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2202 Thu 19 Apr 2017 LESSONS
The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation
and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin -
Theravada Practice Blog” (http://theravadin.wordpress.com/).
We consider here the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, a classical text and revered in Hinduism, dated at approx. 200 BC and compared its semantics and vocabulary to Buddhist canonical texts. In
summary, this comparison is quite obvious that the author of Yoga Sutra
was highly influenced by Buddhist philosophy and meditation practice,
possibly contemporaneously to the author.
it appears that a student of Buddhist canonical texts may in fact be
more easily understood than the Yoga Sutra a Hindu practitioner with no
other previous reference parameter practical and philosophical. We
do not consider comments here later Hindu / Brahman existing this text,
some of which seem to avoid (or ignore) the original references to
Buddhism in this text.
proximity of the Yoga Sutra-style, vocabulary, and subject to canonical
texts in Pali could also mean simply that Patanjali - or whoever it is
that inspired his writings - had practiced meditation from a Buddhist
contemplative community, a community of monks for a time before
returning to Brahmanism and then the movement would have rephrased his
experience in order to add a divine touch to your experience, making
substantial use of technical terms of Buddhist meditation, as originally
framed or developed by the Buddha for the purpose of contemplative
practice. But this would be pure speculation, because there is so far no studies or historical finding that supports this understanding.
is also possible, even likely, that the Buddhist meditation had so
broadly permeated the practice Hindu / Brahman at the time (after years
of a strong cultural influence began with Buddhist proselytism promoted
by Ashoka the Buddhist Sangha in his reign and Consolidation of India),
that these technical terms as well as descriptions of practice of jhana /
dhyana (meditative absorptions) have it built into common knowledge at
the point of no longer sounding particularly Buddhists. Something
similar to what happens today with the adoption of the ideas of
“nirvana” and “karma” in Western culture, in Christian countries.
particular, if the Yoga Sutra is read in one continuous line is amazing
how close the text is the thoughts and topics about samadhi, jhana
meditation and Samatha (concentration) as defined in the ancient texts
in Pali Buddhist.
For a first analysis, an overview. Look
at the “Ashtanga Yoga” or the “Eightfold Path of Yoga” (sic) we are
certainly inclined to think the definition of the central Buddha of the
Noble Eightfold Path.
instead of following the Buddhist literary definition of the Noble
Eightfold Path, the interpretation of the eightfold path of yoga follows
(to our surprise?) Another description of the Buddhist path: the one
given by the Buddha as he described how he taught his disciples to
practice in your system meditative, which consists of a number of steps
outlined in various suttas of the volume of speeches with Mean Length
(as in Ariyapariyesana Sutta, MN 26, etc.) and remind us much of the way
“yogic” (pragmatic?), as devised by Patanjali at Yoga Sutra.
Then compare these two “paths to reach the samadhi.”
First what is in the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali:
1. Yama, on the field conduct, morality or virtue
2. Niyama, self-purification and study
3. Asana, proper posture
4. Pranayama, breath control
5. Pratyahara, the removal of the five senses
6. Dharana, concentration or apprehension of the object meditative
7. Samadhi, meditative absorption
And down the list of steps recommended by the Buddha when asked about the gradual development through his teachings. This list is found in many suttas of the volumes of speeches and Mean Length Long, as in other parts of the Canon:
1. Sila, moral conduct or virtue, and Santosa, contentment
2. Samvara, containment or removal of the senses
3. Kayagata-sati and Iriyapatha, or “Asana” means the cultivation of mindfulness and four correct postures.
4. Anapanasati, mindfulness of breathing
5. Overcoming Obstacles or five nivarana (sensual desire, ill will, anxiety and remorse, sleep and torpor, doubt, skeptical)
6. Sati, mindfulness, keep the object in mind, often quoted along with the comments dharana canonical.
7. Jhana, levels of meditative absorption
8. Samadhi, a result of absorption, the “realization” of various kinds or Samāpatti
Of course we’re not the first to notice similarities such as the list above. A handful of other authors have noted some more and others less obvious parallels. In fact, even Wikipedia has an entry for Yoga Sutra in which we read:
“Karel Werner writes that” the system of Patanjali is unthinkable without Buddhism. As
far as terminology goes aa long in the Yoga Sutra that reminds us of
formulations of the Buddhist Pali Canon and even more Abhidharma
Sarvastivada Sautrantika and school. “Robert Thurman writes that
Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system
to formulate its own matrix for the version of thought he considered
orthodox (…) The division between Eight States (Sanskrit Ashtanga)
Yoga is reminiscent of the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddha, and the
inclusion of brahmavihara (Yoga Sutra 1:33) also shows the influence of
Buddhism in parts of the Sutras. “
this is where the subject becomes interesting for us here on this blog
and its relevance to the practice of Buddhist meditation.
all the above tells us that the Yoga Sutra is a comment Hindu / Brahmin
or at least a photograph of meditation practices common (influenced by
Buddhism) in the second century BC?
If this is the case, definitely warrants a closer look at. Certainly,
this is because the text is not a Buddhist but shares a “core” of
fundamental ideas on meditation to be able to take it as a sign pointing
to a deeper understanding of some of the terminology in the context of
the first centuries of Buddhist practice.
if the Yoga Sutra is read in a Buddhist context, one can have some idea
of how people understood at that time and (ou!) practiced Buddhist
meditation? Could this be of some help in triangular or point of which was the direction of former Buddhist meditation?
more we know how people practiced a few centuries after the Buddha’s
Parinibbana, the more we can understand how some of his teachings have
evolved and how they were implemented and explained / taught.
makes this fascinating idea is that this text would definitely be
filterable through the eyes of a Hindu / Brahman, but he is still
influenced by the “knowledge” of Buddhist meditation apparently so well
received, and the time of his writing had become the mainstream
“contemplative practices. This
would show us how and in what particular point, was considered to be
the “essence” of meditation (in addition to being philosophical
discussion of its purpose) in order to be considered universally true,
then that can be “merged” into other forms of practice religious.
Under this view, the Yoga Sutra is actually quite revealing. Consider a few passages that copies may shed light on this idea. Passages like the following really seems a direct copy and paste the Buddha-Dhamma. Some of them even make much sense in a context of religious doctrine theological-in-search-of-the-soul-creationist , but it fits absolutely in the philosophy of liberation through concentration and wisdom. However,
they were considered “truth” and “accepted” so that the author Hindu /
Brahman had no other choice but to incorporate them into their theistic
philosophy, reminding us Western Christians today that due to the common
acceptance of the idea karma / kamma, sometimes find ways to
incorporate this idea in their religious views.
Let’s start seeing the following list of impurities that Yoga Sutra tells us must be overcome:
(ignorance), Asmita (egoism), raga-Dvesha (desires and aversions),
Abhinivesha (clinging to mundane life) are the five klesha or distress. Destroy these afflictions [e] You will realize Samadhi. “
[Free translation of the original quote from Wikipedia]
impresses the reader as Buddhist before this paragraph is the simple
fact that all these impurities listed are those that no longer are you
supposed to Arahant one, or Awakened (!!!). That is, according to the text of Patanjali, the “Samadhi of Conduct” would be conceptually the same as the Buddhist Liberation.
Consider the terms used:
ignorance or mental turvidão is even mentioned in the first place,
while clearly a Buddhist point of view is considered the root of all
“asmita”, which is superficially translated as “selfishness” by
understanding that had developed in shallow Sanskrit tradition that was
ignorant of the deeper meaning of that term as used in the suttas of the
Pali Canon (or tried to distort to suit your context religious).
term Buddhist in particular, pointing to the deeply embedded “notion
that it is” (ASMI-tā) has a clear explanation in the suttas, but here in
this passage and elsewhere, is reduced to a mere “selfishness” as a
moral impurity devoid of its original psychological application. In
the suttas “ASMI-Mana” is a deeply rooted psychological tendency that
only a Arahant (Iluminsfo) won [see post “The scent of am” blog
there is also “abhinivesa”, a term the Buddha uses to explain how our
mind comes in and assumes the five groups of attachment. The
term “Nives” denotes a dwelling, a house - a simile brought by the
Buddha to show how our consciousness moves “inside” of the contact
experience of the senses and settles as if living in a house (see Sutta
Nipata, Atthakavagga , and Haliddakani Magandiya Sutta Sutta). This
usage is decreased very particular psychological context in Hindu /
Brahmin to denote only an “attachment to worldly life.”But here is worth
questioning whether this was also shared by superficial understanding
or just by Patanjali Yoga Sutra later commentators, who have lost sight
of these implications for not having knowledge of or access to the
preceding context of Buddhism in the Yoga Sutra was written?
And sometimes something awakening about the “sati” Buddhist can also be found. We
have another pearl of a Buddhist point of view, which can be considered
truly revealing: the use of the word “Dharana” in the text of
This is one area in which our contemporary knowledge of Buddhism can benefit from insights. The
term “Dharana”, which literally means short and “I can hold, carry,
keep (in mind)” is a good description of the task faced in Buddhist
contemplative practice, regardless of what tradition / school
In meditation we also need to maintain our meditation object firmly in focus in mind, without losing it. This
central feature of the task undertaken when trying to cultivate
meditative concentration, relates as an equivalent to the literal
meaning of the Buddhist term “sati” (which means reminder / recall) and
what is general and now translated simply as “mindfulness” - a
translation that often aboard with questions.
And the reason is as follows, in summary: To maintain the object of meditation in mind you need to remember it. Remember here that means you have to hold, keep in mind, your object of concentration. This
is exactly what makes the faculty of memory, usually being pushed away
by the impressions with new information by the six senses, which, if
penetrated, would result in more or less a wild spin.
you are able to sustain their concentration on one point however - or
even as much as you can keep it, one of the laws of functioning of the
mind that the Buddha rediscovered and explained in detail that this
rebate is “artificial” senses the support and focus on a particular
mental object equivalent to a minor sensory stimulus.
a result of mental calmness and happiness (piti) and happiness index
(sukha) will arise and show signs of the primeirs a stronger
concentration - these being two of the five factors of meditative
absorption (jhana), along with (i) directed thought (vitakka) (ii)
sustained (Vicara) and (iii) equanimity (Upekkha).
is also the reason why is quite logical that samma sati, mindfulness,
has to come before samma samadhi, full concentration in the Noble
Eightfold Path of Buddhism - or, as shown in this case in the Yoga
Sutra, “Dharana” would be the stage immediately prior to “Delivering the
this case the Yoga Sutra throws much light on the original meaning as
understood in the early centuries of Buddhist practice and can help us
reach a more precise understanding of what “samma sati, right
mindfulness, originally meant or pointed. (In Theravadin blog post is a rather plain and that shows how sati yoniso manasikara are coming in practical terms, check this link ).
the opposite side, or better, understanding it as a byproduct of the
practice of sati is no other term that would best be described as
“mindfulness.” The Pali term is sampajaññā -
which literally means “next-consideration”, eg, be well aware of when
performing an action, then a “clear understanding” of what it does - but
this activity is a result of sati, as having the mind fixed on an
object leads to a refined consciousness that arises when during the next
and keep the mind of an object, creating a clear understanding of the
few sensory impressions that may enter. According to this concept, mindfulness would be a result of sati and not the practice of sati in itself!
again, both activities are happening almost simultaneously, even if not
in the same order and then the current use of the term translated can
be done - at the same time a fine distinction, however, has its
benefits. You can not
keep an object from the standpoint of mind without which would create or
develop mindfulness in mind - but (unfortunately!) you may be aware of
all your actions that you work without the right concentration - as when
eat an ice cream, in seeking the sensual pleasure, an example of
improper care. This being the fact that unfortunately idealize the interpretations of some Westerners who want to say “Buddhist”.
is a difference between deliberately let himself be led by sense
impressions by focusing on their physical pleasures and enhancing /
supporting raga (desire) and nandi (joy) - and, from the perspective of
Gotama Buddha, put his feet on the ground using the mindful memory and
thus experiencing a more refined awareness of trying to get it off the
shaft so that it results in a greater mindfulness, in the culmination of
his experience flows into total equanimity in the face of both
pleasurable and painful sensations.
then, we must understand as vipassanā is no way a synonym for
mindfulness (sati) but something that springs from the combination of
all these factors especially the last two, samma sati (mindfulness) and
samma samadhi (right concentration) applied to the relentless
observation of what appears to be in front of (yathabhuta).
could say, vipassanā is a name for the Buddhist practice of sati
associated samadhi directed to the view anicca / anatta / dukkha (ie,
generating the wisdom of the vision of these three features) in the
processes of the six senses, including any mental activity. Thus, one will find the term vipassanā but the idea of sati in
the Yoga Sutra, Buddhist texts mention as the first term clearly having
samādhi as just the beginning of the journey to insight and access -
for example aniccanupassana .
Finish here the parenthesis. Suffice
to say that any particular reference to the Buddhist philosophy citing
anicca antta or point to the goal of Nibbana, a philosophical
proposition to which the system of Yoga certainly does not refer.
In essence the school of Yoga can be placed below the postures eternalists. So,
while it definitely does need to produce sati-samadhi, definitely does
not need to understand is samadhi anicca, dukkha and anatta - that does
not sound very compatible with the worldview of a eternalistic. Before
this, all spiritual approach arise due to the attempt to interpret
Samadhi Yoga Sutra as marriage or at least as close as you can get from a
“God”, a “Lord.” Something
that sounds quite natural in the end to a theist - such as an
Evangelical Christian would never interpret the reduction of its focus
on mental object unique sensual ecstasy and consequently a mere effect
of a psychological technique, but he would label it “the divine sign of
God touching him. “ It is for
this reason that, according to the Buddha Dhamma, in fact in most
situations we are inclined to be led by the plots of our senses,
including the mental impressions / thoughts / feelings / perceptions -
and therefore tend to limit ourselves to go beyond such experiences also
distorted the merger would allow access to insight and liberation.
to the context of comparison with the Christian interpretation of this
ecstasy, in short what Patanjali is facing such a theistic
interpretation sounds like someone moving a large portion of vocabulary
and terminology for the New Testament, which gives this ring a Buddhist.
funny thing is that this is exactly how many of the contemporary New
Age books are written - an amalgam of the terms of Western Spirituality /
Christian trying to express a view east. So
one can imagine that the situation in India was similar to that when
the Yoga Sutra was written addressing the Buddhist philosophy of that
remaining Buddhist philosophy with his particular terminology
established by the Buddha himself would have become so pervasive in
religious thought, so to make seemingly trusted what was written on
meditation was a need to borrow or rely on several of these Buddhist
concepts predominant. This
had largely been done or even conscious, as most New Age authors
present not even reflect the content of their texts but about the
message you want to spend.
below is done in a way a translation - or rather a translation of a
transliteration given the proximity between languages - as was done with
the text of the Yoga Sutra in Sanskrit brought back to Pāli. Similar to what has been done this Sutra ( Theravadin available on the blog, in English on this link ),
the exercise helps us see how the same text would sound the Pāli
language, opening then find parallels in ancient Buddhist texts, the
having said all that, pragmatism invoked by the text (which is what
makes it so valuable) also indicates much more than a simple textual
exploration. As you
read this you can not discern the notion, especially since the position
of a meditator concentration of whoever has written or inspired by this
text, at some point personally experienced jhana and samadhi and wanted
to convey his experience making use a rich language Buddhist meditation
on the same interpretation being directed to an audience Brahman /
proto-Hindu India 200 BC.
check by itself - the pauses between sets of paragraphs labeled in bold
are the author / translator and some important technical terms
Buddhists were deployed, with additional comments made in italics:
Patañjalino yogasuttaṃ (Part I of IV)
atha yogānusāsanaṃ | | 1 | |
And now a statement about the European Union (Yoga)
 Read yourself to be the object of meditation, or an instruction (anusāsana) on the meditative practice (yoga).
yogo-citta-vatta nirodho | | 2 | |
The Union (Yogo) is the extinction of the movement of the mind
 in this passage denotes vatta turbulence, swirl, activity - literally wandering, circling, confused. In
this context broadly means “meditation is (…) a stop to the busy
mind,” which is very active and its activity suggests a walk in circles. Probably the most direct (and correct) translation.
Tada ditthi (muni) svarūpe’avaṭṭhānaṃ | | 3 | |
(Only) then he who sees is allowed (to be) in (his) true nature.
In the Pāli language Drist the word does not exist, and it would be
something like subsitituída by Muni, which has the same meaning -
except, of course, the fact that “he who sees” further points in this
case the seeing process. Here was however used the term Pāli ditthi so as to maintain the link with the term semantic ditthi. The alternate translation is then: “So lets see who (or have the opportunity - avaṭṭhāna) of being in their true and natural.”
Sarup-vatta itaritaraṃ | | 4 | |
(Otherwise) at other times we become (equal) to this activity (of mind).
♦ ♦ Challenges
vatta Panza kilesa akilesā ca ca | | 5 | |
Activities (Mental) are five, some non-contaminating other contaminants:
pamanes-vipariyesa-vikappa-Nidda-sati | | 6 | |
Experience (Evident-Measurement), ii) misperception (Illusion), iii)
Intentional Thinking / Willing, iv) Sleep / Numbness, v) Memory /
i) pamanes, experience or clear-measurement
Paccakkh’ānumān’āgamā honte pamāṇāni | | 7 | |
What one sees and looks directly (paccakha), taking as a reference - it’s called experience.
 Literally: “What comes through direct visualization and measurement is called the experience”
ii) Vipariyesa, misperception or illusion
Micca vipariyeso-Nanam atad-rūpa-patiṭṭhitaṃ | | 8 | |
Illusion is the wrong understanding, based on something (lit. “one way”) that is not really.
iii) Vikappa, Thought Intentional / Keen
Saddam-ñāṇānupattī vatthu-Sunna vikappo | | 9 | |
Thinking / Willing is any way of understanding and unfounded assertion
(ie the internal speech, voltiva, partial and willful, based on mental
Alternative translation: “Thinking is cognition without a sound object /
cause noise (vatthu).Think about it, thoughts are no more than sounds,
silent babble that passes through our being.
iv) Nidda, Sleep / Numbness
abhava-paccay’-ārammaṇā vatta Nidda | | 10 | |
Mental activity in the absence of mental objects is called Sleep / Torpor.
v) Sati, the Memory / Mindfulness
Anubhuti-visayāsammosā sati | | 11 | |
Not to be confused (or not lose) the object (sensory) previously experienced is called Memory / Mindfulness.
Abhyasa-virāgehi Tesam nirodho | | 12 | |
The extinction of these [activities] comes from the practice of detachment / cessation of passions (turning)
 We have here the words turn and nirodha in the same sentence! It can not be more Buddhist canon than this! Interestingly, however, is the current use and non-metaphysical terms of this stretch. They are applied in a simple process of meditation, in particular the process of concentration meditation. This can not go unnoticed and goes directly in line with readings jhanic cultivation practices in Buddhism.
♦ The Training ♦
tatra-tiṭṭha yatano abhyasi | | 13 | |
practice’s commitment to non-movement (ie, become mentally property (at
the same time it parmanece fluid - an excellent description for the
so-Kala-pana Dīgha nirantara-sakkār’āsevito dalhia-bhumi | | 14 | |
Mast this (practice) must be based firmly in a long and careful exercise [excellent point here!]
This goes in line with what the author wrote the medieval Pali
subcomentários the volume of the Digha Nikaya, where also we find the
combination of the terms and dalhia bhumi - “firmness” and
“establishment” - in the same sentence, denoting ” firm establishment “
diṭṭhānusavika-visaya-vitaṇhāya Vasik-Sannes viraga | | 15 | |
Detachment is the mastery (VASI-kara) of perception, the dropping of the seat (vitaṇhā) by the following (anu-savika, lit.’s Subsequent flow) experience a prey to view.
parama-tam Puris akkhātā guṇa-vitaṇhaṃ | | 16 | |
This is the climax: the abandonment of the current headquarters of the senses, based on personal revelation / knowledge of self.
 Here we turned a Brahman, is this approach that allows the soul to win the seat / attachment, Tanh. And this short sentence has much to offer! At
that moment in history, Patanjali was so convinced of the Buddhist goal
of “opening up the attachment, the seat stop,” which boils down to vitaṇhā term he uses. However,
it does not give up without a soul which its theistic philosophy simply
collapses and nothing in the text would make it distinguishable from a
treatise on the Buddha Dhamma. Thus,
mounted on a meditative Buddhist terminology and guidelines in the
conversation he introduces the term “Puris, which can be read as” soul,
“saying that the more you get closer to its” intrinsic nature “(svarūpa)
and inner body “Puri, or soul, you become able to stop itself this seat
/ attachment. Interesting.
♦ Realization - Jhana / Dhyanas ♦
The first jhana / Dhyāna
vitakka-vicar-Anand-Asmita rūp’ānugamā sampajaññatā | | 17 | |
is the alertness (sampajañña) from (the) (Kingdom of) form: a
self-directed thought-based consciousness, which remains (to this) and
 Here we describe an almost identical description of the first jhana used time and again by the Buddha in Pali texts ( see this example ). Indeed,
we have a very beautiful description of the first jhana as a form of
sampajaññatā (fully aware of what is happening), after the plan of the
form (the theme of our meditation is a mental form) and a combined
happiness at the thought we are trying to grasp what itself could be
described as the pure experience of “I am” (Asmita - the term is being
used more loosely in place as would suttas).
the announcement vitakka / vicara the first mention of meditative
absorption is a clear reference to the origin of Buddhist Yoga Sutra. Interesting also is the connection that is being done now with sampajaññatā: Think of everything we have said before about sati. If sati is simply the seizure of an object (the paṭṭhāna
of sati, so to speak), so it’s interesting to see how sampajaññā this
case, is identified with the state of the first jhana. Could this mean that when the Buddha mentions these two texts in Pali, which implicitly means samatha-vipassana?
is not at all a strange idea, like many vipassana meditators, focusing
on objects will be much more subtle quickly show signs of the first
jhana. Could it be then that the term “sampajaññatā” was seen as the first result of a concentrated mind?
any case, experience will teach you very quickly that when you try to
hold an object in your mind, your awareness of what happens at this time
will increase dramatically, simply due to the fact that his effort to
keep the object is under constant danger during the siege of sense.
saw-Paticca Abhyasa-anno-pubbo saṃkhāraseso | | 18 | |
(This accomplishment) is based on detachment and previously applied for any subsequent activities.
bhava-Paticca videha-prakriti-layana | | 19 | |
(For example) Based on this existence and the characteristics of self
saddha-viriya-sati-samadhi-paññā-pubbaka itaresam | | 20 | |
flower gives himself (based on these qualities) of conviction (saddha),
energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom
 The Buddha mentions these five factors when he was training arupa jhana under his previous two teachers. He also mentions how crucial factors when striving for enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. Later,
during his years of teaching, he gave the name of “powers” (bullet) and
explained that, if perfected, would lead to enlightenment.
Tibba-saṃvegānām āsanno | | 21 | |
(For those) with a firm determination reached (this accomplishment, the first Dhyana / jhana).
♦ Advancing in jhana, tips and tricks. ♦
Mudu-majjhim’ādhi-mattatā tato’pi Visions | | 22 | |
There is also a differentiation between (achievement) lower, middle and high
Issar paṇidhānā-go | | 23 | |
Or based on devotion (devotion) to a Lord (a master of meditation).
kilesa-kamma-vipākāsayā aparāmissā Puris-visions’ Issar | | 24 | |
The Lord (the Master) that is no longer influenced by the outcome kammic impurities and past desires.
Besides the question whether the term “Issar” found here could be read
as merely referring to a master of meditation (which fits perfectly into
the discussion until verse 27, where it starts to not fit any more) is
likely discussion, including on-line translation of the Yoga Sutra by Geshe Michael Roach . The
principle can be interpreted so as to skeptics recalling the first
sutta MN seemed more logical to assume Issar was first used to designate
“the Lord” (ie your God).
But with a little more research found that the term Issar Theragatha us are used to designate the “master”. Interesting is also the word in Pali āsayih replaced simple wish / desire - “Asa.” But
“almost” sounds like “Asava” that would fit even better in the context
of kamma and vipaka Asava.But the idea is very specific (”that which
flows within you, taking it) and may or may not be what was meant in
tatra-niratisayaṃ sabbaññatā bījaṃ | | 25 | |
It is this that lies the seed of omniscience unmatched.
sa pubbesam api guru kālen’ānavacchedanā | | 26 | |
This Master from the beginning never abandoned him or abandon
 Literally, “not” drop “(an + evaluation + chedana), or abandon, even for a time (short) (Kalena)
tassa vācako Panavia | | 27 | |
His Word is the breath and the clamor of living
 On the panavah term, which can be interpreted as “om” in Hindu literature. It
all depends if we read verses 24-27 as involving “Issar” to mean “God”
or simply refer to consider meditation master of meditation you learn. If
you do a search in the Tipitaka, you see that when the Buddha used the
term was to refer to teachers (see for example Theragatha)
taj-tad-japp attha-bhavana | | 28 | |
Praying in unison with this, this is the goal of meditation
touch-pratyak cetanādhigamo’pi antarāyābhāvo ca | | 29 | |
So if the mind itself and carries it away all obstacles / hazards:
skeptical questions, be moved to laziness of attachment, wrong view of
things, not meditative placements, or not yet firmly established in
citta-vikkhepā te’ntarāyā | | 30 | |
These are the causes of mental distractions (they fall due).
dukkha-domanass’aṅgam ejayatv’assāsa-Passaseo vikkhepa-saha-Bhuvah | | 31 | |
The physical and mental pain arises in the body, the shaking of the inhale and exhale conjução occur with such distractions.
 Here dukkha and Domanassam mentioned. They also appear in the definition of the Buddha’s four jhana, but in a different direction. The problem described here meditative seems out of place and looks as if someone had to fit these words here. Also
the inhale and exhale clearly has an important role in that they cease
to exist (nirodha) so subjective to the practitioner in the fourth
jhana. It is strange that all this is on the list, but is presented in a very different interpretation.
♦ ♦ The Objects of Meditation
tat-pratiṣedhārtham ekatattābhyāsaḥ | | 32 | |
In order to control these distractions, this is the practice of unification of mind:
metta-karuna-mudita Upekkha-sukha-dukkha-Visayan-puññāpuñña bhāvanātassa cittapasādanaṃ | | 33 | |
cheerful calm the mind (citta-pasada) is achieved by meditation of
loving kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity in the face of pleasure,
pain as well as luck and misfortunes.
 And here we go. The
four brahmavihara, of course, famous for the way Buddha encouraged
monks to practice them to subdue the obstacles and enter the five jhana. It
is also interesting as the Tipitaka sometimes aligns them with the
progression in four jhana (which deserves to be studied separately).
pracchardana-vidhāraṇābhyāṃ go prāṇasya | | 34 | |
Or the inhale and exhale, which is also an excellent exercise in meditation.
Visayavati go pa-vatta uppannā manaso thiti-nibandhinī | | 35 | |
It helps to stop and control the increasing mental activity that occurs through the power of the senses.
and 35] Wow, now includes Anapanasati to the list of meditation
techniques, the most favorite topics of Buddhist meditation, in addition
to brahmavihara, which “coincidentally” was mentioned in the previous
he almost “cites” the benefit of Anapanasati of Pali suttas, the Buddha
gave in the Anapanasatisamyutta Mahavagga, where it is clearly said
that the greatest benefit of Anapanasati is the ability to quiet the
mind. Very interesting!
Visoko go jotimatī | | 36 | |
And the mind becomes free from sorrow and radiant.
vita-raga-visaya go citta | | 37 | |
Free from desire for sense objects
and 37] These two passages seem more like a copy of what the Buddha
says in the suttas: “It is almost always remain in these states, O
monks, neither my body or my eyes get tired.” Although it immediately to
Explaining how the mind free from desires and radiant moves away from
the senses, as do the experienced meditators, this passage is important
because it shows that the author knew what he was talking in terms
pragmáticos.Não there is something more important to the induction of
samadhi (ie, jhana) that the resolution of the mind, the balance against
the attack of the senses to the mind.
svapna Nidda-go-jnānālambanaṃ | | 38 | |
Of dreaming and sleep,
yathābhimata dhyānād-go | | 39 | |
parama-anu-stop-mahattvānto’ssa vasīkāri | | 40 | |
kkhīṇa-vatta abhijātass’eva grahītṛ mani-Graham-grāhyeṣu stha-tat-tad-anjanatāsamāpatti | | 41 | |
it happens in the destruction of mental activity or movement
[Khin-vatta], there is the appearance of a jewel, the emergence of
someone who carries such an object, the object and the carrying of such
an object in itself - and this immobility is what is called a
realization, or state of completion.
tatra-nana-saddattha vikappaiḥ saṃkiṇṇā savitakkā Samāpatti, | | 42 | |
There is the state of realization is “with thought” and marked by impurity of speech of conscious thought, the internal speech.
, in the Pali Canon parlance we would say “savitakka-jhana.”
sati-parisuddhaṃ svarūpa-suññevattha-matta-nibbhāsā nivitakkā | | 43 | |
there is a state of achievement without thinking (nirvitakka) with full
attention and clearer that it is the nature of emptiness without a
 parisuddham sati is obviously the name the Buddha gave to the fourth jhana. It
seems that the author tries to show us the range of four jhana,
pointing to the criteria of the first, and then, in contrast to the
characteristics of the fourth jhana again using the terminology of the
etadeva savic Nirvicārā ca-sukkhuma visaya akkhātā | | 44 | |
Likewise, the state with and without research and consideration (vicara) is judged by subtlety of the object.
 Here we are somewhat hampered by the language, and tempted to ask: by whom discerned before the non-self (anatta)?
sukkhuma-visayattaṃ c’āliṅga-pary’avasānam | | 45 | |
It culminates in a subtle object with no features
tā eva sa-Bijo samādhi | | 46 | |
But even this is a samadhi with seed / question.
Nirvicārā-visārad’ajjhatta-pasado | | 47 | |
is attained with the inner conviction without regard to the
concentration already (vicara, which is paired with vitakka)
itaṃbharā paññā tatra | | 48 | |
In this way, the truth is filled with wisdom.
sut’ānumāna paññāyā-anna-visaya vises’atthatā | | 49 | |
And this wisdom is of a different kind of knowledge acquired through learning.
taj-jo-saṃkhāro’ñña Samkhara-paṭibaddhī | | 50 | |
Such activity (meditative and induced) obstructs born (all) other activities.
tassāpi nirodha Sabba-nirodha nibbījo samādhi | | 51 | |
With the extinction of it all is also stopped - and this is the root-without-samadhi (samadhi-unborn)
This last sentence sounds more like a reporter who, after being invited
to a very important meeting, is eager to share what he heard from
we are given a definition, in fact, the definition of the Buddha
“phalasamāpatti” - a state of jhana, which can only happen after someone
has had a realization that the particular insight nirvanic, giving you
access to that which is samadhi no “seeds” (nibbīja).
whole concept fits nicely into a row of theistic argument, and no
attempt is being made here in the final set of samadhi, to explain it.
the Buddhists speak of this matter so that among the philosophical
circles “mainstream” of the time it was automatically understood as “the
highest you can get,” and the argument was so powerful that, despite
not fit in the school already thinking of the times (an ancient
Hinduism) was considered indisputable?
Hard to say. This
argument appears in the Sutta Ratanasutta Nipata.Vemos this final
state, without seeds, as something that would target when trying to
“Sanna-vedayita-nirodha” cessation of perception and feeling, a
realization of the Buddha described as possible Arahants Anagami for
that, after entering the eighth jhana sequentially finally leave the
activity more subtle (the sankhara) back.
Patanjali Yoga viracite-iti-samadhi sutta paṭhamo-pated | | |
This is the first chapter on the Samadhi Yoga Sutra of Patanjali.
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