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22 08 2012 Wednesday LESSON 684 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta TIPITAKA up a levelமூன்று கூடைகள்— The words of the Buddha புத்தரின் வார்த்தைகள்—Sutta Piṭaka நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை - Majjhima மத்திம Nikāya நடுத்தரமான நீள அளவு திரட்டுகள்-Sabbāsava Sutta எல்லா களங்கங்களின் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை-Dhammapada Verses 309 and 310-Khemakasetthiputta Vatthu-Verse 309. The Man Who Covets Another’s Wife-Verse 310. Shun Adultery-AWAKEN ONES WITH AWARENESS IN CHINA Jiangsu • Hanshan Temple • Huqiu Tower • Jiming Temple • Linggu Temple • Qixia Temple • Tianning Temple (天宁宝塔), Changzhou, the tallest pagoda in the world. Height: 153.8 metres (505 ft).
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22 08  2012 Wednesday LESSON 684 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
Tipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words
               
sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta

TIPITAKA  up a levelமூன்று கூடைள்— The words of the Buddha புத்தரின் வார்த்தைகள்Majjhima மத்திம Nikāya
நடுத்தரமான நீள அளவு
திரட்டுகள்
-Sabbāsava Sutta எல்லா களங்கங்களின் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை

Dhammapada Verses 309 and 310-Khemakasetthiputta Vatthu
-Verse 309. The Man Who Covets Another’s Wife-Verse 310. Shun Adultery
AWAKEN ONES WITH AWARENESS IN CHINA
Jiangsu
    •    Hanshan Temple
    •    Huqiu Tower
    •    Jiming Temple
    •    Linggu Temple
    •    Qixia Temple
    •    Tianning Temple (天宁宝塔), Changzhou, the tallest pagoda in the world. Height: 153.8 metres (505 ft).
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
Brief historical background

Sutta Pitaka
Vinaya Pitaka
Abhidhamma Pitaka
Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka



Buddha Vacana புத்த வசனா

Cavukatar/Tatākata/Ciṉa/Arhat/Piṭaka/A
Doctor/A Physician/Cātta/Argha/Cukata/Gautama/Kripacharya/kṣapaṇaka/
muṉaiva/cittārtta/Pungkava/The Supreme Deity/ A Guru/ Tamōpaka/Light
/Brightness/ The Moon/he Sun/one of the 1 vital airs , that which is
exhaled in yawning/ Mūrtti/The Body/Figure /Shape/A Form of
Deity/Tamōkkiṉa/The Fire God/Baghava/The Supreme
Being/Siva/Vishnu/Brahma/Muṉi/An Ascetic/A Devotee/A Hermit/
sage/Vinayaka

கலைநாயகர்/சாக்கியமுனிவர்/தயாகூர்ச்சர்/

சவுகதர்/புத்தர்/ததாகதர்/சினர்/அருகர்/பிடகர்/

சாத்தர்/மூர்த்தி/தேவன்/உருவம்/சுகதர்/கௌதமர்/க்ஷபணகர்/முனைவர்/சித்தார்த்தர்/புங்கவர்/குரு/தமோபகர்/
வெளிச்சம்/தமோக்கினர்/அக்கினி/சந்திரர்/பகவர்/வனவாசி/ஞானி/
கடவுள்/சிவன்/விஷ்ணு/பிரமன்/விநாயகர்

— The words of the Buddha புத்தரின் வார்த்தைகள்


It
may be, Ananda, that to some among you the thought will come: ‘Ended is
the word of the Master; we have a Master no longer.’ But it should not,
Ananda, be so considered. For that which I have proclaimed and made
known as the Dhamma and the Discipline, that shall be your Master when I
am gone.

Mahāparinibbāna Sutta

Sutta Piṭaka
நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை 

Sutta Pitaka (Sayings Basket) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka (It is made up
of two words, ti means ‘three’ and pitaka means ‘baskets’.)

நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை  மூன்று கூடைகளில் மூன்று மண்டலங்களின் இரண்டாவதானது.

புத்தரின் தம்மாசம்பந்தமாக போதிக்கப்பட்ட கோட்பாடுகளின்  இன்றியமையாத பொருள். அது பத்து ஆயிரத்திற்கும் அதிகமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைகளை உள் அடக்கியுள்ளது. அது Nikāyas என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளின் பாகங்களாகப் பிரிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.


Majjhima மத்திம Nikāya

நடுத்தரமான நீள அளவு
திரட்டுகள்

— The discourses of medium length —
[ majjhima: medium ]

The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.




Sabbāsava Sutta (MN 2) {excerpt} - plain texts
The Buddha exposes here the different ways by which the
āsavas, fermentating defilements of the mind, are dispelled. This
excerpt contains a definition of what is yoniso and a-yoniso manasikāra.
Bhayabherava Sutta (MN 4) {excerpt} - plain texts
In this sutta, among other things, the Buddha expounds the three vijjās he attained during the night of his enlightenment.
Vattha Sutta (MN 7) {excerpt} - plain texts
In this sutta, the Buddha, among other things, defines sixteen upakkilesas.
Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN 43) {excerpt} - all infobubbles
Sāriputta answers various interesting questions asked by
āyasmā Mahākoṭṭhika, and in this excerpt, he explains that Vedanā, Saññā
and Viññāṇa are not clearly delineated but deeply interwoven.
Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44) {excerpt} - plain texts
The bhikkhuni Dhammadinnā answers a series of interesting
questions asked by Visākha. Among other things, she gives the 20-fold
definition of sakkāyadiṭṭhi.
Sekha Sutta (MN 53) - enhanced ATI
The Buddha asks Ānanda to expound the Sekha Paṭipadā, of which
he gives a surprising version, from which Satisampajañña and
Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna are curiously replaced by a series of seven ‘good
qualities’, and which is illustrated by a telling simile.
Bahuvedanīya Sutta (MN 59) {excerpt} - all infobubbles
In this short excerpt, the Buddha defines the five kāmaguṇās and makes an important comparison with another type of pleasure.
Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga Sutta (MN 137) {excerpt} - plain texts
In this deep and very interesting sutta, the Buddha defines
among other things what are the investigations of pleasant, unpleasant
and neutral mental feelings, and also defines the expression found in
the standard description of the Buddha: ‘anuttaro purisadammasārathī’.



——————oooOooo——————




Majjhima மத்திம Nikāya

நடுத்தரமான நீள அளவு
திரட்டுகள் புத்தரின் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட விஷயங்களின் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் 152 கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்ட மத்திமநீள அளவு திரட்டுகள்


MN 2 - (M i 6)

Sabbāsava Sutta
எல்லா களங்கங்களின் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை

— All fermentations —
[sabba+āsava]

Very interesting sutta, where the different ways by which the āsavas, fermentating defilements of the mind, are dispelled.

மிக சுவாரசியமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை.இங்கு மனதை நுரைத்தெழச்செய்து கறைப்படுத்தும் asavas புலனுணர்வை
ஆட்கொண்ட  மற்றும் மட்டுமீறிய சிற்றின்ப ஈடுபாடு,  வாழ்க்கை பசி வேட்கை,
கனவுகள் நிறைந்த ஊகக் கோட்டை மற்றும் அறிவின்மை போன்ற இகழத்தக்க
செய்திகளை  விரட்ட வேறுபட்ட வழிவகைகள் எவை என வெளிப்படுத்தல். இந்த
நுலிலிருந்து எடுத்த பகுதி ஒரு சொற்பொருள் விளக்கம் யாவையும் உட்கொண்டு
பாண்டியத்தியமுள்ள, மெய்யாக, வினாவுள்ள, தகுதியாக, கருதுதல்.


Sabbāsava Sutta (MN 2) {excerpt} - plain texts
The Buddha exposes here the different ways by which the
āsavas, fermentating defilements of the mind, are dispelled. This
excerpt contains a definition of what is yoniso and a-yoniso manasikāra.

புத்தர்
இங்கு மனதை நுரைத்தெழச்செய்து கறைப்படுத்தும் asavas புலனுணர்வை
ஆட்கொண்ட  மற்றும் மட்டுமீறிய சிற்றின்ப ஈடுபாடு,  வாழ்க்கை பசி வேட்கை,
கனவுகள் நிறைந்த ஊகக் கோட்டை மற்றும் அறிவின்மை போன்ற இகழத்தக்க
செய்திகளை  விரட்ட வேறுபட்ட வழிவகைகள் எவை என வெளிப்படுத்தல். இந்த
நுலிலிருந்து எடுத்த பகுதி ஒரு சொற்பொருள் விளக்கம் யாவையும் உட்கொண்டு
பாண்டியத்தியமுள்ள,மெய்யாக,வினாவுள்ள,தகுதியாக, கருதுதல்.
Note: infobubbles on English words in italic


Pāḷi



Evaṃ me sutaṃ: ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: 

ஏவங் மே சுத்தங்: ஏவங் சமயங் பகவா

சாவத்தியங் விகாரத்தி ஜேதவனே அனாதபின்டிகஸ்ஸா ஆராமே. தத்ரா கோ பகவா பிக்கு (சீவகர்) ஆமன்தேசி


English



I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. There he addressed the monks:

நான் இந்த நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணையை கேட்டேன்:

ஒரு சமயத்தில் பகவா, சாவத்தி விகாரம், ஜேதவம், அனாதபின்டிகாவின் துறவிமடத்தில்

தங்கியிருந்தார். அங்கே அவர் பிக்குகளுக்கு பேருரையாற்றினார்.


‘bhikkhavo’ti.

பிக்குகாவோ’தி

– ‘Bhadante’ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

- பதந்தே’தி தே பிக்கு பகவதோ

பச்சாஸோஸும். பகவா எடதாவோசா:


Monks!

பிக்குகபிக்குகளே

– Yes, lord, the monks responded. The Blessed One said:

- ஆமாம், பதந்தே, பிக்குகபிக்குகள் பிரதிபலித்தனர்.

பகவா சொற்றார்:


‘Sabbāsavasaṃvarapariyāyaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi. Taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha, bhāsissāmī’ti.

-ஸப்பாஸவஸங்வரப்பரியாயங் வோ,

பிக்காவே, தெஸஸ்ஸாமி. தங் ஸுனாத,

ஸாதுதங் மனஸி கரோத, பாஸிஸ்ஸாமி’தி


Monks, I will teach you the method for the restraint of all fermentations. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak.

-நான் உங்களுக்கு எல்லா நொதித்தல்களையும் கட்டுப்படுத்தும் ஒழுங்குபட்ட வழக்கங்களை  கற்றுக்கொடுக்கிறேன்,பிக்குகபிக்குகளே, கவனமாக உன்னித்து கேள்ளுங்கள்.நான் பேசுவேன்.


‘Evaṃ, bhante’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

-ஏவங், பந்தே’தி  கோ தே பிக்கு பகவதோ

பச்சாஸோஸும். பகவா எடதாவோசா:


As you say, sir, the monks replied. The Blessed One said: 

- உங்கள் கூற்றுபடியே, பந்தே, என பிக்குகபிக்குகள் பிரதிபலித்தனர்.பகவா சொற்றார்:

Jānato ahaṃ, bhikkhave, passato āsavānaṃ khayaṃ vadāmi, no ajānato no
apassato. Kiñca, bhikkhave, jānato kiñca passato āsavānaṃ khayaṃ vadāmi?
Yoniso ca manasikāraṃ ayoniso ca manasikāraṃ. Ayoniso, bhikkhave,
manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā uppajjanti, uppannā ca āsavā
pavaḍḍhanti; yoniso ca kho, bhikkhave, manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā
na uppajjanti, uppannā ca āsavā pahīyanti. 

- ஜானதோ அகம், பிக்காவே, பஸ்ஸதோ, ஆஸவானங் காயங் வதாமி, நோ அபஸதோ. கின்சா பிக்காவே, ஜானதோ கின்சா பஸ்ஸதோ ஆஸவானங் காயங் வதாமி? யோனிஸோ சா மானஸிகாரங் அயோனிஸோ சா மானஸிகாரங்.  அயோனிஸோ, பிக்காவே, மானஸிகரோதோ அனுப்பன்னா சேவ ஆஸவா உப்பஜ்ஜன்தி, உப்பன்னா சா ஆஸவா பவத்தந்தி; யோனிஸோ சா கோ, பிக்காவே, மானஸிகரோதோ அனுப்பன்னா சேவ ஆஸவா நா உப்பஜ்ஜன்தி, உப்பன்னா சா ஆஸவா பாகியந்தி.

Verse 309. The Man Who Covets Another’s Wife

Four things befall that heedless one
sleeping with one who’s wed:
demerit gained but not good sleep,
third is blame while fourth is hell.

Explanation: A thoughtless person, who goes to another man’s
wife, will suffer four evil results. Firstly, he will acquire demerit
- what is not meritorious. Secondly, he will not get enough comfortable
sleep. Thirdly, he will be disgraced. Fourthly, he will be born in
hell.

Verse 310. Shun Adultery

Demerit’s gained and evil birth,
scared man and women - brief their joy,
the king decrees a heavy doom:
so none should sleep with one who’s wed.

Explanation: Demerits will be acquired. The lowly state of
hell, will be his lot. Since both man and the woman are frightened,
their embrace will generate little pleasure. The king’s law will
impose severe punishment. Because of all these, a man will not covet
another’s wife.



Dhammapada Verses 309 and 310
Khemakasetthiputta Vatthu

Cattari thanani naro pamatto
apajjati paradarupasevi
apunnalabham na nikamaseyyam
nindam tatiyam nirayam catuttham.

Apunnalahho ca gati ca papika
bhitassa bhitaya rati ca thokika
raja ca dandam garukam paneti
tasma naro paradaram na seve.

Verse 309: Four misfortunes befall a man who is unmindful of right conduct
and commit sexual misconduct with another man’s wife: acquisition of demerit,
disturbed sleep, reproach, and suffering in niraya.

Verse 310: Thus, there is the acquisition of demerit, and there is rebirth in
the evil apaya realms. The enjoyment of a scared man with a scared woman is
short-lived, and the king also metes out severe punishment. Therefore, a man
should not commit misconduct with another man’s wife.


The Story of Khemaka, the Son of a Rich Man

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verses (309) and
(310) of this book, with reference to Khemaka, the son of a rich man. Khemaka
was also the nephew of the renowned Anathapindika.

Khemaka, in addition to being rich, was also very good-looking and women were
very much attracted to him. They could hardly resist him and naturally fell a
prey to him. Khemaka committed adultery without compunction. The king’s men
caught him three times for sexual misconduct and brought him to the presence of
the king. But King Pasenadi of Kosala did not take action because Khemaka was
the nephew of Anathapindika. So Anathapindika himself took his nephew to the
Buddha. The Buddha talked to Khemaka about the depravity of sexual misconduct
and the seriousness of the consequences.

Verse 309: Four misfortunes befall a man who is
unmindful of right conduct and commit sexual misconduct with another
man’s wife: acquisition of demerit, disturbed sleep, reproach, and
suffering in niraya.
 
Verse 310: Thus, there is the acquisition of
demerit, and there is rebirth in the evil apaya realms. The enjoyment
of a scared man with a scared woman is short-lived, and the king also
metes out severe punishment. Therefore, a man should not commit
misconduct with another man’s wife.

At the end of the discourse Khemaka attained Sotapatti Fruition.


Monks, the ending of the fermentations
is for one who knows & sees, I tell you, not for one who does not
know & does not see. For one who knows what & sees what? Appropriate attention & inappropriate attention. When a monk attends inappropriately, unarisen fermentations arise, and arisen fermentations increase. When a monk attends appropriately, unarisen fermentations do not arise, and arisen fermentations are abandoned. 

- நான் உங்களுக்கு கூறுவேன், பிக்குகபிக்குகளே, எவர் ஒருவர் அறிந்தும் மற்றும் ஞாதுகிறாரோ நொதித்தல்கள் முடிவுறும், அறியாத மற்றும் ஞாதுகிறாதவருக்கல்ல. எவற்றை அறிந்து மற்றும் ஞாதுகிறது? பொருத்தமான கவனம் மற்றும் பொருத்தமற்ற கவனம். ஒரு பிக்கு பொருத்தமற்ற கவனம் செலுத்தினால் எழும்பாத நொதித்தல்கள் எழும், மற்றும் எழும்பிய நொதித்தல்கள் அதிகமாகும். ஒரு பிக்கு பொருத்தமான கவனம் செலுத்தினால் எழும்பாத நொதித்தல்கள் எழும்பாது, மற்றும் எழும்பிய நொதித்தல்கள் கைவிடப்படுகிறது.

AWAKEN ONES WITH AWARENESS IN CHINA
Jiangsu
    •    Hanshan Temple
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanshan_Temple
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Coordinates: 31°18′44.67″N 120°33′53.39″E

Boats at the Maple Bridge

Statue of poet Zhang Ji at Maple Bridge

Bells

Statue in Hanshan Temple

Hanshan Temple (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hánshān ); literally “Cold Mountain Temple“, is a Buddhist temple and monastery in Suzhou, China. It is located at the town of Fengqiao (lit. Maple Bridge), about 5 kilometres west of the old city of Suzhou.

Traditionally, Hanshan Temple is believed to have been founded during the Tianjian era (502–519) of the reign of Emperor Wu of Liang, in the Southern and Northern Dynasties period. The current name of the monastery derives from Hanshan, the legendary monk and poet. Hanshan and his disciple Shide are said to have come to the monastery during the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang (627–649), where Hanshan became the abbot.

Contents

The bell of Hanshan

The poem

Hanshan Temple is famed in East Asia because of the poem “A Night Mooring by Maple Bridge” (楓橋夜泊), by Tang Dynasty poet, Zhang Ji.
The poem describes the melancholy scene of a dejected traveller, moored
at night at Fengqiao, hearing the bells of Hanshan Temple:

月落烏啼霜滿天,

江楓漁火對愁眠。
姑蘇城外寒山寺,
夜半鐘聲到客船。

Yuè luò wū tí shuāng mǎn tiān,

Jiāng fēng yú huǒ duì chóu mián.
Gūsū chéngwài Hánshān Sì,
Yèbàn zhōngshēng dào kèchuán.

While I watch the moon go down, a crow caws through the frost;

Under the shadows of maple-trees a fisherman moves with his torch;
And I hear, from beyond Suzhou, from the temple on Cold Mountain,
Ringing for me, here in my boat, the midnight bell.[1]

The poem is still popularly read in China, Japan and Korea. It is part of the primary school curriculum in both China and Japan. The ringing of the bell at Hanshan Temple on Chinese New Year eve is a major pilgrimage and tourism event for visitors from these countries.

The bell

Two bells are currently used at Hanshan Temple, both dating from the late Qing Dynasty
when the temple was last rebuilt. One was forged in China in 1906, and
the other was forged in Japan at around the same time. The dedication on
the bell was written by Japanese Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi. The original Tang Dynasty bell is believed by some (including Itō Hirobumi and modern Chinese statesman Kang Youwei)
to have been taken to Japan in ancient times. These two factors have
roused some nationalistic controversy among Chinese and Koreans (see,
for example, this opinion).

A new 108 tonne bell commissioned by Hanshan Temple and built by a foundry in Wuhan
was completed recently, and is on its way to Hanshan Temple to replace
the hundred years old Japanese built bell. The new bell is 8.5 metres
high and 5.2 metres in diameter at its widest.[citation needed]

Hanshan Temple in Japan

A Hanshan Temple (pronounced kanzan-ji in Japanese) was established in Ōme, Tokyo, Japan in 1929.



    •    Huqiu Tower
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huqiu_Tower
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  (Redirected from Huqiu Tower)
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Huqiu Pagoda

The pagoda as viewed from the Tiger Hill

The Tiger Hill Pagoda, more officially the Yunyan Pagoda,[1] (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yún yán or Chinese: ; pinyin: qiū ), is a Chinese pagoda situated on Tiger Hill in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province. It is nicknamed the ‘Leaning Tower of China’[1]. It was the pagoda of the former Yunyan Temple. Construction began in 907 CE, during the later period of the Five Dynasties period, at a time when Suzhou was ruled by the Wuyue Kingdom.
Construction was completed in 961 CE. The pagoda rises to a height of
47 m (154 ft). The pagoda has seven storeys and is octagonal in
cross-section, and was built with a masonry structure designed to
imitate wooden-structured pagodas prevalenat at the time. In more than a
thousand years the pagoda has gradually slanted due to forces of
nature. Now the top and bottom of the tower vary by 2.32 meters. The
entire structure weighs some 7,000,000 kilograms (15,000,000 lb),
supported by internal brick columns.[2] However, the pagoda leans roughly 3 degrees due to the cracking of two supporting columns.[2]

The pagoda leans because the foundation is originally half rock and
the other half is on soil. In 1957, efforts were made to stabilize the
pagoda and prevent further leaning. Concrete was also pumped into the
soil forming a stronger foundation. During the reinforcement process, a
stone casket containing Buddhist scriptures was found. The container had
an inscription noting the completion date of the pagoda as the
seventeenth day of the twelfth month of the second year of the Jianlong
era (961 AD). The uppermost stories of the pagoda were built as an
addition during the reign of the Chongzhen Emperor (1628–1644), the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty.[2]

As of September 2010 public access to the top of the tower is no longer allowed.



    •    Jiming Temple
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiming_Temple
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Views of Jiming Temple

Contents


    •    Linggu Temple
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linggu_Temple

Linggu Temple (Chinese: 灵谷寺; pinyin: línggǔ sì) is a Buddhist temple in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. The temple was described as ‘the best Buddhist temple in the world’.[1] It was now surrounded by a large park.

Linggu Pagoda was built in 1929 in memory of the soldiers fallen in the War of Northern Expedition


    •    Qixia Temple

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qixia_Temple

Qixia Temple (Chinese: 栖霞寺; pinyin: Qīxiá Sì) is a Buddhist temple located on Qixia Hill in the suburban Qixia District
in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China, 22 kilometres
(14 mi) northeast of downtown Nanjing. It is one of Nanjing’s most
important Buddhist temples.

Contents

History

Built in AD 489, the 7th year of the Yongming (永明) era during the South Qi Dynasty,[1]
the temple is known for its large collection of Chinese Buddhist visual
art and sculptural art in the grounds. These consist of pagodas, murals
and artwork that date back to the 10th century.[1]

Near the temple site and situated on the slopes of Qixia Hill, is the
“Thousand Buddha Caves”, a grotto containing many Buddhist sculptural
works of art.[1]

Description

Buddha’s Relics Pagoda at Qixia Temple

The Buddha’s Relics Pagoda is located in the southeast of Qixia Temple. It was built in 601 and destroyed in the Tang Dynasty. Then in 945, it was rebuilt by Southern Tang Dynasty emperor Li Jing.
The pagoda has a 5-story, octagon-shaped structure. It is 18m high and
perched on a 2-story stylobate carved with waves and a dash of fish and
Chinese flowering crabapples.

Gallery


    •    Tianning Temple (天宁宝塔), Changzhou, the tallest pagoda in the world. Height: 153.8 metres (505 ft).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cao%27an

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Coordinates: 24°46′25″N 118°31′47″E

Cao’an Temple seen from the south, with Huabiao Hill in the background

Cao’an (Chinese: 草庵; pinyin: Cǎo’ān; literally “Thatched nunnery”[1]) is a temple in Jinjiang City, Fujian. Originally constructed by Chinese Manichaens, it was viewed by later worshipers as a Buddhist temple. This “Manichean temple in Buddhist disguise”[2] is seen by modern experts on Manichaeism as “the only extant Manichean temple in China”[3], or “the only Manichaen building which has survived intact”.[4]

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Geography

Cao’an Temple main entrance

The temple is located on the southern slope of Huabio Hill (华表山) near Shedian Village (畲店村), just west of downtown Jinjiang (Luoshan Subdistrict).[5][6] Jinjiang is part of today’s Quanzhou Prefecture-level city, which was known historically as Quanzhou Prefecture; the location is some 50 km south of downtown Quanzhou.[7]

According to the local tradition, as conveyed in the provincial history (Min Shu 闽书 by He Qiaoyuan, ca. 1600), Huabiao Hill is so called because it, together with the nearby Lingyuan Hill, look like a pair of huabiao pillars.[8]

The temple, as it exists today, is not too different from a typical Buddhist temple of its region. It is a two-story granite building, with the worship space downstairs, and living space for a few priests upstairs.[9]

Background: Manichaeism in Fujian

Manichaeism arrived in China during the Tang Dynasty. Early on, the Manichaean religion was strongly associated with the Sogdian merchants, and, later, with Uyghurs
resident in the Tang state. The religion was, however, primarily
present in northern and central (Yangtze Valley) China, and suffered a
strong setback during the anti-Manichaen campaign of 843, the prelude to
the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution of 845, when foreign Manichaean priests were exiled or executed.[10]

It was in the 10th century, after the fall of the Tang, that Manichaeism, now primarily practised by Chinese
themselves, reached Fujian. Its arrival in the province is linked to a
certain Manichaen preacher who fled to Fujian from persecutions in
northern China, traveled extensively throughout the province, and
eventually died and was buried in Quanzhou Prefecture,[11] which thus became one of the centers of Chinese Manichaeism during the Song Dynasty.[12]

General view of Cao’an Temple

Manichaeism in China assumed certain Chinese characteristics, assimilating to both Buddhism and Taoism.[13] Chinese translations of Manichaean treatises were couched in Buddhist phraseology,[14] and the religion’s founder (Mar) Mani (known in China as (末)摩尼, (Mo)-Mani) received the title of the “Buddha of Light” (光明佛 Guangming Fo, or 光佛 Guang Fo), and a life story resembling that of Gautama Buddha.[15] At the same time, the Taoist (or pseudo-Taoist?) treatise, Hua-Hu jing (化胡经, Scripture of the Conversion of the Barbarians), popular with Chinese Manichaeans, declared Mani to be a reincarnation of Laozi.[16] As to the Confucian-minded
civil authorities of the Song state, when the clandestine cells of
Mani’s followers came to their attention, they were usually lumped
together with assorted other suspicious and potentially troublesome
sects as “vegetarian demon worshipers” (吃菜事魔, chi-cai shi-mo).[17]

Not surprisingly, such Manichaean temples as were erected in Song China usually had an official Buddhist or Taoist affiliation.[18] There are records, for example, of a Manichaean temple in Taoist disguise at Siming, near Ningbo.
This temple - one of the northernmost known Manichaean sites of the
Song era - was established in the 960s, and was still active - in a more
standard Taoist way, but with a memory of Manichaeism retained - in the
1260s.[19]

History

General view of the temple

The temple is said to have been initially constructed during the reign of Emperor Gaozong, the first emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty (mid-12th century), as a straw hut. It was rebuilt in a more permanent way in the 5th year of the Zhiyuan era of Ukhaantu Khan, Emperor Huizong of the Yuan Dynasty (1339).

Manichaeism in China became gradually extinct during the Ming Dynasty,
and practically forgotten by the close of the Ming period; little
material is available on the last centuries of the religion’s existence.
A short poem by Huang Fengxiang
(d. 1614) tells about his visit to Cao’an Temple, which at the time had
already been abandoned. The poet mentions Buddhist and Taoist symbols,
but shows no awareness on its author’s part of the temple’s Manichaean
origin.[20]

The Quanzhou historian He Qiaoyuan (何乔远, 1558-1632), left a short account of the shrine on Huabiao Hill and its Manichaean origin in his Min Shu
(闽书, ca. 1600), which also gave him a reason to summarize what little
he knew about the Manicheans. This text is one of the few pieces of
literary evidence we have from the last centuries of Manichaeism in
China.[21] He Qiaoyuan speculated that there were still some followers of the “Religion of Light” (明教 Mingjiao) in Fujian in his days, but they “[were] not much in evidence” (”不甚显云”).[22][23]

The Manichaean shrine on Huabiao Hill was renovated in 1922, becoming
an annex of a Buddhist temple complex where the “ancestral teachers of
India and China” were venerated; however, that temple complex later fell
into disuse as well.[24] As Samuel N.C. Lieu
notes, worshipers at the time would probably think that the “Moni”
monicker in Cao’an inscriptions referred to “[Śākya]muni” ([释迦]牟尼), i.e.
Gautama Buddha;[25] this is what the locals told Wu Wenliang (see below) a few years later as well.[26]

After He Qiaoyuan’s account of the Manichaean shrine was brought to the attention of modern scholars in 1923, by Chen Yuan (陈垣) and Paul Pelliot,[27] local researchers started looking for it. After a long search (frustrated, at one point, by the presence of marauding bandits[1])
by a number of researchers, it was finally identified with the existing
building by the Quanzhou archaeologist Wu Wenliang (吴文良) in 1940,[28] who presented the results of his on-site research in a 1957 publication.[26]

In 1961, the temple was entered on the Fujian provincial list of protected cultural monuments; in 1996, it was added to China’s National List of Historical and Cultural Sites.[5]

Statuary and inscriptions

The Buddha of Light (Prophet Mani) carved from the living rock

The most remarkable Manichaean relic in the temple is the statue of Manichaeism’s founder Mani, commonly referred to in the Chinese Manichaean tradition as the “Buddha of Light”. According to an inscription,
the statue was donated to the temple by a local adherent in 1339. While
the statue may look like any other Buddha to a casual observer, experts
note a number of peculiarities which distinguish it from a typical portrayal
of the Buddha. Instead of being curly-haired and clean-shaven, as most
other Buddha statues, this Buddha of Light is depicted having straight
hair draped over his shoulders, and sporting a beard. The facial
features of the prophet (arched eyebrows, fleshy jowls) are somewhat
different from a traditional Chinese stone Buddha as well.[29]
It is even said that the stone Mani the Buddha of Light used to have a
mustache or sideburns, but they were removed by a 20th-centuiry Buddhist
monk, trying to make the statue more like a traditional Buddha.[1]

Instead of looking down, as Buddha statues usually do, the Mani
statue looks straight at the worshipers. Instead of being held in a
typical Buddhist mudrā, Mani’s hands rest on his belly, with both palms facing upward.[30]

Restored inscription urging the faithful to remember “Purity (清净), Light (光明), Power (大力), and Wisdom (智慧)”, and “Moni (摩尼) the Buddha of Light (光佛)”

In order to give the statue an overall luminous impression, the
sculptor carved its head, body, and hands from stones of different hues.[31]

Instead of a “Namo Amitabha!” (南无阿弥陀佛) inscription, universally seen in China’s Buddhist temples,[26]
an inscription on a stone in the courtyard, dated 1445, urges the
faithful to remember “Purity (清净), Light (光明), Power (大力), and Wisdom
(智慧)”, which are the four attribute of the Father of Light,[32] one of the chief figures of the Manichaean pantheon.[33]
These four words (eight Chinese characters) were apparently an
important motto of Chinese Manichaeism; it is described as such in an
anti-Manichean work by the Fujianese Taoist Bo Yuchan (real name Ge Changgeng; fl. 1215).[34] The original inscription was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, but later “restored” (apparently, on another rock).[1]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Changzhou
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Changzhou
—  Prefecture-level city  —
Chinese transcription(s)
 • Chinese 常州市
 • Pinyin Chángzhōu Shì
 • Wu Chinese Zaontsei Zy

Changzhou is highlighted on this map

Changzhou is located in China

Changzhou

Location in China

Coordinates: 31°47′N 119°58′ECoordinates: 31°47′N 119°58′E
Country China
Province Jiangsu
Government
 • Mayor Yao Xiaodong (姚晓东)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 4,385 km2 (1,693 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,864 km2 (720 sq mi)
Population (2010 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 4,591,972
 • Density 1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 213000, 213100 (Urban center)
213200, 213300 (Other areas)
Area code(s) 519
GDP 2009[1]
 - Total CNY 251.870 billion (USD 37.05 billion)
 - per capita CNY 56,861 (USD 8,364)
 - Growth increase 11.7%
License Plate Prefix 苏D
Local dialect Wu: Changzhou dialect
Website www.changzhou.gov.cn

Changzhou (Chinese: 常州; pinyin: Chángzhōu; Wade–Giles: Ch’ang-chou; Gwoyeu Romatzyh: Charng jou; Chinese Postal Map Romanisation: Changchow) is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province of the People’s Republic of China. It was previously known as Yanling, Lanling, Jinling, and Wujin. Located on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Changzhou borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the west, Zhenjiang to the northwest, Wuxi to the east, and the province of Zhejiang to the south. The city is situated in the affluent Yangtze Delta region of China.

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