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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
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04/02/10
VR1 +VE NEWS The Path of purification HAND OVER THE MASTER KEY ! TO BSP ! AND BE HAPPY ! The spiritual conquest of Buddhism Now a temple for ‘goddess’ Maya ‘Women’s bill flouts Ambedkar’s ideals’
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The Path of purification


The dispensation of the Dhamma is three fold :


(1) Learning the teaching of Buddha and propagation of Dhamma or teach others. ( In Pali - Pariyatti )


(2) The Practice ( In Pali - Patipatti )


(3) The Realization ( In Pali - Pativeda )


Learning the teaching of Buddha and propagation of Dhamma or teach others is like a basic foundation for right practice.


Following the Middle Path without deceit, one should practice correctly by using the right knowledge.


The realization of supra-mundane paths (magga), fruitions (phala), Nibbana ( Nirvana ) will be attained through the practice of the Noble Eightfold Path, Right View, Right Intention, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration.


Nibbana is regarded as the highest stage of mental purity, the destruction of lust, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of delusion.


Four supra-mundane paths and four fruitions can be seen by four kinds of Noble persons (stream-Enterer, Once-Returner, Non-Returner and Arahat ).

For example - If we say as the Buddhasasana is a large lake, the learning, propagation and teaching of Dhamma is like a basic foundation of the lake. It must be very strong to keep water inside. If there is a strong foundation of the lake, the right practice will always exist and water will stay. Noble persons, they are like Lotus flowers which will always be growing on the water of the lake and are trying to propagate the Dhamma in this world like raining here and there.


If one wants to practice , one should learn the teachings of Buddha to a certain level of knowledge and one must be endowed with five factors.


(1) One must believe in the enlightenment of the Buddha and his teachings. One should also believe in himself as he could definitely realize the path and fruition in this life.


(2) One must have good health. It is easier for beginner to practice when one is in good health.


(3) One must not be deceitful, must be honest.


(4) One must sustain vigorous effort to root out mental defilement


(5) One must be endowed with insight into the impermanence of things.

 


If one understands the Buddha’s teaching, and if one is convinced that his teaching is The Right Path and if one tries to follow it, then one wi
ll take refuge in the Triple Gems.


There is no initiation ceremony (or baptism) which one has to undergo. ( But to become a bhikkhu, a member of the Order of the Sangha, one has to undergo a long process of disciplinary training and education)


So, Everyone who follows the Buddha’s teaching regards the three jewels, The Buddha, The Dhamma ( The Teaching ), and The Sangha ( The Order of Monks) generally called  “The Triple Gem ” and recites the following :


Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa. (recite 3 times)


( Homage to Buddha, the Blessed One, the Exalted One, the Fully Enlightened One.)


Namo - I pay homage


tassa Bhagavato - to that Vernerable Buddha


Arahato - deserving of special reverence


Sammasambuddhassa - knowing by himself all there is to know in the correct manner.


Buddham. saranam. gaccharmi. ( I take refuge in the Buddha.)

Dhammam. saranam. gaccharmi. ( I take refuge in the Dhamma.)

Sangham. saranam. gaccharmi. ( I take refuge in the Sangha.)


Dutiyam pi Buddham. saranam. gaccharmi. ( For the second time……

Dutiyam pi Dhammam. saranam. gaccharmi. ( For the second time……

Dutiyam pi Sangham. saranam. gaccharmi. ( For the second time……


Tatiyam pi Buddham. saranam. gaccharmi. ( For the third time……

Tatiyam pi Dhammam. saranam. gaccharmi. ( For the third time……

Tatiyam pi Sangham. saranam. gaccharmi. ( For the third time……


( Humbly pay homage to The Three Gems : The Buddha, The Dhamma, and The Sangha, once, twice, and three times.)

 

Triple Gems

Gems are precious things in the worldly matter. Like wise, to the followers of Dhamma the triple gems ( Ratana ) are the most precious objects in the world.

Buddha is a person who has understood ultimate reality and enables others to understand it through his teaching of the Four Noble Truths.


Dhamma is the Buddha’s teachings: Tipitakas or the Three baskets, the path to Nibbana ( the final bliss).


Sangha are the disciples of Buddha and are worthy of reverence.


Five things difficult to Obtain


1) to obtain an appearance of a Buddha


2) to obtain a human existence ( a state of human being)


3) to live in a suitable place and to obtain a sufficiency of one’s sense faculties, to obtain Saddha ( Saddha = faith and confidence in triple gem and in moral, spiritual and intellectual values ).


4) to obtain a state of an ascetic ( disciples of the Buddha )


5) to hear the true Dhamma


In Pali – “(1) dullabho Buddhuppado lolasmim., (2) dullabho manussatta - patilabho, (3) dullabha saddha sampatti, (4) dullabha pabbajja,(5) dullabham. saddhammassavanan ” ti evam divase davase ovadi.


Brief explanation of 5 difficulties




Firstly, to obtain an appearance of a Buddha, he had been through many uncountable numbers of cycles of death and birth, and at various stages, had exercised perfections and improvements in order to gain His position: “ the Great Being of Sublime Awakenment ”.





Secondly, it is extremely rare to be born a human being. “ It is as difficult as getting a blind turtle surfacing only once in a hundred years for a gulp of air, a chance to fit its neck into a hole of a wooden yoke floating on the wide ocean”. So, it could be a long, long time before one can attain this precious human world again.


Beings are born according to their actions, words and thoughts, the Kamma forces , they have set in motion, mostly be born in four lower planes of suffering. The root cause of being in the lower realms is due to the state of ignorance, and this ignorance comes from desires which sets the Kamma forces in motion.


Therefore, it is extremely fortunate to be in the human world.


Value of Human existence ( Man is supreme)


The Buddha is a man par excellence, only teacher who did not claim to be other than a human being, pure and simple. He attributed all his realization, attainments and achievements to human endeavour and human intelligence.

Man’s position, according to Dhamma, is supreme. Man is his own master and there is no higher being or power that sits in judgement over his destiny. Buddha admonished his disciples to be a refuge to themselves and never to seek refuge in or help from anybody else. One is one’s own refuge. Man has the power to liberate himself from all bondage through his own personal effort and intelligence.




Thirdly, faith is a man’s best treasure because it brings mundane and supramundane happiness as its result.Faith is the seed because it is the foundation of all wholesome qualities.By unshakable and well established faith, one crosses over the ocean and could become a noble person.



Forthly, one could become a novice only within sasana, only after Saving off head hair, Holding Robes to the Teacher (senior monk), asking for the Robes from the teacher and wear them, requesting Novice Ordination, Requesting the Ten Novice-Percepts with the three Refuges, Paying Homage to the Buddha, Ten Precepts of a Novice and Requesting to be the Preceptor. To become monks or bhikkhus, there are more steps to follow. There are many Sangha ( monks) follow the Buddha’s teachings and have become enlightened.



Lastly, it is very difficult to listen to the Buddha’s teachings are called Tipitaka “meaning“ The Three Baskets or collection of the teachings.


(1) Vinaya pitaka = teaching about discipline, containing the rules of conduct for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis - ( the monks and nuns ) and the regulations governing the Sangha, the monastic order. ( consists of five books expounding on the rules of monastic life.)


(2) Sutta pitaka = brings together the Buddha’s discourses spoken by him on various occasions during his active ministry of 45 yrs. ( a collection of discussions, stories, poems and proverbs imparting all the precepts of practical Dhamma ).


(3)Abhidhamma pitaka = the basket of the Buddha’s higher or special doctrine. Abhidhamma Pitaka deals with epistemological, metaphysical and psychological matters.The explaination of dhamma in Abhidhamma is thorough, complete and more detail and in an analylitical way than Suttanta.


What is Abhidhamma?


( Prefix ) Abhi = the sense of preponderance and distinction

( preponderance means superiority in weight, power, importance or strength )


Important to find the essential and fundamental teaching of the Buddha.




The Buddha’s teachings, particularly his way of meditation is so much misunderstood by Buddhists and non-Buddhists in later times.


Most people are interested in meditation or yoga in order to gain some spiritual or mystic powers. This kind of meditation existed before the Buddha. So it is not purely Dhamma, but it is not excluded from the field of true meditation.


There are two main forms of Buddhism known in the world today, Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. Theravada Buddhism is regarded as the original orthodox Buddhism, is followed in Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Chittagong in East Pakistan.


The word , true meditation in Theravada Buddhism, Vipassana , aims at cleansing the mind of impurities and disturbances such as lustful desires, hatred, ill-will, indolence, worries and restlessness, skeptical doubts, and cultivating such qualities as concentration, awareness, intelligence, will, energy , the analytical faculty, confidence, joy, tranquility, leading finally to the attainment of highest wisdom which sees the nature of things as they are and realizes the Ulitmate Truth, Nibbana or Nirvana.


In order to realize the Dhamma, the meditating yogi should remember that death is imminent even at each moment of noting rising and falling and remembering thus should concentrate on meditating.


The most important discourse ever given by the Buddha on meditation is called Satipattana Sutta.


Five benefits of Listening to True Dhamma


1) Hearing what one has not heard before


2) Being able to refine, purify or learn something new from what one has already heard


3) Being able to be freed from wrong views


4) Being able to correct one’s views


5) Clarity of mind


Meeting with Noble persons who could guide how to prosper in both worldly and Dhamma matters and help you seeing the Four Noble Truths is a blessing.


Meditation Teachers who could give only mystic states as happy living in this existence or peaceful living or nothing more are not pure Dhamma followers .This form of meditation existed before the Buddha.


So finding the right teacher is essential for the realization of Nibbana. Vipassana, insight into the nature of things leading to the complete liberation of mind , to the realization of the Ultimate Truth, Nibbana. This is essential  meditation. You might have chances to know or meet Noble persons while you are learning and practicing because if one knows Dhamma, one could see the Buddha and also noble persons in this existence. You can see them with your wisdom.


Depends on One’s will


Study of Dhamma first and practice with true knowledge will lead one to achieve the goal. The Buddha admonished as Man is supreme. You have achieved difficulties as mentioned above. You should refuge yourself to find wisdom, mundane and supramundane path and nibbana but all depend on you and your will.


Unforeseeable things


There are five unforeseeable things


1) at what age one will die


2) with what disease one will die


3) when one will die


4) where one will die and how will the dead body be discarded


5) which realm one will have the result in the next existence.


In worldly matters, one should feel as if one would never die and fulfill one’s duties toward one’s household, relatives and nation.



The Buddha expounded four Universal truths as follows


(1) All being are impermanent because they always subject to decay and death.


(2)They have no refuge and no protection. i.e when a person has a chronic disease, no one could ease and share his suffering ( not by wife, husband, son, daughter, relatives ). He alone has to suffer.


(3) All beings are not the owners of their own wealth. When he dies he cannot take anything with him. He has to pass away with empty hands. What you own is what you did as wholesome or unwholesome kamma actions.


(4) All beings are unsatisfied with wealth and sensual pleasures.

After realizing the worthlessness of sensual pleasures highly prized by ordinary people and the value of renunciation by seeing a decrepit old man, a diseased person, a corpse and hermit , the Buddha decided for renunciation and looked for truth of nature for liberation from suffering at the age of 29.


After six years of practice, the Buddha followed the middle path and attained perfect Enlightenment and became a Buddha at the age of 35.


The Buddha’s successful ministry lasted 45 years. He served humanity both by example and percept, with no personal motive. Throughout the years he wondered from place to place, teaching the Dhamma to the people and liberating them from the bonds of Samsara. He passed away in his 80th year. ( The Buddha’s Parinibbana )


 


                             

                            In Brief, the Buddha’s teachings are


(1) Not doing any evil by knowing evil actions and evil roots and knowing good actions and good roots.


(2) Cultivating good by the ten bases of meritorious action (Dasa Punna-kiriya-vatthu)


(3) Purifying one’s mind by Samatha-bhavana and Vipassana-bhavana.



Not doing any evil


We all should know what are evil actions and evil roots first.

10 Evil actions = 10 Duccaritas


10 unwholesome behaviors


There are total 10 evil or bad actions which are divided into three groups.


3 by bodily actions, 4 by verbal actions and 3 by mental actions.

Du carita = du (unwholesome) + carita ( behavior) = unwholesome behaviors


3 evil bodily actions


There are 3 evil or bad bodily actions or conducts.

(or) there are 3 unwholesome Behaviors, Committed Bodily Action.

They are also called Akusala kaya kammas or Duccarita.Kaya Kamma.


1 - Killing of living beings ( pa na ti pata)


2 - Stealing or taking what is not given (a din na da na)


3 - Committing sexual misconduct ( Kamesu micchacara)


4 evil verbal actions


There are 4 evil or bad verbal actions or conducts.

(or) there are 4 unwholesome Behaviors Committed verbal Action

They are also called Akusala vaci kammas or Duccarita Vaci kammas.


4 - Telling lies or false speech ( Mu sa va da)


5 - Slandering or divisive speech (Pi suna vaca)


6 - Harsh speech (Pha rusa vaca)


7 - Frivolous talk (Sam phap pa la pa)


3 evil mental actions


There are 3 evil or bad mental actions or conducts (or)

There are 3 unwholesome Behaviors, Committed mental Action (thought) are as follows. They are also called Akusala Mano Kammas or duccaritas Mano kamma .


8 - Covetousness (Abhi jjha)


9 - Ill-will (Bya pa da) and


10 - Wrong view or false views (Miccha ditthi).


                       Actions of Killing

(from a Manual of Buddhism by Narada, Chap 11,99)


( Killing means the destruction of any living being. The Pali term “Pana” strictly means the psycho-physical life pertaining to one’s particular existence. The speedy destruction of this life force, without allowing it to run its due course, is panatipata. Animals are also included in living beings.


Five constituent factors necessary to complete the action of killings are as follows:


1. A living being


2. Consciousness that it is a being


3. Intention of killing or the mind to kill it.


4. Effort to kill and


5. Consequent (resulting) death.


The bad effects of killings are – short life, sickness (bad health), constant grief caused by separation from the loved , constant fear, disability and so on.


Actions of stealing


Stealing means taking what is not given.


Five constituent factors necessary to complete the action of stealing are as follow:


1 - Another’s property


2 - Consciousness that it belongs to another.


3 - Intension of stealing or the mind to steal it.


4 - Effort to steal and


5 - Consequent removal or stealing.


The bad effects of stealing are – poverty, wretchedness (deep unhappiness), unfulfilled desires, dependent livelihood (dependence on another for livelihood), loss of property by the five kinds of enemies: floods, conflagrations, tyrants, thieves and robbers and unloved heirs.


Action of Sexual Misconduct


Sexual misconduct means “wrong conduct in sensual pleasures” or unlawful sexual intercourse.


Four constituent factors necessary to complete the action of sexual misconduct are as follow:


1 - The forbidden object ( the woman under guardianship)


2 - Sexual desire (the mind to enjoy it)


3 - Effort to enjoy (the attempt to do it) and


4 - Thrusting one’s sexual organ into another’s (the enjoyment in engaging for sexual organs).


The evil effects of sexual misconduct are – having many enemies, getting undesirable wives or husband, getting birth as a ( prostitute) or as an eunuch or a castrated man.


Action of Lying


Telling lies means “an untrue statement purposely made to deceive, or a false speech intended to deceive.


Four constituent factors are necessary to complete the action of telling lies or lying are as follows:


1. An untrue thing


2. Intention to tell lies or the mind to deceive


3. Corresponding effort and


4. The communication of the matter to others.


The bad effects of lying are – being tormented by abusive speech, being subject to vilification, incredibility, stinking mouth, deformity, and so on.


Action of slandering or Divisive speech


Four constituent factors are necessary to complete the action of slandering are as follows:


1. Persons who are to be divided.


2. The mind or intention to separate them, or the desire to endear oneself to one of them.


3. Corresponding effort and


4. The communication of the matter to another.


The bad effect of slandering is the dissolution of friendship without sufficient cause.


Action of Harsh speech


Rude speech – using unpleasant words (swearing words) to the ears or disagreeable to the heart.


Three constituent factors are necessary to complete the action of harsh speech are as follows:


1. Another to be abused


2. Angry thought or mind and


3. Abusing


Using harsh speech but with a merciful heart is not a bad action.


The bad effects of harsh speech are: having a harsh voice and being detested by others though absolutely blameless.


Action of Frivolous Talk


Frivolous talk is “speaking senseless, useless things or talking foolishly.


Two constituent factors are necessary to complete the action of frivolous talk are as follows:


1. The inclination (tendency) towards useless, unprofitable talk.


2. The narration of such themes.


The bad effects of frivolous talk are: defective bodily organs and incredible speech.


Action of Covetousness


Covetousness means jealousy or thinking that it would be great to have something that belongs to someone else and scheming to get it in an unwholesome manner.


“inordinately or wrongfully desire, a too eager desire for wealth, possessions or what belongs to someone else”.


Two constituent factors are necessary to complete the action of covetousness are as follows:


1. Another’s property and


2. Adverting to it saying: “Would this be mine!”


The bad effect of covetousness is non- fulfillment of one’s wishes.


Action of Ill-will


It means ill will, thinking that it would be great if someone died, became injured or destroyed.


“wish to injure or harm others whom someone hates”


Two constituent factors are necessary to complete the action of ill-will are as follows:


1. Another being


2. The thought of doing harm.


The bad effects of ill-will are: manifold diseases and a detestable nature.


Action of False or Wrong View


It means seeing things wrongly by not taking the right view.

(not believing in Kamma and its results i.e that wholesome deeds cause wholesome results and unwholesome deeds cause unwholesome results.)


The 3 most common wrong views are as follows:


1. Natthika-ditthi = Nihilism, which denies the survival of the personality in any form after death, thus negating the moral significance of deed.


2. Akiriya-ditthi = the inefficacy of action view, which claims that deeds have no efficacy or no results and thus invalidates moral distinctions.


3. Ahetyka-ditthi = the view of no cause. No cause or no condition for the defilement and purification of beings. Belief as beings are defiled and purified by chance, fate or necessity.


Two constituent factors are necessary to complete the action of false view are as follows:


1. the manner perverted in which the object is viewed and


2. the understanding of it according to that misconception.


The bad effects of false view are “base attachment, lack of wisdom, dull wit, chronic diseases and blameworthy ideas.


What are Evil or Bad roots?


There are 3 kinds of evil roots.


Greed (Lobha)


Hatred or Aversion (Dosa)


Delusion or ignorance (Moha) It is the main root of all evil.


The 10 Evil actions are rooted in these 3 evil roots.


 

Spring From The root of

3 evil bodily actions

Killing of living beings

Hatred

Stealing or taking what is not given

2 roots

-Greed and delusion -Hatred and delusion.

Committing sexual misconduct

Greed.

4 evil verbal actions

Telling lies or false speech

2 roots

-Greed and delusion -Hatred and delusion.

Slandering or divisive speech

2 roots

-Greed and delusion -Hatred and delusion.

Harsh speech

From the root of Hatred

Frivolous talk

2 roots

-Greed and delusion -Hatred and delusion.

3 evil mental actions

Covetousness

Greed

Ill-will

Hatred

Wrong view or false views

Greed

 


Cultivating good



We should understand what is good actions and good roots.


10 Wholesome Behaviors


There are 10 good actions. (Sucaritas) are divided into 3 group. They are also called ten wholesome actions. (avoiding 10 unwholesome actions)


Su = wholesome + carita = behaviors = sucaritas = wholesome behaviors


3 good bodily actions


1. abstaining from killing


2. abstaining from stealing


3. abstaining from sexual misconduct


4 good verbal actions


4. abstaining from lying


5. abstaining from slandering or tale-bearing


6. abstaining from harsh speech


7. abstaining from frivolous talk


3 good mental actions


8. absence of covetousness or non-covetousness


9. absence of ill –will or good will


   10. right view or right understanding


What are good roots?


There are 3 kinds of good roots:


Non-greed (Aloba),


non-hatred (Adosa) and


non-delusion or non-ignorance (Amoha).= wisdom, knowledge with good judgement.


The 10 bases of wholesome deeds or 10 bases of Meritorious Action -

( Dasa Punna-Kiriya-Vatthu )


Punna = wholesome deeds


Kiriya = that one should do


Vatthu = base


One should genuinely do 10 wholesome deeds which is the basis in order to build a foundation for wholesome mental states in this very life and for happiness and peace in the next are called Punnakiriyavatthu.


3 types of Charity


1 - (Dana) Giving generously


2 - (pattidana) Sharing of the merit of one’s good deeds with others.


3 - (Pattanumodana) Rejoicing in others’s merit or to gladly call out “Sadhu” (Well-done) when someone else is sharing merits.


3 type of Morality


1 - (Sila) Morality observing and keeping the moral precepts - 5 precepts, the 8 precepts, the 10 precepts


2 - (apacayana) Reverence or paying respect to those deserving of respect.


3 - (Veyyavacca) Service or helping others with whatever they need as they do wholesome deeds.


4 types of Bhavana or mental development.


1 - (Samatha and Vipassana-Bhavana) Meditation


2 - (Dhamma savanna) Listening to the Dhamma talks, talks that expound the Buddha’s teaching.


3 - (Dhamma desana) Teaching or preaching the Dhamma without expecting material things or gifts in return.


4 - (Ditthijukamma) Straightening one’s right views or holding the right view ( believing in Kamma and its result, i.e that wholesome deeds cause wholesome results and unwholesome deeds cause unwholesome results)

 
 
 

 


Sila or Morality or Precept


Verse on Virtues of Sila ( Moral conduct)


The smell of Sila, spreads so fragrantly,


Every time one wears Sila, one stands beautifully,


Every time one keeps Sila, the hells are at bay,


Noble Sila, reliable without a doubt or dismay.


(Mahasi Sayadawgyi)


 


                          Paying Homage to the Three Gems


                                                                                             


I raise my joined hands in reverence to the forehead and humbly pay homage to the Three Gems, the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha once, twice and three times.

                        

Taking five precepts                           


I request the five precepts together with the Three Refuges. Out of compassion for me, please give me the Precepts for the first time, the second time and the third time.


1) I promise not to killing living beings.


2) I promise not to take what is not freely given.


3) I promise not to commit sexual misconduct.( one can promise not to commit ignoble conduct or sexual intercourse)


4) I promise not to tell lies.


5) I promise not to use intoxicating drinks and drugs that cause heedlessness.


May the precepts I keep be a condition for the attainment of magga and phala knowledge.


In Pali- Panca Sila 


Aham. bhante tisaranena saha panca silam. dhammam - yacami

Anuggaham katva silam. detha me bhante.


Dutiyampi—–


Tatiyampi —–


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammasambuddhassa.


Homage to Him, the Blessed One the Exalted One, the Fully-Enlightened One.


Then follows the acceptance of the 3 Gems as our refuge.


Buddham. saranam. gacchami.


Dhammam. saranam. gacchami.


Sangham. saranam. gacchami


Dutiyampi——–


Tatiyampi ———


1) Panatipata veramani - sikkhapadam. samadiyami.


2) Adinnadana veramani - sikkhapadam. samadiyami.


3) Kamesu micchacara veramani - sikkhapadam. samadiyami.


4) Musavada veramani - sikkhapadam.  samadiyami.


5) Sura - meraya majja - pamadatthana veramani - sikkhapadam. samadiyami.


Idam me silam magga phala nanassa paccayo hotu.


Taking the Aji vat tha maka - Silam.

I request the precepts together with the Three Refuges.


Out of compassion for me, please give me the Precepts for the first time, the second time and the third time.


1) I promise not to killing living beings.


2) I promise not to take what is not freely given.


3) I promise not to commit sexual misconduct.( one can promise not to commit ignoble sexual conduct or sexual intercourse)


     4) I promise not to tell lies


     5) I promise not to tell slandering or divisive speech.


     6) I promise not to tell harsh speech.


     7) I promise not to tell frivolous talk or talking non-sense.


     8) I promise to abstain from wrong livelihood.


May the precepts I keep be a condition for the attainment of magga and phala knowledge.

In Pali - Aji vat tha maka - Silam.

Aham. bhante tisaranena saha Aji vat tha maka - Silam 

dhammamyasami


Anuggaham katva silam. detha me bhante.


Dutiyampi—–


Tatiyampi —–


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammasambuddhassa.


Homage to Him, the Blessed One the Exalted One, the Fully-Enlightened One.


Then follows the acceptance of the 3 Gems as our refuge.


Buddham. saranam. gacchami.


Dhammam. saranam. gacchami.


Sangham. saranam gacchami


Dutiyampi——–


Tatiyampi ———


1) Panatipata veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


2) Adinnadana veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


3) Kamesu micchacara veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.

    (Abrahmacariya )


4) Musavada veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


5) Pisunavaca veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


6) Pharusavaca veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


7) Samphappalapa vaca veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


8) Micchajiva veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


Idam me silam magga phala nanassa paccayo hotu.



Taking the Eight Uposatha Precepts


I request the eight precepts together with the Three Refuges. Out of compassion for me, please give me the Precepts for the first time, the second time and the third time.


1) I  promise not to killing living beings.


2) I promise not to take what is not freely given.


3) I promise not to commit  ignoble sexual conduct or sexual intercourse.


4) I promise not to tell lies.


5) I promise not to use intoxicating drinks and drugs that cause heedlessness.


6) I promise not to eat after noon.


7) I abstain from dancing, singing, playing musical instruments, watching or listening to things which are not in accordance with the Buddha’s teachings, decorating myself with flowers and wearing fragrant lotions, powders or perfumes.


8) I abstain from sleeping or staying on high, noble places.


May the precepts I keep be a condition for the attainment of magga and phala knowledge.


In Pali Eight precepts


Aham bhante tisaranena saha atthagasamanagatam. uposatha - silam dhammamyasami Anuggaham katva silam detha me bhante.


Dutiyampi—–


Tatiyampi —–


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammasambuddhassa.


Homage to Him, the Blessed One the Exalted One, the Fully-Enlightened One.


Then follows the acceptance of the 3 Gems as our refuge.


Buddham saranam gocchami.


Dhammam saranam gacchami.


Sangham saranam gacchami


Dutiyampi——–


Tatiyampi ———


1) Panatipata veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


2) Adinnadana veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


3) Abrahmacariya veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


4) Musavada veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


5) Sura-meraya majja - pamadatthana veramani-sikkhapadam samadiyami.


6) Vikala bhojana veramani - sikkhapadam samadiyami.


7) Nacca gita vadita visuka dassana malagandha vilepana dharana mandana vibusanatthana veramani-sikkhapadam samadiyami.


8) Uccasayana mahasayana veramani-sikkhapadam samadiyami.


Idam me silam magga phala nanassa paccayo hotu.



Verses Regarding the Wholesome Results of keeping the Five Precepts and the Unwholesome Results of Transgressing the Five Precepts.

1 - Panatipata – If you kill a life, physical disabilities, dry, wilted look, weakness, sluggishness, fear of dangers, being killed by others, being killed by oneself, lots of diseases, loss of friends and a short life are what you’ll get so abstain and attain the benefits.


2 - Adinnadana - If you steal, poverty, not getting what you need, loss of your comfort, and loss of your belongings to the Five Enemies ( water or flood, fire or conflagrations, thieves and robbers, tyrants or bad leaders and unloved heirs like bad sons and daughters) are what you will get, so abstain and attain the benefits.


3 - Kamesu micchacara - If you transgress, hated by many , lots of enemies , so little wealth, so little peace , bad family, shame and embarrassment, physical deformities, so many worries, and separation from your loved ones are what you’ll get , so abstain and attain the benefits.


4 - Musavada - If you speak untruthful words, unclear speech , crooked teeth, foul mouth dry complexion, dull senses, disfigurements, lack of honor, lack of influence, roughness in speech, lack of restraint, lack of calm, are what you’ll get, so abstain and attain the benefits.


5 - Sura-meraya-majja-pamadatthana - when you take drugs and alcohol, loss of judgment, being lazy, being forgetful, being insane, having no sense of gratitude, having no moral shame, having no moral fear and easily doing unwholesome deeds, these are what’ll happen to you, so abstain and attain the benefits.


(Mahagandhayone Sayadawgyi)


Questions & Answers


Q: How does a person observe the five precepts? Is a monk absolutely necessary ? explain.


If these 5 precepts are observed in earnest, our life would be a truly happy one and our society would become a much safer and more peaceful place to live in.


A monk is not absolutely necessary if one knows how to take 5 or 8 precepts.


The most important is one should be aware of his precepts.


A cow does not kill any being, not steal, not lie, not drink alcohol. We can not say as that cow is following 5 precepts because the cow is not aware of her morality.


These precepts are not commandments imposed on us,


— are the moral codes that we willingly undertake to observe out of clear understanding and firm conviction that they are good for ourselves as well as for our society.


Q:What do the first, second, third, forth and five precepts tell us to do?


The first precept implies the rights of all living beings to protect and preserve their life. It also implies the importance of love and compassion for all.


The second precept signifies an individual’s rights for the possession as well as the protection of wealth rightly acquired. It also stress the importance of right livelihood.


The third precept, not to indulge in sexual misconduct. It teaches one to respect one’s own spouse as well as those of other, including, by extension all things that are near and dear to them. It is intended to inculcate in man self – restraint and a sense of social propriety.


The forth precept make man honest and truthful. It aims preserving man’s credibility, upon which rests his / her honor, dignity and trustworthiness. 


The last precept intends to keep a healthy person physically, mentally and morally. It helps him to maintain his / her sense of responsibility in thought and action. Sometime not possible when one is under the spell of drinks or drugs.

 

Q:What are the benefits of the five precepts?


The five precepts are not only something good but something absolutely necessary for a truly happy and peaceful society.


At least the five benefits of keeping the Moral precepts


1 - One who is fully moral in conduct, one who keeps all the moral precepts, is one who is not forgetful and negligent. Such a person does not squander or waste many things. As a result, he/she is able to accumulate much wealth.


2 - One becomes well-known as someone who is exceptionally gifted and good.


3 - Without losing face, one can boldly stand in front of any audience and confidently be a part of meetings and conferences.


4 - When one is about to die, one can die with clarity and maintain mindfulness as one need not be bogged down by indecisions and restlessness.


5 - After death, one can be reborn in a pleasant existence. 

 


Purifying One’s Mind


 


There are 2 kinds of Meditation to Purify One’s mind


1. Samatha-bhavana = concentration meditation.


2. Vipassana-bhavana = insight or mindfulness meditation.


Meditation in Pali means Bhavana, literally mental development to achieve wisdom and true knowledge.


1. Samatha - bhavana ( concentration meditation )


There are 40 meditation subjects. ( Or sevenfold meditation subjects )


1) 10 Kasinas


2) 10 kinds of foulness (Asubha)


3) 10 recollections (Anussati)


4) 4 Divine Abodes ( Brahma vihara)


or  4 illilmitables or illimitabilities ( Appamannya )

Or 4 sublime states.


5) One perception of loathsomeness in food ( Ahare patikula sanna )


6) One analysis of the four elements (Satudhatu vavatthana )


7) 4 immaterial states ( Arupa )


2. Vipassana - bhavana

( insight or mindfulness meditation)


Vi = means in various ways by understanding the true nature of 3 characteristics: impermanent (Anicca), suffering (Dukkha) and non self ( Anatta).


Passana = watching and seeing things at the present moment through the 6 sense doors : eyes, ears,nose, tongue, body touch, and mind.

the 6 sense doors are:


Eyes:


Ears:


Nose:


Tongue:


Body touch:


Mind:

 Questions and Answers


Q: What will be the result of Concentration Meditation?


One can destroy hindrances ( such as senual desire, ill-will, hatred, indolence, restlessness ,worry, skeptical doubt , ignorance) and lead to the attainment of Jhanas.

Q: What will be the benefit of mindfulness Meditation?


The benefit is to purify one minds and acquire an insight into the real nature of all phenomena.

The practice of meditation can bring infinite benefits to us in life. 

The degree of benefits depends entirely on the degree of achievement he makes and on how far he can apply it (meditation ) to real life.

Meditation

1) helps to calm the mind and get it better organized.

2) strengthens our will power and enables us to face all problems and

difficulties with confidence.

3) makes us think positively.

4) improves our efficiency in work by helping us to concentrate better and by sharpening our mental faculties.

5) free us from worries, restlessness, etc.

6) increases our mental health and therefore bears a positive effect to a large extent on our physical health.

7) cleanses our mind of defilement. ( Kilesa)

8) create in us virtuous ( morally good) qualities like kindness, inner peace, humbleness ( opposite of arrogance), a realistic attitude toward life and prevents us from being influenced by such elements as passion, selfishness, hatred, jealousy or greed.


Q: Will I be successful in the practice?


There are several factors that are important for the success of the practice. 

Eg. Proper atmosphere, spiritual preparedness, proper frame of mind, self-confidence, frequency and regularity in practice, and so on. 

But as with other activities in life, trying to do one’s best is always better than not trying at all.

Q: How can I get success in meditation?


One’s faith, effort, mindfulness, concentration and knowledge will lead the one’s success.


Q: Does one need to learn all?


No, Out of 40 meditation objects for samatha bhavana, One can choose any meditation subjects according to one’s appropriate caritas.


Q: How can I choose the right meditation subject

which match for my caritas.?


Guess your caritas( behavior) and choose one or two meditation subjects first and have a try.

Q: Give me the Best advise?


Best advise is in this very life to look for one of 4 noble persons who already attained enlightenment and could give the best guidance for the practice of meditation. One needs the right teacher for mental development.

 

Q: How could one know the enlightened person in this very life?


Q:If I could not find a noble person, what should I do?


If one learn Dhamma , the Buddha’s teachings and practice in the right way, the one could develop knowledge and see the enlightened person through his speech and his dhamma talks and his books.

If one could not see or find enlightened persons in this very life, the one should follow the practice of samatha and vipassana meditation diligently continuously.

There are many good sangha , disciples of Buddha in Theravada Buddhism , who learned Dhamma and teach right way of practice for lay people.

                                                                         To be continued

The spiritual conquest of Buddhism

The noble thought of service to suffering humanity was predominant in the mind of the Buddha when he sentforth his disciples to preach unto mankind the good law or the Dhamma.

In entrusting his charge he said unto them ‘Go forth, O Bhikkhus, for the good of the many for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, benefit and happiness of gods and men. Let not two go by one way. Preach, O Bhikkhus the Dhamma, excellent in the beginning, excellent in the middle, excellent in the end, both in the spirit and in the letter. Proclaim the Holy Life, altogether perfect and pure.”

And the life of the Blessed One permeates with the sweet aroma of devoted and selfless service. From the time of his attaining to the Supreme Awaken-ness and until his Parinibbana for over 40 years, the Master fulfilled his Buddha mission on earth. Through hamlets, towns and cities by the waters of the Ganges he journeyed in the company of his disciples preaching the Dhamma and bringing unto the hearts of men and women the serene joy of his teaching.

To thousands who were in woe and agony he restored peace and consolation of mind, and to those groping in the way of ignorance he revealed the Light of Truth. Such was the mission of Sakyamuni the Buddha, the Great Physician of men who came to heal them of their diseases of pain and suffering: decay and death.

And to stabilise his mission of service for the well-being and happiness of mankind he instituted the Order of the Sangha, the oldest religious institute in the world. And through the Sangha, His great mission spread into diverse villages, towns and country districts and men and women hearing of the Great Enlightenment of the Buddha of the very truth of the norm of the excellent practices of the Order were mightily pleased with the system, and dreading the round of rebirth they renounced the world embracing the Order.

These happy men and women were free as the air. In the deep solitude of the forest glens and glades, they walked wrapt in the joy of meditation, and imparted the new message, and new life of freedom to all those who came into contact with them.

Service

Service to humanity is the hallmark of the Bodhisatva Ideal. Self-sacrifice, renunciation and service to others are the supreme virtues in the life of a Bodhisatva, and these He achieved by fulfilling the ten paramitas or the pre-requisites for Buddhahood. Think of the great sacrifice, Gotama Buddha made when he was born as the Bodhisatva Sumeda. The bliss of immortality was within his reach, but he renounced it temporarily, in order to be of greatest service to all living beings.

At the feet of the Buddha Dipankara, he received the confirmation of Bodhi and entered into Samsara to accomplish the ideals of a Bodhisatva which he achieved through 550 births, and in his last birth as Prince Siddhartha he attained to supreme Buddhahood, and opened the gates of immortality to myriads of beings.

The ideal of universal peace and love is the keynote of Buddhism. The Message of the Master rings through and through with his Maitri or Boundless loving kindness. He was the Lord of Infinite Peace and gave peace to all who came unto him.

The books record that the Blessed One rose daily before day-break from His Mahakaruna Samapatti or Trance of Bondless Compassion and Love, and surveyed the whole world to help those in distress and woe, for the purpose of restoring unto them the joy and peace of mind.

Disturbed

We are living in times when the Peace of the world has been much disturbed. People in many lands are living in constant fear. They fear the ravages of war, and the destruction of life and property by atomic power and the hydrogen bomb. World powers are deliberating on various problems and measures to be adopted for consolidating the peace of the world.

All peace-loving nations and governments are co-operating through various movements, associations and conferences in a stupendous campaign for securing peace and international peace. It is in these days, when the world is hard pressed for peace, that men and women should turn their minds to the Great Physician the Tathagata who 2500 years ago preached a doctrine of Immortal Peace.

Today we need His message more and more to solve the world’s problems of woe and misery, pain and suffering; anger and hatred; strife and envy; malice and jealousy; and above all greed for material power. And in our quest for Peace we must bear in mind the Buddha’s teaching “Hatred is not conquered by hatred; but by love “and greed is the cause of all sorrow and fear”.

Kindness

Maitri or boundless loving kindness is one of the fundamental doctrines of Buddhism. Maitri is infinite love, kindness and compassion extended to all beings including every form of life on earth bright spirits in the heaven - worlds and woeful creatures suffering in the dark planes of existence.

The Buddhist spirit of tolerance, sympathy and respect for all individuals springs from this virtue of Maitri. And to what extent Buddhists have practised Maitri is amply proved from the fact that in the history of Buddhism not a drop of blood was shed in the propagation of its doctrines. Every action of a Buddhist should manifest the spirit of Maitri. It is the virtue of Maitri that adds charm, grace and sweetness to the true Buddhist Life.

Compassion

Asoka of India built up a Buddhist empire, wherein Maitri was practised in very large measure. His rock edicts reveal that he promulgated rules instructing his subjects to foster love and kindness for both man and beast.

He ordered wells to be dug, shade trees to be planted, and herb-gardens to be maintained for the benefit of men and animals. He caused hospitals to be erected all over his kingdom to relieve pain and suffering, and to render free medical aid to suffering humanity.

In fostering Maitri it is very necessary to suppress ill will, malice, hatred, jealousy and anger, as well as killing and violence. Manifold blessings and happiness comes unto him who permeates his life with the sweet aroma of Maitri. Buddhism stands for the triumph of Good over Evil. From birth to death life is a chain of actions.

And as long as action continues so long does life continue to be for our actions are dependent on our thought process. With the continuity of the thought-process, our life flux or Santati continues to flow and so rebirth become possible.

Kamma or action is the factor that determines the nature of one’s rebirth. Buddhism teaches that good action or Kusala Kamma will bring about an individual’s birth in a happy state under happy conditions. In the case of evil action or Akusala Kamma, the resulting effects produce rebirth in a woeful state.

The Buddha says, “That deed is well done which being done, one afterwards repents not and the fruit whereof one reaps with joy and pleasure.”

Right Action

Kusala Kamma embraces Right Action or Samma Kammantha, which is one of the principles incorporated in the Noble Eightfold Path. Self-purification which leads to final emancipation can only be achieved by right action done by thought, word and deed.

It is by constantly doing good deeds that self-purification is ultimately realised. But when the ultimate goal of the holy life is achieved, one transcends both good and evil.

The Arahant or Perfect Saint in Buddhism is one who has gone beyond good and bad. In the Majjhima Nikaya the Buddha says. “Righteous things (Dhamma) you have to give up, how much more the unrighteous things (Adhamma).

And finally the Mission of Buddhism is the attainment of Immortality. Nibbana is the Summum Bonum of life, and it is the highest aim of every good Buddhist. Nirvana is a condition of heart and mind in which every earthly craving is extinct.

It is the cessation of every passion and desire, of every feeling of fear and sorrow.

It is a mental state of perfect rest and peace and joy, in the steadfast assurance of deliverance attained from all imperfections of finite being.

It is a condition impossible to be defined in words, or to upon the people of Sri attached to the things, in the world.

Only he knows what Nibbana is who has realized it in his own heart.

Nibbana can be attained in this present life. In the Rohitsass Sutta the Buddha says, “In this very one fathom long body along with its perceptions and thoughts, do I proclaim the world, the origin f the world, cessation of the world, and the path leading to the cessation of the world.”

Two Divisions

According to Buddhism everything cosmic and hypercosmic is classified under two divisions viz; things conditioned by causes (Sankhata) and things not conditioned by any cause (Asankhata). Nirvana is not conditioned by any cause. Hence there is neither an arising nor a passing away. It is birthless, decayless and deathless.

In the Itivuttaka the Buddha referring to Nirvana as the goal of ultimate human understanding and striving; outside all causal states, free and unfettered says:- “There is O Bhikkus, an Unborn, Unoriginated, Unmade, and Nonconditioned.

If, O Bhikkhus, there were not this unborn, Unoriginated. Unmade and Nonconditioned an escape from the born, originated made, and conditioned would not be possible here. As there is O’ Bhiikkus, an Unborn, unoriginated Unmade, and Non-conditioned, an escape to the born, originated, made, conditioned is possible.”

The false notion or illusion of the ego or ‘I’ must be totally annihilated in the realisation of Nibbana. There is no I’ in Nibbana. The individuality and self are lost and all life gets merged into the oneness of life in Nirvana.

“Unto Nibbana.

He is one with life,

Yet lives not He, is blest, ceasing to be

Om, Mani padme,

Om’ the Dew drop slips

Into the Shining sea”.

Sir, Edwin Arnold.

Change

All nations who came under the benign influence of the Buddha’s Message experienced a stupendous change - a change which advanced them morally, spiritually and culturally. Buddhism alms at liberating man from all chains and ties, bodily, spiritually, religiously and socially Sir Edwin Arnold the author of “The Light of Asia” describes Buddhism as “the grandest manifestation of human freedom ever proclaimed.”

Buddhism teaches perfect goodness and wisdom without a personal Deity, the highest knowledge without a revelation, a moral world order and just retribution carried out with necessity by reason of the laws of nature and of our own being, continued existence without an immortal soul, a salvation in which everyone is his own Saviour, and which can be attained in this life and on this earth by the exercise of our own faculties without prayers, sacrifices, penances and ceremonies.

And over 25 centuries ago, the holy land of India witnessed the arising of the Tathagata the Unique One, in the person of Gautama Buddha.

He was the greatest personality that India presented to the world. The Buddha looms large before the world like a blazing meteor in the heavens. The perfect sanctity of his life of boundless love and compassion is as chaste and immaculate as the snowy peaks of the great Himalayas.

More than a third of mankind owe their moral and religious ideas to the Buddha, whose amazing personality appears the highest, gentlest, holiest and the most beneficent in the history of thought nearly four hundred and eighty millions of the human race live and die in the tenets of Gautama Buddha.

Forests of flowers are daily laid upon his stainless shrines in all Asia, and countless millions of lives daily repeat the formula.

“I take my refuge in the Buddha”. And the eternal truths of life which the Buddha preached are incorporated in his Dharma.

Dhammadipa

Nearly twenty three centuries ago Asoka, the Great Indian Emperor sentforth Buddhist missionaries to kindle the lamps of Dhamma in Asian lands.

And Eastern countries like Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Cambodia, China, Japan, Tibet and Mongolia received the hallowed light of the Dhamma.

For centuries this fair and beauteous Isle of Lanka was illumined with its light, and all acclaimed it as “Dhammadvipa” , the land of the Dhamma.

The teaching of the Buddha Dhamma began to influence the minds of the sons and daughters of Sri Lanka.

People turned their lives to the eternal truths of life, and in the stillness and solitude of nature they sought the Absolute, the unconditioned, the Nirvanic Bliss.

The emotions and sentiments experienced by them in this pious pursuit with glimpses of Nibbana in the distance, found true expression and reflection in the writings and literature of the country.

Sinhalese Literature is largely Buddhistic and very much influenced by Buddhist Ethics.

It was with the introduction of Buddhism in 247 B.C. that the Sinhalese imbibed the spirit and culture of ancient Buddhist India.

The Mahavansa or the Great Chronicle records that Mahinda the son of the Emperor Asoka was responsible for the conversion of the island into the Buddhist faith, and that Devanampiyatissa the ruler of the Island, and all his subjects embraced Buddhism.

With the advent of Buddhism a wonderful spiritual awakening with all its ennobling and softening effects dawned up on the people of Sri Lanka. Thousands of monasteries sprang up all over the land.

Pakche sent a mission to Japan and presented sutra (Buddhist scriptures) and images of Buddha to the Japanese court.

These gifts were augmented by a large number of Buddhist priests and nuns, temple architects and Buddhist sculptors who followed them Under Shotoku Taishi’s inspiring guidance and patronage Buddhism became the vital factor of national life in Japan, and Buddhist art flourished with great splendour, influencing their art and culture in general to the extent that the level of Japanese civilization was great raised.

Inspired

As regards the influence that Buddhism exercised on the Chinese people let me quote the opinion of the late Dr. Samuel Beal, Professor of Chinese, University of London. ?The Chinese were inspired by new thoughts, and blow was dealt to their studies and fresh combinations of men and women formed into religious societies: the country was covered with temples and pagodas and thousands stirred by this new impulse sought to find out in the solitude of the hermit’s cell the sacred of the unrest that had seized them.

The Buddhists of India brought about all this, and much more than this for what occurred in China happened also throughout the regions beyond, and in due course Korea.

Japan on that side, and Mongolia and Tibet on the other were converted and made obedient to the same faith or whatever it was in Buddhism that had conquered the Eastern World.

Just Hand over the

MASTER KEY !

 TO BSP !

AND BE HAPPY !

                     - JC

Now a temple for ‘goddess’ Maya

If Kanhaiyalal Rajput of Mahoba in Bundelkhand has his way, the Uttar Pradesh chief minister and Bahujan Samaj Party leader Mayawati could soon get her own temple.
Rajput has sought permission from the district administration to build a temple for the CM on the land he owns at Nathpura in Mahoba. ‘’The temple would be constructed there using donations from Mayawati supporters,'’ he said.
But there is a catch. ‘’It would be compulsory for her devotees to offer money to the goddess,'’ Rajput said.
According to this lawyer and self-proclaimed BSP supporter, Mayawati is a ‘’god to the poor and downtrodden'’. But Rajput is yet to decide who the cash offered at the temple will finally go to. ‘’Maybe it will go to the party fund,'’ he said.
Rajput has submitted an application to the district magistrate seeking permission for the temple.
B. B. Pant, the district magistrate of Mahoba said: ‘’I have not received the application. I will decide when I receive it.

The Entire Sarvajan Samaj has already built a temple for Prabuddha Bharatha Matha Mayawati Ji in their mind after participating in the Maha Rally on 15-03-2010 at Lucknow and seeing all the Memorials she had built for the Buddha and the great Buddhists of this land.

Not just garlands. But the entire Prabuddha Bharath’s Budget along with the MASTER KEY as desired by Baba Saheb Ambedkar, will be gifted to her by the Sarvajan Samaj for the welfare and happiness of the Entire Society.

 

‘Women’s bill flouts Ambedkar’s ideals’

LUCKNOW: Uttar Pradesh CM Mayawati has called for countrywide protests
against the Women’s Reservation Bill next month, saying that the
legislation was against Father of the Constitution icon Bhim Rao Ambedkar’s ideology of
empowering women from all sections of society.

“Ambedkar, the chief architect of the Constitution, wanted empowerment
of women from all sections of society, but the bill wouldn’t benefit
women from SC, ST, OBC, religious minorities and upper caste poor,”
said Mayawati while addressing a meeting on Saturday. She called on
her party cadres “to leave no stone unturned” for the countrywide
protests on April 14.

The party plans to hold the protests at the tehsil level and has asked
its leaders to educate people about the “flaws” in the bill, which
envisages 33% reservation for women in the legislature.

Mayawati said the BSP wasn’t against the reservation, but wanted a
sub-quota for the women from the weaker sections of society.

The CM launched a frontal attack on Congress and called the party
“anti-Ambedkar” . She said Congress forced Ambedkar to sign the Poona
Pact under which SC/STs had to give up the demand for separate
electorate and agree to reservation of seats in the legislative
bodies. “The Hindu Code Bill drafted by Babasaheb as Union law
minister in the Jawaharlal Nehru cabinet after Independence provided
many rights to Hindu women, but he was forced to resign following
stiff opposition by Congress leaders,” she said.

Mayawati said the Bharat Ratna was conferred on Ambedkar 43 years
after the Independence, when the BSP-supported National Front
government was in power.

“UP has created a record by spending Rs 5,600 crore under the Mahatma
Gandhi National Rural Employment Scheme till March 20, which is 85 per
cent higher than last year. The state has achieved second rank in the
country,” Principal Secretary (Rural Development) Shri Krishna said.

 

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