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What we generally refer to as morality is the conscious attempt to benefit society. By, constrast, immorality is toinfringe upon others and to undermine social order. Buddhism is a religion that places humanity at the centre of everything, and Buddhist moral standards are reason, law, and guidance. For example, “Entering the court, one assists the king with determination and loyalty; at home one assists one’s parents with respect, sincerity, filialness, and loyalty”. It goes on to assert. “If one yearns and strives for good, onewill be able to settle down; if one yearns for and strives to be filial and respectful,one will glorify one’s parents.



            The Comprehensive  i Course contains
on all aspects of the
study of Pā
i language including grammar, composition  and syntax. It is intended for all those who want to learn Pāi language, one of the three classical languages of Prabuddha Bharath,
the other two being Sanskrit and Prakrit. Lord Buddha taught in
i language which is also known as Māgadhi.

            i was spoken in the
Indo-gangetic plain now covered by Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal
and some parts of Madhya Pradesh. Buddha delivered His messagein Pā
i, the language which both the elite and the ordinary people could master, so that the spirit of His Dhamma could enrich the minds of all. In this way Pāi played a historical rolein a practical manner through centuries and, indeed, it does even today in all the Buddhist countries.

            The study
of Pā
i is not only important but an imperative to have a clear and objective grasp of history of Prabuddha Bharath and linguistics. All over the world it is being studied. Only in Prabuddha Bharath, due to
lack of facilities, and, it is regrettable to say, sectarian
bias, the rightful place of Pā
i has not been restored.

Comprehensive Pā
i Course is intended to introduce the students of Prabuddha Bharath linguistics into
the rich
heritage of Pā
i language and
literature. This course is complete by itself. The answers of the lessons given
in the end of the

            The course
was prepared in 1954, when I taught at the Pali Post-Graduate Institute at Nalanda. Thereafter it was used to instruct the students undergoing course in Pā
i studies and Buddhology in Bangalore.

            This book
is being considered as the text for students of Pā
i language at different universities, in Karnataka under the auspicious of Mahabodhi Buddhist Open University and Mahabodhi
Monastic Academy,


Bangalore, 1995

Acharya Buddharakkhita


i means “Buddha Vacanam”, the word of the Buddha consisting
the texts of the Tipitaka, the sacred Buddhist Canon,
containing the original teachings of the
Buddha. Hence we come across
the phrase, “Ima
tāva pāliyam, aṭṭhakathāyam pana” which occur in the texts of Tipitaka. In the
commentaries however …”.

In i lexicon the definition of i is given thus: “Pa-paleti, rakkhati ti i: since it
preserves the the ‘Buddha Vacana’ in the
form of the
sacred texts. It is called

           As to the origin of i, Emperor Ashoka has left an evidence in his Bhabhri edict, “Imāni bhanteDhammapaliyāyāni: These,
Venerable Sir, are the texts of the Dhamma.” In
course of time, paliyāyā became
i, an elliptical form. The home of Pāi is Magadha. That is why it is also known as Māgadhi. “Sammāsambuddhene vuttappakāra māgadhiko vohāro

The Māgadhi medium used by the
Supremely Awakened One.” The Māgadhi language
was the lingua franca of region comprising Bihar, parts of
Bengal, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, and area otherwise called
Gangetic plain, washed and fertilized by two river
systems, Ganga and Yamuna.

            The Buddha
purposely did not speak in Chandas, the language of Vedas, also called as Vedic Sanskrit. He spoke in the language of the common people. “Anujānāmi bhikkhave
sakāyaniruttiā Buddhavacana
pariyāpunita - Monks, I instruct that the words
of the Buddha are learnt in the
standard vernacularof the masses.”

            It is quiet obvious that had the Buddha given instructions in Vedic
Sanskrit, Buddhism would have become distorted and
turned into another Theistic doctrine beyond the
grasp of common people, accessible only to the elite class.
This is one reason, why
i is subjected to step-motherly treatment by sanskritists.

            In the
interest of Sanskrit, at least classical Sanskrit, which is widely studied today. 
i should be propagated as a sister discipline. This apart, chronologically, Pāi is decidedly older than modern classical Sanskrit.

            It is hoped
that in the age of science and technology when language studies
are becoming more and more objective, Pā
i should be studied widely as a discipline inseparable from other classical languages of Prabuddha

Alphabet and Pronunciation


The Pāi alphabet consist of 41 letters: 8
sara (vowels), the niggahīta (

and 32 byanjana


a, ā,
i, ī, u, ū, e, o



k, kh,
g, gh,
, c, ch, j, jh, ñ, , h, , h, , t, th, d, dh, n,

p, ph,
b, bh, m, y, r, l,
, v, s, h

Pronunciation: (pronounced similar to the example)


as in but,
hut; a in banana


as in father,
cart, heart


as in bit,
tip, it


as in
machine, keen, clean


as in put,
foot, push


as in rude,
boot, youth


as in way,
fade, cape (long always except before a double

in which it is short - as in bed, bet, head)


as in home,
bone, know (long always except before a

consonant in which it is short as in not, saw, all)



as or m - pure nasal without
release through the mouth

(It is
most characteristically stated as a humming sound

when the vocal cords are vibrating and the air

 is emitted through the nose only. There are
two prominent pronunciations which depends on the community).




as in skin,
cook, candle


as in king,


as in girl,
good, gift


as in log-head,

as in sing,
finger, ink


as in
choose, chin, discharge


as in ranch-house,


as in
jug, gem, judge


as in hedge-hog


Spanish señor

as t
but with the tongue tip curled back just under the

palate (retroflection)


as th
but with the tongue tip curled back just under the

palate (retroflection)

as d
but with the tongue tip curled back just under the

palate (retroflection)


as dh
but with the tongue tip curled back just under the

palate (retroflection)

as n
but with the tongue tip curled back just under the

palate (retroflection)


as in stay,
stand (but with the rip of the tongue at the

back of
the teeth)


as in
light-house, ant-hill (but with the rip of the tongue

at the
back of the teeth)


as in dog,
dirt, door (but with the rip of the tongue at the

 back of the teeth)


as in mad-house,
red-house (but with the rip of the tongue

at the
back of the teeth)


as in name,
north, no (but with the rip of the tongue at

the back
of the teeth)


as in space,


as in top-hat,
upheavel, uphill


as in bag,
born, bed


as in lab-host,


as in him,
mother, map


as in yes,
year, you


as in ram,
ring, roam (pronounced smoothy and similar

 to english r, retroflex prositioning)


as in lamp,

same as l
but with the tongue tip curled back just under

the hard
palate (retroflection)


labiodental approximant, a sort of in-between the English

 v and w.


as in sit,
story, smoke


as in inherent,
voiced fricative

digraphs dh, etc., are to be taken as single sounds, the h

aspiration - double consonants are pronounced

the first having no release): example - dd in mad

dog, gg in big game,
etc., or pronounced long: example - nn





            The i language consists of 41 letters of which 8 are sara (vowels) and 33 are
byanjana (consonants).

Vowels:            a,
ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o

Of these
a, i, u are short and ā, i,
  ū are long;
e, o may be

short or long, according to the context.


: Gutterals (Ka-vagga)
       :           k, kh, g, gh,

                        Palatals (ca-vagga)      :           c,
ch, j, jh, ñ,

                        Cerebrals (ta-vagga)    :           , h, , h, ,

                        Dantals (ta-vagga)        :           t,
th, d, dh, n,

                        Labials (pa-vagga)       :          
p, ph, b, bh, m,

                        Aspirate                       :           y, r, l, v,

                        Niggahīta:                    :           s, h, , a,


Parts of


are four parts of speech in
i :

            1.         Nāma               =          Noun.

            2.         Akkāta =          Verb.

            3.         Upasagga        =          Prefix.

            4.         Nipāta              =          indeclinable particles,

such as, Conjunctions,

prepositions, adverbs etc.


are treated as nons because they areSimilarly declined.



There are 3 genders (linga) in Pāi language, viz.,

            1.         Pullingga                     =          Masculine gender.

            2.         Itthilinga                      =          Feminine

            3.         Napumsakalinga          =          Neuter

which denote males are masculine and

Those which denote females are
feminine. But qualities and inanimate things are not
necessarily neuter.Therefore, gender in Pā
i is only a
grammatical distinctionexisting in words.



In Pāi there are two numbers (vacana):

            1.         Ekavacana       =          Singular

            2.         Bahuvacana    =          plural numbers.

                        i does not have dual,
as found in Sanskrit.

This makes Pāi simpler.



There are 8 cases in Pāi:

1. Pahamā vibhatti     = Nominative case       = subject

2. Dutiyā vibhatti          =
Accusative case         = Object

3.Tatiyā vibhatti           =
Instrumental case (prepositions)

by, with,through

4. Catuth vibhatti        = Dative case               = to, far

5. Pancami vibhatti      = Ablative
case            = from

6. Chaṭṭhī vibhatti       = Genitive/possessive case = of

7. Sattamī vibhatti       = Locative
case           =on, in, at,


8. Alapana vibhatti      = Vocative case           = Oh, etc.

are declined according th the genders,Numbers and cases.




Declension of nouns (Nāma vibhatti)Masculine gender (Noun ending in a)


Vibhatti                        Singular                       Plural

1.         Pahamā         :           0                                  ā

Dutiyā :                       a

3.         Tatiyā              :           ena                              ebhi,

4.         Catuth            :           assa, āya                     āna

5.         Pancami          :           ā, asmā, amhā, to        ebhi, ehi

6.         Chaṭṭhī            ;           assa                             āna

7.         Sattamī            :           e, asmi, amhi            esu

8.         Alapana           :           a                                  ā


   Buddha = The awakened One.



Vibhatti                        Singular                       Plural

1.         Pahamā         :           Buddho                        Buddhā

Dutiyā :           Buddha

3.         Tatiyā              :           Buddhena(by)  Buddhebhi, Buddheni

4.         Catutthī            :           Buddhaassa (to)                      

                                                Buddhāya        (for)

5.         Pancami          :           Buddhā,                       Buddhebhi,Buddheni




6.         Chaṭṭhī            ;           Buddhassa
(of) Buddhāna

7.         Sattamī            :           Buddhe (on)                 Buddhesu

                                                Buddhasmi (in)


8.         Alapana           :           Buddha!
(oh)                Buddhā



: The following words are similarly declined:


Buddha =
The Awakened One
ṇḍita = wise One

Dhamma =
The teachings of the
         Sāvaka =

                        Buddha, Truth              Lobha = Greed

Sañgha =
Order of the Buddha’s
         Vihāra =

                        Monastic disciples       Dosa = Hatred

Samaa = Monk                                  Pāda = foot

Bāla =
= Delusion

Dāraka =
= Teacher

Gāma =
= Man

Magga =
= World

CM cracks down on cops, wants security for weaker sections

Express News Service Posted online: Saturday , Jul 11, 2009 at 0214 hrs

Lucknow : Rattled by the spate of atrocities against SC/STs and other
criminal activities, Chief Minister Mayawati cracked the whip on
Friday by issuing stern directives to the police officers. They have
been asked to provide adequate security and justice to the SC/STs,
women and the others in the state.
Mayawati said three separate orders have been issued by the government
to the district police chiefs and DIGs of all the ranges to contain
crime against women and SC/STs as well as prevent incidents of caste
and communal clashes.

In case of laxity in compliance with the fresh government directives,
the police officers will have to face the punishment, she said.

According to Mayawati, the old mindset of caste-based inequality and
discrimination was still prevalent in the society and justice remained
a far cry for the SCs and STs.

In the event of any incident of atrocity against a Dalit, the DIG, SSP
or the SP of the district will have to visit the place of the

The police officers have been directed to furnish an “action taken
report” to the DGP and the state government as well.

The government has also directed the district police chiefs to launch
a campaign against the criminals and be alert against caste and
communal violence cases. She said similar directives as in case of SC
and ST will apply here also.

Regarding the incident in Meerut, where the 15-year-old son of a local
trader was abducted and later killed, Mayawati said if needed the
state government may order an inquiry by the crime branch of the CID
into the incident.

Maya to rope in private firms for upkeep of memorials

Express News Service Posted: Jul 11, 2009 at 0202 hrs
Lucknow As the various memorials, parks and sthals coming up in the
city are nearing completion, the state government has begun to appoint
private firms for their maintenance and management.
For this purpose, the Lucknow Development Authority (LDA) has invited
offers from reputed firms. With a contract of three years, the
selected firm will also have to take steps to promote tourism at these

Offers have been invited for the management of Bhimrao Ambedkar
Samajik Parivartan Sthal, Kanshiram Smarak Sthal, Baudha Vihar Shanti
Upwan, Kanshiram Park, Bhimrao Ambedkar Vihar, Bhimrao Ambedkar
Samajik Parivartan Prateek Sthal and Samta Mulak Chowk.

Firms have been asked to submit their bids by July 25. A pre-bid
conference will be organised on July 18 to discuss the scope of work
and receive suggestions from the firms having expertise in the
management of such memorials.

The government has already formed a society for the maintenance of
these memorials and parks. The vice-chairman of LDA is its member
secretary. According to an official, the society will also appoint
local agencies for sanitation and security of the memorials. “The firm
that the LDA is going to appoint will manage these small agencies,” he

To be eligible, applicant firms must have at least one official with
an MBA, a security superintendent, a sanitation expert, a full-time
civil engineer and an electrical engineer.

Within 15 days after its selection, the firm will have to prepare a
roadmap for security arrangements for these memorials, cleanliness of
the premises and day-to-day maintenance of other utility areas.

The firm will have to prepare a separate plan for visits by VIPs.

It will also have to draft a plan regarding coordination with district
administration and local police for maintaining law and order in and
around the memorials.

A separate plan will be made for the management and upkeep of library,
residential, dinning and meditation facilities being developed at
Baudha Vihar Shanti Upwan in Alambagh.

UP says all okay on Noida statue front

The Uttar Pradesh government on Saturday claimed that construction in the controversial park at Noida has followed all norms.

The state
government’s assertion comes a day after a Union environment ministry
team said the 33-acre project near Atta Market flyover has flouted
norms by giving a go-by to the mandatory Environmental Impact
Assessment and locating the park near the Okhla bird sanctuary, among

Cabinet Secretary
Shashank Shekhar Singh said late Saturday evening that construction
work in the area is being carried out far from the bird sanctuary’s
boundary and that it will not have any adverse impact on birds in the

He said the state
government has got a certificate from the Chief Forest Conservator and
the Chief Forest Conservator (Wildlife) in this regard.

Singh admitted
that trees have been felled for the project — the expert team from the
Environment ministry had said as many as 6,000 trees had been felled to
make way for the project — but claimed they were cut without violating
the Tree Conservation Act

BSP initiative to recruite 35,000 police constable

This initiative need to be appreciated.
Police and Bureaucracy need to be liberated  from the hands of castism and religious fundamentalism.

UP Special armed force is notorious for its communal colour.

Hope the new recruitment under BSP govt. will bring radical changes to the police.

Dear Regi,
You can decontaminate a Nuclear plant but you can’t decontaminate a sick hindu mind.


Plz Pass this information

Dear Friends,

you have come across any bright students coming from poor financial
background who have finished their 10th standard this year (April 2009)
and scored more than 80%,
please ask them to contact the NGO-Prerana (supported by Infosys foundation).
NGO is conducting a written test and those who clear the test will be
eligible for financial help for their further studies.
Please ask the students to contact the people mentioned below to get the form
#580,shubhakar, 44th cross,1st ‘A’ main road,jayanagar 7th block Bangalore-mob no- 9900906338(saraswat i)
Mr.Shivkumar( 9986630301) - Hanumanthnagar office
Ms.Bindu(9964534667 )-Yeshwantpur office

Even if you dont know anyone, please pass on this info, some one might be in need of this help desperately.

Thanks & Regards,

Mayawati statue spree to continue

A crane being used to install a new statue of Ms Mayawati in Lucknow

Mayawati has unveiled several statues of herself (Pic: Kumar Prithvi)

India’s Supreme Court has declined to stop the building of statues of the politician Mayawati and her allies.

court said it could not intervene unless there was evidence of misuse
of public money on the part of the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh

Ms Mayawati, a low-caste Dalit - formerly “untouchable” - is an icon for India’s 160m low-caste Hindus.

She is accused of self-glorification by her critics. But she accuses her opponents of conspiring against her.

Legal experts say that Friday’s decision is a major relief for Ms Mayawati’s plans to continue major building works.

She is building several statues of herself, her political mentors and elephants- the symbol of her party.

‘No interference’

man, lawyer Ravi Kant, who initially filed a petition in the Supreme
Court a fortnight ago accusing Ms Mayawati of wasting public money and
space to build vast statues asked the court to halt the statue

But the judge declined the request saying that the
matter would be heard four weeks from the day the original petition was

“If a democratically elected government decides to do
something without misappropriating public money, there is little the
courts can do,” Chief Justice KG Balakrishnan said.

“If the
cabinet has approved a project, we think the court should not
interfere,” the court said, refusing to interfere in the ongoing work
for installation of the statues.

Uttar Pradesh is one of India’s most deprived states, with a high crime rate and poor health services.

Ms Mayawati’s spending on statues and memorials has been described as “shameful” by India’s Home Minister P Chidambaram.

In May she unveiled 15 new memorials, including two of herself.

Statues of political leaders are generally put up posthumously, but Ms Mayawati says that belief is outdated.

History in Stone- Ambedkar Park : A Photo Feature

Individuals will pass away soon but the stones
remain for long to tell the history. That is how we today know the
buddhist history. Remember that dogs keep barking and Elephant keeps
moving and a new history is in making.
 Brahmin’s envy is dalits pride so go for a ride.
with metta,


History in Stone- Ambedkar Park : A Photo Feature

(All Photos Courtesy: Luisa Steur)

The Statues

Poetry in stone- Ambedkar Park in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. (Photo Courtesy: Luisa Steur)

Poetry in stone

I dreamt of writing OUR history
A dream never come true.

They- the historians- were busy
Blogging and loitering in Facebook pages
(their Orkut profiles stand deleted, reasons best known to them)

Then came her
And she wrote OUR history.

SHE gave us visibility
So now, WE can afford to be ‘invisible’.

Ambedkar Park- An outside view.

Etched in the grandeur of culture
OUR history in stone stands tall.

Burn Shelley’s Ozymandias

It will never tell OUR story
And WE don’t need YOUR Shakespeare, Tagore and Gandhi..

WE have OUR history
WE have our dream!


Ambedkar Park in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India)- The entrance

A long view of the park





 Dear Friends, SC ST teachers of colleges and universities  

Please join the federation e group at aiscstutf@googlegro
and subsequently become part of our federation movement. We intend to
associate and achieve organic unity of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled
Tribe university and college teachers of India, approximately 10,000 at
present, less by 1,00,000 as per constitutional requirements causing
huge intellectual and financial loss to the community. With an
objective of consolidating intellectual resources of the society, we
affirm our belief in the three objectives set by Mahamanav Jotiba
Phule, Baba Saheb Ambedkar and Manyawar Kanshiram for our mission,

1.  Annihilation of Caste and Tribal Oppression.

2.  Becoming the ruling community by establishing Social Democracy in the country.

3.  Organising Enlightened India through Sane and Egalitarian leadership.

With regards,

Jai Bheem.


9818825621, krajravan@gmail. com

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