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2635 Tue 29 May LESSON Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words Do Good Be Mindful ! For full explanation Please visit: Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES From: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Translate this Google Translation in your mother tongue using https://translate.google.com That is your LESSON Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com http://www.palicanon.org/ Pali Canon Online The Original Words of the Buddha The Origin of the Pali Canon https://buddhiststudies.stanford.edu/ When a just born baby is separated and kept isolated, after a few days it will speak a natural (Prakrit) human language. That is Magadh. It is like all the other natural languages communicated by different other living species like birds, animals, insects and so on. All other languages of human beings evolved from this natural human language. MAGAHI AND MAGADH: LANGUAGE AND PEOPLE
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 6:49 pm

2635 Tue 29 May  LESSON

Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words
Do Good Be Mindful !

For full explanation

Please visit:
Analytic
Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and
related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL
LANGUAGES
From:
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Translate this Google Translation in your mother tongue using
https://translate.google.com

That is your LESSON

Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

http://www.palicanon.org/
Pali Canon Online

The Original Words of the Buddha

The Origin of the Pali Canon

https://buddhiststudies.stanford.edu/
When
a just born baby is separated and kept isolated, after a few days it
will speak a natural (Prakrit) human language. That is Magadh. It is
like all the other natural languages communicated by different other
living species like birds, animals, insects and so on. All other
languages of human beings evolved from this natural human language.

MAGAHI AND MAGADH: LANGUAGE AND PEOPLE




https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?p=origin+and+history+of+Magadh+languages+with+images&fr=tightropetb&imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vedicbooks.net%2Fimages%2Fhistory_of_magadh9907.jpg#id=0&iurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vedicbooks.net%2Fimages%2Fhistory_of_magadh9907.jpg&action=click







http://gifre.org/library/upload/volume/52-59-vol-3-2-14-gjiss.pdf

MAGAHI AND MAGADH: LANGUAGE AND PEOPLE

http://gifre.org/library/upload/volume/52-59-vol-3-2-14-gjiss.pdf


MAGAHI AND MAGADH: LANGUAGE AND PEOPLE
Lata A
treya
1
, Smriti Singh
2
,
&
Rajesh Kumar
3
1
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihar, India
2
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences,
Indian Institute of Tech
nology Patna, Bihar, India
3
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Magahi is an Indo
-
Aryan language, spoken in Eastern part of India. It is genealogically related to Magadhi
Apbhra
nsha, once having the status of
rajbhasha
, during the reign of Emperor Ashoka. The paper outlines the Magahi
language
in historical context along with its present status. The paper is also a small endeavor to capture the history of
Magadh.
The paper discus
ses
that once a history of Magadh constituted the history of India.
The paper also attempts to
discuss the people and culture of present Magadh.
Keywords:
Magahi, Magadhi Apbhransha, Emperor Ashoka
.
1 Introduction
The history of ancient India is predomin
ated by the history of Magadh. Magadh was once an empire which
expanded almost
till
present day Indian peninsula excluding So
u
thern India. Presently the name ‘Magadh’ is confined to
Magadh pramandal of Bihar state of India. The prominent language spoken in
Magadh pramandal and its neighboring
areas is Magahi.
This paper talks about Magahi as a language, its history, geography, script and its classification. The paper is also a
small endeavor towards the study of the history of ancient Magadh. The associati
on of history of Magadh
with the history
and culture of ancient India is outlined. The paper also talks about people and culture of present day region of Magadh.
2
Magahi Language
This section is concerned with general features of Magahi language. These g
eneral features are genealogical history
of Magahi language, from where did the language Magahi got its name, position of Magahi language among various
Indian languages, geographic distribution of the language,
dialects
of the Magahi language, the scripts
used
in writing the
Magahi language and finally classification of Magahi language.
2.1
The Magahi Language
Magahi is an Indo
-
Aryan language. Grierson (1927) has named Magahi along with Maithili and Bhojpuri as Bihari
language. These days Magahi is spoken
in districts of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa. Magahi has developed
from Magadhi Apbhransha or Eastern Apbhransha branch of Magadhi Prakrit.
Magahi is not the only language developing from Magadhi Apbhransha. Other languages developing from Mag
adhi
Apbhransha are Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bangala, Assamese and Oriya. Pandey (1980) analysing the closeness of these
modern Indo
-
Aryan languages to Magadhi Apbhransha writes that though
Prachin
Bangala,
Prachin
Oriya,
Prachin
Assamese,
Prachin
Maithili,
Pra
chin
Magahi and
Prachin
Bhojpuri had associated themselves with Magadhi
Apbhransha but Magahi should be considered a model language developing from Magadhi Apbhransha. To support his
argument he further writes that the literature of Siddhas, which are the
earliest available document on Magadhi
Apbhransha , there are found many instances which possess direct resemblance with modern Magahi. Aryani (1976) is
also of the view that the language used by Siddhas is old form of Magahi.
2
.1.1 The Name Magahi
Magahi
is also known by its Sanskrit name Magadhi. But the name ‘Magadhi’ is famous mainly among the
educated
speakers. Magahi is the common and popular name for the
language. The name Magahi is derived from the
word ‘Magadhi’ which was the popular name of easte
rn dialect of Apbhransha, fully known as Magadhi Apbhransha. As
we have seen above Magahi is more directly related to Magadhi Apbhransha than the other languages developing from it,
the name of the language Magahi is also the direct descendent from the nam
e of the Apbhransha i.e. Magadhi. Aryani
(1965) writes that the word ‘Magadhi’ underwent phonological changes with the development of Prakrits and
Apbhranshas from Sanskrit, and became the word ‘Magahi’.
Aryani (1965) further writes that Apbhransha was fol
lowing Sanskrit but underwent various phonological changes.
Because of those changes /maa/ became /ma/. Sound /g/remained protected. /d
h
/ got changed into /h/. /ii/ coming with
/d
h
/, remained as same. So, we have /maagad
h
ii/ changing to /magahi/.
2
.1.2 Po
sition of Magahi among Indian Languages
In India, languages belonging to four language families are spoken. These four language families are: Indo
-
European, Tibeto
-
Burman, Austro
-
Asiatic and Dravidian. Indo
-
Aryan is the name given to group of languages spo
ken in
India and belonging to Indo
-
European family. Indo
-
Aryan languages based on their historical development are named as
Old Indo
-
Aryan languages, Middle Indo
-
Aryan languages and New Indo
-
Aryan languages. Generally, two classifications


53
are followed for
New Indo
-
Aryan languages (NIA). These are: Grierson (1905) and Chatterji (1926). Grierson has placed
Magahi into Bihari group of Eastern group of languages belonging to Outer Sub
-
branch of New Indo
-
Aryan languages.
Chatterji has placed Magahi into Prachaya
(Eastern) group of languages. The details of Grierson’s classifi
cation are
illustrated in Fig (1
) and that of Chatterji are illustrated in Fig (
2
).
Grierson (1926) writes on the character of Magahi language “Magahi is condemned by speakers of other I
ndian
languages as being rude and uncouth like the people who use it. In fact the principal difference between it and Maithili is
that the latter has been under the influence of learned
Brahmanas
for centuries, while the former has been the language of
peo
ple who have been dubbed boors since Vedic times.” Pandey (1980) talking about Aryans of Vedic times in Magadh
regions writes that Aryans coming to Magadh did not follow the pure Vedic tradition. They easily got mingled with the
local tribal people. They m
ight have established a tradition and culture which was conducive to both Aryans and tribes
residing in the area. This co
-
mingling of culture of Aryans in the area with that of the tribes of area might have triggered
anger among the writers of Vedic litera
ture. And so, people residing in Magadh were referred to as boors in Vedic
literature. We can say that this prejudice was carried over in the heart of people and they also condemned Magahi as rude
and uncouth.
2
.1.3 Geographic Distribution
In Bihar, prese
ntly Magahi is spoken in districts of Patna, Nalanda, Gaya, Jehanabad, Aurangabad, Sheikhpura and
Nawada. It expands its boundaries to Lakhisaray and Bhagalpur. The language is also spoken in districts of Hazaribag,
Giridih, Palamau and Ranchi belonging to
the newly formed state of Jharkhand, which was once a part of state of Bihar.
The language is also spoken in Mayurbhanj and Bamra in Orissa. Magahi also has some speakers in Malda and Purulia
districts of West Bengal.
Grierson (1927) gives population of
Magahi speakers as 6,504,817. Aryani (1965) writes that in 1951 census, only
3,728
people registered Magahi as their mother tongue. She writes
this does not mean the language is on the verge of
death, rather people named Hindi as their mother tongue. This
engulfed the real figure of Magahi speakers. Magahi is


54
still the vernacular language and Aryani estimates that in 1951 the population of Magahi speakers might have increased
to 9,890,000.
Number of people speaking Magahi language is about 12,132,383 as per
the Census of India 2001
1
.
2
.1.4
Dialects
of Magahi
Language
Pandey
(1980), keeping in mind geographical, cultural and
administrative factor classifies four different forms of
Magahi which are Standard Magahi, Eastern Magahi, Western Magahi, and Mixed Ma
gahi. Grierson (1927) and Aryani
(1965) both have mentioned about three types of Magahi i.e. Standard Magahi, Eastern Magahi and Mixed Magahi. The
detail discussion on these classifications is done in section (
2
.1.
6
).
Grierson (1927) writes about the diff
erent dialects of Magahi like Kurmali, Khontai, Kurmali Thar, Khotta,
Pargania and Tamaria. The commonality about all these dialects is that all these are different forms of Eastern Magahi.
Eastern Magahi is a common name given to Magahi spoken in the stat
e belonging to the border of Bihar like West
Bengal and Orissa. However, a pocket of Eastern Magahi speakers are also found in South
-
East Hazaribag and South
-
East Ranchi which are very close to West Bengal. Eastern Magahi spoken in Mayurbhanj and Bamra is
known as
Kurmali. While in western Malda it is known as Khontai. In Manbhum the language is known as Kurmali Thar and
Khotta. In the South
-
East of Ranchi it is known as Pargania or Tamaria.
2
.1.5 Scripts Used In Writing
Verma (200
7
) mentions that Magahi i
s written in four scripts: Devanagari, Kaithi, Bangla and Oriya. She writes
“Bangla and Oriya scripts are employed in writing the forms of Eastern Magahi current in the Manbhum area, such as
Purulia but also the south
-
eastern part of Hazaribag district tha
t borders on the Manbhum region. The Oriya script is
used, expectedly, in the areas where it coexists with Oriya, such as Mayurbhanj. Devnagari is the script for whatever is
sought to be published today, or has been sought to be published since the early p
art of the twentieth century.” On use of
Kaithi script for Magahi, Verma writes “The traditional script for Magahi has been Kaithi, which is still used in personal
communication and sometimes in semi
-
legal transactions. The Kaithi script gets its name from
the word ‘Kāyath’ <
‘Kāyastha’, the caste of writers in Northern India, and has been current until recently in Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh.
It derives from early Nagari and is closely related to the current Gujrati script which replaced the Devanagari
only in the
nineteenth century.” On use of Kaithi script Pandey (2007) writes “Kaithi was the traditional script of the Bhojpuri and
Magahi languages and the popular script of the Awadhi and Maithili languages…Kaithi was also used to write Urdu or
the “
Hindustani”
lingua franca
, although now the Perso
-
Arabic script is associated with Urdu.” Though Kaithi is the
traditional
script for Magahi and other Bihari languages but it got
replaced by Devanagari in Early twentieth century
because of social and poli
tical importance given to the Devanagari script. However, the use of Devnagari script for
Magahi i
s a bit problematic. Verma (2007
) writes about this problem “The pronunciation convention associated with the
Devnagari in the greater Hindi area (as also Nep
ali) drops the inherent vowel of the last consonant character of a word.
Quite a number of verbal forms in Magahi end in that inherent vowel /a/. Therefore, the Devanagari for Magahi has been
slightly modified with the addition of a word
-
final character, n
amely the ‘avagraha’ <Ѕ>, to provide for that vowel word
finally.” Presently, Devanagari has become the popular script for Magahi.
2.1.6 Classification of Magahi Language
There is a famous Hindi saying about Language:
Tin kos par paani badale, saat kos pa
r baani
This could be translated as: The climate changes after every three
kosas
and language changes after every seven
kosas
(‘Kosa’ is an Indian unit of measurement for distance). It means that a language remains in constant flux and it
undergoes changes
after certain distance. This is true for Magahi language also. Based on different forms of Magahi, the
language has been classified into various groups by various linguists at different times. Grierson (1927) has talked about
Standard Magahi and Eastern M
agahi. Standard Magahi is the name given to Pure Magahi. On Eastern Magahi, Grierson
writes “On its eastern border Magahi meets Bengali. The two languages do not combine but meeting ground is a
bilingual one, where they live side by side, each spoken by it
s own nationality. Each is , however, more or less affected
by
the other and the Magahi so affected possesses distinct
peculiarities, entitling it to be classed apart as a sub
-
dialect,
which I have named Eastern Magahi.” About the places where Eastern Maga
hi is spoken, Grierson (1927) writes “We
find this dialect in South
-
East Hazaribag, in Manbhum, in the South
-
East of the District of Ranchi, in the native state of
Kharsawan and even so far South as the native States of Mayurbhanj and Bamra which belong po
litically to Orissa and
Chattisgargh,
respectively. It is also spoken as an isolated island of
speech in West of the District of Malda. Grierson
(1927) names Patna and north of Gaya District as ancient Magadh. He writes about Standard Magahi “Magahi is,
ho
wever, not confined to the old country of Magadh. It is also spoken all over the rest of Gaya and over the District of
Hazaribag;
also, on the West, in a portion of the District of Palamau,
and, on the East, in portions of the Districts of
Munger and Bhaga
lpur. Over the whole of this area, it is practically one and the same dialect, with hardly any local
variations. Only near the city of Patna is it infected with idioms belonging to the North
-
Western Provinces by the strong
Musalman element which inhabits t
hat town, and which itself speaks more or less correct Urdu.” Grierson writes on the
regional extension of Pure Magahi or Standard Magahi “Pure Magahi has also found its way down South of the District
of Ranchi, and appears in the North of the District of
Singhbhum, and in the native state of Saraikala and Kharsawan,
where it is spoken side by side with Oriya. It will be noticed that both Standard Magahi and Eastern Magahi are spoken
in Kharsawan.” In Grierson (1927), we also find a reference to a mixed dia
lect ‘Khotta’ which is spoken in Manbhum
and
Sihnbhum of Bengal. He, however, has not clearly classed it
either as a Bengali dialect or as a Bihari dialect. He
1
Data collected at JNU, New Delhi.


55
writes about the dialect ‘Khotta’ “On the western boundary of this dialect (Eastern Magahi) ther
e are various mixed
dialects
which are generally known as khotta or impure Bengali. It is
often difficult to say whether these should be
classed as a dialect of Bengali, or of the neighbouring Bihari.”
Aryani (1965) has classified Magahi into three dialect
s: Standard Magahi, Eastern Magahi and Mixed Magahi. By
Standard Magahi and Eastern Magahi she means the same as Grierson. However she writes about Mixed Magahi that the
mixed dialects of Magahi are the result of mixing of Standard Magahi with those of Mai
thili and Bhojpuri.
Pandey (1980) talks about four main dialects of Magahi: Standard Magahi, Eastern Magahi, Western Magahi, and
Mixed Magahi. Standard Magahi is spoken in Gaya, Nalanda, Nawada, Patna and Lakhisaray. The Magahi spoken in
Gaya, Nalanda and
Nawada is unaffected by external languages so, it is considered as standard. There is a difference in
Magahi spoken in Urban and Rural area of Patna. The Magahi spoken in urban Patna is influenced by different languages
like Urdu, Bhojpuri, and Maithili a
nd also by languages spoken by Nawabs of Mugal Period and by Kattiyas and
Agarwals of Western India, who settled in Patna. Magahi spoken in Lakhisaray is though different from the one spoken
in Patna and Gaya but taken to be standard as it is also uninflue
nced by other languages. Eastern Magahi is spoken in
Ranchi, Hazaribag, Giridih, Dhanbad, some parts of Sinhbhum, Purulia of West Bengal and Mayurbhanj and Bamra of
Orissa. Places where Western Magahi is spoken are close to Bhojpuri speaking belt. This dia
lect is spoken in
Aurangabad, Palamau, Vaishali, Arwal and Danapur. Western Magahi is influenced by Bhojpuri. In Vaishali, the
language along with Bhojpuri also has the influence of Maithili. So, the language spoken in Vaishali is also reffered to as
‘Khic
hadia’. However, Magahi is much more prominent in the language of Vaishali. Mixed Magahi is spoken in
Bhagalpur, Munger, Santhal
-
Pargana and Western part of Malda Dis
trict of West Bengal. There is some
influence of
Maithili and Bengali on Mixed Magahi. In
Bhagalpur, due to change in the form of Magahi language, it is also known as
Angika. Mixed Magahi has maintained its different forms in Munger and Santhal
-
Pargana. Mixed Magahi has two
different forms: Bangali
-
mixed Magahi and Maithili
-
mixed Magahi. The fo
rmer is spoken in Santhal
-
Pargana and Malda,
while the later is spoken in Munger and Bhagalpur. (Pandey, 1980)
3
Magadh
This section gives information about Ancient Magadh. It is divided into fo
ur sub
-
sections. Sub
-
section 3
.1 tells
about the Kingdom of
A
ncient Magadh. Sub
-
section 3
.2 is concerned with languages of
Ancient Magadh. Sub
-
section
3
.3 tells about how far the two languages of Ancient Magadh, Magadhi and Pali, are relat
ed. Finally, the sub
-
section 3
.4
tries to tell how Magadhi, the genealogical a
ncestor of Magahi, became popular in the hands of Buddha.
3
.1 Ancient Magadh
The history of Magadh is pivotal in the history of ancient India. The great ancient Indian rulers like Chandragupta
Maurya, Ashoka, Samudragupta and Vikramaditya were the great
rulers of Magadh Empire. The glory of Magadh
Empire is mentioned in the historical account of foreign travellers like Megasthanese and Fahiyan. Religions of
Buddhism and Jainism are the gift of this land to the world.
We find one of the earliest mentions
of ‘Magadh’ in the Mahabharta, a Hindu Epic. Magadh was one of the sixteen
Mahajanpadas mentioned in the Epic. Haryanka dynasty founded Magadh Empire in 684BC and Bimbisara was the first
king. Rajgriha, that time known as Girivraja, was the capital during
the reign of Bimbisara. Later on the capital was
shifted to Patliputra, near the present day Patna, by the King Udayi. The town of Bihar (today known as Biharsharif) also
became the capital city of Magadh under the rule of Muslims. Grierson (1927) has ment
ioned this as follows: “Under the
Musalmans, the capital of the country was the town of Bihar, in the south of the Patna District, the name of which, a relic
of ancient times, is a corruption of the Buddhist word
vihara
or monastery. From this town, the wh
ole
suba
or Province
of Bihar took its name.” Many dynasties ruled Magadh Empire. Brihadrath, Pradyota, Haryanka and Sisunaga dynasties
ruled Magadh during 7
th
to 5
th
century BC. Later on Nanda, Maurya, Sunga, Kanva, and Gupta dynasties ruled Magadh
and ex
panded its boundaries. Pandey (1976) writes that with Buddha and Bimbisara starts the historical era for Magadh
Empire. Bimbisara was the first king who made Magadh, an Empire. Lord Buddha and Mahavira were contemporary of
Bimbisara. They got their enlight
enment while Bimbisara
reigned
Magadh. Bimbisara appreciated both the religions and
helped them grow. Bimbisara was succeeded by Ajatshatru. Ajatshatru won other mahajanpadas like Anga, Kashi and
Vaishali which resulted into Magadh emerging as powerful sta
te in Northern India. Magadh saw its greatest glory during
the reign of Mauryas. Mauryas not only expanded the boundary of Magadh but also established a people
friendly State.
Emperor Ashoka was the greatest Maurayan king known for his world famous message
s of love, truth, non
violence and
tolerance. We find the inscriptions of Ashoka carved on various rock
edicts and pillars spread in different places which
once belonged to his Empire. In these inscriptions Ashoka proclaims his understanding of
Dhamma
. Dha
mma for Ashoka
means to have control over their passion, to cultivate purity of life and character in innermost thoughts, to have respect
for all religions and traditions, to practice non
violence, to be charitable to all, regard for parents, teachers, rel
atives,
friends and ascetics, treating even slaves and servants kindly and telling truth
(Lal ed. 2002)
. Ashoka was the first
Emperor in the history of India to expand the boundaries of his Empire from present day Afghanistan and Baluchistan till
Deccan Pl
ateau in South. On comparing this Empire with present India, we find that just the North
-
East and few parts of
South
India was not the part of his Empire. Ashoka was a great
admirer of Buddhism and he propagated Buddhist
idealism to Sri Lanka, Southeast As
ia, West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. Pandey (1980) writes that through such
spread of Buddhist Idealism, Magadh got a spiritual victory over different parts of Asia and Europe.
After Mauryas, Sungas and Kanvas ruled Magadh. But the disintegration of Mag
adh which started during later
Mauryas couldn’t be prevented by them and the Empire status of Magadh got diminished. Magadh again rose to its glory
under Guptas. Gupta Empire was established by Srigupta. Chandragupta I was the first great king of the dynas
ty. He
adopted the title maharajadhiraj and was the first one to issue gold coins. Samudragupta succeeded him. He was known
not
only for his military achievements but also for his versatile
genius. Allahabad pillar inscription, composed by


56
Harisena, gives
a detail of his achievements and personality
(La
l
ed. 2002)
. Samudragupta was succeeded by
Chandragupta II, also known as Vikramaditya. Under Vikramaditya, the Gupta Empire reached its zenith both in political
and cultural sphere. He conquered Saka dynasty
and expanded his kingdom to Western coast. This gave impetus to trade
and commerce. As a result, he made Ujjain, the second capital of his Empire. Vikramaditya is also remembered for his
patronage to literature, arts and science. Scholars like Kalidas, Ar
yabhatta, Varahmihir, and Dhanvantri were few among
the nine jewels in the court of Vikramaditya. Hinduism got revived during Guptas. Two main sects of Hindu philosophy,
Shaivism and Vaishnavism emerged. Guptas themselves followed Vaishnavism. But they als
o supported Buddhism and
Jainism. Many Buddhist monasteries and stupas were created during this period. Economy was stable as both agriculture
and trade flourished. Gupta period contributed to all spheres of knowledge, be it philosophy, literature, mathema
tics,
astrology,
astronomy or chemistry. Because of all these achievements,
this period is known as Golden period in the
history of India.
The Palas were the last ruler of ancient Magadh. After Muslim invasion and during Mugal rule, Magadh lost its
politic
al supremacy. It was for a small period, during the rule of Sher Shah Suri, that Magadh again became important in
the politics of North India. During British rule, Magadh totally got crushed under ‘Jamindari system’. In present Bihar,
‘Magadh’ is the name
given to an administrative unit, called Magadh pramandal which comprises of five districts namely
Gaya, Nawada, Aurangabad, Jehanabad and Arwal.
3
.2 Languages of Ancient Magadh
In ancient Magadh, languages like Sanskrit, Magadhi Prakrit, Apbhransha and Pa
li were in use. Sanskrit is said to
be the language of Aryans. Vedas and Upnishads are written in this language. There was a time when Sanskrit was both
the written and spoken languages. About Fifth century B.C. Panini wrote Astdhayayi
a grammar of Sanskr
it. Aryani
(1965) is of view that the grammar resulted into unification of Sanskrit and the language got rule bound. Because of this
it became difficult for common people to use Sanskrit as a spoken language as rules stole the flexibility of the structure
of
the language and made it rigid. So, Sanskrit got restricted to literary language. By that time, Magadhi Prakrit was gaining
coin as a vernacular language in the Magadh region. In other parts of India, different forms of Prakrits were developing.
Prakrit
got importance as a spoken language after Sanskrit. Parallel to Prakrits developed another language, known as
Pali.
Pali cannot be said to be developed from Sanskrit. It
developed independently and was mainly a written form of
language. Prakrits further u
nderwent changes and gave rise to new vernacular forms. Today, these vernaculars are known
as Apbhranshas. Various Indo
Aryan languages spoken all over present India are genealogical successor of Apbhranshas.
Apbhranshas are the connecting link between Pra
krit and NIA
(
New
Indo
Aryan)
. Eastern dialect of Apbhransha, known
as Magadhi Apbhransha, was the vernacular language of Ancient Magadh later on. As mentioned earlier, Magahi got
developed from Magadhi Apbhransha. Magadhi Apbhransha, popularly known as Ma
gadhi, was recognized as
rajbhasha
by Emporor Ashoka. He used this language to inscribe messages on his rock
edicts. On the rock
edicts found in the
North West places of his Empire, which are in local languages, the influence of Magadhi Prakrit is visible.
3
.3 Relation between Magadhi and Pali
Sanskrityanan (1993) writes on recognition of Pali as language that today we use the word ‘Pali’ in the sense of a
language and the whole Tripitak and Anupitak literature of Theraveda sect of Buddhism is available in
this language.
Initially
the word was used to denote the original teachings of Buddha
or Tripitak but later on it started symbolising a
language in which Buddha’s teachings are available. Thus the use of the word ‘Pali’ in the sense of a language is quite
new
and this sense got advertised in the nineteenth century. On
the relation between Magadhi and Pali, Sanskrityanan
writes that the language which we name presently as Pali has been traditionally called Magadhi. People have been calling
it as Magadhi fro
m the age when Atthkathas were written on Tripitak. Sanskrityanan, however, differentiates Pali from
Magadhi and writes that the earliest available form of the Magadhi are the Ashokan rock
edicts found in Orissa, Bihar
and Uttar
Pradesh. The Magadhi langua
ge of these rock
edicts and the Magadhi which is known for Pali language are
different. He further writes that Pali underwent many changes like /s/ in place of /sh/ of Magadhi, /n/ in place of /N/ of
Magadhi and /r/ in place of /l/ of Magadhi. This happene
d under the influence of Sthavirvadi Buddhist follower from
Cylon. Sanskrityanan writes that Pali would have got the privilege of becoming oldest form of Magadhi if it has not done
away with /sh/ and /r/. Despite of these changes, Sthavirvadi says that the
ir original scripture (Tripitak) is in Magadhi
language. But Sanskrityanan does not favour this view and concludes that Pali is the name of the language available in
Sthavirvadi Tripitak. Various linguists are of the view that Pali is more related to Shaur
seni Prakrit which was spoken in
Madhya
desha. So, it can be said to be a literary language based on language spoken near Ujjain and Mathura. Pali got
lost as a literary language from India in the early fourteenth century with the loss of Buddhism from the
land. But it
survived in other countries like Mayanmar, Thailand, Combodia, Laos and Vietnam until eighteenth century. So, it can
be
said that Pali was never a spoken language in India and it
especially signifies the language of written Buddhist
literatur
e Tripitak and Anupitak.
3
.4 Magadhi and Buddha
Magahi is genealogically related to Magadhi Prakrit. During the time of Buddha, Magadhi Prakrit was the
vernacular language. Buddha gave importance to Magadhi for his preaching and sermon. He was opposed to
the use of
Sanskrit
for his preaching as Sanskrit by his time had become
prescriptive. Moreover, Buddha was against orthodox
karmkandas
which by that time had evaded Hindu religion. Sanskrit was limited to formal teachings and became a tool in
the hands of
orthodox Hindus. Buddha, for his teachings to easily percolate into the common mass, used the vernacular
language, Magadhi Prakrit. Aryani (1965) writes that Buddha used to move around Kashi, Koshal, Videh and Magadh. In
these areas, Magadhi was the popul
ar language. That’s why also Buddha cho
se Magadhi as the medium for
his preaching
and
sermon. But Buddha also had followers from Kuru, Avanti and
Gandhar. Sanskrityanan (1993) writes about these


57
followers that they started following their own language in t
he
suktas
used in Buddha’s preaching. Few followers were
against
these changes and therefore requested Buddha if his preaching
could be written and preserved in a form of
literary language. But Buddha was against it. According to Sanskrityanan, about four
centuries later, after Buddha’s
Nirvana, his
preaching
was
preserved in Cylon (Sri Lanka) by Sthavirvadis in Pali,
though
they claim it to be Magadhi
language. Chatterji (1963) writes that Lord Buddha’s teachings and sermons were first compiled using the M
agadhi
language, which was later translated into Pali. The compiled form of Buddhas’s teaching is known as Tripitak.
4
People and Culture
of Magadh
Culture of Magadh has been rich since ancient
times
and the land has produced many important personalities
who
contributed in India’s development. The land has been
epicenter
of various religious and political movements since
ancient times. Lord Buddha and Mahavira got enlightenment on this land and moved around the
neighboring
places for
their religious preach
ing. Buddhism and Jainism were the first religions to rise against the hypocrisies of caste
system,
Brahmanism and Vedic
karmkandas
. Buddha advocated ‘The Middle Path’ for his disciples. He talked of
Ashtangika
marga
for attaining
nirvana
, which is liberat
ion from the cycle of birth and death. Mahavira advocated rigorous
asceticism for his disciples. Both Buddhism and Jainism stood for the reason of truth and non
violence. Sikhism also has
roots in Magadh. Sikh’s tenth Guru, Guru Govind Singh was born on th
is land. In nineteenth century, during struggle for
independence against British, Patna became the centre for Wahabi movement. This movement was led by Sayyed Ahmed
Shahid. It was both a political and religious movement. The movement was aimed towards refo
rming Islam. But for
achieving this, reformers thought that independence from British was must. So they also acted against British.
Magadh has contributed a lot to the Indian culture. Mauryan art is the first imperial art in India. Ashokan pillars are
uni
que and their incredible ‘finish’ is the pride of Indian Architecture. These pillars are carved out of a single rock. These
rocks pillars are polished in such a fashion that they appear to be made of metal. Such polishing is striking example of
Mauryan art
and the technique vanished after Ashoka. Pillar at Sarnath is one of the Ashoka’s pillars. The four lions
carved
on the top of the pillar are chosen as the national symbol
of independent India. There is Iranian influence on
Mauryan art. In Indian history,
Ashoka was first to use inscriptions for spreading his messages. He followed the tradition
of inscriptions from Iran. The tradition of rock
cut caves in India begun with the Mauryas. Rock
cut caves in the Barabar
and Nagarjuni hills in Gaya are examples f
rom Mauryan period. These were excavated by Ashoka and his grandson
Dasaratha
for the abode of Ajivika monks. A glimpse of the folk art
of the period can be seen in the Yaksha and
Yakshani figures found from Mathura, Pawa, and Patna. The Yakshini statue fr
om Didarganj, near Patna is the most
famous one and shows Mauryan polish.
Arthashastra
, written by Kautilaya, is an important literature of the period for
understanding politics and administration in general.
Gupta’s contributions to the Indian culture ar
e also remarkable. Hinduism reemerged in the form of Bhagavatism
(Vaishnavism), Saivism and Saktism. Bhakti became central to the philosophy of Hinduism. Hinduism also got
influenced by Buddhism. Under this influence Vaishnavism imbibed Buddha as one of th
e incarnations of Vishnu.
Sculptures and temples of Gupta period are milestone in the field of art. Guptas were first to use dressed stone for temple
construction. Before this, temples were made of wood or other perishable material. Gupta period is known a
s the
“classical
period” in the genre of sculpture as they were a combination
of spirituality and idealism into art. This
combination gets reflected in the images of Vishnu, in Dasavtara Temple at Deogarh. The seated Buddha from Sarnath
and standing Buddha
from Mathura represent fully developed form of Buddhist art. Their radiant spiritual expression
carved with grace and refinement makes them masterpieces
(Lal ed. 2002)
. Paintings at Ajanta and Ellora caves were
made during Gupta period. Aryabhata, an outs
tanding scholar of the Gupta age, lived at Kusumpura, near Patna. He
wrote
Aryabhattiya
, which talks about geometry. He was first to use decimal and thus gave a new dimension to
mathematics. He was first to give right reasons behind eclipses. Aryabhata was
first to utilize sign functions in
astronomy. This age contributed
Puranas
and
Smiritis
to the Hindu literature. Kavyas such as
Meghduta
,
Raguvansa
and
Kumarsambhava
, dramas such as
Abhijnashakuntalam
,
Mudrarakshasa
and
Devichandragupta
are contribution o
f Gupta
period to Indian literature
(Lal ed. 2002)
.
Guptas established many Universities for promoting education. Nalanda University was one of them. It was famous
for education in religion and philosophy. Students from all over India, China, Tibbet, Indo
nesia and Sri Lanka used to
come here for studies. The famous Chinese pilgrim Hiuen
Tsang and I
tsing studied at Nalanda University. Hiuen
Tsang
mentioned the glory of Nalanda University in his book Si
yu
ki. I
tsing stayed at Nalanda for ten years. He tra
nslated
many Sanskrit manuscripts into Chinese. This glory was mixed into ashes by Muslim invader, Muhmmed Bin Bakhtiyar
in about twelfth century. This was a great loss to Magahi language also as it was the time when Magahi was growing.
In earlier paragrap
hs we saw how the ancient Magadh has contributed to the development of culture all over India. In the
following paragraphs we look at various cultural aspects of present Magadh.
Folk songs and folk dance are an important aspect of Magadh culture. Folk song
s like
Phaag
and
Chaita
are sung
all over Bihar. While
Phaag
are sung in the month of
Phalgun
,
Chaita
are sung in the month of
Chait
. Rajashah of Patna
is a famous name in the field of Indian classical music. He has not only reclassified the Indian Ragas b
ut also discovered
a new musical instrument called
‘Thaat’
. Rajashah also authored a book ‘
Nagmat Ashfi
’ on Indian music. Folk music of
Bihar reflects the culture of its day to day life.
Sanskaar geet
like
sohar
,
khilona
,
kohbar
,
sumangali
are sung at vari
ous
occasions like birth, munden, marriage etc… There are different kinds of songs for each kind of festival celebrated in the
region like
holi
,
chhath
,
jitia, tij, bahura, pidia, godhan, diwali
and
ramnavami
. There are also seasonal songs like
chaita, k
ajari, chaturmasa, barahmasa, hindola
etc… Folk songs also include songs like
ropani, sohani, jata
pisai,
chavai, thapai
etc… which are sung during various day to day activities. Various folk dances performed by local people
in the area are:
dhobia nri
tya, karia jhumar, jhijhia, jharni nritya, jat
jatin, sama
chakava and domkach.
These dances
are based on different religious, historical and social significance. Many movies also reflect the culture of Magadh. In the


58
movie ‘
Abhijan
’, which was directed by
Satyajit Ray, the actress Vahida Rahman delivered her dialogues in Magahi.
Other famous Magahi films are ‘
Maiyaa
’ directed by Fani Majumdar and ‘
More Man Mitwa
’ directed by Girish Ranjan.
In the genre of painting, Magadh is known for its ‘
Patna Kalam Sha
ili
’. The influence of both Mugals and British are
found
on the paintings of this school. Along with carrying these
influences, this school has developed its own local
features which make them unique. The famous painters of this school are Sevak Ram, Hulas
Lal, Jayram Das and
Shivdayal Lal.
Thus we can say that the culture of Magadh is rich and is full of different shades and
colors
5
Study of Magahi Language
The earliest form of written Magahi is found in the literature of Siddhas. After Siddhas, Magahi
survived only as a
spoken
language. We find that after the Muslim invasion on India,
Magadh lost its status as a political power, and the
language couldn’t get any patronage. Pandey (1980) divides the history of Magahi language from thirteenth century till
today into four categories. These four categories are as follows:
Charan period
(1200
1500AD)
Devotional period
(1500
1800AD)
Development perio
(1800
1900AD)
Modern period
(1900AD till today)
The following descriptions of the above mentioned four
periods are based on Pandey (1980).
The
Charan period starts with the Muslim invasion on India. In
the beginning, Muslims started capturing all over
North India and also destroyed its culture. During this period, Charans (Bhatt) started developing folklor
es in all over
North India, including Magadh. They developed these folklores in many vernacular languages. Charans didn’t have a
written tradition for their folklores. The songs were transmitted orally from place to place and generation to generation.
In M
agahi the famous folklores of the period are:
Alha, Lorkayan, Sorthi
brijbhar, Naykva, Kunwar Vijayi, Gopichand,
Bharthari
charitra, Chatri Chauhan, Nunchar
etc… All these stories have historical background and reflect the
cotemporaty political scenario.
Most of these folklores developed outside Magadh. But they were translated into Magahi
and brought into Magadh by Charans. During this period, Magahi language was under two influences. First, Magahi got
developed into its present form and Second, Buddhism
got vanished from Magadh and Hinduism once again became
influential which in turn influenced the subject matter of these folklores.
Devotional period was the result of religious unrest that developed after a long period of Muslim rule in India. In
the beg
inning of sixteenth century, Mugals took the reign of India from Turks. Hinduism once again started evolving into
new forms. In Magahi many devotional songs and stories were authored in this period. In devotional category folk songs
of
Sati Bihula, Nag Pan
chami, songs related to Chatth, Shitla Devi, Satnarayan baba, Tij, Anat
Chaudas, Jitia
and
Godhan
are famous. Folksongs related to love stories were also composed during this period. Among these the famous
ones are
Reshma, Raja Dholan
and
Netua Dayal Singh
. The famous proverbs of
Ghagh, Bhaddari
and
Dak
are also
available in Magahi language.
The period after Devotional period is Development period. The characteristic of Development period are work done
by English historians, linguists and archaeologists. I
t was the period when genealogical history of languages was worked
upon. The study of present form of Magahi language started in this period. The relation of Magahi language with other
languages was established. Grammar for Magahi language was written for
the first time. Following books included the
grammar of Magahi language. (i) Seven Grammars of the Dialects and Sub
Dialects of the Bihari Language, by G.A.
Grierson, 1883
1886. (ii) A Grammar of the Hindi
Language
, by Rev. S.H. Kellogg, 1893. (iii) A Comp
aritive Dictionary
of
Bihari Language, by Hoernle and Grierson, 1889. In this
period, for the first time, Magahi folklores and folksongs
were also published which were surviving only in spoken form.
The Modern Period of Magahi language starts with 1900 AD.
The significance of this period is that various works
done in Magahi language and the importance of Magahi language was established. Various folklores, folksongs and other
forms of vernacular literature were compiled and published during this period.
In a
nother bid to study Magahi language, many grammars of Magahi language were written which includes (i)
Magahi
Vyakaran, ed. by Christian Missionary Press, Culcutta, around
1943. It is written in Kaithi script. (ii) Magahi
Vyakaran authored by Rajendra Prasa
d Yodheya in 1957. (iii) Magahi Vyakaran
Kosh authored by Sampatti Aryani in
1965
(iv) Magahi Vyakaran authored by Rajeshwar Prasad Sinha ‘Anshul’ in 1970.
(v) Hindi aur Magahi ki Vyakarnik
Sangrachna authored by Saroj Kumar Tripathi.
Magahi language has
also been studied from Linguistic point of view. Sheela Verma (1985) has talked about the
structure of the Magahi verb. Phonetics of Magahi has been worked upon by Sheela Verma in 2007.
Linguistic study of
Magahi also includes the following: (i) Phonology
and Morphology of Magahi Dialect authored by A C Sinha in 1966.
(ii) Magahi Phonology: A Descriptive Study authored by Saryoo Prasad in 2008. (iii) Magahi kaa Bhasha Vaigyanik
Mimansa authored by Kumar Rajiv Ranjan in 2010. (i
v)
Magahi ki Sanyukt Kriyaaon
kaa Bhasha Vaigyanik Adhyan
authored by Kumar Indradev in 2007.
6 Conclusions
Magahi is an Indo
Aryan language. Presently, Magahi is considered as a dialect of Hindi language. This does not
seem
to be historically evident. Genealogically, it has develope
d prior to the Hindi language. Magahi got developed from
Magadhi Apbhransha. Magadhi Apbhransha as a language is associated with ancient Magadh. The language in ancient
Magadh
was known as Magadhi. Even today, the name ‘Magadhi’ for the language Magahi is
popular among educated
people.


59
Historically, we find that ancient Magadh was once an Empire, which expanded all over the present day Indian
peninsula. Maurya dynasty and Gupta dynasty were the most prominent rulers of ancient Magadh. Their history
constitu
tes the history of India.
Today, Magahi language is confined to some region of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa. Looking into the
literary tradition of Magahi language, we find that earliest form of written Magahi is found in the literature of Sid
dhas.
After Siddhas, Magahi survived only as a spoken language. However, in Modern period, various folklores, folksongs and
other
forms of vernacular literature were compiled and published.
Presently, an attempt to write grammar and to study
the language l
inguistically is going on.
References
Aryani, S. (1965).
Magahi Lok Sahitya
. Patna: Hindi Sahitya Sansar.
Aryani, S. (1976).
Magahi Bhasha aur Sahitya
. Patna: Bihar Rashtrabhasha Parishad.
Census of India. (2001). Table No.
C 16. Registrar General of Cen
sus of India.
Chatterji, S.K. (1926).
The Origin and Development of Bengali Language
. Calcutta: Culcutta University Press.
Chatterji, S.K. (1963).
Bhartiya Arya Bhasha aur Hindi
. Delhi: Rajkamal Prakashan.
Greierson, G.A. (1903
28).
Linguistic Survey of In
dia
. Vol 1
11. Culcutta. Reprint: (1968). Delhi: Motilal Benarsidas.
Lal, M. (Ed.) (2002).
Ancient India
. Textbook for Class XI. NCERT.
Pandey, R.B. (1976).
Magahi Sahitya va Sahityakal
. Gaya: Lok Sahitya Sagar.
Pandey, R.B. (1980).
Magahi Bhasha ka Itihas
. Gaya: Lok Sahitya Sagar.
Pandey, A. (2007). Proposal to Encode the Kaithi Script in ISO/IEC 10646.
ftp://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3389.pdf
Sanskrityanan, R. (1993).
Pali Sahitya ka It
ihas
. Delhi: Vani Prakashan.
Verma, S. (2007). Magahi. In G. Cardona and D. Jain (Eds.),
The Indo
Aryan Languages,
pp 547
565. London: Routledge.



https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images…
Brief History of Written Language



http://www.iloveindia.com/history/ancient-india/magadha-empire.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EbdFJ2vg3ic
Then what was the “jumla” as explained by the party President Amit Shah???


Anyway, this is what Murderer of democratic institution (Modi) had said
before gobbling the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs: “ye jo chor
lutero ke paisa videshi bankon me jama hain na…, itne bhi hum rupaye le
aaye na to bhi hindustaan ke ek ek garib aadmi ko mufat me 15–20 lakh
rupaye yu nh imil jayenge, itne rupaye hain.”


youtube.com
Modi: Every poor person will get 15 lakhs if black money is brought back

https://www.oneindia.com/…/bjp-will-bring-back-black-money-…
And, this is what the then Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP)
President, Rajnath Singh, slave, stooge, chamcha, chela, bootlicker,
agent of just 0.1% intolerant, cunning,crooked, number one terrorists of
the world, violent, militant, ever shooting, lynching, lunatic,
mentally retarded paradesi foriegners of bene Israeli chitpavan brahmins
RSS (Rowdy rakshasa Swayam Sevaks) who is own mother’s flesh eater
claimed: if his party came to power at the Centre, it would bring back
black money stashed in foreign banks within a period of 100 days.


oneindia.com
BJP will bring back black money from abroad: Rajnath Singh
IoT in Smart Energy Management - Emergence of NextGen Technology Paving Ways to Save Energy

pragati.p@transparencymarketresearch.com

IoT Technologies for Smart & Renewable Energy Management - Helping to Save Energy

In
the energy sector, IoT technologies have changed several aspects, such
as reducing the possibilities of failures and delays, enhancing
productivity and efficiency, improving real-time decision making,
solving critical problems, and creating new and innovative experiences.
As oil and gas companies are exploring ways to cut down production costs
and optimize operations to increase profit margins, solutions provided
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demand.

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solutions aid in minimizing risks and improving safety across all the
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also be used for assessing risky operations, and preventive measures can
be undertaken to avoid accidents in the energy industry. In the coming
years, with constantly improving technology and increasing integration
of large-scale data, even small- and medium-scale players in the energy
industry would be drawn to adopt IOT solution and services in the near
future.


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Governments
of several countries are increasingly shifting towards green energy
owing to increased global warming and excess depletion of fossil fuel
reserves. With several countries, such as Australia eying to go 100%
renewable by 2030, demand for smart monitoring systems capable of
warranting a smooth transition from conventional power to renewables is
likely to see a massive rise.

Oil and Gas Sector to Remain Key Contributor of Growth Opportunities
By
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market is classified into oil & gas, solar, wind, and others. By
end-user industry, oil and gas constituted the dominant share of nearly
72% in 2016.
IoT & Smart Homes helping to Save Energy
Demand
for IOT solutions in the energy industry will be driven by security
concerns, and for purposes such as optimization, monitoring of
operations, minimizing the demand-supply gap, and combating cyber
threat.
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