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“Do not look for the short-comings pf others; do not

discriminate against
others; do not be covetous of others’

possessions; forsake
all negative words” (Sutra on the

Mindfulness and Purification of the Mind [Fague Jingxin Jing])




Exercise 1


Translate into English


Saddhāya ca viriyena ca Nibbānaṁ labhissati.


One will gain ultimate peace through
faith and



Taṇhāya nirodena dukkhaṁ nirujjhissati.


Suffering will cease with the
cessation of craving


Taṇhāya Jāyati soko taṇhāya Jāyati bhāya


Sorrow arises from craving, fear arises from craving.


Taṇhāya nirodhena natthi soko, Kuto bhāyaṁ?


With the cessation of craving, there is no sorrow,

Whence fear?


Paññāya pajā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti.


Mankind will make an end of
suffering through



Lobho doso moho ca dukkhassa mūlāni, alobo

adoso amoho ca sukhassa mūlāni Paṇḍitā ñānena



            Greed, hatred
and delusion are the root of suff-

Erring, and non-greed, non-hatred
and non-delusion

Are the roots of happiness, thus the
wise one see.


Dhammasālāsu samaā manussānaṁ Buddha-

Dhammaṁ desanti.


Monks preach the Teachings of the Awakened

One to people in preaching hall.


Paṇḍitā vedanānaṁ samudayañca nirodhañca



The wise ones understand the
origin and cessation

of feelings.


Samaā mettā-karuā-muditā-upekkhā bhāvanāyo



                        Monks develop the
meditations on universallove,

compassion, altruistic joy and


Buddhassa sāvakā paññāsikkhāya sikkhanti.


The disciples of the Buddha train themselves in the

Teaching of wisdom.


Dārakānaācario mettābhāvanaṁ bhāvessati.


The teacher of the boys cultivate s the meditation

of universal love


Samao guhāyaṁ upekkhābhāvanaṁ bhāvessati.


The monk will cultivate the meditation on equani-

mity in the cave.


Manussā nāvāya dīpaāgacchissanti.


Men will come to the island on
the ship.


Bāle bhāyaṁ uppajjissati na Paṇḍitasmiṁ.


Fear will arise in a ignorant,
not in a wise one.


Ahaṁ ātipātamhā veramaṇi sikkhāpada



Refraining from killing, this
precept I voluntarily



Mayaṁ musāvādā veramaṇi sikkhāpada



from falsehood this precept we volunta-



What did Buddha teach?

The Buddha’s teaching is often divided into three parts.
These are the :

The Three Signs of Being


The Three Signs of Being are the ways
that the Buddha used to describe life.

  1. Nothing in life is perfect. (
    dukkha) It includes things like being bored and
    uncomfortable, and everything which is not satisfactory.
  2. Everything in life - even
    solid things such as mountains - is changing, all the time.

There is no soul. (anatta) Instead,
the Buddha taught, what does carry on to the next life is a person’s life force
(Karma). The Karma can be good or bad, depending on how the person lives in
this life.

The Four Noble Truths

What is the First Noble Truth?

Dukkha: Suffering exists:
The first truth is that life is suffering i.e. life
includes pain, getting old, disease, and ultimately death. We also endure
psychological suffering like loneliness frustration, boredom, fear,
embarrassment, disappointment and anger.

What is the Second Noble Truth?

Samudaya: There is a cause for suffering.
The second truth is that suffering is caused by craving
and the needing to control things. It can take many forms: the desire for
fame; the desire to avoid unpleasant sensations, like fear, anger or

What is the Third Noble Truth?

Nirodha: There is an end to suffering.
The third truth is that suffering can be overcome and
happiness can be attained; that true happiness and contentment are possible.
lf let go of our craving and learn to live each day at a time (not dwelling
in the past or the imagined future) then we can become happy and free. We
then have more time and energy to help others. This is Nirvana.

What is the Fourth Noble Truth?
Magga: In order to end suffering, you must follow the Eightfold
The fourth truth is that the Noble 8-fold Path is the path which leads to the
end of suffering.

What is Dukkha?

Dukkha is suffering.

All existence is “dukkha”; without permanence
and therefore filled with suffering.


The Noble Eight-Fold Path

The Noble
Eight-fold Path
focuses the mind on being fully aware of our thoughts and
actions, and developing wisdom by understanding the Four Noble Truths. It is
the way Buddhists should live their lives. The Buddha said that people should
avoid extremes. They should not have or do too much, but neither should they
have or do too little. The ‘Middle
‘ is the best.

The path to Enlightenment (nirvana) is through the practice
and development of wisdom, morality and meditation.

Three Qualities

Eightfold Path

Wisdom (panna)

Right View (understanding)


Right Thought

Morality (sila)

Right Speech


Right Action


Right Livelihood

Meditation (samadhi)

Right Effort


Right Mindfulness


Right Contemplation (concentration)

A Permanent Online International Seminar on Buddhism and Buddhist Heritage of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath -2

of Buddha

In the Pali commentaries,  three kinds of buddha are

  1. Sammasambuddhas attain buddhahood, then decide to teach others
    the truth they have discovered. They lead others to awakening by
    teaching the Dhamma in a time where it has
    been forgotten. Siddhartha Gautama is considered a
    sammasambuddha. (See also the List of the 28 Buddhas (all of
    whom are sammasambuddhas).)
  2. Paccekabuddhas, sometimes called ’silent Buddhas’ are
    similar to sammasambuddhas in that they attain nibbana and acquire many of the same powers as a
    sammasambuddha, but are unable to teach what they have discovered.
    They are considered second to the sammasambuddhas in spiritual
    development. They do ordain others; their admonition is only in
    reference to good and proper conduct (abhisamācārikasikkhā). In
    some texts, the paccekabuddhas are described as those who
    understand the Dhamma through their own efforts, but do not obtain
    mastery over the ‘fruits’ (phalesu vasībhāvam).
  3. Savakabuddhas attain nibbana after hearing the teaching of a
    sammasambuddha (directly or indirectly). The disciple of a
    sammasambuddha is called a savaka
    (”hearer” or “follower”) or, once enlightened,
    an arahant . These terms have slightly
    varied meanings but can all be used to describe the enlightened
    disciple. Anubuddha is a rarely used term, but is used by
    the Buddha in the Khuddakapatha  to refer to those who become Buddhas
    after being given instruction. Enlightened disciples attain nirvana
    and parinirvana as the two types of Buddha do. Arahant is the term most generally used for them,
    though it is also applicable to Buddhas.

In the Pali Canon
itself, the first two are mentioned by the above names, while
numerous examples of the third type occur, without that name. There
is no mention of types of buddhas, though the word buddha does
sometimes appear to be used in a broad sense covering all the

Don’t interfere in state affairs, Mayawati tells PM

LUCKNOW - Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister
Mayawati Thursday urged Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to keep off “the
internal affairs of the state” after Congress leader Rahul Gandhi
demanded a central authority for development of Bundelkhand region.

“Any move to set up a central authority for special development of
an area in a state would tantamount to direct interference in the
internal affairs of the state,” Mayawati wrote in a letter to the prime
minister, according to an official statement.

“Such a step could seriously affect centre-state relations,” she added.

The letter comes after Congress general secretary Rahul Gandhi led a
delegation of party leaders from this state and met the prime minister,
demanding the creation of an independent central authority for
comprehensive development of the economically backward Bundelkhand

Drawing the prime minister’s attention to the need for a special
economic package for Bundelkhand, Mayawati also pointed out that her
demand for a Rs.80,000 crore package for the region had been ignored by
the central government.

She also argued that Uttar Pradesh cannot be compared to the
northeastern states for which an independent central authority was
created. “Unlike those states, we in Uttar Pradesh have an efficient
and fully functional administrative set-up which can take care of its
affairs,” she wrote in the letter.

“It would therefore be in the fitness of things for the centre to
rise above party lines and release a special package for the
development of Bundelkhand, so that the state government could
undertake the desired development of the region,” she said.

Girl’s School in Uttar Pradesh Reshapes Rural India

29 July 2009

half of all women in India are married before the age of 18. But now,
students at an all-girls school in India’s rural state of Uttar Pradesh
are bucking the trend. Sixteen-year-old Krishna Chaudhry is leading the
charge by inspiring her classmates to seek independence through

Krishna Chaudhry
Krishna Chaudhry
new day begins for sixteen-year-old Krishna Chaudhry. The village girl
lives in Anupshahr, Uttar Pradesh - one of India’s poorest states. Half
of the women here are illiterate and the majority is forced into
marriage at age 13.

Krishna’s grandparents brought her here after family members threatened to kill her for land when her parents died.

Since then, Krishna says she is determined to rewrite her domestic destiny.   

The precocious teenager races through her chores. An hour later, she is almost unrecognizable.

 Financial empowment of village girls.

Krishna Chaudhry
Krishna Chaudhry speaks to her classmates
the day is spent in the classroom, the other busy at work. Students
earns 30 cents a day for making textiles which the school exports

encourages fathers to send their girls to school instead of having them
work all day on the family farm. Krishna says these skills give her a
shot at financial independence.

will not let my education go to waste,” Krishna says, “I will stand on
my own two feet and not get married until I get a job for myself.”

Krishna’s classmates are following her lead. All of them have refused to marry what they call “uneducated village boys.”   

has angered many local parents who are having trouble finding local
girls to marry their sons. Some have even staged protests in front of
the school founder Sam Singh’s home.

these girls have a mind of their own, says Singh. He adds that
empowering girls like Krishna is the only way you can effectively
change rural India. “Only transformation is going to come is through
the ladies, through the mother. They are the ones in any society who
transforms it,” he said.

ask them to go to school and make their own destiny,” Krishna says. “I
try explaining to them that if they don’t go to school the society will
suppress them. I tell them to stand for their own rights and make your
own career and not to leave everything in the hands of the fate,” she

for Krishna’s personal inspiration - “that one is easy,” she says.

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