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‘Buddha remains’ unveiled in in Qixia Temple

2010-06-13 01:56:57 GMT2010-06-13 09:56:57 (Beijing Time)  Xinhua English

Sakyamuni’s remains [Photo/Xinhua]

A monk holds a gold and silver mini-coffin which contains Sakyamuni’s remains to the Qixia Temple in Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province on June 12, 2010. [Photo/Xinhua]

Monks hold a ceremony to welcome Sakyamuni’s remains at the Qixia Temple in Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province on June 12, 2010. [Photo/Xinhua]

Monks hold a ceremony to welcome Sakyamuni’s remains at the Qixia Temple in Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province on June 12, 2010. [Photo/Xinhua]

Honored guests come close to see Sakyamuni’s remains at the Qixia Temple in Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province on June 12, 2010. [Photo/Xinhua]

NANJING - Chinese Buddhist monks and archaeologists revealed what they believed to be top part of the skull of Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism, Saturday morning in east China’s Jiangsu Province.

The object, taken out for the first time around 9 am from a miniature gold coffin nestled inside a silver one, was part of Buddha’s parietal bone, said Master Chuan Yin, president of the Buddhist Association of China, after attending the worshipping ceremony held in Qixia Temple in Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province.

The bone, irregular and light brown, looked like a small rock. “It is full of cell-like cavities, just like a honeycomb,” said Hua Guorong, deputy head of Nanjing City Museum.

“Our findings conform with the descriptions of the parietal bone in historical records,” said Master Xue Cheng, vice president of the association, adding the bone was hugely sacred for Buddhists.

Besides Sakyamuni’s remains, ten sacred pieces of remains of other Buddhas were also found in another gold and silver mini-coffin.

All the relics had been enshrined at Qixia Temple by 108 eminent Buddhist monks from the Chinese mainland, Macao and Taiwan. The relics would be open to believers at the temple for one month, Hua said.

To ensure the safety of the invaluable treasures, Saturday’s activities were conducted under heavy security, as well the indoor temperature was kept stable at 20 degrees Celsius and humidity between 55 to 60 percent, he said.

The parietal bone of Sakyamuni, allegedly recovered from the cremation ash of Sakyamuni, had been stored in a miniature pagoda named the Pagoda of King Asoka unearthed two years ago in an underground shrine built in 1011 under the former Changgan Temple of Nanjing.

The palace was found when archaeologists began excavating the ruins of the Grand Bao’en Temple of Nanjing built in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD).

In July 2008, archaeologists found a stele in the palace, the inscription on it said the palace preserved a “Seven-Treasure Pagoda of King Asoka” containing gold and silver coffins with Sakyamuni’s parietal bone and relics of other Buddhas inside.

One month later, an iron case containing a pagoda was unearthed from the palace. In November 2008, archaeologists removed the pagoda from the case and found two mini-coffins.

It is said that 2,500 years ago, Sakyamuni’s disciples recovered one parietal bone, four teeth, two collar bones and 84,000 particles of relics from the cremation ash of Sakyamuni, according to Lu Jianfu, a senior official with the association.

Asoka, an Indian emperor (273 BC - 232 BC), allegedly collected all the parts of Sakyamuni’s remains, stored them in pagoda-like shrines, and sent them to different parts of the world.

The pagoda in Nanjing is believed to be one of tens of thousands of “pagodas of King Asoka” that contain Sakyamuni’s remains.

The four-layer, 1.21-m-high and 0.42-m-wide pagoda is allegedly the largest of its kind unearthed in China.

According to Tang Dynasty (618-907) Buddhist records, China had 19 pagodas of King Asoka holding Sakyamuni’s relics. To date, it is believed seven of the pagodas have been found in different parts of the country.


The third reality or paramattha dhamma is ruupa, matter or material form. In its analysis of matter the Abhidhamma recognizes twenty-eight kinds of material phenomena. Four of these are called primary, twenty-four secondary. The secondary kinds are dependant on the primary.

The four primary elements (cattaari mahaa bhuutaani)

These are metaphorically referred to under their ancient names but signify distinct properties of matter:

1.   The Earth element (pa.thavi dhaatu) = solidity

2.   The Water element (aapo dhaatu) = adhesion

3.   The Fire element (tejo dhaatu) = heat

4.   The Wind element (vaayo dhaatu) = motion

There is no unit of matter that does not contain these four elements in varying proportions. The preponderance of one element over the other three gives the material object its main characteristic.

The solid element gives consistency to matter varying from hardness to softness. The more predominant the solid element, the firmer the object. This is also the element of extension by virtue of which objects occupy space. It has the function of supporting the other material phenomena.

The adhesion element has a cohesive function. It holds the particles of matter together and prevents them from scattering. It predominates in liquids because, unlike solids, liquids unite when brought together. This adhesion element is intangible.

The heat element accounts for an object’s temperature. An object is hot or cold depending on the amount of heat element. This element has the function of maturing or vitalizing. It accounts for preservation and decay.

The motion element imparts motion and causes expansion and contraction.

In the Mahaa Raahulovaada Sutta (MN 62) the Buddha explains these four elements in concrete terms to his son, the Venerable Raahula. He says:

“The earth element may be internal (i.e., referable to an individual) or it may be external. Regarding the internal, whatever is hard, solid, or derived therefrom, such as hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, and various organs, is the earth element. Whatever is an internal earth element and whatever is an external earth element are just earth element.

“The water element may be internal or external. Regarding the internal, whatever is liquid and derived therefrom, such as bile, phlegm, pus, and blood is the water element. Whatever is an internal water element and whatever is an external water element are just water element.

“The fire element may be internal or external. Regarding the internal, whatever is heat, warmth, and derived therefrom, such as that by which one is vitalized, consumed, or burnt up, and that by which the ingested food is digested, this is the fire element. Whatever is an internal fire element and whatever is an external fire element are just fire element.

“The wind element may be internal or external. Regarding the internal, whatever is motion, wind, and derived therefrom, such as the winds going up and down, winds in the belly, winds that shoot across the limbs, inbreathing and outbreathing, is the wind element. Whatever is an internal wind element and whatever is an external wind element are just wind element.”

— MN 62

In this sutta the Buddha also describes the space element (aakaasa dhaatu) which, he says, may likewise be internal or external: “Regarding the internal, whatever is space, spacious and derived therefrom, such as the different orifices and cavities in the body, is the space element. Whatever is the internal space element and whatever is the external space element are just space element.”

It will be noted that in each instance the Buddha pointed out a fundamental identity between the internal and the external elements. The significance of this will be discussed later.

FIFA World Cup at South Africa.

South Africa 2010 Match Schedule


Group A
Match Date - Time Venue Results
1 11/06 19:30 Johannesburg - JSC South Africa South Africa Preview Mexico Mexico
2 12/06 00:00 Cape Town Uruguay Uruguay Background France France
17 17/06 00:00 Tshwane/Pretoria South Africa South Africa Background Uruguay Uruguay
18 18/06 00:00 Polokwane France France Background Mexico Mexico
33 22/06 19:30 Rustenburg Mexico Mexico Background Uruguay Uruguay
34 22/06 19:30 Mangaung/Bloemfontein France France Background South Africa South Africa
Group B
Match Date - Time Venue Results
3 12/06 19:30 Johannesburg - JEP Argentina Argentina Preview Nigeria Nigeria
4 12/06 17:00 Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth Korea Republic Korea Republic Preview Greece Greece
19 17/06 19:30 Mangaung/Bloemfontein Greece Greece Background Nigeria Nigeria
20 17/06 17:00 Johannesburg - JSC Argentina Argentina Background Korea Republic Korea Republic
35 23/06 00:00 Durban Nigeria Nigeria Background Korea Republic Korea Republic
36 23/06 00:00 Polokwane Greece Greece Background Argentina Argentina
Group C
Match Date - Time Venue Results
5 13/06 00:00 Rustenburg England England Background USA USA
6 13/06 17:00 Polokwane Algeria Algeria Background Slovenia Slovenia
22 18/06 19:30 Johannesburg - JEP Slovenia Slovenia Background USA USA
23 19/06 00:00 Cape Town England England Background Algeria Algeria
37 23/06 19:30 Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth Slovenia Slovenia Background England England
38 23/06 19:30 Tshwane/Pretoria USA USA Background Algeria Algeria
Group D
Match Date - Time Venue Results
7 14/06 00:00 Durban Germany Germany Background Australia Australia
8 13/06 19:30 Tshwane/Pretoria Serbia Serbia Background Ghana Ghana
21 18/06 17:00 Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth Germany Germany Background Serbia Serbia
24 19/06 19:30 Rustenburg Ghana Ghana Background Australia Australia
39 24/06 00:00 Johannesburg - JSC Ghana Ghana Background Germany Germany
40 24/06 00:00 Nelspruit Australia Australia Background Serbia Serbia
Group E
Match Date - Time Venue Results
9 14/06 17:00 Johannesburg - JSC Netherlands Netherlands Background Denmark Denmark
10 14/06 19:30 Mangaung/Bloemfontein Japan Japan Background Cameroon Cameroon
25 19/06 17:00 Durban Netherlands Netherlands Background Japan Japan
26 20/06 00:00 Tshwane/Pretoria Cameroon Cameroon Background Denmark Denmark
43 25/06 00:00 Rustenburg Denmark Denmark Background Japan Japan
44 25/06 00:00 Cape Town Cameroon Cameroon Background Netherlands Netherlands
Group F
Match Date - Time Venue Results
11 15/06 00:00 Cape Town Italy Italy Background Paraguay Paraguay
12 15/06 17:00 Rustenburg New Zealand New Zealand Background Slovakia Slovakia
27 20/06 17:00 Mangaung/Bloemfontein Slovakia Slovakia Background Paraguay Paraguay
28 20/06 19:30 Nelspruit Italy Italy Background New Zealand New Zealand
41 24/06 19:30 Johannesburg - JEP Slovakia Slovakia Background Italy Italy
42 24/06 19:30 Polokwane Paraguay Paraguay Background New Zealand New Zealand
Group G
Match Date - Time Venue Results
13 15/06 19:30 Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth Côte d'Ivoire Côte d’Ivoire Background Portugal Portugal
14 16/06 00:00 Johannesburg - JEP Brazil Brazil Background Korea DPR Korea DPR
29 21/06 00:00 Johannesburg - JSC Brazil Brazil Background Côte d’Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire
30 21/06 17:00 Cape Town Portugal Portugal Background Korea DPR Korea DPR
45 25/06 19:30 Durban Portugal Portugal Background Brazil Brazil
46 25/06 19:30 Nelspruit Korea DPR Korea DPR Background Côte d’Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire
Group H
Match Date - Time Venue Results
15 16/06 17:00 Nelspruit Honduras Honduras Background Chile Chile
16 16/06 19:30 Durban Spain Spain Background Switzerland Switzerland
31 21/06 19:30 Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth Chile Chile Background Switzerland Switzerland
32 22/06 00:00 Johannesburg - JEP Spain Spain Background Honduras Honduras
47 26/06 00:00 Tshwane/Pretoria Chile Chile Background Spain Spain
48 26/06 00:00 Mangaung/Bloemfontein Switzerland Switzerland Background Honduras Honduras

Football fever high among the cricket-crazy Indians

Half this country will watch the FIFA World Cup 2010, and we love Brazil best. Nielsen’s online survey affirms that football fever is hitting cricket crazy India
If one in two people globally will follow the FIFA World Cup starting today in South Africa, you wonder what role India’s billion plus population has to play in this figure factoring. How high is football fever in cricket crazy India?

The Nielsen Global Online Survey, conducted between March 8 and March 26 2010, found that India ranks 10th in its love for football globally. “Nearly half the country (47 percent) claims to be a football fan”, according to the survey. “Fifty-six percent of Indians plan to follow the game this season.”

“Football is considered more edgy and more unpredictable, especially in comparison to cricket. The rough and tough image of football is quite endearing to the fans. The ninety minute game never sees a dull moment, it’s quick and much to the liking of consumers who are hard pressed for time today,” analyzes Nielsen India president Piyush Mathur.

“Nearly four in 10 Indians (39 percent) believe that Brazil will win the World Cup, followed by Germany at a distant second with 13 percent votes, and Argentina (11 percent) is the third candidate for Indians for a possible World Cup win.”

32 national teams will battle it out to become the World Champion of football. The most soccer fanatical countries are Brazil (69 percent of the population describe themselves as “soccer fans”), Portugal (60 percent say they are “soccer fans”), Egypt (56 percent), Indonesia (54 percent), Saudi Arabia (54 percent), Spain (53 percent), Venezuela (53 percent), Vietnam (52 percent), Italy (48 per cent) and India (47 percent).

Watch ESBN TV for live FIFA World Cup at South Africa
Residents of Gawthamapuram area in Bangalore unveiled a giant football boot in front of Pele’s statue
Nowhere else is the beautiful game such a passion as in this neighbourhood

BANGALORE: The street corner conversation have become lively over the past one week, much of it speculating over the fortunes of soccer heros in the FIFA World Cup started in South Africs on Friday.

It is more likely that such analysis has peaked in the small Gowthampuram area in Ulsoor, with passions running deep in the young and the old alike.

“Brazil is the natural favourite for us in the area. However, the younger generation will root for their heroes representing different countries.” S.Suresh, who coaches young talent at the Gauthamapuram Football Club, told.

That statue !

A festive atmosphere prevails here. Nicknamed Mini Brazil, this modest neighbourhood, famous for its Pele statue - the only known for a footballer in the city - has contributed several State and National players down the decades.

Children here take to football like children in other areas areas picking up cricket bat.”Eight players in the current Under-19 squad of Karnataka are from Gowthamapuram,” said Mr.Suresh, who donned the State colours in the 1980s.

“Though we know the other games, it is in football that our interest lies. Our focus is on football. Our footballers have joined many factory teams such as HAL, ITI, BEML, NGEF and others,” Mr.Suresh said.

Top teams

It is not only the Bangalore teams that Gowthamapuram footballers have represented. They have made it to the top Kolkata teams such as Mohun Bagan, East Bengal Football Club and Mohammedan Sporting Club. Local heros from here include Kadivelu, H.L.Ravikumar, Kannan, Ulaganathan and Bashir.

“This small area has over seven football teams, each representing a lane. Football is is a part of every family here and each has contributed a player,” said N.Sampangi, a former ITI team member.

Continuing Gowthamapuram’s glorious legacy are the young footballers who gather at the ground daily for practice.

Shelton Paul(13) and Manual Joshua (12), students of St.Meera’s School in Ulsoor, without pausing to stop practice, say the World Cup is nothing short of a festival for them.

Getting a kick out of a boot

True to their spirit, the residents of Gowthamapura area will unveil a giant football boot on Friday to coincide with the kick-off of the FIFA World Cup at South Africa.

“The six-foot boot has be kept in front of Pele’s statue. A giant screen will also be installed to enable thousands of residents to watch the matches live,” said S. Suresh of the Gowthamapura Football Club.

Late Shri.M.Jayaselan former Dy.Mayaor of Bangalore not only encouraged football, but was responsible for renaming Guntroop as Gauthamapuram, Shoolay as Ashok Nagar, Pudhuparacheri as Shanthi Nagar, Pilkar Cheri as Nehrupuram. He encouraged football players in these areas and Austin Town.

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