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2441 Wed 15 Nov 2017 LESSON Lessons From Gautama Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Digha Nikaya in 23) Classical English,23) Classical Afrikaans-Klassieke Afrikaans,3) Classical Albanian -Klasike Shqiptare,4) Classical Amharic -ጥንታዊ አማርኛ,5) Classical Arabic-الكلاسيكية الأمهرية 6) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,7) Classical Azerbaijani-Klassik azərbaycanlı
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 7:00 pm

2441 Wed 15  Nov 2017 LESSON

Lessons From Gautama Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Digha Nikaya

in 23) Classical English,23) Classical Afrikaans-Klassieke Afrikaans,3) Classical Albanian -Klasike Shqiptare,4) Classical Amharic -ጥንታዊ አማርኛ,5) Classical Arabic-الكلاسيكية الأمهرية

6) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,7) Classical Azerbaijani-Klassik azərbaycanlı

Have
you ever wondered why all the statues that you see of the Buddha show
him as calm, cool and smiling? Well, because Gautam Buddha had found the
secrets of life by discovering the harsh realities of life. He had his
ego completely annihilated and found the
beauty of present moments. To be calm and cool like him, you will have to take in a few of his observations about life. Here you go…
 


1. “Three things cannot be hidden: the sun, the moon and the truth.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

No matter how much
you try to conceal the truth, it will be known one day or the other.
It’s foolish to cover up lies because the truth reveals itself in the
most honest way.

2. “You will not be punished for your anger; you will be punished by your anger.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Anger is a lethal weapon. Apart from slaying the enemy, it also slays you. When you’re angry,
your words deceive you and they hurt others. Therefore, it’s advisable
to remain silent and not speak when something annoys you.

3. “You can search throughout the entire
universe for someone who is more deserving of your love and affection
than you are yourself, and that person is not to be found anywhere. You,
yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love
and affection.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

We
often expect to receive love and affection from others. In that
process, we start neglecting ourselves. We try too hard to get
attention. However, we forget that loving one’s own self comes before
loving others. You cannot love selflessly, until and unless you
understand yourself.


4. “We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.”Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life
The
message here is to think happy thoughts that will keep you happy
throughout the day. Being optimistic is better than having negative
thoughts. Seeing the glass half-full is a way better perspective than
seeing the glass half empty.

5. “You only lose what you cling to.”
Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Getting
attached to a thing is the biggest mistake we can make in our lives. It
is when we get too dependent on it that we start losing it.


6.
“Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no
matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your
own common sense.”Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Indeed
an enlightening quote! Here, Buddha wants us to learn from our own
experiences and not from the reviews of others. What suits one person
may not necessarily suit another.


7. “Physical charms attract the eyes, goodness attracts the mind.”

Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Good
looks are an asset - however, a good character is an identity. It’s
completely wrong to judge someone only by their looks and not by their
character.


8.
“Just as on a rubbish heap swept up on a main road a purely fragrant,
delightful lotus might there spring up, even so amidst those rubbish
heaps (of men) does the savaka of the
Perfectly Enlightened One outshine in insight the blind puthujjana”Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Even
if you’re surrounded by filth, but you’re strong enough to resist the
bad, you will grow like a lotus in a mud lake. If you’re a student, with
hard work, you will outshine all other ordinary students.


9. “When you like a flower, you just pluck it. But when you love a flower, you water it daily.Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Buddha teaches us the difference between love and lust. In love, you nurture a relationship. In lust, you only satisfy your physical needs.

10. “A jug fills drop by drop.”
Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Starting
small is the mantra for finishing big. It doesn’t matter if your start
is a small attempt. If you keep at it steadily, you will achieve what
you want to one day.

11. “It is better to travel well than to arrive.”
Lessons From Gautam Buddha That Will Help You Win At Life

Life
is one big journey and you’re a traveller. It’s better to live and
travel well, than thinking about the future and losing your peace of
mind. Living the fullest in the present is the best way to enjoy life,
rather than living in the past or the future.



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RblJLKC-V8M
Digha Nikaya 9 Pottapada Sutta - About States of Consciousness Part 1

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Digha Nikaya

Digha Nikaya

The Digha Nikaya (”Collection of Long Discourses”) is the first of the five nikayas (collections) in the Sutta Pitaka. Some of the most commonly referenced suttas from the Digha Nikaya include the Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), which described the final days and death of the Buddha, the Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31) in which the Buddha discusses ethics and practices for lay followers, and the Samaññaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta
(DN 1) which describes and compares the point-of-view of Buddha and
other ascetics in India about the universe and time (past, present, and
future); and Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), which describe the benefits and practice of samatha meditation (calm meditation).


The Digha Nikaya consists of 34 discourses, broken into three vaggas (groups):
23) Classical Afrikaans
23) Klassieke Afrikaans

2441 Wo 15 Nov 2017 LES

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Digha Nikaya

Die Digha Nikaya (”Collection of Long Discourses”) is die eerste van die vyf nikayas (versamelings) in die Sutta Pitaka. Sommige
van die mees bekende suttas uit die Digha Nikaya sluit in die
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), wat die laaste dae en die dood van die
Boeddha, die Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31) beskryf waarin die Boeddha die
etiek en praktyke vir leke bespreek
volgelinge,
en die Samanaphaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1) wat die standpunt
van Boeddha en ander asketika in Indië oor die heelal en tyd (verlede,
hede en toekoms) beskryf en vergelyk;
en Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), wat die voordele en praktyk van samatha meditasie (kalm meditasie) beskryf.
Die Digha Nikaya bestaan ​​uit 34 diskoerse, verdeel in drie vaggas (groepe):
inhoud

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
Maha-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
Aflaai / Sien Engelse Vertaling
    
Oorspronklike Pali Weergawe

Silakkhandha-vagga

Die Afdeling Moraliteit (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) “The Great Net” of die universele net (van
die wêreld) waarin alle wesens soos vis en die 62 ketterse vorme van
spekulasie aangaande die wêreld en die self onderrig deur ander
onderwysers van die tyd gevang word.
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) “The Fruits of the Hermit Life”. Die Boeddha verduidelik aan koning Ajatasattu die voordele om by
die Boeddhistiese Orde aan te sluit en die lewe van die wêreld te
verwerp.
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Geboorte trots en sy val. ‘N Dialoog met Ambattha op kaste. Bevat verwysing na die legende van King Okkaka, die tradisionele stigter van die Sakya-stam.
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Dialoog met die Brahmin Sonadanda oor die eienskappe van die ware brahmin.
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Dialoog met die Brahmin Kutadanta veroordeel diere offer.
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Dialoog met Mahali op deva soos visie en gehoor en die bereiking van volle verligting.
    
Jaliya Sutta (7) Oor die aard van die lewensbeginsel in vergelyking met die liggaam.
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) ‘n Dialoog met die naakte asket Kassapa teen selfverlies.
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) ‘n Bespreking met Potthapada oor die aard van
die siel, waarin die Boeddha die vraag stel om irrelevant te wees en
nie bevorderlik te wees vir verligting nie.
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) ‘n Diskoers, toegeskryf aan Ananda, oor gedrag, konsentrasie en wysheid.
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) Die Boeddha weier om ‘n bhikkhu toe te laat om ‘n wonderwerk uit te voer. Verhaal van die monnik wat die devas (gode) besoek het om hulle te bevraagteken.
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Dialoog met die Brahmin Lohicca oor die etiek van onderrig.
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Oor die nutteloosheid van ‘n kennis van die Vedas as middel om metgeselskap met Brahma te bereik.
Maha-vagga

Die Groot Divisie (10 suttas)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) Die Sublieme Verhaal van die Boeddha Gotama en sy ses voorgangers; ook die diskoers op die Buddha Vipassi; sy afkoms van die Tusita-hemel tot aan die begin van sy missie.
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Op die ketting van oorsaak en teorieë van die siel.
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Die Groot Diskoers van die rekord van die oorgang van die Tathagata na Parinibbana.
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Die Groot Koning van Glorie. Die verhaal van ‘n vorige bestaan ​​van die Boeddha, as koning Sudassana. Vertel deur die Boeddha op sy sterfbed.
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Die Boeddha hou verband met die verhaal van die Yakkha Janavasabha aan die mense van Nadika.
    
Maha Govinda Sutta (19) Die hemelse musikant Pancasikha hou
verband met die verhaal van Maha Govinda aan die Boeddha, wat verklaar
dat hy self Maha Govinda was.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Die Devas van die Pure Abode en hul evolusie.
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Sakka, die heer van devas besoek die
Boeddha, en leer van hom dat alles wat ontstaan ​​het ook onderhewig is
aan ontbinding.
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Diskoers oor die vier groot meditasies, op die liggaam, gevoelens gedagtes en gemoedstoestande. Met ‘n kommentaar op die vier waarhede.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi betwis wedergeboorte / reïnkarnasie en beloning van aksies (kamma / karma) maar ervaar dit self.

Patika-vagga

Die Patika-afdeling (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Storie van die dissipel wat ander onderwysers
volg, want die Boeddha werk nie wonderwerke of leer die oorsprong van
dinge nie.
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) Die Boeddha bespreek ascetisme met die asketiese Nigrodha.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Die verhaal van die universele
koning, die korrupsie van morele en hul herstel, en die koms van die
toekoms Boeddha Metteya.
    
Agganna Sutta (27) ‘n Bespreking oor kaste, en ‘n uiteensetting
oor die ontstaan ​​van dinge (soos in Sutta 24) tot by die ontstaan
​​van die vier kaste.
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) ‘n Dialoog van die Boeddha met Sariputta,
wat die Onderrig van die Boeddha beskryf en sy geloof in hom beweer.
    
Pasadika Sutta (29) Die Delectable Discourse. Diskoers van die Boeddha op die perfekte en onvolmaakte onderwyser.
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Op die 32 punte van ‘n Groot Man.
    
Sigalovada Sutta (31) Die Sigala homily oor die pligte van die huiseienaar aan die ses klasse persone.
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Op die Vier Groot Konings en hul spel vir beskerming teen die kwaad.
    
Sangiti Sutta (33) Sariputta beskryf die beginsels van die Onderrig in tien numeriese groepe.
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta beskryf die leerstelling in tienvoudige reeks.



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3) Classical Albanian
3) Klasike Shqiptare

2441 Wed 15 Nov 2017 MËSIM

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Digha Nikaya

Digha Nikaya (”Koleksioni i Diskurse të gjata”) është i pari nga pesë nikayas (koleksionet) në Sutta Pitaka. Disa
nga suttet më të zakonshme të referuara nga Digha Nikaya përfshijnë
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), e cila përshkruan ditët e fundit dhe
vdekjen e Budës, Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31), në të cilën Buda diskuton
etikën dhe praktikat për shtrimin
ndjekësit,
dhe Samaññaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1), e cila përshkruan dhe
krahason pikëpamjen e Budës dhe asketëve të tjerë në Indi për universin
dhe kohën (e kaluara, e tashmja dhe e ardhmja);
dhe Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), të cilat përshkruajnë përfitimet dhe praktikën e meditimit samatha (meditim i qetë).
Digha Nikaya përbëhet nga 34 diskurse, të thyer në tri grupe (grupe):
përmbajtje

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
Maha-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
Shkarko / Shikoni përkthimin në anglisht
    
Versioni origjinal Pali

Silakkhandha-vagga

Divizioni lidhur me moralin (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) “Rrjeti i Madh” ose rrjeti universal (i
botës), në të cilin kapen të gjitha qeniet si peshqit dhe 62 format
heretike të spekulimeve në lidhje me botën dhe vetë mësohen nga mësuesit
e tjerë të kohës.
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) “Frutat e Jetës Hermit”. Buda shpjegon mbretit Ajatasattu përparësitë e bashkimit me Urdhrin Budist dhe heqjen dorë nga jeta e botës.
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Krenaria e lindjes dhe rënia e saj. Një dialog me Ambattha mbi kastën. Përmban referencë ndaj legjendës së mbretit Okkaka, themeluesit tradicional të fisit Sakya.
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Dialogu me Brahmin Sonadanda mbi karakteristikat e brahmanit të vërtetë.
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Dialogu me Brahmin Kutadanta që dënon sakrificën e kafshëve.
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Dialogu me Mahalin në deva si vizioni dhe dëgjimi dhe arritja e ndriçimit të plotë.
    
Jaliya Sutta (7) Për natyrën e parimit të jetës në krahasim me trupin.
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) Një dialog me asketin e zhveshur Kassapa kundër vetëvendosjes.
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) Një diskutim me Potthapada mbi natyrën e
shpirtit, në të cilën Buda thotë se pyetja është e parëndësishme dhe nuk
ndihmon në sqarimin.
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) Diskursi, i atribuar Anandës, mbi sjelljen, përqendrimin dhe urtësinë.
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) Buda refuzon të lejojë një bhikkhu të kryejë një mrekulli. Historia e murgut që vizitoi devasit (hyjnitë) për t’i pyetur ata.
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Dialogu me Brahmin Lohicca mbi etikën e mësimdhënies.
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Për kotësinë e një njohurie të Vedas si mjet për të arritur shoqërimin me Brahmin.

Maha-vagga

Divizioni i Madh (10 suttas)

    Maha-Padana Sutta (14) Historia Sublime e Buda Gotama dhe gjashtë paraardhësit e tij; gjithashtu Diskursin në Buda Vipassi; prejardhje nga qielli Tusita deri në fillimin e misionit të tij.
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Në Zinxhirin e Shkaktimit dhe teorive të shpirtit.
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Diskursi i Madh i shënimit të kalimit të Tathagata në Parinibbana.
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Mbreti i Madh i Lavdisë. Historia e ekzistencës së mëparshme të Budës, si Mbreti Sudassana. I thënë nga Buda në shtratin e vdekjes së tij.
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Buda e tregon historinë e yakkha Janavasabha tek populli i Nadikës.
    
Maha Govinda Sutta (19) Muzikanti qiellor Pancasikha tregon
historinë e Maha Govindës tek Buda, i cili thotë se ai vetë ishte Maha
Govinda.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Deva e banesës së pastër dhe evolucioni i tyre.
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Sakka, zotëria e devas viziton Budën dhe
mëson prej tij se çdo gjë që e ka origjinën është gjithashtu subjekt i
shpërbërjes.
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Diskutim mbi Katër Meditimet e Madhe, në trup, ndjenja mendimet dhe gjendjet e mendjes. Me një koment mbi Katër të Vërtetat.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi konteston rilindjen / rimarrjen dhe shpërblimin e veprimeve (kamma / karma), por e përvojon atë vetë.

Patika-vagga

Divizioni i Patikës (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Tregimi i dishepujve që ndjek mësuesit e tjerë, sepse Buda nuk bën mrekulli ose mëson origjinën e gjërave.
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) Buda diskuton asketizmin me Nigrodhën asketike.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Tregimi i mbretit universal,
korrupsioni i moralit dhe restaurimi i tyre, dhe ardhja e Budës Metteya
të ardhshme.
    
Agganna Sutta (27) Një diskutim mbi kastën dhe një ekspozitë mbi
origjinën e gjërave (si në Sutta 24) deri në origjinën e katër kasteve.
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) Një dialog i Budës me Sariputtën, i cili përshkruan Mësimdhënien e Budës dhe pohon besimin e tij në të.
    
Pasadika Sutta (29) Diskursi i këndshëm. Diskursi i Budës mbi mësuesin e përkryer dhe të papërsosur.
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Në 32 shenjat e një Njeriu të Madh.
    
Sigalovada Sutta (31) Sigala predikonte për detyrat e të zotit të shtëpisë në gjashtë klasat e personave.
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Për Katër Mbretërit e Madh dhe magjia e tyre për mbrojtje nga e keqja.
    
Sangiti Sutta (33) Sariputta përshkruan parimet e mësimdhënies në dhjetë grupe numerike.
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta përshkruan doktrinën në seri të dhjetëfishta.


https://www.youtube.com/watch…
New Ethiopian Classical Music - ቀበጥባጣ ወጣት


New Ethiopian Classical Music - ቀበጥባጣ ወጣት
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4) Classical Amharic
4) ጥንታዊ አማርኛ

2441 እ. 15 ኖቬምበር 2017 ትምህርት

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">ዳጄ Nikaya

ዳጊ ናዚ (”የረጅም ጊዜ ንግግሮች ስብስብ”) በሶታ ፓፒካ ከሚገኙት አምስት ናኪዎች (ስብስቦች) ውስጥ የመጀመሪያው ነው. ከዱጋ
ናዚዎች በጣም የተለመዱ ሰሃቦች የቡድኑ ፓትሮልቫዳ ሱት (DN31) የመጨረሻውን ቀን እና ሞት የሚገልጹትን የ
Maha-ibinibbana Sutta (DN 16) አጠቃቀላትን ያጠቃልላል. በዚያ ላይ ግን ቡድሃ ስነ-ምግባሮችን እና
ድርጊቶችን
ተከታዮች,
እና የሳኡማን ፔፋላ (ዲን 2), ብራህማሃ ሰዋው (DN 1) ስለ ህዋና እና ስለ ጊዜ (የቀድሞ, የአሁንና
የወደፊቱን) ስለ ህንድ እና ስለ ሌሎች ባህሪያት የሚገልፀውን እና የሚያብራራውን እና ያነፃፅራል.
እና የፕሮቴስታንት ማሰላሰል ጥቅሞች እና ተግባራት የሚገልጹ (የረጋ ጸልት).
ዳጉ Nikaya 34 የተሰጡ ንግግሮችን ያካተተ በሶስት ቫጋግዶች የተገነባ ነው.
ይዘቶች

    ሲልኩሀንሀ-ቫጋ
    
ማህሃጋጋ
    
ፓቲካ-ቫጋ
    
የእንግሊዝኛ ትርጉምን አውርድ / ይመልከቱ
    
የመጀመሪያው የፐዪ ቨርዥን

ሲልኩሀንሀ-ቫጋ

ሥነ ምግባርን በተመለከተ ያለው ክፍል (13 ስታትስ)

    ብራህማሃ ሰዋው (1) “ታላቁ መረብ” ወይም ዓለማቀፉ መረብ (ዓለማቀፍ), እንደ ዓሣዎች ያሉን ፍጥረቶች
ሁሉ እና ስለ 62 ጊዜያዊ አስተሳሰብ እና ስለዚሁም በሌሎች ጊዜያት ለሌሎች አስተማሪዎች ስለሚያስተምረው የራዕማችን
አስተሳሰብ.
    
ሳማኒፋፋ ሱት (2) “የሂትሪት ህይወት ፍሬዎች”. ቡድሀ ለንጉስ ካስታታቱ የቡድሂስት ትዕዛዝን አባል መሆን እና የአለምን ሕይወት መተው ጥቅም አለው.
    
አምባታ ቁርአን (3) የትውልድ ሀረግ እና መውደቅ. በሟችነት ከአምባተ ተነጋገሩ. የኪካ ጎሳ ባህላዊ መሥራች የሆነውን የንጉስ ኦካካ አፈ ታሪክ መጥቀሻን ይዟል.
    
ሶላዳ ዱንሳ (4) ከብራህማን ሶናዳንዳ ከእውነተኛው ብልህ ባህሪ ጋር የተደረገ ውይይት.
    
ካታታንታ ሱት (5) ከበሽታ ኩታታታታን ጋር የተደረገውን የእንስሳት መስዋዕትን ያወግዛል.
    
መሐሊ ሱታ (6) እንደ ማህሌይ ራዕይ እና መስማት እንዲሁም እንደ ሙሉ መገለጥ መድረስ.
    
ጄሊያ ሱት (7) ስለ ሰውነት አንፃር ሲነፃፀር በተፈጥሮ ህግ መሰረት.
    
ካሳፒያሀና ሳተታ (8) ራሱን ራሰ-ንገሲ ከማድረግ እራቃዊው ካሳፓ ጋር የሚደረግ ውይይት.
    
ፐተፓዳ ሱትራ (9) ከፓትፓዳ ጋር የተደረገ ውይይት በቅዱስ መንፈሱ ላይ የተወያየበት, ቡድሃው ጥያቄው ዋጋ የሌለው እና ለዕውቀት ብቁ አይደለም.
    
ሱሃ ሳት (ዲና Nikaya) (10) ለኑና, በአኗኗር, በትኩረት እና በጥበባቸው የተሰራ ንግግር ነው.
    
ክዋደሃ ሱትሕ (11) ቡድሀ አንድ ተዓምር ተአምር እንዲያከናውን አይፈቅድም. ወደ አላህ ለመጉላተል (አማልክቶች) የጠየቀ መነኩሴ ታሪክ.
    
Lichicca Sutta (12) የማስተማር ሥነ ምግባርን በተመለከተ ከብራህሙ ሎኪካ ጋር መነጋገር.
    
ቲቫጄጃ ሱትባ (13) ስለ ቬዳ ማወቅ ከእባቡ ጋር ያለው ግንኙነት ከብራራ ጋር ወዳጅነት ለመመሥረት ነው.

ማህሃጋጋ

ትልቁ ክፍል (10 ስታትስ)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) የቡድሃው ጎዱና እና የስድስቱ ቀዳሚዎቹ ታሪክ የቡድሀ ቪፒሲ ንግግሮች; ከቱሳ ሰማይ ወደ ተልኮ ተልእኮው እስከሚጀምርበት ጊዜ ድረስ.
    
Maha nidana Sutta (15) በመሰንበቻ ሰንሰለት እና በነፍስ ንድፈ ሃሳቦች ላይ.
    
ታላቁ ፓንያ-ፓሚናባ ሰታር (16) ታላቁ የቲታካን መዘክር ለፓሪናባና ስለመዘገቡት ታላቁ ንግግር.
    
ማህሃ ደሳሳ ሳተታ (17) ታላቁ የክብር ንጉሥ. ስለ ቡድሃ ቀድሞ የነበረ የንጉስ ታሪክ, እንደ ንጉሥ ዳሳሳ ንጉሥ. በቡድል በሞቱ አልጋ ላይ ተናገረ.
    
ጃቫሳባህ ሳታ (18) ቡድሀ የያከካ ጃቫሳባህን ታሪክ ለናዲካ ሕዝብ ይናገራል.
    
መሃ ጎኖኛ ሱትካ (19) ሰማያዊው ሙዚቀኛ ፓንሻሺሃ መሀው ጎቪንዳን ከቡድሃ ታሪክ ጋር በማያያዝ እርሱ እርሱ ማህዋቪንዳ እንደሆነ ይናገራል.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) The Pure Abode ባህር እና የዝግመተ ለውጥ አማራጮች.
    
ሳክካፒሳህ ሱትባ (21) የሰካኪ ጌታ (ሰ.ዐ.ወ) ቡድሀን ጎበኘው እና ከእሱ የመጣ ማንኛውም ነገር መበታተን እንደነበረ ይማራል.
    
መሐመድ Satipatthana Sutta (22) በአራቱ ታላላቅ ልምምዶች, በአካል, በስሜቶች እና በአዕምሮ ደረጃ ላይ የተደረገው ንግግር. ስለ አራቱ ሐቆች አስተያየት በመስጠት.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi እንደገና መወለድን / ዳግም መወለድን እና የድርጊቶችን ሽልማት (ካማ / ካርማ) ይከራከራል ነገር ግን እራሱን ይመለከታሉ.

ፓቲካ-ቫጋ

ፓቲካ ክፍል (11 ስታትስ)

    ፓቲካ ሱት (24) ቡዱክ ሌሎች ተዓምራትን ስለማይሠራ ወይም ስለ ሌሎች ነገሮች ስለማስተማር ሌላ መምህራን የሚከተል ደቀመዝሙር ታሪክ.
    
ኡድቡከኪካሳሕነህ ሰንዳ (25) Buddhaማከ ተቀኔኬቲክ ከትክክለኛው የኒግሮዳ ትምህርት ጋር ያብራራል.
    
ካክቻትቲሺሃሃ ሳውታ (26) የአለማቀፍ ንጉሠ ነገስታት, የሞራል ስብዕና እና የተሃድሶ መበላሸት, እና የወደፊቱ ቡድሀ መምጣትን መምጣት.
    
አጌጋንሳ ስተዳ (27) ስለ ወፍጮዎች እና ስለአዱስ ነገሮች መጀመር (በሱሳ 24 ላይ እንደሚታየው) እስከ አራቱ መጫወቻዎች መነሻነት.
    
ሰፓስታዳኒ ሱት (28) የቡድሃ ውይይት የዞንፑተታ የቡድሃን ትምህርት የሚያብራራ እና በእሱ ላይ እምነት እንዳለው ይገልጻል.
    
ፓሳዲካ ሱት (29) በጣም ደስ የሚል ንግግር. ስለ ፍፁም እና ፍጹም ያልሆነ አስተማሪ ላይ የቡድዩ ንግግር.
    
ላካካን ሱት (30) በታላቁ ሰው 32 ምልክቶች ላይ.
    
ሲጋሎቮዳ ሰታ (31) የሲጋላ ኸጣብ በቤቱ ባለቤቶች የቤት ስራዎች ላይ ለስድስት የሰዎች ክፍፍል ያቀርባል.
    
(32) በአራቱ ግዛቶች እና ከክፉ ጥበቃ ለመከላከል አሻገራቸው.
    
ዚሪቲ ሰት (33) ሶላይተታ የማስተማሪያ መርሆችን በአሥር የምድብ ቡድኖች ይዘረዝራል.
    
ዱሳተህ ሱት (34) ጽንፈህ ዶክትሪን በአሥር ተከታታይ ስብስቦች ያብራራል.



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5) Classical Arabic
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http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">ديغا نيكايا

ديغا نيكايا (”مجموعة من الخطابات الطويلة”) هو الأول من نيكاياس خمسة (مجموعات) في سوتا بيتاكا. بعض
من الأكثر شيوعا سوتاس المشار إليها من ديغا نيكايا تشمل مها-بارينيبانا
سوتا (دن 16)، الذي وصف الأيام الأخيرة والموت من بوذا، سيغالوفادا سوتا
(دن 31) الذي يناقش بوذا الأخلاق والممارسات لوضع
(دن
2)، براهماغالا سوتا (دن 1) الذي يصف ويقارن وجهة نظر بوذا وغيرها من
الزهد في الهند حول الكون والوقت (الماضي والحاضر والمستقبل).
و بوتابابادا سوتا (دن 9)، والتي تصف فوائد وممارسة التأمل ساماثا (التأمل الهدوء).
يتكون ديغا نيكايا من 34 الخطابات، مقسمة إلى ثلاثة فاغاس (مجموعات):
محتويات

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
مها-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
تحميل / عرض الترجمة الإنجليزية
    
النسخة بالي الأصلي

Silakkhandha-vagga

أما الشعبة المعنية بالأخلاقيات (13 سوتاس)

    براهماجالا سوتا (1) “الشبكة العظيمة” أو الشبكة العالمية (من
العالم)، التي يتم فيها القبض على جميع الكائنات مثل الأسماك و 62 أشكال
الهرطقة من التكهنات حول العالم وذاتيا تدرس من قبل المعلمين الآخرين في
ذلك الوقت.
    
سامانافالا سوتا (2) “ثمار حياة الهرميت”. يشرح بوذا للملك أجاتاساتو مزايا الانضمام إلى النظام البوذي والتخلي عن حياة العالم.
    
أمباتا سوتا (3) فخر الولادة وسقوطها. حوار مع أمباتيا على الطائفة. يحتوي على إشارة إلى أسطورة الملك أوكاكا، المؤسس التقليدي لعشيرة ساكيا.
    
سوناداندا سوتا (4) حوار مع البراهمة سوناداندا على خصائص البراهمة الحقيقية.
    
كوتادانتا سوتا (5) حوار مع البراهمة كوتادانتا يدين التضحية الحيوانية.
    
ماهالي سوتا (6) حوار مع ماهالي على ديفا مثل الرؤية والسمع وتحقيق التنوير الكامل.
    
جاليا سوتا (7) على طبيعة مبدأ الحياة بالمقارنة مع الجسم.
    
كاساباسيهانادا سوتا (8) حوار مع كاسابا عارية الزاهد ضد الذات التوفي.
    
بوتهابادا سوتا (9) مناقشة مع بوتهابادا على طبيعة الروح، التي بوذا تنص على أن المسألة غير ذات صلة ولا تفضي إلى التنوير.
    
سوبها سوتا (ديغنا نيكايا) (10) خطاب، نسب إلى أناندا، حول السلوك والتركيز والحكمة.
    
كيفادا سوتا (11) بوذا يرفض السماح للبيكخو لأداء معجزة. قصة الراهب الذي زار ديفاس (الآلهة) لاستجوابهم.
    
لوهيكا سوتا (12) حوار مع براهمة لوهيكا على أخلاقيات التدريس.
    
تيفيجيا سوتا (13) على جدوى معرفة الفيدا كوسيلة لتحقيق الرفقة مع براهما.
مها-vagga

قسم كبير (10 سوتاس)

    مها-بادانا سوتا (14) قصة سامية من بوذا غوتاما وأسلافه الستة. أيضا الخطاب حول بوذا فيباسي؛ هبوطه من السماء توسيتا إلى بدء مهمته.
    
مها نيدانا سوتا (15) على سلسلة من الضرب والنظريات الروح.
    
مها-بارينيبانا سوتا (16) الخطاب الكبير من سجل تمرير تاثاجاتا إلى بارينيبانا.
    
مها سوداسانا سوتا (17) ملك العظيم المجد. قصة وجود سابق لبوذا، الملك سوداسانا. قال من قبل بوذا على وفاته السرير.
    
جانافاسابها سوتا (18) بوذا يتصل قصة ياخها جانافاسابها لشعب ناديكا.
    
مها غوفيندا سوتا (19) الموسيقار السماوي بانكاسيخا يتصل قصة مها جوفيندا لبوذا، الذي يقول انه هو نفسه مها جوفيندا.
    
مها-سمايا سوتا (20) ديفاز من دار نقية وتطورها.
    
ساكابانها سوتا (21) ساكا، رب ديفا يزور بوذا، ويتعلم منه أن كل ما ينشأ هو أيضا عرضة للحل.
    
مها-ساتيباتانا سوتا (22) الخطاب على تأملات كبيرة أربعة، على الجسم، والمشاعر الأفكار وحالات العقل. مع تعليق على أربع حقائق.
    
باياسي سوتا (23) النزاعات باياسي ولادة جديدة / التناسخ ومكافأة الإجراءات (كاما / الكرمة) ولكن يختبر ذلك بنفسه.

Patika-vagga

قسم باتيكا (11 سوتاس)

    باتيكا سوتا (24) قصة التلميذ الذي يتبع المعلمين الآخرين لأن بوذا لا يعمل المعجزات أو تعليم أصل الأشياء.
    
أودومباريكاسيهانادا سوتا (25) يناقش بوذا الزهد مع نيغرودها الزهد.
    
كاكافاتيسيهانادا سوتا (26) قصة الملك العالمي، فساد الأخلاق وترميمها، ومجيء المستقبل بوذا ميتيا.
    
أغانا سوتا (27) مناقشة حول الطائفة، ومعرض على أصل الأشياء (كما هو الحال في سوتا 24) وصولا الى أصل الطبقات الأربعة.
    
سامباسادانيا سوتا (28) حوار بوذا مع ساريبوتا، الذي يصف تدريس بوذا ويؤكد إيمانه به.
    
باساديكا سوتا (29) الخطاب ديلكتابل. خطاب بوذا على الكمال والمعلم ناقصة.
    
لاكخانا سوتا (30) على 32 علامات رجل عظيم.
    
سيغالوفادا سوتا (31) سيغالا العظة على واجبات رب الأسرة إلى ست فئات من الأشخاص.
    
أتاناتيا سوتا (32) على الملوك الأربعة الكبرى ونوباتهم للحماية ضد الشر.
    
سانجيتي سوتا (33) ساريبوتا يحدد مبادئ التدريس في عشر مجموعات العددية.
    
داسوتارا سوتا (34) ساريبوتا يحدد العقيدة في سلسلة عشرة أضعاف.



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http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Դիգա Նիկայա

The Digha Nikaya («Հավաքածուների երկար հավաքածու») առաջին հինգ nikayas (հավաքածուներ) է Sutta Pitaka. Digha
Nikaya- ի ամենատարածված ուղեցույցներից մի քանիսը ներառում են
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), որը նկարագրում է Բուդդայի վերջնական
օրերը եւ մահը, Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31), որտեղ Բուդդան քննարկում է
էթիկայի եւ պրակտիկայի մասին
հետեւորդներ
եւ Samaññafala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1), որը նկարագրում եւ
համեմատում է Բուդդայի եւ Հնդկաստանի այլ ասպեկտների տեսակետը տիեզերքի եւ
ժամանակի մասին (անցյալ, ներկա եւ ապագա);
եւ Potthapada Sutta (DN 9), որոնք նկարագրում են սամաթայի խորհուրդը (հանգիստ խոհեր):
Digha Nikaya- ն բաղկացած է 34 դիսկուրսներից, որոնք բաժանված են երեք վագգաների (խմբերի).
Բովանդակություն

    Սիլակհանդա-վագգա
    
Maha-vagga
    
Patika-vagga
    
Բեռնել / դիտել անգլերեն թարգմանությունը
    
Original Pali տարբերակը

Սիլակհանդա-վագգա

Բարոյականության մասին բաժինը (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) «Մեծ ցանցը» կամ համաշխարհային ցանցը, որում
բռնում են բոլոր ձուկները, ինչպես ձկան եւ մյուս ժամանակաշրջանի այլ
ուսուցիչների կողմից ուսուցանվող աշխարհին վերաբերող շահարկումների 62
գաղափարական ձեւերը:
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) «Հերմիտի կյանքի պտուղները»: Բուդդան բացատրում է թագավոր Ահաթաթաթուն Բուդդիստական ​​հրամանին միանալու եւ աշխարհի կյանքից հրաժարվելու առավելությունները:
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Ծնունդը հպարտություն եւ անկում: Ամբատթայի հետ երկխոսություն կաստակի մասին: Պարունակում է Սաքսի կլանի ավանդական հիմնադիր Օկկակաի լեգենդի մասին:
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Երկխոսություն Brahmin Sonadanda- ի հետ `ճշմարիտ բրահմինի բնութագրիչներով:
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Երկխոսություն Brahmin Kutadanta- ի հետ, դատապարտելով կենդանիների զոհաբերությունը:
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Երկխոսություն Mahali- ի հետ, դեւայի տեսիլքի եւ լսողության պես եւ լիարժեք լուսավորության ձեռքբերում:
    
Ջալյա Սուտտա (7) Կյանքի սկզբունքի բնույթով, մարմնի համեմատ:
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) Քեսապա մերձեցման հետ երկխոսություն ինքնասպանությունների դեմ:
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) Խոսքը Potthapada- ի հետ հոգու բնության մասին,
որի մասին Բուդդան ասում է, որ հարցը անտեղի է եւ ոչ թե նպաստող
լուսավորություն:
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) Քննարկում, որը վերաբերում է Անանդային, վարքի, համակենտրոնացման եւ իմաստության մասին:
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) The Buddha հրաժարվում է թույլ bhikkhu կատարել հրաշք: Մահմեդի պատմությունը, ով այցելել էր դավաններին (աստվածներին), հարցականի տակ դնելու համար:
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Երկխոսություն Brahmin Lohicca- ի ուսուցման էթիկայի մասին:
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Վեդասի գիտելիքի անարդյունավետության մասին, որպես Brahma- ի հետ ընկերակցությանը հասնելու միջոց:
Maha-vagga

The Large Division (10 suttas)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) Բուդդա Գոթմանի եւ նրա վեց նախորդների գերագույն պատմությունը. ինչպես նաեւ Բուդդա Վիպասսի մասին զրույցը. նրա ծագումը Տուսիտայի երկնքից մինչեւ իր առաքելության մեկնարկը:
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Կախարդության շղթայի եւ հոգու տեսությունների մասին:
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Տաթագաթայի Փարինիբբանայի անցնելու մասին արձանագրության մեծ ելույթը:
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Փառքի Մեծ Թագավորը: Բուդդայի նախկին գոյության պատմությունը, որպես Սուդասան թագավոր: Բուդդայի խոսքով, մահվան մահճակալում:
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Բուդդա պատմում է Յակհա Յանավասաբայի պատմությունը Նադիկայի ժողովրդին:
    
Մահա Գովինդա Սուտտա (19) Երկնային երաժիշտ Պանկասխա պատմում է Մահա
Գովինդայի պատմությունը Բուդդա, որը հայտարարում է, որ ինքն էր Մահա
Գովինդան:
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Մաքուր բնակավայրի Devas եւ դրանց էվոլյուցիան:
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Սաքկա, դավոսի տերը այցելում է Բուդդա եւ
սովորում է նրան, որ ամեն ինչ, որ ծագում է, նույնպես ենթակա է լուծարման:
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Զրույցը չորս Մեծ Մեդիտացիաների մասին, մարմնի վրա, զգացմունքների մտքերն ու մտքի վիճակները: Մեկնաբանելով Չորս ճշմարտությունները:
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi վեճերը վերածնունդը / reincarnation &
պարգեւատրում գործողությունների (kamma / karma), բայց դա զգում է իրեն:

Patika-vagga

The Patika Division (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Աշակերտի պատմությունը, ով հետեւում է մյուս
ուսուցիչներին, քանի որ Բուդդան չի աշխատում հրաշքներ կամ սովորեցնում է
իրերի ծագումը:
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) The Buddha քննարկում asceticism հետ ասացվածքի Nigridha.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Համընդհանուր թագավորի պատմությունը,
բարոյականության կոռուպցիան եւ դրանց վերականգնումը եւ ապագայի Բուդդա
Մետտայի գալուստը:
    
Agganna Sutta (27) Քաստի մասին քննարկում եւ բաների ծագման մասին ցուցադրություն (ինչպես Sutta 24-ում) `չորս կրեդիտների ծագումը:
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) Բուդդայի երկխոսությունը Sariputta- ով, որը նկարագրում է Բուդդայի ուսմունքը եւ հաստատում է իր հավատը:
    
Պասադիկա Սուտտա (29) The Delectable Discourse. Բուդդայի ելույթը կատարյալ եւ անկատար ուսուցչի վրա:
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Մեծի 32 նշանների վրա:
    
Սիգալովադա Սուտտան (31) Սիգալան հպարտանում է մարդկանց վեց դասերին տանտիրոջ պարտականությունների վրա:
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Չորրորդ Մեծ Թագավորության եւ նրանց հեգնանքով, չարիքից պաշտպանվելու համար:
    
Սանգիթի Սուտտա (33) Սարիփուտտան դասավանդում է տասը թվային խմբերի ուսուցման սկզբունքները:
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta ուրվագծում վարդապետությունը տասնապատիկ շարքի.



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http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Digha_Nikaya

">Digha Nikaya

Digha Nikaya (”Uzun Məsləhətlər toplusu”) Sutta Pitaka-da beş nikayanın (kolleksiyaların) birincisi. Digha
Nikayadan ən çox istinad edilən bəzi suttalar Buddanın son günlərini və
ölümünü təsvir edən Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), Buddanın etikası və
tətbiqləri müzakirə etdiyi Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31)
ardıcılları
və Samañnaphala (DN 2), Brahmajala Sutta (DN 1), Hindistanda Buddha və
digər astsetiklərin nöqteyi-nəzərini kainat və zaman (keçmiş, indiki və
gələcək) ilə müqayisə edir;
və samatha meditasiyasının faydalarını və təcrübəsini təsvir edən Potthapada Sutta (DN 9).
Digha Nikaya, üç vaggaya (qruplara) bölünmüş 34 söhbətdən ibarətdir:
İçindəkilər

    Silakkhandha-vagga
    
Maha-vagqa
    
Patika-vagqa
    
İngilis dili tərcüməsi yükləyin
    
Orijinal Pali versiyası

Silakkhandha-vagga

Ahlaka dair bölmə (13 suttas)

    Brahmajala Sutta (1) Balıq kimi bütün canlıları və dünyanın digər
müəllimləri tərəfindən öyrədilmiş dünyadakı spekülasiyaya dair
spekülasyonların 62 fəlsəfi formasını tutan “Böyük Net” və ya universal
şəbəkə.
    
Samannaphala Sutta (2) “Hermit Həyatının Meyvələri”. Budda King Ajsatattuya Buddist Sifarişinə qoşulma və dünyanın həyatından imtina üstünlüklərini izah edir.
    
Ambattha Sutta (3) Doğum və qürur gururu. Ambatta ilə caste haqqında dialoq. Sakya qəbiləsinin ənənəvi qurucusu Kral Oxkanın əfsanəsinə istinad edir.
    
Sonadanda Sutta (4) Brahmin Sonadanda ilə əsl brahmin xüsusiyyətləri ilə dialoq.
    
Kutadanta Sutta (5) Brahmin Kutadantan ilə heyvanlar qurbanlarını qınayır.
    
Mahali Sutta (6) Görmə və eşitmə və tam maariflənmə bacarığı kimi Mahali ilə dialoq.
    
Jaliya Sutta (7) Bədənə nisbətən həyat prinsipi xarakteri haqqında.
    
Kassapasihanada Sutta (8) Çıplak ascetic Kassapa ilə özünü öldürmə qarşı dialoq.
    
Potthapada Sutta (9) Buddanın məsələni alakasız və maarifləndirməyə imkan vermədiyi ruhun təbiəti ilə Potthapada ilə müzakirə.
    
Subha Sutta (Digna Nikaya) (10) Ananda davranışları, konsentrasiyası və hikməti ilə əlaqəli bir söz.
    
Kevaddha Sutta (11) Buddha bhikhunun bir möcüzə göstərməsinə icazə verməyini istəmir. Onları soruşmaq üçün devasları (tanrılar) ziyarət edən keşişin hikayəsi.
    
Lohicca Sutta (12) Brahmin Lohicca ilə dialoq.
    
Tevijja Sutta (13) Vedaların biliklərinin Brahma ilə ünsiyyətə gəlməsi vasitəsi kimi faydasız olması.
Maha-vagqa

Böyük Şöbə (10 suttas)

    Maha-padana Sutta (14) Buddha Gotama və onun altı sələfinin ən böyük hekayəsi; həmçinin Buddha Vipassi haqqında söhbət; onun Tusita cənnətindən onun vəzifəsinin başlanmasına qədər çıxması.
    
Maha-nidana Sutta (15) Kəsin zənciri və ruhun nəzəriyyəsi.
    
Maha-parinibbana Sutta (16) Tathagata’nın Parinibbana geçişinin böyük bir söylemi.
    
Maha Sudassana Sutta (17) Şöhrətin Böyük Kralı. Buddanın əvvəlki varlığının hekayəsi, King Sudassana kimi. Buddan onun ölüm yatağında söylədilər.
    
Janavasabha Sutta (18) Buddha yakkha Janavasabha’nın hekayəsini Nadika xalqına aid edir.
    
Maha Govinda Sutta (19) Səmavi musiqiçi Pancasikha, Maha Govinda
ilə Maha Govinda olduğunu ifadə edən Buddanın hekayəsini izah edir.
    
Maha-samaya Sutta (20) Pure Abode Devas və onların inkişafı.
    
Sakkapanha Sutta (21) Deva lordu Sakka Buddanı ziyarət edir və ondan öyrənir ki, başlayan hər şey də həll olunsun.
    
Maha-satipatthana Sutta (22) Dörd Böyük Meditasiyalara, bədənə, duyğuların düşüncələrinə və düşüncələrinə dair söhbət. Dörd həqiqət haqqında bir şərh ilə.
    
Payasi Sutta (23) Payasi, yenidən doğma / reenkarnasyon və
hərəkətlərin mükafatlandırılması (kamma / karma) ilə qarşılaşır, ancaq
özünü yaşayır.

Patika-vagqa

The Patika Division (11 suttas)

    Patika Sutta (24) Digər müəllimləri təqib edən şagirdin hekayəsi, çünki Budda möcüzə yaratmır və ya şeylərin kökünü öyrədir.
    
Udumbarikasihanada Sutta (25) The Buddha ascetic Nigridha ilə astsetizm müzakirə edir.
    
Cakkavattisihanada Sutta (26) Ümumdünya kralın hikməti, əxlaqın pozulması və bərpası və gələcək Buddha Metteya gəlməsi.
    
Agganna Sutta (27) Kast üzərində müzakirə və əşyaların mənşəyi
haqqında bir sərgi (Sutta 24 kimi) dörd kastonun mənşəyinə qədər aşağı
salındı.
    
Sampasadaniya Sutta (28) Buddha Tədrisini təsvir edən və onun imanını təsdiqləyən Sariputta ilə dialoq.
    
Pasadika Sutta (29) The Delectable Discourse. Mükəmməl və imperfect müəllimə Buddan söhbət.
    
Lakkhana Sutta (30) Böyük bir adamın 32 qeydində.
    
Sigalovada Sutta (31) The Sigala şəxsən altı şagirdlərin ev sahibinin vəzifələri haqqında.
    
Atanatiya Sutta (32) Dörd Böyük Padşahlar və onların pisliyindən qorunmaq üçün onların sehrinə.
    
Sangiti Sutta (33) Sariputta Tədrisin prinsiplərini on ədədi qrupda təsvir edir.
    
Dasuttara Sutta (34) Sariputta on dəfə qatdakı doktrinasını əks etdirir.


Exceptionally Talented Blind Guy Became A Professional Surfer

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Adorable Koko The Gorilla Adopted Two Kittens
Amdavadis4Ever@yahoogroups.comAmdavadis4Ever@yahoogroups.comAmdavadis4Ever@yahoogroups.comping pong bounce


http://www.thehindu.com/…/why-abba-must…/article20376164.ece


[Seeding is just one of the many barriers that the ABBA has created in
the smooth functioning of the PDS. The ABBA requires that family members
be enrolled for Aadhaar and correct seeding. At the time of purchase,
the ABBA requires power supply, a functional PoS machine, mobile and
Internet connectivity, State and Central Identities Data Repository
(CIDR) servers to be ‘up’, and for fingerprint authentication to be
successful.

What most people don’t realise is that the ABBA
has no role in reducing corruption. If the ABBA helps reduce corruption,
it might be worth fixing these failures. Quantity fraud is the practice
of cheating on quantities sold. Neither seeding nor the ABBA can stop
quantity fraud. In a survey in Jharkhand, dealers continue to swindle
people by cutting up to a kg of their grain entitlement despite
successful ABBA authentication. Identity fraud, for example in the form
of duplicate ration cards, only requires Aadhaar-seeding; the ABBA is
unnecessary. Two caveats on seeding: it can be foolproof against
identity fraud only in a universal system. More seriously, it raises
privacy issues.
Further, in Aadhaar’s rulebook for example, an
elderly person asking a neighbour to fetch their grain would count as
identity fraud. In fact, it is flexibility that is lost when the ABBA is
made mandatory.]

http://www.thehindu.com/…/why-abba-must…/article20376164.ece

OPINION

Why ABBA must go

Reetika Khera

NOVEMBER 13, 2017 00:00 IST
UPDATED: NOVEMBER 13, 2017 03:33 IST

Aadhaar-based Biometric Authentication does nothing in the battle against graft — there are better alternatives

In a sickening way, October 2017 was like October 2002.


Fifteen years ago, in Rajasthan’s Baran and Udaipur districts, there
was a spate of starvation deaths. The government of the time made up
fanciful stories to deny that the deaths had anything to do with hunger
or government failure.

In October 2017, the death of an
11-year-old Dalit child, Santoshi Kumari, of Jharkhand, was widely
reported. She had been pleading with her mother to give her rice as she
slipped into unconsciousness and lost her life. The government insists
that she had malaria but in video testimonies, her mother, Koyli Devi,
says she had no fever. After Santoshi’s death, more hunger deaths have
been reported, of which at least one, Ruplal Marandi, is related to the
government’s Aadhaar experiment.

The starvation deaths in 2002
became the springboard for positive action on many fronts, which
included the passing of judicial orders and even political action. Since
then, there has been a perceptible improvement in programmes of social
support including, but not limited to, the Public Distribution System
(PDS). In Baran, it led to a recognition of the vulnerability of the
Sahariyas — a tribal community in Baran — and a special PDS package
consisting of free pulses and ghee being announced.

Similar
action is required today. Instead, the government remains in denial. The
Food Ministry in Delhi issued an order in late October that is silent
on the crucial issue of reinstating wrongly cancelled ration cards and
makes token concessions (with no guarantee of implementation).

Targets and the reality


For months, the Central government has been insisting on 100% Aadhaar
“seeding” across schemes such as the PDS, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) and pensions. Seeding refers to the
practice of entering Aadhaar numbers for each household member on the
ration card. It is a pre-requisite for the Aadhaar-based Biometric
Authentication (ABBA) system, the practice of using an electronic point
of sale (PoS) machine to authenticate each transaction. The government
has made seeding and the ABBA mandatory in the PDS. As explained below,
the distinction between seeding and the ABBA is important.

In
their zeal to achieve 100% Aadhaar-seeding targets, some field
functionaries just deleted the names of those who did not submit Aadhaar
details. Others waited till the deadline and then struck off names. The
government claims that all of these were “fake”, detected due to
Aadhaar, thus saving crores of rupees. Santoshi’s family was one such
example. According to the State Food Minister, their ration card was
cancelled in July because they failed to seed it with Aadhaar.

Exclusions are not savings


Some people blame the aggrieved for failing to seed Aadhaar. But many
of them are unaware of the seeding requirement. When pensions in
Jharkhand suddenly stopped for many pensioners, they had no idea why. No
one had told them about Aadhaar. In some cases, the middlemen had
seeded it wrongly. Others still had tried repeatedly and failed. Seeding
is not as simple as it sounds.

Seeding is just one of the many
barriers that the ABBA has created in the smooth functioning of the PDS.
The ABBA requires that family members be enrolled for Aadhaar and
correct seeding. At the time of purchase, the ABBA requires power
supply, a functional PoS machine, mobile and Internet connectivity,
State and Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) servers to be ‘up’,
and for fingerprint authentication to be successful.

Ruplal
Marandi’s family passed the first two hurdles, enrolment and seeding,
but was tripped at the last stage by the ABBA. For no fault of his own,
the Marandi family was excluded from the PDS. His daughter told
journalists that he had died of hunger as the family could not collect
rations because of a biometric mismatch at the PDS shop.

There is
enough evidence to show that the ABBA does not work. The Finance
Ministry’s latest Economic Survey, based on micro-studies, reports high
biometric failure rates.

In Rajasthan, government data for the
past year show that around 70% of cardholders are able to use the system
successfully. The rest have either been tripped up by one of the ABBA
hurdles or, less likely, they did not attempt to buy PDS grain. In
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, the ABBA’s poster child States, it is used
to disburse MGNREGA wages and pensions: biometric failure rates are
between 8 and 14%. In some months, one in four pensioners returns
empty-handed.

A case against ABBA

What most people don’t
realise is that the ABBA has no role in reducing corruption. If the ABBA
helps reduce corruption, it might be worth fixing these failures.
Quantity fraud is the practice of cheating on quantities sold. Neither
seeding nor the ABBA can stop quantity fraud. In a survey in Jharkhand,
dealers continue to swindle people by cutting up to a kg of their grain
entitlement despite successful ABBA authentication. Identity fraud, for
example in the form of duplicate ration cards, only requires
Aadhaar-seeding; the ABBA is unnecessary. Two caveats on seeding: it can
be foolproof against identity fraud only in a universal system. More
seriously, it raises privacy issues.

Further, in Aadhaar’s
rulebook for example, an elderly person asking a neighbour to fetch
their grain would count as identity fraud. In fact, it is flexibility
that is lost when the ABBA is made mandatory.

Thus, each month,
people are being forced to cross five meaningless hurdles in the form of
electricity, functional PoS, connectivity, servers and fingerprint
authentication in order to have access to their ration. Failing any one
hurdle even once causes anxiety in subsequent months. Think of the ATM
running out of cash, post-demonetisation, just when it was your turn.
The resultant anxiety defeats the very purpose of such forms of social
support. Failure in consecutive months leads to people giving up
entirely. They stop trying. States such as Rajasthan were planning to
treat such households as dead or non-existent.

The ABBA must be
withdrawn immediately from the PDS and pensions in favour of alternative
technologies such as smart cards. This will allow us to keep the baby
(offline PoS machines with smart cards) and throw out the bathwater
(Internet dependence and biometric authentication).

If the
government continues to insist on the ABBA, there is only one conclusion
that can be drawn. That it is actively trying to sabotage the PDS,
which, quite literally, is a lifeline for the poor.

Reetika Khera is Associate Professor (Economics) at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Peace Is Doable


Aadhaar-based Biometric Authentication does nothing in the battle against graft — there are better alternatives
thehindu.com

http://indianexpress.com/…/supreme-court-diminished-judici…/

Supreme Court, diminished
The judiciary has created a crisis of institutional credibility for itself

Written by Pratap Bhanu Mehta |

Published:November 14, 2017 12:39 am


The Supreme Court of India is facing its worst crisis of credibility
since the Emergency. With an occasional exception, the quality of the
court’s reasoning, the inconstancy of its judgment, the abdication of
its constitutional role in some cases, and its overreach in others, are
already denting its authority. But the institutional crisis that the
Supreme Court has now created for itself will puncture more holes in the
authority that it so valiantly tried to exert. It will also create the
conditions under which it will be easier to legitimise diluting judicial
independence.

The current crisis was occasioned by an order
passed by Justice J Chelameswar to constitute a five-judge bench in a
petition filed by CJAR that demanded that a SIT be constituted to look
into an alleged corruption scandal pertaining to a case involving a
medical college. There are two issues: Can the chief justice be part of
the hearing, since the scandal allegedly implicates a judgment the CJI
wrote, even though he has not been named in the FIR? Second, could a
constitution bench be constituted bypassing the chief justice in
violation of the current procedure through which such benches are
constituted? This is not the place to recount the ugly sequence of
events that transpired. But consider the different ways in which the
judiciary has now rendered itself vulnerable.

First, there is the
vulnerability that arises from the CBI itself. There are issues of
corruption in the courts. The judiciary has failed to find a mechanism
to deal with allegations of corruption within its ranks. Every justice
in the court needs to be above suspicion. But a lot of care needs to be
exercised so that the anti-corruption measures taken do not undermine
the independence of the judiciary. This is not a very popular thing to
say, but we should also consider the possibility that the threat of
being investigated by the CBI, or speculative naming (or suggestion in a
CBI report), can itself also be an instrument of seeking recusals or
undermining the independence of judges, as is sometimes done with other
government officials. This subtle institutional challenge to the
judiciary is not outside of the realm of possibility. More than the
conduct of Justices Misra and Chelameswar, the judiciary will have to
think of how it will deal with instances where the Chief Justice of
India or other justices becomes hostage to possible CBI innuendo.


The challenge of fighting corruption in the judiciary will be this: How
do you do this in a way that does not make the judiciary vulnerable to
implicit blackmail and leads to undermining its independence? But a
clamour for reforms that undermine independence in the name of
accountability will be a natural consequence of the current chain of
events.
It is precisely because such a danger looms that the
judiciary’s conduct needs to be above board. And here, the judiciary has
made itself doubly vulnerable. A court carves out its authority by the
compelling character of its reasoning on behalf of constitutional
values.
We have had a succession of chief justices who have failed
to exercise intellectual leadership and the present chief justice is no
exception. It is not difficult to understand the chief justice’s
consternation. He has not been named in an FIR, and the prospect of a
CJI’s integrity being questioned on the basis of an unaccountable CBI is
not a prospect we should relish. He was also institutionally humiliated
by one of his brother justices, who disregarded existing court
procedure and appointed a constitutional bench. But notwithstanding
this, this is clearly a chief justice who seemed not to understand the
concept of conflict of interest. He let his consternation on a
procedural matter get the better of his judgment in a cringingly
unbecoming way. He also gave the impression of not giving counsel a
proper hearing. In the way he has constituted benches, he has also shown
deep distrust in the capabilities of his senior colleagues. By setting
himself up as a judge in his own cause and setting up a bench whose
composition looks arbitrary, he has undermined the authority of the
judiciary.

But Justice Chelameswar’s order setting up a
five-judge bench also made the judiciary vulnerable. Surely, there were
better ways of securing the recusal of the chief justice and setting up a
bench in a way that did not depart from existing court procedure or
humiliate the chief justice. The danger is that the pursuit of justice
and the need to project virtue often results in a grandstanding in its
own right. Rather than build a robust judicial consensus, judges project
their own individual heroism.

Between a chief justice who does
not recognise conflict of interest, and justices who think the only
recourse is public grandstanding, the judiciary will not be able to
survive. Many learned counsel have defended Justice Chelameswar’s move
by invoking Article 142 that gives judges the power to do whatever it
takes to secure justice. But the use of Article 142 has also become a
sign of immense judicial indiscipline, where judges can easily ride
roughshod over other procedural proprieties.

Taken together, both
the chief justice’s and the judge’s conduct highlights one obvious
fact: There is no Supreme Court left any more. In expanding its powers,
the Supreme Court first replaced the rule of law with the rule of the
court (they are not the same thing); now the rule of court has been
replaced with the anarchic will of individual judges. The Supreme Court
has effectively ended an institution. There is no real command structure
left. On procedural matters, whether it is protocols for appointing
judges, or handling conflicts of interest, the court is all over the
place.

Communication between judges seems to have broken down to
the point where the senior leadership of the court is incapable of
getting together and coming up with common sense procedural solutions to
cases like this. The distrust amongst judges, as evident in the ways
benches are being constituted, seems extraordinarily high. And the sense
of injured virtue amongst individual judges seems to be trumping any
consideration of the reputation of the judiciary as a whole.


There are lots of legal nuances to the case at hand. But the court’s
loss of external credibility combined with internal anarchy does not
bode well for Indian democracy. Instead of becoming a constitutional
lodestar in our turbulent times, the court has itself become a
reflection of the worst rot afflicting Indian institutions.

The writer is vice-chancellor, Ashoka University. Views are personal


Peace Is Doable


The judiciary has created a crisis of institutional credibility for itself
indianexpress.com

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https://scroll.in/…/this-is-the-gravest-crisis-the-judiciar…

OPINION

This is the gravest crisis the judiciary and the legal profession have ever faced in India
The events of November 10 in the Supreme Court show its unwillingness
to even address the most basic questions of institutional integrity.

by Alok Prasanna Kumar
Published Yesterday · 06:30 pm

This is the gravest crisis the judiciary and the legal profession have ever faced in India


November 10, 2017, witnessed a gross and unconscionable abuse of power
by the Chief Justice of India, Justice Dipak Misra, unparalleled in the
history of the Supreme Court of India. As other commentators have
pointed out (here, here, here and here) it is, if not the lowest, then
certainly one of the lowest points in the history of an institution that
ordinary citizens of India look up to. The credibility of the
institution, built up over several decades, already under stress in the
last few years, crumbled in two hours of high drama. It is important to
remember how we got here, why the Chief Justice of India’s actions are
so unpardonable and why things may never be the same again.

Sequence of events
The immediate sequence of events leading up to the events of November
10, 2017 are detailed here, but some more background is needed to
understand it fully. The story really starts with the Central Bureau of
Investigation’s arrest of a hawala operator who led them eventually to a
retired judge of the Orissa High Court, IM Quddusi who, it was claimed,
had taken money from a medical college with a promise to help them get a
favourable judgement from the Supreme Court on the question of
permissions to admit students for the 2017-’18 academic year from the
Medical Council of India.

The Campaign for Judicial
Accountability and Reforms led by Prashant Bhushan and later, Kamini
Jaiswal, filed a petition asking for a Supreme Court monitored
supervision of this ongoing investigation into possible judicial
corruption. On Thursday, a bench led by Justice J Chelameswar directed
that a Constitution bench be formed of five senior-most judges to deal
with Jaiswal’s petition. The order said that the bench should consist of
the five senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. But on Friday, this
order was nullified by a fresh Constitution bench led by Misra and a new
bench set up by him.

The medical college in question, run by
Prasad Education Trust, had approached the Supreme Court earlier this
year in a case which was heard by a bench of Misra, Justice Amitava Roy
and Justice AM Khanwilkar. It cannot be missed that both Justices Roy
and Khanwilkar were also on the “Constitution Bench” that Misra set up
on Friday.

It is true that the names of Misra or his two
colleagues on the bench are not mentioned in the first information
report filed by the CBI. But we must remember that according to the
judgement of the Supreme Court of India in K Veeraswami v Union of
India, no complaint can be made against a judge of the Supreme Court
without the written permission of the Chief Justice of India, and if the
complaint is about the Chief Justice of India, then permission has to
be obtained from such judge or judges of the Supreme Court as the Union
Government sees fit. The CBI thus could not, by itself, have named any
Supreme Court judge in the FIR, without the government taking the
requisite permissions.

The alleged offence of bribery of a public
official does not actually name a specific public official yet. The
investigations have not made any progress on the involvement of any
sitting Supreme Court judge, yet. It is public knowledge that the writ
petition filed by the other accused, for permission, was heard by Misra,
Roy and Khanwilkar on July 26 and an order was passed on August 1,
asking for a fresh decision to be taken regarding permission denied to
petitioner colleges. Crucially, it was heard as part of a batch of
matters challenging decisions of the Union Government and the committee
overseeing the functioning of the Medical Council of India in respect of
permission given to medical colleges.

The obvious questions
arise: Would it not be the most logical thing to do to include the above
judges in the ongoing investigation, after going through the proper
procedures? Does this not warrant an inquiry into the functioning of the
Supreme Court? Is it not reasonable to investigate if the alleged
bribery in the Prasad Education Trust case was a one-off or could there
be more such cases? Would it not have advisable for Misra to have
welcomed such a probe as it would have once and for all cleared all
controversy?

These questions have no answers and thanks to Misra’s actions on Friday, the truth looks further away than ever.


While Chelameswar’s orders early listing of the petitions by CJAR and
Kamini Jaiswal and reference to the Constitution Bench of five
senior-most judges were debatable, they did not per se cause any
prejudice to anyone, and may have been warranted to ensure that justice
was not only done but seen to be done.

Natural justice
The
Chief Justice of India, like the Chief Justice of any High Court is the
“Master of the Rolls” – the judge with the power to decide the roster of
the court: who hears which case and when. This was never in dispute.
The “order” passed by the “Constitution Bench” reiterating the legal
position makes no reference to the facts which prompted these
proceedings. The writ petition was filed given that Misra’s conduct was
in question and, when it came to a judicial inquiry about the same, he
cannot be allowed to be a judge in his own cause. This cardinal
principle of natural justice, the cornerstone of any independent and
impartial judiciary, and one which courts in common law jurisdictions
have recognised for over 400 years was violated with impunity. While the
order cites case-law and precedent to assert his powers as a master of
the rolls, it does not, even in passing, address the argument made by
Prashant Bhushan and the petitioners that Misra, as Chief Justice of
India, should have recused from hearing this case.

Misra also
deliberately avoided including any of the next six senior-most judges in
the “Constitution Bench” he set up, suggesting that he had either no
faith in his fellow judges to be neutral and impartial in this matter or
he feared any neutrality and impartiality in this matter. Neither bodes
well for the judiciary.

There have been past instances where the
Chief Justice’s conduct was in question before the concerned High Court
or the Supreme Court. A writ of quo warranto was filed in the Madras
High Court alleging that the then Chief Justice S Ramachandra Iyer had
given a wrong date of birth and should have retired earlier. He was
forced to resign before the case was decided but the case was listed and
heard before another judge without any interference on his part.
Likewise, all the four so-called judges’ cases did not feature the Chief
Justice of India since the powers of the office were in question, and
it may be recalled that Justice AR Dave had to recuse from the bench
hearing the challenge to the National Judicial Appointments Commission,
as he had become part of the commission whose validity has been
challenged.

Uncertain future
On matters of integrity and
accountability, the judiciary has always asked the public to trust them.
Judges appoint judges. Judges decide whether judges face any
consequences for misconduct. Judges decide whether judges have committed
an impeachable offence. Judges decide whether judges will be named in a
criminal offence. At all times, the claim has been raised that the
institution of the judiciary is too precious, too fragile and too
important to allow anyone but judges to safeguard it. What Misra’s
actions show is that judges don’t trust other judges to safeguard the
institution of the judiciary, and more importantly, the public cannot
trust the judges to safeguard the institution either.

Just as
shameful is the role of several advocates who had gathered in Court No 1
of the Supreme Court on Friday. They had nothing to do with the case
and represented no parties. They, including some executive members of
the Supreme Court Bar Association, behaved in a despicable manner – all
in the defence of a judge trying desperately to hold on to his authority
in the face of serious questions on his integrity. Whatever may have
been the merits of Justice Chelameswar choosing to hear the case and
referring it to a Constitution bench, it was incumbent upon Misra’s
bench to have not permitted advocates to disparage him thus in open
court and show such open disrespect to their colleagues.

This is
the gravest crisis the judiciary and the legal profession have ever
faced in India. Both have been beset by problems, big and small over the
years. What the events of Friday show is the institution’s
unwillingness to even address the most basic questions of institutional
integrity. It would be a mistake to see this as just Misra exceeding his
powers as the Chief Justice of India. He had the help and support of
several judges on the bench. He had the active connivance of members of
the Bar with many years of standing in the profession. How can the
public possibly retain any shred of faith in the honesty and neutrality
of the judiciary when the highest judicial body and the highest judicial
authority does something like this?

Alok Prasanna Kumar is
Senior Resident Fellow, Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy. He is also a
Member of the Executive Committee of the Campaign for Judicial
Accountability and Reforms.


The
events of November 10 in the Supreme Court show its unwillingness to
even address the most basic questions of institutional integrity.
scroll.in

[But
more astonishing is the amount of money involved. Collectively, the
amount claimed as agricultural income was Rs 84,742 crore (average
amount per assessee Rs 19.lakh) in 2010. If that made you gasp, watch
the amount declared for 2011. It jumped to (hold your breath) Rs
19,971,098 crore (Rs 3,040 lakh average per assessee) in 2011. It did
not stop at this level. It climbed further to Rs 67,431,358 crore
(average Rs 8,300 lakh) in 2012.
The collective amount for the three
years comes to an astounding Rs 86,486,197 crore (Rs 865 lakh crore).
It is astounding, because the GVA (gross value added) for the country
was only Rs 8,546,552 crore, Rs 9,084,369 crore and Rs 9,727,490 for
2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. The total GVA for the three years
together comes to Rs 27,358,411 crore.
What this means is that the
total agricultural income filed with the IT authorities was three times
the total GVA for the three years. If only 2011 and 2012 are taken into
account, agricultural income declared was almost 5 times the GVA for
those two years. Preposterous! That effectively means that agricultural
income was even greater than India’s GDP or GVA! Unbelievable!]

India’s farms report income greater than our GDP! Target them in the war on black money
The opposition is baying for the government’s blood over demonetisation
and GST. The first is done and over with. But its effects are not yet
over. The second has been modified to assuage large sections of the
population.

RN Bhaskar


RN Bhaskar

The
opposition is baying for the government’s blood over demonetisation and
GST. The first is done and over with. But its effects are not yet over.
The second has been modified to assuage large sections of the
population.

The government continues to insist that
demonetisation will help curb black money. Maybe it will. The money that
has been put into bank accounts (since very few of high value notes got
‘impounded’ or cancelled by the government) will help the government
track down accounts which saw a surge in deposits. That will enable the
tax authorities to track down the sources of these deposits.


According to media reports, attributed to highly placed tax authorities,
more than Rs 2 lakh was deposited in over 60 lakh bank accounts
post-demonetisation. The total amount involved is over Rs 7.34 lakh
crore. These accounts are now under scrutiny.

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8 lakh or 60 lakh?


That may be so. However, there are good reasons to believe that the
Finance Ministry could haul up bigger fish by just scrutinizing some 8
lakh accounts, instead of pursuing 60 lakh accounts.

These are
the people who submitted agricultural income tax returns in 2011-2013
(see chart alongside). Watch the table closely. The total number of
returns filed and which showed agricultural income surged from 425,085
in 2011, to 656,944 in 2011. This number climbed further in 2012 to
812,426 in 2012.

Capture

But more astonishing is the
amount of money involved. Collectively, the amount claimed as
agricultural income was Rs 84,742 crore (average amount per assessee Rs
19.lakh) in 2010. If that made you gasp, watch the amount declared for
2011. It jumped to (hold your breath) Rs 19,971,098 crore (Rs 3,040 lakh
average per assessee) in 2011. It did not stop at this level. It
climbed further to Rs 67,431,358 crore (average Rs 8,300 lakh) in 2012.


The collective amount for the three years comes to an astounding Rs
86,486,197 crore (Rs 865 lakh crore). It is astounding, because the GVA
(gross value added) for the country was only Rs 8,546,552 crore, Rs
9,084,369 crore and Rs 9,727,490 for 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively.
The total GVA for the three years together comes to Rs 27,358,411
crore.

What this means is that the total agricultural income
filed with the IT authorities was three times the total GVA for the
three years. If only 2011 and 2012 are taken into account, agricultural
income declared was almost 5 times the GVA for those two years.
Preposterous! That effectively means that agricultural income was even
greater than India’s GDP or GVA! Unbelievable!

But that is what
the numbers say. Some taxmen tried to pass this off as data-entry
errors. But that is implausible. This is because any income over Rs 20
lakh has to be fed into the income tax servers directly by the
assessees. If the figures are wrong, the assessees should be hauled up
and penalised for wrongful entries. The entries should then be cancelled
and treated as null and void. Else, they should be prosecuted and fined
for concealment of income. Neither has happened. The Finance Ministry
is silent about this. So are the income tax authorities.

In fact,
the income tax on such declarations could be large enough to account
for almost 100 years of total taxes collected. That could actually make
Prime Minister Modi’s plan for giving money back to tax payers a
reality.

The genesis

The genesis of these discoveries lies
in a series of accidents. The first figure that emerged was a
mind-boggling amount of Rs 2,000 lakh crore. This was almost two and a
half times the Rs 865 lakh crore given in the table alongside. This
figure emerged in an affidavit filed by a retired Income Tax (IT)
officer — Vijay Sharma.

He had filed an RTI (Right to
Information) request with the income tax department for the amounts
declared as agricultural income. He claimed that he had indicated an
exponential increase in agricultural income from 2004 to 2013, touching a
total of almost Rs 2,000 lakh crore for 6.57 lakh individual assessees
in 2011. He then asked for the top 100 names of the people who had filed
such returns.

His RTI request was denied. He then decided to
file a public interest litigation (PIL) petition with the Patna High
Court in Bihar. This matter was duly reported by media in March 2016.
The court was supposed to hear the petition in April in that year
itself. But the courts, too, have been silent on this matter.


Almost simultaneously, the income tax department gave out a different
set of figures (see table 1) which was dutifully reported by the media.


At the same time, thanks to the PIL before Patna High Court, the CBDT –
on 10 March 2016 — sent out a circular to all its officers to verify
details (LETTER F.NO.DGIT(S)/DIT(S)-3/AST/PIL MATTER/AGRICULTURAL
INCOME/97/2015-16) A copy of this letter can be downloaded here. It
confirmed that there had been a surge in agricultural-income returns. It
also attempts to suggest a way to wriggle out of this mess.


And this brings us back to demonetisation. Remember, demonetisation
involved just Rs 15.4 lakh crore. The total currency in circulation is
under Rs 20 lakh crore. And Rs 865 lakh crore was many times these
levels.

Why agricultural income?

Of course, the one
question that automatically arises is – why is the focus on agricultural
income so crucial? The reason is simple. Agricultural income is tax
exempt, provided it is declared as agricultural income with the tax
authorities. That has given rise to several theories. Someone possibly
tipped off some of the most powerful people in India during 2010.
Maybe, there was an amnesty scheme round the corner. Maybe, there was an
assurance that no questions would be asked. But that is all pure
speculation. But the numbers that appeared in the media, and through the
tax authorities could not have been speculation. One cannot imagine
the entire country getting into a speculative mood simultaneously, all
of a sudden.

The tax-free nature of agricultural income has made
this the favourite method many politicians are said to use to convert
their illegally gotten wealth into legitimate income. That is why
agriculture is often referred to as a laundromat. Some of the
politicians have disclosed figures that defy reasoning. Even if the
most productive field were to be used for growing the most lucrative
crop, incomes of those levels would just not be possible.

Sadly,
the income tax department – and the Finance Ministry – have kept silent
on scrutinizing these returns. More painfully, even the judiciary has
not asked questions. Had it done so, the PIL filed by Sharma would have
been heard, and the truth would have come out. One way or the other,
the ghost of huge agricultural incomes would have been put to rest.

Strangely, even the opposition parties have chosen to stay quiet about this.

I call this a collusive silence. Nothing makes sense for now.


So we return to the question everyone has been asking. Will
demonetisation root out black money? Maybe, yes. But only if the
problem of agricultural income is addressed first.

(The author is Consulting Editor with Moneycontrol)

Peace Is Doable

http://www.hindustantimes.com/…/story-ftqgJmHeeYpT1kxZkH9Vp…


[Tewari further said, “We would like to inform the government that
there is a certain timetable to the Parliament. It is structured in a
manner whereby the budget, monsoon and winter sessions can happen. What
is it that the government is so scared of that it is running away from
convening Parliament?” he asked.]

http://www.hindustantimes.com/…/story-ftqgJmHeeYpT1kxZkH9Vp…

Hold winter session of Parliament immediately: Congress tells PM Modi, BJP
The Congress-led opposition plans to raise issues like demonetisation,
GST, the Kashmir situation, and the Doklam standoff with China.

INDIA Updated: Nov 13, 2017 23:33 IST

HT Correspondent
Hindustan Times, New Delhi

The Congress asked the BJP-led government if it was scared of facing the opposition on issues such as note ban and GST.
The Congress asked the BJP-led government if it was scared of facing the opposition on issues such as note ban and GST.


The Congress demanded on Monday that the BJP-led NDA government
immediately convene the winter session of Parliament, asking if it was
scared of facing the opposition on issues such as note ban and the Goods
and Services Tax (GST).

“Why is the BJP government not convening
the winter session of Parliament? We would like to ask Prime Minister
Narendra Modi if the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs (CCPA)
has met. What are its recommendations? And if it has not met, why so?”
asked Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari.

He said assembly elections should not become “an excuse” for the government in “running away from facing” Parliament.

The government had considered calling a short session after the second phase of polling in Gujarat ends on December 14.


Tewari further said, “We would like to inform the government that there
is a certain timetable to the Parliament. It is structured in a manner
whereby the budget, monsoon and winter sessions can happen. What is it
that the government is so scared of that it is running away from
convening Parliament?” he asked.

The Congress-led opposition
plans to raise issues such as the anniversary of demonetisation, how it
impacted the economy, the “completely failed” implementation
of the GST, the situation in Jammu and Kashmir, and the Doklam standoff with China.

Peace Is Doable


The
Congress-led opposition plans to raise issues like demonetisation, GST,
the Kashmir situation, and the Doklam standoff with China.
hindustantimes.com

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