adhimokkha (Skt. adhimokṣa): determination, decision, resolve: is one of the mental concomitants (cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental formations (saṅkhārakkhandha).
adhiṭṭhāna (from adhi meaning “higher” or “best” plus sthā meaning
“standing”) has been translated as “decision,” “resolution,”
“self-determination,” “will” and “resolute determination.”In the late
canonical literature of Theravada Buddhism, adhiṭṭhāna is one of the ten
“perfections” (dasa pāramiyo), exemplified by the bodhisatta’s resolve
to become fully awakened.
akusala: unwholesome, unskillfulness
anapanasati: mindfulness of breathing
anicca: impermanence; inconstancy
anumodanā: Literally, it means “rejoicing together,” but it can also mean approval and encouragement.
aparimāṇa: limitless; immeasurable, unconditional
Arahant: Liberated one
arambhadhatu: “element of beginning” or “element of effort”
ariya (Skt. arya): noble; as in ariya-sacca, meaning “noble truth” or
“truth of the noble ones.” More specifically, the term ariya-sacca
refers to the Buddha’s “Four Noble Truths”.
asaññasatto: without thoughts or perceptions
āsava: mental effluent, pollutant, or fermentation. Four qualities —
sensuality, views, becoming, and ignorance — that “flow out” of the mind
and create the flood of the round of death and rebirth.
atanka: illness; disease
atta: (Skt. atman) refers to a self
avihinsa: non-violence, non-cruelty; kindness to the weak
avijja: ignorance or delusion
ayatana: sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense-organ
bhavana: meditation, cultivation of wisdom and virtue, insight
bhavanga: (Pali, “ground of becoming”) is the most fundamental aspect of
mind in Theravada Buddhism. (The term does not occur in the Nikayas,
though the Theravada tradition identifies it with one that does; the
phenomenon described as “luminous mind.”)
bodhi: to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand
bodhicitta: awakened heart-mind
Bodhisatta: (Skt. Bodhisattva) A future Buddha
Buddha: an Enlightened being “Awakened”
Buddho: one who is awakened to the truth
Budu saranai: (Sinhalese) May the peace and blessings of the Buddha be with you
cārita: temperament, nature, character or habitual conduct
Cārita is of six types:
* Raga carita (the greedy or passionate nature)
* Dosa carita (the angry nature)
* Moha carita (the deluded nature)
* Saddha carita (the faithful nature)
* Buddhi carita (the intelligent nature)
* Vitakka carita (the ruminating or pondering nature)
chanda: (known in full as kusalachanda or dhammachanda). Chanda, or
zeal, is the real incentive for any truly constructive actions. However,
zeal may be impeded by desire and its attachments to laziness,
lethargy, or personal comfort. In this case, desire will stain any
attempts to perform good actions with suffering, by resisting the
practice through these negative states. If there is clear understanding
of the advantage of those actions and sufficient appreciation (chanda)
of them, enabling the burdening effect of desire to be overcome, chanda
becomes, in addition to an impetus for action, a cause for happiness.
cetanā: commonly translated as “volition”, “intention”,
“directionality”, or “attraction”. It can be defined as a mental factor
that moves or urges the mind in a particular direction, toward a
specific object or goal.
cetovimutti: liberation of mind: liberation of mind from defilements
citta: mind, consciousness (Bhikkhu Bodhi: Citta signifies mind as the
centre of personal experience, as the subject of thought, volition and
dana: ‘foodgiving’, generosity, offering
Dhamma: (Skt. dharma) liberating law discovered by the Buddha, summed up
in the Four Noble Truths, the Truth, Reality, natural law, all physical
and mental phenomena
dukkha: unsatisfactoriness, suffering, pain, distress, discontent, stress, the impermanence of all phenomena
ehipassiko: The dhamma welcomes all beings to put it to the test and to
experience it for themselves. Literally “Come and see for yourself.”
ekaggatā (Skt. ekāgratā) means “one-pointedness” or “unification”. This mental factor is one of the components in the jhānas.
jara: old; decayed; decrepit
Jāti: (Pali word for “birth”) refers to the arising of a new living entity in saṃsāra.
jhana: (Skt. dhyana) meditative absorption, a state of strong concentration.
kalyana mitta: lovely friend (Sometimes interpreted as spiritual friend)
kamma: (Skt. karma): (lit.-action) The law of cause and effect; intentional acts
kasina: Spherical or disc shaped mental visual object of meditation
kataññu (katannu-katavedi): knowing what has been done; recollecting what has been done; gratitude
khanda: (Skt. skandha): Five aggregates which form the raw material for
one’s sense of self: form/body, feeling, perception, mental formations,
khanti: patience, tolerance, endurance, forebearance
kilesa: (defilements) greed, aversion, delusion
kusala: wholesome, skillful, of good merit
metta: Lovingkindness, good will
moha: (lit.-to be stupified) delusion
muditā: sympathetic joy or joy with others. The ability of being happy
in the happiness of others and is therefore the opposite of jealousy,
spite and envy.
nandi: joy, enjoyment, pleasure, delight, hedonic gratification
nibbana: (Skt. nirvana): the cessation of suffering, enlightenment, liberation
nibbida: Disenchantment; aversion; disgust; weariness. The skillful
turning-away of the mind from the conditioned samsaric world towards the
unconditioned, the transcendent; Nibbana.
nikati (Skt. nikṛti) fraud, deceit, cheating
nikāya: a word of meaning “collection” of discourses (used to describe
groupings of discourses according to theme, length, or other categories.
For example, the Sutta Piṭaka is broken up into five nikāyas)
nikkamadhatu: “proceeding” with your effort”, the element of exertion
nirodha: cessation, extinction, as in third noble truth concerned with the cessation of suffering (dukkha)
nissarana: way out or exit; release, escape, abandon, freedom, liberation
opanayiko: referring inwardly; to be brought inward. An epithet for the Dhamma
pahāna: ‘overcoming’, abandoning. There are 5 kinds of overcoming: 1
overcoming by repression vikkhambhana-pahāna i.e. the temporary
suspension of the 5 hindrances nīvarana during the absorptions, 2
overcoming by the opposite tadanga-pahāna 3 overcoming by destruction
samuccheda-pahāna 4 overcoming by tranquillization patipassaddhi-pahāna 5
overcoming by escape nissarana-pahāna
papañca: Complication, proliferation; tendency of the mind to proliferate issues from the sense of “self.”
parakkkamadhatu: valor; strength of mind or spirit that enables a person to proceed with firmness; strong determination
paramattha: absolute or ultimate reality
parami: perfections, virtues necessary for the realization of Awakening
pariyatti: Theoretical understanding of Dhamma obtained through reading, study, and learning.
passaddhi: calmness,tranquility, repose and serenity.
paticcasamuppāda: commonly translated as dependent origination or dependent arising.
paṭipatti: The practice of dhamma, as opposed to mere theoretical knowledge (pariyatti).
paṭivedha: ‘penetration’, signifies the realization of the truth of the
Dhamma, as distinguished from the mere acquisition of its wording
pariyatti or the practice patipatti of it, in other words, realization
as distinguished from theory and practice.
pranayama: a Sanskrit word meaning “extension of the breath” or more accurately, “extension of the life force”.
piti: Rapture or happiness, bliss
puñña: merit, meritorious, is a popular term for karmically wholesome (kusala) action.
saddha: faith, confidence (Lit.-to place one’s heart on)
samadhi: concentration; meditative absorption; a deep state of meditation
samānattatā: impartiality, feeling towards others as towards oneself without bias or partiality
Samatha: A term referring to the group of meditation practices that aim at samadhi
sampajañña: Alertness; self-awareness; presence of mind; clear comprehension.
samsára: (lit.-perpetual wandering) ocean of worldly suffering; round of rebirth; pursuit of renewed existence
samvega: spiritual urgency
sangha: the community of Buddhist monks & nuns; recently: “the community of followers on the Buddhist path.”
sankara (Skt. samskara): concoctions; fabrications
sati: mindfulness, awareness
sati sampajañña: mindfully clearly know
sila: moral conduct; precept; virtue; moral restraint
sukha: happiness; pleasure; ease; bliss
suñña: void (ness), empty (emptiness)
sutta: (lit. thread; Skt. sutra) discourse of the Buddha or one of his leading disciples
tanha: (lit. thirst) craving
Tathagata: (Lit. thus gone) an Enlightened person
Theravada: (Doctrine of the elders)- school of Buddhism that draws its
inspiration from the Pali Canon, or Tipitaka, the oldest surviving
record of the Buddha’s teachings. Has been the predominant religion of
southeast Asia (Thailand, Sri Lanka, Burma)
Tipitaka: (Literally Three baskets)- The Pali Canon- has Three divisions:
1. Sutta Pitaka- discourses of the Buddha, (Five collections-nikayas- 10,000 suttas)
2. Abhidhamma Pitaka- treatises offering systematic treatment of topics in the suttas
3. Vinaya Pitaka- rules for ordained monks and nuns
upāsaka/upāsikā: Buddhist lay men are called upāsaka and lay women
upāsikā. Both Pali words are derived from ‘to sit close’ (upāsati) and
‘to attend to’ (upāsana) Monks.
Upādāna: the Pāli word for “clinging,” “attachment” or “grasping”, although the literal meaning is “fuel.”
Vipallāsa: perversions or distortions
Vipassana: literally, “to see clearly”; insight; insight into the truth
of anicca (impermanence), anatta (not-self), & dukkha
(unstatisfactoriness), to see things as they really are
viriya: effort; persistence; energy
GWV master directory of translations of the
The Earliest Buddhist Canon of Literature
The Three Baskets
Discourses of the Buddha
For further study
Contemplative’s Pali-English, English-Pali Dictionary (a work in
progress), Edited by Jhanananda
Other Pali Dictionaries Resources and
A Glossary of Key Buddhist
Terms and Concepts
A Buddhist Timeline
Understanding the original language of
the Buddha and his teachings (suttas/sutras)
One of the goals of the
Great Western Vehicle is to bring the Buddha’s
teachings to the broadest audience. In an effort to meet that goal
we have provided as much of the
original Discourses of the Buddha in English translation as we could find
in the public domain.
GWV master directory of translations of the Tipitaka in English, Romanized
Pali and Sinhala is a compilation of the work of 24 different translators.
It includes the work of monastics, such as: Bhikkhuni
Upalavanna; Bhikkhus: Amaravati, ânandajoti, Bodhi,
Jhanananda, Ñanamoli, Ñanananda, Narada, Nyanaponika,
Nyanasatta, Piyadassi, Soma and Thanissaro; scholars such as: V.
A.D. Jayasundere, F. Max Müller,
Horner, Olendzki, T. W. Rhys Davids, Story, Strong, Vajira and Woodward. Thanissaro Bhikkhu’s English translations are thanks
to Insight, which included the work of other excellent translators.
The translations of F. Max Muller, T.W. Rhys Davids et al are thanks
to the PALI
Every culture that has embraced Buddhism has
spent the first few centuries of that endeavor in acquiring and translating
Baskets, which includes the Discourses of the Buddha (sutta/sutra pitaka).
It is a matter of history that the Buddha spoke in the common language
his region. The Pali language
is a liturgical language that is based upon that language.
Once the Buddha’s teachings were written down they were almost immediately
translated into Sinhala and Sanskrit. When Buddhism arrived in China, then
Korea, then Japan then Tibet, the Three Baskets were acquired in Sanskrit
then translated into the languages of those above regions.
As the English speaking peoples embrace Buddhism we have the
choice to acquire the teachings of the Buddha in the above mentioned languages,
however, why go through three layers of translation, which are only going
to increase the likelihood of translator bias and religious
dogma, when we can go back to
of the Buddha, which was closest related
For scholarly purposes we believe serious students of Buddhism
are going to want to penetrate through the fog of translator bias and
religious dogma to get as close to the original teachings of the Buddha
as one can. For that purpose we have included the Romanized form of the
Pali. We have also included the Sinhala version as a gift to the Sri Lankan
who have preserved the earliest sources of Buddhist literature.
The Romanized Pali is based upon the Sri
Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series.
The Sinhala is A.P. de Soyza’s translations. The English
is by 24 translators often downloaded from the Internet thanks to Metta
Net, Access to Insight, and
TEXT SOCIETY “Sacred Books of the Buddhists” and “Sacred
Books of the East, thanks to Sacred Texts.
If only one person is relieved of suffering by our efforts,
then our work was well spent.
Inyo National Forest, September 17 2005
the English Translators
(1) Sister Upalavanna
(2) A.D. Jayasundere
(3) misc. & anon
(4) T. W. Rhys Davids
(12) Bodhi, Soma
(17) F. Max Müller
The latest update of the MettaNet Tipitaka in
a single Zip file of 24.8 MB, uploaded
on June, 11, 2005
Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice
University and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
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exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue
to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal.
Classical Buddhism (Teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness) belong to the world, and everyone have exclusive rights:JC
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‘Monolith India’ and the vote bank
Syed Ali Mujtaba
Vote bank politics has come to become an Indian reality and democracy in India has come to be the fine art of balancing different vote banks with very little excep-tion. Some political parties may openly denounce the politics of cultivating vote banks but overtly or covertly they practice it in their own constituencies, for political survival and advancement.
It has been said that democratic pro-cesses would put an end to India’s unique divisions, which were wilfully exploited by the colonial masters to perpetuate their rule. It was reasoned that periodic elections would gradually diminish the divisions based on caste, creed and religion. However, in the process of empowering the masses, democracy has sharpened the diversity by transforming them into vote banks and important ‘variables’ in the political process.
The trend is most prominent in caste categories within the majority Hindu community. Political parties exploit the aspirations of caste groups which differ from one another, or are at least made to think that they differ in significant ways. In fact, many political parties have become syno-nymous with certain caste categories. The Bahujan Samaj party and the Samajwadi party in Uttar Pradesh represent ‘lower’ and intermediary castes as do the Dalit Panthers of India (DPI) and the Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) in Tamil Nadu.
Religion is the other broad category on which hinges the survival of several political parties. The leading party of the ruling National Democratic Alliance, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), is primarily a Hindu party trying to market Hinduism in the cloak of nationalism. Even its secular face is Hindutva. The Akali Dal in Punjab and the Muslim League in Kerala espouse the cause of the Sikhs and Muslims interests at the provincial level.
Language is another category in the diversity among the peoples of India. Various political parties have cultivated linguistic constituencies. The Telugu Desam Party (TDP) in Andhra Pradesh, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) in Tamil Nadu, as well as the Assam Gon Parishad in Assam, all flaunt their linguistic constituencies.
The other category for political mobi-lisation is ethnicity. The Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) in the tribal-dominated Jharkhand and some other political parties in the Northeast and the hills and tribal regions elsewhere have ethnic groups as their vote banks. Provincialism also forms the basis of political divisions with political parties like the Shiv Sena, DMK, AIADMK, Biju Janta Dal, Assam Gon Prashid, Haryana Vikas Party being province-based political parties. Then there are parties which have farmers as their constituency. Ajit Singh’s Rashtriya Lok Dal in Uttar Pradesh and Om Prakash Chautala’s Harayana Vikas Party fall in this category.
The left parties, CPI and CPI (M), are ideology-based political entities and have a committed ideological cadre as their constituency. West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura are the few states where these parties are strong.
Even during the British days there existed the religious, the left, the pro-Raj, the pro-worker, the pro-farmer, and the pro-landed class political parties, among many others, which espoused the cause of these myriad groups thus creating their separate vote banks. The general elections in 1936 and 1946 brought to fore the choices of vote banks for different political parties in India.
The Congress, which had a pivotal role in the freedom struggle, was the natural choice of many Indians for at least the first three general elections after Independence. The Congress vote bank comprised upper caste Hindus, Dalits and Muslims. The party had a smooth run till 1967, when for the first time it lost its majority not in one but in nine states of the country. That year is considered to be a watershed in Indian politics. Since then two sets of political forces emerged in India – one that challen-ged the all-India supremacy of the Congress and the other that tried to break free from the centralised structure of the state.
Drill it in!
In fact, from 1967 onwards there has been a tug-of-war going on in Indian politics. Would political parties with overarching all-India characteristics govern the country or would regional satraps forge linkages to run the affairs of the country? The trajectory that has been emerging of late reveals that all the parties ruling at the centre have had to accommodate parties and groups representing different regional constituencies through coalition arrangements.
The first non-Congress gov-ernment was formed in 1977 - a coalition of several parties led by the Janata Party, an offshoot of popular socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia’s Socialist Party. The hotchpotch coalition had sprung to challenge the supremacy of Indira Gandhi’s Congress. It even included the BJP that emerged out of the Jan Sangh (formed in 1967 to re-present Hindu aspirations). Since 1967, parties have emerged left and right of the centre at the national level, and a flurry of political parties have come up at the regional and provincial level. The Shiv Sena in Maharastra, the Asam Gon Parishad in Assam, the Telugu Desam party in Andhra Pradesh mentioned earlier are some of them.
The other phase of political develop-ment began at the national level with the rise of the BJP since 1984 in the country. The party began cultivating the majority Hindu vote bank by espousing the cause of the Hindus of the country. It attacked the Congress for pampering minorities and cultivated its own constituency on the anti-Muslim platform.
The National Front government led by VP Singh, which drew inspiration from the Janata Party of 1977 and the Socialist Party of 1967, came up in a big way in 1989 by widening the net of the vote bank to other caste categories. Thus the Mandal Commi-ssion report which allowed 27 percent reservation for OBCs in government jobs in that year was another watershed event in Indian politics. As a result of the implementation of the Mandal report, intermediate castes like Yadavs and Kurmis came into the forefront in the Ganga plain. Parties like the Samajwadi Party, the Bahujan Samaj Party, the Rashtriya Lok Dal in Uttar Pradesh, the Rashtriya Janta Dal and the Samata Party in Bihar and the Biju Janata Dal in Orissa are all post-Mandal offspring.
The United Front government led by Deve Gowda in 1996 was yet another attempt by left of centre forces to govern the country. The United Front government had regional and provincial coalition partners such as the TDP and DMK which played the major role in holding power at the centre in New Delhi. The formation of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) in 1998 led by the BJP reinforces the evolution in Indian politics where regional and local political parties are increasing their influence at the national level by forging alliances with national parties to form governments at the centre.
While it is difficult to predict whether national parties will be overtaken by combinations, of provincial parties, all political parties will continue to draw sustenance from diverse categories within the Indian electorate. There is no end in sight to the phenomena of vote bank politics in India. As new groups come forward to demand space in politics, the creation of new vote banks is an accelerating process. There is emerging consciousness among various marginalised groups to get united in the course of political mobilisation.
The result is the emergence of newer political parties to espouse the cause of the differentiated, and often marginalised, of India. The fate of democracy is thus entwined with vote banks. However, in the process of new vote banks being created, it is also true that narrow and parochial agendas are gaining an upper hand even as the broad all-India vote banks lose ground. In the mushrooming of local-regional political parties some would see Indians discovering their political identity, with local and regional considerations gaining ground and it being harder to tie down voters as ‘monolith Indians’? The answers open up a big debate — is India is a nation or a nation of nations. Political developments point to the latter.