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Non-English Tipitaka Pali Printed books Online books Audio
Note: I can’t vouch for the quality of all the materials offered on the external sites listed here. Some are more useful than others. Use your own best judgment. To report errors or to recommend sites to add to this list, please contact me.

Here is a sampling of web sites that offer translations of Pali Tipitaka texts into languages other than English. This is by no means an exhaustive list. Rather, I have selected a few representative sites that offer either a good selection of texts or a rich set of web-links to other sites in that language. Most of these sites offer texts (suttas, essays, etc.) that also appear (in English) on Access to Insight.

[Flag of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia] Catalàn
Budisme en Català (Albert Biayna Gea) offers a collection of suttas in Catalàn
[Flag of Traditional and Simplified Chinese] Chinese (Traditional & Simplified)
The Wings to Awakening: Readings in Theravadan Buddhism in Chinese Translation (Lau, Sinh-Lam) is a Chinese website (both in Simplified and Traditional Fonts) dedicated to the study and practice of Theravada Buddhist Teachings. It is created and maintained by two Theravadan Buddhist practitioners and at present, all the materials are selected, translated, and organized by them, of which over the years they have found

Home
Random Sutta
Random Article
Random Jataka
Abbreviations
Glossary
Index
Help!
Library
External Links
Off-site Resources
Non-English Tipitaka translations
[dana/©] 2005-2014
- Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa -
Non-English Tipitaka Pali Printed books Online books Audio
Note: I can’t vouch for the quality of all the materials offered on the external sites listed here. Some are more useful than others. Use your own best judgment. To report errors or to recommend sites to add to this list, please contact me.

Here is a sampling of web sites that offer translations of Pali Tipitaka texts into languages other than English. This is by no means an exhaustive list. Rather, I have selected a few representative sites that offer either a good selection of texts or a rich set of web-links to other sites in that language. Most of these sites offer texts (suttas, essays, etc.) that also appear (in English) on Access to Insight.

[Flag of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia] Catalàn
Budisme en Català (Albert Biayna Gea) offers a collection of suttas in Catalàn
[Flag of Traditional and Simplified Chinese] Chinese (Traditional & Simplified)
The Wings to Awakening: Readings in Theravadan Buddhism in Chinese Translation (Lau, Sinh-Lam) is a Chinese website (both in Simplified and Traditional Fonts) dedicated to the study and practice of Theravada Buddhist Teachings. It is created and maintained by two Theravadan Buddhist practitioners and at present, all the materials are selected, translated, and organized by them, of which over the years they have found particularly useful in their own practice. Includes translations of several Pali suttas.
[Flag of the Czech Republic] Czech
Prátelé Dhammy (”Friends of Dhamma”) has an extensive library of readings in Czech from the Thai Forest traditions and the Pali canon.
[Flag of the Netherlands] Dutch
Sleutel tot Inzicht (”Key to Insight”) (Peter van Loosbroek)
Suttas.net (Dhammajoti)
Toegang tot Inzicht (”Access to Insight”) (Django Vaal)
[Flag of France] French
Accès au Canon Pali (Michel Proulx) mirrors the sutta collection of Access to Insight in English, and offers a growing number of French translations of suttas and other texts.
[Flag of the Federal Republic of Germany] German
Tipitaka, der Pali Kanon des Theravada-Buddhismus offers a nearly complete collection of German translations from all five Nikayas, plus extensive excerpts from the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas.
Dhamma-dana offers German translations of articles by Ajaan Chah, Ajaan Suwat, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Bhikkhu Bodhi, and Ayya Khema.
[Flag of Hungary] Hungarian
A Buddha Ujja (”The Finger of the Buddha”) (Gambhiro Bhikkhu) offers a large collection of Pali suttas in Hungarian, articles and videos by and about major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and links to Hungarian Buddhist communities and websites.
[Flag of Hungary] Indonesian
Dhamma Citta: Tipitaka-Kanon Pali
[Flag of Italy] Italian
Canone Pali: le parole del Buddha (Enzo Alfano)
Il Canone Pali (Michel Proulx)
[Flag of the Kingdom of Norway] Norwegian
Tekster i oversettelse (Kåre A. Lie)
[Flag of the Kingdom of Norway] Polish
Sasana.pl (Piotr Jagodziński)
Tipitaka.pl (Andrzej Dałek)
Trzy Kosze (The Three Baskets): Tłumaczenie sutt buddyskich (Hubert Kowalewski)
[Flag of Portugal] [Flag of Brazil] Portuguese
Acesso ao Insight: Leituras do Budismo Theravada (Michael Beisert) offers an extensive collection of Pali suttas, articles by major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and much more — all translated into Portuguese.
[Flag of Romania] Romanian
Mahindarama Buddhism e-course.
[Flag of the Federation of Russia] Russian
Koleso Dhammy (”Wheel of Dhamma”)
Theravada.ru
[Flag of the Federation of Yugoslavia] Serbian
Pali Kanon (Branko KovaČević) offers a good selection of suttas and other passages from the Pali canon, plus several articles from the pages of Access to Insight.
[Flag of Sri Lanka] Sinhala
Aathaapi: Pure Theravada Buddhism Exposed according to The Original Pali Canon (Saminda Ranasinghe) offers the complete Buddha Jayanthi Tipitaka in Sinhalese script (Pali and translation) in PDF format.
The Tipitaka (Russia) offers Sinhala translations of large portions of the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas.
[Flag of Spain] [Flag of Mexico] Spanish
Bosque Theravada offers Spanish language translations of suttas and articles by teachers from the Thai forest traditions.
Buddha Soto Zen has a growing library of Spanish language translations.
Centro Mexicano del Buddhismo Theravada A.C. offers an extensive collection of Spanish language texts.
TextosBudistas
[Flag of Sweden] Swedish
Suttor (Kerstin Jönhagen) offers Swedish translations of about 30 suttas. The site’s home page has links to other Swedish Buddhist resources.
[Flag of the Kingdom of Thailand] Thai
Thai Tipitaka (Bhodhiyana Meditation Center) offers the Thai Tipitaka (in Thai script), plus translations of selected suttas in other languages.
[Flag of Viet Nam] Vietnamese
BuddaSasana: Vietnamese Buddhist Page (Binh Anson) offers the entire Vietnamese translation of the Tipitaka and is regularly revised and corrected for any errors. Also distributes a free CD that includes both the BuddhaSasana website (in Vietnamese; updated monthly) and Access to Insight (in English; updated every six months).
Trang Văn Học Pāli (Pali Tripitaka & Glossary)
[Flag of The Earth or No-nation] Earth
A good all-around source for international links to Dhamma sites is the Wikipedia. In particular, look for the box titled “In other languages” in the lower left corner of these pages: Buddhism, Theravada, and Tipitaka.
Acknowledgments

The flag icons are copyright © Philippe Verdy, and appear here courtesy of SETI@home.

The poitically-neutral Chinese language icon (which reads “Chinese language” in both Traditional and Simplified Chinese) was contributed by an ATI reader.

Non-English Tipitaka Pali Printed books Online books Audio
Provenance: The source of this work is the gift within Access to Insight “Offline Edition 2012.09.10.14″, last replication 12. March 2013, generously given by John Bullitt and mentioned as: ©2005 Access to Insight. Prepared by jtb for Access to Insight. Translations, rebublishing, editing and additions are in the sphere of responsibility of Zugang zur Einsicht. useful in their own practice. Includes translations of several Pali suttas.
[Flag of the Czech Republic] Czech
Prátelé Dhammy (”Friends of Dhamma”) has an extensive library of readings in Czech from the Thai Forest traditions and the Pali canon.
[Flag of the Netherlands] Dutch
Sleutel tot Inzicht (”Key to Insight”) (Peter van Loosbroek)
Suttas.net (Dhammajoti)
Toegang tot Inzicht (”Access to Insight”) (Django Vaal)
[Flag of France] French
Accès au Canon Pali (Michel Proulx) mirrors the sutta collection of Access to Insight in English, and offers a growing number of French translations of suttas and other texts.
[Flag of the Federal Republic of Germany] German
Tipitaka, der Pali Kanon des Theravada-Buddhismus offers a nearly complete collection of German translations from all five Nikayas, plus extensive excerpts from the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas.
Dhamma-dana offers German translations of articles by Ajaan Chah, Ajaan Suwat, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Bhikkhu Bodhi, and Ayya Khema.
[Flag of Hungary] Hungarian
A Buddha Ujja (”The Finger of the Buddha”) (Gambhiro Bhikkhu) offers a large collection of Pali suttas in Hungarian, articles and videos by and about major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and links to Hungarian Buddhist communities and websites.
[Flag of Hungary] Indonesian
Dhamma Citta: Tipitaka-Kanon Pali
[Flag of Italy] Italian
Canone Pali: le parole del Buddha (Enzo Alfano)
Il Canone Pali (Michel Proulx)
[Flag of the Kingdom of Norway] Norwegian
Tekster i oversettelse (Kåre A. Lie)
[Flag of the Kingdom of Norway] Polish
Sasana.pl (Piotr Jagodziński)
Tipitaka.pl (Andrzej Dałek)
Trzy Kosze (The Three Baskets): Tłumaczenie sutt buddyskich (Hubert Kowalewski)
[Flag of Portugal] [Flag of Brazil] Portuguese
Acesso ao Insight: Leituras do Budismo Theravada (Michael Beisert) offers an extensive collection of Pali suttas, articles by major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and much more — all translated into Portuguese.
[Flag of Romania] Romanian
Mahindarama Buddhism e-course.
[Flag of the Federation of Russia] Russian
Koleso Dhammy (”Wheel of Dhamma”)
Theravada.ru
[Flag of the Federation of Yugoslavia] Serbian
Pali Kanon (Branko KovaČević) offers a good selection of suttas and other passages from the Pali canon, plus several articles from the pages of Access to Insight.
[Flag of Sri Lanka] Sinhala
Aathaapi: Pure Theravada Buddhism Exposed according to The Original Pali Canon (Saminda Ranasinghe) offers the complete Buddha Jayanthi Tipitaka in Sinhalese script (Pali and translation) in PDF format.
The Tipitaka (Russia) offers Sinhala translations of large portions of the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas.
[Flag of Spain] [Flag of Mexico] Spanish
Bosque Theravada offers Spanish language translations of suttas and articles by teachers from the Thai forest traditions.
Buddha Soto Zen has a growing library of Spanish language translations.
Centro Mexicano del Buddhismo Theravada A.C. offers an extensive collection of Spanish language texts.
TextosBudistas
[Flag of Sweden] Swedish
Suttor (Kerstin Jönhagen) offers Swedish translations of about 30 suttas. The site’s home page has links to other Swedish Buddhist resources.
[Flag of the Kingdom of Thailand] Thai
Thai Tipitaka (Bhodhiyana Meditation Center) offers the Thai Tipitaka (in Thai script), plus translations of selected suttas in other languages.
[Flag of Viet Nam] Vietnamese
BuddaSasana: Vietnamese Buddhist Page (Binh Anson) offers the entire Vietnamese translation of the Tipitaka and is regularly revised and corrected for any errors. Also distributes a free CD that includes both the BuddhaSasana website (in Vietnamese; updated monthly) and Access to Insight (in English; updated every six months).
Trang Văn Học Pāli (Pali Tripitaka & Glossary)
[Flag of The Earth or No-nation] Earth
A good all-around source for international links to Dhamma sites is the Wikipedia. In particular, look for the box titled “In other languages” in the lower left corner of these pages: Buddhism, Theravada, and Tipitaka.
Acknowledgments

The flag icons are copyright © Philippe Verdy, and appear here courtesy of SETI@home.

The poitically-neutral Chinese language icon (which reads “Chinese language” in both Traditional and Simplified Chinese) was contributed by an ATI reader.

Non-English Tipitaka Pali Printed books Online books Audio
Provenance: The source of this work is the gift within Access to Insight “Offline Edition 2012.09.10.14″, last replication 12. March 2013, generously given by John Bullitt and mentioned as: ©2005 Access to Insight. Prepared by jtb for Access to Insight.

https://www.thoughtco.com/tripitaka-tipitaka-449696

Definition of Buddhist Term: Tripitaka (Tipitaka)
The Earliest Collection of Buddhist Scripture

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A monk of Burma (Myanmar) reads Pali scriptures. © Design Pics / Stuart Corlett / Getty Images
by Barbara O’Brien
Updated July 24, 2017
In Buddhism, the word Tripitaka (Sanskrit for “three baskets”; “Tipitaka” in Pali) is the earliest collection of Buddhist scriptures. It contains the texts with the strongest claim to being the words of the historical Buddha.

The texts of the Tripitaka are organized into three major sections–the Vinaya-pitaka, containing the rules of communal life for monks and nuns; the Sutra-pitaka, a collection of sermons of the Buddha and senior disciples; and the Abhidharma-pitaka, which contains interpretations and analyses of Buddhist concepts.

In Pali, these are the Vinaya-pitaka, the Sutta-pitaka, and the Abhidhamma.

ORIGINS OF THE TRIPITAKA
Buddhist chronicles say that after the death of the Buddha (ca. 4th century BCE) his senior disciples met at the First Buddhist Council to discuss the future of the sangha–the community of monks and nuns — and the dharma, in this case, the Buddha’s teachings. A monk named Upali recited the Buddha’s rules for monks and nuns from memory, and the Buddha’s cousin and attendant, Ananda, recited the Buddha’s sermons. The assembly accepted these recitations as the accurate teachings of the Buddha, and they became known as the Sutra-pitaka and the Vinaya.

The Abhidharma is the third pitaka, or “basket,” and is said to have been added during the Third Buddhist Council, ca. 250 BCE. Although the Abhidharma is traditionally attributed to the historical Buddha, it probably was composed at least a century after his death by an unknown author.

VARIATIONS OF THE TRIPITAKA
At first, these texts were preserved by being memorized and chanted, and as Buddhism spread through Asia there came to be chanting lineages in several languages. However, we have only two reasonably complete versions of the Tripitaka today.

What came to be called the Pali Canon is the Pali Tipitaka, preserved in the Pali

This canon was committed to writing in the 1st century BCE, in Sri Lanka. Today, the Pali Canon is the scriptural canon for Theravada Buddhism.

There were probably several Sanskrit chanting lineages, which survive today only in fragments. The Sanskrit Tripitaka we have today was pieced together mostly from early Chinese translations, and for this reason, it is called the Chinese Tripitaka.

The Sanskrit/ Chinese version of the Sutra-pitaka also is called the Agamas. There are two Sanskrit versions of the Vinaya, called the Mulasarvastivada Vinaya (followed in Tibetan Buddhism) and the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya (followed in other schools of Mahayana Buddhism). These were named after the early schools of Buddhism in which they were preserved.

The Chinese/Sanskrit version of the Abhidharma that we have today is called the Sarvastivada Abhidharma, after the Sarvastivada school of Buddhism that preserved it.

For more about the scriptures of Tibetan and Mahayana Buddhism, see The Chinese Mahayana Canon and The Tibetan Canon.

ARE THESE SCRIPTURES TRUE TO THE ORIGINAL VERSION?
The honest answer is, we don’t know. Comparing the Pali and Chinese Tripitakas reveals many discrepancies. Some corresponding texts at least closely resemble each other, but some are considerably different.

The Pali Canon contains a number of sutras found nowhere else. And we have no way of knowing how much the Pali Canon of today matches the version originally written more than two thousand years ago, which has been lost to time. Buddhist scholars spend a good deal of time debating the origins of the various texts.

It should be remembered that Buddhism is not a “revealed” religion–meaning it’s scriptures are not assumed to be the revealed wisdom of a God. Buddhists are not sworn to accept every word as literal truth. Instead, we rely on our own insight, and the insight of our teachers, to interpret these early texts.

The Pali Canon
Words of the Historical Buddha

https://fthmb.tqn.com/nyrZtzo7W5kFWjP2YXjA7cI9Ta8=/768×0/filters:no_upscale()/GettyImages-143917336-56f090d55f9b5867a1c613f6.jpg

A young monk studies by a window in the Myoe Daung Monastery in Bagan, Burma (Myanmar). © Necip Yanma / Getty Images
by Barbara O’Brien
Updated July 11, 2017
More than two millennia ago some of the oldest scriptures of Buddhism were gathered into a mighty collection. The collection was called (in Sanskrit) “Tripitaka,” or (in Pali) “Tipitaka,” which means “three baskets,” because it is organized into three major sections.

This particular collection of scriptures also is called the “Pali Canon” because it is preserved in a language called Pali, which is a variation of Sanskrit.

Note that there are actually three primary canons of Buddhist scripture, called after the languages in which they were preserved — the Pali Canon, the Chinese Canon, and the Tibetan Canon, and many of the same texts are preserved in more than one canon.

The Pali Canon or Pali Tipitaka is the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism, and much of it is believed to be the recorded words of the historical Buddha. The collection is so vast that, it is said, it would fill thousands of pages and several volumes if translated into English and published. The sutta (sutra) section alone, I’m told, contains more than 10,000 separate texts.

The Tipitaka was not, however, written during the life of the Buddha, in the late 5th century BCE, but in the 1st century BCE. The texts were kept alive through the years, according to legend, by being memorized and chanted by generations of monks.

Much about early Buddhist history is not well understood, but here is the story generally accepted by Buddhists about how the Pali Tipitaka originated:

THE FIRST BUDDHIST COUNCIL
About three months after the death of the historical Buddha, ca. 480 BCE, 500 of his disciples gathered in Rajagaha, in what is now northeast India. This gathering came to be called the First Buddhist Council. The purpose of the Council was to review the Buddha’s teachings and take steps to preserve them.

The Council was convened by Mahakasyapa, an outstanding student of the Buddha who became leader of the sangha after the Buddha’s death. Mahakasyapa had heard a monk remark that the death of the Buddha meant monks could abandon the rules of discipline and do as they liked. So, the Council’s first order of business was to review the rules of discipline for monks and nuns.

A venerable monk named Upali was acknowledged to have the most complete knowledge of the Buddha’s rules of monastic conduct. Upali presented all of the Buddha’s rules of monastic discipline to the assembly, and his understanding was questioned and discussed by the 500 monks. The assembled monks eventually agreed that Upali’s recitation of the rules was correct, and the rules as Upali remembered them were adopted by the Council.

Then Mahakasyapa called on Ananda, a cousin of the Buddha who had been the Buddha’s closest companion. Ananda was famous for his prodigious memory. Ananda recited all of the Buddha’s sermons from memory, a feat that surely took several weeks. (Ananda began all of his recitations with the words “Thus I have heard,” and so nearly all Buddhist sutras begin with those words.) The Council agreed that Ananda’s recitation was accurate, and the collection of sutras Ananda recited was adopted by the Council.

TWO OF THREE BASKETS
It was from the presentations of Upali and Ananda at the First Buddhist Council that the first two sections, or “baskets,” came into being:

The Vinaya-pitaka, “Basket of Discipline.” This section is attributed to the recitation of Upali. It is a collection of texts concerning the rules of discipline and conduct for monks and nuns. The Vinaya-pitaka not only lists rules but also explains the circumstances that caused the Buddha to make many of the rules. These stories show us much about how the original sangha lived.

The Sutta-pitaka,”Basket of Sutras.” This section is attributed to the recitation of Ananda. It contains thousands of sermons and discourses — sutras (Sanskrit) or suttas (Pali) — attributed to the Buddha and a few of his disciples. This “basket” is further subdivided into five nikayas, or “collections.” Some of the nikayas are further divided into vaggas, or “divisions.”

Although Ananda is said to have recited all of the Buddha’s sermons, some parts of the Khuddaka Nikaya — “collection of little texts” — were not incorporated into the canon until the Third Buddhist Council.

THE THIRD BUDDHIST COUNCIL
According to some accounts, the Third Buddhist Council was convened about 250 BCE to clarify Buddhist doctrine and stop the spread of heresies. (Note that other accounts preserved in some schools record an entirely different Third Buddhist Council.) It was at this council that the entire Pali Canon version of the Tripitaka was recited and adopted in final form, including the third basket. Which is …

The Abhidhamma-pitaka, “Basket of Special Teachings.” This section, also called the Abhidharma-pitaka in Sanskrit, contains commentaries and analyses of the sutras. The Abhidhamma-pitaka explores the psychological and spiritual phenomena described in the suttas and provides a theoretical foundation for understanding them.

Where did the Abhidhamma-pitaka come from? According to legend, the Buddha spent the first few days after his enlightenment formulating the contents of the third basket. Seven years later he preached the teachings of the third section to devas (gods). The only human who heard these teachings was his disciple Sariputra, who passed the teachings on to other monks. These teachings were preserved by chanting and memory, as were the sutras and the rules of discipline.

Historians, of course, think the Abhidhamma was written by one or more anonymous authors sometime later.

Again, note that the Pali “pitakas” are not the only versions. There were other chanting traditions preserving the sutras, the Vinaya and the Abhidharma in Sanskrit. What we have of these today were mostly preserved in Chinese and Tibetan translations and can be found in the Tibetan Canon and Chinese Canon of Mahayana Buddhism.

The Pali Canon appears to be the most complete version of these early texts, although it’s a matter of contention how much the current Pali Canon actually dates to the time of the historical Buddha.

THE TIPITAKA: WRITTEN, AT LAST
The various histories of Buddhism record two Fourth Buddhist Councils, and at one of these, convened in Sri Lanka in the 1st century BCE, the Tripitaka was written out on palm leaves. After centuries of being memorized and chanted, the Pali Canon finally existed as written text.

AND THEN CAME HISTORIANS
Today, it may be safe to say that no two historians agree on how much, if any, of the story of how the Tipitaka originated is true. However, the truth of the teachings has been confirmed and re-confirmed by the many generations of Buddhists who have studied and practiced them.

Buddhism is not a “revealed” religion. Our About.com Guide to Agnosticism / Atheism, Austin Cline, defines revealed religion this way:

“Revealed Religions are those which find their symbolic center in some set of revelations handed down by a god or gods. These revelations are normally contained in the religion’s holy scriptures which, in turn, have been transmitted to the rest of us by specially revered prophets of the god or gods.”

The historical Buddha was a man who challenged his followers to discover the truth for themselves. The sacred writings of Buddhism provide valuable guidance to seekers of truth, but merely believing in what the scriptures say is not the point of Buddhism. As long as the teachings in the Pali Canon are useful, in a way it’s not so important how it came to be written.

Pali Scirptures
Article
The Early Buddhist Scriptures, the Tripitaka
India, Ladakh, Phyang Gompa monastery, young monks (8-9, 10-11, 12-13) sitting cross-legged studying scriptures, side view
Article
Everything You Need to Know About Buddhist Scriptures

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https://www.thoughtco.com/the-sutta-pitaka-450124
The Sutta-pitaka
Earliest Record of the Buddha’s The Sutta-pitaka, or “basket of suttas [sutras],” contains grouped collections of sermons and sayings of the historical Buddha and his chief disciples.There are more than 10,000 suttas in the Sutta-pitaka. It is the second of three sections of the Tipitaka, the earliest Buddhist scripture.

These talks were not written down during the life of the Buddha (ca. 5th century BCE), but were preserved by being memorized and chanted by generations of monks and nuns.

Buddhist legend says that after the Buddha’s death and parinirvana, the Buddha’s disciple Ananada was able to recite all of the Buddha’s sermons from memory. Other monks who heard Ananda’s recitation at the First Buddhist Council confirmed that Ananda’s recitation was accurate, and thus the canon of suttas that became the Sutta-pitaka was born.

Most of the time, when we’re talking about the Sutta-pitaka we’re talking about the Pali version, found in the Pali Tipitika or Pali Canon. Pali is a language closely related to Sanskrit. But Pali was only one of the languages in which the Buddha’s teachings were memorized and chanted. Elsewhere in Asia versions of the same suttas were also being preserved in Sanskrit and other languages, and some were eventually written. (Historians are not sure what language the Buddha himself spoke, but it may have been a dialect closely related to Sanskrit and Pali.) We’ll talk about these other versions, called the agamas, later in this article.

The Pali Tipitika is said to have been first written on palm leaves in Sri Lanka, late in the 1st century BCE. However, the existing physical copies of the Pali Tipitika are not that old. Scholars believe some parts of today’s Pali Tipitka were added long after the 1st century BCE, although exactly what and when is a matter of some dispute.

By comparing texts from different language traditions, and also by examining early Chinese translations, scholars are painstakingly attempting to date the texts in the Pali Tipitika. The ages of the various texts are much disputed, however.

It’s probably the case that we’ll never be absolutely certain how much of the Sutta-pitaka originated with the historical Buddha. But it’s the best record we have of what he taught during his life. The foundational teachings of Buddhism, including the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, were first presented in the Sutta-pitaka.

Today, the Sutta-pitaka is revered and studied primarily by Theravada Buddhists. For the most part, Mahayana Buddhists regard the Sutta-pitaka as historically important, but incomplete. See “Three Turnings of the Dharma Wheel” for more explanation of this point.

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SUTTA-PITAKA
One complication with studying the Sutta-pitaka is that the sermons are not organized chronologically, and for the most part they are not organized by topic. Instead, most are grouped by length in one of five nikayas (collections). The list of nikayas below includes the standard abbreviation used in citing texts:

Digha Nikaya (DN)– the “collection of long discourses”
Majjhima Nikaya (MN) — the “collection of middle-length discourses”
Samyutta Nikaya (SN)– the “collection of connected discourses”
Anguttara Nikaya (AN)– the “collection of further-factored discourses”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts.” (These separate texts have their own abbreviations. For example, the abbreviation for the Dhammapada is Dhp.)
See “A Reader’s Guide to the Sutta-pitaka” for further explanation of how the nikayas are organized.

THE AGAMAS
Early Sanskrit texts that correspond to the nikayas are called the agamas (”sacred works”). Scholars tell us there was never a single “Sanskrit Canon” corresponding to the Pali Canon. Instead, several separate groups of early Buddhists preserved the sermons in Sanskrit. Most of the time the corresponding Sanskrit and Pali texts are very similar but not exactly the same.

2358 Sun 23 Sep 2017 LESSON INSIGHT-NET - FREE Online Tipiṭakaweb

https://tipitakaweb.wordpress.com
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
See also Sutta Index; Translations by Translator
Vin DN MN SN AN KN
SThe of w Dhp Ud Iti Sn Vv Pv Thag Thig Nm Miln
The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community.
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
See also Sutta Index; Translations by Translator
Vin DN MN SN AN KN
Khp Dhp Ud Iti Sn Vv Pv Thag Thig Nm Miln
The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community.
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Jataka
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
Petakopadesa ( ” ” )
Milindapañha ( ” ” )
Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
Petakopadesa ( ” ” )
Milindapañha ( ” ” )
Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.
Tipitaka
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Category: Vinaya
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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
See also Sutta Index; Translations by Translator
Vin DN MN SN AN KN
Khp Dhp Ud Iti Sn Vv Pv Thag Thig Nm Miln
The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community.
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Jataka
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
Petakopadesa ( ” ” )
Milindapañha ( ” ” )
Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.
For further reading

Where can I find a copy of the complete Pali canon (Tipitaka)? (Frequently Asked Question)
Beyond the Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-canonical Pali Literature
Pali Language Study Aids offers links that may be useful to Pali students of every level.
Handbook of Pali Literature, by Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A guide, in dictionary form, through the Pali canon, with detailed descriptions of the major landmarks in the Canon.
An Analysis of the Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). An indispensable “roadmap” and outline of the Pali canon. Contains an excellent index listing suttas by name.
Guide to Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Another excellent outline of the Tipitaka, containing summaries of many important suttas.
Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). A classic handbook of important terms and concepts in Theravada Buddhism.
Creative Commons License ©2005 Access to Insight. The text of this page (”Tipitaka: The Pali Canon”, by Access to Insight) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of the license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Documents linked from this page may be subject to other restrictions. Last revised for Access to Insight on 30 November 2013.
How to cite this document (a suggested style): “Tipitaka: The Pali Canon”, edited by Access to Insight. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November 2013, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html .
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பணமதிப்பழிப்பு நடவடிக்கை : சிக்கியது வெள்ளை ! தப்பியது கருப்பு !!

”கருப்புப் பணத்தின் மீது தொடுக்கப்பட்ட துல்லிய தாக்குதல்” என மெச்சப்பட்ட நரேந்திர மோடி அரசின் பணமதிப்பழிப்பு நடவடிக்கை, சொல்லிக்கொள்ளப்பட்ட அந்த நோக்கத்தில் கடுகளவைக்கூட நிறைவேற்ற முடியாமல், கேவலமான முறையில் படுதோல்வி அடைந்துவிட்டது. ரிசர்வ் வங்கி வெளியிட்டுள்ள 2016 – 17 ஆம் ஆண்டுக்கான பொருளாதார அறிக்கையின் வழியாக இந்த உண்மை வெளியே வந்திருக்கிறது.

பணமதிப்பழிப்பு நடவடிக்கை அறிவிக்கப்பட்ட ஒரு வாரம் கழித்து, அதனை ஆதரித்து உச்ச நீதிமன்றத்தில் வாதாடிய மைய அரசின் தலைமை வழக்குரைஞர் முகுல் ரோத்தகி, ”காஷ்மீரிலும், வடகிழக்கு இந்திய மாநிலங்களிலும் தீவிரவாதத்திற்கு ஆதரவாகப் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டு வரும் 4 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் முதல் 5 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் வரையிலான கருப்புப் பணம் முடக்கப்பட்டுவிடும்” என ஆணித்தரமாக அறிவித்தார்.

இந்திய அரசு வங்கியின் தலைமைப் பொருளாதார ஆலோசகர் நவம்பர் 23, 2016 அன்று வெளியிட்ட அறிக்கையில், ”2.4 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் முதல் 4.8 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் வரையிலான பணம் வங்கிக்குத் திரும்பாது. இந்தப் பணம் முழுவதும் அரசுக்குக் கிடைத்த இலாபமாகக் கருதப்பட்டு, அந்தப் பணம் நாட்டின் அடிக்கட்டுமானப் பணிகள் தொடங்கி பலவற்றிலும் மூலதனமாகப் போடப்படும்” எனக் குறிப்பிட்டிருந்தார்.
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