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2563 Sat 17 Mar 2018 LESSON Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — in 22 Classical Esperanto Top 10 Reasons why Education is Extremely Important
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2563 Sat 17 Mar 2018 LESSON

 Buddha Vacana
— The words of the Buddha —

in 22 Classical Esperanto

18 Buddha Quotes To Help Guide You Through Life

you met someone that resembles you in every aspect? Talks, walks and
thinks as you? You’ll never. You’re an original masterpiece in creation.
You’re unique. Here is how Buddha expresses individual uniqueness. “I
am not the first Buddha who came upon Earth, nor shall I be the last. In
due time, another Buddha will arise in the world - a Holy One, a
supremely Awakened One with Awareness, endowed with wisdom in conduct,
auspicious, knowing the universe, an incomparable leader of men, a
master of angels and mortals.”


You cannot rewind the clock back to right the wrong in the past.
You’ve today to make a difference in your life, family, friend’s life
and in society if you heed these words of Buddha,

“Do not dwell in the past; do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”



When you’ve a headache, you reach for painkiller. If you’ve a sore
throat, you turn to throat lozenges. You know what is worrying and
causing you discomfort in life. You are responsible for making the right
move to remedy the situation. Buddha echoes similar sentiments in the

“No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.”



You can get away with acts which do not conform to society norms. You
hide behind a wall of words to say one thing yet mean something else.
You’ve practiced and perfected this act and succeed well yet you’re
living a lie. However, there are three things Buddha says cannot be

“Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.”



Anger has different ways of manifestation in different individuals.
You break furniture, utensils and smash glass window your clenched fist
to release steam. These are signs of anger gone wrong. The items are
replaceable. But the scar your action leaves n the heart is irreparable.
Buddha says of such acts,

“You will not be punished for your anger; you will be punished by your anger.”



You live in a society held hostage by dictates. You eat what you’re
told is good for your health. You wear clothes recommended by fashion
designers who by the way are making money. You also strive to think the
same way everyone else does. Do you know you’re one of a kind? You’re
unique and special and so is your mind.

“The mind is everything. What you think you become,” Buddha stated.



“A healthy nation is a wealthy nation,” the saying goes. You’re part
of your nation. Good health is a pre condition to economic growth of
your country. That is on a wider scale. Buddha narrows good health to
individual benefit saying,

“To keep the body in good health is a duty… otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.” If negative thoughts cluster your mind your body suffers from ill health.



“We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves,”
Buddha commented. Your character is tied to your personality the same
way the shadow is linked to the human body. It you think this is
hearsay, try and shake off your shadow today.



You’ve a dream. You might not share it with anyone else. But it is
there down the last detail. You can put it off, shelve it while you
pursue something else in life but the dream will be waiting at the door
of your heart to be fullfilled. In the words of Buddha,

“What we think, we become.” Turn your dream into reality today.



Meaning is in the mind of the listener just as beauty is in the eye
of the beholder. But that doesn’t absolve you from carelessly using
words to hurt others in communication.

“Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill,” Buddha admonishes. How do you influence others with your words?



Imagine giving witness in court. If you know the truth, you tell it
as it is because you’ve facts to prove it. The difficulty emerges when
you try bending the truth.

“There are only two mistakes one can make along the road to truth; not going all the way, and not starting.” These words of Buddha are true and are backed by verified records in history.



Peace of mind is harder to achieve than any other goal you set in
life. You’re in and out of peace of mind so often, you wonder if a time
will come when you can say with absolute surety that you’ve “Perfect
Peace.” There is only one reason to explain this.

“Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without,” Buddha said.



Everything you’ve access to on earth is a gift. Friends and relatives
shower you with gifts without expecting you to return a hand. That is
the essence of giving. Your part is to acknowledge with a heart full of
thanksgiving and be grateful for the things that come your way. If
you’re envious, you turn the blessings away. But it goes deeper than
that, you’ve troubled mind. Buddha says,

“Do not overrate what you have received, nor envy others. He who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.”



Nothing challenges human beings heart as the fear of death. You’re
scared stiff of anything that destroys the body. Life beyond physical
body is remote, removed and farfetched a thought to entertain. You
occupy the mind with fear of inevitable death of the body if you don’t
live on purpose. Buddha notes,

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”



How much do you love yourself? You strive to achieve perfection as if
it’s something foreign and farfetched. Do you realize you’re made
perfect in all ways? That is the reason you should concur with Buddha’s
sentiments on self love,

“You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.”



How much anger can you harbor in the heart before it explodes in
angry torrent of words? If you’re honest, you know anger is destructive.
You don’t think straight when you’re angry. Buddha points out that,

“Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent
of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.”
Are you angry at someone? Do not let the sun go down without resolving that conflict today.



Change your thinking and you change your life is a good axiom to live by. Buddha says,

“All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed
can wrong-doing remain? Of course not and this brings you back to
transforming the mind in order to transform your life.”



“Action speaks louder than words,” you’ve heard it said. Here is the challenge Buddha puts to you for consideration,

“However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?” No good comes out of empty words. Action is the key word.



Your sense of touch warns you if the hand rests on hot plate, pan.
The same sense of touch assists you to know you’re walking on solid
ground and not wading through mud in darkness. Here is Buddha’s way of
expressing the importance of the sense of touch,

“The foot feels the foot when it feels the ground,” Buddha.


The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE) is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6 to 14 years in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. India became one of 135 countries to make education a fundamental right
of every child when the act came into force on 1 April 2010.The title
of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’.
‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been
admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the
appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or
charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and
completing elementary education. ‘Compulsory education’ casts an
obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to
provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary
education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has
moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation
on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child
right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in
accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.17.

Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act)
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
Emblem of India.svg
An Act to provide for free and compulsory education to all the children of the age of six to fourteen years.
Citation Act No. 35 of 2009
Enacted by Parliament of India
Date assented to 26 August 2009
Date commenced 1 April 2010
Related legislation
86th Amendment (2002)
Status: In force


Act has its history in the drafting of the Indian constitution at the
time of Independence but is more specifically to the Constitutional
Amendment of 2002 that
included the Article 21A in the Indian constitution making Education a
fundamental Right. This amendment, however, specified the need for a
legislation to describe the mode of implementation of the same which
necessitated the drafting of a separate Education Bill. It is the 86th
amendment in the Indian Constitution

A rough draft of the bill was prepared in year 2005. It caused
considerable controversy due to its mandatory provision to provide 25%
reservation for disadvantaged children in private schools. The
sub-committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education which prepared
the draft Bill held this provision as a significant prerequisite for
creating a democratic and egalitarian society. Indian Law commission had
initially proposed 50% reservation for disadvantaged students in
private schools.

On 7 May 2014, The Supreme Court of India ruled that Right to Education Act is not applicable to Minority institutions.


The bill was approved by the cabinet on 2 July 2009. Rajya Sabha passed the bill on 20 July 2009 and the Lok Sabha
on 4 August 2009. It received Presidential assent and was notified as
law on 26 August 2009 as The Children’s Right to Free and Compulsory
Education Act.
The law came into effect in the whole of India except the state of
Jammu and Kashmir from 1 April 2010, the first time in the history of
India a law was brought into force by a speech by the then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
In his speech, Dr. Singh stated, “We are committed to ensuring that all
children, irrespective of gender and social category, have access to
education. An education that enables them to acquire the skills,
knowledge, values and attitudes necessary to become responsible and
active citizens of India.”

The RTE Act provides for the right of children to free and compulsory
education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood
school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the
appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure
compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education
to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no
child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses
which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary

It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class.

It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate
Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and
compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other
responsibilities between the Central and State Governments.

It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to pupil
teacher ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working
days, teacher-working hours.

It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the
specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than
just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring
that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also
provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational
work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state
legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.

It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e.
teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.

It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b)
screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d)
private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without

It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the
values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the
all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge,
potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and
anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.


What is this Act about?

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 is
about a child’s right to education. It ensures that all children get
free education from class 1 to class 8. To achieve this, the Act lays
down some duties for governments, schools, teachers and parents.

The Act also contains rules on pupil-teacher ratio, teacher
vacancies, penalties for conducting screening tests and punishing

Does this Act apply to all children?

This Act only applies to children between the ages of 6 to 14.
However, children who are more than 14 years old but have not been able
to attend school till class 8, can get free education till class 8 under
this Act.

How does this Act help children?

  • All children between the ages of 6 to 14 can get free education from
    class 1 to class 8, in a nearby government school or aided school.
  • Children who have never been to school or have dropped out, can get
    back to school. They will get admission in a class suitable to their
  • Children who are poor or underprivileged in some way, can get free education till class 8 in a private school.
  • Children must be given admission in a school even if they don’t have documents like transfer certificate and age proof.
  • Children cannot be forced to give tests for getting admission in a school.
  • Children cannot be asked to leave school or be forced to repeat a class, till they complete class 8.
  • It is illegal to beat up or harass a child.

Why is the word ‘compulsory’ used?

The word ‘compulsory’ means that it is compulsory for the government
to give free education to all children. It does not mean it is
compulsory for parents to send their children to school.

How can a child get free education in a private school?

  • Children from ‘disadvantaged groups’ and ‘weaker sections’ can get
    free education in a private school. These terms are explained below.
  • Every private school has to keep 25% of its seats in class 1 for children from ‘disadvantaged groups’ and ‘weaker sections’.
  • The school has to give free education to these children till class 8.

Please note that both the Central and State/UT Governments have
issued rules which may contain additional or modified requirements which
have to be followed by schools.


The Act makes education a fundamental right
of every child between the ages of 6 and 14 and specifies minimum norms
in elementary schools. It requires all private schools(except the
minority institutions) to reserve 25% of seats for the poor and other
categories of children (to be reimbursed by the state as part of the
public-private partnership plan). Children are admitted in to private
schools based on caste-based reservations. See Page 9 and Point no 4 of This Document.
It also prohibits all unrecognised schools from practice, and makes
provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the
child or parent for admission.The Act also provides that no child shall be held back, expelled, or
required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary
education. There is also a provision for special training of school
drop-outs to bring them up to par with students of the same age.

The RTE act requires survyus that will monitor all neighbourhoods,
identify children requiring education, and set up facilities for
providing it. The World Bank education specialist for India, Sam Carlson, has observed:

The RTE Act is the first legislation in the world that puts the
responsibility of ensuring enrolment, attendance and completion on the
Government. It is the parents’ responsibility to send the children to
schools in the US and other countries.

The Right to Education of persons with disabilities until 18 years of
age is laid down under a separate legislation- the Persons with
Disabilities Act. A number of other provisions regarding improvement of
school infrastructure, teacher-student ratio and faculty are made in the

Implementation and funding

Education in the Indian constitution
is a concurrent issue and both centre and states can legislate on the
issue. The Act lays down specific responsibilities for the centre, state
and local bodies for its implementation. The states have been
clamouring that they lack financial capacity to deliver education of
appropriate standard in all the schools needed for universal education.
Thus it was clear that the central government (which collects most of
the revenue) will be required to subsidise the states.

A committee set up to study the funds requirement and funding initially estimated that Rs
1710 billion or 1.71 trillion (US$38.2 billion) across five years was
required to implement the Act, and in April 2010 the central government
agreed to sharing the funding for implementing the law in the ratio of
65 to 35 between the centre and the states, and a ratio of 90 to 10 for
the north-eastern
states. However, in mid 2010, this figure was upgraded to Rs.
2310 billion, and the center agreed to raise its share to 68%.
There is some confusion on this, with other media reports stating that
the centre’s share of the implementation expenses would now be 70%. At
that rate, most states may not need to increase their education budgets

A critical development in 2011 has been the decision taken in
principle to extend the right to education till Class X (age 16) and
into the preschool age range.The CABE committee is in the process of
looking into the implications of making these changes.

Advisory Council on Implementation

Ministry of HRD set up a high-level, 14-member National Advisory
Council (NAC) for implementation of the Act. The members include

  • Kiran Karnik, former president of NASSCOM
  • Krishna Kumar, former director of the NCERT
  • Mrinal Miri, former vice-chancellor of North-East Hill University
  • Yogendra Yadav – social scientist. India
  • Sajit Krishnan kutty Secretary of The Educators Assisting Children’s Hopes (TEACH)India.
  • Annie Namala, an activist and head of Centre for Social Equity and Inclusion
  • Aboobacker Ahmad, vice-president of Muslim Education Society, Kerala.
  • Status of implementation

    report on the status of implementation of the Act was released by the
    Ministry of Human Resource Development on the one-year anniversary of
    the Act. The report admits that 8.1 million children in the age group
    6-14 remain out of school and there’s a shortage of 508,000 teachers
    country-wide. A shadow report by the RTE Forum, representing the leading
    education networks in the country led by Ambarish Rai (a prominent
    activist), however, challenging the findings pointing out that several
    key legal commitments are falling behind the schedule.( The
    Supreme Court of India has also intervened to demand implementation of
    the Act in the Northeast. It has also provided the legal basis for
    ensuring pay parity between teachers in government and government aided

    Haryana Government has assigned the duties and responsibilities to
    Block Elementary Education Officers–cum–Block Resource Coordinators
    (BEEOs-cum-BRCs) for effective implementation and continuous monitoring
    of implementation of Right to Education Act in the State.


    has been pointed out that the RTE act is not new. Universal adult
    franchise in the act was opposed since most of the population was
    illiterate. Article 45 in the Constitution of India was set up as an act:

    The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years
    from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory
    education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen

    As that deadline was about to be passed many decades ago, the education minister at the time, M C Chagla, memorably said:

    Our Constitution fathers did not intend that we just set up hovels,
    put students there, give untrained teachers, give them bad textbooks, no
    playgrounds, and say, we have complied with Article 45 and primary
    education is expanding… They meant that real education should be given
    to our children between the ages of 6 and 14 – M.C. Chagla, 1964.

    In the 1990s, the World Bank funded a number of measures to set up
    schools within easy reach of rural communities. This effort was
    consolidated in the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan model in the 1990s. RTE takes the process further, and makes the enrolment of children in schools a state prerogative.


    The act has been criticised for being hastily drafted, not consulting many groups active in education, not considering the
    quality of education, infringing on the rights of private and religious
    minority schools to administer their system, and for excluding children
    under six years of age.Many of the ideas are seen as continuing the policies of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan of the last decade, and the World Bank funded District Primary Education Programme DPEP
    of the ’90s, both of which, while having set up a number of schools in
    rural areas, have been criticised for being ineffective and

    The quality of education provided by the government school system is
    not good. While it remains the largest provider of elementary education
    in the
    country, forming 80% of all recognised schools, it suffers from shortage
    of teachers and infrastructural gaps. Several habitations lack schools
    altogether. There are also frequent allegations of government schools
    being riddled with absenteeism and mismanagement and of appointments
    made on political convenience. Despite the allure of free lunch in the
    government schools, many parents send their children to private schools.
    Average schoolteacher salaries in private rural schools in some States
    (about Rs. 4,000 per month) are considerably lower than those in
    government schools. As a result, the proponents of low-cost private
    schools critique the government schools as being poor value for money.

    Children attending the private schools are seen to be at an
    advantage, forming a discrimination against the weakest sections who are
    forced to go to government schools. Furthermore, the system has been
    criticised as catering to the rural elites who are able to afford school
    fees in a country where a large number of families live in absolute
    poverty. The act has been criticised as discriminatory for not
    addressing these issues. Well-known educationist Anil Sadagopal said of
    the hurriedly drafted act:

    It is a fraud on our children. It gives neither free education nor
    compulsory education. In fact, it only legitimises the present
    multi-layered, inferior quality school education system where
    discrimination shall continue to prevail.

    Entrepreneur Gurcharan Das
    noted that 54% of urban children attend private schools, and this rate
    is growing at 3% per year. “Even the poor children are abandoning the
    government schools. They are leaving because the teachers are not
    showing up.” However, other researchers have countered the argument by saying that
    the evidence for higher standard of quality in private schools often
    disappears when other factors (like family income and parental literacy)
    are accounted for.

    Public-private partnership

    address these quality issues, the Act has provisions for compensating
    private schools for admission of children under the 25% quota which has
    been compared to school vouchers,
    whereby parents may “send” their children in any school, private or
    public. This measure, along with the increase in PPP (Public Private
    Partnership) has been viewed by some organisations such as the All-India
    Forum for Right to Education (AIF-RTE), as the state abdicating its
    “constitutional obligation towards providing elementary education”.

    Infringement on private schools

    The Society for Un-aided Private Schools, Rajasthan (in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 95 of 2010) and as many as 31 others petitioned the Supreme Court of India
    claiming that the act violates the constitutional right of private
    managements to run their institutions without governmental interference.
    The parties claimed that providing 25 percent reservation for
    disadvantaged children in government and private unaided schools is

    Forcing unaided schools to admit 25% disadvantaged students has also
    been criticized on the grounds that the government has partly
    transferred its constitutional obligation to provide free and compulsory
    elementary education to children on “non-state actors,” like private
    schools, while collecting a 2% cess on the total tax payable for primary

    On 12 April 2012, a three judge bench of the Supreme Court delivered its judgement by a majority of 2-1. Chief Justice SH Kapadia and Justice Swatanter Kumar
    held that providing such reservation is not unconstitutional, but
    stated that the Act will not be applicable to private minority schools
    and boarding schools. However, Justice K. S. Panicker Radhakrishnan
    dissented with the majority view and held that the Act cannot apply to
    both minority and non-minority private schools that do not receive aid
    from the government.

    In September 2012, the Supreme Court subsequently declined a review petition on the Act.

    In May 2016, the Chetpet-based CBSE school Maharishi Vidya Mandir
    became embroiled in a scandal over its circumvention of the 25% quota
    During its admissions cycle, the school told economically weaker
    parents “the RTE does not exist,” and, “we do not take these [government
    RTE] applications.” The senior principal also informed the Tamil Nadu
    Regional Director of the CBSE that he intended to “reject applicants
    without an email address,” thereby excluding technically illiterate
    parents from seeking admissions. In addition, school officials falsified
    the distance figures of several poorer candidates in attempts to
    disqualify them from availing of the scheme.

    Barrier for orphans

    Act provides for admission of children without any certification.
    However, several states have continued pre-existing procedures insisting
    that children produce income and caste certificates, BPL cards and
    birth certificates. Orphan children are often unable to produce such
    documents, even though they are willing to do so. As a result, schools
    are not admitting them, as they require the documents as a condition to

Top 10 Reasons why Education is Extremely Important

Write an article

1. For a happy and stable life

If you want to lead a happy life and enjoy the good things the world
has to offer, you certainly need to get educated. A great job, a good
social reputation are few of the many benefits of being an educated
person. Education is a must for a promising and secure future and a
stable life.

2. Money

An educated person has more chances of landing up a good high paying
job. Everybody wants a good life but the good life!. It may be called as
the “root of all evil” but most people will agree that money is
important for survival in today’s world. The more educated you are, the
better career options you have!

3. Equality

If we want to see the world as a just and fair place where everyone
is given equal opportunities, education is what we require. Education is
a must if we want to do away with the existing differences between
different social classes and genders.  It opens a whole world of
opportunities for the poor so that they may have an equal shot at well
paying jobs. Education also plays a major role in women empowerment

4. Makes you self dependent

Education is very important if you want to be a self dependent
person. It helps you become financially independent but that is not
all.  Education also makes you wiser so that you can make your own

5. Turns your dreams into reality

What is your dream, your aim in life? Do you want to become rich?  Do
you want to be popular? Do you want to be an extremely successful
person who is respected by people? Well, the key to all this is
education. Of course there are exceptions, like sportsmen who don’t
really owe their success to their education. However in most cases, your
degree is what helps you realize all your dreams.

6. Makes the world a safer and more peaceful place

Education majorly affects our understanding of the difference between
right and wrong. An educated person is well aware of the consequences
of wrong/illegal actions and he is less likely to get influenced and do
something which is not legally/morally right. Also, a  number of
uneducated people who live a poverty stricken life owning to lack of
opportunities often turn to illegal ways such as theft and robbery to
solve their problems. If you are educated, you are well aware of your
rights, the law and your responsibilities towards the society. Hence,
education is an important factor which contributes in social harmony and

7. Makes you confident

Your educational degree is considered as a proof of your knowledge by
many. If you are educated you have more chances of being heard and
taken seriously. Generally, an uneducated man will find it harder to
express his views and opinions owning to lack of confidence. Even if he
does so, people may not take him seriously. Education gives you the
confidence to express your views and opinions.

8. Society

We all live in a society which has its own set spoken/unspoken rules
and one of them is education. The society expects you to go to school
followed by college, get a job, settle down etc. In fact education helps
you become a useful member of the society. An educated member certainly
has a greater chance to contribute to his community. Education helps
you become an active member of the society and participate in the
ongoing changes and developments.

9. For economic growth of the nation

Australia, USA and Japan are few countries with very high literacy
rates. These countries are extremely prosperous and the citizens have a
high per capita income.  On the other hand, in underdeveloped and
developing nations, where literacy rate is not as high, a number of
people are still living below the poverty line. Education is vital for
the economic prosperity of a nation!

10. Saves you from being fooled/cheated

Education saves you from being exploited and fooled. We live in a
country where we enjoy a number of rights and freedom.  It is easier to
take advantage of innocent and illiterate people. They may be trapped
into signing false documents or be deprived of some right which they
have because unlike an educated person they are not well aware of their
rights and freedoms.…/paleolithic-parenting-and-animat…/
Paleolithic parenting and animated GIFs
By Paul Woodward, February 13, 2018

The creation of the moving image represents a technical advance in the
arts comparable with the invention of the steam engine during the
industrial revolution.

transition from static to moving imagery was a watershed event in human
history, through which people discovered a new way of capturing the
visible world — or so it seemed.

It turns out, however, that long
before the advent of civilization, our Paleolithic forebears figured
out that movement seen in living creatures around them could, by cunning
means, be captured in crafted illusions of movement.

creation of the moving image represents a technical advance in the arts
comparable with the invention of the steam engine during the industrial

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