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05/29/17
Kālāma to Vesāli
Filed under: General, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
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Kālāma



The name, probably, of a gotta or family. Mention is
made of a nigama belonging to them in Kosala, which was called
Kesaputta. The sermon preached by the Buddha on his visit to Kesaputta
is justly famous (A.i.188ff). The Kālāmas were Khattiyas (AA.i.418).
Among members of this family specially mentioned by name are
Bharandu-Kālāma, who was once a co-disciple of the Bodhisatta, and
Alāra-Kālāma, the teacher of Gotama before his Enlightenment.




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Abraham Hicks Extracted from NEWEST Abraham Hicks Boston 2016-05-21 Workshop
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Kammāsadhamma



A township of the Kurūs. The Buddha, during the course
of his wanderings, stayed there several times; the exact place of his
residence is, however, mentioned only once, namely the fire-hut of a
brahmin of the Bhāradvāja-gotta, where a grass mat was spread for him by
the brahmin. It was on this occasion, according to the Māgandiya Sutta
(M.i.501), that, after a long discussion, Māgandiya was converted.


Several important discourses were preached at Kammāsadamma, among them being:

-
the Mahānidāna Sutta (D.ii.55; S.ii.92)

-
the Mahāsatipatthāna Sutta (D.ii.290; M.i.55)

-
the Ānañjasappāya Sutta (M.ii.26)


The Samyutta Nikāya (S.ii.107f) contains a discourse on handling
experiences by way of casual relations, and the Anguttara (A.v.29f ) a
discourse on the ten noble states (ariyavāsā), both preached at
Kammāsadhamma.


Buddhaghosa (SA.ii.89) says that the people there were full of wisdom
and their food was nutritious; it was therefore a compliment to their
intellectual calibre that the Buddha should have preached these suttas
to them.


Even in Buddhaghosa’s day the name of the township had two different
spellings, and two etymologies are suggested for the names (DA.ii.483).
The place was called Kammāsadamma because it was here that the
man-eating ogre, Kammāsapāda was tamed and civilized by the Bodhisatta.
(Kammāso ettha damito ti, Kammāsadamam-Kammāso ti Kammāsapādo porisādo
vuccati.)


The spelling Kammāsadhamma is explained on the ground that the people of
the Kuru country had a code of honour called the Kuruvattadhamma; it
was here that Kammāsa (already referred to) was converted and made to
accept this code, hence the name of the township. (Kururatthavāsīnam
kira kuruvattadhammo, tasmim Kanamāso jāto, tasmā tam thānam “Kammāso
ettha dhamme jāto” ti Kammāsadhammam ti vuccati.)


According to the Jātakas, there are two places of the same name, called
Cūlakammāsadamma and Mahākammāsadamma respectively, to distinguish one
from the other. Mahākammāsadamma, which was evidently the original
place, was founded on the spot where the porisāda of the Mahāsutasoma
Jātaka was tamed (J.v.411), while Cūlakammāsadamma was the name given to
the place where Jayaddisa showed his prowess by his spiritual victory
over the ogre in the Jayaddisa Jātaka (J.v.35f).


In the Divyāvadāna (pp.515f), the place is called Kammāsadamya. It was
the residence of the nuns Nanduttarā and Mittākālikā (ThigA.87, 89).




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Buddhist Teaching for Children: This Precious Life


Lama Karma teaches on the first of The Four Thoughts - the
contemplation of the precious human birth. The teaching, especially
geared towards families, took takes place during a Bodhi Kids Family Day
held at Karma Triyana Dharmachakra.

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Lama
Karma teaches on the first of The Four Thoughts - the contemplation of
the precious human birth. The teaching, especially geared towards
families, took …

Kesaputta



A township of the Kosalans and the residence of the
Kālāmas. The Buddha once stayed there, on which occasion he preached
the Kesaputtiya Sutta.




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BUDDHIST STORIES: KING PASENADI OF KOSALA - Oct 01, 2015
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Kosala



A country inhabited by the Kosalā, to the north-west of
Magadha and next to Kāsī. It is mentioned second in the list of sixteen
Mahājanapadas (E.g., A.i.213; iv.252, etc.). In the Buddha’s time it
was a powerful kingdom ruled over by Pasenadi, who was succeeded by his
son Vidūdabha. By this time Kāsī was under the subjection of Kosala,
for we find that when Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, married Kosaladevī,
daughter of Mahākosala and sister of Pasenadi, a village in Kāsī was
given as part of the dowry (J.ii.237; iv.342f). Various Jātakas
indicate that the struggle between Kāsi and Kosala had been very
prolonged (See, e.g., J.ii.21f; iii.115f; 211f; v.316, 425).


Sometimes the Kāsi king would attack Kosala, capture the king and rule
over the country. At others the Kosala king would invade Kāsi and annex
it to his own territory. Several Kosala kings who succeeded in doing
this, are mentioned by name - e.g., Dabbasena (J.iii.13), Dīghāvu
(J.iii.211f), Vanka (J.iii.168) and Kamsa; the last being given the
special title of “Bāranāsiggāha,” (J.ii.403; v.112) probably in
recognition of the fact that he completed the conquest of Kāsi. Other
kings of Kosala who came in conflict with Benares in one way or another
are mentioned - e.g., Dīghiti (J.iii.211f; Vin.i.342f), Mallika
(J.ii.3), and Chatta (J.iii.116).


Sometimes the kings of the two countries entered into matrimonial
alliances (e.g., J.iii.407). With the capture of Kāsi the power of
Kosala increased rapidly, until a struggle between this country and
Magadha became inevitable. Bimbisāra’s marriage was probably a
political alliance, but it only served to postpone the evil day. Quite
soon after his death there were many fierce fights between Ajātasattu,
his successor, and Pasenadi, these fights bringing varying fortunes to
the combatants. Once Ajātasattu was captured alive, but Pasenadi spared
his life and gave him his daughter, Vajirā, in marriage and for a time
all went well.


Later, however, after his conquest of the Licchavis, Ajātasattu seems to
have succeeded in establishing his sway in Kosala. (See Vincent Smith,
op. cit., 32f). In the sixth century B.C. the Sākyan territory of
Kapilavatthu was subject to Kosala. The Sutta Nipāta (vs.405) speaks of
the Buddha’s birthplace as belonging to the Kosalans; see also A.i.276,
where Kapilavatthu is mentioned as being in Kosala. Elsewhere
(M.ii.124) Pasenadi is reported as saying, “Bhagavā pi Kosalako, aham pi
Kosalako.”


At the time of the Buddha Sāvatthi was the capital of Kosala. Next in
importance was Saketa, which, in ancient days, had sometimes been the
capital (J.iii.270; Mtu.i.348). There was also Ayojjhā, on the banks of
the Sarayu, which, judging from the Rāmāyana, must once have been the
chief city; but in the sixth century B.C. it was quite unimportant.


The river Sarayu divided Kosala into two parts, Uttara Kosala and Dakkhina Kosala (Law: Geog., p.6).


Other Kosala rivers mentioned in the books are the Aciravatī (D.i.235)
and the Sundarikā (S.i.167; SN. p.97; but see M.i.39, where the river
is called Bāhukā).


The Buddha spent the greater part of his time in Kosala, either in
Sāvatthi or in touring in the various parts of the country, and many of
the Vinaya rules were formulated in Kosala. (See Vinaya Index, s.v.
Kosala). It is said (SA.i.221) that alms were plentiful in Kosala,
though, evidently (J.i.329), famines, due to drought, were not unknown.
Yet, though woodland tracts were numerous (see, e.g., SA.i.225) where
monks could meditate in solitude, the number of monks actually found in
Kosala was not large (VT.i.226). Bāvarī himself was a native of Kosala
(SN.v.976), yet he preferred to have his hermitage in Dakkhināpatha.


After the Buddha’s death, his unnaloma was deposited in a thūpa in
Kosala (Bu.xxviii.9). It is said that the measures used in Kosala were
larger than those of Magadha - thus one Kosala pattha was equal to four
Magadha patthas (SNA.ii.476).


Kosala is often mentioned in combination with Kāsi in the compound
Kāsi-Kosala; Pasenadi was king of Kāsi-Kosala (e.g., A.v.59) (cf.
Ariga-Magadha). See also Pasenadi.





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What is Buddhism?


Buddhism is a religion to about 300 million people around the world.
The word comes from ‘budhi’, ‘to awaken’. It has its origins about 2,500
years ago when Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, was himself
awakened (enlightened) at the age of 35.

• Is Buddhism a Religion?


To many, Buddhism goes beyond religion and is more of a philosophy or
‘way of life’. It is a philosophy because philosophy ‘means love of
wisdom’ and the Buddhist path can be summed up as:

(1) to lead a moral life,
(2) to be mindful and aware of thoughts and actions, and
(3) to develop wisdom and understanding.

• How Can Buddhism Help Me?


Buddhism explains a purpose to life, it explains apparent injustice and
inequality around the world, and it provides a code of practice or way
of life that leads to true happiness.

• Why is Buddhism Becoming Popular?


Buddhism is becoming popular in western countries for a number of
reasons, The first good reason is Buddhism has answers to many of the
problems in modern materialistic societies. It also includes (for those
who are interested) a deep understanding of the human mind (and natural
therapies) which prominent psychologists around the world are now
discovering to be both very advanced and effective.

• Who Was the Buddha?


Siddhartha Gotama was born into a royal family in Lumbini, now located
in Nepal, in 563 BC. At 29, he realised that wealth and luxury did not
guarantee happiness, so he explored the different teachings religions
and philosophies of the day, to find the key to human happiness. After
six years of study and meditation he finally found ‘the middle path’ and
was enlightened. After enlightenment, the Buddha spent the rest of his
life teaching the principles of Buddhism — called the Dhamma, or Truth —
until his death at the age of 80.

• Was the Buddha a God?

He was not, nor did he claim to be. He was a man who taught a path to enlightenment from his own experience.

• Do Buddhists Worship Idols?


Buddhists sometimes pay respect to images of the Buddha, not in
worship, nor to ask for favours. A statue of the Buddha with hands
rested gently in its lap and a compassionate smile reminds us to strive
to develop peace and love within ourselves. Bowing to the statue is an
expression of gratitude for the teaching.
• Is Buddhism Scientific?


Science is knowledge which can be made into a system, which depends
upon seeing and testing facts and stating general natural laws. The core
of Buddhism fit into this definition, because the Four Noble truths
(see below) can be tested and proven by anyone in fact the Buddha
himself asked his followers to test the teaching rather than accept his
word as true. depends more on understanding than faith
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Kosambī



The capital of the Vatsas or Vamsas (J.iv.28; vi.236).
In the time of the Buddha its king was Parantapa, and after him reigned
his son Udena. (MA.ii.740f; DhA.i.164f). Kosambī was evidently a city
of great importance at the time of the Buddha for we find Ananda
mentioning it as one of the places suitable for the Buddha’s Parinibbāna
(D.ii.146,169). It was also the most important halt for traffic coming
to Kosala and Magadha from the south and the west. (See, e.g.,
Vin.i.277).


The city was thirty leagues by river from Benares. (Thus we are told
that the fish which swallowed Bakkula travelled thirty leagues through
the Yamunā, from Kosambī to Benares, AA.i.170; PsA.491). The usual
route from Rājagaha to Kosambī was up the river (this was the route
taken by Ananda when he went with five hundred others to inflict the
higher punishment on Channa, Vin.ii.290), though there seems to have
been a land route passing through Anupiya and Kosambī to Rājagaha. (See
Vin.ii.184f). In the Sutta Nipāta (vv.1010-13) the whole route is
given from Mahissati to Rājagaha, passing through Kosambī, the
halting-places mentioned being Ujjeni, Gonaddha, Vedisa, Vanasavhya,
Kosambī, Sāketa, Sāvatthi, Setavyā, Kapilavatthu, Kusinārā, Pāvā,
Bhoganagara and Vesāli.


Near Kosambī, by the river, was Udena’s park, the Udakavana, where
Ananda and Pindola-Bhāradvāja preached to the women of Udena’s palace on
two different occasions (Vin.ii.290f; SNA.ii.514; J.iv.375). The
Buddha is mentioned as having once stayed in the Simsapāvana in Kosambī
(S.v.437). Mahā Kaccāna lived in a woodland near Kosambī after the
holding of the First Council (PvA.141).


Already in the Buddha’s time there were four establishments of the Order
in Kosambī - the Kukkutārāma, the Ghositārāma, the Pāvārika-ambavana
(these being given by three of the most eminent citizens of Kosambī,
named respectively, Kukkuta, Ghosita and Pāvārika), and the
Badarikārāma. The Buddha visited Kosambī on several occasions, stopping
at one or other of these residences, and several discourses delivered
during these visits are recorded in the books. (Thomas, op. cit., 115,
n.2, doubts the authenticity of the stories connected with the Buddha’s
visits to Kosambī, holding that these stories are of later invention).


The Buddha spent his ninth rainy season at Kosambī, and it was on his
way there on this occasion that he made a detour to Kammāssadamma and
was offered in marriage Māgandiyā, daughter of the brahmin Māgandiya.
The circumstances are narrated in connection with the Māgandiya Sutta.
Māgandiyā took the Buddha’s refusal as an insult to herself, and, after
her marriage to King Udena, tried in various ways to take revenge on the
Buddha, and also on Udena’s wife Sāmavatī, who had been the Buddha’s
follower. (DhA.i.199ff; iii.193ff; iv.1ff; Ud.vii.10).


A great schism once arose among the monks in Kosambī. Some monks
charged one of their colleagues with having committed an offence, but he
refused to acknowledge the charge and, being himself learned in the
Vinaya, argued his case and pleaded that the charge be dismissed. The
rules were complicated; on the one hand, the monk had broken a rule and
was treated as an offender, but on the other, he should not have been so
treated if he could not see that he had done wrong. The monk was
eventually excommunicated, and this brought about a great dissension.
When the matter was reported to the Buddha, he admonished the partisans
of both sides and urged them to give up their differences, but they paid
no heed, and even blows were exchanged. The people of Kosambī,
becoming angry at the monks’ behaviour, the quarrel grew apace. The
Buddha once more counselled concord, relating to the monks the story of
King Dīghiti of Kosala, but his efforts at reconciliation were of no
avail, one of the monks actually asking him to leave them to settle
their differences without his interference. In disgust the Buddha left
Kosambī and, journeying through Bālakalonakāragāma and the
Pācīnavamsadaya, retired alone to keep retreat in the Pārileyyaka
forest. In the meantime the monks of both parties repented, partly
owing to the pressure exerted by their lay followers in Kosambī, and,
coming to the Buddha at Sāvatthi, they asked his pardon and settled
their dispute. (Vin.i.337-57; J.iii.486ff (cp.iii.211ff); DhA.i.44ff;
SA.ii.222f; the story of the Buddha going into the forest is given in
Ud.iv.5. and in S.iii.94, but the reason given in these texts is that he
found Kosambī uncomfortable owing to the vast number of monks, lay
people and heretics. But see UdA.248f, and SA.ii.222f).


The Commentaries give two reasons for the name Kosambī. The more
favoured is (E.g., UdA.248; SNA.300; MA.i.535. Epic tradition ascribes
the foundation of Kosambī to a Cedi prince, while the origin of the
Vatsa people is traced to a king of Kāsī, see PHAI.83, 84) that the city
was so called because it was founded in or near the site of the
hermitage once occupied by the sage Kusumba (v.l. Kusumbha). Another
explanation is (e.g., MA i.539; PsA.413) that large and stately
margossa-trees (Kosammarukkhā) grew in great numbers in and around the
city.


Bakkula was the son of a banker in Kosambī. (MA.ii.929; AA.i.170). In
the Buddha’s time there lived near the ferry at Kosambī a powerful
Nāga-king, the reincarnation of a former ship’s captain. The Nāga was
converted by Sāgata, who thereby won great fame. (AA.i.179; but see
J.i.360, where the incident is given as happening at Bhaddavatikā).
Rujā was born in a banker’s family in Kosambī (J.vi.237f).
Citta-pandita was also born there (J.iv.392). A king, by name Kosambaka
(q.v.), once ruled there.


During the time of the Vajjian heresy, when the Vajjian monks of Vesāli
wished to excommunicate Yasa Kākandakaputta, he went by air to Kosambī,
and from there sent messengers to the orthodox monks in the different
centres (Vin.ii.298; Mhv.iv.17).


It was at Kosambī that the Buddha promulgated a rule forbidding the use of intoxicants by monks (Vin.ii.307).


Kosambī is mentioned in the Samyutta Nikāya (S.iv.179; but see AA.i.170;
MA.ii.929; PsA.491, all of which indicate that the city was on the
Yamunā) as being “Gangāya nadiyā tīre.” This is either an error, or here
the name Gangā refers not to the Ganges but to the Yamunī. Kosambī is
identified with the two villages of Kosam on the Jumna, about ninety
miles west of Allahabad. (CAGI.448f; Vincent Smith places it further
south, J.R.A.S.1898, 503ff).





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Kuru



A country, one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (D.ii.200;
A.i.213 etc.). Frequent references to it are found in the Pāli Canon.
It is said that Kuru was originally the name of the chieftains
(rājakumārā) of the country and that their territory was later named
after them. Buddhaghosa records a tradition (DA.ii.481f; MA.i.184 etc.)
which states that, when Mandhātā returned to Jambudīpa from his sojourn
in the four Mahādīpas and in the devalokas, there were in his retinue a
large number of the people of Uttarakuru. They settled down in
Jambudīpa, and their settlement was known as Kururattha. It had many
towns and villages.


The country seems to have had very little political influence in the
Buddha’s time, though, in the past, Pañcāla, Kuru and Kekaka were
evidently three of the most powerful kingdoms (See, e.g., J.ii.214).
According to the Jātakas (E.g., J.v.57, 484; vi.255. Also Mtu.i.34;
ii.419), the kingdom of Kuru was three hundred leagues in extent and its
capital, Indapatta, seven leagues in circumference. The ruling dynasty
at Indapatta belonged to the Yudhitthila-gotta (J.iii.400; iv.361).
Among the kings of the past, Dhanañjaya Koravya is mentioned several
times (J.ii.366; iii.400; iv.450; vi.260 etc.) and reference is also
made to a king called Koravya (J.iv.361; v.457) whose son was the
Bodhisatta Sutasoma. During the Buddha’s time, also, the chieftain of
Kuru was called Koravya, and his discussion with the Elder Ratthapāla,
who was himself the scion of a noble family of the Kurus, is recounted
in the Ratthapāla Sutta (M.ii.65ff). Perhaps at one time the Kuru
kingdom extended as far as Uttarapañcāla, for in the Somanassa Jātaka
(J.iv.444), Uttarapañcāla is mentioned as a town in the Kururattha, with
Renu as its king.


Koravya had a park called Migācīra where Ratthapāla took up his
residence when he visited his parents (MA.ii.725). The people of Kuru
had a reputation for deep wisdom and good health, and this reputation is
mentioned (MA.i.184f; AA.ii.820; they were also probably reputed to be
virtuous; see the Kurudhamma Jātaka) as the reason for the Buddha having
delivered some of his most profound discourses to the Kurus, for
example, the Mahānidāna, and the Mahāsatipatthāna Suttas. Among other
discourses delivered in the Kuru country are the Māgandiya Sutta, the
Anañjasappāya Sutta, the Sammosa Sutta and the Ariyavasā Sutta. All
these were preached at Kammāssadhamma, which is described as a nigama of
the Kurūs, where the Buddha resided from time to time. Another town of
the Kurūs, which we find mentioned, is Thullakotthika, the birthplace
of Ratthapāla, and here the Buddha stayed during a tour (M.ii.54;
ThagA.ii.30). Udena’s queen, Māgandiyā, came from Kuru (DhA.i.199), and
Aggidatta, chaplain to the Kosala king, lived on the boundary between
Kuru and Ariga and Magadha, honoured by the inhabitants of all three
kingdoms (DhA.iii.242).


The Kuru country is generally identified as the district around
Thānesar, with its capital Indapatta, near the modern Delhi (CAGI.379f).
See also Uttarakuru.



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EASTERN PHILOSOPHY - The Buddha
The Buddha’s philosophy teaches us that our desires are at the root of
our restlessness - and that calm can be achieved through willpower and
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Mahānāma



A Sākiyan rājā, son of Amitodana; he was elder brother of
Anuruddha and cousin of the Buddha. When the Sākiyan families of
Kapilavatthu sent their representatives to join the Order of their
distinguished kinsman, Mahānāma allowed Anuruddha to leave the
household, he knowing nothing of household affairs. Vin.ii.180f.;
DhA.i.133; iv.124, etc.; but according to Northern sources (Rockhill, p.
13) he was son of Dronodana; according to ThagA. (ii.123) Ananda was a
brother (or, at least, a step brother) of Mahānāma, for there Ananda’s
father is given as Amitodana. But see MA.i.289, where Mahānāma’s father
is called Sukkodana and Ananda’s Amitodana.


Mahānāma showed great generosity to the Sangha, and was proclaimed best
of those who gave choice alms to the monks (A.i.26). Once, with the
Buddha’s permission, he supplied the Order with medicaments for three
periods of four months each. The Chabbaggiyā, always intent on
mischief, tried in vain to discourage him. Vin.iv.101; AA. (i.213)
adds that this was during the period of want experienced by the Buddha
and his monks at Verañjā. At the end of the year, Mahānāma wished to
continue the supply of good food to the Buddha and his monks, but the
Buddha refused his permission.


Mahānāma was a devoted follower of the Buddha and wished to understand
the Doctrine. The books record several conversations between him and
the Buddha, and Ananda, Godha, and Lomasavangīsa (see Mahānāma Sutta and
Lomasavangisa). Once when the Buddha arrived at Kapilavatthu he asked
Mahānāma to find him lodging for the night. Mahānāma tried everywhere
without success, and finally suggested that the Buddha should spend the
night in the hermitage of Bharandu Kālāma (S.v.327f). This he did, and
was joined there the next morning by Mahānāma; as a result of the
discussion between the Buddha, Mahānāma and Bharandu, the last-named
left Kapilavatthu never to return. On another occasion, Mahānāma
visited the Buddha at Nigrodhārāma where the Buddha was convalescing
after a severe illness, and at once Mahānāma asked a question as to
whether concentration followed or preceded knowledge. Ananda, who was
present, not wishing the Buddha to be troubled, took Mahānāma aside and
explained to him the Buddha’s teachings on the subject. See Sakka Sutta
(S.i.219f.).


Mahānāma had a daughter Vāsābhakhattiyā, born to him by a slave-girl
named Nāgamundā, and when Pasenadi asked the Sākiyans to give him in
marriage a Sākiyan maiden they met in the Mote Hall, and, following the
advice of Mahānāma, sent Vāsabhakhattiyā to him. In order to allay any
suspicions, Mahānāma sat down to a meal with her, taking one mouthful
from the same dish; but before he could swallow it a messenger arrived,
as secretly arranged, and summoned him away. He left, asking
Vāsabhakhattiyā to continue her meal (DhA.i.345f.; J.i.133; iv. 145f).


See also the Cūla Dukkhakkhandha Sutta and Sekha Sutta, both preached to Mahānāma.


His resolve to attain to eminence as the best distributor of pleasant
food to the monks was made in the time of Padumuttara Buddha. He was
then a householder of Hamsavatī and heard the Buddha confer a similar
rank on a monk (AA.i.213).


Mahānāma is included in a list of exemplary lay devotees (A.iii.451).
The Samantapāsādikā (Sp.iv.857) adds that Mahānāma was one month older
than the Buddha and that he was a sakadāgāmī.




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCljLOKNcBA
Queen Maya’s Advice for Gotami

Mahāpajāpatī Gotami



An eminent Therī. She was born at Devadaha in the family of Suppabuddha as the younger sister of Mahāmāyā.


Ap.ii.538 says her father was Añjana Sakka and her mother Sulakkhanā.
Mhv.ii.18 says her father was Añjana and her mother Yasodharā.
Dandapāni and Suppabuddha were her brothers; cp. Dpv.xviii.7f.


At the birth of each sister, interpreters of bodily marks prophesied
that their children would be cakkavattins. King Suddhodana married both
the sisters, and when Mahāmāyā died, seven days after the birth of the
Buddha, Pajāpati looked after the Buddha and nursed him. She was the
mother of Nanda, but it is said that she gave her own son to nurses and
herself nursed the Buddha. The Buddha was at Vesāli when Suddhodana
died, and Pajāpatī decided to renounce the world, and waited for an
opportunity to ask the permission of the Buddha.


Pajāpatī was already a sotāpanna. She attained this eminence when the
Buddha first visited his father’s palace and preached the Mahādhammapāla
Jātaka (DhA.i.97).


Her opportunity came when the Buddha visited Kapilavatthu to settle the
dispute between the Sākiyans and the Koliyans as to the right to take
water from the river Rohinī. When the dispute had been settled, the
Buddha preached the Kalahavivāda Sutta, and five hundred young Sākiyan
men joined the Order. Their wives, led by Pajāpatī, went to the Buddha
and asked leave to be ordained as nuns. This leave the Buddha refused,
and he went on to Vesāli. But Pajāpatī and her companions, nothing
daunted, had barbers to cut off their hair, and donning yellow robes,
followed the Buddha to Vesāli on foot. They arrived with wounded feet
at the Buddha’s monastery and repeated their request. The Buddha again
refused, but Ananda interceded on their behalf and their request was
granted, subject to eight strict conditions.


For details see Vin.ii.253ff.; also A.iv.274ff. There was some
question, which arose later as to the procedure of Pajāpatī’s
ordination, which was not formal. When the nuns discovered this some of
them refused to hold the uposatha with her. But the Buddha declared
that he himself had ordained her and that all was in order (DhA.iv.149).
Her upasampadā consisted in acquiescing in the eight conditions laid
down for nuns (Sp.i.242).


After her ordination, Pajāpatī came to the Buddha and worshipped him.
The Buddha preached to her and gave her a subject for meditation. With
this topic she developed insight and soon after won arahantship, while
her five hundred companions attained to the same after listening to the
Nandakovāda Sutta. Later, at an assembly of monks and nuns in Jetavana,
the Buddha declared Pajāpatī chief of those who had experience
(rattaññūnam) (A.i.25). Not long after, while at Vesāli, she realized
that her life had come to an end. She was one hundred and twenty years
old; she took leave of the Buddha, performed various miracles, and then
died, her five hundred companions dying with her. It is said that the
marvels which attended her cremation rites were second only to those of
the Buddha.


It was in the time of Padumuttara Buddha that Pajāpatī made her resolve
to gain eminence. She then belonged to a clansman’s family in
Hamsavatī, and, hearing the Buddha assign the foremost place in
experience to a certain nun, wished for similar recognition herself,
doing many good deeds to that end. After many births she was born once
more at Benares, forewoman among five hundred slave girls. When the
rains drew near, five Pacceka Buddhas came from Nandamūlaka to Isipatana
seeking lodgings. Pajāpatī saw them after the Treasurer had refused
them any assistance, and, after consultation with her fellow slaves,
they persuaded their several husbands to erect five huts for the Pacceka
Buddhas during the rainy season and they provided them with all
requisites. At the end of the rains they gave three robes to each
Pacceka Buddha. After that she was born in a weaver’s village near
Benares, and again ministered, this time to five hundred Pacceka
Buddhas, sons of Padumavatī (ThigA.140ff.; AA.i.185f.; Ap.ii.529 43).


It is said that once Pajāpatī made a robe for the Buddha of wonderful
material and marvellously elaborate. But when it came to be offered to
the Buddha he refused it, and suggested it should be given to the Order
as a whole. Pajāpatī was greatly disappointed, and Ananda intervened.
But the Buddha explained that his suggestion was for the greater good of
Pajāpatī, and also as an example to those who might wish to make
similar gifts in the future. This was the occasion for the preaching of
the Dakkhināvibhanga Sutta (M.iii.253ff.; MA.ii.1001ff.; this incident
is referred to in the Milinda p.240). The Buddha had a great love for
Pajāpatī, and when she lay ill, as there were no monks to visit her and
preach to her - that being against the rule - the Buddha amended the
rule and went himself to preach to her (Vin.iv.56).


Pajāpatī’s name appears several times in the Jātakas. She was the
mother monkey in the Cūla Nandiya Jātaka (J.ii.202), Candā in the Culla
Dhammapāla (J.iii.182), and Bhikkhudāyikā (or Bhikkhudāsikā) daughter of
Kiki, king of Benares (J.vi.481).


Mahāpajāpatī was so called because, at her birth, augerers prophesied
that she would have a large following; Gotamī was her gotta name
(MA.i.1001; cp. AA.ii.774).


There is a story related of a nurse employed by Pajāpatī and born in
Devadaha. She renounced the world with Pajāpatī, but for twenty five
years was harassed by thoughts of lust till, at last, she heard
Dhammadinnā preach. She then practiced meditation and became an arahant.
ThigA.75f.


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Migajāla



Son of Visākhā. Having heard the Dhamma during his
frequent visits to the vihāra, he entered the Order and in due time
became an Arahant. (Thag. 417-22; ThagA.i.452f).


The Samyutta Nikāya (S.iv.35f ) contains two discussions which he had
with the Buddha; the second was a teaching in brief which he learned
before going to the forest to live in solitude prior to his attainment
of arahantship.



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KuOOmGfebV8&t=475s




5 Funny Buddhist Suttas That Have a Great Message

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KuOOmGfebV8&t=475s
5 Funny Buddhist Suttas That Have a Great Message
You wouldn’t expect the Buddha’s teachings to include anything funny
would you? I mean, we’re talking about the serious business of purifying
our mind and becoming enlightened. But occasionally I’ve come across
some Buddhist suttas that have surprised me and made me chuckle. In this
video, I share with you five suttas from the Pali Canon that I’ve found
amusing and also have

See more

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wouldn’t expect the Buddha’s teachings to include anything funny would
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Nanda



Son of Suddhodana and Mahāpajāpatī, and therefore half
brother of the Buddha. He was only a few days younger than the Buddha,
and when the Buddha’s mother died, Pajapati gave her own child to nurses
and suckled the Buddha herself (AA.i.186).


On the third day of the Buddha’s visit to Kapilavatthu, after the
Enlightenment, the Buddha went to Nanda’s house, where festivities were
in progress in honour of Nanda’s coronation and marriage to
Janapadakalyānī Nandā. The Buddha wished Nanda good fortune and handed
him his bowl to be taken to the vihāra. Nanda, thereupon, accompanied
the Buddha out of the palace. Janapadakalyānī, seeing him go, asked him
to return quickly. Once inside the vihāra, however, the Buddha asked
Nanda to become a monk, and he, unable to refuse the request, agreed
with reluctance. But as the days passed he was tormented with thoughts
of his beloved, and became very downcast and despondent, and his health
suffered. The Buddha suggested that they should visit the Himālaya. On
the way there, he showed Nanda the charred remains of a female monkey
and asked him whether Janapadakalyānī were more beautiful than that.
The answer was in the affirmative. The Buddha then took him to
Tāvatimsa where Sakka, with his most beautiful nymphs, waited on them.
In answer to a question by the Buddha, Nanda admitted that these nymphs
were far more attractive than Janapadakalyānī, and the Buddha promised
him one as wife if he would live the monastic life. Nanda was all
eagerness and readily agreed. On their return to Jetavana the Buddha
related this story to the eighty chief disciples, and when they
questioned Nanda, he felt greatly ashamed of his lustfulness. Summoning
all his courage, he strove hard and, in no long time, attained
arahantship. He thereupon came to the Buddha and absolved him from his
promise. (Thag.157f.; J.i.91; ii.92ff.; Ud.iii.2; DhA.i.96 105;
UdA.168ff.; SNA.273f.)


When the Buddha was told of Nanda’s arahantship by a devata, he related
the Sangāmāvacara Jataka (q.v.) to show how, in the past, too, Nanda had
been quick to follow advice. He also related the story of Kappata
(q.v.) and his donkey to show that it was not the first time that Nanda
had been won to obedience by the lure of the female sex. The male
donkey in the story was Nanda and the female donkey Janapadakalyānī.
(DhA.i.103f.)


Nanda is identified with the sub king (uparājā) in the Kurudhamma Jataka (q.v.).


Later, on seeing how eminently Nanda was trained in self control, the
Buddha declared him chief among his disciples in that respect (indriyesu
guttadvārānam). Nanda had aspired to this eminence in the time of
Padumuttara Buddha. In the time of Atthadassi Buddha he was a tortoise
in the river Vinatā, and, seeing the Buddha on the bank waiting to
cross, he took him over to the other side on his back. (A.i.25;
AA.i.174f.; ThagA.i.276ff.)


He is said to have been called Nanda because his birth brought joy to
his kinsmen. The Apadāna (i.57) says he was of golden hue, as reward
for a gift of a costly robe given by him to Padumuttara. One hundred
thousand kappas ago he became king four times under the name of Cela.
Sixty thousand kappas ago he was again king in four births, under the
name of Upacela. Later, five thousand kappas ago, he was four times
cakkavatti, and his name then, too, was Cela.


Nanda was very beautiful, and was only four inches shorter than the
Buddha. He once wore a robe made according to the dimensions of the
Buddha’s robe. Discovering this, the Buddha chided him for his
presumption. (Vin.iv.173; perhaps this is another version of the story
found at S.ii.281. There, Nanda is said to have donned a robe which was
pressed on both sides, painted his face, and gone to see the Buddha,
carrying a bright bowl. The Buddha chided him, and Nanda thereupon
became a forest dweller and a rag-robe-man. Buddhaghosa (SA.ii.174)
says that Nanda dressed himself up in order to evoke some comment from
the Buddha - either approval, so that he might dress thus for the
remainder of his life, or censure, in which case he would put on rag
robes and dwell in the forest.)


The Anguttara Nikaya (A.iv.166f) contains a discourse in which the
Buddha discusses Nanda’s claim to have achieved self control in all
things.


He is probably to be identified with Taraniya Thera of the Apadāna. (ii.428; cp. ThagA.i.277.)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1xLj_7GahY


Buddha’s Wonderful words. Its Amazing really!!! {Quotes}

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1xLj_7GahY
Buddha’s Wonderful words. Its Amazing really!!! {Quotes}
The words spoken by the Buddha is indeed a great blessing for the whole
world. Please share this video after you have watched it.
Please enjoy the full video and relax.

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Rājagaha



A city, the capital of Magadha. There seem to have been
two distinct towns; the older one, a hill fortress, more properly called
Giribbaja, was very ancient and is said (VvA. p.82; but cp. D.ii.235,
where seven cities are attributed to his foundation) to have been laid
out by Mahāgovinda, a skilled architect. The later town, at the foot of
the hills, was evidently built by Bimbisāra.


Hiouen Thsang says (Beal, ii.145) that the old capital occupied by
Bimbisāra was called Kusāgra. It was afflicted by frequent fires, and
Bimbisāra, on the advice of his ministers, abandoned it and built the
new city on the site of the old cemetery. The building of this city was
hastened on by a threatened invasion by the king of Vesāli. The city
was called Rājagaha because Bimbisāra was the first person to occupy it.
Both Hiouen Thsang and Fa Hsien (Giles: 49) record another tradition
which ascribed the foundation of the new city to Ajātasattu.


Pargiter (Ancient Ind. Historical Tradition, p.149) suggests that the
old city was called Kusāgrapura, after Kusāgra, an early king of
Magadha. In the Rāmāyana (i. 7, 32) the city is called Vasumatī. The
Mahābhārata gives other names - Bārhadrathapura (ii.24, 44), Varāha,
Vrsabha, Rsigiri, Caityaka (see PHAI.,p.70).


It was also called Bimbisārapurī and Magadhapura (SNA.ii.584).


But both names were used indiscriminately (E.g., S.N. vs. 405), though
Giribbaja seems, as a name, to have been restricted to verse passages.
The place was called Giribbaja (mountain stronghold) because it was
surrounded by five hills - Pandava, Gijjhakūta, Vebhāra, Isigili and
Vepulla* - and Rājagaha, because it was the seat of many kings, such as
Mandhātā and Mahāgovinda (SNA.ii.413). It would appear, from the names
given of the kings, that the city was a very ancient royal capital. In
the Vidhurapandita Jātaka (J.vi.271), Rājagaha is called the capital of
Anga. This evidently refers to a time when Anga had subjugated Magadha.


* SNA.ii.382; it is said (M.iii.68) that these hills, with the
exception of Isigili, were once known by other names e.g., Vankaka for
Vepulla (S.ii.191). The Samyutta (i.206) mentions another peak near
Rājagaha - Indakūta. See also Kālasilā.


The Commentaries (E.g., SNA. loc. cit) explain that the city was
inhabited only in the time of Buddhas and Cakkavatti kings; at other
times it was the abode of Yakkhas who used it as a pleasure resort in
spring. The country to the north of the hills was known as Dakkhināgiri
(SA.i.188).


Rājagaha was closely associated with the Buddha’s work. He visited it
soon after the Renunciation, journeying there on foot from the River
Anomā, a distance of thirty leagues (J.i.66). Bimbisāra saw him begging
in the street, and, having discovered his identity and the purpose of
his quest, obtained from him a promise of a visit to Rājagaha as soon as
his aim should be achieved (See the Pabbajjā Sutta and its Commentary).
During the first year after the Enlightenment therefore, the Buddha
went to Rājagaha from Gayā, after the conversion of the Tebhātika
Jatilas. Bimbisāra and his subjects gave the Buddha a great welcome,
and the king entertained him and a large following of monks in the
palace. It is said that on the day of the Buddha’s entry into the royal
quarters, Sakka led the procession, in the guise of a young man,
singing songs of praise of the Buddha. It was during this visit that
Bimbisāra gifted Veluvana to the Order and that the Buddha received
Sāriputta and Moggallāna as his disciples. (Details of this visit are
given in Vin.i.35ff ). Large numbers of householders joined the Order,
and people blamed the Buddha for breaking up their families. But their
censure lasted for only seven days. Among those ordained were the
Sattarasavaggiyā with Upāli at their head.


The Buddha spent his first vassa in Rājagaha and remained there during
the winter and the following summer. The people grew tired of seeing
the monks everywhere, and, on coming to know of their displeasure, the
Buddha went first to Dakkhināgiri and then to Kapilavatthu (Vin.i.77ff).


According to the Buddhavamsa Commentary (p.13), the Buddha spent also in
Rājagaha the third, fourth, seventeenth and twentieth vassa. After the
twentieth year of his teaching, he made Sāvatthi his headquarters,
though he seems frequently to have visited and stayed at Rājagaha. It
thus became the scene of several important suttas - e.g., the Atānātiya,
Udumbarika and Kassapasīhanāda, Jīvaka, Mahāsakuladāyī, and Sakkapañha.


For other incidents in the Buddha’s life connected with Rājagaha, see
Gotama. The most notable of these was the taming of Nālāgiri.


Many of the Vinaya rules were enacted at Rājagaha. Just before his
death, the Buddha paid a last visit there. At that time, Ajātasattu was
contemplating an attack on the Vajjians, and sent his minister,
Vassakāra, to the Buddha at Gijjhakūta, to find out what his chances of
success were (D.ii.72).


After the Buddha’s death, Rājagaha was chosen by the monks, with Mahā
Kassapa at their head, as the meeting place of the First Convocation.
This took place at the Sattapanniguhā, and Ajātasattu extended to the
undertaking his whole hearted patronage (Vin.ii.285; Sp.i.7f.; DA.i.8f.,
etc.). The king also erected at Rājagaha a cairn over the relics of
the Buddha, which he had obtained as his share (D.ii.166). According to
the Mahā Vamsa, (Mhv.xxxi.21; MT. 564) some time later, acting on the
suggestion of Mahā Kassapa, the king gathered at Rājagaha seven donas of
the Buddha’s relics which had been deposited in various places -
excepting those deposited at Rāmagāma - and built over them a large
thūpa. It was from there that Asoka obtained relics for his vihāras.


Rājagaha was one of the six chief cities of the Buddha’s time, and as
such, various important trade routes passed through it. The others
cities were Campā, Sāvatthi, Sāketa, Kosambī and Benares (D.ii.147).


The road from Takkasilā to Rājagaha was one hundred and ninety two
leagues long and passed through Sāvatthi, which was forty five leagues
from Rājagaha. This road passed by the gates of Jetavana (MA.ii.987;
SA.i.243). The Parāyana Vagga (SN. vss.1011-3) mentions a long and
circuitous route, taken by Bāvarī’s disciples in going from Patitthāna
to Rājagaha, passing through Māhissati, Ujjeni, Gonaddha, Vedisā.
Vanasavhaya, Kosambī, Sāketa, Sāvatthi, Setavyā, Kapilavatthu, Kusinārā,
on to Rājagaha, by way of the usual places (see below).


From Kapilavatthu to Rājagaha was sixty leagues (AA.i.115; MA.i.360).
From Rājagaha to Kusinārā was a distance of twenty five leagues
(DA.ii.609), and the Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta (D.ii.72ff ) gives a list of
the places at which the Buddha stopped during his last journey along
that road - Ambalatthikā, Nālandā, Pātaligāma (where he crossed the
Ganges), Kotigāma, Nādikā (??), Vesāli, Bhandagāma, Hatthigāma,
Ambagāma, Jambugāma, Bhoganagara, Pāvā, and the Kakuttha River, beyond
which lay the Mango grove and the Sāla grove of the Mallas.


From Rājagaha to the Ganges was a distance of five leagues, and when the
Buddha visited Vesāli at the invitation of the Licchavis, the kings on
either side of the river vied with each other to show him honour.
DhA.iii.439f.; also Mtu.i.253ff.; according to Dvy. (p.55) the Ganges
had to be crossed between Rājagaha and Sāvatthi, as well, by boat, some
of the boats belonging to the king of Magadha and others to the
Licchavis of Vesāli.


The distance between Rājagaha and Nālandā is given as one league, and the Buddha often walked between the two (DA.i.35).


The books mention various places besides Veluvana, with its
Kalandaka-nivāpa vihāra in and around Rājagaha - e.g., Sītavana,
Jīvaka’s Ambavana, Pipphaliguhā, Udumbarikārāma, Moranivāpa with its
Paribbājakārāma, Tapodārāma, Indasālaguhā in Vediyagiri, Sattapanniguhā,
Latthivana, Maddakucchi, Supatitthacetiya, Pāsānakacetiya,
Sappasondikapabbhāra and the pond Sumāgadhā.


At the time of the Buddha’s death, there were eighteen large monasteries
in Rājagaha (Sp.i.9). Close to the city flowed the rivers Tapodā and
Sappinī. In the city was a Potter’s Hall where travelers from far
distances spent the night. E.g., Pukkusāti (MA.ii.987); it had also a
Town Hall (J.iv.72). The city gates were closed every evening, and
after that it was impossible to enter the city. Vin.iv.116f.; the city
had thirty-two main gates and sixty four smaller entrances (DA.i.150;
MA.ii.795). One of the gates of Rājagaha was called Tandulapāla
(M.ii.185). Round Rājagaha was a great peta world (MA.ii.960; SA.i.31).


In the Buddha’s time there was constant fear of invasion by the
Licchavis, and Vassakāra (q.v.) is mentioned as having strengthened its
fortifications. To the north east of the city were the brahmin villages
of Ambasandā (D.ii.263) and Sālindiyā (J.iii.293); other villages are
mentioned in the neighborhood, such as Kītāgiri, Upatissagāma,
Kolitagāma, Andhakavinda, Sakkhara and Codanāvatthu (q.v.). In the
Buddha’s time, Rājagaha had a population of eighteen crores, nine in the
city and nine outside, and the sanitary conditions were not of the
best. SA.i.241; DhA.ii.43; it was because of the city’s prosperity that
the Mettiya-Bhummajakas made it their headquarters (Sp.iii.614). The
city was not free from plague (DhA.i.232).


The Treasurer of Rājagaha and Anāthapindika had married each other’s
sisters, and it was while Anāthapindika (q.v.) was on a visit to
Rājagaha that he first met the Buddha.


The people of Rājagaha, like those of most ancient cities, held regular
festivals; one of the best known of these was the Giraggasamajjā (q.v.).
Mention is also made of troupes of players visiting the city and
giving their entertainments for a week on end. (See, e.g., the story of
Uggasena).


Soon after the death of the Buddha, Rājagaha declined both in importance
and prosperity. Sisunāga transferred the capital to Vesāli, and
Kālāsoka removed it again to Pātaliputta, which, even in the Buddha’s
time, was regarded as a place of strategically importance. When Hiouen
Thsang visited Rājagaha, he found it occupied by brahmins and in a very
dilapidated condition (Beal, op. cit., ii.167). For a long time,
however, it seems to have continued as a center of Buddhist activity,
and among those mentioned as having been present at the foundation of
the Mahā Thūpa were eighty thousand monks led by Indagutta.
Mhv.xxix.30.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GYlQ0UZ1C2I




Top 10 MISCONCEPTIONS about BUDDHISM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GYlQ0UZ1C2I
Top 10 MISCONCEPTIONS about BUDDHISM
Published on Feb 9, 2017


Buddhism is extremely fast growing and estimates put its adherents at
somewhere around one billion. Even though Buddhism is so popular, many
in the western world, where it is barely practiced, have a very poor
understanding of it. Not only have many people gained a completely
incorrect understanding of it, but some attempt to practice without
proper guidance and do it completely
wrong. Now while these people’s hearts are in the right place, it might
be wise to find a Buddhist teacher, they do exist in the western world,
and learn from them. You may also have noticed that nowhere in this
introduction have I actually referred to Buddhism as a religion or as a
philosophy, the reason for this is explained below.

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https://youtu.be/rBYuV1aESlQ?list=PLQ

Text version: http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-misconc

Coming up:

10. Religion.
9. Pacifists.
8. Meditation.
7. Dalai Lama.
6. The Buddha.
5. Paganism.
4. Suffering.
3. Diet.
2. Reincarnation.
1. Siddhartha Gautama.

Source/Further reading:

http://www.buddhanet.net/nutshell03.htm
http://www.pbs.org/thebuddha/blog/201
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfr
http://www.midamericadharma.org/cdl/D
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lewis-r
http://www.examiner.com/article/most-
http://hardboiled.berkeley.edu/online
http://www.beliefnet.com/Faiths/Buddh
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budai
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paganism
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/o
http://www.buddhanet.net/cbp1_f6.htm
http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma3/v
http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/d
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfr
http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/r
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God_in_B


Buddhism
is extremely fast growing and estimates put its adherents at somewhere
around one billion. Even though Buddhism is so popular, many in the
western w…
youtube.com

Sakka



Almost always spoken of as “devānam indo,” chief (or king) of the devas.

The Samyutta Nikāya (S.i.229; DhA.i.264) contains a list of his names:


he is called Maghavā, because as a human being, in a former birth,
he was a brahmin named Magha. (But see Magha; cf. Sanskrit Maghavant
as an epithet of Indra).


As such he bestowed gifts from time to time, hence his name
Purindada (Cf. Indra’s epithet Purandara, destroyer of cities)
(generous giver in former births or giver in towns).


Because he gives generously and thoroughly (sakkaccam) he is known
as Sakka. Sakra occurs many times in the Vedas as an adjective,
qualifying gods (chiefly Indra), and is explained as meaning “able,
capable.” It is, however, not found as a name in pre Buddhist times.


Because he gives away dwelling places (āvasatham) he is called Vāsava (But see Vāsava).


Because in one moment he can think of one thousand matters, he is called Sahassakkha (also Sahassanetta).


Because he married the Asura maiden Sujā, he is called Sujampati.
For the romantic story of Sakka’s marriage, see Sujā. Thus Sujā’s
father, Vepacitti, became Sakka’s father in law. Several quaint stories
are related about father and son in law. The two sometimes quarrelled
and at others lived together in peace (SA.i.265).


Because he governs the devas of Tāvatimsa he is called Devānam Indo (See Inda).


Elsewhere (E.g., D.ii.270; M.i.252) Sakka is addressed as Kosiya.


He is also spoken of as Yakkha. M.i.252; cf. S.i.206 (Sakkanāmako
Yakkho); at S.i.47 Māghadevaputta (Sakka) is called Vatrabhū, slayer of
Vrtra (SA.i.83);


Sakka is also, in the Jātakas, called Gandhabbarāja (J.vi.260) and Mahinda (J.v.397, 411).


Sakka rules over Tāvatimsa devaloka, the lowest heaven but one of the
lower plane. His palace is Vejayanta and his chariot bears the same
name. Though king of the Tāvatimsa devas, he is no absolute monarch.
He is imagined rather in the likeness of a chieftain of a Kosala clan.
The devas meet and deliberate in the Sudhammā sabhā and Sakka consults
with them rather than issues them commands. On such occasions, the Four
Regent Devas are present in the assembly with their followers of the
Cātummahārājika world (See, e.g., D.ii.207f., 220f). Among the
Tāvatimsa devas, Sakka is more or less primus inter pares, yet lie
surpasses his companions in ten things: length of life, beauty,
happiness, renown, power; and in the degree of his five sense
experiences: sight, hearing, smelling, taste and touch. A.iv.242; these
are also attributed to the rulers of the other deva worlds.


In the Samyutta Nikāya (S.i.228, 229, 231; cf. Mil. 90; for details of
these see Magha) the Buddha gives seven rules of conduct, which rules
Sakka carried out as a human being, thus attaining to his celestial
sovereignty. When the devas fight the Asuras they do so under the
banner and orders of Sakka. For details of Sakka’s conquest of the
Asuras see Asura. The Asuras called him Jara Sakka (J.i.202).
Pajāpati, Vamna and Isāna are also mentioned as having been associated
with him in supreme command (S.i.219).


In the Sakkapañha Sutta (q.v.), Sakka is said to have visited the Buddha
at Vediyagiri in Ambasandā and to have asked him a series of questions.
He sends Pañcasikha with his vinā to play and sing to the Buddha and
to obtain permission for him (Sakka) to visit him and question him. It
was Sakka who had given the Beluvapanduvīnā to Pañcasikha (SNA.ii.394).


The Buddha says to himself that Sakka, for a long time past, has led a
pure life, and gives him permission to question him on any subject. It
is stated in the course of the sutta (D.ii.270) that it was not the
first time that Sakka had approached the Buddha for the same purpose.
He had gone to him at the Salaghara in Sāvatthi, but found him in
meditation, with Bhuñjatī, wife of Vessavana, waiting on him. He
therefore left with a request to Bhuñjatī to greet the Buddha in his
name. He also declares (D.ii.286) that he has become a sotāpanna and
has earned for himself the right to be reborn eventually in the
Akanitthā world, whence he will pass entirely away.


The Commentary says that Sakka was constantly seeing the Buddha and was
the most zealous of the devas in the discharge of his duties to the
sāsana. DA.iii.697. In the sutta Sakka admits (D.ii.284) that he
visited other brahmins and recluses as well. They were pleased to see
him, and boasted that they had nothing to teach him; but he had to teach
them what he knew. But this visit to the Buddha at Vediyagiri had a
special object. Sakka saw sips that his life was drawing to an end and
was frightened by this knowledge. He therefore went to the Buddha to
seek his help. It adds (DA.iii.732; cp. DhA.iii.270) that, as Sakka
sat listening to the Buddha, he died in his old life and was reborn a
new and young Sakka; only Sakka himself and the Buddha was aware of what
had happened. The Commentary continues (DA.iii.740) that Sakka became
an “uddham sota,” treading the path of Anāgāmīs. As such he will live
in Avihā for one thousand kappas, in Atappa for two thousand, in
Sudassanā for four thousand, and will end in the Akanittha world, after
having enjoyed life in the Brahmaworlds for thirty one thousand kappas.


An account of another interview which Sakka had with the Buddha is given
in the Cūlatanhāsankhaya Sutta (q.v.). There the question arises
regarding the extirpation of cravings. Sakka accepts the Buddha’s
answer and leaves him. Anxious to discover whether Sakka has understood
the Buddha’s teaching, Moggallāna visits Sakka and questions him.
Sakka evades the questions and shows Moggallāna the glories of his
Vejayanta palace. Moggallāna then frightens him by a display of
iddhi-power, and Sakka repeats to him, word for word, the Buddha’s
answer. Moggallāna departs satisfied, and Sakka tells his handmaidens
that Moggallāna is a “fellow of his” in the higher life, meaning,
probably, that he himself is a sotāpanna and therefore a kinsman of the
arahant.


In a passage in the Samyutta (S.i.201) Sakka is represented as
descending from heaven to make an enquiry about Nibbāna, and in another
(S.iv.269f.), as listening, in heaven, to Moggallāna’s exposition of the
simplest duties of a good layman. On another occasion, at Vessavana’s
suggestion, Sakka visited Uttara Thera on the Sankheyyaka Mountain and
listened to a sermon by him (A.iv.163f.). See also Sakka Sutta (2) and
(3).


The later books contain a good deal of additional information regarding
Sakka. His city extends for one thousand leagues, and its golden
streets are sixty leagues long; his palace Vejayanta is one thousand
leagues high; the Sudhammā hall covers five hundred leagues, his throne
of yellow marble (Pandukambalasilāsana) is sixty leagues in extent, his
white umbrella with its golden wreath is five leagues in circumference,
and he himself is accompanied by a glorious array of twenty five million
nymphs (J.v.386). Other features of his heaven are the Pāricchattaka
tree, the Nandā pokkharanī and the Cittalatāvana (DA.iii.716; See also
Tāvatimsa). His body is three gavutas in height (DhA.iii.269); his
chief conveyance is the marvellous elephant Erāvana (q.v.), but he goes
to war in the Velayanta ratha (q.v.). Reference is often made to his
throne, the Pandukambalasilāsana (q.v.), composed of yellow stone. It
grows hot when Sakka’s life draws towards its end; or his merit is
exhausted; or when some mighty being prays; or, again, through the
efficacy of virtue in recluses or brahmins or other beings, full of
potency. J.iv.8; when the Buddha, however, sat on it, he was able to
conceal it in his robe (DhA.iii.218).


Sakka’s devotion to the Buddha and his religion is proverbial. When the
Bodhisatta cut off his hair and threw it into the sky, Sakka took it
and deposited it in the Cūlāmani cetiya (J.i.65). He was present near
the Bodhi tree, blowing his Vijayuttara sankha (q.v.), when Māra arrived
to prevent the Buddha from reaching Enlightenment (J.i.72). When the
Buddha accepted Bimbisāra’s invitation to dine in his palace, Sakka, in
the guise of a young man, preceded the Buddha and his monks along the
street to the palace, singing the Buddha’s praises (Vin.i.38). When the
Buddha performed his Yamaka pātihārīya at the foot of the Gandamba, it
was Sakka who built for him a pavilion, and gave orders to the gods of
the Wind and the Sun to uproot the pavilions of the heretics and cause
them great discomfort (DhA.iii.206, 208). When the Buddha returned to
Sankassa from Tāvatimsa, whither he went after performing the Twin
Miracle, Sakka created three ladders - of gold, of silver, and of jewels
respectively - for the Buddha and his retinue (DhA.iii.225).


Sakka was present at Vesāli when the Buddha visited that city in order
to rid it of its plagues. His presence drove away the evil spirits, and
the Buddha’s task was thus made easier (DhA.iii.441). When the Buddha
and his monks wished to journey one hundred leagues, to visit Culla
Subhaddā at Uggapura, Sakka, with the aid of Vissakamma, provided them
with pavilions (kūtāgāra) in which they might travel by air
(DhA.iii.470). Once, when the ponds in Jetavana were quite dry, the
Buddha wished to bathe and Sakka immediately caused rain to fall and the
ponds were filled (J.i.330). In Sakka’s aspect as Vajirapāni (q.v.) he
protected the Buddha from the insults of those who came to question
him. See also the story of Ciñcā mānavikā, when Sakka protected the
Buddha from her charges. Sakka also regarded it as his business to
protect the Buddha’s followers, as is shown by the manner in which he
came to the rescue of the four seven year old novices - Sankicca,
Pandita, Sopāka and Revata - when they were made to go hungry by a
brahmin and his wife (DhA.iv.176f.).


During the Buddha’s last illness, Sakka ministered to him, performing
the most menial tasks, such as carrying the vessel of excrement.
DhA.iv.269f. He did the same for other holy men - e.g., Sāriputta.
Sakka also waited on the Buddha when he was in Gayāsīsa for the
conversion of the Tebhātikajatilas (Vin.i.28f.); see also the story of
Jambuka (DhA.ii.59). The Udāna (iii.7) contains a story of Sakka
assuming the guise of a poor weaver and Sujā that of his wife, in order
to give alms to Mahā Kassapa who had just risen from a trance. They
succeeded in their ruse, to the great joy of Sakka (cp. DhA.i.424f).
On other occasions - e.g., in the case of Mahāduggata Sakka helped poor
men to gain merit by providing them with the means for giving alms to
the Buddha (DhA.ii.135ff.).


He was present at the Buddha’s death, and uttered, in verse, a simple
lament, very different from the studied verses ascribed to Brahmā.
(D.ii.157; on the importance of this verse, however, see Dial.ii.176,
n.1). At the distribution, by Dona, of the Buddha’s relics, Sakka saw
Dona hide the Buddha’s right tooth in his turban. Realizing that Dona
was incapable of rendering adequate honour to the relic, Sakka took the
relic and deposited it in the Cūlāmanicetiya (DA.ii.609). And when
Ajātasattu was making arrangements to deposit his share of the relics,
Sakka gave orders to Vissakamma to set up a vālasanghātayanta for their
protection (DA.ii.613).


Sakka did all in his power to help followers of the Buddha in their
strivings for the attainment of the goal, as in the case of
Panditasāmanera, when he sent the Four Regent Gods to drive away the
birds, made the Moon deity shroud the moon, and himself stood guard at
the door of Pandita’s cell, lest he should be disturbed. (DhA.ii.143;
cf. the story of Sukha DhA.iii.96f.). Often, when a monk achieved his
ambition, Sakka was there to express his joy and do him honour. See,
e.g., the story of Mahāphussa (SNA.i.55f.).


He was ready to help, not only monks and nuns, but also eminent laymen,
such as Jotika for whom he built a palace of wondrous splendour, and
provided it with every luxury (DhA.iv. 207f). Sakka was always ready
to come to the rescue of the good when in distress - e.g., in the case
of Cakkhupāla when he became blind; Sakka led him by the hand and took
him to Sāvatthi. DhA.i.14f. Many instances are found in the Jātaka
where Sakka rescued the good in distress - e.g., Dhammaddhaja, Guttila,
Kaccāni, the Kinnarī Candā, Sambulā, Kusa, Mahājanaka’s mother,
Candakumāra’s mother, Candā, and Mahosadha.


He loved to test the goodness of men, as in the case of the leper
Suppabuddha, to see if their faith was genuine. DhA.ii.34f.; see also
the story of the courtesan in the Kurudhamma Jātaka (J.ii.380).


The Jātaka contains several stories of his helping holy men by providing
them with hermitages, etc. - e.g., Kuddāla pandita, Hatthipāla,
Ayoghara, Jotipāla (Sarabhanga), Sutasoma, Dukūlaka, Pārikā and
Vessantara. Sometimes, when he found that ascetics were not diligently
practising their duties, he would frighten them - e.g., in the Vighāsa
and Somadatta Jātakas. The Anguttara Nikāya (iii.370f ) contains a
story of Sakka punishing a deva called Supatittha, who lived in a banyan
tree, because he failed to keep the rukkhadhamma.


Sakka appears as the guardian of moral law in the world. When
wickedness is rampant among men, or kings become unrighteous, he appears
among them to frighten them so that they may do good instead evil. He
is on the side of the good against the wicked, and often helps them to
realize their goal. Instances of this are seen in the Ambacora,
Ayakūta, Udaya, Kaccāni, Kāma, Kāmanīta, Kumbha, Kelisīla, Kharaputta,
Culladhanuggaha, Dhajavihetha, Bilārikosiya, Manīcora, Mahākanha, Vaka,
Sarabhanga, Sarabhamiga and Sudhābhojana Jātakas. Sakka patronised good
men; some of the more eminent he invited to his heaven, sending his
charioteer Matali to fetch them, and he showed them all honour - e.g.,
Guttila, Mandhātā, Sādhina, and Nimi; others he rewarded suitably - see,
e.g., the Uraga Jātaka.


The lesser gods consulted Sakka in their difficulties and problems e.g.,
in the case of the deity of Anāthapindika’s fourth gateway, who
incurred the displeasure of Anāthapindika by advising him to refrain
from too much generosity towards the Buddha and his monks (J.i.229).
Sakka has also to deal with disputes arising among the devas themselves
(DA.iii.705). On several occasions Sakka helped the Bodhisatta in the
practice of his Perfections e.g., as King Sivi, Temiya, Nimi and
Vessantara, also in his birth as a hare; in this last story, the Sasa
Jātaka (q.v.), Sakka paints the picture of a hare in the moon to
commemorate the Bodhisatta’s sacrifice.


Sakka sometimes answers the prayers of good and barren women and gives
them sons - e.g., Sumedhā, Sīlavatī, Candādevī. Mention is also made of
other boons granted by Sakka to various persons. Thus in the Mahāsuka
Jātaka he visited the parrot who clung to the dead stump of a tree
through gratitude, and granted him the boon that the tree should once
more become fruitful (J.iii.493). He granted four boons to Kanha, that
he might be calm, bear no malice or hatred against his neighbour, feel
no greed for others’ glory, and no lust towards his neighbour (J.iv.10).
To Akitti he granted several boons, the last of which was that he
should have no more visits from Sakka! (J.iv.240f). When Sivi became
blind, Sakka gave him two eyes; these were not natural eyes, but the
eyes of Truth, Absolute and Perfect (saccapāramitā cakkhunī). Sakka
confesses that he has not the power of restoring sight; it was the
virtue of Sivi himself which had that power (J.iv.410f). When Sīlavatī
wished for a boon, Sakka, took her to heaven, where he kept her for
seven days; then he granted that she should have two sons, one wise and
ugly and the other a fool and handsome. He also presented her with a
piece of kusa grass, a heavenly robe, a piece of sandalwood, the flower
of the Pāricchattaka tree and a Kokanda lute. All this passed into the
possession of Kusa, and, later, Sakka gave him the Verocana jewel
(J.v.280f., 310). He gave Phusatī, mother of Vessantara, ten boons
(J.vi.481f) and to Vessantara himself he gave eight (J.vi.572).


In the Sarabhanga Jātaka (J.v.392) mention is made of four daughters of
Sakka - Āsā, Saddhā, Hirī and Sirī. His wife, Sujā, accompanied him
everywhere on his travels (E.g., J.iii.491), even into the world of men,
because that was the boon she had asked for on her marriage to him
(DhA.i.279). Vessavana was Sakka’s special friend (MA.i.476f), and when
one Vessavana died, it was Sakka’s duty to appoint a successor
(J.i.328). Matāli (q.v.) is Sakka’s charioteer and constant companion.
Vissakamma (q.v.) is his “handy man.” Sakka has twenty five million
handmaids and five hundred dove-footed nymphs (kakutapādiniyo), famed
for their beauty. It was the sight of these which tempted the Buddha’s
step brother, Nanda, to give up thoughts of Janapadakalyānī Nandā
(J.ii.93). Sakka’s special weapon is the Vajirāvudha and his special
drum the Ālambara (q.v.).


His voice is sweet, like the tintinnabulation of golden bells (SA.i.273).


It is Sakka’s special duty to protect the religion of the Buddha in
Ceylon. As the Buddha lay dying, he enjoined on Sakka the task of
looking after Vijaya and his successors. This duty Sakka, in turn,
entrusted to the god Uppalavanna (Mhv.vii.1ff). Sakka informed Mahinda
of the right moment for his visit to Ceylon (Mhv.xiii.15). When
Devānampiyatissa wished for relics to place in the Thūpārāma Thūpa,
Sumana sāmanera visited Sakka and obtained from him the right collar
bone of the Buddha, which Sakka had placed in the Culāmani cetiya
(Mhv.xvii.9ff). Again, when Dutthagāmanī was in need of building
materials for the Mahā Thūpa, it was Sakka who supplied them
(Mhv.xxviii.6ff). On the occasion of the enshrining of the relics in
the Mahā Thūpa, Sakka gave orders to Vissakamma to decorate the whole of
Ceylon. He also provided the throne and casket of gold for the relics
brought from the Nāgā world by Sonuttara and was himself present at the
festival, blowing his conch shell. (Mhv.xxxi.34, 75, 78)


Other Cakkavālas have also their Sakka (aññehi Cakkavālehi Sakkā
āgacchanti; J.i.203.), and in one place (J.i.204) mention is made of
many thousands of Sakkas.


It is evident from the foregoing account that, as Rhys Davids suggests
(Dial.ii.297f), Sakka and Indra are independent conceptions. None of
the personal characteristics of Sakka resemble those of Indra. Some
epithets are identical but are evidently borrowed, though they are
differently explained. The conception of the popular god which appealed
to a more barbarous age and to the clans fighting their way into a new
country, seems to have been softened and refined in order to meet the
ideals of a more cultured and peaceful civilization. The old name no
longer fitted the new god, and, as time went on, Sakka came to be
regarded as an entirely separate god.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BX-gE0hRbKc&list=PLE_6tlmEgPoYIWsX6w1u3e40haFsC8Jzq




shakya muni buddha parivar sammrat ashoka warriors history.mp4



https://www.youtube.com/watch…
shakya muni buddha parivar sammrat ashoka warriors history.mp4


Sakya



Family name of the Buddha.


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Morphing Monasteries: Commercial Buddhism in Thailand | The New York Times

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Morphing Monasteries: Commercial Buddhism in Thailand | The New York Times
Buddhism has been a way of life in Thailand for centuries, but inside
the most popular temples is a trend that critics call “fast-food
Buddhism.”

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Sāvatthī



The capital town of Kosala in India and one of the six
great Indian cities during the lifetime of the Buddha (D.ii.147). It
was six leagues from Sāketa (Vin.i.253; seven according to others,
DhA.i.387), forty five leagues north west of Rājagaha (SA.i.243), thirty
leagues from Sankassa (J.iv.265), one hundred and forty seven from
Takkasilā (MA.ii.987), one hundred and twenty from Suppāraka
(DhA.ii.213), and was on the banks of the Aciravatī (Vin.i.191, 293).
It was thirty leagues from Alavī (SNA.i.220), thirty from Macchīkāsanda
(DhA.ii.79), one hundred and twenty from Kukkutavatī (DhA.ii.118), and
the same distance from Uggapura (DhA.iii.469) and from Kuraraghara
(DhA.iv.106). The road from Rājagaha to Sāvatthi passed through Vesāli
(Vin.ii.159f), and the Parāyanavagga (SN.vss.1011 13) gives the resting
places between the two cities Setavyā, Kapilavatthu, Kusinārā, Pāvā and
Bhoganagara. Further on, there was a road running southwards from
Sāvatthi through Sāketa to Kosambī. One gāvuta from the city was the
Andhavana (q.v.). Between Sāketa and Sāvatthi was Toranavatthu
(S.iv.374).


The city was called Sāvatthi because the sage Savattha lived there.
Another tradition says there was a caravanserai there, and people
meeting there asked each other what they had “Kim bhandam atthi?”
“Sabbam atthi” and the name of the city was based on the reply
(SNA.i.300; PSA. 367).


The Buddha passed the greater part of his monastic life in Sāvatthi.
His first visit there was at the invitation of Anāthapindika. It is
said (DhA.i.4) that he spent twenty five rainy seasons in the city
nineteen of them in Jetavana and six in the Pubbārāma. Sāvatthi also
contained the monastery of Rājakārāma (q.v.), built by Pasenadi,
opposite Jetavana. Outside the city gate of Sāvatthi was a fisherman’s
village of five hundred families (DhA.iv.40).


Savatthi is the scene of each Buddha’s Yamaka pātihāriya (DhA.iii.205;
cf. Mtu.iii.115; J.i.88); Gotama Buddha performed this miracle under
the Gandamba (q.v.).


The chief patrons of the Buddha in Sāvatthi were Anāthapindika, Visākhā,
Suppavāsā and Pasenadi (DhA.i.330). When Bandhula (q.v.) left Vesāli
he came to live in Sāvatthi.


Buddhaghosa says (Sp.iii.614) that, in the Buddha’s day, there were
fifty seven thousand families in Sāvatthi, and that it was the chief
city in the country of Kāsi Kosala, which was three hundred leagues in
extent and had eighty thousand villages. The population of Sāvatthi was
eighteen crores (SNA.i.371).


Sāvatthi is identified with Sāhet Māhet on the banks of the Rapti (Cunningham, AGI. 469).


Hiouen Thsang found the old city in ruins, but records the sites of various buildings (Beal, op. cit., ii.1 13).


Woodward states (KS.v.xviii ) that, of the four Nikāyas, 871 suttas are
said to have been preached in Sāvatthi; 844 of which are in Jetavana, 23
in the Pubbārāma, and 4 in the suburbs. These suttas are made up of 6
in the Digha, 75 in the Majjhima, 736 in the Samyutta, and 54 in the
Anguttara. Mrs. Rhys Davids conjectures (M.iv., Introd., p.vi) from
this that either the Buddha “mainly resided there or else Sāvatthi was
the earliest emporium (library?) for the collection and preservation
(however this was done) of the talks.” The first alternative is the more
likely, as the Commentaries state that the Buddha spent twenty five
rainy seasons in Sāvatthi (see earlier), this leaving only twenty to be
spent elsewhere. The Buddhavamsa Commentary (BuA. p.3) gives a list of
these places showing that the second, third, fourth, seventeenth and
twentieth were spent in Rājagaha, the thirteenth, eighteenth and
nineteenth in Cāliyapabbata, and the rest in different places.


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Suveḷuvana



It was there that the Buddha preached the Indriyabhāvanā
Sutta (M.iii.298). The Commentary explains (MA.ii.1028) that the grove
consisted of mukhelu trees. But most editions of the Sutta locate it in
the Bamboo grove where once the upāsakas of Kajangalā, having questioned
the Kajangalā-Bhikkhunī, went to the Buddha there and asked him to
verify her answers. A.v.54f



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Upāli



One of the most eminent of the Buddha’s immediate
disciples. He belonged to a barber’s family in Kapilavatthu and entered
the service of the Sākiyan princes. When Anuruddha and his cousins
left the world and sought ordination from the Buddha at Anupiyā Grove,
Upāli accompanied them. They gave him all their valuable ornaments,
but, on further consideration, he refused to accept them and wished to
become a monk with them. The reason given for his refusal is that he
knew the Sākyans were hot-headed, and feared that the kinsmen of the
princes might suspect him of having murdered the young men for the sake
of their belongings.


At the request of the Sākiyan youths, the Buddha ordained Upāli before
them all, so that their pride might be humbled. (Vin.ii.182;
DhA.i.116f; see also Bu.i.61; but see BuA.44; the Tibetan sources give a
slightly different version, see Rockhill, op. cit., pp. 55-6;
according to the Mahāvastu iii.179, Upāli was the Buddha’s barber, too).


Upāli’s upajjhāya was Kappitaka (Vin.iv.308). When Upāli went to the
Buddha for an exercise for meditation, he asked that he might be allowed
to dwell in the forest. But the Buddha would not agree, for if Upāli
went into the forest he would learn only meditation, while, if he
remained amongst men, he would have knowledge both of meditation and of
the word of the Dhamma. Upāli accepted the Buddha’s advice and,
practising insight, in due course won arahantship. The Buddha himself
taught Upāli the whole of the Vinaya Pitaka (ThagA.i.360f, 370;
AA.i.172).


In the assembly of the Sangha, the Buddha declared him to be the most
proficient of those who were learned in the Vinaya (vinayadharānam)
(A.i.24; see also Vin.iv.142, where the Buddha is mentioned as speaking
Upāli’s praises). He is often spoken of as having reached the pinnacle
of the Vinaya, or as being its chief repository (Vinaye agganikkhitto),
(E.g., Dpv.iv.3, 5; v.7, 9) and three particular cases - those of Ajjuka
(Vin.iii.66f), the Bhārukacchaka monk (Vin.iii.39) and Kumāra-Kassapa
(AA.i.158; MA.i.336; J.i.148; DhA.iii.145) - are frequently mentioned in
this connection as instances where Upāli’s decisions on Vinaya rules
earned the special commendation of the Buddha. In the Rājagaha Council,
Upāli took a leading part, deciding all the questions relative to the
Vinaya, in the same way as Ananda decided questions regarding the Dhamma
(Vin.ii.286f; DA.i.11f; Mhv.iii.30).


In accordance with this tradition, ascribing to Upāli especial authority
regarding the rules of the Order, various instances are given of Upāli
questioning the Buddha about the Vinaya regulations. Thus we find him
consulting the Buddha as to the legality or otherwise of a complete
congregation performing, in the absence of an accused monk, an act at
which his presence is required (Vin.i.325f). Again, he wishes to know
if, in a matter which has caused altercations and schisms among members
of the Order, the Sangha declares re-establishment of concord without
thorough investigation, could such a declaration be lawful?
(Vin.i.358f). When a monk intends to take upon himself the conduct of
any matter that has to be decided, under what conditions should he do
so? What qualities should a monk possess in himself before he takes upon
himself to warn others? (Vin.ii.248f). In what case can there be an
interruption of the probationary period of a monk who has been placed on
probation? (Vin.ii.33f).


A whole list of questions asked by Upāli and answers given by the Buddha
on matters pertaining to the Vinaya rules is found in the chapter
called Upāli-Pañcaka in the Parivāra (Vin.v.180-206; see also the
Upālivagga of the Anguttara Nikāya v.70ff).


It is not possible to determine which of these and other questions were
actually asked by Upāli, and which were ascribed to him on account of
his traditional reputation.


It is said (E.g., Vin.iv.142; Sp.iv.876) that even in the Buddha’s
lifetime monks considered it a great privilege to learn the Vinaya under
Upāli. The monks seem to have regarded Upāli as their particular
friend, to whom they could go in their difficulties. Thus, when certain
monks had been deprived by thieves of their clothes, it is Upāli’s
protection that they seek (Vin.iii.212; see also the story of
Ramanīyavihārī, ThagA.i.116).


The canon contains but few records of any discourses connected with
Upāli, apart from his questions on the Vinaya. In the Anguttara Nikāya
(A.iv.143f) he is mentioned as asking the Buddha for a brief sermon, the
Buddha telling him that if there were anything that did not conduce to
revulsion and detachment, Upāli could be sure that such things did not
form part of the Buddha’s teaching. There is a record of another sermon
(A.v.201ff) which the Buddha is stated to have preached when Upāli
expressed the desire to retire into the solitude of the forest. The
Buddha tells him that forest-life is not for the man who has not
mastered his mind or attained to tranquillity.


For other sermons see Upāli Sutta and Ubbāhika Sutta.


Three verses are ascribed to Upāli in the Theragāthā (vv. 249-51; but
see Gotama the Man, p.215; another verse ascribed to Upāli, but so far
not traced elsewhere, is found in the Milinda p.108) where he admonishes
the brethren to seek noble friends of unfaltering character, to learn
the monks’ code of discipline and to dwell in solitude.


In the time of Padumuttara, Upāli was a very rich brahmin named Sujāta.
When the Buddha came to his father’s city in order to preach to him the
Dhamma, Sujāta saw him, and in the assembly be noticed an ascetic named
Sunanda, holding over the Buddha for seven days a canopy of flowers.
The Buddha declared that Sunanda would, in the time of Gotama Buddha,
become famous as the Elder Punna Mantānī-putta. Sujāta, too, wished to
seethe future Buddha Gotama, and having heard Padumuttara praise the
monk Pātika as chief of the Vinayadharas, he wished to hear, regarding
himself, a similar declaration from Gotama. With this end in view he
did many deeds of merit, chief of which was the erection of a monastery
named Sobhana, for the Buddha and his monks, at an expense of one
hundred thousand.


As a result he was born in heaven for thirty thousand kappas and was one
thousand times king of the devas. One thousand times, too, he was
cakkavatti.


Two kappas ago there was a Khattiya named Añjasa, and Upāli was born as
his son Sunanda. One day he went to the park riding an elephant named
Sirika, and met, on the way, the Pacceka Buddha Devala, whom he insulted
in various ways. Sunanda was, thereupon, seized with a sensation of
great heat in his body, and it was not till he went with a large
following to the Pacceka Buddha and asked his pardon that the sensation
left him. It is said that if the Buddha had not forgiven him, the whole
country would have been destroyed. This insult paid to the Pacceka
Buddha was the cause of Upāli having been born as a barber in his last
birth (Ap.i.37ff).


Buddhaghosa says (Sp.i.272, 283) that while the Buddha was yet alive
Upāli drew up certain instructions according to which future
Vinayadharas should interpret Vinaya rules, and that, in conjunction
with others, he compiled explanatory notes on matters connected with the
Vinaya.


In direct pupillary succession to Upāli as head of the Vinayadharas was
Dāsaka, whom Upāli had first met at the Valikārāma, where Upāli was
staying (Mhv.v.10). Upāli taught him the whole of the Vinaya.


Upāli’s death was in the sixth year of Udāyibhadda’s reign. Dpv.v.7ff.


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Vesāli



A city, capital of the Licchavis. The Buddha first
visited it in the fifth year after the Enlightenment, and spent the
vassa there (BuA., p. 3). The Commentaries give detailed descriptions
of the circumstances of this visit. KhpA.160ff.= SNA.i.278;
DhA.iii.436ff.; cp. Mtu.i.253ff


Vesāli was inhabited by seven thousand and seven rājās, each of whom had
large retinues, many palaces and pleasure parks. There came a shortage
in the food supply owing to drought, and people died in large numbers.
The smell of decaying bodies attracted evil spirits, and many
inhabitants were attacked by intestinal disease. The people complained
to the ruling prince, and he convoked a general assembly, where it was
decided, after much discussion, to invite the Buddha to their city. As
the Buddha was then at Veluvana in Rājagaha, the Licchavi Mahāli, friend
of Bimbisāra and son of the chaplain of Vesāli, was sent to Bimbisāra
with a request that he should persuade the Buddha to go to Vesāli.
Bimbisāra referred him to the Buddha himself, who, after listening to
Mahāli’s story, agreed to go. The Buddha started on the journey with
five hundred monks. Bimbisāra decorated the route from Rājagaha to the
Ganges, a distance of five leagues, and provided all comforts on the
way. He accompanied the Buddha, and the Ganges was reached in five
days. Boats, decked with great splendour, were ready for the Buddha and
his monks, and we are told that Bimbisāra followed the Buddha into the
water up to his neck. The Buddha was received on the opposite bank by
the Licchavis, with even greater honour than Bimbisāra had shown him.
As soon as the Buddha set foot in the Vajjian territory, there was a
thunderstorm and rain fell in torrents. The distance from the Ganges to
Vesāli was three leagues; as the Buddha approached Vesāli, Sakka came
to greet him, and, at the sight of the devas, all the evil spirits fled
in fear. In the evening the Buddha taught Ananda the Ratana Sutta, and
ordered that it should be recited within the three walls of the city,
the round of the city being made with the Licchavi princes. This Ananda
did during the three watches of the night, and all the pestilences of
the citizens disappeared. The Buddha himself recited the Ratana Sutta
to the assembled people, and eighty four thousand beings were converted.
After repeating this for seven consecutive days, the Buddha left
Vesāli. (According to the DhA. account the Buddha stayed only seven
days in Vesāli; KhA. says two weeks). The Licchavis accompanied him to
the Ganges with redoubled honours, and, in the river itself, Devas and
Nāgas vied with each other in paying him honour. On the farther bank,
Bimbisāra awaited his arrival and conducted him back to Rājagaha. On
his return there, the Buddha recited the Sankha Jātaka. (See 2.)


It was probably during this visit of the Buddha to Vesāli that Suddhodana died. (See ThigA., p. 141; AA.i.186).


It was during this visit of the Buddha to Kapilavatthu (tadā) that Mahā
Pajāpatī Gotamī first asked his permission to join the Order, but her
request was refused (AA.i.186).


According to one account, the Buddha went through the air to visit his
dying father and to preach to him, thereby enabling him to attain
arahantship before his death. It is not possible to know how many
visits were paid by the Buddha to Vesāli, but the books would lead us to
infer that they were several. Various Vinaya rules are mentioned as
having been laid down at Vesāli. See, e.g., Vin.i.238, 287f; ii.118,
119 27. The visit mentioned in the last context seems to have been a
long one; it was on this occasion that the Buddha ordered the monks to
turn their bowls upon the Licchavi Vaddha (q.v.). For other Vinaya
rules laid down at Vesāli, see also Vin.ii.159f.; iii. and iv. passim.


It was during a stay in Vesāli, whither he had gone from Kapilavatthu,
that Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī followed the Buddha with five hundred other
Sākyan women, and, with the help of Ananda’s intervention, obtained
permission for women to enter the Order under certain conditions.
Vin.ii.253ff.; see Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī.


The books describe (E.g., D.ii.95ff) at some length the Buddha’s last
visit to Vesāli on his way to Kusinārā. On the last day of this visit,
after his meal, he went with Ananda to Cāpāla cetiya for his siesta,
and, in the course of their conversation, he spoke to Ananda of the
beauties of Vesāli: of the Udena cetiya, the Gotamaka cetiya, the
Sattambaka cetiya, the Bahuputta cetiya, and the Sārandada cetiya. Cf.
Mtu.i.300, where a Kapinayha-cetiya is also mentioned. All these were
once shrines dedicated to various local deities, but after the Buddha’s
visit to Vesāli, they were converted into places of Buddhist worship.
Other monasteries are also mentioned, in or near Vesāli e.g.,
Pātikārāma, Vālikārāma.


The Buddha generally stayed at the Kūtāgārasālā (q.v.) during his visits
to Vesāli, but it appears that he sometimes lived at these different
shrines (See D.ii.118). During his last visit to the Cāpāla cetiya he
decided to die within three months, and informed Māra and, later,
Ananda, of his decision. The next day he left Vesāli for Bhandagāma,
after taking one last look at the city, “turning his whole body round,
like an elephant” (nāgāpalokitam apaloketvā) (D.ii.122). The rainy
season which preceded this, the Buddha spent at Beluvagāma, a suburb of
Vesāli, while the monks stayed in and around Vesāli. On the day before
he entered into the vassa, Ambapāli invited the Buddha and the monks to a
meal, at the conclusion of which she gave her Ambavana for the use of
the Order (D.ii.98; but see Dial.ii.102, n.1).


Vesāli was a stronghold of the Niganthas, and it is said that of the
forty two rainy seasons of the latter part of Mahāvīra’s ascetic life,
he passed twelve at Vesāli. Jacobi: Jaina Sutras (S.B.E.) Kalpa Sūtra,
sect. 122; Vesāli was also the residence of Kandaramasuka and
Pātikaputta (q.v.). Among eminent followers of the Buddha who lived in
Vesāli, special mention is made of Ugga (chief of those who gave
pleasant gifts), Pingiyāni, Kāranapāli, Sīha, Vāsettha (A.iv.258), and
the various Licchavis (see Licchavi.)


The Buddha’s presence in Vesāli was a source of discomfort to the
Niganthas, and we find mention (See, e.g., Sīha) of various devices
resorted to by them to prevent their followers from coming under the
influence of the Buddha.


At the time of the Buddha, Vesāli was a very large city, rich and
prosperous, crowded with people and with abundant food. There were
seven thousand seven hundred and seven pleasure grounds and an equal
number of lotus ponds. Its courtesan, Ambapālī, was famous for her
beauty, and helped in large measure in making the city prosperous
(Vin.i.268). The city had three walls, each one gāvuta away from the
other, and at three places in the walls were gates with watch towers.


J.i.604; cf.i.389. Perhaps these three walls separated the three
districts of Vaisālī mentioned in the Tibetan Dulva (Rockhill, p.62);
Hoernle (Uvāsagadasāo Translation ii., p.4, n.8) identifies these three
districts with the city proper, Kundapura and Vāniyagāma, respectively
mentioned in the Jaina books. Buddhaghosa says (e.g., Sp.ii.393) that
Vesāli was so called because it was extensive (visālībhūtatā Vesāli ti
uccati); cf. UdA.184 (tikkhattum visālabhūtattā); and MA.i.259.


Outside the town, leading uninterruptedly up to the Himālaya, was the
Mahāvana (DA.i.309) (q.v.), a large, natural forest. Near by were other
forests, such as Gosingalasāla. (A.v.134)


Among important suttas preached at Vesāli are the Mahāli, Mahāsīhanāda,
Cūla Saccaka, Mahā Saccaka, Tevijja, Vacchagotta, Sunakkhatta and
Ratana.


See also A.i.220, 276; ii.190, 200; iii.38, 49ff., 75, 142, 167, 236,
239; iv. 16, 79, 100, 179, 208, 274ff., 279ff., 308ff.; v. 86, 133,
342; S.i.29, 112, 230; ii.267, 280; iii.68, 116; iv. 109, 210ff., 380;
v. 141f, 152f, 258, 301, 320, 389, 453; D.ii.94ff.; the subjects of
these discourses are mentioned passim, in their proper places; see also
DhA.i.263; iii.267, 279, 460, 480.


The Telovāda Jātaka (No. 246) and the Sigāla Jātaka (No. 152) were
preached at Vesāli. After the Buddha’s death a portion of his relics
was enshrined in the City. (D.ii.167; Bu.xxviii.2)


One hundred years later Vesāli was again the scene of interest for
Buddhists, on account of the “Ten Points” raised by the Vajjiputtakā,
(q.v.), and the second Council held in connection with this dispute at
the Vālikārāma.


The city was also called Visālā. (E.g., AA.i.47; Cv.xcix.98). There
were Nāgas living in Vesāli; these were called Vesālā (D.ii.258).


Vesāli is identified with the present village of Basrah in the
Muzafferpur district in Tirhut. See Vincent Smith, J.R.A.S. 1907, p.
267f., and Marshall, Arch. Survey of India, 1903 4, p. 74.


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