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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

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LESSON 2908 Tue 19 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA 1 Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — 5) Classical Pali,29) Classical English, from Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: ஸேத³மோசனகா³தா² Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)
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 LESSON 2908 Tue 19 2019 

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness
ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA 1 Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
5) Classical Pali,29) Classical English,

Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice

Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

The census of 2021 has  begun.

Aboriginal Awakened people including SC/STs/OBCs/Religious
Minorities/poor aboriginal Brahmins  and anti-chitpacan brahmin minds
have decided to record as Buddhist.

Let the
hindutvaite chitpavan  brahmin know the Sarvajan Samaj is in exile or in
hindutva cult. Please record as  Buddhists as in the Ashokan rule. They
were Buddhists are Buddhists and will continue to be Buddhists.


the 1911 census, the list of non-religious  people  SC / ST were
forcibly added to hindu for political reasons. Without knowing this,
they are trying to live as a hindu.

Whether it is known or unknown, the hindus do not accept them as hindu. This is the base of untouchability.

Chitpavan brahminical hinduvaite does not comply to the non-hindu origin of religion.

A non-hindu Buddhist loyalist thinks he is hindu, not a Buddhist and thinks he is a Hindu.

This struggle is the basis of untouchability. He is not Hindu, nor is he called Islam, Sikhism and Christian.


So let’s say as Buddhists. These senses have a good chance for them. Use.

Understanding what the list is, they will inform that he is  a non-hindu Buddhist.

He is used to being a slave. That’s why he thinks that he  satisfied as a Hindu.

Those who are honest, think that they want to keep their children alive will be  known as Buddhist.

This opportunity is only ten years.

Let them use it properly.

Do not expect anyone to come to save the solution in their hands.…/why-babasaheb-converte…/
Why Babasaheb Converted to Buddhism
Many forests of paper has been spent in trying to find out why
Babasaheb Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar converted to Buddhism and not to Islam
or Christianity. We at Dalit nation have done research for 22 years on
this subject. Babasaheb loved islam and loved Christianity also. They
were his object of admiration all the time. But Babasaheb knew that
without both the help of christianity and
islam we could never defeat Hinduism. Babasaheb knew it very well. If
Babsaheb had become muslim then we would have the christian against us
and same thing if he had become christian the muslims would be against
Babasaheb. Babsaheb then disvcovered Buddha. This Buddha is not the
Buddha created by brahmins. But the real Buddha. The brahmins had
swallowed up Buddhism and ascribed to him all the qualities he did not
preach. They taught meditation and non violence. But Babasaheb was the
first person to show the world that Buddha was a social revolutionary
and not a meditative non voilent saint. This is what the brahmin
pervesion had made Buddhism into. Babasaheb hence converted all of us
into real Buddhists. Because real Buddists beleive in equality which
hindutva cult caste system does not. Even Islam and Christianity
beleives in equality. Therefore they are all the same religions. Look at
the genius of Ambedkar. He knew all the schemes and tacticts of
brahmins. Now brahmins have no option. Babsaheb hats off to you, you
have cornered them and they have nowhere to go. Jai Bhim
forests of paper has been spent in trying to find out why Babasaheb Dr.
Bhim Rao Ambedkar converted to Buddhism and not to Islam or
Christianity. We at Dalit nation have done research for 22 …

What benefits can I expect from Buddhism?

Happy SanghaBuddhism
is based on personal experience, rationalism, practice, morality, and
insight. There is no need to propitiate gods or priests, no blind
adherence to useless dogmas, rituals, holy books, or myths. The
foundations of Buddhism, are not so much tenets of faith as demonstrable
principles of perceptual science.

Buddhism can be approached in many different ways. It is commonly
referred to as a religion, and it can be used in that way to feel a
connection to divinity and inspire faith. But because Buddhism does not
include the idea of worshipping a creator God, some people do not see it
as a religion in the normal, Western sense, but instead as a

“Neither mother, father, nor any other relative can do one greater good than one’s own well-directed mind. ~ Dhammapada 43”

Explanation: Well directed thoughts can help a person better than one’s father or one’s mother.

The Story of Soreyya (Verse 43)

While residing at the Jetavana Monastery, the Buddha spoke this
verse, with reference to Soreyya, the son of a rich man of the city of
Soreyya. On one occasion, Soreyya accompanied by a friend and some
attendants was going out in a carriage for a bath. At that moment, monk
Mahakaccayana was adjusting his robes outside the city, as he was going
into the city of Soreyya for alms-food. The youth Soreyya, seeing the
youthful complexion of the monk, thought, “How I wish the monk were my
wife, so that the complexion of my wife would be like his” As the wish
arose in him, his sex changed and he became a woman. Very much ashamed,
he got down from the carriage and ran away, taking the road to Taxila.
His companions looked for him, but they could not find him.

Soreyya, now a woman, offered her signet ring to some people going to
Taxila, to allow her to go with them in their carriage. Upon arrival at
Taxila, her companions told a young rich man of Taxila about the lady
who came along with them. The young rich man, finding her to be very
beautiful and of a suitable age for him, married her. As a result of
this marriage two sons were born; there were also two sons from the
previous marriage of Soreyya as a man.

One day, a rich man’s son from the city of Soreyya came to Taxila
with a caravan of five hundred carts. Lady Soreyya, recognizing him to
be an old friend, sent for him. The man from Soreyya was surprised that
he was invited, because he did not know the lady who invited him. He
told the Lady Soreyya that he did not know her, and asked her whether
she knew him.

She answered that she knew him and also enquired after the health of
her family and other people in the city of Soreyya. The man from Soreyya
next told her about the rich man’s son who disappeared mysteriously
while going for a bath.

Then the Lady Soreyya revealed her identity and related all that had
happened, about the wrongful thoughts with regard to monk Mahakaccayana,
about the change of sex, and her marriage to the young rich man of
Taxila. The man from the city of Soreyya then advised the Lady Soreyya
to ask pardon from the monk. Monk Mahakaccayana was accordingly invited
to the home of Soreyya and alms-food was offered to him. After the meal,
the Lady Soreyya was brought to the presence of the monk, and the man
from Soreyya told the monk that the lady was at one time the son of a
rich man from Soreyya. He then explained to the monk how Soreyya was
turned into a female on account of his wrongful thoughts towards the
respected monk.

Lady Soreyya then respectfully asked pardon of Monk Mahakaccayana.
The monk then said, “Get up, I forgive you” As soon as these words were
spoken, the woman was changed back to a man. Soreyya then pondered how
within a single existence and with a single body he had undergone change
of sex and how sons were born to him. And feeling very weary and
repulsive of all these things, he decided to leave the householder’s
life and joined the sangha under the monk.

After that, he was often asked, “Whom do you love more, the two sons
you had as a man or the other two you had as a woman?” To those, he
would answer that his love for those borne as a woman was greater. This
question was put to him so often, he felt very much annoyed and ashamed.
So he stayed by himself and, with diligence, contemplated the decay and
dissolution of the body. He soon attained arahatship together with the
analytical insight. When the old question was next put to him he replied
that he had no affection for any one in particular. Other monks hearing
him thought he must be telling a lie. When it was reported about
Soreyya giving a different answer, the Buddha said, “My son is not
telling lies, he is speaking the truth.”

Despite the variety of approaches to Buddhism, the teachings are
clear about the ultimate goal of all Buddhist writing and practice. It
presents the most effective possible method for a person to transform
themselves and to end one’s suffering and secure lasting happiness. 
Buddhism is a path of practice and spiritual development leading to
Insight into the true nature of life. Buddhist practices such as
meditation are means of changing oneself in order to develop the
qualities of awareness, kindness, and wisdom. The experience developed
within the Buddhist tradition over thousands of years has created an
incomparable resource for all those who wish to follow a path – a path
which ultimately culminates in Enlightenment or Buddhahood.

The basic tenets of Buddhist teaching are straightforward and
practical: nothing is fixed or permanent; actions have consequences;
change is possible. Thus Buddhism addresses itself to all people
irrespective of race, nationality, or gender. It teaches practical
methods (such as meditation) which enable people to realise and utilise
its teachings in order to transform their experience, to be fully
responsible for their lives and to develop the qualities of Wisdom and
Compassion. The Buddha’s teachings have made sense out of a difficult
world, they have given meaning to what would otherwise be a senseless
life, they give a humane and compassionate ethics with which to lead
life and they show how you can attain a state of purity and perfection.

“Happy indeed we live, we who possess nothing. Feeders on joy we shall be, like the Radiant Gods. ~ Dhammapada 200”

Explanation: Happily we live, who have no property to worry about. Feeding on joy we live like deities of the Heaven of radiance.

Data to be collected as part of Census in 2021


The decision marks the end of squeamishness over restoring caste as an index in population enumeration
The decision could also potentially clear the way for sub-categorisation of castes

The last time data on caste was collected as part of the decennial Census was in 1931
finalisation of Census data in three years of conducting the headcount.

2021 Census of India, also the 16th Indian Census, will be taken in
2021. The 15th Indian Census taken in 2011, attempted to estimate the
population based on Socio-Economic and Caste Status for the first time
since 1931. However, as the enumeration was based on recording the
respondents’ declaration, it led to creation of hundreds of thousands of
caste/subcaste categories.

1891 Census

1891 Census of India was conducted by the British Raj and covered the
lands now part of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma. The Census
Commissioner was Jervoise Athelstane Baines, who was later knighted for
his work in India. Baines changed the classification from that which had
been used in the 1881 census. His obituary in the Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society describes the changes as being “first the separation
of caste from religion and, secondly, the substitution of the
population subsisting by an occupation for that exercising it.” He wrote
the resultant 300-page General Report, which had “a literary flavour
and wide scholarship” rather than a mere analysis of the data.

1951 Census

1951 Census of India was the 9th in a series of censuses held in India
every decade since 1871. It is also the first census after independence
and Partition of India. 1951 census was also the first census to be
conducted under 1948 Census of India Act.

population of India was counted as 361,088,090 (1:0.946 male:female)
Total population increased by 42,427,510, 13.31% more than the
318,660,580 people counted during the 1941 census. No census was done
for Jammu and Kashmir in 1951 and its figures were interpolated from
1941 and 1961 state census. National Register of Citizens of India (NRC)
was prepared soon after the census. In 1951, at the time of the first
population Census, just 18% of Indians were literate while life
expectancy was 32 years. Based on 1951 census of displaced persons,
7,226,000 Muslims went to Pakistan (both West and East) from India while
7,249,000 Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan(both West and

1961 Census

The 1961 Census of India was the 10th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.

The population of India was counted as 438,936,918 people.

Language data
1961 census recognized 1,652 mother tongues, counting all declarations
made by any individual at the time when the census was conducted.
However, the declaring individuals often mixed names of languages with
those of dialects, sub-dialects and dialect clusters or even castes,
professions, religions, localities, regions, countries and nationalities
The list therefore includes “languages” with barely a few individual
speakers as well as 530 unclassified “mother tongues” and more than 100
idioms that are non-native to India, including linguistically unspecific
demonyms such as “African”, “Canadian” or “Belgian”. Modifications were
done by bringing in two additional components- place of birth i.e.
village or town and duration of stay ( if born elsewhere).

1991 Census
The 1991 Census of India was the 13th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1872.

The population of India was counted as 838,583,988. The number of enumerators was 1.6 million.

Religious demographics

Hindus comprises 69.01 crore(81.53%) and Muslims were 10.67 crore(12.61%) in 1991 census.

Population trends for major religious groups in India (1991)

Religious group Population % 1991
Hindu 81.53%
Muslim 12.61%
Christian 2.32%
Sikh 1.94%
Buddhist 0.77%
Jain 0.40%
Parsi 0.08%
Animist, others 0.44%
Language data

1991 census recognizes 1,576 classified “mother tongues”. According to
the 1991 census, 22 ‘languages’ had more than a million native speakers,
50 had more than 100,000 and 114 had more than 10,000 native speakers.
The remaining accounted for a total of 566,000 native speakers (out of a
total of 838 million Indians in 1991). The number of Sanskrit speakers
in India in 1991 census was 49,736.
Other statistics

Census towns in 1991 census of India were 1,702.

Jammu and Kashmir was excluded from Census-taking in 1991 due to
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. The number for J&K was derived by
interpolation for the population of religious communities in the state.

Census was not conducted in Assam in the previous census in 1981 due
to separatist movements that time. The census data for Assam was done
based on interpolation.

2001 Census

The 2001 Census of India was the 14th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.

population of India was counted as 1,028,737,436 consisting of
532,223,090 males and 496,514,346 females.Total population increased by
182,310,397, 21.5% more than the 846,427,039 people counted during the
1991 census.

Religious demographics

Hindus comprise 82.75 crore (80.45%) and Muslims were 13.8 crore (13.4%) in 2001 census.[4][5] Census 2001 showed 108 faiths under the head “Other Religions and Persuasion” (ORP) in India.[6] 7,00,000 were classified as people belonging to “No Religion” in India in the 2001 census.[7]

Population trends for major religious groups in India(2001)
% 2001
Hindu 80.45%
Muslim 13.4%
Christian 2%
Sikh 1.89%
Buddhist 0.74%
Animist, others
Jain 0.46%

Language demographics

Main article: Languages of India

is the most widely spoken language in northern parts of India. The
Indian census takes the widest possible definition of “Hindi” as a broad
variety of “Hindi languages“.
According to 2001 Census, 53.6% of Indian population know Hindi, in
which 41% of them have declared Hindi as their native language or mother
tongue.[8][9][10] English is known to 12.5% Indians in the 2001 census.[11] The number of bilingual speakers in India is 25.50 crore, which is 24.8% of the population in 2001.[12] India (780) has the world’s second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839).[13]

First, second, and third languages by number of speakers in India (2001 Census)
First language
First language
speakers as a percentage

of total population[16]

Second language
Third language
Total speakers[17][15] Total speakers as a percentage of total population[16]
Hindi 422,048,642
English 226,449
Bengali 83,369,769
Telugu 74,002,856
Marathi 71,936,894
Tamil 60,793,814
Urdu 51,536,111
Kannada 37,924,011
Gujarati 46,091,617
Odia 33,017,446
Malayalam 33,066,392
Sanskrit 14,135

Graphical summaries

2011 Census
15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and
population enumeration. House listing phase began on 1 April 2010 and
involved collection of information about all buildings. Information for
National Population Register was also collected in the first phase,
which will be used to issue a 12-digit unique identification number to
all registered Indian residents by Unique Identification Authority of
India (UIDAI). The second population enumeration phase was conducted
between 9 and 28 February 2011. Census has been conducted in India since
1872 and 2011 marks the first time biometric information was collected.
According to the provisional reports released on 31 March 2011, the
Indian population increased to 1.21 billion with a decadal growth of
17.70%. Adult literacy rate increased to 74.04% with a decadal growth of
9.21%. The motto of the census was ‘Our Census, Our future’.

across 29 states[a] and 7 union territories, the census covered 640
districts, 5,924 sub-districts, 7,935 towns and more than 600,000
villages. A total of 2.7 million officials visited households in 7,935
towns and 600,000 villages, classifying the population according to
gender, religion, education and occupation.[3] The cost of the exercise
was approximately ₹2,200 crore (US$310 million) – this comes to less
than $0.50 per person, well below the estimated world average of $4.60
per person.[3] Conducted every 10 years, this census faced big
challenges considering India’s vast area and diversity of cultures and
opposition from the manpower involved.

on castes was included in the census following demands from several
ruling coalition leaders including Lalu Prasad Yadav, Sharad Yadav and
Mulayam Singh Yadav supported by opposition parties Bharatiya Janata
Party, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena and Anna Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam.Information on caste was last collected during the British Raj
in 1931. During the early census, people often exaggerated their caste
status to garner social status and it is expected that people downgrade
it now in the expectation of gaining government benefits. There was
speculation that there would be a caste-based census conducted in 2011,
the first time for 80 years (last was in 1931), to find the exact
population of the “Other Backward Classes” (OBCs) in India. This was
later accepted and the Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 was
conducted whose first findings were revealed on 3 July 2015 by Union
Finance Minister Arun Jaitley.Mandal Commission report of 1980 quoted
OBC population at 52%, though National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO)
survey of 2006 quoted OBC population at 41%

is only one instance of a caste-count in post-independence India. It
was conducted in Kerala in 1968 by the Communist government under E M S
Namboodiripad to assess the social and economic backwardness of various
lower castes.
The census was termed Socio-Economic Survey of 1968 and the results were published in the Gazetteer of Kerala,1971.
M Chandramauli was the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of
India for the 2011 Indian Census. Census data was collected in 16
languages and the training manual was prepared in 18 languages. In 2011,
India and Bangladesh also conducted their first-ever joint census of
areas along their border.[14][15] The census was conducted in two
phases. The first, the house-listing phase, began on 1 April 2010 and
involved collection of data about all the buildings and census
houses.[16] Information for the National Population Register was also
collected in the first phase. The second, the population enumeration
phase, was conducted from 9 – 28 February 2011 all over the country. The
eradication of epidemics, the availability of more effective medicines
for the treatment of various types of diseases and the improvement in
the standard of living were the main reasons for the high decadal growth
of population in India.


The House-listing schedule contained 35 questions.[17]

Building number
Census house number
Predominant material of floor, wall and roof of the census house
Ascertain use of actual house
Condition of the census house
Household number
Total number of persons in the household
Name of the head of the household
Sex of the head
Caste status (SC or ST or others)
Ownership status of the house
Number of dwelling rooms
Number of married couple the household
Main source of drinking water
Availability of drinking water source
Main source of lighting
Latrine within the premises
Type of latrine facility
Waste water outlet connection
Bathing facility within the premises
Availability of kitchen
Fuel used for cooking
Telephone/Mobile phone
Scooter/Motor cycle/Moped
Availing Banking services.

Population enumeration

The Population enumeration schedule contained 30 questions.[18][19]

Name of the person
Relationship to head
Date of birth and age
Current marital status
Age at marriage
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe
Mother tongue
Other languages known
Literacy status
Status of attendance (Education)
Highest educational level attained
Working any time during last year
Category of economic activity
Occupation Nature of industry
Trade or service
Class of worker
Non economic activity
Seeking or available for work
Travel to place of work
Place of last residence
Reason for migration
Duration of stay in the place of migration
Children surviving
Children ever born
Number of children born alive during last one year

National Population Register

The National Population Register household schedule contained 9 questions.[20]

Name of the person and resident status
Name of the person as should appear in the population register
Relationship to head
Date of birth
Marital status
Educational qualification
Names of father, mother and spouse

Once the information was collected and digitised, fingerprints were taken and photos collected. Unique Identification Authority of India was to issue a 12-digit identification number to all individuals and the first ID was to have been issued in 2011.

Census report

Decadal growth of Indian population (1901–2011).

Provisional data from the census was released on 31 March 2011 (and was updated on 20 May 2013).[24][25][26][27][28] Transgender population was counted in population census in India for first time in 2011.[29][30] The overall sex ratio of the population is 940 females for every 1,000 males in 2011.[31] The official count of the third gender in India is 490,000[32]

Population Total
Literacy Total
Density of population per km2 382
Sex ratio per 1000 males
940 females
Child sex ratio (0–6 age group) per 1000 males


The population of India as per 2011 census was 1,210,193,422.[33]
India added 181.5 million to its population since 2001, slightly lower
than the population of Brazil. India, with 2.4% of the world’s surface
area, accounts for 17.5% of its population. Uttar Pradesh is the most
populous state with roughly 200 million people. Over half the population
resided in the six most populous states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.[34] Of the 1.21 billion Indians, 833 million (68.84%) live in rural areas while 377 million stay in urban areas.[35][36] 453.6 million people in India are migrants, which is 37.8% of total population.[37][38][39]

India is the homeland of major belief systems such as Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism, while also being home to several
indigenous faiths and tribal religions which have survived the influence
of major religions for centuries.

Ever since its inception, the Census of India has been collecting
and publishing information about the religious affiliations as
expressed by the people of India. In fact, population census has the
rare distinction of being the only instrument that collects this diverse
and important characteristic of the Indian population.

Population distribution in India by states
Rank State /
Union Territory
Type Population[40] % of total population[41] Males Females Sex Ratio
Literacy rate (%) Rural[43]
Decadal Growth% (2001-2011)
1 Uttar Pradesh State 199,812,341 16.5 104,480,510 95,331,831 930 67.68 155,111,022 44,470,455 240,928 828 20.1%
2 Maharashtra State 112,374,333 9.28 58,243,056 54,131,277 929 82.34 61,545,441 50,827,531 307,713 365 16.0%
3 Bihar State 104,099,452 8.6 54,278,157 49,821,295 918 61.80 92,075,028 11,729,609 94,163 1,102 25.1%
4 West Bengal State 91,276,115 7.54 46,809,027 44,467,088 950 76.26 62,213,676 29,134,060 88,752 1,030 13.9%
5 Andhra Pradesh[a] State 84,580,777 6.99 42,442,146 42,138,631 993 67.02% 56,361,702 28,219,075 275,045 308 10.98%
6 Madhya Pradesh State 72,626,809 6.00 37,612,306 35,014,503 931 69.32 52,537,899 20,059,666 308,245 236 20.3%
7 Tamil Nadu State 72,147,030 5.96 36,137,975 36,009,055 996 80.09 37,189,229 34,949,729 130,058 555 15.6%
8 Rajasthan State 68,548,437 5.66 35,550,997 32,997,440 928 66.11 51,540,236 17,080,776 342,239 201 21.4%
9 Karnataka State 61,095,297 5.05 30,966,657 30,128,640 973 75.36 37,552,529 23,578,175 191,791 319 15.7%
10 Gujarat State 60,439,692 4.99 31,491,260 28,948,432 919 78.03 34,670,817 25,712,811 196,024 308 19.2%
11 Odisha State 41,974,218 3.47 21,212,136 20,762,082 979 72.87 34,951,234 6,996,124 155,707 269 14.0%
12 Kerala State 33,406,061 2.76 16,027,412 17,378,649 1,084 94.00 17,445,506 15,932,171 38,863 859 4.9%
13 Jharkhand State 32,988,134 2.72 16,930,315 16,057,819 948 66.41 25,036,946 7,929,292 79,714 414 22.3%
14 Assam State 31,205,576 2.58 15,939,443 15,266,133 958 72.19 26,780,526 4,388,756 78,438 397 16.9%
15 Punjab State 27,743,338 2.29 14,639,465 13,103,873 895 75.84 17,316,800 10,387,436 50,362 550 13.7%
16 Chhattisgarh State 25,545,198 2.11 12,832,895 12,712,303 991 70.28 19,603,658 5,936,538 135,191 189 22.6%
17 Haryana State 25,351,462 2.09 13,494,734 11,856,728 879 75.55 16,531,493 8,821,588 44,212 573 19.9%
18 Delhi UT 16,787,941 1.39 8,887,326 7,800,615 868 86.21 944,727 12,905,780 1,484 11,297 21%
19 Jammu and Kashmir State 12,541,302 1.04 6,640,662 5,900,640 889 67.16 9,134,820 3,414,106 222,236 56 23.7%
20 Uttarakhand State 10,086,292 0.83 5,137,773 4,948,519 963 79.63 7,025,583 3,091,169 53,483 189 19.2%
21 Himachal Pradesh State 6,864,602 0.57 3,481,873 3,382,729 972 82.80 6,167,805 688,704 55,673 123 12.8%
22 Tripura State 3,673,917 0.30 1,874,376 1,799,541 960 87.22 2,710,051 960,981 10,486 350 14.7%
23 Meghalaya State 2,966,889 0.25 1,491,832 1,475,057 989 74.43 2,368,971 595,036 22,429 132 27.8%
24 Manipur State 2,721,756 0.21 1,290,171 1,280,219 992 79.21 1,899,624 822,132 22,327 122 18.7%
25 Nagaland State 1,978,502 0.16 1,024,649 953,853 931 79.55 1,406,861 573,741 16,579 119 -0.5%
26 Goa State 1,458,545 0.12 739,140 719,405 973 88.70 551,414 906,309 3,702 394 8.2%
27 Arunachal Pradesh State 1,383,727 0.11 713,912 669,815 938 65.38 1,069,165 313,446 83,743 17 25.9%
28 Puducherry UT 1,247,953 0.10 612,511 635,442 1,037 85.85 394,341 850,123 479 2,598 27.7%
29 Mizoram State 1,097,206 0.09 555,339 541,867 976 91.33 529,037 561,997 21,081 52 22.8%
30 Chandigarh UT 1,055,450 0.09 580,663 474,787 818 86.05 29,004 1,025,682 114 9,252 17.1%
31 Sikkim State 610,577 0.05 323,070 287,507 890 81.42 455,962 151,726 7,096 86 12.4%
32 Andaman and Nicobar Islands UT 380,581 0.03 202,871 177,710 876 86.63 244,411 135,533 8,249 46 6.7%
33 Dadra and Nagar Haveli UT 343,709 0.03 193,760 149,949 774 76.24 183,024 159,829 491 698 55.5%
34 Daman and Diu UT 243,247 0.02 150,301 92,946 618 87.10 60,331 182,580 112 2,169 53.5%
35 Lakshadweep UT 64,473 0.01 33,123 31,350 946 91.85 14,121 50,308 32 2,013 6.2%
TOTAL India 35 1,210,854,977 100 623,724,248 586,469,174 943 74.04 833,087,662 377,105,760 3,287,240 382 17.64%

Religious demographics

The religious data on India Census 2011 was released by the Government of India on 25 August 2015.[45][46][47] Hindus are 79.8% (966.3 million),[48] while Muslims are 14.23% (172.2 million) in India.[49][49][50][51] and Christians are 2.30% (28.7 million). According to the 2011 Census of India, there are 57,264 Parsis in India.[52][53] For the first time, a “No religion” category was added in the 2011 census.[54][55] 2.87 million were classified as people belonging to “No Religion” in India in the 2011 census[56][57] 0.24% of India’s population of 1.21 billion.[58][59] Given below is the decade-by-decade religious composition of India until the 2011 census.[60][61][62]
There are six religions in India that have been awarded “National
Minority” status - Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists and
Parsis.[63][64] Sunnis, Shias, Bohras, Agakhanis and Ahmadiyyas were identified as sects of Islam in India.[65][66][67]
As per 2011 census, six major faiths- Hindus, Muslims, Christians,
Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains make up over 99.4% of India’s 1.21 billion
population, while “other religions, persuasions” (ORP) count is 8.2
million. Among the ORP faiths, six faiths- 4.957 million-strong Sarnaism, 1.026 million-strong Gond, 506,000-strong Sari, Donyi-Polo (302,000) in Arunachal Pradesh, Sanamahism (222,000) in Manipur, Khasi (138,000) in Meghalaya dominate.[68] Maharashtra is having the highest number of atheists in the country with 9,652 such people, followed by Kerala.[69]

Population trends for major religious groups in India (1951–2011)
% 1951
% 1961
% 1971
% 1981
% 1991
% 2001
% 2011[70]
84.1% 83.45% 82.73% 82.30% 81.53% 80.46% 79.80%
9.8% 10.69% 11.21% 11.75% 12.61% 13.43% 14.23%
2.3% 2.44% 2.60% 2.44% 2.32% 2.34% 2.30%
1.79% 1.79% 1.89% 1.92% 1.94% 1.87% 1.72%
0.74% 0.74% 0.70% 0.70% 0.77% 0.77% 0.70%
0.46% 0.46% 0.48% 0.47% 0.40% 0.41% 0.37%
0.13% 0.09% 0.09% 0.09% 0.08% 0.06% n/a
Other religions / No religion
0.43% 0.43% 0.41% 0.42% 0.44% 0.72% 0.9%

Language demographics

Main article: Languages of India

is the most widely spoken language in northern parts of India. The
Indian census takes the widest possible definition of “Hindi” as a broad
variety of “Hindi languages“.[71] According to 2011 Census, 57.1% of Indian population know Hindi,[72] in which 43.63% of Indian people have declared Hindi as their native language or mother tongue.[73][74] The language data was released on 26 June 2018.[75]
Bhili/Bhilodi was the most spoken unscheduled language with 10.4
million speakers, followed by Gondi with 2.9 million speakers. 96.71% of
India’s population speaks one of the 22 scheduled languages as their
mother tongue in the 2011 census.

The 2011 census report on bilingualism and trilingualism,
which provides data on the two languages in order of preference in
which a person is proficient other than the mother tongue, was released
in September 2018.[76][77][78] The number of bilingual speakers in India is 31.49 crore, which is 26% of the population in 2011.[79] 7% of Indian population is trilingual.[80] Hindi, Bengali speakers are India’s least multilingual groups.[81]

First, Second, and Third languages by number of speakers in India (2011 Census)

Language First language
First language
speakers as a percentage

of total population

Second language
speakers (in crores)
Third language
speakers (in crores)
Total speakers (in crores)[72][83] Total speakers as a

percentage of total


Hindi 52,83,47,193
English 2,59,678
Bengali 9,72,37,669
Marathi 8,30,26,680
Telugu 8,11,27,740
Tamil 6,90,26,881
Gujarati 5,54,92,554
Urdu 5,07,72,631
Kannada 4,37,06,512
Odia 3,75,21,324
Malayalam 3,48,38,819
Punjabi 3,31,24,726
Sanskrit 24,821


one above age 7 who can read and write in any language with an ability
to understand was considered a literate. In censuses before 1991,
children below the age 5 were treated as illiterates. The literacy rate
taking the entire population into account is termed as “crude literacy
rate”, and taking the population from age 7 and above into account is
termed as “effective literacy rate”. Effective literacy rate increased
to a total of 74.04% with 82.14% of the males and 65.46% of the females
being literate.[84]

Census year
Total (%)
Male (%)
Female (%)
1 1901 5.35 9.83 0.60
2 1911 5.92 10.56 1.05
3 1921 7.16 12.21 1.81
4 1931 9.50 15.59 2.93
5 1941 16.10 24.90 7.30
6 1951 16.67 24.95 9.45
7 1961 24.02 34.44 12.95
8 1971 29.45 39.45 18.69
9 1981 36.23 46.89 24.82
10 1991 42.84 52.74 32.17
11 2001 64.83 75.26 53.67
12 2011 74.04 82.14 65.46
  • The table lists the “effective literacy rate” in India from 1901 to 2011.[citation needed]


1. அவிப்பவாஸபஞ்ஹா


அஸங்வாஸோ பி⁴க்கூ²ஹி ச பி⁴க்கு²னீஹி ச;

ஸம்போ⁴கோ³ ஏகச்சோ தஹிங் ந லப்³ப⁴தி;

அவிப்பவாஸேன அனாபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

அவிஸ்ஸஜ்ஜியங் அவேப⁴ங்கி³யங்;

பஞ்ச வுத்தா மஹேஸினா;

விஸ்ஸஜ்ஜந்தஸ்ஸ பரிபு⁴ஞ்ஜந்தஸ்ஸ அனாபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

த³ஸ புக்³க³லே ந வதா³மி, ஏகாத³ஸ விவஜ்ஜிய;

வுட்³ட⁴ங் வந்த³ந்தஸ்ஸ ஆபத்தி, பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ந உக்கி²த்தகோ ந ச பன பாரிவாஸிகோ;

ந ஸங்க⁴பி⁴ன்னோ ந ச பன பக்க²ஸங்கந்தோ;

ஸமானஸங்வாஸகபூ⁴மியா டி²தோ;

கத²ங் நு ஸிக்கா²ய அஸாதா⁴ரணோ ஸியா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

உபேதி த⁴ம்மங் பரிபுச்ச²மானோ, குஸலங் அத்தூ²பஸஞ்ஹிதங்;

ஜீவதி ந மதோ ந நிப்³பு³தோ, தங் புக்³க³லங் கதமங் வத³ந்தி பு³த்³தா⁴;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

உப்³ப⁴க்க²கே ந வதா³மி, அதோ⁴ நாபி⁴ங் விவஜ்ஜிய;

மேது²னத⁴ம்மபச்சயா, கத²ங் பாராஜிகோ ஸியா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

பி⁴க்கு² ஸஞ்ஞாசிகாய குடிங் கரோதி;

அதே³ஸிதவத்து²கங் பமாணாதிக்கந்தங்;

ஸாரம்ப⁴ங் அபரிக்கமனங் அனாபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

பி⁴க்கு² ஸஞ்ஞாசிகாய குடிங் கரோதி;

தே³ஸிதவத்து²கங் பமாணிகங்;

அனாரம்ப⁴ங் ஸபரிக்கமனங் ஆபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ந காயிகங் கிஞ்சி பயோக³மாசரே;

ந சாபி வாசாய பரே ப⁴ணெய்ய;

ஆபஜ்ஜெய்ய க³ருகங் சே²ஜ்ஜவத்து²ங்;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ந காயிகங் வாசஸிகஞ்ச கிஞ்சி;

மனஸாபி ஸந்தோ ந கரெய்ய பாபங்;

ஸோ நாஸிதோ கிந்தி ஸுனாஸிதோ ப⁴வே;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

அனாலபந்தோ மனுஜேன கேனசி;

வாசாகி³ரங் நோ ச பரே ப⁴ணெய்ய;

ஆபஜ்ஜெய்ய வாசஸிகங் ந காயிகங்;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ஸிக்கா²பதா³ பு³த்³த⁴வரேன வண்ணிதா;

ஸங்கா⁴தி³ஸேஸா சதுரோ ப⁴வெய்யுங்;

ஆபஜ்ஜெய்ய ஏகபயோகே³ன ஸப்³பே³;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

உபோ⁴ ஏகதோ உபஸம்பன்னா;

உபி⁴ன்னங் ஹத்த²தோ சீவரங் படிக்³க³ண்ஹெய்ய;

ஸியா ஆபத்தியோ நானா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

சதுரோ ஜனா ஸங்விதா⁴ய;

க³ருப⁴ண்ட³ங் அவாஹருங்;

தயோ பாராஜிகா ஏகோ ந பாராஜிகோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

2. பாராஜிகாதி³பஞ்ஹா


இத்தீ² ச அப்³ப⁴ந்தரே ஸியா,

பி⁴க்கு² ச ப³ஹித்³தா⁴ ஸியா;

சி²த்³த³ங் தஸ்மிங் க⁴ரே நத்தி²;


கத²ங் பாராஜிகோ ஸியா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

தேலங் மது⁴ங் பா²ணிதஞ்சாபி ஸப்பிங்;

ஸாமங் க³ஹெத்வான நிக்கி²பெய்ய;

அவீதிவத்தே ஸத்தாஹே;

ஸதி பச்சயே பரிபு⁴ஞ்ஜந்தஸ்ஸ ஆபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

நிஸ்ஸக்³கி³யேன ஆபத்தி;

ஸுத்³த⁴கேன பாசித்தியங்;

ஆபஜ்ஜந்தஸ்ஸ ஏகதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

பி⁴க்கூ² ஸியா வீஸதியா ஸமாக³தா;

கம்மங் கரெய்யுங் ஸமக்³க³ஸஞ்ஞினோ;

பி⁴க்கு² ஸியா த்³வாத³ஸயோஜனே டி²தோ;

கம்மஞ்ச தங் குப்பெய்ய வக்³க³பச்சயா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

பத³வீதிஹாரமத்தேன வாசாய ப⁴ணிதேன ச;

ஸப்³பா³னி க³ருகானி ஸப்படிகம்மானி;

சதுஸட்டி² ஆபத்தியோ ஆபஜ்ஜெய்ய ஏகதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

நிவத்தோ² அந்தரவாஸகேன;

தி³கு³ணங் ஸங்கா⁴டிங் பாருதோ;

ஸப்³பா³னி தானி நிஸ்ஸக்³கி³யானி ஹொந்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

சாபி ஞத்தி ந ச பன கம்மவாசா;

ந சேஹி பி⁴க்கூ²தி ஜினோ அவோச;

ஸரணக³மனம்பி ந தஸ்ஸ அத்தி²;

உபஸம்பதா³ சஸ்ஸ அகுப்பா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

இத்தி²ங் ஹனே ந மாதரங், புரிஸஞ்ச ந பிதரங் ஹனே;

ஹனெய்ய அனரியங் மந்தோ³, தேன சானந்தரங் பு²ஸே;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

இத்தி²ங் ஹனே ச மாதரங், புரிஸஞ்ச பிதரங் ஹனே;

மாதரங் பிதரங் ஹந்த்வா, ந தேனானந்தரங் பு²ஸே;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

அசோத³யித்வா அஸ்ஸாரயித்வா;

அஸம்முகீ²பூ⁴தஸ்ஸ கரெய்ய கம்மங்;

கதஞ்ச கம்மங் ஸுகதங் ப⁴வெய்ய;

காரகோ ச ஸங்கோ⁴ அனாபத்திகோ ஸியா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

சோத³யித்வா ஸாரயித்வா;

ஸம்முகீ²பூ⁴தஸ்ஸ கரெய்ய கம்மங்;

கதஞ்ச கம்மங் அகதங் ப⁴வெய்ய;

காரகோ ச ஸங்கோ⁴ ஸாபத்திகோ ஸியா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

சி²ந்த³ந்தஸ்ஸ ஆபத்தி, சி²ந்த³ந்தஸ்ஸ அனாபத்தி;

சா²தெ³ந்தஸ்ஸ ஆபத்தி, சா²தெ³ந்தஸ்ஸ அனாபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ஸச்சங் ப⁴ணந்தோ க³ருகங், முஸா ச லஹு பா⁴ஸதோ;

முஸா ப⁴ணந்தோ க³ருகங், ஸச்சஞ்ச லஹு பா⁴ஸதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

3. பாசித்தியாதி³பஞ்ஹா


அதி⁴ட்டி²தங் ரஜனாய ரத்தங்;

கப்பகதம்பி ஸந்தங்;

பரிபு⁴ஞ்ஜந்தஸ்ஸ ஆபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

அத்த²ங்க³தே ஸூரியே பி⁴க்கு² மங்ஸானி கா²த³தி;

ந உம்மத்தகோ ந ச பன கி²த்தசித்தோ;

ந சாபி ஸோ வேத³னாட்டோ ப⁴வெய்ய;

ந சஸ்ஸ ஹோதி ஆபத்தி;

ஸோ ச த⁴ம்மோ ஸுக³தேன தே³ஸிதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ந ரத்தசித்தோ ந ச பன தெ²ய்யசித்தோ;

ந சாபி ஸோ பரங் மரணாய சேதயி;

ஸலாகங் தெ³ந்தஸ்ஸ ஹோதி சே²ஜ்ஜங்;

படிக்³க³ண்ஹந்தஸ்ஸ து²ல்லச்சயங்;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ந சாபி ஆரஞ்ஞகங் ஸாஸங்கஸம்மதங்;

ந சாபி ஸங்கே⁴ன ஸம்முதி தி³ன்னா;

ந சஸ்ஸ கதி²னங் அத்த²தங் தத்தே²வ;

சீவரங் நிக்கி²பித்வா க³ச்செ²ய்ய அட்³ட⁴யோஜனங்;

தத்தே²வ அருணங் உக்³க³ச்ச²ந்தஸ்ஸ அனாபத்தி;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

காயிகானி ந வாசஸிகானி;

ஸப்³பா³னி நானாவத்து²கானி;

அபுப்³ப³ங் அசரிமங் ஆபஜ்ஜெய்ய ஏகதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

வாசஸிகானி ந காயிகானி;

ஸப்³பா³னி நானாவத்து²கானி;

அபுப்³ப³ங் அசரிமங் ஆபஜ்ஜெய்ய ஏகதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

திஸ்ஸித்தி²யோ மேது²னங் தங் ந ஸேவே;

தயோ புரிஸே தயோ அனரியபண்ட³கே;

ந சாசரே மேது²னங் ப்³யஞ்ஜனஸ்மிங்;

சே²ஜ்ஜங் ஸியா மேது²னத⁴ம்மபச்சயா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

மாதரங் சீவரங் யாசே, நோ ச ஸங்கே⁴ [நோ ஸங்க⁴ஸ்ஸ (க॰), நோ ச ஸங்க⁴ஸ்ஸ (ஸ்யா॰), நோ சே ஸங்க⁴ஸ்ஸ (ஸீ॰)] பரிணதங்;

கேனஸ்ஸ ஹோதி ஆபத்தி, அனாபத்தி ச ஞாதகே;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

குத்³தோ⁴ ஆராத⁴கோ ஹோதி, குத்³தோ⁴ ஹோதி க³ரஹியோ;

அத² கோ நாம ஸோ த⁴ம்மோ, யேன குத்³தோ⁴ பஸங்ஸியோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

துட்டோ² ஆராத⁴கோ ஹோதி, துட்டோ² ஹோதி க³ரஹியோ;

அத² கோ நாம ஸோ த⁴ம்மோ, யேன துட்டோ² க³ரஹியோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ஸங்கா⁴தி³ஸேஸங் து²ல்லச்சயங்;

பாசித்தியங் பாடிதே³ஸனீயங்;

து³க்கடங் ஆபஜ்ஜெய்ய ஏகதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

உபோ⁴ பரிபுண்ணவீஸதிவஸ்ஸா;

உபி⁴ன்னங் ஏகுபஜ்ஜா²யோ;

ஏகாசரியோ ஏகா கம்மவாசா;

ஏகோ உபஸம்பன்னோ ஏகோ அனுபஸம்பன்னோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

அகப்பகதங் நாபி ரஜனாய ரத்தங்;

தேன நிவத்தோ² யேன காமங் வஜெய்ய;

ந சஸ்ஸ ஹோதி ஆபத்தி;

ஸோ ச த⁴ம்மோ ஸுக³தேன தே³ஸிதோ;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

தே³தி ந படிக்³க³ண்ஹாதி, படிக்³க³ஹோ தேன ந விஜ்ஜதி;

ஆபஜ்ஜதி க³ருகங் ந லஹுகங், தஞ்ச பரிபோ⁴க³பச்சயா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ந தே³தி ந படிக்³க³ண்ஹாதி, படிக்³க³ஹோ தேன ந விஜ்ஜதி;

ஆபஜ்ஜதி லஹுகங் ந க³ருகங், தஞ்ச பரிபோ⁴க³பச்சயா;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ஆபஜ்ஜதி க³ருகங் ஸாவஸேஸங்;

சா²தே³தி அனாத³ரியங் படிச்ச;

ந பி⁴க்கு²னீ நோ ச பு²ஸெய்ய வஜ்ஜங்;

பஞ்ஹா மேஸா குஸலேஹி சிந்திதா.

ஸேத³மோசனகா³தா² நிட்டி²தா.

தஸ்ஸுத்³தா³னங் –

அஸங்வாஸோ அவிஸ்ஸஜ்ஜி, த³ஸ ச அனுக்கி²த்தகோ;

உபேதி த⁴ம்மங் உப்³ப⁴க்க²கங், ததோ ஸஞ்ஞாசிகா ச த்³வே.

காயிகஞ்ச க³ருகங், ந காயிகங் ந வாசஸிகங் [ந காயிகங் ஸுனாஸிதங் (ஸ்யா॰)];

அனாலபந்தோ ஸிக்கா² ச, உபோ⁴ ச சதுரோ ஜனா.

இத்தீ² தேலஞ்ச நிஸ்ஸக்³கி³, பி⁴க்கு² ச பத³வீதியோ;

நிவத்தோ² ச ந ச ஞத்தி, ந மாதரங் பிதரங் ஹனே.

அசோத³யித்வா சோத³யித்வா, சி²ந்த³ந்தங் ஸச்சமேவ ச;

அதி⁴ட்டி²தஞ்சத்த²ங்க³தே, ந ரத்தங் ந சாரஞ்ஞகங்.

காயிகா வாசஸிகா ச, திஸ்ஸித்தீ² சாபி மாதரங்;

குத்³தோ⁴ ஆராத⁴கோ துட்டோ², ஸங்கா⁴தி³ஸேஸா ச உபோ⁴.

அகப்பகதங் ந தே³தி, ந தே³தாபஜ்ஜதீ க³ருங்;

ஸேத³மோசனிகா கா³தா², பஞ்ஹா விஞ்ஞூஹி விபா⁴விதாதி [விஞ்ஞூவிபா⁴விதா (ஸீ॰ ஸ்யா॰)].

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