) Vinaya Pitaka የተከፋፈለ ነው. (2) Sutta Pitaka: ቡድሃ (ባብዛኛው) ያለው ንግግሮች, ይህ ትልቁ ክፍል ነው. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: የ የንድፈ ክፍል እና ደግሞ ቡድሃ ሐሳቦች መካከል ከፍተኛ / የመጨረሻው ትርጉም.

በዚያ Wikipitaka በ 3.219 ርዕሶች / ገጾች አሁን ናቸው የቀረቡ የፒዲኤፍ ፋይሎች ብዛት ከግምት, Wikipitaka ውስጥ suttas ቁጥር እንዲያውም የበለጠ ነው. ይህ አሁን Theravada ቡድሂዝም አንድ ለማለት የተሟላ ስዕል በማቅረብ ኢንተርኔት ላይ በአማርኛ Theravada የቡዲስት ጥቅሶች / suttas መካከል ትልቁ ስብስብ ነው. በተጨማሪም,
ቡዲስት ጥቅሶች ሙሉ ንጽሕና ጠብቆ ትርጉም ውስጥ ትርጉም ማጣት obviating አላማ አንድ Pali ስሪት ደግሞ
ምርምር በጣም ጠቃሚ የሆነውን የመጀመሪያ ፎኔቲክስ ጋር ሙሉ ቡድሃ &: የተነገረው በጣም ቋንቋ በእያንዳንዱ
ክፍል ውስጥ ነው የሚቀርበው &
የ መነኮሳት እና ለማሰላሰል ባለሙያዎች. እኛን አስተዋጽኦ በማድረግ እንዲያድጉ መርዳት እባክህ. ሃሳቦች ገጽ አድርግ ወደ ይመልከቱ. እውን አንተ ለመጀመር አንድ ጊዜ መርዳት ቀላል ነው!

ቡድሃ እንዲህ አለ:
Dhamma አንድ ስጦታ ሁሉ ስጦታዎች ድል.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

እስቲ ቡድሃ ያለውን ጥልቅ Dhamma በማጋራት, ዓለም ይህን ታላቅ ስጦታ በመስጠት, ይህን ታላቅ ተልእኮ ለመፈጸም ያግዙ.

ይህ አንዳንድ ታላቁ ካርማ ለማድረግ ግሩም አጋጣሚ ነው. ማንበብ እና ከእኛ ጋር ማስተዋል በማጋራት, ለራስህ እንዲሁም ዓለም, ጥበብ (panna paramitta) ፍፁምነት ሲጠራቀሙ.
“በማጠናቀቅ የ Tipitaka”

እጅ ላይ በቀላሉ ለመወሰድ የ Tipitaka ወይም ጥቅሶች ማንኛውም እና መተርጎም! እነሱን ራስህን መተርጎም የማይፈልጉ ከሆነ, ተገቢ የጥቅስ ጋር, በእኛ hardcopy ውስጥ የሚገኙ አንዳንድ ትርጉሞች መገልበጥ መርዳት ይችላል. መርዳት እንደሚችሉ ተጨማሪ ሀሳቦችን ለማግኘት ገጽ አድርግ ወደ እባክዎን “የ Tipitaka በማጠናቀቅ.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

እንኳን ደህና መጣህ!

ስለዚህ አለን እና አስተዋጽኦ እባክዎ ይችላል ማንኛውም የተፈጥሮ ማመንታት ለማሸነፍ ማድረግ በዚህ ጣቢያ ላይ ለማድረግ ብዙ ነገሮች አሉ.

ቁልፉ ጥሩ ይሆናል ቢሆንም እርስዎ, አንድ ሙሉ, ፍጹም ርዕስ ጋር ጣቢያ እንድመጣ አያስፈልጋቸውም መሆኑን መገንዘብ ነው. አነስተኛ, እና ተስፋ እናደርጋለን መደበኛ, እንቅስቃሴ በጣም ጥሩ ነው. አንተ ለግማሽ ሰዓት ያህል በየጊዜው መጥቶ Wikepedia ከ 4 ገጾች መገልበጥ ይችላሉ ከሆነ, ጥቂት
አላስፈላጊ አገናኞች እንዲያወጡ ሰዋስው, አገናኝ ወዘተ ሙሉ ጽሑፍ, ወደ 5 ማጣቀሻዎች ትንሽ ለማስተካከል, በዚህ
ዓለም ታላቅ ስጦታ ሰጥተዋል.

እድገት ማድረጋችሁን እኛን በሺዎች አሉ ብቻ ሊሆን ይችላል; ምክንያቱም ይህ በጣም አስፈላጊ ነው. 500 ሰዓት ሥራ በቀን እንዳደረገ በደመናው በእኛ መካከል 2,000 በቀን ለግማሽ ሰዓት መለገስ ከሆነ,
አዳዲስ መረጃዎች 8000 ቢት ብቻ ይህን ፕሮጀክት የማይቻል ይሆናል መሆኑን በጋራ ጥረት እስከ የማስፋት ጋር,
ወዘተ 10,000 ማጣቀሻዎችን አስፈላጊነቱና አክለዋል.

    መጀመሪያ
ደረጃዎች ላይ እነሱ ነጻ የቅጂ መሆን አለበት ወይም እነሱን የሚጠቅስ መሆን አለበት መሆኑን በማስታወስ ምንጊዜም,
መቁረጥ እና በመለጠፍ እና ሌሎች ተገቢ ጣቢያዎች የመጡ ቁሳዊ በማስመጣት ሰማያዊ ቀይ አገናኞችን በማብራት ላይ
ማተኮር ጠቃሚ ነው.
ግልጽ ውክፔዲያ ነገሮች ጥሩ ምንጭ ነው; ነገር ግን በሌሎች ጣቢያዎች ጠለቅ [1] እና Tipitaka.tk መዳረሻ እንዲሁም እንደ መጠቀም ይቻላል [2]. መሞከር እና መደበኛ ቅጥ እነሱን ለመጠበቅ እና የተለየ ንዑስ ገጾች ላይ የተለያዩ ምንባቦችን ማስቀመጥ አይዘንጉ. መመሪያ ውክፔዲያ እርዳታ ገጽ ከ ለመቅዳት እንዴት ጽሑፍ እና ምስሎችን ማየት ነበርና.

http://www.yourepeat.com/watch/?v=Xr-UK–sA7c

5) العربية الكلاسيكية

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

ترجمة وترجمة كاملة من تيبيتاكا

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
مرحبا بكم في ويكيبيتاكا،
و تيبيتاكا أن أي شخص يمكن تحرير.
الآن، هناك 3،219 سوتاس والمقالات.

ويكيبيتاكا هو محاولة لتجميع واستكمال ترجمة تيبيتاكا، والكتاب المقدس
البوذية المقدسة، وتعليقاتها من أجل تمكين ميزات كاملة من النص على
الانترنت: البحث والتصفح والربط والتحرير الفوري وكذلك تبحث عن مصطلحات في
القاموس على الانترنت.

كلمة تيبيتاكا تعني ثلاثة صناديق أو سلال (بيتاكاس) أي أقسام. وينقسم الكنسي البوذي بأكمله إلى ثلاثة أقسام (1) فينايا بيتاكا: الأخلاقيات / الرموز الأخلاقية. (2) سوتا بيتاكا: خطابات بوذا (معظمها)، وهذا هو أكبر قسم. (3) أبهيدهما بيتاكا: الجزء النظري وأيضا أعلى / المعنى النهائي لأفكار بوذا.

هناك
الآن 3229 مقالات / صفحات في ويكيبيتاكا وبالنظر إلى عدد من ملفات بدف
المقدمة، وعدد من سوتاس في ويكيبيتاكا هو أكثر من ذلك بكثير.
هو
الآن أكبر مجموعة من الكتب المقدسة البوذية ثيرافادا / سوتاس في اللغة
الإنجليزية على شبكة الإنترنت توفير صورة كاملة تقريبا من البوذية
ثيرافادا.
أيضا،
لغرض الحفاظ على نقاء كاملة من الكتب المقدسة البوذية، تجنب فقدان معنى في
الترجمة، يتم توفير نسخة بالي أيضا في كل قسم في اللغة جدا التي يتحدث بها
بوذا واستكمال مع الصوتيات الأصلية، وهو أمر مفيد جدا للبحوث &
للرهبان والتأمل الممارسين. يرجى مساعدتنا تنمو من خلال المساهمة. راجع صفحة المهام الواجبة للحصول على أفكار. انها حقا سهلة للمساعدة بمجرد أن تبدأ!

وقال بوذا:
هدية من دامة يغزو كل الهدايا.
دهامابادا زكسيف، 354

مساعدتنا على تنفيذ هذه المهمة العظيمة، وإعطاء هذه الهدية العظيمة للعالم، من خلال تقاسم عميقة داما بوذا.

هذه هي فرصة ممتازة لجعل بعض الكرمة العظمى. من خلال قراءة وتبادل البصيرة معنا، كنت قد تراكمت الكمال من الحكمة (بانا باراميتا)، لنفسك وكذلك للعالم.
“إكمال تيبيتاكا”

ببساطة لاقط تيبيتاكا الخاص بك أو أي من الكتب المقدسة في متناول اليد وترجمة! قد تساعدنا على ترجمة بعض الترجمات المتوفرة في النسخ المطبوعة، مع الاستشهاد الصحيح، إذا كنت لا تريد ترجمتها بنفسك. يرجى الاطلاع على صفحة المهام لمزيد من الأفكار حول كيفية مساعدة “إكمال تيبيتاكا”.

    فينايا بيتاكا
    
ساميوتا نيكايا
    
أنغوتارا نيكايا
    
أبيدهاما بيتاكا

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

أهلا بك!

هناك الكثير من الأشياء التي يمكن القيام بها على هذا الموقع حتى لا التغلب على أي تردد الطبيعي قد يكون لديك ويرجى المساهمة.

والمفتاح هو أن ندرك أنك لا تحتاج إلى المجيء إلى الموقع مع كامل، والمادة مثالية، على الرغم من أن من شأنه أن يكون جيدا. صغير، ونأمل منتظم، والنشاط الممتاز. إذا كنت يمكن أن تأتي بانتظام لمدة نصف ساعة ونسخ 4 صفحات من ويكيبيديا،
واخراج بعض الروابط غير الضرورية، وتصحيح قليلا من قواعد اللغة، وربط 5
إشارات إلى النص الكامل، وما إلى ذلك، لقد أعطيت هذا العالم هدية عظيمة.

وهذا مهم جدا لأن التقدم لا يمكن أن يتحقق إلا إذا كان هناك آلاف منا يفعلون ذلك. إذا تبرع 2،000 منا نصف ساعة في اليوم و 500 ساعة عمل في اليوم، و
8000 بت من المعلومات الجديدة المضافة، 10،000 مراجع الخ فقط مع توسيع نطاق
الجهود التعاونية أن هذا المشروع يصبح ممكنا.

    في
المراحل المبكرة يجدر التركيز على تحويل الروابط الحمراء الزرقاء عن طريق
قطع ولصق واستيراد المواد من المواقع المناسبة الأخرى، وتذكر دائما أنها
يجب أن تكون خالية من حق المؤلف أو يجب ذكرها.
ومن الواضح أن ويكيبيديا هي مصدر جيد للمواد ولكن يمكن استخدام مواقع أخرى كذلك مثل الوصول إلى انسايت [1] و Tipitaka.tk [2]. تذكر أن تحاول إبقائها على نمطنا القياسي ووضع مقاطع منفصلة على صفحات فرعية منفصلة. للحصول على إرشادات راجع كيفية نسخ النصوص والصور من صفحة مساعدة ويكيبيديا.


Buddha heart ANIMATED GIF

6) դասական հայերեն

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

կազմում եւ ամբողջական թարգմանությունը Tipitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Բարի գալուստ Wikipitaka,
այն Tipitaka, որ որեւէ մեկը կարող է խմբագրել:
Հենց հիմա, կան 3,219 suttas եւ հոդվածներ:

Wikipitaka է փորձ է կուտակել, եւ ամբողջական թարգմանությունն Tipitaka,
բուդդայական սուրբ գրքի, եւ նրա մեկնաբանությունների է, որպեսզի ամբողջական
հատկանիշները առցանց տեքստի որոնում, զննարկում, կապող, լուծվող
խմբագրման, ինչպես նաեւ փնտրում պայմանները տված առցանց բառարան.

Այն խօսքը Tipitaka նշանակում է երեք արկղերի կամ զամբյուղներ (pitakas) այսինքն, բաժիններ: Ամբողջ Բուդիստ Canon բաժանված է երեք բաժիններից այսինքն, (1) Vinaya Pitaka: The էթիկայի / Բարոյական կոդերը: (2) Sutta Pitaka: The դիսկուրսներում Բուդդայի (հիմնականում), սա է ամենամեծ բաժինը: (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: Տեսական մասը եւ նաեւ ավելի բարձր / վերջնական իմաստը Բուդդայի գաղափարների.

Կան
հիմա 3,219 հոդվածներ / էջերը Wikipitaka եւ հաշվի առնելով մի շարք pdf
ֆայլեր տրամադրված, թիվը suttas է Wikipitaka նույնիսկ շատ ավելին.
Այն
այժմ ամենամեծ հավաքածուն Theravada բուդդայական գրությունների / suttas
անգլերենով ինտերնետում մատուցող է գրեթե ամբողջական պատկերացում Theravada
բուդդիզմ.
Բացի
այդ, այն պահպանելու նպատակով լիարժեք մաքրությունը բուդդիստական ​​սուրբ
գրությունների, վերացնելով կորուստ իմաստով թարգմանաբար, մի Pali տարբերակ է
նաեւ տրամադրվում է յուրաքանչյուր բաժնում հենց լեզվով խոսում են Բուդդայի
& ամբողջական օրիգինալ հնչյունաբանության, որը շատ օգտակար է
հետազոտության եւ
համար Վարդապետներից եւ խոհ կիրառողները. Խնդրում ենք օգնել մեզ աճել է նպաստելով: Տեսնել, որ To Do էջը գաղափարների. Դա, իրոք, շատ հեշտ է օգնել մեկ անգամ ձեզ սկսել.

Բուդդայի ասաց.
A պարգեւը Dhamma յաղթէ բոլոր նվերներ.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Օգնություն մեզ իրականացնել այս մեծ առաքելություն, տալով այս մեծ նվեր է աշխարհին, կիսելով խորը Dhamma Բուդդայի:

Սա գերազանց հնարավորություն է, որպեսզի ինչ - որ Մեծ Karma: Կարդալով եւ կիսելով Ձեր տեղեկացվածությունն մեզ հետ, Դուք կուտակել
կատարելության իմաստության (panna paramitta), Ձեզ համար, ինչպես նաեւ
աշխարհի համար:
«Ավարտելով է Tipitaka»

Պարզապես պիկապ ձեր Tipitaka կամ որեւէ սուրբ գրությունների ձեռքը եւ թարգմանել! Դուք
կարող եք օգնել մեզ արտագրել որոշ թարգմանությունները, որոնք առկա են
թղթային, ճիշտ citation, եթե դուք չեք ցանկանում, որ թարգմանել նրանց
ինքներդ.
Խնդրում ենք անել էջը ավելի գաղափարների շուրջ, թե ինչպես օգնել «ավարտում է Tipitaka»:

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Բարի գալուստ!

Կան շատ բաներ անել այս կայքում այնպես անել, հաղթահարելու ցանկացած ֆիզիկական տատանվելու դուք կարող եք ունենալ եւ խնդրում կնպաստի:

Բանալին է գիտակցել, որ դուք չեք պետք է գալ կայքի հետ ամբողջական, կատարյալ հոդվածում, չնայած, որ լավ կլիներ: Փոքր է, եւ հուսով եմ, որ կանոնավոր, ակտիվությունը գերազանց. Եթե ​​դուք կարող եք գալ պարբերաբար կես ժամ, եւ պատճենը 4 էջերը
Wikepedia, հանել մի քանի անհարկի հղումներ, ուղղել մի քիչ քերականության,
հղում 5 հիշատակումները դրանց լիարժեք տեքստը, եւ այլն, պետք է տրվի այս
աշխարհն է մեծ նվեր.

Սա շատ կարեւոր է, քանի առաջընթաց կարող է կատարվել միայն այն դեպքում, եթե կան հազարավոր մեզ անում այն. Եթե ​​2000-մեզանից նվիրաբերել կես ժամ, մի օր thats 500 ժամ
աշխատանք կատարվել է մի օր, 8000 bits նոր տեղեկատվություն ավելացրել է,
10.000 հղումները եւ այլն: Նրա միայն scaling մինչեւ համագործակցային
ջանքերի, որ այս նախագիծը դառնում է հնարավոր:

    Ի
վաղ փուլերում դա արժե կենտրոնացնելով կարմրելն հղումներ կապույտ կտրում
դրանք եւ դիտարկչի եւ նյութերի ներկրման այլ համապատասխան կայքեր, միշտ
հիշելով, որ դրանք պետք է լինեն հեղինակային իրավունքի խախտման համար ազատ,
կամ դուք պետք է հղում նրանց.
Ակնհայտ
է Վիքիփեդիան լավ աղբյուր նյութական, այլ նաեւ այլ կայքեր կարող են
օգտագործվել, ինչպես նաեւ, ինչպիսիք են մուտք դեպի Insight [1] եւ
Tipitaka.tk [2]:
Հիշեք, որ փորձել եւ պահպանել դրանք մեր ստանդարտ ոճով եւ դրեց առանձին հատվածներ, ապա առանձին ենթաօրենսդրական էջերում: Համար հրահանգներ է տեսնել, թե ինչպես պետք է պատճենել տեքստը եւ պատկերները - ից Wikipedia օգնության էջը:


trump-as-mara

7) Klassik Azərbaycan

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

tərtib və Tipitaka tam tərcümə

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page
Wikipitaka xoş gəlmisiniz
Tipitaka hər kəs redaktə edə bilər.
Hal-hazırda, 3,219 Suttas və məqalələr var.

axtarış gəzən, bir-birinə bağlayan, ani redaktə eləcə də online lüğət
şərtləri ararken: Wikipitaka bir tərtib cəhd və online mətn tam
xüsusiyyətləri təmin etmək üçün Tipitaka, Buddist müqəddəs kitab və onun
şərhlər tam tərcümə edir.

söz Tipitaka üç qutuları və ya zənbillər (pitakas) yəni bölmələr deməkdir. Etik / Mənəvi kodları: Bütün Buddist canon üç bölmədən yəni (1) Vinaya Pitaka bölünür. (2) Sutta Pitaka: Buddha (əsasən) və ifadələr, bu ən böyük bölüm. (3) Abhidhamma Pitaka: nəzəri hissəsi də Buddha fikir ali / son mənası.

Orada Wikipitaka da 3,219 məqalə / pages indi təmin pdf faylları sayı nəzərə alaraq, Wikipitaka ilə Suttas sayı daha çoxdur. İndi Theravada buddizm demək olar ki, tam şəkil təmin internetdə ingilis Theravada Buddist kitab / Suttas ən böyük toplusudur. Həmçinin,
Buddist kitab tam təmizlik saxlanılması tərcümə məna itkisi rəfedici
məqsədilə, bir Pali versiyası da tədqiqat üçün çox faydalıdır orijinal
fonetika ilə tam Buddha & danışdığı çox dildə hər bölməsində təqdim
olunur &
rahiblərini və düşüncə praktiklər üçün. Bizə töhfə inkişaf kömək edin. ideyalar səhifə Do baxın. Bu, həqiqətən başlamaq bir dəfə kömək üçün asandır!

Buddha dedi:
Dhamma bir hədiyyə bütün hədiyyələr fəth.
Dhammapada XXIV, 354

Bizə Buddha dərin Dhamma mübadiləsi, dünya bu böyük hədiyyə verilməsi, bu böyük missiyanı həyata keçirmək Help.

Bu, bəzi böyük Karma etmək üçün əla imkandır. oxu və bizə fikir mübadiləsi, özünüz üçün, eləcə də dünya üçün, hikmət (panna paramitta) təkmilləşdirilməsi yığılmış.
“Etdikdən Tipitaka”

əl Sadəcə alma sizin Tipitaka və ya kitab hər hansı bir və tərcümə! Siz onlara özünüzü tərcümə istəmirsinizsə Siz düzgün sitat ilə bizə Hardcopy mövcud bir tərcümə kopya kömək edə bilər. yardım haqqında daha çox fikir üçün səhifə Do baxın “Tipitaka başa.”

    Vinaya Pitaka
    
Samyutta Nikaya
    
Anguttara Nikaya
    
Abidhamma Pitaka

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/To_Do

Xoş gəlmisiniz!

belə ki, və kömək edin hər hansı bir təbii tərəddüd aradan qaldırmaq nə bu saytda bunu şeyi çox var.

əsas ki, yaxşı olacaq, baxmayaraq ki, bir tam, mükəmməl maddə ilə sayt isifadəçilərin ehtiyac yoxdur ki, həyata var. Kiçik, və inşallah müntəzəm fəaliyyət mükemmel. Siz yarım saat müntəzəm gəlib Wikepedia 4 pages surəti bilər, bir neçə
lazımsız links çıxarmaq qrammatika, link və s. tam mətni 5 istinadlar
bir az düzəltmək, bu dünya böyük bir hədiyyə verdik.

tərəqqi bunu bizə minlərlə var yalnız edilə bilər, çünki bu, çox vacibdir. 500 saat iş bir gün görülən thats bizə 2000 bir gün yarım saat
bağış varsa, yeni məlumatlar 8000 bit yalnız bu layihə mümkün olur ki,
səy qədər scaling ilə və s. 10,000 istinadlar Onun sözlərinə əlavə etdi.

    erkən
mərhələlərində onlar pulsuz copyright olmalıdır və ya onlara istinad
lazımdır ki, xatırlayaraq həmişə kəsici və sovuşdurmaq və digər müvafiq
saytlar material idxal mavi, qırmızı links dönüş konsentrə dəyər.
Aydındır
ki, Wikipedia maddi bir yaxşı mənbəyidir, lakin digər sites Insight [1]
və Tipitaka.tk giriş həmçinin kimi istifadə edilə bilər [2].
cəhd və standart stil saxlamaq və ayrı-ayrı alt pages ayrı keçid qoymaq unutmayın. təlimat Wikipedia help page surəti necə mətn və şəkilləri görmək üçün.

comments (0)
03/18/17
2169 Sat 18 Mar 2017 LESSON- Mayawati returns to the drawing board -Justice Karnan rejects warrant issued by SC
Filed under: General, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: @ 12:41 am
2169 Sat 18 Mar 2017 LESSON

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/after-loss-mayawati-returns-to-the-drawing-board/article17523892.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication


Mayawati returns to the drawing board


Party posts have been reassigned to include more OBCs, who abandoned the BSP during the recent Assembly elections

After a dismal showing in Uttar Pradesh elections, the Bahujan Samaj
Party has wasted no time and is back to the drawing board to stitch
together a rainbow coalition of castes with a special focus on the Other
Backward Communities, which observers feel deserted it in large
numbers.

The BSP had experimented with a SC/ST-Muslim combination
for the Assembly polls even as a number of leaders belonging to the
backward castes jumped ship to join the BJP.

The party has re-organised its community-based bhaichara (brotherhood) committees and assigned duties to top leaders to increase presence among various castes.

Office bearers

The rainbow caste alliances are also
reflected in the party’s choices for posts in the legislature. Senior
leader Lalji Verma has been nominated leader of the Legislature Party.
Mr. Verma, a four-time MLA and former minister, is a Kurmi, among the
largest backward castes in the State.

After Swami Prasad Maurya,
an OBC, quit the party last year to join the BJP just months before the
election, BSP chief Mayawati had nominated Gaya Charan Dinkar, a fellow
Jatav (Dalit) as the Leader of the Opposition. Mr. Dinkar however, lost
his seat in the polls. Uma Shankar Singh, MLA from Rasara in Ballia, has
been appointed deputy leader in the Vidhan Sabha. Mr. Singh is a
Kshatriya and one of the few BSP MLAs who won with a handsome margin.

One
of the BSP’s Brahmin faces and old loyalist Ramveer Upadhyaya has been
named chief whip, while Hargovind Bhargava, a Pasi (Dalit), and Shah
Alam alias Guddu Jamali, a Muslim MLA from Azamgarh, have been made
whips of the legislature party.

To increase outreach among various
castes, BSP chief Mayawati has also handed out responsibilities to more
than a dozen leaders. Sources said a special focus would be on the 17
most backward castes (MBCs), which have steadily deserted the BSP over
the last decade.

“The
process of distributing responsibilities will continue. We have been
asked to increase presence of the party among these castes and approach
them with new formats,” said a senior BSP leader from Bundelkhand.

Banking on Kanshiram

Party
sources also said leaders have been instructed to gather at least 100
“influential or active persons” belonging to the castes assigned to them
from each of the 403 Vidhan Sabhas. Old speeches of BSP founder
Kanshiram would also be played in every village to connect youth with
him. “For that purpose, various coordinators have been asked to purchase
projectors,” said a source, who attended Ms. Mayawati’s meeting of
elected legislators and co-coordinators held in Lucknow on Thursday.

While
Rajya Sabha member Satish Mishra continues to be responsible for
connecting Brahmins to the BSP, Mayawati-aide Nasimuddin Siddiqui and
his son Afzal Siddiqui will do the job among Muslims.

Uma Shankar
Singh will be in-charge of bringing Thakurs into the BSP fold in
Purvanchal, while Thakur Jaiveer Singh will play the same role in west
UP.

Ram Achal Rajbhar, besides holding the post of State
president, is in-charge of connecting with Rajbhars, a most backward
caste. Similarly, Lalji Verma is assigned the Kurmi caste, while former
Leader of the Opposition Gaya Charan Dinkar will work among the
Prajapatis, also an MBC.

Former MLC Virendra Chauhan is in-charge
of the noniya chauhans (a backward caste), R.S. Kushwaha, of the Maurya
and Kushwaha communities, former MLC Lal Chand Nishad has been given the
riverine Mallah communities while the Kashyap community (OBC) will be
under Ram Murti, a party coordinator from Bareilly.

Apart from
reorganising the party, the BSP has also plans to stage demonstrations
on the 11th of every month on their opposition to EVMs. The BSP has
alleged that its poor showing in the elections was due to tampering of
EVMs. The protests will be staged in every district headquarters in U.P.
and other State capitals.

Meanwhile, the
resignations from the party continue. Former Minister Kamla Kant Gautam
and former OSD to Ms. Mayawati, Gangaram Ambedkar, have quit the party
accusing the chief of straying from the path of Kanshiram.

×

There is a Tamil adage “yanai vizhunthaal aadu kooda kitte poi vaalaattumam”-When an elephant falls ,even a goat would dare go near and wag its tail.

BSP never said all these. ‘The Hindu’ being the most progressive on planet earth
can’t think beyond caste/religion!

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/after-loss-mayawati-returns-to-the-drawing-board/article17523892.ece


Mayawati returns to the drawing board



Party posts have been reassigned to include more OBCs, who abandoned the BSP during the recent Assembly elections

After a dismal showing in Uttar Pradesh elections, the Bahujan Samaj
Party has wasted no time and is back to the drawing board to stitch
together a rainbow coalition of castes with a special focus on the Other
Backward Communities, which observers feel deserted it in large
numbers.

The BSP had experimented with a Dalit-Muslim combination
for the Assembly polls even as a number of leaders belonging to the
backward castes jumped ship to join the BJP.

The party has re-organised its community-based bhaichara (brotherhood) committees and assigned duties to top leaders to increase presence among various castes.

Office bearers

The
rainbow caste alliances are also reflected in the party’s choices for
posts in the legislature. Senior leader Lalji Verma has been nominated
leader of the Legislature Party. Mr. Verma, a four-time MLA and former
minister, is a Kurmi, among the largest backward castes in the State.

After
Swami Prasad Maurya, an OBC, quit the party last year to join the BJP
just months before the election, BSP chief Mayawati had nominated Gaya
Charan Dinkar, a fellow Jatav (Dalit) as the Leader of the Opposition.
Mr. Dinkar however, lost his seat in the polls. Uma Shankar Singh, MLA
from Rasara in Ballia, has been appointed deputy leader in the Vidhan
Sabha. Mr. Singh is a Kshatriya and one of the few BSP MLAs who won with
a handsome margin.

One of the BSP’s Brahmin faces and old
loyalist Ramveer Upadhyaya has been named chief whip, while Hargovind
Bhargava, a Pasi (Dalit), and Shah Alam alias Guddu Jamali, a Muslim MLA
from Azamgarh, have been made whips of the legislature party.

To
increase outreach among various castes, BSP chief Mayawati has also
handed out responsibilities to more than a dozen leaders. Sources said a
special focus would be on the 17 most backward castes (MBCs), which
have steadily deserted the BSP over the last decade.

“The
process of distributing responsibilities will continue. We have been
asked to increase presence of the party among these castes and approach
them with new formats,” said a senior BSP leader from Bundelkhand.

Banking on Kanshiram

Party
sources also said leaders have been instructed to gather at least 100
“influential or active persons” belonging to the castes assigned to them
from each of the 403 Vidhan Sabhas. Old speeches of BSP founder
Kanshiram would also be played in every village to connect youth with
him. “For that purpose, various coordinators have been asked to purchase
projectors,” said a source, who attended Ms. Mayawati’s meeting of
elected legislators and co-coordinators held in Lucknow on Thursday.

While
Rajya Sabha member Satish Mishra continues to be responsible for
connecting Brahmins to the BSP, Mayawati-aide Nasimuddin Siddiqui and
his son Afzal Siddiqui will do the job among Muslims.

Uma Shankar
Singh will be in-charge of bringing Thakurs into the BSP fold in
Purvanchal, while Thakur Jaiveer Singh will play the same role in west
UP.

Ram Achal Rajbhar, besides holding the post of State
president, is in-charge of connecting with Rajbhars, a most backward
caste. Similarly, Lalji Verma is assigned the Kurmi caste, while former
Leader of the Opposition Gaya Charan Dinkar will work among the
Prajapatis, also an MBC.

Former MLC Virendra Chauhan is in-charge
of the noniya chauhans (a backward caste), R.S. Kushwaha, of the Maurya
and Kushwaha communities, former MLC Lal Chand Nishad has been given the
riverine Mallah communities while the Kashyap community (OBC) will be
under Ram Murti, a party coordinator from Bareilly.

Apart from
reorganising the party, the BSP has also plans to stage demonstrations
on the 11th of every month on their opposition to EVMs. The BSP has
alleged that its poor showing in the elections was due to tampering of
EVMs. The protests will be staged in every district headquarters in U.P.
and other State capitals.

Meanwhile, the
resignations from the party continue. Former Minister Kamla Kant Gautam
and former OSD to Ms. Mayawati, Gangaram Ambedkar, have quit the party
accusing the chief of straying from the path of Kanshiram.


http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/justice-karnan-rejects-warrant-issued-by-sc/article17524652.ece

Justice Karnan rejects warrant issued by SC



Seeks Rs. 14 cr. in damages from Bench for stopping his work

Calcutta High Court judge C.S. Karnan has “refused to accept” the bailable warrant issued against him by the Supreme Court in a
suo motu
contempt of court order.

On Friday, West Bengal Director General
of Police (DGP), Surajit Kar Purkayastha, along with several
high-ranking officials went to Justice Karnan’s residence in the New
Town area on the eastern fringes of the city to hand over the warrant.

“I
rejected the same [the warrant] after assigning valid reasons. This
kind of demeaning acts from your Lordships and further perpetrating the
Atrocities Act ( Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes [ Prevention of
Atrocities Act], 1989) is absolutely out of law to the utter
embarrassment of a Dalit judge,” Justice Karnan stated in a letter to
the seven-judge Bench of the Supreme Court.

‘Stop harassment’

He also urged the Bench to “stop further harassments” and “uphold the dignity and decorum of our courts.”

Justice
Karnan sought a compensation of Rs. 14 crore from the seven judges of
the Supreme Court for having stopped his judicial and administrative
work.

In the letter he accused them of having disturbed his mind
and his normal life, “besides you have insulted me in the general
public…”

“Now all seven Judges shall pay a part of the
compensation within a period of seven days from the date of receipt of
this order,” he said.

The Supreme Court had earlier directed the DGP to serve the warrant on him.

Accordingly, the police team reached the judge’s house on Friday.

“The
DGP of West Bengal, the ADGP of Intelligence-Criminal Investigation
Department [CID] and a Superintendent of Police [SP] from Tamil Nadu,
along with about 20 police personnel, came to Justice Karnan’s residence
today [Friday] to hand over the warrant. But he refused to accept it,”
Justice Karnan’s lawyer W. Peter Ramesh told
The Hindu
.

He alleged that the police personnel “barged into the compound” of Justice Karnan’s residence.

“Not only did they [the police] enter the compound by force but they also slapped a security guard of the building,” he said.

He said that they were “considering legal action” against the police for “barging and trespassing” into the judge’s residence.

No force used: Police

However,
State police officials not only claimed that Justice Karnan “accepted”
the warrant but also denied the allegation that they had forcefully
entered the judge’s residence.

Speaking to
The Hindu
, Additional Director General of CID Rajesh Kumar, who visited the
judge’s residence said he had “accepted” it. “He gave his observation on
the warrant in writing and accepted it,” said Mr. Kumar.

Last
month the Supreme Court issued a contempt of court notice against
Justice Karnan for allegedly degrading the judicial institution.

(
With PTI inputs)

×


http://ahmedabadmirror.indiatimes.com/news/india/justice-karnan-rejects-warrant-issued-by-sc/articleshow/57695476.cms

Justice Karnan rejects warrant issued by SC

Calcutta
High Court judge Justice C S Karnan showed no signs of relenting on
Friday when attempts were made to deliver to him a bailable warrant
issued by the Supreme Court in a contempt case to ensure his appearance
before it on March 31. In a letter to the 7-judge bench headed by Chief
Justice J S Khehar that issued the warrant, Justice Karnan said he
rejected the warrant. Justice Karnan has sought a compensation of Rs 14
crore from the seven SC judges for having stopped his judicial and
administrative work. The SC initiated contempt proceedings against
Justice Karnan after he continuously levelled allegations against the
Madras high court chief justice and other judges. But he has said that
the SC judges have no rights to issue a warrant against a sitting judge
and alleged that he was being targeted for being a SC.


comments (0)
02/17/17
Tipiṭaka (Gurmukhi) ਤਿਪਿਟਕ (ਮੂਲ) વਿਨਯਪਿਟਕ ਪਾਰਾਜਿਕਪਾਲ਼ਿ-http://tipitaka.org/others
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 3:11 am


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1xLj_7GahY
Buddha’s Wonderful words. Its Amazing really!!! {Quotes}


The words spoken by the Buddha is indeed a great blessing for the whole
world. Please share this video after you have watched it.
Please enjoy the full video and relax.

It is recommended that you share it likewise.
_/\_

Tags,
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Buddha Quotes - The Most Inspiring Buddha Quotes
Quotes from the Awakened one
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Buddha quotes to live by
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Buddhist quotes


The
words spoken by the Buddha is indeed a great blessing for the whole
world. Please share this video after you have watched it. Please enjoy
the full video…
youtube.com

http://tipitaka.org/others

Tipiṭaka (Gurmukhi)