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2717 Sat 18 Aug 2018 LESSON (58) Sat 18 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) WELCOME TO MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTRE (Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Govt. of Karnataka, Bengaluru) A Centre for Theravada Buddhist Studies Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies P1 Pali Language and Literature http://www.mbrc.info/ Time Table [Class Room 1] DIPLOMA In Buddhist Studies (DBS) (15 HOURS) SYLLABUS Paper -1,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:25 am


2717 Sat 18 Aug 2018 LESSON (58) Sat 18 Aug 2007
  
Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

WELCOME TO MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTRE



(Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Govt. of Karnataka, Bengaluru)



A Centre for Theravada Buddhist Studies



Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies P1 Pali Language and Literature

http://www.mbrc.info/
Time Table [Class Room 1]
DIPLOMA In Buddhist Studies (DBS)
(15 HOURS)



SYLLABUS
Paper -1,

Friday 3 Hours     5:00 pm - 6:00 pm Sutta (Discourse)   6:00 pm  - 7:00 pm Bhavana (Meditation)  7:00 pm  -  8:00 Discussion
Saturday 5 Hours 2pm - 3 pm Pali Language  and Literature


Prof Dr K Ramachandra


3 pm - 4 pm Life of Bhagavan Buddha Dr D Gopalakrishna 4 pm - 5 pm  Sutta Pitaka Dr M Chinnaswamy
 5:30 pm - 6:30 pm Vinaya Pitaka  Bhikkhu Buddhadatta 6:30 pm - 7:30 pm Abhidhamma Pitaka Bhikkhu Ananda/K Mahadevaiah
Sunday 7 Hours  Morning 9:30 am - 11:30 am Sutta (Discourse) Lunch Break 2 pm - 3 pm Life of Buddha Dr B V Rajaram
3 pm - 4 pm Pali Language and Literature Bhikkhu Pammokkho/Bhikkhu Manissara 4.00 - 4.30 pm Break
4.30
pm - 5.30 pm Sutta Pitaka Bhikkhu Gandhhama/Bhikkhu Dhammaloka 5.50 pm -
6.30 pm Vinaya Pitaka Bhikkhu Ariyavamsa/Bhikkhu Ayupala 6.30 pm -
37.30 pm Abhidhamma Pitaka Sayalay Uttamanyani/Ven Bodhicitta


MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTRE



(Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Govt. of Karnataka, Bangalore)



Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies- 1 Year Course

SYLLABUS
Paper -1,

Pali Language and Literature                            100 Marks


1  History - Definition and Development   5
2  Pali Grammer Lesson 1 - 10                   30
3  Six great Councils                                    5
4  Vinaya Pitaka in Brief                             10
5  Sutta Pitaka in Brief                                10
6  Abhidhhamma Pitaka in Brief               10
7  India - Home Land of Buddhism            15
8  Buddhism in Modern World                   15
Marks                                                            100
Reference Books:
1. Comprehensive Pali CoursePart
Author - Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita
Published by - Buddha Vachana Trust, Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore (2006
2. History of


Pali Language and Literature




Author - Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita
Published by - Buddha Vachana Trust, Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore (2006
3. 2500 years of Buddhism,
Author - P.V. BAPAT
Published by - Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India (1956)




Paper -1,

Pali Language and Literature 







Theravada Buddhist Studies History -Definition and Development


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYKdEnEqfQQ
Buddhism Explained: Religions in Global History
Hip Hughes
Published on Jul 21, 2016
What does a Buddhist believe? What are the basic beliefs of Buddhists?
An introductory lecture to the basics of Buddhism. Please consider
support HHH this summer for more World History vids for the kiddies! https://www.gofundme.com/2chw7a4 Check out the Hindu lecture here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGV6M
Category
Education


youtube.com
What does a Buddhist believe? What are the basic beliefs of Buddhists? An introductory lecture to the…
















in.pinterest.com
The
way of the Elders: preserve in the purest form true message. Pali
Canon: Tripitaka: three baskets and Suta Pitaka: basic teachings and
Abhidam… | Buddhism | Pinterest | Buddhism, Theravada buddhism and
Morality



The
way of the Elders: preserve in the purest form true message. Pali
Canon: Tripitaka: three baskets and Suta Pitaka: basic teachings and
Abhidamma Pitaka: syaings on morality


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQVhej29X0w
Minute Faith ~ Theravada Buddhism
Spirit Studios
Published on Aug 8, 2016
Theravada Buddhism started 25 and a half centuries ago, 19 days after
the Buddha passed away. It is the more conservative of the two major
traditions of Buddhism, and the original doctrine of Buddhist teachings.

Today, it is strongly practiced
in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos, but is also known in
smaller communities around the world.

The word Theravada comes from Thera meaning elders, and Vada meaning doctrine, thus, the Doctrine of Elders.

For the full video description and sources, check out our website:
https://spiritsciencecentral.com/ther

Support our studio
https://www.patreon.com/spiritstudios
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvSI

Join the community
https://www.facebook.com/SpiritScienc
https://www.instagram.com/spiritscien
https://twitter.com/spiritsciences
Category
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Theravada
Buddhism started 25 and a half centuries ago, 19 days after the Buddha
passed away. It is the more conservative of the two major traditions of…


pinterest.com
Discover recipes, home ideas, style inspiration and other ideas to try.


in.pinterest.com
A Chinese development proposal causes disbelief
world religions
Lumbini,
Nepal is a significant node because it has a high number of adherents
clustered in the homeland of Buddhism. Buddhism has an estimated 35
million adherents and is 6% of the worlds population.



in.pinterest.com
Buddhism
does not consider women to be inferior to men. They accept differences
in the two sexes but believe they are all equally useful in society.
Husband and Wife share the same responsibilities and should be
companions. Their education is not restricted and they can participate
in all Buddhist practices.


in.pinterest.com
As
neuroscience has begun studying the mind, they have looked to those…As
neuroscience has begun studying the mind, they have looked to those
who have mastered the mind. University of British Columbia researchers
have verified the Buddhist belief of anatta, or not-self.





2  Pali Grammer Lesson 1 - 10 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96PEcOJZNJ4
Learn Pali Grammar & Language - Basic English Grammar 1
Learn Pali
Published on Jun 15, 2018
An introduction to learning the Pali language. For the absolute
beginner. This is the first in the series that discusses parts of speech
and basic concepts of English grammar in preparation.

https://palistudies.blogspot.com
Category
People & Blogs


youtube.com
An introduction to learning the Pali language. For the absolute beginner. This is the first in the series that…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=joWLbqYxX8o
Learn Pali Grammar & Language - Basic Declension
Learn Pali
Published on Jun 19, 2018
Pali grammar lessons for the absolute beginner in English. This video
deals with the basic concept of noun declension. The fourth video in
this series of English Language Pali tutorials.
Category
Education


youtube.com
Pali grammar lessons for the absolute beginner in English. This video deals with the basic concept of…
https://bodhimonastery.org/a-course-in-the-pali-language.html

image.png


Pali is the language used to preserve the Buddhist canon of the Theravada Buddhist tradition,
which is regarded as the oldest complete collection of Buddhist texts
surviving in an Indian language. Pali is closely related to Sanskrit,
but its grammar and structure are simpler. Traditional Theravadins
regard Pali as the language spoken by the Buddha himself, but in the
opinion of leading linguistic scholars, Pali was probably a synthetic
language created from several vernaculars to make the Buddhist texts
comprehensible to Buddhist monks living in different parts of northern
India. It is rooted in the Prakrits, the vernacular languages, used in
northern India during the Middle period
of Indian linguistic evolution. As Theravada Buddhism spread to other
parts of southern Asia, the use of Pali as the language of the texts
spread along with it, and thus Pali became a sacred language in Sri
Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Pali has been used
almost exclusively for Buddhist teachings, although many religious and
literary works related to Buddhism were written in Pali at a time when
it was already forgotten in India.

The Sutta-Nipāta

This course is designed to help you to learn the basics of Pali
grammar and vocabulary through direct study of selections from the
Buddha’s discourses. It thus aims to enable you to read the Buddha’s
discourses in the original as quickly as possible. The textbook for the
course is A New Course in Reading Pali: Entering the Word of the Buddha
by James Gair and W.S. Karunatilleke (1998, Motilal Banarsidass
Publishers, Delhi, India. ISBN 81-208-1440-1). The Pali grammatical
tables were designed by Bhikkhu Nyanatusita.

The course proceeds sequentially through the chapters, or “Lessons,” in the textbook, each of which has three parts:

  1. An initial set of readings and an accompanying glossary
  2. Grammatical notes on the forms in the lesson
  3. A set of further readings and a glossary

The lectures will be much more meaningful if the listener obtains a
copy of the textbook and studies each lesson before listening to the
associated set of lectures. Also, the textbook and lectures assume that
the listener has a fundamental understanding of grammar. For those whose
who feel that their knowledge of grammar needs refreshing, we recommend
Pali Grammar for Students by Steven Collins (2006, Silkworm Books, ISBN 978-974-9511-13-8).

Lesson I
Lecture 1
Lecture 2
Lecture 3
Lecture 4
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Further Readings
Lesson II
Lecture 5
Lecture 6
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Further Readings
Lesson III
Lecture 7
Lecture 8
Lecture 9
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Initial Readings
Lesson IV
Lecture 10
Lecture 11
Lecture 12
Lecture 13
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Further Readings
Lesson V
Lecture 14
Lecture 15
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Further Readings
Lesson VI
Lecture 16
Lecture 17
Lecture 18
Lecture 19
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Further Readings
Lesson VII
Lecture 19
Lecture 20
Lecture 21
Lecture 22
Lesson VIII
Lecture 23
Lecture 24
Lecture 25
Lecture 25
Lecture 26
Lesson IX
Lecture 27
Lecture 28
Lecture 29
Lecture 30
Lesson X
Lecture 31
Lecture 32
Lecture 33
Lecture 34
Lesson XI
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Further Readings
Lesson XII
Recital of Initial Readings
Recital of Further Readings
Tables for download
Pali Dictionary Pali Alphabet
Pronoun Conjugation   Noun Declension 1
Noun Declension 2 Pronoun Declension
Verb Conjugation Verb Conjugation and Pronoun Declension
Most Venerable Professor Kenneth Rose and the Wisdom from World Religions Team





3  Six great Councils 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ssUNSScUs-Q
Chattha Sangāyana (The Sixth Buddhist Council) Track 02
Aye Aye Mon
Published on Oct 2, 2016
ဆဋ္ဌမသင်္ဂါယနာ, ဆ႒မသဂၤါယနာ, Chattha Sangāyana (The Sixth Buddhist Council)
Category
Education


youtube.com
ဆဋ္ဌမသင်္ဂါယနာ, ဆ႒မသဂၤါယနာ, Chattha Sangāyana (The Sixth Buddhist Council)





4  Vinaya Pitaka in Brief    

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Vinaya Piṭaka: Mahāvagga (~1st-2nd century) [Excerpt: The Evolution of Ordination]
Jade Vine
Published on Jan 12, 2016
An excerpt of writing from an early Buddhist canon, specifically about the development of monastic communities.
Category
People & Blogs


youtube.com
An excerpt of writing from an early Buddhist canon,…




5  Sutta Pitaka in Brief      

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ArY597Dax84&t=9s
From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka - Samyutta Nikaya

25
1
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Supreme Master Television
Published on Jul 12, 2008
http://suprememastertv.com/ - From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka -Samyutta Nikaya (In English), Episode: 618, Air date: 24 - May - 2008
Category
Entertainment


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http://suprememastertv.com/ - From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka -Samyutta Nikaya…
https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/questions/21525/resources-for-sutta-study-discussion-for-beginners

https://buddhism.stackexchange.com/…/resources-for-sutta-st…

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Resources for Sutta study/discussion for beginners
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What texts would you recommend for sutta discussion sessions, where a
majority of the participants will be new to discussing suttas? with
metta
sutras
shareimprove this question
asked Jul 14 ‘17 at 6:29
community wiki

Kaveenga Wijayasekara
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3 Answers
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2
down vote

This is my standard recommendation for beginners: a)Read
BuddhismCourse. (Take about 12 hours to read and give you a good idea
about the teaching) http://www.urbandharma.org/pdf/PDF_BuddhismCourse/

b)Print a copy of this Dhamma Chart and refer to it while studding Buddhism. http://www.dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=16785

c) Read Buddha’s Teaching by Narada. Start from chapter 15. http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/buddh … gsurw6.pdf

d) While you reading above texts please listen to the following Dhamma Talk by Joseph Goldstein. http://www.dharmaseed.org/teacher/96/talk/6162/
e) Start reading Sutta. Good starting point would be to read Bikkhu
Bodhi’s “In the Buddha’s Word” Then read Sutta Central. Start from
Majjhima Nikaya. https://suttacentral.net/m
shareimprove this answer
answered Jul 14 ‘17 at 9:40
community wiki

SarathW
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up vote
1
down vote

If you would listen to nirapekshathwayemaga Season 8 - (there are 30
video clips in all), you will get to learn the Dhamma with all the
relevant sutta references. These 30 sermons are of such importance, that
I am going to translate the contents into English in the near future. I
will launch a brand new website “A MEDITATIVE LIFE”, for the benefit of
all within one year.
shareimprove this answer
answered Jul 14 ‘17 at 10:23
community wiki

Saptha Visuddhi
add a comment
up vote
1
down vote

Mukhapatha is the best. So easiest way is listen directly from pa-auk teachers.

The tipitaka memorizers can teach Beginner’s Buddhist Course Syllabus
By Ancient Pali Canon easier more than try to done it yourself.

You have many other ways more than mukhapatha, but if they will been the
best way to teach, the buddha will used them. But he never.


buddhism.stackexchange.com
What
texts would you recommend for sutta discussion sessions, where a
majority of the participants will be new to discussing suttas?…
                        





6  Abhidhhamma Pitaka in Brief              

http://www.palikanon.de/english/sangaha/sangaha.html

ABHIDHAMMATTHA - SANGAHA

of Anuruddhācariya

A manual of ABHIDHAMMA

Edited in the original Pali Text with English Translation and Explanatory
Notes

by Nārada Thera, Vājirārāma, Colombo

Preface

CHAPTER I - Different Types of Consciousness
(citta-sangaha-vibhāgo)

Introductory Verse
Subject - Matter (Abhidhammatthā)
The Four Classes of Consciousness (catubbidha-cittāni)
Immoral Consciousness (akusala cittāni)
(18 Types Of Rootless Consciousness)
“Beautiful” Consciousness Of The Sensuous Sphere - 24
(Form-Sphere Consciousness - 15)
(Formless-Sphere Consciousness - 12)
(Supra Mundane Consciousness - 4)
(121 Types of Consciousness)
Diagrams:
CHAPTER II - Mental States (cetasika)
Introduction
(Definition)
52 Kinds of Mental States
Different Combinations of Mental States
Immoral Mental States
(Beautiful Mental States)
Contents of Different Types of Consciousness
Supra mundane Consciousness
(Sublime Consciousness)
Sense-Sphere Beautiful Consciousness
Immoral Consciousness
Rootless Consciousness
CHAPTER III - Miscellaneous Section
(i. Summary of Feeling)
(ii. Summary of Roots)
(iii. Summary of Functions)
(iv. Summary of Doors)
(v. Summary of Objects)
(vi. Summary of Bases)
CHAPTER IV - Analysis of Thought-Processes
Five Sense-Door Thought-process
Thought-Processes
Mind-door Thought-Process
Appanā Thought-Process
The Procedure of Retention
Procedure of Javana (13)
Classification of Individuals
Section on Planes
Diagram IX
CHAPTER V - PROCESS-FREED SECTION
Summary of Rebirth Procedure
i. Four Planes of Life
ii. Fourfold Rebirth
iii. Fourfold Kamma (29)
iv . Procedure with Regard to Decease and Rebirth
v. The Stream of Consciousness
CHAPTER VI - ANALYSIS OF MATTER
Introduction
Analysis of Matter
Classification of Matter
The Arising of Material Phenomena (52)
Grouping of Material Qualities (57)
Arising of Material Phenomena (58)
Nibbāna (59)
Diagram XIII
CHAPTER VII - Abhidhamma Categories
Introductory verse
(Immoral Categories)
Diagram XIV
Mixed Categories
Factors of Enlightenment (28)
A Synthesis of ‘the Whole’ (36)
CHAPTER VIII - The Compendium Of Relations
Introductory verse
The Law of Dependent Arising
The Law of Casual Relations
Paññatti
CHAPTER IX - Mental Culture



Introductory verse
(Compendium of Calm)
Suitability of Subjects for different Temperaments
Stages of Mental Culture
Signs of Mental Culture
Rūpa Jhāna
Arūpa Jhāna (22)
Supernormal Knowledge (23)
Different Kind of Purity
Realization
Emancipation
Individuals
The Path of Purification
Attainments
Aspirations






  Oben 


PREFACE

 

Abhidhamma, as the term implies, is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha.
It expounds the quintessence of His profound doctrine.

The Dhamma, embodied in the Sutta Pitaka, is the conventional teaching (vohāra
desanā),
and the Abhidhamma is the ultimate teaching (paramattha desanā)

In the Abhidhamma both mind and matter, which constitute this complex
machinery of man, are microscopically analyzed. Chief events connected with the process of
birth and death are explained in detail. Intricate points of the Dhamma are clarified. The
Path of Emancipation is set forth in clear terms.

Modern Psychology, limited as it is comes within the scope of
Abhidhamma inasmuch as it deals with the mind, with thoughts, thought-processes, and
mental states but it does not admit of a psyche or a soul. Buddhism teaches a psychology
without a psyche.

If one were to read the Abhidhamma as a modern textbook on psychology,
one would be disappointed. No attempt has here been made to solve all the problems that
confront a modern psychologist.

Consciousness is defined. Thoughts are analyzed and classified chiefly
from an ethical standpoint. All mental states are enumerated. The composition of each type
of consciousness is set forth in detail. The description of thought-processes that arise
through the five sense-doors and the mind-door is extremely interesting. Such a clear
exposition of thought-processes cannot be found in any other psychological treatise.

Bhavanga and Javana thought-moments, which are explained
only in the Abhidhamma, and which have no parallel in modern psychology, are of special
interest to a research student in psychology.

That consciousness flows like a stream, a view propounded by some
modern psychologists like William James, becomes extremely clear to one who understands
the Abhidhamma. It must be added that an Abhidhamma student can fully comprehend the Anattā
(No-soul) doctrine, the crux of Buddhism, which is important both from a philosophical and
an ethical standpoint.

The advent of death, process of rebirth in various planes without
anything to pass from one life to another, the evidently verifiable doctrine of Kamma and
Rebirth are fully explained.

Giving a wealth of details about mind, Abhidhamma discusses the second
factor of man-matter or rūpa. Fundamental units of matter, material forces,
properties of matter, source of matter, relationship of mind and matter, are described.

In the Abhidhammattha Sangaha there is a brief exposition of the Law of
Dependent Origination, followed by a descriptive account of the Causal Relations that
finds no parallel in any other philosophy.

A physicist should not delve into Abhidhamma to get a thorough
knowledge of physics.

It should be made clear that Abhidhamma does not attempt to give a
systematized knowledge of mind and matter. It investigates these two composite factors of
so-called being to help the understanding of things as they truly are. A philosophy has
been developed on these lines. Based on that philosophy, an ethical system has been
evolved to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbāna.

As Mrs. Rhys Davids rightly says, Abhidhamma deals with “(1) What
we find (a) within us (b) around us and of (2) what we aspire to find.”

In Abhidhamma all irrelevant problems that interest students and
scholars, but having no relation to one’s Deliverance, are deliberately set aside.

The Abhidhammattha Sangaha, the authorship of which is attributed to
venerable Anuruddha Thera, an Indian monk of Kanjevaram (Kāñcipura), gives an epitome of
the entire Abhidhamma Pitaka. It is still the most fitting introduction to Abhidhamma. By
mastering this book, a general knowledge of Abhidhamma may easily be acquired.

To be a master of Abhidhamma all the seven books, together with
commentaries and sub-commentaries, have to be read and re-read patiently and critically.

Abhidhamma is not a subject of fleeting interest designed for the
superficial reader.

To the wise truth-seekers, Abhidhamma is an indispensable guide and an
intellectual treat. Here there is food for thought to original thinkers and to earnest
students who wish to increase their wisdom and lead an ideal Buddhist life.

However, to the superficial, Abhidhamma must appear as dry as dust.

It may be questioned, “Is Abhidhamma absolutely essential to
realize Nibbāna, the summum bonum of Buddhism, or even to comprehend things as they truly
are?”

Undoubtedly Abhidhamma is extremely helpful to comprehend fully the
word of the Buddha and realize Nibbāna, as it presents a key to open the door of reality.
It deals with realities and a practical way of noble living, based on the experience of
those who have understood and realized. Without a knowledge of the Abhidhamma one at
times’ finds it difficult to understand the real significance of some profound teachings
of the Buddha. To develop Insight (vipassanā) Abhidhamma is certainly very useful.

But one cannot positively assert that Abhidhamma is absolutely
necessary to gain one’s Deliverance.

Understanding or realization is purely personal (sanditthika).
The four Noble Truths that form the foundation of the Buddha’s teaching are dependent on
this one fathom body. The Dhamma is not apart from oneself. Look within, Seek thyself. Lo,
the truth will unfold itself.

Did not sorrow-afflicted Patācārā, who lost her dear and near ones,
realize Nibbāna; reflecting on the disappearance of water that washed her feet?

Did not Cūlapanthaka, who could not memorize a verse even for four
months, attain Arahantship by comprehending the impermanent nature of a clean handkerchief
that he was handling, gazing at the sun?

Did not Upatissa, later venerable Sāriputta Thera, realize Nibbāna,
on hearing half a stanza relating to cause and effect?

To some a fallen withered leaf alone was sufficient to attain Pacceka
Buddha hood.

It was mindfulness on respiration (ānāpāna-sati) that acted
as the basis for the Bodhisatta to attain Buddha hood.

To profound thinkers, a slight indication is sufficient to discover
great truths.

According to some scholars, Abhidhamma is not a teaching of the Buddha,
but is a later elaboration of scholastic monks.

Tradition, however, attributes the nucleus of the Abhidhamma to the
Buddha Himself.

Commentators state that the Buddha, as a mark of gratitude to His
mother who was born in a celestial plane, preached the Abhidhamma to His mother Deva and
others continuously for three months. The principal topics (mātikā) of the
advanced teaching such as moral states (kusalā dhammā), immoral states (akusalā
dhammā)
and indeterminate states (abyākatā dhammā), etc., were taught by
the Buddha to venerable Sāriputta Thera, who subsequently elaborated them in the six
books (Kathāvatthu being excluded) that comprise the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Whoever the great author or authors of the Abhidhamma may have been, it
has to be admitted that he or they had intellectual genius comparable only to that of the
Buddha. This is evident from the intricate and subtle Patthāna Pakarana which minutely
describes the various causal relations.

It is very difficult to suggest an appropriate English equivalent for
Abhidhamma.

There are many technical terms, too, in Abhidhamma which cannot be
rendered into English so as to convey their exact connotation. Some English equivalents
such as consciousness, will, volition, intellect, perception are used in a specific sense
in Western Philosophy. Readers should try to understand in what sense these technical
terms are employed in Abhidhamma. To avoid any misunderstanding, due to preconceived
views, Pāli words, though at times cumbersome to those not acquainted with the language,
have judiciously been retained wherever the English renderings seem to be inadequate. To
convey the correct meaning implied by the Pāli terms, the etymology has been given in
many instances.

At times Pāli technical terms have been used in preference to English
renderings so that the reader may be acquainted with them and not get confused with
English terminology.

Sometimes readers will come across unusual words such as corruption,
defilement, volitional activities, functional, resultants, and so forth, which are of
great significance from an Abhidhamma standpoint. Their exact meaning should be clearly
understood.

In preparing this translation, Buddhist Psychology by Mrs. Rhys Davids
and the Compendium of Philosophy (Abhidhammattha Sangaha) by Mr. Shwe Zan Aung proved
extremely helpful to me. Liberty has been taken to quote them wherever necessary with due
acknowledgment.

My grateful thanks are due to the Kandy Buddhist Publication Society
for the printing of this fourth revised volume, to the printers for expediting the
printing, to Miss Rañjani Goonatilaka for correcting the proofs, and to Ven. Bhikkhu
Bodhi for his useful suggestions.

Above all I have to thank Mr. Lankatilaka, a most distinguished artist
of Sri Lanka, for his beautiful and symbolical dust jacket design.

Nārada 14.7.1978/2522.



  Oben 


ages/pitsanu.gif” width=”40″ height=”40″> Oben 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9oUWhF-j8o
Abhidhamma Class Day 1 : Basic Buddhism

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Published on Jan 7, 2017
The Deciples of the Buddha/ Buddha’s Teaching Intro
Category
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The Deciples of the Buddha/ Buddha’s Teaching Intro

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2XWtK_jaj0&t=461s
1. ABHIDHAMMA - THE PROCESS OF COGNITION

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London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 5, 2017
“René Descartes famously pronounced ” I think therefore I am” but the
Abhidhamma doesn’t go along with that. There is no thinker behind the
thoughts; no controller in charge. All there are is psychic processes
arising and falling with great rapidity.” Richard Jones. London Buddhist
Vihara.

The Abhidhamma
presents a system of Buddhist Psychology and Philosophy at in an
intensely detailed analysis of the process of thinking (cognition) and
ultimately of being.

In this talk, Richard Jones starts his deep
dive into the ‘process of cognition’ with an example of the kind of
analysis that can be conducted with the Abhidhamma.

Other videos in the playlist can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list

Concepts introduced in this video are:
BHAVANGA - Life Continuum which flows like a river from conception to death.

FIVE NIYAMAS - the five explanations of the way things are:
1. Utu Niyama - pertains to the inorganic order
2. Bija Niyama - the functioning of the organic world
3. Kamma Niyama - Law of cause and effect
4. Dhamma Niyama - Certain doctrines like ‘No Self.’
5. Citta Niyama - How the mind works according to certain principles

Full Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list
Category
Education


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“René Descartes famously pronounced ” I think therefore I am” but the Abhidhamma doesn’t go…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngiaZeK1Z3s
2. CLASSIFYING CITTA - The Classes of Consciousness
London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 8, 2017
There are different ways of classifying Citta (types of consciousness):
by ethical nature; by strength (11:00) and by the plane of existence..
Category
Education


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There are different ways of classifying Citta (types of consciousness): by ethical nature; by strength and…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogITKuj2C4k
3a. THE SENSE SPHERE PLANE
London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 14, 2017
Richard Jones continues his deep dive into the Abhidhamma with a look
at the planes in which the Citta (consciousness) can arise.

There are 31 Realms of Existence and they are subdivided into four:
‘Sense-Sphere Plane’ (of which there are11 types); ‘Fine-material Sphere
Plane’ (16); Immaterial-Sphere Plane (4 of those). We have to make a
distinction between a realm of Existence and a sense sphere.

Richard also explains the Mundane, the Supramundane, the Jhanic states
(which can be attained by human beings) and beings with immensely long
life-spans of thousands of great aeons. However none of these states is
permanent.
Category
Education


youtube.com
Richard
Jones continues his deep dive into the Abhidhamma with a look at the
planes in which the Citta (consciousness) can arise. There are 31…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tg0FSQRuN8
3b. THE TEN FETTERS

London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 15, 2017
Fetters means something that holds us back. They hold back our progress towards the attainment of Nibbana (enlightenment).

Richard Jones explores in detail, each of ten fetters and how they impede our spiritual progress. The Ten Fetters are: ‘
Self’ delusion;
Sceptical doubt;
attachment to mere rites and rituals;
sensual desire;
ill will;
lusting after material (or immaterial) existence;
conceit,
restlessness
and ignorance.

Each fetter can be eradicated through meditation and as each is
eradicated, spiritual progress is made. EG. A person who manages to
eradicate the first three fetters becomes a ’stream-enterer’ - a
Sotapanna. He has entered the stream that leads to Nibbana. This means
he has purified his mind to such an extent that he cannot perform any
actions that would lead to an unhappy rebirth. He will be reborn a
maximum of seven more lives. The Buddha said that upon stream-entry,
99% of the work towards enlightenment has been done. Other stages are
Once-Returner; Non-Returner and Arahant.

Richard ends this part of the talk with an exploration of the types of meditation that assist progress along this path.
Category
Education


youtube.com
Fetters
means something that holds us back. They hold back our progress towards
the attainment of Nibbana (enlightenment). Richard Jones explores in…

·

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3vMxOlFFIQ
3c. THE 89 KINDS OF CITTA (Consciousness)
London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 17, 2017
Richard Jones guides the dhamma class through the system of
classification of Cittas (Consciousness) into 89 different kinds,
according to its most prominent root.

The roots are Greed (Lobha), Hatred (Dosa,) and Ignorance / Delusion
(Moha) which are further classified by feeling tones (Vedana). There are
also variations according to its association with wrong view or whether
or not the Citta is prompted or spontaneous.

Recorded at The London Buddhist Vihara on Thursday 12th October 2017.
Category
Education


youtube.com
Richard Jones guides the dhamma class through the system of…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWoOV2iokHE
4. CITTA - Review & Analysis

London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 24, 2017
Richard Jones’ review and analysis of the recent lessons on the Citta
(types of conscious) and their multi-levelled classifications.

Previous classes Link:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fo9AI

There is some class discussion included to clarify some of the more elusive aspects of this topic.

Please email londonbuddhistvideos@gmail.com for copies of the handouts used in this lesson.

Teacher. Richard Jones
London Buddhist Vihara
19th October 2017
Category
Education


youtube.com
Richard Jones’ review and analysis of the recent lessons on the Citta…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzl-ar51xTs
5. JHANA - Attaining Higher States of Citta (consciousness)

London Buddhist Videos
Published on Nov 4, 2017
To attain what we call ‘Jhana Cittas’ (higher states of consciousness)
we have to practise Samatha meditation (wholesome one-pointedness of
mind).

Jhana has two
meanings: 1) to contemplate a particular object and examine it closely,
and 2) to eliminate hindrances or burn away mental defilements.
There are 40 different objects of meditation. If practised seriously,
the meditation object should match the character of the meditator. We
recognise six different kinds of character:

1. Lustful / Passionate (Raga) 4. Faithful (Saddha)
2. Hateful / Angry (Dosa) 5. Intellectual (Buddhi)
3. Deluded / Ignorant (Moha) 6. Agitated / Speculative (Vitakka)

A meditator’s character can be assessed by a teacher watching how the pupil performs everyday activities.

Email your questions: londonbuddhistvideos@gmail.com

For Copies of Handouts: http://londonbuddhist.wixsite.com/bud

London Buddhist Vihara Events Calendar: http://www.londonbuddhistvihara.org/r

Twitter: goo.gl/9w29n6
Category
Education


youtube.com
To attain what we call ‘Jhana Cittas’ (higher states of consciousness) we have to practise Samatha…




7  India - Home Land of Buddhism 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwRi-vsdBrE
Genius of the Ancient World Buddha Episode 1 of 3

HighwaySuccess
Published on Jun 30, 2017
Watch the “Masters of Money” documentary series here:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list
John Maynard Keynes: https://youtu.be/bK6SkmZ-eqs?list=PLl
Friedrich Hayek: https://youtu.be/lVB40FR7vIU?list=PLl
Karl Marx: https://youtu.be/K6OUDVG5jy8?list=PLl


Historian Bettany Hughes travels to India, Greece and China on the
trail of three giants of ancient philosophy. To begin, she investigates
the revolutionary ideas of the Buddha.

History Documentary hosted
by Bettany Hughes, published by BBC in 2015 - English narration Buddha
Historian Bettany Hughes investigates the ideas of ancient philosophers,
starting with the Indian nobleman Siddhartha Gautama, more popularly
known as Buddha. Thought to have been lived and tought between the sixth
and fourth centuries BC, the sage and holy man inspired a diverse
belief system that influences the lives of millions of people to this
day. She travels to India, where Buddha experienced the challenging
ideas and extreme methods of wandering `truth seekers’, after he had
abandoned his family and homeland in the Himalayas to embark on his
philosophical quest to find a solution to human suffering.
Category
Travel & Events


youtube.com
Watch the “Masters of Money” documentary series here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLl8A…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Buddhism_in_India
History of Buddhism in India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation
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Indian Buddhists Sanchi Stupa from Eastern gate, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
The Great Stupa at Sanchi, located in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh is a Buddhist shrine in India
Total population
8,442,972 (0.70%) in 2011[1]
Regions with significant populations
Maharashtra · West Bengal · Madhya Pradesh · Uttar Pradesh · Sikkim ·
Arunachal Pradesh · Jammu and Kashmir · Tripura · Karnataka
Languages
Marathi • Hindi • Bengali • Sikkimese • Tibetan • Kannada
The Mahabodhi Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is one of the four
holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha, and particularly to
the attainment of Enlightenment. The first temple was built by The
Indian Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC, and the present temple
dates from the 5th century or 6th century AD. It is one of the earliest
Buddhist temples built entirely in brick, still standing in India, from
the late Gupta period.[2]
Rock-cut Lord –Buddha– Statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle of Visakhapatnam dist in AP
Ancient Buddhist monasteries near Dhamekh Stupa Monument Site, Sarnath
Devotees performing puja at one of the Buddhist caves in Ellora Caves.

Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient
Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings
of Siddhārtha Gautama[note 1] who was deemed a “Buddha” (”Awakened
One”[4]). Buddhism spread outside of Magadha starting in the Buddha’s
lifetime.

With the reign of the Buddhist Mauryan Emperor Ashoka,
the Buddhist community split into two branches: the Mahāsāṃghika and the
Sthaviravāda, each of which spread throughout India and split into
numerous sub-sects.[5] In modern times, two major branches of Buddhism
exist: the Theravāda in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and the Mahāyāna
throughout the Himalayas and East Asia.

The practice of Buddhism
as a distinct and organized religion lost influence after the Gupta
reign (c.7th century CE), and declined from the land of its origin in
around 13th century, but not without leaving a significant impact.
Except for Himalayan region and south India, Buddhism almost became
extinct in India after the arrival of Islam in late 12th century.
Presence of Buddhism is still found in the Himalayan areas such as
Sikkim, Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, the Darjeeling hills in West Bengal,
and the Lahaul and Spiti areas of upper Himachal Pradesh. According to
the 2011 census, Buddhists make up 0.7% of India’s population, or 8.4
million individuals. Traditional Buddhists are 13% and Navayana
Buddhists (Converted or Neo-Buddhists) comprise more than 87% of Indian
Buddhist community according to 2011 Census of India.[6][7][8][9][6]
Contents

1 Siddhārtha Gautama
2 Buddhists
3 Buddhist movements
3.1 Early Buddhism Schools
3.2 Mahāyāna
3.3 Vajrayāna
4 Strengthening of Buddhism in India
4.1 The early spread of Buddhism
4.2 Aśoka and the Mauryan Empire
4.3 Graeco-Bactrians, Sakas and Indo-Parthians
4.4 Kuṣāna Empire
4.5 The Pāla and Sena era
5 Dharma masters
6 Decline of Buddhism in India
6.1 The Hun invasions
6.2 Turkish Muslim conquerors
6.3 Surviving Buddhists
6.4 Causes within the Buddhist tradition of the time
7 Revival of Buddhism in India
7.1 Dalit Buddhist movement
7.2 Tibetan Buddhism
7.3 Vipassana movement
8 Status in India
8.1 Census of India, 2011
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links


en.wikipedia.org
Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient…





8  Buddhism in Modern World

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Why Buddhism and the Modern World Need Each Other
Harvard Divinity School
Published on Apr 6, 2015
The highest ideal of the modern West has been social transformation: to
restructure our societies so that they are more just. The most
important goal for Buddhism is to awaken (the Buddha means “the
Awakened”): personal transformation. Dr. David Loy explores how we need
both, not just because these ideals complement each other, but because
each project needs the other if it is to be successful.

Dr. David Loy is a writer, scholar, and Zen teacher in the Sanbo Kyodan
tradition of Japanese Zen Buddhism. Dr. Loy’s recent research has
focused upon the encounter between Buddhism and modernity, exhibiting
special concern regarding social and ecological issues.

Learn more about Harvard Divinity School and its mission to illuminate, engage, and serve at www.hds.harvard.edu.
Category
Education


youtube.com
The highest ideal of the modern West has been social transformation: to restructure our societies so that…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5xskf3_nIc
Applied Buddhism in the Modern World

DharmaRealmLive
Published on Nov 19, 2015
Applied Buddhism in the Modern World, a DRBA presentation from the 2015
Parliament of the World’s Religions at Salt Lake City, UT

Panelist share their experiences on applying the principles of Buddhism
to the often challenging situations presented by modern society.

ModeratorJames Nguyen
Panelist: Ven. Jin He, Rev. Jin Chuan, Fedde de Vries, Sandy Chiang, Angela A. Justice, Yuen-Lin Tan

What place do the teachings of Buddhism have in our current society?
Come listen to a panel of speakers across different walks of life share
their experiences and challenges of cultivation amidst day-to-day life.
Come for a lively and open discussion as our panelist share their
experiences on how the rubber meets the road in applying the principles
of Buddhism to the often challenging situations presented by modern
society. Our panel will include monastic and non-monastic, including
working professional, student, academic, across different gender and
ethnic backgrounds from a millennial/late millennial age bracket.

0:00 Introduction
4:30 Sharing by Rev. Jin Chuan
9:50 Sharing by Yuen-Lin Tan
15:21 Sharing by Angela A. Justice
19:41 Sharing by Ven. Jin-He
23:14 Sharing by Fedde de Vries
26:46 Sharing by Sandy Chiang
29:00 Sharing experiences on applying precepts by panelists
43:52 Comments from Rev. Heng Sure
Category
Nonprofits & Activism


youtube.com
Applied
Buddhism in the Modern World, a DRBA presentation from the 2015
Parliament of the World’s Religions at Salt Lake City, UT Panelist share
their…

You were kind enough to register me  for the session running from August 13, 2018 through September 21, 2018. The course began on Monday, August 13, 2018.

Please send to
Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
jcs4ever@outlook.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in
the learning elements (LEs) which is not made available at 5 PM EDT or UTC-5 on the day before the date given in the syllabus.

Hence
the  suggested actions that I should have taken on August 13, 2018 to
get started in the course has not become a possibility :

  1. Go to the Getting Started section of Week 1 under My Courses on the Wisdom from World Religions website (https://wisdomfromworldreligions.com
).
  • Open The First Things To Do In This Course to take your initial steps.
  • Watch the orientation video.
  • Access the syllabus or keep it somewhere convenient.
  • Familiarize yourself with the plan of daily activities in Daily Course Activities.
  • Take
    the pretest, which will measure your general knowledge of the world’s
    religions. Don’t worry about the grade—60% is passing for this and all
    tests in this course, and everyone who completes it will be able to go
    on to take the rest of the course, regardless of grade.
  • Go
    to your preferred Discussion Group (Seeker, Proficient, or Adept) under
    Community, read the short description of each of the three groups, and
    choose your preferred group (you can change groups at any time as you
    like!):
  • Post
    your first message in which you introduce yourself and let us know your
    name and country of residence, the reason you’re taking the course, and
    what you hope to get from the course. 
  •  Please
    read the Troubleshooting and FAQs section directly above the Getting
    Started section in Week 1 for help on some of the common issues that can
    occur at the beginning of the course.
  • Cordially,

    Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

    jcs4ever@outlook.com

    sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in

    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org



    comments (0)
    08/16/18
    2716 Fri 17 Aug 2018 LESSON (57) Fri 17 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) WELCOME TO MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTRE (Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Govt. of Karnataka, Bengaluru) A Centre for Theravada Buddhist Studies-Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies P1 Pali Language and Literature
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 7:19 pm


    2716 Fri 17 Aug 2018 LESSON (57) Fri 17 Aug 2007
      
    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    WELCOME TO MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTRE

    (Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Govt. of Karnataka, Bengaluru)

    A Centre for Theravada Buddhist Studies


    Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies P1 Pali Language and Literature

    http://www.mbrc.info/



    WELCOME TO MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTRE

    (Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Govt. of Karnataka, Bengaluru)

    A Centre for Theravada Buddhist Studies

    The Buddha Dhamma or Buddhism is the fruit
    of a most intensive search conducted over a long period of time by a
    compassionate noble prince whose heart was going out to help suffering
    beings. This Flower of Mankind is none other than Gotama, the Buddha,
    who lived and taught 26 centuries ago in India. It is so inspiring and
    pragmatic teaching, that a fifth of the world today follows him
    devotedly.

    COURSES WE OFFER

    CERTIFICATION COURSE IN THERAVADA BUDDHIST STUDIES

    This is indeed a great opportunity for
    all those interested in the Teachings of the Buddha in its original
    form, as preserved in the Pali language – The tipitaka. Regular Courses
    are offered by the MRC. Currently Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies,
    Certification courses in Theravada Buddhist Studies are going on and
    further Bachelor master study program will be undertaken. At present 14
    Ph. D scholar are pursuing their research study.

    DIPLOMA IN THERAVADA BUDDHIST STUDIES

    This is indeed a great opportunity for
    all those interested in the Teachings of the Buddha in its original
    form, as preserved in the Pali language – The tipitaka. Regular Courses
    are offered by the MRC. Currently Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies,
    Certification courses in Theravada Buddhist Studies are going on and
    further Bachelor master study program will be undertaken. At present 14
    Ph. D scholar are pursuing their research study.

    MESSAGES

    To provide value based education on Buddhist ethics and morality, for achieving higher goal of material and spiritual progress.
    To become future ambassadors of peace and future leader in the society.
    Morality, meditation, wisdom for the ultimate perfection.
    Happiness and well being with compassion and love.

    OUR VISION

    To promote the four modes of sublime
    living (Brahma-vihàra) which would lead to the establishment of peaceful
    and prosperous world.
    To abstain from evil deeds and practice good deeds.
    To train more Dhammadutas, Qualified upasakas and upasikas endowed with
    good morality and well-versed in Piñaka literature and meditation
    practice.

    OUR MISSION

    To share the genuine Theravàda Buddhism with the people of the world.
    To Study, teach and practice Theravada Buddhism as found in Pàli Tipiñaka containing the original teachings of the Buddha.
    To organize practical programs of meditation, mind training and practice of Thervàda Buddhism goals.

    Mahabodhi Research Centre

    (Affiliated to Karnataka Samskrit University)
    (Govt. of Karnataka, Bangalore)

    Maha Bodhi Society
    No.14, Kalidasa Road
    Gandhinagar, ngaluru -560009

    Diplma in Theravada Buddhist Studies - 1 Year Course

    DIPLOMA In Buddhist Studies (DBS)




    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdZwH9YeILA


    Learn Basic Pāli Grammar Episode 02: Pāli Vowels


    Published on Jun 25, 2016



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5W2t9tXW-Y&t=28s
    Learn Basic Pāli Grammar Episode 02: Pāli Vowels
    The People
    Published on Jun 25, 2016
    Hello, and welcome back, in this lesson we are going to study the Pali
    Pronunciation. The first thing to know about Pali is that it was an oral
    language, it had no script of its own. All Theravada countries has its
    own script for Pali and we shall use roman script for this course.


    There are 41 letters in Pali, 8 Vowels, and 33 consonants. For this
    lesson, we will study 8 Vowels and see how to pronounce them. The eight
    Vowels are: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o.

    A= cut=Dhamma
    Ā=Father =Dāna
    I=east=Sila
    Ī=Bee=Dīgha
    U=oops=Sutta
    Ū=Cool=Bhūpāla
    E=Pay=Nare
    O=Open=Putto
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    Pali
    (Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is
    widely studied because it is the language of many of the earliest extant
    literatur…
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nGl2l1Ls7U&pbjreload=10

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nGl2l1Ls7U&pbjreload=10
    PALI CONSONANTS PART 1
    The People
    Published on Aug 1, 2013
    PALI CONSONANTS PART 1
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    PALI CONSONANTS PART 1

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdZwH9YeILA

    Learn Basic Pāli Grammar Episode 02: Pāli Vowels


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdZwH9YeILA
    Learn Basic Pāli Grammar Episode 02: Pāli Vowels
    The People
    Published on Jun 25, 2016
    Hello, and welcome back, in this lesson we are going to study the Pali
    Pronunciation. The first thing to know about Pali is that it was an oral
    language, it had no script of its own. All Theravada countries has its
    own script for Pali and we shall use roman script for this course.

    There are 41 letters in Pali, 8 Vowels, and 33 consonants. For this
    lesson, we will study 8 Vowels and see how to pronounce them. The eight
    Vowels are: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o.

    A= cut=Dhamma
    Ā=Father =Dāna
    I=east=Sila
    Ī=Bee=Dīgha
    U=oops=Sutta
    Ū=Cool=Bhūpāla
    E=Pay=Nare
    O=Open=Putto
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    Hello, and welcome back, in this lesson we are going to study the Pali Pronunciation. The first thing to…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jAPBTF9SWU





    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jAPBTF9SWU
    How to learn Pali Language? - 1

    Dhamma Us
    Published on Apr 28, 2017
    About UWest Pali Society:

    UWest Pali Society is committed to promoting Theravada Pali tradition
    both academically and ritually. We welcome all the UWest community
    members to join us and feel good with us. Individuals outside the UWest
    community can be included with the invitation from the members.

    The objectives of the UWest Pali Society would be:

    1. Pali Sutta Reading & Translation (Free):
    Here we read & translate selected original Pali suttas and discuss
    the key Pali terms leading to further discussions. We invite all those
    like-minded faculty, staff and students to join us and learn research
    and share the experience.

    2. Pali Learning (Free):

    We are
    more than happy to introduce Pali language to those who are interested.
    We teach Pali language from the very beginning to advanced level.

    3. Online Pali Group (Free):

    We have already started an online Pali teaching program. Those who are
    interested in joining, please contact admin@dhammausa.com

    3. Guest Speeches (Free):

    We organize monthly guest speeches by eminent scholars and visiting
    Buddhist monks to propagate and promote Pali Language and Literature.

    Meeting Dates: Please check for updates here www.dhammausa.com
    About DhammaUS:

    DHAMMA US is a non-profit, charity organization engaged in Community
    Care, Spiritual Care & Pali Studies. We conduct Meditation, Yoga,
    Spiritual Counselling, Healing & Therapeutic Chanting and Teaching
    Pali Language. We promote peace, harmony, non-violence along with the
    message of the Buddha. We are happy to share the Theravada Buddhist
    Studies with any like minded individual or community. However, we
    support and promote unconditionally all the other Buddhist schools
    without any discrimination. We also respect all the other religions and
    their teachings on humanity, world peace, non-violence, and
    environmental care.

    Contact:

    Website: http://www.dhammausa.com/
    Blog: http://dhammaus.blogspot.com
    Twitter: https://twitter.com/Dhamma_Us
    Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/dhammaus15
    YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6dg
    Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/dhamma-us
    Google+: https://plus.google.com/1085636941523
    Email: info@dhammausa.com

    Keywords:
    UWest Pali Society
    UWest
    University of the West
    Pali
    Buddhism
    Buddhist
    Chanting
    Spiritual
    Religion
    USA
    California
    Lankarama Buddhist Institute
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    About
    UWest Pali Society: UWest Pali Society is committed to promoting
    Theravada Pali tradition both academically and ritually. We welcome all
    the…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AKKg07tv72I

    How to learn Pali language? - 2




    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AKKg07tv72I
    How to learn Pali language? - 2

    Dhamma Us
    Published on Apr 28, 2017
    About UWest Pali Society:

    UWest Pali Society is committed to promoting Theravada Pali tradition
    both academically and ritually. We welcome all the UWest community
    members to join us and feel good with us. Individuals outside the UWest
    community can be included with the invitation from the members.

    The objectives of the UWest Pali Society would be:

    1. Pali Sutta Reading & Translation (Free):
    Here we read & translate selected original Pali suttas and discuss
    the key Pali terms leading to further discussions. We invite all those
    like-minded faculty, staff and students to join us and learn research
    and share the experience.

    2. Pali Learning (Free):

    We are
    more than happy to introduce Pali language to those who are interested.
    We teach Pali language from the very beginning to advanced level.

    3. Online Pali Group (Free):

    We have already started an online Pali teaching program. Those who are
    interested in joining, please contact admin@dhammausa.com

    3. Guest Speeches (Free):

    We organize monthly guest speeches by eminent scholars and visiting
    Buddhist monks to propagate and promote Pali Language and Literature.

    Meeting Dates: Please check for updates here www.dhammausa.com
    About DhammaUS:

    DHAMMA US is a non-profit, charity organization engaged in Community
    Care, Spiritual Care & Pali Studies. We conduct Meditation, Yoga,
    Spiritual Counselling, Healing & Therapeutic Chanting and Teaching
    Pali Language. We promote peace, harmony, non-violence along with the
    message of the Buddha. We are happy to share the Theravada Buddhist
    Studies with any like minded individual or community. However, we
    support and promote unconditionally all the other Buddhist schools
    without any discrimination. We also respect all the other religions and
    their teachings on humanity, world peace, non-violence, and
    environmental care.

    Contact:

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    Keywords:
    UWest Pali Society
    UWest
    University of the West
    Pali
    Buddhism
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    Chanting
    Spiritual
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    USA
    California
    Lankarama Buddhist Institute
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    About
    UWest Pali Society: UWest Pali Society is committed to promoting
    Theravada Pali tradition both academically and ritually. We welcome all
    the…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHuiyblfP_A&t=5s

    Monk Radio: Learning Pali


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHuiyblfP_A&t=5s
    Monk Radio: Learning Pali

    Yuttadhammo Bhikkhu
    Published on Aug 8, 2012
    Ask questions at our live radio session every Sunday:

    http://radio.sirimangalo.org/

    or via our Question and Answer Forum:

    http://ask.sirimangalo.org/

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    and don’t forget to click the ‘like’ button to help promote these
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    May all beings be happy.

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    Schedule:

    http://yuttadhammo.sirimangalo.org/sc

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    Supporting This Work:

    http://www.sirimangalo.org/support
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    Ask questions at our live radio session every Sunday: http://radio.sirimangalo.org/ or via our Question and Answer Forum: http://ask.sirimangalo.org/ - - - -…

    THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE-THE TATHAGATA


    FOLLOW THE WAY


    DRAGON POLE KICK



    At Sedaka


    1: The Acrobat


    I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was living among the Sumbhas. Now there is a Sumbhan town named Sedaka.
    There the Blessed One addressed the Spiritual Community of The True
    Followers of The Path Shown by The Blessed Noble Awakened One The
    Tathagata, “Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown
    by The Blessed Noble Awakened One The Tathagata!”

    “Yes, lord,” the Spiritual Community of The
    True Followers of The Path Shown by The Blessed Noble Awakened One The
    Tathagata responded.

    The Blessed One said, “Once upon a time,
    Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The
    Blessed Noble Awakened One The Tathagata, a bamboo acrobat, having
    erected a bamboo pole, addressed his assistant, Frying Pan: ‘Come, my
    dear Frying Pan. Climb up the bamboo pole and stand on my shoulders.’

    “‘As you say, Master,’ Frying Pan answered the bamboo acrobat and, climbing the bamboo pole, stood on his shoulders.

    “So then the bamboo acrobat said to his
    assistant, ‘Now you watch after me, my dear Frying Pan, and I’ll watch
    after you. Thus, protecting one another, watching after one another,
    we’ll show off our skill, receive our reward, and come down safely from
    the bamboo pole.’

    “When he had said this, Frying Pan said to
    him, ‘But that won’t do at all, Master. You watch after yourself, and
    I’ll watch after myself, and thus with each of us protecting ourselves,
    watching after ourselves, we’ll show off our skill, receive our reward,
    and come down safely from the bamboo pole.’

    “What Frying Pan, the assistant, said to her Master was the right way in that case.

    “Spiritual Community of The True Followers of
    The Path Shown by The Blessed Noble Awakened One The Tathagata, a frame
    of reference is to be practiced with the thought, ‘I’ll watch after
    myself.’ A frame of reference is to be practiced with the thought, ‘I’ll
    watch after others.’ When watching after oneself, one watches after
    others. When watching after others, one watches after oneself.

    “And how does one, when watching after
    oneself, watch after others? Through pursuing [the practice], through
    developing it, through devoting oneself to it. This is how one, when
    watching after oneself, watches after others.

    “And how does one, when watching after others,
    watch after oneself? Through endurance, through harmlessness, and
    through a mind of kindness & sympathy. This is how one, when
    watching after others, watches after oneself.

    “A frame of reference is to be practiced with
    the thought, ‘I’ll watch after myself.’ A frame of reference is to be
    practiced with the thought, ‘I’ll watch after others.’ When watching
    after oneself, one watches after others. When watching after others, one
    watches after oneself.”

    Blackbelt


    Uttara the Deva’s Son


    At Rajagaha. As he was standing to one side, Uttara the deva’s son recited this verse in the Blessed One’s presence:



    Life is swept along,
    next-to-nothing its span.
    For one swept on by aging
    no shelters exist.
    Perceiving this danger in death,
    one should do deeds of merit
    that bring about bliss.
    


    [THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE-THE TATHAGATA:]



    Life is swept along,
    next-to-nothing its span.
    For one swept to old age
    no shelters exist.
    Perceiving this danger in death,
    one should drop the world’s bait
    and look for peace
     

    Can you bear it!

    If you want it ,get it !!!
     
    Dragon Spirit

    comments (0)
    08/15/18
    2715 Thu 16 Aug 2018 LESSON (56) Thu 16 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions 2715 Thu 16 Aug 2018 LESSON (56) Thu 16 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions Thank you for contacting Siemens PLM Software. We have received your form submission and will respond to your feedback/inquiry soon.
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 7:17 pm


    2715 Thu 16 Aug 2018 LESSON (56) Thu 16 Aug 2007
      
    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    In Wisdom From
    World Religions

    Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.
    Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

    Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions

    Thank you for contacting Siemens PLM
    Software. We have received your form submission and will respond to your
    feedback/inquiry soon.


    https://www.facebook.com/WisdomFromWorldReligions/

    Are you curious what past participants have thought of Wisdom from World Religions?


    Below, I’ve collected a sampling of testimonials from others who have
    taken this free online course based on Sir John Templeton’s book Wisdom
    from World Religions: Pathways Toward Heaven on Earth. I hope that their
    positive feedback persuades you to register today for this six-week
    online course. After all, it’s free! What do you have to lose?

    “This is the first on-line course that I’ve ever taken and I’m surprised to find it quite compelling and enjoyable.”
    – D. (U.S.A.)

    “… the format and delivery of the course is very fitting for working adults.”
    – N. (Singapore)

    “For me this course offer[s] me the opportunity to see how other religions and beliefs [operate].”
    – T. (U.S.A.)


    “… a complete and holistic view of different religions and [their]
    evolutions till now. Great teaching compiled by Sir John and the way
    those things are put by Prof. K Rose.”
    – D. (India)

    “The
    sensitivity of the teacher to the varied backgrounds and the differing
    levels of religious observance and understanding of participants [was
    valuable].”
    – P. (U.S.A.)

    “F. Nightingale (considered as a
    mother of modern nursing) called being in the gilded cage. I’ve been
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    – Y. (U.S.A.)

    Register today at: https://wisdomfromworldreligions.com/
    and join me on August 13th, 2018 to experience what these men and women
    have described. Registration is open to all, including past
    participants.

    Warmly,

    Professor Ken Rose

    P.S.
    Through generous funding from the Templeton World Charity Foundation,
    the first 2,000 registrants—including you, if you act quickly—will have
    their tuition waived. I encourage you to register and invite your
    friends to take Wisdom from World Religions tuition-free.

    https://in.pinterest.com/pin/252272016610343300/
    A Collection of Doctrine - The True Practice of The Blessed Noble Awakend One - The Tathagata Talks

    One who wishes to reach the Buddha-Dhamma must firstly be one who has
    faith or confidence as a foundation. He must understand the meaning of
    Buddha-Dhamma as follows:



    The Blessed Noble Awakend One - The Tathagata: the One-Who-Knows, the one who has purity, radiance and peace in his mind.

    Doctrine - The True Practice of The Blessed Noble Awakend One - The Tathagata:

    the characteristics of purity, radiance and peace which arise from morality, concentration and wisdom.

    Therefore, one who is to reach the The Blessed Noble Awakend One -
    The Tathagata:- Doctrine - The True Practice of The Blessed Noble
    Awakend Oneis one who cultivates and develops morality, concentration
    and wisdom within himself.

    https://in.pinterest.com/pin/537195061800577617/

    https://in.pinterest.com/pin/537195061800577617/
    “Listening is a very deep practice. You have to…


    in.pinterest.com
    “Listening
    is a very deep practice. You have to empty yourself. You have to leave
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    the ones we believe are making our situation worse. When you have shown
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    products, solutions and services, please let us know how we can help
    you.



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cff3btkXjp0
    LALBAGH BOTANICAL GARDEN
    INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATIONS AT LALBAGH 2018 (FLOWER SHOW)| GLASS HOUSE | DARSHAN KM | B’LURU,Sadaqat India
    Darshan Km
    Published on Aug 12, 2018
    Independence day celebrations at Lalbagh ( flower show) GLASS HOUSE , Bengaluru.
    It is a short video shot by Darshan Km.
    Category
    People & Blogs


    youtube.com
    Independence day celebrations at Lalbagh ( flower…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOP4FDCnFqM
    Lalbagh Flowershow 2018 Independence Day Special Latest ಲಾಲ್ಬಾಗ್ ಹೂವಿನ ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನ [NEW][1080]
    Indian globetrotting
    Published on Aug 4, 2018
    The Independence Day Flower Show August 2018 at Lalbagh will be
    dedicated to Indian Armed Forces. Flower show will start from August 4th
    to August 15.
    Replica of PSLV,
    GSLV, Akash and Bhramos Missiles are displayed in the Flower Show at
    Lalbagh. The Glass House at Lalbagh which is the main center for Flower
    Show will have a model of the War Memorial Amar Jawan Jyothi and
    depiction of Soldiers guarding various zones Costal, Desert and
    Mountains. Another Replica of th Siachin, The Highest Military Base in
    the world is also created inside the Lalbagh Glass House. Flower Show
    will depicts military camps, air-borne jets, a helipad and a symbolic
    Siachin Glacier as well as radars and other equipment.
    Flower Show
    also depicts a floral replica of Old Film Reel, Clapboard and Cameras
    for commemorating 85 years of Kannada Film Industry. The Film reel is
    45ft long and is made of 15,000 roses.

    Date: August 4 to August 15
    Time: 9.300AM IST to 7.00PM IST
    Entry Fee: 70.00INR for Adult and 10.00INR for childrens

    Music by
    nner Light by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/…)
    Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-
    Artist: http://incompetech.com/
    Category
    Travel & Events


    youtube.com
    The Independence Day Flower Show August 2018 at Lalbagh will be dedicated to Indian Armed Forces.…


    https://scroll.in/latest/890477/rupee-drop-pm-modi-has-finally-done-something-we-could-not-do-in-70-years-says-congress

    [《70 वर्ष में पहली बार 70 के पार गिरा रूपया !

    70 वर्ष का नित नया राग आलापने वाले मोदी जी ने 70 साल में जो नहीं हुआ
    वो कर दिखाया !

    लुढ़कती अर्थव्यवस्था, लुटता ईमान,
    गिरता रुपया,बोलिये मोदी जी,
    अब कौन गिरा रहा है, देश का मान?》]

    https://scroll.in/…/rupee-drop-pm-modi-has-finally-done-som…

    Rupee drop: ‘PM Modi has finally done something we could not do in 70 years,’ says Congress
    ‘The falling rupee and failing economy is Modiji’s Independence Day gift to the nation,’ the Opposition party said.

    Yesterday · 07:42 pm

    Scroll Staff


    The Congress on Tuesday criticised the policies of Prime Minister
    Narendra Modi’s government after the Indian rupee hit a record low,
    touching 70.08 against the US dollar in early trade. The Opposition
    party took a jibe at the prime minister by citing Modi’s constant claims
    that his government would achieve in 60 months what the Congress had
    failed to accomplish in the “60 years” of its existence as a dominant
    party in the nation’s politics.

    “Modiji finally managed to do something that we couldn’t do in 70 years,” the Congress tweeted.


    Congress President Rahul Gandhi took to Twitter to rebuke the prime
    minister and shared a video of Modi criticising the erstwhile
    Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government for a drop in the
    rupee’s value in 2013. “The Indian Rupee just gave the Supreme Leader, a
    vote of no confidence, crashing to a historic low,” Gandhi tweeted.


    The Opposition party said: “The falling rupee and failing economy is
    Modiji’s Independence Day gift to the nation! ‘Modinomics’ has wreaked
    havoc for India’s economy and left it in dire straits. A falling Rupee
    is the stark symbol of the abject failures and economic mismanagement.”


    The government, however, blamed external factors for the depreciation,
    which it said will ease going forward, PTI reported. There is “nothing
    at this stage to worry”, Economic Affairs Secretary Subhash Chandra Garg
    said.

    The #Rupee
    and the Modi government hit a record low, adding to the farmer
    suicides, scarce job creation, and rampant unemployment that abound.
    When will the PM and his party take responsibility for the deplorable
    state of the economy that their policies have created? https://t.co/P5xzyaMEOt

    — Jyotiraditya Scindia (@JM_Scindia) August 14, 2018
    देश के इतिहास में पहली बार
    1 डॉलर = ₹69.93

    आज फ़िर दोहराने योग्य-
    गिरते रुपये पर मोदी जी की अमूल्य वाणी

    “..जिस प्रकार से रूपया गिरता जा रहा है
    विश्व व्यापार में भारत टिक नहीं पायेगा

    ..यह सिर्फ़ आर्थिक कारणों से नहीं हुआ,ये आपकी जो भ्रष्ट राजनीति है..उसके कारण हुआ है” pic.twitter.com/dZmpR4NfOq

    — Randeep Singh Surjewala (@rssurjewala) August 14, 2018
    70 वर्ष में पहली बार 70 के पार गिरा रूपया !

    70 वर्ष का नित नया राग आलापने वाले मोदी जी ने 70 साल में जो नहीं हुआ
    वो कर दिखाया !

    लुढ़कती अर्थव्यवस्था, लुटता ईमान,
    गिरता रुपया,बोलिये मोदी जी,
    अब कौन गिरा रहा है, देश का मान? #Rupee pic.twitter.com/VKGQfBwmFq

    — Randeep Singh Surjewala (@rssurjewala) August 14, 2018
    The Indian #Rupee just gave the Supreme Leader, a vote of NO
    confidence, crashing to a historic low. Listen to the Supreme Leader’s
    master class on economics in this video, where he explains why the Rupee
    is tanking. pic.twitter.com/E8O5u9kb23

    — Rahul Gandhi (@RahulGandhi) August 14, 2018
    Modiji finally managed to do something that we couldn’t do in 70 years. pic.twitter.com/jCFH79YrCQ

    — Congress (@INCIndia) August 14, 2018

    Peace Is Doable





    trump hug GIF by weinventyoureview db GIF

    school today GIF

    school today GIF

    https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/america-enlisted-rss-in-one-of-the-biggest-terrorist-organisation-in-the-world.444113/

    America enlisted RSS in one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisation in the World

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitpavan

    The
    alleged haughty behaviour by the upstart Chitpavans caused conflicts
    with other communities which manifested itself as late as in 1948 in the
    form of anti-Brahminism after the killing of Mahatma Gandhi by Nathuram
    Godse, a Chitpavan. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the Hindu
    nationalist political ideology Hindutva, was a Chitpavan Brahmin and
    several other Chitpavans were among the first to embrace it because they
    thought it was a logical extension of the legacy of the Peshwas and
    caste-fellow Tilak.[41] These Chitpavans felt out of place with the
    Indian social reform movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi.
    Large numbers of the community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha
    and finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins, Narayan Apte and Nathuram
    Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary
    trend.

    99.9% Sarvajan Samaj must unite to see that the 0.1%
    intolerant, cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of the world,
    violent, militant, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic,mentally
    retarded foreigners of Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Rakshasa
    Swayam Sevaks (RSS) are caught hold and put in mental asylums for
    practicing hatred, anger, jealousy and delusion which are defilement of
    the mind.
    They emboldened after gobbling the Master Key by tampering
    the fraud EVMs by the Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) for BJP
    (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths).

    The
    CJI must dissolve the Central Government and go for fresh polls with
    Ballot Papers since the ex CJI Sathasivam is the one who committed a
    grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs must be replaced in a
    phased manner where the question of replacement is in itself the proof
    that the EVMs could be tampered. And the software and its source code is
    not made public to the people of this democratic country. 
    [Leave aside the poor and ill-educated, how
    many of the well off and educated, now above 50 or so, would be able to
    produce the birth certificates of their foreparents?
    This pointed query shows up the hugely monstrous nature of the ongoing exercise.
    Never mind it’s overseen by the Supreme Court.]


    Does Amit Shah Have His Father’s Birth Certificate to Prove Citizenship: Mamata Banerjee
    While
    taking dig at the government over the Assam NRC issue, Mamata Banerjee
    said that even cows should make their birth certificates, else they will
    also be asked to leave one day.

    Sujit Nath | News18.com

    Updated:August 14, 2018, 9:15 PM IST 

    Does
    Amit Shah Have His Father’s Birth Certificate to Prove Citizenship:
    Mamata Banerjee File photos of West Bengal CM Mamata Banerjee and BJP
    chief Amit Shah.
     
    This Gruelling Family Is Seeking Your Generous Donation
     
    Effective Natural Remedies And Tips For Hair Growth
    Kolkata:
    West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Tuesday pulled up the
    Assam government alleging that those left out of the National Register
    of Citizen (NRC) draft are being slapped with fake cases.

    Addressing
    a press conference in Kolkata, Mamata said, “They are being harassed by
    the Assam government and several people are already in detention camps.
    I would like to ask if the NRC process is peaceful, then why 400
    companies of security forces are being stationed in Assam. BJP leaders
    are thumping their chest to justify this NRC.”

    She
    said, “NRC is a citizenship issue and people were left out based on
    their language. Out of the 40 lakh people who were not included in the
    NRC list, 38 lakh are Bengali-speaking Hindu and Muslim people. What is
    their crime? Their crime is that they speak Bangla. They are doing this
    for vote bank politics.”

    Coming
    down heavily on BJP president Amit Shah, she said, “I would like to ask
    Amit Shah whether he has citizenship documents of his father and mother.
    Back in the day, very few people used to have these documents. If
    tomorrow, Mahatma Gandhi’s family members fail to show his citizenship
    documents, then should we presume that he was not an Indian? BJP is
    dividing people for their vested political interests.”

    While
    taking dig at the government, she further added, “Even cows should make
    their birth certificates, else they will also be asked to leave one
    day.”

    Mamata’s sharp attack on
    Amit Shah comes after the BJP president, while addressing a huge
    gathering at Kolkata’s Mayo Road on August 11, made it clear that the
    BJP would make NRC and illegal infiltration one of their main poll
    planks in Bengal for the 2019 Lok Sabha elections. 

    He
    had said, “I would like to ask Mamata ji why she is protecting
    Bangladeshi infiltrators. We will go ahead with the NRC plan and will
    push back each and every infiltrator.”

    Speaking
    on ‘One Nation, One Election’, Mamata said, “It is not practical. It
    may be applicable for local elections. Suppose tomorrow there is no
    stability and the central government falls, how will the state
    government and central government go for elections again?”

    Ruling
    Trinamool Congress (TMC) in West Bengal has vehemently opposed the ‘One
    Nation, One Poll’ idea as proposed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.





    Peace Is Doable

    divyabhaskar.co.in
    વડોદરાઃ રાષ્ટ્રીય સ્વંયસેવક સંધ(RSS)ના ટ્રેનિંગ કેમ્પમાં કાર્યકર્તાઓને લાઠીદાવની ટ્રેનિંગ આપતા મોહન…

    comments (0)
    08/14/18
    2714 Wed 15 Aug 2018 LESSON (55) Wed 15 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) Hello Wisdom from World Religions Participant, Thank you for your email and. I have registered you for the upcoming session under the Username: buddhasaid2us In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions WHAT YOU’LL LEARN This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions: • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience? • Is death the end of life?
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 7:54 pm
    2714 Wed 15 Aug 2018 LESSON (55) Wed 15 Aug 2007  

    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    In Wisdom From
    World Religions

    Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

    Helps you enrich your life with the
    religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

    Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions


    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

    This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:


    • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?



    • Is death the end of
    life?

    https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgxvxBXwZvtHCTRbfdkGpcxNwNGrW?compose=DmwnWsTMCgTlzNZPfDjMwWhBhrpvFlvvRnmXQxWTvRqsJdmJwSnFGnFtbJPZhbxJNlBNxXRbzxLg

    Hello Wisdom from World Religions Participant,


    Thank you for your email and. I have registered you for the upcoming session under the Username: buddhasaid2us



     



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    Sincerely,

     

    Professor Kenneth Rose and the Wisdom from World Religions Team

     

     


    From: Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan <buddhasaid2us@gmail.com>


    Sent: Monday, August 13, 2018 12:56 AM

    To: Rose, Kenneth <KRose@gtu.edu>

    Subject: Re: Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions

    Respected

    Professor Kenneth Rose and the Wisdom from World Religions Team

     Thank you for registering me for the upcoming session under the Username: buddhasaid2us

    Kindly let me know how to access for:

    1. Open The First Things To Do In This Course to take your initial steps.
    2. Watch the orientation video.
    3. Access the syllabus or keep it somewhere convenient.
    4. Familiarize yourself with the plan of daily activities in Daily Course Activities.
    5. Take
      the pretest, which will measure your general knowledge of the world’s
      religions. Don’t worry about the grade—60% is passing for this and all
      tests in this course, and everyone who completes it will be able to go
      on to take the rest of the course, regardless of grade.
    6. Go
      to your preferred Discussion Group (Seeker, Proficient, or Adept) under
      Community, read the short description of each of the three groups, and
      choose your preferred group (you can change groups at any time as you
      like!):
    7. Post
      your first message in which you introduce yourself and let us know your
      name and country of residence, the reason you’re taking the course, and
      what you hope to get from the course. 
    8.  Please
      read the Troubleshooting and FAQs section directly above the Getting
      Started section in Week 1 for help on some of the common issues that can
      occur at the beginning of the course.
    Thanking you
    With Kind regards
    Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
    buddhasaid2us@gmail.com
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
    Please note:
    All the lessons may be sent to buddhasaid2us@gmail.com


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    comments (0)
    08/13/18
    2713 Tue 14 Aug 2018 LESSON (54) Tue 14 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions WHAT YOU’LL LEARN This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions: • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 6:59 pm
    2713 Tue 14 Aug 2018 LESSON (54) Tue 14 Aug 2007  

    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    In Wisdom From
    World Religions

    Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

    Helps you enrich your life with the
    religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

    Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions


    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

    This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:


    • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?



    • Is death the end of
    life?


    \https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgxvxBXxkRGjxnfFvsgCKpxGrLRXw?compose=CllgCJvlHtgvjSCjfkCvjbHqwknSpjjhSwkNxBlMmbjRVGNhpwnTqPdHMJbWlVTwCLcTtkjbdQB

    It’s Now or Never. Register for Your Free Online Religion Course


    Inbox
    x

    krose@gtu.edu

    6:28 AM (59 minutes ago)


    to me

    Hello Awakened One,

    What are you waiting for? Wisdom from World Religions, a free six-week online course based on Sir John Templeton’s book Wisdom from World Religions: Pathways Toward Heaven on Earth, starts today.

    Complete your registration now and prepare to embark on this exciting adventure into the spirit.

    To complete your registration, please verify your account by doing one of the following:

    1. Locate
      one of the previous emails we sent you called “Wisdom from World
      Religions New User Registration.” This email contains a verification
      code and a link to verify your email address.
    2. Reply to this email asking us to verify your account. After you do so, we will manually register you.

    After verifying your account, I encourage you to like our Official Facebook Page, and to remind your friends to join our course as well.

    See you in class!

    Warmly,

    Professor Ken Rose

    P.S.
    New students and past participants alike are invited to register for
    this session of Wisdom from World Religions, which begins today, August
    13th. Act now while there are still free slots available!

     



    Respected Sir,
    I request you to verify my account to manually register me to complete my registration.
    Thanking you,
    With kind regards
    Awakened One
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

    [7:06 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: https://thewire.in/government/lynching-is-the-modus-operandi-of-forces-seeking-re-election-in-2019

    To
    negate our Marvellous,Modern Constitution after gobblin the Master Key
    by tampering the fraud EVMs by the Murderer of democratic institutions
    (Moi) for the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) for their stealth,
    shadowy hindutva cult (musmriti) there is the just 0.1% intolerant,
    cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of the world, violent, militant,
    ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, rapist
    foreigners from Bene Israel chitpavan brahminical belief that the surest
    way to cross the perilous Vaitarni river on the way to heaven is to
    hang by the tail of a cow.

    Well, what do you know, this seems equally true of crossing the majority mark in the Lok Sabha.

    Consider the statement by an RSS leader that cow-related lynching will stop only if people ceased to consume beef.

    Clearly, Indresh Kumar seems privy to things on the ground that we merely speculate about.

    An
    even more explicit admonition has come from Vinay Katiyar: Muslims
    ought not to touch cows. What could be a more no-nonsense enunciation of
    the right-wing political bottom line.
    Had the cow been wholly a
    subject of faith and not of politics, Kiren Rijiju, a cabinet minister
    at the Centre, could hardly be spared by the lynch mobs, having declared
    that he eats beef and will continue to do so. Or Manohar Parrikar,
    chief minister of Goa, for saying beef will be available in the state.
    Nor would the fortunes of beef-eating Meghalaya have remained unaffected
    had the Bharatiya Janata Party’s political stakes there not been so
    high.

    The lynchings then are explicitly the front line of forces
    seeking to retain power in 2019 – a campaign where the political is
    brutally intended to ride on a fake spiritual. 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj must
    unite and demand the CJI to dissolve the Central Government and go for
    fresh polls with Ballot papers. It was the ex CJI Sathasivm who ordererd
    for replacmen of the fraud EVMs in a phased manner where the question
    of replacement itself is a proff where the EVMs could be tampered. The
    ex CEC sampath suggested forthe replacmen of the entire EVMs in a phased
    manner as it cost Rs1600 crore at that time and now it is more than Rs
    6000 crore. Moreover the software and its source code is kept secret
    from the eyes of the voters in this democracy.
    Therefore the only
    alternative is to go for fresh polls with Ballot papers to save
    democracy, liberty, freedom, fraternity and equality as enshrined in our
    Marvelous Modern Constitution.
    [11:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: It is now
    time to think whether you want to burn the constitution enshrined with
    equality, fraternity, liberty and Justice or burn the manuvadi
    Scriptures and gods in your home. The choice is yours.



    https://www.revolvy.com/page/Indian-independence-movement

    • Is death the end of
    life?https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgxvxBXxkRGjxnfFvsgCKpxGrLRXw?compose=CllgCJvlHtgvjSCjfkCvjbHqwknSpjjhSwkNxBlMmbjRVGNhpwnTqPdHMJbWlVTwCLcTtkjbdQB

    It’s Now or Never. Register for Your Free Online Religion Course


    Inbox
    x

    krose@gtu.edu

    6:28 AM (59 minutes ago)


    to me

    Hello Awakened One,

    What are you waiting for? Wisdom from World Religions, a free six-week online course based on Sir John Templeton’s book Wisdom from World Religions: Pathways Toward Heaven on Earth, starts today.

    Complete your registration now and prepare to embark on this exciting adventure into the spirit.

    To complete your registration, please verify your account by doing one of the following:

    1. Locate
      one of the previous emails we sent you called “Wisdom from World
      Religions New User Registration.” This email contains a verification
      code and a link to verify your email address.
    2. Reply to this email asking us to verify your account. After you do so, we will manually register you.

    After verifying your account, I encourage you to like our Official Facebook Page, and to remind your friends to join our course as well.

    See you in class!

    Warmly,

    Professor Ken Rose

    P.S.
    New students and past participants alike are invited to register for
    this session of Wisdom from World Religions, which begins today, August
    13th. Act now while there are still free slots available!

     



    Respected Sir,
    I request you to verify my account to manually register me to complete my registration.
    Thanking you,
    With kind regards
    Awakened One
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
    B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, and the Indian National Army movement led by Subhas Chandra Bose.

    https://www.revolvy.com/page/B.-R.-Ambedkar



    Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the SC/ST Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (SC/STs), while also supporting the rights of women and labour. He was Independent India’s first law minister, the principal architect of the Constitution of India and a founding father of the Republic of India.

    Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics and political science.[10]
    In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. His
    later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in
    campaigning and negotiations for India’s independence, publishing
    journals, advocating political rights and social freedom for Dalits, and
    contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of India.
    In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of SC/STs.

    In 1990, the Bharat Ratna,
    India’s highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon
    Ambedkar. Ambedkar’s legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions
    in popular culture.

    [2:28 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Early life
    Ambedkar
    was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow
    in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh).[12] He was the 14th
    and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an army officer who held the rank
    of Subedar, and Bhimabai Sakpal, daughter of Laxman Murbadkar.[13] His
    family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambadawe (Mandangad
    taluka) in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. Ambedkar was
    born into a poor low Mahar (dalit) caste, who were treated as
    untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination.[14]
    Ambedkar’s ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East
    India Company, and his father served in the British Indian Army at the
    Mhow cantonment.[15] Although they attended school, Ambedkar and other
    untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help
    by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. When they
    needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that
    water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water
    or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the
    young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available
    then he had to go without water; he described the situation later in his
    writings as “No peon, No Water”.[16] He was required to sit on a gunny
    sack which he had to take home with him.[17]

    Ramji Sakpal retired
    in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after
    their move, Ambedkar’s mother died. The children were cared for by their
    paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons –
    Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa –
    of the Ambedkars survived them. Of his brothers and sisters, only
    Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original
    surname was Sakpal but his father registered his name as Ambadawekar in
    school, meaning he comes from his native village ‘Ambadawe’ in Ratnagiri
    district.[18][19][20][21][22] His Devrukhe Brahmin teacher, Krishna
    Keshav Ambedkar, changed his surname from ‘Ambadawekar’ to his own
    surname ‘Ambedkar’ in school records.[21]

    Education
    Post-secondary education
    In
    1897, Ambedkar’s family moved to Mumbai where Ambedkar became the only
    untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School. In 1906, when he was
    about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, was
    arranged.[1]

    Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay
    In
    1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year
    he entered Elphinstone College, which was affiliated to the University
    of Bombay, becoming the first untouchable to do so. This success evoked
    much celebration among untouchables and after a public ceremony, he was
    presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author
    and a family friend.[1]

    By 1912, he obtained his degree in
    economics and political science from Bombay University, and prepared to
    take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife had just
    moved his young family and started work when he had to quickly return to
    Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913.[23]

    Postgraduate studies at Columbia University
    In
    1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22. He had been
    awarded a Baroda State Scholarship of £11.50 (Sterling) per month for
    three years under a scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad III (Gaekwad
    of Baroda) that was designed to provide opportunities for postgraduate
    education at Columbia University in New York City. Soon after arriving
    there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a
    Parsi who was to be a lifelong friend. He passed his M.A. exam in June
    1915, majoring in Economics, and other subjects of Sociology, History,
    Philosophy and Anthropology. He presented a thesis, Ancient Indian
    Commerce. Ambedkar was influenced by John Dewey and his work on
    democracy.[24]

    In 1916 he completed his second thesis, National
    Dividend of India — A Historic and Analytical Study, for another M.A.,
    and finally he received his PhD in Economics in 1927[25] for his third
    thesis, after he left for London. On 9 May, he presented the paper
    Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development before a
    seminar conducted by the anthropologist Alexander Goldenweiser.

    Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics
    Ambedkar (In center line, first from right) with his professors and friends from the London School of Economics (1916-17)
    In
    October 1916, he enrolled for the Bar course at Gray’s Inn, and at the
    same time enrolled at the London School of Economics where he started
    working on a doctoral thesis. In June 1917, he returned to India because
    his scholarship from Baroda ended. His book collection was dispatched
    on different ship from the one he was on, and that ship was torpedoed
    and sunk by a German submarine.[23] He got permission to return to
    London to submit his thesis within four years. He returned at the first
    opportunity, and completed a master’s degree in 1921. His thesis was on
    “The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution”.[3] In 1923, he
    completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and the same year he was called to the
    Bar by Gray’s Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (LL.D, Columbia, 1952
    and D.Litt., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa.[26]

    Opposition to Aryan invasion theory
    Ambedkar
    viewed the Shudras as Aryan and adamantly rejected the Aryan invasion
    theory, describing it as “so absurd that it ought to have been dead long
    ago” in his 1946 book Who Were the Shudras?.[4]

    Ambedkar viewed
    Shudras as originally being “part of the Kshatriya Varna in the
    Indo-Aryan society”, but became socially degraded after they inflicted
    many tyrannies on Brahmins.[27]

    According to Arvind Sharma,
    Ambedkar noticed certain flaws in the Aryan invasion theory that were
    later acknowledged by western scholarship. For example, scholars now
    acknowledge anās in Rig Veda 5.29.10 refers to speech rather than the
    shape of the nose.[28] Ambedkar anticipated this modern view by stating:

    The
    term Anasa occurs in Rig Veda V.29.10. What does the word mean? There
    are two interpretations. One is by Prof. Max Muller. The other is by
    Sayanacharya. According to Prof. Max Muller, it means ‘one without nose’
    or ‘one with a flat nose’ and has as such been relied upon as a piece
    of evidence in support of the view that the Aryans were a separate race
    from the Dasyus. Sayanacharya says that it means ‘mouthless,’ i.e.,
    devoid of good speech. This difference of meaning is due to difference
    in the correct reading of the word Anasa. Sayanacharya reads it as
    an-asa while Prof. Max Muller reads it as a-nasa. As read by Prof. Max
    Muller, it means ‘without nose.’ Question is : which of the two readings
    is the correct one? There is no reason to hold that Sayana’s reading is
    wrong. On the other hand there is everything to suggest that it is
    right. In the first place, it does not make non-sense of the word.
    Secondly, as there is no other place where the Dasyus are described as
    noseless, there is no reason why the word should be read in such a
    manner as to give it an altogether new sense. It is only fair to read it
    as a synonym of Mridhravak. There is therefore no evidence in support
    of the conclusion that the Dasyus belonged to a different race.[28]

    Ambedkar
    disputed various hypotheses of the Aryan homeland being outside India,
    and concluded the Aryan homeland was India itself.[29] According to
    Ambedkar, the Rig Veda says Aryans, Dāsa and Dasyus were competing
    religious groups, not different peoples.[30]

    Opposition to untouchability
    Ambedkar as a barrister in 1922
    As
    Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to
    serve it. He was appointed Military Secretary to the Gaikwad but had to
    quit in a short time. He described the incident in his autobiography,
    Waiting for a Visa.[31] Thereafter, he tried to find ways to make a
    living for his growing family. He worked as a private tutor, as an
    accountant, and established an investment consulting business, but it
    failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable.[32] In 1918,
    he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of
    Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the
    students, other professors objected to his sharing a drinking-water jug
    with them.[33]

    Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the
    Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act
    1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates
    and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities.[34]
    In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the
    Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu of Kolhapur i.e. Shahu IV
    (1874–1922).[35]

    Ambedkar went on to work as a legal
    professional. In 1926, he successfully defended three non-Brahmin
    leaders who had accused the Brahmin community of ruining India and were
    then subsequently sued for libel. Dhananjay Keer notes that “The victory
    was resounding, both socially and individually, for the clients and the
    Doctor.”

    Samarth

    While practising law in the Bombay High
    Court, he tried to promote education to untouchables and uplift them.
    His first organised attempt was his establishment of the central
    institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education
    and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of “outcastes”,
    at the time referred to as depressed classes.[36] For the defence of
    Dalit rights, he started many periodicals like Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit
    Bharat, and Equality Janta.[37]

    He was appointed to the Bombay
    Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in
    1925.[38] This commission had sparked great protests across India, and
    while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a
    separate set of recommendations for the future Constitution of
    India.[39]

    By 1927, Ambedkar had decided to launch active
    movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and
    marches to open up public drinking water resources. He also began a
    struggle for the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in
    Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water
    from the main water tank of the town.[40] In a conference in late 1927,
    Ambedkar publicly condemned the classic Hindu text, the Manusmriti (Laws
    of Manu), for ideologically justifying caste discrimination and
    “untouchability”, and he ceremonially burned copies of the ancient text.
    On 25 December 1927, he led thousands of followers to burn copies of
    Manusmrti.[41][42] Thus annually 25 December is celebrated as Manusmriti
    Dahan Din (Manusmriti Burning Day) by Ambedkarites and Dalits.[43][44]

    In
    1930, Ambedkar launched Kalaram Temple movement after three months of
    preparation. About 15,000 volunteers assembled at Kalaram Temple
    satygraha making one of the greatest processions of Nashik. The
    procession was headed by a military band, a batch of scouts, women and
    men walked in discipline, order and determination to see the god for the
    first time. When they reached to gate, the gates were closed by Brahmin
    authorities.[45]

    Poona Pact
    M.R. Jayakar, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Ambedkar at Yerwada jail, in Poona, on 24 September 1932, the day the Poona Pact was signed
    In
    1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for
    “Depressed Classes” in the Communal Award. Gandhi fiercely opposed a
    separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared that such an
    arrangement would divide the Hindu community.[46][47][48] Gandhi
    protested by fasting while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of
    Poona. Following the fast, Congress politicians and activists such as
    Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo organised joint meetings with
    Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada.[49] On 25 September 1932, the
    agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between Ambedkar (on behalf of
    the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan Malaviya (on behalf
    of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for the
    depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general
    electorate. Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in
    the legislature, instead of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award
    earlier proposed by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The text
    uses the term “Depressed Classes” to denote Untouchables among Hindus
    who were later called Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under India
    Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution of 1950.[50][51] In the
    Poona Pact, a unified electorate was in principle formed, but primary
    and secondary elections allowed Untouchables in practice to choose their
    own candidates.[52]
    [2:30 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Political career
    Ambedkar
    with his family members at Rajgraha in February 1934. From left –
    Yashwant (son), Ambedkar, Ramabai (wife), Laxmibai (wife of his elder
    brother, Balaram), Mukund (nephew) and Ambedkar’s favourite dog, Tobby
    In
    1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College,
    Bombay, a position he held for two years. He also served as the chairman
    of Governing body of Ramjas College, University of Delhi, after the
    death of its Founder Shri Rai Kedarnath.[53] Settling in Bombay (today
    called Mumbai), Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a house, and
    stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books.[54] His wife
    Ramabai died after a long illness the same year. It had been her
    long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had
    refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new
    Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism’s Pandharpur which treated them
    as untouchables. At the Yeola Conversion Conference on 13 October in
    Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different
    religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.[54] He would
    repeat his message at many public meetings across India.

    In 1936,
    Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which contested the 1937
    Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly for the 13 reserved
    and 4 general seats, and secured 11 and 3 seats respectively.[55]

    Ambedkar
    published his book Annihilation of Caste on 15 May 1936.[56] It
    strongly criticised Hindu orthodox religious leaders and the caste
    system in general,[57] and included “a rebuke of Gandhi” on the
    subject.[58] Later, in a 1955 BBC interview, he accused Gandhi of
    writing in opposition of the caste system in English language papers
    while writing in support of it in Gujarati language papers.[59]

    Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee[60] and the Viceroy’s Executive Council as minister for labour.[60]

    After
    the Lahore resolution (1940) of the Muslim League demanding Pakistan,
    Ambedkar wrote a 400 page tract titled Thoughts on Pakistan, which
    analysed the concept of “Pakistan” in all its aspects. Ambedkar argued
    that the Hindus should concede Pakistan to the Muslims. He proposed that
    the provincial boundaries of Punjab and Bengal should be redrawn to
    separate the Muslim and non-Muslim majority parts. He thought the
    Muslims could have no objection to redrawing provincial boundaries. If
    they did, they did not quite “understand the nature of their own
    demand”. Scholar Venkat Dhulipala states that Thoughts on Pakistan
    “rocked Indian politics for a decade”. It determined the course of
    dialogue between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress,
    paving the way for the Partition of India.[61][62]

    In his work
    Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar tried to explain the formation of
    untouchables. He saw Shudras and Ati Shudras who form the lowest caste
    in the ritual hierarchy of the caste system, as separate from
    Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party
    into the Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in
    the 1946 elections for Constituent Assembly of India. Later he was
    elected into the constituent assembly of Bengal where Muslim League was
    in power.[63]

    Ambedkar contested in the Bombay North first Indian
    General Election of 1952, but lost to his former assistant and Congress
    Party candidate Narayan Kajrolkar. Ambedkar became a member of Rajya
    Sabha, probably an appointed member. He tried to enter Lok Sabha again
    in the by-election of 1954 from Bhandara, but he placed third (the
    Congress Party won). By the time of the second general election in 1957,
    Ambedkar had died.

    Ambedkar also criticised Islamic practice in
    South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned child
    marriage and the mistreatment of women in Muslim society.

    No
    words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and
    concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman.
    Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from
    slavery and caste. […] [While slavery existed], much of its support
    was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by
    the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained
    in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that
    lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone,
    caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.[64]

    Drafting India’s Constitution
    Ambedkar,
    chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the
    Indian Constitution to Rajendra Prasad on 25 November 1949.
    Upon
    India’s independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government
    invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first Law Minister, which he
    accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution
    Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India’s
    new Constitution.[65]

    Granville Austin described the Indian
    Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as ‘first and foremost a social
    document’. ‘The majority of India’s constitutional provisions are either
    directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt
    to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its
    achievement.’[66]

    The text prepared by Ambedkar provided
    constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil
    liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the
    abolition of untouchability, and the outlawing of all forms of
    discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights
    for women, and won the Assembly’s support for introducing a system of
    reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for
    members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Other Backward
    Class, a system akin to affirmative action.[67] India’s lawmakers hoped
    to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities
    for India’s depressed classes through these measures.[68] The
    Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent
    Assembly.[69]

    Opposition to Article 370
    Ambedkar opposed
    Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a special status
    to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and which was included against his
    wishes. Balraj Madhok reportedly said, Ambedkar had clearly told the
    Kashmiri leader, Sheikh Abdullah: “You wish India should protect your
    borders, she should build roads in your area, she should supply you food
    grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India. But Government of
    India should have only limited powers and Indian people should have no
    rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this proposal, would be a
    treacherous thing against the interests of India and I, as the Law
    Minister of India, will never do it.” Then Sk. Abdullah approached
    Nehru, who directed him to Gopal Swami Ayyangar, who in turn approached
    Sardar Patel, saying Nehru had promised Sk. Abdullah the special status.
    Patel got the Article passed while Nehru was on a foreign tour. On the
    day the article came up for discussion, Ambedkar did not reply to
    questions on it but did participate on other articles. All arguments
    were done by Krishna Swami Ayyangar.[70][71][72]

    Support to Uniform Civil Code
    I
    personally do not understand why religion should be given this vast,
    expansive jurisdiction, so as to cover the whole of life and to prevent
    the legislature from encroaching upon that field. After all, what are we
    having this liberty for? We are having this liberty in order to reform
    our social system, which is so full of inequities, discriminations and
    other things, which conflict with our fundamental rights.[73]
    During
    the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will
    to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil
    Code.[74][75] Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when
    parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to
    enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage.[76]
    Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house
    of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated in the Bombay (North
    Central) constituency by a little-known Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar, who
    polled 138,137 votes compared to Ambedkar’s 123,576.[77][78][79] He was
    appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March
    1952 and would remain as member till death.[80]
    [2:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Economic planning
    B.R. Ambedkar in 1950
    Ambedkar
    was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.[81] He
    argued that industrialisation and agricultural growth could enhance the
    Indian economy.[82] He stressed investment in agriculture as the primary
    industry of India. According to Sharad Pawar, Ambedkar’s vision helped
    the government to achieve its food security goal.[83] Ambedkar advocated
    national economic and social development, stressing education, public
    hygiene, community health, residential facilities as the basic
    amenities.[82] He calculated the loss of development caused by British
    rule.[84]

    Reserve Bank of India
    Ambedkar was trained as an
    economist, and was a professional economist until 1921, when he became a
    political leader. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:

    Administration and Finance of the East India Company
    The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
    The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution[85][86][87]
    The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), was based on the ideas that Ambedkar presented to the Hilton Young Commission.[85][87][88][89]

    Second marriage
    Ambedkar with wife Savita in 1948
    Ambedkar’s
    first wife Ramabai died in 1935 after a long illness. After completing
    the draft of India’s constitution in the late 1940s, he suffered from
    lack of sleep, had neuropathic pain in his legs, and was taking insulin
    and homoeopathic medicines. He went to Bombay for treatment, and there
    met Dr. Sharada Kabir, whom he married on 15 April 1948, at his home in
    New Delhi. Doctors recommended a companion who was a good cook and had
    medical knowledge to care for him.[90] She adopted the name Savita
    Ambedkar and cared for him the rest of his life.[2] Savita Ambedkar, who
    was called ‘Mai’ or ‘Maisaheb’, died on 29 May 2003, aged 93 at
    Mehrauli, New Delhi.[91]

    Conversion to Buddhism
    Ambedkar receiving the Five Precepts from Mahasthavir Chandramani on October 14, 1956
    Ambedkar
    considered converting to Sikhism, which encouraged opposition to
    oppression and so appealed to leaders of scheduled castes. But after
    meeting with Sikh leaders, he concluded that he might get “second-rate”
    Sikh status, as described by scholar Stephen P. Cohen.[92]

    Instead,
    he studied Buddhism all his life. Around 1950, he devoted his attention
    to Buddhism and travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) to attend a meeting
    of the World Fellowship of Buddhists.[93] While dedicating a new
    Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced he was writing a book on
    Buddhism, and that when it was finished, he would formally convert to
    Buddhism.[94] He twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend
    the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in
    Rangoon.[95] In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the
    Buddhist Society of India.[96] He completed his final work, The Buddha
    and His Dhamma, in 1956 which was published posthumously.[96]

    After
    meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,[97]
    Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his
    supporters in Nagpur on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and
    Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar
    completed his own conversion, along with his wife. He then proceeded to
    convert some 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.[98]
    He prescribed the 22 Vows for these converts, after the Three Jewels
    and Five Precepts.[99] He then travelled to Kathmandu, Nepal to attend
    the Fourth World Buddhist Conference.[95] His work on The Buddha or Karl
    Marx and “Revolution and counter-revolution in ancient India” remained
    incomplete.[100]

    Death
    Mahaparinirvana of B. R. Ambedkar
    Since
    1948, Ambedkar suffered from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to
    October in 1954 due to medication side-effects and poor eyesight.[94] He
    had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll
    on his health. His health worsened during 1955. Three days after
    completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, Ambedkar died
    in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi.

    A Buddhist
    cremation[101] was organised at Dadar Chowpatty beach on 7
    December,[102] attended by half a million grieving people.[103] A
    conversion program was organised on 16 December 1956,[104] so that
    cremation attendees were also converted to Buddhism at the same
    place.[104]

    Ambedkar was survived by his second wife, who died in
    2003,[105] and his son Yashwant Ambedkar (known as Bhaiyasaheb).[106]
    Ambedkar’s grandson, Prakash Ambedkar, is the chief-adviser of the
    Buddhist Society of India,[107] leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh[108]
    and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.[108]

    A
    number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among
    Ambedkar’s notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these
    were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an
    autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India’s
    Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.[94]

    A memorial for
    Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His
    birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti or
    Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian
    honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1990.[109]

    On the anniversary of his
    birth and death, and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din (14 October) at
    Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at
    his memorial in Mumbai.[110] Thousands of bookshops are set up, and
    books are sold. His message to his followers was “educate, organise,
    agitate”.[111]

    Legacy
    People paying tribute at the central statue of Ambedkar in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University in Aurangabad.
    Ambedkar’s
    legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern
    India.[112][113] In post-Independence India, his socio-political thought
    is respected across the political spectrum. His initiatives have
    influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India today
    looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action
    through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar
    led to his appointment as free India’s first law minister, and chairman
    of the committee for drafting the constitution. He passionately
    believed in individual freedom and criticised caste society. His
    accusations of Hinduism as being the foundation of the caste system made
    him controversial and unpopular among Hindus.[114] His conversion to
    Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy in India
    and abroad.[115]

    Ambedkar is also called Babasaheb, a Marathi
    phrase which roughly translates as “Father-Lord” (baba: father; and
    saheb: lord) because millions of Indians consider him a “great
    liberator”.[116]

    Many public institutions are named in his
    honour, and the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur,
    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Ambedkar
    University Delhi is also named in his honour. A large official portrait
    of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.

    The
    Maharashtra government has acquired a house in London where Ambedkar
    lived during his days as a student in the 1920s. The house is expected
    to be converted into a museum-cum-memorial to Ambedkar.[117]

    Ambedkar
    was voted “the Greatest Indian” in 2012 by a poll organised by History
    TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly 20 million votes were cast, making him the most
    popular Indian figure since the launch of the initiative.[118][119] Due
    to his role in economics, Narendra Jadhav, a notable Indian
    economist,[120] has said that Ambedkar was “the highest educated Indian
    economist of all times.”[121] Amartya Sen, said that Ambedkar is “father
    of my economics”, and “he was highly controversial figure in his home
    country, though it was not the reality. His contribution in the field of
    economics is marvelous and will be remembered forever.”[122][123] Osho,
    a spiritual teacher, remarked “I have seen people who are born in the
    lowest category of Hindu law, the sudras, the untouchables, so
    intelligent: when India became independent, the man who made the
    constitution of India, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a sudra. There was no
    equal to his intelligence as far as law is concerned – he was a
    world-famous authority.”[124] President Obama addressed the Indian
    parliament in 2010, and referred to Dalit leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as
    the great and revered Human Rights champion and main author of India’s
    constitution.[125]

    Ambedkar’s political philosophy has given rise
    to a large number of political parties, publications and workers’
    unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His
    promotion of Buddhism has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy
    among sections of population in India. Mass conversion ceremonies have
    been organised by human rights activists in modern times, emulating
    Ambedkar’s Nagpur ceremony of 1956.[126] Most Indian Buddhists specially
    Navayana followers regard him as a Bodhisattva, the Maitreya, although
    he never claimed it himself.[127][128][129] Outside India, during the
    late 1990s, some Hungarian Romani people drew parallels between their
    own situation and that of the downtrodden people in India. Inspired by
    Ambedkar, they started to convert to Buddhism.[130]
    [2:33 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: In popular culture
    Several
    movies, plays, and other works have been based on the life and thoughts
    of Ambedkar. Jabbar Patel directed the English-language film Dr.
    Babasaheb Ambedkar in 2000 with Mammootty in the lead role.[131] This
    biopic was sponsored by the National Film Development Corporation of
    India and the government’s Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
    The film was released after a long and controversial gestation.[132]
    David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and historical
    ethnographer, has established Arising Light – a series of films and
    events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the
    social conditions in India and the life of Ambedkar.[133] In
    Samvidhaan,[134] a TV mini-series on the making of the Constitution of
    India directed by Shyam Benegal, the pivotal role of B. R. Ambedkar was
    played by Sachin Khedekar. The play Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by
    Arvind Gaur and written by Rajesh Kumar, tracks the two prominent
    personalities of its title.[135]

    Bhimayana: Experiences of
    Untouchability is a graphic biography of Ambedkar created by
    Pardhan-Gond artists Durgabai Vyam and Subhash Vyam, and writers
    Srividya Natarajan and S. Anand. The book depicts the experiences of
    untouchability faced by Ambedkar from childhood to adulthood. CNN named
    it one of the top 5 political comic books.[136]

    The Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow is dedicated in his memory. The chaitya consists of monuments showing his biography.[137][138]

    Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow
    Google
    commemorated Ambedkar’s 124th birthday through a homepage doodle[139]
    on 14 April 2015.[140] The doodle was featured in India, Argentina,
    Chile, Ireland, Peru, Poland, Sweden and the United
    Kingdom.[141][142][143]

    Films
    Balak Ambedkar, a 1991 Kannada film directed by Basavaraj Kesthur.
    Bole India Jai Bhim, 2016 Marathi film directed by Subodh Nagdeve.
    Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (film), 2000 English film directed by Jabbar Patel.
    Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (film), a 2005 Kannada film directed by Sharan Kumar Kabbur.
    Yugpurush Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, 1993 Marathi film directed by Shashikant Nalavade.
    Bhim Garjana, a 1990 Marathi film directed by Vijay Pawar.
    Ramabai (film), a 2016 Kannada film directed by M. Ranganath.
    Ramabai Bhimrao Ambedkar (film), a 2011 Marathi film directed by Prakash Jadhav.
    A Journey of Samyak Buddha, a 2013 Hindi film based on Dr. Ambedkar’s book, The Buddha and His Dhamma and Navayana Buddhism.
    Works
    The
    Education Department, Government of Maharashtra (Mumbai) published the
    collection of Ambedkar’s writings and speeches in different
    volumes.[144]

    Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development and 11 Other Essays
    Ambedkar in the Bombay Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939
    Philosophy of Hinduism; India and the Pre-requisites of Communism; Revolution and Counter-revolution; Buddha or Karl Marx
    Riddles in Hinduism[145]
    Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability
    The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
    The Untouchables: Who Were They? And Why They Became Untouchables (New Delhi: Amrit Book Co, [1948])
    The Annihilation of Caste (1936)
    Pakistan or the Partition of India
    What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables; Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables
    Ambedkar as member of the Governor General’s Executive Council, 1942–46
    The Buddha and his Dhamma
    Unpublished Writings; Ancient Indian Commerce; Notes on laws; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc.
    Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India
    (2 parts) Dr. Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill
    Ambedkar as Free India’s First Law Minister and Member of Opposition in Indian Parliament (1947–1956)
    The Pali Grammar
    Ambedkar
    and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events
    starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order;
    Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious
    activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the
    chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches.
    (Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the
    chronological order.)
    Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
    Ambedkar’s Photo Album and Correspondence
    See also
    Ambedkarism
    Chaitya Bhoomi
    Dalit Buddhist movement
    Deekshabhoomi
    The Greatest Indian
    List of civil rights leaders
    Social reformers of India
    Statue of Equality
    List of things named after B. R. Ambedkar

    Read more: B. R. Ambedkar | Revolvy https://www.revolvy.com/page/B.-R.-Ambedkar#ixzz5O5uud7EK
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    Respected Sir,
    I request you to verify my account to manually register me to complete my registration.
    Thanking you,
    With kind regards
    Awakened One
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

    [7:06 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: https://thewire.in/government/lynching-is-the-modus-operandi-of-forces-seeking-re-election-in-2019

    To
    negate our Marvellous,Modern Constitution after gobblin the Master Key
    by tampering the fraud EVMs by the Murderer of democratic institutions
    (Moi) for the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) for their stealth,
    shadowy hindutva cult (musmriti) there is the just 0.1% intolerant,
    cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of the world, violent, militant,
    ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, rapist
    foreigners from Bene Israel chitpavan brahminical belief that the surest
    way to cross the perilous Vaitarni river on the way to heaven is to
    hang by the tail of a cow.

    Well, what do you know, this seems equally true of crossing the majority mark in the Lok Sabha.

    Consider the statement by an RSS leader that cow-related lynching will stop only if people ceased to consume beef.

    Clearly, Indresh Kumar seems privy to things on the ground that we merely speculate about.

    An
    even more explicit admonition has come from Vinay Katiyar: Muslims
    ought not to touch cows. What could be a more no-nonsense enunciation of
    the right-wing political bottom line.
    Had the cow been wholly a
    subject of faith and not of politics, Kiren Rijiju, a cabinet minister
    at the Centre, could hardly be spared by the lynch mobs, having declared
    that he eats beef and will continue to do so. Or Manohar Parrikar,
    chief minister of Goa, for saying beef will be available in the state.
    Nor would the fortunes of beef-eating Meghalaya have remained unaffected
    had the Bharatiya Janata Party’s political stakes there not been so
    high.

    The lynchings then are explicitly the front line of forces
    seeking to retain power in 2019 – a campaign where the political is
    brutally intended to ride on a fake spiritual. 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj must
    unite and demand the CJI to dissolve the Central Government and go for
    fresh polls with Ballot papers. It was the ex CJI Sathasivm who ordererd
    for replacmen of the fraud EVMs in a phased manner where the question
    of replacement itself is a proff where the EVMs could be tampered. The
    ex CEC sampath suggested forthe replacmen of the entire EVMs in a phased
    manner as it cost Rs1600 crore at that time and now it is more than Rs
    6000 crore. Moreover the software and its source code is kept secret
    from the eyes of the voters in this democracy.
    Therefore the only
    alternative is to go for fresh polls with Ballot papers to save
    democracy, liberty, freedom, fraternity and equality as enshrined in our
    Marvelous Modern Constitution.
    [11:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: It is now
    time to think whether you want to burn the constitution enshrined with
    equality, fraternity, liberty and Justice or burn the manuvadi
    Scriptures and gods in your home. The choice is yours.



    https://www.revolvy.com/page/Indian-independence-movement

    B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, and the Indian National Army movement led by Subhas Chandra Bose.

    https://www.revolvy.com/page/B.-R.-Ambedkar



    Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the SC/ST Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (SC/STs), while also supporting the rights of women and labour. He was Independent India’s first law minister, the principal architect of the Constitution of India and a founding father of the Republic of India.

    Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics and political science.[10]
    In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. His
    later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in
    campaigning and negotiations for India’s independence, publishing
    journals, advocating political rights and social freedom for Dalits, and
    contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of India.
    In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of SC/STs.

    In 1990, the Bharat Ratna,
    India’s highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon
    Ambedkar. Ambedkar’s legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions
    in popular culture.

    [2:28 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Early life
    Ambedkar
    was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow
    in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh).[12] He was the 14th
    and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an army officer who held the rank
    of Subedar, and Bhimabai Sakpal, daughter of Laxman Murbadkar.[13] His
    family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambadawe (Mandangad
    taluka) in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. Ambedkar was
    born into a poor low Mahar (dalit) caste, who were treated as
    untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination.[14]
    Ambedkar’s ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East
    India Company, and his father served in the British Indian Army at the
    Mhow cantonment.[15] Although they attended school, Ambedkar and other
    untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help
    by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. When they
    needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that
    water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water
    or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the
    young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available
    then he had to go without water; he described the situation later in his
    writings as “No peon, No Water”.[16] He was required to sit on a gunny
    sack which he had to take home with him.[17]

    Ramji Sakpal retired
    in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after
    their move, Ambedkar’s mother died. The children were cared for by their
    paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons –
    Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa –
    of the Ambedkars survived them. Of his brothers and sisters, only
    Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original
    surname was Sakpal but his father registered his name as Ambadawekar in
    school, meaning he comes from his native village ‘Ambadawe’ in Ratnagiri
    district.[18][19][20][21][22] His Devrukhe Brahmin teacher, Krishna
    Keshav Ambedkar, changed his surname from ‘Ambadawekar’ to his own
    surname ‘Ambedkar’ in school records.[21]

    Education
    Post-secondary education
    In
    1897, Ambedkar’s family moved to Mumbai where Ambedkar became the only
    untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School. In 1906, when he was
    about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, was
    arranged.[1]

    Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay
    In
    1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year
    he entered Elphinstone College, which was affiliated to the University
    of Bombay, becoming the first untouchable to do so. This success evoked
    much celebration among untouchables and after a public ceremony, he was
    presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author
    and a family friend.[1]

    By 1912, he obtained his degree in
    economics and political science from Bombay University, and prepared to
    take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife had just
    moved his young family and started work when he had to quickly return to
    Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913.[23]

    Postgraduate studies at Columbia University
    In
    1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22. He had been
    awarded a Baroda State Scholarship of £11.50 (Sterling) per month for
    three years under a scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad III (Gaekwad
    of Baroda) that was designed to provide opportunities for postgraduate
    education at Columbia University in New York City. Soon after arriving
    there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a
    Parsi who was to be a lifelong friend. He passed his M.A. exam in June
    1915, majoring in Economics, and other subjects of Sociology, History,
    Philosophy and Anthropology. He presented a thesis, Ancient Indian
    Commerce. Ambedkar was influenced by John Dewey and his work on
    democracy.[24]

    In 1916 he completed his second thesis, National
    Dividend of India — A Historic and Analytical Study, for another M.A.,
    and finally he received his PhD in Economics in 1927[25] for his third
    thesis, after he left for London. On 9 May, he presented the paper
    Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development before a
    seminar conducted by the anthropologist Alexander Goldenweiser.

    Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics
    Ambedkar (In center line, first from right) with his professors and friends from the London School of Economics (1916-17)
    In
    October 1916, he enrolled for the Bar course at Gray’s Inn, and at the
    same time enrolled at the London School of Economics where he started
    working on a doctoral thesis. In June 1917, he returned to India because
    his scholarship from Baroda ended. His book collection was dispatched
    on different ship from the one he was on, and that ship was torpedoed
    and sunk by a German submarine.[23] He got permission to return to
    London to submit his thesis within four years. He returned at the first
    opportunity, and completed a master’s degree in 1921. His thesis was on
    “The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution”.[3] In 1923, he
    completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and the same year he was called to the
    Bar by Gray’s Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (LL.D, Columbia, 1952
    and D.Litt., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa.[26]

    Opposition to Aryan invasion theory
    Ambedkar
    viewed the Shudras as Aryan and adamantly rejected the Aryan invasion
    theory, describing it as “so absurd that it ought to have been dead long
    ago” in his 1946 book Who Were the Shudras?.[4]

    Ambedkar viewed
    Shudras as originally being “part of the Kshatriya Varna in the
    Indo-Aryan society”, but became socially degraded after they inflicted
    many tyrannies on Brahmins.[27]

    According to Arvind Sharma,
    Ambedkar noticed certain flaws in the Aryan invasion theory that were
    later acknowledged by western scholarship. For example, scholars now
    acknowledge anās in Rig Veda 5.29.10 refers to speech rather than the
    shape of the nose.[28] Ambedkar anticipated this modern view by stating:

    The
    term Anasa occurs in Rig Veda V.29.10. What does the word mean? There
    are two interpretations. One is by Prof. Max Muller. The other is by
    Sayanacharya. According to Prof. Max Muller, it means ‘one without nose’
    or ‘one with a flat nose’ and has as such been relied upon as a piece
    of evidence in support of the view that the Aryans were a separate race
    from the Dasyus. Sayanacharya says that it means ‘mouthless,’ i.e.,
    devoid of good speech. This difference of meaning is due to difference
    in the correct reading of the word Anasa. Sayanacharya reads it as
    an-asa while Prof. Max Muller reads it as a-nasa. As read by Prof. Max
    Muller, it means ‘without nose.’ Question is : which of the two readings
    is the correct one? There is no reason to hold that Sayana’s reading is
    wrong. On the other hand there is everything to suggest that it is
    right. In the first place, it does not make non-sense of the word.
    Secondly, as there is no other place where the Dasyus are described as
    noseless, there is no reason why the word should be read in such a
    manner as to give it an altogether new sense. It is only fair to read it
    as a synonym of Mridhravak. There is therefore no evidence in support
    of the conclusion that the Dasyus belonged to a different race.[28]

    Ambedkar
    disputed various hypotheses of the Aryan homeland being outside India,
    and concluded the Aryan homeland was India itself.[29] According to
    Ambedkar, the Rig Veda says Aryans, Dāsa and Dasyus were competing
    religious groups, not different peoples.[30]

    Opposition to untouchability
    Ambedkar as a barrister in 1922
    As
    Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to
    serve it. He was appointed Military Secretary to the Gaikwad but had to
    quit in a short time. He described the incident in his autobiography,
    Waiting for a Visa.[31] Thereafter, he tried to find ways to make a
    living for his growing family. He worked as a private tutor, as an
    accountant, and established an investment consulting business, but it
    failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable.[32] In 1918,
    he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of
    Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the
    students, other professors objected to his sharing a drinking-water jug
    with them.[33]

    Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the
    Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act
    1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates
    and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities.[34]
    In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the
    Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu of Kolhapur i.e. Shahu IV
    (1874–1922).[35]

    Ambedkar went on to work as a legal
    professional. In 1926, he successfully defended three non-Brahmin
    leaders who had accused the Brahmin community of ruining India and were
    then subsequently sued for libel. Dhananjay Keer notes that “The victory
    was resounding, both socially and individually, for the clients and the
    Doctor.”

    Samarth

    While practising law in the Bombay High
    Court, he tried to promote education to untouchables and uplift them.
    His first organised attempt was his establishment of the central
    institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education
    and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of “outcastes”,
    at the time referred to as depressed classes.[36] For the defence of
    Dalit rights, he started many periodicals like Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit
    Bharat, and Equality Janta.[37]

    He was appointed to the Bombay
    Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in
    1925.[38] This commission had sparked great protests across India, and
    while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a
    separate set of recommendations for the future Constitution of
    India.[39]

    By 1927, Ambedkar had decided to launch active
    movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and
    marches to open up public drinking water resources. He also began a
    struggle for the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in
    Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water
    from the main water tank of the town.[40] In a conference in late 1927,
    Ambedkar publicly condemned the classic Hindu text, the Manusmriti (Laws
    of Manu), for ideologically justifying caste discrimination and
    “untouchability”, and he ceremonially burned copies of the ancient text.
    On 25 December 1927, he led thousands of followers to burn copies of
    Manusmrti.[41][42] Thus annually 25 December is celebrated as Manusmriti
    Dahan Din (Manusmriti Burning Day) by Ambedkarites and Dalits.[43][44]

    In
    1930, Ambedkar launched Kalaram Temple movement after three months of
    preparation. About 15,000 volunteers assembled at Kalaram Temple
    satygraha making one of the greatest processions of Nashik. The
    procession was headed by a military band, a batch of scouts, women and
    men walked in discipline, order and determination to see the god for the
    first time. When they reached to gate, the gates were closed by Brahmin
    authorities.[45]

    Poona Pact
    M.R. Jayakar, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Ambedkar at Yerwada jail, in Poona, on 24 September 1932, the day the Poona Pact was signed
    In
    1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for
    “Depressed Classes” in the Communal Award. Gandhi fiercely opposed a
    separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared that such an
    arrangement would divide the Hindu community.[46][47][48] Gandhi
    protested by fasting while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of
    Poona. Following the fast, Congress politicians and activists such as
    Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo organised joint meetings with
    Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada.[49] On 25 September 1932, the
    agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between Ambedkar (on behalf of
    the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan Malaviya (on behalf
    of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for the
    depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general
    electorate. Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in
    the legislature, instead of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award
    earlier proposed by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The text
    uses the term “Depressed Classes” to denote Untouchables among Hindus
    who were later called Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under India
    Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution of 1950.[50][51] In the
    Poona Pact, a unified electorate was in principle formed, but primary
    and secondary elections allowed Untouchables in practice to choose their
    own candidates.[52]
    [2:30 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Political career
    Ambedkar
    with his family members at Rajgraha in February 1934. From left –
    Yashwant (son), Ambedkar, Ramabai (wife), Laxmibai (wife of his elder
    brother, Balaram), Mukund (nephew) and Ambedkar’s favourite dog, Tobby
    In
    1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College,
    Bombay, a position he held for two years. He also served as the chairman
    of Governing body of Ramjas College, University of Delhi, after the
    death of its Founder Shri Rai Kedarnath.[53] Settling in Bombay (today
    called Mumbai), Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a house, and
    stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books.[54] His wife
    Ramabai died after a long illness the same year. It had been her
    long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had
    refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new
    Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism’s Pandharpur which treated them
    as untouchables. At the Yeola Conversion Conference on 13 October in
    Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different
    religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.[54] He would
    repeat his message at many public meetings across India.

    In 1936,
    Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which contested the 1937
    Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly for the 13 reserved
    and 4 general seats, and secured 11 and 3 seats respectively.[55]

    Ambedkar
    published his book Annihilation of Caste on 15 May 1936.[56] It
    strongly criticised Hindu orthodox religious leaders and the caste
    system in general,[57] and included “a rebuke of Gandhi” on the
    subject.[58] Later, in a 1955 BBC interview, he accused Gandhi of
    writing in opposition of the caste system in English language papers
    while writing in support of it in Gujarati language papers.[59]

    Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee[60] and the Viceroy’s Executive Council as minister for labour.[60]

    After
    the Lahore resolution (1940) of the Muslim League demanding Pakistan,
    Ambedkar wrote a 400 page tract titled Thoughts on Pakistan, which
    analysed the concept of “Pakistan” in all its aspects. Ambedkar argued
    that the Hindus should concede Pakistan to the Muslims. He proposed that
    the provincial boundaries of Punjab and Bengal should be redrawn to
    separate the Muslim and non-Muslim majority parts. He thought the
    Muslims could have no objection to redrawing provincial boundaries. If
    they did, they did not quite “understand the nature of their own
    demand”. Scholar Venkat Dhulipala states that Thoughts on Pakistan
    “rocked Indian politics for a decade”. It determined the course of
    dialogue between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress,
    paving the way for the Partition of India.[61][62]

    In his work
    Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar tried to explain the formation of
    untouchables. He saw Shudras and Ati Shudras who form the lowest caste
    in the ritual hierarchy of the caste system, as separate from
    Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party
    into the Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in
    the 1946 elections for Constituent Assembly of India. Later he was
    elected into the constituent assembly of Bengal where Muslim League was
    in power.[63]

    Ambedkar contested in the Bombay North first Indian
    General Election of 1952, but lost to his former assistant and Congress
    Party candidate Narayan Kajrolkar. Ambedkar became a member of Rajya
    Sabha, probably an appointed member. He tried to enter Lok Sabha again
    in the by-election of 1954 from Bhandara, but he placed third (the
    Congress Party won). By the time of the second general election in 1957,
    Ambedkar had died.

    Ambedkar also criticised Islamic practice in
    South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned child
    marriage and the mistreatment of women in Muslim society.

    No
    words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and
    concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman.
    Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from
    slavery and caste. […] [While slavery existed], much of its support
    was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by
    the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained
    in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that
    lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone,
    caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.[64]

    Drafting India’s Constitution
    Ambedkar,
    chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the
    Indian Constitution to Rajendra Prasad on 25 November 1949.
    Upon
    India’s independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government
    invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first Law Minister, which he
    accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution
    Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India’s
    new Constitution.[65]

    Granville Austin described the Indian
    Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as ‘first and foremost a social
    document’. ‘The majority of India’s constitutional provisions are either
    directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt
    to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its
    achievement.’[66]

    The text prepared by Ambedkar provided
    constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil
    liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the
    abolition of untouchability, and the outlawing of all forms of
    discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights
    for women, and won the Assembly’s support for introducing a system of
    reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for
    members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Other Backward
    Class, a system akin to affirmative action.[67] India’s lawmakers hoped
    to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities
    for India’s depressed classes through these measures.[68] The
    Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent
    Assembly.[69]

    Opposition to Article 370
    Ambedkar opposed
    Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a special status
    to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and which was included against his
    wishes. Balraj Madhok reportedly said, Ambedkar had clearly told the
    Kashmiri leader, Sheikh Abdullah: “You wish India should protect your
    borders, she should build roads in your area, she should supply you food
    grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India. But Government of
    India should have only limited powers and Indian people should have no
    rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this proposal, would be a
    treacherous thing against the interests of India and I, as the Law
    Minister of India, will never do it.” Then Sk. Abdullah approached
    Nehru, who directed him to Gopal Swami Ayyangar, who in turn approached
    Sardar Patel, saying Nehru had promised Sk. Abdullah the special status.
    Patel got the Article passed while Nehru was on a foreign tour. On the
    day the article came up for discussion, Ambedkar did not reply to
    questions on it but did participate on other articles. All arguments
    were done by Krishna Swami Ayyangar.[70][71][72]

    Support to Uniform Civil Code
    I
    personally do not understand why religion should be given this vast,
    expansive jurisdiction, so as to cover the whole of life and to prevent
    the legislature from encroaching upon that field. After all, what are we
    having this liberty for? We are having this liberty in order to reform
    our social system, which is so full of inequities, discriminations and
    other things, which conflict with our fundamental rights.[73]
    During
    the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will
    to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil
    Code.[74][75] Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when
    parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to
    enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage.[76]
    Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house
    of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated in the Bombay (North
    Central) constituency by a little-known Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar, who
    polled 138,137 votes compared to Ambedkar’s 123,576.[77][78][79] He was
    appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March
    1952 and would remain as member till death.[80]
    [2:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Economic planning
    B.R. Ambedkar in 1950
    Ambedkar
    was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.[81] He
    argued that industrialisation and agricultural growth could enhance the
    Indian economy.[82] He stressed investment in agriculture as the primary
    industry of India. According to Sharad Pawar, Ambedkar’s vision helped
    the government to achieve its food security goal.[83] Ambedkar advocated
    national economic and social development, stressing education, public
    hygiene, community health, residential facilities as the basic
    amenities.[82] He calculated the loss of development caused by British
    rule.[84]

    Reserve Bank of India
    Ambedkar was trained as an
    economist, and was a professional economist until 1921, when he became a
    political leader. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:

    Administration and Finance of the East India Company
    The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
    The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution[85][86][87]
    The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), was based on the ideas that Ambedkar presented to the Hilton Young Commission.[85][87][88][89]

    Second marriage
    Ambedkar with wife Savita in 1948
    Ambedkar’s
    first wife Ramabai died in 1935 after a long illness. After completing
    the draft of India’s constitution in the late 1940s, he suffered from
    lack of sleep, had neuropathic pain in his legs, and was taking insulin
    and homoeopathic medicines. He went to Bombay for treatment, and there
    met Dr. Sharada Kabir, whom he married on 15 April 1948, at his home in
    New Delhi. Doctors recommended a companion who was a good cook and had
    medical knowledge to care for him.[90] She adopted the name Savita
    Ambedkar and cared for him the rest of his life.[2] Savita Ambedkar, who
    was called ‘Mai’ or ‘Maisaheb’, died on 29 May 2003, aged 93 at
    Mehrauli, New Delhi.[91]

    Conversion to Buddhism
    Ambedkar receiving the Five Precepts from Mahasthavir Chandramani on October 14, 1956
    Ambedkar
    considered converting to Sikhism, which encouraged opposition to
    oppression and so appealed to leaders of scheduled castes. But after
    meeting with Sikh leaders, he concluded that he might get “second-rate”
    Sikh status, as described by scholar Stephen P. Cohen.[92]

    Instead,
    he studied Buddhism all his life. Around 1950, he devoted his attention
    to Buddhism and travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) to attend a meeting
    of the World Fellowship of Buddhists.[93] While dedicating a new
    Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced he was writing a book on
    Buddhism, and that when it was finished, he would formally convert to
    Buddhism.[94] He twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend
    the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in
    Rangoon.[95] In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the
    Buddhist Society of India.[96] He completed his final work, The Buddha
    and His Dhamma, in 1956 which was published posthumously.[96]

    After
    meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,[97]
    Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his
    supporters in Nagpur on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and
    Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar
    completed his own conversion, along with his wife. He then proceeded to
    convert some 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.[98]
    He prescribed the 22 Vows for these converts, after the Three Jewels
    and Five Precepts.[99] He then travelled to Kathmandu, Nepal to attend
    the Fourth World Buddhist Conference.[95] His work on The Buddha or Karl
    Marx and “Revolution and counter-revolution in ancient India” remained
    incomplete.[100]

    Death
    Mahaparinirvana of B. R. Ambedkar
    Since
    1948, Ambedkar suffered from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to
    October in 1954 due to medication side-effects and poor eyesight.[94] He
    had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll
    on his health. His health worsened during 1955. Three days after
    completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, Ambedkar died
    in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi.

    A Buddhist
    cremation[101] was organised at Dadar Chowpatty beach on 7
    December,[102] attended by half a million grieving people.[103] A
    conversion program was organised on 16 December 1956,[104] so that
    cremation attendees were also converted to Buddhism at the same
    place.[104]

    Ambedkar was survived by his second wife, who died in
    2003,[105] and his son Yashwant Ambedkar (known as Bhaiyasaheb).[106]
    Ambedkar’s grandson, Prakash Ambedkar, is the chief-adviser of the
    Buddhist Society of India,[107] leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh[108]
    and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.[108]

    A
    number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among
    Ambedkar’s notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these
    were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an
    autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India’s
    Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.[94]

    A memorial for
    Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His
    birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti or
    Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian
    honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1990.[109]

    On the anniversary of his
    birth and death, and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din (14 October) at
    Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at
    his memorial in Mumbai.[110] Thousands of bookshops are set up, and
    books are sold. His message to his followers was “educate, organise,
    agitate”.[111]

    Legacy
    People paying tribute at the central statue of Ambedkar in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University in Aurangabad.
    Ambedkar’s
    legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern
    India.[112][113] In post-Independence India, his socio-political thought
    is respected across the political spectrum. His initiatives have
    influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India today
    looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action
    through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar
    led to his appointment as free India’s first law minister, and chairman
    of the committee for drafting the constitution. He passionately
    believed in individual freedom and criticised caste society. His
    accusations of Hinduism as being the foundation of the caste system made
    him controversial and unpopular among Hindus.[114] His conversion to
    Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy in India
    and abroad.[115]

    Ambedkar is also called Babasaheb, a Marathi
    phrase which roughly translates as “Father-Lord” (baba: father; and
    saheb: lord) because millions of Indians consider him a “great
    liberator”.[116]

    Many public institutions are named in his
    honour, and the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur,
    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Ambedkar
    University Delhi is also named in his honour. A large official portrait
    of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.

    The
    Maharashtra government has acquired a house in London where Ambedkar
    lived during his days as a student in the 1920s. The house is expected
    to be converted into a museum-cum-memorial to Ambedkar.[117]

    Ambedkar
    was voted “the Greatest Indian” in 2012 by a poll organised by History
    TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly 20 million votes were cast, making him the most
    popular Indian figure since the launch of the initiative.[118][119] Due
    to his role in economics, Narendra Jadhav, a notable Indian
    economist,[120] has said that Ambedkar was “the highest educated Indian
    economist of all times.”[121] Amartya Sen, said that Ambedkar is “father
    of my economics”, and “he was highly controversial figure in his home
    country, though it was not the reality. His contribution in the field of
    economics is marvelous and will be remembered forever.”[122][123] Osho,
    a spiritual teacher, remarked “I have seen people who are born in the
    lowest category of Hindu law, the sudras, the untouchables, so
    intelligent: when India became independent, the man who made the
    constitution of India, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a sudra. There was no
    equal to his intelligence as far as law is concerned – he was a
    world-famous authority.”[124] President Obama addressed the Indian
    parliament in 2010, and referred to Dalit leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as
    the great and revered Human Rights champion and main author of India’s
    constitution.[125]

    Ambedkar’s political philosophy has given rise
    to a large number of political parties, publications and workers’
    unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His
    promotion of Buddhism has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy
    among sections of population in India. Mass conversion ceremonies have
    been organised by human rights activists in modern times, emulating
    Ambedkar’s Nagpur ceremony of 1956.[126] Most Indian Buddhists specially
    Navayana followers regard him as a Bodhisattva, the Maitreya, although
    he never claimed it himself.[127][128][129] Outside India, during the
    late 1990s, some Hungarian Romani people drew parallels between their
    own situation and that of the downtrodden people in India. Inspired by
    Ambedkar, they started to convert to Buddhism.[130]
    [2:33 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: In popular culture
    Several
    movies, plays, and other works have been based on the life and thoughts
    of Ambedkar. Jabbar Patel directed the English-language film Dr.
    Babasaheb Ambedkar in 2000 with Mammootty in the lead role.[131] This
    biopic was sponsored by the National Film Development Corporation of
    India and the government’s Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
    The film was released after a long and controversial gestation.[132]
    David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and historical
    ethnographer, has established Arising Light – a series of films and
    events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the
    social conditions in India and the life of Ambedkar.[133] In
    Samvidhaan,[134] a TV mini-series on the making of the Constitution of
    India directed by Shyam Benegal, the pivotal role of B. R. Ambedkar was
    played by Sachin Khedekar. The play Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by
    Arvind Gaur and written by Rajesh Kumar, tracks the two prominent
    personalities of its title.[135]

    Bhimayana: Experiences of
    Untouchability is a graphic biography of Ambedkar created by
    Pardhan-Gond artists Durgabai Vyam and Subhash Vyam, and writers
    Srividya Natarajan and S. Anand. The book depicts the experiences of
    untouchability faced by Ambedkar from childhood to adulthood. CNN named
    it one of the top 5 political comic books.[136]

    The Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow is dedicated in his memory. The chaitya consists of monuments showing his biography.[137][138]

    Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow
    Google
    commemorated Ambedkar’s 124th birthday through a homepage doodle[139]
    on 14 April 2015.[140] The doodle was featured in India, Argentina,
    Chile, Ireland, Peru, Poland, Sweden and the United
    Kingdom.[141][142][143]

    Films
    Balak Ambedkar, a 1991 Kannada film directed by Basavaraj Kesthur.
    Bole India Jai Bhim, 2016 Marathi film directed by Subodh Nagdeve.
    Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (film), 2000 English film directed by Jabbar Patel.
    Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (film), a 2005 Kannada film directed by Sharan Kumar Kabbur.
    Yugpurush Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, 1993 Marathi film directed by Shashikant Nalavade.
    Bhim Garjana, a 1990 Marathi film directed by Vijay Pawar.
    Ramabai (film), a 2016 Kannada film directed by M. Ranganath.
    Ramabai Bhimrao Ambedkar (film), a 2011 Marathi film directed by Prakash Jadhav.
    A Journey of Samyak Buddha, a 2013 Hindi film based on Dr. Ambedkar’s book, The Buddha and His Dhamma and Navayana Buddhism.
    Works
    The
    Education Department, Government of Maharashtra (Mumbai) published the
    collection of Ambedkar’s writings and speeches in different
    volumes.[144]

    Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development and 11 Other Essays
    Ambedkar in the Bombay Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939
    Philosophy of Hinduism; India and the Pre-requisites of Communism; Revolution and Counter-revolution; Buddha or Karl Marx
    Riddles in Hinduism[145]
    Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability
    The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
    The Untouchables: Who Were They? And Why They Became Untouchables (New Delhi: Amrit Book Co, [1948])
    The Annihilation of Caste (1936)
    Pakistan or the Partition of India
    What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables; Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables
    Ambedkar as member of the Governor General’s Executive Council, 1942–46
    The Buddha and his Dhamma
    Unpublished Writings; Ancient Indian Commerce; Notes on laws; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc.
    Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India
    (2 parts) Dr. Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill
    Ambedkar as Free India’s First Law Minister and Member of Opposition in Indian Parliament (1947–1956)
    The Pali Grammar
    Ambedkar
    and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events
    starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order;
    Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious
    activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the
    chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches.
    (Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the
    chronological order.)
    Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
    Ambedkar’s Photo Album and Correspondence
    See also
    Ambedkarism
    Chaitya Bhoomi
    Dalit Buddhist movement
    Deekshabhoomi
    The Greatest Indian
    List of civil rights leaders
    Social reformers of India
    Statue of Equality
    List of things named after B. R. Ambedkar

    Read more: B. R. Ambedkar | Revolvy https://www.revolvy.com/page/B.-R.-Ambedkar#ixzz5O5uud7EK
    Follow us: @RevolvyEarth on Twitter | RevolvyEarth on Facebook


    https://www.laughteronlineuniversity.com/120-quotes-laughter-throughout-history/

    120 Inspirational Quotes About Laughter


    1. [Humanity] has unquestionably one really effective weapon—laughter.
      Power, money, persuasion, supplication, persecution—these can lift at a
      colossal humbug—push it a little—weaken it a little, century by century,
      but only laughter can blow it to rags and atoms at a blast. Against the
      assault of laughter nothing can stand. — Mark Twain
    2. A good laugh heals a lot of hurts. — Madeleine L’Engle
  • A good laugh is a mighty good thing, a rather too scarce a good thing. — Herman Melville

  • A good laugh is sunshine in the house. — William Thackeray
  • A smile is a curve that sets everything straight. — Phyllis Diller

  • A
    smile starts on the lips, a grin spreads to the eyes, a chuckle comes
    from the belly; but a good laugh bursts forth from the soul, overflows,
    and bubbles all around. — Carolyn Birmingham
  • A well-balanced person is one who finds both sides of an issue laughable. — Herbert Procknow
  • Against the assault of laughter, nothing can stand. — Mark Twain

  • Always laugh when you can. It is cheap medicine. — Lord Byron

  • Among those whom I like or admire, I can find no common denominator,
    but among those whom I love, I can: all of them make me laugh. — W. H.
    Auden

  • An optimist laughs to forget; a pessimist forgets to laugh. — Tom Nansbury
    1. And
      keep a sense of humor. It doesn’t mean you have to tell jokes. If you
      can’t think of anything else, when you’re my age, take off your clothes
      and walk in front of a mirror. I guarantee you’ll get a laugh. — Art
      Linkletter
    2. And we should consider every day lost on which we have not danced at
      least once. And we should call every truth false which was not
      accompanied by at least one laugh. — Friedrich Nietzsche
    3. As soap is to the body, so laughter is to the soul. — A Jewish Proverb
    4. As soon as you have made a thought, laugh at it. — Lao Tsu
    5. At the height of laughter, the universe is flung into a kaleidoscope of new possibilities. — Jean Houston
    6. Cancer is probably the unfunniest thing in the world, but I’m a
      comedian, and even cancer couldn’t stop me from seeing the humor in what
      I went through. — Gilda Radner
    7. Each of us has a spark of life inside us, and our highest endeavor
      ought to be to set off that spark in one another. — Kenny Ausubel
    8. Earth laughs in flowers. — Ralph Waldo Emerson
    9. Even the gods love jokes — Plato
    10. Everyone is so afraid of death, but the real Sufis just laugh:
      nothing tyrannizes their hearts. What strikes the oyster shell does not
      damage the pearl.” — Mevlana Rumi
    11. From there to here, from here to there, funny things are everywhere. — Dr. Seuss
    12. God has a smile on His face. — Psalm 42:5
    13. God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. — Voltaire
    14. Grim care, moroseness, and anxiety—all this rust of life ought to be
      scoured off by the oil of mirth. Mirth is God’s medicine. — Henry Ward
      Beecher








    1. He deserves Paradise who makes his companions laugh. — Koran
    2. He that is of a merry heart has a continual feast. — Proverbs 15:15
    3. He who binds to himself a joy Does the winged life destroy; But he
      who kisses the joy as it flies Lives in eternity’s sun rise. — William
      Blake
    4. He who laughs, lasts! — Mary Pettibone Poole
    5. Humor is a prelude to faith and laughter is the beginning of prayer. — Reinhold Niebuhr
    6. Humor is laughing at what you haven’t got when you ought to have it. — James Langston Hughes
    7. I commend mirth. — Ecclesiastes 8:15
    8. I have always felt that laughter in the face of reality is probably
      the finest sound there is and will last until the day when the game is
      called on account of darkness. In this world, a good time to laugh is
      any time you can. — Linda Ellerbee
    9. I have not seen anyone dying of laughter, but I know millions who are dying because they are not laughing. – Dr. Madan Kataria
    10. I never would have made it if I could not have laughed. It lifted me
      momentarily out of this horrible situation, just enough to make it
      livable. — Viktor Frankl
    11. I was irrevocably betrothed to laughter, the sound of which has
      always seemed to me to be the most civilized music in the world. — Peter
      Ustinov
    12. I will follow the upward road today; I will keep my face to the
      light. I will think high thoughts as I go my way; I will do what I know
      is right. I will look for the flowers by the side of the road; I will
      laugh and love and be strong. I will try to lighten another’s load this
      day as I fare along. — Mary S. Edgar
    13. If Laughter cannot solve your problems, it will definitely DISSOLVE
      your problems; so that you can think clearly what to do about them – Dr.
      Madan Kataria
    14. If you are happy and people around you are not happy, they will not
      allow you to stay happy. Therefore much of our happiness depends upon
      our ability to spread happiness around us. – Dr. Madan Kataria
    15. If you become silent after your laughter, one day you will hear God
      also laughing, you will hear the whole existence laughing — trees and
      stones and stars with you. — Osho
    16. If you don’t learn to laugh at trouble, you won’t have anything to laugh at when you’re old. — Edgar Watson Howe
    17. If you have no tragedy, you have no comedy. Crying and laughing are
      the same emotion. If you laugh too hard, you cry. And vice versa. — Sid
      Caesar
    18. If you wish to glimpse inside a human soul and get to know the man,
      don’t bother analyzing his ways of being silent, of talking, of weeping,
      or seeing how much he is moved by noble ideas; you’ll get better
      results if you just watch him laugh. If he laughs well, he’s a good
      man…All I claim to know is that laughter is the most reliable gauge of
      human nature. — Feodor Dostoyevsky
    19. If you would not be laughed at, be the first to laugh at yourself. — Benjamin Franklin
    20. It is bad to suppress laughter. It goes back down and spreads to your hips. — Fred Allen
    21. It’s one thing to say, ‘I don’t fear death’, but to laugh out loud
      somehow drives the idea home. It embodies our theology. —Rev. Laura
      Gentry
    22. Laugh at yourself first, before anyone else can. — Elsa Maxwell
    23. Laugh my friend, for laughter ignites a fire within the pit of your belly and awakens your being. —Stella & Blake
    24. Laughter connects you with people. It’s almost impossible to
      maintain any kind of distance or any sense of social hierarchy when
      you’re just howling with laughter. Laughter is a force for democracy. —
      John Cleese
    25. Laughter has no foreign accent. — Paul Lowney








    1. Laughter is a form of internal jogging. It moves your internal
      organs around. It enhances respiration. It is an igniter of great
      expectations.” — Norman Cousins
    2. Laughter is a sense of proportion and a power of seeing yourself from the outside. — Zero Mostel
    3. Laughter is God’s hand on the shoulder of a troubled world. — Bettenell Huntznicker
    4. Laughter is the corrective force which prevents us from becoming cranks. — Henri Bergson
    5. Laughter is the foundation of reconciliation. — St. Francis de Sales
    6. Laughter is the loaded latency given us by nature as part of our
      native equipment to break up the stalemates of our lives and urge us on
      to deeper and more complex forms of knowing. — Jean Houston
    7. Laughter is the shortest distance between two people. — Victor Borge
    8. Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face. — Victor Hugo
    9. Laughter lets me relax. It’s the equivalent of taking a deep breath,
      letting it out and saying, ‘This, too, will pass’. — Odette Pollar
    10. Laughter opens the lungs, and opening the lungs ventilates the spirit. — Unknown
    11. Laughter serves as a blocking agent. Like a bulletproof vest, it may
      help protect you against the ravages of negative emotions that can
      assault you in disease. — Norman Cousins
    12. Let us not use bombs and guns to overcome the world. Let us use love
      and compassion. Peace begins with a smile—smile five times a day at
      someone you don’t really want to smile at all—do it for peace. So let us
      radiate peace…and extinguish in the world and in the hearts of all men
      all hatred and love for power. — Mother Teresa
    13. Let your heart by merry. — Judges 19:6
    14. Life does not cease to be funny when people die any more than it ceases to be serious when people laugh. – George Bernard Shaw
    15. Life is a great big canvas; throw all the paint on it you can. — Danny Kaye
    16. Live with intention. Walk to the edge. Continue to learn. Play with
      abandon. Choose with no regret. Laugh! Do what you love. Love as if this
      is all there is. — Mary Anne Radmacher-Hershey
    17. Mirth is like a flash of lightning that breaks through a gloom of
      clouds and glitter for the moment. Cheerfulness keeps up daylight in the
      mind, filling it with steady and perpetual serenity. — Samuel Johnson
    18. Most people would rather be certain they’re miserable than risk being happy. — Robert Newton Anthony
    19. No matter what your heartache may be, laughing helps you forget it for a few seconds. — Red Skelton
    20. Of all days, the day on which one has not laughed is the one most surely wasted. — Sebastien Roch
    21. On average, an infant laughs nearly two hundred times a day; an
      adult, only twelve. Maybe they are laughing so much because they are
      looking at us. To be able to preserve joyousness of heart and yet to be
      concerned in thought: in this way we can determine good fortune and
      misfortune on earth, and bring to perfection everything on earth. — I
      Ching
    22. Perhaps I know best why it is man alone who laughs; he alone suffers
      so deeply that he had to invent laughter. — Frederick W. Nietzche
    23. Prepare for mirth, for mirth becomes a feast. — William Shakespeare
    24. Remember this: very little is needed to make a happy life. — Marcus Aurelius
    25. Smiles are the soul’s kisses. — Minna Thomas Antrim








    1. Spring unlocks the flowers to paint the laughing soil. — Reginald Heber
    2. The art of medicine consists of amusing the patient while nature cures the disease. — Voltaire
    3. The beauty of the world has two edges; one of laughter, one of anguish, cutting the heart asunder. — Virginia Woolf
    4. The best way to cheer yourself is to try to cheer someone else up. Mark Twain
    5. The comic and the tragic lie inseparably close, like light and shadow. — Socrates
    6. The deeper that sorrow carves into your being, the more joy you can contain. — Kahlil Gibran
    7. The greatest prayer you could ever pray is to laugh every day. — Ramtha
    8. The happiness and unhappiness of the rational, social animal depends
      not on what he feels but on what he does; just as his virtue and vice
      consist not in feeling but in doing. — Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
    9. The human race has one really effective weapon, and that is laughter. — Mark Twain
    10. The most wasted of all days is one without laughter. — E E Cummings
    11. The old man laughed loud and joyously, shook up the details of his
      anatomy from head to foot, and ended by saying that such a laugh was
      money in a man’s pocket, because it cut down the doctor’s bills like
      everything. — “Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain
    12. The person who can bring the spirit of laughter into a room is indeed blessed. — Bennett Cerf
    13. The person who has a sense of humor is not just more relaxed in the
      face of a potentially stressful situation, but is more flexible in his
      approach. — John Morreall
    14. The point is seeing that THIS — the immediate, everyday and present
      experience — is IT, the entire and ultimate point for the existence of a
      universe. I believe that if this state of consciousness could become
      more universal, the pretentious nonsense which passes for the serious
      business of the world would dissolve in laughter… — Alan Watts
    15. The size of a man’s understanding can be justly measured by his mirth. — Samuel Johnson
    16. The truth is, laughter always sounds more perfect than weeping.
      Laughter flows in a violent riff and is effortlessly melodic. Weeping is
      often fought, choked, half strangled, or surrendered to with
      humiliation. — Anne Rice, Taltos
    17. The wit makes fun of other persons; the satirist makes fun of the
      world; the humorist makes fun of himself, but in so doing, he identifies
      himself with people – that is, people everywhere, not for the purpose
      of taking them apart, but simply revealing their true nature. The
      wellspring of laughter is not happiness, but pain, stress, and
      suffering. — James Thurber
    18. The young man who has not wept is a savage, and the old man who will not laugh is a fool. — George Santayana
    19. Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy. — Anne Frank
    20. Those who do not know how to weep with their whole heart don’t know how to laugh either. — Golda Meir
    21. To truly laugh, you must be able to take your pain and play with it. — Charlie Chaplin
    22. Total absence of humor renders life impossible. — Colette
    23. Trouble knocked at the door, but, hearing laughter, hurried away. ― Benjamin Franklin
    24. True humor springs more from the heart than from the head; it is not contempt, its essence is love. — Thomas Carlyle
    25. Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things
      you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines.
      Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails.
      Explore. Dream. Discover. — Mark Twain
    26. We are all here for a spell. Get all the good laughs you can. — Will Rogers








    1. We cannot really love anybody with whom we never laugh. — Agnes Repplier
    2. We don’t laugh because we’re happy, we are happy because we laugh. — William James
    3. We look before and after, and pine for what is not; our sincerest
      laughter with some pain is fraught; our sweetest songs are those that
      tell of saddest thought. — Percy Shelley
    4. We women take love too seriously. Men wish to be loved with
      laughter, not with sighing. So laugh, sweetheart, laugh, or soon you may
      be weeping. — Minna Thomas Antrim
    5. What is funny about us is precisely that we take ourselves too seriously. — Reinhold Neibuhr
    6. When humor goes, there goes civilization. — Erma Bombeck
    7. When the first baby laughed for the first time, the laugh broke into
      a thousand pieces and they all went skipping about, and that was the
      beginning of fairies. And now when every new baby is born its first
      laugh becomes a fairy. So there ought to be one fairy for every boy or
      girl. — Sir James Matthew Barrie
    8. When we can begin to take our failures non-seriously, it means we
      are ceasing to be afraid of them. It is of immense importance to learn
      to laugh at ourselves. — Katherine Mansfield
    9. When you do laugh, open your mouth wide enough for the noise to get
      out without squealing, throw your head back as though you were going to
      be shaved, hold on to your false hair with both hands and then laugh
      till your soul gets thoroughly rested. — Josh Billings
    10. When you laugh, aside from the endorphin rush, there’s also a
      spiritual opening. You’re not so tight inside yourself. That opening
      I’ve found to be a real gift, in people being able to absorb
      spirituality. —Rabbi Sydney Mintz
    11. When you laugh, you get a glimpse of God. — Merrily Belgum
    12. When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky. — Buddha
    13. Wit is the key, I think, to anybody’s heart, because who doesn’t like to laugh? — Julia Roberts
    14. With mirth and laughter let old wrinkles come. — William Shakespeare
    15. With the fearful strain that is on me night and day, if I did not laugh I should die. — Abraham Lincoln
    16. Wrinkles should merely indicate where the smiles have been. — Mark Twain
    17. You don’t stop laughing because you grow old. You grow old because you stop laughing. — Michael Pritchard
    18. You grow up the day you have your first real laugh — at yourself. — Ethel Barrymore
    19. Your body cannot heal without play. Your mind cannot heal without
      laughter. Your soul cannot heal without joy. — Catherine Rippenger
      Fenwick
    20. Your joy is your sorrow unmasked. And the self-same well from which
      your laughter rises was oftentimes filled with your tears. — Kahlil
      Gibran


    1000s More Laughter Quotes



    comments (0)
    08/12/18
    2712 Mon 13 Aug 2018 LESSON (53) Mon 13 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions Why do the many world religions offer such different pictures of the meaning of life?
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 10:29 pm
    2712 Mon 13 Aug 2018 LESSON (53) Mon 13 Aug 2007  

    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    In Wisdom From
    World Religions

    Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

    Helps you enrich your life with the
    religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

    Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions

    Why do the many world religions offer such different pictures of the meaning of life?




    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

    This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:

    • What clues do science and the world’s religions give about the meaning and purpose of life?



    • Is science the ultimate guide to the deepest truth of life?


    • Why do the many world religions offer such different pictures of the meaning of life?

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    Published on Feb 28, 2012
    Nicholas James Vujicic, is an Australian preacher and motivational
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    Nicholas
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    Mr Bean goes to church. Unfortunately he doesn’t know the words to the
    hymns, sneezes loudly and falls asleep out of boredom, much to the
    annoyance of Mr. Sprout (Richard Briers) who is sitting next to him.
    From the first ever Mr Bean programme.

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    Published on Aug 25, 2009


    Mr
    Bean goes to church. Unfortunately he doesn’t know the words to the
    hymns, sneezes loudly and falls asleep out of boredom, much to the
    annoyance of Mr. Sprout (Richard Briers) who is sitting next to him.
    From the first ever Mr Bean programme.

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    • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?


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    Sign up by August 12 to begin this spiritual journey.




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    would like to welcome you to “Wisdom from World Religions: A Free
    Online Course.” You are registered for the session running from 
    August 13, 2018 through September 21, 2018. The course begins on Monday, August 13, 2018. To account for time differences in our global course, the learning elements (LEs) will generally become available at 5 PM EDT or UTC-5 on the day before the date given in the syllabus.

    Here are some suggested actions that you can take on August 13, 2018 to get started in the course:

    1. Go to the Getting Started section of Week 1 under My Courses on the Wisdom from World Religions website (https://wisdomfromworldreligions.com).
    2. Open The First Things To Do In This Course to take your initial steps.
    3. Watch the orientation video.
    4. Access the syllabus or keep it somewhere convenient.
    5. Familiarize yourself with the plan of daily activities in Daily Course Activities.
    6. Take
      the pretest, which will measure your general knowledge of the world’s
      religions. Don’t worry about the grade—60% is passing for this and all
      tests in this course, and everyone who completes it will be able to go
      on to take the rest of the course, regardless of grade.
    7. Go
      to your preferred Discussion Group (Seeker, Proficient, or Adept) under
      Community, read the short description of each of the three groups, and
      choose your preferred group (you can change groups at any time as you
      like!):
    8. Post
      your first message in which you introduce yourself and let us know your
      name and country of residence, the reason you’re taking the course, and
      what you hope to get from the course. 
    9.  Please
      read the Troubleshooting and FAQs section directly above the Getting
      Started section in Week 1 for help on some of the common issues that can
      occur at the beginning of the course.

    Cordially,

    Professor Kenneth Rose and the Wisdom from World Religions Team

    Thank you Professor Kenneth Rose and the Wisdom from World Religions Team
    Awaiting for :
    1. Open The First Things To Do In This Course to take your initial steps.
    2. Watch the orientation video.
    3. Access the syllabus or keep it somewhere convenient.
    4. Familiarize yourself with the plan of daily activities in Daily Course Activities.
    5. Take
      the pretest, which will measure your general knowledge of the world’s
      religions. Don’t worry about the grade—60% is passing for this and all
      tests in this course, and everyone who completes it will be able to go
      on to take the rest of the course, regardless of grade.
    6. Go
      to your preferred Discussion Group (Seeker, Proficient, or Adept) under
      Community, read the short description of each of the three groups, and
      choose your preferred group (you can change groups at any time as you
      like!):
    7. Post
      your first message in which you introduce yourself and let us know your
      name and country of residence, the reason you’re taking the course, and
      what you hope to get from the course. 
    8.  Please
      read the Troubleshooting and FAQs section directly above the Getting
      Started section in Week 1 for help on some of the common issues that can
      occur at the beginning of the course.

    With Kind Regard

    Yours Faithfully

    Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan

    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


    comments (0)
    08/11/18
    2711 Sun 12 Aug 2018 LESSON (52) Sun 12 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. WHAT YOU’LL LEARN This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions: • What clues do science and the world’s religions give about the meaning and purpose of life? • Is science the ultimate guide to the deepest truth of life?
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 9:31 pm
    2711 Sun 12 Aug 2018 LESSON (52) Sun 12 Aug 2007  

    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    In Wisdom From
    World Religions

    Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

    Helps you enrich your life with the
    religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.


    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

    This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:

    • What clues do science and the world’s religions give about the meaning and purpose of life?


    • Is science the ultimate guide to the deepest truth of life?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZh1MrDHLoY

    Mayim Bialik

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZh1MrDHLoY
    Science and Religion || Mayim Bialik
    Mayim Bialik
    Published on Jun 23, 2016
    It’s time for my next vlog! Last time we talked about cats; this time
    I’m discussing how I can be both a scientist and a person who
    participates in a religious life, and how both make me who I am. I also
    discuss what God is and what God isn’t in a way that makes for a deeper
    love of the scientific world. Sounds impossible? It’s not! Check it out!

    You may know me as Amy Farrah Fowler from The Big Bang Theory, or from
    Blossom, but hopefully, these videos allow you to get to know me better
    as Mayim, too! Subscribe to my channel for video updates. I upload new
    videos every Thursday!

    What next? https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list

    Find Mayim Bialik:
    https://www.facebook.com/MissMayim/
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    https://www.instagram.com/MissMayim/

    Grok Nation
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    https://www.instagram.com/groknation

    About Mayim Bialik:
    You ​might know me as Amy Farrah Fowler from The Big Bang Theory or
    from Blossom​ but there are so many other parts of me that you might not
    be aware of​!​​ I’m trained ​as a​ neuroscientist, ​I’m ​a passionate
    activist, an observant Jew, a​ perfectly imperfect​ mother, and ​I’m a
    complicated human being​ like many of you​. This is the place where I
    wear ​all of those hats - and none of them have a flower on them! ;)

    Category
    People & Blogs


    youtube.com
    It’s
    time for my next vlog! Last time we talked about cats; this time I’m
    discussing how I can be both a scientist and a person who participates
    in a religio…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tbsnyx14cac
    The Science of Religion | UBCx on edX | Course About ActionCut Videos

    37
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    edX
    Published on Jun 8, 2016
    What is religion? Are we wired to believe? Does science have the
    answers? Join us on a journey to the origins of religion and
    spirituality.

    Take this course free on edX: https://www.edx.org/course/science-re

    ABOUT THIS COURSE
    Drawing on new scientific advances, this religion course examines
    foundational questions about the nature of religious belief and
    practice.

    The course is based on the idea that religion is a
    naturalistic phenomenon — meaning it can be studied and better
    understood using the tools of science. Religious belief and practice
    emerge naturally from the structure of human psychology, and have an
    important impact on the structure of societies, the way groups relate to
    each other, and the ability of human beings to cooperate effectively.

    Topics to be covered will include traditional and contemporary theories
    of religion, with a special emphasis on cultural evolutionary models.

    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN
    - Evolutionary and cognitive scientific approaches to the study of religion
    - The origins of religion, and its role in human life
    - How religion relates to morality, spirituality and atheism
    - The role of religion in current events and conflict hotspots around the world
    - The role religion may have played in the origin of civilization
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    What is religion? Are we wired to believe? Does science have the answers? Join us on a journey to the origins…

    https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCP5tjEmvPItGyLhmjdwP7Ww
    RealLifeLore
    Published on Mar 3, 2017
    A lot of things happen on Earth, but there are still some things that
    just don’t ever happen here. But, that doesn’t mean that what’s
    impossible here is impossible everywhere else in the universe. Whether
    it’s clouds that rain rocks or glass, wind that’s 29 times faster than
    sound, having 2 shadows or even being able to fly in some places, this
    is a collection of some of the most ridiculous places that we know of so far in our strange universe.

    This video was done in a collaboration with Second Thought, and you can check out his video here!

    If you’re curious about flying on Titan and the research into that,
    I’ve attached a paper written by the Department of Physics and Astronomy
    at the University of Leicester dated October 22nd 2013 which goes into a
    lot more detail than I could afford. Here it is; https://physics.le.ac.uk/journals/ind

    Please Subscribe: http://bit.ly/2dB7VTO

    Music is by Brandon Maahs. Check out his website and music by clicking this link: http://www.brandonmaahs.com/audio-reel

    Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RealLifeLore/
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    Subreddit is moderated by Oliver Bourdouxhe

    Special thanks to Patrons: Joshua Tavares, Wesley Jackson and Matthew Mikulka.

    Videos explaining things. Mostly over topics like history, geography, economics and science.

    We believe that the world is a wonderfully fascinating place, and you
    can find wonder anywhere you look. That is what our videos attempt to
    convey.

    Currently, we try our best to release one video every week. Bear with us :)

    Business Email: thereallifelore@gmail.com
    Caption author (Romanian)
    1233
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    BlueGiraffeSpeaks
    Category
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    youtube.com
    Answers to questions that you’ve never asked. Mostly over topics like…

    http://www.johnworldpeace.com/tnhanh4.html

    The WorldPeace Peace Page
    Home About John WorldPeace Contact Us Site Map Blog Email
    WorldPeace Web Design Peaceunite Us (Peace org Index) John WorldPeace Galleries

    A Response to:

    “Living Buddha, Living Christ”
    by Thich Nhat Hanh

    Copyright 1999-2002 by John WorldPeace

    All  rights reserved


    CHAPTER FOUR:  LIVING BUDDHA, LIVING CHRIST

    A. His life is His Teaching 100800

    There is a science called Buddhology, the study of the life of the Buddha.
     As a historical person, the Buddha was born in Kapilavastu, near the
    border between India and Nepal, got married, had on child, left home, practiced
    many kinds of meditation, became enlightened, and shared the teaching until
    he died at the age of eighty.  But there is also the Buddha within ourselves
    who transcends space and time.  This is the living Buddha, the Buddha
    of the ultimate reality, the one who transcends all ideas and notions and
    is available to us at any time.  The living Buddha was not born at
    Kapilavastu, nor did he pass away at Kushinagar.

    Christology is the study of the life of Christ.  When speaking about
    Christ, we also have to know whether we mean the historical Jesus or the
    living Jesus.  The historical Jesus was born in Bethlehem, the son of
    a carpenter, traveled far form his homeland, became a teacher, and was crucified
    at the age of thirty-three.  The living Jesus is the Son of God who
    was resurrected and who continues to live.  In Christianity, you have
    to believe in the resurrection or you are not considered a Christian.  I
    am afraid this criterion may discourage some people from looking into the
    life of Jesus.  This is a pity, because we can appreciate Jesus Christ
    as both a historical door and an ultimate door.

    The fact that Christians believe that Jesus was the only son of God, and
    was in fact God as part of the Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit is
    what makes Christianity exclusive to all the other religions and prevents
    any acknowledgment that the other major religions of the world have any validity.
     

    Christians only comprise one sixth of the world population and yet they
    believe that they have the only path to salvation.  Christians on every
    level listen to what others have to say about their religion but never really
    listen because they believe they have the only true son of God.

    This elitist viewpoint has been the cause of Christian genocide throughout
    the world.  When Christianity came into contact with the indigenous
    people of America they had no reservations about destroying their civilizations
    and their religions because all religions other than Christianity were pagan.
     In fact, Christians believed it was their God given mandate to convert
    or kill off all other religious ideas on the planet.

    For the Christian bureaucracy to acknowledge the validity of any other
    religion would have the effect of destroying Christianity.  Without
    the literal Son of God, Christianity is just another religion among many.

    When we look into and touch deeply the life and teaching of Jesus, we can
    penetrate the reality of God.  Love, understanding, courage and acceptance
    are expressions of the life of Jesus.

    Well this is what is talked about in Christianity but Love means love
    other Christians, understanding means understanding God through Christianity,
    and acceptance, true acceptance means the acceptance of other Christians.
     

    Jesus was somewhat of an elitist himself because he uttered such words
    as “Do not give dogs what is holy’, and “Do not cast your pearls before swine.”
     These are not loving, understanding or accepting statements.  They
    are statements that reflect an elitist attitude such that if you are not
    with us, you are against us.  And it is my belief that these statements
    have been carried forward in the Christian doctrine and dogma which is not
    only not understanding, but unsympathetic and outwardly combative toward
    non-Christians.

    It has always been interesting to me that one of the great Christian hymns
    is “Onward Christian Soldiers, marching as to war.”  And so it has been.
     Christianity marching on other cultures and religions as if going to
    war.

    And this attitude has not changed even today as evidenced by the Pope
    of the Catholic Church’s comments a few years ago that disparaged the Buddhist
    religion.  Christians talk about love, understanding, forgiveness and
    acceptance but if you look carefully you will find that these terms are really
    restricted to other Christians and not to all the world.

    God made himself known to us through Jesus Christ.  

    As he also made himself known through the Buddha, Mohammed, Baha’U'llah,
    Bodhidarma, Krishna, Joseph Smith and Moses.  And in truth, as he makes
    himself known through every man woman and child.

    With the Holy Spirit and the Kingdom of God within him, Jesus touched the
    people of his time.  He talked with prostitutes and  tax collectors,
    and had the courage to do whatever was needed to heal his society.

    Today Christians talk to sinners in order to bring them to Jesus.
     Christians believe that all human beings need to be saved and only
    by embracing Jesus as the literal Son of God and the savior of the world
    can one go to heaven after death.  Christians are not accepting of sinners.
     They see them as people to be saved.  And when it is determined
    that a person cannot be saved then the Christians move on to the next potential
    convert.

    Jesus was not really trying to heal Jewish society but was trying to attack
    the Jewish religious bureaucracy for its hypocrisy.  And this is what
    got him killed.  The Buddha did the same thing as he rejected the Hindu
    bureaucracy and its hypocrisy.  It was not a matter of healing society
    but was a matter of awakening people to their own inner spirituality which
    was being manipulated by the religious bureaucracy.

    As the child of Mary and Joseph, Jesus is the Son of Woman and Man.

    With all due respect, Brother Hanh, Joseph was Jesus’s father in name
    only.  One of the foundations of Christianity is that Jesus was the
    literal Son of God and the virgin Mary. Mary was a virgin when she became
    pregnant with Jesus.  This is again why Christians give only polite
    lip service to other religions.  Christians belief that Jesus is the
    only literal Son of God.  No other religion can make that claim and
    so all other religions are inferior to Christianity; so believe
    Christians. 

    As someone animated by the energy of the Holy Spirit, he is the Son of God.

    No, Brother Hanh, Christians will tell you that he was the literal Son
    of God.  We are all animated by the Holy Spirit if you believe that
    we are all children of God.  But according to Christians there has only
    been one literal Son of God and that was Jesus.

    The fact that Jesus is both the Son of Man and the Son of God is not difficult
    for Buddhist to accept.

    Brother Hanh, I submit that it is impossible for any Buddhist to accept
    that Jesus was the literal Son of God.  If a Buddhist were to accept
    this, that Buddhist would surely renounce Buddhism and embrace
    Christianity.

    We can see the nature of nonduality in God the Son and God the Father, because
    without God the Father within him, the Son could never be.

    Brother Hanh, my truth is that we are all sons and daughters of God as
    was Jesus.  But from a scientific biological perspective in this earthly
    reality, Christians belief that the biological father of Jesus was the literal
    anthropomorphic one God himself.  Son of God is not a metaphor for
    Christians but a literal fact.

    But in Christianity, Jesus is usually seen as the only Son of God.

    Jesus is not usually seen as the only Son of God but always seen as the
    literal Son of God and if you do not believe this, then you cannot be a
    Christian.

    I notice Brother Hanh that you skip over this very controversial issue.
     You skip over the one obstacle that forever prevents any true common
    ground of understanding between Christians and Buddhists or any other religion.
     Brother Hanh, your refuse to openly state that Buddhist would never
    embrace Jesus as the literal biological Son of God.

    I think it is important to look deeply into every act and every teaching
    of Jesus during his lifetime, and to use this as a model for our own practice.

    Well again Brother Hanh, I do not think you want to make this kind of
    statement.  You see Jesus when he came to the Temple in Jerusalem became
    highly upset at the commerce going on within the Temple.  He became
    so upset that the made a whip and began to turn over tables and whip the
    vendors.  I do not think that you advocate such extreme behavior.

    Further you can see here the precedent that Jesus set for later Christians
    to deal accordingly with non-Christians and their pagan religions. 

    And you can also see why the Jewish bureaucracy was instrumental in having
    Jesus crucified.  Jesus was bad for business and if left unchecked would
    have overturned the entire Jewish religious establishment.  The way
    of this world is the way of materialism and money.  And when spiritual
    philosophy interferes with making money then it is the spiritually that must
    be subordinated.  This is the reality that you sir do not understand
    in your position as a monk.

    I truly respect you Brother Hanh, but you are attempting to write about
    Christianity which you do not fully understand and you do not bring to your
    discussion a personal knowledge of how the vast majority of human beings
    make a living in the world.

    This is why I feel that I must continue to practice law.  If I can
    maintain my spirituality while working in the most combative profession on
    the planet, then I can be an example to others.  They cannot discount
    what I have to say because I do live in the real world, in their world.
     

    Jesus lived exactly as he taught, so studying the life of Jesus is crucial
    to understanding his teaching.

    No Brother Hanh, Jesus did not live exactly as he taught.  His admonition
    to turn the other cheek did not apply to his actions in the Temple.  There
    are many such examples in the gospels of the New Testament in the Christian
    Bible.

    For more examples go to The Saying of Jesus

    For me, the life of Jesus is His most important teaching, more important
    that even faith in the resurrection or faith in eternity.

    Well now Brother Hanh, I see how you diplomatically get around the issues
    of Jesus as the literal Son of God, born of the virgin Mary and dying for
    the sins of man, and rising from the dead; in essence the guts of
    Christianity.

    You sir, avoid this subject and look at Jesus outside this role of the
    true Son of God.  You avoid saying that you do not believe in Jesus
    as the savior of the world.  And I expect that you will now in the rest
    of your book compare Jesus to Buddha without referring to the guts of the
    Christian doctrine and dogma.  I commend you the effort.

    But in the end, when your book is finished, the question will still be
    asked by your Christian audience, “Do you believe in Jesus as the literal
    Son of God who died for your sins?”  If you answer yes, then you are
    a Christian and must remove your Buddhist robes.  If you answer no,
    you will be thanked for your interesting lecture.

    B. Mindfulness is the Buddha

    The Buddha was a human being who was awakened and, thereby, no longer bound
    by the many afflictions of life.  But when some Buddhists say that they
    believe in the Buddha, they are expressing their faith in the wonderful,
    universal Buddhas, not in the teaching or the life of the historical
    Buddha.  They believe in the Buddha’s magnificence and feel that is
    enough.  But the examples of the actual lives of the Buddha and of Jesus
    are most important, because as human beings, they lived in ways that we can
    live, too.

    When we read, “The heavens opened and the Holy Spirit
    descended upon Him like a dove,” we can see that Jesus Christ was already
    enlightened.  He was in touch with the reality of life, the source of
    mindfulness, wisdom, and understanding within Him, and this made Him different
    from other human beings.  When He was born into a carpenter’s family, He
    was the Son of Man.  When He opened His heart, the door of Heaven was
    opened to Him.  The Holy Spirit descended on Him like a dove, and He was
    manifested as the Son of God — very holy, very deep, and very great.  But
    the Holy Spirit is not just for Jesus alone; it is for all of us.  From a
    Buddhist perspective, who is not the son or daughter of God?  Sitting
    beneath the Bodhi tree, many wonderful, holy seeds within the Buddha blossomed
    forth.  He was human, but, at the same time, he became an expression of the
    highest spirit of humanity.  When we are in touch with the highest
    spirit in ourselves, we too are a Buddha, filled with the Holy Spirit, and we
    become very tolerant, very open, very deep, and very understanding
    .

    C. 
    More Doors For Future Generations

    Matthew described the Kingdom of God
    as being like a tiny mustard seed.  It means that the seed of the Kingdom
    of God is within us.  If we know how to plant that seed in the moist soil
    of our daily lives, it will grow and become a large bush on which many birds can
    take refuge.  We do not have to die to arrive at the gates of Heaven. 
    In fact, we have to be truly alive.  The practice is to touch life deeply
    so that the Kingdom of God becomes a reality.  This is not a matter of
    devotion.  It is a matter of practice.  The Kingdom of God is
    available here and now.  Many passages in the Gospels support this
    view.  We read in The Lord’s Prayer that we do not go to the Kingdom
    of God, but the Kingdom of God comes to us: “Thy Kingdom come…”
    Jesus said, “I am the door.”  He describes Himself as the door of
    salvation and everlasting life, the door to the Kingdom of God.  Because
    God the Son is made of the energy of the Holy Spirit, He is the door for us to
    enter the Kingdom of God.

    The Buddha is also described as a door, a teacher
    who shows us the way in this life.  In Buddhism such a special door is
    deeply appreciated because that door allows us to enter the realm of
    mindfulness, loving-kindness, peace, and joy.  But it is said that there
    are 84,000 Dharma doors, doors of teaching.  If you are lucky enough
    to find a door, it would not be very Buddhist to say that yours is the only
    door.  In fact, we have to open even more doors for future
    generations.  We should not be afraid of more Dharma doors — if anything,
    we should be afraid that no more will be opened.  It would be a pity for
    our children and their children if we were satisfied with only the 84,000 doors
    already available.  Each of us, by our practice and our loving-kindness, is
    capable of opening new Dharma doors.  Society is changing, people are
    changing, economic and political conditions are not the same as they were in the
    time of the Buddha or Jesus.  The Buddha relies on us for the Dharma to
    continue to develop as a living organism — not a stale Dharma, but a real Dharmakaya,
    a real “body of teaching.” 

    D.  The
    Mother of All Buddhas

    The Buddha said that his Dharma body is more
    important than his physical body.  He meant that we have to practice the
    Dharma in order to make nirvana available here and now.  The living Dharma
    is not a library of scriptures or tapes of inspiring lectures.  The living
    Dharma is mindfulness, manifested in the Buddha’s daily life and in your daily
    life, also.  When I see you walking mindfully, I touch the peace, joy, and
    deep presence of your brothers and sisters, I recognize that living Dharma in
    you.  If you are mindful, the Dharmakaya is easy to touch.

    The Buddha
    described the seed of the mindfulness that is in each of us as the “womb of
    the Buddha” (tathagatagarbha).  We are all mothers of the
    Buddha because we are all pregnant with the potential for awakening.  If we
    know how to take care of our baby Buddha by practicing mindfulness in our daily
    lives, one day the Enlightened One will reveal himself or herself to us. 
    Buddhists regard the Buddha as a teacher and a brother, not as a god.  We
    are all Dharma brothers and sisters of the Buddha.  We also say that Prajñaparamita
    (Perfection of Wisdom) is the mother of all Buddhas.  Historically, in
    Protestantism, the feminine side of God has been minimized and God the Father
    has been emphasized, but in Catholicism, there is a great deal of devotion to
    Mary, the Mother of God.  In fact, “father” and
    “mother” are two aspects of the same reality.  Father is more
    expressive of the side of wisdom or understanding, and mother the side of love
    or compassion.  In Buddhism, understanding (prajña) is essential to
    love (maitri).  Without understanding there cannot be true love, and
    without love there cannot be true understanding.

    E. 
    The Daughter of God

    The Buddha is said to have ten names, each
    describing an auspicious quality.  The first, Tathagata, means
    “he who has come to us through the right path,” “he who comes
    from the wonderful reality of life and will go back to that wonderful
    reality,” and “he who has arrived from suchness, remains in suchness
    and will return to suchness.”  “Suchness” is a Buddhist term
    pointing to the true nature of things, or ultimate reality.  It is the
    substance or ground of being, just as water is the substance of waves. 
    Like the Buddha, we too have come from suchness, remain in suchness, and will
    return to suchness.  We have come from nowhere and have nowhere to go.

    One
    Buddhist sutra tells us that when conditions are sufficient, we see forms, and
    when conditions are not sufficient, we don’t.  When all conditions are
    present, phenomena can be perceived by us, and so they are revealed to us as
    existing.  But when one of these conditions is lacking, we cannot perceive
    the same phenomena, so they are not revealed to us, and we say they do not
    exist.  But that is not true.  In April, for example, we cannot see
    sunflowers around Plum Village, our community in southwestern France, so you
    might say the sunflowers do not exist.  But the local farmers have already
    planted thousands of seeds, and when they look at the bare hills, they see
    sunflowers already.  The sunflowers are there.  They lack only
    the conditions of sun, heat, rain, and July.  Just because you cannot see
    them does not mean that they do not exist.  In the same way we say that the
    Tathagatha does not come from anywhere and will not go anywhere.  He comes
    from ultimate reality and will go back to ultimate reality, unbound by space and
    time.  If you walk past the fields near Plum Village in April and ask them
    to reveal to you the ultimate dimension of reality, the Kingdom of God, the
    fields will suddenly be covered with beautiful, golden sunflowers.  When
    St. Francis looked deeply at an almond tree in winter and asked it to speak to
    him about God, the tree was instantly covered with blossoms.

    The second name
    of the Buddha is Arhat, “one who is worthy of our respect an
    support.”  The third is Samyaksambuddha, “one who is
    perfectly enlightened.”  The fourth is Vidyacaranasampana,
    “one who is endowed with insight and conduct.”  The fifth is Sugata,
    “one who has gone happily along the path.”  The sixth is Lokavidu,
    “one who knows the world well.”  The seventh is Anuttarapurusadamyasarathi,
    “the unsurpassed leader of those to be trained and taught.”  The
    eighth is Satadevamanusyanam, “teacher of gods and
    humans.”  The ninth is Buddha, “enlightened
    one.”  The tenth is Bhagavat, “blessed one.” Every
    time we take refuge in the Buddha, we take refuge in the one who has these ten
    attributes, which are at the core of human nature.  Siddhartha is not the
    only Buddha.  All beings in the animal, plant, and mineral worlds are
    potential Buddhas.  We all contain these ten qualities of a Buddha in the
    core of our being.  If we can realize these qualities in ourselves, we will
    be respected and honored by all people.

    I see the rite of Baptism as a way of
    recognizing that every human being, when opened to the Holy Spirit, is capable
    of manifesting these qualities, which are also the qualities of being a son or
    daughter of God.  We do not speak about Original Sin in Buddhism, but we do
    talk about negative seeds that exist in every person — seeds of hatred, anger,
    ignorance, intolerance, and so on — and we say that thee seeds can be
    transformed when we touch the qualities of a Buddha, which are also seeds within
    us.  Original sin can be transformed when one is in touch with the Holy
    Spirit.  Jesus is the Son of God and the Son of Man.  We are all, at
    the same time, the sons and daughters of God and the children of our
    parents.  This means we are of the same reality of Jesus.  This may
    sound heretical to many Christians, but I believe that theologians who say we
    are not have to reconsider this.  Jesus is not only our Lord, but He is
    also our Father, our Teacher, our Brother, and our Self.  The only place we
    can touch Jesus and the Kingdom of God is within us.

    F. 
    We Continue to be Born

    When we celebrate Christmas or the birth of the
    Buddha, we celebrate the coming into the world of a very special child. 
    The births of Jesus and the Buddha were pivotal events in human history.  A
    few days after the Buddha was born, many people in his country of Kapilavastu
    came to pay their respects, including an old sage named Asita.  After
    contemplating the baby Buddha’s father, was alarmed.  “Holy man, why
    are you crying?  Will some misfortune overtake my child?”  The
    holy many replied, “No, your majesty.  The birth of Prince Siddhartha
    is a wondrous event.  Your child will become an important world
    teacher.  But I am too old and I will not be there.  That is the only
    reason I am crying.”

    A similar story appears in the Bible.  Eight
    days after His birth, the baby Jesus was brought to the temple for
    circumcision.  When a man named Simeon looked at Him, he was able to see
    that Jesus would bring about a profound change in the life of humankind:
    “When the time came for the purification according to the law of Moses,
    they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord … and they offered
    a sacrifice according to what is stated in the law of the Lord, a pair of turtle
    doves, or two young pigeons.  Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name
    was Simeon.  This man was righteous and devout, looking forward to the
    consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit rested on him.  It had been
    revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had
    seen the Lord’s Messiah.  Guided by the spirit, Simeon came into the temple
    and when the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what was customary
    under the law, Simeon took him in his arms and praised God, saying, ‘Master, now
    you are dismissing your servant in peace according to your word, for my eyes
    have seen your salvation which you have prepared in the presence of all peoples,
    a light for revelation to the gentiles and for glory to your people,
    Israel.’  And the child’s father and mother were amazed at what was being
    said about him.”

    Whenever I read the stories of Asita and Simeon, I have
    the wish that every one of us could have been visited by a sage when we were
    born.  The birth of every child is important, not less than the birth of a
    Buddha.  We, too, are a Buddha, a Buddha-to-be, and we continue to be born
    every minute.  We, too, are sons are daughters of God and the children of
    our parents.  We have to take special care of each birth.

    G. 
    Touching our Ancestors

    I am not sure if I am myself or if I am my
    brother.  Before I came into the world, another boy tried to come before
    me, but my mother miscarried him.  If he had continued to live, I would
    have another brother.  Or perhaps I would have been my brother.  Many
    times as a child, I pondered this.

    Expecting parents have to be very careful
    because they carry within them a baby, one who might become a Buddha or Lord
    Jesus.  They have to be mindful of what they eat, what they drink, what
    they think, and how they act.  The way they take care of their bodies and
    their feelings affects the well-being of the child within.  Our mothers and
    fathers helped us come to be and, even now, they continue to give us life. 
    Whenever I have difficulties, I ask for their support, and they always respond.

    Our
    spiritual ancestors have also given birth to us, and they, too, continue to give
    birth to us.  In my country, we say that an authentic teacher has the power
    to give birth to a disciple.  If you have enough spiritual strength, you
    will give birth to a spiritual child, and through your life and practice, you
    continue giving birth, even after you die.  We say that sons and daughters
    of the Buddha came forth from the mouth of the Buddha, because the Buddha
    offered them the Dharma, his teaching.  There are many ways to offer the
    Dharma for a child to be born in his or her spiritual life, but the most usual
    is to share the Dharma through words.  I try to practice in a way that
    allows me to touch my blood ancestors and my spiritual ancestors every
    day.  Whenever I feel sad or a little fragile, I invoke their presence for
    support, and they never fail to be there.

    H. 
    Suffering and the Way Out

    As children, Siddhartha and Jesus both
    realized that life is filled with suffering.  The Buddha became aware at an
    early age that suffering is pervasive.  Jesus must have had the same kind
    of insight, because they both made every effort to offer a way out.  We,
    too, must learn to live in ways that reduce the world’s suffering. 
    Suffering is always there, around us and inside us, and we have to find ways
    that alleviate the suffering and transform it into well-being and peace.

    Monks
    and nuns in both their traditions practice prayer, mediation, mindful walking,
    silent meals, and many other ways to try to overcome suffering.  It is a
    kind of luxury to be a monk or a nun, to be able to sit quietly and look deeply
    into the nature of suffering and the way out.  Sitting and looking deeply
    into your body, your consciousness, and your mental states is like being a
    mother hen covering her eggs.  One day insight will be born like a baby
    chick.  If monks and nuns do not cherish their time of practice, they will
    have nothing to offer to the world.

    The Buddha was twenty-nine, quite young,
    when he became a monk, and at the age of thirty-five, he was enlightened. 
    Jesus also spent time alone on the mountain and in the desert.  We all need
    time to reflect and to refresh ourselves.  For those who are not monks or
    nuns, it may be difficult to find the time to mediate or pray, but it is
    important to do so.  During a retreat, we learn how to maintain awareness
    of each thing we do, and then we can continue the practice in our daily
    lives.  If we do this, we will see deeply into the nature of our suffering,
    and we will find a way out.  That is what the Buddha said in his first
    Dharma talk at the Deer Park in Sarnath: “Look deeply into the nature of
    suffering to see the causes of suffering and the way out.”  Monks and
    non-monks can all practice this.

    I.  I am the Way

    The
    Theravada school of Buddhism emphasizes the actual teaching of the historical
    Buddha, the Buddha who lived and died.  Later, the idea of the living
    Buddha was developed in the Buddhism of the Northern schools, the
    Mahayana.  When the Buddha was about to pass away, many of his disciples
    were upset that he would no longer be with them.  So he reassured them by
    saying, “My physical body will no longer be here, but my teaching body,
    Dharmakaya, will always be with you.  Take refuge in the Dharma, the
    teaching, to make an island for yourselves.”  The Buddha’s
    instructions are clear.  The Dharma is our island of refuge, the torch
    lighting our path.  If we have the teaching, we needn’t worry.  One
    monk who was very ill expressed regret at not being able to see the Buddha in
    person, but the Buddha sent word to him: “My physical body is not what is
    most important.  If you have the Dharma body with you, if you have
    confidence in the Dharma, if you practice the Dharma, I am always with
    you.”  Jesus also said, “Whenever two or three are gathered in my
    name, I am there.”

    J.  I am Always There for
    You

    After the Buddha passed away, the love and devotion to him became
    so great that the idea of Dharmakaya changed from the body of teaching to the
    glorious, eternal Buddha, who is always expounding the Dharma.  According
    to Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha is still alive, continuing to give Dharma
    talks.  If you are attentive enough, you will be able to hear his teachings
    from the voice of a pebble, a leaf, or a cloud in the sky.  The enduring
    Buddha has become the living Buddha, the Buddha of faith.  This is very
    much like the Christ of faith, the living Christ.  Protestant theologian
    Paul Tillich describes God as the ground of being.  The Buddha is also
    sometimes described as the ground of being.

    K. 
    Seeing the Way is Seeing Me

    To encounter a true master is said to be
    worth a century of studying his or her teaching, because in such a person we
    witness a living example of enlightenment.  How can we encounter Jesus or
    the Buddha?  It depends on us.  Many who looked directly into the eyes
    of the Buddha or Jesus were not capable of seeing them.  One man who wanted
    to see the Buddha was in such a hurry that he neglected a woman in dire need
    whom he met along the way.  When he arrived at the Buddha’s monastery, he
    was incapable of seeing him.  Whether you can see the Buddha or not depends
    on you, on the state of your being.

    L.  I am the
    Understanding, I am Love

    Like many great humans, the Buddha had a
    hallowed presence.  When we see such persons, we feel peace, love, and
    strength in them, and also in ourselves.  The Chinese say, “When a
    sage is born, the river water becomes clearer and the mountain plants and trees
    become more verdant.”  They are describing the ambience surrounding a
    holy man or a woman.  When a sage is present and you sit near him or her,
    you feel peace and light.  If you were to sit close to Jesus and look into
    His eyes — even if you didn’t see Him — you would have a much greater chance
    to be saved than by reading His words.  But when He is not there, His
    teaching are second best, especially the teachings of His life.

    M. 
    Freedom from Notions

     When I read any scripture, Christian or
    Buddhist, I always keep in mind that whatever Jesus or the Buddha said was to a
    particular person or group on a particular occasion.  I try to understand
    deeply the context in which they spoke in order to really understand their
    meaning.  What they said may be less important than how they said it. 
    When we understand this, we are close to Jesus or the Buddha.  But if we
    analyze their words to find the deepest meaning without understanding the
    relationships between the speaker and his listeners, we may miss the
    point.  Theologians sometimes forget this.

    When we read the Bible, we see
    Jesus’ tremendous courage in trying to transform the life of His society. 
    When we read the sutras, we see that the Buddha was also a very strong
    person.  The society of India at the time of the Buddha was less violent
    than the society into which Jesus was born, so you may think the Buddha was less
    extreme in his reactions, but that is only because another way was possible in
    his milieu.  His reaction to the corruption among Vedic priests, for
    example, was thoroughgoing.  The notion of Atman, Self, which was at
    the center of Vedic beliefs was the cause of much of the social injustice of the
    day — the caste system, the terrible treatment of the untouchables, and the
    monopolization of spiritual teachings by those who enjoyed the best material
    conditions and yet were hardly spiritual at all.  In reaction, the Buddha
    emphasized the teachings of non-Atman (non-self).  He said, “Things
    are empty of a separate, independent self.  If you look for the self of a
    flower, you will see that it is empty.”  But when Buddhists began
    worshiping the idea of emptiness, he said, “It is worse if you get caught
    in the non-self of a flower than if you believe in the self of a flower.”

    The
    Buddha did not present an absolute doctrine.  His teaching of non-self was
    offered in the context of his time.  It was an instrument for
    meditation.  But many Buddhists since then have gotten caught by the idea
    of non-self.  They confuse the means and the end, the raft and the shore,
    the finger pointing to the moon and the moon.  There is something more
    important than non-self.  It is the freedom from the notions of both self
    and non-self.  For a Buddhist to be attached to any doctrine, even a
    Buddhist one, is to betray the Buddha.  It is not words or concepts that
    are important.  What is important is our insight into the nature of reality
    and our way of responding to reality.  If the Buddha had been born into the
    society in which Jesus was born, I think he, too, would have been crucified.

    N. 
    Seeing the way Taking the Path

    When Jesus said, “I am the
    way,” He meant that to have a true relationship with God, you must practice
    His way.  In the Acts of the Apostles, the early Christians always spoke of
    their faith as “the Way.”  To me, “I am the way” is a
    better statement than “I know the way.”  The way is not an
    asphalt road.  But we must distinguish between the “I” spoken by
    Jesus and the “I” that people usually think of.  The
    “I” in His statement is life itself, His life, which is the
    way.  If you do not really look at His life, you cannot see the way. 
    If you only satisfy yourself with praising a name, even the name of
    Jesus, it is not practicing the life of Jesus.  We must practice living
    deeply, loving, and acting with charity if we wish to truly honor Jesus. 
    The way is Jesus Himself and not just some idea of Him.  A true teaching is
    not static.  It is not mere words but the reality of life.  Many who
    have neither the way nor the life try to impose on others what they believe to
    be the way.  But these are only words that have no connection with real
    life or a real way.  When we understand and practice deeply the life and
    teachings of Buddha or the life and teachings of Jesus, we penetrate the door
    and enter the abode of hte living Buddha and the living Christ, and life eternal
    presents itself to us.

    O.  Your Body is the
    Body of Christ

    When the Protestant minister described me as someone who
    is not grateful, he was speaking a language different from Buddhism.  To
    him, love could only be symbolized by a person.  That is why belief in the
    resurrection is so important to Christians.  If Jesus died and was not
    resurrected, who would carry His eternal love for us?  But does God have to
    be personified?  In Judaism and Christianity, the image of a person is
    always used.

    In Buddhism, we also personify traits we aspire toward, such as
    mindfulness (Shakyamuni Buddha), understanding (Manjusri Bodhisattva), and love
    (Maitreya Buddha), but even if Shakyamuni, Manjusri, and Maitreya are not there,
    it is still possible to touch mindfulness, understanding, and love. 
    Students of the Buddha are themselves a continuation of the Buddha.  It is
    possible to manifest mindfulness, understanding, and love through people of our
    own time, even ourselves.  We do not need to believe in the resurrection of
    Buddhas and bodhisattvas as much as in producing mindfulness, understanding, and
    love in ourselves.

    The living Christ is in the Christ of Love who is always
    generating love, moment after moment.  When the Church manifests
    understanding, tolerance, and loving-kindness, Jesus is there.  Christians
    have to help Jesus Christ be manifested by their way of life, showing those
    around them that love, understanding, and tolerance are possible.  This
    will not be accomplished just by books and sermons.  It has to be realized
    by the way we live.  In Buddhism we also say the living Buddha, the one who
    teaches love and compassion, must be manifested by the way we live.

    Thanks to
    the practice of many generations of Buddhists and Christians, the energy of the
    Buddha and the energy of Jesus Christ have come to us.  We can touch the
    living Buddha and we can touch the living Christ.  We know that our body is
    the continuation of the Buddha’s body and is a member of the mystical body of
    Christ.  We have a wonderful opportunity to help the Buddha and Jesus
    Christ continue.  Thanks to our bodies and our lives, the practice is
    possible.  If you hate your body and think that it is only a source of
    affliction, that it contains only the roots of anger, hatred, and craving, you
    do not understand that your body is the body of the Buddha, your body is a
    member of the body of Christ.

    P.  Enjoy Being Alive

    To
    breathe and know you are alive is wonderful.  Because you are alive,
    everything is possible.  The Sangha, the community of practice, can
    continue.  The church can continue.  Please don’t waste a single
    moment.  Every moment is an opportunity to breathe life into the Buddha,
    the Dharma, and the Sangha.  Every moment is an opportunity to manifest the
    Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

    “There is a person whose appearance
    on earth is for the well-being and happiness of all.  Who is that
    person?”  This is a question from the Anguttara Nikaya.  For
    Buddhists, that person is the Buddha.  For Christians, that person is Jesus
    Christ.  Through your daily life, you can help that person continue. 
    You only need to walk in mindfulness, making peaceful, happy steps on our
    planet.  Breathe deeply, and enjoy your breathing.  Be aware that the
    sky is blue and the birds’ songs are beautiful.  Enjoy being alive and you
    will help the living Christ and the living Buddha continue for a long, long
    time.

    Go to Chapter Five

    Return To The Table of Contents


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    http://www.religionfacts.com/big-religion-chart


    The Big Religion Chart

    This “Big Religion Chart” is our
    attempt to summarize the major religions and belief systems of the world
    - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and dozens more -
    into a quick-reference comparison chart. Oversimplication is unavoidable
    in charts like these, and it is not intended to be a substitute for
    advanced religious study and exploration, but simply a fast overview. It
    is our hope that this chart becomes a useful tool for you to compare
    basic religious beliefs and practices of the world’s religions and
    belief systems.

    Over 40 religions and belief systems are
    currently listed. If a group does not appear, it doesn’t mean it’s not a
    religion or doesn’t matter; the chart is not comprehensive and will
    continue to grow. See also our list of religions and definitions of religion. Links within the chart will take you to more detailed information on ReligionFacts on that religion or topic.

      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Aladura 1 million Various prophet-healing churches founded since c.1918, West Nigeria. Generally monotheistic; a mix of Anglican, Pentecostal and traditional African beliefs. Strong emphasis on healing and salvation in this life. Not emphasized; views vary. Spiritual healing is central. Mix of Anglican and African rituals; a prophet plays a prominent role.

    Aladura Practices

    none
    Asatru unknown Revival of Norse and Germanic paganism, 1970s Scandinavia and USA.

    History of Asatru

    Polytheistic, Norse gods and goddesses, Norse creation myths.

    Asatru Gods

    Salvation or redemption not emphasized. Fatalistic outlook. Valhalla (heaven) for death in battle; Hel (peaceful place) for most; Hifhel (hell) for the very evil. Sacrifice
    of food or drink, toast to the gods, shamanism (less frequently),
    celebration of solstice holidays. Nine Noble Virtues is moral code.

    Asatru Practices

    Eddas (Norse epics); the Havamal (proverbs attributed to Odin)

    Asatru Texts

    Atheism

    7.4 million self-identified atheists; 1.1 billion are religiously “unaffiliated” Appears throughout history (including ancient Greek philosophy), but especially after the Enlightenment (19th cent). There is no God or divine beings. Not
    addressed. But many atheists believe that since there is no afterlife,
    this one life is of great importance. Only humans can help themselves
    and each other solve the world’s problems.
    none none Influential
    works include those by Marx, Freud, Feuerbach, Voltaire, and Mark
    Twain. Notable modern authors include Richard Dawkins and Carl Sagan.
    Baha’i Faith

    5-7 million Founded by Bahá’u'lláh, 1863, Tehran, Iran.

    History of the Baha’i Faith

    One God, who has revealed himself progressively through major world religions.

    Baha’i Beliefs about God

    The soul is eternal and essentially good. Purpose of life is to develop spiritually and draw closer to God.

    meaning of life (Bahai)

    Soul separates from the body and begins a journey towards or away from God. Heaven and hell are states of being.

    afterlife (Baha’i)

    Daily prayer, avoidance of intoxicants, scripture reading, hard work, education, work for social justice and equality.

    Baha’i Practices

    Writings of Bahá’u'lláh and other Bahá’í leaders.

    Baha’i Texts

    Bon 100,000 11th-century Tibet Nontheistic Buddhism, but meditation on peaceful and wrathful deities. Gain enlightenment. Reincarnation until gain enlightenment Meditation on mandalas and Tibetan deities, astrology, monastic life. Bonpo canon
      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Buddhism

    500 million Based on teachings of Siddharta Gautama (the Buddha) in c. 520 BC, NE India.

    History of Buddhism

    Buddhist gods include buddhas, bodhisattvas, arhats and deities; such as Tara, Kuan Yin, and Amida Buddha.

    Buddhist Gods & Deities

    Escape
    the cycle of rebirth and attain nirvana (Theravada Buddhism). Become a
    boddhisatva then help others attain enlightenment (Mahayana Buddhism).

    The Meaning of Life in Buddhism

    Rebirth or nirvana. Nirvana is seen simply as the cessation of suffering by some and as a heavenly paradise by others.

    Buddhism on the Afterlife

    Meditation, mantras, devotion to deities (in some sects), mandalas (Tibetan)

    Buddhist Practices

    Tripitaka (Pali Canon); Mahayana sutras like the Lotus Sutra; others.

    Buddhist Texts

    Cao Dai

    4-6 million Founded in 1926, Vietnam by Ngo Van Chieu and others based on a séance. God
    represented by Divine Eye. Founders of Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism,
    Islam, and Christianity venerated, and saints including Victor Hugo.
    Goal is peace and harmony in each person and in the world. Salvation by “cultivating self and finding God in self.” reincarnation until Nirvana/Heaven Hierarchy similar to Roman Catholicism. Daily prayer. Meditation. Communication with spirit world (now outlawed in Vietnam). Caodai canon
    Chinese Religion

    394 million Indigenous folk religion of China.

    History of Chinese Religion

    Dualistic yin and yang; mythological beings and folk deities.

    Chinese Traditional Religion Theism

    A favorable life and peaceful afterlife, attained through rituals and honoring of ancestors. judgment, then paradise or punishment and reincarnation

    afterlife (Chinese Religion)

    Ancestor worship, prayer, longevity practices, divination, prophecy and astrology, feng shui.

    Chinese religious rituals and practices

    none
    Christian Science

    400,000 Founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1879, Massachusetts.

    History of Christian Science

    One God. No Trinity (in traditional sense). Matter and evil do not exist. “Life, Truth, and Love understood and demonstrated as supreme over all; sin, sickness and death destroyed.” Heaven is “not a locality, but a divine state of Mind in which all the manifestations of Mind are harmonious and immortal.” Spiritual healing through prayer and knowledge, Sunday services, daily Bible and Science & Health reading.

    Christian Science Practices

    Christian Bible, Science & Health with Key to the Scriptures
    Christianity

    2.2 billion

    Christianity Adherents

    Life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth (born c. 4 BCE), a Jew from Palestine under Roman rule

    Christian History

    One God, who is a Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit; angels; demons; saints

    God & Spiritual Beings in Christianity

    All
    have sinned and are thereby separated from God. Salvation is through
    faith in Christ and, for some, sacraments and good works.
    Resurrection of body and soul; eternal heaven or hell (most denominations); temporary purgatory (Catholicism)

    Christianity on the Afterlife

    Prayer, Bible study, baptism, Eucharist (Communion), church on Sundays, numerous holidays.

    Christian Practices

    Bible (Hebrew Bible + New Testament)

    Christian Texts

      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Confucianism

    5-6 million Based on the teachings of Confucius (551–479 BCE, China)

    History of Confucianism

    not addressed To fulfill one’s role in society with propriety, honor, and loyalty. not addressed none

    Confucian Practices

    Analects

    Confucian Texts

    Deism unknown Especially popularized in the 18th-cent. Enlightenment under Kant, Voltaire, Paine, Jefferson, and others One Creator God who is uninterested in the world. Reason is basis for all knowledge. not addressed not addressed None prescribed, although some deists practiced prayer. Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason and similar texts

    Druze

    500,000 Founded by Al-Darazi in 11th century, Cairo, Egypt. Roots in the Isma’iliyya sect of Shia Islam. Universal
    Intelligence (al-Aql al-Kulli) or Divine Essence (akin to
    Neoplatonism), of which al-Hakim is believed to be an incarnation.
    Live
    a good life for a favorable reincarnation. Await the re-appearance of
    al-Hakim (a Fatimid caliph who disappeared in 1021), who will usher in a
    Golden Age for true believers.
    Reincarnation. Heaven is a
    spiritual existence when one has escaped reincarnation. Hell is distance
    from God in lifetime after lifetime.
    Modest lifestyles, fasting
    before Eid al-Adha. Beliefs and practices are hidden for protection
    from persecution. Special group of initiates called uqqal.
    Al-Naqd al-Khafi (Copy of the Secret); Al-Juz’al-Awwal (Essence of the First)
    Eckankar

    50,000-500,000 Founded by Paul Twitchell in Las Vegas, 1965

    History of Eckankar

    The Divine Spirit, called “ECK.” “Each
    of us is Soul, a spark of God sent to this world to gain spiritual
    experience.” Salvation is liberation and God-realization.
    Reincarnation. The Soul is eternal by nature and on a spiritual journey. Liberation possible in a single lifetime. Spiritual Exercises of ECK: mantras, meditation, and dreams. These enable Soul travel and spiritual growth.

    Eckankar practices

    Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad and books by Harold Klemp.

    Eckankar sacred texts

    Epicureanism n/a Based on the teachings of Epicurus, c. 300 BCE, Athens. Polytheism, but the gods take no notice of humans. Pursue the highest pleasures (friendship and tranquility) and avoid pain. No afterlife. The soul dissolves when the body dies. none Letters and Principal Doctrines of Epicurus
      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Falun Gong

    3 million (acc. to official sources); 100 million (acc. to Falun Gong sources) Li Hongzhi in 1992 in China

    History of Falun Gong

    Countless gods and spiritual beings. Demonic aliens. Good health and spritual transcendence, achieved by practicing Falun Gong. Not addressed Five exercises to strengthen the Falun. Cultivation of truthfulness, benevolence and forbearance. Meat eating discouraged.

    Falun Gong Practices

    Zhuan Falun and other writings by Master Li

    Falun Gong Texts

    Gnosticism ancient form extinct; small modern revival groups Various teachers including Valentinus, 1st-2nd cents. AD The supreme God is unknowable; the creator god is evil and matter is evil. Humans can return to the spiritual world through secret knowledge of the universe. Return to the spiritual world. Asceticism, celibacy Gnostic scriptures including various Gospels and Acts attributed to apostles.
    Greek Religion ancient form extinct; various modern revivals Indigenous religion of the ancient Greeks, c. 500 BCE to 400 CE. Olympic pantheon (Zeus, etc.) mixed with eastern deities like Isis and Cybele.

    Ancient Greek Gods

    Human life is subject to the whim of the gods and to Fate; these can be partially controlled through sacrifice and divination. Beliefs
    varied from no afterlife to shadowy existence in the underworld to a
    paradise-like afterlife (mainly in mystery religions).
    Animal
    sacrifice, harvest offerings, festivals, games, processions, dance,
    plays, in honor of the gods. Secret initiations and rituals in mystery
    religions.

    Greek religious practices

    Epic poems of Homer and Hesiod.
    Hare Krishna

    250,000-1 million Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, 1966, USA (with roots in 15th-century Hindu movement) Krishna is the Supreme God. Salvation from this Age of Kali is by a return to Godhead, accomplished through Krishna-Consciousness. Reincarnation until unite with the Godhead. Chanting, dancing, evangelism, vegetarianism, temple worship, monastic-style living The Bhagavad-Gita As It Is
    Hinduism

    1 billion Indigenous
    religion of India as developed to present day. Earliest forms (Vedic
    religion) date to 1500 BCE or earlier; major developments 1st-9th
    centuries CE.

    Hindu History

    One Supreme Reality (Brahman) manifested in many gods and goddesses

    Hindu Gods & Goddesses

    Humans
    are in bondage to ignorance and illusion, but are able to escape.
    Purpose is to gain release from rebirth, or at least a better rebirth.

    meaning of life (Hinduism)

    Reincarnation until gain enlightenment. Yoga,
    meditation, worship (puja), devotion to a god or goddess, pilgrimage to
    holy cities, live according to one’s dharma (purpose/ role).

    Hindu Rituals & Practices

    Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, Ramayana, etc.

    Hindu Sacred Texts

      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Islam

    1.6 billion Based on teachings of the Prophet Muhammad; founded 622 CE in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

    History of Islam

    One God (Allah in Arabic); the same God revealed (imperfectly) in the Jewish and Christian Bibles Submit (islam) to the will of God to gain Paradise after death. eternal Paradise or eternal Hell

    Islamic Beliefs About the Afterlife

    Five
    Pillars: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, Fasting. Mosque services on
    Fridays. Ablutions before prayer. No alcohol or pork. Holidays related
    to the pilgrimage and fast of Ramadan.

    Muslim rituals and practices

    Qur’an (sacred text); Hadith (tradition)

    Islamic sacred texts

    Jainism

    4 million Founded by Mahavira, c. 550 BCE, eastern India

    History of Jainism

    Polytheism
    and pantheism. The universe is eternal; many gods exist. Gods, humans
    and all living things are classified in a complex hierarchy.

    Jain theism

    Gain liberation from cycle of rebirth, by avoiding all bad karma, especially by causing no harm to any sentient being.

    meaning of life (Jainism)

    Reincarnation until liberation.

    afterlife (Jainism)

    Monasticism
    under the Five Great Vows (Non-Violence, Truth, Celibacy, Non-Stealing,
    Non-Possessiveness); worship at temples and at home. Meditation and
    mantras.

    Jain practices

    The teachings of Mahavira in various collections.
    Jehovah’s Witnesses

    6.5 million Founded by Charles Taze Russell, 1879, Pittsburgh

    History of the Jehovah’s Witnesses

    One God: Jehovah. No Trinity. Christ is the first creation of God; the Holy Spirit is a force. Salvation is through faith in Christ and obeying Jehovah’s laws. The End of the World is soon. Heaven for 144,000 chosen Witnesses, eternity on new earth for other Witnesses. All others annihilated. No hell. No
    blood transfusions, no celebration of holidays, no use of crosses or
    religious images. Baptism, Sunday service at Kingdom Hall, strong
    emphasis on evangelism.

    Jehovah’s Witnesses Practices

    New World Translation of the Scriptures

    Jehovah’s Witnesses Sacred Texts

    Judaism

    14 million

    Adherents of Judaism

    The religion of Abraham (c. 1800 BCE) and the Hebrews, especially after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE.

    History of Judaism

    One God: Yahweh (YHVH)

    God in Judaism

    Obey God’s commandments, live ethically. Focus is more on this life than the next. Not
    emphasized; views vary: no afterlife, shadowy existence, World to Come
    (similar to heaven), Gehenna (similar to hell), reincarnation

    The Afterlife in Judaism

    Circumcision at birth, bar/bat mitzvah at adulthood, observing Sabbath, wearing tallit and tefilin, prayer services

    Jewish Rituals and Practices

    Hebrew Bible (Tanakh); Talmud

    Jewish sacred texts


    Mayan Religion Several million Maya practice a Catholicism that retains many elements of traditional Mayan religion. Began c.250 CE (rise of the Mayan civilization) Many gods, including Itzamná, Kukulcán, Bolon Tzacab, and Chac Appease and nourish the gods; determine luckiest dates for various activities. The soul journeys through dark and threatening underworld; but sacrificial victims and women who die in childbirth go to heaven. Astronomy, divination, human sacrifice, elaborate burial for royalty, worship in stone pyramid-temples Dresden Codex; Madrid Codex; Paris Codex; Books of Chilam Balam; Popol Vuh; The Ritual of the Bacabs
      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Mormonism

    12.2 million Revelations to Joseph Smith, 1830, New York.

    Mormon History

    God the Father, the Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost are three separate individual beings Return to God by faith in Christ, good works, ordinances, and evangelism. All
    return to spirit world instruction before resurrection. Then Mormons to
    heaven with God and families; others rewarded apart from God; hell for
    those who still reject God.

    The Afterlife in Mormonism

    Abstinence
    from alcohol, tobacco, coffee and tea; baptism for the dead; eternal
    marriage; temple garments under daily clothes; active evangelism.

    Mormon Practices

    Christian Bible, Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and Pearl of Great Price

    Mormon Texts

    Nation of Islam 10,000-100,000 Founded by Wallace Fard Muhammad, 1930, Detroit, USA. “One God whose proper name is Allah.” Wallace Fard Muhammad became the divine messiah and incarnation of Allah in 1930. “The Blackman is the original man.” Live righteously and worship Allah. Mental resurrection of the righteous. Black people will be mentally resurrected first. Prayer
    five times a day. Work for the equality of the African race. Respect
    laws of the land, don’t carry arms, don’t make war. Healthy living and
    abstinence from alcohol, smoking and substance abuse. Modest dress.
    Qur’an
    and “Scriptures of all the Prophets of God” are holy texts. Influential
    writings include Elijah Muhammad’s Message to the Blackman in America
    (1965)
    New Age 5 million Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and Annie Besant in the 19th C, Alice A. Bailey (1880-1949), flourished in 1970s and 80s The Divine is an impersonal life force that pervades all things Dawning
    of a New Age of heightened consciousness and international peace.
    Individuals can obtain a foretaste of the New Age through spiritual
    transformation (”Ascension”). More emphasis on the latter now. Evil
    comes from ignorance.
    Reincarnation Astrology;
    mysticism; use of crystals; yoga; tarot readings; holistic medicine;
    psychic abilities; angelic communications; channeling; amulets;
    fortune-telling
    Works of a variety of New Age writers
    New Thought 160,000 Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802-66) and others, late 19th century, USA. Generally
    monism (all is One), but members might be theists, pantheists or
    panentheists. God is immanent; the universe is essentially spiritual.
    Man
    is divine, essentially spirit, and has infinite possibility. Mind can
    control the body. Sin and sickness caused by incorrect thinking. Man can
    live in oneness with God in love, truth, peace, health, and prosperity.
    “Life is eternal in the invisible kingdom of God.” Emphasis
    on spiritual and mental healing, but without rejection of modern
    medicine. Worship services; prayer for the sick; discussion of New
    Thought authors and ideas.
    Writings of Quimby (such as the The Quimby Manuscripts) and other New Thought authors
    Olmec Religion extinct in original form Indigenous religion of the Olmecs, Guatemala and Mexico, c. 1500-400 BCE Mostly
    unknown due to lack of written records. Many gods represented in art,
    including the Olmec Dragon, Maize Deity, Bird Monster, and Were-Jaguar.
    unknown, but art indicates importance of fertility (rain, corn, etc.) unknown sacrifices, large sculptures of human heads, cave rituals, pilgrimages, ball-courts, pyramids none
      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Rastafarianism 1 million Founded by Marcus Garvey in the slums of Jamaica in the 1920s and 30s

    History of Rastafarianism

    God is Jah, who became incarnate in Jesus (who was black); Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I was messiah. Humans are temples of Jah. Salvation is primarily in this world and consists of liberation from oppression and return to Africa. Some Rastas will experience “everliving” (physical immortality). Heaven is a return to Eden, which is in Africa. Many
    practices based on Jewish biblical Law. Abstinence from most or all
    meat, artificial foods, and alcohol. Use of marijuana in religious
    rituals and for medicine. Wearing of dreadlocks.

    Rastafarian Practices

    Holy Piby (the “Blackman’s Bible”). The Ethiopian epic Kebra Negast also revered.

    Rastafarian Texts

    Satanism
    The Church of Satan was founded in 1966 by Anton LaVey




    Scientology

    70,000 or several million, depending on the source Founded by L. Ron Hubbard, 1954, California

    History of Scientology

    God(s) not specified; reality explained in the Eight Dynamics Human consists of body, mind and thetan; capable of great things.
    Gain spiritual freedom by ridding mind of engrams.
    Reincarnation Auditing, progressing up various levels until “clear”. Focus on education and drug recovery programs. Writings of Hubbard, such as Dianetics and Scientology
    Seventh-Day Adventism

    25 million Rooted in Millerite movement; founded 1863 in New England; early leaders: Ellen White, Hiram Edson and Joseph Bates Trinitarian monotheism Live in accordance with the Bible, including the Old Testament. The Second Coming will happen soon. A
    “peaceful pause” after death until the coming of Christ, then
    resurrection to judgment, followed by eternity in heaven or
    nonexistence. No hell.
    24-hour Sabbath observance starting Friday at sunset; adult baptism by immersion; church services emphasizing sermon Christian Bible; writings of Ellen G. White as helpful supplement
    Shinto

    3-4 million Indigenous religion of Japan

    Shinto History

    kami: ancient gods or spirits Humans are pure by nature and can keep away evil through purification rituals and attain good things by calling on the kami. Death is bad and impure. Some humans become kami after death. Worship and offerings to kami at shrines and at home. Purification rituals.

    Shinto Practices

    Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters); Nihon-gi (Chronicles of Japan)

    Shinto Texts

      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Sikhism

    23 million Founded by Guru Nanak, c. 1500, Punjab, India.

    History of Sikhism

    one God: Ik Onkar Overcome the self, align life with will of God, and become a “saint soldier,” fighting for good. Reincarnation until resolve karma and merge with God. Prayer
    and meditation on God’s name, services at temple (gurdwara), turban and
    five Ks. Balance work, worship, and charity. No monasticism or
    asceticism.
    Adi Granth (Sri Guru Granth Sahib)

    Spiritualism 11 million c.1850, USA, UK, France Generally accepts the Christian God Body and spirit are separate entities. Morality and contact with spirits affect afterlife. A spiritual existence with access to the living. Condition depends on morality of life and advancement is possible. Sunday services. Seances and other communication with departed spirits. Spirit healing. No authoritative texts. Doctrine learned from spirit guides (advanced departed spirits).
    Stoicism
    Zeno in c.313 BC, Athens. Pantheism: the logos pervades the universe. Happiness, which is achieved by living reasonably. Possible continued existence of the Soul, but not a personal existence. Ethical and philosophical training, self-reflection, careful judgment and inner calm. writings of Zeno, Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius
    Taoism

    20 million specifically of Taoism (Chinese religion contains Taoist elements) Based on teachings of Lao-Tzu, c. 550 BC, China. Pantheism - the Tao pervades all.

    Taoist Pantheism

    Inner harmony, peace, and longevity. Acheived by living in accordance with the Tao.

    meaning of life (Taoism)

    Revert back to state of non-being, which is simply the other side of being.

    Afterlife in Taoism

    General
    attitude of detachment and non-struggle, “go with the flow” of the Tao.
    Tai-chi, acupuncture, and alchemy to help longevity.
    Tao-te Ching; Chuang-tzu

    Taoist Texts

    Unification Church over 1 million (3 million acc. to official sources) Founded by Sun Myung Moon, 1954, South Korea. Monotheism, with the duality of God (esp. masculine and feminine) emphasized. No Trinity. True
    love and world peace instead of selfish love. True love and the kingdom
    of God on earth will be restored by the creation of “true families.”
    Eternal life in a spirit world. Blessing Ceremony The Divine Principle (1954) by Rev. Moon.
      Adherents History Gods Meaning of Life Afterlife Practices Texts
    Unitarian Universalism 800,000 Formal merger of Unitarians and Universalists in 1961, USA.

    History of Unitarian-Universalism

    Has no set beliefs, which is its defining characteristic. Salvation is “spiritual health or wholeness.” Members seek “inner and outer peace,” insight, health, compassion and strength. Not
    specified. Some believe in an afterlife, some do not. Very few believe
    in hell - “Universalism” indicates the belief that all will be saved.
    Ceremonies
    for marriages, funerals, etc. Church services have elements from
    various religions. Emphasis on civil rights, social justice, equality
    and environment. Most UUs are anti-death penalty and pro-gay rights.

    Unitarian Universalist practices

    Many sacred texts are revered by various members; some none at all. The Bible is the most commonly used text.

    Unitarian Universalism Texts

    Wicca

    1-3 million Based on ancient pagan beliefs, but modern form founded early 1900s. Founder generally said to be Gerald Gardner. Polytheism, centered on the Goddess and God, each in various forms; also a belief in a Supreme Being over all “If it harms none, do what you will.” reincarnation until reach the Summerland

    afterlife (Wicca)

    Prayer, casting a circle, Drawing Down the Moon, reciting spells, dancing, singing, sharing cakes and wine or beer

    Wiccan practices

    No sacred text; foundational texts include The Witch Cult in Western Europe and The God of the Witches
    Zoroastrianism

    200,000 Based
    on teachings of Zoroaster in 6th cent. BCE Persia. Official religion of
    ancient Persia. May have influenced Judaism and Vedic religion.

    History of Zoroastrianism

    One God, Ahura Mazda, but a dualistic worldview in which an evil spirit, Angra Mainyu, is almost as powerful. Humans are free to do good or evil, must choose the side of good. Judgment followed by heaven or hell. Hell is temporary until final purgation and return to Ahura Mazda. prayers; tending the sacred fire; coming of age rituals; burial by exposure in the Tower of Silence

    Zoroastrian rituals and practices

    Zend Avesta

    Zoroastrian texts

    For sources, please see linked articles.

    Article Info

    Title The Big Religion Chart
    Published January 10, 2006
    Last Updated November 21, 2016
    URL www.religionfacts.com/big-religion-chart
    Short URL rlft.co/1851
    MLA Citation “The Big Religion Chart.” ReligionFacts.com. 21 Nov. 2016. Web. Accessed 12 Aug. 2018. big-religion-chart>

    https://quizlet.com/152762076/ap-world-religions-chart-flash-cards/

    AP World Religions Chart

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    comments (0)
    08/10/18
    2710 Sat 11 Aug 2018 LESSON (51) Sat 11 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. WHAT YOU’LL LEARN This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions: • What clues do science and the world’s religions give about the meaning and purpose of life? • Is science the ultimate guide to the deepest truth of life? • Why do the many world religions offer such different pictures of the meaning of life? • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience? • Is death the end of life?
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 9:31 pm
    2710 Sat 11 Aug 2018 LESSON (51) Sat 11 Aug 2007  

    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    In Wisdom From
    World Religions

    Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

    Helps you enrich your life with the
    religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.



    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

    This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:

    • What clues do science and the world’s religions give about the meaning and purpose of life?



    • Is science the ultimate guide to the deepest truth of life?


    • Why do the many world religions offer such different pictures of the meaning of life?


    • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?


    • Is death the end of life?

    Sign up by August 12 to begin this spiritual journey.


    NEXT SESSION:


    August 13, 2018

    Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)


    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

    This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:

    • What clues do science and the world’s religions give about the meaning and purpose of life?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B42bbRvYhRg
    what is Buddhism?must watch only religion that goes with modern science.part 1
    IAM HAPPINESS
    Published on Oct 20, 2012
    http://youtu.be/dku88rM73zE (part 2 link)only religion that goes with science must watch you will understand ,what is real truth,
    s it god who all controls or it;s up to you…….you will understand
    What is Buddhism?


    Buddhism is a religion to about 300 million people around the world.
    The word comes from ‘budhi’, ‘to awaken’. It has its origins about 2,500
    years ago when Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, was himself
    awakened (enlightened) at the age of 35.

    • Is Buddhism a Religion?


    To many, Buddhism goes beyond religion and is more of a philosophy or
    ‘way of life’. It is a philosophy because philosophy ‘means love of
    wisdom’ and the Buddhist path can be summed up as:

    (1) to lead a moral life,
    (2) to be mindful and aware of thoughts and actions, and
    (3) to develop wisdom and understanding.

    • How Can Buddhism Help Me?


    Buddhism explains a purpose to life, it explains apparent injustice and
    inequality around the world, and it provides a code of practice or way
    of life that leads to true happiness.

    • Why is Buddhism Becoming Popular?


    Buddhism is becoming popular in western countries for a number of
    reasons, The first good reason is Buddhism has answers to many of the
    problems in modern materialistic societies. It also includes (for those
    who are interested) a deep understanding of the human mind (and natural
    therapies) which prominent psychologists around the world are now
    discovering to be both very advanced and effective.

    • Who Was the Buddha?


    Siddhartha Gotama was born into a royal family in Lumbini, now located
    in Nepal, in 563 BC. At 29, he realised that wealth and luxury did not
    guarantee happiness, so he explored the different teachings religions
    and philosophies of the day, to find the key to human happiness. After
    six years of study and meditation he finally found ‘the middle path’ and
    was enlightened. After enlightenment, the Buddha spent the rest of his
    life teaching the principles of Buddhism — called the Dhamma, or Truth —
    until his death at the age of 80.

    • Was the Buddha a God?

    He was not, nor did he claim to be. He was a man who taught a path to enlightenment from his own experience.

    • Do Buddhists Worship Idols?


    Buddhists sometimes pay respect to images of the Buddha, not in
    worship, nor to ask for favours. A statue of the Buddha with hands
    rested gently in its lap and a compassionate smile reminds us to strive
    to develop peace and love within ourselves. Bowing to the statue is an
    expression of gratitude for the teaching.
    • Is Buddhism Scientific?


    Science is knowledge which can be made into a system, which depends
    upon seeing and testing facts and stating general natural laws. The core
    of Buddhism fit into this definition, because the Four Noble truths
    (see below) can be tested and proven by anyone in fact the Buddha
    himself asked his followers to test the teaching rather than accept his
    word as true. depends more on understanding than faith
    what is Buddhism part 2 [science discovered ]real truth,only religion that goes with science,http://youtu.be/dku88rM73zE
    Category
    Education

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dku88rM73zE
    what is Buddhism?must watch only religion that goes with modern science.part 2

    3.2K
    113
    Share
    IAM HAPPINESS
    Published on Oct 20, 2012
    only http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B42bbR… part 1 click this link religion that goes with science
    nly religion that goes with science must watch you will understand ,what is real truth,
    is it god who all controls or it;s up to you…….you will understand
    What is Buddhism?


    Buddhism is a religion to about 300 million people around the world.
    The word comes from ‘budhi’, ‘to awaken’. It has its origins about 2,500
    years ago when Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, was himself
    awakened (enlightened) at the age of 35.

    • Is Buddhism a Religion?


    To many, Buddhism goes beyond religion and is more of a philosophy or
    ‘way of life’. It is a philosophy because philosophy ‘means love of
    wisdom’ and the Buddhist path can be summed up as:

    (1) to lead a moral life,
    (2) to be mindful and aware of thoughts and actions, and
    (3) to develop wisdom and understanding.

    • How Can Buddhism Help Me?


    Buddhism explains a purpose to life, it explains apparent injustice and
    inequality around the world, and it provides a code of practice or way
    of life that leads to true happiness.

    • Why is Buddhism Becoming Popular?


    Buddhism is becoming popular in western countries for a number of
    reasons, The first good reason is Buddhism has answers to many of the
    problems in modern materialistic societies. It also includes (for those
    who are interested) a deep understanding of the human mind (and natural
    therapies) which prominent psychologists around the world are now
    discovering to be both very advanced and effective.

    • Who Was the Buddha?


    Siddhartha Gotama was born into a royal family in Lumbini, now located
    in Nepal, in 563 BC. At 29, he realised that wealth and luxury did not
    guarantee happiness, so he explored the different teachings religions
    and philosophies of the day, to find the key to human happiness. After
    six years of study and meditation he finally found ‘the middle path’ and
    was enlightened. After enlightenment, the Buddha spent the rest of his
    life teaching the principles of Buddhism — called the Dhamma, or Truth —
    until his death at the age of 80.

    • Was the Buddha a God?

    He was not, nor did he claim to be. He was a man who taught a path to enlightenment from his own experience.

    • Do Buddhists Worship Idols?


    Buddhists sometimes pay respect to images of the Buddha, not in
    worship, nor to ask for favours. A statue of the Buddha with hands
    rested gently in its lap and a compassionate smile reminds us to strive
    to develop peace and love within ourselves. Bowing to the statue is an
    expression of gratitude for the teaching.
    • Is Buddhism Scientific?


    Science is knowledge which can be made into a system, which depends
    upon seeing and testing facts and stating general natural laws. The core
    of Buddhism fit into this definition, because the Four Noble truths
    (see below) can be tested and proven by anyone in fact the Buddha
    himself asked his followers to test the teaching rather than accept his
    word as true. Buddhism depends more on understanding than faith
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    only http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B42bbRvYhRg part 1 click this link…

    en.wikipedia.org
    The meaning of life, or the answer to the question “What is the meaning of…Just now
    ·

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aw71zanwMnY
    The Scientific Power of Meditation
    63K
    678
    Share
    AsapSCIENCE
    Published on Jan 18, 2015
    How exactly does meditation affect your body?
    GET THE BOOK! http://asapscience.com/book
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    —-References—-


    Colzato, L.S., A. Ozturk, and B. Hommel, Meditate to create: the impact
    of focused-attention and open-monitoring training on convergent and
    divergent thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 2012. 3(116): p. 1-5.


    Davidson, R.J., et al., Alterations in brain and immune function
    produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2003. 65: p.
    564-570.

    Goyal, M., et al., Meditation programs for
    psychological stress and well-being a systematic review and
    meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2011. 174(3): p. 357-368.


    Farb, N.A.S., et al., Minding one’s emotions: mindfulness training
    alters the neural expression of sadness. Emotion, 2010. 10(1): p. 25-33.
    9. Kerr, C.E., et al., Effects of mindfulness meditation
    training on anticipatory alpha modulation in primary somatosensory
    cortex. Brain Research Bulletin, 2011. 85: p. 96-103.

    Ditto, B.,
    M. Eclache, and N. Goldman, Short-term autonomic and cardiovascular
    effects of mindfulness body scan meditation. Annals of Behavioral
    Medicine, 2006. 32: p. 228-234.

    Epel, E., et al., Can meditation
    slow rate of cellular aging, cognitive stress, mindfulness, and
    telomeres. Longevity, regeneration, and optimal health, 2009. 1172: p.
    34-53.

    Kilpatrick, L.A., et al., Impact of mindfulness-based
    stress reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. NeuroImage,
    2011. 56: p. 290–298.

    Ospina, M.B., et al., Clinical trials of
    meditation practices in health care:characteristics and quality. The
    Journal of Alternative And Complementary Medicine, 2008. 14(10): p.
    1199–1213.

    Yu, X., et al., Activation of the anterior prefrontal
    cortex and serotonergic system is associated with improvements in mood
    and EEG changes induced by Zen meditation practice in novices.
    International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2011. 80: p. 103-111.


    Hölzel, B.K., et al., Mindfulness practice leads to increases in
    regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging,
    2011. 191: p. 36-43.

    Luders, E., et al., The unique brain anatomy
    of meditation practitioners: alterations in cortical gyrification.
    frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2012. 6(34): p. 1-9.

    Hasenkamp,
    W. and L.W. Barsalou, Effects of meditation experience on functional
    connectivity of distributed brain networks. frontiers in Human
    Neuroscience, 2012. 6(38): p. 1-14.

    Carlson, L.E., et al.,
    Mindfulness-based cancer recovery and supportive-expressive therapy
    maintain telomere length relative to controls in distressed breast
    cancer survivors.
    Caption author (Spanish)
    Magdalena Bascuñan
    Caption author (Italian)
    Giorgia Marletta
    Caption author (Danish)
    Amanda Louise Steen
    Caption author (Portuguese)
    Lilian Villela
    Category
    Science & Technology


    youtube.com
    How exactly does meditation affect your body? GET THE BOOK! http://asapscience.com/book SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/10kWnZ7 Written by:…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtddAc7F4dk
    Zen Monks - Advice to improve human lifestyle.
    Britain Tamil Bhakthi
    Published on Jul 18, 2017
    Zen Monks has given so many advice through which they have improved theirs and their followers lifestyle.

    Website: www.britaintamil.com
    Email: media@britaintamil.com
    for Advert: advert@britaintamil.com
    Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Britain-Tami
    Twitter: https://twitter.com/btamilbbhakthi
    Category
    Nonprofits & Activism


    youtube.com
    Zen Monks has given so many advice through which they have improved theirs and their followers lifestyle.…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQ00ltIiaGs
    10 Signs of Highly Intelligent People | Tamil
    MK videocast
    Published on Jun 24, 2018
    Have you ever tested your Intelligence?
    What are you waiting for….go on & watch the video
    :)


    Credits to source:
    https://www.providr.com/signs-that-yo

    Connect with me
    Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mkmadhank
    Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/mkmadhank
    Twitter: https://twitter.com/mkmadhank

    Disclaimer:
    The views and opinions expressed in this presentation are strictly my
    own and not those of any people, institutions or organizations that I
    may or may not be related with unless stated explicitly.

    Also,
    my thoughts and opinions change from time to time as I come to learn
    more and develop my understanding about the things and issues that I am
    presenting about. This presentation just provides a snapshot of the
    knowledge, views and opinions that I hold to particular point of time
    and these might most probably change over a period of time. I reserve
    the right to evolve my knowledge, thoughts and viewpoints over time and
    to change them without assigning any reason.
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    Have you ever tested your Intelligence? What are you waiting for….go on & watch the video :) Credits to source: https://www.providr.com/signs-that-you-are-

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    The Life of the Buddha animation.divx
    lathrios
    Published on Oct 17, 2011
    Category
    Education


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_texts

    Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages
    which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism
    spread. They can be categorized in a number of ways. The Western terms
    “scripture” and “canonical” are applied to Buddhism in inconsistent ways by Western scholars: for example, one authority[1] refers to “scriptures and other canonical texts”, while another[2]
    says that scriptures can be categorized into canonical, commentarial
    and pseudo-canonical. Buddhist traditions have generally divided these
    texts with their own categories and divisions, such as that between Buddhavacana “word of the Buddha,” many of which are known as “Sutras,” and other texts, such as Shastras (treatises) or Abhidharma.

    These religious texts were written in many different languages
    and scripts but memorizing, reciting and copying the texts were of high
    value. Even after the development of printing, Buddhists preferred to
    keep to their original practices with these texts.[3]

    Buddhavacana

    Traditional criteria

    According
    to Donald Lopez, criteria for determining what should be considered
    buddhavacana were developed at an early stage, and that the early
    formulations do not suggest that Dharma is limited to what was spoken by the historical Buddha.[4] The Mahāsāṃghika and the Mūlasarvāstivāda considered both the Buddha’s discourses, and of his disciples, to be buddhavacana.[5] A number of different beings such as buddhas, disciples of the buddha, ṛṣis, and devas were considered capable to transmitting buddhavacana.[6] The content of such a discourse was then to be collated with the sūtras, compared with the Vinaya, and evaluated against the nature of the Dharma.[7][8] These texts may then be certified as true buddhavacana by a buddha, a saṃgha, a small group of elders, or one knowledgeable elder.[9][10]

    In Theravada Buddhism

    In Theravada Buddhism, the standard collection of buddhavacana is the Pāli Canon.

    Some scholars believe that some portions of the Pali Canon and Agamas could contain the actual substance of the historical teachings (and possibly even the words) of the Buddha.[note 1][note 2]


    ·

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    HNIW
    Published on Nov 26, 2013
    Category
    Education

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Guru Nanak - Religions of the World (Sikhism)

    100
    6
    Share
    Gurumustuk Singh
    Published on Apr 16, 2015
    One part about Guru Nanak from an old animated TV series “Religions of the World: Our World Faiths Animated (1998)”.


    “Illustrating brilliant renditions of different faiths and cultures
    around the world, this highly acclaimed animated series from the BBC
    captures the essence and basic tenets of eight religions—Christianity,
    Judaism, Islam, Sufism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Confucianism.
    Each 15-minute segment (Buddhism and Hinduism are 30 minutes each)
    offers easy-to-grasp stories through soothing characters, pleasant and
    culturally significant music, and a mixture of cel animation, paintings,
    and Claymation. Though appropriate for all ages, this artistically
    valid series is a great way to capture the interest and enthusiasm of
    younger students.”

    You can get the whole series on DVD http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00005YRV7

    Portuguese version of this video here:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=235&v
    Category
    Film & Animation


    youtube.com
    One
    part about Guru Nanak from an old animated TV series “Religions of the
    World: Our World Faiths Animated (1998)”. “Illustrating brilliant
    renditions of di…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    The Life of Christ animation.divx

    lathrios
    Published on Oct 17, 2011
    Category
    Education


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    A cute cartoon about the History of Religion


    youtube.com


    comments (0)
    08/09/18
    2709 Fri 10 Aug 2018 LESSON (50) Fri 10 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 11:16 pm
    2709 Fri 10 Aug 2018 LESSON (50) Fri 10 Aug 2007  

    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)


    In Wisdom From
    World Religions

    Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

    Helps you enrich your life with the
    religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hNJmi4jzD0

    Join a leading comparative religion professor in studying faiths across the globe. Wisdom from World Religions…

    https://wisdomfromworldreligions.com/about



    WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

    This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:

    • What clues do science and the world’s religions give about the meaning and purpose of life?



    • Is science the ultimate guide to the deepest truth of life?


    • Why do the many world religions offer such different pictures of the meaning of life?


    • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?


    • Is death the end of life?

    Sign up by August 12 to begin this spiritual journey.


    NEXT SESSION:


    August 13, 2018

    Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKFSVs-mA6c&t=31s
    Buddha quotes | The Fourteen Teachings Of The Buddha
    The Art Of Living Meditation
    Published on Jul 30, 2014
    Buddha quotes | The Fourteen Teachings Of The Buddha
    Listen to buddhist meditation music for relaxing and read the fourteen buddha teachings - buddha quotes.
    Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c
    Share Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKFSV

    •———————•
    Buddha teachings quotes, Buddha teachings book, buddha teachings on
    life, Buddha teachings on love, Buddha teachings youtube, Buddha
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    buddha quotes on love, buddha quotes anger, buddha quotes death, buddha
    quotes happiness, buddha quotes family, buddha quotes on mind,
    tuonglivingmeditation
    Category
    Education


    Buddha quotes | The Fourteen Teachings Of The Buddha Listen to buddhist meditation music for…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9uL5oThqPE
    99 Buddha Quotes That Will Awaken You with Avareness | Buddhist teachings | Mystery 24h

    Mystery 24H
    Mystery 24H
    9 months ago
    “99″ Buddha Quotes That Will Enlighten You | Buddhist teachings | Mystery 24h
    ***No matter what your religious beliefs are or what background you
    come from there is great value to be taken from the teachings of the
    Buddha.

    At the age of 35,
    Gautama Buddha decided to embark on his own spiritual path. Once
    enlightened, Buddha attracted a following and dedicated his life to
    teaching the path of enlightenment to them.

    Having inspired
    generations of people for over 2500 years, Buddhism is now a way of life
    for around 300 million people worldwide that encompasses a peaceful,
    calm and fair way of life.

    These are 99 Buddha quotes that will
    enlighten your mind. Read them, learn from them, apply them in your own
    life and share them.
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    Thanks for watching! If you enjoyed the Video, give it a thumbs up and please subscribe for new videos! https://goo.gl/A8mK3r