The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the
paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together
constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.
The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.
The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the
daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained
monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community. Sutta Pitaka The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Digha Nikaya — the “long collection” Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection” Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection” Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection” Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”: Khuddakapatha Dhammapada Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha Jataka Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka) Petakopadesa ( ” ” ) Milindapañha ( ” ” )
Abhidhamma Pitaka The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.
“There is no doubt that the culture of the Tamils belongs to
the great and immortal treasures of the world’s civilisation…” Dr. Kamil.V. Zvelebil
“.. It is the fight for national
existence which sets culture moving and opens to it the doors of
It is at the heart of national consciousness that international
consciousness lives and grows. And this two-fold emerging is ultimately
the source of all culture…”
“..மொழியும் கலையும் கலாசாரமும் வளம் பெற்று வளர்ச்சியும் உயர்ச்சியும்
அடையும பொழுதே தேசிய இனக் கட்டமைப்பு இறுக்கம் பெறுகின்றது. பலம்
பெறுகின்றது. மனித வாழ்வும் சமூக உறவுகளும் மேன்மை பெறுகின்றது. தேசிய
நாகரிகம் உன்னதம் பெறுகின்றது..”
”I do not want my
house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be stuffed. I want
the cultures of all lands to be blown about my house as freely as
possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any of them. Mine is not
a religion of the prison house. It has room for the least among God’s
creatures, but is proof against the insolent pride of race, religion or
colour..” Mahatma Gandhi
What is Tamil culture? The attempt to define, often results in sweeping
generalisations - and sweeping generalisations end up as meaningless clichés.
In early 1996, in the Tamil Circle, a series of articles written by C.Kumarabharathy of
Wellington, New Zealand looked at Tamil culture from the standpoint of an expatriate Tamil
in an emerging post modern world. His reflections
provided food for thought.
“..We tend to think (implicitly), that culture is embodied in Bharatha Natyam, Film Songs,
Films, Dramas and having thus externalised “Culture”, we then send our children
to ’study’ them. This way, parents ‘make up’ for their supposed lack of culture, by the
alleged accomplishments of the children. It is generally, not clear to us, that behaviour,
our conflicts and relationships also form the bedrock of culture. The dance and songs are
external manifestations of this inwardness…”
The external manifestations of Tamil culture may be found in the songs and dances, in
the cuisine and dress forms, in the customs and rituals of the Tamil people. But, as
always, the external and the internal go together. The earliest literature that we have in
Tamil, the Eight Anthologies,
was itself classified into two main groups: ‘internal’ (aham) and ‘external’ (puram).
“Definitions of culture…. in the anthropological rather than the normative
sense, are notoriously difficult and unsatisfactory. It is probably best to approach this
problem by using this term without attempting too much in the way of formal definition,
and looking at what culture does.” (Professor Ernest Gellner, Cambridge
University - Nations and Nationalism, Basil Blackwell, 1983)
“…culture consists in the way analogies are drawn between
things; in the way certain thoughts are used to think others; in figure of speech, in
which a term is transferred to something it does not literally apply to… Culture
consists in the images that make imagination possible, in the media with which we mediate
experience. All the artefacts we make and the relationships we enter into, have in that
sense ‘cultural’ consequences, for they give form and shape to the way we think about
other artefacts, other relationships…”
If culture is the distilled essence of the way of life of a people, then, in the case
of the Tamil people, the distillation process has covered a time span of more than two
thousand years. And, today, the Tamil people, living in many lands and across distant seas
acquire strength from the richness of their own cultural heritage - not only because that
that culture has something to do with their own roots and their way of life but also
because they believe that that culture has a significant contribution to make to the
“There is no doubt that the culture of the Tamils belongs to the
great and immortal treasures of the world’s civilisation.
From my own experience,
however, I can say that even those who claim to have a wide outlook and deep education,
both Indians and Europeans, are not aware of this fact. And it is the task of the Tamils
themselves, and of those sympathetic mlecchas who try to interpret Tamil culture, to
acquaint the world’s cultural public with the most important contributions of Tamil
culture to the world’s civilisation.
As far as literary works are concerned, it is necessary before all to make them
accessible to a wide public of readers by means of artistic translations into the worlds
great languages; with regard to works of arts and architecture, it is necessary to make
them a common treasure of the world with the help of publications giving detailed and
perfect reproductions. This may be achieved through the UNESCO as well as through the work
of individual scholars and local Institutions; this should also be one of the main tasks
of the Academy of Tamil Culture.
The following works of art and literature are among the most remarkable contributions
of the Tamil creative genius to the world’s cultural treasure and should be familiar to
the whole world and admired and beloved by all in the same way as the poems of Homer, the
dramas of Shakespeare, the pictures of Rembrandt, the cathedrals of France and the
sculptures of Greece:
1. The ancient Tamil lyrical poetry compiled in ‘The Eight Anthologies’; this poetry is so
unique and vigorous, full of such vivid realism and written so masterfully that it can be
compared probably only with some of the pieces of ancient Greek lyrical poetry;
2. The Thirukural, one of the great books of the
world, one of those singular emanations of the human heart and spirit which preach
positive love and forgiveness and peace;
3. The epical poem Cilappathikaram, which by
its “baroque splendour’, and by the charm and magic of its lyrical parts belongs to
the epic masterpieces of the world;
These seven different forms of contribution without which the
world would be definitely less rich and less happy, should engage the immediate attention
of all who are interested in Tamil culture; they should all dedicate their time and
efforts to make known (and well and intimately known) to the whole of the world these
heights of Tamil creative genius.” (Tamil Culture - Vol. V, No. 4. October,
Professor Kamil Zvelebil’s words in 1956 that
“it is the task of the Tamils themselves… to acquaint the world’s cultural public
with the most important contributions of Tamil culture to the world’s civilisation”,
continue to retain their power to influence and inspire more than forty years later.
”…I don’t believe culture can be done top down. You have to
have a really energetic, organic and powerful culture and to do that, the
only way is bottom up. If you try to encourage creativity through camps,
workshops and courses, you will get only technicians because that is how you
train technicians, not thinkers…”Cultivating culture from the bottom up, Lung Ying-tai,
Again, Partha Chatterjee has pointed out the dilemma faced by the
“Nationalism denied the alleged inferiority of the colonised people; it also
asserted that a backward nation could ‘modernise’ itself while retaining its cultural
identity. It thus produced a discourse in which, even as it challenged the colonial claim
to political domination, it also accepted the very intellectual premises of ‘modernity’ on
which colonial domination was based. How are we to sort out these contradictory elements
in nationalist discourse?.. how does one accept what is valuable in another’s culture
without losing one’s own cultural identity?”. (Partha Chatterjee, Nationalist Thought & the Colonial World - A
Derivative Discourse - UNU & Zed, 1986)
“The nation is not only the
condition of culture, its fruitfulness, its continuous renewal, and
its deepening. It is also a necessity. It is the fight for national
existence which sets culture moving and opens to it the doors of
creation. Later on it is the nation which will ensure the conditions
and framework necessary to culture. The nation gathers together the
various indispensable elements necessary for the creation of a
culture, those elements which alone can give it credibility,
validity, life and creative power. In the same way it is its
national character that will make such a culture open to other
cultures and which will enable it to influence and permeate other
cultures. A non-existent culture can hardly be expected to have
bearing on reality, or to influence reality.”
It is only in freedom that the exchange between different cultures will remain
voluntary and not enforced. In the longer term, it is true that the growth of
nationalism will lead to a voluntary pooling of sovereignties, in a regional, and
ultimately in a world context - but the crucial element must remain the voluntariness
of the process.
“Nationalism is first and foremost a state of mind, an act
of consciousness .. the mental life of man is as much dominated by an ego-consciousness as
it is by a group consciousness. Both are complex states of mind at which we arrive through
experiences of differentiation and opposition, of the ego and the surrounding world, of
the we group and those outside the group .
It is a fact often commented upon that this growth of nationalism
and of national sectionalisms happened at the very same time when international relations,
trade, and communications were developing as never before; that local languages were
raised to the dignity of literary and cultural languages just at the time when it seemed
most desirable to efface all differences of language by the spread of world languages.
This view overlooks the fact that that very growth of nationalism all over the earth,
with its awakening of the masses to participation in political and cultural life, prepared
the way for the closer cultural contacts of all the civilisations of mankind, at the same
time separating and uniting them.” (Hans Kohn: The Idea of
Nationalism , A Study of its Origins and Background. New York. 1944)
“The languages of Western Europe civilised Russia. I cannot doubt
that they will do for the Hindoo what they have done for the Tartar
… We must at present do our best to form a class who may be
interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of
persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions,
in morals, and in intellect.” Thomas Macaulay - Minute on Indian Education,
”…nations that undertake a
colonial war have no concern for the confrontation of cultures. War is a
gigantic business and every approach must be governed by this datum. The
enslavement, in the strictest sense, of the native population is the prime
necessity…It is not possible to enslave men without logically making them
inferior through and through. And racism is only the emotional, affective, sometimes
intellectual explanation of this inferiorization…”
“..Yes, of course Brahmins have had their own political agenda to
push. They have been responsible for many things that I feel are
entirely unconscionable. But is this any different from the other
high castes? I have heard many many stories of high non-Brahmin castes
killing and abusing Dalits. You can’t blame the Brahmins for this. In
fact, the most pernicious example of the caste system was in the Tamil areas of Sri Lanka, where there are virtually no Brahmins and never have been….Tamil culture has not suffered because of one group. It
has suffered because of the caste system and because of its treatment of
women… Let’s promote inter caste marriage, let’s get rid of dowry
and give women independence and self-respect, and above all, let’s
avoid a victimization complex which only plays into the hands of those
who have a vested interest in continuing the inequities that exist in
Tamilnad. If every Brahmin were to disappear from Tamilnad, the Dalits
and others who are exploited would
benefited not one iota…”
Tamils have gained, and continue to
gain, by their interaction with other peoples and other cultures - particularly those of
the Indian sub continent. No people are an island unto themselves. Chauvinism
does not advance the culture of a people. The words of the Tamil poet Kanniyan Poongundran in
Purananuru (Poem 196), written two thousand years, serve as a useful
reminder of the truth of that which Frantz Fannon wrote - “..It is at the heart of national consciousness that international
consciousness lives and grows. And this two-fold emerging is ultimately
the source of all culture…”.
To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life’s good comes not form others’ gift, nor ill
Man’s pains and pains’ relief are from within.
Death’s no new thing; nor do our bosoms thrill
When Joyous life seems like a luscious draught.
When grieved, we patient suffer; for, we deem
This much - praised life of ours a fragile raft
Borne down the waters of some mountain stream
That o’er huge boulders roaring seeks the plain
Tho’ storms with lightnings’ flash from darken’d skies
Descend, the raft goes on as fates ordain.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise ! -
We marvel not at greatness of the great;
Still less despise we men of low estate.
- English Translation by Rev.
G.U.Pope in Tamil Heroic Poems:
95) Classical Tamil 95) செம்மொழி தமிழ்
2440 TUE 14 நவ 2017 லெஸ்சன்
திபிக்டாக்கா (பாலி டி, “மூன்று”, + பட்டுகா, “கூடை”), அல்லது பாலி கேனான், இது முதன்மை பாலி மொழி நூல்களின் தொகுப்பாகும் த்ரவாடா புத்தமதத்தின் கோட்பாட்டு அடித்தளமாக அமைகிறது. திபிட்டா மற்றும் பராகுவானிய பாலி நூல்கள் (வர்ணனைகள், நாளிதழ்கள், முதலியன) ஒன்றாகச் சேர்ந்து தெய்வராடா நூல்களின் முழு உடலமைப்பாகவும் உள்ளன.
தி பாலி கேனான் என்பது ஒரு பரந்த இலக்கியம்: ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்பு நூல்கள் ஆயிரக்கணக்கான அச்சிடப்பட்ட பக்கங்களுக்கு வரை சேர்க்கின்றன. பெரும்பாலான (ஆனால் அனைத்து இல்லை) கேனான் ஏற்கனவே ஆண்டுகளில் ஆங்கிலத்தில் வெளியிடப்பட்டுள்ளது. என்றாலும் இந்த நூல்களில் ஒரு சிறிய பகுதி மட்டுமே இந்த வலைத்தளத்தில் கிடைக்கிறது சேகரிப்பு தொடங்க ஒரு நல்ல இடம் இருக்க முடியும்.
திப்புடகாவின் மூன்று பிரிவுகளும் பின்வருமாறு:
வினயா பிடாக்கா Sangha க்குள் தினசரி விவகாரங்களை நிர்வகிக்கும் நடத்தை விதிகள் பற்றிய தொகுப்பு - பைக்கஸ் சமூகம் (ஆட்கடத்தல்) மற்றும் பைக்ஹூனிஸ் சந்நியாசிகள்). வெறுமனே விதிகள் பட்டியலை விட, வினயா பிடாக்காவும் கூட ஒவ்வொரு ஆட்சியின் தோற்றத்துக்கும் பின்னால் உள்ள கதைகள் அடங்கும், ஒரு கேள்விக்கு பதில் புத்தரின் தீர்வு பற்றிய விரிவான கணக்கு ஒரு பெரிய மற்றும் வேறுபட்ட ஆவிக்குள்ளான இனவாத இணக்கத்தை பராமரிக்க சமூகம். சுட்டா பிடாக்கா தி புத்தர் மற்றும் ஒரு சிலருக்குக் கூறப்படும் சுடர்கள், அல்லது சொற்பொழிவுகளின் தொகுப்பு அவரது நெருங்கிய சீடர்கள், அனைத்து மத்திய போதனைகள் அடங்கும் தேரவாடா புத்தமதம். (ஆயிரம் க்கும் மேற்பட்ட சத்தா மொழிபெயர்ப்புகள் இந்த வலைத்தளத்தில் கிடைக்கும்.) சுடசுகள் ஐந்து நிக்காக்களால் (தொகுப்புகள்) பிரிக்கப்படுகின்றன:
டிகா நிகாயா - “நீண்ட சேகரிப்பு” மஜ்ஜிஹிமா நிகாயா - “நடுத்தர நீளம் சேகரிப்பு” Samyutta Nikaya - “குழுவாக சேகரிக்கப்பட்ட தொகுப்பு” அங்கட்டுரா நிகாயா - “மேலும்-காரணமான சேகரிப்பு” குடுக நிக்காயா - “சிறிய நூல்களின் தொகுப்பு”: Khuddakapatha தமம்பாதா உதான Itivuttaka சுட்டா நிப்பாடா Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha ஜடாகா Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana புத்தவம்ஷா கரியாபிதாகா நெட்டிப்பகாரன (டிபிகாக்கின் பர்மிய பதிப்பில் மட்டுமே உள்ளடக்கப்பட்டது) பெட்ரோக்கோபாடா (”") மிலிடப்பன்ஷா (”")
அபிதாம்மா பிடாக்கா தி நூல்களின் தொகுப்பு, இதில் அடிப்படை கோட்பாடுகள் உள்ளன சுத்தா பிட்டாகாவில் வழங்கப்பட்ட ஒரு மறுசீரமைப்பு மற்றும் மறுசீரமைப்பு செய்யப்பட்டது திட்டமிடப்பட்ட கட்டமைப்பானது ஒரு விசாரணைக்கு பயன்படுத்தப்படலாம் மனது மற்றும் பொருளின் தன்மை.
Culture of Andhra Pradesh
Culture of Andhra Pradesh state in India has many aspects to it.
Andhra Pradesh’s cultural history can be summarised under the
sections of Art, Architecture, Literature, Cuisine, Clothing, Religion /
Philosophy and Language.
contributions can be classified into four distinct eras. Ancient Hindu
traditions of Andhra Pradesh, Medieval Buddhist traditions, Modern
Islamic-Hindu fusion traditions and the currently emerging
Hindu-Christian fusion traditions. Dharanikota, Nagarjuna Konda
monasteries and the associated literary contributions stand as a
testaments to Andhra Pradesh’s central role in the evolution of Ashokan
Buddhism. Tirupati, the associated religious traditions of Lord Venkateswara as a personification of the merger of various Shivite and Vaishavite Hindu traditions stands as a testament to the rich and progressive religious-philosophical schools of Andhra Pradesh. The contributions of Andhra Religious traditions to Bhakti Movement (Fusion movement for Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist Traditions) inspired numerous world-renowned modern secular philosophers like Jiddu Krishnamurti
to draw on this rich and progressive intellectual tradition of religion
and philosophy. A living history of this rich tradition is daily
visible in the lives of the people of this region and historic snap
shots are frozen into stone at various times on the walls of these
temples: http://www.templenet.com/andhra.html. Telugu arts and literature are an embodiment of this vibrant philosophical tradition.
Andhra Pradesh is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important figure is, Sant Yogi Potuluri Veerabrahmam was a Viswa Brahmin that even had a Brahmin, Sudhra, Harijan and Muslim disciples. Fisherman Raghu was also a Sudra. Sant Kakkayya was a chura (cobbler) Harijan saint.
Srisailam is another center is national importance. It is dedicated mainly to Lord Shiva. It is one of the locations of the various Jyotirlingams. The Skanda Purana
has a chapter called “Srisaila Kandam” dedicated to it, which points to
the ancient origin. This is confirmed also by the fact that Tamil
saints of the past millennia have sung praises of this temple. It is
said that Adi Sankara visited this temple and at that time he composed his “Sivananda Lahiri“. Shiva’s sacred bull Vrishabha is said to have performed penance at the Mahakali temple till Shiva and Parvati appeared before him as Mallikarjuna and Brahmaramba. The temple is one of the 12 hallowed jyotirlingas; Lord Rama himself installed the Sahasralinga, while the Pandavas lodged the Panchapandava lingas in the temple courtyard.
(lit. “stories of the Lord”), otherwise called Katha Kalakshepa is a
form of Hindu religious discourse, also known as Katha (storytelling)
format, in which the story teller explores a religious theme, usually
the life of a saint or a story from an Indian epic.
Andhra Pradesh has many museums, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, the Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow and Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada, which has a nice collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery, and inscriptions.
Other cultural elements
Kondapalli toys at a house in Vijayawada
Bapu’s paintings, Nanduri Subbarao’s Yenki Paatalu (Songs on/by a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya’s songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), banks of river Godavari, Dudu basavanna (The ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranti) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is known for originating stone craft, carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering.
are two distinct and rich architectural traditions in Andhra Pradesh.
The first traces back to the building of the city of Amaravathi under
Satavahanas. This unique style of architecture emphasises the use of
intricate and abstract sculpture with inspiration from religious themes.
The second tradition draws on the enormous granite and lime stone
reserves of the region and is reflected in the various temples and forts
built over a very long period of time.
Telugu literature is highly influenced by Sanskrit literature and Hindu scriptures. Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great epic Mahabharatha into Telugu. Bammera Potana is another great poet from vontimitta (kadapa dist) famous for his great classic Sri Madandhra Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of ‘Sri Bhagavatam’ authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya derived the present Telugu script (lipi) from the old Telugu-Kannada script. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya wrote and also made the famous statement : “Desha Bhashalandu Telugu lessa”
meaning “Telugu is the sweetest amongst all Indian languages”.
Philosophical poems by Yogi-Vemana are quite famous. Modern writers
include Jnanpith Award winners Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. Revolutionary poets like SriSri and Gaddar are popular.
Andhra Pradesh culinary traditions are some of the richest in the
world. Bandhar Laddu, Avakaya, Gongura, Pulusu, pappu charu, jonna kudu,
bobbattu, kaza, arisa ..etc. draw on the spices, fruit and vegetable
harvests of the region. Various sauces and ancient bread making
techniques that use a very diverse and rich variety of pulses are a
testament to ancient Telugu culinary innovation. It is rumored that
Roman king Nero lamented Romans paying more to the Chili farmers of
Andhra Pradesh than to Roman treasury as taxes during the effort to
rebuild Rome after the great fire. It is documented that he banned all
imports from Andhra Pradesh during Rome rebuilding era. Andhra Pradesh
spice traders and their ancient global trading traditions are considered
the precursors to modern option-and-derivatives pricing models for
commodities. Rich wine making traditions are evident in the Taati kallu
and Etha Kallu produced by the region to this day.
The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is reputedly the spiciest of all Indian cuisine. There are many variations to the Andhra cuisine depending on caste, geographical regions, traditions etc. Pickles and chutneys, called pachadi in Telugu
are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of
pickles and chutneys are unique to the state. Chutneys are made from
practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals, and roselle (Gongura). The mango pickle Aavakaaya is probably the best known of the Andhra pickles.
Rice is the staple food
and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled
and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu) or dosas.
Meat, vegetables, and greens
are prepared with different masalas into a variety of strongly flavored
dishes.The Indian Cuisine has its unique style and tradition.
Annamayya, Tyagaraja, Kuchipudi summarise the rich artistic traditions of Andhra Pradesh. Contributions of Annamacharya and Tyagaraja
to the “grammar of sound” made Telugu language the preferred language
of composition for Carnatic Music and made Andhra Pradesh the mother of
all modern music. Their influence not only on Carnatic but global
classical music and the organisation of sound as a medium of emotional
resonance has no parallel in human history. Kuchipudi
as a refinement of the ancient art of Bharathanatyam, and in the
context of the unique religious and cultural traditions of Andhra
Pradesh stands on par with all the great global traditions of Classical
Kuchipudi, the traditional dance of Andhra Pradesh
Jayapa Senani (Jayapa Nayudu) is the first person who wrote about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh.
Both Desi and Margi forms of dances have been included in his Sanskrit
treatise ‘Nritya Ratnavali’. It contains eight chapters. Folk dance
forms like Perani, Prenkhana, Suddha Nartana, Carcari, Rasaka, Danda
Rasaka, Shiva Priya, Kanduka Nartana, Bhandika Nrityam, Carana Nrityam,
Chindu, Gondali and Kolatam are described. In the first chapter the
author deals with discussion of the differences between Marga and Desi,
Tandava and lasya, Natya and Nritta. In the 2nd and 3rd chapters he
deals with Angi-kabhinaya, Caris, Sthanakas and Mandalas. In the 4th
Chapter Karnas, angaharas and recakas are described. In following
chapters he described the local dance forms i.e. Desi Nritya. In the
last chapter he deals with art and practice of dance.
Pradesh is home to some of the finest historical cloth making/fashion
and dying traditions of the world. Its rich cotton production, with its
innovative plant dye extraction history stand next to its diamond
harvesting and jewelry traditions to form an impressive fashion
tradition that has stood the test of time. The ancient Golconda mine is
the mother of the numerous legendary gems such as the Koh-i-Noor and Hope Diamond.
Andhra Pradesh had a virtual monopoly in the global jewelry industry
till 1826 (founding of the diamond mines in Rhodesia- Africa) and eight
of the 10 most valuable jewelry pieces on earth today trace their
history back to Andhra Pradesh. Langa-Voni (Half saree), Sarees made in
Kalamkari, Bidri, Nirmal paintings, fascinating weaves from Pochampalli,
Gadwal, Venkatagiri are the result of this time tested (3000 year)
fashion tradition. Vaddaanam, Aravanke, Kashulahaaram, Buttalu and
various standard gold jewelry designs are fine examples of this
continuously evolving ancient tradition.
Ntitya Ratnavalihttp://www.telugupeople.com/discussion/article.asp?id=11196) Classical Telugu 96) క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు
2440 TUE 14 Nov 2017 లెసన్
ది టిపిటకా (పాలి టి, “మూడు,” + పిట్టాకా, “బాస్కెట్”), లేదా పాలి కానన్, ప్రాధమిక పాలి భాషా గ్రంధాల సేకరణ తెరవాడ బౌద్దమతం యొక్క సిద్ధాంత పునాదిని ఏర్పరుస్తుంది. ది టిపిటకా మరియు పారాకోనానికల్ పాలి గ్రంథాలు (వ్యాఖ్యానాలు, గ్రంథాలు, మొదలైనవి) కలిసి శాస్త్రీయ తెరరడ గ్రంథాల యొక్క పూర్తి భాగం.
ది పాలి కానన్ అనేది సాహిత్యంలోని ఒక విస్తారమైన భాగం: ఆంగ్ల అనువాదంలో పాఠాలు వేల సంఖ్యలో ముద్రిత పేజీలను కలిగి ఉంటాయి. చాలా (కానీ అన్ని కాదు) యొక్క కానన్ ఇప్పటికే సంవత్సరాల్లో ఆంగ్లంలో ప్రచురించబడింది. అయితే ఈ వచనంలోని చిన్న భాగం మాత్రమే ఈ వెబ్సైట్లో అందుబాటులో ఉంది సేకరణ ప్రారంభించడానికి ఒక మంచి ప్రదేశం.
టిపిటాకా యొక్క మూడు విభాగాలు:
వినయ పిటకా Sangha లోపల రోజువారీ వ్యవహారాలపై ప్రవర్తన నియమావళికి సంబంధించి
పాఠాలు సేకరించడం - భిక్షస్ (ఆర్డినడ్ సన్యాసులు) మరియు భిక్ఖునిస్ సమాజం సన్యాసినులు). నియమాల జాబితాకే కాకుండా, వినాయ పిటకా కూడా చాలా ఎక్కువ ప్రతి నియమం యొక్క మూలం వెనుక ఉన్న కథలను కలిగి ఉంటుంది, ఇది ఒక ప్రశ్నకు బుద్దుడి పరిష్కారం యొక్క వివరణాత్మక ఖాతా ఒక పెద్ద మరియు విభిన్న ఆధ్యాత్మిక లోపల మత సామరస్యాన్ని సంరక్షించడానికి సంఘం. సుత్త పిటాకా ది బుద్ధుడికి మరియు కొంతమందికి ఆపాదించబడిన సంతకాలు, లేదా సంభాషణల సేకరణ తన సన్నిహిత శిష్యుల యొక్క అన్ని కేంద్ర బోధనలను కలిగి ఉంది తెరవాడ బౌద్ధమతం. (వెయ్యి కంటే ఎక్కువ సుత్త అనువాదాలు ఉన్నాయి ఈ వెబ్ సైట్ లో లభ్యమవుతుంది.) సుటాలు ఐదు నికెలలో (సేకరణలు) విభజించబడ్డాయి:
దిఘా నికాయ - “సుదీర్ఘ సేకరణ” మజ్జిమ నికాయా - “మధ్య నిడివి సేకరణ” Samyutta Nikaya - “గుంపు సేకరణ” అంగటార నికాయ - “మరింత-కారణాల సేకరణ” ఖుడ్కా నికాయ - “చిన్న గ్రంధాల సేకరణ”: Khuddakapatha Dhammapada ఉదాన Itivuttaka సుత్తా నిపాత Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha జాతక Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka నట్టిపకరాణ (టిపిటాకా యొక్క బర్మీస్ ఎడిషన్లో మాత్రమే చేర్చబడింది) పెటాకోపెడా (”") మిలిందాపంచ (”")
అభిధమ్మ పిటకా ది గ్రంధాల సేకరణలో అంతర్లీన సిద్దాంత సూత్రాలు సుత్త పిటాకా లో సమర్పించబడినవి ఒక పునర్నిర్మాణం మరియు పునర్వ్యవస్థీకరించబడ్డాయి విచారణకు వర్తింపజేసే క్రమబద్ధమైన ఫ్రేమ్వర్క్ మనస్సు మరియు పదార్థం యొక్క స్వభావం.
Buddhism is believed to have come to what is now Thailand as early as 250 BCE, in the time of Indian Emperor Ashoka. Since then, Buddhism has played a significant role in Thai culture and society. Buddhism and the Thai monarchy has often been intertwined, with Thai kings historically seen as the main patrons of Buddhism in Thailand. Although politics and religion were generally separated
for most of Thai history, Buddhism’s connection to the Thai state would
increase in the middle of the 19th century following the reforms of King Mongkut, that would lead to the development of a royally backed sect of Buddhism and increased centralization of the Thai Sangha under the state.
Thai Buddhism is distinguished for its emphasis on short term ordination for every Thai man and its close interconnection with the Thai state and Thai culture. The two official branches, or Nikayas, of Thai Buddhism are the royally backed Dhammayuttika Nikaya and the larger Maha Nikaya.
Some scholars believe that Buddhism must have been flowing into Thailand from India at the time of the Indian emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire and into the first millennium after Christ. During the 5th to 13th centuries, Southeast Asian empires were influenced directly from India and followed Mahayana Buddhism. The Chinese pilgrim Yijing noted in his travels that in these areas, all major sects of Indian Buddhism flourished.Srivijaya to the south and the Khmer Empire to the north competed for influence and their art expressed the rich Mahāyāna pantheon of bodhisattvas.
From the 9th to the 13th centuries, the Mahāyāna and Hindu Khmer Empire
dominated much of the Southeast Asian peninsula. Under the Khmer
Empire, more than 900 temples were built in Cambodia and in neighboring
The details of the history of Buddhism in Thailand from the 13th to
the 19th century are obscure, in part because few historical records or
religious texts survived the Burmese destruction of Ayutthaya, the capital city of the kingdom, in 1767. The anthropologist-historian S. J. Tambiah, however, has suggested a general pattern for that era, at least with respect to the relations between Buddhism and the sangha
on the one hand and the king on the other hand. In Thailand, as in
other Theravada Buddhist kingdoms, the king was in principle thought of
as patron and protector of the religion (sasana) and the sangha, while
sasana and the sangha were considered in turn the treasures of the
polity and the signs of its legitimacy. Religion and polity, however,
remained separate domains, and in ordinary times the organizational
links between the sangha and the king were not close.
Replica of Ashok pillar
at Wat Umong in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 13th century. Shows the
establishment of Buddhism by Lanna Dynasty’s King Mangrai in northern
Among the chief characteristics of Thai kingdoms and principalities
in the centuries before 1800 were the tendency to expand and contract,
problems of succession, and the changing scope of the king’s authority.
In effect, some Thai kings had greater power over larger territories,
others less, and almost invariably a king who sought successfully to
expand his power also exercised greater control over the sangha. That
control was coupled with greater support and patronage of the
ecclesiastical hierarchy. When a king was weak, however, protection and
supervision of the sangha also weakened, and the sangha declined. This
fluctuating pattern appears to have continued until the emergence of the Chakri Dynasty in the last quarter of the 18th century.
Buddhist monk chants paritta to a group of Siamese women in 1900.
By the 19th century, and especially with the coming to power in 1851 of King Mongkut, who had been a monk
himself for twenty-seven years, the sangha, like the kingdom, became
steadily more centralized and hierarchical in nature and its links to
the state more institutionalized. As a monk, Mongkut was a distinguished
scholar of Pali Buddhist scripture. Moreover, at that time the
immigration of numbers of monks from Burma was introducing the more
rigorous discipline characteristic of the Mon sangha. Influenced by the
Mon and guided by his own understanding of the Tipitaka, Mongkut began a
reform movement that later became the basis for the Dhammayuttika order
of monks. Under the reform, all practices having no authority other
than custom were to be abandoned, canonical regulations were to be
followed not mechanically but in spirit, and acts intended to improve an
individual’s standing on the road to nirvana but having no social value
were rejected. This more rigorous discipline was adopted in its
entirety by only a small minority of monasteries and monks. The Mahanikaya
order, perhaps somewhat influenced by Mongkut’s reforms but with a less
exacting discipline than the Dhammayuttika order, comprised about 95
percent of all monks in 1970 and probably about the same percentage in
the late 1980s. In any case, Mongkut was in a position to regularize and
tighten the relations between monarchy and sangha at a time when the
monarchy was expanding its control over the country in general and
developing the kind of bureaucracy necessary to such control. The
administrative and sangha reforms that Mongkut started were continued by
his successor. In 1902 King Chulalongkorn (Rama V, 1868–1910) made the
new sangha hierarchy formal and permanent through the Sangha Law of
1902, which remained the foundation of sangha administration in modern
While Buddhism in Thailand remained under state centralization in the
modern era, Buddhism experienced periods of tight state control and
periods of liberalization depending on the government at the time.
Three major forces have influenced the development of Buddhism in Thailand. The most visible influence is that of the Theravada school of Buddhism, imported from Sri Lanka.
While there are significant local and regional variations, the
Theravada school provides most of the major themes of Thai Buddhism. By
tradition, Pāli is the language of religion in Thailand. Scriptures are recorded in Pāli, using either the modern Thai script or the older Khom
and Tham scripts. Pāli is also used in religious liturgy, despite the
fact that most Thais understand very little of this ancient language.
The Pāli Tipiṭaka
is the primary religious text of Thailand, though many local texts have
been composed in order to summarise the vast number of teachings found
in the Tipiṭaka. The monastic code (Pātimokkha) followed by Thai monks is taken from the Pāli Theravada Canon.
The second major influence on Thai Buddhism is Hindu beliefs received from Cambodia, particularly during the Sukhothai Kingdom.
Hinduism played a strong role in the early Thai institution of
kingship, just as it did in Cambodia, and exerted influence in the
creation of laws and order for Thai society as well as Thai religion.
Certain rituals practiced in modern Thailand, either by monks or by
Hindu ritual specialists, are either explicitly identified as Hindu in
origin, or are easily seen to be derived from Hindu practices. While the
visibility of Hinduism in Thai society has been diminished
substantially during the Chakri Dynasty, Hindu influences, particularly shrines to the god Brahma, continue to be seen in and around Buddhist institutions and ceremonies.
A bhikkhu chants evening prayers inside a monastery located near the town of Kantharalak, Thailand
Folk religion—attempts to propitiate and attract the favor of local spirits known as phi—forms
the third major influence on Thai Buddhism. While Western observers (as
well as Western-educated Thais) have often drawn a clear line between
Thai Buddhism and folk religious practices, this distinction is rarely
observed in more rural locales. Spiritual power derived from the
observance of Buddhist precepts and rituals is employed in attempting to
appease local nature spirits. Many restrictions observed by rural
Buddhist monks are derived not from the orthodox Vinaya, but from taboos derived from the practice of folk magic. Astrology, numerology, and the creation of talismans
and charms also play a prominent role in Buddhism as practiced by the
average Thai—practices that are censured by the Buddha in Buddhist texts
(see Digha Nikaya 2, ff).
Additionally, more minor influences can be observed stemming from contact with Mahayana
Buddhism. Early Buddhism in Thailand is thought to have been derived
from an unknown Mahayana tradition. While Mahayana Buddhism was
gradually eclipsed in Thailand, certain features of Thai Buddhism—such
as the appearance of the bodhisattvaLokeśvara
in some Thai religious architecture, and the belief that the king of
Thailand is a bodhisattva himself—reveal the influence of Mahayana
The only other bodhisattva prominent in Thai religion is Maitreya, often depicted in Budai form, and often confused with Phra Sangkajai (Thai: พระสังกัจจายน์),
a similar but different figure in Thai Buddhist folklore. Images of one
or both can be found in many Thai Buddhist temples, and on amulets as
well. Thai may pray to be reborn during the time of Maitreya, or
dedicate merit from worship activities to that end.
In modern times, additional Mahayana influence has stemmed from the presence of Overseas Chinese
in Thai society. While some Chinese have “converted” to Thai-style
Theravada Buddhism, many others maintain their own separate temples in
the East Asian Mahayana tradition. The growing popularity of Guanyin, a form of Avalokiteśvara, may be attributed to the Chinese presence in Thailand.
While Thailand is currently a constitutional monarchy, it inherited a strong Southeast Asian tradition of Buddhist kingship
that tied the legitimacy of the state to its protection and support for
Buddhist institutions. This connection has been maintained into the
modern era, with Buddhist institutions and clergy being granted special
benefits by the government, as well as being subjected to a certain
amount of government oversight. Part of the Coronation of the Thai monarch includes the king proceeding to the chapel royal (the Wat Phra Kaew) to vow to be a “Defender of the Faith” in front of a chapter of monks including the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.
In addition to the ecclesiastic leadership of the sangha, a
secular government ministry supervises Buddhist temples and monks. The
legal status of Buddhist sects and reform movements has been an issue of
contention in some cases, particularly in the case of Santi Asoke,
which was legally forbidden from calling itself a Buddhist
denomination, and in the case of the ordination of women attempting to
revive the Theravada bhikkhuni lineage have been prosecuted for attempting to impersonate members of the clergy.
To obtain a passport for travel abroad, a monk must have an official letter from Sangha Supreme Council
granting the applicant permission to travel abroad; Buddhist monk
identification card; a copy of House/Temple Registration; and submit any
previous Thai Passport or a certified copy thereof.
In addition to state support and recognition—-in the form of formal
gifts to monasteries made by government officials and the royal family
(for example, Kathin)—-a
number of special rights are conferred upon Buddhist monks. They are
granted free passage on public transportation, and most train stations
and airports have special seating sections reserved for members of the
clergy. Conversely, ordained monastics are forbidden from standing for
office or voting in elections.
Calls for state establishment
2007, calls were made by some Thais for Buddhism to be recognized in
the new national constitution as a state religion. This suggestion was
initially rejected by the committee charged with drafting the new
This move prompted a number of protests from supporters of the
initiative, including a number of marches on the capital and a hunger
strike by twelve Buddhist monks. Some critics of the plan, including scholar and social critic Sulak Sivaraksa,
have claimed that the movement to declare Buddhism a national religion
is motivated by political gain, and may be being manipulated by
supporters of ousted Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.
The Constitution Drafting Committee later voted against the special
status of Buddhism, provoking the religious groups. The groups condemned
the Committee and the constitution draft. On August 11, Sirikit,
the Queen of Thailand, expressed her concern over the issue. According
to her birthday speech, Buddhism is beyond politics. Some Buddhist
organizations announced a halt to the campaigns the next day.
law directly prohibits a member of the Buddhist institutions, such as a
monk, a novice and a nun, from being a candidate in an examination for
recruitment of government officers. Though both the Council of Ministers and the Sangha Supreme Council,
the supervising body of the Thai Buddhist communities, have ordered
such prohibition on grounds of appropriateness, according to the
Memorandum of the Cabinet’s Administrative Department No. NW98/2501
dated 27 June 1958 and the Order of the Sangha Supreme Council dated 17
members of the Buddhist community and the communities of other
religions are not entitled to elect or be elected as a holder of any
government post. For instance, the 2007 constitution of Thailand disfranchises “a Buddhist monk, a Buddhist novice, a priest or a clergy member” (Thai: “ภิกษุ สามเณร นักบวช หรือนักพรต”).
The Sangha Supreme Council also declared the same prohibition, pursuant to its Order dated 17 March 1995. At the end of the Order was a statement of grounds given by Nyanasamvara, the Supreme Patriarch. The statement said:
The members of the Buddhist community are called samaṇa, one who is pacified, and also pabbajita,
one who refrains from worldly activities. They are thus needed to
carefully conduct themselves in a peaceful and unblamable manner, for
their own sake and for the sake of their community. … The seeking of
the representatives of the citizens to form the House of Representatives
is purely the business of the State and specifically the duty of the
laity according to the laws. This is not the duty of the monks and
novices who must be above the politics. They are therefore not entitled
to elect or be elected. And, for this reason, any person who has been
elected as a Representative will lose his membership immediately after
becoming a Buddhist monk or novice. This indicates that the monkhood and
noviceship are not appropriate for politics in every respect.
When a monk or novice is involved in or supports an election of any
person…, the monk or novice is deemed to have breached the unusual
conduct of pabbajita and brought about disgrace to himself as
well as his community and the Religion. Such a monk or novice would be
condemned by the reasonable persons who are and are not the members of
this Religion. A pabbajita is therefore expected to stay in
impartiality and take a pity on every person…without discrimination.
Moreover, the existence of both the monks and the Religion relies upon
public respect. As a result, the monks and novices ought to behave in
such a way that deserves respect of the general public, not merely a
specific group of persons. A monk or novice who is seen by the public as
having failed to uphold this rule would then be shunned, disrespected
and condemned in various manners, as could be seen from many examples.
State influence over several aspects of Thai Buddhism increased under the NCPO. The NCPO has proposed requiring temples to open their finances to the public and requiring monks to carry smart cards to identify their legal and religious backgrounds. The junta’s new constitution also states that the Thai government is to directly support Theravada Buddhism specifically.
In 2016, Phra Buddha Issara requested the Department of Special Investigation (DSI) investigate the assets of Thailand’s leading monks, the Sangha Supreme Council. This resulted in an alleged tax evasion scandal against Somdet Chuang, the most senior member of the council who was next in line to become Supreme Patriarch. Although prosecutors eventually decided not to charge Somdet Chuang,
the incident postponed his appointment and led to a change in the law
that allowed the Thai government to bypass the Sangha Supreme Council
and appoint the Supreme Patriarch directly. This allowed the ruling junta to effectively handpick Thailand’s Supreme Patriarch. In 2017, Somdet Chuang’s appointment was withdrawn, with a monk from the Dhammayuttika Nikaya appointed instead. The appointment was made by King Rama X, who chose the name out of one of five given to him by NCPO leader Prayut Chan-o-Cha.
In February 2017, the junta used article 44, a controversial section in the interim constitution, to replace the head of the National Office of Buddhism with a DSI official.
The DSI official, Pongporn Pramsaneh, vowed to reform Thailand’s more
than 40,000 temples by forcing them to open their finances to the
public. However, in August 2017, the junta removed him from the post
after religious groups called on the government to fire him because of
his reform plans.
Ordination and clergy
A Buddhist monk reciting prayers in Thailand.
Buddhist monk receiving food from villagers
The funeral pyre at Wat Chedi Luang, Chiang Mai, for Chan Kusalo, the patriarch of northern Thailand
Like in most other Theravada
nations, Buddhism in Thailand is represented primarily by the presence
of Buddhist monks, who serve as officiants on ceremonial occasions, as
well as being responsible for preserving and conveying the teachings of
During the latter half of the 20th century, most monks in Thailand began their careers by serving as temple boys (Thai: เด็กวัดdek wat, “children of the wat“).
Temple boys are traditionally no younger than eight and do minor
housework. The primary reason for becoming a temple boy is to gain a
particularly in basic reading and writing and the memorization of the
scriptures chanted on ritual occasions. Prior to the creation of
state-run primary schools in Thailand, village temples served as the
primary form of education for most Thai boys. Service in a temple as a
temple boy was a necessary prerequisite for attaining any higher
education, and was the only learning available to most Thai peasants.
Since the creation of a government-run educational apparatus in
Thailand, the number of children living as temple boys has declined
significantly. However, many government-run schools continue to operate
on the premise of the local village temple.
Boys now typically ordain as a sāmaṇera or novitiate monks (Thai: สามเณรsamanen, often shortened to nenThai: เณร). In some localities, girls may become sāmaṇerī. Novices live according to the Ten Precepts but are not required to follow the full range of monastic rules found in the Pātimokkha. There are a few other significant differences between novices and bhikkhus.
Novices often are in closer contact with their families, spending more
time in the homes of their parents than monks. Novices do not
participate in the recitation of the monastic code (and the confessions
of violations) that take place on the uposatha
days. Novices technically do not eat with the monks in their temple,
but this typically only amounts to a gap in seating, rather than the
separation observed between monks and the laity. Novices usual ordain
during a break from secular schooling, but those intending on a
religious life, may receive secular schooling at the wat.
Child monks in Thailand
Young men typically do not live as a novice for longer than one or two years. At the age of 20, they become eligible to receive upasampada,
the higher ordination that establishes them as a full bhikkhu. A novice
is technically sponsored by his parents in his ordination, but in
practice in rural villages the entire village participates by providing
the robes, alms bowl, and other requisites that will be required by the
monk in his monastic life.
Temporary ordination is the norm among Thai Buddhists. Most young men traditionally ordain for the term of a single vassa or rainy season (Thai phansa).
Those who remain monks beyond their first vassa typically remain monks
for between one and three years, officiating at religious ceremonies in
surrounding villages and possibly receiving further education in reading
and writing (possibly including the Khom or Tai Tham alphabets
traditionally used in recording religious texts). After this period of
one to three years, most young monks return to lay life, going on to
marry and begin a family. Young men in Thailand who have undergone
ordination are seen as being more suitable partners for marriage;
unordained men are euphemistically called ‘unripe’, while those who have
been ordained are said to be ‘ripe’. A period as a monk is a
prerequisite for many positions of leadership within the village
hierarchy. Most village elders or headmen were once monks, as were most
traditional doctors, spirit priests, and some astrologists and fortune
Monks who do not return to lay life typically specialize in either
scholarship or meditation. Those who specialize in scholarship typically
travel to regional education centers to begin further instruction in
the Pāli language and the scriptures, and may then continue on to the
major monastic universities located in Bangkok.
The route of scholarship is also taken by monks who desire to rise in
the ecclesiastic hierarchy, as promotions within the government-run
system is contingent on passing examinations in Pāli and Dhamma studies.
The Thai tradition supports laymen to go into a monastery, dress and
act as monks, and study while there. The time line is based on threes,
staying as a monk for three days, or three weeks, or three months or
three years, or example of three weeks and three days. This retreat is
expected of all male Thai, rich or poor, and often is scheduled after
high school. Such retreat brings honor to the family and blessings
(merit) to the young man. Thai make allowances for men who follow this
practice, such as holding open a job.
The Thai media often reports on Buddhist monks behaving in ways that
are considered inappropriate. There have been reports of sexual assault,
embezzlement, drug-taking, extravagant lifestyles, even murder.
Thailand’s 38,000 temples, populated by 300,000 monks, are easy targets
for corruption, handling between US$3 to 3.6 billion yearly in
donations, mostly untraceable cash.
In a case that received much media attention, Luang Pu Nen Kham
Chattiko was photographed in July 2013 wearing Ray-Ban sunglasses,
holding a Louis Vuitton bag full of US dollars, and “…was later found
to be a trafficker of methamphetamines, an abuser of women and the lover of a pregnant fourteen-year-old.”
There have been cases when influential monks were persecuted and
jailed by the Thai government, through verdicts later declared moot or
subject of controversy. The most well-known case in Thailand is that of
Phra Phimontham, the then abbot of Wat Mahadhatu, well known in Thailand for having introduced the Burmese Satipatthana meditation method to Thailand. In 1962, during the Cold War, he was accused of collaboration with Communist rebels and being a threat to national security, and was fully defrocked
and jailed. In fact, the government persecuted him because of his
political views and promotion of changes in the Sangha. Phra Phimontham
had a strong pro-democratic stance, which did not agree with the regime
of that time, and the palace. Furthermore, Phra Phimontham was part of
the Maha Nikaya fraternity, rather than the Dhammayuttika fraternity, which the government and monarchy historically have preferred. Phra Phimontham was likely to become the next Supreme Patriarch. For this reason, his treatment has been described by Thai scholars as a ’struggle between patriarchs’ (Thai: ศึกสมเด็จ), referring to the political objective to disable him as a candidate.
After four years, when the country changed its government, Phra
Phimontham was released from prison when a military court decided he had
not been involved in collaboration with communists after all.
Afterwards, he ordained again and eventually regained his former status,
though he continued to be discredited.
Buddhadasa Bhikkhu was subject to similar allegations from the Thai government, and so was Luang Por Phothirak, the founder of Santi Asoke.
Luang Por Pothirak was eventually charged of altering the Vinaya and
defrocked. A recent example is Phra Prajak Kuttajitto, an environmentalist monk critical of government policies, who was arrested and defrocked.
In 1999 and again in 2002,Luang Por Dhammajayo, the then abbot of Wat Phra Dhammakaya,
was accused of charges of fraud and embezzlement by the Thai media and
later some government agencies when donations of land were found in his
name. Wat Phra Dhammakaya denied this, stating that it was the intention
of the donors to give the land to the abbot and not the temple, and
that owning personal property is common and legal in the Thai Sangha. Widespread negative media coverage at this time was symptomatic of the temple being made the scapegoat for commercial malpractice in the Thai Buddhist temple community in the wake of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The Sangha Supreme Council declared that Luang Por Dhammajayo had not broken any serious offenses against monastic discipline (Vinaya). In 2006, the Thai National Office for Buddhism cleared the Dhammakaya Foundation and Luang Por Dhammajayo of all accusations when Luang Por Dhammajayo agreed offer all of the disputed land to the name of his temple.
In March 2016, Thai police formally summoned then Acting Supreme
Patriarch Somdet Chuang Varapunno, after he refused to answer direct
questions about his vintage car, one of only 65 made. The car was part of a museum kept at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
in Bangkok, but has now been seized by police investigating possible
tax evasion. The Somdet reportedly transferred ownership of the vehicle
to another monk after the scandal broke. He refused to answer police
questions directly, insisting that written questions be sent to his
lawyer. He did say that the car was a gift from a follower.
Analysts from different news outlets have pointed out that the
actions of the Thai government towards Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen may have
reflected a political need to control who should be selected as the next Supreme Patriarch, since the Somdet had already been proposed as a candidate by the Sangha Supreme Council. Selecting him would mean a Supreme Patriarch from the Maha Nikaya fraternity, rather than the Dhammayuttika fraternity, which historically has always been the preferred choice by the Thai government and the monarchy.
In fact, Somdet Chuang’s nomination was postponed and eventually
withdrawn after the Thai government changed the law in December 2016 to
allow King Vajiralongkorn to appoint the Supreme Patriarch directly,
with Prime Minister Prayuth O Chan-o-cha countersigning, leading to the appointment of a monk from the Dhammayuttika fraternity instead. The Thai government cited several reasons for this, including the car.
At the end of the same year, however, prosecutors decided not to charge
Somdet Chuang, but to charge his assistant-abbot instead, and another
six people who had part in importing the vintage car.
In February 2016, in a protest organized by the National Centre for the
Protection of Thai Buddhism, a Red Shirt-oriented network, the example
of Phra Phimontham was also cited as demands were made for the Thai
government to no longer involve itself with the selection of the next
leader of the Sangha.
The Dhammayuttika Nikaya (Thai: ธรรมยุตนิกาย) began in 1833 as a reform movement led by Prince Mongkut, son of King Rama II of Siam.
It remained a reform movement until passage of the Sangha Act of 1902,
which formally recognized it as the lesser of Thailand’s two Theravada
Mongkut was a bhikkhu under the name of Vajirañāṇo for 27 years
(1824–1851) before becoming King of Siam (1851–1868). In 1836 he became
the first abbot of Wat Bowonniwet Vihara.
After the then 20-year-old prince entered monastic life in 1824, he
noticed what he saw as serious discrepancies between the rules given in
the Pāli Canon
and the actual practices of Thai bhikkhus and sought to upgrade
monastic discipline to make it more orthodox. Mongkut also made an
effort to remove all non-Buddhist, folk religious, and superstitious elements which over the years had become part of Thai Buddhism. Dhammayuttika monks were expected to eat only one meal a day (not two) that was to be gathered during a traditional alms round.
The Dhammakaya Movement is a Thai Buddhist tradition which was started by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro in the early 20th century. The tradition is revivalist in nature and practices Dhammakaya meditation.
The movement opposes traditional magical rituals, superstition, folk
religious practices, fortune telling and giving lottery numbers, and
focuses on an active style of propagating and practicing meditation.
Features of the tradition include teaching meditation in a group,
teaching meditation during ceremonies, teaching meditation
simultaneously to monastics and lay people, teaching one main meditation
method and an emphasis on lifelong ordination.
The Santi Asoke (Thai: สันติอโศก “Peaceful Asoka“)
or Chao Asok (”People of Asoka”) was established by Phra Bodhirak after
he “declared independence from the Ecclesiastical Council (Sangha) in
Santi Asoke has been described as “a transformation of the “forest
monk” revival of [the 1920s and 1930s]” and “is more radical [than the
Dhammakaya Movement] in its criticism of Thai society and in the details
of its own vision of what constitutes a truly religiomoral community.”
The Sekhiya Dhamma Sangha are a group of activist monks focusing on
modern issues in Thailand (i.e.,deforestation, poverty, drug addiction,
and AIDS). The group was founded in 1989 among a growth of Buddhist
social activism in Thailand in the latter half of the 20th century.
While criticized for being too concerned and involved with worldly
issues, Buddhist social activists cite duty to the community as
justification for participation in Engaged Buddhism
Although women in Thailand traditionally cannot ordain as bhikkhuni, they can choose to take part in quasi-monastic practices at temples and practice centers as maechi.
Unlike in Burma and Sri Lanka, the bhikkhuni
lineage of women monastics was never established in Thailand. Women
primarily participate in religious life either as lay participants in
collective merit-making rituals or by doing domestic work around
temples. A small number of women choose to become maechi, non-ordained religious specialists who permanently observe either the Eight or Ten Precepts.
Maechi do not receive the level of support given to bhikkhu and their
position in Thai society is the subject of some discussion.
Recently, there have been efforts to attempt to introduce a bhikkhuni
lineage in Thailand as a step towards improving the position of women
in Thai Buddhism. The main proponent of this movement has been Dhammananda Bhikkhuni. Unlike similar efforts in Sri Lanka, these efforts have been extremely controversial in Thailand.
Women attempting to ordain have been accused of attempting to
impersonate monks (a civil offense in Thailand), and their actions have
been denounced by many members of the ecclesiastic hierarchy.
In 1928 a secular law was passed in Thailand banning women’s full ordination in Buddhism. Varanggana Vanavichayen became the first female monk to be ordained in Thailand in 2002. Some time after this the secular law was revoked. On 28 February 2003,Dhammananda Bhikkhuni received full monastic ordination as a bhikkhuni of the Theravada tradition in Sri Lanka, making her the first modern Thai woman to receive full ordination as a Theravada bhikkhuni. She is Abbess of Songdhammakalyani Monastery, the only temple in Thailand where there are bhikkhunis. It was founded by her mother, Voramai, a Mahayana bhikkhuni, in the 1960s.
No one denies that men and women have an equal chance to attain
enlightenment. In Mahayana Buddhism, practised in Taiwan, mainland
China, Hong Kong and Tibet, female ordinations are common, but in
countries that adhere to the Theravada branch of the religion, such as
Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Myanmar, women were banned from becoming
ordained about eight centuries ago, “for fear that women entering
monastic life instead of bearing children would be a disruption of
social order”, according to Kittipong Narit, a Buddhist scholar at
Bangkok’s Thammasat University.
Most objections to the reintroduction of a female monastic role hinge
on the fact that the monastic rules require that both five ordained
monks and five ordained bhikkhunis be present for any new bhikkhuni
ordination. Without such a quorum, critics say that it is not possible
to ordain any new Theravada bhikkhuni. The Thai hierarchy refuses to
recognize ordinations in the Dharmaguptaka
tradition (the only currently existing bhikkhuni ordination lineage) as
valid Theravada ordinations, citing differences in philosophical
teachings and (more critically) monastic discipline.
“Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture” by Upendra Thakur p.157
Sujato, Bhikkhu. Sects & Sectarianism: The Origins of Buddhist Schools. 2006. p. 72
Gombrich, Richard F. (2006). Theravāda Buddhism : a social history from ancient Benares to modern Colombo (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 3. ISBN978-0-415-36509-3.
Tuchrello, William P. “The Society and Its Environment” (Religion: Historical Background section). Thailand: A Country Study.
Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; Barbara Leitch LePoer,
ed. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the
Fuengfusakul, Apinya (1998). ศาสนาทัศน์ของชุมชนเมืองสมัยใหม่: ศึกษากรณีวัดพระธรรมกาย [Religious Propensity of Urban Communities: A Case Study of Phra Dhammakaya Temple] (in Thai). Buddhist Studies Center, Chulalongkorn University. pp. 101–2.
Newell, Catherine Sarah (2008). Monks, meditation and missing links: continuity, “orthodoxy” and the vijja dhammakaya in Thai Buddhism (Ph.D.). University of London: Department of the Study of Religions, School of Oriental and African Studies. p. 139.
Sawaeng (2000). “รายงานการพิจารณาดำเนินการ กรณีวัดพระธรรมกาย
ตามมติมหาเถรสมาคม ครั้งที่ ๓๒/๒๕๔๑” [Report of Evaluation of the
Treatment of the Case Wat Phra Dhammakaya — Verdict of the Supreme
Sangha Council 32/2541 B.E.]. วิเคราะห์นิคหกรรม ธรรมกาย [Analysis of Disciplinary Transactions of Dhammakaya] (in Thai). Bangkok. pp. 81–85. ISBN974-7078-11-2.
Buddhism in Contemporary Thailand,
Prof. Phra Thepsophon, Rector of Mahachulalongkorn Buddhist University.
Speech at the International Conference on Buddhasasana in Theravada
Buddhist countries: Issue and The Way Forward in Colombo, Sri Lanka,
January 15, 2003, Buddhism in Thailand, Dhammathai – Buddhist
historical museums and official cultural websites in Thailand was
boring in the past, but not anymore. In accordance with the government’s
Thailand 4.0 policy, the Ministry of Culture has upgraded art and
cultural learning sources, with Culture…
influence had already begun to be felt in Ottoman music towards the
middle of the 19th century. These increased towards the end of the
century, and led to efforts to change Ottoman music from monodic to
With the declaration of the republic in 1923, Cemal Reşid (REY), who
was then studying music in Europe, returned to Turkey and began to teach
at a music school established in Istanbul. At the same time, a number
of talented young people were sent by the republic to various cities in
Europe to study music. After they returned to Turkey, the group that
would later be called ‘Türk Beşleri’ (The Turkish Five) and which
prepared the groundwork for Modern Polyphonic Turkish Music, emerged.
The common aim of the group was to use the traditional themes of
traditional Turkish music together with the values of Western classical
music that they had studied to produce a new polyphonic structure. In
later stages, every composer who amed at a more contemporary sound
interpreted the colours and mystery of popular melody in his own way,
and instead of merely treating well-known popular melodies they began to
achieve syntheses by means of abstraction.
The Turkish Five consisted of; Cemal Reşit REY, Ulvi Cemal ERKİN,
Hasan Ferit ALNAR, Ahmet Adnan SAYGUN and Necil Kazım AKSES. Later,
others produced and are still producing works in the same field,
including; Nuri Sami KORAL, Kemal İLERİCİ, Ekrem Zeki ÜN and Bülent
TARCAN of the second generation, Sabahattin KALENDER, Nevit KODALLI,
Ferit TÜZÜN, İlhan USMANBAş, Bülent AREL and İlhan MİMAROĞLU of the
third, and Muammer SUN, Cenan AKIN, Cengiz TANÇ, Kemal SÜNDER, İlhan
BARAN, Yalçın TURA and Ali Doğan SİNANGİL of the fourth. An increasing
number of other composers after that last generation continue to write
works. The current number has now reached around 60.
Source: Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism
Some selected examples (please click on pictures to enlarge):
98) Classical Turkish 98) Klasik Türk
2440 Tue 14 Kasım 2017 DERS
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “üç,” + pitaka, “sepet”), veya Pali canon, birincil Pali dil metinlerinin koleksiyonudur; Theravada Budizm’in doktrin temelini oluşturmaktadır. Tipitaka ve paracanonik Pali metinleri (yorumlar, tarih yazanları, vb.) birlikte klasik Theravada metinlerinin bütününü teşkil eder.
Pali canon geniş bir edebiyat gövdesidir: İngilizce çeviri metinler binlerce basılı sayfaya kadar ekleyin. Çoğu (ancak hepsi değil) Canon, yıllardır İngilizce olarak zaten yayınlandı. olmasına rağmen Bu metinlerin sadece küçük bir kısmı bu sitede mevcuttur; Koleksiyon başlatmak için iyi bir yer olabilir.
Tipitaka’nın üç bölümü vardır:
Vinaya Pitaka Sangha’daki günlük meseleleri yöneten davranış kurallarına ilişkin
metinlerin toplanması - bikik’te (vasiyetnameli rahipler) ve bikikimler
(vasiyetnameler) rahibeler). Vinaya Pitaka, sadece bir kurallar listesi değil, aynı zamanda her kuralın kökeninin ardındaki hikayeleri içerir; Buda’nın çözümünün ayrıntılı hesabı nasıl sorulacağı sorusuna toplumsal uyumun geniş ve çeşitli bir maneviyat içinde korunması topluluk. Sutta Pitaka Buda’ya ve bir kaç kişiye atfedilen suttalar veya söylemlerin toplanması En yakın öğrencilerinden, tüm merkez öğretilerini içeren Theravada Budizmi. (Birden fazla binlerce sutta tercüme vardır. Bu suttalar beş nikayaya bölünmüştür (koleksiyonlar):
Digha Nikaya - “uzun koleksiyon” Majjhima Nikaya - “orta boy koleksiyon” Samyutta Nikaya - “gruplanmış koleksiyon” Anguttara Nikaya - “daha ileri kalitede koleksiyon” Khuddaka Nikaya - “küçük metinler koleksiyonu”: Khuddakapatha Dhammapada Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha Jataka Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka Nettippakarana (yalnızca Tipitaka’nın Burma sürümünde yer almaktadır) Petakopadesa (”") Milindapañha (”")
Abhidhamma Pitaka temel doktriner ilkelerin bulunduğu metinlerin toplanması Sutta Pitaka’da sunularak yeniden düzenlenip bir bir soruşturma için uygulanabilir sistematik çerçeve Zihin ve maddenin doğası.
Since Ukraine is geographically located between Europe and Asia, much of
its culture exhibits both Eastern and Western influences. Over the
years it has been invariably influenced by movements such as those
brought about during the Byzantine Empire and the Renaissance. Today,
the country is somewhat culturally divided with the western regions
bearing a stronger European influence and the eastern regions showing a
strong Russian influence.
It is interesting to note that Communist rule in Russia
had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine. During the
late 1920s and early 1930s, the Soviet authorities began enforcing the
socialist realism art style in Ukraine. This style dictated that all
artists and writers glorify the Soviet Regime with their talents.
However, it wasn’t long before the Soviet Union collapsed and artists
and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted.
Unfortunately the collapse of the union also brought about a decrease in
government subsidies. Writers chose to emulate the styles used in the
11th and 13th centuries, while artists expanded their horizons trying new techniques, subject matters and styles.
Ukrainian culture is richly embedded in ancient traditions. Even today
many historical songs such as the dumy and the playing of the kobza –
which was popular during the 16th century – is still enjoyed. However, music
has also come a long way since then and Polissia magic pop and Kolomiya
rap have gained popularity. The culture scene has also seen a
resurgence of Cossack songs and song poetry. There are also a number of cultural festivals such as the Tavriya Games which are most popular.
The Ukrainian people also enjoy their culture in the form of traditional
dances and dance games. Many of these originated in rural Cossack
villages and some of the oldest dances can be traced back to ancient
cults. Traditionally many of these dances were performed only by males
or females, but today both sexes sometimes mix and enjoy the dance
together. Appreciation for these dances is usually kept alive by Ukrainian dance troupes.
Many people do not know that the tradition of the Easter egg had it’s
beginnings in the Ukraine. In times gone by (and still sometimes today)
these eggs were drawn on with wax to create patterns. Dye was then added
to give the eggs their delightful colors – the dye not affecting the
wax coated parts of the egg. Once the whole egg was dyed, the wax was
removed leaving only the colorful pattern. The tradition is thousands of
years old and predates the arrival of Christianity in the country.
While Christian interpretations of this practice abound, many Ukrainians
still believe that the egg has immense power and releases the earth
from the restraints of winter. Even the designs have meaning and the
eggs are usually given as gifts or used as decorations.
Ukrainians celebrate a number of holidays, namely Christmas, Easter,
Whitsuntide, New Years and Ivana Kupala (St John’s Eve). They also hold
a festival every autumn to celebrate the end of the harvest. While some
of these festivals are celebrated world wide, Ukrainians have their
very own way of observing them. Ukrainian culture is very interesting
and there is so much to say on the matter that it cannot be discussed
fully here. The best way to find out more is to visit the country and
learn from the locals.
99) Classical Ukrainian 99) Класична українська
2440 TUE 14.11.2010 УРОК
Тіпітака (Паліті, “три”, “Пітака”, “кошики”), або Палі канон, являє собою сукупність первинних текстів мови Палі, які складають доктринальний фундамент буддизму Тіравади. Типітака і параканонічні тексти Палі (коментарі, літописи тощо) разом складають повне тіло класичних текстів Теревади.
The Палі канон - це величезна кількість літератури: в англійському перекладі тексти додаються до тисяч друкованих сторінок. Більшість (але не всі) Канон уже кілька років публікується англійською мовою. Хоча лише невелика частка цих текстів доступна на цьому веб-сайті, це колекція може бути гарним місцем для початку.
Три дивізії Типитака:
Віная Пітака Збірник текстів, що стосуються правил поведінки, що регулює
повсякденні справи всередині сангхи - спільноти бхікхусів (висвячених
монахів) та бхікхуні (рукоположені черниці) Набагато більше, ніж просто список правил, також Віня Питака включає в себе історії походження кожного правила, забезпечуючи a докладний розповідь про рішення Будди питанням, як це зробити підтримувати комунальну гармонію в межах великого і різноманітного духовного спільнота Сутта Пітака The збір суттів або дискурсів, що відносяться до Будди та декількох з його найближчих учнів, що містять всі центральні вчення Теравадський буддизм. (Перекладено понад тисячу суттів доступні на цьому веб-сайті.) Сути діляться між п’ятьма нікавами (збірками):
Діга Нікая - “довга колекція” Майжимі Нікія - “колекція середньої довжини” Самютта Ніка - “згрупована колекція” Ангутара Ніка - “далі-факторизована колекція” Худжак Ніка - це “збірка маленьких текстів”: Худдакапата Дхаммапада Удана Ітівтутка Сутта Ніпата Віманаватту Петаватту Терегата Терігата Джатака Ниддеса Патісамбідамагга Ападана Buddhavamsa Каріапітака Nettippakarana (включений тільки в бірманське видання Типітака) Петакопедеза (”") Міліндапанья (”")
Абідхамма Пітака The збірник текстів, в яких лежать основні догматичні принципи представлені в Sutta Pitaka, переробляються і реорганізуються в a систематичні рамки, які можуть бути застосовані до розслідування в природа розуму і матерії.
Urdu Adab Ke Mashhoor Afsanay by different Famous Urdu Classic Writers.
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Description of Book:
Urdu Adab ke Mash’hoor Afsanay, is a collection of very famous best
short stories of urdu literature by well known urdu writers. Some of
them are the ones which made their writer famous and known figure in
urdu literature. Its the 1st book composed by Kitaab Ghar on the demand
of our valued visitors and readers. The book contains following 25 best
urdu short stories: Akhri Admi, Pasmandagan, Intizar Hussain, Apa,
Mumtaz Mufti, Anandi, Ghulam Abbas, Apnay dukh mujhe de do, Woh Budha,
Rajinder Singh Bedi, Blouse, Kali Shalwar, Sadat Hasan Minto, Eid Gah,
Kafan, Shikwar Shikayat, Munshi Prem Chand, Gadarya, Ashfaq Ahmad,
Gandasa, Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi, Haram Jadi, Hasan Askari, Jeeni, Shafiq ur
Rehman, Lehaf, Asmat Chightai, Lohay ka kamer band, Ram Lal, Maan Ji,
Qudrut Ullah Shahab, Mitti ki mona liza, A. Hameed, Maha Lakshmi ka
Pull, Krishan Chandar, Over Kot, Ghulam Abbas, SitaroN se Agay,
Qurratul-ain-haider, Telegram, Jogindar Pal, Teesra Admi, Shokat
Siddiqui, Toba Shikan, Bano Qudsia, Woh Budha, Rajinder Singh Bedi.
Jannat Kay Pattay A Socio Romantic Urdu Novel by Women Digest Writer
& Novelist Nemrah Ahmed Tum Akhri Jazeera Ho Social Romantic Novel
by Amna Riaz Lards Spy Action Adventure Imran Series Novel by Mazhar
Kaleem MA Tum Ho Mera Asman Urdu Romantic Novel by Shama Hafeez Socio
Romantic Urdu Novel Ayada e Jaan Guzarishat by Ushna Kausar Sardar
Adab ke Mash’hoor Afsanay, is a collection of very famous best short
stories of urdu literature by well known urdu writers. Some of them are
the ones which made their writer famous and known figure in urdu
literature. Its the 1st book composed by Kitaab Ghar on the demand of
our valued visitors…
100) Classical Urdu 100) کلاسیکی اردو
2440 نمبر 14 نومبر 2017 سبق
ٹپکٹکا (پال تے، “تین،” + pitaka، “ٹوکری”)، یا پالی کینن، بنیادی پالی زبان نصوص کا مجموعہ ہے تھراواڈا بدھ مت کے نظریاتی بنیاد تشکیل دیں. ٹپکٹکا اور paracanonical پال متن (تبصرے، تعریف، وغیرہ) ایک ساتھ ساتھ کلاسیکی تھراوا متن کے مکمل جسم کا قیام.
The پالی کینن ادب کا ایک وسیع جسم ہے: انگریزی ترجمہ میں ہزاروں طباعت شدہ صفحات تک متن شامل ہیں. سب سے زیادہ (لیکن سب نہیں) کینن پہلے سے ہی سالوں میں انگریزی میں شائع کیا گیا ہے. اگرچہ ان نصوصوں کا صرف ایک چھوٹا سا حصہ اس ویب سائٹ پر دستیاب ہے مجموعہ شروع کرنے کے لئے ایک اچھی جگہ ہوسکتی ہے.
ٹپٹکا کے تین حصے ہیں:
ونیا پٹاکا سنگھ کے اندر روزانہ معاملات کو منظم کرنے کے طریقوں سے متعلق مضامین کا مجموعہ - بھیکخس (مختار راہ) اور بھیکخونیز (کمیونٹی) نون). صرف قوانین کی ایک فہرست سے زیادہ، Vinaya Pitaka بھی ہر قاعدہ کی اصل کے پیچھے کی کہانیاں شامل ہیں، ایک فراہم کرنے میں کس طرح کے سوال کے بوہھا کے حل کا تفصیلی اکاؤنٹ بڑے اور متنوع روحانی کے اندر سماجی ہم آہنگی برقرار رکھو برادری. سوٹا پٹاکا The سوٹ کا مجموعہ، یا حوصلہ افزائی، بھوہ اور چند افراد کو منسوب کیا گیا ہے ان کے قریبی شاگردوں میں سے، تمام مرکزی تعلیمات شامل ہیں تھراواڈا بدھ مت (ایک ہزار سے زائد سوٹ ترجمہ ہیں اس ویب سائٹ پر دستیاب ہے.) سوٹ پانچ نکایوں (مجموعہ) میں تقسیم کیے گئے ہیں:
دوگا نککا - “طویل مجموعہ” مججما نککا - “درمیانی لمبائی کا مجموعہ” سامیوتا نکیا - “گروپ گروپ” Anguttara Nikaya - “مزید فکسڈ مجموعہ” کھڈکا نککا - “چھوٹا سا نصوصوں کا مجموعہ”: کھڈکاپاٹا ڈھامپاڈا اڈانا اسیوٹکا سوٹ نیپتا ویمیماوٹھو پیٹراوٹھو تھراگاتھ تھریگاتھ جٹکا ندیسا پتیسلمھماگگا اپادانا بدھاما Cariyapitaka نیٹپوکاکانا (صرف ٹپکٹکا کے برمی ایڈیشن میں شامل ہیں) Petakopadesa (”") ملندپنپن (”")
ابھارہما پٹاکا The مضامین کا مجموعہ جس میں بنیادی عقیدہ اصول ہیں سوٹا پٹاکا میں پیش کیا گیا ہے اور پھر اس میں دوبارہ منظم کیا جاتا ہے ایک تحقیقاتی فریم ورک جو تحقیقات میں لاگو کیا جا سکتا ہے دماغ اور معاملہ کی نوعیت.
Traditional Uzbek music has ancient sources. Folklore Uzbek music which came from the people is divided into many genres.
Among them are lullabies and children’s songs as well as ritual,
work, daily life songs, songs-dialogues, dancing and lyric fados.
Classical Uzbek music is makom – a special musical genre, which is
characterized by drawling touching performance. Many lines of the poets
of the East (Jami, Navoi, Fuzuly, Hafiz, Uvaisi, Nadira, Mukimi Ogahi,
etc.) were put to this music. The UNESCO has included “shashmakom”,
traditional Uzbek and Tajik music in the List of masterpieces of oral,
intangible cultural heritage of the mankind.
The diversity of folk instruments also confirms the wealth of Uzbek
musical tradition: bowed - gidjak, kobuz, setor and sato; fretted -
dombra, dutar tanbur, ud and rubab; stringed hammered string - chang;
wind-reed - sibizik, bulaman, surnay and koshnay; wind flute - nai and
gadjir; brass - karnay; drums - doira, nagora,, chindaul, safail, koshuk
101) Classical Uzbek 101) klassik o’zbek
2440 TUE 14 Noyabr 2017 Dars
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “uch,” + pitaka, “savat”), yoki Pali kanoni, asosiy Pali tilidagi matnlar to’plamidir Theravada buddizm ta’limotini tashkil etadi. Tipitaka va Paracanonical Pali matnlari (sharhlar, xronikalar va boshqalar) birgalikda klassik Theravada matnlarini to’liq tashkil etadi.
Ushbu Pali kanonasi adabiyotning keng javharidir: inglizcha tarjimada matnlar minglab bosma nashrga qo’shiladi. Ko’p (lekin barchasining) ko’pi Kanon allaqachon ingliz tilida nashr etilgan. Garchi ushbu matnlarning faqat kichik qismini ushbu veb-saytda topishingiz mumkin to’plamni boshlash uchun yaxshi joy bo’lishi mumkin.
Tipitakaning uchta bo’limi quyidagilardir:
Vinaya Pitaka Sxaxadagi kunlik ishlarni tartibga soluvchi qoidalarga tegishli
bo’lgan matnlar to’plami - bxikhus (tanlangan monaxlar) va bxixxunlar rohiblar). Faqatgina qoidalar ro’yxatidan ham ko’proq, Vinaya Pitaka ham har bir qoidaning kelib chiqishi ortidagi hikoyalarni o’z ichiga oladi Buddani qanday hal qilish masalasiga oid batafsil hisobotini keng va turli xil ma’naviy jihatdan kommunal uyg’unlikni saqlash jamoa. Sutta Pitaka Ushbu Sulton to’plamlari yoki Buddaga va bir necha kishilarga tegishli so’zlashuvlar Uning barcha eng muhim ta’limotlarini o’z ichiga olgan eng yaqin shogirdlari Theravada buddizm. (Bir mingdan ziyod sutta tarjimasi bor Ushbu saytda beshta nikayalar (to’plamlar) o’rtasida bo’linadi:
Digha Nikaya - “uzoq kollektsiya” Majjima Nikaya - “o’rta o’lchov to’plami” Samyutta Nikaya - “guruhlangan to’plam” Anguttara Nikaya - “keyinchalik aniqlangan to’plam” Xuddaka Nikaya - “kichik matnlar to’plami”: Xuddakapatha Dhammapada Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata Vimanavattu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha Jataka Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka Nettippakarana (faqat Tipitakaning Birma nashriga kiritilgan) Petakopedia (”") Milindapañha (”")
Abhidhamma Pitaka Ushbu asosiy tushunchalar asos bo’lgan matnlarni to’plash Sutta Pitakada namoyish etilgan va qayta ishlangan sistematik doirada tekshirish uchun qo’llanilishi mumkin ong va moddaning tabiati.
is a high quality, glossy city magazine in English targeting expat
residents, travellers and English speaking Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh
Content includes travel, fashion, food, dining out and features
about life and people in Ho Chi Minh City.
102) Classical Vietnamese 102) Tiếng Việt cổ điển
2440 TUE 14 tháng 11 năm 2017 LESSON
Kinh Tipitaka (Pali ti, “ba”, “pitaka”, “giỏ hàng”), hay Pali canon, là bộ sưu tập các bản văn nguyên bản tiếng Pali hình thành nên nền tảng giáo lý của Phật giáo Nguyên Thủy. Tipitaka và các kinh văn Pali (parakaninical pali) (các bài bình luận, biên niên
sử, v.v.) cùng nhau tạo thành toàn bộ cơ thể của các văn bản cổ điển
Các Pali canon là một bộ sách rộng lớn: trong bản dịch tiếng Anh văn bản thêm lên đến hàng ngàn trang in. Hầu hết (nhưng không phải tất cả) Canon đã được xuất bản bằng tiếng Anh qua nhiều năm. Mặc dù chỉ có một phần nhỏ các văn bản này có sẵn trên trang web này, điều này bộ sưu tập có thể là một nơi tốt để bắt đầu.
Ba bộ phận của Tipitaka là:
Vinaya Pitaka Bộ sưu tập các văn bản liên quan đến các quy tắc về công việc điều
hành công việc hàng ngày trong Tăng đoàn - cộng đồng của các tỳ khưu và
các tỳ khưu ni ni). Không chỉ đơn thuần là một quy tắc, Vinaya Pitaka cũng bao gồm các câu chuyện đằng sau nguồn gốc của mỗi quy tắc, cung cấp một giải thích chi tiết về giải pháp của Đức Phật cho câu hỏi làm thế nào để duy trì sự hài hòa của cộng đồng trong một tinh thần đa dạng và đa dạng cộng đồng. Sutta Pitaka Các tập hợp các kinh điển, hoặc các bài thuyết giảng, do Đức Phật và một số ít các môn đồ gần nhất của Ngài, chứa đựng tất cả các giáo lý trung tâm của Phật giáo Theravada. (Hơn một nghìn bản kinh là có trên trang web này). Các kinh điển được chia thành năm bộ nikayas (bộ sưu tập):
Digha Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập dài” Majjhima Nikaya - bộ sưu tập “trung bình” Samyutta Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập tập hợp” Anguttara Nikaya - “bộ sưu tập thực tế hơn” Khuddaka Nikaya - “Bộ sưu tập các bài viết nhỏ”: Khuddakapatha Pháp pháp Udana Itivuttaka Kinh Nipata Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Trị liệu Jataka Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana Phật pháp Cariyapitaka Nettippakarana (chỉ có trong ấn bản Miến Điện của Tipitaka) Petakopadesa (”") Milindapañha (”")
Abhidhamma Pitaka Các tập hợp các văn bản trong đó các nguyên tắc cơ bản được trình bày trong Sutta Pitaka được làm lại và tái tổ chức thành một khuôn khổ có hệ thống có thể được áp dụng cho một cuộc điều tra về bản chất của tâm và vật chất.
Castles & Welsh heritage
Whichever bit of Wales you head for, you’ll find yourself within easy
distance of the world’s finest castles and awe-inspiring landmarks.
There are over 600 of them, from Roman times to millionaires’ follies of
the 19th century, making Wales the castle capital of Europe. Each has its special story.
103) Classical Welsh 103) Cymraeg Clasurol
2440 TUE 14 Tach 2017 LESSON
Y Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), neu Pali canon, yw’r casgliad o destunau iaith cynradd Pali sydd yn ffurfio sylfaen athrawiaethol Bwdhaeth Theravada. Y Tipitaka a mae’r testunau Pali paracanyddol (sylwebaeth, cronelau, ac ati) gyda’i
gilydd yn ffurfio corff cyflawn testunau Theravada clasurol.
Y Corff canolog o lenyddiaeth yw canali Pali: yn cyfieithu Saesneg y mae testunau’n ychwanegu at filoedd o dudalennau printiedig. Y rhan fwyaf (ond nid pob un) o’r Mae Canon eisoes wedi’i gyhoeddi yn Saesneg dros y blynyddoedd. Er dim ond ffracsiwn bach o’r testunau hyn sydd ar gael ar y wefan hon, mae hyn gall casglu fod yn lle da i ddechrau.
Y tair rhanbarth o’r Tipitaka yw:
Vinaya Pitaka Casgliad o destunau sy’n ymwneud â’r rheolau ymddygiad sy’n rheoli
materion dyddiol yn y Sangha - cymuned bikkhus (mynachod ordeiniedig) a
bhikkhunis (ordeiniwyd mynyddoedd). Yn llawer mwy na dim ond rhestr o reolau, y Vinaya Pitaka hefyd yn cynnwys y straeon y tu ôl i darddiad pob rheol, gan ddarparu a Rhowch fanylion manwl i ateb y Bwdha i’r cwestiwn o sut i cynnal cytgord gymunedol mewn ysbrydol mawr ac amrywiol cymuned. Sutta Pitaka Y casgliad o suttas, neu ddadleuon, sy’n cael eu priodoli i’r Bwdha ac ychydig o’i ddisgyblion agosaf, yn cynnwys holl ddysgeidiaeth canolog Bwdhaeth Theravada. (Mae mwy na mil o gyfieithiadau sutta ar gael ar y wefan hon.) Mae’r suttas wedi’u rhannu ymhlith pum nikayas (casgliadau):
Digha Nikaya - y “casgliad hir” Majjhima Nikaya - y “casgliad hyd canol” Samyutta Nikaya - y “casgliad grŵp” Anguttara Nikaya - y “casgliad pellach” Khuddaka Nikaya - y “casgliad o destunau bach”: Khuddakapatha Dhammapada Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha Jataka Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka Nettippakarana (a gynhwysir yn unig yn rhifyn Burmese o’r Tipitaka) Petakopadesa (”") Milindapañha (”")
Abhidhamma Pitaka Y casgliad o destunau lle mae’r egwyddorion athrawiaethol sylfaenol a gyflwynir yn y Sutta Pitaka yn cael eu hail-weithio a’u had-drefnu i mewn i Fframwaith systematig y gellir ei gymhwyso i ymchwiliad i’r natur meddwl a mater.
four major ethnic divisions among Black South Africans are the Nguni,
Sotho, Shangaan-Tsonga and Venda. The Nguni represent nearly two thirds
of South Africa’s Black population and can be divided into four distinct
groups; the Northern and Central Nguni (the Zulu-speaking peoples), the
Southern Nguni (the Xhosa-speaking peoples), the Swazi people from
Swaziland and adjacent areas and the Ndebele people of the Northern
Province and Mpumalanga. Archaeological evidence shows that the
Bantu-speaking groups that were the ancestors of the Nguni migrated down
from East Africa as early as the eleventh century.
Language, culture and beliefs:
Xhosa are the second largest cultural group in South Africa, after the
Zulu-speaking nation. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are
variations, is part of the Nguni language group. Xhosa is one of the 11
official languages recognized by the South African Constitution, and in
2006 it was determined that just over 7 million South Africans speak
Xhosa as a home language. It is a tonal language, governed by the noun -
which dominates the sentence.
Missionaries introduced the Xhosa
to Western choral singing. Among the most successful of the Xhosa hymns
is the South African national anthem, Nkosi Sikele’ iAfrika (God Bless Africa). It was written by a school teacher named Enoch Sontonga
in 1897. Xhosa written literature was established in the nineteenth
century with the publication of the first Xhosa newspapers, novels, and
plays. Early writers included Tiyo Soga, I. Bud-Mbelle, and John Tengo Jabavu.
and legends provide accounts of Xhosa ancestral heroes. According to
one oral tradition, the first person on Earth was a great leader called
Xhosa. Another tradition stresses the essential unity of the
Xhosa-speaking people by proclaiming that all the Xhosa subgroups are
descendants of one ancestor, Tshawe. Historians have suggested that
Xhosa and Tshawe were probably the first Xhosa kings or paramount
The Supreme Being among the Xhosa is called uThixo or uQamata.
As in the religions of many other Bantu peoples, God is only rarely
involved in everyday life. God may be approached through ancestral
intermediaries who are honoured through ritual sacrifices. Ancestors
commonly make their wishes known to the living in dreams. Xhosa
religious practice is distinguished by elaborate and lengthy rituals,
initiations, and feasts. Modern rituals typically pertain to matters of
illness and psychological well-being.
The Xhosa people have
various rites of passage traditions. The first of these occurs after
giving birth; a mother is expected to remain secluded in her house for
at least ten days. In Xhosa tradition, the afterbirth and umbilical cord
were buried or burned to protect the baby from sorcery. At the end of
the period of seclusion, a goat was sacrificed. Those who no longer
practice the traditional rituals may still invite friends and relatives
to a special dinner to mark the end of the mother’s seclusion.
Male and female initiation in the form of circumcision is practiced among most Xhosa groups. The Male abakweta
(initiates-in-training) live in special huts isolated from villages or
towns for several weeks. Like soldiers inducted into the army, they have
their heads shaved. They wear a loincloth and a blanket for warmth, and
white clay is smeared on their bodies from head to toe. They are
expected to observe numerous taboos (prohibitions) and to act
deferentially to their adult male leaders. Different stages in the
initiation process were marked by the sacrifice of a goat.
ritual of female circumcision is considerably shorter. The intonjane
(girl to be initiated) is secluded for about a week. During this period,
there are dances, and ritual sacrifices of animals. The initiate must
hide herself from view and observe food restrictions. There is no actual
they speak a common language, Xhosa people belong to many loosely
organized, but distinct chiefdoms that have their origins in their Nguni
ancestors. It is important to question how and why the Nguni speakers
were separated into the sub-group known today. The majority of central
northern Nguni people became part of the Zulu kingdom, whose language
and traditions are very similar to the Xhosa nations - the main
difference is that the latter abolished circumcision.
In order to
understand the origins of the Xhosa people we must examine the
developments of the southern Nguni, who intermarried with Khoikhoi and
retained circumcision. For unknown reasons, certain southern Nguni
groups began to expand their power some time before 1600. Tshawe founded
the Xhosa kingdom by defeating the Cirha and Jwarha groups. His
descendants expanded the kingdom by settling in new territory and
bringing people living there under the control of the amaTshawe.
Generally, the group would take on the name of the chief under whom they
had united. There are therefore distinct varieties of the Xhosa
language, the most distinct being isiMpondo (isiNdrondroza).
Other dialects include: Thembu, Bomvana, Mpondimise, Rharhabe, Gcaleka,
Xesibe, Bhaca, Cele, Hlubi, Ntlangwini, Ngqika, Mfengu (also names of
different groups or clans).
Unlike the Zulu and the Ndebele in
the north, the position of the king as head of a lineage did not make
him an absolute king. The junior chiefs of the various chiefdoms
acknowledged and deferred to the paramount chief in matters of ceremony,
law, and tribute, but he was not allowed to interfere in their domestic
affairs. There was great rivalry among them, and few of these leaders
could answer for the actions of even their own councillors. As they
could not centralise their power, chiefs were constantly preoccupied
with strategies to maintain the loyalties of their followers.
Cape Nguni of long ago were cattle farmers. They took great care of
their cattle because they were a symbol of wealth, status, and respect.
Cattle were used to determine the price of a bride, or lobola, and they
were the most acceptable offerings to the ancestral spirits. They also
kept dogs, goats and later, horses, sheep, pigs and poultry. Their chief
crops were millet, maize, kidney beans, pumpkins, and watermelons. By
the eighteenth century they were also growing tobacco and hemp.
this stage isiXhosa was not a written language but there was a rich
store of music and oral poetry. Xhosa tradition is rich in creative
verbal expression. Intsomi (folktales), proverbs, and isibongo
(praise poems) are told in dramatic and creative ways. Folktales relate
the adventures of both animal protagonists and human characters. Praise
poems traditionally relate the heroic adventures of ancestors or
As the Xhosa slowly moved westwards in groups,
they destroyed or incorporated the Khoikhoi chiefdoms and San groups,
and their language became influenced by Khoi and San words, which
contain distinctive ‘clicks’.
Europeans who came to stay in South
Africa first settled in and around Cape Town. As the years passed, they
sought to expand their territory. This expansion was first at the
expense of the Khoi and San, but later Xhosa land was taken as well. The
Xhosa encountered eastward-moving White pioneers or ‘Trek Boers’ in the
region of the Fish River. The ensuing struggle was not so much a
contest between Black and White races as a struggle for water, grazing
and living space between two groups of farmers.
Nine Frontier Wars
followed between the Xhosa and European settlers, and these wars
dominated 19th century South African History. The first frontier war
broke out in 1780 and marked the beginning of the Xhosa struggle to
preserve their traditional customs and way of life. It was a struggle
that was to increase in intensity when the British arrived on the scene.
Xhosa fought for one hundred years to preserve their independence,
heritage and land, and today this area is still referred to by many as
During the Frontier Wars, hostile chiefs forced
the earliest missionaries to abandon their attempts to ‘evangelise’
them. This situation changed after 1820, when John Brownlee founded a
mission on the Tyhume River near Alice, and William Shaw established a
chain of Methodist stations throughout the Transkei.
denominations followed suit. Education and medical work were to become
major contributions of the missions, and today Xhosa cultural
traditionalists are likely to belong to independent denominations that
combine Christianity with traditional beliefs and practices. In addition
to land lost to white annexation, legislation reduced Xhosa political
autonomy. Over time, Xhosa people became increasingly impoverished, and
had no option but to become migrant labourers. In the late 1990s, Xhosa
labourers made up a large percentage of the workers in South Africa’s
The dawn of apartheid in the 1940s marked more changes
for all Black South Africans. In 1953 the South African Government
introduced homelands or Bantustans, and two regions ‘Transkei and
Ciskei’ were set aside for Xhosa people. These regions were proclaimed
independent countries by the apartheid government. Therefore many Xhosa
were denied South African citizenship, and thousands were forcibly
relocated to remote areas in Transkei and Ciskei.
The homelands were abolished with the change to democracy in 1994 and South Africa’s first democratically elected president was African National Congress (ANC) leader, Nelson Mandela, who is a Xhosa-speaking member of the Thembu people.
די טייפּיטהאַ (פּאַלי טי, “דרייַ,” + פלייש, “קערב”), אָדער פּאַלי קאַנאָן, איז די זאַמלונג פון ערשטע פּאַלי שפּראַך טעקסץ וואָס פאָרעם די דאָקטרינאַל יסוד פון טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם. די טיפּפי און די פּאַראַקאַנאַניקאַל פּאַלי טעקסץ (קאָממונאַריעס, כראָניקלעס, אאז”ו
ו) צוזאַמען קאַנסטאַטוט די גאַנץ גוף פון קלאסישע טהעראַוואַדאַ טעקסץ.
די פּאַלי קאַנאָן איז אַ וואַסט גוף פון ליטעראַטור: אין ענגליש איבערזעצונג די טעקסטן לייגן אַרויף צו טויזנטער פון געדרוקט בלעטער. רובֿ (אָבער ניט אַלע) פון די קאַנאָן האט שוין ארויס אין ענגליש איבער די יאָרן. כאָטש בלויז אַ קליין בראָכצאָל פון די טעקסטן זענען בנימצא אויף דעם וועבזייַטל, דאָס זאַמלונג קענען זיין אַ גוט פּלאַץ צו אָנהייבן.
די דריי דיוויזשאַנז פון די Tipitaka זענען:
Vinaya Pitaka די זאַמלונג פון טעקסטן וועגן די כּללים פון פירונג גאַווערנינג די
טעגלעך ענינים אין די סאַנגהאַ - די קהל פון בהיקקהוס (אָרדיינד מאָנקס)
און בהיקכיניס (אָרדיינד נאַנז). פיל מער ווי בלויז אַ רשימה פון כּללים, די ווינייַיאַ פּיטאַקאַ אויך כולל די געשיכטע הינטער דער אָנהייב פון יעדער הערשן, פּראַוויידינג אַ דיטיילד חשבון פון די בודאַ לייזונג צו די קשיא פון ווי צו טייַנען כלל האַרמאָניע ין אַ גרויס און דייווערס רוחניות קהילה. Sutta Pitaka די זאַמלונג פון סאַטאַס, אָדער דיסקאָורסעס, אַטריביאַטאַד צו די בודאַ און אַ ביסל פון זיין קלאָוסאַסט תלמידים, מיט אַלע די הויפט לערנונגען פון טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם. (מער ווי 1,000 סאַטאַ איבערזעצונגען זענען בנימצא אויף דעם וועבזייַטל.) די סאַטאַס זענען צעטיילט צווישן פינף ניקייאַס (זאַמלונגען):
Digha Nikaya - די “לאַנג זאַמלונג” מאַדזשדזשהימאַ ניקאַדזשאַ - די “מיטל-לענג זאַמלונג” סאַמויטאַ ניקאַדזשאַ - די “גרופּט זאַמלונג” אַנגוטטאַראַ ניקייַאַ - די “ווייַטער-פאַקטאָרעד זאַמלונג” כודאַקאַ ניקאַדזשאַ - די “זאַמלונג פון קליין טעקסץ”: Khuddakapatha דהאַממאַפּאַדאַ Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata וויכטיקייט פּעטאַוואַטטהו טהעראַגאַטהאַ טהעריגאַטהאַ דזשאַטאַנאַ נידז הצלחה Apadana בודדהאַמסאַמאַ Cariyapitaka נעטטיפּפּאַקאַראַנאַ (אַרייַנגערעכנט בלויז אין די בורמעסע אַדישאַן פון די טיפּיטהאַ) פּעטאַקאָפּאַדעסאַ (”") מילינדאַפּ () “
Abhidhamma Pitaka די זאַמלונג פון טעקסטן אין וואָס די אַנדערלייינג דאָקטרינאַל פּרינציפּן דערלאנגט אין די סאַטטאַ פּיטאַקאַ זענען ריווערקט און ריאָרגאַנייזד אין אַ סיסטעמאַטיק פריימווערק וואָס קענען זיין געווענדט צו אַ ויספאָרשונג אין די נאַטור פון גייַסט און ענין. 106) Classical Yoruba 106) Yoruba Yoruba
2440 TUE 14 Oṣu kọkanla 2017 Ọkọ
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “mẹta,” + pitaka, “agbọn”), tabi Canon Pali, ni gbigba awọn ọrọ ede Gẹẹsi akọkọ ti bẹrẹ ipilẹṣẹ ẹkọ ti Theravada Buddhism. Tipitaka ati awọn ọrọ odi ti parakanonical (awọn asọtẹlẹ, awọn itan, ati be be lo) papọ jẹ ẹya pipe ti awọn ọrọ Theravada lasan.
Awọn Pali Canon jẹ ẹya ara-iwe ti o tobi: ni itumọ ede Gẹẹsi awọn ọrọ fi kun si ẹgbẹẹgbẹrun awọn oju iwe ti a tẹjade. Ọpọ (ṣugbọn kii ṣe gbogbo) ti Canon ti tẹlẹ ṣe atejade ni ede Gẹẹsi lori awọn ọdun. Biotilejepe nikan ida diẹ ninu awọn ọrọ wọnyi wa lori aaye ayelujara yii, eyi gbigba le jẹ aaye ti o dara lati bẹrẹ.
Awọn ipin mẹta ti Tipitaka ni:
Vinaya Pitaka Awọn gbigba awọn ọrọ nipa awọn ofin ti iwa ti o n ṣakoso awọn
igbesi aye ojoojumọ laarin Sangha - agbegbe ti awọn bhikkhus (awọn
alakoso ti a ti paṣẹ ati bhikkhunis) Awọn ifiranṣẹ). Pelu diẹ sii ju awọn akojọ awọn ofin lọ, Vinaya Pitaka tun pẹlu awọn itan lẹhin ibẹrẹ ti ofin kọọkan, pese a alaye ti o jẹ alaye ti Buddha ká ojutu si ibeere ti bi o si ṣetọju isokan ni awujọ laarin ẹmi nla ti o yatọ agbegbe. Sutta Pitaka Awọn gbigba ti awọn suttas, tabi awọn apejuwe, ti a sọ si Buddha ati awọn diẹ ti awọn ọmọ-ẹhin rẹ to sunmọ julọ, ti o ni gbogbo awọn ẹkọ pataki ti Awọn Buddhist Theravada. (Ọpọlọpọ awọn iyatọ sutta jẹ wa lori oju-iwe ayelujara yii.) Awọn suttas ti pin si awọn mẹẹdọta marun (awọn akopọ):
Digha Nikaya - “gbigba pipẹ” Majjhima Nikaya - awọn “agbedemeji ipari” Samyutta Nikaya - “akojọpọ akojọpọ” Anguttara Nikaya - awọn “afikun-factored collection” Khuddaka Nikaya - awọn “gbigba awọn ọrọ diẹ”: Khuddakapatha Dajudaju Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata Vimanavatthu Petavatthu Theragatha Therigatha Jataka Niddesa Aabo oju-iwe Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyambaka Nettippakarana (eyiti o wa ninu Tipitaka ti Burmese nikan) Petakopadesa (”") Milindapañha (”") Abhidhamma Pitaka Awọn gbigba ti awọn ọrọ inu eyiti awọn agbekalẹ doctrine doctrinal ti o wa labẹ gbekalẹ ni Sutta Pitaka ti wa ni atunṣe ati tunṣe sinu sinu ilana ti aifwyita ti a le lo si iwadi kan sinu iseda ti okan ati ọrọ.