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September 2019
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2436 Fri 10 Nov 2017 LESSON Tipitaka 1 History of Buddhism in Scotland in 23) Classical English, 80) Classical Scots Gaelic - Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 8:07 pm

2436 Fri 10 Nov 2017 LESSON

1 History of Buddhism in Scotland

in 23) Classical English, 80) Classical Scots Gaelic - Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,

The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”),
or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which
form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and
paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together
constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the
texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the
Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although
only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this
collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the
daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained
monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained
    nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also
    includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a
    detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to
    maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual
Sutta Pitaka
    collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few
    of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of
    Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are
    available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):

        Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
        Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
        Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
        Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
        Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
            Sutta Nipata
            Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
            Petakopadesa (  ”   ”  )
            Milindapañha (  ”   ”  )

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles
    presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a
    systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the
    nature of mind and matter.
The arrival of Buddhism in Scotland is relatively recent. In Scotland
Buddhists represent 0.13% of the population.[1] People were asked both
their current religion and that they were brought up in. 6,830 people
gave Buddhism as their current religion, and 4,704 said they were
brought up in it, with an overlap of 3,146.[2]


1 History of Buddhism in Scotland
2 Samyé Ling
3 Notable Scottish Buddhists
4 See also
5 External links
6 References

History of Buddhism in Scotland

The earliest Buddhist influence on Scotland came through its imperial
connections with South East Asia, and as a result the early connections
were with the Theravada traditions of Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. To
begin with, 150 years ago, this response was primarily scholarly, and a
tradition of study grew up that eventually resulted in the foundation
of the Pali Text Society, which undertook the huge task of translating
the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhist texts into English.
The main stupa at Samyé Ling monastery in Scotland

The rate of growth was slow but steady through the century, and the
1950s saw the development of interest in Zen Buddhism. In 1967 Kagyu
Samyé Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre was founded by Tibetan lamas and
refugees Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche and Akong Rinpoche. It is in
Eskdalemuir, in south west Scotland and is the largest Tibetan Buddhist
centre in Western Europe, and part of the Karma Kagyu tradition.

As well there are other Buddhism-based new religious movements such as
the New Kadampa Tradition, Triratna Buddhist Community and Sōka Gakkai
International. The Triratna community maintains a retreat centre at
Balquhidder in the Trossachs.
Samyé Ling

Kagyu Samyé Ling
Monastery and Tibetan Centre monastery—founded in 1967[3]—includes the
largest Buddhist temple in western Europe. There is an associated
community on Holy Isle which is owned by Samyé Ling who belong to the
Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. The settlements on the island include
the Centre for World Peace and Health and a retreat centre for nuns.
Samyé Ling has also established centres in more than 20 countries,
including Belgium, Ireland, Poland, South Africa, Spain and
Notable Scottish Buddhists

Stephen Batchelor
Alex Ferns
Rupert Gethin
Ajahn Candasiri
See also

Holy Isle, Firth of Clyde
Buddhism in the United Kingdom
Buddhism by country
Demographics of Scotland
British Asian
New Scots
External links

Edinburgh Drikung Kagyu Sangha
Edinburgh Buddhist Centre (FWBO)
Scotland - List of Buddhist groups in Scotland
Portobello Buddhist Priory (OBC)
Edinburgh Theravadan Buddhists
Scottish Wild Geese Sangha (COI)
Diamond Way Buddhism
Scotland’s Census 2001: the Registrar-General’s Report to the Scottish
Parliament, General Register Office for Scotland, 2003, page 31
Kate Rew (2010-01-15). “Scotland’s Buddhist retreat”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
In the Scottish Lowlands, Europe’s first Buddhist monastery turns 40 Retrieved 24 June 2007.

The entire wikipedia with video and photo galleries for each article. Find something interesting to watch in seconds.

Gar Trinley Yongkhyab Ling

A Vajrayana Buddhist group in Scotland following the Drikung Kagyu
lineage and the enlightened vision of His Eminence Garchen Triptrul


Inline image 1Inline image 2Inline image 3Inline image 4Inline image 5


Gar Trinley Yongkhyab Ling is a Vajrayana Buddhist group in Scotland,
following the Drikung Kagyu lineage and the enlightened vision of His
Eminence Garchen Rinpoche.

Under the spiritual direction of Venerable Dorzin Dhondrup Rinpoche, we are based in Edinburgh and we meet twice a month.

We look forward to meeting you!

Vajrayana Buddhist group in Scotland following the Drikung Kagyu
lineage and the enlightened vision of His Eminence Garchen Triptrul

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Religion in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Religion in Scotland includes all forms of religious organisation and practice. Christianity is the largest faith in Scotland. In the 2011 census,
53.8% of the Scottish population identified as Christian (declining
from 65.1% in 2001) when asked: “What religion, religious denomination
or body do you belong to?”. The Church of Scotland, a
1. The ninth century St Martin’s Cross, in front of Iona Abbey, the site of one of the most important religious centres in Scotland   2. John Knox, a key figure in the Scottish Reformation   3. The Disruption Assembly, painted by David Octavius Hill   4. Stained glass showing the burning bush and the motto “nec tamen consumebatur”, St. Mungo’s Cathedral, Glasgow.  
Roman Catholicism in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Catholic Church in Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Chaitligeach; Scots: Catholic Kirk), overseen by the Scottish Bishops’ Conference, is part of the worldwide Catholic Church headed by the Pope. After being firmly established in Scotland for nearly a millennium, the Catholic Church was outlawed following the Scottish Reformation in 1560.
1. St. Andrew’s Cathedral in Glasgow, seat of the Archbishop of Glasgow   2. An illuminated page from the Book of Kells, which may have been produced at Iona around 800   3. The hanging of John Ogilvie   4. The college at Scalan in July 2007  
Church of Scotland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Church of Scotland (Scots: The Scots Kirk, Scottish Gaelic: Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. Protestant and Presbyterian,
its longstanding decision to respect “liberty of opinion in points
which do not enter into the substance of the Faith” means it is tolerant
of a
1. John Knox, who in 1559 returned from ministering in Geneva to lead the Reformation in Scotland.   2. The Burning Bush emblem of the Church of Scotland, above the entrance to the Church Offices in Edinburgh   3. Church of Scotland Offices, George Street, Edinburgh 2013   4. Older rectangular logo of the Church of Scotland.  
Free Church of Scotland (since 1900) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor, Scots: Free Kirk o Scotland) is an Evangelical and Reformed Presbyterian denomination in Scotland. Historically it comprised that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. It remains a distinct
1. Free Church in Poolewe   2. Free Church in Coll.   3. Free Church in Kilmaluag on Skye  
Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Leantainneach) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination which was formed in January 2000. It claims to be the true continuation of the Free Church of Scotland, hence its name. — Formation — In 1996, Professor Donald Macleod, later to be principal of the Free Church College in
1. The FCC church building in Staffin.  
Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Chlèireach) was formed in 1893 and claims to be the spiritual descendant of the Scottish Reformation:
its web-site states that it is ‘the constitutional heir of the historic
Church of Scotland’. It is occasionally referred to by the pejorative term the Wee Wee Frees (as
1. Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, Glendale   2. A communion token from the Free Presbyterian Church.  
Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland is a Christian denomination. It is the original church of the Reformed PresbyterianPresbyterianPresbyterian
tradition (commonly known as the RP’s). The RPCS formed in 1690 when
its members declined to be part of the establishment of the Church of
Scotland. In 1876 the vast majority of
1. The National Covenant of 1638 in Edinburgh’s Huntly House Museum. Believed to be the original from which copies were made.  
Associated Presbyterian Churches [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Associated Presbyterian Churches (APC) is a Scottish Christian denomination (with a congregation in Canada), formed in 1989 from part of the community of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland. — History — The division occurred because of a continuing difference over liberty of conscience (as defined in the Westminster Confession of Faith),
1. The APC church building in Stornoway.  
Scottish Episcopal Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Scottish Gaelic: Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland. The church has since the 18th century held an identity distinct from that of the (Presbyterian) Church of Scotland. — A continuation of the Church of Scotland as it was
1. St Ninian’s Cathedral, Perth   2. The death of Charles Stuart led to better conditions for church growth   3. Portrait of James VI by John de Critz, circa 1606   4. Map of the dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church  
Orthodox Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Eastern Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church,
with over 250 million members. As one of the oldest religious
institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history
and culture of Eastern Europe, and the Near East,
1. The oldest known icon of Christ Pantocrator, encaustic on panel, Saint Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai Peninsula   2. Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic. Hagia Sophia, c. 1000).   3. An icon of Saint John the Baptist, 14th century, Republic of Macedonia   4. The exterior of the Patriarchal Basilica of St. George, of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, located in the Fener (Fanari) district of Istanbul.  
Methodist Church of Great Britain [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Methodist Church of Great Britain (formally known simply as the Methodist Church) is the fourth-largest Christian denomination in Britain and the mother church to Methodists worldwide. It participates in the World Methodist Council, the World Council of Churches and other ecumenical associations. — Methodism began primarily through the work of
1. Wesley Memorial Church in Oxford, the city where the Wesley brothers studied and formed the “Holy Club”.   2. Wesley’s Chapel was established by John Wesley in 1778 to serve as his London base. Today it incorporates a museum of Methodism in its crypt.   3. John Wesley preaching outside a church. A 19th century engraving. Methodists were forbidden from preaching in parish churches.   4. Hugh Price Hughes, editor and orator, encouraged Methodists to support the more moralistic Liberal Party.  
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
As of January 1, 2009, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reported 26,536 members in five stakes, 41 congregations (27 wards, 14 branches), one mission, and no temples
in Scotland. The 2011 government census had 4,651. Since Scottish
population tends to be thinly scattered over most of the country, and
concentrated in a few small
1. Arthur’s Seat from Edinburgh Castle   2. Stornoway branch.   3. Eilley Bowers  
Salvation Army [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian movement and an international charitable organization structured in a quasi-military fashion.
The organisation reports a worldwide membership of over 1.5 million,
consisting of soldiers, officers and adherents known as Salvationists.
Its founders Catherine and William Booth sought to bring salvation to
1. The Salvation Army founders, Catherine and William Booth   2. Women’s dormitories operated by The Salvation Army, Washington, D.C. c. 1920   3. The monument to the Salvation Army in Kensico Cemetery   4. The Salvation Army red shield logo, displayed on the side of a night shelter in Geneva, Switzerland.  
Scottish Reformation [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook. It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation that took place from the sixteenth century. — From the late fifteenth century the ideas of Renaissance
1. Statue of John Knox, a leading figure of the Scottish Reformation.   2. Henry Wardlaw (died 1440), Bishop of St Andrews, royal tutor and adviser, founder of The University of St Andrews and key figure in fighting Lollardy   3. A
mid-16th-century oak panel carving from a house in Dundee. It is an
example of art lost in the iconoclasm of the Reformation.   4. The Martyrs’ Monument at Saint Andrews commemorates Protestants executed before the Reformation, including Hamilton and Wishart.  
Islam in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Islam in Scotland includes all aspects of the Islamic faith in Scotland. The first Muslim known to have been in Scotland was a medical student who studied at the University of Edinburgh from 1858 to 1859. The production of goods and Glasgow’s busy port meant that many lascars were employed there. Most Muslims in Scotland are members of families
1. Edinburgh Central Mosque   2. Glasgow Central Mosque is the largest Sunni mosque in Glasgow   3. Dundee Central Mosque  
History of the Jews in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. It is possible that Jews visited Scotland at the time of the Roman Empire’s conquest of southern Britain,
but there are no records of this. The earliest concrete historical
references to Jews in Scotland are from the late 17th century. The vast
majority of Scottish Jews today are
1. Garnethill Synagogue in Glasgow.   2. The old Jewish burial ground in Edinburgh dates from 1813   3. Memorial to Edinburgh’s Jews who died fighting in the world wars   4. The Edinburgh Synagogue in the Newington district of the city  
Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland (Scots: [ˈskɔt.lənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] (listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
1. Scara Brae. A Neolithic settlement, located on the west coast of Mainland, Orkney.   2. The class I Pictish stone at Aberlemno known as Aberlemno 1 or the Serpent Stone   3. The Wallace Monument commemorates William Wallace, the 13th-century Scottish hero.   4. James VI succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.  
Buddhism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Buddhism ( or ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia,
1. Standing Buddha statue at the Tokyo National Museum. One of the earliest known representations of the Buddha, 1st–2nd century CE.   2. ”The Great Departure”, relic depicting Gautama leaving home, first or second century (Musée Guimet)   3. Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, where the Buddha gave his first sermon. It was built by Ashoka.   4. Buddha statue depicting Parinirvana (Mahaparinirvana Temple, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India)  
South East Asia [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and Pacific Ocean, and to the south by
1. A megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra. 1500 CE   2. Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC   3. Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia   4. Kampung Laut Mosque in Tumpat is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia, dating to the early 18th century.  
Theravada [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Theravāda (Pali, literally “school of the elder monks“) is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha’s teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core. The Pali canon is the only complete Buddhist canon which survives in a classical Indic Language, Pali, which serves as the sacred language and lingua franca of Theravada Buddhism.
1. Map showing the three major Buddhist divisions.   2. Ashoka and Moggaliputta-Tissa at the Third Council, at the Nava Jetavana, Shravasti   3. Sanghamitta and the Bodhi Tree   4. Mihintale, the traditional location of Devanampiya Tissa’s conversion  
Burma [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Myanmar (Burmese pronunciation: [mjəmà]), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar’s total perimeter of 5,876
1. Pagodas and kyaungs in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Pagan Kingdom.   2. Temples at Mrauk U.   3. A British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda shows British occupation during the First Anglo-Burmese War.   4. The landing of British forces in Mandalay after the last of the Anglo-Burmese Wars, which resulted in the abdication of the last Burmese monarch, King Thibaw Min.  
Thailand [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Thailand (TY-land), officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world’s 50th-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 69 million people.
1. The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram at Ayutthaya   2. Siamese envoys presenting letter to Pope Innocent XI, 1688   3. Bangkok’s Democracy Monument: a representation of the 1932 Constitution sits on top of two golden offering bowls above a turret.   4. Royal Thai Embassy in Washington, D.C.  
Sri Lanka [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Sri Lanka (or (listen); Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Laṃkā, Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located southeast of India and northeast of the Maldives. — The island is home to many cultures, languages and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the
1. Sculpture of reclining Buddha at Dambulla cave temple, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1991.   2. Ptolemy’s world map of Ceylon, first century CE, in a 1535 publication.   3. The Sigiriya rock fortress.   4. A Buddhist statue in the ancient capital city of Polonnaruwa, 12th century  
Pali Canon [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Pāli Canon (Pali: Tipitaka, Sanskrit: IAST: Tripiṭaka) is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language. It is the first known and most-complete extant early Buddhist canon. — It was composed in North India and was preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the
1. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon   2. In pre-modern times the Pali Canon was not published in book form, but written on thin slices of wood (Palm-leaf manuscript or Bamboo). The leaves are kept on top of each other by thin sticks and the scripture is covered in cloth and kept in a box.   3. Burmese-Pali manuscript copy of the Buddhist text Mahaniddesa, showing three different types of Burmese script, (top) medium square, (centre) round and (bottom) outline round in red lacquer from the inside of one of the gilded covers  
Kagyu Samyé Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre is a Tibetan Buddhist complex associated with the Karma Kagyu school located at Eskdalemuir, near Langholm, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. — History — Before the present Temple complex was built, Samye Ling centred on just one building, a former hunting lodge called Johnstone House. In 1965 the
1. The main temple building at Samye Ling   2. Samye Ling Temple with Sangha and Abbot Lama Yeshe Losal Rinpoche leading prayers.  
Zen Buddhism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Zen (Chinese: 禪; pinyin: Chán; Korean: 선) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism. Zen school was strongly influenced by Taoism and developed as a distinct school of Chinese Buddhism. From China, Chan Buddhism spread south to Vietnam, northeast to Korea and east to Japan, where it became
1. Bodhidharma and Dazu Huike, the first two Zen patriarchs   2. Venerable Hsuan Hua meditating in the Lotus Position. Hong Kong, 1953.   3. Japanese buddhist monk from the Sōtō Zen sect   4. Bodhidharma. Woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887.  
Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Chögyam Trungpa (Wylie: Chos rgyam Drung pa; March 5, 1939 – April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master and holder of both the Kagyu and Nyingma lineages, the eleventh Trungpa tülku, a tertön, supreme abbot of the Surmang monasteries, scholar, teacher, poet, artist, and originator of a radical re-presentation of Shambhala vision. — Recognized
1. Chögyam Trungpa before 1959   2. Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche  
Akong Rinpoche [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Chöje Akong Tulku Rinpoche (25 December 1939 – 8 October 2013) was a tulku in the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism and a founder of the Samye Ling Monastery in Scotland. — Early life — He was born in 1939, near Riwoche 31°12′41.76″N 96°36′0.89″E in Kham, Eastern Tibet. At the age of two he was discovered by the search party seeking the reincarnation
1. Akong Rinpoche at his 65th Birthday celebration in 2005   2. Akong Rinpoche and Tsultrim Zangmo in 2011   3. Lea and Veit Wyler with Akong Rinpoche- the three founders of ROKPA International  
Eskdalemuir [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Eskdalemuir is a civil parish and small village in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, with a population of 265. It is sited around 10 miles north-west of Langholm and 10 miles north-east of Lockerbie. — The area consists of high wet moorlands chiefly used for sheep grazing and forestry plantation. The main settlement is located near to the White Esk
2. Eskdalemuir parish church  
Tibetan Buddhism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist Vajrayana doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia. It derives from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism and preserves “the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India.” It has been spread outside of Tibet,
1. Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kangyur   2. A sand mandala   3. The Vajrayāna deity, Vajrasattva   4. “Precious Pagoda of the Buddhist Relics of the Diamond Throne”,A Tibetan Buddhism Temple for Mongols  
Karma Kagyu [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Kagyu (Tibetan: ཀརྨ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད, Wylie: karma bka’-brgyud), or Kamtsang
Kagyu (Tibetan: ཀརྨ་ཀཾ་ཚང་, Wylie: kar+ma kaM tshang), is probably the
2nd largest and certainly the most widely practiced lineage within the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The lineage has long-standing monasteries in Tibet, China,
New religious movements [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual
group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place
within its society’s dominant religious culture. NRMs can be novel in
origin or part of a wider religion, in which case they are distinct from
1. A member of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness proselytising on the streets of Moscow, Russia   2.  1893 Parliament of the World’s Religions   3. Practitioners of Falun Dafa perform spiritual exercises in Guangzhou, China.   4. A Rasta man wearing symbols of his religious identity in Barbados  
New Kadampa Tradition [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The New Kadampa Tradition – International Kadampa Buddhist Union (NKT—IKBU) is a global Buddhist new religious movement founded by Kelsang Gyatso in England in 1991. In 2003 the words “International Kadampa Buddhist Union” (IKBU) were added to the original name “New Kadampa Tradition”. The NKT-IKBU is an international organization registered in
1. Je Tsongkhapa (Tsong-kha-pa), founder of the Gelug school, in the fifth vision of Khedrub Jey (Mkhas-’grub)  
Sōka Gakkai International [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Soka Gakkai International (SGI—”Value Creation Association International”) is an international Nichiren Buddhist organization founded in 1975 by Daisaku Ikeda.
The SGI is the world’s largest Buddhist lay organization, with
approximately 12 million Nichiren Buddhist practitioners in 192
countries and regions. It characterizes itself as a
1. An SGI center in Chicago   2. SGI’s 25th anniversary was celebrated by Uruguay with a commemorative stamp   3. Evening view of an SGI Center in Milan, Italy   4. The Taplow Court SGI centre in Buckinghamshire, England  
Balquhidder [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Balquhidder ((listen); Scottish Gaelic: Both Chuidir or Both Phuidir [ˌpɔˈxutʲɪɾʲ]) is a small village in the Stirling council area of Scotland. It is overlooked by the dramatic mountain terrain of the Braes of Balquhidder, at the head of Loch Voil. Balquhidder Glen is also popular for fishing, nature watching and walking. The village’s railway
1. Rob Roy’s Grave.Postcard c.1910-1920   2. Portrait engraving of Rob Roy circa 1820s  
Trossachs [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Trossachs (listen ; Scottish Gaelic, Na Tròiseachan) is a small woodland glen in the Stirling council area of Scotland. It lies between Ben A’an to the north and Ben Venue to the south, with Loch Katrine to the west and Loch Achray to the east. However, the name is used generally to refer to the wider area of wooded glens and braes with quiet
1. A loch in the Trossachs   2. John Ruskin painted at Glenfinlas in the Trossachs by John Everett Millais in 1853–54   3. Engraving of a view of the Trossachs by James Fittler in Scotia Depicta, published 1804   4. An overlook viewing the forested eastern end of Loch Katrine  
Holy Isle, Firth of Clyde [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Holy Isle (Scottish Gaelic: Eilean MoLaise) is one of a number of islands in the United Kingdom which go under the name “Holy Island”. It is located in the Firth of Clyde off the west coast of central Scotland, inside Lamlash Bay on the larger island of Arran. The island is around 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) long and around 1 kilometre (0.6 mi)
1. Holy Isle from Lamlash   2. Holy Isle Outer Lighthouse   3. Holy Isle Inner Lighthouse  
Kagyu [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Kagyu, Kagyü, or Kagyud (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད།, Wylie: bka’ brgyud)
school, also known as the “Oral Lineage” or Whispered Transmission
school, is today regarded as one of six main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism. The central teaching of Kagyu is the doctrine of Mahamudra, “the Great Seal”. — The early Kagyu tradition soon
1. Tilopa   2. Marpa   3. Drikung Monastery  
Belgium [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
((listen)), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in
Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and the North Sea.
It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528
square kilometres (11,787 sq mi) and has a population of about 11
million people. Straddling the cultural
1. Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834), by Gustaf Wappers   2. A relief map of Belgium   3. Polders along the Yser river   4. The Belgian Federal Parliament in Brussels, one of six different governments of the country  
Ireland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Ireland ((listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George’s Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth
1. Satellite image of Ireland, October 2010   2. The Uragh Stone Circle, a Neolithic stone circle in Tuosist, close to Gleninchaquin Park, County Kerry   3. Gallarus Oratory, one of the earliest churches built in Ireland   4. Remains of the 12th-century Trim Castle in County Meath, the largest Norman castle in Ireland  
Poland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Poland (Polish: Polska [ˈpɔlska] (listen)), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska, listen ), is a sovereign country in Central Europe. It is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi) with a mostly continental climate. With a population of
1. Reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, c. 700 BC   2. Earliest known contemporary depiction of a Polish ruler. King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland, who ruled between 1025 and 1031, being presented with a Liturgical book by Matilda of Swabia.   3. Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.   4. Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596. The royal residence is an example of early Renaissance architecture in Poland.  
South Africa [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded on the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; on the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and on the east and
1. Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe   2. Charles Davidson Bell’s 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in 1652.   3. Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838   4. ”For use by white persons” – apartheid sign  
Switzerland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Switzerland , officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.
1. The 1291 Bundesbrief (Federal charter)   2. The
Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century
(light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours are shown
the subject territories.   3. The Act of Mediation was Napoleon’s attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.   4. Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time  
Spain [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Spain (Spanish: España [esˈpaɲa] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with two large archipelagoes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands off the North African Atlantic coast, two cities, Ceuta and Melilla
1. Lady of Elche   2. Celtic castro in Galicia   3. Toledo, capital of the Visigothic Kingdom   4. Reccared I and bishops. Council III of Toledo, 589. Codex Vigilanus, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial.  
Stephen Batchelor (author) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Stephen Batchelor (born 7 April 1953) is a British
author, teacher, and scholar, writing books and articles on Buddhist
topics and leading meditation retreats throughout the world. He is a
noted proponent of agnostic or secular Buddhism. — Biography — Batchelor was born in Dundee, Scotland in 1953. When he was three, his family relocated briefly to
1. Stephen Batchelor at Upaya Zen Center in New Mexico  
Buddhism in the United Kingdom [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
in the United Kingdom has a small but growing number of supporters
which, according to a Buddhist organisation, is mainly because of the
result of conversion. In the UK census for 2011, there were about
178,000 people who registered their religion as Buddhism, and about
174,000 who cited religions other than Christianity, Buddhism,
1. Thomas William Rhys Davids, founder of the Pali Text Society.  
Demographics of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
demography of Scotland includes all aspects of population, past and
present, in the area that is now Scotland. Scotland has a population of
5,295,000 (first results of 2011 Census). The population growth rate in
2011 was estimated as 0.6% per annum according to the 2011 GROS Annual
Review. — Covering an area of 78,782 square kilometres (30,418
1. Map of population density in Scotland at the 2011 census   2. Stone houses at Knap of Howar, evidence of a settled agricultural population and the beginnings of demographic growth, c. 3500 BC   3. People on Buchanan Street in Glasgow. Scotland’s population is getting older as many baby boomers approach retirement.  
British Asian [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian
British people or Asian Britons) are persons of Asian descent who reside
in the United Kingdom. In British English usage, the term Asians usually refers to people with roots in South Asia, essentially the Indian subcontinent. — Prior to the formation of the United Kingdom,
1. Allamah Muhammad Iqbal, who studied in England, played an influential role in South Asian politics   2. ArcelorMittal Orbit, London Olympic Park, designated by the Indian Anish Kapoor.   3. Amir Khan (left), with American boxer Paulie Malignaggi (right).   4. Shazia Mirza is a popular British comedian.  
Asian-Scots [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
|pop = 86,000 (2011 Census) |regions = Greater Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee |langs = |rels = Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism |related-c = British Asian }} — Asian-Scots or Scottish Asians is a term used for people of South Asian ancestry who were born and/or raised in Scotland. Their parents or grandparents are normally South Asia immigrants. Many of them
1. Humza Yousaf   2. Anas Sarwar   3. Hanzala Malik   4. Angela Malik  
History of Christianity in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
history of Christianity in Scotland includes all aspects of the
Christianity in the region that is now Scotland from its introduction to
the present day. Christianity was probably introduced to what is now
southern Scotland during the Roman occupation of Britain. It was mainly spread by missionaries from Ireland from the fifth century and is
1. The ruins of the Cathedral of St Andrew in St Andrews, Fife   2. Schottenportal at the Scottish Monastery, Ratisbon   3. Dundrennan Abbey, one of the new continental monasteries founded in the 12th century.   4. Bishoprics in Medieval Scotland.  
Celtic polytheism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age. — Celtic polytheism was
1. Three Celtic goddesses, as depicted at Coventina’s well.   2. Image of a “horned” (actually antlered) figure on the Gundestrup cauldron, interpreted by many archaeologists as being cognate to the god Cernunnos.   3. A reconstructed Celtic burial mound near Eberdingen, Germany. Such burials were reserved for the influential and wealthy in Celtic society.   4. An 18th century illustration of a wicker man,
a form of human sacrifice that Caesar alleged the Druids, or Celtic
priesthood, performed, though no archaeological evidence has been
uncovered to support this.  
The Guardian [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and the Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The Trust was created in 1936 “to secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in
1. The Guardian front page on 6 June 2014   2. Manchester Guardian Prospectus, 1821   3. First Gulf War Plaque, Stafford War Memorial   4. Front
page of The Guardian from 2001, showing the old design of the paper
when in broadsheet format. This design was used from 1988-2005  
Christianity in Medieval Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Christianity in Medieval Scotland includes all aspects of Christianity in the modern borders of Scotland in the Middle Ages. Christianity was probably introduced to what is now Lowland Scotland by Roman soldiers stationed in the north of the province of Britannia. After the collapse of Roman authority in the fifth century, Christianity is
1. The Class II Kirkyard stone c. 800 AD from Aberlemno   2. The “Roman” tonsure: in the Irish tradition the hair above the forehead was shaved   3. A coin of Olav Tryggvasson, who is credited with the Christianisation of the Northern Isles   4. The fifteenth-century Trinity Altarpiece by Flemish artist Hugo van der Goes.  
Scottish religion in the seventeenth century [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish religion in the seventeenth century includes all forms of religious organisation and belief in the Kingdom of Scotland
in the seventeenth century. During the sixteenth century, Scotland had
undergone a Protestant Reformation that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk, which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook. James VI
1. Scottish Protestant at prayer. A statue in Culross Abbey   2. John Knox   3. The riots set off by Jenny Geddes in St Giles Cathedral that led to the Bishops’ Wars   4. Solemn League and Covenant 1643  
Scottish religion in the eighteenth century [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
religion in the eighteenth century includes all forms of religious
organisation and belief in Scotland in the eighteenth century. This
period saw the beginnings of a fragmentation of the Church of Scotland that had been created in the Reformation and established on a fully Presbyterian basis after the Glorious Revolution. These fractures
1. Scottish minister and his congregation, c. 1750   2. William Robertson, Principal of the University of Edinburgh and leading figure in the Moderate Party   3. Ebenezer Erskine, the leading figure of the First Secessionist Church   4. John Paterson, the last bishop of Glasgow and a non-juror  
Scottish religion in the nineteenth century [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
religion in the nineteenth century includes all forms of religious
organisation and belief in Scotland in the nineteenth century. This
period saw a reaction to the population growth and urbanisation of the Industrial Revolution that had undermined traditional parochial structures and religious loyalties. The established Church of
1. The statue of Thomas Chalmers in Edinburgh   2. Henry John Dobson’s A Scottish Sacrament   3. New College, Edinburgh, opened in 1844 and moved to its current site on completion in 1850   4. Wellington Church, Glasgow, built for the United Presbyterian Church in 1883-84 by the architect Thomas Lennox Watson  
Christianisation of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Christianisation of Scotland was the process by which Christianity spread in what is now Scotland, which took place principally between the fifth and tenth centuries. — Christianity was probably introduced to what is now Lowland Scotland by Roman soldiers stationed in the north of the province of Britannia. After the collapse of Roman authority
1. The “Cernunnos” type antlered figure on the Gundestrup Cauldron found in Denmark   2. A nineteenth-century painting, showing the traditional, dramatic role of St. Columba in the conversion   3. Benedict Biscop, founder of two monasteries and one of the key figures in the adoption of Roman Authority in Northumbria   4. St. John’s cross which stood outside Iona Abbey  
Covenanter [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland,
during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their
history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the
ideas and traditions in Scotland and
1. An illegal conventicle. Covenanters in a Glen, painting by Alexander Carse.   2. Greyfriars Kirkyard where the National Covenant was signed in 1638   3. The Signing of the National Covenant in Greyfriars Kirkyard, by William Allan.   4. Edinburgh’s copy of the National Covenant  
Westminster Confession of Faith [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith. Drawn up by the 1646 Westminster Assembly as part of the Westminster Standards to be a confession of the Church of England, it became and remains the “subordinate standard” of doctrine in the Church of Scotland and has been influential within Presbyterian churches worldwide. — In
1. Title page of a 1647 printing of the Confession  
Glorious Revolution in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Glorious Revolution in Scotland was part of a wider series of political
disputes in England, Scotland and Ireland collectively known as the Glorious Revolution or Revolution of 1688. It covers events between 1688-90 relating to the deposition of James VII of Scotland and II of England, his replacement by his daughter Mary and her husband
1. James VII of Scotland (and II of England), who was deposed in 1688   2. James II portrayed c. 1685 in his role as Army Commander   3. William III and Mary II depicted on the ceiling of the Painted Hall, Greenwich.   4. Parliament House, where the Convention of Estates met in March 1689  
Marrow Controversy [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Marrow Controversy was a Scottish
ecclesiastical dispute occasioned by the republication in 1718 of The
Marrow of Modern Divinity (originally published in two parts in London in 1645 and 1649 by “E. F.”, generally believed to be a pseudonym for Edward Fisher, a lay theologian of the seventeenth century). The work consists of religious
1. Thomas Boston  
First Secession [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The First Secession was an exodus of ministers and members from the Church of Scotland in 1733. Those who took part formed the Associate Presbytery and later the United Secession Church. They were often referred to as seceders. — The First Secession arose out of an Act of the General Assembly of 1732, which was passed despite the disapproval of the
1. Ebenezer Erskine statue in the Old Town Cemetery, Stirling  
Disruption of 1843 [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Disruption of 1843 was a schism or division within the established Church of Scotland,
in which 450 evangelical ministers of the Church broke away, over the
issue of the Church’s relationship with the State, to form the Free Church of Scotland. It came at the end of a bitter conflict within the established Church, and had huge effects not
1. Parishioners
walk out of church in protest at the unpopular appointment of a
minister in the parish of Marnoch, Strathbogie in 1841.   2. St Andrew’s Church, Edinburgh, scene of the Disruption   3. The 1843 deed of demission   4. New College, on the Mound  
Catholic emancipation [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws. Requirements to abjure (renounce) the temporal and
1. The first commemorative postage stamps of Ireland, issued in 1929, commemorate the Roman Catholic Relief Act of 1829 with a portrait of Daniel O’Connell.   2. Satirical cartoon by William Heath, showing Wellington and Peel extinguishing the Constitution for Catholic Emancipation.   3. Daniel O’Connell  
Evangelical revival in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
evangelical revival in Scotland was a series of religious movements in
Scotland from the eighteenth century, with periodic revivals into the
twentieth century. It began in the later 1730s as congregations
experienced intense “awakenings” of enthusiasm, renewed commitment and
rapid expansion. This was first seen at Easter Ross in the Highlands
1. George Whitefield preaching at Cambuslang in 1742   2. John Erskine, leading figure in the movement in the late eighteenth century   3. John Wesley, who visited Scotland over 20 times   4. Scalloway Methodist Church, Shetland, one of the areas where Methodism put down extensive roots  
Scottish Protestant missions [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish Protestant missions are organised programmes of outreach and conversion undertaken by Protestant denominations within Scotland, or by Scottish people. Long after the triumph of the Church of Scotland in the Lowlands, Highlanders and Islanders clung to a form of Christianity infused with animistic folk beliefs and practices. From 1708 the
1. David Livingstone preaching from a wagon in one of the illustrations that were used at home to relate missionary work to audiences in Britain   2. James Haldane, retired sea captain and founder of the non-denominational Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home   3. David Nasmith founder of the first City Mission   4. Map of Church of Scotland Mission Fields, late nineteenth century  
Church music in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Church music in Scotland includes all musical composition and performance of music in the context of Christian worship in Scotland, from the beginnings of Christianisation in the fifth century, to the present day. The sources for Scottish Medieval music are extremely limited due to factors including a turbulent political history, the destructive
1. The pipe organ at the Episcopalian Cathedral of St Mary in Edinburgh   2. Detail from the “Trinity Altarpiece” by Hugo van der Goes.   3. The Chapel Royal, Stirling Castle, a major focus for liturgical music   4. A reprint of the 1600 cover of The Gude and Godlie Ballatis  
History of popular religion in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
history of popular religion in Scotland includes all forms of religion
outwith the formal theology and structures of institutional religion,
between the earliest times of human occupation of what is now Scotland
and the present day. Very little is known about religion in Scotland
before the arrival of Christianity. It is generally presumed to
1. Remains of a chapel on Eileach an Naoimh   2. The North Berwick Witches meet the Devil in the local kirkyard, from a contemporary pamphlet, Newes From Scotland   3. The Bible of William Hannay of Tundergarth, a Covenanter during the period of the “Killing Time“   4. A Scottish communion token from 1750  
United Reformed Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian church in the United Kingdom.
It has approximately 56,000 members in 1,400 congregations with 608
active ministers, including 13 church related community workers. — Origins and history — The United Reformed Church resulted from the 1972 union of the Presbyterian Church of England and the
1. Lesslie Newbigin was Moderator of the General Assembly of the URC in 1978/1979.   2. The General Assembly of the United Reformed Church meeting in Cardiff, July 2014   3. Over United Reformed Church, Winsford, Cheshire  
Anti-Burgher [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Anti-Burghers were opponents of the Burgher Oath on theological grounds. — In 1733 the First Secession from the Church of Scotland
resulted in the creation of the “Associate Presbytery”. This church
split in 1747 over the issue of the Burgher Oath, which required holders
of public offices to affirm approval of the religion “presently
1. Timeline showing the evolution of the churches of Scotland from 1560  
Catholic Apostolic Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
the 1940s, a movement to restore ancient Christianity in Britain and
the West used the name “Catholic Apostolic Church (Catholicate of the
West)”. For this use, see Ancient British Church, British Orthodox Church, Celtic Orthodox Church, and ecumenical apostolic succession. — The Catholic Apostolic Church was a religious movement which
1. Church of Christ the King, Bloomsbury   2. James Haldane Stewart   3. Scheme of several Apostolic Churches inside and outside the Netherlands from 1830 until 2005. Click on the image to enlarge.   4. Phoebe Traquair’s murals, Catholic Apostolic Church murals, Edinburgh (east end)  
David Dale [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Dale (1739–1806) was a leading Scottish industrialist, merchant and
philanthropist during the Scottish Enlightenment period at the end of
the 18th century. He was a successful entrepreneur in a number of areas,
most notably in the cotton-spinning industry and was the founder of the
world famous cotton mills in New Lanark, where he provided
Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843. In 1900 the vast majority of the Free Church of Scotland joined with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland to form the
2. Thomas Chalmers, the Free Church’s first Moderator  
Glasite [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Glasites or Glassites were a small Christian church founded in about 1730 in Scotland by John Glas. Glas’s faith, as part of the First Great Awakening, was spread by his son-in-law Robert Sandeman into England and America, where the members were called Sandemanians. — Glas dissented from the Westminster Confession only in his views as to the
1. Glasite Meeting House, Perth, Scotland   2. Sandemanian graveyard, Gayle, Yorkshire   3. 2009 photo of Glasite Church building in Dundee.   4. Barnsbury Grove, Islington. 2008 photo of a 19th-century Sandemanian meeting house.  
United Presbyterian Church (Scotland) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (1847–1900) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination. It was formed in 1847 by the union of the United Secession Church and the Relief Church, and in 1900 merged with the Free Church of Scotland to form the United Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. For most
1. The former United Presbyterian church in Paisley.  
History of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The history of Scotland is known to have begun by the end of the last glacial period (in the paleolithic), roughly 10,000 years ago. Prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BCE, the Bronze Age about 2000 BCE, and the Iron Age around 700 BCE. Scotland’s recorded history began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st
2. Clach an Tiompain, a Pictish symbol stone in Strathpeffer   3. Scotland from the Matthew Paris map, c. 1250   4. King
Alexander III of Scotland on the left with Llywelyn, Prince of Wales on
the right as guests to King Edward I of England at the sitting of an
English parliament.  
Prehistoric Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history.
Successive human cultures tended to be spread across Europe or further
afield, but focusing on this particular geographical area sheds light on
the origin of the
1. Neolithic dwellings at Skara Brae, Orkney   2. Bronze-age burial cist, Cairnpapple West Lothian   3. Traprain Law, East Lothian  
Scotland during the Roman Empire [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland during the Roman Empire refers to the protohistorical period during which the Roman Empire interacted with the area that is now Scotland, which was known to them as “Caledonia“. Roman legions arrived around AD 71, having conquered the Celtic tribes of “Britain” (England and Wales) over the preceding three decades. Aiming to annex all of
1. The Broch of Gurness in Orkney   2. Dun Telve broch in Glenelg   3. ”A gloomy journey amongst uninhabited islands”   4. Statue of Gnaeus Julius Agricola  
Scotland in the Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the Middle Ages concerns the history of Scotland from the departure of the Romans to the adoption of major aspects of the Renaissance in the early sixteenth century. —
From the fifth century northern Britain was divided into a series of
petty kingdoms. Of these the four most important to emerge were the Picts, the Scots of Dál Riata, the
1. Major political centres in early Medieval Scotland   2. Danish seamen, painted mid-twelfth century   3. David I alongside his successor, Malcolm IV   4. The statue near Stirling commemorating Robert I  
Scotland in the Early Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland was divided into a series of kingdoms in the early Middle Ages, i.e. between the end of Roman authority in southern and central Britain from around 400 CE and the rise of the kingdom of Alba in 900 CE. Of these, the four most important to emerge were the Picts, the Scots of Dál Riata, the Britons of Alt Clut, and the Anglian kingdom of
1. The so-called Daniel Stone, Pictish cross slab fragment found at Rosemarkie, Easter Ross   2. Dunadd Fort, Kilmartin Glen, probably the centre of the kingdom of Dál Riata   3. Looking north at Dumbarton Rock, the chief fort of Strathclyde from the 6th century to 870 when it was taken by the Vikings   4. St. Aidan, founder of Lindisfarne Priory  
Kingdom of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Kingdom of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern
1. James VI, whose inheritance of the thrones of England and Ireland created a dynastic union in 1603   2. Coronation of Alexander III of Scotland at Scone Abbey; beside him are the Mormaers of Strathearn and Fife while his genealogy is recited by a royal poet.   3. The Regiam Majestatem is the oldest surviving written digest of Scots law.   4. Institution of the Court of Session by James V in 1532, from the Great Window in Parliament House, Edinburgh  
Scotland in the High Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The High Middle Ages of Scotland encompass Scotland in the era between the death of Domnall II in 900 AD and the death of King Alexander III in 1286, which was an indirect cause of the Scottish Wars of Independence. — At the close of the ninth century, various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland. Scandinavian influence was
1. Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns
occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. The site
was in use throughout the High Middle Ages, and the castle itself dates
to the fourteenth century.   2. Sueno’s Stone Located in Forres, in the old kingdom of Fortriu, this gigantic probably post-Pictish monument marks some kind of military triumph   3. St Margaret of Scotland, wife of Máel Coluim III, from a later genealogy   4. Image of David I, a pious and revolutionary Scoto-Norman king  
Davidian Revolution [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I (1124–1153). These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform, foundation of monasteries, Normanization of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism
1. Steel
engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of
David I, portraying David in the “European” fashion of the other worldly
maintainer of peace and defender of justice.   2. Duffus Castle, possibly begun by Freskin, one of David’s most successful small scale military immigrants.   3. Silver penny of David I.   4. Burghs established in Scotland before the accession of David’s successor and grandson, Máel Coluim IV; these were essentially Scotland-proper’s first towns.  
Wars of Scottish Independence [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. — The First War (1296–1328) began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. The Second War
1. Edward I and Edward, Prince of Wales   2. The dethroned King John, whom a Scottish chronicler dubbed ‘toom tabard’ (’empty coat’)   3. Notable figures from the first War of Independence as depicted by the Victorian artist William Hole   4. Bannockburn Monument plaque  
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages, between the deaths of Alexander III in 1286 and James IV in 1513, established its independence from England under figures including William Wallace in the late 13th century and Robert Bruce in the 14th century. In the 15th century under the Stewart Dynasty, despite a turbulent political history, the Crown gained
1. David II (right) and Edward III of England (left).   2. James I, who spent much of his life imprisoned in England.   3. A later portrait of James II, whose eventual military success was ended by his accidental death.   4. James III whose faction riven reign ended in his murder.  
Renaissance in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Renaissance in Scotland was a cultural, intellectual and artistic movement
in Scotland, from the late fifteenth century to the beginning of the
seventeenth century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late fourteenth century and reaching northern Europe as a
Scotland in the early modern period [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the early modern period refers, for the purposes of this article, to Scotland between the death of James IV in 1513 and the end of the Jacobite rebellions in the mid-eighteenth century. It roughly corresponds to the early modern period in Europe, beginning with the Renaissance and Reformation and ending with the start of the
1. Portrait of James V, c. 1536, by Corneille de Lyon   2. A contemporaneous wood cut of the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh   3. Mary Queen of Scots depicted with her son, James VI and I; in reality, Mary saw her son for the last time when he was ten months old.   4. The Royal Arms of Scotland as used until 1603, from a window in Parliament House, Edinburgh  
Scottish colonization of the Americas [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish colonisation of the Americas comprised a number of failed or abandoned Scottish settlements in North America; a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama; and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made after the Acts of Union 1707, and those made by the enforced resettlement after the Battle of Culloden and the
1. Scotland’s colonies in North America.   2. Map of the Scottish settlement on the isthmus of Panama as it was in 1699  
Acts of Union 1707 [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the
1. ”Articles of Union otherwise known as Treaty of Union”, 1707   2. Portrait of Queen Anne in 1702, the year she became queen, from the school of John Closterman   3. 18thC French illustration of an opening of the Scottish Parliament   4. The £2 coin issued in the United Kingdom in 2007 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Acts of Union  
Jacobitism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
(JAK-ə-by-tiz-əm; Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas [ˈʃeːməs̪əxəs̪], Irish:
Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain
and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
1. Detail of the monument in the Vatican   2. ”Jacobites” by John Pettie: romantic view of Jacobitism  
Scottish Enlightenment [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots: Scots Enlichtenment, Scottish Gaelic: Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland
characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific
accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, Scotland had a network of
parish schools in the Lowlands and four universities. The
Lowland Clearances [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century. Thousands of cottars and tenant farmers from the southern counties (Lowlands) of Scotland migrated from farms and small holdings they had
Highland Clearances [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal
[ˈfuə̯t̪içən nəŋ gɛː.əl̪ˠ], the “eviction of the Gaels”) were the
evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries. They resulted from enclosures of common lands and a change from farming to sheep rearing, largely
1. Ruined croft houses on Fuaigh Mòr in Loch Roag. The island was cleared of its inhabitants in 1841 and is now used only for grazing sheep.   2. Ruins of the Badbea longhouses with the 1911 monument in the background   3. Ormaig was once the principal settlement on the Isle of Ulva near Mull. It had been inhabited since prehistoric times, until it was cleared by Francis William Clark in the mid-19th century.   4. Portrait by Henry Raeburn of Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry in 1812. MacDonnell claimed to support Highland culture, while simultaneously clearing his tenants.  
Industrial Revolution in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Industrial Revolution in Scotland was the transition to new
manufacturing processes and economic expansion between the
mid-eighteenth century and the late nineteenth century. By the start of
the eighteenth century, a political union between Scotland and England
became politically and economically attractive, promising to open up the
1. Shipping on the Clyde, by John Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881   2. Adam Smith. the “father of modern economics”   3. An 1851 illustration showing the reaping machine developed by Patrick Bell   4. The former headquarters of the British Linen Bank in St Andrews Square, Edinburgh  
Romanticism in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
in Scotland was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that
developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth
centuries. It was part of the wider European Romantic movement, which was partly a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment, emphasising individual, national and emotional responses, moving beyond
1. Robert Burns in Alexander Nasmyth’s portrait of 1787   2. The Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, as it was from 1769–1830   3. Jacob More’s The Falls of Clyde: Corra Linn, c. 1771   4. Abbotsford House, re-built for Walter Scott, helped to launch the Scots Baronial revival.  
Scotland in the modern era [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the modern era, from the end of the Jacobite risings
and beginnings of industrialisation in the 18th century to the present
day, has played a major part in the economic, military and political
history of the United Kingdom, British Empire and Europe, while
recurring issues over the status of Scotland, its status and identity
1. A map showing the civil parishes of Wigtownshire c. 1854   2. New Lanark, cotton mills and housing on the River Clyde, founded in 1786   3. The headgear at Francis Colliery, Fife   4. David Wilkie’s flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV  
Geography of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
geography of Scotland is varied, from rural lowlands to unspoilt
uplands, and from large cities to sparsely inhabited islands. Located in
Northern Europe,
Scotland comprises the northern one third of the island of Great
Britain as well as 790 surrounding islands encompassing the major
archipelagoes of the Shetland Islands, Orkney Islands and
1. Ben Nevis is the highest peak in Great Britain.   2. Large parts of the Scottish coastline are dune pasture, such as here at Traigh Seilebost on the Isle of Harris.   3. The estuary of the River Nith emptying into the Solway Firth to the south of Dumfries.   4. Loch Shin is one of many freshwater bodies in Scotland.  
Anglo-Scottish border [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Anglo-Scottish border, or the English–Scottish border (known locally as simply The Border), is the official border and administrative boundary between England and Scotland. It runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. It is Scotland’s only land border. England shares
1. Map of the modern border: Scotland is to the north and west and England is to the south and east   2. The border at Marshall Meadows Bay on the East Coast Main Line railway   3. A boundary wall marking the border on the A1   4. A fence marking the border  
Climate of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic (Köppen climate classification Cfb), and tends to be very changeable, but not normally extreme. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, and given its northerly latitude it is warmer than areas on similar latitudes, for example Labrador in Canada—where the sea freezes over in winter and
1. Köppen climate types in Scotland   2. Rain at Glasgow Necropolis   3. Rainbow at Stirling  
Flora of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
flora of Scotland is an assemblage of native plant species including
over 1,600 vascular plants, more than 1,500 lichens and nearly 1,000
bryophytes. The total number of vascular species is low by world standard but lichens and bryophytes are abundant and the latter form a population of global importance. Various populations of rare fern
1. The Birnam Oak located in Strathtay   2. A Scottish Primrose (Primula scotica) growing near Durness   3. Typical upland scenery with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Silver Birch (Betula pendula) and Heather (Calluna vulgaris)   4. Spear Thistle
(Cirsium vulgare) is one of the national emblems of Scotland, and has
been introduced to various other countries – in this case, Australia.  

 80) Classical Scots Gaelic
80) Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach

Tipitaka (Pali deich, “trì,” + Pitaka, “basgaidean”), no Pali Canan, ‘S
e cruinneachadh de bhun-Pali cànan theacsaichean, der teagasgail nam
bunait Theravada Buddhism.
Tha na teacsaichean Tipitaka agus Paracanonical Pali (beachdan,
litrichean, msaa) còmhla mar bhuidheann iomlan de theacsaichean
clasaigeach Theravada.

e buidheann mòr de litreachas a th’ann an canon Pali: ann an
eadar-theangachadh Beurla tha na teacsaichean a ‘cur suas ri mìltean de
dhuilleagan clò-bhuailte.
a ‘chuid as motha (ach chan eil a h-uile h-uile) den Canon air
fhoillseachadh an-toiseach sa Bheurla thar nam bliadhnaichean.
Selv om kun en lille del af disse tekster er tilgængelige på denne hjemmeside, kan denne samling være et godt sted at starte.

Is iad na trì roinnean anns an Tipitaka:

Vinaya Pitaka
de theacsaichean a thaobh riaghailtean giùlain a tha a ‘riaghladh
chùisean làitheil taobh a-staigh na Sangha - coimhearsnachd nam bikkhus
(manaich òrdaichte) agus bhikkhunis (beanntan-dubha òrdaichte).
Fada a bharrachd na dìreach liosta de na riaghailtean, a ‘gabhail
a-steach Vinaya Pitaka også na sgeulachdan air cùl an tùs gach
riaghailt, a’ toirt cunntas mionaideach air a ‘Buddha a’ fuasgladh dà
spørgsmålet mar bevare coitcheann co-sheirm inom mòr spioradail agus
eadar-mheasgte a ‘choimhearsnachd.
Sutta Pitaka
cruinneachadh de suttas, no deasbadan, a chaidh a thoirt don Buddha
agus beagan de na deiscioblaidhean ab ‘fhaisge aige, anns a bheil prìomh
theagasg Theravada Buddhism.
(Tha barrachd air mìle eadar-theangachadh ri fhaighinn air an
làrach-lìn seo.) Tha na h-eadar-theangachadh air an roinn am measg còig
nikayas (cruinneachaidhean):

        Digha Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh fada”
Majjhima Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh meadhanach fada”
Samyutta Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh buidhne”
Anguttara Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh nas fhasa”
Khuddaka Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh de theacsaichean beaga”:
Sutta Nipata
Nettakarana (a-mhàin ann an eagran Burmese an Tipitaka)
Petakopadesa (”")
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
an cruinneachadh de theacsaichean ann an Som prionnsabalan teagasgail a
thoirt seachad ann an Sutta Pitaka tha ath-obrachadh agus
ath-eagrachadh a-steach frèam-obrach eagarach Som Kan Gnìomhaichte til
en rannsachadh nàdar inntinn agus Matter.

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