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213 LESSON 31 03 2011 Apannaka Sutta A Safe Bet FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-POLITICS is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE-CM calls on Governor
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213 LESSON 31 03 2011 Apannaka Sutta A Safe Bet FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter  to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-POLITICS is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE-CM calls on Governor

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LESSON 
213

Course Programs

Apannaka
Sutta: A Safe Bet

 

Translator’s Introduction

The Buddha often likened himself
to a doctor, offering a treatment for the sufferings of the heart. Unlike
ordinary doctors, however, he could not show newcomers the state of health —
nibbana — that his teaching was supposed to produce. If they followed his
teaching, they would see it for themselves. But until they followed his
teaching, he could offer them no empirical that nibbana was a genuine
possibility. As he stated in 
MN
27
, the proof that he was
awakened — and that awakening was a good thing — came with one’s first taste of
the Deathless, at the first level of awakening, called stream-entry. However,
stream-entry could be attained only through a serious commitment to the
practice. Thus he had to provide other, non-empirical, means of persuasion to
induce his listeners to give his teachings a serious try.

One
of these means was the pragmatic argument, which differs from an empirical
argument as follows. An empirical argument presents facts that logically imply
that A must be true or
false. A pragmatic argument focuses not on the facts related to A, but on the behavior that can be expected from a person who
believes or rejects A. The Buddha’s main pragmatic
argument is that if one accepted his teachings, one would be likely to pay
careful attention to one’s actions, so as to do no harm. This in and of itself
is a worthy activity regardless of whether the rest of the path was true. When
applying this argument to the issue of rebirth and karmic results, the Buddha
sometimes coupled it with a second pragmatic argument that resembles Pascal’s
wager: If one practices the Dhamma, one leads a blameless life in the
here-and-now. Even if the afterlife and karmic results do not exist, one has
not lost the wager, for the blamelessness of one’s life is a reward in and of
itself. If there is an afterlife with karmic results, then one has won a double
reward: the blamelessness of one’s life here and now, and the good rewards of
one’s actions in the afterlife. These two pragmatic arguments form the central
message of this sutta.

The
Pali title of this sutta is an adjective that has no exact equivalent in
English. It is used in two different contexts. In the context of gambling, it
describes a die that has not been loaded to favor one side or the other. In the
context of an argument, it describes a position that is true regardless of
which side of the argument is right. In other words, if there is an argument as
to whether A or
not-A is true, if C is true regardless
of whether Ais true or not, C is an apannaka
position.

Although
this sutta is primarily concerned with the second context, the Buddha
implicitly makes the connection between this context and the first in stating
that a person who rightly grasps the apannaka position has made a lucky throw,
whereas a person who has wrongly grasped it has made an unlucky throw. Thus, to
preserve this double context, I have translated apannaka as
“safe-bet.” “Cover-your-bets” might have been a more
accurate translation, but it would have been unwieldy.

The
sutta falls into two parts, the first part covering his “safe-bet”
arguments, and the second part extolling the person who practices the Dhamma
for tormenting neither himself nor others. The two parts are connected in that
they both present pragmatic arguments for accepting the Buddha’s teaching.

The
safe-bet arguments in the first part of the sutta follow two patterns. The
first pattern covers controversies over whether there is a life after death,
whether actions bear results, and whether there is a causal connection between
one’s actions and one’s experience of pleasure and pain. The pattern here is as
follows:

·        
A:
a statement of the anti-Dhamma position;

·        
B:
a rejection of the anti-Dhamma position;

·        
A1:
a pragmatic argument against holding to A 
a person who does so is likely to act, speak, and think in unskillful ways;

·        
A2:
further unfortunate consequences that follow from holding to A, given that A is
wrong;

·        
A3:
further unfortunate consequences that come from holding to A whether or not it
is right;

·        
B1:
a pragmatic argument for holding to B 
a person who does so is likely to act, speak, and think in skillful ways;

·        
B2:
further fortunate consequences that follow from holding to B, given that B is
right;

·        
B3:
further fortunate consequences that come from holding to B whether or not it
is right.

It
is noteworthy that the arguments in A2 and B2 are not safe-bet
arguments, for they assume that A is
wrong and B is right. Whether
these arguments date from the Buddha or were added at a later date, no one
knows.

The
second pattern in the first part covers two controversies: whether or not a
person can attain a total state of formlessness, and whether or not a person
can attain total cessation of becoming. In the context of the first
controversy, the safe-bet position is that even if there is no total attainment
of formlessness, that still opens the possibility that one could become a deva
on the level of form. In the context of the second, the safe-bet position is
that even if there is no total cessation of becoming, that still leaves open
the possibility that one could become a deva on the formless level. One further
reflects that total formlessness would open the way to greater peace than the
level of form; and that the cessation of becoming would open the way to greater
freedom than formlessness. These last observations in no way prove that there
is total formlessness or total cessation of becoming, but they do incline the
mind to view those possibilities favorably.

The
second part of the sutta divides people into four sorts: (1) those who torment
themselves, (2) those who torment others, (3) those who torment themselves and
others, and (4) those who torment neither themselves nor others. The first and
third alternatives describe styles of religious practice that were common in
the Buddha’s time: practices of self-torture and self-affliction, and the
offering of sacrifices. The second alternative covers any and all bloody
occupations. In opposition to these alternatives, the Buddha presents the
fourth alternative as ideal: the practice of his teachings all the way to full
liberation.

For other pragmatic arguments for
accepting and practicing the Dhamma, see 
AN
3.61
, AN
3.65
, and SN
42.8
. AN
3.65
 also contains a variant on the wager argument
given in this sutta.

I have heard that on one occasion,
when the Blessed One was on a wandering tour among the 
Kosalans with
a large community of monks, he arrived at the brahman village called 
Sala. The brahman
householders heard, “Master Gotama the contemplative — the son of the
Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan — on a wandering tour among the
Kosalans with a large community of monks — has arrived at Sala. And of that
master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: ‘He is indeed a Blessed One, an
arahant, rightly self-awakened: consummate in knowledge & conduct,
well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready
to be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has
made known — having realized it through direct knowledge — this world with its
devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives &
priests, their rulers & common people. He has explained the Dhamma
admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has
expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely
perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.’”

So
the brahman householders of Sala went to the Blessed One. On arrival, some of
them bowed down to the Blessed One and sat to one side. Some of them exchanged
courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings &
courtesies, sat to one side. Some of them sat to one side having saluted him
with their hands palm-to-palm over their hearts. Some of them sat to one side
having announced their name & clan. Some of them sat to one side in
silence.

As
they were sitting there, the Blessed One asked them, “Householders, is
there any teacher agreeable to you, in whom you have found grounded
conviction?”

“No,
lord, there is no teacher agreeable to us, in whom we have found grounded
conviction.”

“As
you have not found an agreeable teacher, you should adopt and practice this
safe-bet teaching, for this safe-bet teaching — when accepted and adopted —
will be to your long-term welfare & happiness.

“And
what is the safe-bet teaching?

Existence &
non-existence

A.
“There are some brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold
this view: ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There
is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next
world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no priests or
contemplatives who, faring rightly and practicing rightly, proclaim this world
and the next after having directly known and realized it for themselves.’
[1]

B.
“Some brahmans & contemplatives, speaking in direct opposition to
those brahmans & contemplatives, say this: ‘There is what is given, what is
offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad
actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother &
father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are priests &
contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this
world & the next after having directly known & realized it for
themselves.’

“What
do you think, householders? Don’t these brahmans & contemplatives speak in
direct opposition to each other?”

“Yes,
lord.”

A1.
“Now, householders, of those brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing
sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no
this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn
beings; no priests or contemplatives who, faring rightly and practicing
rightly, proclaim this world and the next after having directly known and realized
it for themselves’ — it can be expected that, shunning these three skillful
activities — good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct —
they will adopt & practice these three unskillful activities: bad bodily
conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct. Why is that? Because those
venerable brahmans & contemplatives do not see, in unskillful activities,
the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement; nor in skillful activities
the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

A2.
“Because there actually is the next world, the view of one who thinks,
‘There is no next world’ is his wrong view. Because there actually is the next
world, when he is resolved that ‘There is no next world,’ that is his wrong
resolve. Because there actually is the next world, when he speaks the
statement, ‘There is no next world,’ that is his wrong speech. Because there
actually is the next world, when he is says that ‘There is no next world,’ he
makes himself an opponent to those arahants who know the next world. Because
there actually is the next world, when he persuades another that ‘There is no
next world,’ that is persuasion in what is not true Dhamma. And in that
persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, he exalts himself and disparages others.
Whatever good habituation he previously had is abandoned, while bad habituation
is manifested. And this wrong view, wrong resolve, wrong speech, opposition to
the arahants, persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, exaltation of self, &
disparagement of others: These many evil, unskillful activities come into play,
in dependence on wrong view.

A3.
“With regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘If there is no next
world, then — at the break-up of the body, after death — this venerable person
has made himself safe. But if there is the next world, then this venerable
person — on the break-up of the body, after death — will reappear in the plane
of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. Even if we
didn’t speak of the next world, and there weren’t the true statement of those
venerable brahmans & contemplatives, this venerable person is still
criticized in the here-&-now by the wise as a person of bad habits &
wrong view: 
[2]
 one
who holds to a doctrine of non-existence. If there really is a next world, then
this venerable person has made a bad throw twice: in that he is criticized by
the wise here-&-now, and in that — with the break-up of the body, after
death — he will reappear in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the
lower realms, in hell. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when poorly grasped &
poorly adopted by him, covers (only) one side, and leaves behind the
possibility of the skillful.

B1.
“Now, householders, of those brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — ‘There is what is given, what is offered, what is
sacrificed. There are fruits & results of good & bad actions. There is
this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are
spontaneously reborn beings; there are priests & contemplatives who, faring
rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after
having directly known & realized it for themselves’ — it can be expected
that, shunning these three unskillful activities — bad bodily conduct, bad
verbal conduct, bad mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these three
skillful activities: good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental
conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable brahmans & contemplatives see
in unskillful activities the drawbacks, the degradation, and the defilement;
and in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling cleansing.

B2.
“Because there actually is the next world, the view of one who thinks,
‘There is a next world’ is his right view. Because there actually is the next
world, when he is resolved that ‘There is a next world,’ that is his right
resolve. Because there actually is the next world, when he speaks the
statement, ‘There is a next world,’ that is his right speech. Because there
actually is the next world, when he is says that ‘There is a next world,’ he
doesn’t make himself an opponent to those arahants who know the next world.
Because there actually is the next world, when he persuades another that ‘There
is a next world,’ that is persuasion in what is true Dhamma. And in that
persuasion in what is true Dhamma, he doesn’t exalt himself or disparage
others. Whatever bad habituation he previously had is abandoned, while good
habituation is manifested. And this right view, right resolve, right speech,
non-opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is true Dhamma,
non-exaltation of self, & non-disparagement of others: These many skillful
activities come into play, in dependence on right view.

B3.
“With regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘If there is the next
world, then this venerable person — on the break-up of the body, after death —
will reappear in the good destination, the heavenly world. Even if we didn’t
speak of the next world, and there weren’t the true statement of those
venerable brahmans & contemplatives, this venerable person is still praised
in the here-&-now by the wise as a person of good habits & right view:
one who holds to a doctrine of existence. If there really is a next world, then
this venerable person has made a good throw twice, in that he is praised by the
wise here-&-now; and in that — with the break-up of the body, after death —
he will reappear in the good destination, the heavenly world. Thus this
safe-bet teaching, when well grasped & adopted by him, covers both sides,
and leaves behind the possibility of the unskillful.

Action &
non-action

A.
“There are some brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold
this view: ‘In acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others
to mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture, in inflicting sorrow or
in getting others to inflict sorrow, in tormenting or getting others to
torment, in intimidating or getting others to intimidate, in taking life,
taking what is not given, breaking into houses, plundering wealth, committing
burglary, ambushing highways, committing adultery, speaking falsehood — one
does no evil. If with a razor-edged disk one were to turn all the living beings
on this earth to a single heap of flesh, a single pile of flesh, there would be
no evil from that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were to go along the
right bank of the Ganges, killing and getting others to kill, mutilating and
getting others to mutilate, torturing and getting others to torture, there
would be no evil from that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were to go
along the left bank of the Ganges, giving and getting others to give, making
sacrifices and getting others to make sacrifices, there would be no merit from
that cause, no coming of merit. Through generosity, self-control, restraint,
and truthful speech there is no merit from that cause, no coming of merit.’
[3]

B.
“Some brahmans & contemplatives, speaking in direct opposition to
those brahmans & contemplatives, say this: ‘In acting or getting others to
act, in mutilating or getting others to mutilate, in torturing or getting
others to torture, in inflicting sorrow or in getting others to inflict sorrow,
in tormenting or getting others to torment, in intimidating or getting others
to intimidate, in taking life, taking what is not given, breaking into houses,
plundering wealth, committing burglary, ambushing highways, committing
adultery, speaking falsehood — one does evil. If with a razor-edged disk one
were to turn all the living beings on this earth to a single heap of flesh, a
single pile of flesh, there would be evil from that cause, there would be a
coming of evil. If one were to go along the right bank of the Ganges, killing
and getting others to kill, mutilating and getting others to mutilate,
torturing and getting others to torture, there would be evil from that cause,
there would be a coming of evil. If one were to go along the left bank of the
Ganges, giving and getting others to give, making sacrifices and getting others
to make sacrifices, there would be merit from that cause, there would be a
coming of merit. Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful
speech there is merit from that cause, there is a coming of merit.’

“What
do you think, householders? Don’t these brahmans & contemplatives speak in
direct opposition to each other?”

“Yes,
lord.”

A1.
“Now, householders, of those brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — ‘In acting or getting others to act, in mutilating
or getting others to mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture… one
does no evil… Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful
speech there is no merit from that cause, no coming of merit’ — it can be
expected that, shunning these three skillful activities — good bodily conduct,
good verbal conduct, good mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these
three unskillful activities: bad bodily conduct, bad verbal conduct, bad mental
conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable brahmans & contemplatives do
not see, in unskillful activities, the drawbacks, the degradation, and the
defilement; nor in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling
cleansing.

A2.
“Because there actually is action, the view of one who thinks, ‘There is
no next action’ is his wrong view. Because there actually is action, when he is
resolved that ‘There is no action,’ that is his wrong resolve. Because there
actually is action, when he speaks the statement, ‘There is no action,’ that is
his wrong speech. Because there actually is action, when he is says that ‘There
is no action,’ he makes himself an opponent to those arahants who teach action.
Because there actually is action, when he persuades another that ‘There is no
action,’ that is persuasion in what is not true Dhamma. And in that persuasion
in what is not true Dhamma, he exalts himself and disparages others. Whatever
good habituation he previously had is abandoned, while bad habituation is
manifested. And this wrong view, wrong resolve, wrong speech, opposition to the
arahants, persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, exaltation of self, &
disparagement of others: These many evil, unskillful activities come into play,
in dependence on wrong view.

A3.
“With regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘If there is no
action, then — at the break-up of the body, after death — this venerable person
has made himself safe. But if there is action, then this venerable person — on
the break-up of the body, after death — will reappear in the plane of
deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. Even if we didn’t
speak of action, and there weren’t the true statement of those venerable
brahmans & contemplatives, this venerable person is still criticized in the
here-&-now by the wise as a person of bad habits & wrong view: one who
holds to a doctrine of non-action. If there really is action, then this
venerable person has made a bad throw twice: in that he is criticized by the
wise here-&-now; and in that — with the break-up of the body, after death —
he will reappear in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower
realms, in hell. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when poorly grasped & poorly
adopted by him, covers (only) one side, and leaves behind the possibility of
the skillful.

B1.
“Now, householders, of those brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — ‘In acting or getting others to act, in mutilating
or getting others to mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture… one
does evil… Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech
there is merit from that cause, there is a coming of merit’ — it can be
expected that, shunning these three unskillful activities — bad bodily conduct,
bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these
three skillful activities: good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good
mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable brahmans &
contemplatives see in unskillful activities the drawbacks, the degradation, and
the defilement; and in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation,
resembling cleansing.

B2.
“Because there actually is action, the view of one who thinks, ‘There is
action’ is his right view. Because there actually is action, when he is
resolved that ‘There is action,’ that is his right resolve. Because there
actually is action, when he speaks the statement, ‘There is action,’ that is
his right speech. Because there actually is action, when he is says that ‘There
is action,’ he doesn’t make himself an opponent to those arahants who teach
action. Because there actually is action, when he persuades another that ‘There
is action,’ that is persuasion in what is true Dhamma. And in that persuasion
in what is true Dhamma, he doesn’t exalt himself or disparage others. Whatever
bad habituation he previously had is abandoned, while good habituation is
manifested. And this right view, right resolve, right speech, non-opposition to
the arahants, persuasion in what is true Dhamma, non-exaltation of self, &
non-disparagement of others: These many skillful activities come into play, in
dependence on right view.

B3.
“With regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘If there is action,
then this venerable person — on the break-up of the body, after death — will
reappear in the good destination, the heavenly world. Even if we didn’t speak
of action, and there weren’t the true statement of those venerable brahmans
& contemplatives, this venerable person is still praised in the
here-&-now by the wise as a person of good habits & right view: one who
holds to a doctrine of action. If there really is a next world, then this
venerable person has made a good throw twice, in that he is praised by the wise
here-&-now; and in that — with the break-up of the body, after death — he
will reappear in the good destination, the heavenly world. Thus this safe-bet
teaching, when well grasped & adopted by him, covers both sides, and leaves
behind the possibility of the unskillful.

Causality &
non-causality

A.
“There are some brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold
this view: ‘There is no causality, no requisite condition, for the defilement
of beings. Beings are defiled without causality, without requisite condition.
There is no causality, no requisite condition, for the purification of beings.
Beings are purified without causality, without requisite condition. There is no

strength, no effort, no human energy, no human endeavor. All living beings, all
life, all beings, all souls are powerless, devoid of strength, devoid of
effort. Subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they
experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth.’
[4]

B.
“Some brahmans & contemplatives, speaking in direct opposition to
those brahmans & contemplatives, say this: ‘There is causality, there is
requisite condition, for the defilement of beings. Beings are defiled with
causality, with requisite condition. There is causality, there is requisite
condition, for the purification of beings. Beings are purified with causality,
with requisite condition. There is strength, there is effort, there is human
energy, there is human endeavor. It’s not the case that all living beings, all
life, all beings, all souls are powerless, devoid of strength, devoid of
effort; or that subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they
experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth.’

“What
do you think, householders? Don’t these brahmans & contemplatives speak in
direct opposition to each other?”

“Yes,
lord.”

A1.
“Now, householders, of those brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — ‘There is no cause, no requisite condition, for the
defilement of beings… Subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and
nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth’ —
it can be expected that, shunning these three skillful activities — good bodily
conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct — they will adopt &
practice these three unskillful activities: bad bodily conduct, bad verbal
conduct, bad mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable brahmans
& contemplatives do not see, in unskillful activities, the drawbacks, the
degradation, and the defilement; nor in skillful activities the rewards of
renunciation, resembling cleansing.

A2.
“Because there actually is causality, the view of one who thinks, ‘There
is no causality’ is his wrong view. Because there actually is causality, when
he is resolved that ‘There is no causality,’ that is his wrong resolve. Because
there actually is causality, when he speaks the statement, ‘There is no
causality,’ that is his wrong speech. Because there actually is causality, when
he is says that ‘There is no causality,’ he makes himself an opponent to those
arahants who teach causality. Because there actually is causality, when he
persuades another that ‘There is no causality,’ that is persuasion in what is
not true Dhamma. And in that persuasion in what is not true Dhamma, he exalts
himself and disparages others. Whatever good habituation he previously had is
abandoned, while bad habituation is manifested. And this wrong view, wrong
resolve, wrong speech, opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is not
true Dhamma, exaltation of self, & disparagement of others: These many
evil, unskillful activities come into play, in dependence on wrong view.

A3.
“With regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘If there is no
causality, then — at the break-up of the body, after death — this venerable
person has made himself safe. But if there is causality, then this venerable
person — on the break-up of the body, after death — will reappear in the plane
of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. Even if we
didn’t speak of causality, and there weren’t the true statement of those venerable
brahmans & contemplatives, this venerable person is still criticized in the
here-&-now by the wise as a person of bad habits & wrong view: one who
holds to a doctrine of non-causality. If there really is a next world, then
this venerable person has made a bad throw twice: in that he is criticized by
the wise here-&-now, and in that — with the break-up of the body, after
death — he will reappear in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the
lower realms, in hell. Thus this safe-bet teaching, when poorly grasped &
poorly adopted by him, covers (only) one side, and leaves behind the
possibility of the skillful.

B1.
“Now, householders, of those brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — ‘There is causality, there is requisite condition,
for the defilement of beings… It’s not the case that all living beings, all
life, all beings, all souls are powerless, devoid of strength, devoid of
effort; or that subject to the changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they
experience pleasure and pain in the six great classes of birth’ — it can be
expected that, shunning these three unskillful activities — bad bodily conduct,
bad verbal conduct, bad mental conduct — they will adopt & practice these
three skillful activities: good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good
mental conduct. Why is that? Because those venerable brahmans &
contemplatives see in unskillful activities the drawbacks, the degradation, and
the defilement; and in skillful activities the rewards of renunciation, resembling
cleansing.

B2.
“Because there actually is causality, the view of one who thinks, ‘There
is causality’ is his right view. Because there actually is causality, when he
is resolved that ‘There is causality,’ that is his right resolve. Because there
actually causality, when he speaks the statement, ‘There is causality,’ that is
his right speech. Because there actually is causality, when he is says that
‘There is causality,’ he doesn’t make himself an opponent to those arahants who
teach causality. Because there actually is causality, when he persuades another
that ‘There is causality,’ that is persuasion in what is true Dhamma. And in
that persuasion in what is true Dhamma, he doesn’t exalt himself or disparage
others. Whatever bad habituation he previously had is abandoned, while good
habituation is manifested. And this right view, right resolve, right speech,
non-opposition to the arahants, persuasion in what is true Dhamma,
non-exaltation of self, & non-disparagement of others: These many skillful
activities come into play, in dependence on right view.

B3.
“With regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘If there is
causality, then this venerable person — on the break-up of the body, after
death — will reappear in the good destination, the heavenly world. Even if we
didn’t speak of causality, and there weren’t the true statement of those
venerable brahmans & contemplatives, this venerable person is still praised
in the here-&-now by the wise as a person of good habits & right view:
one who holds to a doctrine of causality. If there really is causality, then
this venerable person has made a good throw twice, in that he is praised by the
wise here-&-now; and in that — with the break-up of the body, after death —
he will reappear in the good destination, the heavenly world. Thus this
safe-bet teaching, when well grasped & adopted by him, covers both sides,
and leaves behind the possibility of the unskillful.

Formlessness

“There
are some brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view:
‘There is no total formlessness.’ Some brahmans & contemplatives, speaking
in direct opposition to those brahmans & contemplatives, say this: ‘There
is total formlessness.’ What do you think, householders? Don’t these brahmans
& contemplatives speak in direct opposition to each other?”

“Yes,
lord.”

“With
regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘As for those venerable brahmans
& contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view — “There is no
total formlessness” — I haven’t seen that. As for those venerable brahmans
& contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view — “There is
total formlessness” — I haven’t known that. If I, not knowing, not seeing,
were to take one side and declare, “Only this is true, anything otherwise
is worthless,” that would not be fitting for me. As for those venerable
brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view —
“There is no total formlessness”: If their statement is true, there’s
the safe-bet possibility that I might reappear among the mind-made devas of
form. As for those venerable brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — “There is total formlessness”: If their
statement is true, there’s the safe-bet possibility that I might reappear among
the perception-made devas of no form. The taking up of rods & weapons,
quarrels, contention, disputes, recrimination, divisiveness, & false speech
are seen to arise from form, but not from total formlessness.’ Reflecting thus,
he practices for disenchantment toward forms, for dispassion toward forms, and
for the cessation of forms.

Cessation of
becoming

“There
are some brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view:
‘There is no total cessation of becoming.’ Some brahmans & contemplatives,
speaking in direct opposition to those brahmans & contemplatives, say this:
‘There is total cessation of becoming.’ What do you think, householders? Don’t
these brahmans & contemplatives speak in direct opposition to each
other?”

“Yes,
lord.”

“With
regard to this, a wise person considers thus: ‘As for those venerable brahmans
& contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view — “There is no
total cessation of becoming” — I haven’t seen that. As for those venerable
brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view —
“There is total cessation of becoming” — I haven’t known that. If I,
not knowing, not seeing, were to take one side and declare, “Only this is
true, anything otherwise is worthless,” that would not be fitting for me.
As for those venerable brahmans & contemplatives who hold this doctrine,
hold this view — “There is no total cessation of becoming”: If their
statement is true, there’s the safe-bet possibility that I might reappear among
the perception-made devas of no form. As for those venerable brahmans &
contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view — “There is total
cessation of becoming”: If their statement is true, it is possible that I
will be totally unbound in the here-&-now. As for those venerable brahmans
& contemplatives who hold this doctrine, hold this view — “There is no
total cessation of becoming”: This view of theirs borders on passion,
borders on fettering, borders on relishing, borders on grasping, borders on
clinging. As for those venerable brahmans & contemplatives who hold this
doctrine, hold this view — “There is total cessation of becoming”:
This view of theirs borders on non-passion, borders on non-fettering, borders
on non-relishing, borders on non-grasping, borders on non-clinging.’ Reflecting
thus, he practices for disenchantment toward becomings, for dispassion toward
becomings, and for the cessation of becomings.

Four individuals

“Householders,
there are these four types of individuals to be found existing in the world.
Which four? There is the case where a certain individual torments himself and
is devoted to the practice of torturing himself. There is the case where a
certain individual torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing
others. There is the case where a certain individual torments himself and is
devoted to the practice of torturing himself, and also torments others and is
devoted to the practice of torturing others. There is the case where a certain
individual neither torments himself nor is he devoted to the practice of
torturing himself, neither torments others nor is he devoted to the practice of
torturing others. Neither tormenting himself nor tormenting others, he dwells
in the here-&-now free of hunger, unbound, cooled, sensitive to happiness,
with a Brahma-like mind.

“And
which is the individual who torments himself and is devoted to the practice of
torturing himself? There is the case where a certain individual is a cloth-less
ascetic, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming when called, not
staying when asked. He does not accept food brought or specially made. He does
not consent to an invitation (to a meal). He doesn’t receive anything from the
mouth of a pot, from the mouth of a container, across a threshold, across a
stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a
woman nursing a child, from a woman living with a man, from where it is
announced that food is to be distributed, from where a dog is waiting, from
where flies are buzzing. He accepts no meat, no distilled liquor, no wine, no
fermented liquor. He limits himself to one house for one morsel, to two houses
for two morsels… to seven houses for seven morsels. He lives on one saucerful
a day, two saucerfuls a day… seven saucerfuls a day. He takes food once a
day, once every two days… once every seven days, and so on up to once every
half-month. He remains devoted to the practice of taking food at stated
intervals. He eats a diet of green vegetables or millet or wild rice or
hide-parings or moss or rice bran or rice-water or sesame flour or grass or cow
dung. He lives off forest roots & fruits. He eats fallen fruits. He clothes
himself in hemp, in canvas, in shrouds, in thrown-away rags, in tree bark, in
antelope hide, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in wild-animal wool,
in owls’ wings. He is a hair-&-beard puller, one devoted to the practice of
pulling out his hair & beard. He is a stander, one who rejects seats. He is
a hands-around-the-knees sitter, one devoted to the exertion of sitting with
his hands around his knees. He is a spike-mattresser, one who makes his bed on
a bed of spikes. He is a third-time-in-the-evening bather, one who stays
devoted to the practice of bathing in water. Thus, in these many ways, he is
devoted to the practice of tormenting & persecuting the body. This is
called an individual who torments himself and is devoted to the practice of
torturing himself.

“And which is the individual
who torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others? There
is the case where a certain individual is a butcher of sheep, a butcher of
pigs, a butcher of fowl, a trapper, a hunter, a fisherman, a thief, an
executioner,
[5]
 a
prison warden, or anyone who follows any other bloody occupation. This is
called an individual who torments others and is devoted to the practice of
torturing others.

“And which is the individual
who torments himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself, and
also torments others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others? There
is the case where an individual is a head-anointed noble warrior king, or a
brahman of great wealth. Having had a new temple built to the east of the city,
having shaved off his hair & beard, having dressed himself in a rough hide,
having smeared his body with ghee & oil, and scratching his back with a
deer horn, he enters the new temple along with his chief queen & brahman
high priest. There he makes his bed on the bare ground strewn with grass. The
king lives off the milk from the first teat of a cow with an identical calf;
the queen lives off the milk from the second teat; the brahman high priest, off
the milk from the third teat. The milk from the fourth teat they pour
[6]
 into
the fire. The calf lives on what is left.

“He says, ‘Let so many bulls
be slaughtered for the sacrifice. Let so many bullocks… so many heifer… so
many goats… so many sheep… Let so many horses be slaughtered for the
sacrifice.
[7]
 Let
so many trees be cut down for the sacrificial posts; let so many plants grass
be mowed down for the sacrificial grass.’ And his slaves, servants, &
workers make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, spurred on by
punishment, spurred on by fear. This is called an individual who torments
himself and is devoted to the practice of torturing himself, and also torments
others and is devoted to the practice of torturing others.

“And
which is the individual who neither torments himself nor is devoted to the
practice of torturing himself, neither torments others nor is devoted to the
practice of torturing others; who — neither tormenting himself nor tormenting
others — dwells in the here-&-now free of hunger, unbound, cooled,
sensitive to happiness with a Brahma-like mind?

“There
is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly
self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in
its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its
particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

A householder
or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction in the Tathagata and
reflects: ‘Household life is confining, a dusty path. Life gone forth is the
open air. It isn’t easy, living at home, to practice the holy life totally
perfect, totally pure, a polished shell. What if I, having shaved off my hair
& beard and putting on the ochre robe, were to go forth from the household
life into homelessness?’

“So
after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves his
circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the
ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.

Virtue

“When
he has thus gone forth, endowed with the monks’ training & livelihood, then
— abandoning the taking of life — he abstains from the taking of life. He
dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful,
compassionate for the welfare of all living beings.

“Abandoning
the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He
takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but
by means of a self that has become pure. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning
uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act
that is the villager’s way.

“Abandoning
false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the
truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.

“Abandoning
divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he
does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he
has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those
people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those
who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks
things that create concord.

“Abandoning
abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are
soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are
polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large.

“Abandoning
idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what
is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He
speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected
with the goal.

“He
abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He
eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the
wrong time of day.

“He
abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching shows.

“He
abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and
cosmetics.

“He
abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He
abstains from accepting gold and money.

“He
abstains from accepting uncooked grain… raw meat… women and girls… male
and female slaves… goats and sheep… fowl and pigs… elephants, cattle,
steeds, and mares… fields and property.

“He
abstains from running messages… from buying and selling… from dealing with
false scales, false metals, and false measures… from bribery, deception, and
fraud.

“He
abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and
violence.

“He
is content with a set of robes to provide for his body and alms food to provide
for his hunger. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its
only burden; so too is he content with a set of robes to provide for his body
and alms food to provide for his hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his
barest necessities along.

“Endowed
with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure
of being blameless.

Sense restraint

“On
seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which
— if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil,
unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a
sound with the ear… On smelling an odor with the nose… On tasting a flavor
with the tongue… On touching a tactile sensation with the body… On
cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or details
by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the
intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail
him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the sense faculties, he is inwardly
sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless.

Mindfulness &
alertness

“When
going forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking toward and
looking away… when bending and extending his limbs… when carrying his outer
cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl… when eating, drinking, chewing, and
tasting… when urinating and defecating… when walking, standing, sitting,
falling asleep, waking up, talking, and remaining silent, he acts with
alertness.

Abandoning the
hindrances

“Endowed
with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint over the sense
faculties, this noble mindfulness & alertness, he seeks out a secluded
dwelling: a wilderness, the shade of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside
cave, a charnel ground, a forest grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After
his meal, returning from his alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds
his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.

“Abandoning
covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of
covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and
anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the
welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and anger.
Abandoning sloth and drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth
and drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light. He cleanses his mind of
sloth and drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he dwells
undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness
and anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty,
with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his
mind of uncertainty.

The four jhanas

“Having
abandoned these five hindrances — imperfections of awareness that weaken
discernment — then, quite secluded from sensuality, secluded from unskillful
mental qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture &
pleasure born from seclusion, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation.

“Then,
with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains
in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of concentration, unification
of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance.

“Then,
with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and
senses pleasure with the body. He enters and remains in the third jhana, of
which the noble ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant
abiding.’

“Then,
with the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance
of elation & distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity
of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain.

The three
knowledges

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from
defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he
directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives (lit:
previous homes). He recollects his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two
births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one
hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction,
many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion,
[recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an
appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the
end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had
such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food,
such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away
from that state, I re-arose here.’ Thus he recollects his manifold past lives
in their modes and details. This, too, is how striving is fruitful, how
exertion is fruitful.

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from
defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he
directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing away and re-appearance of
beings. He sees — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human
— beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior
and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with
their kamma: ‘These beings — who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech,
and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions
under the influence of wrong views — with the break-up of the body, after
death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the
lower realms, in hell. But these beings — who were endowed with good conduct of
body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views
and undertook actions under the influence of right views — with the break-up of
the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the
heavenly world.’ Thus — by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the
human — he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they
are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in
accordance with their kamma.

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from
defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk
directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental
fermentations. He discerns, as it is actually present, that ‘This is stress…
This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is
the way leading to the cessation of stress… These are mental fermentations…
This is the origination of fermentations… This is the cessation of
fermentations… This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’
His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of
sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With
release, there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended,
the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this
world.’

“This
is called an individual who neither torments himself nor is devoted to the
practice of torturing himself, who neither torments others nor is devoted to
the practice of torturing others. Neither tormenting himself nor tormenting
others, he dwells in the here-&-now free of hunger, unbound, cooled,
sensitive to happiness, with a Brahma-like mind.”

When
this was said, the brahman householders of Sala said, “Magnificent, master
Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned,
to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a
lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has
master Gotama — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. We go
to master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May
master Gotama remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge,
from this day forward, for life.”

MN
45
; MN
95

POLITICS is SACRED with
GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department,
U.P.

CM calls on Governor

Lucknow : 30 March 2011

 

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms.

Mayawati ji visited Raj Bhawan to meet the
Governor

Mr. B.L. Joshi today. It was a courtesy call.

On this occasion, the Hon’ble Chief Minister

introduced the newly appointed Chief Secretary Mr.

Anoop Mishra to the Governor.

           

VOICE OF SARVAJAN
HONEYLEAKS

[The Buddhist Circle] Invitation

Invitation

“Retreat
of Novice” will be start from date 17 April to 17 May - 2011 for youth at
Kelzar, Tah. Selu, District Wardha.

Please
accept our invitation and share your knowledge of Buddhism and Dr. Babasaheb
Ambedkar, life and mission.

With Metta

Satyajit

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, andfrom the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-NālandāResearch and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once– Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And Andanatomy

Buddhist perception of humanity

Buddhism and Information Technology

Buddhist perception of Business Management in Relation to Public Policy and Development and Ecology and Environment

Buddhist perception of Languages and Literature

 

                                                                                   

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