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2599 Sun 21 Apr 2018 LESSON
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2599 Sun 21 Apr 2018 LESSON


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http://www.yesterland.com/circarama.html
Yesterland
The Bell System presents
America the Beautiful
in Circarama

O beautiful for spacious skies,
For amber waves of grain,
For purple mountain majesties
Above the fruited plain!

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

Perhaps you’re here because you saw this advertisement in the Los Angeles Times of June 14, 1960:

New!

The Bell System Presents
“America the Beautiful”
in CIRCARAMA

Circarama puts you in the middle of the action, completely surrounded by magnificent motion pictures in color.

Among the many fascinating places Circarama takes you in “America the
Beautiful” are New York Harbor; Times Square; a Vermont country church
set against the splendor of the autumn foliage; Williamsburg,
Virginia—cradle of American culture; Pittsburgh steel mills; Detroit
automobile factories; Midwestern railroad freight yards; Oklahoma
cowboys rounding up cattle; wheat-harvesting combines in Montana; copper
mines in Utah; Monument Valley; Hoover Dam; The Grand Canyon; San
Francisco; The Golden Gate Bridge; and campus life at America’s great
University of California at Los Angeles.

Presented free of charge.

Yes, it’s free.
There’s no need to reach for your ticket book or to stop at a ticket booth.
You can thank The Bell System and your local host company, Pacific Telephone.

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

This presentation puts you “in the middle of everything.”
Eleven movie screens form a circle above your head.
Eleven perfectly synchronized projectors show eleven 16mm films, surrounding you with a 360-degree travelogue.

Most other guests are staring at the front screens.
But they’re missing half the fun.
The whole idea is to look all around to see what’s going on, even if the
filmmakers seem to be directing your attention primarily to the front
of the theater.

If you’ve seen this movie too many times—after all, it’s a free
attraction—here’s how you can have an entirely new experience: Watch the
entire movie facing back screens. See where you’ve been instead of
where you’re going.

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

The name Circarama is a play on Cinerama, the three-film,
three-projector process used to show some Hollywood features on wide,
curving screens in specially-equipped movie houses.
Does this mean 360-degree movie houses will be next?

A paragraph in a New York Times article (“Disney Presents Movies-In-Round,” June 28, 1955) suggests this might happen:

Although Circarama is not planned for theatre use at present, Mr. [Walt]
Disney, for one, does not rule out its potential adaptation to a highly
specialized form of dramatic motion picture presentation. It was less
than a decade ago that experienced Hollywood showmen failed to recognize
the commercial possibilities of Cinerama, when its late inventor, Fred
Waller, held demonstration showings in a barn in Oyster Bay, N. Y.


America the Beautiful in Circarama opened at Disneyland in June 1960.

But it wasn’t the first Circarama movie.
That honor went to A Tour of the West, presented by American Motors—builder of Hudson, Nash, and Rambler automobiles—and its appliance division, Kelvinator.

The 1987 book Disneyland: Inside Story by Randy Bright quoted an American Motors Corporation press release, dated June 27, 1955:

“This combination of photographic skills and entertainment talents
promises an unusual spectacle for visitors to Disneyland. We’re happy to
have a part to play in making Circarama possible. As it represents
added pleasure and value for the public, sponsorship of the Circarama is
another forward step in our program to make American Motors mean more
for Americans.”

— George Romney, President, American Motors Corporation

A Tour of the West was an original 1955 attraction at Disneyland.
(There’s no word on whether Romney took his eight-year-old son to the opening of the attraction.)
It closed around the beginning of 1960 to make way for America the Beautiful.

Walt Disney’s involvement with the 1964-65 New York World’s Fair is well
known.
Far fewer people know that six years earlier, a Disney attraction was
part of another Cold War era international expo, the 1958 Brussels
(Belgium) World’s Fair.

A New York Times article (“U. S. To Be Candid At Brussels Fair,” March 5, 1958) gave a preview of the American pavilion before the fair opened:

Innovations in photographic and movie projection methods will permit a
360-degree view of “the face of America” on a room-circling screen. The
projection method, developed by Walt Disney, is known as “Circarama”. A
color film, titled “America: The Land and The People,” showing a trip
across the country, will be exhibited.

By the time the fair opened, the color film had a new name.
Walt Disney’s America the Beautiful was a highlight of the American pavilion.

Los Angeles Times writer Jerry Hulse (“Miniature World Unfolds at
the Fair,” April 22, 1958) wrote about the audience reaction to the
Circarama presentation: “And with the ending there is a loud applause…
from persons of many countries… yes, even a few Russian visitors.”

The next stop for Circarama was the American National Exhibition in Moscow, Russia in 1959.
The U.S. Government arranged for Walt Disney to redo the narration of America the Beautiful in Russian.

By the time America the Beautiful opened at Disneyland in 1960, it was the third version of the 360-degree movie, playing in its third country.

America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

Detail from 1964 Disneyland souvenir map
 
America the Beautiful in Circarama at Disneyland

Detail from 1968 Disneyland souvenir map

The eleven-screen America the Beautiful attraction at Disneyland closed permanently in September 1966.

America the Beautiful was replaced by… America the Beautiful!

Despite having the same name, the 1967 version of America the Beautiful
was an entirely new movie.
This time, it was filmed in the new nine-screen Circle-Vision 360
process, and was shown in a much larger theater using nine 35mm movie
projectors.

The original Circarama was housed in only the left section of the north
Tomorrowland building, and that space was also used for exhibits.
When the New Tomorrowland opened in 1967, the left section became the
pre-show area where guests would wait. The new Circle-Vision 360 theater
took up the round central section.
Today, both sections are used for Buzz Lightyear Astro Blasters.

Circarama was such an ingenious, original idea that Walt Disney had it patented.

Walt Disney Family Museum photo

Walt Disney Family Museum photo

Walt Disney Family Museum photo

Notice that the patent was filed on the first anniversary of Disneyland’s press opening and awarded the same month that America the Beautiful opened at Disneyland.

When you visit the Walt Disney Family Museum in San Francisco, be sure to look for the original Circarama camera.

Walt Disney Family Museum photoWalt Disney Family Museum photo

Circarama camera (center) at The Walt Disney Family Museum


Click here to post comments at MiceChat about this article.




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© 2012-2017 Werner Weiss — Disclaimers, Copyright, and Trademarks

Updated May 26, 2017.

http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/a-new-age-4dmovie-viewing-experience-with-circarama-cinema-619756.htm



China Aerospace Creation Technology Co., Ltd


A New Age 4DMovie Viewing Experience with Circarama Cinema

In the present years there have been a
wide popularity of the 4D cinema. After 3D cinema has come to the market
it had got all the attention it waited for and now the 4D cinema is
getting into the different corners of the globe. The companies all over
the world are coming with their best collections and technologies
regarding the 4D cinemas. This is further increasing the popularity of
this mode of cinema.


Beijing, China — (SBWIRE) — 08/24/2015 —
In the last one century the art of film making and film projections
system has undergone great many changes. In the light of the historical
events and series of changes that the film-making has gone through, a
great journey has already been made. From the Lumiere Brothers to the
recent 3D films, it was a great up and down journey for all. However,
the journey has not ended with the 3D films. Now the recent 4D films are
hitting the market with new variations of movie viewing experience.

Among the different cinemas that have hit the globe with their technical
superiority and great variation in the making and presentation, the 4D
films have surpassed all limits. The movie viewing experience of these
films have been spectacular. The unforgettable movie viewing experience
has brought a new wave in the film market where the films making
companies have been heavily inspired with the demands. Among the
companies that have come up with the 4D motion cinema technologies, one has to take the name of Circarama cinema.

Circarama cinema
has brought a never before movie viewing experience for the viewers.
The breathtaking visual effect will come life as if the viewer can touch
it. This is the kind of cinema that can transfer the viewers’
imagination into the next level.

In order to make that happen, many failed attempts were made before. But
now, the 4D cinemas are also being attached with the 5D, 6D and even 7D
effects. No wonder that these effects are adding more fun into the
movie viewing.

About Circarama Company
The Circarama Company whose mother company is China Aerospace Creation
Technology or CACT, now happens to be on the forefront of the 4D cinema
presentation companies and with the most advanced Chinese cinema making
technologies they have been able to produce long lists of the films
that have 4D presentations. Obviously this can be taken as a huge step
for the history of motion cinema.

Their cinema technique, which is also called as the circular Screen
cinema as a 120 to 180 degree screen and the ROI is the quickest in the
settings. The whole settings can be installed fast such is its fittings.
At the same time the requirements are lowest on the site. With the best
dynamic experience the viewers are loving thee presentations of these
cinemas. From the kind of response that these cinemas are having from
the different corners of the world, it can be said that the anticipation
is that in a very few years the 4D market will be the dominant one all
over.

For more information visit the website http://cactsim.com/show.asp?Id=26

For Media Contact:
Company: China Aerospace Creation Technology Co., Ltd
Phone: 0086-10-68647537
Email Id: amusementsimulator@gmail.com
Website: http://cactsim.com/




http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/56195

Circle-Vision 360

Located in Tomorrowland, in Disneyland. Circarama
opened on July 15, 1955 screening “A Tour of the West” across 9 large
screens for a panaramic view of the movie. The audience stood in the
center of the auditorium. It was renamed Circle-Vision 360 in 1967.
Closed on September 8, 1997 with “America the Beautiful”.

It became the queue area for the short-lived Rocket
Rods ride (May 22, 1998 to April 27, 2001) and is now “Buzz Lightyear’s
Astro Blasters”(soft opening – March 10, 2005), official opening – March
17, 2005). It’s still operating.

Contributed by
David Coppock

Recent comments
(view all 1 comments)

Joe Pinney
Joe Pinney
on
August 8, 2017 at 7:32 pm

There’s been some confusion about Disney’s
360-degree film formats – the original format that opened in 1955 with A
TOUR OF THE WEST, which ran until 1960, and then with AMERICA THE
BEAUTIFUL until 1966, was an 11-screen, 16mm format (in 360 degrees)
called CIRCA-RAMA. When Tomorrowland was refurbished in 1967, with a new
version of AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL, the 360-degree film format was now a
9-screen, 35mm format (in 360 degrees) called CIRCLE-VISION360.

The original 16mm Circarama camera is on display in San Francisco at the Walt Disney Family Museum.

More info, as well as patent drawings of Circa-Rama that were submitted by Disney – http://www.yesterland.com/circarama.html


The
front of the “Cavalcade” Cinema.

Press image to see an enlargement
The “Circlorama” process was developed by the Russian professor E.
Goldovsky, Moscow Cinema Research Institute.
The London Circlorama cinema opened 9 May 1963. The circular
auditoria measured 18 meters in diameter and had a height of 15
meters. The screen surrounded the audience and had a total length of
45 meters. The lower edge of the screen was raised 2½ meters above
the floor.
11 projectors, were arranged in a gallery around the auditoria, and
projected their pictures on 1/11 per circular projection screen. The
9-channel sound was played from a separate 35mm Philips sound
reproducer.
The projectors and sound reproducer were electronically synchronized
through a interlock system. For sound reproduction 51 separate
speakers had been installed behind the screen and in the floor.
There were room for 500 spectators. The foyer was downstairs with
room
for a 1000 people.

Leonard Urry had set up Circlorama together with Leon Heppner, a Russian
entrepreneur who had lived in London for several years. They acquired a
bomb site in Denman Street just behind Piccadilly Circus and constructed
a building to house the new 360 degree cinema which they had imported
from Russia. I remember Leonard telling me the building had cost
£120K. It housed the now familiar eleven screens which were arranged
round the wall of the circular building. The diameter of the auditorium
was 70ft and was served by eleven 35mm Phillips water-cooled, pulse
light projectors which were housed in an enclosed gallery. On a level
with the centre of the screens the eleven projectors were synchronised
to form a continuous 360 degree projected image, and together with a
nine track stereo system it was quite a spectacular cinematic
experience. The installation had been carried out by Frank Brockliss Ltd
who were located in Wardour Street.

Mr.
Stanley Long 2006.


I had known Leonard for several years. He had financed one of my early
films “West End Jungle” which was a low budget dramatised documentary
destined for theatrical release. The venture had been financially very
successful despite censorship problems. Leonard asked if I might be
interested in making a new film for Circlorama, to replace the one which
had been running unsuccessfully for about 6 months. The business was
terrible he told me, in spite of buying, at great cost, a new entrance
from Piccadilly Circus. The problem, he thought was due to the very
boring ‘propaganda’ nature of the Russian film. He wanted a lighter form
of entertainment with rollercoaster type shots which would be more
exciting for an audience, who had to stand in the auditorium to watch
the twenty minute show. Being by nature a technically minded film maker
(I was a Cameraman) I was intrigued by the prospect.

The process didn’t seem too much of a problem to me, and before long,
after I had worked out how to do it, I came back to Leonard with a
positive interest. I told him that it would require a small budget to
make a test in order to make sure it was possible, and to project the
result in the cinema, so that they could make a final decision. He
agreed to funding a test and within a few days I was busy working out
how to go about it. Firstly I worked out the geometry, and found that
the eleven cameras would require to be fitted with 35mm lenses to
cover
the picture circle. The cameras would be mounted on a circular
aluminium
plate one half inch thick. Synchronisation would be achieved with
mains
motors.
 

 

Making a British Circlorama

 


35mm
rig with the eleven ARRIs. Magazines are off (they were being reloaded).
Press image for an enlargement.

Getting hold of
eleven 35mm Arriflex cameras to do such a test proved to
be a problem in 1963. A phone call to the new camera hire company run
by Sydney Samuelson (now Sir Sydney) and his brothers David and
Michael, requesting to rent eleven Arriflexes complete with mains motors
driven through a rectifier with a fram meter to hold sync, produced
peals of laughter at the other end of the phone.

“What an earth are you doing Stanley? I have never heard of anyone
needing anything like that number of cameras”.

When he had calmed down from his initial reaction, I
explained why I wanted them and that I only wanted them for one day for
the test. He promised to let me know the following day. I had a call at 12
o’clock to say that he had managed to find the eleven cameras but it
would have to be on a Sunday when the cameras were not in use
although he was having difficulty finding the right number of 35mm
lenses as the standard kit of lenses contained only a 28mm lens. He
would be short of at least 4. I decided to go ahead replacing the
shortfall with 4×40mm lenses which would slightly affect some of the
screens.

A Sunday was chosen and arrangements made to use a 40ft boat which was
kept on the river Thames at Chelsea Reach in London. The cameras were
mounted on the cabin roof, and we set off down river to make a series of
shots passing the Houses of Parliament and Tower Bridge. We shot in black
and white for the sake of economy.
 

 

Filming
a short test film in 35mm B&W to demonstrate the Circlorama system.
Scenes included footage made on the Themes river. Stanley Long (left) and Don Lord
(right) operating the cameras.

The film was processed at Technicolor the following day and we waited
until the cinema was closed that evening to screen the results. It
worked! And apart from the four screens that had the 40mm lenses, the
matching was perfect. Leonard and Leon were delighted and a meeting was
arranged for the following day to discuss further arrangements for the
production and I was to come up with an approximate budget to complete
the twenty minute ‘epic’. I worked most of the night on this and came up
with a rough figure of what it might cost. One of the problems I had was
the availability of the cameras. Obviously it would not be practical to
hire them. Also there was another problem. Once the cameras had been
mounted in position I would be unable to move them, because every camera
has a slightly different gate pitch and changing a camera would mean
that the racking would be affected and each time a new shot was done, if
a camera had changed, the projectors would have to be adjusted. So it
meant that eleven cameras had to be purchased. This of course made the
budget sky high. Another problem was that even shooting one take was
eleven to one over normal shooting, take two would put the shooting
ratio to 22 to 1 not counting run ups etc. The stock cost in colour would
be horrendous not withstanding I came up with the final figure which I
then presented at the meeting. It was £150.000! more than the cost of
the original cinema!

Obviously with only one cinema in the country which was capable of
showing the finished film, it was a ‘no go’. Even the possibility of
selling off the cameras after the production didn’t ease the budget
sufficiently to make the project viable. Leonard called me a week later
and said the cinema was doing so badly at the box office that they faced
closure unless something was done. There was one possibility in that
the Russians had a new gimmick. They had fitted Cinemascope lenses to
the cameras vertically and produced a new film which used double height
screens. A print was despatched to England and Harkness Ltd were given
the order to put extra screens in the auditorium. It also meant that
eleven anamorphic lens had to be purchased for the projectors.

The day arrived when all this was put in place and I was asked to attend
the test screening. The whole thing was a disaster, not only was the film
content worse than the first one, but the print suffered from racking
problems similar to those I knew about when we tried to change camera
positions between shots. The screening ended up with the poor
projectionists running round the gallery adjusting the racking after
every scene. By the time the picture was correctly lined up the scene
changed and they had to start all over again. It was a disaster. Leonard
came up to me after the screening, his face said everything.

“Unless we
can sort something out, we’re facing closure.”

I thought long and hard
that evening. How could we reduce the budget?
 

 

Enter, an eccentric Millionaire

 

The
front of the “Cavalcade” Cinema.

The following morning I telephoned Leonard. I told him I had an idea and
arranged to meet him that afternoon. My idea was to change the whole
operation over to 16mm! We could buy eleven 16mm cameras for a fraction
of the cost of 35mm. The stock cost would be dramatically reduced and
likewise the processing. I had worked out some rough figures and it
looked as if I could reduce the cost by about seventy five per cent. It
meant changing all the projection equipment in the cinema, but the 35mm
machines could be sold as replacements to cinemas. So they would be
looking at the difference between the cost of the 16mm and the sale of
the 35mm ones, plus the cost of the changeover. There was a marginal
advantage in that, as we owned the cameras we could make regular changes
to the programme. It all sounded quite practical and Leonard and Leon
were convinced that this could be the solution. However there would be
no going back once the decision had been made, and there was no way we
could make tests. It was a simple - go or no go! It was then that I was
told where the money was coming from for this whole venture.

Leonard acted as a trustee for an eccentric millionaire by the name of
Harry de Vere Clifton. Apparently soon after Circlorama had opened, he
had walked on his own from the Ritz hotel Piccadilly to the Circlorama
cinema in Piccadilly Circus, paid his 3/6p and went in to see the show
unannounced. He didn’t like what he saw, and thought the film should be
changed to something more interesting. Leonard had talked to him about
me and he asked Leonard to arrange a meeting to talk about his ‘little
toy’ as he called it. The ‘meeting’ turned out to be at the Ritz Hotel.

I was met by a Butler and shown into the enormous penthouse suite, and
then into a large bedroom with a four poster bed, in which was sitting
bolt upright an elderly man with a long grey beard and long hair. He
looked for all the world like Rip Van Winkle. I was summoned to sit at
his bedside and was introduced to this strange figure who Leonard had
told me was worth about 90 million pounds and that was in 1963!! Clifton
started the conversation

“Mr Stanley Long, I have heard all about you,
and I am delighted that you may be able to save my little toy from
closing. Urry has told me all about your ideas for a new film. Do you
know anything about Hobgoblins?”

The question was quite out the blue
‘not much I confessed’. ’Oh that’s a pity’ he replied, ‘but I would like
a scene with some Hobgoblins. See what you can do’. With that he
politely dismissed me. ‘Well off you go and good luck, I look forward to
seeing your new film’. I left the room in a daze, this had been the most
bizarre meeting I had ever experienced., and certainly the oddest project
I had been involved with. I asked Leonard if it had all been some kind
of joke ‘No its no joke’ he said. ‘I am trustee to the inherited
fortune of Harry De Vere Clifton and the Clifton estate and my job is to
look after the crazy whims and investments of Harry De Vere Clifton’.
‘Why then’, I asked ‘was there so much problem with the budget?’  ‘I told
you’ he said ‘I have to do the best job I can to control expenditure. Now
you go off and make the film in 16mm’. ’And what about the Hobgoblins’? I
asked , ‘Oh forget that, he won’t remember’ Leonard smiled.

And so it was, that I set out to start the most interesting and
challenging job I had ever undertaken. I arrived in Paris later that
month to purchase 12 (one spare) Beaulieu 16mm 100’ loading cameras with
15mm lenses. On my return to England, I set about designing the rig
which was to hold the eleven cameras and to find a way of keeping them
‘in sync’ during shooting. I tried several ways of doing this including
a rather clumsy method of mechanical linkage. Nothing worked. Then I
discovered that there was a small synchronous motor manufactured by a
company in West London, Evershed Vignoles Ltd, I went to see the
technical man there, and I discovered that they could make a gear which
fitted into the side of the cameras and it was the perfect solution. I
purchased 12 (one spare), and the cameras ran in perfect sync after a
short run up. When the cameras were up to speed I dropped a hoop over
the rig thereby giving me a reference point to pick up during the
editing stage. Then I turned to the problem of editing.

 

 

Editing 11 Strips of Film

 


Stanley
Long with the 16mm camera rig in the middle of Clapham Junction railway
lines. Harry Green (Production manager) with back to camera, on
the right is an employee of British rail, Don Lord is below Stanley Long
fiddling with something, gentlemen and lady on the left are
unidentified.

Press image to see enlargement

I approached Acmade Ltd, a company specialising in editing equipment,
and from my specs they constructed a 12 gang synchroniser from 3×4
gang
machines. This coped with the eleven picture tracks plus one for
sound.
The bench was 5 feet deep!! The editor required long arms to reach the

back tracks! During this time I was compiling a shot list, which
included amongst other things a view from inside a cage of lions
(Chipperfield), a scenic railway ride, a shot from the middle of the
rail
track at the busy Clapham Junction during a rush hour (courtesy
British Rail). Try doing that today with Health and Safety breathing
down your
neck. A lifeboat launch, various shots around London, including a
tracking shot from the roof of our camera car going down the Mall with

Buckingham Palace in the background and the Horseguards Cavalry in the

foreground (with the leader brandishing his sword at our camera car,
mouthing ‘f… off’, and a grand finale with ‘The Swinging Blue Jeans’ a
popular group of the time, which I photographed at the Leicester
Square
Ballroom. I also mounted the camera rig onto the back of an E type Jag

[Jaguar, ed] and had a racing driver go round Snetterton Race track in
the middle of
a gaggle of formula two cars. Ice skating from Streatham Ice rink.

The skating sequence was filmed at Streatham Ice rink (south London). I
rigged the cameras on a mount which had semi circular domes on the four
feet, this enabled me to push the rig about on the ice. We had a team of
champion skaters doing their bit skating round the cameras about 7 meters
from the centre. It all looked great on the screen. of course it was
essential for any crew to keep well away from the rig at all times, so I
fitted a remote control to the cameras, (this was very useful for the lions
cage!!). I remember slipping over on the ice as I came back to the cameras
after one take, I suffered for several days with a very sore arse!

There was something for everyone and I
soon learnt that I could quite effectively manipulate single tracks in
the cutting room to simulate the surround effect. An example of this
resulted in a comic scene with characters opening and closing doors on
various screens around the auditorium.

Whilst all this was going on Dr Leslie Knopp a well known expert on
cinema design, who had been responsible for the original installation,

was busy redesigning the new set up using a 16mm version of the
Phillips projector. In order to simplify the sound, I requested that
he
cut the original 9 track Sondor system using three follow reproducers,
with three track heads, down to one machine using one 35mm triple track
head. This proved to be as I thought, more effective as the separation
of sound was much clearer on three tracks rather than the nine in the
original. All these machines were interlocked with a Selsyn interlock
which was driven by one master motor and twelve slaves, one for each
projector and one for the sound reproducer. The projectors were water
cooled and the water jacket encased the rather ingenious lamp which
was
about the size of a cigarette and pulsed at the rate of 72 x 1 second
thereby giving three flashes per frame. This did away with the need
for
a shutter. These small lamps however never caught on as they had
drawbacks not least the problem of not being able to produce a good
red
on the screen. Therefore all the London buses came out a dirty shade
of
brown. Experiments with filters in front of the projector lens failed
to correct the problem. I suppose these tiny little lamps were the
forerunners of the halogen or HMI’s of today?

Finally the film was finished, the sound track recorded and the prints
were made. I had shot on 16mm Kodak Ektachrome reversal stock and as the
film was only made in 3200 K (Artificial light) I had to use Wratten 85
filters in front of the camera lenses when shooting in daylight. The film
was processed by Technicolor and because screen matching was imperative, I
requested the film go through the processing bath in the same order of the
cameras, so that any variation in the process would be gradual around the
360 degree screen. Technicolor were very helpful and did a wonderful job,
but all the way through shooting and post production I kept wishing for that
35mm. My goodness, it would have been so much easier!
 

 

“Circlorama Cavalcade” was an
Immediate Success

 


Click
to see enlargement

The show opened with the title
“Circlorama Cavalcade” and was an
immediate success. No doubt much to do with the advertising! Of course it didn’t match up
to the 35mm version in technical terms, but I think the content was more
interesting to the general public. And it continued to do good business, so much so that Circlorama
commissioned a portable version to be made (by the firm of Harkness
Ltd) and when the show closed the whole shooting match was erected on
the end of the West
Pier at Blackpool in readiness for the summer season [1965]. Alas this was
complete disaster. Not surprisingly the thing kept breaking down being
victim to the salt air. It has to be remembered that this was a highly
technical and complicated set up and to expect it to operate in such an
environment was expecting far too much. I had spoken to Leonard Urry
about this when they were thinking of doing it but the installation was
not my responsibility and they went ahead anyway.

At the end of a disastrous season they were left with a enormous
structure on the end of Blackpool Pier, a large loss and a
correspondingly large quote from Harkness Ltd to remove it and
reassemble in the Kelvin Hall Glasgow in an effort to recoup some of
their losses during the Christmas season. Searching for someone who
would do a cheaper job and of course someone who was familiar with the
system, Leonard once again contacted me ‘Would I give them a quote to
remove the operation from Blackpool to Glasgow in time for the Christmas
season?’ Now I’ve always been up to a challenge, but this? I said I’d
think about it. I then contacted a company, Burgess Lane Ltd in Chiswick
West London, who dealt in the repair and servicing of projector
equipment and explained the nature of the job. I told the boss Mr
Burgess, that whilst I was familiar with the system and had made the
film it used, I was totally under qualified for the technical side. Did
they have an engineer who would understand this? And would he give me a
price for his services for what I estimated to be about a week. A few
days went by and he rang me. Yes, he had an engineer who was very good
with electronics and would like the opportunity to have a go. He gave me
a price which of course excluded expenses.

I then cobbled together a budget which would give me a nice profit, then
doubled it (because I really didn’t really want to do the job), then I
phoned Leonard, who immediately accepted my quote without question.
Christ I thought what did Harkness Ltd quote? Knowing the financial
state of Circlorama, I asked for 50 percent up front and the balance
when the picture was up and running at Kelvin hall. Leonard agreed, said
‘give me your schedule and you can come up and collect your cheque’. I
glanced at the calendar. It was the middle of November! I’d have to get
my skates on! I contacted Mr Burgess and arranged the job with his
genius engineer and said it would be end of November 1965.
 

 

Click
to see enlargement

I had booked two tickets with Dan Air for a flight from Luton to
Blackpool and arranged to meet the brilliant engineer from Burgess
Lane
under the clock at Gloucester Road Terminal at 6pm. As I had not yet
met
this man, I arranged to identify myself by wearing a white carnation
(corny, I know, but it worked). Alan Lavender tapped me on the shoulder
at two minutes after six. ‘Are you Mr Long ?’ said this young man, who
I
judged could have been hardly more than about 17 years of age. ’Yes I
am’
I said eyeing him up and down convinced Mr Burgess had sent the tea
boy.
‘Do you know about SELSYN INTERLOCK SYSTEMS?’ I asked . ‘Yes I do’ he
confidently replied ‘Everyone thinks I’m young, actually I’m 23′.

On the
flight up to Blackpool in deep technical conversation with Alan I
quickly realised that what he didn’t know about electronics wasn’t worth
knowing. He certainly was a brilliant technician.

Our first job, as we eyed the massive structure at the end of the Pier
the following morning, was to get together a work force to act under our
instructions to dismantle and load the whole damn thing onto lorries for
the journey to Glasgow. So we visited the local labour exchange and
picked a motley bunch of unemployed Irishmen. They were to report for
work at the end of the pier at 8am sharp. There were eight in all, but
only seven turned up and we set to work. Payment would be made at the
end of the day ..in cash. They worked very well and by 5pm we had most
of the equipment out. Alan was dismantling and carefully storing
everything in the first lorry. Some of it was very heavy and we were glad
to have our willing helpers.
 

 

Circlorama Roadshow

 

Photograph
taken on Blackpool Central pier, July 1965. Image from Ray Downing.

The next day we
awoke in our hotel rooms which overlooked the pier, looked out of the window
to discover there was a gale which we later learnt was force eight. After
breakfast, In our youthful ignorance, we set out for the end of the pier.
Out there it was worse, the wind was horrendous but we still set about the
task of dismantling the main structure . We must have been mad, stupid or
both. All the canvas panels which were fixed by rope to the outer structure
blew in the wind like huge sails. It was very difficult to fold the large
panels but somehow we managed. The third day was much the same weather
conditions but we were now under more pressure having fallen behind
schedule.

Our next job was to remove the dome covering. This consisted of one
piece of heavy canvas, seventy feet in diameter. A huge parachute like

piece of canvas held in position by rope at the edges and a metal
plate
made of steel, about two feet in diameter, at the centre. This in turn

was held in place by a large one inch bolt. The dome structure was
lowered by eleven winch like columns which held the roof. These had to

be gently lowered until the roof was level with the gallery. This is
when we could get to the large bolt which held the ‘parachute’ in
place.
We undid the bolt, the wind got inside the structure and blew the roof

canvas up and took the disc with it, tossing it a good 500ft into the
air. We shouted for everyone to take cover. The disc hit the wooden deck

of the pier just a few feet from some fishermen who were blissfully
unaware of what was happening a few hundred feet from where they were
sitting. We recovered the disc, which had dug itself vertically into
the
timber and thanked our lucky stars that no one had been injured. The
roof meanwhile was flapping like fury in a full force eight gale. We
had
to release it quickly or it would have shaken the structure to bits so

we decided to undo it from one side in order for it to blow away. When

it finally detached from the main structure, it flew into the wind and

ended up a mile to the north on the beach. We immediately sent a
recovery party, who bought it back on a truck as it was too heavy for
four men to carry.
 

 


Perlux’s
advert for the 11 screens. Image: CTA Bulletin, July/ August 2011.

Click the image, to see enlargement.

We had started on the Monday, it was now Wednesday and being winter it
was too late to work. By four o’clock we had loaded two lorries and had
one to go. It was touch and go whether we would have sufficient space
to pack everything into the three vehicles. We did however complete the
loading by three o’clock the following afternoon. We had one anxious
moment when we realised the bolts which anchored the structure to the
pier had rotted due to a season of salt water spray. These would not
budge in spite of huge spanners which formed part of our dismantling
kit. We solved that one by hiring an oxyacetylene welding torch and
burning the buggers off. We waved the three vehicles off at 5pm that
afternoon with two of our team on board to look after things. Alan and I
took the train to Glasgow in order to arrive ahead of our convoy and
also to engage further labour for the erection. After our arrival in
Glasgow and fitting ourselves up with accommodation near the Kelvin hall
we took a cab down to recess the site where the Circlorama operation was
going to be. Bertram Mills Circus’ team was busy erecting a three ring circus
adjacent to where our structure was to be.
 

 

Stanley
Long (left) with Leonard Urry c1976. How many of the guys will recognise
“The Govenor”.

The following morning bought some bad news. Our convoy had encountered
snow drifts on the Shaps Pass and would be held up until the pass was
cleared. This we were told could take days and as we were already behind
schedule, we were worried that we could miss the day when we had to
complete in order to qualify for the opening day. We couldn’t engage
labour until we knew the lorries would definitely arrive. However help
was at hand in the form of the rigging team from Bertram Mills’ circus. They had
already finished their job and by arrangement with Albert du Bois the
ringmaster, who kindly offered the services of his team, the moment our
vehicles arrived. Which they did after three worrying days. We had in
the meantime on behalf of Circlorama Ltd engaged all the staff necessary
for the running of the show once it was operational. It included three
projectionists on shifts, box office staff and a couple of managers. So
far, not bad for two of us plus unskilled labour. Our vehicles arrived
in the nick of time giving us just 24 hrs in which to get the whole
thing up and running. A daunting task, considering we had taken four
days to pull it down and load it on the transport. We geared into action
with the help of the Bertram Mills’ circus riggers.

Soon, at our direction, they were climbing all over the steel structure
like a load of monkeys. They were incredible. Alan started to unravel
the miles of wiring which he had carefully packed away in Blackpool. He
certainly was an electronic genius. It looked as if we might make it
after all. We did save a lot of time by not using the steel roof which
held the canvas. Instead we hired a block and tackle and suspended the
canvas from the roof of the Kelvin Hall and attached it to the perimeter
of the structure like a huge Arabian tent. The new staff had been
called in to be briefed and Alan fixed in the final connections. We had
not had any sleep for nearly 24 hours. We were both knackered, but we
had done the impossible. I hurried to telephone Leonard to tell him the
good news. He was pleased to hear from me, but in a solemn voice
declared he had some bad news. Circlorama had filed for bankruptcy and
would be unable to meet all its debts. This was shattering news. ‘What
do I do Leonard ?’ He replied ‘I’m sending some money to pay off the
staff. Give them a week’s notice and I’ll send enough to cover you above
the fifty per cent you have already received. But I’m afraid you’ll have
to wait for any further monies until after the creditor’s inspection.’
The cinema staff and the riggers were paid off.

Shattered, Alan and I went to our Hotel and slept the sleep of the
dead. We departed for London the next day and we went our different
ways. We had shared a most unusual adventure and to this day we have
remained good friends. Shortly after, he started his own company which
he built into the leading battery technology company in Europe (Pag
Ltd). His batteries power thousands of cameras worldwide. He also
manufactures lighting equipment for the film and T V industry. He has
been deservedly successful. You can visit his website
www.paguk.com
 

 

Where it all ended up

 

Stanley
Long (right) with Jack Cardiff 2006

Being a major creditor I was invited to sit on the inspection committee
which consisted of other creditors besides myself. The late Ray Dutfield,
financial director Technicolor later to become Managing Director. The
accountant for Circlorama, the late George Winter and various people
from, I think, The Board of Trade etc. I’m not much up on this kind of
thing but I think the payout was something like two pence in the pound
so there was nothing in the kitty in the end. What happened to Harry De
Vere Clifton? I have no idea! Leon Heppner died in the eighties.
Leonard Urry retired in 1978 and went to live in Spain. He also died in
the mid eighties.

The structure went to scrap, the projection equipment was sold to
various post production film and TV companies for very little, and the
cameras were sold to the Ministry of Defence, through a contact of mine,
and were fitted into the helmets used by the RAF free fall team!. These
cameras were ideal because the ones they were using were clockwork with
a duration of only 40 seconds whilst the Circlorama cameras could run a
full 100 feet of film without stopping. So whilst I lost money I gained
a lot of experience, met a good and lasting friend, and had an adventure
which I have told many times. But now because Thomas Hauerslev, the
editor of in 70mm.com encouraged me to put the memories down on paper, the
full information of a most remarkable oddity in the history of film is
now available for posterity.

 
http://davelandweb.com/tomorrowland/circarama.html

Circarama

BACKSTORY (July 17, 1955–September 7, 1997):
Initially presented by American Motors, Circarama was previewed before
opening day with the film “A Tour of the West.” Circarama used eleven
16mm projectors mounted on the roof of an American Motors car (thus the
red color for the letters “car” on the marquee in pic #3) to create a
completely circular picture on a 360-degree screen. The original films
were shot by Paul Mantz and Frank Tallman, of TallMantz Aviation.

Guests stood in the center of the screen and were able to look
out in every direction and observe views of the Grand Canyon, Monument
Valley, Las Vegas, Balboa Bay, and the streets of Los Angeles. The
patent for Circarama was filed on the one-year anniversary of Disneyland
by both Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, and was granted four years later on
June 28, 1960.

1960 brought a number of changes: in June, the film was now
“America the Beautiful” and the sponsor became The Bell System. The film
process changed, coinciding with the opening of the New Tomorrowland on
June 25, 1967, this time using a 35mm print that was enlarged from the
film of nine 16mm cameras instead of eleven. A few Bicentennial scenes
were added in 1975 and ran until January 3, 1984. The film was changed
again on July 4, 1984, this time to “Wonders of China” (shown in the
morning) and “American Journeys” (shown in the afternoon & evening),
lasting until July 7, 1996. The attraction closed down for good in
1997, with “America the Beautiful” (the 1975 version) returning for the
final year (July 11, 1996–September 7, 1997).

VACATIONLAND MAGAZINE SUMMER 1960

America the Beautiful

America’s magnificent natural and man-made wonders are on view for
Disneyland’s guests this summer in the unique Circarama film “America
the Beauitful” presented as a free attraction through the courtesy of
the companies that form the Bell System communications network.

The Circarama process, first developed for Disneyland by Disney
Studio technicians, has been exhibted only two other places in the
world: the Brussell’s World Fair where it was an important part of the
United States special exhibit in Moscow last summer.

Circarama tells its story through a 360-degree circular “screen”
(actually 11 screens blended to ahcieve the effect of complete circle
vision) shown through 11 synchronized projectors. The audience enjoys
the show from the center of the circle.

The Bell System’s presentation of Circarama is housed in the graceful
and futuristic exposition building at the left of Tomorrowland’s
entrance, just past the World Clock.

Entering visitors are given a demonstration of cross-country Direct
Distance Dialing by Bell System representatives, then invited to view
the wide-ranging story of communications, told through a dimensional,
curving mural that carries out the theme “…from sea to shining sea.”

The Circarama film, “America the Beautiful” is presented in regular
showings throughout the day in the adjacent Circarama theater, only one
of its kind in the United States.

VACATIONLAND MAGAZINE SUMMER 1967

Vacationland New TL Header

Bell Telephone New Circle-Vision Film

Expanding and re-developing what was one of the most popular
shows in Disneyland the past twelve years, the Bell System announces the
completion in Tomorrowland this summer of an entirely new exhibit
pavilion and an all-new “America the Beautiful” presentation.

Through the versatility of “Circle-Vision 360,” an enlarged
theater-in-the-round where guests view the motion picture on a screen
that completely encircles them, Bell presents a trip through beautiful
America.

In addition to the “America the Beautiful” presentation, the
show also presents a display of present and future communications
systems and techniques. Most advanced of these systems will be Bell’s
futuristic “Picturephone,” where guests can actually see the person to
whom they are talking.

New Tomorrowland Presents Restaurant of the Future

Cox Pilot and Circarama and the ATT &Satellite

Daveland Cox Pilot Header PhotoAs I recall, there was a satellite that circled around on a big arm on top of the building
that housed the Circarama show that included space and satellites. Both
the arm and the satellite would turn, and they were a replica of the
AT&T telecommunications satellite. It was a big deal in those days
because of the TV broadcasts of the Olympics. Later the big ball stopped
turning (another detail that was left to fall apart). A little side
note: one of our airplanes, called the Piper Comanche, broke its lines
during a show. It was the largest, green and cream colored, plane. It
was very powerful, and actually should have been on 100 feet of control
line. Our circle would only allow 50′ of line, so we had to use steel
fishing line with special connectors, and we would set the engine to
“full rich” so it would run slow. BUT; on very hot days, the full
mixture would lean out, and the plane would start to go full speed half
way through the flight. When that would happen, you could only hang on
until the fuel ran out in about 5 minutes, and keep the plane below the
fence line just in case. The fuselage of the plane would start to slide
off the wing, and then the lines would give out, and the plane would
slam into the fence at about 60 mph.

That particular day we had a bit of a Santa Ana wind, and a gust took
the plane above the fence line just as the lines broke and off it went.
It did a half roll and zoomed right towards the clock about 20′ off the
ground. At the last minute, it rolled over again and took a right turn
and slammed right into the big round AT&T sign on the SIDE of the
building that faced our circle (not visible in this photo),
smashing the plastic. One man near the sign was showered with plastic
and was very upset. We gave him the plane, and it seemed to calm him
down. We paid, and WED began to re-think our being in the park.

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=VIAuGUuswZc
Circarama - Apple Queen (Official Lyric Video)

u Circarama

i 2,582 views

Oct 24 2017


A single by Circarama entitled “Apple Queen”. Taken from our…
youtube.com

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=_ZAXOoICSw4

Circarama - Porcelain Sky (Official Video)

u Circarama

i 4,303 views

Mar 07 2017

More at YouTube


“Porcelain Sky” by Circarama —– Music Link Download : https://goo.gl/17wmex —– Director: Mokhamad Edhy Starring:…
youtube.com

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=VGcPwoCP9tc

Italia 1961 in Circarama

u Archivio Nazionale Cinema d’Impresa

i 2,312 views

Dec 11 2013

More at YouTube


Archivio
Nazionale del Cinema d’Impresa di Elio Piccon 1961 Una delle attrazioni
di maggior successo di “Italia ‘61″ è il Circarama…
youtube.com
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=+Circarama+Cenema&t=hf&atb=v80-5&ia=videos&iax=videos&iai=1jEfMvD41RM

.

The first one of Dynamic Dome Screen Cinema with lowest price…
youtube.com
comments (0)
03/24/18
2571 Sun 25 Mar 2018 LESSON BuddhaSasana-The Home of Pali in 29 Classical Galician- Clásico galego-Language
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 9:14 pm


2571 Sun 25  Mar 2018 LESSON


BuddhaSasana
-The
Home of Pali


in 29 Classical Galician- Clásico galego


Language

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBfLtwy4H04
The 5th Tipitaka Chanting Ceremony, Bodhgaya, December 2009
Dhamma Dana
Published on Dec 17, 2009
This Video shows highlights of the 5th Tipitaka Chanting Ceremony at
Bodhgaya (Bihar, India) from 2nd to 12 th December 2009, organized by
the International Tipitaka Chanting Council, (PLEASE NOTE the next one
is scheduled from 2nd to 12th December 2010) http://www.tipitakachantingcouncil.or...


Acknowledgements to the Organizer of this great event and Imee Ooi for
the background Metta Chanting. Additional Clip by the Organiser of the
Ceremony can be viewed at this link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKaZ1H
Category
People & Blogs


This Video shows highlights of the 5th Tipitaka Chanting…
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X2zUvfvYnxQ
INTERNATIONAL TIPITAKA CHANTING WATLAOINTER
Thong ma
Published on Dec 12, 2016
INTERNATIONAL TIPITAKA CHANTING WAT LAOBUDDHAGAYA INTERNATIONAL INDIA
Category
People & Blogs


INTERNATIONAL TIPITAKA CHANTING WAT LAOBUDDHAGAYA…
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BuddhaSasana Home Page
English Section




The
Home of Pali




U Razinda
Dept. of Ancient Indian & Asian Studies, 
Nalanda, India









From:
“The Light of Majjhimadesa” - Volume (1), U Chandramani Foundation, 2001



Source:
http://www.rakhapura.com


Pali, in which only
the Buddha delivered his noble messages, appears to have been hallowed as
the text of the Buddhavacana. The language of the Buddhavacana is called
Pali or Magadhi and sometimes Suddha-Magadhi, presumably in order to
distinguish it from Ardha-Magadhi, the language of Jaina Canons. Magadhi
means the language or dialect current in the Magadha. In Pali Lexicon, the
definition of Pali is given thus: 1 pa paleti,
rakkhati ‘ ti pali
. Since it preserves the Buddhavacana (words) in the
form of the sacred text, it is called Pali. In fact, the word Pali
signifies only “text” “sacred text”. 2


According to the tradition current in
Theravada Buddhist countries, Pali is Magadhi, Magadhanirutti,
Magadhikabhasa, that is to say, the language of the region in which
Buddhism had arisen. The Buddhistic tradition makes the further claim that
the Pali Tipitaka is composed in the language used by the Buddha himself.
3 For this reason Magadhi is also called Mulabhasa
4 as the basic language in which the words of the
Buddha were originally fixed. However, for Pali now arises the question,
which region of India was the home of that language which was the basis of
Pali.


Westergrd 5 and E.Kuhn
6 consider Pali to be the dialect of Ujjayini, because
it stands closest to the language of the Asokan-inscriptions of Girnar
(Guzerat), and also because the dialect of Ujjayini is said to have been
the mother-tongue of Mahinda who preached Buddhism in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
R.O. Franke had a similar opinion by different means 7;
and he finally reached the conclusion that the original home of Pali was
“a territory, which could not have been too narrow, situated about the
region from the middle to the Western Vindhya ranges”. Thus it is not
improbable that Ujjayini was the centre of its region of expansion. Sten
Konow 8 too has decided in favour of the Vindhya region
as the home of Pali.


Oldenberg (1879) 9 and
E.Muller (1884) 10 consider the Kalinga country to be
the home of Pali. Oldenberg thinks that Buddhism, and with it’s the
Tipitaka, was introduced into Ceylon rather in course of an intercourse
between the island and the neighboring continent extending over a long
period. However, E.MUller bases his conclusion on the observation that the
oldest settlements in Ceylon could have been founded only by the people of
Kalinga, the area on the mainland opposite Ceylon and not by people from
Bengal and Bihar.


Maurice Winternitz 11
is of the opinion that Buddha himself spoke the dialect of his native
province Kosala (Oudh) and it was most likely in this same dialect that he
first began to proclaim his doctrine. Later on, however, he wandered and
taught in Magadha (Bihar) he probably preached in the dialect of this
province. When in course of time the doctrine spread over a large area,
the monks of various districts preached each in his own dialect. It is
probable that some monks coming from Brahmin circles also attempted to
translate the speeches of Buddha into Sanskrit verses. However, the Buddha
himself absolutely rejected it, and forbade learning his teachings in any
other languages except Magadhi. Here it is related 12,
how two Bhikkhus complained to the Master that the members of the order
were of various origins, and that they distorted the words of the Buddha
by their own dialect (Sakaya niruttiya). They, therefore, proposed that
the words of the Buddha should be translated into Sanskrit verses
(Chandaso). The Buddha, however, refused to grant the request and added:
Anujanamibhikkhave sakaya niruttiya buddhavacanam pariyapunitum. Rhys
Davids and Oldenberg 13 translate this passage by “I
allow you, oh brethren, to learn the words of the Buddha each in his own
dialect”. This interpretation, however, is not accorded with that of
Buddhaghosa, according to whom it has to be translated by “I ordain the
words of the Buddha to be learnt in his own language (i.e., in Magadhi,
the language used by Buddha himself)”. In fact, the explanation given by
Buddhaghosa is more acceptable, because neither the two monks nor Buddha
himself have thought of preaching in different dialects in different
cases.


Magahi or Magadhi 14 is
spoken in the districts of Patna, Gaya, Hazaribagh and also in the western
part of Palamau, parts of Monghyr and Bhagalpur. On its eastern frontier
Magahi meets Bengali. Dr.Grierson called the dialect of this region
Eastern Magahi (Magadhi). He (Dr.Grierson) has named western Magadhi
speeches as Bihari. In this time he includes three dialects, Magahi
(Magadhi), Maithili and Bhojpuri. Dr.Grierson, after a comparative study
of the grammars of the three dialects, had decided Maithili, Magahi and
Bhojpuri as three forms of a single speech. There are four reasons for
terming them as Bihari, viz.,


  1. Between Eastern Hindi and Bengali have
    certain characteristics, which are common to the three dialects.
  2. It becomes a provincial language like
    Gujarati, Punjabi, Marathi, etc.
  3. The name is appropriate from the
    historical point of view. Bihar was so named after so many Buddhist
    Viharas in the state. Ancient Bihar language was probably the language
    of early Buddhists and Jainas.
  4. It is not a fact that in Bihar there is
    no literature. In Maithili we have extant ancient literature.

Though Hindi is highly respected as a
literary language in Biharyetthe Maithili, Magahi and Bhojpuri languages
are deeply entrenched in the emotions of the people. The fact is that
Bihari is a speech distinct from Eastern Hindi and has to be classified
with Bengali, Oriya and Assamese as they share common descent from
Magadhi, Prakrit and Apabhransha. It is clear 15 that
an uneducated and illiterate Bihari when he goes to Bengal begins to speak
good Bengali with little effort but ordinarily it is not easy for an
educated Bihari to speak correct Hindi. Dr.Grierson has inclined to decide
that Magadhi was a dialect of Magadha (Bihar) and some parts of West
Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.


The area covered by the Buddha’s
missionary activities included Bihar and Uttar Pradesh including the Nepal
Tarai. So it may be assumed that the Buddha spoke in a dialect or dialects
current in those regions. Welhelm Geiger 16 considers
that Pali was indeed on pure Magadhi, but was yet a form of the popular
speech which was based on Magadhi and which was used by Buddha himself. It
may be imagined that the Buddha might choose a widespread language which
was used or understood by common people in the region, because through
which he could propagate his noble teachings to the common people. Thus,
Pali or the dialect of Magadha was more probably the language of the
common people and also a lingua franca of a large region including mainly
Magadha (Bihar).


References


(1). Dhamma Annual - Vol. 19, No. 10-11
(June-1995).
(2). Cf. the expression iti pi pali, eg., th 2 co. 618, where pali=patho.
Further, pali “sacred text” as distinct from attha katha, Dpvs.=20-20;
Mhvs.=33-100; Sdhs. (Saddhammasamgaha, ed. by Saddhananda); Jpts. (Journal
of the Pali Text Society) 1890, p. 535.
(3). Cf. Buddhaghosa: etha saka nirutti nama sammasambuddhena vuttappakaro
magadhiko voharo, Comm. to Cullavagga V 33-1. see samantapasadika, ed. by
Saya U Pye, IV416.(10)
(4). Sdhs. (Saddhammasamgaha, ed. by Saddhananda). Jpts. (Journal of the
Pali Text Society) 1890, pp.55(23), 56(21), 57(19).
(5). Uber dem altesten Zeitram der indischen Geschi chte, p. 87.
(6). Beitr., p. 6ff. Cf. Mur, original Sanskrit texts, II, p. 356.
(7). Pali and Sanskrit, p. 131 ff. By Pali I, of course, always understand
what has been called “Literary PAW’ by Franke.
(8). The home of Paiuaci, ZDMG (Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenlandischen
Desell-schaft).
(9). The Vinaya Pitaka I, London 1879, p. L ff.
(10). Simplified Grammar of the Pali language, London 1884, p. III.
(11). History of Indian Literature, Vol. II, p. 13.
(12). Cullavagga V. 33 1=Vin. II, 139.
(13). Vinaya Texts III=Sacred Books of the East, XX, p.151.
(14). The Comprehensive History of Bihar, Vol. I, Part I, p. 91, edited by
Dr. Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha.
(15). Ibid. P. 89-90
(16). Pali Literature and Language, p. 6.






The Pali Language and Literature



From: Pali Text Society,
http://www.palitext.com/ 


Pali is the name given to the language of
the texts of Theravada Buddhism, although the commentarial tradition of
the Theravadins states that the language of the canon is Magadhi, the
language spoken by Gotama Buddha. The term Pali originally referred to a
canonical text or passage rather than to a language and its current use is
based on a misunderstanding which occurred several centuries ago. The
language of the Theravadin canon is a version of a dialect of Middle
Indo-Aryan, not Magadhi, created by the homogenisation of the dialects in
which the teachings of the Buddha were orally recorded and transmitted.
This became necessary as Buddhism was transmitted far beyond the area of
its origin and as the Buddhist monastic order codified his teachings.


The tradition recorded in the ancient
Sinhalese chronicles states that the Theravadin canon was written down in
the first century B.C.E. The language of the canon continued to be
influenced by commentators and grammarians and by the native languages of
the countries in which Theravada Buddhism became established over many
centuries. The oral transmission of the Pali canon continued for several
centuries after the death of the Buddha, even after the texts were first
preserved in writing. No single script was ever developed for the language
of the canon; scribes used the scripts of their native languages to
transcribe the texts. Although monasteries in South India are known to
have been important centres of Buddhist learning in the early part of this
millennium, no manuscripts from anywhere in India except Nepal have
survived. Almost all the manuscripts available to scholars since the PTS
(Pali Text Society) began can be dated to the 18th or 19th centuries C.E.
and the textual traditions of the different Buddhist countries represented
by these manuscripts show much evidence of interweaving. The pattern of
recitation and validation of texts by councils of monks has continued into
the 20th century.


The main division of the Pali canon as it
exists today is threefold, although the Pali commentarial tradition refers
to several different ways of classification. The three divisions are known
as pi.takas and the canon itself as the Tipitaka; the significance of the
term pitaka, literally “basket”, is not clear. The text of the canon is
divided, according to this system, into Vinaya (monastic rules), Suttas
(discourses) and Abhidhamma (analysis of the teaching). The PTS edition of
the Tipitaka contains fifty-six books (including indexes), and it cannot
therefore be considered to be a homogenous entity, comparable to the
Christian Bible or Muslim Koran. Although Buddhists refer to the Tipitaka
as Buddha-vacana, “the word of the Buddha”, there are texts within the
canon either attributed to specific monks or related to an event
post-dating the time of the Buddha or that can be shown to have been
composed after that time. The first four nikayas (collections) of the
Sutta-pitaka contain sermons in which the basic doctrines of the Buddha’s
teaching are expounded either briefly or in detail.




Buddhism: Language and Literature

Peter
Friedlander



Source:  “Buddhist
Studies - Lecture Notes”, School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University,
Australia,

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/asianstudies/Buddha/index.html


Introduction

This is the last chapter on the
pre-Mahayana in this book. It covers a period from around the 6th century
BCE to the 2nd century CE. Within the scope of this chapter I will attempt
to simply sketch out various key aspects of Buddhist language and
literature over a period of eight centuries. This will be rather more an
investigation of the issues raised by the these topics than a detailed
study.


Language

Three key terms which we need to consider
are Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit. We will also need to consider the terms
Magadhi and Ardha-Magadhi. What does Sanskrit mean? It has a root meaning
which does not actually refer to a language as such but to the concept of
something being refined or purified. The term Sanskrit can be found in
Buddhist texts used in the sense of meaning that which is refined as
opposed to that which is natural which is called Prakrit. Likewise in
Samkhya
the principle of Prakriti is nature, hence Prakrit is
that which is natural. So in a sense then Sanskrit does not refer to a
language as such but to that which is refined or purified speech.


The languages in which the Vedas are
written are not quite the same as classical Sanskrit which was
standardised by Panini in about the 2nd century BCE. Despite the
variations in the linguistic forms from the Rig Veda, which is
considerably different from classical Sanskrit, the languages of the
majority of Indian high cultural texts are all in forms of Sanskrit. Some
of the later texts, such as the Puranas and the Epics are often not
in very refined Sanskrit, but they are still in Sanskrit. Also from around
the second century BCE onwards Buddhist texts began to be produced in
Sanskrit. These texts are often in a kind of Sanskrit mixed with
vernacular forms and which is often referred to as ‘Buddhist Hybrid
Sanskrit’. They are hybrid as they are a mix of Sanskrit and Prakrit. So
you should bear in mind that the term Sanskrit does not simply refer to
the classical standard form of the language but rather to a group of
related language forms which share a common heritage in grammar,
vocabulary and syntax.


In a similar manner the term Prakrit,
which means ‘natural [speech]’ refers to a group of language forms. Indeed
Prakrits appear in Sanskrit texts. For instance, classical Sanskrit
dramas, such as Kalidasa’s ‘Little clay cart’ include speeches by
different characters in various forms of Prakrit. For instance, whereas
the cook speaks in a ‘cook’s Prakrit’ and monkeys speak in a Prakrit
appropriate for monkeys, the king the leading characters and the narrator
speak in Sanskrit. This is similar to the modern linguistic situation in
India where within a single environment or location a variety of language
forms are spoken by different people. For instance in a monastery in Bodh
Gaya, the cooks and workers will speak in varieties of local dialect, but
the monks will speak in standard Hindi as well as their mother tongues,
and the leading figures will also be able to converse in English. In other
words the use of multiple languages according to social register is a
common feature in South Asia.


There are also three other elements which
need to be considered. First, there is the Dravidian element in the
language situation in India. This term refers to a completely different
language group nowadays spoken in the forms of Tamil, Malayalam, Telegu
and Kannada in the Southern states of India. There is also an isolated
pocket of the Dravidian languages in the Brahui language of modern
Pakistan. This language group is based on a quite distinct vocabulary and
grammar. Second, it should be noted, for completeness sake, that there are
also a variety of ‘tribal’ languages spoken in India which belong to
various other language groups again. These include the languages of the
tribal groups in Bihar, such as Santhali and Gond. Third there are also
languages from distinct language groups spoken in the Himalayan and
Burmese border regions of South Asia.


The situation at the time of the Buddha
was probably very similar with a wide variety of languages being spoken in
the area in which he lived. The dominant Prakrit language of his period in
the area where he was active was called Magadhi, as is the present Hindi
dialect of the area. This name is also preserved in the name given to the
Prakrit of many of the Jaina scriptures. These were compiled from oral
sources based on traditions active mainly in the Magadh area and the
language of these scriptures is called ‘Adha-Magadhi’, that is
‘Half-Magadhi’. It is a form of cleaned up Magadhi, half way between
everyday speech and a ‘pure’ language.


Language and meaning

The most important reason to consider any
of this is that we need to consider how the Buddha would have addressed
his audiences. He would have needed to speak in such a manner as would
have been comprehensible to his audience. Clearly is a situation of such
linguistic diversity he would have had to modulate his forms of speech
according to the audience he was addressing. Speaking to a king and to a
gang of street children, you need to speak in different ways.


Also we should consider that modern
mass-education and media have been rapidly erasing the differences between
dialects but that the situation in pre-modern cultures is one in which
language forms vary considerably over short distances. There is a Hindi
saying that after every three villages the language (that is the dialect)
changes. So in that the Buddha was born on the Nepali border then his own
language would not have been the same as that of Rajgir in Magadh or
Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh. There are elements in the texts of the Pali
canon which can be regarded as indicative of slight differences in
language perhaps reflective of these ancient dialect differences.


Surely when the Buddha was addressing King
Bimbasara he would have expressed himself in a different register than
when he was addressing an ascetic who was visiting from another part of
India, such as Bahiya who had come from Maharashtra to visit the Buddha. I
would speculate that a skilled orator would express even the same notion
to both audiences in different ways in order to get the teaching across as
well as possible. If then you had been listening to both speeches you
would have heard two versions of the same teaching. Were you then to be
asked ‘which was the genuine teaching of the two’ you would have had to
say that both were genuine, although they were different in exact wording
as they carried the same teaching.


The question of how to teach and the
languages in which to teach is indeed addressed in the Pali canon. It is
said that the Buddha was asked when teaching in different areas should the
teachings be in a single language or adapted to the local language. The
Buddha said that the teachings should be made in the language of the area.
So disciples of the Buddha would have been teaching in a variety of
languages according to the contexts in which they found themselves, so
that people could understand them.


The Buddha is also said to have favoured
natural language, Prakrit, over refined speech, Sanskrit, as the latter
would not have been comprehensible to the general public. So what then is
the relationship between Prakrit and Pali?


In a sense the term Pali, like Sanskrit,
does not refer to a language at all. Richard Gombrich pointed out that it
actually means ‘sacred scripture’ and is a descriptive term for the
Theravada scriptures and the language they are in. It is a standardised
and consistent language based on earlier dialects. It is not exactly what
the Buddha said, it is a standardised form of what the Buddha said. It is
close to the Prakrit Magadhi languages that the Buddha probably spoke in,
but it is not identical to them.


The Pali canon features long set phrases
which are repeated countless times in identical terms. Such as the
formulation of the Noble Truths and set descriptions like ‘he saluted the
Buddha and sat down at one side of him’. These set doctrinal phrases and
stock descriptive elements are, however, normally contextualised within
passages which are each in a sense unique.


It seems to therefore be appropriate to
point out that we have no way of knowing when the tradition of explaining
the Pali canon with further commentorial material began. The textual
traditions now extant always feature the main texts and subsidiary
commentaries. It is known than that this tradition goes back in Sri Lanka
to the time of the introduction of Buddhism, when it is said that
commentaries explaining the texts were introduced along with the texts
themselves. (I am using the term text here to refer to a spoken text, not
a written text). This pattern of text and commentary is common in South
Asian literature. It is also a feature of non-Buddhist Indian literature
and a Sutra (Skt) or Sutta (Pali) means a ‘string’ or
‘thread’ and is the condensed essence of a text onto which a commentary
should be stung.


The repetition of set phrases and material
to contextualise and explain them is a feature which is typical of texts
with commentaries. Part of the motivation for this is clearly that it is
no good giving a teaching in a language nobody understands, it has to be
accessible. Likewise even if the main teaching is linguistically
comprehensible it will probably need an explanation to contextualise and
make the meaning clear to the particular audience which is being
addressed. Thus the issue of what constitutes ‘the speech of the Buddha’ (Buddhavacana)
is further complicated here by the possibility that we may have multiple
versions of reported versions of what the Buddha said, all genuine, but
all slightly different.


There is also an issue which is raised by
a reference in the canon to two Brahmin brothers who had become monks and
remembered the teachings and asked for permission to chant them in the
manner of a Vedic chant. But the Buddha said that this was not
appropriate. Despite this the Buddhist texts are chanted, but the manner
and styles of their chanting do not conform to the Vedic patterns for the
chanting of texts.


If we entertain the notion that the Pali
texts are not the actual speech of the Buddha, but standardised versions
of what he said, what then would be the relationship of the Sanskrit
versions of the texts to the Pali versions? The Sanskrit versions are also
standardised versions and would stand in similar relationship to the
original utterances.


If we put aside the Theravada claim that
the Pali texts are literal word of the Buddha then we have to consider
this possibility. The existence of other Prakrit versions also seems to
point to the same truth. None of the extant versions are simply ‘the
literal words’ of the Buddha, all textual traditions are, in one way or
another, standardised versions of the words of the Buddha. The canon
itself contains references to how it is important to understand the
intended meaning of the text and not get caught up in the literal meaning.


In the present day the various Sanskrit
and Prakrit versions of the canon are not all perfectly preserved. There
are large sections of the canons of a number of Nikaya Buddhist
traditions extant in their original language forms and, fortunately, more
extensive translations of these texts into Chinese. Therefore it is
possible to compare the Sanskrit, Prakit and Pali versions of some texts.


An instance of this is the Dhammapada.
This is available in Pali, Sanskrit, two Prakrits, Chinese and Tibetan
translations. The various traditions do not have exactly the same text.
The number of verses vary, the order of the verses vary and the texts of
the verses vary and to some extent even the meaning of individual verses
vary.


The common endeavour behind all of this
was clearly a constant effort by different people in diverse locations to
keep the Buddha’s teachings comprehensible. For some people it seemed that
Pali was the best, for some Prakrits, for some a widely know standard
language, Sanskrit, seemed the most appropriate. For some it was necessary
to translate the texts into totally new languages, such as Chinese. In the
article by (I have forgotten his name) on the translation of the Lotus
Sutra into Chinese there is a fine description of this translation
process. It needed one or more Indian Pandits and one or more central
Asian and Chinese Pandits who would sit together. The India Pandit reads
out the text to the Chinese Pandit who writes it down and then it is
compared for meaning by the various people involved. In the particular
case that was being studied in this article it is argued that although the
text is described as being in Sanskrit, the Indian Pandit was apparently
reading it out in Prakrit based on the evidence of the kinds of mistakes
that were being made in translation. So this suggests that not only do we
need to consider the languages of the written forms of the texts but of
the spoken forms of exposition which were employed. We must remember then
that the text consists of the text, the expounder and the listener.


Linguistic change and the Growth of
Buddhism

One other point about the linguistic
changes in the growth of the canon. It seems to reflect to some extent the
geographical spread of Buddhism. By the second century CE Buddhism had
spread throughout South Asia and into Central Asia and China. Therefore
the issue of how to give the teachings must have been of prime concern in
the Buddhist world. The common consensus was clearly that the texts needed
to be translated into languages appropriate for the peoples of the areas
in which Buddhism was active. But at the same time there is of course the
overarching need to maintain the meaning of the teachings while the form
of expression varies. Within the North Indian linguistic area is was
possible to maintain key terms in forms which were commonly employed,
sukha, dukkha, dharma, karma, nirvana, samsara
, etc.


But, once the texts started being
translated into Chinese a new set of problems was apparent. Just as terms
such as dharma, nirvana, samsara present problems for translation
into English, so to is there a problem when translating such terms into
Chinese. There was, for instance, no common view of reincarnation
samsara
as a given truth in Chinese.


Interestingly enough the first school of
Chinese translation, the old school, translated by finding the most
similar Chinese terms available for Indic terms, normally finding terms
from Taoism that were equivalent. Thus the Buddha became a teacher of the
Tao rather than the dharma. This translation approach was standard
from the beginnings in the 1st/2nd century CE up to around the 5th
century. At this point the translators revised their views and
retranslated the texts again using Chinese equivalent versions of the
Indic terms rather than Taoist equivalents.


Buddhist literature

So was the canon of the Nikaya Buddhist
traditions exactly the same for all the traditions? I have indicated above
that in the case of the Dhammapada there were variations between
the different traditions. Variations in the number of verses and verses
that are common to all traditions and unique to individual traditions. You
cannot simply say that one version is the original version, yet it is
desirable to consider how the versions related to each other. It is likely
that non of the extant versions are the original version as oral
traditions are often more fluid than textual traditions. So rather than
saying that any one textual version it might be better to propose that all
the versions are but windows onto an earlier oral tradition. There are in
the case of other texts instances where the Pali versions of texts seem
more developed than other versions. For instance the Pali
Mahaparinibbana sutta
seems more complex than the version translated
into Chinese from the Sanskrit Sarvastivada tradition. The latter having a
more simple description of the funeral rites and the former a more
elaborate version.


Nikaya literature: vinaya, sutta,
and abhidharma pitakas

There are basically three parts of the
Nikaya
Buddhist canon. The Sutta pitaka, the Vinaya pitaka
and the Abhidhamma pitaka. The Sutta pitaka is fairly
consistent in some parts over the various versions, in particular the
Digha
and Majjima, Anguttara and Samyakta Nikayas are
fairly consistent in their contents, if not in the exact forms of the
texts.


However the next Nikaya,
Khuddaka Nikaya
which in the Pali version contains 14 texts has a much
greater variation in its contents. It includes the Khuddaka Pattha,
a sort of early version of a collection of the chants for daily recitation
and the Dhammapada, which I have already noted has considerable
variations between the various versions. The next text is the Udana,
which at least in the Sarva stiva da version is similar to the name given
to the Dhammapada which is called the Udanavarga. There is
also the Itivuttika further sayings of the Buddha and the jatakas.
The number of the jatakas also varies from tradition to tradition.
There are also instances of completely different works being included in
this part of the canon by different traditions.


The Sarvastivada tradition included a text
called the Mahavastu in the canon, a kind of life of the Buddha,
but the Theravada tradition does not include this text. While the
Theravada tradition included the Vimanavattu and the
Pettavatu
in its canon, tales on the good and bad results of giving or
not giving to the samgha. These last two texts are regarded as very
late by scholars. So to are the following texts called the Buddhavamsa,
an account of the previous 24 Buddhas and the Cariya-pitaka which
is an account of how the Buddha manifested the ten perfections in his
previous lives as a Bodhisattva. The very fact that the title of the last
includes the term pitaka in its title, which is a term that means
basket or winnowing fan suggest that it must have come from a time when
the canon could be put into baskets, clearly only possible once it had
been written down.


The Pali canon was first written down in
the first century BCE in Sri Lanka according to Sri Lankan sources. The
traditional explanation of this is that it was due to fear of parts of the
canon getting lost that led to it being written down. It is said that
during a famine there was only a only a single monk left alive who knew
one section of it and this was the cause of it being set down in writing.
You may think it was odd that it was not previously written down, but
there seems to have been a reluctance to write things down in ancient
India.


To return to the contents of the canon the
next part is the Vinaya pitaka which includes details on how the
monks and nuns should live and stories to explain the rules of the
monastic code. Even in the fifth century CE when Chinese pilgrims were
visiting India and trying to get copies of the Vinaya they found it
quite difficult as in many places it existed only in the form of oral
tradition. The reluctance to commit to writing parts of the canon seems to
have been a long standing aspect of the tradition in India. People simply
preferred to remember the whole thing. It was indeed one specialisation
that monks could have was to memorise entire parts of the canon, and
memorisation of the Vinaya pitaka was apparently a common
phenomena.


The last part of the canon is the
Abhidhamma pitaka
, a philosophical study of the Buddha’s teachings.
This contains seven works in the Theravada version. In the Sarva stiva da
version the number and nature of the works was somewhat different. Certain
parts show evidences of having been based on similar earlier traditions,
others are clearly distinctive contributions of the various schools. It is
not clear if all schools had their own Abhidhamma pitaka traditions
or they were shared in common by various traditions. The main
Abhidhamma pitaka
traditions seem to have been those of the Theravada
and the Sarva stiva da traditions.


The different Abhidhamma pitaka
traditions are acknowledged to be later parts of the canon which were not
in existence at the time of the first council and they post date the
Sutta
and Vinaya pitakas. There are considerable variations
between the different philosophical traditions. The Theravada tradition
held that there were only four realities rupa, citta, cetasaka and
Nibbana, whereas the Sarva stiva da tradition held that
there were five realities and included space a ka sa as a fifth
reality. Also whilst the Theravada tradition held that only the present
moment ‘existed’ when things were perceived, the Sarva stiva da
tradition held that things ‘existed’ in the past, present and future. This
last view accounts for the name of the tradition which means ‘all exists’.
Due to this it is natural that the philosophical texts vary in their
contents. Despite sharing a common interest in philosophical analysis.
Indeed the differences between the traditions form the basis for a
Theravada tradition text, the Katthavattu or ‘Points of
controversy’ which outlines the differences between the traditions as seen
from a Theravada viewpoint.


A point of note in this is that in the
Katthavattu
the philosophical position on the possibility of
transferring merit to deceased relatives of the Theravada tradition is put
as that it is impossible in distinction from that of the other schools
which say that it is possible. But, this viewpoint also conflicts with the
views expressed in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Theravada
canon itself, in which the transfer of merit is clearly regarded as
possible. A further twist to this issue is that in the later text called
Milanda Panha a compromise is suggested that merit can be
transferred to some classes of preta, and this is the current view
of most Theravada tradition followers.


Nikaya and Mahayana literature

There is a further question which is worth
addressing here is. ‘What parts of the Nikaya Buddhist canon are
also accepted by Mahayana Buddhist traditions?’ Interestingly enough
though the question becomes not really what are accepted texts, so much as
what are texts that interest different traditions. The Sutta texts
for instance are accepted as genuine by the Mahayana tradition, but they
are of little interest to the Mahayana it seems. However, almost all the
traditions agree on the importance of the Dhammapada as the essence
of the Buddha’s teachings.


The Vinaya pitaka is also a
commonly held part of the early canon. Although that majority of East
Asian and Himalayan traditions follow the Sarva stiva da Vinaya
rather than the Theravada Vinaya, however there are in theory no
major differences. This is of course quite separate from the question of
how the Vinaya is interpreted which evidently varies widely between
the Northern and Southern traditions.


The Abhidhamma contains almost no
texts which are common between Nikaya Buddhists, let alone between
the Nikaya Buddhists and the Mahayana Buddhists. However, there is
a similar fascination with philosophy in all the traditions.


It is also vital to realise that there is
much in Theravada tradition which is unique to it and not held in common
with other Nikaya Buddhist traditions. The great synthesis of
teachings in the Visuddhimagga, ‘The Path of Purification’ by
Buddhaghosa which was composed in the 5th century CE is distinctly
Theravada in its viewpoint. It was based on a translation into Pali
of the existing Singhalese commentaries on the canon and records
traditions which may well go back in origin to India but had undergone
centuries of evolution in Sri Lanka. Buddhaghosa himself was from North
India, from near Bodh Gaya and went to Sri Lanka to translate their
vernacular commentaries into Pali.


The famous Sri Lankan chronicles, such as
the Mahavamsa are also distinctly Sri Lankan Theravada creations
that link the history of Buddhism to that of the ruling dynasties of Sri
Lanka.


There was also a continuous tradition of
creating new Pali texts in South East Asia, in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia
and Laos. It is interesting to note that in this case the argument for
Pali as the sacred language has completely altered. The early argument for
Pali it seems was, as suggested above, that it was comprehensible to the
people as it was close to everyday speech. Evidently in Sri Lanka and
South East Asia this was not the case. Rather it was seen as being the
authentic language of the Buddha. In a sense then it has become a kind of
purified language whose function is akin to that of Sanskrit in India, a
kind of sacred lingua franca comprehensible over a wide area and
felt to be the essence of refinement and imbued with great power and
sophistication.


The Earliest Buddhist Manuscripts

Finally, as an epilogue let us consider
the case of the earliest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered. A few years
ago the British Library in London was approached to find out if it was
interested in acquiring what appeared to be some old manuscripts which had
emerged from war torn Afghanistan. These were a collection of rolled up
birch bark manuscripts. These are very difficult materials to deal with as
they normally crumble into dust as you touch them. In this case they were
stored in urns and they were purchased in the urns. The library spent a
year and a half gradually humidifying and unrolling the manuscripts a
millimetre at a time and ended up with fragile sheets of birch bark
sandwiched between perspex sheets. It should be born in mind that birch
bark is a bit like vellum, as long as its kept in normal conditions it is
pliable and an excellent writing surface, it only become so crumbly if
left to dry out in an arid environment for two thousand years. These were
then photographed and digitised. They are a very exciting discovery as it
has become apparent that they date from around the first century CE. They
are written in a dialect of Prakrit in a script called Kharoshti,
and the number of scholars it is said who can read this script are said to
be merely a handful. The Kharoshti script was popular in the North
Western part of India and dropped out of use by the time of the Islamic
invasions of India. The group of scholars who are working on these
manuscripts are still working on deciphering them.


The initial reports indicate that they are
all fragments of works. This turns out to be because they are fragments of
old manuscripts which had been re-copied and the old manuscripts were
interred in an urn and buried as if they the body of the Buddha. This in
itself is fascinating as it shows that the Buddhists buried their old
manuscripts, Hindu’s also treat their manuscripts like their dead and
prefer to ideally place them into rivers as they do the ashes of bodies.


The contents of the manuscripts include
sections from Dhammapada, the rhinoceros verses, and verses in
praise of the lake now known as Manasarover by Mount Kailash, known in
Buddhist literature as lake Anavatapta. There also indications that they
productions of the Dhammaguptika tradition. They contain no parts of the
Vinaya or Abhidhamma pitakas and appear to be all drawn from
the Sutta pitaka. However, we are still waiting for further
detailed reports on their contents.


Conclusion

In conclusion then it is clear that the
breadth and depth of Buddhist literature is hard to comprehend. Even were
you to become a master of the Theravada Tipitaka you would still
not have read the greater part of the literature of the other Nikaya
Buddhist traditions. Also to be able to do a good comparative study of
this literature in real depth you would need to know not just Pali,
Prakrit and Sanskrit, but also to access the translations of the parts of
the Nikaya Buddhist canons lost in Indic languages you need to
learn Chinese to read these portions in translation. This is as they say
in Australia ‘a big ask’, however, beginning to map out the dimensions of
this issue is the first step on the road to the study of Nikaya
Buddhist literature.






The Pali Language



Source:
http://www.buddhamind.info


A question often asked is: “Did the
Buddha speak Pali?”
If so, how much of the original language has been
retained? If not, how much has translation affected the accurate
transmission of the teachings? There seems to be no one answer to these
questions but I offer the following as the results of my investigation.


The paramount power in India for two
centuries, spanning both before and after the Buddha, was the Kingdom of
Kosala, of which the Buddha’s birth kingdom, Magadha, was a fiefdom.
Magadhi seems to be a dialect of Kosalan, and there is some evidence that
this was the language that the Buddha spoke. The Pali of the Canon seems
to be based on the standard Kosalan as spoken in the 6th and 7th centuries
BC. The script used on the rock edicts of Asoka is a younger form of this
standard. On one of the Asoka pillars (about 300 BC) there is a list of
named Suttas which can be linguistically placed within the Singhalese
Canon.


Sanskrit was also widely spoken and
warrants discussion. It seems to have been the language of the Brahmin’s,
the ’spiritual’ class. It is etymologically older than Pali but, as
regards texts and inscriptions, the native tongue (Kosalan) was the more
common or popular medium. In the Text we see the Buddha encouraging his
disciples to teach in the popular language of any area. However after the
Buddha’s death, what were considered more ‘learned’ forms were gradually
made use of, despite the fact that these gave a less faithful picture of
the living speech. Slowly the efforts to represent the real facts of the
spoken language gave way to another effort, the expression of learned
phraseology, until roughly 300 AD, classical Sanskrit became used
exclusively in relation to Buddhism. This trend is reflected in the
scripture of later Buddhist traditions.


The use of Pali is practically confined to
Buddhist subjects, and then only in the Theravada school. It’s exact
origin is the subject of much learned debate and from the point of view of
the non-specialist, we can think of it as a kind of simplified, common
man’s Sanskrit. The source of the Pali Text we have lies in the North of
India. It is definitely not Singhalese in origin as it contains no mention
of any place in Sri Lanka, or even South India. The similes abounding in
the Singhalese literature are those of a sub-tropical climate and of a
great river valley rather than those of a tropical island.


Being an essentially oral language,
lacking a strong literary base of its own, it adopted the written script
of each country it settled in. It is clear that by the time the Text
arrived in Sri Lanka, with Asoka’s son Mahinda, about 240 BC, it was
considered closed.


Conclusion:


Any historical study is much like a jigsaw
puzzle. Piecing together information from a scrap of parchment here, a
clay tablet there; comparing various bits of antiquity, the opinions and
insights of others; analysing and evaluating - and then - coming to a
conclusion. The more Buddhist history books I studied, to try and
determine precise information, the more opinions I ended up collecting.
History, it seems, can be very much a matter of opinion.


Very few undisputed facts exist by which
to prove the authenticity of the Pali Canon. Even the dates of the Buddha
are questionable. The earliest reliable dates in Indian history that we
have are those for Emperor Asoka’s rule; 274 - 236 BC. We can also be
relatively certain that the Text remained unchanged from the time it was
written down, about 80 BC.


As regards the reliability of the Text I
felt two items to be of greatest importance.


* Firstly: The reason that anything
survives the rigours of more than 2000 years of history is that it is
considered to be of great value. Presumably the reason for this evaluation
was that the teaching was seen to work, i.e. to lead to the transcendence
of suffering. Such a known treasure would have been well guarded and part
of this protection would have been a tremendous concern for retaining the
‘jewel’ in its entirety, i.e. accurately.


* Secondly: After several centuries of
travelling to many different lands and being translated into different
languages, the disparity between the various renderings of the main Text
existing today in Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan is typically
greatest in matters of least importance. Only very rarely are differences
founded on doctrinal matters. It can be seen that these works are clearly
not independent compositions, being very similar in their substantive
content. This “authenticity by comparison” is an important item in support
of scriptural accuracy. More specifically, the Vinaya is almost without
exception, identical in every Buddhist tradition.


On a more general note:


I feel that the majority of us who have
come to give the Text some consideration, originally set out in search of
a guide by which to find a way to resolve the root-problem of our personal
existence. The process of production warrants investigation but surely the
true test of any guide book is its ability to lead one to the desired
destination. The whole energy behind the Buddha’s teaching was the ending
of suffering. If what you glean from the Text eases or ends your suffering
then the teaching has been accurately transmitted. What is of greatest
importance is to take the teachings that seem relevant, that feel
applicable to your life, and to make them a personal reality, to turn the
theory into practice.



-ooOoo-




Source: Internet





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last updated: 07-07-2005

29 Classical Galician
29 Clásico galego

2570 Sáb 24 de marzo de 2018 LECCIÓN

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/

 Buda Vacana
- As palabras do Buda -
O budismo clásico (ensinanzas do espertado con conciencia) pertence ao mundo e todos teñen dereitos exclusivos:

é a enerxía máis positiva do sitio informativo e orientado á
investigación, que propaga as ensinanzas do Despertar con consciencia do
Buda e do Movemento de Techno-Politico-Socio Transformación e
Emancipación Económica seguido por millóns de persoas en todo o mundo.

Realizando
a tradución exacta como unha lección desta universidade na súa lingua
materna a esta tradución de Google https://translate.google.com ea súa
propagación dá dereito a converterse nun Enterreiro de Rede (Sottapanna)
e conseguir a Felicidade Eterna como Obxectivo Final.
Analytic Insight-Net - FREE Online Analytical Insight-Net Tipiṭaka
Research & Practice Universidade e relacionadas NOTICIAS a través de
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org en 105 LINGUAS CLÁSICAS

 Buda Vacana
- As palabras do Buda -
Aprende Pali en liña de xeito gratuíto e sinxelo.

Este
sitio web está dedicado a aqueles que desexan comprender mellor as
palabras do Buda aprendendo os conceptos básicos da lingua Pali, pero
que non teñen moito tempo dispoñible para iso.
A
idea é que se o seu propósito é simplemente habilitarse para ler os
textos de Pali e ter unha sensación xusta de comprendelos, aínda que esa
comprensión non abarque todos os detalles mínimos das regras
gramaticais, realmente non precisan gastar moito
o tempo loitando cunha aprendizaxe desalentadora da tediosa teoría gramatical que inclúe moitas declinacións e conxugacións.

Nese
caso, basta limitarse a simplemente aprender o significado das palabras
Pali máis importantes, porque a repetida experiencia da lectura
proporciona unha comprensión empírica e intuitiva das estruturas de
oracións máis comúns.
Así, poden facerse autodidactas, elixindo o tempo, a duración, a frecuencia, os contidos e a profundidade do seu propio estudo.

A
súa comprensión da Buda Vacana farase moito máis precisa xa que
aprenden e memorizan sen esforzo as palabras e as fórmulas importantes
que son fundamentais no ensino de Buda, por medio da lectura regular.
A súa aprendizaxe ea inspiración a partir diso vanse a medrar a medida
que mellorará a súa receptividade ás mensaxes do profesor.

Exención de responsabilidade: Este sitio web é creado por un autodidacto e está feito para autodidactos. O
webmaster non seguiu ningún curso oficial de Pali e non hai ningún
reclamo de que toda a información aquí presentada estea totalmente libre
de erros.
Os que desexan unha precisión académica poden considerar unirse a un curso formal de Pali. No caso de que os lectores noten algún erro, o webmaster agradece se o
informan a través da caixa de correo mencionada en “Contacto”.

Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{extracto}
- As cuestións de Poṭṭhapāda -

Poṭṭhapāda fai preguntas sobre a natureza de Saññā.
Nota: textos simples

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html
 
Sutta Piṭaka
- A cesta de discursos -
[sutta: discurso]

O Sutta Piṭaka contén a esencia do ensino de Buda sobre o Dhamma. Contén máis de dez mil suttas. Está dividido en cinco coleccións chamadas Nikāyas.

Dīgha Nikāya
    
[dīgha: long] O Dīgha Nikāya reúne 34 dos discursos máis longos que deu o Buda. Hai varias indicacións de que moitas delas son adicións tardías ao corpus orixinal e de autenticidade cuestionable.
Majjhima Nikāya
    
[majjhima: medio] O Majjhima Nikāya reúne 152 discursos do Buda de lonxitude intermedia, tratando diversos asuntos.
Saṃyutta Nikāya
    
[samyutta: grupo] O Saṃyutta Nikāya reúne as suttas segundo o seu tema en 56 subgrupos chamados saṃyuttas. Contén máis de tres mil discursos de lonxitude variable, pero xeralmente relativamente curto.
Aṅguttara Nikāya
    
[aṅg: factor | uttara:
additionnal] O Aṅguttara Nikāya está subdividido en once subgrupos
chamados nipātas, cada un dos cales agrupa discursos compostos por
enumeracións dun factor adicional versus as do precedente nipāta.
Contén miles de suttas que xeralmente son curtos.
Khuddaka Nikāya
    
[khuddha:
curto, pequeno] Os textos curtos de Khuddhaka Nikāya e considerado
composto por dúas estratos: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā e Jātaka forman os estratos antigos, mentres que
outros libros son complementos tardíos ea súa autenticidade
é máis cuestionable.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/formulae.html

Árbore

Fórmulas de Pali

A
visión sobre a que se basea este traballo é que as pasaxes das suttas
que son as máis repetidas polo Buda en todos os catro Nikāyas pódense
tomar como indicando o que el consideraba máis digno de interese no seu
ensino
, e ao mesmo tempo que o que representa con máis precisión as palabras reais. Oito deles expóñense no Gaṇaka-Moggallāna Sutta (MN 107) e describen como Sekha Paṭipadā ou P

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/formulae.html

Fórmulas de Pali

A
visión sobre a que se basea este traballo é que as pasaxes das suttas
que son as máis repetidas polo Buda en todos os catro Nikāyas pódense
tomar como indicando o que el consideraba máis digno de interese no seu
ensino
, e ao mesmo tempo que o que representa con máis precisión as palabras reais. Oito deles expóñense no Gaṇaka-Moggallāna Sutta (MN 107) e descríbense
como Sekha Paṭipadā ou Path para un baixo o adestramento, que
prácticamente lidera o neófito ata o cuarto jhāna.

Sekha Paṭipadā - O camiño para un de adestramento

Doce fórmulas que definen paso a paso as principais prácticas prescritas polo Buda. É fundamental para quen quere avanzar con éxito, xa que contén as
instrucións que permitirá que o meditador configure as condicións
indispensables para unha práctica eficiente.

Ānāpānassati - Conciencia da respiración
    
A práctica do ānāpānassati é moi recomendable polo Buda para todo tipo
de propósitos saudables e aquí podes entender con precisión as
instrucións que dá.
Anussati - As Recolecciones
    
Aquí temos a descrición estándar do Buda (≈ 140 oc.), O Dhamma (≈90 occ.) Ea Sangha (≈45 oc.).
Appamāṇā Cetovimutti - As liberacións sen límites da mente
    
O Buda a miúdo eloa a práctica dos catro appamāṇā cetovimutti, que son
coñecidos por traer protección contra os perigos e por ser un camiño
que conduce a Brahmaloka.
Arahatta - Arahantship
    
Esta é a fórmula de inventario pola que se descrebe a realización da arandería nas suttas.
Ariya Sīlakkhandha - O agregado nobre da virtude
    
Varias regras a seguir por bhikkhus.
Arūpajjhānā - The Formless Jhānas
    
Aquí están as fórmulas de accións que describen as absorcións de
samādhi máis aló do cuarto jhāna, que son referidas na literatura tardía
de Pali como arūpajjhānas.
Āsavānaṃ Khayañāṇa - Coñecemento da destrución dos āsavas
    
Coñecemento da destrución dos āsavas: arahantship.
Bhojane Mattaññutā - Moderación nos alimentos
    
Moderación nos alimentos: coñecer a cantidade adecuada para comer.
Cattāro Jhānā - Os catro jhānas
    
As catro jhānas: ter un agradable cumprimento.
Indriyesu Guttadvāratā - Vixilancia á entrada das facultades sensoriais
    
Garda na entrada das facultades de sentido: restricción sen sentido.
Jāgariyaṃ Anuyoga - Dedicación á vixilia
    
Dedicación á vixilia: día e noite.
Kammassakomhi: son o meu propio kamma
    
Esta fórmula explica un dos fundamentos do ensino do Buda: unha versión subjetiva da lei da causa e do efecto.
Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna - eliminación de obstáculos
    
Eliminación dos obstáculos: superación da obstrución dos estados mentais.
Pumajjā - A saída
    
A saída: como se decide renunciar ao mundo.
Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa - Coñecemento do recordo dos antigos lugares de vida
    
Coñecemento do recordo dos antigos lugares de vida: recordando as vidas pasadas.
Satipaṭṭhāna - Presenza de conciencia
    
Estas son as fórmulas coas que o Buda define en breve cal son as catro satipaṭṭhānas (≈33 oc.).
Satisampajañña - Comprensión e comprensión
    
Mindfulness e comprensión completa: unha práctica ininterrompida.
Satta saddhammā - Sete boas calidades
    
Sete calidades fundamentais que deben ser dominadas polo alumno para ter éxito. Catro destas calidades aparecen tamén entre as cinco indriyas espirituais e as cinco balas.
Sattānaṃ Cutūpapātañāṇa - Coñecemento do renacemento dos seres doados
    
Coñecemento do renacemento dos seres doados.
Sīlasampatti - Realización en virtude
    
Realización en virtude: unha observación atenta das regras de Pātimokkha.
Vivitta Senāsanena Bhajana - Recorrendo a vivendas illadas
    
A elección dun lugar axeitado e a adopción da boa postura física e mental é outra condición sine qua non de práctica exitosa.
Folla Bodhi

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha.html

Pātimokkha
- As pautas de Bhikkhu -

Estas son as 227 pautas que cada bhikkhu debe aprender de memoria na linguaxe Pali para poder recitarlas. Aquí ofrecerás (esperemos) unha análise semántico de cada guía.

Pārājika 1
    
Se
algún bhikkhu participase no adestramento e no sustento dos bhikkhus,
sen renunciar á formación, sen declarar a súa debilidade, se involucrar
na relación sexual, ata con un animal feminino, é vencido e xa non está
afiliado.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha/par1.html
    

">Pārājika 1

yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā · s · ājīva · samāpanno sikkhaṃ a ·
paccakkhāya du · b · balyaṃ an · āvi · katvā methunaṃ dhammaṃ
paṭiseveyya antamaso tiracchāna · gatāya · pi, pārājiko hoti a saṃvāso.

Se algún bhikkhu participase no adestramento e no sustento dos
bhikkhus, sen renunciar á formación, sen declarar a súa debilidade, se
involucrar na relación sexual, ata con un animal feminino, é vencido e
xa non está afiliado.

Eu pana bhikkhu Debería algún bhikkhu
bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā · s · ājīva · samāpanno participando na formación e no sustento dos bhikkhus,
sikkhaṃ a · paccakkhāya sen renunciar á formación,
du · b · balyaṃ an · āvi · katvā sen declarar a súa debilidade
Methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya participa das relacións sexuais,
antamaso tiracchâna · gatāya · pi, mesmo cun animal feminino,
pārājiko hoti a · saṃvāso. el é derrotado e xa non está afiliado.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/download.html

Descarga do sitio web

Descarga o sitio web (versión de Januray 2013):

Pulse AQUÍ

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Árbore
Contacto

Para calquera comentario, suxestión, pregunta:

Non dubide en informar calquera erro, discrepancia, ligazón rota, información baleira · burbulla, etc pode atoparse. O webmaster estará agradecido.

Fácil acceso:

Dīgha Nikāya

Majjhima Nikāya

Saṃyutta Nikāya

Aṅguttara Nikāya

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Árbore
Dīgha Nikāya
- Os longos discursos -
[dīgha: longo]

O Dīgha Nikāya reúne 34 dos discursos máis longos supuestamente entregados polo Buda.

Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (DN 9) {extracto} - tradución mellorada
    
Poṭṭhapāda fai preguntas sobre a natureza de Saññā.
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) (extractos) - palabra por palabra
    
Este sutta recolle diversas instrucións que o Buda deu por mor dos
seus seguidores despois do seu falecemento, o que fai que sexa un
conxunto de instrucións moi importante para nós hoxe en día.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) - palabra por palabra
    
Este sutta é ampliamente considerado como unha referencia fundamental para a práctica da meditación.

—— oooOooo ——
http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/majjhima.html
">Majjhima Nikāya
- Os discursos de lonxitude media -
[majjhima: medio]

O Majjhima Nikāya reúne 152 discursos do Buda de lonxitude intermedia, tratando de diversas materias.

Sabbāsava Sutta (MN 2) - tradución mellorada
    
Moi interesante sutta, onde se desvían as distintas formas nas que os āsavas, fermentadores defilementos da mente.
Bhayabherava Sutta (MN 4) - tradución mellorada
    
¿Que tería que vivir na soidade no deserto, completamente libre de medo? O Buda explica.
Vattha Sutta (MN 7) {extracto} - tradución mellorada
    
Atopamos aquí unha lista bastante estándar de dezaseis defilements
(upakkilesa) da mente, e unha explicación dun mecanismo polo que se
obteñen estas “confidencias confirmadas” no Buda, o Dhamma e a Sangha
que son factores de entrada.
Mahādukkhakkhandha Sutta (MN 13) - tradución mellorada
    
Sobre
o assāda (ilusionismo), ādīnava (desvantaxe) e nissaraṇa (emancipación)
de kāma (sensualidade), rūpa (forma) e vedanā (sentimento).
Moita cousa moi útil para reflexionar.
Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta (MN 27) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda explica como o feito de que é realmente un ser iluminado debe
ser tomado na fe ou como unha conxectura ata que se alcance un
determinado estadio e que calquera reclamación de tal coñecemento sen
esa realización sexa inútil.
Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN 43) (extracto) - palabra por palabra
    
Sāriputta responde a varias preguntas interesantes feitas por Āyasmā
Mahākoṭṭhika e, neste fragmento, explica que Vedanā, Saññā e Viññāṇa non
están claramente delimitadas pero están profundamente entrelazadas.
Cūỏavedalla Sutta (MN 44) {extracto} - tradución mellorada
    
O bhikkhuni Dhammadinnā responde unha serie de preguntas interesantes formuladas por Visākha. Entre outras cousas, ela dá a definición de 20 veces de sakkāyadiṭṭhi.
Sekha Sutta (MN 53) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda pide a Ānanda que expón a Sekha Paṭipadā, da cal dá unha
versión sorprendente, da cal Satisampajañña e Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna son
curiosamente substituídos por unha serie de sete “boas calidades”, e que
se ilustra cun símil contante.
Potaliya Sutta (MN 54) - tradución mellorada
    
Unha serie de sete similes estándar para explicar os inconvenientes e os perigos de dar sensualidade.
Bahuvedanīya Sutta (MN 59) (extracto) - palabra por palabra
    
Neste curto fragmento, o Buda define os cinco kāmaguṇās e fai unha comparación importante con outro tipo de pracer.
Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN 70) {extracto} - tradución mellorada
    
Este sutta contén unha definición de dhammānusārī e saddhānusārī.

Bāhitikā Sutta (MN 88) {extracto} - tradución mellorada
    
O Rei Pasenadi de Kosala está ansioso por entender o que se recomenda
ou non por ascetas e brahmanos sabios, e pide unha serie de preguntas a
Ānanda que nos permiten comprender mellor o significado das palabras
kusala (saudable) e akusala (indeciso).
Ānāpānassati Sutta (MN 118) - palabra por palabra
    
O famoso sutta sobre a práctica do ānāpānassati, e como conduce á
práctica das catro satipaṭṭhānas e subsecuentemente ao cumprimento dos
sete bojjhaṅgas.
Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga Sutta (MN 137) (extracto) - tradución mellorada
    
Neste profundo e moi interesante sutta, o Buda define entre outras
cousas cales son as investigacións de sentimentos mentais agradables,
desagradables e neutrales, e tamén define a expresión que se atopa na
descrición estándar do Buda: “anuttaro purisadammasārathī”.
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta (MN 152) - palabra por palabra
    
Este sutta ofrece tres enfoques para a práctica da restrición de
sentido, que conteñen instrucións adicionais que complementan as
fórmulas Indriyesu Guttadvāratā.

—— oooOooo ——
http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/samyutta.html

Árbore
">Saṃyutta Nikāya
- Os discursos clasificados -
[saṃyutta: grupo]

Os discursos do Saṃyutta Nikāya divídense segundo o seu tema en 56 saṃyuttas, que están agrupados en cinco vaggas.

Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 12.2) - palabra por palabra
    
Unha explicación detallada da paṭicca samuppāda, cunha definición de cada un dos doce enlaces.
Cetanā Sutta (SN 12.38) - tradución mellorada
    
Aquí o Buda explica como cetaná, xunto co reflexivo e anusaya, actúan como base para viññāṇa.
Upādāna Sutta (SN 12.52) - tradución mellorada
    
Esta é unha lección moi esclarecedora que revela mediante a cal o
mecanismo psicolóxico adxudícase e explica como pode ser facilmente
substituído por consideracións saudables para desfacerse del.
Puttamaṃsūpama Sutta (SN 12.63) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda ofrece aquí catro similes impresionantes e inspiradores para explicar como deben ser considerados os catro āhāras.
Sanidāna Sutta (SN 14.12) - tradución mellorada
    
Unha marabillosa explicación de como as percepcións convértense en accións, máis ilustradas polo símil da antorcha ardente. ¡Mantéñase diligentemente consciente de disipar pensamentos inofensivos!
Āṇi Sutta (SN 20.7) - palabra por palabra
    
Unha
cousa moi importante nos recorda o Buda: para o noso propio beneficio,
así como para o beneficio das xeracións aínda por vencer, debemos darlle
a maior importancia ás súas propias palabras reais, e non tanto a quen
máis finge hoxe en día ou
finxiu no pasado para ser un profesor propio (Dhamma).
Samādhi Sutta (SN 22.5) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda exhorta aos seus seguidores a que desenvolvan a concentración
para que poidan practicar coñecementos sobre o xurdimento e falecemento
dos cinco agregados, despois de que defina o que significa ao xurdir e
morrer dos agregados, en termos de orixe dependente.
Paṭisallāṇa Sutta (SN 22.6) - sen tradución
    
O Buda exhorta aos seus seguidores a practicar a reclusión para que
poidan practicar coñecementos sobre o xurdimento e falecemento dos cinco
agregados, despois de que defina o que significa ao xurdir e morrer dos
agregados, en termos de orixe dependente.
Upādāparitassanā Sutta (SN 22,8) - palabra por palabra
    
A aparición e cesamento do sufrimento ocorre nos cinco agregados.
Nandikkhaya Sutta (SN 22,51) - palabra por palabra
    
Como operar a destrución de pracer.
Anattalakkhana Sutta (SN 22.59) - palabra por palabra
    
Neste famoso sutta, o Buda expón por primeira vez o seu ensino sobre anatta.
Khajjanīya Sutta (SN 22.79) {extracto} - palabra por palabra
    
Este sutta proporciona unha definición sucinta dos cinco khandhas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 29.1) - tradución mellorada
    
Os distintos tipos de nāgas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 30.1) - tradución mellorada
    
Os diferentes tipos de supaṇṇas (aka garudas).
Suddhika Sutta (SN 31.1) - tradución mellorada
    
Os diferentes tipos de gandhabba devas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 32.1) - tradución mellorada
    
Os diferentes tipos de devas na nube.
Samāpattimūlakaṭhiti Sutta (SN 34.11) - tradución mellorada
    
Alcanzar a concentración e manter a concentración.
Pubbesambodha Sutta (SN 35.13) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda define o seu significado por fascinación, desvantaxe e
emancipación no caso das esferas de sentido interno, e entón declara que
o seu espertar non era nin máis nin menos que entender.
Abhinanda Sutta (SN 35.20) - palabra por palabra
    
Non hai fuga para quen deleite os obxectos sensuais.
Migajāla Sutta (SN 35.46) - tradución mellorada
    
Por que a verdadeira soidade é tan difícil de atopar? O Buda explica por que, sen importar onde se vaia, os teus compañeiros máis irritantes sempre agreden.
Avijjāpahāna Sutta (SN 35.53) - palabra por palabra
    
Un discurso moi sinxelo, aínda veo

Sabbupādānapariññā Sutta (SN 35.60) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda, ao expresar a comprensión completa de todo o apego, dá unha
explicación profunda e aínda moi clara: o contacto xorde a partir de
tres fenómenos.
Migajāla Sutta Sutta (SN 35.64) (extracto) - palabra por palabra
    
Algúns
neófitos (e moitas veces podemos contarnos entre eles) ás veces queren
crer que é posible deleitarse nos praceres sensuais sen dar lugar a
apego ou sufrimento.
O Buda ensina a Migajāla que isto é francamente imposible.
Adantāgutta Sutta (SN 35.94) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí
está un deses consellos que son tan fáciles de entender co
entendemento, pero tan difíciles de entender en niveis máis profundos
porque as nosas vistas erradas interfiran constantemente no proceso.
Polo tanto, necesitamos repetilo a miúdo, aínda que poida parecer aburrido.
Pamādavihārī Sutta (SN 35.97) - palabra por palabra
    
O que fai a diferenza entre quen vive con neglixencia e quen vive coa vixilancia.
Sakkapañhā Sutta Sutta (SN 35.118) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda dá unha resposta bastante simple á pregunta de Sakka: cal é a
razón pola que algunhas persoas alcanzan o obxectivo final mentres que
outras non?
Rūpārāma Sutta (SN 35.137) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda explica por nós unha vez máis, de outro xeito, a causa eo cesamento do sufrimento. Ten lugar no medio do que seguimos facendo todo o día e toda a noite.
Aniccanibbānasappāya Sutta (SN 35.147) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí están as instrucións de hardcore vipassanā que abordan a
percepción da impermanencia para os meditadores avanzados que esperan
con ansia alcanzar Nibbāna.
Ajjhattānattahetu Sutta (SN 35.142) - palabra por palabra
    
Como investigar as causas do xurdimento dos órganos sensoriais, en que
a característica de si mesmo non pode ser máis fácil de comprender,
permite a transferencia deste comprensión ao seu caso.
Samudda Sutta (SN 35.229) - tradución mellorada
    
O que é o océano na disciplina dos nobres. ¡Coidado de non afundir nel!
Pahāna Sutta (SN 36.3) - tradución mellorada
    
A relación entre os tres tipos de vedanā e tres dos anusayas.
Daṭṭhabba Sutta (SN 36.5) - tradución mellorada
    
Como se deben ver os tres tipos de vedanā (sentimentos).
Salla Sutta (SN 36.6) - tradución mellorada
    
Cando
se tira pola frecha da dor física, unha persoa imprudente empeora as
cousas mellorando a angustia mental encima, como se fose disparado por
dúas frechas.
Un sabio sente a picadura dunha única frecha.
Anicca Sutta (SN 36.9) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete características de vedanā (sentimentos), que tamén son aplicables
aos outros catro khandhas (SN 22.21) e cada un dos doce enlaces de
paṭicca · samuppāda (SN 12,20).
Phassamūlaka Sutta (SN 36.10) - palabra por palabra
    
Os tres tipos de sentimentos están enraizados en tres tipos de contactos.
Aṭṭhasata Sutta (SN 36.22) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda expón vedanās de sete xeitos diferentes, analizándoos en dúas,
tres, cinco, seis, dezaoito, trinta e seis ou cen oito categorías.
Nirāmisa Sutta (SN 36.31) (extracto) - palabra por palabra
    
Podemos entender aquí que o pīti, aínda que moitas veces aparece como bojjhaṅga, tamén pode ser ás veces akusala. Esta pasaxe tamén inclúe unha definición dos cinco kāmaguṇā.
Dhammavādīpañhā Sutta (SN 38.3) - tradución mellorada
    
Quen profesa o Dhamma no mundo (dhamma · vādī)? Quen practica ben (su · p · paṭipanna)? Quen está saíndo ben (su · gata)?
Dukkara Sutta (SN 39.16) - tradución mellorada
    
¿Que é difícil facer neste ensino e disciplina?
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 45.8) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí o Buda define precisamente cada factor do oito e nobre camiño.
Āgantuka Sutta (SN 45.159) - tradución mellorada
    
Como o Camiño Nobre traballa co abhiññā de varios dhammas como hóspede acollendo varios tipos de visitantes.
Kusala Sutta (SN 46.32) - palabra por palabra
    
Todo o que é vantaxoso únese nunha cousa.
Āhāra Sutta (SN 46.51) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda describe como podemos “alimentar” ou “morrer de fame” os
obstáculos e os factores de iluminación segundo o xeito no que nós
aplicamos a nosa atención.
Saṅgārava Sutta (SN 46.55) (extracto) - tradución mellorada
    
Unha fermosa serie de similes para explicar como os cinco nīvaraṇas
(obstáculos) afectan a pureza da mente e a súa capacidade de percibir a
realidade tal como é.
Sati Sutta (SN 47.35) - palabra por palabra
    
Neste sutta, o Buda recorda aos bhikkhus que sexan satos e sampajānos, e entón define estes dous términos.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 47.40) - palabra por palabra
    
O satipaṭṭhānas ensinou en breve.
Daṭṭhabba Sutta (SN 48.8) - tradución mellorada
    
Cada un dos cinco indriyas espirituais dise que se pode ver nun dhamma catro veces.
Saṃkhitta Sutta (SN 48.14) - tradución mellorada
    
O cumprimento dos mesmos é todo o que debemos facer, e esta é a medida da nosa liberación.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 48.38) - tradución mellorada
    
Aquí o Buda define os cinco indriyas sensibles.
Uppaṭipāṭika Sutta (SN 48.40)

Sāketa Sutta (SN 48.43) (extracto) - tradución mellorada
    
Neste sutta, o Buda afirma que as balas e os indriyas poden considerarse como unha mesma cousa ou dúas cousas distintas.
Patiṭṭhita Sutta (SN 48.56) - tradución mellorada
    
Hai un estado mental a través do cal todas as cinco facultades espirituais son perfeccionadas.
Bīja Sutta (SN 49.24) - tradución mellorada
    
Un fermoso símil que ilustra como é a virtude fundamental para a práctica dos catro esforzos xustos.
Gantha Sutta (SN 50.102) - tradución mellorada
    
Este sutta está baseado na interesante lista dos catro “nós
corporais”, e promove o desenvolvemento dos cinco puntos fortes
espirituais.
Viraddha Sutta (SN 51.2) - tradución mellorada
    
Quen descoida estes descoidos o nobre camiño.
Chandasamādhi Sutta (SN 51.13) - tradución mellorada
    
Este sutta explica claramente o significado das fórmulas que describen a práctica das iddhi · pādas.
Samaṇabrāhmaṇa Sutta (SN 51.17) - tradución mellorada
    
Mentres no pasado, no futuro ou na actualidade, o que exercerá poderes
supernormales desenvolveu e practicaba asiduamente catro cousas.
Vidhā Sutta (SN 53.36) - tradución mellorada
    
Recoméndase aos jhānas desfacerse dos tres tipos de presunción, que están relacionados coa comparación cos demais. Faino
claro que, se hai algunha xerarquía na Sangha, é só para fins prácticos
e non debe ser considerado como representativo de ningunha realidade.
Non está ben claro se se trata dun sutta repetindo 16 veces o mesmo,
ou 16 suttas agrupados, ou 4 suttas que conteñen cada 4 repeticións.
Padīpopama Sutta (SN 54.8) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí o Buda explica ānāpānassati e recoméndalo por varios fins: abandonar as impurezas brutas, ao desenvolver os oito jhānas.
Saraṇānisakka Sutta (SN 55.24) - tradución mellorada
    
Neste interesante discurso, o Buda afirma que nin sequera ten que ter
unha forte confianza no Buda, Dhamma e Sangha para converterse nun
gañador do fluxo no momento da morte.
Mahānāma Sutta (SN 55.37) - tradución mellorada
    
O que significa ser un deixe laico laico, dotado de virtude, convicción, xenerosidade e discernimento.
Aṅga Sutta (SN 55.50) - palabra por palabra
    
Os catro sotāpattiyaṅgas (factores de entrada de fluxo).
Samādhi Sutta (SN 56.1) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda exhorta aos bhikkhus a practicar samādhi, pois conduce á
comprensión das catro nobres verdades na súa verdadeira natureza.
Paṭisallāna Sutta (SN 56.2) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda exhorta aos bhikkhus a practicar a paṭisallāna, pois conduce á
comprensión das catro nobres verdades na súa verdadeira natureza.
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11) - palabra por palabra
    
Este é sen dúbida o sutta máis famoso da literatura de Pali. O Buda expón os catro ariya-saccas por primeira vez.
Saṅkāsanā Sutta (SN 56.19) - tradución mellorada
    
A ensinanza das catro verdades nobres, por aburrido que pareza á mente
errante, é realmente moi profunda ea mente pode dedicarse todo o tempo a
investigar.
Siṃsapāvana Sutta (SN 56.31) - palabra por palabra
    
O famoso sutta onde o Buda afirma que non ten interese nas ensinanzas que non están inmediatamente relacionadas co obxectivo.
Daṇḍa Sutta (SN 56.33) - tradución mellorada
    
O símil contante do pau.

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http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html
">Aṅguttara Nikāya
- Os discursos dun factor adicional -
[aṅg: factor | uttara: adicional]

O Aṅguttara Nikāya contén miles de discursos curtos, que teñen a particularidade de ser estruturados como enumeracións. Está
dividido en once seccións, a primeira en relación a enumeracións dun
elemento, a segunda coas dúas de elementos, etc. O Buda, que nunca
empregou a escritura, pediu aos seus oíntes que estivesen atentos e
memorizar as súas instrucións.
Para facer as palabras máis claras posible e facilitar esta
memorización, moitas veces presentou o seu ensino en forma de
enumeracións.

Nipātas
1. Ekaka Nipāta 7. Sattaka Nipāta
2. Duka Nipāta 8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta
3. Tika Nipāta 9. Navaka Nipāta
4. Catuka Nipāta 10. Dasaka Nipāta
5. Pañcaka Nipāta 11. Ekādasaka Nipāta
6. Chakka Nipāta

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1. Ekaka Nipāta

Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10) - palabra por palabra
    
Existen cinco tipos de obxectos de sentido que dominan a mente de (a maioría) dos seres humanos máis que outros.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20) - palabra por palabra
    
Os cinco domos que nutren de forma máis eficiente os cinco obstáculos e as cinco formas máis efectivas de disipar.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30) - palabra por palabra
    
A mente pode ser o noso peor inimigo ou o noso mellor amigo.
Adanta Vagga (AN 1.31-40) - tradución mellorada
    
A mente pode ser o noso peor inimigo ou o noso mellor amigo.

Udakarahaka Suttas (AN 1.45 e 46) - tradución mellorada
    
A diferenza entre unha mente clara e unha fangosa.
Mudu Sutta (AN 1.47) - tradución mellorada
    
Un símil para unha mente que é bastante.
Lahuparivatta Sutta (AN 1.48) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda, normalmente tan adepto en atopar similes, está aquí nunha perda.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55) - palabra por palabra
    
Practicar a boa vontade é un regalo digno.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73) - palabra por palabra
    
Que produce e que elimina os estados mentales saudables e inhóspitos.
Pamāda Suttas (AN 1.58-59) - tradución mellorada
    
Nada é tan desfavorable como este.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda repetidamente advírtanos contra a descoidada.
Kāyagatāsati Vagga (AN 1.563-574) (extractos) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda fala en gran eloxio da atención dirixida ao corpo.

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2. Duka Nipāta

Appaṭivāna Sutta (AN 2.5) - tradución mellorada
    
Como debemos adestrarnos se desexamos chegar ao espertar.
Cariya Sutta (AN 2.9) - tradución mellorada
    
¿Que
é, despois de todo, que garante a harmonía, a cortesía, a honestidade, a
fraternidad nunha palabra paz dentro dunha determinada sociedade?
O Buda explica aquí cales son os dous gardiáns do mundo.
Ekaṃsena Sutta (AN 2.18) - tradución mellorada
    
Aquí hai unha cousa que o Buda declara categóricamente.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí o Buda relaciona Samatha con rāga e cetovimutti, e Vipassanā con avijjā e paññāvimutti.

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3. Tika Nipāta

Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66) - palabra por palabra
    
Neste famoso sutta, o Buda recorda que, en definitiva, só confiamos a
nosa propia experiencia directa da realidade, non o que os outros
declaran, aínda que fosen o noso “profesor venerado”.
Sāḷha Sutta (AN 3.67) - tradución mellorada
    
O consello aquí indicado é moi semellante ao dado ao Kalamas.
Aññatitthiya Sutta (AN 3.69) - tradución mellorada
    
As tres raíces do insalubre son explicadas coa súa característica
respectuosa, a causa do seu xurdimento e o xeito de provocar o seu
cesamento.
Uposatha Sutta (AN 3.71) - tradución mellorada
    
Neste sutta, o Buda define como os laicos deberían practicar Uposatha e describen os diferentes tipos de devas.
Sīlabbata Sutta (AN 3.79) - tradución mellorada
    
Ānanda explica por que moi simples ritos e rituais de creteria poden ser xulgados como beneficiosos ou non.
Samaṇa Sutta (AN 3.82) - tradución mellorada
    
Aquí están as tres tarefas ascéticas dun asceta.
Vajjiputta Sutta (AN 3.85) - tradución mellorada
    
Un certo monxe non pode adestrar con tantas regras. O Buda explícalle como pode facer sen eles e funciona bastante ben.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda define os tres adestramentos, isto é, adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā e adhipaññāsikkhā.
Accāyika Sutta (AN 3.93) - tradución mellorada
    
Tres tarefas urxentes dun asceta que son como tres tarefas urxentes dun agricultor.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí o Buda dá unha definición alternativa de adhipaññāsikkhā.
Paṃsudhovaka Sutta (AN 3.102) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Neste sutta, o Buda compara a eliminación das impurezas mentais a través da práctica ao traballo dun orfebre. É particularmente interesante, xa que proporciona unha exposición
gradual das impurezas que hai que tratar durante a práctica, o que dá
unha referencia útil.
Nimitta Sutta (AN 3.103) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Vostede se atreve a pensar ou se agita demasiado durante a súa práctica de meditación? Este
é un discurso moi útil para os meditadores que desexan equilibrar as
dúas facultades espirituais de esforzo e concentración correspondentes,
xunto coa ecuanimidade.
Moitos de nós beneficiaríamos substancialmente de aplicar correctamente estas instrucións.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí o Buda explica o que está cantando e bailando na disciplina dos
nobres, e entón dá a súa instrución con respecto a rir e sorrir.
Atitti Sutta (AN 3.109) - tradución mellorada
    
Tres cousas erradas, das cales moitas desgraciadamente están profundas, que nunca poden provocar saciedade.
Nidāna Sutta (AN 3.112) - tradución mellorada
    
Seis causas, tres saudables e tres non saudables, para o xurdimento do kamma.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí ponse de manifesto que a visión segundo a cal non hai nada de malo en non ser vexetariano é errónea.

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4. Catukka Nipāta

Ioga Sutta (AN 4.10) - tradución mellorada
    
O que o Buda significa cando fala sobre ioga e yogakkhema (resto do xugo).
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13) - palabra por palabra
    
Neste sutta, o Buda dá unha definición das sammappadhānas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 4.37) - tradución mellorada
    
Catro simples prácticas que fan incapaces de caer, xusto na presenza de Nibbāna.

Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 4.37) - tradución mellorada
    
Catro simples prácticas que fan incapaces de caer, xusto na presenza de Nibbāna.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41) - palabra por palabra
    
Os catro tipos de concentración que o Buda encomia. É bastante evidente aquí que non hai distinción clara entre samādhi e paññā.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49) - palabra por palabra
    
Neste sutta, o Buda describe a catro distorsións de saññā, citta e diṭṭhi.
Appamāda Sutta (AN 4.116) - tradución simple
    
Catro instancias nas que se debe practicar con assiduidade.
Ārakkha Sutta (AN 4.117) - tradución simple
    
Catro cousas que deben emprenderse con asiduidade, atención mentres protexen a mente.
Mettā Sutta (AN 4.125) - tradución mellorada
    
Aquí o Buda explica que tipo de renacemento que practica de maneira
completa os catro Brahmavihāras que pode esperar e a gran vantaxe de ser
o seu discípulo.
Asubha Sutta (AN 4.163) - tradución mellorada
    
As catro formas de practicar, de acordo co tipo de práctica elixido ea
intensidade ou debilidade dos puntos fortes e facturas espirituais.
Abhiññā Sutta (AN 4.254) - sen tradución
    
Como o Camiño Nobre traballa co abhiññā de varios dhammas como hóspede acollendo varios tipos de visitantes.
Araña Sutta (AN 4.262) - tradución mellorada
    
Que tipo de persoa é apto para vivir no deserto?

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5. Pañcaka Nipāta

Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.2) - sen tradución
    
Aquí o Buda define en detalle o que el chama os cinco Sekha-balas (esforzos dun adestrador). Este
sutta é facilmente comprensible sen necesidade dunha tradución
paralela, se fai referencia ás fórmulas Satta saddhammā como se suxerirá
no texto.
O Pali-English Dictionary tamén está dispoñible, por si só.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí defínense os cinco fardos.
Samādhi Sutta (AN 5.27) - tradución mellorada
    
Cinco coñecementos edificantes que se dan a quen practica a concentración ilimitada.
Akusalarāsi Sutta (AN 5.52) - tradución mellorada
    
Falando con razón, o que se debe chamar ‘acumulación de deméritos’?
Abhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhāna Sutta (AN 5.57) {extracto} - palabra por palabra
    
Como considerar o propio kamma.
Anāgatabhaya Sutta (AN 5.80) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda recorda aos monxes que a práctica do Dhamma non debe ser
desactivada para unha data posterior, pois non hai garantías de que o
futuro proporcionará oportunidades para a práctica.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.89) - sen tradución
    
O Buda recórdanos cinco cousas que deterioran a práctica, que para
todos os que desexen avanzar na formación son case tan importantes para
coñecer, recordar e integrar nos nosos estilos de vida como o
coñecemento dos cinco nívaraṇas estándar.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.90) ​​- tradución mellorada
    
Cinco actitudes que conducen ao deterioro da práctica.
Sutadhara Sutta (AN 5.96) - tradución mellorada
    
Cinco calidades son o líder que practica a atención da respiración á liberación en pouco tempo.
Kathā Sutta (AN 5.97) - tradución mellorada
    
Cinco calidades son o líder que practica a atención da respiración á liberación en pouco tempo.
Āraññaka Sutta (AN 5.98) - tradución mellorada
    
Cinco calidades son o líder que practica a atención da respiración á liberación en pouco tempo.
Andhakavinda Sutta (AN 5.114) - tradución mellorada
    
Cinco cousas que o Buda exhortou aos seus monxes recentemente ordenados a facer.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.149) - sen tradución
    
Cinco condicións en que o que gañou “liberación ocasional” retrocederá.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.150) - sen tradución
    
Outro conxunto de cinco condicións baixo as cales o que gañou “liberación ocasional” retrocederá.
Vaṇijjā Sutta (AN 5.177) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda especifica aquí cinco oficios que non deben ser seguidos polos
seus seguidores laicos, entre os que se atopa o negocio da carne.
Gihī Sutta (AN 5.179) - tradución mellorada
    
Neste sutta, o Buda dá maior precisión sobre a forma en que os catro
sotāpattiyaṅgas habituais deben ser internalizados para constituír as
condicións axeitadas para os sotāpatti.
Nissāraṇīya Sutta (AN 5.200) - tradución mellorada
    
Este sutta declina cinco tipos de nissāraṇas.
Yāgu Sutta (AN 5.207) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda dá cinco vantaxes de comer arroz.
Dantakaṭṭha ​​Sutta (AN 5.208) - tradución mellorada
    
O Buda dá cinco razóns para usar un filtro de dentes.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209) - palabra por palabra
    
Este sutta foi en gran parte ignorado polas diversas tradicións
budistas: o Buda explica por que non permite que os bhikkhus realicen
cantos melódicos.
Muṭṭhassati Sutta (AN 5.210) - tradución mellorada
    
As desvantaxes de adormecer sen sati e sampajañña adecuadas, e as respectivas vantaxes de facelo con elas.

Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.245) - tradución mellorada
    
Outro sutta sobre os cinco perigos da duccarita e cinco vantaxes da sucarita.
Sivathika Sutta (AN 5.249) - tradución mellorada
    
Cinco formas nas que unha persoa mal feita pode ser semellante a un charnel onde as persoas lanzan corpos mortos.
Puggalappasāda Sutta (AN 5.250) - tradución mellorada
    
Aquí hai unha rara advertencia dada polo Buda sobre os perigos de poñer confianza en calquera.
Rāgassa abhiññāya Sutta (AN 5.303) - tradución mellorada
    
Cinco cousas para practicar para o coñecemento directo de rāga.

—— oooOooo ——

6. Chakka Nipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta (AN 6.14) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Sāriputta explica o que fai a diferenza entre un bhikkhu cuxa morte será inaceptable e cuxa morte será auspiciosa.
Anutappiya Sutta (AN 6.15) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Sāriputta explica o que fai a diferenza entre un bhikkhu cuxa morte será remordente e aquela cuxa morte será sen remordimiento.
Maraṇassati Sutta (AN 6.20) - tradución mellorada
    
Este sutta explica en detalle como practicar a atención da morte.
Sāmaka Sutta (AN 6.21) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Involucrado pola intervención dun deva, o Buda revela os seis xeitos
sen ánimo polo cal os bhikkhus se deterioran en kusala dhammas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 6.22) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Seis dhammas conectados a non deterioro. Outro conxunto de dhammas moi útiles para practicantes interesados.
Himavanta Sutta (AN 6.24) - tradución mellorada
    
Seis virtudes con que un meditador podería formar parte do Himalaia.
Anussatiṭṭhāna Sutta (AN 6.25) - tradución mellorada
    
Este sutta define cales son os seis temas de recordo.
Sekha Sutta (AN 6.31) - sen tradución
    
O Buda explica cales son os seis dhammas que levan ao deterioro dun bhikkhu baixo adestramento.
Nāgita Sutta (AN 6.42) - tradución mellorada
    
Mentres moraba nun bosque, o Buda fala en loucura de modestia, satisfacción, desacoplamiento e reclusión no deserto.
Dhammika Sutta (AN 6.54) - textos sinxelos
    
Neste sutta, a palabra tathāgata non se usa para designar o Buda senón
no sentido común, o que nos permite unha mellor comprensión do seu
significado.
Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63) - textos sinxelos
    
Este sutta ofrece unha interesante análise sistemática de Kāma, Vedanā, Saññā, Āsavā, Kamma e Dukkha. Cada un destes termos defínese e descríbese despois co patrón das catro ariya-saccas.
Anavatthitā Sutta (AN 6.102) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete recompensas que deberían servir de motivación para establecer a percepción da anicca.
Atammaya Sutta (AN 6.104) - tradución mellorada
    
Seis recompensas que deberían servir de motivación para establecer a percepción do anatta.
Assāda Sutta (AN 6.112) - tradución mellorada
    
Como erradicar a vista do goce, a vista de si mesmo e a vista incorrecta en xeral.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118) - palabra por palabra
    
Vale
a pena repetir a mensaxe dada neste sutta: seis hábitos sen abandonar o
que non é posible practicar as satipaṭṭhānas correctamente.
Aquí pode recomendarse algo de limpeza.

—— oooOooo ——

7. Sattaka Nipāta

Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.11) - textos simples
    
Aquí aparecen os sete anusayas.
Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.12) - tradución mellorada
    
Ao abandonar os sete anusaya (obsesións ou tendencias latentes).
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.27) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete percepcións que levan ao benestar a longo prazo dos bhikkhus e impiden o seu declive.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.28) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete puntos nos que un bhikkhu no adestramento pode diminuír ou non.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.29) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete puntos de comportamento sobre os que un seguidor laico pode diminuír ou non.
Vipatti Sutta (AN 7.30) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete puntos de comportamento sobre os que un seguidor laico pode atopar o seu fracaso ou éxito.
Parābhava Sutta (AN 7.31) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete puntos de comportamento sobre os que un seguidor laico pode atopar a súa ruína ou prosperidade.
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.49) - tradución mellorada
    
Sete reflexións internas que vale a pena seguir.
Nagaropama Sutta (AN 7.67) - textos sinxelos con fórmulas de Pali
    
Aquí o Buda usa un símil esclarecedor para explicar como sete boas
calidades deben ser dominadas polo aprendiz para traballar de forma
exitosa para evitar que as tropas de Māra (ie. Akusala dhammas) penetren
na fortaleza da mente.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83) - palabra por palabra
    
Aquí hai unha breve e concisa instrución para discriminar o que é o Ensino do Buda.

—— oooOooo ——
8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta

Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {extracto} - palabra por palabra
    
O
Buda describe como Nanda, a pesar de ser presa do desexo do sentido
feroz, practica de xeito perspicaz segundo as súas instrucións.
Este sutta contén unha definición de satisampajañña.

Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) (extracto) - palabra por palabra
    
Mahānāma pide ao Buda que defina o que é seguidor laico e que se espera que un seguidor laico sexa virtuoso.
Anuruddhamahāvitakka Sutta (AN 8.30) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Sete pensamentos sabios que son verdadeiramente dignos de entender e lembrar ocorren a ven. Anuruddha. O Buda vénlle para ensinarlle o oitavo, dotado de que conseguirá arahanship. O Buda explica en detalle o significado deses pensamentos.
Abhisanda Sutta (AN 8.39) - tradución mellorada
    
Aquí hai oito xeitos en que todos os discípulos graves do Buda crean moito mérito por si mesmos.
Duccaritavipāka Sutta (AN 8.40) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Este sutta describe o tipo de sufrimento que se sofre debido ao non cumprimento dos preceptos principais.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53) - palabra por palabra
    
O Buda dá aquí á súa ex enfermeira oito criterios para discriminar se
unha declaración dada pertence ao seu ensino ou non, o que pode ser útil
hoxe en día.
Dīghajāṇu Sutta (AN 8.54) (extracto) - textos simples
    
Entre outras cousas, o Buda define neste sutta o que significa por xenerosidade.
Vimokkha Sutta (AN 8.66) - tradución mellorada
    
Unha explicación dos oito vimokkhas (liberacións).
Parihāna Sutta (AN 8.79) - sen tradución
    
O Buda explica cales son os oito dhammas que levan ao deterioro dun bhikkhu baixo adestramento.

—— oooOooo ——

9. Navaka Nipāta

Nāga Sutta (AN 9.40) - textos sinxelos
    
Este sutta, coloreado con humor sutil, explica como un bhikkhu de
mente reforzada é comparable a un elefante solitario, ambos os cales son
chamados normalmente Nāga.
Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41) {extracto} - textos simples
    
Aquí saññā · vedayita · nirodha, o cese de saññā e vedanā preséntase como novena jhāna.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63) - palabra por palabra
    
Que facer se aínda non é perfecto nos cinco preceptos.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64) - palabra por palabra
    
Como eliminar os cinco obstáculos.

—— oooOooo ——

10. Dasaka Nipāta

Saṃyojana Sutta (AN 10.13) - textos simples
    
Este sutta moi curto enumera os dez saṃyojanas.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25) - palabra por palabra
    
Esta é a descrición estándar da práctica sobre os dez kasiṇas.
Girimānanda Sutta (AN 10.60) - tradución mellorada
    
Para axudar a Girimānanda a recuperarse dunha grave enfermidade, o
Buda dá un gran ensino revisando dez tipos de percepcións moi útiles que
se poden desenvolver.
Kathāvatthu Sutta (AN 10.69) (extracto) - textos simples
    
O Buda recorda aos bhikkhus que non debían falar e que deberían falar.
Cunda Sutta (AN 10.176) - algunhas informacións · burbullas
    
O buda explica un significado máis profundo da pureza, en kāya, vācā e
maná, non en ritos ou rituais e demostra que o anterior subxace a este
último, cuxa ineficiencia faise obvia.

—— oooOooo ——

11. Ekādasaka Nipāta

30/03/2555
Mettā Sutta (AN 11.15) - poucas información · burbullas
    
Once excelentes resultados que saen da práctica de mettā.

—— oooOooo ——

https://www.thenewsminute.com/…/karnataka-govt-gives-minori…

Karnataka govt gives minority status to Lingayats and Veerashaivas who follow Basava Tatva
The Akhila Bharata Veerashaiva Mahasabha has rejected the government’s
decision and called it a “move to divide the Veerashaiva-Lingayat
community”.

Theja Ram

Friday, March 23, 2018 - 20:11

The Karnataka government, on Thursday, granted minority status to Lingayats and Veerashaivas who believe in Basava Tatva.


According to a notification issued by the Department of Minority
Development Haj and Waqf, dated March 22, 2018, minority status has been
granted to the community.

“According to the Karnataka State
Minorities Commission Act 1994, Section 10, the state government has the
right to grant minority status to communities Hence Lingayats and the
Veerashaivas, who believe in Basava Tatva – Veerashaiva Lingayats have
been granted minority status,” the notification reads.

Speaking
to TNM, retired IAS officer, SN Jamdaar, who spearheaded the movement
for a separate minority religion status for Lingayats said that the
community welcomes the government’s move.

“Yes, the state
government has the power to grant minority status. Even the Supreme
Court Judgement in Bal Patil v/s Union of India in 2005 had stated that
the power rests with the state government,” he added.

Meanwhile,
the Akhila Bharata Veerashaiva Mahasabha has rejected the government’s
decision and called it a “move to divide the Veerashaiva-Lingayat
community”.

“If you are really interested in the community say
Veerashaiva and Lingayat is one and the same. Other than this, the govt
is saying everything else. Don’t create differences between person to
person and within the community,” the Mahasabha’s statement issued on
Friday said.

On Monday, the state cabinet approved Justice
Nagamohan Das Committee’s recommendation to grant Lingayats and
Veerashaivas who follow Basava Tatva a separate minority religion
status.

Lingayats, a distinct Shaivate religious tradition, are
followers of the 12th century poet-philosopher-social reformer
Basaveshwara who rebelled against established Hindu tradition by defying
the caste system and vedic rituals.

In their bid for a separate
religion status, the Lingayats wanted to dissociate themselves from
Veerashaivas, also a Shaivate religious tradition, whose followers
adhere to the Vedas.

“We have been asking for the Veerashaiva
faction to produce historical documents to back their claims but neither
did they do it when we were discussing a joint proposal, nor are they
doing it now” Jamdaar claimed.

The movement for a separate
religion tag, which was started as far back as 1942, was resurrected in
2017 after Chief Minister Siddaramaiah’s promise to look into the demand
for a separate religion status for Lingayats and Veerashaivas.


In December 2017, a seven-member expert committee was formed to study
five separate demands, three of which were for a separate minority
religion status for Lingayats. One representation stated that the
Lingayat community members are Hindus and another demanding minority
religion tag for the Veerashaiva-Lingayat sect.


Peace Is Doable


The
Karnataka government, on Thursday, granted minority status to Lingayats
and Veerashaivas who believe in Basava Tatva. According to a
notification issued by…
thenewsminute.com

http://www.zdnet.com/…/another-data-leak-hits-india-aadhaa…/
A data leak on a system run by a state-owned utility company can
***allow anyone to download private information on ***all*** Aadhaar
holders, exposing their names, their unique 12-digit identity numbers,
and information about services they are connected to, such as their bank
details and other private information*** [emphasis added].
Karan
Saini, a New Delhi-based security researcher who found the vulnerable
endpoint, said that anyone with an Aadhaar number is affected.

***Yet the Indian authorities have done nothing to fix the flaw. ZDNet
spent more than a month trying to contact the Indian authorities, but
nobody responded to our repeated emails.*** [Emphasis added.]》

Yet this insanely absurd boast: ‘It will take longer than the age of the
universe for fastest computer to decode Aadhaar data, UIDAI CEO tells
SC (i.e. Supreme Court)’!
(Ref.:<http://www.thehindu.com/…/it-will-take-…/article23323580.ece>.)

And, it had been preceded by an incredible joke: ‘Aadhaar data kept behind 13-ft thick walls: Attorney General to SC’!
(Ref.: <http://www.business-standard.com/…/aadhaar-data-kept-behind…>.)]

http://www.zdnet.com/…/another-data-leak-hits-india-aadhaa…/

A new data leak hits Aadhaar, India’s national ID database
Exclusive: The data leak affects potentially every Indian citizen subscribed to the database.

Zack Whittaker
By Zack Whittaker for Zero Day | March 23, 2018 — 20:00 GMT (01:30 IST) | Topic: Mobility

0

Another data leak hits India’s national identity database, Aadhaar. (Image: file photo)

India’s national ID database has been hit by yet another major security lapse.

Known as Aadhaar, the government ID database is packed with identity
and biometric information — like fingerprints and iris scans — on more
than 1.1 billion registered Indian citizens, official figures show.
Anyone in the database can use their data — or their thumbprint — to
open a bank account, buy a cellular SIM card, enroll in utilities, and
even receive state aid or financial assistance. Even companies, like
Amazon and Uber, can tap into the Aadhaar database to identify their
customers.

MORE SECURITY NEWS
Netflix asks you to start hacking, bug bounty program is now public
Dropbox updates its vulnerability disclosure policy to protect researchers
Mark Zuckerberg outlines Facebook’s response to Cambridge Analytica controversy
Securing Facebook: Keep your data safe with these privacy settings
Enrolling in the database isn’t mandatory, but Indian citizens who
aren’t subscribed are unable to access even basic government services.
Other countries are set to follow India’s lead.

But the system
has been dogged with security problems — including, according to
India’s Tribune, a data breach. India’s ruling Bharatiya Janata
political party later called the report “fake news.”

Now, the database is leaking information on every Aadhaar holder, a security researcher has told ZDNet.

A data leak on a system run by a state-owned utility company can allow
anyone to download private information on all Aadhaar holders, exposing
their names, their unique 12-digit identity numbers, and information
about services they are connected to, such as their bank details and
other private information.

Karan Saini, a New Delhi-based
security researcher who found the vulnerable endpoint, said that anyone
with an Aadhaar number is affected.

Yet the Indian authorities
have done nothing to fix the flaw. ZDNet spent more than a month trying
to contact the Indian authorities, but nobody responded to our repeated
emails.

We later contacted the Indian Consulate in New York and
alerted Devi Prasad Misra, consul for trade and customs. Over two weeks,
this issue was explained in detail, and we responded to many follow-up
questions. A week passed, and the vulnerability was still not fixed. At
the start of this week, we told the consul that we would publish our
story on Friday and requested comment from the Indian government.

The consul did not respond to that last email. At the time of
publishing, the affected system is still online and vulnerable. For that
reason, we’re withholding specific details about the vulnerability
until it’s fixed. (Once it has been fixed, we will update the story with
additional details.)

The utility provider, which we are not
naming, has access to the Aadhaar database through an API, which the
company relies on to check a customer’s status and verify their
identity.

But because the company hasn’t secured the API, it’s
possible to retrieve private data on each Aadhaar holder, regardless of
whether they’re a customer of the utility provider or not.

The
API’s endpoint — a URL that we are not publishing — has no access
controls in place, said Saini. The affected endpoint uses a hardcoded
access token, which, when decoded, translates to
“INDAADHAARSECURESTATUS,” allowing anyone to query Aadhaar numbers
against the database without any additional authentication.

Saini
also found that the API doesn’t have any rate limiting in place,
allowing an attacker to cycle through every permutation — potentially
trillions — of Aadhaar numbers and obtain information each time a
successful result is hit.

He explained that it would be possible
to enumerate Aadhaar numbers by cycling through combinations, such as
1234 5678 0000 to 1234 5678 9999.

“An attacker is bound to find
some valid Aadhaar numbers there which could then be used to find their
corresponding details,” he said. And because there is no rate limiting,
Saini said he could send thousands of requests each minute — just from
one computer.

When Saini ran a handful of Aadhaar numbers (from
friends who gave him permission) through the endpoint, the server’s
response included the Aadhaar holder’s full name and their consumer
number — a unique customer number used by that utility provider. The
response also reveals information on connected bank accounts, said
Saini. Screenshots seen by ZDNet reveal details about which bank that
person uses — though, no other banking information was returned.

That seems to contradict a tweet by India’s Unique Identification
Authority (UIDAI), the government department that administers the
Aadhaar database, which said: “Aadhaar database does not keep any
information about bank accounts.”

Another tweet on the same day
by Ravi Shankar Prasad, India’s minister for electronics and information
technology, also said: “Aadhaar does not save the details of your bank
account.”

The endpoint doesn’t just pull data on the utility
provider’s customers; the API allows access to Aadhaar holders’
information who have connections with other utility companies, as well.

“From the requests that were sent to check for a rate limiting issue
and determine the possibility of stumbling across valid Aadhaar numbers,
I have found that this information is not retrieved from a static
database or a one-off data grab, but is clearly being updated — from as
early as 2014 to mid 2017,” he told ZDNet. “I cannot speculate whether
it is UIDAI that is providing this information to [the utility
provider], or if the banks or gas companies are, but it seems that
everyone’s information is available, with no authentication — no rate
limit, nothing.”

That data on the face of it may not be seen as
sensitive as leaked or exposed biometric data, but it nevertheless
contradicts the Indian government’s claims that the database is secure.

India’s former attorney general Mukul Rohtagi once said that a previous leak of Aadhaar numbers is “much ado about nothing.”

But access to Aadhaar numbers and corresponding names increases the risk of identity theft, or could lead to impersonation.

It’s long been believed that identity theft is one of the biggest
issues faced by both UIDAI and Aadhaar number holders. It’s been
reported that linking Aadhaar numbers to SIM cards has led to stolen
money and fraud.

The controversy surrounding the Aadhaar database
has been ongoing. A month ahead of the Indian election in 2014,
would-be prime minister Narendra Modi called the database’s security
into question.

“On Aadhaar, neither the team that I met nor PM
could answer my [questions] on security threat it can pose. There is no
vision, only political gimmick,” said Modi in a tweet.

Now, his
government is currently defending the identity scheme in front of the
country’s Supreme Court.. Critics have called the database
unconstitutional.

Until the court rules on the case, subscribing
to the database won’t be mandatory for Indian citizens. But that might
not be much solace for those whose information has been already
collected.

Contact me securely

Zack Whittaker can be
reached securely on Signal and WhatsApp at 646-755–8849, and his PGP
fingerprint for email is: 4D0E 92F2 E36A EC51 DAAE 5D97 CB8C 15FA EB6C
EEA5.


Peace Is Doable


Exclusive: The data leak affects potentially every Indian citizen subscribed to the database.
zdnet.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oa7SfpkhKrs
What a big deal!

How about Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) referring to “Mrs
Sirisena” as “M R S Sirisena” (ref.: ‘Foolish Modi Calling Lankan
President’s Wife Mrs:Sirisena as M R S Sirisena : <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oa7SfpkhKrs>),
that too while reading out from a teleprompter, or claiming that
climate change is a mere illusion (ref.: ‘Climate change remarks by MOST
FOOLISH Modi’

Foolish Modi calling Mrs Sirisena as M R S Sirisena
youtube.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yAdfHGAJPh4in (a rather rare unrehearsed) response to a school girl?


youtube.com

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-43526413
The protests - under the banner March For Our Lives - have grown out of
a movement calling for change after 17 people were killed by a gunman
at a high school in Florida last month.

It is high time that the
99.9% Sarvajan Samaj grow out a movement against the fraud EVMs which
has negated the Universal Adult Franchise by gobbling the Master Key by
the Murderers of democratic institutions (Modi) of BJP (Brashtachar
Jiyadha Psychopaths for the stealth, shadowy, discriminatory hindutvas
cult of just 0.1% intorelant, cunning,crooked, number one terrorists of
the world violent, militant, ever shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded chitpavan brahmins of RSSb (Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks)

Half a million people are expected to descend on the biggest march in Washington DC.

More than 800 sister protests are planned nationwide and abroad.

Solidarity marches have taken place in London, Edinburgh, Geneva,
Sydney and Tokyo.]March For Our Lives: Huge gun-control rallies sweep US

21 minutes ago

Related TopicsFlorida school shooting

Media captionAmericans gather in Washington DC for its gun control rally
Mass student-led protests calling for tighter gun control are under way across the United States.

The protests - under the banner March For Our Lives - have grown out of
a movement calling for change after 17 people were killed by a gunman
at a high school in Florida last month.

Half a million people are expected to descend on the biggest march in Washington DC.

More than 800 sister protests are planned nationwide and abroad.

Solidarity marches have taken place in London, Edinburgh, Geneva, Sydney and Tokyo.

March For Our Lives: Live updates
In pictures: Marches across the US and worldwide

Participants want to seize on public outrage in the wake of the 14
February massacre at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland to
convince US politicians to finally take decisive action, including by
banning the sale of assault weapons.

However, the issue divides
Americans. The right to bear arms is protected under the 2nd amendment
of the US constitution and the National Rifle Association (NRA) gun
lobby remains highly influential.

The teenagers taking on the US gun lobby
Why I’m marching on Washington
America’s gun culture in 10 charts
President Donald Trump is at his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida for the weekend.

On Saturday afternoon, the White House released a statement praising
the “many courageous young Americans exercising their First Amendment
rights today”.

It also cited steps it is taking to tackle gun
violence, including banning bump stocks, plus enacting the STOP School
Violence Act, which seeks to improve school security and increase
training for students, staff and local law enforcement.

There are also plans to improve criminal background records so gun buyers are properly vetted before making a purchase.

Image copyrightEPA
Image caption
Students gather on Washington’s Pennsylvania Avenue ahead of the march

Organisers say up to half a million people could rally in Washington
DC, which would make it the largest protest since last year’s women’s
march.

Singers Ariana Grande, Miley Cyrus and Lin-Manuel Miranda,
the man behind hit musical Hamilton, have performed on a stage erected
in front of the US Capitol building.

The music has been
interspersed with impassioned youth leaders calling for change,
including 17-year-old Edna Chavez, whose brother was shot and killed in a
south Los Angeles neighbourhood where, she said, it was normal to see
flowers and tributes on the streets.

“We will continue to fight for our dead friends,” said speaker Delaney Tarr, a Parkland student.

Some speeches came from children who are just 11 years old, including
Naomi Wadler, from Virginia, who spoke “to represent African-American
girls whose stories don’t make the front page of every national
newspaper”.

The BBC’s Jon Sopel in Washington says the protesters
there have strung out lines of photographs of students and teachers
killed in school shootings.

Skip Twitter post by @BBCJonSopel

View image on Twitter

Jon Sopel


@BBCJonSopel
As far as the eye can see photos of young people and teachers killed in school shootings #MarchForOurLives

9:28 PM - Mar 24, 2018
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End of Twitter post by @BBCJonSopel
A demonstration has also been held in Parkland, with relatives of the victims speaking to crowds.

Image copyrightEPA
Image caption
No guns are allowed on the march route in Washington DC

‘My lost soulmate’
By Marianna Brady, BBC News, Washington

The crowds started to gather in the early hours of the morning outside
the US Capitol. Chants for “no more NRA” and “no more guns” erupt every
few minutes at random.

“He was my soulmate,” said Victoria Gonzalez, looking down at a sign of her boyfriend Joaquin Oliver..

Valentine’s Day - 14 February - started off as a great day for
Victoria. “Joaquin and I exchanged gifts in the morning and he walked me
to class. I was so happy.”

Later that day, she would learn that Joaquin was one of 17 people shot and killed at Marjory Stoneman Douglas school.

“It wasn’t real. It’s taken a while for it to sink in. I’m here today
so no one ever has to face this again,” she said, standing in a crowd of
several thousand ahead of the march.

“It gives me a lot of hope
seeing how many people are out here supporting us. It feels like the
whole entire world is on our side,” Victoria said.

What do young conservatives think?
At a rally in Houston, Texas, Mayor Sylvester Turner called the events a
defining moment in US history and announced a commission to tackle gun
violence on a local level.

Skip Twitter post by @SylvesterTurner
View image on Twitter
View image on Twitter

Sylvester Turner


@SylvesterTurner
“This is a defining moment for our City , our state and our nation. You are making a difference.” #MarchForOurLives

8:07 PM - Mar 24, 2018
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Families of the victims of the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane,
Scotland, also joined a solidarity demonstration outside the US
consulate in Edinburgh.

In London, several hundred people
gathered outside the new US embassy in Vauxhall, carrying placards
addressed to US politicians and the NRA, saying “protect kids not guns”
and “books not bullets”. The crowd was a mix of US immigrants and
allies.

Some 69% of Americans think gun laws should be tightened,
according to a new poll by the Associated Press and the NORC Center for
Public Affairs Research, up from 61% in October 2016.

What’s happened since Parkland?
After pressure from students, Florida passed a gun control law that
raises the legal age for buying rifles in the state but also allows the
arming of school staff. The NRA sued the state, saying the law was
unconstitutional
In February, President Trump urged lawmakers to
work on bipartisan legislation, accusing them of being “petrified” of
the NRA. He supported raising the minimum age for gun purchases but
later appeared to back away from that proposal. The White House says he
wants to focus on measures that can get through Congress, like improved
background checks. He has also backed arming some teachers
Several major companies cut ties with the NRA amid a #BoycottNRA campaign, while chains like Walmart and Dick’s Sporting Goods announced new restrictions on gun sales
Earlier this month, students and school staff commemorated the Florida school shooting with a mass walkout

Media captionMarjory Stoneman Douglas students “excited and nervous” for Washington rally
Related Topics

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-43526413


Peace Is Doable


Student-led March For Our Lives events nationwide draw hundreds of thousands of protesters.
bbc.com

http://stopgangstalkingpolice.com/dictatorshipformasses.html

Ask: How Will My Rights Be Protected In A National Emergency?


Americans
are being put under surveillance or harassed by police in at least 36
states, said the ACLU. I have personally been GANG STALKED by police in
Oceanside, CA and Carlsbad, CA for four years. Tell the Oceanside and
Carlsbad, CA Police Departments participating in GOVERNMENT GANG
STALKING that…
stopgangstalkingpolice.com

https://scroll.in/article/873124/at-ankit-saxenas-birthday-prayer-meet-a-glimpse-of-india-as-it-should-be

http://www.danielpipes.org/comments/96475
Reality of Bajrang Dal , VHP , BJP ??

Better check the reality and your eyes will open ! VHP , Bajrang Dal ,
RSS fully support BJP . and all top three Muslim leaders of BJP have
Hindu ladies as wives……

Sikander Bakht

Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi

Shahnawaz Hussain

All three of them trapped Hindu Girls and married them and converted to
Islam. and same is the condition of Indian Film Industry “Bollywood” .
Every Khan Actor has links with Jehadis and Dawood Mafia Syndicate and
all of them have married to Hindu Girl and converted to Islam…….

Shahrukh Khan —–wife Gauri

Nawab Ali Khan Pataudi —Sharmila Tagore

Arbaaz Khan —Malaika Arora

Saif Ali Khan —–Amrita Singh

Amir Khan –First wife Reena and Second wife — Kiran Rao

Santoor Maestro Amjad Ali Khan’s wife is also Hindu

India’s most wanted Anchor Mohamad Suhaib ilyasi married to a Hindu
Girl Anju Singh , converted her to Islam , took all her property and
murdered her……..He was arrested and was in Jail but now released
becasue his father Mohamad ilyasi is president of All India Islamic Imam
Organisation.

Former Indian Cricket Captian : Mohamad Azharudeen wife is also Hindu Sangeeta Bijlaani..

and there are thousands of examples…….of Top and Educated Muslims also married Hindu Girls and converted to Islam………

Check the family members of L.K.Advani and Bal Thakrey …….near
relative girls of their family also eloped with muslims and later
converted to Islam………Top people in RSS know it . But they have no
guts to speak against this exploitation.

Go to Assam and check
that illegal bangladeshi muslim infiltrators have forcefully married
thousands of innocent assamese hindu girls from villages and converted
to Islam and now they are forced to give douzens to children to use
their wombs as weapons to destroy Democratic India by Demographic
Warfare…..

I wonder where is your Bajrang Dal , VHP ., Shiv
Sena , RSS , BJP and all other so called Pseudo Patriotic , Pseudo
Nationalist , Pseudo Hindutva organisations ??

This is true and face it………….


Reality of Bajrang Dal , VHP , BJP ?? :: Reader comments at Daniel Pipes
danielpipes.org

comments (0)
03/08/18
2554 Thu 8 Mar 2018 LESSON Buddha Vacana in 15 Classical Chichewa-Chichewa cha Chikale and Buddha
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 1:15 am

2554 Thu 8 Mar 2018 LESSON

 Buddha Vacana

in 15 Classical Chichewa-Chichewa cha Chikale

 15 Classical Chichewa
15 Chichewa cha Chikale

2554 Thu 8 Mar 2018 PHUNZIRO

 Buddha Vacana
- Mawu a Buddha -
Phunzirani Pali pa Intaneti kwaulere ndi njira yophweka.

Webusaitiyi
ikuperekedwa kwa iwo omwe akufuna kuti amvetse bwino mawu a Buddha
pophunzira zofunikira za chinenero cha Pali, koma omwe alibe nthawi
yochuluka.
Lingaliro
ndiloti ngati cholinga chawo chiri chabe kuti athandizidwe kuwerenga
malemba a Pali ndi kukhala ndi malingaliro okwanira a kumvetsetsa iwo,
ngakhale kuti kumvetsetsa kumeneku sikukutanthauza ndondomeko yonse ya
miniti ya malamulo a grammatic, iwo sakusowa kuti azigwiritsa ntchito
zambiri
nthawi yomwe ikulimbana ndi kuphunzira kokhumudwitsa kwa chiphunzitso
chovuta chachilankhulo chomwe chimakhudza zinthu monga kuzunzika
kwambiri ndi kugwirizana.

Zikatero,
ndizokwanira kuti azindikire tanthauzo la mawu ofunika kwambiri a Pali,
chifukwa chakuti kuwerenga mobwerezabwereza kumapereka chidziwitso
chodziwika bwino komanso chodziwika bwino pamagulu ambiri a chiganizo.
Zomwe zimathandiza kuti akhale autodidact, kusankha nthawi, nthawi,
mafupipafupi, zomwe zili mkati ndi kuya kwa kuphunzira kwawo.

Kumvetsetsa
kwawo kwa Buddha Vacana kudzakhala kosavuta kwambiri pamene amaphunzira
mosavuta ndi kuloweza mawu ndi zofunikira zomwe zili zofunika kwambiri
kuphunzitsa kwa Buddha, mwa kuŵerenga nthawi zonse.
Kuphunzira kwawo ndi kudzoza komwe amapeza kuchokera kwa iwo zidzakula
kwambiri pamene kulandiridwa kwawo ku mauthenga a Mphunzitsi
kudzasintha.

Zosasamala: Webusaiti iyi imapangidwa ndi autodidact ndipo imapangidwira ma autodidact. Wolemba
webusaiti sanatsatire njira iliyonse yapamwamba ya Pali ndipo palibe
chidziwitso kuti zonse zomwe zafotokozedwa apa ndizopanda zolakwika.
Anthu omwe akufuna kuphunzira mwaluso angaganize kuti alowe m’kalasi yamalamulo. Ngati owerenga azindikira zolakwa zilizonse, wolemba webusaitiyo
ayamika ngati atayankhula kudzera m’bokosi la makalata lotchulidwa kuti
‘Wothandizira’.

En Français:

Fufuzani pa webusaitiyi

Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya

DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
- Mafunso a Poṭṭhapāda -

Poṭṭhapāda akufunsa mafunso osiyanasiyana kuti agwirizane ndi chikhalidwe cha Saññā.
Zindikirani: malemba omveka

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/suttapitaka.html

 Sutta Piṭaka
- Dengu la nkhani -
[sutta: kukamba]

Sutta Piṭaka ili ndi chidziwitso cha chiphunzitso cha Buddha chokhudza Dhamma. Lili ndi suttas zikwi khumi. Igawanika m’magulu asanu omwe amatchedwa Nikāyas.

Dīgha Nikāya
    
[dīgha: long] The Dīgha Nikāya amasonkhanitsa nkhani zokwana 34 zokhala zopambana kwambiri zoperekedwa ndi Buddha. Pali malingaliro osiyanasiyana omwe ambiri mwa iwo ali mochedwa
kuwonjezera ku chiyambi choyambirira ndi chodziwika chokayikitsa.
Majjhima Nikāya
    
[majjhima: apakati] Majjhima Nikāya amasonkhanitsa nkhani 152 za
​​Buddha za kutalika pakati, zokhudzana ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana.
Saṃyutta Nikāya
    
[samyutta: gulu] Saṃyutta Nikāya amasonkhanitsa suttas molingana ndi phunziro lawo m’magulu asanu ndi awiri otchedwa saṃyuttas. Lili ndi zokamba zoposa zikwi zitatu za kutalika kwautali, koma kawirikawiri ndizochepa.
Aṅguttara Nikāya
    
[alembag: factor | Uttara:
Zoonjezerapo] Aṅguttara Nikāya amagawidwa m’magulu khumi ndi anayi omwe
amatchedwa nipātas, aliyense mwa iwo akukamba nkhani zokhala ndi
zilembo za chinthu chimodzi chophatikizapo cha chikhalidwe choyambirira.
Lili ndi zikwi za suttas zomwe nthawi zambiri zimakhala zochepa.
Khuddaka Nikāya
    
[khuddha:
yochepa, yochepa] The Khuddhaka Nikāya malemba achidule ndipo akuwoneka
kuti ali ndi zilembo ziwiri: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta
Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā ndi Jātaka amapanga kalembedwe, pamene
mabuku ena ali mochedwa komanso kuwonjezera
ndizokayikitsa kwambiri.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/formulae.html

Pali Ma form

Maganizo
omwe ntchitoyi imachokera ndikuti ndime za suttas zomwe zimadziwika
kuti ndizobwezeredwa ndi Buddha mu Nikasi zonse zinayi zingatengedwe
monga zosonyeza zomwe akuganiza kuti ndizofunikira kwambiri kuphunzitsa
kwake
, komanso panthawi imodzimodzi ndi zomwe zikuyimira molondola mawu ake enieni. Eight mwa iwo akufotokozedwa mu Gaṇaka-Moggallāna Sutta (MN 107) ndipo
amafotokozedwa ngati Sekha Paṭipadā kapena Njira kwa wina pansi pa
Maphunziro, omwe amatsogolera neophyte mpaka ku jhāna yachinayi.

Sekha Paṭipadā - Njira ya munthu wophunzitsidwa

Njira khumi ndi ziwiri zomwe zimatanthawuza pang’onopang’ono miyambo yayikulu yomwe Buddha adayankha. Ndizofunika kwambiri kwa aliyense amene akufuna kuti apite patsogolo,
chifukwa ali ndi malangizo omwe angathandize woganizira kuti akonze
zofunikira kuti achite bwino.

Kufikira mosavuta:

Dīgha Nikāya

Majjhima Nikāya

Saṃyutta Nikāya

Aṅguttara Nikāya

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Dīgha Nikāya

- Nkhani zokwanira -
[dīgha: yaitali]

Dīgha Nikāya amasonkhanitsa nkhani zokwana 34 zomwe zimatchulidwa kwambiri ndi Buddha.

Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (DN 9) {excerpt} - kumasuliridwa
    
Poṭṭhapāda akufunsa mafunso osiyanasiyana kuti agwirizane ndi chikhalidwe cha Saññā.
Mahāpa
Ānāpānassati - Kuzindikira za Mphuno
    
Chizolowezi cha ānāpānassati chilimbikitsidwa kwambiri ndi Buddha
chifukwa cha mitundu yonse ya zolinga zabwino ndipo apa mukhoza kumvetsa
bwino lomwe malangizo omwe amapereka.
Anussati - The Recollections
    
Pano tili ndi ndondomeko ya Buddha (≈140 occ.), Dhamma (≈90 occ.) Ndi Sangha (≈45 occ.).
Appamāṇā Cetovimutti - Ufulu wopanda malire wa malingaliro
    
Buddha nthawi zambiri amatamanda mchitidwe wa four appamāṇā
cetovimutti, omwe amadziwika kuti amabweretsa chitetezo ku zoopsa
komanso kukhala njira yotsogolera Brahmaloka.
Arahatta - Arahantship
    
Izi ndizomwe amagwiritsa ntchito polemba arahantship akufotokozedwa mu suttas.
Ariya Sīlakkhandha - Makhalidwe abwino kwambiri
    
Malamulo osiyanasiyana omwe amatsatira ndi bhikkhus.
Arūpajjhānā - The Jahnas zopanda pake
    
Pano pali malemba omwe akufotokozera zozizwitsa za samādhi kupyola
lachinai ya jhāna, zomwe zikutchulidwa kumapeto kwa Pali zilembo monga
arūpajjhānas.
Āsavānaṃ Khayañāṇa - Kudziwa za chiwonongeko cha maassa
    
Kudziwa za chiwonongeko cha āsavas: arahantship.
Bhojane Mattaññāā - Momwemo mu chakudya
    
Kulimbitsa thupi pa chakudya: Kudziwa zakudya zoyenera kudya.
Cattāro Jhānā - Zina zinayi
    
Jahāas anayi: kukhala ndi nthawi yokondweretsa.
Indriyesu Guttadvāratā - Kuyang’anitsitsa pakhomo la mphamvu zamaganizo
    
Pewani pakhomo la mphamvu zamaganizo: kudziletsa.
Jāgariyaṃ Anuyoga - Kudzipereka kuti ukhale wogalamuka
    
Kudzipatulira kuti akhale maso: usana ndi usiku.
Kammassakomhi - Ndine kamma yanga
    
Njirayi ikufotokozera mwala umodzi wa maziko a chiphunzitso cha Buddha: lamulo lovomerezeka la lamulo ndi zotsatira.
Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna - Kuchotsedwa kwa zoletsedwa
    
Kuchotsa zotsutsana: kuthana ndi kusokoneza maganizo.
Pabbajjā - Kutuluka
    
Kutuluka: momwe wina akukonzera kusiya dziko.
Pubbevāsānussatiñāṇa - Kudziwa kukumbukira malo akale okhalamo
    
Kudziwa kukumbukira za malo akale okhalamo: kukumbukira moyo wakale.
Satipaṭṭhāna - Kukhalapo kwa Kuzindikira
    
Izi ndizimene Buddha amalembera mwachidule zomwe anayi satipaṭṭhānas ali (≈33 occ.).
Satisampajañña - Kumvetsetsa ndi kumvetsetsa bwino
    
Kumvetsetsa ndi kumvetsetsa bwino: chizoloŵezi chosasokonezeka.
Satta saddhammā - Makhalidwe asanu ndi awiri abwino
    
Makhalidwe asanu ndi awiri ofunikira omwe ayenera kukhala oyenerera ndi wophunzira kuti apambane. Zina mwa makhalidwe amenewa zikuwonekera pazinthu zisanu za uzimu ndi mabhala asanu.
Sattānaṃ Cutūpapātañāṇa - Kudziwa za kubadwanso kwa anthu osadetsedwa
    
Kudziwa za kubadwanso kwatsopano kwa anthu.
Sīlasampatti - Kukwaniritsa bwino
    
Kuchita bwino: kusunga mosamala malamulo a Pātimokkha.
Vivitta Senāsanena Bhajana - Kufikira kumalo osungirako
Kusankha malo oyenera ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa thupi ndi maganizo abwino ndi zina zomwe sizinayende bwino.


http://www.buddha-vacana.org/patimokkha.html

Pātimokkha
- Mfundo za Bhikkhu -

Awa ndiwo malangizo 227 omwe bhikkhu aliyense ayenera kuphunzira mwa mtima m’chinenero cha Pali kuti athe kuwayitanitsa. Pano, kusanthula kwa chiwonetsero cha chitsogozo chilichonse chidzaperekedwa.

Pārājika 1
    
Ngati bhikkhu aliyense ayenera kutenga nawo mbali pa maphunziro
ndi moyo wa bhikkhus, osasiya kuphunzitsidwa, popanda kunena zofooka
zake - amachita chiwerewere, ngakhale ndi nyama yaakazi, akugonjetsedwa
ndipo sakugwirizananso.
    
Pātimokkha

Pārājika 1

yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā · s · ājīva · samāpanno sikkhaṃ a ·
paccakkhāya du · b · balyaṃ an · āvi · katvā maṃṃ maṃṃ mazya antamaso
tachacchnana · gatāya · pi, pārājiko hoti a · saṃvāso.

Ngati bhikkhu aliyense ayenera kutenga nawo mbali pa maphunziro ndi
moyo wa bhikkhus, osasiya kuphunzitsidwa, popanda kunena zofooka zake -
amachita chiwerewere, ngakhale ndi nyama yaakazi, akugonjetsedwa ndipo
sakugwirizananso.

yo pana bhikkhu
bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā · s · ājīva · samāpanno omwe akugwira nawo maphunziro ndi moyo wa bhikkhus,
sikkhaṃ a · paccakkhāya popanda kusiya chiphunzitso,
du · b · balbaṃ an · āvi · katvā popanda kunena kuti akufooka
methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya akugonana,
antamaso tiracchāna · gatāya · pi, ngakhale ndi nyama yazimayi,
pārājiko hoti a · saṃvāso. iye akugonjetsedwa ndipo sakugwirizananso.




http://www.buddha-vacana.org/download.html
 
Tsamba lothandizira

Tsitsani Website (Januray 2013):

Dinani apa

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/contact.html
 
Lumikizanani
bvacana@gmail.com
Kwa ndemanga iliyonse, lingaliro, funso:
Musazengereze
kulongosola kulakwitsa kulikonse, kusokonezeka, kusweka kwachitsulo,
chidziwitso chopanda kanthu · bubble ndi zina zomwe mungathe kuzipeza.
Wolemba webusaitiyo ayamika.
http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/samyutta.html


Sutta Piṭaka

Saṃyutta Nikāya

- Zokambirana -
[saṃyutta: gulu]

Nkhani za Saṃyutta Nikāya zigawanika molingana ndi
mutu wawo mu 56 saṃyuttas, omwe ali okhawo asanu
vaggas.

Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 12.2) - mawu ndi mawu
    
Tsatanetsatane wa paṭicca samuppāda, ndi tanthauzo la lirilonse la khumi ndi awiri.
Cetanā Sutta (SN 12.38) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Pano Buddha akufotokoza momwe leanā, pamodzi ndi kulingalira ndi anusaya, zimakhala ngati maziko a viññāṇa.
Upādāna Sutta (SN 12.52) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Izi
    
Ndi phunziro lounikira kwambiri lomwe limasonyeza kuti maganizo ake ndi otani
    
Njira imodzi imapangitsa kuti munthu azilakalaka, ndipo amafotokoza mmene zingakhalire mosavuta
    
m’malo mwa malingaliro abwino kuti muchotse icho.
Puttamaṃsūpama Sutta (SN 12.63) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Buda limapereka zowonjezera zinayi ndi zolimbikitsa zofotokozera momwe ma āhāras anayi ayenera kuwonedwera.
Sanidāna Sutta (SN 14.12) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
A
    
ndondomeko yodabwitsa ya momwe malingaliro amatembenukira kukhala zochita, mopitirira
    
Kuunikiridwa ndi fanizo la nyali yoyaka. Khalani mwakhama
    
kukumbukira kuchotsa malingaliro oipa!
Āṇi Sutta (SN 20.7) - mawu ndi mawu
    
A
    
Chinthu chofunika kwambiri chimatikumbutsa ife ndi Buddha: kwa ife
    
phindu komanso phindu la mibadwo yotsatira, ife
    
ayenera kuzipindulitsa kwambiri m’mawu ake enieni, osati kutero
    
aliyense amene akudziyesa masiku ano kapena akudziyesa kale kuti akhale
    
mphunzitsi woyenera (Dhamma).
Samādhi Sutta (SN 22.5) - mawu ndi mawu
    
The
    
Buddha amalimbikitsa otsatira ake kuti akhale ndi maganizo kuti athe
    
yesetsani kumvetsetsa za kuwuka ndi kutha kwa asanu
    
zizindikiro, kenako amatha kufotokozera zomwe akutanthawuza potulukira ndi kudutsa
    
kutali kwa magulu onse, ponena za chiyambi chodalira.
Paṭisallāṇa Sutta (SN 22.6) - popanda kumasulira
    
The
    
Buddha amalimbikitsa otsatira ake kuti azichita zinthu zodzipatula kuti athe
    
yesetsani kumvetsetsa za kuwuka ndi kutha kwa asanu
    
zizindikiro, kenako amatha kufotokozera zomwe akutanthawuza potulukira ndi kudutsa
    
kutali kwa magulu onse, ponena za chiyambi chodalira.
Upādāparitassanā Sutta (SN 22.8) - mawu ndi mawu
    
Kutuluka ndi kutha kwa kuzunzika kumachitika m’magulu asanu.
Nandikumba Sutta (SN 22.51) - mawu ndi mawu
    
Momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito chiwonongeko cha chisangalalo.
Anattalakkhana Sutta (SN 22.59) - mawu ndi mawu
    
Mu sutta wotchuka kwambiri, Buddha akufotokoza za nthawi yoyamba zomwe amaphunzitsa pazomwe amakhulupirira.
Khajjanīya Sutta (SN 22.79) {excerpt} - mawu ndi mawu
    
Sutta iyi imapereka tanthauzo lomveka la khandhas zisanu.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 29.1) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Mitundu yosiyana ya yagasgas.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 30.1) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya supaṇṇas (aka garudas).
Suddhika Sutta (SN 31.1) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya gandhabba imagwira.
Suddhika Sutta (SN 32.1) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Mtundu wosiyanasiyana wa mtambo umatha.
Samāpattimūlakaṭhiti Sutta (SN 34.11) - kupititsa patsogolo
    
Kufika poyesa ndondomeko ndikusunga maganizo.
Pubbesambodha Sutta (SN 35.13) - mawu ndi mawu
    
The
    
Buddha amamasulira zomwe akutanthauza mwa kukonda, kudziletsa ndi kumasulidwa
    
nkhani ya mkati, ndikufotokoza kuti iye
    
Kuwuka kunalibe kanthu kenakake kuposa kumvetsa iwo.
Abhinanda Sutta (SN 35.20) - mawu ndi mawu
    
Palibe chopulumuka kwa aliyense amene amasangalala ndi zinthu zakuthupi.
Migajāla Sutta (SN 35.46) - yomasuliridwa bwino
    
Chifukwa
    
kodi ndiwekha wokha wovuta kupeza? Buddha akufotokoza chifukwa chake, ziribe kanthu
    
kumene mukupita, mabwenzi anu okhumudwitsa nthawi zonse amalemba.
Avijjāpahāna Sutta (SN 35.53) - mawu ndi mawu
    
Nkhani yosavuta, koma yakuya kwambiri, pa zomwe muyenera kudziwa ndi
kuziwona kuti musiye kusadziwa komanso kubweretsa chidziwitso.
Sabbupādānapariññā Sutta (SN 35.60) - mawu ndi mawu
    
The
    
Buddha, pamene akufotokozera kumvetsetsa kwathunthu kwa zomangirizira zonse,
    
amapereka tsatanetsatane wozama komanso omveka bwino: kukhudzana kumayambira pa maziko
    
za zochitika zitatu.


comments (0)
02/14/18
2532 Wed 14 Feb 2018 LESSON Classical Buddhism (Teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness) belong to the world, and everyone have exclusive rights: is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation https://translate.google.com and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal. Analytic Insight-Net - FREE Online Analytic Insight-Net Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES http://www.tipitaka.org/eot WHAT IS SUTTANTA PIṬAKA? in 94 Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,95 Classical Thai- คนไทยคลาสสิก,96 Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk. 97 Classical Ukrainian 97 класичний український 98 Classical Urdu 98 کلاسیکی اردو 99 Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,100 Classical Vietnamese- cổ điển Việt Nam,101 Classical Welsh-Cymreig Clasurol,102 Classical Xhosa- iClassical Xhosa,
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 7:18 am

 
2532 Wed 14 Feb 2018 LESSON  

Classical Buddhism (Teachings of the
Awakened One with Awareness) belong to the world, and everyone have
exclusive rights:
is the most Positive Energy of informative and
research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One
with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation
and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all
over the world. 

Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation
https://translate.google.com and propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal. 
Analytic Insight-Net - FREE Online Analytic Insight-Net Tipiṭaka Research & Practice
University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in

105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES  

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot 

WHAT IS SUTTANTA
PIṬAKA? 

in 94 Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,95 Classical Thai- คนไทยคลาสสิก,96 Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk.
97 Classical Ukrainian

97 класичний український
98 Classical Urdu

98 کلاسیکی اردو

99 Classical Uzbek-
Klassik o’zbek
,100 Classical Vietnamese- cổ điển Việt Nam,101 Classical Welsh-Cymreig Clasurol,102 Classical Xhosa- iClassical Xhosa,103 Classical Yiddish- קלאַסיש יידיש,
104 Classical Yoruba-
Yoruba Yoruba,





94 Classical Telugu
94 క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

2532 Wed 14 Feb 2018 లెసన్

స్వీట్టా పియాక్కా అంటే ఏమిటి?

సంప్రదాయ బౌద్ధమతం (అవగాహన అవగాహన బోధన) ప్రపంచానికి చెందినది మరియు అందరికీ వ్యక్తిగత హక్కులు ఉన్నాయి:
బౌద్ధ మరియు సాంకేతిక-పాలిటెక్స్ట్ సాంఘిక మార్పు మరియు ఆర్ధిక ఉద్యమాల
అవగాహన ఆధారంగా ప్రపంచవ్యాప్తంగా మిలియన్ల మంది ప్రజలు ప్రకటనల మరియు
పరిశోధనలలో అత్యంత గౌరవప్రదంగా ఉంటారు.


అనువాదానికి అనువాదం Google అనువాదం https://translate.google.com చే
అనువదించబడింది మరియు అంతిమ గమ్యానికి సంతానోత్పత్తి స్ట్రీమ్ ఎంట్రీ
(చట్టపరమైన) మరియు చివరి అనువాదంలో అనువాద భాషలోకి అనువదించబడింది.
విశ్లేషణ ఇంటెల్-నెట్ - ఉచిత ఆన్లైన్ విశ్లేషణ- Indik-Niki Dipiktaka
రీసెర్చ్ అండ్ ట్రైనింగ్ యునివర్సిటీ మరియు సంబంధిత న్యూస్ సోర్స్
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 క్లాసిక్ భాషలు

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
డిగై నికుస్ 9 బోపా పట్టా సుత్త - సైన్స్ డివిజన్
ధర్మామోక సుడాస్
నవంబర్ 11, 2013 న ప్రచురించబడింది
వర్గం
లాభరహిత & ఫంక్షనల్

డిగై నికుస్ 9 బోపా పట్టా సుత్త - సైన్స్ డివిజన్
youtube.com

డిక్కికా నిసా: సుదీర్ఘ చర్చ
ది
డిజి నిక్కా లేదా “లాంగ్ షర్మాన్ కలెక్షన్” (బాలి డిగా = “లాంగ్”)
సుడా పిటాకా యొక్క మొదటి విభాగం మరియు ముప్పై నాలుగు
మూడు బండ్లు, లేదా విభాగాలుగా విభజించబడింది:
accesstoinsight.org

సుత్త పిదకా
ది
బుద్ధుడు మరియు కొందరు ఆరోపించిన గూఢచారులు లేదా ప్రసంగాల సమాహారం
అతని అతి సన్నిహిత శిష్యులు అన్ని కేంద్ర బోధనలు ఉన్నాయి
థర్వవ బౌద్ధమతం. (వెయ్యి కంటే ఎక్కువ అనువాదాలు
ఈ వెబ్సైట్ అందుబాటులో ఉంది.) Iglese ఐదు ప్రధానంగా (ప్యాకేజీలు) విభజించబడింది:

డిజి నికాయ - “సుదీర్ఘ సేకరణ”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
బుద్ధుని కొత్త పాట
153,375 అభిప్రాయాలు

Cuttunta?

అన్ని సంభాషణల సంకలనం సుత్తంత బిదారా
అనేక సందర్భాల్లో బుద్ధుడు ఇవ్వబడింది. కొన్ని
కొన్ని ప్రసిద్ధ శిష్యుల లేఖలు
బుద్ధ, హలో, మహా మొగల్లా, విలువైనది
ఆంథంత, అలాగే కొన్ని వివరణలు మరియు పుస్తకాలు
ఫంకీ prigved. బుద్ధుని సంభాషణలు కలిసి సేకరించబడ్డాయి
సుత్తాంత హార్బర్ అనేక సందర్భాల్లో ఏర్పాటు చేయబడింది
వేర్వేరు అభిప్రాయాలతో వేర్వేరు వీక్షకులు. ఉపన్యాసాలు ఉన్నప్పటికీ
తరచుగా బైకులు ప్రయోజనం మరియు నిర్వహించడానికి రూపొందించబడింది
స్వచ్ఛమైన జీవితపు ఆచరణాత్మక మరియు బోధన గురించి క్లుప్త వివరణతో,
అనేక విషయాల గురించి మాట్లాడే విషయాలు ఉన్నాయి
క్రమశిక్షణ మెరుగుదల

స్వచ్ఛమైన నెమలి బుద్ధుడి అర్థాన్ని తెలుపుతుంది
బోధనలు స్పష్టంగా బహిర్గతం, రక్షించడం మరియు రక్షించడం
వక్రీకరణ మరియు అపార్థం. తరపున ఒక స్ట్రింగ్ వలె
కార్పెంటర్లను వారి పనిలో తగ్గించడానికి ఒక జారే పన్ను
పువ్వులు పుష్పించే సమయంలో పువ్వుల పరిక్షేపం లేదా వికీర్ణతను కాపాడతాయి
అదేవిధంగా, బుద్ధుడి అర్ధం అర్ధం ద్వారా
బోధనలు స్పష్టంగా వ్యక్తీకరించబడతాయి, అర్థం చేసుకోవచ్చు, అర్థం చేసుకోవచ్చు,
అతను తప్పు వివరణ నుండి సరైన రక్షణ ఇచ్చారు.

సన్డాన్స్ Bijica Nikos యొక్క ఐదు వేర్వేరు విభాగాలుగా విభజించబడింది. వారు దిగి నికాయ, మజ్జిహిమ నిక్కా, సీత నికా, అకుతారా నిక, కుటాకా నికా.

బుద్ధుడి బోధల్లో పర్యవేక్షణ మరియు అభ్యాసాలు

సుత్తాంత పోర్ట్ యొక్క పాదాల వద్ద
నైతిక మరియు నైతిక ప్రమాణాలకు పద్ధతులు
దైనందిన జీవితానికి దరఖాస్తు చేసుకోండి. అన్ని అధ్యయనాలు మరియు విధానాలు సృష్టించబడతాయి
బుద్ధుని యొక్క ఎనిమిది విభాగాలు బుద్ధ మార్గపు ఆధ్యాత్మిక మార్గానికి దారితీశాయి
రిఫైనింగ్ మూడు స్థాయిలు:

సరైన ప్రవర్తన ద్వారా షీలా-నైతిక స్వచ్ఛత.

సమాధి ద్వారా మనస్సు యొక్క స్వచ్ఛత

విన్సింటినా ధ్యానం ద్వారా కలంను గ్రహించటం.

ప్రారంభంలో, మీరు ఆశ్రయం తీసుకోవాలని సరైన నిర్ణయం తీసుకోవాలి
బుద్ధుడి బోధలను మరియు మార్గదర్శకమును అనుసరించండి
అసోసియేషన్. ఆశీర్వాదమని మొదటి శిష్యులు
బుద్దుడి మరియు అతని బోధనలు రెండూ అనుసరించాలి
వ్యాపార సోదరులు, తూపసు మరియు బాల్చ. వారు వారితో ప్రయాణించారు
బుద్ధుడు ఐదు వందల మంది శిష్యులను చూశాడు
చెక్క చెట్టు తన జ్ఞానోదయం తరువాత. ఇద్దరు వ్యాపారులు
అతను తేనె బియ్యం కేక్ ఇచ్చాడు. వారు వారి బహుమతిని అంగీకరించారు మరియు విడిపోతారు
ఏడు వారాల్లో అతను బుద్ధుడు
ఆయన కూర్చున్నప్పుడు, ఆయన శిష్యులు ఆయన దగ్గరకు వచ్చి,

బౌద్ధ సరంగం (పుస్తకంలో నేను పుస్తకం చేస్తున్నాను)

ధర్మాన్ సర్ (నేను స్వచ్ఛందంగా చేస్తున్నాను)

ఈ సయోధ్య మార్పు రూపం మార్చబడింది
బుద్ధుడు మరియు అతని బోధనలు. అప్పుడు సంఘం స్థాపించబడింది
మూడవ అధ్యాయాన్ని జోడించడానికి, ఈ ఫార్ములా విస్తరించింది:

సంగక్కర సరన్ కక్మి (నేను క్లబ్లో శరణు తీసుకుంటాను)
ఆలస్యం ఇవ్వండి కుడి మార్గంలో

తక్షణ మరియు ఫలవంతమైన ఉపయోగం యొక్క ఆచరణాత్మక అడుగు
బుద్ధుని జీవితం యొక్క అన్ని నడకలో ప్రజలు దాతృత్వానికి సంబంధించిన ఉపన్యాసాలు ఇచ్చారు
దాని ధర్మాలను వివరిస్తూ, మరియు సరైన మార్గంలో మరియు సరైన వైఖరిలో
ఆధ్యాత్మిక ప్రయోజన 0 కోస 0 అర్పణలు చేయడ 0 మనసులో ఉ 0 డాలి.

దాతృత్వ చర్యలో ప్రేరణాత్మక శక్తి అనేది సంకల్పమే
ఇవ్వాలని ఉంటుంది. ఛారిటీ అనేది కేవలం ఉత్పన్నమయ్యే ఒక ప్రతిభావంతులైన చర్య
సంకల్పము. ఇవ్వడానికి సంకల్పము లేకుండా ఇవ్వడం లేదు. సంకల్పము
ధర్మాలను ఇవ్వడం మూడు రకాలు:

(1) ఆలోచన మొదలవుతుంది ఆ volition “నేను తయారు చేస్తాను
సమర్పణ “మరియు తయారు కోసం తయారీ కాలంలో ఉంది
సమర్పణ: పబ్బా సేటానా (చట్టం ముందు సంకల్పం).

(2) గ్రహీతకు దానిని అప్పగించేటప్పుడు సమర్పణ చేసే సమయంలో ఉత్పన్నమయ్యే సంకల్పం: మున్కా సెటానా (చట్టం సమయంలో సంకల్పం).

(3) ఆన 0 ది 0 చిన ఆన 0 దాన్ని, ఉత్సాహ 0 తో ని 0 డివు 0 ది
ఇవ్వడం చర్య పునరావృతం లేదా ప్రతిబింబం సమయంలో: apara cetanā (చట్టం తర్వాత volition).

సమర్పణ దేశం బుద్ధ లేదా నివాళి లో చేసిన లేదో
తన పాదచారుల యొక్క ఒక నిమిషం కణాలకి వెళ్లిన తరువాత, ఇది
స్వభావం, దాని బలం మరియు స్వచ్ఛత, స్వభావం నిర్ణయిస్తుంది
దీని ఫలితంగా.

ఈ ఉపన్యాసాలు మనస్సు యొక్క తప్పు వైఖరిని కూడా వివరిస్తున్నాయి, దానితో స్వచ్ఛంద చర్యలు జరగకూడదు.

ఒక దాత ఒక చేయలేరు ఇతరులు న డౌన్ చూడటం నివారించేందుకు ఉండాలి
అదే విధమైన సమర్పణ లేదా అతను తన సొంత స్వచ్ఛంద జరుపుకుంటారు ఉండాలి. ద్వారా కలుషితం
అలాంటి అసమర్థ ఆలోచనలు అతని వాగ్దానం ఒక తక్కువస్థాయి గ్రేడ్ మాత్రమే.

దాతృత్వ చర్యలు అంచనాలచే ప్రేరేపించబడినప్పుడు
తక్షణ సంపద మరియు సంతోషం లేదా పునర్జన్మ యొక్క ప్రయోజనకరమైన ఫలితాలు
ఉన్నత స్వభావంతో కూడిన వ్యత్యాసం మధ్యస్థమైనదిగా వర్గీకరించబడుతుంది.

ఇది మంచి పనుల పనులను జరుపుతున్నప్పుడు మాత్రమే
స్వచ్ఛమైన నిస్వార్ధ ఆలోచనలు ప్రేరణతో పునరుద్ధరణ ఆత్మ యొక్క,
అన్ని బాధలు ముగుస్తుంటాయి, నిబ్బానా చేరుకోడానికి మాత్రమే ఆశపడుట, ఈ
చట్టం యొక్క అంతర్లీనమైన ఆధిక్యత ఉన్నతమైన స్థాయిగా పరిగణించబడుతుంది

దాతృత్వం మరియు దౌర్జన్యాల మార్గాలు గురించి ఉపన్యాసాలలో విస్తృతమైన ఉదాహరణలు ఉన్నాయి.

సరైన ప్రవర్తనా సరళమైన స్వచ్ఛత: సిలా

Sīla యొక్క ప్రాక్టీస్ అనేది ఒక అత్యంత ప్రాధమిక అంశం
బుద్ధుని బోధన. ఇది కుడి ప్రసంగం, రైట్ యొక్క అభ్యాసాన్ని కలిగి ఉంటుంది
చర్య, మరియు సరైన జీవనోపాధిని మలిచారు పనులు, పదాలు మరియు వారి యొక్క ప్రక్షాళన చేయడానికి
ఆలోచనలు. కలిసి మూడురెట్ల శరణాలయం యొక్క నిబద్ధతతో (as
పైన వర్ణించారు) ఒక లే శిష్యుడు తయారు చేయడం ద్వారా ఐదు సూత్రాలను పరిశీలిస్తుంది
అధికారిక ప్రతిజ్ఞ తరువాత:

(1) నేను చంపకుండా పదవీ విరమణ నియమాన్ని పాటించటానికి చేస్తున్నాను.

(2) దొంగిలించడం నుండి దూరంగా ఉన్న నియమాలను గమనించడానికి నేను చేపట్టను.

(3) నేను లైంగిక దుష్ప్రవర్తన నుండి దూరంగా ఉన్న నియమాలను పాటించటానికి చేస్తున్నాను.

(4) అబద్ధాలు చెప్పడ 0 ను 0 డి తొలగి 0 చాలనే నియమాన్ని గమని 0 చడానికి నేను చేస్తాను.

(5) మద్యపానీయాలు, మత్తుపదార్థాలు లేదా మత్తుపదార్థాల నుండి మినహాయించగల నియమాలను నేను గమనిస్తాను.

Abstinence నొక్కిచెప్పే పైన సూత్రం యొక్క ప్రతికూల కారక పాటు, Sila యొక్క అనుకూలమైన అంశం కూడా ఉంది.
ఉదాహరణకు, అనేక ఉపన్యాసాలలో ఈ ప్రకటన మనకు కనిపిస్తోందని: “అతను నిరాకరిస్తాడు
చంపడం నుండి, మూలం మరియు కత్తి పక్కన పెట్టుకుంటుంది; దయ మరియు పూర్తి
అతను అన్ని జీవుల యొక్క సంక్షేమం మరియు ఆనందం కోసం నివసిస్తుంది కరుణ. “
ఫార్ములాలో ఉంచిన ప్రతి నియమము ఈ రెండు అంశాలను కలిగి ఉంది.

వ్యక్తి యొక్క పురోగతి మరియు ఒక పురోగతి యొక్క దశను బట్టి,
ఇతర రకాల సూత్రాలు (ఉదా. ఎనిమిది సూత్రాలు, పది సూత్రాలు) కావచ్చు
గమనించారు. ఆర్డర్ యొక్క బిఖిఖస్ కోసం అధిక మరియు ఆధునిక రకాలు
నైతికత యొక్క అభ్యాసాలు వేయబడ్డాయి. ఐదు సూత్రాలు ఎల్లప్పుడూ ఉండాలి
అప్పుడప్పుడు వారి మెరుగుపరుచుకునే శిష్యులచే గమనించవచ్చు
ఎనిమిది లేదా పది సూత్రాలను పరిశీలించడం ద్వారా స్వీయ క్రమశిక్షణ. ఉన్నవారికి
ఇప్పటికే పవిత్ర జీవన మార్గంలో పది ఆజ్ఞలు ఉన్నాయి
మరింత పురోగతికి అవసరమైన ప్రిలిమినరీలు.

పరిపూర్ణ స్వచ్ఛత యొక్క సిలా ప్రగతి తర్వాతి దశకు పునాదిగా ఉంటుంది, సాంద్రీకరణ-ధ్యానం ద్వారా ధ్యానం యొక్క స్వచ్ఛత.
సాంఘిక అభివృద్ధికి మానసిక సాగు యొక్క అభ్యాస పద్ధతులు: సమాధి

ఆధ్యాత్మిక ఉద్ధరణకు మానసిక సాగు రెండు దశలను కలిగి ఉంటుంది.
మొట్టమొదటి అడుగు అన్ని మాలిన్యాల నుండి మరియు అవినీతి నుండి మనస్సును శుద్ధి చేయడం
మరియు అది ఒక పాయింట్ మీద దృష్టి పెట్టాలి. నిర్ణీత ప్రయత్నం (రైట్
ప్రయత్నం యొక్క పరిధిని తగ్గించడానికి తయారు చేయాలి
నిరుత్సాహపడటం, అస్థిరంగా ఉండటం. అప్పుడు శ్రద్ధ (కుడి మైండ్ఫుల్నెస్ లేదా
ధ్యానం యొక్క ఎంచుకున్న వస్తువు మీద ఖచ్చితంగా శ్రద్ద ఉండాలి
మనస్సు యొక్క ఒకే-సూచకత (కుడి సాంద్రత) సాధించవచ్చు. ఇటువంటి ఒక
రాష్ట్ర, మనస్సు hindrances, స్వచ్ఛమైన, శాంతమైన, శక్తివంతమైన నుండి విముక్తి అవుతుంది
మరియు ప్రకాశవంతమైన. అప్పుడు
దుఃఖం మరియు దుఃఖం యొక్క రాష్ట్రాన్ని అధిగమించడానికి మాగ్గా అంతర్దృష్టి
మరియు యోగ్యత సాధించే రెండో దశకు ఇది సిద్ధంగా ఉంది.

సుట్నంత పిటాచా ధ్యానం యొక్క అనేక పద్ధతులను నమోదు చేస్తుంది
మనస్సు యొక్క ఒక-కోణాన్ని తీసుకురండి. ధ్యానం యొక్క ఈ పద్ధతులు
పైతకా యొక్క సుట్టలను అంతటా చెదరగొట్టారు మరియు దీనిని వివరించారు
బుద్ధుడు కొన్నిసార్లు సందర్భోచితంగా, కొన్నిసార్లు సమిష్టిగా, సందర్భానికి అనుగుణంగా
మరియు వారు సిఫారసు చేయబడిన ప్రయోజనం. బుద్ధుడికి తెలుసు
ప్రతి వ్యక్తి యొక్క పాత్ర మరియు మానసిక వైవిధ్యం మరియు వైవిధ్యం
వేర్వేరు స్వభావాలు మరియు అతనిని సమీపిస్తున్న వారిలో కోరికలు
మార్గదర్శకత్వం. దీని ప్రకారం అతను వేర్వేరు పద్ధతులను సిఫార్సు చేశాడు
వ్యక్తులు ప్రత్యేక పాత్ర మరియు ప్రతి వ్యక్తి యొక్క అవసరం సరిపోయేందుకు.

మానసిక సాగు యొక్క అభ్యాసం, ఇది చివరికి మనసు యొక్క ఒక-కోణంలో ఫలితాన్ని ఇస్తుంది, దీనిని సమాధి భవానం అని పిలుస్తారు. ఎవరైతే సమాధి భవనని అభివృద్ధి చేయాలనుకుంటున్నారు
ఆచారాల ఆచారం లో ఏర్పాటు చేయబడి వుండాలి
భావాలను నియంత్రిస్తుంది, ప్రశాంతత మరియు స్వీయ స్వాధీనపరుస్తుంది, మరియు సంతృప్తి పరచాలి.
ఈ నాలుగు పరిస్థితుల్లో అతను స్థాపించబడటంతో అతను ఒక స్థలాన్ని ఎంచుకోవాలి
ధ్యానం కోసం, ఏకాంత ప్రదేశం. అప్పుడు అతను కూర్చుని ఉండాలి
తన శరీర నిటారుగా మరియు అతని మనసుల హెచ్చరికను ఉంచుకుని క్రాస్ కాల్లె; అతను ప్రారంభం కావాలి
ఐదు hindrances తన మనస్సు శుద్ధి (ఇంద్రియాలకు సంబంధించిన కోరిక; చెడు సంకల్పం;
బద్ధకం మరియు నిద్రపోవు; విశ్రాంతి మరియు ఆందోళన; మరియు సందేహం) ఎంచుకోవడం ద్వారా ఒక
ధ్యానం పద్ధతి అతనికి తగినది మరియు ఉత్సాహంతో ధ్యానం సాధన
మరియు ఉత్సాహం. ఉదాహరణకు, అపాప్పన పద్ధతితో అతను చూస్తూ ఉంటాడు
తన మనసును స్థిరంగా ఉంచేంత వరకు ఇన్కమింగ్ మరియు బయటికి వచ్చే శ్వాస
ముక్కు యొక్క కొన వద్ద శ్వాస మీద సురక్షితంగా.

అతను ఐదు hindrances అతను తొలగించబడింది తెలుసుకున్నప్పుడు
ఆనందపరిచింది, సంతోషంగా, ప్రశాంతంగా మరియు ఆనందకరమైన అవుతుంది. ఇది ప్రారంభం
సమాధి (ఏకాగ్రత), అది మనస్సు యొక్క ఒక-కోణాన్ని సాధించే వరకు అభివృద్ధి చెందుతుంది.

ఆ విధంగా మనస్సు యొక్క ఒక-కోణాన్ని మనస్సులో ఏకాభిప్రాయం చేస్తుంది
ఒక వస్తువు గురించి తెలుసు, మరియు పరిపూర్ణమైన ప్రకృతిలో ఒకటి మాత్రమే. ఇది
విషయాలలో ఒకదాని మీద ధ్యానం సాధన చేసాడు
బుద్ధునిచే ఉద్దేశించబడినది.

ప్రాక్టికల్ మెథడ్స్ అఫ్ మెంటల్ కల్టివేషన్ ఫర్ డెవలప్మెంట్ ఆఫ్ ఇన్సైట్ నాలెడ్జ్ (పాననా)

పిఠాకా
యొక్క సూటాలలో బోధించినట్లు ధ్యానం యొక్క అంశము మరియు పద్ధతులు సమాధిని
సాధించటానికి మరియు అంతర్దృష్టి జ్ఞానం అభివృద్ధికి, విపాసానా ñāṇa కి
నిబబానాకు ప్రత్యక్ష మార్గంగా రూపకల్పన చేయబడ్డాయి.
సమాధి సాధించిన తరువాత ధ్యానం సాధనలో రెండవ దశగా,
కేంద్రీకృతమైన మనస్సు శుద్ధి చేయబడినప్పుడు, నిశ్చయంగా,
వివేకాన జ్ఞానం (విపస్సనా-ñāṇa) తన మనసును ఆవిష్కరిస్తుంది మరియు వివేచనాత్మకంగా చెప్పుకుంటాడు. ఈ అంతర్దృష్టి జ్ఞానంతో అతను అసాధారణ ప్రపంచం యొక్క మూడు లక్షణాలను
గుర్తించాడు: అప్రమాణెన్స్ (అనికా), బాధ (దుఖ) మరియు నాన్-స్వీయ (అనాథ).

అతను తన ఆచరణలో పురోగతి మరియు అతని మనస్సు మరింత మరియు అవుతుంది
మరింత పరిశుభ్రమైన, దృఢమైన మరియు మూర్ఖమైనది, అతను తన మనసును నిర్దేశిస్తాడు మరియు చొప్పించాడు
నైతిక అస్తవ్యస్తాల విలువకల పరిజ్ఞానం (అస్వాఖ్హానా ñāṇa). అతను నిజంగా డక్కాను అర్థం, దుఃఖానికి కారణం, దుక్క యొక్క విరమణ మరియు దుక్క యొక్క విరమణకు దారితీసే మార్గం. అతను పూర్తిగా నైతిక మత్తుపదార్థాలను (āsavas) పూర్తిగా
అర్థంచేసుకుంటాడు, తను వాస్తవానికి, అజాస్ యొక్క కారణం, అస్సాస్ యొక్క
విరమణ మరియు ఆసాస్ యొక్క విరమణకు దారితీసే మార్గం.

ఆసాస్ అంతరించిపోయిన ఈ పరిజ్ఞానంతో అతను అవుతుంది
విముక్తి. విమోచన జ్ఞానం అతనిలో పుడుతుంది. ఆయనకు తెలుసు
పునర్జన్మ ఇక కాదు, అతను పవిత్ర జీవితం నివసించిన. అతను ఏమి చేసాడు
magga యొక్క పరిపూర్ణత కోసం చేయవలసి ఉంటుంది. అలాంటి పరిపూర్ణత కోసం అతడికి ఏమీ లేదు.

బుద్ధుడు ఒక వస్తువుతో మాత్రమే బోధించాడు-అంతరించిపోయాడు
బాధ మరియు ఉనికిని ఉనికి నుండి విడుదల. ఆ వస్తువు ఉంటుంది
ధ్యానం సాధన (ప్రశాంతత మరియు అంతర్దృష్టి కోసం) వేశాడు వంటి
సుట్టాంతం పిఠాకా యొక్క అనేక సుట్టలలో.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Fate (hokkien song)
dandan78
Published on Apr 19, 2007
Nice SOng :) best part is the chorus :) very meaningful :)
Category
Music
License
Standard YouTube License


Nice SOng :) best part is the chorus :) very meaningful :)
youtube.com

http://tipitaka.org/telu/


వేరఞ్జకణ్డం
http://tipitaka.org/telu/

నమో తస్స భగవతో అరహతో సమ్మాసమ్బుద్ధస్స

వినయపిటకే

పారాజికపాళి

వేరఞ్జకణ్డం

. తేన
సమయేన బుద్ధో భగవా వేరఞ్జాయం విహరతి నళేరుపుచిమన్దమూలే మహతా భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘేన
సద్ధిం పఞ్చమత్తేహి భిక్ఖుసతేహి. అస్సోసి ఖో వేరఞ్జో బ్రాహ్మణో – ‘‘సమణో
ఖలు, భో, గోతమో సక్యపుత్తో సక్యకులా పబ్బజితో వేరఞ్జాయం విహరతి
నళేరుపుచిమన్దమూలే మహతా భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘేన సద్ధిం పఞ్చమత్తేహి భిక్ఖుసతేహి. తం
ఖో పన భవన్తం గోతమం ఏవం కల్యాణో కిత్తిసద్దో అబ్భుగ్గతో – ‘ఇతిపి సో భగవా
అరహం సమ్మాసమ్బుద్ధో విజ్జాచరణసమ్పన్నో సుగతో లోకవిదూ అనుత్తరో
పురిసదమ్మసారథి సత్థా దేవమనుస్సానం బుద్ధో భగవా [భగవాతి (స్యా॰), దీ॰ ని॰ ౧.౧౫౭, అబ్భుగ్గతాకారేన పన సమేతి].
సో ఇమం లోకం సదేవకం సమారకం సబ్రహ్మకం సస్సమణబ్రాహ్మణిం పజం సదేవమనుస్సం
సయం అభిఞ్ఞా సచ్ఛికత్వా పవేదేతి. సో ధమ్మం దేసేతి ఆదికల్యాణం మజ్ఝేకల్యాణం
పరియోసానకల్యాణం సాత్థం సబ్యఞ్జనం; కేవలపరిపుణ్ణం పరిసుద్ధం బ్రహ్మచరియం పకాసేతి; సాధు ఖో పన తథారూపానం అరహతం దస్సనం హోతీ’’’తి.

. [ఇతో పరం యావ పారా॰ ౧౫-౧౬ పదక్ఖిణం కత్వా పక్కామీతి పాఠో అ॰ ని॰ ౮.౧౧] అథ
ఖో వేరఞ్జో బ్రాహ్మణో యేన భగవా తేనుపసఙ్కమి; ఉపసఙ్కమిత్వా భగవతా సద్ధిం
సమ్మోది. సమ్మోదనీయం కథం సారణీయం వీతిసారేత్వా ఏకమన్తం నిసీది . ఏకమన్తం నిసిన్నో ఖో వేరఞ్జో బ్రాహ్మణో భగవన్తం ఏతదవోచ – ‘‘సుతం మేతం, భో గోతమ – ‘న సమణో గోతమో
బ్రాహ్మణే జిణ్ణే వుడ్ఢే మహల్లకే అద్ధగతే వయోఅనుప్పత్తే అభివాదేతి వా
పచ్చుట్ఠేతి వా ఆసనేన వా నిమన్తేతీ’తి. తయిదం, భో గోతమ, తథేవ? న హి భవం
గోతమో బ్రాహ్మణే జిణ్ణే వుడ్ఢే మహల్లకే అద్ధగతే వయోఅనుప్పత్తే అభివాదేతి వా
పచ్చుట్ఠేతి వా ఆసనేన వా నిమన్తేతి? తయిదం, భో గోతమ, న సమ్పన్నమేవా’’తి.

‘‘నాహం తం, బ్రాహ్మణ, పస్సామి సదేవకే లోకే సమారకే
సబ్రహ్మకే సస్సమణబ్రాహ్మణియా పజాయ సదేవమనుస్సాయ యమహం అభివాదేయ్యం వా
పచ్చుట్ఠేయ్యం వా ఆసనేన వా నిమన్తేయ్యం. యఞ్హి, బ్రాహ్మణ, తథాగతో
అభివాదేయ్య వా పచ్చుట్ఠేయ్య వా ఆసనేన వా నిమన్తేయ్య, ముద్ధాపి తస్స
విపతేయ్యా’’తి.

. ‘‘అరసరూపో భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య
– ‘అరసరూపో సమణో గోతమో’తి. యే తే, బ్రాహ్మణ, రూపరసా సద్దరసా గన్ధరసా రసరసా
ఫోట్ఠబ్బరసా తే తథాగతస్స పహీనా ఉచ్ఛిన్నమూలా తాలావత్థుకతా అనభావంకతా [అనభావకతా (సీ॰) అనభావంగతా (స్యా॰)]
ఆయతిం అనుప్పాదధమ్మా. అయం ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా
వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘అరసరూపో సమణో గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ
వదేసీ’’తి.

.
‘‘నిబ్భోగో భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం
పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘నిబ్భోగో సమణో గోతమో’తి. యే తే, బ్రాహ్మణ,
రూపభోగా సద్దభోగా గన్ధభోగా రసభోగా ఫోట్ఠబ్బభోగా తే తథాగతస్స పహీనా
ఉచ్ఛిన్నమూలా తాలావత్థుకతా అనభావంకతా ఆయతిం అనుప్పాదధమ్మా. అయం ఖో,
బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘నిబ్భోగో సమణో
గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ వదేసీ’’తి.

. ‘‘అకిరియవాదో
భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా
వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘అకిరియవాదో సమణో గోతమో’తి. అహఞ్హి, బ్రాహ్మణ, అకిరియం
వదామి కాయదుచ్చరితస్స వచీదుచ్చరితస్స
మనోదుచ్చరితస్స. అనేకవిహితానం పాపకానం అకుసలానం ధమ్మానం అకిరియం వదామి. అయం
ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘అకిరియవాదో
సమణో గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ వదేసీ’’తి.

.
‘‘ఉచ్ఛేదవాదో భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం
పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘ఉచ్ఛేదవాదో సమణో గోతమో’తి. అహఞ్హి,
బ్రాహ్మణ, ఉచ్ఛేదం వదామి రాగస్స దోసస్స మోహస్స. అనేకవిహితానం పాపకానం
అకుసలానం ధమ్మానం ఉచ్ఛేదం వదామి. అయం ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం
పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘ఉచ్ఛేదవాదో సమణో గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ వదేసీ’’తి.

.
‘‘జేగుచ్ఛీ భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం
పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘జేగుచ్ఛీ సమణో గోతమో’తి. అహఞ్హి,
బ్రాహ్మణ, జిగుచ్ఛామి కాయదుచ్చరితేన వచీదుచ్చరితేన మనోదుచ్చరితేన.
అనేకవిహితానం పాపకానం అకుసలానం ధమ్మానం సమాపత్తియా జిగుచ్ఛామి. అయం ఖో,
బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘జేగుచ్ఛీ సమణో
గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ వదేసీ’’తి.

.
‘‘వేనయికో భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం
పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘వేనయికో సమణో గోతమో’తి. అహఞ్హి, బ్రాహ్మణ,
వినయాయ ధమ్మం దేసేమి రాగస్స దోసస్స మోహస్స. అనేకవిహితానం పాపకానం అకుసలానం
ధమ్మానం వినయాయ ధమ్మం దేసేమి. అయం ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన
సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘వేనయికో సమణో గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ
వదేసీ’’తి.

. ‘‘తపస్సీ భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘తపస్సీ సమణో గోతమో’తి . తపనీయాహం, బ్రాహ్మణ, పాపకే అకుసలే ధమ్మే వదామి, కాయదుచ్చరితం వచీదుచ్చరితం మనోదుచ్చరితం. యస్స ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ , తపనీయా పాపకా అకుసలా ధమ్మా పహీనా ఉచ్ఛిన్నమూలా తాలావత్థుకతా అనభావంకతా
ఆయతిం అనుప్పాదధమ్మా తమహం తపస్సీతి వదామి. తథాగతస్స ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ, తపనీయా
పాపకా అకుసలా ధమ్మా పహీనా ఉచ్ఛిన్నమూలా తాలావత్థుకతా అనభావంకతా ఆయతిం
అనుప్పాదధమ్మా. అయం ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో
వదేయ్య – ‘తపస్సీ సమణో గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ వదేసీ’’తి.

౧౦.
‘‘అపగబ్భో భవం గోతమో’’తి? ‘‘అత్థి ఖ్వేస, బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం
పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘అపగబ్భో సమణో గోతమో’తి. యస్స ఖో,
బ్రాహ్మణ, ఆయతిం గబ్భసేయ్యా పునబ్భవాభినిబ్బత్తి పహీనా ఉచ్ఛిన్నమూలా
తాలావత్థుకతా అనభావంకతా ఆయతిం అనుప్పాదధమ్మా తమహం అపగబ్భోతి వదామి.
తథాగతస్స ఖో, బ్రాహ్మణ, ఆయతిం గబ్భసేయ్యా పునబ్భవాభినిబ్బత్తి పహీనా
ఉచ్ఛిన్నమూలా తాలావత్థుకతా అనభావంకతా ఆయతిం అనుప్పాదధమ్మా. అయం ఖో,
బ్రాహ్మణ, పరియాయో యేన మం పరియాయేన సమ్మా వదమానో వదేయ్య – ‘అపగబ్భో సమణో
గోతమో’తి, నో చ ఖో యం త్వం సన్ధాయ వదేసి’’.

౧౧.
‘‘సేయ్యథాపి, బ్రాహ్మణ, కుక్కుటియా అణ్డాని అట్ఠ వా దస వా ద్వాదస వా.
తానస్సు కుక్కుటియా సమ్మా అధిసయితాని సమ్మా పరిసేదితాని సమ్మా పరిభావితాని.
యో ను ఖో తేసం కుక్కుటచ్ఛాపకానం పఠమతరం పాదనఖసిఖాయ వా ముఖతుణ్డకేన వా
అణ్డకోసం పదాలేత్వా సోత్థినా అభినిబ్భిజ్జేయ్య, కిన్తి స్వాస్స వచనీయో –
‘‘జేట్ఠో వా కనిట్ఠో వా’’తి? ‘‘జేట్ఠోతిస్స, భో
గోతమ, వచనీయో. సో హి నేసం జేట్ఠో హోతీ’’తి. ‘‘ఏవమేవ ఖో అహం, బ్రాహ్మణ,
అవిజ్జాగతాయ పజాయ అణ్డభూతాయ పరియోనద్ధాయ అవిజ్జణ్డకోసం పదాలేత్వా ఏకోవ లోకే అనుత్తరం సమ్మాసమ్బోధిం అభిసమ్బుద్ధో. స్వాహం, బ్రాహ్మణ, జేట్ఠో సేట్ఠో లోకస్స’’.

‘‘ఆరద్ధం ఖో పన మే, బ్రాహ్మణ, వీరియం [విరియం (సీ॰ స్యా॰)] అహోసి అసల్లీనం, ఉపట్ఠితా సతి అసమ్ముట్ఠా [అప్పముట్ఠా (సీ॰ స్యా॰)], పస్సద్ధో కాయో అసారద్ధో, సమాహితం చిత్తం ఏకగ్గం. సో
ఖో అహం, బ్రాహ్మణ, వివిచ్చేవ కామేహి వివిచ్చ అకుసలేహి ధమ్మేహి సవితక్కం
సవిచారం వివేకజం పీతిసుఖం పఠమం ఝానం ఉపసమ్పజ్జ విహాసిం. వితక్కవిచారానం
వూపసమా అజ్ఝత్తం సమ్పసాదనం చేతసో ఏకోదిభావం అవితక్కం అవిచారం సమాధిజం
పీతిసుఖం దుతియం ఝానం ఉపసమ్పజ్జ విహాసిం. పీతియా చ విరాగా ఉపేక్ఖకో చ
విహాసిం సతో చ సమ్పజానో, సుఖఞ్చ కాయేన పటిసంవేదేసిం ,
యం తం అరియా ఆచిక్ఖన్తి – ‘ఉపేక్ఖకో సతిమా సుఖవిహారీ’తి తతియం ఝానం
ఉపసమ్పజ్జ విహాసిం. సుఖస్స చ పహానా దుక్ఖస్స చ పహానా పుబ్బేవ
సోమనస్సదోమనస్సానం అత్థఙ్గమా అదుక్ఖమసుఖం ఉపేక్ఖాసతిపారిసుద్ధిం చతుత్థం
ఝానం ఉపసమ్పజ్జ విహాసిం.

౧౨.
‘‘సో ఏవం సమాహితే చిత్తే పరిసుద్ధే పరియోదాతే అనఙ్గణే విగతూపక్కిలేసే
ముదుభూతే కమ్మనియే ఠితే ఆనేఞ్జప్పత్తే పుబ్బేనివాసానుస్సతిఞాణాయ చిత్తం
అభినిన్నామేసిం. సో అనేకవిహితం పుబ్బేనివాసం అనుస్సరామి ,
సేయ్యథిదం – ఏకమ్పి జాతిం ద్వేపి జాతియో తిస్సోపి జాతియో చతస్సోపి జాతియో
పఞ్చపి జాతియో దసపి జాతియో వీసమ్పి జాతియో తింసమ్పి జాతియో చత్తాలీసమ్పి
జాతియో పఞ్ఞాసమ్పి జాతియో జాతిసతమ్పి, జాతిసహస్సమ్పి జాతిసతసహస్సమ్పి,
అనేకేపి సంవట్టకప్పే అనేకేపి వివట్టకప్పే అనేకేపి సంవట్టవివట్టకప్పే –
‘అముత్రాసిం ఏవంనామో ఏవంగోత్తో ఏవంవణ్ణో ఏవమాహారో ఏవంసుఖదుక్ఖప్పటిసంవేదీ
ఏవమాయుపరియన్తో; సో తతో చుతో అముత్ర ఉదపాదిం; తత్రాపాసిం ఏవంనామో ఏవంగోత్తో
ఏవంవణ్ణో ఏవమాహారో ఏవంసుఖదుక్ఖప్పటిసంవేదీ ఏవమాయుపరియన్తో; సో తతో చుతో
ఇధూపపన్నోతి. ఇతి సాకారం సఉద్దేసం అనేకవిహితం పుబ్బేనివాసం అనుస్సరామి. అయం
ఖో మే, బ్రాహ్మణ, రత్తియా పఠమే యామే పఠమా విజ్జా అధిగతా, అవిజ్జా విహతా,
విజ్జా ఉప్పన్నా, తమో విహతో, ఆలోకో ఉప్పన్నో – యథా తం అప్పమత్తస్స ఆతాపినో
పహితత్తస్స విహరతో. అయం ఖో మే, బ్రాహ్మణ, పఠమాభినిబ్భిదా అహోసి
కుక్కుటచ్ఛాపకస్సేవ అణ్డకోసమ్హా.

౧౩.
‘‘సో ఏవం సమాహితే చిత్తే పరిసుద్ధే పరియోదాతే అనఙ్గణే విగతూపక్కిలేసే
ముదుభూతే కమ్మనియే ఠితే ఆనేఞ్జప్పత్తే సత్తానం చుతూపపాతఞాణాయ చిత్తం
అభినిన్నామేసిం . సో దిబ్బేన చక్ఖునా విసుద్ధేన అతిక్కన్తమానుసకేన [అతిక్కన్తమానుస్సకేన (క॰)] సత్తే పస్సామి చవమానే ఉపపజ్జమానే హీనే పణీతే సువణ్ణే దుబ్బణ్ణే. సుగతే దుగ్గతే యథాకమ్మూపగే సత్తే పజానామి – ‘ఇమే వత భోన్తో సత్తా కాయదుచ్చరితేన
సమన్నాగతా వచీదుచ్చరితేన సమన్నాగతా మనోదుచ్చరితేన సమన్నాగతా అరియానం
ఉపవాదకా మిచ్ఛాదిట్ఠికా మిచ్ఛాదిట్ఠికమ్మసమాదానా; తే కాయస్స భేదా పరం మరణా
అపాయం దుగ్గతిం వినిపాతం నిరయం ఉపపన్నా. ఇమే వా పన భోన్తో సత్తా
కాయసుచరితేన సమన్నాగతా వచీసుచరితేన సమన్నాగతా మనోసుచరితేన సమన్నాగతా
అరియానం అనుపవాదకా సమ్మాదిట్ఠికా సమ్మాదిట్ఠికమ్మసమాదానా; తే కాయస్స భేదా
పరం మరణా సుగతిం సగ్గం లోకం ఉపపన్నా’తి. ఇతి దిబ్బేన చక్ఖునా విసుద్ధేన
అతిక్కన్తమానుసకేన సత్తే పస్సామి చవమానే ఉపపజ్జమానే
హీనే పణీతే సువణ్ణే దుబ్బణ్ణే. సుగతే దుగ్గతే యథాకమ్మూపగే సత్తే పజానామి.
అయం ఖో మే, బ్రాహ్మణ, రత్తియా మజ్ఝిమే యామే దుతియా విజ్జా అధిగతా, అవిజ్జా
విహతా, విజ్జా ఉప్పన్నా, తమో విహతో, ఆలోకో ఉప్పన్నో – యథా తం అప్పమత్తస్స
ఆతాపినో పహితత్తస్స విహరతో. అయం ఖో మే, బ్రాహ్మణ, దుతియాభినిబ్భిదా అహోసి
కుక్కుటచ్ఛాపకస్సేవ అణ్డకోసమ్హా.

౧౪.
‘‘సో ఏవం సమాహితే చిత్తే పరిసుద్ధే పరియోదాతే అనఙ్గణే విగతూపక్కిలేసే
ముదుభూతే కమ్మనియే ఠితే ఆనేఞ్జప్పత్తే ఆసవానం ఖయఞాణాయ చిత్తం
అభినిన్నామేసిం. సో ‘ఇదం దుక్ఖ’న్తి యథాభూతం అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం, ‘అయం
దుక్ఖసముదయో’తి యథాభూతం అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం, ‘అయం దుక్ఖనిరోధో’తి యథాభూతం
అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం, ‘అయం దుక్ఖనిరోధగామినీ పటిపదా’తి యథాభూతం
అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం; ‘ఇమే ఆసవా’తి యథాభూతం అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం, ‘అయం ఆసవసముదయో’తి
యథాభూతం అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం, ‘అయం ఆసవనిరోధో’తి యథాభూతం అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం, ‘అయం
ఆసవనిరోధగామినీ పటిపదా’తి యథాభూతం అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం. తస్స మే ఏవం జానతో ఏవం
పస్సతో కామాసవాపి చిత్తం విముచ్చిత్థ భవాసవాపి చిత్తం విముచ్చిత్థ
అవిజ్జాసవాపి చిత్తం విముచ్చిత్థ. విముత్తస్మిం విముత్తమితి ఞాణం అహోసి.
‘ఖీణా జాతి, వుసితం బ్రహ్మచరియం, కతం కరణీయం, నాపరం ఇత్థత్తాయా’తి
అబ్భఞ్ఞాసిం. అయం ఖో మే, బ్రాహ్మణ, రత్తియా పచ్ఛిమే యామే తతియా విజ్జా
అధిగతా, అవిజ్జా విహతా, విజ్జా ఉప్పన్నా, తమో విహతో, ఆలోకో ఉప్పన్నో – యథా
తం అప్పమత్తస్స ఆతాపినో పహితత్తస్స విహరతో. అయం ఖో మే, బ్రాహ్మణ,
తతియాభినిబ్భిదా అహోసి – కుక్కుటచ్ఛాపకస్సేవ అణ్డకోసమ్హా’’తి.

౧౫. ఏవం
వుత్తే, వేరఞ్జో బ్రాహ్మణో భగవన్తం ఏతదవోచ – ‘‘జేట్ఠో భవం గోతమో, సేట్ఠో
భవం గోతమో! అభిక్కన్తం, భో గోతమ, అభిక్కన్తం, భో గోతమ!! సేయ్యథాపి, భో
గోతమ, నిక్కుజ్జితం వా ఉక్కుజ్జేయ్య, పటిచ్ఛన్నం వా వివరేయ్య, మూళ్హస్స వా
మగ్గం ఆచిక్ఖేయ్య, అన్ధకారే వా తేలపజ్జోతం ధారేయ్య – చక్ఖుమన్తో రూపాని
దక్ఖన్తీతి, ఏవమేవం భోతా గోతమేన అనేకపరియాయేన ధమ్మో పకాసితో .
ఏసాహం భవన్తం గోతమం సరణం గచ్ఛామి ధమ్మఞ్చ భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘఞ్చ. ఉపాసకం మం భవం
గోతమో ధారేతు అజ్జతగ్గే పాణుపేతం సరణం గతం. అధివాసేతు చ మే భవం గోతమో
వేరఞ్జాయం వస్సావాసం సద్ధిం భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘేనా’’తి. అధివాసేసి భగవా
తుణ్హీభావేన. అథ ఖో వేరఞ్జో బ్రాహ్మణో భగవతో అధివాసనం విదిత్వా ఉట్ఠాయాసనా
భగవన్తం అభివాదేత్వా పదక్ఖిణం కత్వా పక్కామి.

౧౬. తేన
ఖో పన సమయేన వేరఞ్జా దుబ్భిక్ఖా హోతి ద్వీహితికా సేతట్ఠికా సలాకావుత్తా న
సుకరా ఉఞ్ఛేన పగ్గహేన యాపేతుం. తేన ఖో పన సమయేన ఉత్తరాపథకా [ఉత్తరాహకా (సీ॰)] అస్సవాణిజా [అస్సవణిజా (క॰)] పఞ్చమత్తేహి అస్ససతేహి వేరఞ్జం వస్సావాసం ఉపగతా హోన్తి. తేహి అస్సమణ్డలికాసు భిక్ఖూనం పత్థపత్థపులకం [పత్థపత్థమూలకం (క॰)]
పఞ్ఞత్తం హోతి. భిక్ఖూ పుబ్బణ్హసమయం నివాసేత్వా పత్తచీవరమాదాయ వేరఞ్జం
పిణ్డాయ పవిసిత్వా పిణ్డం అలభమానా అస్సమణ్డలికాసు పిణ్డాయ చరిత్వా
పత్థపత్థపులకం ఆరామం ఆహరిత్వా ఉదుక్ఖలే కోట్టేత్వా కోట్టేత్వా
పరిభుఞ్జన్తి. ఆయస్మా పనానన్దో పత్థపులకం సిలాయం పిసిత్వా భగవతో ఉపనామేతి.
తం భగవా పరిభుఞ్జతి.

అస్సోసి ఖో భగవా ఉదుక్ఖలసద్దం. జానన్తాపి తథాగతా
పుచ్ఛన్తి, జానన్తాపి న పుచ్ఛన్తి; కాలం విదిత్వా పుచ్ఛన్తి, కాలం విదిత్వా
న పుచ్ఛన్తి; అత్థసంహితం తథాగతా పుచ్ఛన్తి, నో
అనత్థసంహితం. అనత్థసంహితే సేతుఘాతో తథాగతానం. ద్వీహి ఆకారేహి బుద్ధా
భగవన్తో భిక్ఖూ పటిపుచ్ఛన్తి – ధమ్మం వా దేసేస్సామ, సావకానం వా సిక్ఖాపదం
పఞ్ఞపేస్సామాతి [పఞ్ఞాపేస్సామాతి (సీ॰ స్యా॰)]. అథ ఖో భగవా ఆయస్మన్తం ఆనన్దం ఆమన్తేసి – ‘‘కిం ను ఖో సో, ఆనన్ద, ఉదుక్ఖలసద్దో’’తి? అథ ఖో ఆయస్మా ఆనన్దో భగవతో ఏతమత్థం ఆరోచేసి . ‘‘సాధు సాధు, ఆనన్ద! తుమ్హేహి, ఆనన్ద సప్పురిసేహి విజితం. పచ్ఛిమా జనతా సాలిమంసోదనం అతిమఞ్ఞిస్సతీ’’తి.

౧౭. అథ ఖో ఆయస్మా మహామోగ్గల్లానో [మహామోగ్గలానో (క॰)]
యేన భగవా తేనుపసఙ్కమి; ఉపసఙ్కమిత్వా భగవన్తం అభివాదేత్వా ఏకమన్తం నిసీది.
ఏకమన్తం నిసిన్నో ఖో ఆయస్మా మహామోగ్గల్లానో భగవన్తం ఏతదవోచ – ‘‘ఏతరహి,
భన్తే, వేరఞ్జా దుబ్భిక్ఖా ద్వీహితికా సేతట్ఠికా సలాకావుత్తా. న సుకరా
ఉఞ్ఛేన పగ్గహేన యాపేతుం. ఇమిస్సా, భన్తే, మహాపథవియా హేట్ఠిమతలం సమ్పన్నం –
సేయ్యథాపి ఖుద్దమధుం అనీలకం ఏవమస్సాదం. సాధాహం, భన్తే, పథవిం పరివత్తేయ్యం.
భిక్ఖూ పప్పటకోజం పరిభుఞ్జిస్సన్తీ’’తి. ‘‘యే పన తే, మోగ్గల్లాన,
పథవినిస్సితా పాణా తే కథం కరిస్ససీ’’తి? ‘‘ఏకాహం, భన్తే, పాణిం
అభినిమ్మినిస్సామి – సేయ్యథాపి మహాపథవీ. యే పథవినిస్సితా పాణా తే తత్థ
సఙ్కామేస్సామి. ఏకేన హత్థేన పథవిం పరివత్తేస్సామీ’’తి. ‘‘అలం, మోగ్గల్లాన,
మా తే రుచ్చి పథవిం పరివత్తేతుం. విపల్లాసమ్పి
సత్తా పటిలభేయ్యు’’న్తి. ‘‘సాధు, భన్తే, సబ్బో భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘో ఉత్తరకురుం
పిణ్డాయ గచ్ఛేయ్యా’’తి. ‘‘అలం, మోగ్గల్లాన, మా తే రుచ్చి సబ్బస్స
భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘస్స ఉత్తరకురుం పిణ్డాయ గమన’’న్తి.

౧౮. అథ
ఖో ఆయస్మతో సారిపుత్తస్స రహోగతస్స పటిసల్లీనస్స ఏవం చేతసో పరివితక్కో
ఉదపాది – ‘‘కతమేసానం ఖో బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం బ్రహ్మచరియం న చిరట్ఠితికం
అహోసి; కతమేసానం బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం బ్రహ్మచరియం చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసీ’’తి? అథ
ఖో ఆయస్మా సారిపుత్తో సాయన్హసమయం [సాయణ్హసమయం (సీ॰)]
పటిసల్లానా వుట్ఠితో యేన భగవా తేనుపసఙ్కమి; ఉపసఙ్కమిత్వా భగవన్తం
అభివాదేత్వా ఏకమన్తం నిసీది. ఏకమన్తం నిసిన్నో ఖో ఆయస్మా సారిపుత్తో
భగవన్తం ఏతదవోచ – ‘‘ఇధ మయ్హం, భన్తే, రహోగతస్స పటిసల్లీనస్స ఏవం చేతసో
పరివితక్కో ఉదపాది – ‘కతమేసానం ఖో బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం బ్రహ్మచరియం న
చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసి, కతమేసానం బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం బ్రహ్మచరియం చిరట్ఠితికం
అహోసీ’తి. ‘కతమేసానం ను ఖో, భన్తే, బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం బ్రహ్మచరియం న
చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసి, కతమేసానం బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం బ్రహ్మచరియం చిరట్ఠితికం
అహోసీ’’’తి?

‘‘భగవతో చ, సారిపుత్త, విపస్సిస్స భగవతో చ సిఖిస్స
భగవతో చ వేస్సభుస్స బ్రహ్మచరియం న చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసి. భగవతో చ, సారిపుత్త,
కకుసన్ధస్స భగవతో చ కోణాగమనస్స భగవతో చ కస్సపస్స బ్రహ్మచరియం చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసీ’’తి.

౧౯. ‘‘కో ను ఖో ,
భన్తే, హేతు కో పచ్చయో, యేన భగవతో చ విపస్సిస్స భగవతో చ సిఖిస్స భగవతో చ
వేస్సభుస్స బ్రహ్మచరియం న చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసీ’’తి? ‘‘భగవా చ, సారిపుత్త,
విపస్సీ భగవా చ సిఖీ భగవా చ వేస్సభూ కిలాసునో అహేసుం సావకానం విత్థారేన
ధమ్మం దేసేతుం. అప్పకఞ్చ నేసం అహోసి సుత్తం గేయ్యం వేయ్యాకరణం గాథా ఉదానం
ఇతివుత్తకం జాతకం అబ్భుతధమ్మం వేదల్లం. అపఞ్ఞత్తం సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం.
అనుద్దిట్ఠం పాతిమోక్ఖం. తేసం బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం అన్తరధానేన
బుద్ధానుబుద్ధానం సావకానం అన్తరధానేన యే తే పచ్ఛిమా సావకా నానానామా
నానాగోత్తా నానాజచ్చా నానాకులా పబ్బజితా తే తం బ్రహ్మచరియం ఖిప్పఞ్ఞేవ
అన్తరధాపేసుం. సేయ్యథాపి, సారిపుత్త, నానాపుప్ఫాని ఫలకే నిక్ఖిత్తాని
సుత్తేన అసఙ్గహితాని తాని వాతో వికిరతి విధమతి విద్ధంసేతి. తం కిస్స హేతు?
యథా తం సుత్తేన అసఙ్గహితత్తా. ఏవమేవ ఖో, సారిపుత్త, తేసం బుద్ధానం
భగవన్తానం అన్తరధానేన బుద్ధానుబుద్ధానం సావకానం అన్తరధానేన యే తే పచ్ఛిమా
సావకా నానానామా నానాగోత్తా నానాజచ్చా నానాకులా పబ్బజితా తే తం బ్రహ్మచరియం
ఖిప్పఞ్ఞేవ అన్తరధాపేసుం.

‘‘అకిలాసునో చ తే భగవన్తో అహేసుం సావకే చేతసా చేతో పరిచ్చ ఓవదితుం. భూతపుబ్బం, సారిపుత్త, వేస్సభూ భగవా అరహం సమ్మాసమ్బుద్ధో అఞ్ఞతరస్మిం భింసనకే [భీసనకే (క॰)] వనసణ్డే సహస్సం భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘం చేతసా చేతో పరిచ్చ ఓవదతి అనుసాసతి – ‘ఏవం వితక్కేథ, మా ఏవం వితక్కయిత్థ; ఏవం మనసికరోథ, మా ఏవం మనసాకత్థ [మనసాకరిత్థ (క॰)];
ఇదం పజహథ, ఇదం ఉపసమ్పజ్జ విహరథా’తి. అథ ఖో, సారిపుత్త, తస్స
భిక్ఖుసహస్సస్స వేస్సభునా భగవతా అరహతా సమ్మాసమ్బుద్ధేన ఏవం ఓవదియమానానం ఏవం
అనుసాసియమానానం అనుపాదాయ ఆసవేహి చిత్తాని విముచ్చింసు. తత్ర సుదం,
సారిపుత్త, భింసనకస్స వనసణ్డస్స భింసనకతస్మిం హోతి – యో కోచి అవీతరాగో తం
వనసణ్డం పవిసతి, యేభుయ్యేన లోమాని హంసన్తి. అయం ఖో, సారిపుత్త, హేతు అయం
పచ్చయో యేన భగవతో చ విపస్సిస్స భగవతో చ సిఖిస్స భగవతో చ వేస్సభుస్స
బ్రహ్మచరియం న చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసీ’’తి.

౨౦. ‘‘కో పన, భన్తే, హేతు కో పచ్చయో యేన భగవతో చ కకుసన్ధస్స భగవతో చ కోణాగమనస్స భగవతో చ కస్సపస్స బ్రహ్మచరియం చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసీ’’తి? ‘‘భగవా
చ, సారిపుత్త, కకుసన్ధో భగవా చ కోణాగమనో భగవా చ కస్సపో అకిలాసునో అహేసుం
సావకానం విత్థారేన ధమ్మం దేసేతుం. బహుఞ్చ నేసం అహోసి సుత్తం గేయ్యం
వేయ్యాకరణం గాథా ఉదానం ఇతివుత్తకం జాతకం అబ్భుతధమ్మం వేదల్లం, పఞ్ఞత్తం
సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం, ఉద్దిట్ఠం పాతిమోక్ఖం. తేసం బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం
అన్తరధానేన బుద్ధానుబుద్ధానం సావకానం అన్తరధానేన యే తే పచ్ఛిమా సావకా
నానానామా నానాగోత్తా నానాజచ్చా నానాకులా పబ్బజితా తే తం బ్రహ్మచరియం చిరం
దీఘమద్ధానం ఠపేసుం. సేయ్యథాపి, సారిపుత్త, నానాపుప్ఫాని ఫలకే నిక్ఖిత్తాని
సుత్తేన సుసఙ్గహితాని తాని వాతో న వికిరతి న విధమతి న విద్ధంసేతి. తం
కిస్స హేతు? యథా తం సుత్తేన సుసఙ్గహితత్తా. ఏవమేవ ఖో, సారిపుత్త, తేసం
బుద్ధానం భగవన్తానం అన్తరధానేన బుద్ధానుబుద్ధానం సావకానం అన్తరధానేన యే తే
పచ్ఛిమా సావకా నానానామా నానాగోత్తా నానాజచ్చా నానాకులా పబ్బజితా తే తం
బ్రహ్మచరియం చిరం దీఘమద్ధానం ఠపేసుం. అయం ఖో, సారిపుత్త, హేతు అయం పచ్చయో
యేన భగవతో చ కకుసన్ధస్స భగవతో చ కోణాగమనస్స భగవతో చ కస్సపస్స బ్రహ్మచరియం
చిరట్ఠితికం అహోసీ’’తి.

౨౧.
అథ ఖో ఆయస్మా సారిపుత్తో ఉట్ఠాయాసనా ఏకంసం ఉత్తరాసఙ్గం కరిత్వా యేన భగవా
తేనఞ్జలిం పణామేత్వా భగవన్తం ఏతదవోచ – ‘‘ఏతస్స, భగవా, కాలో! ఏతస్స, సుగత,
కాలో! యం భగవా సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం పఞ్ఞపేయ్య [పఞ్ఞాపేయ్య (సీ॰ స్యా॰)], ఉద్దిసేయ్య పాతిమోక్ఖం, యథయిదం బ్రహ్మచరియం అద్ధనియం అస్స చిరట్ఠితిక’’న్తి. ‘‘ఆగమేహి త్వం, సారిపుత్త ! ఆగమేహి త్వం, సారిపుత్త! తథాగతోవ తత్థ కాలం జానిస్సతి. న తావ, సారిపుత్త, సత్థా సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం పఞ్ఞపేతి ఉద్దిసతి [న ఉద్దిసతి (సీ॰)]
పాతిమోక్ఖం యావ న ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి. యతో చ ఖో,
సారిపుత్త, ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి, అథ సత్థా
సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం పఞ్ఞపేతి ఉద్దిస్సతి పాతిమోక్ఖం
తేసంయేవ ఆసవట్ఠానీయానం ధమ్మానం పటిఘాతాయ. న తావ, సారిపుత్త, ఇధేకచ్చే
ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి యావ న సఙ్ఘో రత్తఞ్ఞుమహత్తం పత్తో
హోతి. యతో చ ఖో, సారిపుత్త, సఙ్ఘో రత్తఞ్ఞుమహత్తం పత్తో హోతి అథ ఇధేకచ్చే
ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి, అథ, సత్థా సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం పఞ్ఞపేతి
ఉద్దిసతి పాతిమోక్ఖం తేసంయేవ ఆసవట్ఠానీయానం ధమ్మానం పటిఘాతాయ. న తావ,
సారిపుత్త, ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి, యావ న సఙ్ఘో
వేపుల్లమహత్తం పత్తో హోతి. యతో చ ఖో, సారిపుత్త, సఙ్ఘో వేపుల్లమహత్తం పత్తో
హోతి, అథ ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి, అథ సత్థా సావకానం
సిక్ఖాపదం పఞ్ఞపేతి ఉద్దిసతి పాతిమోక్ఖం తేసంయేవ ఆసవట్ఠానీయానం ధమ్మానం
పటిఘాతాయ. న తావ, సారిపుత్త, ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి,
యావ న సఙ్ఘో లాభగ్గమహత్తం పత్తో హోతి. యతో చ ఖో, సారిపుత్త, సఙ్ఘో
లాభగ్గమహత్తం పత్తో హోతి, అథ ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి,
అథ సత్థా సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం పఞ్ఞపేతి ఉద్దిసతి పాతిమోక్ఖం తేసంయేవ
ఆసవట్ఠానీయానం ధమ్మానం పటిఘాతాయ. న తావ, సారిపుత్త, ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా
ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి, యావ న సఙ్ఘో బాహుసచ్చమహత్తం పత్తో హోతి. యతో చ ఖో,
సారిపుత్త, సఙ్ఘో బాహుసచ్చమహత్తం పత్తో హోతి, అథ ఇధేకచ్చే ఆసవట్ఠానీయా
ధమ్మా సఙ్ఘే పాతుభవన్తి, అథ సత్థా సావకానం సిక్ఖాపదం పఞ్ఞపేతి ఉద్దిసతి
పాతిమోక్ఖం తేసంయేవ ఆసవట్ఠానీయానం ధమ్మానం పటిఘాతాయ. నిరబ్బుదో హి,
సారిపుత్త, భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘో నిరాదీనవో అపగతకాళకో సుద్ధో సారే పతిట్ఠితో.
ఇమేసఞ్హి, సారిపుత్త, పఞ్చన్నం భిక్ఖుసతానం యో పచ్ఛిమకో భిక్ఖు సో సోతాపన్నో అవినిపాతధమ్మో నియతో సమ్బోధిపరాయణో’’తి.

౨౨.
అథ ఖో భగవా ఆయస్మన్తం ఆనన్దం ఆమన్తేసి – ‘‘ఆచిణ్ణం ఖో పనేతం, ఆనన్ద,
తథాగతానం యేహి నిమన్తితా వస్సం వసన్తి, న తే అనపలోకేత్వా జనపదచారికం
పక్కమన్తి. ఆయామానన్ద, వేరఞ్జం బ్రాహ్మణం అపలోకేస్సామా’’తి. ‘‘ఏవం
భన్తే’’తి ఖో ఆయస్మా ఆనన్దో భగవతో పచ్చస్సోసి. అథ ఖో భగవా నివాసేత్వా
పత్తచీవరమాదాయ ఆయస్మతా ఆనన్దేన పచ్ఛాసమణేన యేన వేరఞ్జస్స బ్రాహ్మణస్స
నివేసనం తేనుపసఙ్కమి; ఉపసఙ్కమిత్వా పఞ్ఞత్తే ఆసనే నిసీది. అథ ఖో వేరఞ్జో బ్రాహ్మణో యేన భగవా తేనుపసఙ్కమి ;
ఉపసఙ్కమిత్వా భగవన్తం అభివాదేత్వా ఏకమన్తం నిసీది. ఏకమన్తం నిసిన్నం ఖో
వేరఞ్జం బ్రాహ్మణం భగవా ఏతదవోచ – ‘‘నిమన్తితమ్హ తయా, బ్రాహ్మణ , వస్సంవుట్ఠా [వస్సంవుత్థా (సీ॰ స్యా॰ క॰)],
అపలోకేమ తం, ఇచ్ఛామ మయం జనపదచారికం పక్కమితు’’న్తి. ‘‘సచ్చం, భో గోతమ,
నిమన్తితత్థ మయా వస్సంవుట్ఠా; అపి చ, యో దేయ్యధమ్మో సో న దిన్నో. తఞ్చ ఖో
నో అసన్తం, నోపి అదాతుకమ్యతా, తం కుతేత్థ లబ్భా బహుకిచ్చా ఘరావాసా
బహుకరణీయా. అధివాసేతు మే భవం గోతమో స్వాతనాయ భత్తం సద్ధిం
భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘేనా’’తి. అధివాసేసి భగవా తుణ్హీభావేన. అథ ఖో భగవా వేరఞ్జం
బ్రాహ్మణం ధమ్మియా కథాయ సన్దస్సేత్వా సమాదపేత్వా సముత్తేజేత్వా
సమ్పహంసేత్వా ఉట్ఠాయాసనా పక్కామి. అథ ఖో వేరఞ్జో
బ్రాహ్మణో తస్సా రత్తియా అచ్చయేన సకే నివేసనే పణీతం ఖాదనీయం భోజనీయం
పటియాదాపేత్వా భగవతో కాలం ఆరోచాపేసి – ‘‘కాలో, భో గోతమ, నిట్ఠితం
భత్త’’న్తి.

౨౩.
అథ ఖో భగవా పుబ్బణ్హసమయం నివాసేత్వా పత్తచీవరమాదాయ యేన వేరఞ్జస్స
బ్రాహ్మణస్స నివేసనం తేనుపసఙ్కమి; ఉపసఙ్కమిత్వా పఞ్ఞత్తే ఆసనే నిసీది
సద్ధిం భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘేన. అథ ఖో వేరఞ్జో బ్రాహ్మణో బుద్ధప్పముఖం భిక్ఖుసఙ్ఘం
పణీతేన ఖాదనీయేన భోజనీయేన సహత్థా సన్తప్పేత్వా సమ్పవారేత్వా భగవన్తం
భుత్తావిం ఓనీతపత్తపాణిం [ఓణీతపత్తపాణిం (క॰)]
తిచీవరేన అచ్ఛాదేసి, ఏకమేకఞ్చ భిక్ఖుం ఏకమేకేన దుస్సయుగేన అచ్ఛాదేసి. అథ ఖో
భగవా వేరఞ్జం బ్రాహ్మణం ధమ్మియా కథాయ సన్దస్సేత్వా సమాదపేత్వా
సముత్తేజేత్వా సమ్పహంసేత్వా ఉట్ఠాయాసనా పక్కామి. అథ ఖో భగవా వేరఞ్జాయం
యథాభిరన్తం విహరిత్వా అనుపగమ్మ సోరేయ్యం సఙ్కస్సం కణ్ణకుజ్జం యేన
పయాగపతిట్ఠానం తేనుపసఙ్కమి; ఉపసఙ్కమిత్వా పయాగపతిట్ఠానే గఙ్గం నదిం
ఉత్తరిత్వా యేన బారాణసీ తదవసరి. అథ ఖో భగవా బారాణసియం యథాభిరన్తం విహరిత్వా
యేన వేసాలీ తేన చారికం పక్కామి. అనుపుబ్బేన చారికం చరమానో యేన వేసాలీ
తదవసరి. తత్ర సుదం భగవా వేసాలియం విహరతి మహావనే కూటాగారసాలాయన్తి.

వేరఞ్జభాణవారో నిట్ఠితో.


http://www.tipitaka.org/pdf/romn/

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Tipiṭaka in PDF

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Zip Files Size (MB)
Tipitaka (Mūla)
100
            Vinayapiṭaka
13
            Suttapiṭaka
59
            Abhidhammapiṭaka
29
Aṭṭhakathā
106
            Vinayapiṭaka (aṭṭhakathā)
7
            Suttapiṭaka (aṭṭhakathā)
93
            Abhidhammapiṭaka (aṭṭhakathā)
6
Tīkā
88
            Vinayapiṭaka (ṭīkā)
34
            Suttapiṭaka (ṭīkā)
36
            Abhidhammapiṭaka (ṭīkā)
18
Anya
55

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SUTTANTA PIṬAKAคืออะไร?

พุทธศาสนาแบบดั้งเดิม (การรับรู้ในการรับรู้) เป็นของโลกและมีสิทธิส่วนบุคคลสำหรับทุกคน:
ผู้คนนับล้านทั่วโลกได้รับการยกย่องอย่างสูงในการโฆษณาและการวิจัยโดยอาศัยความตระหนักในการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางสังคมและการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางสังคมและการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางเศรษฐกิจและพุทธศาสนา

คำแปลของคำแปลฉบับนี้แปลโดย
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และคำแปลสุดท้ายสำหรับปลายทางสุดท้าย
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การวิจัยและการฝึกอบรมมหาวิทยาลัยและแหล่งข่าวที่เกี่ยวข้อง
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Classic Languages

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - กองวิทยาศาสตร์
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Nonprofits & Functional

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - กองวิทยาศาสตร์
youtube.com

Dickica nisa: คุยกันยาว ๆ

Digi Nicka หรือ “Long Sharman Collection” (Bali Diga = “Long”)
ส่วนแรกของ Suda Pitaka และสามสิบสี่
สามรถหรือแบ่งออกเป็นส่วน:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka

พระพุทธรูปและสายลับที่ถูกกล่าวหาบางส่วนหรือชุดคำเทศน์
สาวกที่สนิทที่สุดของพระองค์ประกอบด้วยคำสอนส่วนกลางทั้งหมด
พุทธศาสนา Thervata (แปลมากกว่าพันครั้ง
เว็บไซต์นี้มีให้บริการ) Iglese แบ่งออกเป็น 5 ส่วนหลัก ๆ (package):

Digi Nikaya - “คอลเลกชันยาว”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
เพลงใหม่ของพระพุทธเจ้า
จำนวนการเข้าชม 153,375 ครั้ง

Cuttunta?

ชุดของบทสนทนาทั้งหมดคือ Sutthanta Bidara
ในหลายกรณีพระพุทธรูปได้รับ บาง
จดหมายของเหล่าสาวกที่มีชื่อเสียง
พระพุทธเจ้า, สวัสดี, Maha Mogalla, มีค่า
Anthanda รวมทั้งคำอธิบายและหนังสือ
Funky prigved การสนทนาของพระพุทธเจ้าถูกรวบรวมไว้ด้วยกัน
ท่าเรือสุทธิธรรมถูกจัดขึ้นหลายต่อหลายครั้ง
ผู้ชมที่แตกต่างกันด้วยอารมณ์ที่แตกต่างกัน แม้วาทกรรม
bikus มักถูกออกแบบมาเพื่อประโยชน์และจัดการ
ด้วยคำอธิบายสั้น ๆ เกี่ยวกับการปฏิบัติและการสอนชีวิตที่บริสุทธิ์
มีหลายสิ่งหลายอย่างที่พูดถึง
การปรับปรุงระเบียบวินัย

นกยูงบริสุทธิ์เผยให้เห็นถึงความหมายของพระพุทธเจ้า
คำสอนเผยให้เห็นอย่างชัดเจนปกป้องและปกป้อง
การบิดเบือนและตีความผิด เหมือนสายในนามของ
ภาษีลื่นเพื่อลดช่างไม้ในการทำงานของพวกเขา
ดอกไม้ช่วยปกป้องกระเจิงหรือกระจัดกระจายของดอกไม้ในช่วงออกดอก
ในทำนองเดียวกันผ่านความหมายของความเข้าใจของพระพุทธเจ้า
คำสอนสามารถอธิบายได้อย่างชัดเจน, เข้าใจ, เข้าใจ,
เขาให้การป้องกันที่ถูกต้องจากคำอธิบายผิด

Sundance แบ่งออกเป็น 5 แผนกย่อยคือ Bijica Nikos พวกเขาคือ Digi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika

การตรวจสอบและการปฏิบัติในคำสอนของพระพุทธเจ้า

อยู่บริเวณท่าเรือ Sutthanta
วิธีการตามคุณธรรมและศีลธรรม
ใช้สำหรับชีวิตประจำวัน การศึกษาและขั้นตอนทั้งหมดจะถูกสร้างขึ้น
พระพุทธรูปแปดส่วนนำไปสู่เส้นทางจิตวิญญาณของเส้นทางพระพุทธเจ้า
สามระดับของการกลั่น:

Sheila-moral pureness ผ่านพฤติกรรมที่เหมาะสม

ความบริสุทธิ์ของจิตใจผ่านหลุมฝังศพ

Vincentina ทำความสะอาดปากกาด้วยการทำสมาธิ

ในขั้นแรกคุณควรตัดสินใจที่ถูกต้องเพื่อลี้ภัย
ทำตามคำสอนและคำแนะนำของพระพุทธเจ้า
สมาคม. สาวกแรกที่จะประกาศความหวัง
ทั้งพระพุทธเจ้าและคำสอนของพระองค์ควรทำตาม
พี่น้องธุรกิจ Tapusa และ Balkha พวกเขาเดินทางไปกับพวกเขา
พระพุทธเจ้าเห็นห้าร้อยคน
ต้นไม้หลังการตรัสรู้ของเขา พ่อค้าสองคน
เขาให้เค้กข้าวน้ำผึ้ง พวกเขาจะยอมรับของขวัญของพวกเขาและเลิกกัน
เป็นเวลาเจ็ดสัปดาห์พระพุทธเจ้า
เมื่อเหล่าสาวกของพระองค์มาหาพระองค์ทูลว่า

sarangam พุทธศาสนา (ฉันหนังสือในหนังสือ)

Dharman Sir (ฉันทำกุศล)

เปลี่ยนการกระทบยอดนี้เป็นรูปแบบแล้ว
พระพุทธเจ้าและคำสอนของพระองค์ จากนั้นสมาคมได้ก่อตั้งขึ้น
เมื่อต้องการเพิ่มบทที่สามสูตรนี้จะขยาย:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (ฉันลี้ภัยอยู่ในสโมสร)

เกี่ยวกับวิธีที่ถูกต้องในการให้ทาน

เป็นขั้นตอนการปฏิบัติที่สามารถใช้งานได้ทันทีและมีผลโดย
คนในทุกชีวิตพระพุทธเจ้าให้วาทกรรมเกี่ยวกับการกุศล
อธิบายถึงคุณธรรมและในทางที่ถูกต้องและทัศนคติที่ถูกต้องของ
จิตใจที่มีการเสนอจะต้องทำเพื่อประโยชน์ทางจิตวิญญาณ

แรงจูงใจในการกระทำการกุศลคือความรู้สึก
จะให้ กุศลคือการกระทำที่เกิดขึ้นเฉพาะจาก
ความตั้งใจ โดยไม่มีเจตจำนงที่จะให้มีการกระทำไม่ให้ volition
ในการให้ทานเป็นสามประเภท:

(1) ความรู้สึกเริ่มต้นด้วยความคิด “ฉันจะทำ
เสนอ “และที่มีอยู่ในช่วงเวลาของการเตรียมการสำหรับการทำ
การเสนอขาย: pubba cetanā (ความตั้งใจก่อนการกระทำ)

(2) ความรู้สึกที่เกิดขึ้นในขณะทำการเสนอขายในขณะที่มอบให้แก่ผู้รับ: muñcacetanā (ความตั้งใจระหว่างการกระทำ)

(3) ความรู้สึกที่เกิดขึ้นกับความชื่นชมยินดีและความชื่นชมยินดีที่เกิดขึ้น
ในระหว่างการระลึกถึงซ้ำหรือสะท้อนถึงการกระทำของการให้: apara cetanā (volition หลังจากการกระทำ)

ไม่ว่าจะเป็นการถวายบูชาด้วยการบูชาพระพุทธรูปหรือ
เป็นอนุภาคนาทีของพระธาตุของพระองค์หลังจากที่พระองค์สิ้นพระชนม์แล้ว
ความแรงและความบริสุทธิ์ที่กำหนดลักษณะของ
ผลดังกล่าว

วาทกรรมอธิบายถึงทัศนคติที่ไม่ถูกต้องของจิตใจด้วยซึ่งการกระทำการกุศลไม่ควรกระทำ

ผู้บริจาคควรหลีกเลี่ยงการมองคนอื่นที่ไม่สามารถทำ
การเสนอขายที่คล้ายกันหรือเขาควรจะเฉลิมฉลองการกุศลของเขาเอง มลพิษจาก
ความคิดที่ไม่สมควรเช่นความรู้สึกของเขาเป็นเพียงระดับต่ำ

เมื่อการกระทำขององค์กรการกุศลมีแรงบันดาลใจจากความคาดหวังของ
ผลประโยชน์ของความเจริญรุ่งเรืองและความสุขหรือการเกิดใหม่ใน
ความเป็นอยู่ที่สูงขึ้นจะถูกจัดประเภทเป็นปานกลาง

ก็ต่อเมื่อการกระทำที่ดีของการให้ทานให้ออกไปแล้ว
ของจิตวิญญาณแห่งการสละสลวยที่มีแรงบันดาลใจจากความคิดของความไม่เห็นแก่ตัวที่บริสุทธิ์,
ทะเยอทะยานเพียงเพื่อบรรลุถึงnibbānaที่ความทุกข์ทรมานทั้งหมดสิ้นสุดลงที่
volition ต้นแบบการกระทำนี้ถือได้ว่าเป็นของผู้สำเร็จการศึกษาชั้นเลิศ

มีตัวอย่างมากมายในวาทกรรมเกี่ยวกับการกุศลและวิธีการให้ทาน

ความบริสุทธิ์ทางจริยธรรมด้วยการปฏิบัติที่ถูกต้อง: Sīla

การปฏิบัติของซายน่าเป็นรูปแบบพื้นฐานที่สุดของ
การสอนของพระพุทธเจ้า ประกอบด้วยการปฏิบัติของ Right Speech, Right
การกระทำและการมีชีวิตที่ถูกต้องในการล้างความประพฤติไม่ดีคำพูดและ
ความคิด ร่วมกับความมุ่งมั่นของ Threefold Refuge (as
อธิบายไว้ข้างต้น) ศิษย์ผู้ประพฤติตามข้อ 5 โดยการทำ
ตามคำสัตย์สาบาน:

(1) ฉันจะปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลห้ามละเว้น

(2) ฉันจะปฏิบัติตามหลักเกณฑ์ในการงดเว้นจากการขโมย

(3) ฉันจะปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลในการงดเว้นการกระทำผิดทางเพศ

(4) ฉันปฏิบัติตามคำสอนของการละเว้นจากการโกหก

(5) ฉันจะปฏิบัติตามหลักเกณฑ์ในการงดเว้นจากเครื่องดื่มแอลกอฮอล์ยาเสพติดหรือเครื่องดื่มที่มีแอลกอฮอล์ซึ่งทำให้จิตใจของเราจางลง

นอกเหนือไปจากด้านลบของสูตรข้างต้นที่เน้นการเลิกบุหรี่แล้วยังมีแง่บวกของsīla
ตัวอย่างเช่นเราพบในวาทกรรมหลายคำ: “เขา refrains
จากการฆ่าฆ่าเอียงและดาบ เต็มไปด้วยความเมตตาและ
ความเมตตาเขาอาศัยอยู่เพื่อสวัสดิการและความสุขของสิ่งมีชีวิตทั้งหมด “
ทุกข้อที่วางไว้ในสูตรมีทั้งสองด้าน

ขึ้นอยู่กับแต่ละบุคคลและขั้นตอนของความคืบหน้าของคน,
รูปแบบอื่น ๆ ของศีล (เช่นแปดศีลศีลสิบ) อาจเป็น
สังเกต สำหรับพระภิกษุสงฆ์ประเภทสูงและขั้นสูง
การปฏิบัติธรรมของศีลธรรมถูกวางไว้ ห้าข้อต้องอยู่เสมอ
สังเกตเห็นโดยสาวกผู้ที่อาจเพิ่มบางครั้งของพวกเขา
วินัยในตนเองโดยการปฏิบัติตามศีลแปดหรือสิบข้อ สำหรับผู้ที่มี
ได้ลงมือปฏิบัติตามวิถีแห่งชีวิตอันศักดิ์สิทธิ์สิบข้อนี้
จำเป็นเบื้องต้นสำหรับความคืบหน้า

Sīlaของความบริสุทธิ์ที่สมบูรณ์แบบทำหน้าที่เป็นพื้นฐานสำหรับขั้นตอนต่อไปของความคืบหน้าsamādhi
- ความบริสุทธิ์ของจิตใจผ่านการทำสมาธิสมาธิ
วิธีปฏิบัติของการเพาะปลูกจิตเพื่อการพัฒนาความเข้มข้น: Samādhi

การเพาะปลูกจิตสำหรับการยกระดับจิตวิญญาณประกอบด้วยขั้นตอนสองขั้นตอน
ขั้นตอนแรกคือการชำระจิตใจจากความสกปรกและการทุจริตทั้งหมด
และมุ่งเน้นจุดเดียว ความมุ่งมั่น (ขวา
ความพยายาม) ต้องทำเพื่อ จำกัด ขอบเขตของความคิดไว้ใน
ลังเลใจไม่มั่นคง จากนั้นให้ความสนใจ (ขวาสติหรือ
ความสนใจ) ต้องได้รับการแก้ไขในเรื่องที่เลือกของการทำสมาธิจนกระทั่ง
(ความเข้มข้นขวา) หนึ่งจุด ใน a
รัฐจิตใจจะกลายเป็นอิสระจากอุปสรรคบริสุทธิ์บริสุทธิ์และมีพลัง
และสดใส จากนั้นก็พร้อมที่จะก้าวไปสู่ขั้นตอนที่สองโดยที่ความเข้าใจและการบรรลุผลของโหราจารย์สามารถบรรลุถึงสภาพแห่งความฉิบหายและความเศร้าโศกได้

Suttanta Piṭakaบันทึกหลายวิธีในการทำสมาธิ
นำพาจิตใจ วิธีการทำสมาธิเหล่านี้คือ
กระจายไปทั่วบทของPiṭakaและอธิบายโดย
พระพุทธเจ้าบางครั้งเพียงลำพังบางครั้งรวมกันเพื่อให้เหมาะกับโอกาส
และวัตถุประสงค์ที่พวกเขาแนะนำ พระพุทธเจ้ารู้
ความหลากหลายของตัวละครและการแต่งหน้าทางจิตของแต่ละบุคคลและ
อารมณ์ที่แตกต่างกันและ inclinations ของผู้ที่เข้าหาเขาสำหรับ
คำแนะนำ ดังนั้นเขาแนะนำวิธีการที่แตกต่างกันไป
บุคคลให้เหมาะสมกับลักษณะพิเศษและความต้องการของแต่ละบุคคล

การฝึกฝนการเพาะปลูกจิตซึ่งส่งผลให้จิตใจที่มีจุดปลายสุดเป็นที่รู้จักกันในชื่อsamādhibhāvanā ใครก็ตามที่ประสงค์จะพัฒนาsamādhibhāvanā
ต้องได้รับการจัดตั้งขึ้นในการปฏิบัติตามศีลด้วย
ความรู้สึกควบคุมความสงบและมีตัวตนและต้องเป็นที่พึงพอใจ
หลังจากได้รับการจัดตั้งขึ้นในสี่เงื่อนไขนี้เขาต้องเลือกสถานที่
เหมาะสำหรับการทำสมาธิจุดที่เงียบสงบ แล้วเขาก็ควรนั่ง
ข้ามขาช่วยให้ร่างกายของเขาตั้งตรงและการแจ้งเตือนจิตใจของเขา; เขาควรจะเริ่มต้น
ทำให้จิตใจของเขาสะอาดขึ้นห้าอุปสรรค (ความปรารถนาทางศีลธรรม; - ป่วย;
ความเฉื่อยชาและความสับสนวุ่นวาย กระวนกระวายและกังวล; และข้อสงสัย) โดยการเลือก a
วิธีการทำสมาธิที่เหมาะสมกับเขาและฝึกสมาธิด้วยความกระตือรือร้น
และความกระตือรือร้น ตัวอย่างเช่นด้วยวิธี Anapana เขาคอยเฝ้าดู
ลมหายใจเข้าและออกจนกว่าเขาจะสามารถมีจิตใจของเขาคงที่
หายใจเข้าที่ปลายจมูกได้อย่างปลอดภัย

เมื่อเขาตระหนักว่าทั้งห้าอุปสรรคถูกลบออก
กลายเป็นความยินดี, ความยินดี, ความสงบและความสุข นี่คือจุดเริ่มต้น
ของsamādhi (ความเข้มข้น) ซึ่งจะพัฒนาต่อไปจนกว่าจะบรรลุถึงจุด ๆ หนึ่งของจิตใจ

ดังนั้นหนึ่งในใจของความคิดคือความเข้มข้นของจิตใจเมื่อมัน
ตระหนักถึงสิ่งหนึ่งสิ่งใดและเป็นเพียงธรรมชาติอันบริสุทธิ์เท่านั้น นี่คือ
บรรลุโดยการปฏิบัติของการทำสมาธิเมื่อหนึ่งในวิชา
แนะนำโดยพระพุทธศาสนา

วิธีปฏิบัติของการเพาะปลูกจิตเพื่อพัฒนาความรู้ความเข้าใจ (Paññā)

เรื่องและวิธีการทำสมาธิตามที่ได้รับการสอนในพระสูตรของPiṭakaได้รับการออกแบบมาเพื่อให้บรรลุความสำนึกในตัวเองเช่นเดียวกับการพัฒนาองค์ความรู้ความเข้าใจ
Vipassana ñāṇaเป็นเส้นทางตรงสู่nibbāna
เป็นขั้นตอนที่สองในการฝึกสมาธิหลังจากบรรลุsamādhi,
เมื่อจิตใจที่เข้มข้นได้กลายเป็นบริสุทธิ์ บริษัท และไม่แยแส,
ผู้ทำสมาธิจะชี้นำและโน้มเอียงไปสู่ความรู้ความเข้าใจ (vipassanā-ñāṇa) ด้วยความรู้ความเข้าใจนี้เขามองเห็นสามลักษณะของโลกมหัศจรรย์:
ความไม่สม่ำเสมอ (anicca) ความทุกข์ทรมาน (dukkha) และไม่ใช่ตัวเอง
(anattā)

ในขณะที่เขาก้าวหน้าในการปฏิบัติและความคิดของเขาจะกลายเป็นมากขึ้น
บริสุทธิ์มากขึ้น บริษัท และไม่อั้นเขาชี้นำและเอียงความคิดของเขา
ความรู้เกี่ยวกับการสูญพันธุ์ของสิ่งที่ไม่ดีทางศีลธรรม (āsavakkhayañāṇa) จากนั้นเขาก็เข้าใจ dukkha, สาเหตุของ dukkha, การหยุดชะงักของ dukkha และเส้นทางที่นำไปสู่การหยุดชะงักของ dukkha นอกจากนี้เขายังได้ทำความเข้าใจกับมึนเมาจรรยา (āsavas)
อย่างที่เป็นจริงสาเหตุของāsavasการหยุดชะงักของāsavasและเส้นทางที่นำไปสู่การหยุดชะงักของāsavas

ด้วยความรู้เรื่องการสูญพันธุ์ของāsavasเขาจะกลายเป็น
เสรี ความรู้เรื่องการปลดปล่อยเกิดขึ้นในตัวเขา เขารู้ว่า
การเกิดใหม่ไม่ได้อีกต่อไปว่าเขามีชีวิตที่ศักดิ์สิทธิ์ เขาทำในสิ่งที่เขาทำ
ต้องทำเพื่อการสำนึกของ magga ไม่มีอะไรมากสำหรับเขาที่จะทำเพื่อการสำนึกดังกล่าว

พระพุทธเจ้าสอนด้วยวัตถุเพียงอย่างเดียว - การสูญพันธุ์ของ
ความทุกข์ทรมานและการปลดปล่อยตัวตน วัตถุนั้นสามารถทำได้
ได้รับจากการปฏิบัติของการทำสมาธิ (สำหรับความสงบและความเข้าใจ) ตามที่วาง
ลงในหลายบทของ Suttanta Piṭaka

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zxCdzSlAGys
Anatta-lakkhana sutta chanting (thai style)
Inline image 1Dhammakamo Shi Chuan Fa
Published on Jul 26, 2016
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People & Blogs

96 Classical Turkish

96 Klasik Türk

2532 Çar 14 Şub 2018 DERS

SUTTANTA PIṬAKA NEDİR?

Geleneksel Budizm (farkındalık farkındalık eğitimi) dünyaya aittir ve herkes için bireysel haklara sahiptir:
Dünya çapında milyonlarca insan, Budist ve tekno-politik metinlerin
toplumsal değişimi ve ekonomik hareketi konusunda farkındalık temelinde,
reklamcılık ve araştırma alanlarında son derece saygılıdır.

Bu
çevirinin çevirisi Google Translate https://translate.google.com
tarafından tercüme edildi ve son varış yeri için damızlık akım girişi
(yasal) ve son çeviri tercüme diline çevrildi.
Analiz Intel-Net - Ücretsiz Online Analiz-Indik-Niki Dipiktaka
Araştırma ve Eğitim Üniversitesi ve ilgili haber kaynağı
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Klasik Diller

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Bilim Bölümü
Dharmamoka Sudus
11 Kasım 2013′te yayınlandı
Kategori
Kâr Amacı Gütmeyen Kuruluşlar & İşlevsel

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Bilim Bölümü
youtube.com

Dickica nisa: uzun konuşma

Digi Nicka veya “Long Sharman Koleksiyonu” (Bali Diga = “Uzun”)
Suda Pitaka’nın ilk bölümü ve otuz dört
Üç vagon, ya da bölümlere ayrılmıştır:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka

Buda ve birkaç sözde casus veya vaaz koleksiyonu
En yakın öğrencileri, bütün merkezi öğretileri içerir
Thervata Budizmi. (Binden fazla çeviri
Bu web sitesi mevcuttur. Iglese beş ana bölüme ayrılmıştır (paketler):

Digi Nikaya - “uzun koleksiyon”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Buddha’nın yeni şarkısı
153.375 görüntüleme

Cuttunta?

Tüm sohbetlerden oluşan bir koleksiyon Sutthanta Bidara’dır.
Birçok durumda Buda verildi. Bazı
Bazı ünlü öğrencilerin mektupları
Buda, Merhaba, Maha Moğalla, değerlidir
Anthanda’nın yanı sıra bazı açıklamalar ve kitaplar
Funky prigved. Buddha’nın konuşmaları birlikte toplandı
Sutthanta limanı çeşitli vesilelerle düzenlendi.
Farklı ruh hallerine sahip farklı izleyiciler. Söylemlere rağmen
Genellikle bikus fayda sağlamak ve yönetmek için tasarlanmıştır.
Saf yaşamın pratik ve öğretimi hakkında kısa bir açıklama yaparak,
Birçok şey hakkında konuşan şeyler var
Disiplin iyileştirmesi

Saf tavus kuşu Buda’nın anlamını açığa çıkarıyor
Öğretiler açıkça ortaya koyuyor, koruyor ve koruyor
Bozulma ve yanlış yorumlama. Adına bir dize benzer
Marangozları işlerinde azaltmak için kaygan bir vergi
Çiçekler, çiçek açarken çiçeklerin dağılmasını veya saçılmasını önler.
Aynı şekilde, Buda’nın anlayışıyla
Öğretiler açıkça ifade edilebilir, anlaşılır, anlaşılır,
Yanlış açıklamadan doğru korumayı verdi.

Sundance, Bijica Nikos’un beş ayrı bölüme ayrılmıştır. Onlar Digi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika’dır.

Buddha’nın öğretilerinde izleme ve uygulamalar

Sutthanta limanının eteklerinde
Ahlaki ve ahlaki standartlar için yöntemler
Günlük yaşam için başvurun. Tüm çalışmalar ve prosedürler oluşturuldu
Buda’nın sekiz bölümü Buda yolunun manevi yoluna götürür
Üç rafine seviyesi:

Doğru davranışla Sheila-ahlak saflığı.

Mezarın içinden aklın saflığı

Vincentina, meditasyonla kalem kavramasını temizler.

Başlangıçta, sığınmak için doğru kararı almalısınız.
Buddha’nın öğretilerini ve rehberliğini izleyin
Derneği. Umut ilan eden ilk öğrenciler
Hem Buda hem de öğretileri takip edilmeli
İş kardeşleri Tapusa ve Balkha. Onlarla birlikte dolaştılar.
Buda beş yüz öğrencisini gördü.
Ahşap ağaç aydınlanmasından sonraki dönemdi. İki tüccar
Ballı pirinç keki verdi. Hediyelerini kabul edecekler ve parçalanacaklar.
Yedi hafta boyunca kendisi, Buda
Oturduğu sırada öğrencileri ona geldi.

Budist sarangam (kitapta kitapım)

Dharman efendim (hayır işi yapıyorum)

Bu mutabakat değişikliği bir forma dönüştürüldü
Buda ve öğretileri. Daha sonra dernek kuruldu
Üçüncü bir bölüm eklemek için bu formül genişletildi:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (kulübe sığınırım)

Alms için Doğru Yolda

Aşağıdakiler tarafından derhal ve verimli bir şekilde kullanılabilecek pratik bir adım olarak
Buda, her kesimden insanlara yardımseverlik üzerine söylemler verdi.
kendi erdemlerini açıklarken, doğru yolu ve doğru tutumunu
ruhsal fayda için bir sunum yapılması gereken zihin.

Bir hayır işi motivasyon kuvveti,
vermeyecek. Hayırseverlik, sadece aşağıdakilerden oluşan değerli bir eylemdir:
irade. Verme iradesi olmadan hiçbir verme yasağı yoktur. irade
sadaka verirken üç tür vardır:

(1) “Ben yapacağım” düşüncesiyle başlayan isteğim
sunmak “için hazırlık döneminde var olan
sunan: pubba cetanā (hareket öncesi irade).

(2) Teklifi alıcıya teslim ederken ortaya çıkan istek: muñca cetanā (hareket esnasındaki irade).

(3) Sevinç ve sevinç eşlik eden kararlılık
apara cetanā (eylem sonrası iradenin) tekrarlanması veya tekrarlanması esnasında.

Sunulmanın canlı Buda’ya saygı olsun veya olmasın
geçtikten sonra kalıntılarının bir dakika parçasına kadar
isteğinin, gücünün ve saflığının, doğasını belirleyen
sonucu.

Söylemlerde, hiçbir hayır işi yapılmaması gereken yanlış zihniyet tutumları da açıklanmaktadır.

Bir donör, başkalarına bakmayan bir
Benzer bir teklifte bulunmadığı gibi kendi sadakati de kutlamamalıdır. Tarafından kirletilmiş
Böyle değersiz düşünceler onun iradesi yalnızca daha aşağı derecedir.

Bir hayır işi beklentilerinin motivasyonuyla gerçekleştirildiğinde
Hemen refah, mutluluk veya yeniden doğumun yararlı sonuçları
Yüksek varlıklar eşlik eden irade vasat olarak sınıflandırılır.

Sadece sadaka veren iyi niyet yapılırsa
saf özsüzlük düşüncelerinden kaynaklanan bir feragat ruhunun,
sadece acı çekmenin sona ereceği nibbana’ya ulaşmak için talip olan bu
hareketin altında yatan iradenin üstün bir dereceye soktuğu kabul
edilir

Sadaka ve sadaka vermenin yolları ile ilgili söylemlerde bol örnekler var.

Doğru Davranış Yoluyla Ahlakın Saflığı: Sīla

Sīla uygulaması, Sīla’nın en temel yönünü oluşturmaktadır.
Buda’nın öğretisi. Doğru Konuşmanın Uygulanması, Sağ Konuşma
Eylem ve Sağ Geçim Hakkı, saf olmayan davranışlardan, sözcüklerden ve
düşünceler. Üç Katlı Sığınmanın taahhüdü ile birlikte (as
Yukarıda anlatılanlar) bir öğrenci, beş öğretiyi,
Resmi yeminini takiben:

(1) Öldürmeyi bırakma yasağına uymayı taahhüt ederim.

(2) Çalınmaktan kaçınma kuralını gözlemeyi taahhüt ederim.

(3) Cinsel tacizden kaçınma kuralını gözlemlemeyi taahhüt ederim.

(4) Yalan söylemekten kaçınma kuralını gözlemlemeyi taahhüt ederim.

(5) Zihni bulutlayan alkolik içki, uyuşturucu veya zehirlenmeden kaçınma kuralını gözlemlemeyi taahhüt ederim.

Yukarıdaki formülü, yasaklamayı vurgulayan olumsuz yönüne ilaveten, sīla’nın olumlu yönü de vardır.
Örneğin, birçok söylemde şu ifadeyi buluyoruz: “O geri çekilmez
Öldürmemek, küpgüyü ve kılıcı bir kenara koyuyor; iyilik dolu ve
tüm canlıların refah ve mutluluğu için yaşıyor merhamet. “
Formülde belirtilen her kural bu iki yönü vardır.

Bireye ve bir ilerlemenin aşamasına bağlı olarak,
diğer kuralların biçimleri (ör. sekiz kural, on kural) olabilir
gözlemledi. Emirlerin bikikaları için, daha ileri ve ileri düzeydeki
ahlak uygulamaları ortaya konmuştur. Beş ustalık daima olacak
Öğrencileri, zaman zaman kendi
sekiz ya da on önlemi gözleyerek kendi kendini disiplin edin. Sahip olanlar için
kutsal bir hayatın yoluna girmiş olan on ilkeler
ilerlemenin önemli ön hazırlıkları.

Mükemmel saflığın Sīla’sı, konsantrasyon meditasyonu yoluyla,
ilerlemenin bir sonraki aşaması, samādhi-saflık için bir temel
oluşturmaktadır.
Yoğunluğun Gelişimi için Zihinsel Yayılımın Pratik Yöntemleri: Samādhi

Manevi kalkınma için zihinsel yetiştirme iki aşamadan oluşur.
İlk adım, zihni tüm arındırma ve yolsuzluklardan arındırmaktır
ve tek bir noktaya odaklanmasını sağlamak. Belirgin bir çaba (Doğru
Çaba), düşünce alanını daraltmak için yapılmalıdır.
titrek, kararsız zihin. Sonra dikkat (Sağ Dikkatlilik veya
Dikkat) seçilen bir meditasyon objesine sabitlenene kadar
tek zekalılık (Doğru Konsantrasyon) sağlanır. Böyle bir durumda
devlet, akıl engellerden kurtulur, saf, sakin, güçlü
ve parlak. Bundan
sonra, vaha ve keder durumunu aşmak için magga içgörüsünün ve
meyvelerinin elde edilebileceği ikinci adıma ilerlemeye hazırdır.

Suttanta Piṭaka birçok meditasyon metodunu kaydeder:
bir zekalılık getirmek. Bu meditasyon yöntemleri
Piṭaka’nın slataları boyunca dağılmış ve
Buda bazen tekli, bazen topluca, olaya uymak için
ve hangi amaç için önerildikleri. Buda biliyordu ki
her bireyin karakter çeşitliliği ve zihinsel oluşumu ve
kendisine yaklaşanların farklı mizaçları ve eğilimleri
rehberlik. Buna göre farklı yöntemler önerdi
Kişilerin her bireyin özel karakterine ve ihtiyacına uyması için.

Sonunda bir zeka noktasında sonuçlanan zihinsel yetiştirme uygulaması samādhi bhāvanā olarak bilinir. Samādhi bhāvanā’yı geliştirmek isteyen kimse
kuralların yerine getirilmesi ile kurulmuş olmalı,
Duyular kontrollü, sakin ve kendi kendine yeter ve memnun olmalıdır.
Bu dört koşulda kurulan bir yer seçmelidir.
Meditasyon için uygun, tenha bir yer. Sonra oturmalıdır
cesedini dik tutan ve zihnini uyarıda tutan çapraz ayaklı; o başlamalı
zihnini beş engeli temizlemek (şehvetli istek, kötü niyet;
tembellik ve torpor; huzursuzluk ve endişe; ve şüphe ile) bir
Kendisine uygun meditasyon yöntemi ve hevesli meditasyon uygulaması
ve coşku. Örneğin, Anapana yöntemiyle izlemeye devam ediyor
Gelen ve giden nefes, fikrini düzeltene kadar
burun ucundaki nefes üzerinde sıkıca tutun.

Beş engelin kaldırıldığını fark ettiğinde
sevinir, sevinir, sakin ve keyifli olur. Bu başlangıç
samādhi’nin (konsantrasyon), bir zeka noktasına gelene kadar daha da gelişecektir.

Dolayısıyla, zihnin bir-sadelik zihninin konsantrasyonu
Bir cismin ve yalnızca sağlıklı bir doğanın farkındadır. Bu
konuların birinde meditasyon uygulamasıyla elde edilen
Buda’nın amacı için önerilir.

Zeka Yetiştiriciliğinde Insight Bilgisinin Geliştirilmesi İçin Pratik Yöntemler (Paññā)

Piṭaka’nın
eğitim alanlarında öğretilen meditasyonun konusu ve yöntemleri hem
samādhi’nin elde edilmesine hem de içgörünün bilinir hale gelmesine,
yani Vipassana ñāṇa’ya, doğrudan nibbana yoluna yönelik olarak
tasarlanmıştır.
Samādhi’ye kavuştuktan sonra meditasyon uygulamasında ikinci adım olarak,
konsantre zihin saflaştırılmış, sağlam ve zorlanamaz hale geldiğinde,
meditatör zihnini bilgiyi anlamaya yönlendirir ve yönlendirir (vipassanā-ñāṇa). Bu içgörü bilgisiyle olağanüstü dünyanın üç özelliğini ayırt eder:
imppermanence (anicca), acı çekme (dukkha) ve non-self (anattā).

Uygulamasında ilerledikçe ve zihni daha fazla ve
daha saf, sağlam ve zorlanamaz, akıllarını yönlendirir ve eğilir.
ahlaki kirliliklerin ortadan kaldırılması bilgisine (āsavakkhaya ñāṇa). Daha sonra dukkanın sebebi olan dukkayı, dukkanın bırakılmasını ve dukkanın kesilmesine yol açan yolu anlıyor. Ayrıca ahlaki sarhoş edicileri (âvavalar) gerçekleri olduğu gibi,
âvâbların, âavâların duruşunun ve âsavaların kesilmesine götüren yolun
tam anlamıyla anlamaya başlar.

Bu âsavaların tükenme bilgisi ile
kurtarılmış. Kurtuluş bilgisi onun içinde ortaya çıkar. Bunu biliyor
Artık kutsal hayatı yaşamak için yeniden doğuş artık değil. O ne yaptıysa
magga’nın gerçekleştirilmesi için yapmak zorundayız. Böyle gerçekleşmesi için yapacak başka bir şey yoktur.

Buda yalnızca bir nesneyle öğretti;
acı çekme ve koşullu varlıktan kurtulma. Bu nesne olabilir
Meditasyon uygulamasıyla (sakin ve içgörü için)
Suttanta Piṭaka’nın sayısız suttasında aşağı indi.


https://www.youtube.com/watch…
3 HOURS Best Relaxing Music | Turkish Sad Clarinet | Background, Relax, Sleep, Study, Mahabodhi Meditation

TheRelaxingWorld
Published on Aug 24, 2015
Enjoy 3 hours of relaxing clarinet music. You can use it for relax,
sleeping, studying, etc. On this channel you can find a lot of peaceful,
emotional, instrumental, new-age, ambient, lullaby, classical, soft,
romantic, chillout, gentle, positive and sad, soothing background music
and relaxing nature sounds & noises
(birds sounds, water noises, fire crackling, etc). It can be used for
deep relaxation, sleep, study, reading, working, meditation,
concentration, spa, stress relief, yoga, therapy, healing, zen. Listen
it to relax your mind and yourself. “One good thing about music, when it
hits you, you feel no pain.” Keep calm and relax. Please like this
video, share and subscribe to TheRelaxingWorld channel for more relaxing
music
;)
Original language of this video description is English. All other
translations were made by Google Translator. Sorry for any
inconvenience.

Used track:
https://soundcloud.com/musiciendouzi/
“FON MUZIK 2011 Sad Clarinet ( By MusicienDouzi)” by Musicien.Douzi is
licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (reuse allowed)
(Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY)).
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/

Used image:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/realsmi
“sunset mosque” by Matthias Rhomberg is licensed under a Creative Commons linense (Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)). ↓

↓ ↓

- Check out these playlists:

♫ Classical Music Compilation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3Dkf
♫ Piano Relaxing Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FNXsH
♫ Guitar Relaxing Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRiKi
♫ Happy / Positive Relaxing Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_s7mQ
♫ Music with Relaxing Sounds - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_11W
♫ Sad / Dramatic Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seou5
♫ Electronic / Beats / Chillout Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3VCx
♫ Lullaby Music / For Babies - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gMoW7
♫ Relax / Meditation / Calm - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B74C5
♫ Sounds / Noises - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_wZ6
♫ 9 HOURS | Long Relaxing Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mU4Ci
♫ Clarinet / Flute / Duduk / Saxophone - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ztoG
♫ Violin / Cello Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGF1G
♫ Healing Deep Sleep Music - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ub_d6
A lot of the best long relaxing background music for relax, work, study, sleep or meditation here:
TheRelaxingWorld channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCo5R
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Check out this channel too: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6XN
Category
Music


youtube.com

97 Classical Ukrainian

97 класичний український

2532 ср. 14 лютого 2018 р. ПРИЗНАЧЕННЯ

ЩО ТАКЕ СУТТАНТА ПІДЯКА?

Традиційний буддизм (освітлення усвідомлення знань) належить світу і має індивідуальні права для кожного:
Мільйони людей у ​​всьому світі мають високу повагу до реклами та
досліджень, виходячи з усвідомлення соціальних змін і економічного руху
буддійських та технополітетів.

Переклад
цього перекладу перекладається за допомогою перекладу Google Translate
https://translate.google.com та перекладено на мову перекладу в запис
потоку селекції (законний) та остаточний переклад для кінцевого пункту
призначення.
Аналіз Intel-Net - безкоштовний онлайн-аналіз - Університет
науково-дослідних та навчальних закладів Індік-Нікі Діпікатака та
відповідний джерело новин http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Класичні мови

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Патта Сатта - Відділ науки
Дхармакока Судус
Опубліковано 11 листопада 2013 року
Категорія
Некомерційні та функціональні

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Патта Сатта - Відділ науки
youtube.com

Дікіца Ніса: довга розмова
The
Digi Nicka або “Long Sharman Collection” (Балі Діга = “Довго”)
Перше підрозділ Суди Питака і тридцять чотири
Три вагони або розділені на розділи:
accesstoinsight.org

Сутта Підака
The
Будди та декількох передбачуваних шпигунів або колекції проповідей
Його найближчі учні включають в себе всі центральні вчення
Тхрвата Буддизм. (Більше тисячі перекладів
Цей веб-сайт доступний.) Iglese ділиться на п’ять основних (пакетів):

Digi Nikaya - “довга колекція”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Нова пісня Будди
153 375 переглядів

Каттунта?

Колекція всіх бесід є Суттанта Бідара
У багатьох випадках Будда був даний. Дещо
Листи деяких відомих учнів
Будда, привіт, Маха Могалла, дорогоцінний
Антанда, а також деякі пояснення та книги
Функрі нахилився. Будда розмови були зібрані разом
Суттанта гавань була влаштована неодноразово
Різні глядачі з різними настроями. Незважаючи на дискурси
Часто бікус призначений для вигоди та управління
З коротким описом практичного та викладання чистого життя,
Є речі, які говорять про багато речей
Поліпшення дисципліни

Чистий павич розкриває сенс Будди
Вчення чітко виявляє, захищає та захищає
Спотворення та неправильне тлумачення. Любіть рядок від імені
Слизький податок для зменшення плотниць у своїй роботі
Квіти захищають розсіювання або розсіювання квітів під час цвітіння
Аналогічним чином, через сенс розуміння Будди
Вчення може бути чітко виражено, зрозуміло, зрозуміло
Він дав правильний захист від неправильного пояснення.

Sundance ділиться на п’ять окремих підрозділів Bijica Nikos. Це Digi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Сеута Ніка, Акутара Ніка, Кутака Ніка.

Моніторинг та практика у вченні Будди

У підніжжя порт Суттанта
Методи моральних та моральних норм
Подати заявку на повсякденне життя. Всі дослідження та процедури створені
Вісім розділів Будди ведуть до духовного шляху шляху Будди
Три рівні очищення:

Шейла-моральна чистота через належну поведінку.

Чистота розуму через гробницю

Вінсентина очищає рухоме розуміння від медитації.

Спочатку потрібно прийняти правильне рішення про притулок
Дотримуйтесь вчення та керівництва Будди
Асоціація Перші учні проголосили надію
І Будда, і його вчення повинні слідувати
Бізнес-брати, Тапса і Балха. Вони їздили з ними
Будда побачив п’ятсот учнів
Дерев’яне дерево було після його просвітління. Два купця
Він подарував медовий рисовий пиріг. Вони приймуть свій подарунок і розіб’ються
Протягом семи тижнів він сам, Будда
А коли Він сидів, то до Нього прийшли Його учні, кажучи:

Буддійський сарангам (книга в книзі)

Дхарман сер (я роблю благодійність)

Ця зміна примирення була змінена на форму
Будда та його вчення. Потім була створена асоціація
Щоб додати третю главу, ця формула розширена:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (я сховаюсь у клубі)

На правильному шляху подарувати Алми

Як практичний крок, здатний негайно і плідно використовувати
Люди у всіх сферах життя Будда дав розмови про благодійність
пояснюючи свої чесноти, і на правильному шляху і правильне ставлення Росії
розум, з яким пропонується зробити духовну користь.

Мотиваційною силою в акті милосердя є воля,
буде давати Благодійність - це гідна дія, яка виникає лише з того
воля Без волі дати не існує жодного акту дачі. Воля
при подачі милостині три типи:

(1) Воля, яка починається з думки “Зроблю я
пропонування “, і що існує в період підготовки до виготовлення
пропозиція: pubba cetanā (воля перед діянням).

(2) бажання, яке виникає в момент подання пропозиції, передав його одержувачеві: muñca cetanā (воля під час акту).

(3) Воля, що супроводжує радість і радість, які виникають
під час повторного вгадування або роздуми про акт подачі: апра ценана (воля після акту).

Чи пропонується в честь живого Будди або
до хвилини частинки його мощей після його зникнення, це є
воля, його сила і чистота, що визначає природу
результат його.

Дискурси також пояснюють невірне ставлення розуму, з яким не слід виконувати жодного милосердя.

Донор повинен уникати погляду на тих, хто не може зробити
подібне пропозицію, і він не повинен святкувати свою благодійність. Забруднено
такі недостойні думки, його бажання - лише нижчого ступеня.

Коли акт благодійності мотивований очікуваннями
благотворні результати негайного процвітання і щастя або відродження в Росії
Вищі існування супроводжують волю класифікуються як посередні.

Лише тоді, коли відбувається добро дієздатність милостині
духу відречення, мотивованої думками про чисту самовідданість,
прагнучи тільки до досягнення ніббана, де закінчуються всі страждання,
бажання, що лежить в основі цього акту, вважається вищим ступенею

Є багато прикладів у дискурсах, що стосуються благодійності та шляхів надання милостині.

Моральна чистота завдяки правильній поведінці: Сіла

Практика сили складає найважливіший аспект
Вчення Будди. Вона складається з практики правильної мови, праворуч
Дія та Право засобів до існування, щоб очистити себе від нечистої справи, слів та
думки Разом із прихильністю Триєдиного притулку (як
описаний вище), учень, який лежить, зауважує п’ять заповідей, зробивши
наступна формальна обітниця:

(1) Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися наміру утриматися від вбивства.

(2) Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися наміру утриматися від крадіжки.

(3) Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися наказу про утримання від сексуального несправедливості.

(4) Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися наміру утриматися від брехні.

(5) Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися наказу про відмову від алкогольних напоїв, наркотиків або інтоксикантів, які розрядили розум.

На додаток до негативного аспекту вищезгаданої формули, яка підкреслює стриманість, існує також позитивний аспект сили.
Наприклад, у багатьох дискурсах ми знаходимо твердження: “Він утримується
від вбивства, відкидає дубину та меча; повна доброти і
співчуття він живе за добробут і щастя всіх живих істот “.
Кожна заповідь, закладена в формулі, має ці два аспекти.

Залежно від особи і стадії свого прогресу,
інші форми заповідей (наприклад, вісім заповідей, десять заповідей) можуть бути
спостерігається Для бхікхуса порядок вищих і просунутих типів
практики моралі. П’ять заповідей повинні бути завжди
що спостерігаються учнями-лялечками, які іноді можуть посилити їх
Самодисципліна, дотримуючись восьми або десяти заповідей. Для тих, хто має
вже йшли на шлях святого життя десять заповідей
необхідні попередні кроки для подальшого прогресу.

Сила ідеальної чистоти служить основою для наступного етапу прогресу, самадхі-чистоти розуму через концентрацію медитації.
Практичні методи психічного вирощування для розвитку концентрації: Самадхі

Розумне культивування для духовного підйому складається з двох етапів.
Першим кроком є ​​очищення розуму від усіх непоробок і корупції
і зосередити його на одній точці. Цілеспрямоване зусилля (праворуч
Зусилля), щоб звузити діапазон думок у
коливається, нестабільний розум. Тоді увага (правильне мислення або
Увага) повинні бути зафіксовані на обраному об’єкті медитації до
одноколірність розуму (правильна концентрація) досягається. У такому
держава, розум звільняється від перешкод, чистий, спокійний, потужний
і яскравий. Потім
він готовий перейти до другого кроку, за допомогою якого маггінне
розуміння та досягнення можуть бути досягнуті, щоб перевершити стан горя
та печалі.

Suttanta Pthaka записує численні методи медитації до
викликати однозначність розуму. Ці методи медитації є
розосереджені по всій сутті Піктака і пояснюються
Будда іноді поодинокі, іноді колективно, з нагоди
і призначення, для чого вони рекомендовані. Будда знав це
різноманітність характеру та психічного складу кожної особистості і
різні темпераменти та схильності тих, хто до нього підходив
керівництво Відповідно він рекомендував різні методи для різних
особистості, що відповідає особовому характеру та потребам кожної людини.

Практика розумового виховання, яка в кінцевому підсумку призводить до однозначності розуму, відома як самадхі бхаванана. Хто хоче розвивати самадхі бхаванану
повинен був бути встановлений у дотриманні заповідей, з
Почуття контролюються, спокійні і власні, і вони повинні бути задоволені.
Будучи заснованим в цих чотирьох умовах, він повинен вибрати місце
придатний для медитації, відокремлене місце. Тоді він повинен сидіти
хрест-ноги, тримаючи тіло міцним і розумові; він повинен почати
очистивши його уявлення про п’ять перешкод (чуттєве бажання, недоброзичливість;
смуток і торна; неспокій та турбота; і сумнівайся), вибравши a
підходящий для нього спосіб медитації і практикуючи медитацію з ретельністю
і ентузіазм. Наприклад, за допомогою методу Anapana він постійно стежить
вхідний і вихідний подих, поки він не зможе виправити його розум
надійно на дихання на кінчику носа.

Коли він усвідомлює, що п’ять перешкод були зняті він
стає радий, захоплений, спокійний і блаженний. Це початок
самадхі (концентрація), яка буде розвиватися до досягнення однозначності розуму.

Таким чином, однозначність розуму - концентрація розуму, коли вона
знає про один об’єкт і лише один з корисної природи. Це
досягається практикою медитації на одному з предметів
рекомендований для цілей Буддою.

Практичні методи психічного вирощування для розвитку знань з погляду (Паньша)

Предмет
і способи медитації, як навчали в суттах Пітака, призначені як для
досягнення самадхи, так і для розвитку знань про розуміння,
Віпассана-шана, як прямий шлях до ніббани.
Як другий крок у практиці медитації після досягнення самадхи,
коли концентрований розум очистився, твердий і незбагненний,
медитатор спрямовує і нахиляє його розум до розуміння знань (vipassanā-шана). З цим розумінням знання він розрізняє три характеристики
феноменального світу: непостійність (анікка), страждання (дукха) і
несамостійність (анатта).

Коли він просунувся у своїй практиці, і його розум стає все більше і більше
більш очищений, твердий і незбагненний, він спрямовує і нахиляє його розум
до пізнання вимирання моральних домішок (асавакхая сана). Тоді він справді розуміє дукху, причину дукхи, припинення дукхи і шлях, що веде до припинення дукхи. Він також приходить до повного розуміння моральних інтоксикантів
(āsavas), як вони дійсно є, причиною āsavas, припиненням āsavas та
шляху, який призводить до припинення āsavas.

З цим знанням вимирання āsavas він стає
звільнений Знання про звільнення виникає в ньому. Він це знає
не перероджується більше, що він прожив святе життя. Він зробив те, що він
повинен робити для реалізації magga. Йому нічого більше для такої реалізації.

Будда викладав лише з одним об’єктом - вимиранням
страждання та звільнення від умовного існування. Цей об’єкт може бути
отримані практикою медитації (для спокою та проникливості) як закладена
вниз у численних суттах Суттанта Пітака.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Bandura, the Ukrainian lute-zither - Live Music @ RN
Etienne de Lavaulx
Published on Jan 3, 2014
This is the Largo from the Lute Concerto in D major by Antonio Vivaldi.
Note that I use the D major chord sometimes as a D minor chord by
muting the F# note (1st left) with the thumb and borrowing an F natural
from the F major chord (next chord to the right).

I am using my 6-chord zither, a 100 years old German instrument. See details of the decorations in the video.
Category
Music


Ukrainian-born Australian musician Larysa Kovalchuk…
youtube.com

98 Classical Urdu

98 کلاسیکی اردو

2532 Wed 14 Feb 2018 سبق

سوتاٹا پتاچا کیا ہے؟

روایتی بدھ مت (شعور کے بارے میں شعور کی تدریس) دنیا سے متعلق ہے اور ہر فرد کے لئے انفرادی حقوق ہیں:
دنیا بھر میں لاکھوں لوگوں کو بدھسٹ اور ٹیکنو - پولیٹیکس سماجی تبدیلی
اور اقتصادی تحریک کے بارے میں بیداری پر مبنی اشتہارات اور تحقیق میں
انتہائی احترام کیا جاتا ہے.

اس
ترجمہ کا ترجمہ Google Translate https://translate.google.com کی طرف سے
ترجمہ کیا جاتا ہے اور ترجمہ کی زبان میں ترجمہ کرنے والی ندی اندراج
(قانونی) اور حتمی منزل کے لئے حتمی ترجمہ میں ترجمہ کی جاتی ہے.
تجزیہ انٹیل نیٹ - مفت آن لائن تجزیہ- انڈیکی - نکی ڈپکٹکٹ ریسرچ اینڈ
ٹریننگ یونیورسٹی اور متعلقہ خبر کا ذریعہ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
105 کلاسیکی زبانیں

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch؟v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 بپا پاٹا سوٹ - سائنس ڈویژن
دھرماموکا سڈوس
11 نومبر، 2013 کو اشاعت
قسم
غیر منافع بخش اور فنکشنل

Digai Nikus 9 بپا پاٹا سوٹ - سائنس ڈویژن
youtube.com

Dickica نیزا: طویل بات
The
Digi Nicka یا “لانگ شیرمان مجموعہ” (بالی ڈیگا = “لانگ”)
سوڈا پٹاکا کی پہلی تقسیم، اور تیسری
تین وینگن، یا حصوں میں تقسیم:
accesstoinsight.org

سوٹ پڈکا
The
بدھ اور چند مبینہ جاسوس، یا خطبہوں کا مجموعہ
ان کے قریبی شاگردوں میں تمام مرکزی تعلیمات شامل ہیں
دورہ بدھ مت. (ایک ہزار سے زیادہ ترجمہ
یہ ویب سائٹ دستیاب ہے.) انگریزی میں پانچ اہم (پیکجوں) میں تقسیم کیا گیا ہے:

Digi Nikaya - “طویل مجموعہ”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
بدھ کا نیا گانا
153،375 خیالات

Cuttunta؟

تمام بات چیت کا ایک مجموعہ سوتتاٹا بیڈارا ہے
بہت سے معاملات میں بدھ کو دیا گیا تھا. کچھ
کچھ مشہور شاگردوں کی خط
بدھ، ہیلو، مہا موگللہ قیمتی ہے
انتھندا، اور کچھ وضاحت اور کتابیں بھی شامل ہیں
Funky prigved. بدھ کی بات چیت ایک ساتھ جمع کی گئی تھی
سوتھنٹا بندرگاہ کئی مواقع پر منظم کیا گیا تھا
مختلف موڈ کے ساتھ مختلف ناظرین. حوصلہ افزائی کے باوجود
اکثر بکس کو فائدہ اور انتظام کرنے کے لئے ڈیزائن کیا گیا ہے
خالص زندگی کی عملی اور تدریس کی ایک مختصر وضاحت کے ساتھ،
ایسی باتیں ہیں جو بہت سی باتیں کرتے ہیں
نظم و نسق میں بہتری

خالص مور نے بدھ کا معنی ظاہر کیا ہے
تعلیمات واضح طور پر ظاہر، حفاظت اور حفاظت
وقفے اور غلط تشریح. کی طرف سے ایک تار کی طرح
ان کے کام میں کارپینوں کو کم کرنے کے لئے ایک پرچی ٹیکس
پھول پھول کے دوران پھولوں کی بکھرنے یا پھیلانے کی حفاظت کرتی ہے
اسی طرح، بدھ کی تفہیم کے معنی کے ذریعے
تعلیمات کو واضح طور پر اظہار کیا جا سکتا ہے، سمجھ، سمجھ،
اس نے غلط وضاحت سے صحیح تحفظ دی.

Sundance بیجیکا نکوس کے پانچ علیحدہ تقسیم میں تقسیم کیا جاتا ہے. وہ ڈیجی نکیا، مججہیما نکا، سیلٹا نکا، اکتوارا نکا، کوکا نککا ہیں.

بدھ کی تعلیمات میں نگرانی اور عمل

سوتھنٹا پورٹ کے پاؤں پر
اخلاقی اور اخلاقی معیار کے طریقے
روز مرہ کی زندگی کے لئے درخواست دیں. تمام مطالعات اور طریقہ کار بنائے جاتے ہیں
بدھ کے آٹھ حصوں نے بدھ کے راستے کے روحانی راستے کی قیادت کی ہے
ریفائننگ کے تین درجے:

شیلا اخلاقی پاکیزگی کے ذریعے مناسب سلوک.

قبر کے ذریعے دماغ کی پاکیزگی

وینٹیناینا نے مراقبت سے قلم کی فہم کو صاف کیا.

ابتدائی طور پر، آپ کو پناہ لینے کا صحیح فیصلہ کرنا چاہئے
بدھ کی تعلیمات اور رہنمائی پر عمل کریں
ایسوسی ایشن. امید کے اعلان کا پہلا شاگرد
بدھ اور اس کی تعلیمات دونوں کی پیروی کرنا چاہئے
کاروباری بھائی، تاپاسا اور بلہہ. انہوں نے ان کے ساتھ سفر کیا
بدھ نے پانچ سو شاگردوں کو دیکھا
لکڑی کا درخت ان کی روشنی کے بعد تھا. دو تاجر
اس نے شہد چاول کیک دی. وہ ان کا تحفہ قبول کریں گے اور توڑیں گے
سات ہفتوں کے لئے وہ خود، بدھ
اور جب وہ بیٹھ گیا تو اس کے شاگرد اس کے پاس آئے اور کہا،

بودھی سارنگم (میں کتاب میں کتاب)

جہنم صاحب (میں صدقہ کر رہا ہوں)

یہ مصالحت تبدیل کر دیا گیا تھا
بدھ اور ان کی تعلیمات. اس کے بعد ایسوسی ایشن قائم کی گئی
تیسرے باب کو شامل کرنے کے لئے، یہ فارمولہ بڑھایا گیا ہے:

سنگاکارا سران کاکمی (میں کلب میں پناہ لینا چاہتا ہوں)


الیمس دینے کا صحیح راستہ

فوری طور پر اور فائدہ مند استعمال کے قابل ہونے والے ایک عملی قدم کے طور پر
زندگی کے تمام پہلوؤں میں لوگوں نے بدھ کو صدقہ عطا کیا
اس کی فضیلت کی وضاحت، اور صحیح راستہ اور صحیح رویے پر
ذہنی فائدہ کے لئے جس کی پیشکش کی جاتی ہے اس کے ساتھ ذہن کا اظہار کریں.

صدقہ کے ایک فعل میں حوصلہ افزائی قوت یہ ہے کہ وہ
دینا پڑے گا. چیرٹی ایک مشکوک عمل ہے جو صرف اس سے پیدا ہوتا ہے
جلد دینے کے بغیر وہاں دینے کا کوئی فعل نہیں ہے. حجم
زکوۃ دینے میں تین اقسام ہیں:

(1) اس سوچ کے ساتھ شروع ہوتا ہے جس کا ارتکاب “میں ایک بناؤں گا
پیشکش “اور اس کے قیام کے دوران تیاری کے دوران موجود ہے
پیشکش: پبلبا سنتھا (ایکٹ سے قبل ارتکاب).

(2) یہ پیشکش جس میں پیشکش کرنے کے وقت پیدا ہوتا ہے جبکہ اسے وصول کنندہ تک پہنچاتا ہے: منکا سنت (فعل کے دوران ارتقاء).

(3) خوشی اور خوشحالی کے ساتھ وابستہ جس میں پیدا ہوتا ہے
دینے کے عمل کے بار بار دوبارہ یا عکاسی کے دوران: اپارا سنت (ایکٹ کے بعد ارتکاب).

چاہے پیشکش بدھ بدھ میں ہو یا ہو
اس کے رشتہ داروں کا ایک لمحہ ذرہ تک پہنچنے کے بعد، یہ ہے
آلودگی، اس کی طاقت اور پاکیزگی، جو اس کی نوعیت کا تعین کرتی ہے
اس کا نتیجہ

حوصلہ افزائی بھی دماغ کے غلط رویوں کی وضاحت کرتا ہے جس کے ساتھ صدقہ کی کوئی کارروائی نہیں کی جاسکتی ہے.

ایک ڈونر دوسروں پر نظر ڈالنے سے بچنے کے لۓ جو کوئی نہیں بنا سکتا
اسی طرح کی پیشکش اور نہ ہی وہ اپنے خیرات کا جشن مناتے ہیں. کی طرف سے سروے
اس طرح کے ناپسندیدہ خیالات ان کی آلودگی صرف ایک کمتر گریڈ ہے.

جب صدقہ کے ایک عمل کی توقعات کی طرف سے حوصلہ افزائی کی جاتی ہے
فوری طور پر خوشحالی اور خوشی یا دوبارہ تعمیر کے فائدہ مند نتائج
اعلی وجودوں کے ساتھ ساتھ وجوہات کے طور پر میڈیکل کے طور پر درجہ بندی کی جاتی ہے.

یہ صرف اس وقت ہوتا ہے جب ضائع کرنے کی اچھی کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کیا جاتا ہے
خالص بے معنی کے خیالات کی طرف سے حوصلہ افزائی کی ایک روح کی روح،
صرف نباھن کے لئے حاصل کرنے کے لئے امید ہے جہاں سب تکلیف دہ ختم ہو جاتی ہے، اس عمل کو بنیادی طور پر انحصار کرنے کے لۓ اعلی گریڈ

صدقہ اور خیرات دینے کے طریقے کے بارے میں حوصلہ افزائی میں بہت عمدہ مثال موجود ہیں.

صحیح طرز عمل کے ذریعہ اخلاقی پاکیزگی: سیلا

سییلا کا عمل ایک اہم بنیاد ہے
بدھ کی تعلیم یہ دائیں تقریر، دائیں بازی پر مبنی ہے
ایکشن، اور حق لوازمات خود کو غیر معمولی اعمال، الفاظ اور صاف کرنے کے لئے
خیالات تین گنا پناہ گزینوں کے عزم کے ساتھ ساتھ (جیسے
مندرجہ بالا بیان کیا گیا ہے) ایک چھوٹا شاگرد شاگرد بنا کر پانچ اصولوں کو دیکھتا ہے
رسمی واہ کے بعد:

(1) میں قتل سے بچنے کے لۓ جانے کا دعوی کرنے کا ارادہ رکھتا ہوں.

(2) میں چوری سے بچنے کے لۓ منعقد کرنے کے لۓ کام کرتا ہوں.

(3) میں جنسی بدعنوانی سے بچنے کی قبولیت کا مشاہدہ کرنا چاہتا ہوں.

(4) میں جھوٹ بولنے سے روکنے کی مانند کا مشاہدہ کرنا چاہتا ہوں.

(5) میں شراب الکحل، منشیات یا ذہنی طور پر دماغ کو بادلوں سے بچنے کی مانند کرنے کا ارادہ رکھتا ہوں.

مندرجہ ذیل فارمولہ کے منفی پہلو کے علاوہ، جسے ہمدردی پر زور دیتے ہیں، وہاں بھی سییلا کا مثبت پہلو بھی ہے.
مثال کے طور پر، ہم بہت سے حوصلہ افزائی میں تلاش کرتے ہیں بیان: “وہ واپس آتا ہے
قتل سے، فرق اور تلوار کو الگ رکھتا ہے؛ رحم کی مکمل اور
شفقت وہ تمام زندہ چیزوں کی فلاح و بہبود اور خوشی کے لئے رہتا ہے. “
فارمولا میں رکھی جانے والے ہر پہلوے میں یہ دو پہلوؤں ہیں.

انفرادی اور ان کی ترقی کے مرحلے پر منحصر ہے،
دیگر مواقع (مثال کے طور پر آٹھ مواقع، دس مواقع) ہوسکتے ہیں
مشاہدہ کیا. اعلی اور اعلی درجے کی اقسام کے حکم کے bhikkhus کے لئے
اخلاقیات کے طریقوں کو مقرر کیا جاتا ہے. پانچ احکام ہمیشہ رہیں گے
ان کی طرف سے مشاہدہ کیا شاگردوں، جو کبھی کبھی ان میں اضافہ کر سکتے ہیں
آٹھ یا دس مواقع کو دیکھ کر خود کی نظم. ان لوگوں کے لئے جو
پہلے سے ہی ایک مقدس زندگی کے راستے پر دس دس مواقع ہیں
مزید ترقی کے لئے ضروری ابتدائی.

کامل پاکیزگی کے سیال ترقی کے اگلے مرحلے کے لئے ایک بنیاد کے طور پر کام کرتا ہے، توجہ مرکوز مراقبہ کے ذریعے دماغ کی نمائش کی.
ارتکاب کی ترقی کے لئے دماغی زراعت کے عملی طریقوں: سامی

معنوی کشتی کے لئے دماغی پودے دو مرحلے پر مشتمل ہوتے ہیں.
پہلا قدم دماغ کو تمام خرابی اور بدعنوانی سے پاک کرنا ہے
اور یہ ایک ہی نقطہ پر توجہ مرکوز کرنے کے لئے. ایک مقررہ کوشش (دائیں
کوشش) میں خیالات کی حد کو محدود کرنے کے لئے بنایا جانا چاہئے
بہار، غیر مستحکم دماغ. پھر توجہ (حق Mindfulness یا
توجہ مرکوز) مراقبہ کے منتخب کردہ اعتراض پر طے کیا جانا چاہئے
دماغ کی ایک نشاندہی (دائیں سنجیدگی) حاصل کی جاتی ہے. اس طرح میں
ریاست، دماغ کے اندر اندر محدود، خالص، پرسکون، طاقتور سے آزاد ہو جاتا ہے
اور روشن. اس
کے بعد دوسرا قدم آگے بڑھنے کے لئے تیار ہے جس کے ذریعے افسوس اور افسوس
کی حالت کو ختم کرنے کے لئے میگگا بصیرت اور فلوشن حاصل کی جاسکتی ہے.

سوٹتا پاٹاکا نے مراقبہ کے بہت سے طریقوں کو ریکارڈ کیا
دماغ کی ایک نشاندہی لانے کے. مراقبہ کے یہ طریقے ہیں
پٹاٹا کے پورے سٹروں میں پھیل گیا اور اس کی وضاحت کی گئی
اس موقع کے مطابق بدھ کو بعض اوقات اجتماعی طور پر سنگاپور کرتے ہیں
اور جس مقصد کے لئے وہ سفارش کی جاتی ہیں. بدھ کو جانتا تھا
ہر شخص اور اس کے ذہن میں متعدد کردار اور ذہنی مماثلت
مختلف درجہ حرارت اور ان لوگوں کے مباحثے جنہوں نے ان کے ساتھ رابطہ کیا
رہنمائی اس کے مطابق انہوں نے مختلف طریقے سے مختلف طریقوں کی سفارش کی
افراد کو ہر شخص کی خاص کردار اور ضرورت کو پورا کرنا ہے.

ذہنی پودے کی مشق جس کے نتیجے میں بالآخر دماغ کی ایک نشاندہی میں پایا جاتا ہے وہ سمعی بھان کے طور پر جانا جاتا ہے. جو بھی چاہے وہ سمعی بھان کو تیار کرنا چاہتا ہے
لازمی احکامات کے مطابق، اس کے ساتھ قائم ہونا لازمی ہے
حساس کنٹرول، پرسکون اور خود سے تعلق رکھنے والے، اور متفق ہونا ضروری ہے.
ان چار حالات میں قائم ہونے کے بعد انہیں ایک جگہ کا انتخاب کرنا ہوگا
مراقبہ کے لئے مناسب، ایک علیحدہ جگہ. پھر اسے بیٹھنا چاہئے
اس کے جسم کو برقرار رکھنے اور ان کے دماغ کے انتباہ کو برقرار رکھنا. اسے شروع کرنا چاہئے
پانچ رکاوٹوں کے دماغ کو صاف کرنا (جنسی خواہش؛ بیمار ہو گا؛
سلاٹ اور torpor؛ بے چینی اور فکر؛ اور شکست) منتخب کرکے
ان کے لئے مناسب مراقبہ کا طریقہ اور حوصلہ افزائی کرنے کا مشق
اور جوش و جذبہ مثال کے طور پر، اناپانا کے طریقہ کار سے وہ دیکھتے رہتا ہے
آنے والے اور باہر جانے والی سانس تک جب تک وہ اس کا دماغ مقرر نہ کرسکے
ناک کے خلیات میں محفوظ طور پر سانس پر.

جب وہ سمجھتا ہے کہ پانچ رکاوٹوں کو ہٹا دیا گیا ہے
چمکدار، پرسکون اور پرسکون ہو جاتا ہے. یہ آغاز ہے
سمعی (حراستی) کی، جس میں مزید ترقی ملے گی جب تک کہ دماغ کی ایک نشاندہی حاصل نہ ہو.

اس طرح دماغ کی ایک نشاندہی دماغ کی شدت ہے
ایک چیز سے واقف ہے، اور صرف ایک قدرتی فطرت میں سے ایک ہے. یہ وہ جگہ ہے
ایک مضامین پر مراقبہ کے عمل سے حاصل ہوا
بدھ نے اس مقصد کے لئے سفارش کی.

اندرونی علم کی ترقی کے لئے دماغانہ زراعت کے عملی طریقے (پیانا)

پٹھاکا
کے سوٹ میں سکھایا کے طور پر مراقبہ کے موضوع اور طریقوں کو سمہ کی حاصل
کرنے کے لئے اور نوبن کے لئے براہ راست راستہ کے طور پر، بصیرت علم،
ویپاسانا ینہائے، کی ترقی کے لئے تیار کیا گیا ہے.
سامہ کو حاصل کرنے کے بعد مراقبہ کے عمل میں دوسرا مرحلہ کے طور پر،
جب توجہ مرکوز پاک، مضبوط اور ناقابل اعتماد بن گیا ہے،
مداخلت ہدایت دیتا ہے اور ان کے دماغ کو بصیرت علم (vipassanā-āṇa) میں شامل کرتا ہے. اس بصیرت کے علم کے ساتھ وہ غیر معمولی دنیا کی تین خصوصیات کو سمجھتے ہیں: امانت (عنککا)، مصیبت (دوکھا) اور غیر نفس (انتھا).

جیسا کہ وہ اپنی مشق میں پیش رفت کرتا ہے اور اس کا دماغ زیادہ اور زیادہ ہوتا ہے
زیادہ پاک، مضبوط اور ناقابل اطمینان بخش، وہ اپنے دل کو ہدایت دیتا ہے اور اس کو مائل کرتا ہے
اخلاقی ناداریوں کے خاتمے کے بارے میں علماء کے بارے میں. اس کے بعد وہ دوکھا، کوکھا کے سبب، دوکھاہ کی روک تھام اور دوکھا کے خاتمے کا راستہ سمجھتے ہیں. انہوں نے مکمل طور پر اخلاقی زہریلا (اطاعت) کو سمجھنے کے لئے بھی آتا ہے
کیونکہ وہ واقعی ہیں، اسباب کا سبب، اطاعت کی روک تھام اور اطاعت کے خاتمے
کا راستہ.

اسحاق کے خاتمے کے اس علم کے ساتھ وہ بن جاتا ہے
آزاد. آزادی کا علم اس میں پیدا ہوتا ہے. وہ جانتا ہے
دوبارہ تعمیر نہیں ہے، کہ وہ مقدس زندگی گذارتا ہے. اس نے کیا کیا ہے
مجگا کی تعریف کے لئے کرنا ہے. اس احساس کے لۓ اس کے لئے کچھ بھی نہیں ہے.

بھوہ نے صرف ایک ہی چیز کے ساتھ سکھایا تھا
حالت میں وجود سے تکلیف اور رہائی. یہ اعتراض ہوسکتا ہے
مراقبہ کی مشق (پرسکون اور بصیرت کے لئے) کے طور پر رکھی ہوئی ہے
سوٹتا پانٹاکا کے متعدد سوٹ میں.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Anarkali ISHQ Urdu Farsi mix song
SALEEMCLPK
Published on Aug 13, 2009
This Urdu Farsi mix song is based on true love story between Shahzada Saleem n Anarkali
Category
Music


This Urdu Farsi mix song is based on true love story between Shahzada Saleem n Anarkali
youtube.com


99 Classical Uzbek
99 Klassik o’zbek

2532 Ssh 14 Fevral, 2018 Dars

SUTTANTA PIÊAKA NIMA?

An’anaviy buddizm (ogohlikni tushunish ta’limoti) dunyoga tegishli va har bir kishi uchun shaxsiy huquqqa ega:
Butun dunyodagi millionlab insonlar buddist va texnolitekst ijtimoiy
o’zgarish va iqtisodiy harakatlarning xabardorligi asosida reklama va
tadqiqotlarda katta hurmatga sazovor.

Ushbu
tarjimaning tarjimasi https://translate.google.com uz tarjimasi bilan
tarjima qilinib, so’nggi manzilga nasldan naslga o’tish (huquqiy) va
yakuniy tarjimaga tarjima tiliga tarjima qilingan.
Intel-Net - Bepul Onlayn tahlil - Indik-Niki Dipiktaka Tadqiqot va
Ta’lim Universiteti va unga tegishli yangiliklar manbasi
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Klassik tillar

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Ilmiy bo’limi
Dharmamoka Sudus
2013 yil 11 noyabrda nashr qilindi
Turkum
Nonprofits & Funktsional

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Ilmiy bo’limi
youtube.com

Dikica Nisa: uzoq gapirish
Ushbu
Digi Nika yoki “Uzoq Sharman to’plami” (Bali Diga = “Uzoq”)
Suda Pitakaning birinchi bo’linmasi va o’ttiz to’rtta
Uch vagonlar yoki bo’limlarga bo’lingan:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka
Ushbu
Budda va bir nechta josuslar, yoki va’zlarning to’plami
Uning eng yaqin shogirdlari barcha markaziy ta’limotlarni o’z ichiga oladi
Thervata buddizm. (Mingdan ortiq tarjimalar
Ushbu veb-sayt mavjud.) Iglese besh asosiyga bo’linadi (paketlar):

Digi Nikaya - “uzoq kollektsiya”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Buddaning yangi qo’shig’i
153.375 ko’rib chiqildi

Cuttunta?

Barcha suhbatlarning to’plami Suttona Bidara
Ko’p hollarda Buddaga berildi. Biroz
Ba’zi taniqli shogirdlarning maktublari
Buddha, salom, Maha Mogalla, qimmatli
Anthanda, shuningdek, ba’zi tushuntirishlar va kitoblar
Funky prigved. Buddaning suhbatlari birgalikda to’plandi
Sutton porti bir necha bor tashkil etilgan
Turli kayfiyatdagi turli tomoshabinlar. Nutqlarga qaramay
Ko’pincha bikus foyda olish va boshqarish uchun mo’ljallangan
Amaliy va pok hayotni o’rganishning qisqacha ta’rifi bilan,
Ko’p narsa haqida gapiradigan narsalar bor
Intizomni takomillashtirish

Toza tovus Buddaning ma’nosini ochib beradi
Ta’limotlar aniq namoyon bo’ladi, himoya qiladi va himoya qiladi
Buzuqlik va noto’g'ri talqin. Nomi bilan bir qatorda
Ishchilarga duradgorliklarni kamaytirish uchun silkituvchi soliq
Gullar gullash vaqtida gullarning tarqalishini yoki tarqalishini himoya qiladi
Xuddi shunday, Budda tushunchasi ma’nosida ham
Ta’limotlar aniq ifoda etilgan, tushunilgan, tushunilgan,
U noto’g'ri tushuntirishdan to’g'ri himoya qildi.

Sundance Bijica Nikosning beshta bo’linishiga bo’lingan. Ular Digi Nikaya, Majihihima Nika, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika.

Budda ta’limotida monitoring va amaliyot

Sutton portining etagida
Axloqiy va axloqiy me’yorlar uchun uslublar
Kundalik hayot uchun murojaat qiling. Barcha tadqiqotlar va tartiblar yaratilgan
Buddaning sakkizta qismi Budda yo’lining ruhiy yo’llariga olib boradi
Qayta tozalashning uch darajasi:

Shaytonning axloqiy pokligi to’g'ri xatti-harakatlar orqali.

Mozor orqali aqlning pokligi

Vinsentina meditatsiya orqali qalam tushunishni tozalaydi.

Dastlab, panoh topish uchun to’g'ri qaror qabul qilishingiz kerak
Budda ta’limoti va yo’l-yo’rig’iga rioya qiling
Uyushma. Birinchi shogirdlar umidni e’lon qilishdi
Buddaning ham, uning ta’limotlari ham amal qilishi kerak
Ishbilarmonlar, Tapusa va Balkxa. Ular bilan birga sayohat qildilar
Budda besh yuzta shogirdni ko’rdi
Yog’och daraxti uning bilimidan so’ng edi. Ikki savdogar
U asal guruch kekini berdi. Ular o’zlarining hadyalarini qabul qilishadi va yo’q qilishadi
Etti hafta mobaynida o’zi, Budda
Pavlus o’tirganda, shogirdlari uning oldiga kelib:

Buddist sarangam (kitobda men kitob)

Darmon sir (men sadaqa qilaman)

Ushbu kelishuv o’zgarishi forma sifatida o’zgartirildi
Budda va uning ta’limoti. Keyin uyushma tashkil etildi
Uchinchi qismni kiritish uchun ushbu formula kengaytiriladi:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (men klubga boshpana beraman)

Zakot berishning to’g'ri yo’li

Favqulodda va samarali foydalanishga qodir amaliy qadam sifatida
Budda hayotning barcha jabhalarida odamlarga sadaqa haqida so’zlab berdi
uning fazilatlarini tushuntirish, to’g'ri yo’l va to’g'ri munosabat
aql-idrok bilan ma’naviy foyda keltirishi kerak.

Xayriya aktsiyasida g’ayratli kuch - bu irodadir
beradi. Xayriya merosi nafaqat tashqaridan kelib chiqadigan xayrli ishdir
irodasi. Berish irodasisiz, hech qanday ko’rsatma berilmaydi. Qolaversa
sadaqa berish uch turga bo’linadi:

(1) “Men qilaman” degan fikr bilan boshlangan irodasi
taklif qilish “va tayyorgarlik vaqtida mavjud
taklif: pubba setanā (harakatdan oldin irodasi).

(2) Qabul qiluvchiga topshirilayotganda kelib chiqadigan irodasi: muñca setanā (harakatlar paytida irodasi).

(3) Hodisani va sevinch bilan birga kelgan irodasi
berilish aktiga takroran eslab qolinish yoki aks ettirishda: apara cetanā (harakatdan so’ng irodasi).

Tirik Buddani yoki unga hurmat-ehtirom bilan qurbonlik qilishni xohlaysizmi
uning o’tmishidan keyin uning zodagonlarining bir daqiqali zaharli qismiga, bu
irodasi, kuch va pokligi, bu tabiatning xususiyatlarini belgilaydi
natijalari.

So’zlarda shuningdek, xayriya harakatlari bajarilmasligi kerak bo’lgan noto’g'ri nuqtai nazarlar ham tushuntiriladi.

Donor, qila olmaydigan boshqalarga qarashdan qochish kerak
shunga o’xshash taklif ham, o’z xayr-ehsonini nishonlamaydi. Noprofitlangan
Bunday niyatsiz fikrlar uning irodasi faqat past darajali.

Agar xayriya aktsiyasiga umid bog’lashda asos bo’lsa
zudlik bilan farovonlik va baxtning yoki qayta tug’ilishning foydali natijalari
yuqori mavjudotlar unga qo’shib berilgan vasiyat vasat deb tasniflanadi.

Faqat sadaqa berishning xayrli ishlari amalga oshiriladi
sof fusunlik fikrlari asosida harakat qilishni rad etish ruhi,
barcha azob-uqubatlar tugaydigan nibbana etishga intiladigan bo’lsa, bu harakatning asosiy maqsadi oliy darajadagi

Zakot berish va sadaqa berish usullari haqida ko’plab misollar mavjud.

Xulq-atvorda axloqiy poklik: Sīla

Siyoda amaliyoti eng muhim jihatidir
Buddaning ta’limoti. Bu to’g'ri gapirish amaliyotidan, to’g'ri
Harakatlar va to’g'ri hayotiylik, nopok ishlarni, so’zlarni va o’zlarini poklashni talab qiladi
fikrlar. Uchta Qochqinning majburiyatlari bilan birgalikda (masalan
yuqorida tavsiflangan) beshta amrni sinchkovlik bilan o’rganib chiqadi
quyidagi rasmiy va’dalarni

(1) Men qatag’ondan voz kechishni buyuraman.

(2) Men o’g'irlikdan voz kechishni buyuraman.

(3) Men jinsiy zo’ravonlikdan voz kechishni buyuraman.

(4) Yolg’on so’zlashdan saqlanishni buyuraman.

(5) Men aqldan ozgan spirtli ichimliklar, giyohvand moddalar yoki ichkilikbozlikdan saqlanishni buyuraman.

Yuqorida keltirilgan formulaning salbiy tomonlaridan tashqari, ibodatning ijobiy jihati ham bor.
Misol uchun, biz ko’plab nutqlarda quyidagi so’zlarni topamiz: “U taqiqlaydi
o’ldirishdan tortib, pardoz va qilichni chetga suradi; Yaxshilikka to’la va
barcha jonzotlarning farovonligi va baxt-saodati uchun yashaydi. “
Formulada bayon etilgan har bir qoidada bu ikki jihat bor.

Insonga va uning rivojlanish bosqichiga qarab,
Boshqa qoidalar (masalan, sakkizta amr, o’nta amr) bo’lishi mumkin
kuzatilgan. Buyurtmaning bxikhusi uchun yuqori va oldingi turlari
axloqiy me’yorlar belgilab berilgan. Beshta amr har doim bo’lishi kerak
vaqti-vaqti bilan ularni yaxshilashlari mumkin bo’lgan shogirdlar tomonidan kuzatilgan
sakkiz yoki o’nta amrga rioya qilish orqali o’z-o’zini tartibga solish. Ularga ega bo’lganlar uchun
muqaddas hayot yo’lida allaqachon boshlangan o’nta amr bor
kelgusi taraqqiyotga erishish uchun zarur shart-sharoit yaratadi.

Mo'’tabar poklikning sliasi taraqqiyotning navbatdagi bosqichi,
aql-idrokning samoviy-pokligi konsentratsiyali fikrlash uchun asos
bo’lib xizmat qiladi.
Konsentratsiyani rivojlantirish uchun aqliy etishning amaldagi usullari: Samadiy

Ma’naviy yuksalish uchun aqliy etishtirish ikki bosqichdan iborat.
Birinchi qadam ongni har qanday buzuqliklardan va korruptsiyadan tozalashdir
va u bir nuqtaga yo’naltirilgan bo’lishi kerak. Aniq harakat (Right
Harakatlar) ichida fikrlar oralig’ini toraytirish uchun amalga oshirilishi kerak
jo’shqin, beqaror aql. Keyin diqqat (to’g'ri fikrlash yoki
Diqqat) tanlangan tanlangan meditasyon ob’ektiga qadar belgilanishi kerak
bir nuqtadan aql (to’g'ri konsentratsiya) ga erishiladi. Bunday
aql, to’siqlardan ozod bo’lib, sof, sokin, qudratli bo’ladi
va yorqin. Keyin
u ikkinchi bosqichga o’tishga tayyor, u orqali magyaning qayg’usi va
natijasi halokat va qayg’u holatini bartaraf etish uchun erishish
mumkin.

Suttanta Piṭaka ko’p meditatsiya usullarini qayd etadi
bir tomonlama fikrni keltiring. Bu meditatsiya usullari
Piṭaka sultonlari bo’ylab tarqalib ketgan va ular tomonidan tushuntirilgan
Buddaning ba’zan o’zi, ba’zan birgalikda, bayramga mos kelish uchun
va ular tavsiya etilgan maqsad. Budda bilardi
har bir shaxsning xarakteri va aqliy qobiliyatining xilma-xilligi
turli mo'’jizalar va unga murojaat qilganlarning moyilliklari
yo’l-yo’riq. Shunga ko’ra, u turli uslublarni turli xil usullar bilan tavsiya qilgan
har bir shaxsning o’ziga xos xususiyatiga va ehtiyojiga mos keladigan shaxslar.

Oxir-oqibat aql-idrokka asoslangan aqliy yetishtirish amaliyoti samādhi bhāvanā sifatida tanilgan. Kim samādhi bhāvanani rivojlantirishni xohlasa
qoidalarga rioya qilgan holda tuzilgan bo’lishi kerak
his-tuyg’ular nazorat ostida, xotirjam va o’z-o’zini egallab olgan va qoniqishli bo’lishi kerak.
Bu to’rt shart sharoitida tuzilgan bo’lishi kerak, u joyni tanlashi kerak
meditatsiya uchun mos, tanho nuqta. Keyin o’tirishi kerak
badanini mustahkam ushlab turuvchi va aqli zaif ekanligi; u boshlash kerak
beshta to’siqdan uning his-tuyg’ularini poklash (shahvatli orzu-niyatlar;
soxta va torasta; tashvish va xavotir; va shubha)
meditatsiya uslubi unga mos va g’ayrat bilan meditatsiya qilish
va g’ayrat. Misol uchun, Anapana usulida u tomosha qilmoqda
keladigan va ketayotgan nafas uning fikrini tuzatmaguncha
burun uchida nafas olishning xavfsizligini ta’minlaydi.

Beshta to’siqni olib tashlaganini u tushunganida
xursand, xursand, xotirjam va baxtiyor bo’ladi. Bu boshlanish
samodagi (kontsentratsiya), bu aqlning bir nuqtaga etguniga qadar rivojlanadi.

Shunday qilib, mulohazakorlik ongni zichlashtirishdir
bitta ob’ektdan xabardor va foydali xususiyatlardan faqat biri hisoblanadi. Bu
mavzularning birida meditatsiya amaliyoti orqali erishildi
Budda tomonidan tavsiya etilgan.

Inson bilimining rivojlanishi uchun aqliy etishning amaldagi usullari (Paññā)

Piṭaka
sultasida ta’lim beriladigan meditatsiya mavzusi va usullari samadiyga
erishish uchun hamda nibbana uchun to’g'ridan-to’g'ri yo’l sifatida
Vipassana āmanga tushunchasi bilimlarini rivojlantirish uchun
mo’ljallangan.
Samudiyga erishgandan keyin meditatsiya amaliyotida ikkinchi qadam bo’lib,
konsentratsiyali aql poklangan, qattiq va ishonchsiz bo’lgan,
meditator o’z fikrini bilimga (vipassanā-āmanga) yo’naltiradi va yo’naltiradi. Bu bilim bilan u ajoyib dunyoni uchta xususiyatini: abadiyat (anikka), azob (dukka) va o’z-o’zidan (anattan) uchratadi.

U o’z amaliyotida oldinga siljiydi va uning fikri ham ko’payib boradi
tozaligini, qat’iyatliligini va ishonchini qozonishni istamaydi, u o’z fikrini boshqaradi va unga moyil bo’ladi
axloqiy iflosliklarni yo’qotish to’g'risidagi bilimga (āavavakkhaya āmanga). Shundan
so’ng u dukhani, dukhaning sababini, dukhaning to’xtab qolilishini va
dukhani to’xtatishga olib boradigan yo’lni chinakam tushunadi.
U shuningdek, axloqiy moxovlarni (asavoslarni) aslida, asavalarning
sababini, Oasoning to’xtashini va Osoavlarni to’xtatishga olib boradigan
yo’lni to’liq tushunish uchun keladi.

Osoavalarning yo’q bo’lib ketishi haqidagi bu ma’lumotga erishiladi
ozod qilindi. Ozodlik bilimi u ichida paydo bo’ladi. U buni biladi
qayta tug’ilish endi emas, balki u muqaddas hayot kechirgan. U nima qilgan bo’lsa
Maggani sotish uchun nima qilish kerak. Bunday amalga oshirish uchun unga boshqa hech narsa kerak emas.

Budda faqat bir narsaga - o’rinsiz yo’qotishga o’rgatdi
azob-uqubat va shartli mavjudotlardan ozod qilish. Ushbu ob’ekt bo’lishi mumkin
meditatsiya amaliyoti (tinchlik va anglash uchun) bilan olingan
Suttanta Pitakaning ko’plab sultalarida.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
fahriddin umarov ” umr o`tmoqda”
ibrokhim75
Published on Feb 12, 2011
Category

Music


youtube.com

100 Classical Vietnamese

100 cổ điển Việt Nam

2532 Thứ Tư, 14 tháng 2 năm 2018 Bài học

SUTTANTA PIṬAKA LÀ GÌ?

Đạo Phật truyền thống (giáo huấn nhận biết nhận thức) thuộc về thế giới và có các quyền cá nhân cho mọi người:
Hàng triệu người trên khắp thế giới được đánh giá cao trong việc quảng
cáo và nghiên cứu, dựa trên nhận thức về sự thay đổi xã hội của Phật
giáo và kỹ thuật-đa văn và phong trào kinh tế.

Bản
dịch của bản dịch này được dịch bởi Google Translate
https://translate.google.com và dịch sang ngôn ngữ dịch sang bản nhập
dòng suối (pháp lý) và bản dịch cuối cùng cho đích cuối cùng.
Phân tích Intel-Net - Free Online Analysis- Indik-Niki Dipiktaka
Nghiên cứu và Đào tạo Đại học và nguồn tin tức có liên quan
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Ngôn ngữ cổ điển

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Khoa Khoa học
Dharmamoka Sudus
Được xuất bản vào ngày 11 tháng 11 năm 2013
thể loại
Phi lợi nhuận và chức năng

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Khoa Khoa học
youtube.com

Dickica nisa: nói chuyện dài
Các
Digi Nicka hoặc “Bộ sưu tập Long Sharman” (Bali Diga = “Long”)
Bộ phận đầu tiên của Suda Pitaka, và ba mươi bốn
Ba toa xe, hoặc được chia thành các phần:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka
Các
Đức Phật và một vài điệp viên bị cáo buộc, hoặc một tập hợp các bài giảng
Các môn đệ gần nhất của Ngài bao gồm tất cả các giáo lý trung tâm
Phật giáo Thervata. (Hơn một nghìn bản dịch
Trang web này có sẵn.) Iglese được chia thành năm gói chính (gói):

Digi Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập dài”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Bài hát mới của Đức Phật
153.375 lượt xem

Cuttunta?

Một bộ sưu tập của tất cả các cuộc hội thoại là Sutthanta Bidara
Trong nhiều trường hợp Ðức Phật đã được ban cho. Một số
Thư của một số môn đệ nổi tiếng
Đức Phật, Xin chào, Maha Mogalla, quý giá
Anthanda, cũng như một số lời giải thích và sách
Funky prigved. Các cuộc hội thoại của Đức Phật được tập hợp lại với nhau
Cảng Sutthanta được bố trí nhiều lần
Người xem khác nhau với những tâm trạng khác nhau. Mặc dù các bài giảng
Bikus thường được thiết kế để mang lại lợi ích và quản lý
Với một mô tả ngắn gọn về thực tế và giảng dạy về cuộc sống thuần túy,
Có những điều nói về rất nhiều thứ
Cải tiến kỷ luật

Con công hoàn toàn cho thấy ý nghĩa của Đức Phật
Các giáo lý rõ ràng tiết lộ, bảo vệ và bảo vệ
Méo mó và giải thích sai. Giống như một chuỗi thay mặt cho
Một khoản thuế trơn để giảm thợ mộc trong công việc của họ
Hoa bảo vệ sự tán xạ hoặc tán xạ của hoa trong quá trình ra hoa
Tương tự như vậy, thông qua ý nghĩa của sự hiểu biết của Đức Phật
Các giáo lý có thể được trình bày rõ ràng, hiểu, hiểu,
Ông đã đưa ra sự bảo vệ chính xác từ lời giải thích sai.

Sundance được chia thành 5 bộ phận riêng biệt của Bijica Nikos. Họ là Digi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika.

Theo dõi và thực hành trong giáo lý của Đức Phật

Ở chân cảng Sutthanta
Các phương pháp về các tiêu chuẩn luân lý và luân lý
Áp dụng cho cuộc sống hàng ngày. Tất cả các nghiên cứu và thủ tục được tạo ra
8 phần của Đức Phật dẫn đến con đường thiêng liêng của con đường Phật
Ba cấp tinh chế:

Sheila-đạo đức tinh khiết thông qua hành vi đúng đắn.

Sự tinh khiết của tâm qua ngôi mộ

Vincentina làm sạch sự hiểu biết bằng bút bằng thiền.

Ban đầu, bạn nên có quyết định đúng để quy y
Làm theo những lời dạy và hướng dẫn của Đức Phật
Hiệp hội. Các đệ tử đầu tiên tuyên bố hy vọng
Cả Đức Phật và lời dạy của Ngài đều phải tuân theo
Anh em kinh doanh, Tapusa và Balkha. Họ đi cùng họ
Đức Phật nhìn thấy năm trăm môn đồ
Cây gỗ đã được sau khi giác ngộ của mình. Hai thương gia
Anh ta tặng bánh mật ong. Họ sẽ chấp nhận món quà của họ và chia tay
Trong bảy tuần lễ, chính Ngài là Phật
Khi Ngài ngồi dậy, các môn đồ đến gần Ngài mà rằng:

Phật sarangam (Tôi đặt trong sách)

Dharman sir (Tôi đang làm từ thiện)

Thay đổi đối chiếu này đã được thay đổi thành một biểu mẫu
Phật và những lời dạy của Ngài. Sau đó hiệp hội được thành lập
Để thêm một chương thứ ba, công thức này được mở rộng:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (Tôi trú ẩn trong câu lạc bộ)
Trên con đường đúng để bố thí

Là một bước thực tế có khả năng sử dụng ngay lập tức và hiệu quả bằng cách
những người trong tất cả các lĩnh vực của cuộc đời Đức Phật đã thuyết giảng về tổ chức từ thiện
giải thích các đức tính của nó, và đúng cách và thái độ đúng đắn của
tâm trí mà một lời đề nghị được thực hiện vì lợi ích tinh thần.

Động cơ thúc đẩy trong một hành động bác ái là ý chí,
sẽ cho. Từ thiện là một hành động xuất hiện chỉ phát sinh từ
ý chí. Không có ý muốn cho là không có hành động cho. Tình trạng
trong việc khất thực có ba loại:

(1) Sự bắt đầu với ý nghĩ “Tôi sẽ làm một
cung cấp “và tồn tại trong thời gian chuẩn bị để làm
sự cúng dường: pubba cetanā (ý nguyện trước hành động).

(2) Ý muốn nảy sinh trong lúc đưa ra lời đề nghị trong khi trao nó cho người nhận: muñca cetanā (ý nguyện trong hành động đó).

(3) Sự tham lam đi kèm với niềm vui và niềm vui nảy sinh
trong khi nhắc lại hay suy nghĩ lặp lại về hành động cho: apara cetanā (ý nguyện sau hành động).

Cho dù cung cấp được thực hiện trong sự tôn kính với Đức Phật sống hay
đến một hạt nhỏ của các di vật của ông sau khi ông qua đi, đó là
volition, sức mạnh và độ tinh khiết của nó, quyết định bản chất của
kết quả của nó.

Các bài giảng cũng giải thích thái độ không chính xác của tâm mà không có hành động bác ái nào nên được thực hiện.

Một nhà tài trợ nên tránh nhìn xuống những người khác không thể làm được
dâng hiến tương tự cũng không nên ăn mừng tổ chức từ thiện của mình. Bị ô nhiễm bởi
những ý nghĩ không xứng đáng như vậy chỉ có ý nghĩa của mình là một cấp thấp hơn.

Khi một hành động bác ái được thúc đẩy bởi sự mong đợi của
những kết quả có lợi của sự thịnh vượng và hạnh phúc ngay tức khắc hoặc tái sinh trong
cao hơn tồn tại các volition đi kèm được phân loại như tầm thường.

Chỉ khi nào hành động thiện ác được thực hiện
của một tinh thần từ bỏ thúc đẩy bởi những tư tưởng của sự vô ngã tinh khiết,
chỉ khao khát đạt đến nibbāna nơi mà tất cả khổ đau đều kết thúc, rằng
định hướng của hành động này được xem như là một bậc cao hơn

Có những ví dụ phong phú trong những bài giảng về lòng bác ái và những cách bố thí.

Tinh hoa đạo đức thông qua hành vi đúng đắn: Sīla

Thực hành sīla tạo thành một khía cạnh cơ bản nhất của
Phật dạy. Nó bao gồm thực hành Quyền nói, phải
Hành động và Quyền Sống để tẩy uế các hành động xấu, lời nói và
suy nghĩ. Cùng với sự cam kết của Tam Bảo (như
được mô tả ở trên) một đệ tử tại gia tuân theo năm giới bằng cách làm cho
sau lời thề chính thức:

(1) Tôi cam kết giữ giới không kiêng.

(2) Tôi cam kết giữ giới không trộm cắp.

(3) Tôi cam kết tuân thủ giới luật kiềm chế hành vi tình dục.

(4) Tôi cam kết tuân thủ giới cấm kiềm chế nói dối.

(5) Tôi cam kết tuân thủ giới hạn kiêng uống rượu, ma túy hoặc chất làm say mê tâm hồn.

Ngoài khía cạnh tiêu cực của công thức trên, nhấn mạnh sự kiêng cữ, cũng có khía cạnh tích cực của sīla.
Chẳng hạn, chúng ta thấy trong nhiều bài diễn văn câu nói: “Anh ta kiềm chế
từ giết chết, đặt gậy và gươm sang một bên; đầy ân cần và
lòng từ bi ông sống vì phúc lợi và hạnh phúc của tất cả các sinh vật sống. “
Mọi giới luật được đặt ra trong công thức đều có hai khía cạnh này.

Tùy thuộc vào từng cá nhân và giai đoạn tiến bộ của một người,
các hình thức giới khác (ví dụ như tám giới, mười giới) có thể là
quan sát thấy. Đối với các tỳ kheo theo thứ tự cao hơn và loại tiên tiến
thực hành đạo đức được đặt ra. Năm giới phải luôn luôn
được quan sát bởi các đệ tử tại gia, những người đôi khi có thể nâng cao
kỷ luật tự giác bằng cách tuân theo tám hay mười giới. Đối với những người có
đã bắt tay vào con đường của một cuộc sống thánh mà mười giới là
sơ bộ cần thiết để tiến bộ hơn nữa.

Sīla có độ tinh khiết hoàn hảo phục vụ như một nền tảng cho giai đoạn
tiếp theo của sự tiến bộ, samādhi-thanh lọc tâm thông qua thiền định.
Các phương pháp thực hành tinh thần cho sự phát triển tập trung: Samādhi

Tu luyện tâm linh nâng cao tinh thần bao gồm hai bước.
Bước đầu tiên là thanh lọc tâm từ mọi phiền não và tham nhũng
và để nó tập trung vào một điểm duy nhất. Một nỗ lực xác định (phải
Nỗ lực) phải được thực hiện để thu hẹp phạm vi suy nghĩ trong
dao động, tâm bất ổn. Sau đó chú ý (Chánh niệm hoặc
Sự chú tâm) phải được cố định trên một đối tượng thiền lựa chọn cho đến
một điểm của tâm (Chánh Định) đạt được. Trong đó
nhà nước, tâm trí trở nên giải thoát khỏi những chướng ngại, tinh khiết, thanh thản, mạnh mẽ
và sáng. Sau
đó nó đã sẵn sàng để tiến tới bước thứ hai mà qua đó sự hiểu biết và
thành quả của magga có thể đạt được để vượt qua tình trạng chao đảo và
buồn phiền.


Suttanta Piṭaka ghi lại rất nhiều phương pháp thiền để
mang về một cái tâm. Những phương pháp thiền này là
phân tán khắp các bài kinh của Piṭaka và được giải thích bởi
Đức Phật đôi khi đơn lẻ, đôi khi tập thể, phù hợp với dịp
và mục đích mà chúng được khuyến cáo. Đức Phật biết rõ
tính đa dạng của nhân vật và sự trang điểm tinh thần của mỗi cá nhân và
các tính khí và khuynh hướng khác nhau của những người tiếp cận anh ta cho
hướng dẫn. Theo đó ông đề xuất các phương pháp khác nhau để khác nhau
người phù hợp với đặc tính và nhu cầu đặc biệt của từng cá nhân.

Việc thực hành tu luyện tinh thần dẫn đến kết cục trong tâm điểm chỉ được gọi là samādhi bhāvanā. Bất cứ ai muốn phát triển samādhi bhāvanā
phải được thiết lập trong việc chấp hành các giới luật, với
giác quan được kiểm soát, bình tĩnh và tự sở hữu, và phải được thỏa mãn.
Sau khi được thành lập trong bốn điều kiện này, anh ta phải chọn một địa điểm
thích hợp cho thiền định, một nơi hẻo lánh. Sau đó anh ta nên ngồi
chéo chân giữ cơ thể của mình dựng đứng và cảnh báo tâm trí của mình; anh ta nên bắt đầu
thanh lọc tâm trí của mình về năm chướng ngại (dục vọng dục vọng, ác ý;
lười biếng và ngu xuẩn; bồn chồn và lo lắng; và nghi ngờ) bằng cách chọn một
phương pháp thiền phù hợp với Người và thực hành thiền định với sự sốt sắng
và sự nhiệt tình. Ví dụ, với phương pháp Anapana, ông tiếp tục theo dõi
hơi thở vào và ra cho đến khi anh ta có thể có tâm trí của mình cố định
chắc chắn hơi thở ở mũi mũi.

Khi ông nhận ra rằng năm chướng ngại đã được gỡ bỏ
trở nên vui mừng, vui mừng, bình tĩnh và hạnh phúc. Đây là sự khởi đầu
của samādhi (tập trung), mà sẽ tiếp tục phát triển cho đến khi đạt được một tâm.

Vì vậy, một điểm của tâm là tập trung tâm trí khi nó
nhận thức được một đối tượng, và chỉ có một trong những tính chất lành mạnh. Đây là
đạt được bằng thực hành thiền định đối với một trong những chủ đề
được đề nghị cho mục đích của Đức Phật.

Các phương pháp thực hành tinh thần để tu luyện để phát triển kiến ​​thức tuệ minh sát (Paññā)

Đối
tượng và phương pháp thiền được giảng dạy trong kinh điển của Piṭaka
được thiết kế để đạt được samādhi cũng như để phát triển kiến ​​thức tuệ
minh sát, Vipassana ñāṇa, như một con đường dẫn trực tiếp tới nibbāna.
Là bước thứ hai trong thực hành thiền sau khi đạt được samādhi,
khi tâm tập trung trở nên thanh tịnh, vững vàng và không vui,
người thiền hành hướng dẫn và nghiền ngẫm trí tuệ của mình để hiểu biết (vipassanā-ñāṇa). Với kiến ​​thức sâu sắc này, ông nhận ra ba đặc điểm của thế giới hiện
tượng: vô thường (anicca), đau khổ (dukkha) và vô ngã (anattā).

Khi anh tiến bộ trong luyện tập và tâm trí anh trở nên nhiều hơn và
thanh tịnh hơn, công ty và hoan hỷ, ông hướng và nghiêng đầu
để hiểu biết về sự tuyệt chủng của những điều bất hạnh tinh thần (āsavakkhaya ñāṇa). Sau đó anh ta thực sự hiểu được dukkha, nguyên nhân của khổ, chấm dứt khổ và con đường dẫn đến sự chấm dứt khổ. Ngài cũng hiểu rõ đầy đủ các chất gây nghiện đạo đức (āsavas) như họ
thực sự, nguyên nhân của āsavas, sự chấm dứt của āsavas và con đường đưa
đến sự chấm dứt của sasavas.

Với sự hiểu biết về sự tuyệt chủng của āsavas, ông trở thành
giải phóng. Hiểu biết về tự do phát sinh. Anh ta biết điều đó
sự tái sinh không còn nữa, rằng Ngài đã sống đời thánh. Ông đã làm những gì ông
phải làm để thực hiện magga. Không có gì cho anh ta để làm cho việc thực hiện như vậy.

Đức Phật dạy chỉ với một đối tượng - sự tuyệt chủng của
đau khổ và giải thoát khỏi sự hiện hữu có điều kiện. Đối tượng đó có thể được
thu được bằng thực hành thiền định (cho bình tĩnh và cái nhìn sâu sắc) như được đặt
trong nhiều bài kinh của Kinh kinh Piṭaka.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Heart Sutra (Vietnamese, Plum Village version)
Phillip Conrad
Published on Jun 23, 2009
Recording of monks and nuns from the Plum Village Sangha (the tradition
of Thich Nhat Hanh) chanting the Heart Sutra in Vietnamese. The words
are provided in scrolling text, and are all in Vietnamese, except for
the final mantra (Gate Gate Paragate Parasamgate Bodhi Svaha).

Category
Nonprofits & Activism


Recording of monks and nuns from the Plum Village Sangha (the…
youtube.com


101 Classical Welsh
101 Cymreig Clasurol

2532 Mercher 14 Chwefror 2018 LESSON

BETH YW SUTTANTA PISHAKA?

Mae’r Bwdhaeth draddodiadol (addysgu ymwybyddiaeth ymwybyddiaeth) yn perthyn i’r byd ac mae ganddo hawliau unigol i bawb:
Mae gan filiynau o bobl ledled y byd barch uchel mewn hysbysebu ac
ymchwil, yn seiliedig ar ymwybyddiaeth y newid cymdeithasol a’r mudiad
economaidd Bwdhaidd a thechnoleg-polyteitl.

Cyfieithir
y cyfieithiad hwn gan Google Translate https://translate.google.com a’i
gyfieithu i iaith cyfieithu i’r cofnod nythu bridio (cyfreithiol) a’r
cyfieithiad terfynol ar gyfer y cyrchfan derfynol.
Dadansoddiad Intel-Net - Dadansoddiad Am Ddim Ar-lein - Indik-Niki
Dipiktaka Ymchwil a Hyfforddiant Prifysgol a ffynhonnell newyddion
cysylltiedig http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Ieithoedd Classic

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Is-adran Gwyddoniaeth
Dharmamoka Sudus
Cyhoeddwyd ar 11 Tachwedd, 2013
Categori
Nonprofits & Swyddogaethol

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Is-adran Gwyddoniaeth
youtube.com

Dickica nisa: sgwrs hir
Y
Digi Nicka neu “Casgliad Long Sharman” (Bali Diga = “Hir”)
Rhan gyntaf y South Pitaka, a thri deg ar hugain
Tri wagenni, neu wedi’u rhannu’n adrannau:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka
Y
Bwdha ac ychydig o ysbïwyr a honnir, neu gasgliad o bregethau
Mae ei ddisgyblion agosaf yn cynnwys yr holl ddysgeidiaeth ganolog
Bwdhaeth Thervata. (Mwy na mil o gyfieithiadau
Mae’r wefan hon ar gael.) Mae Iglese wedi’i rannu’n bum prif (pecyn):

Digi Nikaya - “casgliad hir”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Cân newydd Bwdha
153,375 o golygfeydd

Cuttunta?

Casgliad o bob sgyrsiau yw Sutthanta Bidara
Mewn llawer o achosion rhoddwyd y Bwdha. Rhai
Llythyrau rhai disgyblion enwog
Mae Bwdha, Helo, Maha Mogalla, yn werthfawr
Anthanda, yn ogystal â rhai esboniadau a llyfrau
Ffynci yn tyfu. Casglwyd sgyrsiau Buddha gyda’i gilydd
Trefnwyd harbwr Sutthanta sawl gwaith
Gweldwyr gwahanol â gwahanol hwyliau. Er gwaethaf y dadleuon
Yn aml, mae bikws wedi’i gynllunio er budd a rheoli
Gyda disgrifiad byr o ymarfer ac addysgu bywyd pur,
Mae yna bethau sy’n siarad am lawer o bethau
Gwelliant disgyblu

Mae’r pwll pur yn dangos ystyr y Bwdha
Mae’r dysgeidiaeth yn datgelu, amddiffyn a diogelu yn glir
Rhyfedd a chamddehongli. Fel llinyn ar ran
Treth llithrig i leihau saer yn eu gwaith
Mae blodau yn amddiffyn gwasgariad neu wasgariad blodau yn ystod blodeuo
Yn yr un modd, trwy ystyr dealltwriaeth y Bwdha
Gall y ddysgeidiaeth gael eu mynegi yn glir, eu deall, eu deall,
Rhoddodd yr amddiffyniad cywir o’r esboniad anghywir.

Rhennir Sundance yn bum adran ar wahân o Bijica Nikos. Maent yn Digi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika.

Monitro ac arferion yn nhawdriniaethau Bwdha

Ar waelod porthladd Sutthanta
Dulliau ar gyfer safonau moesol a moesol
Gwnewch gais am fywyd bob dydd. Crëir yr holl astudiaethau a gweithdrefnau
Mae wyth adran y Bwdha yn arwain at lwybr ysbrydol llwybr y Bwdha
Tri lefel o fireinio:

Purender Sheila-moesol trwy ymddygiad priodol.

Purdeb y meddwl drwy’r bedd

Mae Vincentina yn glanhau dealltwriaeth gan myfyrdod.

I gychwyn, dylech gymryd y penderfyniad cywir i ymladd
Dilynwch ddysgeidiaeth a chanllawiau’r Bwdha
Cymdeithas. Y disgyblion cyntaf i ddatgan gobaith
Dylai’r ddau Bwdha a’i ddysgeidiaeth ddilyn
Brodyr busnes, Tapusa a Balkha. Maent yn teithio gyda nhw
Gwelodd Bwdha bum cant o ddisgyblion
Roedd y goeden pren ar ôl ei oleuo. Dau fasnachwr
Rhoddodd gacen reis mel. Byddant yn derbyn eu rhodd a’u torri
Am saith wythnos, ef ei hun, Bwdha
A phan oedd e’n eistedd, daeth ei ddisgyblion ato, gan ddweud,

Sarangam Bwdhaidd (rwy’n archebu mewn llyfr)

Dharman syr (Rwy’n gwneud elusen)

Newidwyd y newid cysoni hwn i ffurf
Bwdha a’i ddysgeidiaeth. Yna sefydlwyd y gymdeithas
I ychwanegu trydedd bennod, estynnir y fformiwla hon:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (yr wyf yn lloches yn y clwb)


Ar y Ffordd Cywir i Rhoi Alms

Fel cam ymarferol sy’n gallu defnyddio defnydd ffrwythlon ar unwaith
Roedd pobl ym mhob rhan o fywyd y Bwdha yn rhoi dadleuon ar elusen
gan esbonio ei rinweddau, ac ar y ffordd gywir ac agwedd gywir
meddwl y mae cynnig i’w wneud ar gyfer budd ysbrydol.

Y grym ysgogol mewn gweithred elusen yw
Byddaf yn ei roi. Mae’r elusen yn weithred adnabyddus sy’n codi yn unig
volt. Heb yr ewyllys i roi nad oes unrhyw weithred o roi. Ymrwymiad
wrth roi alms mae tri math:

(1) Y gobaith sy’n dechrau gyda’r meddwl “Byddaf yn gwneud
cynnig “ac mae hynny’n bodoli yn ystod y cyfnod paratoi ar gyfer gwneud
y cynnig: pubba cetanā (cyfaint cyn y weithred).

(2) Y dyhead sy’n codi ar hyn o bryd o wneud y cynnig wrth ei
drosglwyddo i’r derbynnydd: muñca cetanā (volsiwn yn ystod y weithred).

(3) Y dyhead sy’n cyd-fynd â’r llawenydd a’r llawenydd sy’n codi
yn ystod atgoffa neu adlewyrchiad ailadroddus ar y weithred o roi: apara cetanā (volsiwn ar ôl y weithred).

P’un a yw’r cynnig yn cael ei wneud mewn homage i’r Bwdha byw neu
i gronyn munud o’i olion ar ôl iddo fynd heibio, dyma’r
volt, ei gryfder a’i phwrdeb, sy’n pennu natur y
canlyniad ohono.

Mae’r dadleuon hefyd yn egluro’r agweddau meddwl anghywir y dylid peidio â pherfformio unrhyw act o elusen iddynt.

Dylai rhoddwr osgoi edrych ar bobl eraill na allant wneud
yn cynnig tebyg nac ni ddylai ddathlu ei elusen ei hun. Wedi’i lygru gan
meddyliau digyfryw o’r fath, dim ond gradd israddol yw ei fwriad.

Pan fydd gweithred elusen yn cael ei ysgogi gan ddisgwyliadau
canlyniadau buddiol o ffyniant a hapusrwydd neu adenu ar unwaith
Mae lefelau uwch yn cael eu dosbarthu fel mediocre.

Dim ond pan gyflawnir y weithred da o alms-giving
o ysbryd o ymadrodd a ysgogwyd gan feddyliau o anhunaniaeth pur,
yn anelu at gyrraedd nibbāna yn unig lle mae’r holl ddioddefwyr yn dod
i ben, bod y fantais sy’n sail i’r ddeddf hon yn cael ei ystyried fel
gradd uwch

Mae yna enghreifftiau helaeth yn y dadleuon sy’n ymwneud ag elusen a ffyrdd o roi alms.

Purdeb Moesol trwy Ymddygiad Gwrth: Sīla

Mae arfer sīla yn ffurfio agwedd fwyaf sylfaenol y
Dysgu Bwdha. Mae’n cynnwys ymarfer Lleferydd Cywir, De
Gweithredu, a Hawl Byw’n Iach i buro’ch hun o weithredoedd, geiriau a llygod
meddyliau. Ynghyd ag ymrwymiad y Lloches Tri-Dair (fel
ddisgrifir uchod) mae disgybl lleyg yn nodi’r pum argymhelliad trwy wneud y
yn dilyn y blaid ffurfiol:

(1) Rwy’n ymgymryd â chadw at y praesept o wrthsefyll rhag lladd.

(2) Rwy’n ymgymryd â chadw at y praesept o wrthsefyll rhag dwyn.

(3) Rwy’n ymgymryd â chadw at y praesept o wrthsefyll camymddygiad rhywiol.

(4) Rwy’n ymgymryd â chadw at y praesept o wrthsefyll rhag dweud celwydd.

(5) Rwy’n ymgymryd â chadw at y praesept o wrthsefyll diodydd, cyffuriau neu gyffuriau alcohol sy’n cymylu’r meddwl.

Yn ychwanegol at agwedd negyddol y fformiwla uchod sy’n pwysleisio ymatal, mae hefyd agwedd bositif sīla.
Er enghraifft, rydym yn dod o hyd i lawer o ddatganiadau y datganiad: “Mae’n cofio
o ladd, yn rhoi y cudgel a’r cleddyf i’r neilltu; llawn o garedigrwydd a
trugaredd mae’n byw er lles a hapusrwydd pob peth byw. “
Mae’r ddau agwedd hon ar bob praesept a nodir yn y fformiwla.

Gan ddibynnu ar yr unigolyn a’r cam o gynnydd,
ffurfiau eraill o ragfeddygon (ee wyth precept, deg precept)
arsylwyd. Ar gyfer bikkhus y gorchymyn mathau uwch ac uwch o
mae arferion moesoldeb wedi’u gosod. Y pum precept sydd i fod bob amser
a arsylwyd gan ddisgyblion lleyg, a allai weithiau eu gwella
hunan-ddisgyblaeth trwy arsylwi wyth neu ddeg precept. I’r rhai sydd â nhw
eisoes wedi cychwyn ar lwybr bywyd sanctaidd, mae’r deg precept ar gael
rhagarweiniau hanfodol i gynnydd pellach.

Mae Sīla o purdeb perffaith yn gweithredu fel sylfaen ar gyfer y cam
nesaf o gynnydd, purdeb meddwl samādhi trwy gyfrwng myfyrdod
canolbwyntio.
Dulliau Ymarferol o Fywiad Meddwl ar gyfer Datblygu Crynodiad: Samādhi

Mae triniaeth feddyliol ar gyfer codi ysbrydol yn cynnwys dau gam.
Y cam cyntaf yw puro’r meddwl rhag pob difrod a llygredd
a chael ei ganolbwyntio ar un pwynt. Ymdrech bendant (Hawl
Ymdrech) i leihau’r ystod o feddyliau yn y
meddyliol, meddwl anffodus. Yna sylw (Mindfulness Right neu
Atgyfnerthu) yn cael ei osod ar wrthrych dethol o fyfyrdod hyd nes
mae un pwynt pwynt meddwl (Crynhoad Cywir) yn cael ei gyflawni. Yn y fath a
wladwriaeth, mae’r meddwl yn rhyddhau o rwystrau, pur, tawel, pwerus
a llachar. Yna,
mae’n barod i symud ymlaen i’r ail gam y gellir sicrhau dealltwriaeth a
ffrwythiad magga er mwyn trosi cyflwr gwae a thristwch.

Mae’r Suttanta Piṭaka yn cofnodi nifer o ddulliau o fyfyrio
yn dod ag un pwynt o feddwl. Y dulliau myfyrio hyn yw
wedi’u gwasgaru trwy gydol suttas y Piṭaka ac fe’u hesbonir gan y
Bwdha weithiau’n unigol, weithiau ar y cyd, i gyd-fynd â’r achlysur
a’r pwrpas y maent yn cael ei argymell ar ei gyfer. Roedd y Bwdha yn gwybod y
amrywiaeth cymeriad a chreu meddyliol pob unigolyn a’r
tymheredd gwahanol a thyniadau’r rhai a ddaeth ato
cyfarwyddyd. Yn unol â hynny, argymhellodd wahanol ddulliau i wahanol
personau sy’n gweddu i gymeriad arbennig ac anghenion pob unigolyn.

Gelwir yr arfer o feithrin meddyliol sy’n arwain at un pwynt o feddwl yn y pen draw yn samādhi bhāvanā. Pwy bynnag sy’n dymuno datblygu samādhi bhāvanā
mae’n rhaid ei fod wedi ei sefydlu wrth orfodi’r precepts, gyda’r
synhwyrau yn cael eu rheoli, yn dawel ac yn hunan-feddiant, ac mae’n rhaid iddynt fod yn fodlon.
Wedi iddo gael ei sefydlu yn y pedwar amodau hyn rhaid iddo ddewis lle
yn addas ar gyfer myfyrdod, man segur. Yna dylai ef eistedd
croes-coesau yn cadw ei gorff yn codi ac mae ei feddwl yn rhybuddio; dylai ddechrau
puro ei feddwl o’r pum rhwystr (dymuniad synhwyrol; afiechyd;
sloth a torpor; aflonyddwch a phoeni; ac amheuaeth) trwy ddewis a
dull myfyrdod sy’n addas iddo ac yn ymarfer myfyrdod gyda sêr
a brwdfrydedd. Er enghraifft, gyda dull Anapana mae’n cadw gwylio
yr anadl sy’n dod i mewn ac yn mynd allan nes iddo allu meddu ar ei feddwl
yn ddiogel ar yr anadl ar ben y trwyn.

Pan fydd yn sylweddoli bod y pum rhwystr wedi cael eu tynnu oddi yno
yn dod yn gladdened, yn falch, yn dawel ac yn falch. Dyma’r dechrau
o samādhi (crynodiad), a fydd yn datblygu ymhellach nes ei fod yn cyrraedd un pwynt o feddwl.

Felly, mae pwyslais meddwl yn canolbwyntio ar y meddwl pan fydd
yn ymwybodol o un gwrthrych, a dim ond un o natur iach. Dyma
a gafodd yr arfer o fyfyrio ar un o’r pynciau
a argymhellir i’r pwrpas gan y Bwdha.

Dulliau Ymarferol o Weithgarwch Meddyliol ar gyfer Datblygu Gwybodaeth Mewnbwn (Paññā)

Mae’r
pwnc a dulliau myfyrdod fel y’u dysgir yn suttas y Piṭaka wedi’u
cynllunio ar gyfer cyrhaeddiad samādhi yn ogystal â datblygu gwybodaeth
mewnwelediad, Vipassana ñāṇa, fel llwybr uniongyrchol i nibbāna.
Fel ail gam yn yr arfer o fyfyrio ar ôl cyrraedd samādhi,
pan fydd y meddwl crynodedig wedi ei buro, yn gadarn ac yn anhyblyg,
mae’r meditator yn cyfarwyddo ac yn tynnu ei feddwl at wybodaeth mewnwelediad (vipassanā-ñāṇa). Gyda’r wybodaeth fewnwelediad hon, mae’n darganfod tair nodwedd y byd
ysgubol: anfodlonrwydd (anicca), dioddefaint (dukkha) a di-hunan
(anattā).

Wrth iddo symud ymlaen yn ei arfer ac mae ei feddwl yn dod yn fwy ac
yn fwy pwrpasol, yn gadarn ac yn rhyfedd, mae’n cyfarwyddo ac yn ysgogi ei feddwl
i wybod am ddifodiad anniddigrwydd moesol (âsavakkhaya ñāṇa). Yna, mae’n wirioneddol ddeall dukkha, achos dukkha, rhoi’r gorau i dukkha a’r llwybr sy’n arwain at rwystro dukkha. Mae hefyd yn dod i ddeall yn llawn y gwenwynig moesol (âsavas) fel
maen nhw’n wirioneddol, achos atsavas, rhoi’r gorau i assavas a’r llwybr
sy’n arwain at rhoi’r gorau i’r assas.

Gyda’r wybodaeth hon am ddifodiad o assas y mae’n dod
rhyddhau. Mae gwybodaeth am ryddhad yn codi ynddo. Mae’n gwybod hynny
Nid yw ail-enedigaeth yn fwy, ei fod wedi byw bywyd sanctaidd. Mae wedi gwneud yr hyn y mae ef
mae’n rhaid iddo wneud er mwyn gwireddu magga. Nid oes dim mwy iddo wneud ar gyfer gwireddu’r fath.

Dysgodd y Bwdha gydag un gwrthrych yn unig - difodiad
dioddefaint a rhyddhau rhag bodolaeth gyflyrau. Gall y gwrthrych hwnnw fod
a gafwyd gan arfer myfyrdod (ar gyfer tawelwch a mewnwelediad) fel y’i gosodwyd
i lawr mewn nifer o suttas o’r Suttanta Piṭaka.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJrOAaAByfU

Part 1 - Jane Eyre Audiobook by Charlotte Bronte (Chs 01-06)
CCProse
Published on Sep 21, 2011

Part 1. Classic Literature VideoBook with synchronized text,
interactive transcript, and closed captions in multiple languages. Audio
courtesy of Librivox. Read by Elizabeth Klett.

Playlist for Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=

Jane Eyre free audiobook at Librivox: http://librivox.org/jane-eyre-version

Jane Eyre free eBook at Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1260

Jane Eyre at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Eyre

View a list of all our videobooks: http://www.ccprose.com/booklist
Category
Education


Part 1. Classic Literature VideoBook with synchronized text,…
yout
ube.com

102 Classical Xhosa
102 iClassical Xhosa

2532 Ngomhlaka 14 Feyi 2018 ISIFUNDO

YINI I-SUTTANTA PI YEAKA?

UbuBuddha bendabuko (imfundiso yokuqwashisa ulwazi) yileli hlabathi kwaye linamalungelo ngamnye kumntu wonke:
Izigidi zabantu emhlabeni jikelele zihlonishwa kakhulu kwiintengiso
kunye nophando, ngokusekelwe ekuqaliseni ukuguqulwa kwezentlalo kunye
ne-techno-polytext yentlalo kunye nokunyuswa koqoqosho.

Ukuguqulwa
kwesi nguqulelo kuguqulelwe yi-Google Translate
https://translate.google.com kwaye iguqulelwe ngolwimi lokuguqulela
ekungeneni kokungena kwemithetho (zomthetho) kunye nokuguqulelwa
kokugqibela kwendawo yokugqibela.
Uhlalutyo lwe-Intel-Net-Free Online Analysis- i-Indik-Niki Dipiktaka
yophando neYunivesithi kunye nomthombo weendaba ezihlobene
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
I-Digai Nikus 9 I-Bopa Patta Sutta - iSigaba seNzululwazi
Dharmamoka Sudus
Ishicilelwe ngoNovemba 11, 2013
Udidi
Ezingenzi-nzuzo kunye nokusebenza

I-Digai Nikus 9 I-Bopa Patta Sutta - iSigaba seNzululwazi
youtube.com

UDickica nisa: intetho ende
I
Digi Nicka okanye “I-Long Sharman Collection” (Bali Diga = “Long”)
Icandelo lokuqala leSuda Pitaka, kwaye linamashumi amathathu anine
Iinqwelo ezintathu, okanye zihlukaniswe ngamacandelo:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka
I
UBuddha kunye neembalwa ezinokuthi iintlola, okanye iqoqo leentshumayelo
Abafundi bakhe abasondeleyo baquka zonke iimfundiso eziphambili
UbuBuddha beThervata. (Iinguqulelo ezingaphezu kwewaka
Le website ikhoyo.) I-Iglese ihlukaniswe yaba mihlanu ephakamileyo (iiphakheji):

Digi Nikaya - “iqoqo elide”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Ingoma entsha kaBuddha
153,375 ukubukwa

Cuttunta?

Iqoqo yazo zonke iingxoxo i-Sutthanta Bidara
Kwiimeko ezininzi uBuddha wanikwa. Abanye
Iincwadi zabanye abafundi abadumile
UBuddha, Sawubona, uMaha Mogalla, uyigugu
Anthanda, kunye nezinye iinkcazo kunye neencwadi
Funky prigved. Ingxoxo kaBuddha yaqokelela ndawonye
Ichweba laseSutthanta lahlelwa ngamaxesha amaninzi
Ababukeli abahlukeneyo abaneemvakalelo ezahlukeneyo. Nangona kukho iintetho
Ngokuqhelekileyo i-bikus yenzelwe ukuzuza nokulawula
Ngcaciso emfutshane malunga nokusebenza nokufundisa ngobomi obusulwa,
Kukho izinto ezithetha ngezinto ezininzi
Ukuphucula ukulungiswa

I-peacock ecocekileyo ibonisa intsingiselo kaBuddha
Izimfundiso zibonisa, zikhusele kwaye zikhusele
Ukuphazamiseka nokuchazwa kakuhle. Njengomtya ngentela
Iserhafu esichukumisayo sokunciphisa abachweli emsebenzini wabo
Iintyatyambo zikhusela ukusabalalisa okanye ukusabalalisa iintyatyambo ngexesha leentyantyambo
Ngokufanayo, ngentsingiselo yokuqonda kukaBuddha
Izimfundiso zinokucaciswa ngokucacileyo, ziqondwe, ziqondwe,
Wanikela ukhuselo oluchanekileyo kwingcaciso engalunganga.

I-Sundance ihlukaniswe ngamaqela ahlukileyo ahlukeneyo kaBijica Nikos. ZiyiDigi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika.

Ukubeka iliso kunye nezenzo kwiimfundiso zikaBuddha

Kwinqanaba lechweba laseSutthanta
Izindlela zokuziphatha nokuziphatha
Faka isicelo sokuphila kwansuku zonke. Zonke izifundo kunye neenkqubo zenziwa
Iziqendu ezisibhozo zeBuddha zikhokelela kwindlela yokomoya yeBuddha
Amanqanaba amathathu okucoca:

Ukuziphatha ngobungqina bukaSheila ngokuziphatha kakuhle.

Ubumsulwa bengqondo engcwabeni

UVincentina uhlambulula ipen-comprehension ngokucamngca.

Ekuqaleni, kufuneka uthathe isisombululo esifanelekileyo sokusabela
Landela iimfundiso zikaBuddha kunye nezikhokelo
Umbutho. Abafundi bokuqala ukuvakalisa ithemba
Bobabini uBuddha kunye neemfundiso zakhe kufuneka zilandele
Abazalwana bezorhwebo, iTapusa kunye neBalkha. Bahamba nabo
UBuddha wabona abafundi abangamahlanu
Umthi wemithi wawunemva kokukhanyiselwa kwakhe. Abarhwebi ababini
Wanikela ikhekhe elayisi irayisi. Baya kwamkela isipho sabo baze baphule
Kwiiveki ezisixhenxe yena ngokwakhe, uBuddha
Kwathi ke ehleli, abafundi bakhe beza kuye, besithi,

Buddhist sarangam (Ndiyibhala encwadini)

Dharman mnumzane (Ndiyayithanda)

Olu tshintsho lokubuyisana luye lwaguqulwa luya kwifom
UBuddha kunye neemfundiso zakhe. Emva koko umbutho wasungulwa
Ukongeza isahluko sesithathu, le fomula iyandiswa:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (ndibalekele kwiklabhu)


Ngendlela efanelekileyo yokunikela izipho

Njengesiqhelo esisebenzayo esinokusetyenziswa ngokukhawuleza nangokuvelisayo
abantu kuzo zonke iindawo zokuphila uBuddha wanikela iintetho ngothando
ukucacisa ubuchule bayo, kunye nendlela efanelekileyo kunye nesimo sengqondo esifanelekileyo
ingqondo apho umnikelo oya kwenziwa ngenzuzo yokomoya.

Amandla ashukumisayo kwisenzo sobubele yintando, i
uya kunika. Utyando luyintsebenzo ebalulekileyo evela ngaphandle kuphela
ukuzithandela. Ngaphandle kwentando yokunika akukho nto yokunikela. UVukelo
ekunikezeni izipho zizinto ezintathu:

(1) Ukhuseleko oluqala ngcamango “Ndiya kwenza
umnikelo “kwaye ukhona ngexesha lokulungiselela ukwenza
umnikelo: pubba cetanā (ukuzithandela ngaphambi komsebenzi).

(2) Ukhuseleko oluvela ngexesha lokwenza umnikelo ngelixa linikezela kummkeli: muñca cetanā (ukuzithandela ngexesha lomsebenzi).

(3) Ukhuseleko oluhamba kunye nolonwabo nolonwabo oluvela
ngexesha lokukhumbula ngokuphindaphindiweyo okanye ukucinga ngesenzo sokunika: apara cetanā (ukuzithandela emva kwesenzo).

Ingaba umnikelo owenziwe ukuhlonela uBuddha ophilayo okanye
ukuya kwincinci encinane yeempahla zakhe emva kokudlula kwakhe, nguye
ukuzithandela, amandla kunye nokuhlanzeka, okuza kubonisa uhlobo lwalo
siphumo sawo.

Iintetho zichaza kwakhona iingcinga ezingalunganga zengqondo apho kungekho senzo sothando.

Umnikeli kufuneka agweme ukujonga phantsi kwabanye abangenako ukwenza
umnikelo ofanayo okanye akafanele ukubhiyozela lwakhe uthando. Ngcoliswa ngu
Iingcamango ezingenakulungeleyo ukuthanda kwakhe kukuphela kwebanga eliphantsi.

Xa isenzo sothando sishukunyiswa yizilindelo
iziphumo ezizuzisayo zokuchuma kunye nokuzonwabisa okanye ukuzalwa kwakhona
Izikhundla eziphezulu ezihamba kunye nokuzikhethela zikwahlula njengento ephakathi.

Kuphela kuphela xa umsebenzi oncomekayo wokunika izibonelelo unikwa ngaphandle
womoya wokugxeka oqhutywa yimibono yokuzingca,
enqwenela kuphela ukufikelela kwi-nibbāna apho zonke iintlungu
ziphela, ukuba ukufunwa phantsi kwesi senzo kuthathwa njengobuncwane
obuphezulu

Kukho imizekelo eninzi kwiintetho eziphathelele uthando kunye neendlela zokwenza izipho.

Ukucoceka kokuziphatha ngokuziphatha ngokufanelekileyo: Sīla

Ukusebenza kwe-sīla kubumba into ebaluleke kakhulu
Fundisa uBuddha. Iqulethwe ngokusetyenziswa kweNkulumko yokuLungisa, ilungelo
Isenzo, kunye nokuPhila okuPhezulu ukuzihlaziya izenzo ezingcolileyo, amagama kunye
ngcamango. Kanye kunye nokuzibophelela koMbuthu oPhezulu (njenge
echazwe ngasentla) umfundi obekayo uyayibona imiyalelo emihlanu ngokwenza
isifungo esisemthethweni:

(1) Ndizama ukugcina umyalelo wokuyeka ukubulala.

(2) Ndizama ukugcina umyalelo wokuyeka ukuba.

(3) Ndizama ukugcina umyalelo wokuyeka ukuziphatha kakubi ngokwesondo.

(4) Ndizama ukugcina umyalelo wokuyeka ukuthetha ubuxoki.

(5) Ndizama ukugcina umyalelo wokuyeka iziyobisi, iziyobisi okanye iziyobisi ezifake ingqondo.

Ukongeza kwimiba engafanelekiyo yefomula engentla apha igxininisa ukuyeka ukuzibandakanya, kukho nendawo efanelekileyo ye-sīla.
Ngokomzekelo, sifumana kwiintetho ezininzi ingxelo: “Uyabamba
ekubulaleni, ugxotha i-cudgel nekrele; uzele ububele kunye
Imfesane uphila ubomi nentlalo yonwabo yonke into ephilayo. “
Yonke imigaqo echazwe kwindlela ifakwe kule micimbi mibili.

Ngokuxhomekeke kumntu kunye nesigaba senkqubela phambili,
ezinye iifom zeemfundiso (isb. imiyalelo yesibhozo, imiyalelo eyishumi) ingaba
ya phawula. Ngokuba i-bhikkhus yohlobo oluphezulu kunye nolusondeleyo
iinkqubo zokuziphatha zibekiwe. Iimigaqo ezintlanu kufuneka zihlale zihlala
ebonwa ngabafundi ababekayo, abanokuthi banokuphucula izihlandlo ngamanye amaxesha
ukuzikhusela ngokugcina imiyalelo yesibhozo okanye elishumi. Kwabo ba
sele sele iqalile indlela yobomi obungcwele iziyalezo ezilishumi
ezibalulekileyo zokuqala ukwenza inkqubela phambili.

I-Sīla yokuhlanzeka ngokugqibeleleyo isebenza njengesiseko kwisigaba
esilandelayo senqubekela phambili, samādhi-ubumsulwa kwengqondo
ngokucamngca.
Iindlela zokuSebenza zoPhuhliso lweengqondo zoPhuhliso lwe-Concentration: Samādhi

Ukulima kwengqondo ekukhuliseni ngokomoya kuqulethwe ngamanyathelo amabini.
Isinyathelo sokuqala kukuhlambulula ingqondo kuzo zonke iinqambi kunye nenkohlakalo
kwaye ube nokugxila kwinqanaba elinye. Umzamo ozimiseleyo (Ngokunene
Umzamo) kufuneka kwenziwe ukuba unciphise uluhlu lweengcamango
ukuphazamiseka, ingqondo engaqinisekanga. Emva koko ingqwalasela (Okwenene Ukuqonda okanye
Ukunyameka) kufuneka kugqitywe into ekhethiweyo yokucamngca de
Ingqondo eyodwa (Ukugxininisa Kwinqanaba) lifezeke. Ngolo hlobo
urhulumente, ingqondo ikhululeka kwizinto eziphazamisayo, ecocekileyo, enokuthula, enamandla
kwaye ekhanyayo. Yilungele
ukuqhubela phambili kwisinyathelo sesibini apho i-magga ingqiqo kunye
nokuveliswa kwayo kuya kufumaneka ukuze kudluliselwe imeko yosizi
nosizi.

I-Suttanta Piṭaka ibhala iindlela ezininzi zokucamngca
ukuzisa ingqondo eyodwa. Ezi ndlela zokucamngca zi
zahlakazeka kuzo zonke i-suttas ze-Piṭaka kwaye zichazwe ngu-
UBuddha maxa wambi udlala, ngamanye amaxesha, ngokubambisana, ukuhambelana nesibini
kunye nenjongo enyanzeliswayo. UBuddha wayesazi
ukuhlukahluka kohlobo kunye nokwenziwa kwengqondo komntu ngamnye kunye
iintlobo ezahlukeneyo kunye nokuthambekela kwabo baza kuye
khokelo. Ngako oko wakhuthaza iindlela ezahlukeneyo ezahlukeneyo
abantu bahambelane nomntu okhethekileyo kunye neemfuno zomntu ngamnye.

Umkhuba wokulima kwengqondo ophumela ekugqibeleni kwimiqondo eyaziwa ngokuthi samādhi bhāvanā. Nabani ofuna ukuhlakulela samādhi bhāvanā
Kumele ukuba kusekwe ukugcinwa kwemiyalelo, kunye
iingqondo ezilawulwayo, ukuzola kunye nokuzimelela, kwaye kufuneka unelisekile.
Emva kokuba kusekwe kule miqathango emine kufuneka akhethe indawo
kufanelekile ukucamngca, indawo efihliweyo. Emva koko kufuneka ahlale
umlenze oqaqambileyo ugcina umzimba wakhe uqinile kwaye uqaphele ingqondo; kufuneka aqale
Ukuhlambulula ingqondo yakhe ezintlintlanu ezintlanu (umnqweno wenyama;
i-sloth ne-torpor; ukungazinzi nokukhathazeka; kwaye ungaqiniseki) ngokukhetha
indlela yokucamngca ifanelekile kuye kunye nokucamngca ngenzondelelo
kunye nomdla. Ngokomzekelo, ngendlela yeAnapana uhlala ebuka
ukuphefumula nokungenayo kuze kube yilapho ekwazi ukugxilisa ingqondo yakhe
ngokukhuselekileyo ekuphefumlweni kwiphondo lempumlo.

Xa eqonda ukuba iziphazamiso ezintlanu zisusiwe
Uvuyiswa, uyonwabile, uphumule kwaye ujabule. Oku kuqale
ye-samādhi (ingxubevange), eya kuqhubela phambili ize ifikeleleke kwengqondo.

Ngaloo ndlela, ingqondo yodwa ingqalelo kwengqondo xa
Uyazi into enye, kwaye yodwa yendalo efanelekileyo. Yi le
efunyenwe ngumsebenzi wokucamngca kwenye yezifundo
cetyiswa ngenjongo yeBuddha.

Izindlela eziSebenzayo zokuKhuhliswa kwengqondo ekuPhuhliseni ulwazi lweNgcaciso (Paññā)

Isihloko
kunye nezindlela zokucamngca njengoko zifundiswa kwi-suttas yePiasaka
zenzelwe kokubili ukufumana i-samādhi kwakunye nokuphuhlisa ulwazi
lolwazi, i-Vipassana ñāṇa, njengendlela eya ngqo kwi-nibbāna.
Njengesinyathelo sesibini kwindlela yokucamngca emva kokufikelela samandi,
xa ingqondo egciniweyo ihlambulukile, iqinile kwaye ingapheliyo,
ocamngcelayo uqondisa kwaye ubeka ingqondo yakhe ukuqonda ulwazi (vipassanā-ñāṇa). Ngale ngqiqo ulwazi uyaziqonda iimpawu ezintathu zelizwe
elimangalisayo: ukungapheli (anicca), ukubandezeleka (dukkha) kunye
non-self (anattā).

Njengoko ehamba phambili kwisenzo sakhe kwaye ingqondo yakhe iba ngakumbi kwaye
Ukuhlanjululwa, ukuqina kunye nokungapheli, uqondisa kwaye ubeke ingqondo yakhe
ukwazi ulwazi lokuphela kokungcola kokuziphatha (āsavakkhaya ñāṇa). Emva
koko uyayiqonda ngokwenene i-dukkha, imbangela ye dukkha, ukuphela kwe
dukkha kunye nendlela ekhokelela ekupheleni kwe dukkha.
Kwakhona uya kuqonda ngokupheleleyo izidakamizwa zokuziphatha (āsavas)
njengoko ziyiyo ngokwenene, imbangela ye-āsavas, ukupheliswa kwe-āsavas
kunye nendlela ekhokelela ekupheleni kwe-āsavas.

Ngolwazi lokuphela kwe-āsavas uba
kukhululeka. Ulwazi lokukhululwa luvela kuye. Uyazi oko
Ukuzalwa kwakhona akusekho, ukuba uphile ubomi obungcwele. Uyenzile oko
kufuneka uyenze ukuphumeza kwe-magga. Akukho nto enokuyenza ukuze ayenze loo nto.

UBuddha wafundisa ngenjongo eyodwa kuphela-ukuphela kwayo
ukubandezeleka nokukhululwa ebukhosini. Into leyo ingaba
efunyenwe ngumsebenzi wokucamngca (ukuzola kunye nokuqonda) njengoko kubekiwe
phantsi ezininzi ze-suttas ze-Suttanta Piṭaka.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suSOIzGII-k
dhamma song
Boonmee pictures
Published on May 1, 2017
Category

Music


youtube.com

comments (0)
02/13/18
2532 Wed 14 Feb 2018 LESSON 103 Classical Yiddish- קלאַסיש יידיש, 104 Classical Yoruba- Yoruba Yoruba,105 Classical Zulu- I-Classical Zulu
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:23 pm

2532 Wed 14 Feb 2018 LESSON 103 Classical Yiddish- קלאַסיש יידיש,104 Classical Yoruba- Yoruba Yoruba,105 Classical Zulu- I-Classical Zulu



103 Classical Yiddish
103 קלאַסיש יידיש

2532 Wed 14 Feb 2018 LESSON

וואָס איז סוטטאַנטאַ פּיאָוזאַ?

די בעקאַבאָלעדיק בודדהיסם (וויסיקייַט וויסיקייַט לערנען) געהערט צו דער וועלט און האט יחיד רעכט פֿאַר אַלעמען:
מיליאַנז פון מענטשן אַרום די וועלט זענען העכסט רעספּעקטעד אין גאַנצע
און פאָרשונג, באזירט אויף די וויסיקייַט פון די בודדהיסט און
טעקנאָו-פּאַלעקסט געזעלשאַפטלעך ענדערונגען און עקאָנאָמיש באַוועגונג.

די
איבערזעצונג פון דעם איבערזעצונג איז איבערגעזעצט ביי Google איבערזעצן
https://translate.google.com און איבערגעזעצט אין דער שפּראַך פון
איבערזעצונג אין די ברידינג טייַך פּאָזיציע (לעגאַל) און לעצט איבערזעצונג
פֿאַר די לעצט דעסטיניישאַן.
אַנאַליסיס ינטעל-נעט - פֿרייַ אָנליין אַנאַליסיס-ינדיק-ניקי
דיפּיקטאַקאַ פאָרשונג און טראַינינג אוניווערסיטעט און פֿאַרבונדענע
נייַעס מקור http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 קלאַסיק שפּראַכן

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa פּאַטאַ Sutta - Science Division
דהאַראַמאַמאָקאַ סודוס
פֿאַרעפֿנטלעכט אויף 11 נאוועמבער 2013
קאַטעגאָריע
נאַנפּראָפיץ & פאַנגקשאַנאַל

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa פּאַטאַ Sutta - Science Division
youtube.com

Dickica זאגט: לאַנג רעדן
די
Digi Nicka אָדער “Long Sharman Collection” (Bali Diga = “Long”)
דער ערשטער טייל פון די סודאַ פּיטאַקאַ, און 37
דרייַ וואַגאָנס אָדער צעטיילט אין סעקשאַנז:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka
די
בודאַ און אַ ביסל אַלעדזשד ספּיעס, אָדער אַ זאַמלונג פון ספּאָרמז
זיין קלאָוזאַנט תלמידים אַרייַננעמען אַלע די הויפט לערנונגען
טהערוואַטאַ בודדהיסם. (מער ווי אַ טויזנט איבערזעצונגען
דעם וועבזייַטל איז בנימצא.) יידיש איז צעטיילט אין פינף הויפּט (פּאַקידזשיז):

דיגי ניקאַדזשאַ - “לאַנג זאַמלונג”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
בודאַ ס נייַ ליד
153,375 קוקן

Cuttunta?

א זאַמלונג פון אַלע שמועסן איז סוטהאַנטאַ בידאַראַ
אין פילע קאַסעס די בודאַ איז געווען געגעבן. Some
בריוו פון עטלעכע באַרימט תלמידים
בודאַ, העלא, מאַהאַ מאָגאַללאַ, איז טייַער
אַנטהאַנדאַ, ווי געזונט ווי עטלעכע דערקלערונגען און ביכער
פאַנגקי פּריגווד. בודאַ ס שמועסן זענען געזאמלט צוזאַמען
סוטטהאַנטאַ פּאָרט איז געווען עריינדזשד אויף עטלעכע מאל
פאַרשידענע וויוערז מיט פאַרשידענע שטימונגען. טראָץ די דיסקאָורסעס
אָפט ביקוס איז דיזיינד צו נוץ און פירן
מיט אַ קורץ באַשרייַבונג פון די פּראַקטיש און לערנען פון ריין לעבן,
עס זענען זאכן וואס רעדן וועגן פילע זאכן
Discipline improvement

די ריין פּאַווע אַנטדעקן דעם טייַטש בודדה
די לערנונגען קלאר אַנטדעקן, באַשיצן און באַשיצן
דיסטאָרשאַן און מיסינטערפּרענטאַציע. ווי אַ שטריקל אויף ביכאַף פון
א גליטשיק שטייער צו רעדוצירן קאַרפּענטערס אין זייער אַרבעט
בלומען באַשיצן די צעוואָרפן אָדער צעוואָרפן בלומען בעשאַס פלאַוערינג
פּונקט אַזוי, דורך דער טייַטש פון די בונדאַ ס פארשטאנד
די לערנונגען קענען זיין קלאר אויסגעדריקט, פארשטאנען, פארשטאנען,
ער האט געגעבן דעם ריכטיק שוץ פון דעם אומרעכט דערקלערונג.

Sundance איז צעטיילט אין פינף באַזונדער טיילן פון Bijica Nikos. זיי זענען דיגי ניקייאַ, מאַדזשדזשיהימאַ ניקאַ, סעוטאַ ניקאַ, אַקוטאַראַ ניקאַ, קוטאַקאַ ניקאַ.

מאָניטאָרינג און פּראַקטיסיז אין בודאַ ס לערנונגען

אין די פֿיס פון די סוטטהאַנטאַ פּאָרט
מעטהאָדס פֿאַר מאָראַל און מאָראַליש סטאַנדאַרדס
צולייגן פֿאַר וואָכעדיק לעבן. אַלע שטודיום און פּראָוסידזשערז זענען באשאפן
די אַכט סעקשאַנז פון די בודאַ פירן צו די רוחניות וועג פון די בודאַ וועג
דרייַ לעוועלס פון ראַפיינינג:

שילאַ-מאָראַל ריינקייַט דורך געהעריק אָפּפירונג.

די ריינקייַט פון די גייַסט דורך דעם קבר

ווינסענטינאַ קלעאַנסעס פעדער קאַמפּרעשאַן פון קלערן.

טכילעס, איר זאָל נעמען די רעכט באַשלוס צו נעמען אָפּדאַך
גיי די בודאַ ס לערנונגען און גיידאַנס
Association. דער ערשטער תלמידים צו דערקלערן האָפֿן
ביידע בודאַ און זייַן לערנונגען זאָל נאָכפאָלגן
ביזנעס ברידער, טאַפּוסאַ און באַללכאַ. זיי געפארן מיט זיי
בודאַ געזען פינף הונדערט תלמידים
דער ווודאַן בוים איז נאָך זיין אויפקלערונג. צוויי סוחרים
ער געגעבן האָניק רייַז שטיקל. זיי וועלן אָננעמען זייער טאַלאַנט און ברעכן זיך
פֿאַר זיבן וואָכן ער זיך, בודאַ
און ווען ער איז געזעסן, זייַנען תלמידים געקומען צו אים, און געזאגט:

בודדהיסט סאַראַנגאַם (איך בוך אין בוך)

דהאַרמאַן האר (איך טאן צדקה)

דעם ויסגלייַך ענדערונג איז געביטן צו אַ פאָרעם
בודאַ און זייַן לערנונגען. דעמאָלט דער פאַרבאַנד איז געגרינדעט
צו לייגן אַ דריט קאַפּיטל, דאָס פאָרמולע איז עקסטענדעד:

סאַנגאַקקאַראַ סאַראַן קאַקמי (איך נעמען באַפרייַונג אין דעם קלוב)


אויף דער רעכט וועג צו געבן אַלמס

ווי אַ פּראַקטיש שריט טויגעוודיק פון באַלדיק און פרוכטיק נוצן דורך
מענטשן אין אַלע גייט פון לעבן דער בודאַ האט דיסקאָורסעס אויף צדקה
יקספּליינינג זייַן מעלות, און אויף די רעכט וועג און די רעכט שטעלונג פון
מיינונג מיט וואָס אַ קרבן איז געמאכט פֿאַר רוחניות נוץ.

די מאָוטאַווייטינג קראַפט אין אַ אַקט פון צדקה איז די וואָלישאַן, די
וועט געבן. באַליבט איז אַ מערקווירדיק קאַמף וואָס איז בלויז אויס פון
וואָליטיאָן. אָן די וועט צו געבן דאָרט קיין אַקט פון געבן. וואָליטיאָן
אין געבן אַלמס איז פון דרייַ טיפן:

(1) די וואָליטיאָן וואָס הייבט מיט דער געדאַנק “איך וועט מאַכן אַן
מקריב “און אַז יגזיסס בעשאַס דער צייַט פון צוגרייטונג פֿאַר מאכן
די קרבן: פּובבאַ סעטאַן (וואָליטיאָן איידער די אַקט).

(2) די וואָליטיאָן וואָס קומט אין דער מאָמענט פון מאכן דעם פאָרשלאָג
בשעת האַנטינג עס איבער צו די באַקומער: מו ñ סאַ סעטאַנ ā (וואָולישאַן
בעשאַס דער אַקט).

(3) די וואָלישאַן אַקאַמפּאַניינז די פרייד און סימכע וואָס אויפשטיין
בעשאַס ריפּיטיד דערקענונג פון אָדער אָפּשפּיגלונג אויף דער אַקט פון געבן: apara cetanā (וואָליטיאָן נאָך די אַקט).

צי די קרבן איז געמאכט אין האַוועניש צו די לעבעדיק בודאַ אָדער
צו אַ מינוט פּאַרטיקלע פון ​​זיין רעליקס נאָך זיין גייט פארביי אַוועק, עס איז די
וואָליטיאָן, זייַן שטאַרקייַט און ריינקייַט, וואָס דיטערמאַנז די נאַטור פון די
רעזולטאַט דערפון.

די דיסקאָרסעס אויך דערקלערן די אומרעכט אַטאַטודז פון גייַסט מיט וואָס קיין אַקט פון צדקה זאָל זיין געטאן.

א דאָנער זאָל ויסמייַדן קוקן אַראָפּ אויף אנדערע וואס קענען נישט מאַכן אַ
ענלעך פאָרשלאָג אדער זאָל ער פייַערן זיין אייגן צדקה. Polluted by
אַזאַ אומשולדיק געדאנקען זיין וואָליטיאָן איז בלויז אַ ינפיריער מיינונג.

ווען אַ אַקט פון צדקה איז מאָוטאַווייטאַד דורך עקספּעקטיישאַנז פון
וווילטויק רעזולטאַטן פון באַלדיק וווילטאָג און גליק אָדער ריבירט אין
העכער יגזיסטאַנסיז די אַקאַמפּאַניינג וואָליטיאָן איז קלאַסאַפייד ווי מיטלמעסיק.

עס איז נאָר ווען די גוטע אַקט פון אַלמס-געבן איז געטאן אויס
פון אַ גייסט פון רינואַנסיע מאָוטאַווייטאַד דורך געדאנקען פון ריין סעלאַבאַסנאַס,
אַספּירינג נאָר פֿאַר אַטיינמאַנט צו ניבב ā נאַ ווו אַלע צאָרעס ענדס,
אַז די וואָלישאַן אַנדערלייינג דעם אַקט איז געקוקט ווי פון העכער גראַד

עס זענען שליימעסדיק ביישפילן אין די דיסקאָרסיז וועגן צדקה און וועגן פון געבן אַלמס.

מאָראַל ריינקייַט דורך רעכט קאַנדאַקט: סילאַ

פּראַקטיס פון סילאַ פארמען אַ רובֿ פונדאַמענטאַל אַספּעקט פון די
בודאַ ס לערנען. עס באשטייט פון פירונג פון רעכט רעדן, רעכט
קאַמף, און רעכט ליוועליהאָאָד צו רייניקונג זיך פון אומרעכט מעשים, ווערטער און
געדאנקען. צוזאַמען מיט די היסכייַוועס פון די טריפאָולד רעפוגע (ווי
דיסקרייבד אויבן) אַ לייגן תלמיד אַבזערווז די פינף פּריסקייפּס דורך מאכן דעם
ווייַטערדיק פאָרמאַל לויב:

(1) איך אָננעמען צו אָבסערווירן דעם אָנזאָג פון אַבסטיינינג פון מאָרד.

(2) איך ונטערנעמענ זיך צו אָבסערווירן דעם אָננעמען פון אַבזיינינג פון סטילינג.

(3) איך אָננעמען צו אָבסערווירן דעם אָנצוהערעניש פון אַבסטיינינג פון געשלעכט - מיסקאַנדאַקט.

(4) איך אָננעמען צו אָבסערווירן דעם אָנזאָג פון אַבסטיינינג פון טעלינג ליגט.

(5) איך אָננעמען צו אָבסערווירן דעם פּריסקרייב פון אַבסטיינינג פון
אַלקאָהאָליקער טרינקען, דרוגס אָדער ינטאַקסיקאַנץ אַז וואָלקן די
מיינונג.

אין דערצו צו דעם נעגאַטיוו אַספּעקט פון די אויבן פאָרמולע וואָס סטרעסט אַבסטאַנאַנס, עס איז אויך די positive אַספּעקט פון סילאַ.
פֿאַר בייַשפּיל, מיר געפֿינען אין פילע דיסקאָרסיז די דערקלערונג: “ער ריפרייינס
פון מאָרד, שטעלט באַזונדער די קוגגעל און די שווערד; פול פון גוטהאַרציקייַט
ראַכמאָנעס ער לעבן פֿאַר די וווילשטאנד און גליק פון אַלע לעבעדיק זאכן. “
יעדער רעצעפּט געלייגט אַראָפּ אין די פאָרמולע האט די צוויי אַספּעקץ.

דעפּענדינג אויף דעם יחיד און די בינע פון ​​איינער פּראָגרעס,
אנדערע יסורים פון פּראַספּעקץ (ווי אַכט פּרעספּץ, צען געביטן) קען זיין
באמערקט. פֿאַר די בהיקכוס פון דער סדר העכער און אַוואַנסירטע טייפּס פון
פּראַקטיסיז פון מאָראַליש זענען געלייגט אַראָפּ. די פינף פּראָספּעקץ זענען שטענדיק
באמערקט דורך לייגן תלמידים, וואס קען טייל מאָל פֿאַרבעסערן זייער
זיך-דיסציפּלין דורך אַבזערווינג אַכט אָדער צען געביטן. פֿאַר די וואס האָבן
שוין יממאַרקט אויף די דרך פון אַ הייליק לעבן די צען פּרעססעפּץ זענען
יקערדיק פּרילימאַנעריז צו ווייַטער פּראָגרעס.

סיאַ פון גאנץ ריינקייַט דינען ווי אַ יסוד פֿאַר דער ווייַטער בינע פון
​​פּראָגרעס, סאַמאַדי-ריינקייַט פון גייַסט דורך קאָנצענטראַציע קלערן.
פּראַקטיש מעטהאָדס פון מענטאַל קאַלטיוויישאַן פֿאַר אַנטוויקלונג פון קאַנסאַנטריישאַן: סאַמדיי

גייַסטיק קאַלטיוויישאַן פֿאַר רוחניות ייַנבראָך באשטייט פון צוויי טריט.
דער ערשטער שריט איז צו רייניקן די מיינונג פון אַלע דעפינעמענץ און קאָרופּציע
און האָבן עס פאָוקיסט אויף אַ איין פונט. א באשלאסן מי (רעכט
עפפאָרט) מוזן זיין געמאכט צו שמאָל אַראָפּ די קייט פון געדאנקען אין די
וואַווערינג, אַנסטיישאַס גייַסט. דעמאָלט ופמערקזאַמקייַט (רעכט מינדפולנעסס אָדער
אַטענטיוונאַס) מוזן זיין פאַרפעסטיקט אויף אַ אויסגעקליבן כייפעץ פון קלערן ביז
איינער-פּוינטנאַס פון גייַסט (רעכט קאָנסענטראַטיאָן) איז אַטשיווד. אין אַזאַ אַ
שטאַט, די מיינונג ווערט באפרייט פון הינדראַנסאַז, ריין, באַרוט, שטאַרק
און העל. עס
איז גרייט צו שטייַגן צו די צווייטע שריט דורך וואָס מאַגגאַ ינסייט און
פרוכט קענען זייַן אַטשיווד צו יבערקערן די שטאַט פון וויי און צער.

די סאַטטאַנטאַ פּיסטאַאַקאַ רעקאָרדירט ​​פילע מעטהאָדס פון קלערן צו
ברענגען וועגן איין-פונטידנעסס פון גייַסט. די מעטהאָדס פון קלערן זענען
צעשפּרייט איבער די סאַטאַס פון די פּיסטאַאַקאַ און זענען דערקלערט דורך די
באָדהיסאַטטוואַ מאל איין, מאל קאַלעקטיוולי, צו פּאַסן דעם געלעגנהייַט
און דער ציל פֿאַר וואָס זיי זענען רעקאַמענדיד. דער בודאַ געוואוסט דעם
דיווערסיטי פון כאַראַקטער און גייַסטיק מאַכן-אַרויף פון יעדער יחיד און די
אַנדערש טעמפּעראַמאַנץ און ינקליינז פון יענע וואס אַפּראָוטשט אים פֿאַר
guidance. דעריבער ער רעקאַמענדיד פאַרשידענע מעטהאָדס צו פאַרשידענע
מענטשן צו פּאַסן די ספּעציעל כאַראַקטער און דאַרפֿן פון יעדער יחיד.

די
פירונג פון גייַסטיק קאַלטיוויישאַן וואָס רעזולטאַט לעסאָף אין
איין-פונטאַדנאַס פון גייַסט איז באקאנט ווי סאַמאַדי בהאַרוואַן.
ווער סע וויל צו אַנטוויקלען סאַמוויטשיז
מוזן האָבן שוין געגרינדעט אין די היסכייַוועס פון די פּריסקאַץ, מיט די
סענסיז קאַנטראָולד, רויק און זיך-באזעסענע, און מוזן זיין צופרידן.
ווייל ער איז געגרינדעט אין די פיר טנאָים ער מוזן אויסקלייַבן אַ פּלאַץ
פּאַסיק פֿאַר קלערן, אַ סיקלודיד אָרט. דעמאָלט ער זאָל זיצן
קרייַז-לעגד בעכעסקעם זיין גוף גלייַך און זיין מיינונג פלינק; ער זאָל אָנהייבן
רייניקן זיין מיינונג פון די פינף כינדראַנסיז (כושיק פאַרלאַנג; קראַנק-וויל;
סלאַט און טאָרפּאָר; רעסטלאַסנאַס און זאָרג; און צווייפל) דורך טשוזינג אַ
מעדיטאַטיאָן אופֿן פּאַסיק צו אים און פּראַקטיסינג מעדיטאַטיאָן מיט ברען
און ענטוזיאַזם. פֿאַר בייַשפּיל, מיט די אַנאַפּאַנאַ אופֿן ער האלט וואַטשינג
די ינקאַמינג און אַוטגאָוינג אָטעם ביז ער קענען האָבן זיין מיינונג פאַרפעסטיקט
סיקיורלי אויף די אָטעם בייַ די שפּיץ פון די נאָז.

ווען ער רילייזיז אַז די פינף כינדראַנסיז זענען אַוועקגענומען
ווערן צופרידן, דילייטיד, רויק און בליספאַל. דאָס איז דער אָנהייב
פון סאַמאַדי (קאָנצענטראַציע), וואָס וועט ווייַטער אַנטוויקלען ביז עס דערגרייכט איין-פּוינטנאַס פון גייַסט.

אזוי איין-פּוינטנאַס פון גייַסט איז קאַנסאַנטריישאַן פון גייַסט ווען עס
איז אַווער פון איין כייפעץ, און נאָר איינער פון אַ כאָולסאַם נאַטור. דאס איז
דערגרייכט דורך דער פירער פון קלערן אויף איינער פון די סאַבדזשעקץ
רעקאַמענדיד פֿאַר דער ציל דורך די בודאַ.

פּראַקטיש מעטהאָדס פון גייַסטיק קאַלטיוויישאַן פֿאַר אַנטוויקלונג פון ינסיגהט וויסן (פּאַנעסאַ)

די
סיבה און מעטהאָדס פון קלערן ווי געלערנט אין די סאַטאַס פון די פּיסטאַ
זענען דיזיינד ביידע פֿאַר דערגרייכונג פון סאַמאַדי און פֿאַר
אַנטוויקלונג פון ינסייט וויסן, וויפּאַססאַנאַ ñ אַṇאַ, ווי אַ דירעקט
וועג צו ניבב ā נאַ.
ווי אַ צווייט שריט אין דער פירער פון קלערן נאָך דערגרייכן סאַמאַדי,
ווען די קאַנסאַנטרייטאַד מיינונג האט ווערן פּיוראַפייד, פעסט און ימפּערטוראַבלע,
די מעדיטאַטאָר דירעקץ און ינקליינז זייַן מיינונג צו וויסן די ינסייט (וויקיפּעדיע). מיט דעם ינסייט וויסן ער דיסערנז די דרייַ קעראַקטעריסטיקס פון די
פענאָמענאַל וועלט: ימפּערמאַנענסע (אַניקקאַ), ליידן (דוקכאַ) און ניט-זיך
(אַנאַט).

ווי ער אַדוואַנסאַז אין זיין פירונג און זיין מיינונג ווערט מער און
מער פּיוראַפייד, פעסט און ימפּערטוראַבלע, ער דיירעקץ און ינקליינז זייַן מיינונג
צו די וויסן פון די יקסטינגשאַן פון מאָראַליש ימפּיוראַטיז (ā סאַוואַקכייַאַ ñ אַṇאַ). ער דעמאָלט באמת באשטימט דוקכאַ, די גרונט פון דוקכאַ, די ופהער פון דוקכאַ און די דרך לידינג צו די ופהער פון דוקכאַ. ער אויך קומט צו פֿאַרשטיין גאָר די מאָראַליש ינגקסיקאַנץ (ā
אַוואַוואַס) ווי זיי טאַקע זענען, די סיבה פון ā אַוואַוואַס, די ופהער
פון ā אַוואַוואַס און די דרך לידינג צו די ופהער פון די ā אַוואַוואַס.

מיט דעם וויסן פון יקסטינגשאַן פון אַסאַוואַס ער ווערט
באפרייט. די וויסן פון באַפרייַונג ערייזאַז אין אים. ער ווייסט אַז
ריבערט איז ניט מער, אַז ער האט געלעבט דעם הייליק לעבן. ער האט געטאן וואָס ער
האט צו טאָן פֿאַר די רעאַליזיישאַן פון מאַגגאַ. עס איז גאָרנישט מער פֿאַר אים צו טאָן פֿאַר אַזאַ מעכירעס.

דער בודאַ געלערנט מיט בלויז איין כייפעץ-די יקסטינגשאַן פון
ליידן און מעלדונג פון קאַנדישאַנד עקזיסטענץ. אַז כייפעץ קענען זיין
באקומען דורך די פירונג פון קלערן (פֿאַר רויק און ינסייט) ווי געלייגט
אַראָפּ אין פילע סאַטאַסאַז פון די סאַטטאַנטאַ פּיקטאַאַקאַ.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
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104 Classical Yoruba
104 Yoruba Yoruba

2532 Wed 14 Oṣu keji 2018 Ẹkọ

KÍ NI AWỌN SUTTANTA PITEAKA?

Awọn Buddhism ti ibile (imọ imọ imọ) jẹ ti aiye ati pe o ni ẹtọ olukuluku fun gbogbo eniyan:
Milionu eniyan ti o wa ni ayika agbaye ni a bọwọ fun ni ipolongo ati
iwadi, da lori imoye Buddhist ati imo-imọ-polytext ati iṣowo aje.

Itumọ
translation yi jẹ itumọ Google Translate https://translate.google.com
ki o si ṣe itumọ si ede ti itumọ sinu ibisi ṣiṣan ti omi (ofin) ati
ikẹhin ikẹhin fun ibin ikẹhin.
Atupale Intel-Net - Imọju-ọfẹ Ayelujara lori Ayelujara-Indik-Niki
Dipikiki Research and Training University ati orisun orisun miiran
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Awọn ede alailẹgbẹ

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Imọ Imọ
Alabapin Dharmamoka
Atejade ni Oṣu Kọkànlá 11, 2013
Ẹka
Awọn ẹya ara ẹrọ & iṣẹ-ṣiṣe

Digai Nikus 9 Bopa Patta Sutta - Imọ Imọ
youtube.com

Dickica nisa: Ọrọ pipẹ
Awọn
Digi Nicka tabi “Gun Sharman Collection” (Bali Diga = “Gun”)
Pipin akọkọ ti Suda Pitaka, ati ọgbọn-mẹrin
Ẹṣin mẹta, tabi pin si awọn apakan:
accesstoinsight.org

Sutta Pidaka
Awọn
Buddha ati awọn amí kan diẹ, tabi akojọpọ awọn iwaasu
Awọn ọmọ-ẹhin rẹ ti o sunmọ julọ ni gbogbo awọn ẹkọ pataki
Thervata Buddhism. (Die ju ẹgbẹrun ẹgbẹ lọ
Oju-iwe yii wa.) Iglese ti pin si awọn koko marun (awọn apejọ):

Digi Nikaya - “gbigba pipẹ”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Ẹyọ tuntun ti Buddha
153,375 wiwo

Igbẹrin?

A gbigba ti gbogbo awọn ibaraẹnisọrọ ni Sutthanta Bidara
Ni ọpọlọpọ igba ti a fun Buddha. Diẹ ninu awọn
Awọn lẹta ti awọn ọmọ-ẹhin diẹ ninu awọn ọmọ-ẹhin
Buddha, Hello, Maha Mogalla, jẹ iyebiye
Anthanda, bii diẹ ninu awọn alaye ati awọn iwe
Funky prigved. Awọn ibaraẹnisọrọ Buddha ni a gbajọ pọ
Sutthanta abo ti a ṣeto ni ọpọlọpọ igba
Awọn oluwo ti o yatọ pẹlu awọn iṣesi oriṣiriṣi. Pelu awọn ọrọ-ọrọ
Nigbagbogbo bikus ti a ṣe lati ni anfani ati lati ṣakoso
Pẹlu apejuwe ti o ni kukuru ti awọn iṣẹ ati ẹkọ ti igbesi aye mimọ,
Awọn ohun kan ti o sọrọ nipa ọpọlọpọ awọn ohun
Ilọsiwaju atunṣe

Awọn ẹja-oyinbo ti o ni ẹwà fi han itumọ Buddha
Awọn ẹkọ fi han kedere, dabobo ati dabobo
Iyatọ ati idasilẹ. Gẹgẹbi okun ni ipo fun
Owo-ori ti o rọrun lati din awọn gbẹnagbẹna ni iṣẹ wọn
Awọn ododo ṣe idaabobo tituka tabi tituka awọn ododo nigba aladodo
Bakannaa, nipasẹ itumọ ti oye Buddha
Awọn ẹkọ le wa ni kedere sọ, gbọye, gbọye,
O fun aabo ti o tọ lati alaye ti ko tọ.

Iya ti pin si awọn ipinya ọtọtọ marun ti Bijica Nikos. Wọn jẹ Digi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika.

Mimojuto ati awọn iṣẹ ni awọn ẹkọ Buddha

Ni ẹsẹ Sutthanta ibudo
Awọn ọna fun awọn igbasilẹ iwa ati iwa
Waye fun igbesi aye ojoojumọ. Gbogbo awọn iwadi ati awọn ilana ti ṣẹda
Awọn ipele mẹjọ ti Buddha yorisi si ọna ẹmi ti ọna Buddha
Awọn ipele mẹta ti atunṣe:

Sheila-iwa iwa iwa nipasẹ iwa ti o yẹ.

Ẹwà ti inu nipasẹ awọn ibojì

Vincentina n ṣe itọju igbiyanju nipasẹ iṣaro.

Ni ibere, o yẹ ki o gba ipinnu ọtun lati lọ si aabo
Tẹle awọn ẹkọ Buddha ati imọran
Association. Awọn ọmọ-ẹhin akọkọ lati sọ ireti
Awọn mejeeji Buddha ati awọn ẹkọ rẹ yẹ ki o tẹle
Awọn ọmọ ẹgbẹ owo, Tapusa ati Balkha. Nwọn ajo pẹlu wọn
Buddha ri awọn ọmọ ẹgbẹ marun
Igi igi ni lẹhin igbimọ rẹ. Awọn oniṣowo meji
O fun oyinbo oyin oyin kan. Wọn yoo gba ẹbun wọn ki wọn si fọ
Fun ọsẹ meje o tikararẹ, Buddha
Nigbati o si joko, awọn ọmọ-ẹhin rẹ tọ ọ wá, wipe,

Buddhist sarangam (Mo wa ninu iwe)

Dharman sir (Mo n ṣe alaafia)

Yi iyipada ijaṣe yi pada si fọọmu kan
Buddha ati ẹkọ rẹ. Nigbana ni a ti fi idi ti iṣeto naa mulẹ
Lati fi ipin kẹta kan kun, agbekalẹ yii ti tẹsiwaju:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (Mo gba ibi aabo ni agba)
Ni Ọna Ọna lati Fun Awọn Idanilaraya

Gẹgẹbi igbesẹ ti o wulo ti lilo lẹsẹkẹsẹ ati ilosoke nipasẹ
eniyan ni gbogbo awọn igbesi aye ti Buddha fi awọn ikunni lori ẹbun
ṣafihan awọn ihuwasi rẹ, ati lori ọna ti o tọ ati iwa ti o tọ
okan ti eyi ti a fi fun ẹbọ anfani fun ẹmí.

Agbara igbiyanju ni iṣẹ iṣe ti ifẹ jẹ iṣaro, awọn
yoo fun. Ifẹ jẹ iṣẹ ti o ṣe pataki ti o waye nikan lati inu
Ipele. Lai si ipinnu lati funni ko si iṣe fifunni. Ipele
ni fifun alms jẹ awọn oniru mẹta:

(1) Iṣaro ti o bẹrẹ pẹlu ero “Emi o ṣe ohun kan
laimu “ati pe o wa nigba akoko igbaradi fun ṣiṣe
laimu: iwe-iṣowo (ipinlẹ ṣaaju ki o to igbese).

(2) Iṣaro ti o waye ni akoko fifọ awọn ẹbun lakoko ti o nfi o fun olugba: muñan laanā (iyipada lakoko iṣe).

(3) Iṣaro ti o tẹle ayọ ati ayọ ti o dide
nigba igbasilẹ ti o tun jẹ tabi gangan lori iṣe fifunni: apara ceanā (iṣawari lẹhin ti iṣe).

Boya a nṣe ẹbọ naa ni ibowo si Buda oriṣa tabi
si iṣẹju kekere kan ti awọn relics rẹ lẹhin igbati o ti lọ, o jẹ
ipele, agbara rẹ ati iwa-mimọ, ti o npinnu irufẹ
abajade rẹ.

Awọn iwadii naa tun ṣalaye awọn iwa ti ko tọ ti iṣọkan eyiti a ko gbọdọ ṣe iru iṣẹ ti iṣe.

Oluranlowo yẹ ki o yera lati nwaju si awọn elomiran ti ko le ṣe
iru ẹbọ bẹẹ tabi o yẹ ki o ṣe ayẹyẹ ifẹ ti ara rẹ. Ti pa nipasẹ
iru iṣiro ti ko ni aiye-ọrọ rẹ ipinnu jẹ nikan ti o kere julọ.

Nigbati igbadun iṣe kan ni iwuri nipasẹ awọn ireti ti
awọn abajade anfani ti aisiki lẹsẹkẹsẹ ati idunu tabi atunbi ni
Awọn ipele ti o ga julọ wa ni ifarabalẹ ti o tẹle ti a pin bi mediocre.

O jẹ nikan nigbati iṣẹ rere ti fifunni-fifun ni a ṣe jade
ti ẹmí ti renunciation ti iwuri nipasẹ awọn ero ti ailara funfun,
ti o fẹ fun nikan ni aṣeyọri ni nibbana nibiti gbogbo ijiya ba dopin, pe atinuwo ti o ṣe nkan yi jẹ pe o gaju giga

Ọpọlọpọ apẹẹrẹ ni awọn apejuwe nipa ifẹ ati awọn ọna ti fifun alms.

Iwa iṣọra nipasẹ Ipa ọtun: Sila

Ilana ti sīla jẹ ẹya pataki ti
Ẹkọ Buddha. O ni iṣe ti Ọrọ Ọtun, Ọtun
Ise, ati Ọna ti o tọ lati wẹ ara rẹ kuro ninu awọn iwa aiṣedeede, awọn ọrọ ati
ero. Paapọ pẹlu ifaramọ ti Ibudo Agbegbe mẹta (bii
ti a salaye loke) ọmọ-ẹhin ti o sọkalẹ ntẹriba awọn ilana marun ni ṣiṣe nipasẹ ṣiṣe
tẹle ijẹrisi ipolowo:

(1) Mo ṣe lati ṣe akiyesi ilana ti fifọ lati pa.

(2) Mo ṣe lati ṣe akiyesi ilana ti fifọ lati jiji.

(3) Mo ṣe lati ṣe akiyesi ilana ti mimu kuro lọwọ iwa ibalopọ ibalopo.

(4) Mo ṣe lati ṣe akiyesi ilana ti mimu lati sọ eke.

(5) Mo ṣe lati ṣe akiyesi ilana ti mimu kuro ninu awọn ohun mimu
ọti-lile, awọn oògùn tabi awọn ohun ti o nmu ti o jẹ awọsanma ni ọkàn.

Ni afikun si abala ti ko dara ti ilana ti o wa loke eyiti o ṣe afihan abstinence, nibẹ tun ni ipa ti o dara ti sila.
Fún àpẹrẹ, a rí nínú ọrọ ọpọlọ ọrọ náà: “Ó dáwọ
lati pa, fi awọn cudgel ati idà silẹ; kun fun rere ati
aanu o n gbe fun iranlọwọ ati idunu ti ohun alãye gbogbo. “
Gbogbo ilana ti a fi silẹ ni agbekalẹ ni awọn aaye meji wọnyi.

Ti o da lori ẹni kọọkan ati ipele ti ilọsiwaju ọkan,
Awọn ilana miiran miiran (fun apẹẹrẹ awọn ilana mẹjọ, awọn ilana mẹwa) le jẹ
šakiyesi. Fun awọn bhikkhus ti aṣẹ ti o ga ati awọn orisi ti ilọsiwaju ti
awọn iṣẹ ti iwa-ori ti wa ni isalẹ. Awọn ilana marun ni lati wa ni nigbagbogbo
šakiyesi nipasẹ awọn ọmọ-ẹhin ti o wa laipẹ, ti o le ṣe afihan wọn ni igba miiran
iwa-ara ẹni nipa wíwo awọn ilana mẹjọ tabi mẹwa. Fun awon ti o ni
tẹlẹ bere si ọna ti igbesi-aye mimọ awọn ilana mẹwa ni
awọn asọtẹlẹ pataki si ilọsiwaju siwaju sii.

Sila ti o jẹ pipe ni o jẹ ipilẹ fun ilọsiwaju atẹle ti o tẹle, purity-samādhi-purity nipasẹ iṣaro iṣaro.
Awọn ọna Iṣeloju ti Ọgbọn Ẹkọ fun Idagbasoke Ifarahan: Samādhi

Nkan ti ogbon fun igbiyanju ti ẹmí ni awọn igbesẹ meji.
Igbesẹ akọkọ jẹ lati sọ ọkàn di mimọ kuro ninu gbogbo ailera ati ibajẹ
ati lati jẹ ki o ṣojukọ lori aaye kan kan. Agbara ipinnu (Ọtun
Agbara) gbọdọ wa ni lati ṣe idinku awọn ibiti o wa ninu
aifọriba, aifọwọyi ti ko ni idaniloju. Nigbana ni ifojusi (Ọtun Mindfulness tabi
Ifarabalẹ) gbọdọ wa ni titelọ lori ohun ti a ti yan ti iṣaro titi
ọkan ifarahan ọkan (Agbegbe Ọtun) ti waye. Ni iru iru bẹ bẹẹ
ipinle, ọkàn wa di ominira lati awọn idaduro, funfun, alaafia, alagbara
ati imọlẹ. O
wa nigetan lati ṣafẹsiwaju si igbesẹ keji nipa eyiti a ti le ni imọran
ati imọran lati ṣe ilọsiwaju ti ipinle ti ibanujẹ ati ibanujẹ.

Suttanta Piṭaka kọ ọpọlọpọ awọn ọna ti iṣaro si
mu idasi ọkan kan. Awọn ọna wọnyi ti iṣaro ni
ti a ti tuka jakejado awọn suttas ti awọn Piṭaka ati pe nipasẹ
Buddha nigbakannaa, nigbakannaa, lati ba awọn iṣẹlẹ naa waye
ati idi ti a ṣe fun wọn niyanju. Buddha mọ ọ
oniruuru ti ohun kikọ ati ifarabalẹ ti ara ẹni kọọkan ati awọn
awọn iwọn otutu ati awọn ifarahan ti awọn ti o sunmọ i fun
itọsọna. Gegebi o ṣe iṣeduro ọna oriṣiriṣi lati yatọ si
eniyan lati ba awọn ohun kikọ pataki ati nilo ti olukuluku.

Awọn iṣe ti ogbin ti opolo ti o ni abajade ni ọkan-ọkan ni a npe ni samādhi bhāvanā. Ẹnikẹni ti o ba fẹ lati dagbasoke samhādhi bhāvanā
gbọdọ wa ni idasilẹ ni akiyesi awọn ilana, pẹlu
iṣakoso iṣakoso, alaafia ati ti ara ẹni, ati pe o gbọdọ ni idunnu.
Lẹhin ti a ti ṣeto ni awọn ipo mẹrin wọnyi o gbọdọ yan ibi kan
o dara fun iṣaro, aaye iranran kan. Nigbana o yẹ ki o joko
agbelebu-ẹsẹ ti o pa ara rẹ mọ ati idaniji ọkàn rẹ; o yẹ ki o bẹrẹ
ṣe mimu okan rẹ mọ awọn idiwọ marun (ifẹkufẹ ifẹkufẹ;
sloth ati torpor; isinmi ati aibalẹ; ati iyemeji) nipa yan a
ọna iṣaro ọna ti o dara fun u ati ṣiṣe iṣaroye pẹlu itara
ati itara. Fun apeere, pẹlu ọna ọna Anapana o ntọju wiwo
ẹmi ti nwọle ati ti njade titi o fi le ni iranti rẹ
ni aabo lori ẹmi ni ipari ti imu.

Nigbati o ba mọ pe awọn idiwọ marun ti yọ kuro
di ayþ, inu didun, itura ati alaafia. Eyi ni ibẹrẹ
ti samādhi (fojusi), eyi ti yoo ma siwaju sii titi di igba ti o ba ni idaniloju ọkan.

Bayi ni ifarahan ọkankan ni idaniloju okan nigbati o ba wa
mọ ohun kan, ati pe ọkan ninu ẹda ti o dara. Eyi jẹ
ti iṣe nipasẹ iṣaro iṣaro lori ọkan ninu awọn ẹkọ
iṣeduro fun Buddha fun idi naa.

Awọn ọna ti o wulo fun Ọgbọn Ẹkọ fun Idagbasoke Imọlẹ Imọlẹ (Paññā)

Awọn
koko ati awọn ọna ti iṣaro bi a ti kọ ni awọn suttas ti awọn Piṭaka ni a
ṣe apẹrẹ fun aseyori ti samādhi ati fun idagbasoke imọ imọran,
Vipassana ñāṇa, bi ọna ti o tọ si nibbāna.
Gẹgẹbi igbesẹ keji ninu aṣa iṣaro lẹhin ṣiṣe awọn samadani,
nigba ti ọkàn ti o ni idojukọ ti di mimọ, duro ati aibuku,
meditator n ṣakoso ati ki o tẹ ọkàn rẹ si imoye oye (vipassanā -ññana). Pẹlu imoye imọran yii o mọ awọn abuda mẹta ti aye ti o ni iyanu: impermanence (anicca), ijiya (dukkha) ati ti kii-ara (anattā).

Bi o ti nlọsiwaju ninu iwa rẹ ati ọkàn rẹ di pupọ ati siwaju sii
diẹ ti o mọ, duro ati ki o imperturbable, o dari ati ki o inclines ọkàn rẹ
si imọ ti iparun ti awọn iwa ailera iṣe (āsavakkhaya ñāṇa). Lehin naa o mọ ni gbogbokha, idi ti dukkha, isinku gbogbokha ati ọna ti o yori si cessation ti gbogbokha. O tun wa lati ni oye ni kikun awọn ohun ti o jẹ ọti-lile (aasa) bi wọn
ṣe jẹ gangan, idi ti awọn aasa, isinku ti awọn efasi ati ọna ti o yori
si isinku awọn awada.

Pẹlu imoye iparun ti awọn aasa yii o di
ti ominira. Imọ igbala ni o wa ninu rẹ. O mọ pe
atunbi ko si mọ, pe o ti gbe igbesi aye mimọ. O ti ṣe ohun ti o
ni lati ṣe fun idaniloju magga. Kosi nkankan diẹ fun u lati ṣe fun iru imọ bẹẹ.

Buddha kọ pẹlu ohun kan nikan-iparun ti
ijiya ati igbasilẹ lati aye ti o wa ni idiwọn. Ohun naa le jẹ
gba nipasẹ iṣaro iṣaro (fun tunu ati oye) bi a ti gbe kalẹ
isalẹ ni ọpọlọpọ awọn suttas ti Suttanta Piṭaka.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfUwWff2N0M
Omo—Yoruba Nigerian children’s song, with assistance from Olaolu Lawal
Laurel Holden
Published on Jan 31, 2016
Neighborhood Choirs

Chicago Children’s Choir
World Music Festival 2016
Saturday, January 30, 2016
Mollie Stone, Director of World Music
Josephine Lee, President and Artistic Director
Judy Hanson, Director of Choral Programs
Category
Comedy


Neighborhood Choirs Chicago Children’s Choir World Music…
youtube.com






105 Classical Zulu
105 I-Classical Zulu

2532 Ngomhlaka 14 Feb 2018 ISIFUNDO

YINI ISUTTANTA PIAKAAKA?

UbuBuddha bendabuko (ukufundisa ngokuqwashisa ukuqwashisa) kungokwesezwe futhi kunamalungelo abantu bonke:
Izigidi zabantu emhlabeni jikelele zihlonishwa kakhulu ekukhangiseni
nasekucwaningeni, ngokusekelwe ekuqapheliseni ushintsho lwezenhlalakahle
lweBuddhist kanye ne-techno-polytext kanye nokunyakaza komnotho.

Ukuhumusha
kwalokhu kuhunyushwa kuhunyushwa yi-Google Translate
https://translate.google.com futhi kuhunyushwe ngolimi lokuhumusha
ekungeneni kokusakaza (kwezomthetho) nokuhumusha kokugcina kokuphela
kokuya khona.
Ukuhlaziywa kwe-Intel-Net-Free Online Analysis- Indik-Niki Dipiktaka
Research and Training University kanye nomthombo wezindaba ohlobene
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 Izilimi Ezivamile

http://www.tipitaka.org/eot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M&t=418s
I-Digai Nikus 9 I-Bopa Patta Sutta - Isayensi YeSayensi
Dharmamoka Sudus
Ishicilelwe ngo-Novemba 11, 2013
Isigaba
Ukungenzi inzuzo nokusebenza

I-Digai Nikus 9 I-Bopa Patta Sutta - Isayensi YeSayensi
youtube.com

UDickica nisa: inkulumo ende
I
UDigi Nicka noma “i-Long Sharman Collection” (Bali Diga = “Long”)
Isigaba sokuqala se-Suda Pitaka, namashumi amathathu nane
Izinqola ezintathu, noma zihlukaniswe ngezigaba:
accesstoinsight.org

I-Sutta Pidaka
I
Buddha kanye nezintombazane ezimbalwa ezikhulunywa ngazo, noma iqoqo lezintshumayelo
Abafundi bakhe abaseduze bahlanganisa zonke izimfundiso eziphakathi
I-Thervata Buddhism. (Izinguqulo ezingaphezu kweyinkulungwane
Lewebhusayithi iyatholakala.) Iglese ihlukaniswe yaba yizinhloko eziyisihlanu (amaphakheji):

Digi Nikaya - “iqoqo elide”

https: //www.youtube.com/watch …
Ingoma entsha kaBuddha
Ukubukwa okungu-153,375

I-Cuttunta?

Iqoqo lazo zonke izingxoxo i-Sutthanta Bidara
Ezimweni eziningi uBuddha wanikezwa. Abanye
Izincwadi zabanye abafundi abadumile
UBuddha, Sawubona, uMaha Mogalla, uyigugu
Anthanda, kanye nezinye izincazelo kanye nezincwadi
Funky prigved. Izingxoxo zikaBuddha zaqoqwa ndawonye
Ichweba laseSutthanta lahlelwa ngezikhathi eziningana
Ababukeli abahlukene abanemizwelo ehlukene. Naphezu kwezinkulumo
Ngokuvamile i-bikus yenzelwe ukuzuza nokuphatha
Ngencazelo emfushane yokusebenza nokufundisa kokuphila okumsulwa,
Kukhona izinto ezikhuluma ngezinto eziningi
Ukulungiswa kokuyala

I-peacock ehlanzekile yembula incazelo kaBuddha
Izimfundiso zembula, zivikele futhi zivikele
Ukuhlanekezela nokungaqondakali kahle. Njengezintambo egameni
Intela elula yokunciphisa ababazi emsebenzini wabo
Izimbali zivikela ukusabalalisa noma ukusabalalisa izimbali ngesikhathi sezimbali
Ngokufanayo, ngokusebenzisa incazelo kaBuddha ukuqonda
Izimfundiso zingabonakaliswa ngokucacile, ziqondwe, ziqondwe,
Wanikeza isivikelo esifanele ekuchazeni okungalungile.

I-Sundance ihlukaniswe ngezigaba ezinhlanu ezihlukene zeBijica Nikos. ZiyiDigi Nikaya, Majjihima Nicka, Ceuta Nika, Akutara Nika, Kutaka Nika.

Ukuqapha kanye nemikhuba emifundisweni kaBuddha

Ngaphansi kwechweba laseSutthanta
Izindlela zokuziphatha nezindinganiso zokuziphatha
Faka isicelo sokuphila kwansuku zonke. Zonke izifundo kanye nezinqubo zenziwa
Izigaba eziyisishiyagalombili zeBuddha ziholela endleleni engokomoya yomzila waseBuddha
Amazinga amathathu okucwengisa:

Ukuziphatha koSheila-ukuziphatha ngokuziphatha okuhle.

Ukuhlanzeka kwengqondo ethuneni

U-Vincentina uhlanza ukuqonda ngokucabangela ngokuzindla.

Ekuqaleni, kufanele uthathe isinqumo esifanele sokuphephela
Landela izimfundiso nesiqondiso sikaBuddha
Association. Abafundi bokuqala ukumemezela ithemba
Bobabili uBuddha nezimfundiso zakhe kufanele balandele
Abazalwane bezebhizinisi, uTapusa noBalkha. Bahamba nabo
UBuddha wabona abafundi abangamakhulu amahlanu
Isihlahla sokhuni sasilandela ukukhanya kwakhe. Abathengisi ababili
Wanika ikhekhe irayisi irayisi. Bayokwamukela isipho sabo bese bephule
Ngamaviki ayisikhombisa yena ngokwakhe, uBuddha
Kwathi esehlezi, abafundi bakhe beza kuye bathi:

I-Buddhist sarangam (Ngibhala encwadini)

Dharman mnumzane (ngenza umusa)

Lolu shintsho lokubuyisana lwashintshwa lufomu
Buddha nezimfundiso zakhe. Khona-ke inhlangano yasungulwa
Ukwengeza isahluko sesithathu, leli fomula liyandiswa:

Sangakkara Saran Kakmi (ngiphephela emdlalweni)


Ngendlela Efanele Yokunikeza Izidakamizwa

Njengesinyathelo esiwusizo esisebenzayo sokusetshenziswa okusheshayo nokukhiqizayo
abantu kuzo zonke izindlela zokuphila uBuddha wanikeza izinkulumo ngosizo
echaza ubuhle bayo, nangendlela efanele kanye nesimo sengqondo esifanele
ingqondo okumele kwenziwe ngayo umnikelo wokomoya.

Amandla ashukumisayo esenzweni sosizo kuyisifiso, i
kuzokunikeza. Usizo luyisenzo esihle kakhulu esivela kuphela
ukuzithandela. Ngaphandle kwentando yokunikeza akukho isenzo sokupha. Ukuvota
ekunikeni izipho zisezinhlobo ezintathu:

(1) Umthamo oqala ngomcabango “Ngizokwenza
ukunikela “futhi okukhona ngesikhathi sokulungiselela ukwenza
umnikelo: pubba cetanā (ukuzithandela ngaphambi kwesenzo).

(2) Ukuvota okuvela ngesikhathi okwenza umnikelo ngenkathi uyinikela kumamukeli: muñca cetanā (ukuzithandela ngesikhathi senzo).

(3) Umthamo ohambisana nenjabulo nokujabula okuvela
ngesikhathi sokukhumbula okuphindaphindiwe noma ukucabanga ngesenzo sokupha: apara cetanā (ukuzithandela emva kwesenzo).

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi umnikelo wenziwa ngokuhlonipha uBuddha ophilayo noma
kuya kuyizinhlayiyana zamaminithi ezinhlamvu zakhe emva kokudlula kwakhe, yiyona
ukuzithandela, amandla alo kanye nokuhlanzeka, okusho ukuthi uhlobo luni
umphumela walo.

Izinkulumo zibuye zichaze isimo sengqondo esingalungile okungekho isenzo sosizo okumelwe senziwe.

Umnikeli kufanele agweme ukubheka phansi abanye abangakwazi ukwenza
umnikelo ofanayo futhi akufanele agubhelele uthando lwakhe. Ingcolile ngu
Imicabango engafanelekile isifiso sakhe kuphela sezingeni eliphansi.

Uma isenzo sosizo sithathwa yizilindelwe
imiphumela enenzuzo yokuchuma ngokushesha nenjabulo noma ukuzalwa kabusha
Izindawo eziphakeme ezihambisana nokuzikhethela zihlukaniswa njengezici.

Kuyinto kuphela lapho umsebenzi omuhle wokunikeza izipho zenziwa ngezikhwama
womoya wokulahla oshukunyiswa yimicabango yokuzidela okuhlanzekile,
efuna kuphela ukutholakala kwe-nibbāna lapho konke ukuhlupheka
kuphelela khona, ukuthi ukuzithoba okuhambisana nalesi senzo kubhekwa
njengobuningi obuphezulu

Kukhona izibonelo eziningi ezinkulumweni eziphathelene nosizo kanye nezindlela zokunikeza izipho.

Ukuhlanzeka kokuziphatha ngokuziphatha okuhle: Sīla

Ukuzijwayeza kwe-sīla kuyakha isici esiyisisekelo kunazo zonke
Ukufundisa kukaBuddha. Iqukethe umkhuba wokukhuluma okulungile, kwesokudla
Isenzo, kanye Nokuphila Okufanele ukuzitholela izenzo ezingcolile, amagama kanye
imicabango. Kanye nokuzibophezela kokubalekela kathathu (njenge
echazwe ngenhla) umfundi obekayo uyayibona imiyalo emihlanu ngokwenza
ngokulandela isifungo esisemthethweni:

(1) Ng