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2721 Wed 22 Aug 2018 LESSON (62) Wed 22 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) ” May the auspicious occasion of Eid bless you with peace & bring joy to your heart & home. ” Happy Eid! DBS (Diploma in Buddhist Studies) Sunday 2 pm - 3 pm INTRODUCTION TO ABHIDHAMMA Sayalay Uttamanyani 3 pm - 4 pm Pali Language and Literature Bhikkhu Pamokkho 4.30 pm - 5.30 pm Sutta Pitaka Bhikkhu Gandhamma/Bhikkhu Dhammaloka 5.50 pm - 6.30 pm Life of Buddha and Dhammapada Dr BV Rajaram 6.30 pm - 7.30 pm Bhikkhu Ariyavamsa/Bhikkhu Ayupala
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2721 Wed 22 Aug 2018 LESSON (62) Wed 22 Aug 2007
  
Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

” May the auspicious occasion of Eid bless you with peace & bring joy to your heart & home. “ 

Happy 

Eid!
DBS (Diploma in Buddhist Studies)

Sunday
2 pm - 3 pm
 
INTRODUCTION TO ABHIDHAMMA
Sayalay Uttamanyani

3 pm - 4 pm
 
Pali Language and Literature
Bhikkhu Pamokkho

4.30 pm - 5.30 pm

Sutta Pitaka
Bhikkhu Gandhamma/Bhikkhu Dhammaloka

5.50 pm - 6.30 pm

Life of Buddha and Dhammapada

Dr BV Rajaram

6.30 pm - 7.30 pm
Bhikkhu Ariyavamsa/Bhikkhu Ayupala

https://www.wisdomlib.org/buddhism/book/guide-to-tipitaka/d/doc3495.html

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Guide to Tipitaka - book cover
Guide to Tipitaka

Canonical PΓ’li Buddhist Literature of the TheravΓ’da School

by U Ko Lay | 48,543 words

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Chapter X - Abhidhamma Pitaka
< Previous
(index)
Next >
- Sub-Contents: (+ / -)
Part I - The Dhammasangani Pali
Part II - Vibhanga Pali
Part III - Dhatukatha Pali
Part IV - Puggalapannati Pali
Part V - Kathavatthu Pali
Part VI - Yamaka Pali
Part VII - Patthana Pali
An Outline Of The Patthana System Of Relations
Last Updated: 01 June, 2010


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Chapter X - Abhidhamma Pitaka
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Part I - The Dhammasangani Pali

The Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma, and the
Pattkana, the last book, are the most important of the seven treatises
of Abhidhamma, providing as they do the quintessence of the entire
Abhidhamma.

Scheme of classification in the Dhammasangani:

(1) The Matika

The Dhammasangani enumerates all the dhammas (phenomena) i e , all
categories of nama, namely, consciousness and mental con- comitant, and
rupa, corporeality. Having enumerated the phenomena, they are arranged
under different heads to bring out their exact nature, function and
mutual relationship both internally (in our own being) and with the
outside world The Dhammasangani begins with a complete list of heads
called the Matika The Matika serves as a classified table of mental
constituents treated not only in the Dham- masangani but in the entire
system of the Abhidhamma

The Matika consists altogether of one hundred and twenty-two groups,
of which the first twenty-two are called the Tikas or Triads, those that
are divided under three heads; and the remaining one hun- dred are
called the Dukas or Dyads, those that are divided under two heads

Examples of Triads are:

(a) KusalaTika, dhammas that are:

  1. moral, kusala,
  2. immoral, akusala,
  3. indeterminate, abyakata

(b) VedanaTika, dhammas that are associated with.

  1. pleasant feeling,
  2. painful feeling,
  3. neutral feeling

 

Example of Dyads are:

(a) Hetu Duka, dhammas that are:

  1. roots, hetus
  2. not roots, na-hetu.

(b) Sahetuka Duka, dhammas that are.

  1. associated with the hetus.
  2. not associated with the hetus.

The Matika concludes with a list of the categories of dhamma entitled
Suttantika Matika made up of forty-two groups of dhamma found in the
suttas

(2) The four Divisions

Based on these Mafakas of Tikas and Dukas, the Dhammasangani is divided into four Divisions.

  1. Cittuppada Kanda, Division on the arising of consciousness and mental concomitants
  2. Rupa Kanda, Division concerning corporeality,
  3. Nikkhepa Kanda, Division that avoids elaboration,
  4. Atthakathd Kanda, Division of Supplementary Digest

Of the four divisions, the first two, namely, Ctttuppada Kanda and
Rupa Kanda form the main and essential portion of the book. They set the
model of thorough investigation into the nature, properties, function
and interrelationship of each of the dhammas listed in the Matika, by
providing a sample analysis and review of the first Tika, namely, the
Kussala Ttka of Kusala, Akusala and Abyakata Dhamma. Cittuppada Kanda
deals with a complete enumeration of all the states of mind that come
under the headings of Kusala and Akusala; the Rupa Kanda is concerned
with all states of matter that come under the heading of Abyakata;
mention is also made of Asankhata Dkatu (Nibbana) without discussing it

The Nikkhepa Kanda, the third division, gives, not too elaborate- ly
nor too briefly, the summary of distribution of all the Tikas and Dukas,
so that their full contents and significance will become com-
prehensible and fully covered.

 

Atihakathd Kanda, the last division of the book, is of the same
nature as the third division, giving a summary of the dhammas under the
different heads of the Tika and the Duka groups But it provides it in a
more condensed manner, thus forming a supplementary digest of the first
book of the Abhidhamma for easy memorizing

(3) Order and classification of the types of Consciousness as discussed in Cittuppada Kanda

The Cittuppada Kanda first gives a statement of the types of
Consciousness arranged under the three heads of the first Tika, namely,
(i) Kusala Dhamma i e , Mentonous Consciousness and its concomitants
(ii) Akusala Dhamma i e , Demeritorious Consciousness and its
concomitants (lii) Abyakata Dhamma i e , Indeterminate Con- sciousness
and its concomitants The list of mental concomitants for each dhamma is
fairly long and repetitive

The statement of the types of Consciousness is followed by iden-
tification of the particular type e g Kusala Dhamma, in the form of
question and answer, with regard to the plane or sphere (bhumi) of
Consciousness: Kamdvacara, sensuous plane, Rupavacara, plane of form,
Arupavacara, plane of no-form; Tebhumaka, pertaining to all the three
planes, or Lokuttara, supramundane, not pertaining to the three planes

The type of Consciousness for each plane is further divided into
various kinds e.g , there are eight kinds of Kusala Dhamma for the
sensuous plane: first Kusala Citta, second Kusala Citta etc, twelve
kinds ofAkusala Citta; eight kinds ofAhetuka Kusala Vipaka Cttta and
eight kinds of Sahetuka Vipaka Citta under the heading of Abyakata
Dhamma.

Then these various kinds are further analysed according to:

 

  1. Dhamma Vavatthdna Vara e.g , the particular quality, whether
    accompanied by joy etc. Le, somanassa, domanassa, sukha, dukkha, or
    upekkhd.
  2. Kotthdsa Vara, the grouping of dhammas There are twenty- three
    categories of dhammas which result from synthetical grouping of dhammas
    into separate categories such as khan- dhas, ayatanas, dhatus etc.
  3. Sumdta Vara, which lays stress on the fact that there is no ’self
    (atta) or jiva behind all these dhammas; they are only composites,
    causally formed and conditioned, devoid of any abiding substance

The same method of treatment is adopted for the akusala and abyakata types of Consciousness

(4) Rupa Kanda

Because Dhammasangani treats all the dhammas (ndmas as well as rupas)
m the same uniform system of classification, Rupa Kanda is only a
continuation of the distribution of the Dhamma under the heads of the
first Tika, which begins m the first division, Cittupada Kanda In the
Ctttuppada Kanda, the enumeration of the Dhamma under the head
‘Abyakata’ has been only partially done, because abyakata type of Dhamma
includes not only all the states of mind which are neither meritorious
nor demeritorious but also all states of matter and the Asankhata Dhatu
or Nibbdna The portion of Dhamma under the heading of Abyakata, which
has been left out from Cittuppada Kanda is attended to m this kanda.

The method of treatment here is similar, with the difference that
instead of mental concomitants, the constituents of matter, namely, the
four primary elements and the material qualities derived from them with
their properties and their relationships are analysed and classified 

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Part II - Vibhanga Pali

Book Of Analysis

The second book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, Vibhanga, together with the
first book Dhammasangani and the third book of Dhatukatha, forms a
closely related foundation for the proper and deep under- standing of
the Buddha’s Dharnrna. Whereas Dhammasangani pro- vides a bird’s eye
view of the whole of the Tika and Duka groups with further systematic
arrangements under classified heads, Vibhanga and Dhatukatha give a
closer view of selected portions of those groups bringing out minute
details

 

Thus, Kotthdsa Vdra in Dhammasangani explains what and how many
khanda, ayatana, dhdtu, ahara, indnya, jhananga etc. are includ- ed in
the Tika and Duka groups But it does not furnish complete information
about these dhammas It is Vibhafiga which provides full knowledge
concerning them, stating the exact nature of each dhamma, its
constituents and its relationship to other dhammas

The Vibhanga is divided into eighteen Chapters each dealing with a
particular aspect of the Dhamma, its full analysis and inves- tigation
into each constituent The arrangement and classification into groups and
heads follow the same system as in the Dham- masangani Vibhanga may
therefore be regarded as complementary to Dhammasangani.

Vibhanga explains comprehensively the following categories of Dhamma

  1. Khandha
  2. Ayatana
  3. Dhatu
  4. Sacca
  5. Indriya
  6. Paticcasamuppada
  7. Satipatthana
  8. Sammappadhana
  9. Iddhipada
  10. Bojjhanga
  11. Magga
  12. Jhana
  13. Appammanna
  14. Sikkapada
  15. Patisambhida
  16. Nana
  17. Khuddhaka vatthu
  18. Dhammahadaya

Each category is analysed and discussed in two or all the three of the following methods of analysis’

Suttanta bhajaniya the meaning of the terms and the classification of the dhammas determined according to the Suttanta method,

Abhidhamma bhajaniya the meaning of the terms and the classification
of the dhammas determined according to the Abhidhamma method,

Paflha puccaha, discussions in the form of questions and answers.

It may be seen from the above list of the eighteen categories that
they may be divided into three separate groups The first group
containing numbers (1) - (6) deals with mental and corporeal consti-
tuents of beings and two laws of nature to which they are constantly
subjected viz the Law of Irnpermanence and the Law of Dependent
Origination The second group containing numbers (7) - (12) is concerned
with the practice of the holy life which will take bemgs out of
suffering and rounds of existence. The remaining six catego- ries serve
as a supplement to the first two groups, supplying fuller information
and details where necessary 

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Part III - Dhatukatha Pali

Although this third book of Abhidhamma Pitaka is a small treatise, it
ranks with the first two books forming an important trilogy, which must
be thoroughly digested for the complete understanding of the Abhidhamma
Vibhahga, the second book, has one complete chapter devoted to the
analysis of dhatus, but the subject matter of dhdtu is so important that
this separate treatise is devoted to it for a thorough consideration
The method of analysis here is different from that employed in the
Vibhanga

Dhatukatha studies how the dhammas listed in the Tikas and Dukas of
the Matika are related to the three categories of khandha, ayatana and
dhatu m their complete distribution i.e , five khandhas, twelve qyatanas
and eighteen dhatus These are discussed in fourteen ways of analytical
investigations which constitute the fourteen chapters of Dhatukatha.

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Part IV - Puggalapannati Pali

Abhidhamma is mainly concerned with the study of abstract truths in
absolute terms But in describing the dhammas in their vanous aspects, it
is not possible to keep to absolute terms only. Inevitably,
conventional terms of every day language have to be employed m order to
keep the lines of communication open at all. Abhidhamma states that
there are two main types of conventional usage; the first type is
concerned with terms which express things that actually exist in reality
and the sec’ond type describes things which have no existence in
reality.

The first three books of the Abhidhamma investigate the absolute
Truth of Dhamma in a planned system of detailed analysis employing such
terms as Khandha, Ayatana, Dhatu, Sacca and Indnya These terms are mere
designations which express things that exist in reality and are
therefore classed as the conventional usage of the first type. To the
second type of conventional usage belong such expressions as man, woman,
deva, individual etc , which have no existence in reality, but
nevertheless are essential for communication of thoughts.

It becomes necessary therefore to distinguish between these two types
of apparent truths But as the terms Khandha, Ayatana, Dhatu, Sacca and
Indnya have been elaborately dealt with in the first three books, they
are dealt with here only briefly The terms used in the second type
concerning individuals are given more weight and space in the treatise,
hence its title Puggalapanfiatti, designation of individuals. Different
types of individuals are classified, in ten chapters of the book, after
the manner of enumeration employed in Ariguttara Nikaya

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Part V - Kathavatthu Pali

Kathavatthu, like Puggalapaffiatti, falls outside the regular system
of the Abhidhamma It does not directly deal with the abstruse nature of
the Dhamma. It is mainly concerned with wrong views such as Person
exists; Self exists; Jiva exists’ which were prevalent even in the
Buddha’s time, or wrong views such as ‘Arahat falls away from
Arahatship’ which arose after the Pannibbana of the Buddha

About two hundred and eighteen years after the Pannibbana of the
Buddha there were altogether Eighteen Sects, all claiming to be
followers of the Buddha’s Teaching. Of these only the Theravadins were
truly orthodox, while the rest were all schismatic. The Emperor Asoka
set about removing the impure elements from the Order with the guidance
and assistance of the Elder Moggaliputtatissa who was an accomplished
Arahat Under his direction, the Order held in concord the Uposatha
ceremony which had not been held for seven years because of dissensions
and the presence of false bhikkhus in the Order.

At the assembly, the Venerable Moggahputtatissa expounded on points
of views, made up of five hundred orthodox statements and five hundred
statements of other views, in order to refute the wrong views that had
crept into the Samgha and that might in the future arise He followed the
heads of discourses, Matika, outlined by the Buddha himself and
analysed them in detail into one thousand statements of views This
collection of statements of views was recited by one thousand selected
theras who formed the Third Great Synod, to be incorporated into the
Abhidhamma Pitaka

The style of compilation of this treatise is quite different from
that of other treatises, written as it is in the form of dialogue
between two imaginary debaters, one holding the heterodox views of
different sects and the othei representing the orthodox views.

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Part VI - Yamaka Pali

The Dhammasangani, the Vibhanga and the Dhatukatha examine the
Dharnma and their classifications as they exist in the world of reality,
named Sankharaloka. PuggalapaMatti and Kathavatthu deal with beings and
individuals which also exist in their own world of apparent reality,
known as Sattaloka Where the dhamma of Sankharaloka and beings of the
Sattaloka co-exist is termed the Okasaloka. Yamaka sets out to define
and analyse the interrelationship of dhammas and puggalas as they exist
in these three worlds

This is accomplished in the form of pairs of questions, which gives
it the title of Yamaka The logical process of conversion (anulomd) and
complete inversion (patiloma) is applied to determine the complete
import and limit of a term m its relationship with the others. An
equivocal nature of a term (samsayd) is avoided by showing, through such
arrangement of questions, how other meanings of the term do not fit for
a particular consideration.

The following pairs of questions may be taken as an example

To the question ‘May all rupa be called Rupakkhandha?’ the answer is
‘Rfipa is also used in such expressions as piya rupa (loveable nature),
eva rupa (of such nature), but there it does not mean Rupakkhandha”

But to the question ‘May all Rupakkhandha be called rupa? the answer
is *yes’, because Rupakkhandha is a very wide term and includes such
terms as piya rupa, eva rupa etc

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Part VII - Patthana Pali

Patthana Pali, the seventh and last book of the Abhidhamma, is called
the Maha Pakarana, the ‘Great Book’ announcing the supreme position it
occupies and the height of excellence it has reached in its
investigations into the ultimate nature of all the dhammas in the
Universe.

The Dhammasangam gives an enumeration of these dhammas classifying
them under the Tika and Duka groups Vibhanga analyses them to show what
dhammas are contained in the major categories of khandhas, ayatanas,
dhatus etc. Dhatukathd studies the relation- ship of dhammas listed in
the Matika with each component of these major categones of khandhas,
ayatanas, and dhatus Yamaka resolves ambiguity in the internal and
external relationship of each dhamma Patthana forming the last book of
the Abhidhamma brings together all such relationship in a co-ordinated
form to show that the dham- mas do not exist as isolated entities but
they constitute a well ordered system in which the smallest unit
conditions the rest of it and is also being conditioned in return The
arrangement of the system is so very intricate, complex, highly thorough
and complete that it earns for this treatise the reputation of being
deep, profound and unfathomable.

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