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BOOK FIVE: THE SANGH

Book Five, Part I—The Sangh

1. *The Sangh and its Organisation* — 2. *Admission to the Sangh* — 3. *The Bhikkhu and His Vows* — 4. *The Bhikkhu and Ecclesiastical Offences* — 5. *The Bhikkhu and Restraints* — 6. *The Bhikkhu and Good Conduct Rules* — 7. *The Bhikkhu and the Trial of Offences* — 8. *The Bhikkhu and Confession*


§ 1. The Sangh and its Organisation

    1. The followers of the Blessed Lord were divided into two classes: Bhikkhus, and Lay Followers called Upasakas.
    2. The Bhikkhus were organised into a Sangh, while the Upasakas were not.
    3. The Buddhist Bhikkhu is primarily a Parivrajaka. This institution of Parivrajaka is older than that of the Buddhist Bhikkhu.
    4. The old Parivrajakas were persons who had abandoned family life, and were a mere floating body of wanderers.
    5. They roamed about with a view to ascertain the truth by coming into contact with various teachers and philosophers, listening to their discourses, entering into discussion on matters of ethics, philosophy, nature, mysticism, etc.
    6. Some of the old type of Parivrajakas lived under a teacher until they found another. Others lived singly, without acknowledging any master.
    7. Among these older type of Parivrajakas there were also women wanderers. The female Parivrajakas sometimes lived with men Parivrajakas; sometimes they lived alone and by themselves.
    8. These old type of Parivrajakas had no Sangh, had no rules of discipline, and had no ideal to strive for.
    9. It was for the first time that the Blessed Lord organised his followers into a Sangh or fraternity, and gave them rules of discipline, and set before them an ideal to pursue and realise.


§2. Admission to the Sangh

    1. The Sangh was open to all.
    2. There was no bar of caste.
    3. There was no bar of sex.
    4. There was no bar of status.
    5. Caste had no place in the Sangh.
    6. Social status had no place in the Sangh.
    7. Inside the Sangh all were equal.
    8. Inside the Sangh, rank was regulated by worth and not by birth.
    9. As the Blessed Lord said, the Sangh was like the ocean, and the Bhikkhus were like the rivers that fell into the ocean.
    10. The river has its separate name and separate existence.
    11. But once the river entered the ocean, it lost its separate name and separate existence.
    12. It becomes one with the rest.
    13. Same is the case with the Sangh. When a Bhikkhu entered the Sangh, he became one with the rest, like the water of the ocean.
    14. He lost his caste. He lost his status; so said the Lord.
    15. The only distinction observed inside the Sangh was that of sex. The Bhikkhu Sangh was separate in its organisation from the Bhikkhuni Sangh.
    16. The entrants into the Sangh were divided into two classes: Shramaneras and Bhikkhus.
    17. Anyone below twenty could become a Shramanera.
    18. By taking the trisaranas and by taking the ten precepts, a boy becomes a Shramanera.
    19. “I follow the Buddha; I follow the Dhamma; and I follow the Sangh”—are the Trisaranas.
    20. “I shall abstain from killing; I shall not commit theft; I shall follow Brahmacharya; I shall not tell [an] untruth; I shall abstain from drink.”
    21. “I shall abstain from taking food at an untimely hour; I shall abstain from indecent and immoral acts; I shall abstain from ornamenting and decorating myself; I shall abstain from luxuries; I shall abstain from the love of gold and silver.”
    22. These are the ten precepts.
    23. A Shramanera can leave the Sangh at any time and become a layman. A Shramanera is attached [to a] Bhikkhu, and spends his time in the service of the Bhikkhu. He is not a person who has taken Parivraja.
    24. The status of a Bhikkhu has to be reached in two stages. The first stage is called Parivraja, and the second stage is called Upasampada. It is after Upasampada that he becomes a Bhikkhu.
    25. A candidate who wishes to take Parivraja, with a view ultimately to become a Bhikkhu, has to seek a Bhikkhu who has the right to act as an Uppadhya. A Bhikkhu can become an Uppadhya only after he has spent at least ten years as a Bhikkhu.
    26. Such a candidate, if accepted by the Uppadhya, is called a Parivrajaka, and has to remain in the service and tutelage of the Uppadhya.
    27. After the period of tutelage ends, it is his Uppadhya who has to propose the name of his student to a meeting of the Sangh specially called for the purpose, for Upasampada; and the student must request the Sangh for Upasampada.
    28. The Sangh must be satisfied that he is a fit and a proper person to be made a Bhikkhu. For this purpose, there is a set of questions which the candidate has to answer.
    29. Only when the Sangh grants permission, that Upasampada is granted and the person becomes a Bhikkhu.
    30. The rules regulating entry into the Bhikkhuni Sangh are more or less the same as the rules regulating the entry into the Bhikkhu Sangh.


§ 3. The Bhikkhu and His Vows

    1. A layman or a Shramanera takes precepts. His obligation is to follow them.
    2. A Bhikkhu, besides taking precepts, takes them also as vows which he must not break. If he breaks them, he becomes liable to punishment.
    3. A Bhikkhu vows to remain celebate.
    4. A Bhikkhu vows not to commit theft.
    5. A Bhikkhu vows not to boast.
    6. A Bhikkhu vows not to kill or take life.
    7. A Bhikkhu vows not to own anything except what the rules allow.
    8. No Bhikkhu is to possess more than the following eight articles:—

(1) Three pieces of cloth to cover his body:(i) [a] lower garment called Antarvaska; (ii) [an] upper garment called Uttarasang; (iii) [a] covering garment against cold called Sanghati.
(2) A girdle for the loins.
(3) An alms-bowl.
(4) A razor.
(5) A needle.
(6) A water-strainer.

    9. A Bhikkhu takes the vow of poverty. He must beg for his food. He must live on alms. He must sustain himself only on one meal a day. Where there is no Vihar built for the Sangh, he must live under a tree.
    10. A Bhikkhu does not take a vow of obedience. Outward respect and courtesy to his superiors is expected from the novice. His own salvation and his usefulness as a teacher depend on his self-culture. He is to obey not his superior, but the Dhamma. His superior has no supernatural gift of wisdom or of absolution. He must stand or fall by himself. For that he must have freedom of thought.
    11. Any breach of a vow taken by a Bhikkhu results in an offence of Parajika. The punishment for Parajika is expulsion from the Sangh.


§ 4. The Bhikkhu and Ecclesiastical Offences

    1. Any breach of the vows taken by a Bhikkhu is an offence against the Dhamma.
    2. In addition to these offences, there were certain other offences to which he was also liable. They were called Sanghadisesa, “ecclesiastical offences.”
    3. The list of such offences included in the Vinaya Pitaka are thirteen.
    4. They are allied to the Parajika.


§ 5. The Bhikkhu and Restraints

    1. Besides sailing [=steering] clear of offences, a Bhikkhu must observe certain restrictions, and cannot be as free as others.
    2. One set of such restrictions are called Nissagiya-pacittiya. It contains 26 restrictions to be observed by the Bhikkhu.
    3. They relate to accepting gifts of robes, woollen mats, bowls, and medical requisites.
    4. They also relate to the acceptance of gold and silver, [and] engagement of a monk in buying and selling, and appropriation of property given to the Sangh to himself.
    5. The punishment for [a] breach of these restrictions is restoration (nissagiya) and expression of repentance (pacittiya).
    6. Besides these restrictions there are other restrictions which a Bhikkhu has to observe. They are called pacittiya. They number ninety-two.


§ 6. The Bhikkhu and Good Conduct Rules

    1. A Bhikkhu must behave well. He should be a model person in his mode and manner of behaviour.
    2. In order to secure this purpose, the Blessed Lord framed a number of  Conduct Rules.
    3. These Good Conduct Rules were called Sekhiya Dhamma. They number seventy-five.


§ 7. The Bhikkhu and the Trial of Offences

    1. The enactment of these acts and omissions were [=was] not a mere formality. They were legal in substance, involving a definite charge, trial, and punishment.
    2. No Bhikkhu could be punished without a trial by a regularly constituted Court.
    3. The Court was to be constituted by the Bhikkhus resident at the place where an offence had taken place.
    4. No trial could take place without a proper number of Bhikkhus required to constitute a Court.
    5. No trial would be legal without a definite charge.
    6. No trial could be legal if it did not take place in the presence of the accused.
    7. No trial could be legal if the accused had not been given the fullest opportunity to defend himself.
    8. The following punishments could be awarded against a guilty Bhikkhu: (i) Tarjaniya Karma (warn and discharge); (ii) Niyasha Karma (declaring insane); (iii) Pravrajniya Karma (expulsion from the Sangh); (iv) Utskhepniya Karma (boycott); (v) Parivasa Karma (expulsion from Vihar).
    9. Expulsion may be followed by abbana karma. Abbana Karma means annulment of dismemberment [=expulsion]. It may be followed after granting of pardon granted by the Sangh, after being satisfied with the proper performance of Parivasa Karma.


§ 8. The Bhikkhu and Confession

    1. The most original and unique institution created by the Blessed Lord in connection with the organisation of the Bhikkhus was the introduction of Confession, called uposath.
    2. The Blessed Lord realized that it was possible to enforce what he had laid down as offences. But he had laid down certain restrictions which were not offences. He said that the restrictions were most intimately connected with building up of character and maintaining character; and that there was equal necessity to see that they were observed.
    3. But the Lord could find no effective way of enforcing them. He therefore thought of Confession in open [=public] as a means of organising the Bhikkhu’s conscience and making it act as a sentinel to guard him against taking a wrong or false step.
    4. The Confession was confined to the transgressions of restrictions (which were called Patimokha).
    5. For a Confession there was to be a meeting of the Bhikkhus of a given locality. There were to be three such meetings in a fortnight, one each on chaturdashi, panchadasi, and ashatam; on that day, the Bhikkhus may fast. That is why the day is also called uposath.
    6. At the meeting a Bhikkhu reads the restrictions, one by one, contained in the Patimokha. After reading a restriction, he says to the assembled Bhikkhus, “I take it that none of you have transgressed this Rule, that is why you are silent.” He says this three times. Then [he] deals with the next restriction.
    7. A similar Confessional meeting is required of the Bhikhhuni Sangh.
    8. On a Confession a charge and trial may follow.
    9. On a failure to Confess, any Bhikkhu may report a transgression, if he was a witness to it; and then a charge and trial may follow.

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 Mighty Great Words of the Mighty Great Mind

BOOK FOUR:  RELIGION AND DHAMMA

Book Four, Part I—His Place in His Dhamma

1. *What is Religion?* — 2. *How Dhamma Differs From Religion* — 3. *The Purpose of Religion and the Purpose of Dhamma* — 4. *Morality and Religion* — 5. *Dhamma and Morality* — 6. *Mere Morality is not Enough: it must be Sacred and Universal*


§ 1. What is Religion?

    1. The word “religion” is an indefinite word with no fixed meaning.
    2. It is one word with many meanings.
    3. This is because religion has passed through many stages. The concept at each stage is called Religion, though the concept at one stage has not had the same meaning which it had at the preceding stage, or is likely to have at the succeeding stage.
    4. The conception of religion was never fixed.
    5. It has varied from time to time.
    6. Because most of the phenomena such as lightning, rain, and floods, the occurrence of which the primitive man could not explain, [were not understood], any weird performance done to control the phenomenon was called magic. Religion therefore came to be identified with magic.
    7. Then came the second stage in the evolution of religion. In this stage religion came to be identified with beliefs, rituals, ceremonies, prayers, and sacrifices.
    8. But this conception of religion is derivative.
    9. The pivotal point in religion starts with the belief that there exists some power which causes these phenomena, which primitive man did not know and could not understand. Magic lost its place at this stage.
    10. This power was originally malevolent. But later it was felt that it could also be benevolent.
    11. Beliefs, rites, ceremonies, and sacrifices were necessary both to propitiate a benevolent power, and also to conciliate an angry power.
    12. Later that power was called God or the Creator.
    13. Then came the third stage: that it is this God who created this world and also man.
    14. This was followed by the belief that man has a soul, and the soul is eternal and is answerable to God for man’s actions in the world.
    15. This is, in short, the evolution of the concept of Religion.
    16. This is what Religion has come to be and this is what it connotes–belief in God, belief in [a] soul, worship of God, curing of the erring soul, propitiating God by prayers, ceremonies, sacrifices, etc.


§2. How Dhamma Differs From Religion

    1. What the Buddha calls Dhamma differs fundamentally from what is called Religion.
    2. What the Buddha calls Dhamma is analogous to what the European theologians call Religion.
    3. But there is no greater affinity between the two. On the other hand, the differences between the two are very great.
    4. On this account, some European theologians refuse to recognise the Buddha’s Dhamma as Religion.
    5. There need be no regrets over this. The loss is theirs. It does no harm to the Buddha’s Dhamma. Rather, it shows what is wanting in Religion.
    6. Instead of entering into this controversy, it is better to proceed to give an idea of Dhamma, and show how it differs from Religion.
    7. Religion, it is said, is personal, and one must keep it to oneself. One must not let it play its part in public life.
    8. Contrary to this, Dhamma is social. It is fundamentally and essentially so.
    9. Dhamma is righteousness, which means right relations between man and man in all spheres of life.
    10. From this it is evident that one man, if he is alone, does not need Dhamma.
    11. But when there are two men living in relation to each other, they must find a place for Dhamma whether they like it or not. Neither can escape it.
    12. In other words. Society cannot do without Dhamma.
    13. Society has to choose one of the three alternatives.
    14. Society may choose not to have any Dhamma as an instrument of Government.  For Dhamma is nothing if it is not an instrument of Government.
    15. This means Society chooses the road to anarchy.
    16. Secondly, Society may choose the police–i.e., dictatorship–as an instrument of Government.
    17. Thirdly, Society may choose Dhamma, plus the Magistrate wherever people fail to observe the Dhamma.
    18. In anarchy and dictatorship liberty is lost.
    19. Only in the third [case] liberty survives.
    20. Those who want liberty must therefore have Dhamma.
    21. Now what is Dhamma? and why is Dhamma necessary?  According to the Buddha, Dhamma consists of Prajna and Karuna.
    22. What is Prajna? And why Prajna? Prajna is understanding. The Buddha made Prajna one of the two corner-stones of His Dhamma because he did not wish to leave any room for superstition.
    23. What is Karuna? And why Karuna? Karuna is love. Because without it, Society can neither live nor grow; that is why the Buddha made it the second corner-stone of His Dhamma.
    24. Such is the definition of the Buddha’s Dhamma.
    25. How different is this definition of Dhamma from that of Religion.
    26. So ancient, yet so modern, is the definition of Dhamma given by the Buddha.
    27. So aboriginal, yet so original.
    28. Not borrowed from anyone, yet so true.
    29. A unique amalgam of Pradnya and Karuna is the Dhamma of the Buddha.
    30. Such is the difference between Religion and Dhamma.


§ 3. The Purpose of Religion and the Purpose of Dhamma

    1. What is the purpose of Religion? What is the purpose of Dhamma? Are they one and the same? Or are they different
    2. The answer to these questions are to be found in two dialogues–one between the Buddha and Sunakkhatta, and the other between the Buddha and the Brahmin Potthapada.
    3. The Exalted One was once staying among the Mallas, at Anupiya, one of their towns.
    4. Now the Exalted One ,having robed himself in the early morning, put on his cloak and took his bowl and entered the town for alms.
    5. On the way, he thought it was too early to go for alms. Therefore he went to the pleasance where Bhaggava the wanderer dwelt, and called on him.
    6. On seeing the Blessed One Bhaggava got up, saluted him, and said, “May it please you, sire, to be seated; here is a seat made ready for you.”
    7. The Exalted One sat down thereon, and Bhaggava, taking a certain low stool sat down beside him. So seated, Bhaggava, the wanderer, spake thus to the Exalted One :
    8 “Some days ago, Lord, a good many days ago, Sunakkhatta of the Licchavis called on me and spake thus: ‘I have now given up the Exalted One, Bhaggava. I am remaining no longer under him (as my teacher).’ Is the fact really so, just as he said?”
    9. “It is just so, Bhaggava, as Sunakkhatta of the Licchavis said,” replied the Blessed One.
    10. “Some days ago, Bhaggava, a good many days ago, Sunakkhatta, the Licchavi, came to call on me, and spake thus: ‘Sir, I now give up the Exalted One. I will henceforth remain no longer under him (as my teacher).’ When he told me this, I said to him: ‘But now, Sunakkhatta, have I ever said to you, Come, Sunakkhatta, live under me (as my pupil)?’
    11. “‘No sir, you have not.’
    12. “Or have you ever said to me: ‘Sir, I would fain dwell under the Exalted One (as my teacher)?’
    13. “‘No sir, I have not.’
    14. “Then I asked him ‘If I said not the one, and you said not the other, what are you and what am I, that you talk of giving up? See, foolish one, in how far the fault here is your own.’
    15. “‘Well, but, sir, the Exalted One works me no mystic wonders surpassing the power of ordinary men.’
    16. “Why now, Sunakkhatta, have I ever said to you: ‘Come, take me as your teacher, Sunakkhatta, and I will work for you mystic wonders surpassing the power of ordinary men?’
    17. “‘You have not, sir.’
    18. “Or have you ever said to me: ‘Sir, I would fain take the Exalted One as my teacher, for he will work for me mystic wonders beyond the powers of ordinary men?’
    19. “‘I have not, sir.’
    20. “‘But if I said not the one, and you said not the other, what are you and what am I, foolish man, that you talk of giving up? What think you, Sunakkhatta? Whether mystic wonders beyond the power of ordinary man are wrought, or whether they are not, is the object for which I teach the Dhamma: that it leads to the thorough, destruction of ill for the doer thereof?’
    21. ‘”Whether, sir, they are so wrought or not, that is indeed the object for which the Dhamma is taught by the Exalted One.’
    22. “‘If then, Sunakkhatta, it matters not to that object whether mystic wonders are wrought or not, of what use to you would be the working of them? See, foolish one, in how far the fault here is your own.’
    23. “‘But, sir, the Exalted One does not reveal to me the beginning of things.’
    24. “Why now, Sunakkhatta, have I ever said to you: ‘Come, Sunakkhatta, be my. disciple and I will reveal to you the beginning of things?’
    25. “‘Sir, you have not.’
    26. “Or have you ever said to me: ‘I will become the Exalted One’s pupil, for he will reveal to me the beginning of things?’
    27. “‘Sir, I have not.’
    28. “‘But if I have not said the one and you have not said the other, what are you and what am I, foolish man, that you talk of giving up on that account? What think you, Sunakkhatta? Whether the beginning of things be revealed, or whether it be not, is the object for which I teach the Dhamma, that it leads to the thorough destruction of ill for the doer thereof?
    29. “‘Whether, sir, they are revealed or not, that is indeed the object for which the Dhamma is taught by the Exalted One.’
    30. “‘If then, Sunakkhatta, it matters not to that object whether the beginning of things be revealed, or whether it be not, of what use to you would it be to have the beginning of things revealed?’”
    31. This illustrates that Religion is concerned with revealing the beginning of things and Dhamma is not.

§ 3 part 2 — The other differences between Religion and Dhamma are brought out in the discussion between the Blessed One and Potthapada.

    1. The Blessed One was once staying at Shravasti in Anathapindika’s pleasance of the Jeta’s wood. Now at that time Potthapada, the wandering mendicant, was dwelling in the hall put up in Queen Mallika’s park for a debate on general systems of philosophical opinion.
    2. There was with him a great following of mendicants; to wit, three hundred. A dialogue took place between the Blessed Lord and Potthapada. Potthapada asked:
    3. “Then, sir, if that be so, tell me at least, is the world eternal? Is this alone the truth, and any other view mere folly?’”
    4. “That, Potthapada, is a matter on which I have expressed no opinion,” replied the Blessed Lord.
    5. Then, in the same terms, Potthapada asked each of the following questions:

(i) ‘Is the world not eternal?’
(ii) ‘Is the world finite?’
(iii) ‘Is the world infinite?’
(iv) ‘Is the soul the same as the body?’
(v) ‘Is the soul one thing, and the body another?’
(vi) ‘Does one who has gained the truth live again after death?’
(vii) ‘Does he not live again after death?’
(viii) ‘Does he both live again and not live again, after death?’
(ix) ‘Does he neither live again, nor not live again, after death?’

    6. And to each questions the Exalted One made the same reply:–
    7. “That too, Potthapada, is a matter on which I have expressed no opinion.”
    8. “But why has the Exalted One expressed no opinion on that?”
    9. “Because this question is not calculated to profit, it is not concerned with the Dhamma, it does not redound even to the elements of right conduct, nor to detachment, nor to purification from lusts, nor to quietude, nor to tranquillisation of heart, nor to real knowledge, nor to the insight (of the higher stages of the Path), nor to Nirvana. Therefore is it that I express no opinion upon it. ”
    10. “Then what is it that the Exalted One has determined?”
    11. “I have expounded, Potthapada, what Dukkha is; I have expounded what is the origin of Dukkha; I have expounded what is the cessation of Dukkha; I have expounded what is the method by which one may reach the cessation of Dukkha.”
    12. “And why has the Exalted One put forth a statement as to that?”
    13. “Because that question, Potthapada, is calculated to profit, is concerned with the Dhamma, redounds to the beginnings of right conduct, to detachment, to purification from lusts, to quietude, to tranquillisation of heart, to real knowledge, to the insight of the higher stages of the Path, and to Nirvana. Therefore is it, Potthapada, that I have put forward a statement as to that.”
    14. In this dialogue it is clearly put forth what is the subject matter of Religion, and what is not the subject matter of Dhamma. The two are poles apart
    15. The purpose of Religion is to explain the origin of the world. The purpose of Dhamma is to reconstruct the world.


§ 4. Morality and Religion

    1. What is the place of morality in Religion?
    2. As a matter of truth, morality has no place in Religion.
    3. The content of religion consists of God, soul, prayers, worship, rituals, ceremonies, and sacrifices.
    4. Morality comes in only wherein man comes in relation to man.
    5. Morality comes into religion as a side wind, to maintain peace and order.
    6. Religion is a triangular piece.
    7. Be good to your neighbour, because you are both children of God.
    8. That is the argument of religion.
    9. Every religion preaches morality, but morality is not the root of religion.
    10. It is a wagon attached to it. It is attached and detached as the occasion requires.
    11. The action of morality in the functioning of religion is therefore casual and occasional.
    12. Morality in religion is therefore not effective.


§ 5. Dhamma and Morality

    1. What is the place of morality in Dhamma?
    2. The simple answer is, Morality is Dhamma and Dhamma is Morality.
    3. In other words, in Dhamma morality takes the place of God, although there is no God in Dhamma.
    4. In Dhamma there is no place for prayers, pilgrimages, rituals, ceremonies, or sacrifices.
    5. Morality is the essence of Dhamma. Without it there is no Dhamma.
    6. Morality in Dhamma arises from the direct necessity for man to love man.
    7. It does not require the sanction of God. It is not to please God that man has to be moral. It is for his own good that man has to love man.


§ 6. Mere Morality is not Enough: it must be Sacred and Universal

    1. When is a thing sacred? Why is a thing sacred?
    2. In every human society, primitive or advanced, there are some things or beliefs which it regards as sacred, and the rest [it regards] as profane.
    3. When a thing or belief has reached the stage of being sacred (pavitra), it means that it cannot be violated. Indeed it cannot be touched. It is taboo.
    4. Contrary to this, a thing or a belief which is profane (apavitra), i.e., outside the field of the sacred, may be violated. It means one can act contrary to it, without feeling any fear or qualms of conscience.
    5. The sacred is something holy. To transgress it is a sacrilege.
    6. Why is a thing made sacred? To confine the scope of the question to the matter in hand, why morality should [=should morality] have been made sacred?
    7. Three factors seem to have played their part in making morality sacred.
    8. The first factor is the social need for protecting the best.
    9. The background of this question lies imbedded in what is called the struggle of existence and the survival of the fittest.
    10. This arises out of the theory of evolution. It is common knowledge that evolution takes place through a struggle for existence, because the means of food supply in early times were so limited.
    11. The struggle is bitter. Nature is said to be red in claw and tooth.
    12. In this struggle, which is bitter and bloody, only the fittest survive.
    13. Such is the original state of society.
    14. In the course of [the] ancient past someone must have raised the question, is the fittest (the strongest) the best? Would not the weakest, if protected, be ultimately the best for advancing the ends and aims of society?
    15. The then prevailing state of society seems to have given an answer in the affirmative.
    16. Then comes, the question what is the way to protect the weak?
    17. Nothing less than to impose some restraints upon the fittest.
    18. In this lies the origin and necessity for morality.
    19. This morality had to be sacred, because it was imposed originally on the fittest, i.e., the strongest.
    20. This has very serious consequences.
    21. First, does morality in becoming social become anti-social?
    22. It is not that there is no morality among thieves. There is morality among businessmen. There is morality among fellow castemen and there is also morality among a gang of robbers.
    23. But this morality is marked by isolation and exclusiveness. It is a morality to protect “group interest.” It is therefore anti-social.
    24. It is the isolation and exclusiveness of this kind of morality which throws its anti-social spirit in[to] relief.
    25. The same is true where a group observes morality because it has interests of its own to protect.
    26. The results of this group organisation of society are far-reaching.
    27. If society continues to consist of anti-social groups, society will remain a disorganised and a factional society.
    28. The danger of a disorganised and factional state of society is that it sets up a number of different models and standards.
    29. In the absence of common models and common standards, society cannot be a harmonious whole,
    30. With such different models and standards, it is impossible for the individual to attain consistency of mind.
    31. A society which rests upon the supremacy of one group over another, irrespective of its rational or proportionate claims, inevitably leads to conflict.
    32. The only way to put a stop to conflict is to have common rules of morality which are sacred to all.
    33. There is the third factor which requires morality to be made sacred and universal. It is to safeguard the growth of the individual.
    34. Under the struggle for existence or under group rule the interests of the individuals are not safe.
    35. The group set-up prevents an individual from acquiring consistency of mind, which is possible only when society has common ideals, common models. His thoughts are led astray, and this creates a mind whose seeing unity is forced and distorted.
    36. Secondly, the group set-up leads to discrimination and denial of justice.
    37. The group set-up leads to stratification of classes. Those who are masters remain masters, and those who are born in slavery remain slaves. Owners remain owners, and workers remain workers. The privileged remain privileged, and the serfs remain serfs.
    38. This means that there can be liberty for some, but not for all. This  means that there can be equality for a few, but none for the majority.
    39. What is the remedy? The only remedy lies in making fraternity universally effective.
    40. What is fraternity? It is nothing but another name for [the] brotherhood of men–which is another name for morality.
    41. This is why the Buddha preached that Dhamma is morality; and as Dhamma is sacred, so is morality.
 

Mbeki cites Ambedkar during speech in Parliament

Durban, PTI:

South African President Thabo Mbeki has cited BR Ambedkar, one of India’s great political leaders and constitutional experts, to point out that the country’s socio-economic development will not be an easy task owing to the colonial and apartheid past.

He was speaking in Parliament in Cape Town on Thusday in response to members who criticised the vast gap between the rich and poor; the rising anger of the former oppressed and his policy towards neighbouring Zimbabwe where its leader, President Robert Mugabe, has reduced the country to ruin.

Mbeki quoted Ambedkar as saying soon after India’s independence in 1947 that India would enter a life of contradictions. He quoted Ambedkar as follows:

“In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality. In politics we will be recognising the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value. In our social and economic life, we shall, by reason of our social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value.

“How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life? If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril.”

Mbeki went on to tell the members of parliament that “Sixty years after its independence, India today continues to live the life of contradictions which Dr Ambedkar, an Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath (Untouchable) Man, decried 59 years ago, while it is engaged in a continuing struggle to resolve these contradictions.”

Mbeki also referred to the civil war in the US and the French revolution and said despite the victories, the people in those countries were also living social and economic contradictions.

Drawing parallel among Americans, French and the Indians, Mbeki said South Africans were also caught up in a world of social and economic contradictions.

“We achieved our own emancipation a mere 14 years ago. We adopted our current Constitution only 12 years ago.

“Clearly, the inequalities in social and economic life, born of our social and economic structure, of which Dr Ambedkar spoke, will persist in our country for a significant period of time.

“The contradictions he spoke of will continually put to the test the durability and resilience of our political democracy.

He said “consequently, we must continue to insist upon, and pursue programmes aimed at the eradication of the legacy of colonialism and apartheid.”

“In our case, given the fact that the social and economic structure has very deep roots, the leaders in this House and Parliament as a whole, the Honourable Members, and other leaders in our society, have at last to understand that the task we face and have faced for the last 14 years is truly revolutionary in character.

“What our country has been about in our years of liberation has been to give itself a new birth not merely new houses, and new clinics, and new schools, and new roads, and more jobs, and much else besides but also a new national identity, of equal citizens in a non-racial society, of equal citizens in a non-sexist society, of equal citizens in a society liberated from poverty, of equal citizens in a truly popular participatory democracy.”

Uttar Pradesh to install speed-control devices in buses

The Uttar Pradesh government has directed its road transport corporation (UPSRTC) to install speed-control devices in all its buses, an official said here Wednesday

The Uttar Pradesh government has directed its road transport corporation (UPSRTC) to install speed-control devices in all its buses, an official said here Wednesday.

‘The move intends to check overspeeding of buses that tend to cause road mishaps. Following the government directive, we will ensure fitting of speed-control devices in about 7,000 buses owned by the UPSRTC,’ Chief General Manager (Technical) A.K. Srivastava told IANS.

After the installation of the devices, drivers of buses that ply on highways will not be able to exceed the speed of 65 km per hour, while speed of other buses will be a maximum 55 km per hour, the official added.

Friday, Jun 13, 2008

Bank loan waiver may not be politically beneficial

THE LOAN WAIVER TRAIL - II

Ajay Modi / Meerut June 12, 2008, 0:29 IST

The bank loan waiver for small farmers is unlikely to give any significant political mileage to the United Progressive Alliance in western Uttar Pradesh, home to hardy farmers and their leaders like Ajit Singh and Mahendra Singh Tikait.

For many years now, the Congress and its allies have not had any noteworthy representation from the area. The loan-waiver package may not improve things in the next general elections in 2009, Business Standard found out in an extensive tour of the area.

Most farmers said they did not find it worthwhile to go to a bank for loan because the process was too cumbersome. “Getting a loan from any bank is tedious. They ask for innumerable documents and make us run for months before sanctioning a loan,” said Gyan Singh, a farmer.

Consider this: Only 16 per cent of the 42,000 farmers associated through loans with the 79 branches of the Punjab National Bank in the Meerut circle will benefit from the loan-waiver package. Of the Rs 268 crore outstanding dues of farmers to the bank in the circle, only Rs 28 crore will qualify for loan waiver and relief.

The upshot is, there is enough prosperity in the area for the farmers to queue up in front of banks for loans. Farmers in the area cultivate sugarcane in large numbers to feed the sugar, gur and khandsari mills that dot the landscape. The Uttar Pradesh government has always kept the purchase price of sugarcane high to be in the good books of this politically active group of farmers.

In spite of the current payment problems the farmers face from the mills, there are visible signs of prosperity all over. Most rural houses are pucca structures with a vehicle or two in the courtyard. Farmers send their children to far-off places like Ghaziabad and Noida to study in expensive public schools.

A PNB officer, who works in the region, said that a large number of farmers in and around Meerut have made a killing after they sold their land to real estate developers like Parsvnath and Ansals. As a result, the banks have gained deposits but it has led to reduction in demand for credit.

Bank officers, meanwhile, are busy implementing the waiver. Most are now required to work even on Sundays. In addition, about 45 officers from the bank’s zonal office have been deputed to monitor the package at the branch level.

Most of the records are compiled manually. “The old loan accounts are manual while the recent ones are computerised. We have to go through each of them individually and no software can be of use in this situation,” another bank officer said.

The bank also found out that soon after the package was announced, even well off farmers stopped the repayments. “Many borrowers who are not eligible for the waiver got the notion that they too will benefit and stopped the repayments. It is a challenge for us to explain to such borrowers that they need to pay,” said PNB Executive Director JM Garg, who recently visited a few branches in the circle.

To stem the rot, PNB held interactive sessions with farmers at two villages in Meerut last Saturday. Every senior officer at the PNB headquarters in New Delhi has been assigned to visit 10-15 branches to ensure smooth execution of the scheme.

Their numbers might be small, but some farmers did say that if they got relief they would vote for the Congress. Some, however, felt that the scheme discriminated between big and small farmers. “Devi Lal had announced a uniform loan relief of Rs 10,000 for every farmer, small and big. Every farmer was treated equally,” said Kuldeep Tyagi, a farmer of Sara village. Devi Lal was the deputy prime minister in the VP Singh-headed National Front government in the late-1980s.

Carrots with Orange

 

Ingredients:
1 large orange
4 carrots
10 drops of Liquid Stevia (Sunny Dew/Suncare Plus)
1 Tablespoon butter or Olive Oil
Salt and Pepper to taste

 

Directions:
Grate the zest of the orange and juice the orange.
Slice carrots into ½ inch rounds.
Put carrots, orange zest, juice, butter, and stevia in a sauce pan with a lid.

veggie burgers

INGREDIENTS
1 cup cooked short-grain brown rice
1 ½ cups cooked or canned pinto beans, rinsed and drained if canned
1 cup dry bread crumbs
½ cup coarsely ground almonds
¼ cup grated onion
¼ cup grated carrots
½ teaspoon paprika
½ teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper
2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil

French Lentil Soup 

lentil

 

French Lentil Soup
Du Puys lentils are small speckled greenish brown lentils. They retain their shape when cooked. Don’t use these more expensive lentils if you want a pureed soup. The original recipe called for sorrel, I substitute spinach and lemon.

10 oz Onion (10 oz is about 2 cups diced)
10 oz Celery
10 oz Carrot
1 tsp Olive Oil
1 lb French du Puys Lentils
10 cups Water
1 tsp Salt
2 Bay Leaves
1 Tbs Dried Thyme (or a few sprigs of fresh, remove before serving)
1 lb washed fresh Spinach, chopped (or whole if using baby spinach)
1 Tbs. fresh Lemon Juice or Apple Cider Vinegar
Freshly Ground Black Pepper

 

Cut the vegetables into small dice. Heat a heavy bottomed 4 quart or larger soup pot, add 1 tsp oil. Add vegetables to pot and sweat for 5 minutes. While the vegetables are cooking, examine the lentils for bad ones or small pebbles, then rinse in a colander. Add to pot along with water, salt, bay leaves and thyme. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer for 30 minutes. Taste the lentils for tenderness, it may need to cook an additional 10-15 minutes or may already be done. Remove the herb sprigs. Stir in the fresh spinach and simmer for about 5 minutes. If serving immediately, stir in the fresh lemon juice and serve with a wedge of lemon on the side. If freezing portions for later, use apple cider or other mild vinegar as the lemon flavor is not as strong after freezing. Garnish with black pepper when serving. Makes about 10 portions.

 

Crimson Lentil Soup
Whole red lentils stay whole. Don’t puree this soup, having the lentils whole is part of the texture. The finished soup is brown rather than the red of the split lentil soup. I could only find whole red lentils at a small Mediterranean grocery, labeled as Crimson Lentils, but they weren’t expensive. They look like small brown lentils, but you’ll see a few small specks of pink (just like split red lentils) where a few have broken.

10 oz Onion (10 oz is about 2 cups diced)
10 oz Celery
10 oz Carrot
1 tsp Olive Oil
10 cups Water
1 lb Whole Red or Crimson Lentils
1 tsp Salt
2 Bay Leaves
Herb sprigs, use all or one: 1 Rosemary, 3-4 Thyme, 1 Oregano

 

Cut the vegetables into small dice. Heat a heavy bottomed 4 quart or larger soup pot, add 1 tsp oil. Add vegetables to pot and sweat for 5 minutes. While the vegetables are cooking, examine the lentils for bad ones or small pebbles, then rinse in a colander. Add to pot along with water, salt, bay leaves and herb sprigs (if you don’t have fresh herbs, use a tsp each of a variety of dried herbs). Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer for 30 minutes. Taste the lentils for tenderness, it may need to cook an additional 10-15 minutes or may already be done. Remove the herb sprigs. Serve immediately, or freeze in individual portions. Makes about 10 portions.

 

Split Red Lentil Soup
Split red lentils break down almost completely when cooked, so it is only necessary to puree in a blender if you want to fully incorporate the vegetables to make a more velvety soup.

10 oz Onion (10 oz is about 2 cups diced)
10 oz Celery
10 oz Carrot
1 tsp Olive Oil
8 cups Water
1 lb Split Red Lentils
1 tsp Salt
2 Bay Leaves
1 sprig fresh Rosemary
3-4 Thyme sprigs (or 1 tsp dried)
2 Tbs. Fresh Parsley, minced

 

Cut the vegetables into small dice. Heat a heavy bottomed 4 quart or larger soup pot, add 1 tsp oil. Add vegetables to pot and sweat for 5 minutes. Rinse the lentils and add to pot along with water, salt, bay leaves and herb sprigs (if you don’t have fresh herbs, use a tsp each of a variety of dried herbs). Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer for 15 minutes. Taste the lentils for tenderness, it may need to cook an additional 5-10 minutes or may already be done. Remove the herbs and, if you desire, puree the soup in a blender. Do it in small batches and be careful of splatters. Stir in the fresh parsley. Serve immediately or freeze in individual portions. Makes about 8 portions

Mushrooms 

Grilled King Oyster Mushrooms

 

1 bunch Scallions
2 tsp Awase Miso paste
1 tsp Ginger, grated
1 clove Garlic pureed
1 small Hot Red Pepper, minced
1/4 tsp White Pepper, freshly ground
1 tsp Molasses
2 Tbs Soy Sauce
1 Tbs Rice Vinegar
2 Tbs Chicken Broth (optional, use water if a vegetarian dish is desired)
1 tsp Roasted Sesame Oil
1 pound King Oyster Mushrooms
1/2 tsp Sesame Seeds

 

Clean scallions and separate the white part from the green. Slice the scallion greens and reserve for garnish. Mince the scallion whitesand put in a bowl with the miso paste, grated ginger, garlic, minced red pepper, white pepper, molasses, soy sauce, rice vinegar, broth or water, and sesame oil. Stir to combine.

 

Begin heating your grill pan or outdoor grill. Lightly spray the grate with cooking oil, or use a silicone basting brush to apply a scant amount of oil.

 

Slice the king oyster mushrooms lengthwise into 1/3 inch thick planks. Brush one side of each mushroom slice with the glaze as you place it, glaze side down, on the grill. Then brush the tops of all the slices. Grill for 3-4 minutes on each side, turning when the underside is well marked and basting to use up the glaze.

 

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2172/2318904571_90bc7b8d63.jpg?v=0  (picture of mushroom dish)

Serve hot or at room temperature, garnish with reserved scallion greens and sesame seeds. Serve with brown rice as a side dish (serves 4) or main course (serves 2). The leftovers are great sliced and added to a salad.

State Government fully sensitive and alert regarding the incidents of SC/ST harassment : CM

Lucknow : June 12, 2008 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Ms. Mayawati, while welcoming the National Scheduled Caste Commission Chairman Dr. Buta Singh and other members of the commission on coming in Uttar Pradesh, said that State Government had already taken the action in the cases for which Mr. Singh and his team had come to examine. By doing unnecessary visit, Mr. Singh was avoiding the incidents that were being held outside the State and needed immediate attention by the commission. She also said that National Scheduled Caste Commission was a constitutional body and the political use of all the constitutional institutions should be avoided saving its dignity. The Chief Minister said that the commission was not taking effective action in those States where the incidents of SC/ST harassment were more in comparison to Uttar Pradesh. She also suggested to Dr. Buta Singh if he gave more time in those States where the incidents of SC/ST harassment were large in numbers then these sections could be benefited more. She said that being the BSP party government in State, Mr. Singh should not concern more about here. It may be recalled that Mr. Singh was on Allahabad visit today after NOIDA. Ms. Mayawati said that the district government was fully sensitive and alert for the incidents of SC/ST harassment and wherever such type of incidents came into light the government ensured effective action immediately including the incident of Allahabad. Therefore, Dr. Buta Singh should not waste his time unnecessarily in Uttar Pradesh. It may be recalled that Mr. Buta Singh including the other members of the commission visited NOIDA yesterday where the officers of New Okhla Industrial Development Authority made available the information on 30 points asked by the commission. After the study of these information and the steps taken in the interests of SC/ST sections, the chairman of commission and its members found it satisfactory. It may be recalled that district administration took immediate action on the incident of village Kanti, Pargana Arail, tehsil Bara of Allahabad district on June 07 last. The case against the so called mediators Dr. Sabir, Shankar and Sunil responsible for land sale have been registered at Ghoorpur police station and legal action was being taken. Twenty five people have been arrested in this connection and the seriously injured ASP, Jamunapar Mr. Ashok Kumar, sub-inspector Mr. Kripa Shankar and constable Mr. Rajesh Singh were admitted in hospital. Proper medical facility was given to all officers and policemen. The SO of Ghoorpur police station has been suspended and keeping in view the seriousness of the incident, magisterial inquiry is being done. Proper arrangements of food and medical facilities were done by the officers immediately for the victims. Besides, the team of doctors was also posted with the ambulance in village. *********


Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Friday, Jun 13, 2008

RTI Act effective against graft: U.N. report

Special Correspondent

NEW DELHI: The Right to Information Act 2005 was “one of the most progressive legislations” in the developing world for tackling corruption, according to a United Nations report released on Thursday.

India was one of the eight countries in Asia and the Pacific to enact such a legislation, the United Nations Development Report on “Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives – Accelerating Human Development in Asia and the Pacific” said, adding it was perhaps too soon to judge whether the legislation had worked throughout the region.

The process through which the Act was drafted and came into force in India illustrated the power of sustained pressure: when the government proposed to amend the law to exclude some administrative files and Cabinet papers from it, intense pressure from civil society organisations forced it to drop the plan, the report said. India’s law was particularly effective, the report said, because it specified information that must be disclosed on a proactive basis, including some that would help expose corruption.

The Act also allowed individuals and organisations investigating corruption to ask for precise information.

For example, while generally excluding information from the intelligence agencies, it specifically allowed for the disclosure of information “pertaining to allegations of corruption or human rights violations.”

Karnataka withdraws order on puja for ‘Lokakalyana’

S. Rajendran and Nagesh Prabhu




“Puja was Muzrai Department’s move”

“Yeddyurappa was not informed”




BANGALORE: Monday’s order of the Karnataka government, deemed as highly controversial by the adversaries of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and directing the nearly 37,000 muzrai temples to perform at least one puja a day for the well-being of the people (Lokakalyana) on behalf of Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa and the new BJP Government in the State, has been withdrawn.

Sources in the Government told The Hindu here on Thursday that the order was withdrawn as it was “a unilateral decision of the Muzrai Department, particularly Minister S.N. Krishnaiah Setty. The decision has been taken without the knowledge of the Chief Minister.” It has been described as a decision bordering on sycophancy more than an attempt to promote any culture.

The circular was reportedly discussed at length at a Cabinet meeting following which a decision was taken to withdraw it with immediate effect. A few Ministers are stated to have attempted to prevail upon the Chief Minister that there was nothing wrong with the circular and that there was precedence of a Government Order directing puja at all muzrai temples. It was also argued at the meeting that directing such a puja could in reality rejuvenate all the muzrai temples since nearly “95 per cent of them are defunct”.

The order said, “All muzrai temples to conduct a puja every morning in the name of the Chief Minister and the BJP Government for peace and well-being of the State.”

Minister for Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Shobha Karandlaje and Home Minister V.S. Acharya said the circular had been issued without the knowledge of the Chief Minister. The Government, on Wednesday, transferred Commissioner for Religious and Charitable Endowment T. Sham Bhat and posted him as Executive Member and Chief Executive Officer, Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board.

Rubber bullets to quell farmers’ agitations

Special Correspondent




Cabinet decision not in line with law, says official




BANGALORE: After the death of a farmer (Siddalingappa Choori) in the police firing in Haveri district on Tuesday, the State Cabinet on Thursday decided to direct the police to use rubber bullets instead of lead bullets to quell farmers’ agitations in the future.

The police opened fire when a farmers’ protest seeking supply of chemical fertilizers had turned violent.

Briefing presspersons on the Cabinet decisions, Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Minister Shobha Karandlaje and Home Minister V.S. Acharya said the use of rubber bullets would be confined only to subdue farmers’ agitations and not other agitations or movements.

The police would also use lathi, teargas shells and water cannon to quell farmers’ agitations.

The police had used rubber bullets to bring normality in the troubled areas during the Ramakrishna Hegde rule, they said.

There seems to be confusion among the senior police officers on the Government’s decision that the police should use only use rubber bullets to quell farmers’ agitations.

When The Hindu spoke to some senior IPS officers, they were divided in their views about the Government’s decision.

According to a senior officer, the order that only rubber bullets should be used is not in accordance with the law.

During violence, the officer at the spot should decide the nature and quantum of the force that should be used to quell a mob.

According to the Karnataka Police Manual, rubber bullets should be used as an intermediary between police lathicharge and their opening fire, he said.

Even now the police are using rubber bullets, he added.

The Cabinet has decided to provide a job to the wife of Siddalingappa Choori and also bear the education expenses of his son Kiran (seventh Standard) and daughter Kavya (second standard). Choori’s wife will be posted in Haveri district.

The Cabinet has condoled the death of the farmer in the police firing, the Ministers said.

String of protests against police firing in Haveri

Staff Correspondent

KOLAR: Karnataka Prantha Raitha Sangha (KPRS), Zilla Raitha Hitarakshana Samithi and the Janata Dal (Secular) staged separate protests in town on Wednesday, condemning police firing in Haveri, which claimed the life of a farmer. Leaders of the party said Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa took the oath of office in the name of farmers, but was showing utter disregard for their needs.

Effigy burnt

The activists of KPRS, led by Holur Shankar and T.M. Venkatesh, burnt effigy of Mr. Yeddyurappa while Zilla Raitha Hitarakshana Samithi members staged a demonstration near KSRTC Bus Stand Circle. Bellumburi Nagaraj and M. Gopal led the protest. In another protest led by Janata Dal (S) district secretary general R. Dayanand and K.B. Gopalkrishna, scores of party activists gathered at College Circle and raised slogans against the Government.

Teams formed

When contacted, Deputy Commissioner F.R. Jamadar told The Hindu that teams have been formed in the district to monitor and ensure the proper supply of fertilizers and seeds. Mr. Jamadar appealed to farmers’ organisations to cooperate with the district organisation in this regard.

‘Yeddyurappa must resign’

Staff Correspondent

Davangere Congress says he has no moral right to continue




‘Farmers were not so unruly that the police had to resort to the extreme step’

Basavaraj says Yeddyurappa should have ensured procurement of fertilizers




DAVANGERE: The Davangere District Congress Committee (DCC) has condemned the police firing on farmers in Haveri, which resulted in the death of one person.

The DCC has demanded the resignation of the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) Government in the State, saying it has no moral right to continue.

The DCC has decided to take out a procession here on Friday demanding the resignation of Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa.

Speaking to presspersons here on Thursday, DCC office-bearers D. Basavaraj, K.M. Kotreshappa and K. Mallappa said that the police could have resorted to lathi-charge or teargas to disperse the agitating farmers.

The farmers were not so unruly that the police had to take the extreme step of firing at them.

“Why did the police not open fire during the protests by the BJP activists who were demanding a Cabinet berth for Jagadish Shettar,” Mr. Kotreshappa asked. He said it was inhuman to open fire on farmers and termed it an “unpardonable and a hasty decision”. Mr. Basavaraj demanded an inquiry by an independent agency into the firing incident. The Congress leaders said that Mr. Yeddyurappa should have taken steps to procure the required fertilizers after he took over as Chief Minister.

Farmers complain of harassment

Staff Correspondent

‘Many documents have to be produced to get fertilizers’




Deputy Commissioner says only ‘katha’ certificate is required

Asks farmers to lodge complaint if officials demand any other certificate




DAVANGERE: Janata Dal (Secular) leader Sathish Koolenahalli and president of the farmers’ wing of the party Nageshwara Rao have objected to officials demanding that farmers produce a number of documents to get their share of fertilizers.

Speaking to presspersons here on Thursday, Mr. Koolenahalli, a former president of the Davangere Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC), and Mr. Rao said that the authorities were demanding that farmers produce “pahani” certificate, “katha” certificate, cultivation certificate and so on.

The authorities should not ask farmers to produce so many documents to get a quintal of fertilizers. “Procedural wrangles might further discourage farmers and enrage them,” they said.

The district administration has made it mandatory for farmers to produce “katha” certificate to establish that they are genuine farmers.

Mr. Koolenahalli said that Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa had made contradictory statements regarding the fertilizer situation in the State and noted that it was high time that the Government made arrangements to make fertilizers available to farmers.

Both Mr. Koolenahalli and Mr. Rao condemned the firing on farmers in Haveri, which they felt was a bad beginning to Mr. Yeddyurappa’s term as Chief Minister.

Deputy Commissioner of Davangere district M.B. Dyaberi told The Hindu that he had clearly instructed the authorities to ask the farmers to produce only “katha” certificate. He appealed to farmers to lodge a complaint with him if any official demanded any other certificate to release the quota of fertilizers to them.

Chief Minister could have averted Haveri incident: CPI leader

Staff Correspondent




Police did not have permission to fire: Ramachandrappa

Seeks an inquiry by the CBI into the incident




DAVANGERE: The Communist Party of India (CPI) leader H.K. Ramachandrappa and general secretary of the State unit of the Akhil Bharatiya Kisan Sangha M. Gopal have said that the Haveri firing incident, which resulted in the death of a farmer, could have been averted had Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa ensured that fertilizers were procured from the Centre or neighbouring states immediately after assuming charge.

Speaking to The Hindu here on Thursday, they said that Mr. Yeddyurappa had wasted time in visiting the homes of former Chief Ministers and temples after assuming charge, forgetting the interests of the farmers.

All-party delegation

He should have taken an all-party delegation to Delhi to urge the Union Government to release more fertilizers to the State. Had he taken such a mature stand, he could have averted the protests by farmers all over the State, they said.

The two leaders, who visited the home of the deceased farmer in Haveri on Thursday, said that whenever there was scarcity of power, the State would buy it from neighbouring States. Similarly, the State could have obtained fertilizers from Goa, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala where there was no fertilizer scarcity.

Mr. Ramachandrappa said that he had spoken to many people in Haveri and failed to understand what prompted the police to open fire on the protesting farmers. “The police did not use other methods like caning or lobbing teargas shells,” he said.

Mr. Ramachandrappa claimed that the police had not obtained prior permission from the Sub-Divisional Magistrate before firing at the farmers and demanded an inquiry by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) into the incident.

The two leaders urged the Chief Minister to instruct the police not to arrest or harass farmers by branding them anti-social elements. Cases booked against the farmers should be withdrawn, they said.

Firing: Congress dharna on Monday

Special Correspondent

Bangalore: Taking a serious view of the death of a farmer in police firing in Haveri, the Congress has decided to launch dharnas on Monday in front of the offices of deputy commissioners in all district headquarters to protest against the Government’s alleged anti-farmer attitude.

 

Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly M. Mallikarjun Kharge said on Thursday said that the Government had created a fear psychosis in the minds of the people that any agitation would be met with bullets. It was this attitude, he said, that the Congress was trying to expose.

Reiterating the demand for a judicial inquiry into the firing, he said it was a shame that the Government had handled the issue so badly.

Mr. Kharge, who gave a cheque for Rs. 2 lakh to the family of Siddalingappa Choori in Haveri and visited the injured in the hospitals, criticised Mr. Yeddyurappa for misleading people by saying that anti-social elements were responsible for the disturbances.

He accused the Government of trying to blame others and shirking its responsibility.

The Congress leader said he was taken aback by the manner in which the Chief Minister was trying to give a political colour to the agitation of farmers.

Judicial probe sought into Haveri incident

Staff Reporter




Raitha sangha and Hasiru Sene threaten Statewide agitation




BANGALORE: Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha and Hasiru Sene have condemned the police action against farmers in Haveri and urged the State Government to order a judicial probe into the incident.

Threatened

They have threatened to launch a State-wide agitation if adequate fertilizers and seeds are not distributed to farmers before June 14.

Addressing presspersons here on Thursday, sangha president K.S. Puttannaiah said that the State Government, which took oath in the name of farmers, had failed to safeguard their interests. Instead of providing fertilizers and seeds on time, it gave bullets to farmers.

Condemned

The sangha condemned the incident and would hold the State Government and Governor Rameshwar Thakur responsible for it, he added.

The Government should not only pay compensation to the families of the victims, but also order a judicial probe into the police action. Action should be taken against errant officials, he said.

‘Pay compensation’

Working president of the sangha Kodihalli Chandrashekar urged the Government to release a compensation of Rs. 10 lakh to the family of deceased and Rs. 1 lakh to 11 persons injured in the police action.

Seeking a judicial probe, convenor of the Karnataka Rajya Dalit Sangharsha Samiti Lakshminarayana Nagawara said that the situation in Haveri did not warrant police firing.

To protest against the police firing and seek adequate fertilizers and seeds, the samiti would stage a protest on June 17 in the districts headquarters, he said.

BSP demand

HASSAN: Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) here on Wednesday condemned the police firing in Haveri that killed a farmer. District BSP President K. Earappa said that even as Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa took oath in the name of farmers, his police fired at innocent farmers who were agitating for a cause. It demanded the resignation of the Chief Minister.

Mr. Earappa demanded Rs. 10 lakh compensation to the family of Siddalingappa Channappa Churi and a job to his family members. It also demanded dismissal of police officers responsible for the firing. They wanted the Government to order a judicial enquiry into the incident. — Staff Correspondent

Kumaraswamy seeks judicial inquiry into Haveri firing

Staff Correspondent

‘Government failed to take issue of fertilizer shortage seriously’

HUBLI: The former Chief Minister H.D. Kumaraswamy has demanded a judicial inquiry into the violence in Haveri, in which one person was killed and several injured.

He was speaking to presspersons here on Thursday after meeting the family members of the deceased farmer Siddalingappa Choori in Haveri, and the injured who have been admitted to the KIMS Hospital in Hubli.

Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa had been talking of a “political conspiracy” behind the violence.

A judicial inquiry by a sitting judge of the High Court of Karnataka was essential to reveal the truth, Mr. Kumaraswamy said.

“Only a judicial inquiry will bring out the actual reason for the violence”, he said.

The Chief Minister had said that he had information on those who were involved in the “political conspiracy,” and hence he should come out with the details, Mr. Kumaraswamy said.

“Ever since Mr. Yeddyurappa became Chief Minister, there was displeasure among BJP leaders and not among Congress or Janata Dal(S) leaders. And if the Chief Minister is referring to the political conspiracy within the party, he should make it clear”, he said.

Mr. Kumaraswamy said he had raised the issue of shortage of fertilizers in the State soon after Mr. Yeddyurappa become Chief Minister, and requested him to tackle the problem immediately.

Based on a letter by the former Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda regarding shortage of fertilizers, the Union Government had sent a senior official to discuss the matter with the State Government.

But the BJP Government took the matter very lightly stating that there were adequate stocks in the State. Earlier, during his visit to Haveri, Mr. Kumaraswamy announced that Rs. 2.5 lakh would be deposited in the name of the son and daughter of Siddalingappa Choori.

At KIMS Hospital, he distributed Rs. 5,000 each to the injured persons, and Rs. 15,000 to Puttappa whose condition is serious.

And now, here comes horticulture tourism

Staff Reporter

Horticulture Department properties to be developed in four hill stations




Bheemanakolli to be developed into a picnic spot

Six flower markets to be established in the State




BANGALORE: In future, your visits to some of the hill stations in Karnataka could be more educative than you thought.

To increase the botanical knowledge and also provide an entertainment space for tourists, the Horticulture Department has proposed to develop its existing properties in four hills stations in what officials termed it as “Horticulture Tourism.”

Horticulture Department properties in Kemmangundi, Nandi Hills, Ooty and Biligiri Ranga (B.R.) Hills will be developed during this year with introduction of ornamental flowers and landscaping plants to attract tourists. Similarly, Bheemanakolli, near Kabini backwaters in Mysore district that is home for large herds of Asiatic Elephants and Tigers, will also be developed into a picnic spot.

Horticulture Department Director Ramakrishnappa told The Hindu that the proposal would not only help in educative purposes, but can also create infrastructure for tourists visiting these places. “We intend to start a flower garden on our 30-acre property in Ooty, which would also become a revenue earner for the department,” he added.

Further, he said that the department owned a 200-acre property at Bheemanakolli that housed a horticulture training institute. Existing infrastructure could be upgraded, which could be used to provide accommodation for people wishing to visit tourist places in the vicinity, he added.

According to a senior department official, the project involves development of botanical gardens, landscaping the area and others to make these properties full-fledged facilities for ‘Horti-eco-tourism’.

“The department owns around 160 acres in Nandi Hills, which is being developed apart from another 200-acre property in Kemmangundi,” the official said.

Apart from the development of horticulture tourism, the department has also proposed to government for upgradation of infrastructure. “We want to upgrade eight horticulture training centres at places, including Gadag, Alamatti, Hidkal, KRS, Karkala and Siddapura, besides setting up of a bio-technology centre at Belgaum on the lines of the one functioning in Bangalore,” Additional Director S.V. Hittalmani said.

Mr. Hittalmani said that six flower markets would be established at Mysore, Kodagu, Sirsi, Udupi, Tumkur and Belguam to help flower growers sell their produce at an organised market place.

Ansari visits Mahabodhi temple

Gaya: Vice-President Hamid Ansari on Thursday visited the historic Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, about 14 km from here. Accompanied by Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar and other ministers, Mr. Ansari went to the temple and prayed for peace.

Mr. Ansari also visited the “Mahabodhi Tree” here under which Lord Buddha got enlightenment. Mahabodhi Temple is the most sacred Buddhist Shrine.

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