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2651 Thu 14 Jun LESSON Who Was the Buddha & What Did He Teach? History, Philosophy, Mythology, Biography (2001) Chronology of Pali Canon in 23) Classical English, 72) Classical Pashto ) پښتو 73) Classical Persian 73) کلاسیک فارسی 74) Classical Polish- ) Język klasyczny polski, 75) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico, 76) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 9:43 pm

2651 Thu 14 Jun  LESSON



Who Was the Buddha & What Did He Teach? History, Philosophy, Mythology, Biography (2001)


Chronology of Pali Canon


in 23) Classical English,



72) Classical Pashto
) پښتو




73) Classical Persian

73) کلاسیک فارسی

74) Classical Polish-
) Język klasyczny polski,

75) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,

76) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ

Buddha | ferrebeekeeper



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXE0eEhhxxw
Who Was the Buddha & What Did He Teach? History, Philosophy, Mythology, Biography (2001)

Published on May 10, 2015


Gautama
Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the
Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. About the
book: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/014…

He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in eastern India sometime
between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE.

The word Buddha means “awakened one” or “the enlightened one”. “Buddha”
is also used as a title for the first awakened being in an era. In most
Buddhist traditions, Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the Supreme
Buddha (Pali sammāsambuddha, Sanskrit samyaksaṃbuddha) of our age.
Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe
asceticism found in the Sramana (renunciation) movement common in his
region. He later taught throughout regions of eastern India such as
Magadha and Kośala.

Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism and accounts of his life,
discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been
summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various
collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral
tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical
facts of the Buddha’s life. Most accept that he lived, taught and
founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era in India during the
reign of Bimbisara, the ruler of the Magadha empire, and died during
the early years of the reign of Ajatshatru who was the successor of
Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain
teacher.[7] Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha’s lifetime
coincided with the flourishing of other influential sramana schools of
thoughts like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Jain, and Ajñana. It was also the age of
influential thinkers like Mahāvīra, Pūraṇa Kassapa , Makkhali Gosāla,
Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, and Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, whose
viewpoints the Buddha most certainly must have been acquainted with and
influenced by.[8][9][note 7] Indeed, Sariputta and Maudgalyāyana, two of
the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were formerly the foremost
disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the skeptic. There is also evidence
to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Udaka Ramaputta, were
indeed historical figures and they most probably taught Buddha two
different forms of meditative techniques. While the most general outline
of “birth, maturity, renunciation, search, awakening and liberation,
teaching, death” must be true, most scholars do not consistently accept
all of the details contained in traditional biographies.

The times of Gautama’s birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in
the early 20th century dated his lifetime as circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE.
More recently his death is dated later, between 411 and 400 BCE, while
at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who
presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of
400 BCE for the Buddha’s death. These alternative chronologies, however,
have not yet been accepted by all historians.

The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was
born into the Shakya clan, a community that was on the periphery, both
geographically and culturally, of the northeastern Indian subcontinent
in the 5th century BCE. It was either a small republic, in which case
his father was an elected chieftain, or an oligarchy, in which case his
father was an oligarch. According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was
born in Lumbini, nowadays in modern-day Nepal, and raised in
Kapilavastu (Shakya capital), which may either be in present day
Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India.[note 1] He obtained his
enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, and died
in Kushinagara.

No written records about Gautama have been found from his lifetime or
some centuries thereafter. One edict of Emperor Ashoka, who reigned from
circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE, commemorates the Emperor’s pilgrimage to the
Buddha’s birthplace in Lumbini. Another one of his edict mentions
several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist
tradition at least by the time of the Mauryan era and which may be the
precursors of the Pāli Canon. The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts
are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, reported to have been found in or
around Haḍḍa near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan and now preserved in
the British Library. They are written in the Kharoṣṭhī script and the
Gāndhārī language on twenty-seven birch bark scrolls, and they date from
the first century BCE to the third century CE.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_…



youtube.com
Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha…



https://imgur.com/lOxtPuw

510


72) Classical Pashto
) پښتو

2651 د جون 14 جون لوست

اوس

د
تحلیل انټرنیټ نیٹ - وړیا آنلاین ټپتاټکا څیړنې او عملی پوهنتون او له
اړونده خبرونو سره په http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org کې 105 کلاسیکی ژبو کې

پاټیسباهده
جلا-ابده پیپرپتی تایتاکا انیسانیا پارسییا نخیلیاججیا ca ñtthhutta
Pavatti نسییا http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 ټوټې ټوټه ګیاه بھاسا

د آنلاین سایټ چینل دی
د 3000 څخه زیاتو بریښناليکونو ته لیږد کول:
200 ویسایپ، فیسبوک او ټویټر.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of_Pali_Canon

https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
1-10 د پښتون کینن وروستی تاریخی تاریخ ته ورسیږی

توماس
ولیم ریوس ډیوډز د خپل بودیست هندوستان په (p. 188) کې (ب) د بودا د وخت
څخه راهیسې د بوش وخت راهیسې د اشوک وخت ته په لاندې ډول دی:

1. د بودیوي عقیدې ساده بیانونه اوس په ورته الفاظو کې، په ټولو کتابونو کې د پیرودلو په پراګرافونو یا آیتونو کې موندل شوي.

2. پیسی موندلی، په ورته کلمو کې، د موجوده کتابونو په دوو یا ډیرو کې.

3- سلیس، پروان، اکټوډ، پټیمکوها.

4. درگا، مججیما، انګار، او سمیتتا نیکای.

5. سوت نیپتا، توره او تیری ګاتا، اهناس، او خدوکا پټه.

6. سوتا ویهانګ او خندخس.

7. جټکاس او غلاماماد.

8. ندیسا، ایویوټاکاکس او پتیسبباهده.

9 - پیټا او ویمانا - وټاټس، اپادانا، کاریا - پکاکا، او بودهاما.

10. د ابدما کتابونه د دې وروستیو کې کیت واتاتو دی، او تر ټولو دمخه یې د Puggala-Pannatti.

هغه
څوک چې په پورته کې یا په پاسه کې لیست شوي دي، لکه د یو څخه تر پنځو پورې
شمیرې، ترټولو ترټولو پخوانی، پخوانۍ متنونه او تر ټولو احتمال لري چې د
بودا درست کلمات.
وروستي
متنونه او تبصرې او ویډمیمګګا د کلاسیک تایاواډا لخوا خورا ډیر لوړ مقام
لري، پداسې حال کې چې اوسني ماډری تیوروادا د بودا په ابتدايي تعلیماتو
تمرکز کوي.
ماډر توریواډا

اصلي مقالې: ماډل توریواډا

Bhikkhu
Bodhi، Dhammavuddho Thera او نور د دوی شکونه لري، لکه څنګه چې د وروستیو
متنونو په اړه عصري پوهانو سره کار کوي او که دوی د بودهاساانا (د بودا
سمه کلمه) وي او نه.
ماډر تایویډینز شاید د نظرونو لږه کچه ونیسي مګر ممکن د لاندې څخه یو یې واخلئ:

لومړی:
نیکایس په ټوله کې بودیهایانه دي، او د خواړه نایکاه لاندې کتابونه:
Dhammapada، Udana، Itivuttaka، Sutta Nipata، Theragatha؛
او د ونیا څخه پتهیموکک. (دا به لاهم د تیتتکا د بودهاکانا برخه په نږدې اندازې کې له 40 څخه زیات وي.)

2.
ټول پورته برخه، د خدوکا نکایا نورې کتابونه، د نورو ونیا کتابونو، او
ابدههم، نورو ته ورته وګورئ، مګر هغه وګورئ چې د بده د شاګردانو لخوا لیکل
شوي دي، څوک چې امیران دي او پدې توګه لاهم وړتیا لري
په کینن کې شامل دي، په داسې حال کې چې احتمال یې د اصلي بودیجې برخه نه ده.

د
عالمانو احکام اجهن سوجاتو او اجه برهميلي کتاب د ابتدايي بودیجو د مستند
کتاب کتاب لیکلی دی او دوی د پورته ذکر شویو نمبرونو سره موافق دي، چې د
لومړني 4 نیکایس او د ځداکا نیکای په توګه د بودهاکانا په نوم دي.

هم وګورئ: اصلي بودهیت
حوالې

د بودا د لستونو بشپړ کتاب - تشریح شوی. ډیویډ این. سنیډر، پی ایچ ڈی، 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
د بودیجې لومړني متنونه د بودیجې خپرونې ټولنه، 2014، 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 د وروستي کروندې وروستی تاریخی تاریخ - ډلمه ویک
توماس
ولیم ریوس ډیوډز د خپل بودیست هندوستان په (p. 188) کې (ب) د بودا د وخت
څخه راهیسې د بوش وخت راهیسې د اشوک وخت ته په لاندې ډول دی:




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTzf1j_V0xY
Pashto Classical Song: Wos Dhi Yadhoona (Old School)
Khushall1972
Published on Nov 7, 2013
Pashto classical hujri maidhonee maijlas,performed by Khyal Mohammed,Old School.
Category
Music


youtube.com
Pashto classical hujri maidhonee maijlas,performed by Khyal Mohammed,Old School.
https://www.reddit.com/r/gifs/comments/7q41n5/hologram_tech_shown_off_at_ces/





73) Classical Persian
73) کلاسیک فارسی

2651 جمعه 14 ژوئه درس

اکنون

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پاتیسامبیدا
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1-10 ابتدای تا تاریخچه اخیر کانال Pali

توماس
ویلیام رییس دیویدز در هندوستان بودایی خود (ص 188) جدول زمانی از ادبیات
بودایی را از زمان بودا تا زمان آشوکا ارائه داده است که به شرح زیر است:

1.
اظهارات ساده ای از آموزه های بودایی در حال حاضر در کلمات مشابه، در
پاراگراف ها یا آیه ها که در همه کتاب ها تکرار می شود، یافت می شود.

2. قسمت هایی که در کلمات مشابه در دو یا چند کتاب موجود یافت می شوند.

3. سیلس، پارایانا، اکتاو، Patimokkha.

4. Digha، Majjhima، Anguttara، و Samyutta Nikayas.

5. Sutta Nipata، Thera و Theri Gathas، Udanas و Khuddaka Patha.

6. Sutta Vibhanga و Khandhkas.

7. Jatakas و Dhammapadas.

8. Niddesa، Itivuttakas و Patisambbhida.

9. Peta و Vimana-Vatthus، Apadana، Cariya-Pitaka و Budhavamsa.

10. کتابهای ابیدحمام؛ که آخرین آن Katha-Vatthu است، و در ابتدا احتمالا Puggala-Pannatti.

کسانی
که در بالا یا نزدیک به بالا قرار دارند، مانند شماره های یک تا پنج،
اولین و قدیمی ترین متون هستند و به احتمال زیاد معتبر هستند و کلمات دقیق
بودا.
متون
و تفسیرهای بعدی و Visuddhimagga، توسط کلاسیک Theravada بسیار محترم، در
حالی که Theravada مدرن متمرکز بر اولین آموزه های بودا است.
مدرن Theravada

مقاله اصلی: مدرن ترآواادا

Bhikkhu
Bodhi، Dhammavuddho Thera و دیگران شک و تردید دارند، همانطور که
دانشمندان مدرن درباره متون بعدي دارند و اگر آنها Buddhavacana (کلمات
دقیق بودا) باشند یا خیر.
احتمالا تمدن های مدرن دارای اندکی عقاید اند، اما احتمالا یکی از موارد زیر را می گیرند:

1.
چهار نیکایا اول از همه آنها Budhavacana، به علاوه کتاب های زیر از
Khuddaka نیکیه: Dhammapada، Udana، Itivuttaka، Sutta Nipata، Theragatha،
و Therigatha؛
و Patimokkha از Vinaya. (این هنوز 30 درصد از 40 جلد را بخشی بوداواکانا از Tipitaka می کند.)

2.
همه موارد فوق، به علاوه کتابهای دیگر Khuddaka Nikaya، و همچنین سایر
کتابهای Vinaya به علاوه Abhidhamma، اما آنها را به عنوان نوشته شده توسط
شاگردان بعدی بودا، که ممکن است Arahants نوشته شده است و در نتیجه، هنوز
به ارزش
شامل کانن است، اگرچه بخش قابل توجهی از بودیسم اصلی نیست.

راهبان
محقق، آژان سوجاتو و آژان براملی، کتاب “اعتبار اولیه متون مقدس بودایی”
را نوشته اند و با شماره ی یک بالا، شامل 4 نیکایا و بعضی از خدکار نیکایا
به عنوان بوداواکانا هستند.

همچنین نگاه کنید به: بودیسم اصلی
منابع

کتاب کامل کتابهای بودا - توضیح داده شده است. دیوید N. اسنایدر، Ph.D.، 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
اعتبار نخستین نوشته های بودایی، انجمن انتشارات بودایی، 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 اوایل تا کنون اخیر کلاسیک Pali Canon - Dhamma Wiki
توماس
ویلیام رییس دیویدز در هندوستان بودایی خود (ص 188) جدول زمانی از ادبیات
بودایی را از زمان بودا تا زمان آشوکا ارائه داده است که به شرح زیر است:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6sGRZfkeEoc&t=1s
GEOGRAPHY PERSIA buddhism iran rotn07ak james kenneth powell youtube 512
JAMES K POWELL II
Published on Apr 28, 2009
GEOGRAPHY PERSIA buddhism iran rotn07ak james kenneth powell youtube 512
Category
Education


youtube.com
GEOGRAPHY PERSIA buddhism iran rotn07ak james kenneth powell youtube 512


74) Classical Polish

74) Język klasyczny polski

2651 Czw 14 Cze LEKCJA

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KLASYCZNYCH JĘZYKACH

Paṭisambhidā
Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya
ca πātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105
Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

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1-10 od początku do najnowszej Chronologii Pali Canon

Thomas
William Rhys Davids w swoich Indiach buddyjskich (s. 188) podał
chronologiczną tabelę literatury buddyjskiej od czasów Buddy do czasów
Ashoki, która jest następująca:

1.
Proste stwierdzenia buddyjskiej doktryny znalazły się teraz, w
identycznych słowach, w akapitach lub wersetach powtarzających się we
wszystkich księgach.

2. Epizody znalezione identycznymi słowy w dwóch lub więcej istniejących książkach.

3. Silas, Parayana, Octades, Patimokkha.

4. Digha, Majjhima, Anguttara i Samyutta Nikayas.

5. Sutta Nipata, Thera i Theri Gathas, Udany i Khuddaka Patha.

6. Sutta Vibhanga i Khandhkas.

7. Jatakas i Dhammapadas.

8. Niddesa, Itivuttakas i Patisambbhida.

9. Peta i Vimana-Vatthus, Apadana, Cariya-Pitaka i Buddhavamsa.

10. Książki Abhidhammy; ostatni z nich to Katha-Vatthu, a najwcześniej prawdopodobnie Puggala-Pannatti.

Osoby
wymienione u góry lub blisko góry, takie jak cyfry od pierwszej do
piątej, są uważane za najwcześniejsze, najstarsze teksty i
najprawdopodobniej są autentyczne i są dokładnymi słowami Buddy.
Późniejsze
teksty i komentarze oraz Visuddhimagga są bardzo cenione przez
klasyczną Theravadę, podczas gdy współczesna Theravada koncentruje się
na najwcześniejszych naukach Buddy.
Nowoczesna Theravada

Główny artykuł: Nowoczesna Theravada

Bhikkhu
Bodhi, Dhammavuddho Thera i inni mają wątpliwości, podobnie jak
współcześni uczeni o późniejszych tekstach i czy są Buddhavacana
(dokładne słowa Buddy) czy nie.
Współcześni
Theravadins prawdopodobnie mają pewną różnorodność opinii, ale
prawdopodobnie przyjmują jedną z następujących rzeczy:

1.
Pierwszymi czterema Nikayami w całości są Buddhavacana oraz następujące
książki z Khuddaki Nikayi: Dhammapada, Udana, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipata,
Theragatha i Therigatha;
i Patimokkha z Vinaya. (To by spowodowało, że część Buddhavacana w Tipitace z grubsza 30 z 40 tomów.)

2.
Wszystkie powyższe, plus inne księgi Khuddaka Nikaya, plus inne książki
Vinayi, a także Abhidhamma, ale zobacz je jako napisane przez
późniejszych uczniów Buddy, którzy mogli być arahantami, a zatem nadal
godnymi bycia
zawarte w kanonie, choć nie jest to prawdopodobnie część oryginalnego buddyzmu.

Uczeni
mnisi Ajahn Sujato i Ajahn Brahmali napisali książkę Autentyczność
wczesnych tekstów buddyjskich i zgadzają się z pierwszym numerem,
składającym się z pierwszych 4 Nikayas i niektórych Khuddaka Nikaya jako
Buddhavacana.

Zobacz także: Oryginalny buddyzm
Referencje

Kompletna Księga List Buddhy - Poradnik. David N. Snyder, Ph.D., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
Autentyczność wczesnych buddyjskich tekstów Buddhist Publication Society, 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 od początku do najnowszej Chronologii Pali Canon - Dhamma Wiki
Thomas
William Rhys Davids w swoich Indiach buddyjskich (s. 188) podał
chronologiczną tabelę literatury buddyjskiej od czasów Buddy do czasów
Ashoki, która jest następująca:



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75)Português Clássico,


2651 Qui 14 Jun AULA

Agora

Rede
analítica da introspecção - universidade em linha LIVRE da pesquisa e
da prática de Tipiṭaka e NOTES relacionados através de
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org em 105 LÍNGUAS CLÁSSICAS

Paṭisambhidā
Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya
ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissaya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105
Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

é um canal de notícias on-line
Catering para mais de 3000 e-mails:
200 WhatsApp, Facebook e Twitter.

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https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
1-10 cedo para recente Cronologia de Pali Canon

Thomas
William Rhys Davids em sua Índia budista (p. 188) deu uma tabela
cronológica da literatura budista desde o tempo do Buda até a época de
Ashoka, que é a seguinte:

1.
As simples afirmações da doutrina budista agora se encontram, em
palavras idênticas, em parágrafos ou versículos recorrentes em todos os
livros.

2. Episódios encontrados, em palavras idênticas, em dois ou mais dos livros existentes.

3. O Silas, o Parayana, os Octades, o Patimokkha.

4. A Digha, Majjhima, Anguttara e Samyutta Nikayas.

5. O Sutta Nipata, o Thera e o Theri Gathas, os Udanas e o Khuddaka Patha.

6. O Sutta Vibhanga e Khandhkas.

7. Os Jatakas e os Dhammapadas.

8. O Niddesa, o Itivuttakas e o Patisambbhida.

9. O Peta e Vimana-Vatthus, o Apadana, o Cariya-Pitaka e o Buddhavamsa.

10. Os livros do Abhidhamma; o último dos quais é o Katha-Vatthu, e o primeiro provavelmente o Puggala-Pannatti.

Aqueles
listados no topo ou perto do topo, como os números de um a cinco, são
considerados os textos mais antigos e mais antigos e os mais prováveis
​​de serem autênticos e as palavras exatas do Buda.
Os
textos posteriores e os comentários e o Visuddhimagga são muito
apreciados pela Clássica Theravada, enquanto a Moderna Theravada se
concentra nos primeiros ensinamentos do Buda.
Theravada moderno

Artigo principal: Modern Theravada

Bhikkhu
Bodhi, Dhammavuddho Thera e outros têm suas dúvidas, assim como
estudiosos modernos sobre os textos posteriores e se são Buddhavacana
(palavras exatas de Buda) ou não.
Os
Theravadins modernos provavelmente possuem uma pequena variedade de
opiniões, mas provavelmente seguem um dos seguintes procedimentos:

1.
Os quatro primeiros Nikayas na sua totalidade são Buddhavacana, mais os
seguintes livros do Khuddaka Nikaya: Dhammapada, Udana, Itivuttaka,
Sutta Nipata, Theragatha e Therigatha;
e o Patimokkha do Vinaya. (Isso ainda faria a porção Buddhavacana do Tipitaka aproximadamente 30 de 40 volumes.)

2.
Todos os itens acima, mais os outros livros do Khuddaka Nikaya, mais os
outros livros do Vinaya, mais o Abhidhamma, mas veja-os como escritos
por discípulos posteriores do Buddha, que podem ter sido arahants e
assim, ainda dignos de serem
incluído no Canon, embora não seja provável parte do Budismo Original.

Os
monges eruditos Ajahn Sujato e Ajahn Brahmali escreveram o livro A
autenticidade dos primeiros textos budistas e estão de acordo com o
número um acima, consistindo dos primeiros 4 nikayas e alguns dos
khuddaka nikaya como Buddhavacana.

Veja também: Budismo Original
Referências

O Livro Completo das Listas de Buda - Explicado. David N. Snyder, Ph.D., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
A autenticidade da sociedade de publicação budista dos primeiros textos budistas, 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 cedo para recente Cronologia de Pali Canon - Dhamma Wiki
Thomas
William Rhys Davids em sua Índia budista (p. 188) deu uma tabela
cronológica da literatura budista desde o tempo do Buda até a época de
Ashoka, que é a seguinte:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXjlXW46qVk
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76) Classical Punjabi
76) ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ

2651 ਜੂਨ 14 ਜੂਨ ਪਾਠ

ਹੁਣ

ਐਨਾਲਟਿਕ
ਇਨਸਾਈਟ ਨੈਟ - ਮੁਫਤ ਆਨਲਾਈਨ ਟਾਇਕੂਕਾ ਰੀਸਰਚ ਐਂਡ ਪ੍ਰੈਕਟਿਸ ਯੂਨੀਵਰਸਿਟੀ ਅਤੇ
ਸਬੰਧਤ ਨਿਊਜ਼ ਦੁਆਰਾ http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ਦੇ 105 ਸਰੀਰਕ ਭਾਸ਼ਾਵਾਂ ਵਿਚ

ਪਸੀਸੰਭਿਧਾ
ਜਲਾ-ਅੱਲ੍ਹਾ ਪਰਪੰਤੀ ਟਿਪਕਾਕ ਅਨਵੇਸਨਾ ਸੀਏ ਪਾਰਿਕਿਆ ਨਿਖਿਲਵਜਜਾਲਿਆ ਕੇ ਨਿਤਿਭੂਤਾ
ਪਾਵਤੀ ਨਿਵਾਸਿਆ http://svajan.ambedkar.org ਐਂਟੀ 105 ਸ਼ੁੱਭਾਂਤਿਆਤ ਭਾਸਾ

ਇੱਕ ਆਨਲਾਈਨ ਨਿਊਜ਼ ਚੈਨਲ ਹੈ
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ਪਾਲੀ ਕੈਨਨ ਦਾ ਇਤਿਹਾਸ

ਆਪਣੇ
ਬੋਧੀ ਭਾਰਤ (ਥ. 188) ਵਿੱਚ ਥਾਮਸ ਵਿਲੀਅਮ ਰਾਇਸ ਡੇਵਿਡ ਨੇ ਬੁੱਧ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੋਂ ਬੁੱਧ
ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੱਕ ਅਸ਼ੋਕਾ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਬੌਧ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਦੇ ਸਾਰਕ ਸਾਰਣੀ ਨੂੰ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਹੈ.

1. ਬੋਧੀ ਸਿਧਾਂਤ ਦੇ ਸਧਾਰਨ ਸਟੇਟਮੈਂਟਾਂ ਹੁਣ ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ, ਇਕੋ ਜਿਹੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ, ਪੈਰਾਗ੍ਰਾਫ ਜਾਂ ਬਾਣੀ ਦੀਆਂ ਸਾਰੀਆਂ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਆਉਂਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ.

2. ਐਪੀਸੋਡ ਮਿਲਦੇ-ਜੁਲਦੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ, ਦੋ ਜਾਂ ਦੋ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਧ ਮੌਜੂਦਾ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪਾਏ ਗਏ ਹਨ.

3. ਸੀਲਾਸ, ਪਰਾਯਣ, ਅੱਠਵੇਂ, ਪਤੀਮੋਖਸ਼ਾ.

4. ਦਿਘਾ, ਮਜਜਿਮਾ, ਅੰਗਤੂਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਸਮਯੁਕਤ ਨਿਕੇਯਸ.

5. ਸੁਤ ਨਿਪਾਤਾ, ​​ਥਾਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਥ੍ਰੀ ਗਠਿਆਂ, ਉਦਨਾਸ ਅਤੇ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਪਠਾਣ.

6. ਸੁਤਭਾ ਵਿਭਾੰਗ ਅਤੇ ਖੰਧਕਾ.

7. ਜਤਕਾਵਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਧਮਾਪਾਪਦਸ.

8. ਨਿਧੀਸਾ, ਇਟਵੰਤਕਾ ਅਤੇ ਪਤੀਸੰਭਾਬਿਦਾ

9. ਪਟਕਾ ਅਤੇ ਵਮਨਾ-ਵਤਥੁਸ, ਅਪਦਾਨਾ, ਕਰਿਆ-ਪਿਤਾਕ ਅਤੇ ਬੁੱਧਵੰਸਾ.

10. ਅਭਿਧਾਮ ਪੁਸਤਕਾਂ; ਚੋਂ ਆਖਰੀ, ਕਥਾ-ਵਠੂ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਪੁਗਲਾ-ਪੰਨਾਤੀ.

ਸਿਖਰ
ਤੇ ਜਾਂ ਸਿਖਰ ਦੇ ਉੱਪਰ ਸੂਚੀਬੱਧ, ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕਿ ਨੰਬਰ ਇੱਕ ਤੋਂ ਪੰਜ, ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਰਾਣੇ,
ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਰਾਣੇ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਮਝੇ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਿਕ ​​ਅਤੇ ਸਹੀ ਸ਼ਬਦ
ਹੋਣ ਦੀ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾ ਸੰਭਾਵਨਾ ਹੈ.
ਬਾਅਦ
ਦੇ ਪਾਠ ਅਤੇ ਟਿੱਪਣੀਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਵਿਸੂਧਿਮਗਗਾ, ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਥਰੇਵੜਾ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਬਹੁਤ ਉੱਚੇ
ਸਨਮਾਨ ਵਿੱਚ ਰੱਖੇ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ, ਜਦੋਂ ਕਿ ਮਾਡਰਨ ਥਰੇਡਾ ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੀ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਰਾਣੀ
ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ‘ਤੇ ਧਿਆਨ ਕੇਂਦਰਿਤ ਕਰਦਾ ਹੈ.
ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਥਰੇਵਡਾ

ਮੁੱਖ ਲੇਖ: ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਥਰੇਵਡਾ

ਭਿਖੁਕ
ਬੋਧੀ, ਧਮਮੁਵਧੂ ਥਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਹੋਰਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਸ਼ੱਕ ਹਨ, ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕਿ ਬਾਅਦ ਦੇ ਗ੍ਰੰਥਾਂ ਦੇ
ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਵਿਦਵਾਨਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਜੇਕਰ ਉਹ ਬੁਧਵਕਾਸ (ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੇ ਸਹੀ ਸ਼ਬਦ) ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਹਨ
ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਥਰੇਵਡਿਨਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਵੱਖੋ-ਵੱਖਰੇ ਵਿਚਾਰਾਂ ਹਨ ਪਰ ਸੰਭਵ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਹੇਠ ਲਿਖਿਆਂ ਵਿੱਚੋਂ ਇੱਕ ਲਿਆਓ:

1.
ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਪੂਰੀ ਤਰਾਂ ਪਹਿਲੇ ਚਾਰ ਨਕਾਯੇ ਬੁੱਧਵਕਾਸ ਹਨ, ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਨਿਕਾਏ ਤੋਂ
ਹੇਠ ਲਿਖੀਆਂ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ: ਧਮਾਪਾਪਾ, ਉਦਾਨਾ, ਇਟਵੰਤਕਾ, ਸੁਤਾ ਨਿਪਾਤਾ, ​​ਥਰਗਾਥਾ, ਅਤੇ
ਤ੍ਰਿਪਤਾ;
ਅਤੇ ਵਿਨਾਇ ਤੋਂ ਪੈਟਮੋਖਚਾ. (ਇਹ ਹਾਲੇ ਵੀ 40 ਵਿਥੋਅ ਦੇ ਲਗਭਗ 30 ਵਿੱਚੋਂ ਟਿੱਪਟਕਾ ਦਾ ਬੁੱਧਵਕਨਾ ਹਿੱਸਾ ਬਣਾਉਂਦਾ ਹੈ.)

2.
ਉਪਰੋਕਤ ਸਾਰੇ, ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਨਿਕਾਏ ਦੀਆਂ ਹੋਰ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ, ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਹੋਰ ਵਿਨਾਇਕ
ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ, ਅਭਿਧਾਮ, ਪਰੰਤੂ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਬੁੱਢੇ ਦੇ ਬਾਅਦ ਦੇ ਚੇਲਿਆਂ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਗਿਆ
ਹੈ, ਜੋ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਅਰਹਿੰਦ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਹੋਣੇ ਚਾਹੀਦੇ ਹਨ
ਕੈਨਨ ਵਿਚ ਸ਼ਾਮਲ ਸਨ, ਹਾਲਾਂਕਿ ਮੂਲ ਬੋਧੀ ਧਰਮ ਦਾ ਸੰਭਾਵਨਾ ਹਿੱਸਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ.

ਵਿਦਵਾਨ
ਭਿਕਸ਼ੂ ਅਜਹਾਨ ਸੁਜਾਤੋ ਅਤੇ ਅਜਹਾਨ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾਲੀ ਨੇ ਲਿਖਤੀ ਕਿਤਾਬ ‘ਦ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਟੀਸੀਟੀ
ਆਫ ਅਰਲੀ ਬੌਡਸਟ ਟੈਕਸਟਸ’ ਲਿਖੀ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਹ ਉਪਰੋਕਤ ਨੰਬਰ ਇਕ ਨਾਲ ਸਹਿਮਤ ਹਨ,
ਜਿਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪਹਿਲੇ 4 ਨਿੱਕੇਯਿਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਕੁਝ ਖੁੱਦਕਾ ਨਿੱਕੇਆ ਨੂੰ ਬੁਧਵਕਾਂ ਵਜੋਂ
ਸ਼ਾਮਲ ਕੀਤਾ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ.

ਇਹ ਵੀ ਵੇਖੋ: ਮੂਲ ਬੌਧ ਧਰਮ
ਹਵਾਲੇ

ਬੁੱਧਾ ਦੀਆਂ ਸੂਚੀਆਂ ਦੀ ਪੂਰਨ ਪੁਸਤਕ - ਵਿਖਿਆਨ ਕੀਤਾ ਗਿਆ ਡੇਵਿਡ ਐਨ. ਸਨੀਡਰ, ਪੀਐਚ.ਡੀ., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
ਬੌਧੀ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ਨ ਸੁਸਾਇਟੀ, 2014 ਦੇ ਅਰਲੀ ਬੋਧੀ ਟੈਕਸਟਸ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣਿਕਤਾ
https://suttacentral.net/
Dhhammawiki.com
1-10 ਤੋਂ ਲੈ ਕੇ ਹੁਣ ਤਕ ਹਾਲ ਹੀ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਪਾਲੀ ਕੈਨਨ ਦਾ ਇਤਿਹਾਸ - ਧਾਮ ਵਿਕੀ
ਆਪਣੇ
ਬੋਧੀ ਭਾਰਤ (ਥ. 188) ਵਿੱਚ ਥਾਮਸ ਵਿਲੀਅਮ ਰਾਇਸ ਡੇਵਿਡ ਨੇ ਬੁੱਧ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੋਂ ਬੁੱਧ
ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੱਕ ਅਸ਼ੋਕਾ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਬੌਧ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਦੇ ਸਾਰਕ ਸਾਰਣੀ ਨੂੰ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਹੈ.



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https://dhammawiki.com/…/1-10_early_to_recent_Chronology_of…
1-10 early to recent Chronology of Pali Canon

Thomas William Rhys Davids in his Buddhist India (p. 188) has given a
chronological table of Buddhist literature from the time of the Buddha
to the time of Ashoka which is as follows:

1. The simple statements of Buddhist doctrine now found, in identical
words, in paragraphs or verses recurring in all the books.

2. Episodes found, in identical words, in two or more of the existing books.

3. The Silas, the Parayana, the Octades, the Patimokkha.

4. The Digha, Majjhima, Anguttara, and Samyutta Nikayas.

5. The Sutta Nipata, the Thera and Theri Gathas, the Udanas, and the Khuddaka Patha.

6. The Sutta Vibhanga, and Khandhkas.

7. The Jatakas and the Dhammapadas.

8. The Niddesa, the Itivuttakas and the Patisambbhida.

9. The Peta and Vimana-Vatthus, the Apadana, the Cariya-Pitaka, and the Buddhavamsa.

10. The Abhidhamma books; the last of which is the Katha-Vatthu, and the earliest probably the Puggala-Pannatti.

Those listed at the top or near the top, such as numbers one to five,
are considered the earliest, oldest texts and the most likely to be
authentic and the exact words of the Buddha. The later texts and the
commentaries and the Visuddhimagga, are held in very high esteem by
Classical Theravada, whereas, the Modern Theravada focuses on the
earliest teachings of the Buddha.
Modern Theravada

Main article: Modern Theravada

Bhikkhu Bodhi, Dhammavuddho Thera and others have their doubts, as do
modern scholars about the later texts and if they are Buddhavacana
(exact words of Buddha) or not. Modern Theravadins probably hold a
slight variety of opinions but probably take one of the following:

1. The first four Nikayas in their entirety are Buddhavacana, plus the
following books from the Khuddaka Nikaya: Dhammapada, Udana, Itivuttaka,
Sutta Nipata, Theragatha, and Therigatha; and the Patimokkha from the
Vinaya. (That would still make the Buddhavacana portion of the Tipitaka
roughly 30 out of 40 volumes.)

2. All of the above, plus the
other books of the Khuddaka Nikaya, plus the other Vinaya books, plus
the Abhidhamma, but see them as written by later disciples of the
Buddha, who may have been arahants and thus, still worthy to be included
in the Canon, although not likely part of Original Buddhism.

The
scholar monks Ajahn Sujato and Ajahn Brahmali have written the book The
Authenticity of Early Buddhist Texts and they are in agreement with
number one above, consisting of the first 4 Nikayas and some of the
Khuddaka Nikaya as Buddhavacana.

See also: Original Buddhism
References

The Complete Book of Buddha’s Lists — Explained. David N. Snyder, Ph.D., 2006.
http://www.thedhamma.com/
The Authenticity of Early Buddhist Texts Buddhist Publication Society, 2014.
https://suttacentral.net/
dhammawiki.com
1-10 early to recent Chronology of Pali Canon - Dhamma Wiki
Thomas
William Rhys Davids in his Buddhist India (p. 188) has given a
chronological table of Buddhist literature from the time of the Buddha
to the time of Ashoka which is as follows:



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REFLECTION R556: “The thieves (a parable)” (To download PDF).

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The Thieves (a parable)

 

[This
parable reminds us to speak up compassionately and at the right time
when we need to. Furthermore, if we listen carefully to what others have
to say, even in a seemingly harsh or rude way, we often have something
valuable to learn.]

 

Once
thieves broke into a rich man’s house in the night. They stealthily
moved around the house looking for valuables while the rich man and his
family slept soundly. An old neigh­bour saw the thieves and shouted
loudly, waking up the rich man and his family.

 

The
thieves ran away in time, and were not seen. The rich man, angry at
being woken up in the middle of the night scolded the old man, calling
him senile and rude, to see thieves in such a safe house with high walls
and guards.

A
few weeks passed, and then again, the same thieves came into the rich
man’s house. The old neighbour saw the thieves from his house. But
warned against raising any alarm and troubling the rich man, he remained
silent.

The
thieves then stole the rich man’s valuables, including his solid golden
Buddha image that was handed down through generations. When the rich
man and his family woke up the next morning, they discovered their
losses, and could only lament. This time the rich scolded the old
neighbour, blaming him for their losses, because he did not raise the
alarm.

Recalling
that the rich man had much more wealth hidden away in his house, and
the neighbour’s silence, the thieves were emboldened. Months later, they
broke into the house again. This time, the rich man was woken by a
noise made by a careless thief.

The
head thief killed the rich man and tied up the rest of the family and
their guards. This time they took all the riches they could find. They
moved their loot through the front door into their waiting vehicles and
drove off. The old neighbour was silent – he had died, too. And the rich
man’s family, fortunate enough to be spared their lives, had to sell
their house and lived in poverty for a long time to come.

The
rich man’s foolishness and selfishness cost him his life and troubled
his family. The thieves became wealthy and respectable, since it was
easy to be respectable because of wealth. The wealthy man’s family
became so poor that they had to start from scratch, working very hard.

Our
past foolishness may affect our present life. We can change what is
present before us with only with wisdom and diligence. The right and
good that we do now will help those whom come after us – including
ourselves, because we will return to our unfinished businesses.

In
this parable, the old neighbour is the Buddha or his disciple – or any
Dharma practitioner. The wealthy man is a Buddhist leader and the family
are his followers – or Buddhists in general. The thieves (cora) are the bad monastics and priests who appear learned, respectable and compassionate, but do not keep to the monastic rules.

On the warnings in the suttas about monastics who are “thieves,” see the Arahatta Susīma Sutta (S 12.70,58-63) SD 16.8. On types of alms-eaters, see also SD 45.18 (2.3.3.2). On monastics who do not keep to the rules, see SD 49.2 (1.1.3).

R556 Inspiration 345
Piya Tan ©2016, 2018

 

— End of Reflection —

 

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