Techno-Politico-Social Transformation Movement
The US based rights group Sikhs For Justice (SFJ) has filed a lawsuit in
the US court to label the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh as a foreign
terrorist organization, according to SFJ attorney Gurpatwant S Pannun.
It has sought such a declaration for RSS for allegedly “believing in and
practicing a fascist ideology and for running a passionate, vicious and
violent campaign to turn India into a ‘Hindu’ nation with a homogeneous
religious and cultural identity”
A US panel tracking international religious freedom has, in its latest
report on India, noted that religious minorities in the country were
exposed to “derogatory” comments by leaders of the ruling BJP as well as
“violent attacks and forced conversions by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak
Sangh (RSS) and Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP)” because of Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)
It has also slammed the “ghar wapsi” campaign and accused the
“Hindu nationalist groups” of offering monetary inducements not only to
Muslims and Christians to convert to Hindutva but also to Hindutva who
carry out such “forced” conversions.
Please watch :
How EVM Works and how can changed it’s functionality Watch this video [youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″] - See more at: http://kohram.in/ten-reasons-for-banning-indian-evms/#sthash.5sue6t7S.dpuf youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″ - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlCOj1dElDY
This country’s EVMs are Vulnerable to Fraud-Contrary to claims by our country,s election authorities, the paperless electronic voting systems used in India suffer from significant vulnerabilities. Even brief access to the machines could allow criminals to alter election results.
American scientists ‘hack’ into Indian voting machines
Security Analysis of India’s Electronic Voting Machines
Full technical paper at http://indiaevm.org/evm_tr2010.pdf
Don’t stand on prestige, dump EVMs, save democracy
http://www.indianevm.com/videos.php?id=12 Computer Science Prof. of Stanford Univ., Dr. David Dill’s statement on Indian EVMs
http://www.indianevm.com/videos.php?id=14 (Videos, expert panel)
Election Commission concedes manipulation of EVMs
‘EVMs illegally being used for a decade’
Linked on USA Today 23 Feb. 2010 http://content.usatoday.com/topics/article/Places,+Geography/Countries/India/05zF4kBeFJ47y/1
Hackers can ’steal’ ballots from electronic voting machines- 2009 Electronic Voting Technology Workshop
…..RSS today asked the Election Commission (EC) to revert back to tried
Increasing threats to the democratic-secular Indian polity from the Hindutva organizations - a concise document on the anti-national game-plan of the RSS
RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat is saying ‘the cultural identity of all Indians is Hindutva’ which has got nothing to do with spirituality.It is just a political cult
The 20th century descriptions of this 1% RSS chitpavan brahmins list inordinate frugality, untrustworthiness, conspiratorialism, phlegmatism not only murder democracy but also the real spirituality of this nation.
The true cultural identity of this country is Jambudvipan that is Prabuddha Bharath since all belong to the same race with Buddha Nature practicing equality, fraternity and liberty as enshrined in the Constitution based on Dhamma.
Now it is the Fraud EVMs that has to be exposed because the Duba Kor EVM are temperable and proved which has to be totally replaced by fool proof voting system.
CJI Sadhasivam, a brahmin allowed the Lok Sabha with majority fraud tamperable EVMs at the request of CEC Sampath another brahmin to replace the fraud EVMs in phased manner that helped RSS’s BJP to acquire the MASTER KEY.
Till all the fraud EVMs are replaced with fool proof Voting system the present CJI must order to scrap the present Lok Sabha.& have a collegium system of picking judges from SC/ST/OBC/Minorities for having a fool proof voting system to safeguard Liberty, Fraternity and Equality as enshrined in the Constitution. And also a collegium system in the Chief Election Commission consisting SC/ST/OBC/Minorities for having a fool proof voting system to safeguard Liberty, Fraternity and Equality as enshrined in d Constitution to prevent Murder of Democracy.After the fraud EVMs are replaced with fool proof voting system Lok Sabha elections must be held, if chitpawan brahmins have to be sidelined totally because of their politics of hatred towards all non chitpawan brahmins, all the non- chitpawan brahmins have to unite under BSP for Sarvajan Hitay, Sarvajan Sukhay i.e., for the welfare and happiness of all societies including, SC/STs, OBCs, Minorities and the poor upper castes by sharing the wealth of the country equally among all sections of the society as enshrined in the Constitution.
Haughty behavior by the upstart chitpvan brahmins caused conflicts with other communities which manifested itself as late as in 1948 in the form of anti-Brahminism after the killing of M.K. Gandhi by Nathuram Godse, a chitpavan brahmin just as Bal Gangadhar Tilak , Gopalkrishna Gokale. After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the chitpavan brahmins lost their political dominance to the British.The British would not subsidize the chitpavan brahmins on the same scale that their caste-fellow, the Peshwas had done in the past. Pay and power was now significantly reduced. Poorer chitpavan brahmin students adapted and started learning English because of better opportunities in the British administration. Some of the strongest resistance to change also came from the very same community. Jealously guarding their brahmin stature, the orthodox among the chitpavan brahmins were not eager to see the shastras challenged, nor the conduct of the brahmins becoming indistinguishable from that of the sudras. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. The chitpavan brahmin community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale whom he acknowledged as a preceptor, & Vinoba Bhave, one of his outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the Jewel of his disciples, and recognized Gokhale as his political guru.However,strong opposition to Gandhi also came from within the chitpavan brahmin community.V D Savarkar,the founder of the Hindu nationalist political ideology hindutva is castiest and communal, militant, violent, intolerant, stealth political cult greed of power hating all the non-chitpavan brahimins which anger that is madness requiring treatment in mental asylums, was a chitpavan brahmin. Several members of the chitpavan community were among the first to embrace d hindutvaideology, which they thought was a logical extension of the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak. These chitpavans felt out of place with the Jambudvipan social reform movement of Mahatama Phule and the mass politics of Mr.M.K. Gandhi. Large numbers of the community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.Therefore, the RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat is saying ‘the cultural identity of all Indians is Hindutva’ covering the above facts. On kobras (the konkanastha chitpavan brahmin Community) of West of the Country. The chitpavan or chitpawan, are brahmins native to the Konkan with a sizeable Christian Protestant who after the British left grabbed all churches, hospitals, schools, colleges to become their owners and started their practice of untouchability against all the non-chitpawan brahmins. Until the 18th century,the chitpavan brahmins were not esteemed in social ranking and were indeed considered by other brahmin tribes as being an inferior caste of brahmins.It remains concentrated in Maharashtra but also has populations all over the Country and rest of the world, (USA & UK.) According to Bene Israeli legend, the Chitpavan and Bene Israel are descendants from a group of 14 people shipwrecked off the Konkan coast. several immigrant groups including the Parsis, the Bene Israelis,the kudaldeshkar gaud brahmins, and the Konkani saraswat brahmins, and the chitpavan brahmins were the last of these immigrant arrivals.The satavahanas were sanskritisers. It is possibly at their time that the new group of chitpavan brahmins were formed.Also, a reference to the chitpavan surname ghaisas, written in Prakrut Marathi can be seen on a tamra-pat (bronze plaque) of the Year 1060 A.D.belonging to the King Mamruni of Shilahara Kingdom, found at Diveagar in Konkan. With the accession of balaji bhat and his family to the supreme authority of the Maratha Confederacy, chitpavan immigrants began arriving en masse from the Konkan to Pune where the Peshwa offered all important offices his fellow-castemen. The chitpavan kin were rewarded with tax relief & grants of land. Historians cite nepotism & corruption as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell Eaton states that this rise of the chitpavans is a classic example of social rank rising with political fortune. Traditionally, the chitpavan brahmins were a community of astrologers and priests who offer religious services to other communities. The 20th century descriptions of the chitpavans list inordinate frugality, untrustworthiness, conspiratorialism, phlegmatism. Agriculture was the second major occupation in the community, practiced by the those who possess arable land. Later, chitpavans became prominent in various whitecollar jobs and business. Most of the chitpavan brahmins in Maharashtra have adopted Marathi as their language. Till the 1940s, most of the chitpavans in Konkan spoke a dialect called chitpavani Konkani in their homes. Even at that time, reports recorded chitpavani as a fast disappearing language. But in Dakshina Kannada District and Udupi Districts of Karnataka, this language is being spoken in places like Durgaand Maala of Karkala taluk and also in places like Shishila and Mundaje of Belthangady Taluk.There are no inherently nasalized vowels in standard Marathi whereas the chitpavani dialect of Marathi does have nasalized vowels. Earlier, d deshastha brahmins believed that they were the highest of all brahmins, & looked down upon the chitpavans as parvenus (a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class),barely equal to the noblest of dvijas. Even the Peshwa was denied the rights to use the ghats reserved for Deshasth priests @ Nashik on the Godavari.Dis usurping of power by chitpavans from the deshastha Brahmins resulted in intense rivalry between the two brahmin communities which continued in late Colonial British India times. The 19th century records also mention Gramanyas or village-level debates between the Chitpavans, & two other communities, namely the Daivajnas, and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. This lasted for about ten years.
RSS WANTS MANUSMRITI TO REPLACE DEMOCRATIC-SECULAR CONSTITUTION OF THIS COUNTRY
Half a century ago, Dr.Ambedkar surveyed the existing data on the physical anthropology of the different castes in his book The Untouchables.He found that the received wisdom of a racial basis of caste was not supported by the data,e.g.:The table for Bengal shows that the chandal who stands sixth in the scheme of social precedence and whose touch pollutes, is not much differentiated from the brahmin. In Bombay the deshastha brahmin bears a closer affinity to the Son-Koli, a fisherman caste, than to his own compeer, the chitpavan brahmin. The Mahar, the Untouchable of the Maratha region, comes next together with the Kunbi, the peasant. They follow in order the shenvi brahmin, the nagar brahmin and the high-caste Maratha. These results mean that there is no correspondence between social gradation and physical differentiation in Bombay. A remarkable case of differentiation in skull and nose indexes, noted by Dr. Ambedkar, was found to exist between the brahmin and the (untouchable) Chamar of Uttar Pradesh. But this does not prove that brahmins are foreigners, because the data for the U.P. brahmin were found to be very close to those for the Khattri and the untouchable Chuhra of Punjab. If the U.P. brahmin is indeed foreign to U.P., he is by no means foreign to India, at least not more than the Punjab untouchables. This confirms the scenario which we can derive from the Vedic and ItihAsa-PurANa literature:the Vedic tradition was brought east from d Vedic heartland by brahmins who were physically indistinguishable from the lower castes there, when the heartland in Punjab-Haryana at its apogee exported its culture to the whole Aryavarta (comparable to the planned importation of brahmins into Bengal and the South around the turn of the Christian era). These were just two of the numerous intra-Indian migrations of caste groups.Recent research has not refuted Ambedkar,s views. A press report on a recent anthropological survey led by Kumar Suresh Singh explains:English anthropologists contended that the upper castes of India belonged to the Caucasian race and the rest drew their origin from Australoid types.The survey has revealed this to be a myth.Biologically &linguistically, we are very mixed, says Suresh Singh () The report says that the people of India have more genes in common, and also share a large number of morphological traits.
There is much greater homogenization in terms of morphological and genetic traits at the regional level, says the report. For example, the brahmins of Tamil Nadu (esp.Iyengars) share more traits with non-brahmins in d state than with fellow brahmins in western or northern India.
The sons-of-the-soil theory also stands demolished. The Anthropological Survey of India has found no community in India that cant remember having migrated from some other part of the country.Internal migration accounts for much of India’s complex ethnic landscape, while there is no evidence of a separate or foreign origin for the upper castes.Among other scientists who reject the identification of caste (varNa) with race on physical-anthropological grounds, we may cite Kailash C. Malhotra:Detailed anthropometric surveys carried out among the people of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bengal and Tamil Nadu revealed significant regional differences within a caste and a closer resemblance between castes of different varnas within a region than between sub-populations of the caste from different regions. On the basis of analysis of stature, cephalic and nasal index, H.K. Rakshit (1966) concludes that the Brahmins of India are heterogeneous & suggest incorporation of more than one physical type involving more than one migration of people.A more detailed study among 8 Brahmin castes in Maharashtra on whom 18 metric,16 scopic and 8 genetic markers were studied, revealed not only a great heterogeneity in both morphological and genetic characteristics but also showed that 3 Brahmin castes were closer to non-Brahmin castes than [to the] other Brahmin castes.
P.P. Majumdar and K.C. Malhotra (1974) observed a great deal of heterogeneity with respect to OAB blood group system among 50 Brahmin samples spread over 11 Indian states. The evidence thus suggests that varna is a sociological and not a homogeneous biological entity.Now it is clear that it is the 1% chitpawan brahmin Rowdy Swayam Sevaks and all its avathars including Bahuth Jiyadha Paapies, Venomous Visha Hindutva Paapis, All Brahmin Venomous Visha Paapis etc, with full of hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion which are defilement of the psychopath mentally retarded minds of stealth hindutva cult requiring mental treatment in mental asylums that gobbled the Master Key of the country through fraud EVMs uses the same law against the JNU who go beyond the theoretical dogmas that bind us to the political, religious and social oppression in the name of democracy. A university like the JNU is the oxygen of democracy, especially when democracy metamorphoses into fascism as is happening today in Prabuddha Bharath are the real traiters and anti-national elements who have to be treated appropriately for their madness. With out maintaining Status quoe as per the Constitution they demolished Places of worship. The are building temples and statues for dreaded murderer nathuram godse which is contempt of the court after misusing the technology to gooble the Master key by tampering the EVMs for Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi). The must be arrested under non bailable provisions of the law to save democracy, liberty, equality and fraternity as enshrined in our Constitution and prevent manusmrity being implemented.
1 Name and territory of the Union.
2 Admission or establishment of new States.
3 Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of
4 Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and
the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.
5 Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
6 Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from
7 Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
8 Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside
9 Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be
10 Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
11 Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Right to Equality
14 Equality before law.
15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or
place of birth.
16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
17 Abolition of Untouchability.
18 Abolition of titles.
Right to Freedom
19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
21 Protection of life and personal liberty.
22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
Right against Exploitation
23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
Right to Freedom of Religion
25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of
26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.
27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in
certain educational institutions.
Cultural and Educational Rights
29 Protection of interests of minorities.
30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
Saving of Certain Laws
31A Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
31B Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
31C Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.
Right to Constitutional Remedies
32 Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.
33 Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their
application to Forces, etc.
34 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in
35 Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.
37 Application of the principles contained in this Part.
38 State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
39 Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
39A Equal justice and free legal aid.
40 Organisation of village panchayats.
41 Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
42 Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
43 Living wage, etc., for workers.
43A Participation of workers in management of industries.
44 Uniform civil code for the citizens.
45 Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
46 Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living
and to improve public health.
48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and
49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
50 Separation of judiciary from executive.
51 Promotion of international peace and security.
51A Fundamental duties.
The President and Vice-President
52 The President of India.
53 Executive power of the Union.
54 Election of President.
55 Manner of election of President.
56 Term of office of President.
57 Eligibility for re-election.
58 Qualifications for election as President.
59 Conditions of President’s office.
60 Oath or affirmation by the President.
61 Procedure for impeachment of the President.
62 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the
term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
63 The Vice-President of India.
64 The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.
65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during
casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.
66 Election of Vice-President.
67 Term of office of Vice-President.
68 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and
the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
69 Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.
70 Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies.
71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or
72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.
73 Extent of executive power of the Union.
Council of Ministers
74 Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.
75 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Attorney-General for India
76 Attorney-General for India.
Conduct of Government Business
77 Conduct of business of the Government of India.
78 Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the
79 Constitution of Parliament.
80 Composition of the Council of States
81 Composition of the House of the People.
82 Readjustment after each census.
83 Duration of Houses of Parliament.
84 Qualification for membership of Parliament.
85 Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.
86 Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.
87 Special address by the President.
88 Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.
Officers of Parliament
89 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.
90 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.
91 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Chairman.
92 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
93 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People .
94 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and
95 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Speaker.
96 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
97 Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker
and Deputy Speaker.
98 Secretariat of Parliament.
Conduct of Business
99 Oath or affirmation by members.
100 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and
Disqualifications of Members
101 Vacation of seats.
102 Disqualifications for membership.
103 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
104 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under
article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members
105 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members
and committees thereof.
106 Salaries and allowances of members.
107 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
108 Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.
109 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
110 Definition of “Money Bills”.
111 Assent to Bills.
Procedure in Financial Matters
112 Annual financial statement.
113 Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.
114 Appropriation Bills.
115 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
116 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
117 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
118 Rules of procedure.
119 Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial
120 Language to be used in Parliament.
121 Restriction on discussion in Parliament.
122 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.
123 Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.
124 Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.
125 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
126 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
127 Appointment of ad hoc judges.
128 Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.
129 Supreme Court to be a court of record.
130 Seat of Supreme Court.
131 Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
132 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in
133 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in
regard to Civil matters.
134 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.
134A Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.
135 Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be
exercisable by the Supreme Court.
136 Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.
137 Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.
138 Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
139 Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.
139A Transfer of certain cases.
140 Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.
141 Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.
142 Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to
143 Power of President to consult Supreme Court.
144 Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
145 Rules of Court, etc.
146 Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.
148 Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
149 Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
150 Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.
151 Audit reports.
CHAPTER I - GENERAL
153 Governors of States.
154 Executive power of State.
155 Appointment of Governor.
156 Term of office of Governor.
157 Qualifications for appointment as Governor.
158 Conditions of Governor’s office
159 Oath or affirmation by the Governor.
160 Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.
161 Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute
sentences in certain cases.
162 Extent of executive power of State.
Council of Ministers
163 Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.
164 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Advocate-General for the State
165 Advocate-General for the State.
Conduct of Government Business
166 Conduct of business of the Government of a State.
167 Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to
168 Constitution of Legislatures in States.
169 Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.
170 Composition of the Legislative Assemblies.
171 Composition of the Legislative Councils.
172 Duration of State Legislatures.
173 Qualification for membership of the State Legislature.
174 Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution.
175 Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.
176 Special address by the Governor.
177 Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.
Officers of the State Legislature
178 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
179 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and
180 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Speaker.
181 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his
removal from office is under consideration.
182 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council.
183 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and
184 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the
office of, or to act as, Chairman.
185 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for
his removal from office is under consideration.
186 Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman
and Deputy Chairman.
187 Secretariat of State Legislature.
Conduct of Business
188 Oath or affirmation by members.
189 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and
Disqualifications of Members
190 Vacation of seats.
191 Disqualifications for membership.
192 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
193 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under
article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members
194 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the
members and committees thereof.
195 Salaries and allowances of members.
196 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
197 Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money
198 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
199 Definition of “Money Bills”.
200 Assent to Bills.
201 Bills reserved for consideration.
Procedure in Financial Matters
202 Annual financial statement.
203 Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.
204 Appropriation Bills.
205 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
206 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
207 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
208 Rules of procedure.
209 Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation
to financial business.
210 Language to be used in the Legislature.
211 Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.
212 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.
213 Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.
214 High Courts for States.
215 High Courts to be courts of record.
216 Constitution of High Courts.
217 Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.
218 Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.
219 Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.
220 Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.
221 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
222 Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.
223 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
224 Appointment of additional and acting Judges.
224A Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.
225 Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.
226 Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
227 Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.
228 Transfer of certain cases to High Court.
229 Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.
230 Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.
231 Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States
233 Appointment of district judges.
233A Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain
234 Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.
235 Control over subordinate courts.
237 Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of
239 Administration of Union territories.
239A Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain
239A Special provisions with respect to Delhi.
239AA Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.
239AB Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of
240 Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.
241 High Courts for Union territories.
243A Gram Sabha.
243B Constitution of Panchayats.
243C Composition of Panchayats.
243D Reservation of seats.
243E Duration of Panchayats, etc.
243F Disqualifications for membership.
243G Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
243H Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.
243-I Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.
243J Audit of accounts of Pachayats.
243K Elections to the Panchayats.
243L Application to Union territories.
243M Part not to apply to certain areas.
243N Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.
243-O Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
243Q Constitution of Municipalities.
243R Composition of Municipalities.
243S Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.
243T Reservation of seats.
243U Duration of Municipalities, etc.
243V Disqualifications for membership.
243W Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.
243 Finance Commission.
243Z Audit of accounts of Municipalities.
243ZA Elections to the Municipalities.
243ZB Application to Union territories.
243ZC Part not to apply to certain areas.
243ZD Committee for district planning.
243ZE Committee for Metropolitan planning.
243ZF Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.
243ZG Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters.
244 Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.
244A Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam
and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.
Distribution of Legislative Powers
245 Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
246 Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
247 Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional
248 Residuary powers of legislation.
249 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List
in the national interest.
250 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State
List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
251 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and
laws made by the Legislatures of States.
252 Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and
adoption of such legislation by any other State.
253 Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.
254 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the
Legislatures of States.
255 Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as
matters of procedure only.
256 Obligation of States and the Union.
257 Control of the Union over States in certain cases.
258 Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.
258A Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.
260 Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India.
261 Public acts, records and judicial proceedings.
Disputes relating to Waters
262 Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or
Co-ordination between States
263 Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council.
265 Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law.
266 Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.
267 Contingency Fund.
Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States
268 Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State.
269 Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States.
270 Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States.
271 Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.
273 Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products.
274 Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in
States are interested
275 Grants from the Union to certain States.
276 Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
279 Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc.
280 Finance Commission.
281 Recommendations of the Finance Commission.
Miscellaneous financial provisions
282 Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.
283 Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited
to the public accounts.
284 Custody of suitors’ deposits and other moneys received by public servants
285 Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation.
286 Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.
287 Exemption from taxes on electricity.
288 Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in
289 Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation.
290 Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions.
290A Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.
292 Borrowing by the Government of India.
293 Borrowing by States.
294 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in
295 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other
296 Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia.
297 Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources
of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.
298 Power to carry on trade, etc.
300 Suits and proceedings.
300A Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.
301 Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.
302 Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and
303 Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with
regard to trade and commerce.
304 Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States.
305 Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.
307 Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to
309 Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a
310 Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State.
311 Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil
capacities under the Union or a State.
312 All-India services.
312A Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of
313 Transitional provisions.
315 Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.
316 Appointment and term of office of members.
317 Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.
318 Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff
of the Commission.
319 Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing
to be such members.
320 Functions of Public Service Commissions.
321 Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.
322 Expenses of Public Service Commissions.
323 Reports of Public Service Commissions.
323A Administrative tribunals.
323B Tribunals for other matters.
324 Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an
325 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a
special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.
326 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of
States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
327 Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to
328 Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections
to such Legislature.
329 Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
330 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the
House of the People.
331 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People.
332 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the
Assemblies of the States
333 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative
Assemblies of the States.
334 Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years.
335 Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
336 Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.
337 Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of
338 National Commission for Scheduled Castes.
338A National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
339 Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas and the
welfare of Scheduled Tribes.
340 Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward
341 Scheduled Castes.
342 Scheduled Tribes.
343 Official language of the Union.
344 Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.
345 Official language or languages of a State.
346 Official language for communication between one State and another or between
a State and the Union.
347 Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population
of a State.
348 Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for
Acts, Bills, etc.
349 Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.
350 Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances.
350A Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.
350B Special Officer for linguistic minorities.
351 Directive for development of the Hindi language.
352 Proclamation of Emergency.
353 Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.
354 Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a
Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
355 Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal
356 Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.
357 Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.
358 Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.
359 Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during
360 Provisions as to financial emergency.
361 Protection of President and Governors and Rajprakukhs.
361A Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State
361B Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post.
363 Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties,
363A Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to
364 Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes.
365 Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by
368 Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor.
369 Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to
certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent
370 Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
371 Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
371A Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.
371B Special provision with respect to the State of Assam.
371C Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.
371D Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.
371E Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh.
371F Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim.
371G Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
371H Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.
371-I Special provision with respect to the State of Goa.
372 Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation.
372A Power of the President to adapt laws.
373 Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive
detention in certain cases.
374 Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the
Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council.
375 Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the
provisions of the Constitution.
376 Provisions as to Judges of High Courts.
377 Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
378 Provisions as to Public Service Commissions.
378A Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.
392 Power of the President to remove difficulties.
393 Short title.
394A Authoritative text in the Hindi language.
THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
|PART I||THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY||Art.( 1-4 )|
|PART II||CITIZENSHIP||Art.( 5-11 )|
|PART III||FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS||Art.( 12-35 )|
|PART IV||DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY||Art.( 36-51 )|
|PART IVA||FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES||Art.( 51A )|
|PART V||THE UNION||Art.( 52-151 )|
|PART VI||THE STATES||Art.( 152-237 )|
|PART VII||THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE||Art.( 238 )|
|PART VIII||THE UNION TERRITORIES||Art.( 239-243 )|
|PART IX||PANCHAYATS||Art.( 243-243zg )|
|PART IXA||MUNICIPALITIES||Art.( 243-243zg )|
|PART X||THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS||Art.( 244-244A )|
|PART XI||RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES||Art.( 245-263 )|
|PART XII||FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS||Art.( 264-300A )|
|PART XIII||TRADE,COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA||Art.( 301-307 )|
|PART XIV||SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES||Art.( 308-323 )|
|PART XIVA||TRIBUNALS||Art.( 323A-323B )|
|PART XV||ELECTIONS||Art.( 324-329A )|