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 CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING HUMAN PERFORMANCE:7. Future Prospects(To Be Continued) from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through
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from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through

Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned. - Buddha
7. Future Prospects

Nanotechnology,biotechnology,andinformationtechnologyare movingcloser together, following an accelerated path of unparalleled breakthroughs. Their focus on h uman d imensions is still emerging but promises to dominate the next decades. Despite efforts of workshop org anizers, given the breadth of the topic, it was impossible to recruit leading experts in all the areas where the convergence of NBIIPDC technologies is likely to have a significant impact in 1 0 to 2 0 years. In addition, work has really not begun in some of the key application areas, and new areas are likely to emerge that have not yet attracted the attention of many scientists and engineers. Thus, the section below presents the following admittedly speculative additional ideas on how technological convergence may transform human abilities two decades and more in the future. Many of the ideas that follow emerged during the workshop, and others were suggested in discussions with participants afterward.

Work Efficiency

Improvement of human physical and mental performance, at both the individual and group level, can in crease productivity greatly. Several concepts are in development that could enhance working environments (cf.IBM2002). To remain competitive, American industry must continue to find ways to improve quality and efficiency.  Nanotechnology promises to become an efficient length scale for manufacturing (NSTC 2002) because rearranging matter at the nanoscale via weak molecular interactions would require les s energy and material. The recent trend to ward intensive electronic monitoring and just-in-time inventories has reduced waste, but tightening the Theme.

A. Overall Potential of Converging Technologies
B. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication
C. Improving Human Health and Physical Capabilities
D. Enhancing Group and Societal Outcomes
E. National Security
F. Unifying Science and Education
Key visionary ideas/projects
NBIIPDC strategy for technological and economical competitiveness
New patterns for S&T, economy, and society
Enhancing individual and group abilities, productivity, and learning
Sustainable and “intelligent” environments
Changing human activities towards the “innovation age”
Human cognome project and cognitive evolution
Brain-to-brain interactions and group communication
Spatial cognition and visual language using converging technologies
Enhanced tools for learning and creativity
Predictive science of societal behavior
Healthcare, body replacements, and physiological self-regulation
Brain-machine interfaces and neuromorphing engineering
Improving sensorial capacities and expanding functions
Improving quality of life of disabled people
Aging with dignity and life extension
The Communicator: enhancing group interaction and creativity
Cognitive engineering and enhancing productivity
Revolutionary products, including “aircraft of the future”
Networked society, with bio-inspired culture
Enhancing physical and mental capacity of a soldier
Enhancing readiness and threat anticipation tools
Globally linked detection devices
Uninhabited combat vehicles
Unifying science from the nanoscale and integrative principles
Cognitive, civic, and ethical changes in a networked society
Breadth, depth, “trading zones,” and reshaping education at all levels Changing the human culture

efficiency of manufacturing and distribution supply chains could prove to be a one-time-only improvement in profitability that could not be duplicated in the future.

However, application of new generations of convergent technology has the potential to provide better value to customers at lower cost to producers, offering the possibility of further profitability improvements. For example, even more intensive use of information technology in conjunction with nanotechnology, biotechnology, Integrated Product Design and Manufacture of Manufacturing Sector and cognitive sciences could reduce waste and pollution costs and permit very rapid reconfiguration of manufacturing processes and product lines. Business and industry are already beginning to restructure themselves on a global scale as network-based organizations following fundamentally new management principles.

Biology in conjunction with nanoscale design and IT control has the potential to contribute both abstract models and specific physical processes to the development of customer-centric production that blends the principles of custom-design craftsmanship ( which maximizes customer satisfaction) with the principles of assembly-line mass production (which minimizes production costs). In the gestation of higher animals, a single fertilized egg cell differentiates rapidly into specialized cells that grow into very different organs of the body, controlled in a complex manner by the messenger chemicals produced by the cells themselves. Whether based in nanotechnology, information technology, biotechnology, Integrated Product Design and Manufacture of Manufacturing Sector or cognitive- based technology, new adaptive production systems could be developed that automatically adjust design features in a way analogous to the growing embryo, without the need to halt production or retool. Convergence of these four technologies could also develop many bio-inspired processes for “growing” key components of industrial products, rather than wastefully machining them out of larger materials or laboriously assembling them from smaller parts.

The Human Body and Mind Throughout the Life Cycle

Improving p erceptual capabilities, bio hybrid systems, exoskeletons, and metabolic enhancement  can be considered for human performance augmentation. Medical implants for sensory replacement, including multiple sensory modalities for visually and hearing-impaired persons, and direct brain-machine interfaces are real possibilities. Controlled metabolism in cells, specific tissues, organs, or the entire body is possible. One application would be increased endurance and resistance to sleep deprivation; another is a method of optimizing oxygenization of blood when metabolism is compromised in a critical medical situation. Others would be realtime genetic testing so that individually tailored drugs can be provided to patients, and an artificial pancreas that would monitor and adjust the release of hormones in the human body.

Increasing intellectual capabilities requires understanding the brain and simulating its processes. Knowledge and wisdom about the structure, function, and occasional dysfunction of the human mind will provide new ways to increase cognitive capabilities. Reverse engineering of the human brain may be accomplished in the next two decades that would allow for better understanding of its functions. An artificial brain could be a tool for discovery, especially if computers could closely simulate the actual brain. It would be revolutionary to see if aspects of human consciousness could be transferred to machines  in order to better interact with and serve humans.

Sustaining human physical and mental abilities throughout the life span would be facilitated by progress in neuroscience  and cellular biology at the nanoscale. An active and dignified life could be possible far into a person’s second century, due to the convergence of technologies.

Communication and Education

New communication paradigms (brain-to-brain, brain-machine-brain, group) could be realized in 10 to 20 years. Neuromorphic engineering may allow the transmission of thoughts and bio sensor output from the human body to devices for signal processing. Wearable computers with power similar to that of the human brain will act as personal assistants or brokers, providing valuable information of every kind in forms optimized for the specific user. Visual communication could complement verbal communication, sometimes replacing spoken language when speed is a priority or enhancing speech when needed to exploit maximum mental capabilities.
People  will be able to acquire a radically different instinctive understanding of the world as a hierarchy of complex systems rooted in the nanoscale. Advances in cognitive science will enable nanoscience education, by i dentifying the best ways for students to conceptualize nano structures and processes at increasingly advanced stages in their learning. Education at all levels will exploit augmented reality, in which multimedia information displays are seamlessly integrated into the physical world. Strategies for hierarchical, architectural, and global analysis and design of complex systems will help integrate the curriculum of schools and inform management decisions across a diverse range of fields.

Mental Health

In many respects, perhaps the most difficult challenge we face in improving human performance is understanding and remediating mental  illness. For fully the past two centuries, psychiatry has alternated between periods of optimism an d pessimism, as well as between competing psychological, social, physiological, chemical, and genetic theories of mental illness. We can hope that these disputes will be resolved through physiological and psychological understanding of mental processes, and that scientific convergence will achieve lasting cures through a combination of biological and cognitive treatments, all assisted by information and nanoscale technologies.

Nanotechnology will provide means to deliver medications to the exact location within the brain where they are needed, thus minimizing negative side effects elsewhere in the nervous system. The convergence of cognitive science with nano-, bio-, and in formation technologies should permit systematic evaluation of the bewildering range of current psychiatric theories and therapies, and allow clinicians to improve the best treatments. It is also possible that convergent communications and robotics technologies may produce an entirely new category of pros thetic or assistive devices that can compensate for cognitive or emotional deficiencies.

Aeronautics and Space Flight

NBIIPDC synergies could greatly expand capabilities for piloted adaptive aircraft, unmanned aircraft, and human space flight. Nanostructured materials and advanced electronics have the promise of reducing the weight of spacecraft by three quarters in the next 10 to 20 years. Specific subsystems for human space flight may also be revolutionized by the same combination of technologies, for example durable but light and self-repairing spacesuits, high-performance electronics with low demands for electric power, and low-cost but high-value large orbiting structures. If the problems of orbital launch costs and efficient subsystems can be solved, then human society ca n effectively exploit Earth orbital space, the Moon , asteroids, and the planet Mars. Several participants in the workshop noted the potential for intelligent machines of the future to take on progressively more human characteristics, so we can well imagine that the first pioneers that take “humanity” far into space will be descendents of Pathfinder and the Voyagers that will be endowed with intelligence and communication capabilities reflecting human behavior.

Food and Farming

Farmers have long appreciated the advantages  of science and technology; the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and Integrated Product design and manufacture of Manufacturing sector, could significantly improve their effectiveness. For example, nanoscale genetics may help preserve and control food production. In expensive nano-enabled bio sensors could monitor the health and nutrition of cattle, transmitting the data into the farmer’s personal computer that advises him about the care the animals need. In the same way, sensors distributed across farmland could advise the farmer about the need for water and fertilizer, thus avoiding wastage and achieving the most profitable acreage crop yield. Bio-nano convergence can provide new ways of actually applying the treatment to the crops, increasing the efficiency of fertilizers and pesticides.

Use of nano-enabled bio sensors would monitor freshness to help grocers avoid selling stale goods and to avoid the wastage of discarding perfectly good packaged food that has merely reached an arbitrary shelf life date. The consumer should have access to the same information, both before and after purchase. Many consumers are dissatisfied with the limited information about ingredients on many packaged foods, and the total lack of information about foods served in restaurants. Convergent technologies could provide portable instruments, for example packaged into a pen-like device or perhaps a ring, that could instantly tell the consumer how much sodium, fats, or allergenic substances a food contains.

Sustainable and Intelligent Environments

Sustainable resources of food, water, energy, and materials are achievable through converging technologies. Exact manufacturing, exact integration in biosystems, and IT control will help stabilize the supply of resources. Value will stem from information, including that embodied in the complex structure of manufactured items made from the nanoscale out of common chemical elements, rather than rare metals or nonrenewable energy supplies. Sensing the environment and bio systems of the world will become essential in global environmental monitoring and remediation. New sources for a distributed energy system are envisioned, as well as new solutions such as highly efficient photosynthetic proteins, membranes, and devices.

Interactive and “intelligent” environments for human activities are envisioned, responding to advancements in areas such as neuro-ergonomics and the needs of persons with disabilities.

External surfaces of buildings could automatically change shape and color to adjust to different conditions of temperature, lighting, wind, and precipitation. Once the s cience, manufacturing processes, and economic markets have developed sufficiently, adaptive materials need not be especially expensive, especially when their in creased perf ormance and energy efficiency are factored in . For example, nanotechnology materials and IT-assisted design could produce new, durable house paints that change color, reflecting heat on hot days and absorbing heat on cold days. Indoors, ordinary walls could be vast computer displays, capable of enhancing the res idents’ aes thetic ex perience b y dis playing ch anging virtual art works a nd wallpapers. A daptive m aterials could obtain their energy from temperature differentials between different surfaces (thermocouples) or naturally occurring vibrations ( piezoelectric), rather than requiring electrical in put. The ability to engineer inexpensive materials on the nanoscale will be crucial, and information technology can help design the materials as well as be designed into some of the adaptive systems. There also will be a role for cognitive science, because architects need to tak e account of human needs and the often unexpected ways that human beings respond to particular design features.

Self-Presentation and Fashion

Government-supported academic researchers frequently ignore many economically important industries, in part because those industries traditionally have not involved advanced technology but also perhaps because they were not perceived as “serious” fields. Among these are clothing fashions, jewelry, and cosmetics. Stereotypes aside, these are multibillion dollar industries that could benefit from the new opportunities afforded by convergent technologies. In social life, physical attractiveness is very important. Anything that enhances a person’s beauty or dignity improves that individual’s performance in relations with other people.

Convergence of nanotechnology and biotechnology with cognitive science could produce new kinds of cosmetics that change with the user’s moods, enhancing the person’s emotional expressiveness. Components of wearable computers could be packaged in scintillating jewelry, automatically communicating thoughts and feelings bet ween people who are metaphorically and electronically “on the same wave length.” Biotechnology could produce new materials that would be combined in manufacturing with nanotechnology-based information technology to produce clothing that automatically adjusts to changing temperatures and weather conditions. Perhaps the colors and apparent textures of this “smart clothing” would adjust also to the wearer’s activities and social environment .

Transformation of Civilization

The profound changes of the next two decades may be nothing compared to the utter transformation that may take place in the remainder of the 21 st century. Processes both of decentralization and integration would render society ever more complex, resulting in a new, dynamic social architecture. There would be entirely new patterns in manufacturing, the economy, education, and military conflict.

People may possess entirely new capabilities for relations with each other, with machines, and with the institutions of civilization. In some areas of human life, old customs and ethics will persist, but it is difficult to predict which realms of action and experience these will be. Perhaps wholly new ethical principles will govern in areas of radical technological advance, such as the acceptance of brain implants, the role of robots in human society, and the ambiguity of death in an era of increasing experimentation with cloning. Human identity and dignity must be preserved. In the same way in which machines were built to surpass human physical powers in the industrial revolution, computers can surpass human memory and computational speed for intended actions. The ultimate control will re main with humans and human society. With proper attention to safeguards, ethical issues, and societal needs, quality of life could increase significantly.

New professions for humans and new roles for machines may arise to mediate between all this complexity and th e individual person. Art, music, and literature may reach new levels of subtlety and sophistication, enhancing the mental qualities of life and the innate human appreciation for beauty.

A networked society of billions of human beings could be as complex compared to an individual human being as a human being is to a single nerve cell. From local groups of linked enhanced individuals to a global collective intelligence, key new capabilities would arise from relationships created with NBIIPDC technologies. Such a system would have distributed information an d control and new patterns of manufacturing, economic activity, and education. It could be structured to enhance individuals’ creativity and independence. Far from unnatural, such a collective social system may be compared to a larger form of a biological organism. Biological organisms themselves make use of many structures such as bones and circulatory system. The networked society enabled through NBIIPDC convergence could explore new pathways in societal structures, in an increasingly complex system.

It may be possible to develop a predictive science of society and to apply advanced corrective actions, based on the convergence id eas of NBIIPDC. Human culture a d human physiology may undergo rapid evolution, intertwining like the twin strands of DNA, hopefully guided by analytic science as well as traditional wisdom. the pace of change is accelerating, and scientific convergence may be a watershed in history to rank with the invention of agriculture and the Industrial Revolution.   

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