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1239 LESSON 19814 TUESDAY FREE ONLINE E-Nālanda Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

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Mayawati declares former Congress leader Arvind Sharma to be BSP’s CM candidate for Haryana

Mayawati attacks BJP, SP over communal violence




Now The Election Commission wants to use a new machine to enhance secrecy of votes during counting which prevents disclosure of voting
pattern. It proposes to buy 9,30,430 control units and 13,95,647 ballot units between financial year 2014-15 and 2018-19.1,42,631 EVMs

procured in 2000-01 will be phased out in 2015-16 and 1,25,681 procured in 2004-05 will be replaced in 2019-20, as per the proposal, which
means the CEC had conducted the current Lok Sabha elections with the existing Dubakor (fraud) EVMs which are temperable . Because

of the Rs.1600 crore cost to replace these Dubakor (fraud) EVMs  Number one dubakor CEC Sampath requested CJI Dubakor
Sadasivam  to allow him to replace them in phases. CJI EVM SADHASIVAM, shirked its duty & committed a grave error of judgment by

allowing in phased manner and dealt a fatal blow to the Country’s democracy. CJI did not order for ballot paper system would be brought
in. No such precautionary measure was decreed by the apex court. CJI did not order that till the time this newer set of about 1300000 voting

machines is manufactured in full & deployed totally.All the people in 80 democracies in the world who have simply done away with dubakor
EVMs should not recognise dubakor Modi & his Government. Dubakor Narendra Modi full of hatred for non-brahmins and non-Baniyas
intoxicated for power, violated all good Silas of not killing, lying, stealing. Dubakor Militant Stealth Cult chitpawan RSS is saying no
reservation on the basis of castes means it is against Constitution providing reservation for SC/STs. Dubakor RSS’s Mr. Mohan Bagawath,

a chitpawan brahmin and a dropout is not a Constitutional expert to say that there should not be any caste based reservation. Since the
NEED OF THE HOUR IS Electronic Virtual Movement for Replacing all EVMs (EVM4RAEVMs )to save Democracy, I attempted to E-File

 through - While trying to attach Driving Licence through - got the result java.lang.StringIndexOutOfBounds Exception: String index out of range:

And could not proceed further. Brought this to the  notice of without any response. through supremecour[at]nic[dot]in
with a confusion whether it is supremecour[at]nic[dot]in or supremecourt[at]nic[dot]in

supremecourt@nic.in - all maintained by also do not work. It often says
“invalid characters found, Please Re-Enter”A correct procedure for  E-Filing must be known to all procedures/ steps required to be taken

for E-Filing process ? Supreme Court initiatives for citizens
via e -Filing - e-Filing in Supreme Court of India. Supreme Court of India is also on the e-governance track and providing its services at

doorstep of the Indian citizens. In this regard, on October 2, 2006 Supreme Court started e-filing facility. It is a simple way of filing any case
via internet from his house. e-filing via internet does not require the help of advocate. This service can be utilized by any common man as

well as registered advocate. Anybody desiring to avail this service may log on to and sign up as a user.
For sign up procedure please follow up these steps: First time users of Supreme Court’s E-filing have to register him/her through the ‘Sign Up’

option.Through ‘e-FILING’ only Advocate-on Record’ and petitioners-in-person can file cases in the Supreme Court of India Advocate option
is to be chosen if you are an ‘Advocate-on-Record’, otherwise choose ‘In-person’ option in case you are petitioner-in-person. For registering

first time personal details such as Address, contact details, E-mail Id etc., which are mandatory, need to be entered. For Advocate-on-record,
his/her code (Advocate-on-record code) will be ‘Login-ID’, while ‘In-person’will create his/her Login-Id through ‘Sign Up’ option. Password

needs to be entered thereafter. Login Id and password will be created once the mandatory requirements are filled properly. After successful
login the ‘Disclaimer screen’ appears on the screen. Clicking of ‘I agree’ button on Disclaimer allows the user to proceed further, while

‘I decline’ button sends the control back to the Login screen. After successful login, the user can file the case electronically. ‘New Case’
option allows the user to file a new case ‘Modify’ option allows a user to carryout changes to the already e-filed case, provided the court fee

payment option is not invoked. Defects associated with the e-filed case will be e-mailed to the advocate/petitioner by the Supreme Court
Registry.For further assistance, ‘Help’ option is available.Click here to file case online in Supreme Court of India - Reasons For Banning Dubakor Tamperable EVMs Electronic voting machines
(EVMs) were introduced in a limited way in Indian elections in1982, and they have been in universal use since the general elections of 2004,

when paper ballots were phased out completely.It is about time this country reformed its voting system to ensure that the electoral verdicts
 reflect the true will  of the people of the country.1. The Whole World has Discarded Similar EVMs 2. Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional and

Illegal Too! 3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe4. Nor is The Hardware 5. EVMs are Sitting Ducks 6. “Insider” Fraud a Concern 7. Storage and
Counting are Concerns 8. Vote of No Confidence 9. EC is Clueless on Technology 10. Trust Deficit1. The Whole World has Discarded

Similar EVMs.The electronic voting machines used in this country’s  elections are internationally known as Direct Recording Electronic (DRE)
voting  machines which record votes directly in electronic memory. Similar voting machines have been banned in many countries such as

Germany, the Netherlands, Irelands etc. and such machines are allowed in most states of the US only with a paper back up. Potential dangers
of “vote fraud” and more importantly, lack of transparency and verifiability associated with them prompted ban or restrictions of their use.

Developed nations like the United Kingdom and France and advanced countries in our region like Japan and Singapore have so far stuck to
voting on paper ballots, owing to their simplicity, verifiability and voter confidence in the system. India is an exception to this 

international trend and we continue to use these  voting machines long discarded by the world due to lack of awareness and appreciation of
the lay public of the concerns.2. Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional and Illegal Too! Indian EVMs may also be held unconstitutional because

they infringe upon the fundamental rights of the voters. In India, Right to vote is a legal right but how that vote should be exercised by a
voter is his/ her individual expression covered by Article 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution, which guarantees fundamental rights to the

citizens. In the 2002 case pertaining to disclosure of assets and the criminal background of candidates, the Supreme Court ruled that voters
have a right to know the  antecedents of the contesting candidates and this is fundamental and basic for survival of democracy. Accordingly,

a voter has the right to know that his vote which he exercised as a part of freedom of expression has really gone in favour of the candidate
whom he/she has chosen. This right, fundamental in nature, is absent in the electronic voting system. In the traditional paper ballot system,

that fundamental right was preserve because a voter knew exactly how his/ her vote was recorded and Universal use of EVMs in Indian
elections is illegal too! In 1984, the Supreme Court of India held that the use of electronic voting machines in elections was “illegal” as the

Representation of People (RP) Act, 1951 did not permit use of voting machines in elections. Later, the R.P. Act was amended in 1989
incorporating Section 61A. However, the amendment says voting machines “may be adopted in such constituency or constituencies as the

Election Commission may, having regard to the circumstances of each case, specify.” Violating the provisions of the R.P Act, the Election
Commission has conducted 2004 and 2009 nationwide general elections only using  electronic voting machines. Going by the 1984

judgment of the Supreme Court, parliamentary elections of 2004 and 2009 may be held illegal.3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe. The electronic
voting machines are safe and secure only if the source code used in the EVMs is genuine. Shockingly, the EVM manufacturers, the BEL

and ECIL, have shared the ‘top secret’ EVM software program with two foreign companies, Microchip (USA) and Renesas (Japan) to
copy it onto microcontrollers used in EVMs.This process could have been done securely in-house by the Indian Worse, when the foreign

companies deliver microcontrollers fused with software code to the EVM manufacturers,the EVM manufacturers cannot “read back”
their contents as they are either OTP-ROM or masked chips. Amusingly, the software given to foreign companies is not even made

available with the Election Commission, ostensibly for security reasons. With such ridiculous decisions, the Election Commission and
the public sector manufacturers have rendered security of the EVMs a mockery. Adopting an open standards policy by making the

software public and allowing parties to test the software installed in the EVMs would have offered better 4. Nor is The Hardware.
The danger for EVM manipulations is not just from its software. Even the hardware isn’t safe. Dr. Alex Halderman, professor of

computer science in the University of Michigan says, “EVMs used in the West require software attacks as they are sophisticated voting
 machines and their hardware cannot be replaced cheaply.In contrast, the Indian EVMs can easily be replaced either in part or as

wholesale units.” One crucial part that can be faked is microcontrollers used in the EVMs in which the software is copied. EVM
manufacturers have greatly facilitated fraud by using generic microcontrollers rather than more secure ASIC or FPGA

microcontrollers. Not just only microcontrollers, mother boards (cards which contain microcontrollers) and entire EVMs can be
replaced. Neither the Election Commission nor the manufacturers have undertaken any hardware or software audit till date.

As a result, such manipulation attempts would go undetected. To detect such fraud, the upgraded EVMs have a provision to
interface with an Authentication Unit that would allow the manufacturers to verify whether the EVM being used in the election

is the same that they have supplied to the Election Commission. The EVM manufacturers developed an “Authentication Unit”
engaging the services  of SecureSpin, a Bangalore based software services firm. The Unit was developed and tested in 2006 but when

the project was ready for implementation, the project was mysteriously shelved at the instance of the Election Commission. Several
questions posed to the Election Commission for taking this decision went unanswered. 5. EVMs are Sitting Ducks. The Indian

EVMs can be hacked both before and after elections to alter election results. Apart from manipulating the EVM software and
replacing many hardware parts discussed above, discussions with knowledgeable sources revealed that our country’s EVMs

can be hacked in many ways. I mention just two of them below. Each EVM contains two EEPROMs inside the Control Unit in
which the  voting data is stored. They are completely unsecured and the data inside EEPROMs can be manipulated from an

external source. It is very easy to read (data from) the EEPROMs and manipulate them. The second and the most deadly way to
hack Indian EVMs is by inserting a chip with Trojan inside the display section of the Control unit. This requires access to the

EVM for just two minutes and these replacement units can be made for a few hundred rupees. Bypassing completely all inbuilt
securities, this chip would manipulate the results and give out “fixed” results on the EVM screen. The Election Commission is

completely oblivious to such possibilities. A demonstration of these vulnerabilities is on the cards. 6. “Insider” Fraud a Concern.
Personal accounts from some well placed political sources and experts say that there are some “insiders” demanding vast sums

(Rs. 5 Crore for each assembly constituency) to fix election results. Who are these insiders? Unlike in the traditional ballot system
where only the election officials were the “insiders”, electronic voting machine regime has spawned a long chain of insiders, all of

whom are outside the ambit and control of the Election Commission of this country. There is every possibility that some of these
“insiders” are involved in murky activities in fixing elections. The whole world—except us in India–is alive to the dangers of

insider fraud in elections. The “insiders” include the public sector manufacturers of India’s electronic voting machines namely,
the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL), the foreign companies supplying

microcontrollers,private players (some of which are allegedly owned by some political leaders) for carrying out checking and  
maintenance of electronic voting machines during. 7. Storage and Counting are Concerns. The EVMs are stored at the

district headquarters or in a decentralized manner in different locations. Election Commission’s concern for EVM safety
becomes apparent only during elections, where as security experts say that voting machines must remain in a secure

environment throughout their life cycle. There could be many malpractices associated with electronic counting.
“Everybody watches polling closely. Nobody watches counting as closely),” says Bev Harris, an American activist. Our

Election Commission takes three months to conduct parliamentary elections but wants counting to be over in just three
hours! In the rush to declare results and the winners, several serious lapses go unnoticed in the counting process. As a result,

parties cannot give it the kind of attention that this activity deserves. Massive discrepancies between votes polled and counted
in a large number of polling stations across the country raise serious concerns in this regard. 8. Vote of No Confidence.The

political class cutting across all sides of the divide has just one verdict: “we don’t trust the EVMs”. This vote of “no  confidence”
stems from the personal experiences of parties and leaders as well as the nature of results thrown up by the EVMs. Parties are

looking at EVMs with great suspicion and dread the prospect of EVMs “defeating”them.This mistrust in EVMs is not confined
to any single party and is all pervasive. Almost all mainstream political parties, including the BJP, Congress, left parties, regional

parties like the Telugu Desam party (TDP), AIADMK, Samajwadi party, Rastriya Lok Dal (RLD), Janata Dal (United) etc. have
all expressed reservation about EVMs in the aftermath of 2009 Lok Sabha polls. Even the Congress party that decisively won the

2009 general elections alleged that the EVMs have been manipulated in Orissa. Today, it is difficult to find parties that vouch for
the continued use of EVMs in Indian elections. On the contrary, there is a flood of opposition to the EVMs from the political class.

9. EC is Clueless on Technology.The Election Commission has adopted the EVM technology about which it has practically no
knowledge. As a result, it has little  control over many aspects of the election process. None of the election commissioners, neither

the present commissioners nor their predecessors, have proper understanding of the EVM technology. The only source of technical
understanding for the Election Commission is a Committee of  experts led by its chairman, Prof. P.V.Indiresan. Even the Expert

Committee seems very weak in its capacities and understanding. Alex Halderman, professor of computer science at the  University
of Michigan and an expert on the security of voting systems who was present in New Delhi for the launch of the book, Democracy

at Risk, Can We Trust our EVMS? commented, “When I read the 2006 technical report prepared by the Expert Committee of the
Election Commission. I scribbled on it that there was a cause for alarm and quickly decided to agree to come here.” That speaks

volumes for the quality and rigor of security testing done on the Country,s  EVMs.10. Trust Deficit. Election Commission’s
conduct in the wake of the serious reservations expressed by people has been unbecoming of a  constitutional body. It has

uttered many lies – our EVMs are “tamper proof”, they are “different” etc. etc. It has refused to provide any clarifications sought
to the petitioners in the Supreme Court, despite a reference from the Supreme Court of India. It has taken several questionable

decisions for which it has refused to offer any explanations. For instance, it does not explain why old EVMs were used in Lok
Sabha elections despite the recommendations of its own Expert Committee. It does not explain why as many as 4.48 Lakh new

EVMs (which are more secure as per the Expert Committee) were not used in any Congress party or UPA ruled states? Why and
where it had allowed use of state government owned EVMs? The non-transparent conduct of Election Commission in the use of

EVMs and the farce of an “enquiry” it has conducted following serious reservations on EVMs does not inspire confidence in its
unbiased functioning. How EVM Works and how can changed it’s functionality Watch this video [youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY”

width=”620″ height=”360″]- See more at:
 youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″ -

India’s EVMs are Vulnerable to Fraud-Contrary to claims by our country,s election authorities, the paperless electronic voting
systems used in India suffer from significant vulnerabilities. Even brief access to the machines could allow criminals to alter

election results. In this video, we demonstrate two kinds of attacks against a real Indian EVM. One attack involves replacing a
small part of the machine with a look-alike component that can be silently instructed to steal a percentage of the votes in favor of

a chosen candidate. These instructions can be sent wirelessly from a mobile phone. Another attack uses a pocket-sized device to
change the votes stored in the EVM between the election and the public counting session, which in India can be weeks later.

These attacks are neither complicated nor difficult to perform, but they would be hard to detect or defend against. The best way
to prevent them is to count votes using paper ballots that voters can see. - EVMs Can Be Tampered - Says Net India - Net India company says that the
Electronic Voting Machines EVMs which are used in polling stations can be tampered in favor of the candidates. Watch this to

find out more…..To watch live news, videos subscribe to CVR News @… -EVM in INDIA REALITY EXPOSED by Dr Subramanian Swamy - EVMs can be tampered, experts say - Electronic voting machines could be
easily tampered to manipulate elections results, a group of foreign experts said at a seminar in Dhaka on Tuesday. A standing

committee member of the main opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Abdul Moyeen Khan, in the seminar said that the
party would make some prototypes of the EVMs the Election Commission made to show the people how the device could be

tampered. Non-governmental organisation Centre for Sustainable Development organised the seminar, ‘Electronic voting

machines: use and abuse,’ at the Lake Shore hotel in the city. The organisation’s secretary general Mahfuzullah conducted
 the seminar and its president Anwar Hashim, also a former ambassador, presided over the programme. Computer science

professor in the University of California Mathew Allen Bishop, senior software architect of Yahoo in India Shashank Shekhar
and research and development director of Hewlett Packard of the United States Shawn Islam made presentation  in the seminar

highlighting how EVMs could be tampered. All the three experts said the EVMs could be tampered in several ways in a short
span of time to manipulate the elections results in favour of a certain candidate if the manipulators would get physical access to

EVMs. Citing an example of the flaws of the EVM used in the United States and in other parts of the world, Bishop said the
EVMs, electronic devices which need software to function, could be easily tampered. Bishop, however, asked the authorities

concerned to look into certain issues before using EVMs. ‘When votes are counted, how do you know that the button pushed to
vote for scales on the ballot unit is in fact counted as a vote for scales?’ he said. Bishop also said, ‘How do you know that the

software is correct? There are no bugs that affect the vote counting? How do you know that the software on the EPROM chip is
the version that is supposed to be used? There was no malware?’ He said the security of the software running the EVM must be

part of the inbuilt design of the device. Earlier, Shawn Islam, a Bangladeshi-American, demonstrated how a vote cast for a
candidate could be stored for the candidate the voter did not vote for through software manipulation effected beforehand.

Both of the experts said that there be a system of paper trail of the votes cast so that the voters could see that their votes were
stored for the candidate they voted for.’But,’ Shawn Islam added, ‘the EVMs developed by Bangladesh do not have any option

to add the paper trail system.’ He claimed that the EVM developed in Bangladesh have plenty of problems. Shashank said that
there was no electronic device in the world which could not be tampered. All of the experts said that the device must be tested by

a third party before its use. In reply to a question whether the EVM can be manipulated with remote control devise without
physical intervention once EVMs are tested and certified by the experts of the political parties just before the elections, Shawn

said, ‘You must have physical interventions to manipulate it if the EVM does not belong to any wireless network.’When a
reporter asked Abdul Moyeen Khan whether the BNP would accept it if EVMs were tested by their experts, the BNP leader

parried the answer saying that the party would develop some EVM prototypes to show how they could be tampered.
Representatives from the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, including its acting secretary general Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir,

the chairperson’s advisers Iqbal Hasan Mahmud, Sabiuddin Ahmed, Ruhal Alam and opposition chief whip Zainul Abdin
Farroque, attended. Speaking on the occasion, former Dhaka University vice-chancellor Moniruzzaman Mia, BRAC University

professor Piash Karim and Sushaner Janya Nagarik secretary Badiul Alam Majumder stressed the need for building trust
among political parties before introducing any new device in the elections process.The country’s two major political camps are

now at loggerheads over the introduction of EVMs in the next polls. The ruling Awami League-led alliance said that it would
extend all cooperation to the E C in using EVMs in the next general elections while the opposition Bangladesh Nationalist

Party-led alliance vowed to resist the move.Attachments area- Preview YouTube video India’s EVMs are Vulnerable to Fraud
-Preview YouTube video EVMs Can Be Tampered - Says Net India Preview YouTube video EVM in INDIA REALITY

EXPOSED by Dr Subramanian Swamy

RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat is saying ‘the cultural identity of all Indians is Hindutva’ which has got nothing to do with spiritualism.It is just a political cult
The 20th century descriptions of this 1% RSS chitpavans list inordinate frugality, untrustworthiness (Duba Kors), conspiratorialism,

phlegmatism not only murder democracy but also the real spirituality of this nation. The true cultural identity of this country is
Jambudvipan that is Prabuddha Bharath since all belong to the same race with Buddha Nature practicing equality, fraternity and liberty
as enshrined in the Constitution based on Dhamma. Now it is the Fraud Duba Kor EVMs that has to be exposed because the  Duba Kor EVM
CJI Sadhasivam, a brahmin allowed the Lok Sabha with majority fraud tamperable  Duba Kor EVMs at therequest of  Duba Kor EVM CEC Sampath

another brahmin to replace the  Duba Kor EVMs in phased manner that helped RSS’s BJP to acquire the MASTER KEY. Till all the  Duba Kor EVMs
are replaced with fool proof Voting system the present CJI must order to scrap the present Lok Sabha.& have a collegium system of picking

judges from SC/ST/OBC/Minorities for having a fool proof voting system to safeguard Liberty, Fraternity and Equality as enshrined in the
Constitution. And also a collegium system in the Chief Election Commission consisting SC/ST/OBC/Minorities for having a fool proof voting

system to safeguard Liberty, Fraternity and Equality as enshrined in d Constitution to prevent Murder of Democracy.. After the  Duba Kor EVMs
are replaced with fool proof voting system Lok Sabha elections must be held. If chitpawan  brahmins have to be sidelined totally because of their

politics of hatred towards all non Ariyo brahmins, all the non- ariyo brahmins have to unite under BSP for Sarvajan Hitay, Sarvajan Sukhay i.e.,
for the welfare and happiness of all societies including, SC/STs, OBCs, Minorities and the  poor upper castes by sharing the wealth of the country

equally among all sections of the society as enshrined in the Constitution. Haughty behavior by the upstart chitpvans caused conflicts with
other communities which manifested itself as late as in 1948 in the form of anti-Brahminism after the killing of M.K. Gandhi by

Nathuram Godse, a chitpavan. Bal Gangadhar Tilak After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the chitpavans lost their political dominance
to the British.The British would not subsidize the chitpavans on the same scale that their caste-fellow, the Peshwas had done in the past. Pay

and power was now significantly reduced. Poorer chitpavan students adapted and started learning English because of better opportunities in
the British administration. Some of the strongest resistance to change also came from the very same community. Jealously guarding their

brahmin stature, the orthodox among the chitpavans were not eager to see the shastras challenged, nor the conduct of the brahmins becoming
indistinguishable from that of the sudras. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. The chitpavan community includes two major

politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale whom he acknowledged as a preceptor, & Vinoba Bhave, one of his outstanding
disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the Jewel of his disciples, and recognized Gokhale as his political guru.However,strong opposition to Gandhi

also came from within the chitpavan community.V D Savarkar,the founder of the Hindu nationalist political ideology hindutva  is castiest and
communal duba kor militant stealth political cult greed of power hating all the non-chitpavan brahimins which anger that is madness requiring

treatment in mental asylums, was a chitpavan brahmin. Several members of the chitpavan community were among the first to embrace d hindutva
ideology, which they thought was a logical extension of the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak. These chitpavans felt out of place with the

Jambudvipan social reform movement of Mahatama Phule and the mass politics of Mr.M.K. Gandhi. Large numbers of the community looked to
Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe

groups in this reactionary trend.Therefore, the RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat is saying ‘the cultural identity of all Indians is Hindutva’ covering the
above facts. On kobras (the konkanastha chitpavan brahmin Community) of West of the Country.The chitpavan or chitpawan, are brahmins native

to the Konkan with a sizeable Christian Protestant. Until the 18th century,the chitpavans were not esteemed in social ranking,and were indeed
considered by other brahmin tribes as being an inferior caste of brahmins.It remains concentrated in Maharashtra but also has populations all over

the Country and rest of the world, including (USA & UK.) According to Bene Israeli legend,the Chitpavan and Bene Israel are descendants from a
group of 14 people shipwrecked off the Konkan coast. several immigrant groups including the Parsis, the Bene Israelis,the kudaldeshkar gaud

brahmins, and the Konkani saraswat brahmins, and the chitpavan brahmins were the last of these immigrant arrivals.The satavahanas were 
sanskritisers. It is possibly at their time that the new group of chitpavan brahmins were formed.Also, a reference to the chitpavan surname

ghaisas, written in Prakrut Marathi can be seen on a tamra-pat (bronze plaque) of the Year 1060 A.D.belonging to the King Mamruni of
Shilahara Kingdom, found at Diveagar in Konkan. With the accession of balaji bhat and his family to the supreme authority of the Maratha

Confederacy, chitpavan immigrants began arriving en masse from the Konkan to Pune where the Peshwa offered all important offices his
fellow-castemen. The chitpavan kin were rewarded with tax relief & grants of land. Historians cite nepotism & corruption as causes of the

fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell Eaton states that this rise of the chitpavans is a classic example of social rank rising
with political fortune. Traditionally, the chitpavan brahmins were a community of astrologers and priests who offer religious services to

other communities.The 20th century descriptions of the chitpavans list inordinate frugality, untrustworthiness, conspiratorialism,
phlegmatism. Agriculture was the second major occupation in the community, practiced by the those who possess arable land. Later,

chitpavans became prominent in various white collar jobs and business. Most of the chitpavan brahmins in Maharashtra have adopted
Marathi as their language. Till the 1940s, most of the chitpavans in Konkan spoke a dialect called chitpavani Konkani in their homes.

Even at that time, reports recorded chitpavani as a fast disappearing language. But in Dakshina Kannada District and Udupi Districts of
Karnataka, this language is being spoken in places like Durga and Maala of Karkala taluk and also in places like Shishila and Mundaje of

Belthangady Taluk.There are no inherently nasalized vowels in standard Marathi whereas the chitpavani dialect of Marathi does have
nasalized vowels. Earlier, the deshastha brahmins believed that they were the highest of all brahmins, & looked down upon the chitpavans

as parvenus (a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class),barely equal to the noblest of dvijas. Even the Peshwa was denied the rights to
use the ghats reserved for Deshasth priests @ Nashik on the Godavari.This usurping of power by chitpavans from the deshastha brahmins

resulted in intense rivalry between the two brahmin communities which continued in late Colonial British India times. The 19th century
records also mention Gramanyas or village-level debates between the Chitpavans, & two other communities, namely the Daivajnas, and the

Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. This lasted for about ten years.Half a century ago,Dr.Ambedkar surveyed the existing data on the
physical anthropology of the different castes in his book The Untouchables.He found that the received wisdom of a racial basis of caste was

not supported by the data,e.g.:The table for Bengal shows that the chandal who stands sixth in thescheme of social precedence and whose
touch pollutes, is not much differentiated from the brahmin. In Bombay the deshastha brahmin bears a closer affinity to the Son-Koli,

a fisherman caste, than to his own compeer, the chitpavan brahmin.The Mahar, the Untouchable of the Maratha region, comes next together
with the Kunbi, the peasant.  They follow in order the shenvi brahmin, the nagar brahmin and the high-caste Maratha. These results mean

that there is no correspondence between social gradation and physical differentiation in Bombay.A remarkable case of differentiation in
skull and nose indexes, noted by Dr. Ambedkar, was found to exist between the brahmin and the (untouchable) Chamar of Uttar Pradesh.

But this does not prove that brahmins are foreigners, because the data for the U.P. brahmin were found to be very close to those for the
Khattri and the untouchable Chuhra of Punjab. If the U.P. brahmin is indeed foreign to U.P., he is by no means foreign to this country,

at least not more than the Punjab untouchables. This confirms the scenario which we can derive from the Vedic and ItihAsa-PurANa
literature:the Vedic tradition was brought east from d Vedic heartland by brahmins who were physically indistinguishable from the lower

castes there, when the heartland in Punjab-Haryana at its apogee exported its culture to the whole Aryavarta (comparable to the planned
importation of brahmins into Bengal and the South around the turn of the Christian era).These were just two of the numerous intra-Indian

migrations of caste groups. Recent research has not refuted Ambedkar,s views. A press report on a recent anthropological survey led by
Kumar Suresh Singh explains:English anthropologists contended that the upper castes of India belonged to the Caucasian race and the rest
drew their origin from Australoid types.The survey has revealed this to be a myth. Biologically & linguistically, we are very mixed, says
Suresh Singh. The report says that the people of this country have more genes in common, and also share a large number of morphological

traits. There is much greater homogenization in terms of morphological and genetic traits at the regional level, says the report. For example,
the brahmins of Tamil Nadu (esp.Iyengars) share more traits with non-brahmins in the state than with fellow brahmins in western or

northern part of the country.The sons-of-the-soil theory also stands demolished. The Anthropological Survey of India has found no
community in this country that cant remember having migrated from some other part of the country.Internal migration accounts for much

of the country’s complex ethnic landscape, while there is no evidence of a separate or foreign origin for the upper castes.Among other
scientists who reject the identification of caste (varNa) with race on physical-anthropological grounds, we may cite Kailash C. Malhotra:

Detailed anthropometric surveys carried out among the people of Uttar Pradesh,Gujarat, Maharashtra,Bengal and Tamil Nadu revealed
significant regional differences within a caste and a closer resemblance between castes of different varnas within a region than between

sub-populations of the caste from different regions. On the basis of analysis of stature, cephalic and nasal index, H.K. Rakshit (1966)
concludes that the brahmins of this country are heterogeneous & suggest incorporation of more than one physical type involving more than

one migration of people.A more detailed study among 8 brahmin castes in Maharashtra on whom 18 metric,16 scopic and 8 genetic markers
were studied, revealed not only a great heterogeneity in both morphological and genetic characteristics but also showed that 3 Brahmin

castes were closer to non-Brahmin castes than [to the] other brahmin castes. P.P. Majumdar and K.C. Malhotra (1974) observed a great deal
of heterogeneity with respect to OAB blood group system among 50 brahmin samples spread over 11 country states. The evidence thus

suggests that varna is a sociological and not a homogeneous biological entity.

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